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* UMASS AMHERST * 



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MASSACHUSETTS 
STATE COLLEGE 



GOODELL 
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Women's National Agricultural 
and 

Horticultural Association 



May, 1914 









Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 



Founded "to promote agricultural and horticultural interests among 
women and to further such interests throughout the country." 



OFFICERS 

President 
Mrs. Francis King Alma, Michigan 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer New York 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 152 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Corresponding Secretary 
Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer Huntington, N. Y. 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 



Council 



Miss Emma Blakiston 
Miss Louisa G. Davis 
Mrs. Frank Miles Day 
Miss M. L. Dock 
Miss Frances Duncan 
Mrs. H. B. Fullerton 
Miss J. B. Haines 
Miss Margaret Jackson 
Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 
Mrs. Francis King 



Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee 

Miss Elizabeth Leonard 

Miss Hilda Loines 

Miss Louise Klein Miller 

Miss E. H. Peale 

Mr. George T. Powell 

Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Mr. R. L. Watts 

Miss Mary Youngs 



A WORD FROM THE PRESIDENT 

It gives me peculiar pleasure to welcome to membership 
in the Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association those who have seemed almost to spring to the 
opportunity of joining the Society. Women engaged in 
farming, fruit-growing, market-gardening, flower-growing, 
landscape gardening, bee-keeping, and poultry-raising for 
profit are already upon our lists, and many excellent am- 
ateur gardeners and farmers as well. Our hopes for the 
growth of this Association may well be high, for in the three 
months since our call for members was sent out nearly 300 
women have enrolled themselves upon our books. 

The Women's Agricultural and Horticultural Interna- 
tional Union of Loftdon, now twelve years old, had in De- 
cember, 1913, three hundred and fourteen members. Al- 
ready we are not far behind our parent Society in point of 
numbers, yet we count upon hundreds more. Let us be- 
stir ourselves at once and constantly to spread the news 
and knowledge of this Association wherever we go and with 
all enthusiasm for the delightful cause of organized work 
for women in the field of agriculture and horticulture. 

The activities of this Society should result in enormous 
benefit to its individual members, whether professional or 
amateur; to departments of this nature in our schools and 
in State and other universities. We rely upon each mem- 
ber of the Women's National Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Association to contribute to the success which we so 
earnestly desire. No word of comment or advice sent to 
the Secretaries, Mrs. Vollmer and Miss Loines, or to me, 
will be thought too insignificant to consider. No sugges- 
tions as to ways and means but will be warmly welcomed 
by your Officers and Council. I bespeak from each mem- 
ber of this our young Society her personal interest, her in- 
dividual help, — an interest in the welfare of her farming or 
gardening neighbor in the Society, — when, following the 
law of kindness, this will react upon herself. 

Let us make of this Association a great democratic 
band of women, valuable to each other and to their com- 
munities, representative of our whole country, women en- 
gaged in those noble out-of-door occupations for which 
"no man is too high or too low. " 

Louisa Yeomans King 
[1] 



THE WOMEN'S NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 

The Association, which has been in existence for a few 
months only, already numbers nearly three hundred mem- 
bers. Eighteen states, Canada, and the District of Colum- 
bia are represented in its lists. But the Association is 
national. It should number forty-eight states. We need 
the Union! 

Its aim is to promote agricultural and horticultural in- 
terests among women and to further such interests through- 
out the country by a practical fostering of a love of flowers 
and of outdoor occupations ; and, by giving direct help to the 
individual, to make the beginning of a country life possible 
for some and the continuation of it practical for others. 

Below are some of the plans and hopes of the Council. 
When the membership is large enough to allow it, it ex- 
pects, through the medium of a General Secretary, whose 
time will be at the service of the Association, to further co- 
operation among women interested in horticulture by — 

i. The bringing together of supply and demand; pro- 
ducer and consumer; employer and employee; gardener 
and land ; individuals who might form a partnership or firm. 

2. The interchange of ideas directly between members. 

3. The holding of conferences. 

4. The compiling of a directory of women engaged in 
horticulture and agriculture with information as to their 
availability as expert advisers, writers, lecturers, etc. 

5. The establishing of a standard of recognition for skilled 
work, and for diplomas for training and results achieved. 

6. The encouragement of town and country shows and 
exhibitions. 

7. The publication of an association leaflet with letters 
from and short articles by members, advertisements of 
members' produce and needs, notices of books, magazines, 
and government reports and bulletins. 

8. The encouragement of the founding of co-operative 
clubs and associations for the growing of produce. 

9. The increase of the knowledge and use of existing in- 
stitutions. 

Believing that these aims appeal to you, the Council in- 
vites you to membership in the Association. The dues are 
$1 a year, life membership $25, and in order to carry out 
our program we must have a large membership. Will you 
not co-operate with us to make our plan a success? As a 
member your constructive criticism will be warmly wel- 
comed. M.J. 
[2] H.L. 



OPENINGS FOR WOMEN IN HORTICULTURE 

The ever-increasing demand for women trained to fill 
positions in the various branches of horticulture and the 
lack of trained women to meet it bring the realization that 
more women should be trained not only in the theoretical, 
but also in the practical knowledge of the growing of vege- 
tables, fruit, and flowers, in order to satisfy this need, for it 
is the trained mind with the trained hand that makes for 
success in horticulture. 

Women employed in offices or school-rooms are becom- 
ing more and more restless and dissatisfied with the con- 
finement and nervous strain, and are seeking occupations 
that will keep them in the open air, in "God's sweet out- 
of-doors," as some one has expressed it, and they are buy- 
ing small farms and beginning to grow fruit and vegetables 
and flowers, or to raise poultry or bees. Unfortunately, 
it is after they have invested their capital that they dis- 
cover that although they have read a great deal about the 
various methods of gardening, it is also necessary to know 
something about the practical side of it before they can suc- 
ceed. If they cannot take time to go to a training school 
themselves, they want some one who has had that training 
to become a partner or a manager. This growing demand 
for the trained woman is reaching the school of horticulture 
at Ambler from many unexpected directions, for this is 
essentially a training school in the principles and methods 
of gardening and horticulture. 

Another demand is for students to take charge of the 
pruning and grafting of trees and shrubs, and the spraying 
of small fruits and ornamentals for owners who do not 
know how themselves, but want the work done intelligently 
and conscientiously. 

For the care of small places in the suburbs, where a few 
flowers or vegetables are desired, a good visiting gardener 
is often asked for. Several gardens of this kind can be 
looked after by one person, and the busy householder much 
relieved by a competent, conscientious worker. 

A new opening in this country, although one long well 
known in England and Europe, is that of gardener and out- 
door manager in boarding-schools for girls. This includes 
teaching of elementary botany, and in the spring and sum- 
mer of a little practical gardening. 

Commercial work attracts the woman of business aptitude 
who can command some capital. Roses, violets, hardy chry- 
santhemums, pansies, marguerites, primroses, early toma- 
toes, and many others are among the specialties grown by 
women, while nurseries, orchards, gardens for market 

l3l 



produce and for hardy perennials are being successfully 
carried on. 

One of our former students has her own nursery gardens 
and greenhouses, and has built up a successful business. 
She has tried to employ untrained women, but has always 
found it unsatisfactory. 

A very good business for a woman, and one that she can 
carry on entirely independent of assistance, is the raising 
of queen bees and the selling of honey. From eight hives 
of bees last year we sold over $120 worth of honey, and 
could have sold much more. The time required for this 
was about one hour per week for twenty weeks in spring 
and summer, and about ten weeks in the fall. 

In school-garden work the demand for trained women 
as teachers is now, and will be for a long time to come, 
much greater than the supply. This work is closely allied 
to the back-yard, community, and waste lot gardening now 
carried on by many philanthropic agencies. Here the 
trained woman with a gift for social work finds great re- 
sponse and peculiar satisfaction. 

Among the requests for trained students that have 
reached the school at Ambler in the past few months are 
the following: 

1. Farm superintendent at a reform school for girls 
(this is a position that cannot be filled by a man, and for 
the woman who is trained to fill such a position there is a 
good salary). 

2. Superintendent of a poultry plant of six or eight hun- 
dred birds. 

3. Gardener to take charge of market garden near Chi- 
cago. 

4. Superintendent of School Garden of a Federation of 
Settlements near Boston. 

5. Superintendent of a farm for a summer camp for girls. 

6. Head gardener and teacher of horticulture in a girls' 
school on the Hudson. 

And many others. 

Jessie T. Morgan 

School of Horticulture for Women, 
Ambler, Pa. 



41 



ASSOCIATION NOTICES 

COUNCIL MEETING 
A meeting of the Council will be held on Friday, May 
15th, at half past two o'clock, at the College Club, 1300 
Spruce St., Philadelphia. 

Susan H. Vollmer, 

Corresponding Secretary. 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 
The committee reports a membership of nearly 300, sev- 
eral new names having been received since the Directory 
was compiled. 

The committee desires the co-operation of every member 
in bringing the purposes and prospects of the Association 
before the many women of our country who are interested 
in horticulture and agriculture whether as amateurs or as 
professionals. "The world is ours, but only in trust," 
and this co-operation will help to make this Association a 
great factor in keeping the trust. 

Invitations to membership may be obtained from the 
corresponding secretary and from the membership com- 
mittee, or notices will be sent to intending members on re- 
quest. 

Membership Committee: 
Kathryn Beach Tracy 
(Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy), Chairman 

Wenham, Mass. 
Frances Duncan, 

1 Milligan Place, New York City 
Louise Klein Miller, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 



[5] 



CONFERENCE, 1914 

The first annual conference of the Women's National Agricultural 
and Horticultural Association will take place at the School of Horticul- 
ture for Women at Ambler, Pa., on May 16th. 

The sessions will be held at 1 1 A. M. and at 2 P. M., and the public as 
well as members of the Association is cordially invited to attend. 

PROGRAMME 
Mrs. Francis King Alma, Mich. 

Pres. W. N. A. and H. A.; Pres. Garden Club of Michigan; A Vice Pres. Garden 
Club of America. 
Subject: "The True Role of the Horticultural Society." Translated from the French 
of Jacques Delafon. 

Mr. David Fairchild Washington, D. C. 

Agricultural Explorer in charge of Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
Subject: "Foreign Food Plants." 

Miss Martha Van Rensselaer Ithaca, N. Y. 

Director School Home Economics, Cornell University. 
Subject: "Farm Housekeeping." 

Mr. W. P. Hartman Medford, Long Island 

Chief Bureau Markets and Information, Pomona Grange of Suffolk County. 
Subject: "The Grange's Market Bureau." 

Mr. George T. Powell New York City 

Pres. Agricultural Experts Association. 
Subject: "Small Fruit Culture for Women." 

Mr. Walter P. Stokes Philadelphia, Pa. 

Proprietor Floracroft Seed Gardens and Trial Grounds. 
Subject: "Seed Growing for Women." 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pres. Garden Club of America. 
Subject: "The co-operation of the Garden Club of America and the W. N. A. and H. A." 

Prof. David F. Warner State College, Pa. 

Professor of Poultry Husbandry, State College. 
Subject: "Broilers for Profit." 

Miss Elsie McFate Turtle Creek, Pa. 

Owner Hillside Hardy Flower Gardens. 
Subject: " Hardy Flower Culture." 

Mr. Bertrand H. Farr Wyomissing, Pa. 

Iris Expert. 
Subject: "Raising Rainbows." 

TRANSPORTATION 

Trains leave Reading Terminal, Philadelphia, for Ambler, at 10.15 a. m., 12.02 
and 1.02 p. m. Returning leave Ambler at 1.58, 4.53 and 6.00 p. m. 
Conveyances will meet trains; transportation to and from school, 50c. 

AUTOMOBILES 

Take Butler Pike to Toll Gate 2 miles north of Ambler, then turn right. School is 
one-half mile from Toll Gate. 

LUNCHEON 

Luncheon will be served at the School — 50c. 

Kindly notify Miss Jessie T. Morgan, School of Horticulture, Ambler, Pa., as soon 
as possible, if luncheon and conveyance are desired. 

EXHIBIT 

The Committee has been fortunate in obtaining from several manufacturers a small 
exhibit of tned-out labor-saving devices. There will also be an exhibit of Agricultural 
Bulletins. 

[6] 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS 

Abbot, Miss Mary P Harvard, Mass. 

Apple growing; gardening. 
Alderson, Miss Lilian Rock Ridge, Greenwich, Conn. 

Garden designer. 
Allen, Miss Annie E 263 Harvard St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Small home vegetable garden. 
Amram, Mrs. David 624 W. Cliveden Ave., Germantown, Pa. 

Perennials. 
Artman, Miss Estelle 1620 Oxford St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Principal of the McClellan School Garden. 

Atkinson, Miss Anna Berwyn, Pa. 

Ayres, Miss Florence 51 Walnut St., Bridgeton, N. J. 

General agriculture; mushrooms. 

Babcock, Miss Mabel Keyes . . 1 1 1 Washington St., Wellesly Hills, Mass. 

Landscape architect. 

Bachman, Mrs. Frank H Jenkintown, Pa. 

Bean, Mrs. Fernley F 1926 Page St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Beardsley, Mrs. A. M Greenleaf Farm, Roxbury, Conn. 

Chickens, vegetables^and flowers. 

Biddle, Mrs. Charles Andalusia, Pa. 

Biddle, Mrs. Edward W Carlisle, Pa. 

Birdsall, Mrs. Grace H Osterhout Free Library, Wilkes Barre, Pa. 

Gardening in general and indoor plants. 

Blake, Mrs. Tiffany Lake Forest, Illinois 

Blue, Mrs. Chas. E Charlottesville, Va. 

Bulbs and perennials. 
Blakiston, Miss Emma 2042 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Vice-president of School of Horticulture, Ambler, Pa. 
Boardman, Mrs. Albert B 40 West 53d St., New York 

Vice-president of International Garden Club. 
Borden, Miss Lydia Prichett Manoa, Del. Co., Pa. 

Teacher of biological sciences; interested in botany and economic 
entomology. 
Bradner, Miss Harriet B. Clinton Farms, Clinton, N. J. 

General farming. 
Bundy, Mrs. McGeorge 535 East Fulton St., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Member of Kent Garden Club. 

Carter, Mrs. E. B 732 Westview St., Germantown, Pa. 

Secretary "Garden and Orchard Society," Philadelphia. 
Church, Miss Florence A 17 East 60th St., New York City 

Small fruits and garden vegetables. 
Clark, Mrs. Clarence M. . . Indian Queen Lane, Germantown, Phila., Pa. 

Home garden. 
Clements, Mrs. W. L Garra-Tigh, Bay City, Mich. 

Vegetables, shrubs, perennials, annual flowers; member of Garden 
Club of Michigan. 
Cleveland, Mrs. Charles D Sunnybrook Farm, Eatontown, N. J. 

Iris. 

[7] 



Cole, Miss Flora A 8107 Cedar Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 

Florists' products. 
Collins, Miss Mary Turnerville, Ga. 

Agricultural education for women. 
Cooley, Miss Elizabeth S. . 17 McKinley PL, Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 
Cooper, Mrs. Emma R 113 Sumac St., Wissahickon, Phila., Pa. 

Floriculture. 
Cotton, Dr. Mary H Mineola, Long Island, N. Y. 

Intensive farming in small gardens; home gardens and health. 
Craven, Miss Gertrude Roxbury, Conn. 

Perennials, vegetables, small fruits. 
Crew, Miss Caroline L 903 Tatnall St., Wilmington, Del. 

Farm and garden. 

Davis, Miss Alliene S Tenafly, N. J. 

Davis, Mrs. Edward Parker Bewly Farm, Newtown, Pa. 

Breeder of Ayrshire cattle and of old English sheep dogs. 
Davis, Miss Emma 221 Fairfield St., Johnstown, Pa. 

School gardens. 
Davis, Miss Louisa Gibbons Ambler, Pa. 

Poultry farm. 
Dawes, Miss Emily M Lydecker St., Englewood, N. J. 

Farming in New Hampshire. 
Dawes, Mrs. Lewis Marlboro, N. H. 

Plants and flowers. 

Day, Miss Sarah J Englewood, N. J. 

Dell, Miss Beatrice Rock Ridge Ave., Greenwich, Conn. 

Garden designer. 
Deusner, Mrs. H. D 450 Arroyo Drive, Pasadena, Cal. 

Landscape architect. 

Dickman, Mrs. George Petersham, Mass. 

Dinsmore, Miss Alice Westwood, N. J. 

Growing peas. 
Dixon, Mrs. William A 1806 St. Paul St., Baltimore, Md. 

General interest in horticultural subjects. 
Dock, Miss Margaret 

Little Graeffenburg, Fayetteville, R. D. 2, Franklin Co., Pa. 

Amateur in general gardening. 
Dock, Miss Mira L. . .Little Graeffenburg, Fayetteville, R. D. No. 2, Pa. 

Member of Pa. State Forestry Reservation Commission from 
July, 1901-July, 1913. 

Dodd, Miss Marion E 504 East 58th St., New York City 

Doughty, Miss E. N 170 Engle St., Englewood, N. J. 

Flowers. 

Douglas, Mrs. Geo. B Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Driggs, Miss Alice A 279 Washington Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Garden clubs. 
Dudley, Mrs. Charles B Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Asparagus and spring flowers. 

Dull, Mrs. A. P. L 211 N. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Duncan, Miss Frances 1 Milligan Place, New York City 

Gardening. 
Dunlap, Miss Bessie R. D. No. 2, Rahway, N. J. 

Farm manager. 

[8] 



Eddy, Mrs. James A 27 First St., Troy, N. Y. 

Hardy perennials. 
Edgar, Mrs. W. W Waverly, Mass. 

Treas. of the Wm. W. Edgar Company, Florists. 

Ely, Miss Gertrude Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Emory, Mrs. Geo. S. 

Garden City, Long Island, N. Y.; summer address, Sharon, Conn. 

Flowers and agriculture. 

Englesing, Miss Edith 40 Concord Ave., Cambridge, Mass. 

English, Mrs. Wm. E Indianapolis, Ind. 

Evans, Miss Elizabeth C Gwynedd Valley, Montgomery Co., Pa. 

Vegetables and flowers. 

Faxon, Miss Harriet Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 

Fay, Mrs. Chas. S Whittier, California 

Fay, Miss Irene Holden, Mass. 

Landscape gardening and horticulture. 
Fisher, Miss Elizabeth W 2222 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Forestry and birds. 
Fleck, Mrs. Frederick W Bala, Pa. 

Perennials and hardy annuals. 
Fletcher, Mrs. Julia L. . ". 206 Burton St., S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Director of Playgrounds Association. 

Freeland, Miss Mary H Elkins Park, Pa. 

Frishmuth, Miss Anna Groton, Mass. 

Horticulture and landscape work. 
Fullerton, Mrs. H. B. 

L. I. R. R. Experimental Station, Medford, Long Island, N. Y. 

Market gardening, fruit, flowers, dairy and nursery stock; editor 
"Long Island Agronomist." 

Gill, Miss Ellen M 28 Ashland St., Medford, Mass. 

Peonies, hollyhock hybrids, perpetual roses. 
Gray, Mrs. Wm. Steele 

39 West 53d St., New York City; summer address, "Gray- 
stone," North St., Greenwich, Conn. 

Greene, Miss Louise D 31 Pearl St., Boston, Mass. 

Potatoes and small fruits. 

Greene, Dr. M. Louise, Ph.D 14 University PI., New Haven, Conn. 

Director children's gardens; author "Among School Gardens," 
Russell Sage Foundation Pub. 

Grensel, Mrs. Sarah A 130 Lysander St., Detroit, Mich- 

Gribbel, Mrs. John Wyncote, Pa. 

Gardening. 
Griswold, Miss Grace H..238 N. Lafayette Ave., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Secy, of the Kent Garden Club. 
Gardening. 
Grooby, Mrs. Sara M Riverton, N. J. 

Hahn, Miss Emma Erskine Wilton, Conn. 

Consultant on farming suitable for women; also authority on the 
Angora goat industry and redeeming abandoned farms. 
Haines, Mrs. Caroline Scull 

221 Kings Highway West, Haddonfield, N. J. 
Interested in all agricultural, horticultural and floricultural subjects. 

[9] 



Haines, Miss Jane B : Cheltenham, Pa. 

President Board of Directors of the School of Horticulture for 
Women, Ambler, Pa. 
Haines, Miss Mary M Cheltenham, Pa. 

Nursery work. 

Haven, Mrs. J. Woodward 18 East 79th St., New York 

Henry, Mrs. Charles W Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Herr, Miss Etta 108 East King St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Hess, Mrs. E. K. . .621 Lefferts Ave., Richmond Hill, Long Island, N. Y. 
Hetzer, Miss L. Louise Lowthorpe School, Groton, Mass. 

Hardy perennials and greenhouse plants. 
Hidden, Jr., Mrs. W. H Greenwood, Albemarle Co., Va. 

Vegetables, poultry, and dairy. 

Higgins, Miss Helen T 627 West Sedgewick St., Germantown, Pa. 

Hodges, Mrs. Leonie Rose 

Care of Martin Dennis Co., 859 Summer Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Poultry; husbandry. 

Holden, Mrs. Arthur Bennington, Vt. 

Holmes, Miss Mary S 147 Manheim St., Germantown, Pa. 

Principal, Germantown High School for Girls; especially interested 
in horticulture as occupation for women. 
Homans, Miss Nancy Box 8, Huntington, Long Island, N. Y. 

Fruit jams; orange marmalade. 
Homans, Mrs. Thos. S R. D. 1, Hempstead, Long Island, N. Y. 

Poultry. 
Home, Miss Wilhelmina L. 

Home for Consumptives, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hoopes, Miss Jessie L Swarthmore, Pa. 

Howard, Mrs. O. McG 1417 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Violets. 
Hubbard, Mrs. Frank W Grosse Pointe, Mich. 

Interested in home gardens; member of Garden Club of Michigan. 
Hulst, Mrs. Henry 100 Fountain St. East, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

President of State Teachers' Association; interested in arbor day 
planting and provision for state parks in Michigan. 
Hutcheson, Mrs. Wm. A 45 East 82nd St., New York 

Jackson, Miss Margaret Winthrop PI., Englewood, N. J. 

Reference Librarian, Document Division, New York Public Library 

Jacobs, Mrs. M. W 217 South Front St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Jay, Miss Mary Rutherfurd 19 East 75th St., New York 

Garden architect. 
Justice, Miss Caroline L Narberth, Pa. 

Keenan, Miss Mary Rickey 410 South Main St., Greenburg, Pa. 

Curator of children's gardens; interested in landscape work and 
gardening. 

King, Mrs. Francis Alma, Mich. 

President W. N. A. and H. A.; President of Garden Club of Michi- 
gan; Vice-president of Garden Club of America. 

Kneedler, Miss Miriam R 1741 North 19th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Teacher; interested in general farming. 
[10] 



Laflin, Mrs. Louis E Lake Forest, 111. 

October to June, 117 Library Place, Princeton, N. J. 
Lambert, Miss Marjorie Milledgeville, Ga. 

Teacher in Georgia Normal and Industrial College; poultry and 
school gardens. 
Lancashire, Mrs. J. H Manchester, Mass. 

Bulbs, indoors and outdoors. 
Landman, Miss M. V Sleighton Farm, Darling, Pa. 

Institutional farming. 

Lansing, Miss Gertrude 71 East 54th St., New York 

Lazenby, Miss Mary E 802 Munsey Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Lee, Miss Elizabeth Leighton 10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Landscape gardener. 
Leeds, Miss Sarah B Westchester, Pa., R. F. D. No. 6 

Orchardist and farmer; interested also in the flower gardens. 
Leonard, Miss Elizabeth Abbot Building, Cambridge, Mass. 

Landscape architect. 

Lockwood, Miss Julia B Norwalk, Conn. 

Loines, Miss Hilda 152 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Gardening; children's gardens; village garden competition and 
flower shows. 

Loines, Mrs. Mary H 152 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Longaker, Mrs. D. A Chestnut and 26th Sts., Chester, Pa. 

Lovell, Miss Fannie B W. School Lane, Germantown, Pa. 

Low, Mrs. Edward Gilchrist 28 Allerton St., Brookline, Mass. 

Founder and president of Lowthorpe School of Landscape Archi- 
tecture and Horticulture for Women. 
Luckins, Mrs. Pauline 1807 East Hazzard St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Floriculture. 
Lukens, Miss M. McF Conshohocken, Pa. 



Mallery, Mrs. Otto T Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Marshall, Mrs. C. L 717 E. Orange St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Flowers in home garden. 
Marshall, Mrs. Harry Taylor . University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 

Landscape and flower gardening. 
Martin, Mrs. J. Willis 172 t Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

President of Garden Club of America; Vice-president, the Garden 
Club, Philadelphia. 
Matthews, Mrs. H. C 1302 St. Paul St., Baltimore, Md. 

Hardy plants. 
Mautner, Mrs. Louis L 915 Thompson St., Saginaw, Mich. 

Forestry Committee of Federation of Women's Clubs; school 
gardens; preservation of our native shrubs and wild flowers. 
Maynard, Mrs. Chas. H 260 Rosedale Court, Detroit, Mich. 

Secretary, Ladies' Society of American Florists; hardy phlox. 

Middleton, Mrs. F. H 860 N. Fifth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Miller, Miss Louise Klein, .care of Board of Education, Cleveland, Ohio 

School gardens. 

Moffitt, Miss Charlotte La Jolla, California 

Montgomery, Jr., Mrs. T. H 4407 Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Interested in apiculture and gardening. 

[n] 



Morgan, Miss Jessie T School of Horticulture, Ambler, Pa. 

Director of School of Horticulture, Ambler, Pa.; interested in 
horticulture. 
Mott, Miss Marion Radnor, Pa. 

Hybrid tea roses. 
Munroe, Mrs. Vernon Englewood, N. J. 

Owner of a hardy garden. 
Murphy, Miss J. B 417 High St., Germantown, Pa. 

Botany; flowers. 
Myer, Miss Heloise Lenox, Mass. 

Birds as the economical antidote for all insects and weeds. 

McBride, Mrs. Malcolm 1583 Mistletoe Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 

McCall, Mrs. J. G 12 14 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

McCormick, Miss Anne Harrisburg, Pa. 

McCormick, Mrs. H. B 305 North Front St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

MacDonald, Miss Margaret State College, Pa. 

Associate Professor of Agricultural Chemistry in Pennsylvania 
State College; interested in home garden and grounds, also in 
agricultural education for women. 
McFate, Miss Elsie Turtle Creek, Pa. 

Hillside Hardy Flower Gardens. 

Mcllhenny, Miss Selina B 220 West Upsal St., Germantown, Pa. 

Mcllvaine, Miss Frances Edge Glen Isle Farm, Downingtown, Pa. 

Hardy chrysanthemums and English primroses. 
McMullin, Jr., Mrs. David. "Shadyside," Ambler, Pa. 

Flowers, especially delphinium. 

Nathanson, Mrs. H. M Rydal, Pa. 

Newell, Mrs. John E West Mentor, Ohio 

Nice, Miss Susan W Ogontz, Pa. 

Nichols, Miss Rose Standish 55 Mt. Vernon St., Boston, Mass. 

Nixon, Miss Laura V Wilton, Conn. 

Vegetables and old-fashioned flowers. 
Noble, Mrs. Samuel L Roslyn, Pa. 

School gardens; flowers and vegetables. 

Painter, Mrs. H. McH 62 West 55th St., New York City 

General farming and flower culture. 

Parrish, Mrs. Joseph Radnor, Pa. 

Parsons, Miss Gertrude Stonover, Lenox, Mass. 

Passmore, Miss Charlotte W R. D. No. 2, Hopkins, Minn. 

Market-gardening. 

Pattee, Miss Sarah Lewis State College, Pa. 

Attending School of Landscape Gardening, Pennsylvania State 
College; flowers and landscape gardening. 
Patten, Miss Jane B. 

Simmons College, Boston, Mass.; home address, Elm Brook 
Farm, South Natick, Mass. 
Apple-growing. 

Patterson, Mrs. C. Stuart Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Honorary President of Garden Club of America; President the 
Garden Club, Philadelphia. 
[12] 



Patterson, Mrs. M. C "Hillcrest," R. D. No. 2, Richmond, Va. 

Patterson, Mrs. Wm. T Box 23, Ambler, Pa. 

Rose Valley Orchard; interested in home garden and orchard. 

Peale, Miss Elizabeth Hale Lock Haven, Pa. 

Chairman of Conservation in State Federation of Pennsylvania 
Women; chief interest ornamental horticulture; member 
Pennsylvania State Forestry Reservation Commission. 
Peck, Miss Alice L. 

Pa. Hospital for the Insane, 44th and Market Sts., Phila, Pa. 

Agricultural and horticultural pursuits; special study of vegetable 

growing under glass; at present engaged in trying to make 

gardening an occupation and an interest for the insane. 

Pennypacker, Miss Anna M. W. .Pennypacker Mills, Schwenksville, Pa. 

Pittman, Mrs. S. Kemp 376 Seminole Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Flower garden. 

Phillips, Miss Bessie Gaston Lumberville, Bucks Co., Pa. 

Piatt, Mrs. Orville H Washington, Conn. 

All agricultural and horticultural subjects. 

Pond, Mrs. G. G State College, Pa. 

Flowers; ferns. 

Powell, George T 50 Broad St., New York 

President of the Agricultural Experts' Association, New York; 
fruit-grower. 
Preston, Miss Isabelle 

Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 
Gardener; interest, cross-breeding and growing the seedlings. 

Redfield, Mrs. John Grosse Pointe, Michigan 

Gardening for pleasure; member of the Garden Club of Michigan. 
Rhoads, Mrs. J. Howard Bala, Pa. 

Flowers. 
Rhoads, Miss Lydia W 152 Schoolhouse Lane, Germantown, Pa. 

Amateur gardening. 
Rhodes, Mrs. James M Ardmore, Pa. 

Hardy perennial plants. 
Richardson, Miss Anna Torresdale, Pa. 

Flowers and vegetables; organizer of boys' corn clubs and girls' 
flower clubs. 

Roberts, Mrs. C. Wilson Southampton, Pa. 

Robertson, Miss Kate F Crosswicks House, Jenkintown, Pa. 

Robinson, Miss Sarah Bowne Ash Brook, Union Co., N. J. 

Fruit culture. 

Rosedale, Mrs. Eugene 4216 Osage Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Roseman, Mrs. Lilian 1829 N. Van Pelt St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Teacher of Biology, Phila. High School for Girls; interested in 
school gardening and vocational training for women. 
Russell, Mrs. Archibald D Princeton, N. J. 

Vice-president of Garden Club of America. 
Russell, Miss Katherine 128 East Buffalo St., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Agricultural education for women. 

Saam, Miss C. Elsa 2245 North 8th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manual training teacher; general interest in agriculture and horti- 
culture. 

[13] 



Sanders, Miss Georgiana J. 

Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture and Horticulture, 
Groton, Mass. 

Principal of the Lowthorpe School. 
Schenck, Miss Nora V Seminary Place, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Landscape and practical gardening. 
Schively, Miss Adeline F., Ph.D 318 Winona Ave., Germantown, Pa. 

Teacher in charge of Nature Study in Normal School; general 
interest in agriculture and horticulture. 

Scholes, Miss Sarah E 12 13 W. Allegheny Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sears, Mrs. Stephen A 42 Terrace Ave., S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Sener, Miss Emma E 230 W. Orange St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Fruits and flowers. 
Sener, Miss Miriam 233 Charlotte St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Roses and hardy plants. 
Sharpe, Mrs. Walter King Chambersburg, Pa. 

Amateur flower gardening; mixed hardy borders. 
Shaw, Miss Ellen Eddy 609 West 127th St., New York 

On the staff of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden; editor children's 
department of the Garden Magazine; interested in children's 
garden work. 

Shewell, Miss Julia A 100 Tappan St., Brookline, Mass. 

Shields, Miss Mary A 121 Maplewood Ave., Germantown, Pa. 

Home culture of flowering plants and ferns. 
Shrigley, Miss Ethel Austin Lansdowne, Pa. 

General interest in horticulture. 

Slack, Mrs. Joseph C Penns Park, Bucks Co., Pa. 

Smith, Miss Elizabeth Gwynedd Valley, Pa. 

Smith, Miss Ellen D Doylestown, Pa. 

Nut trees from seed. 

Smith, Miss Emily Kaighn Gwynedd Valley, Pa. 

Smith, Miss Mary Byres Andover, Mass. 

Perennials. 
Smith, Mrs. William Roy. . Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

General farming, especially potatoes; apple-growing and small 
fruits. 
Solberg, Mrs. T 198 F St., S. E., Washington, D. C. 

All horticultural subjects, especially forestry, fruit culture, and 
floriculture. 
Sparks, Miss Ethel C State College, Pa. 

Tree surgery, grafting, propagation, and landscape gardening. 

Spear, Mrs. Walter E Merrick, Long Island 

Spicer, Mrs. R. B Grubbs P. O., Delaware 

Interest in home vegetable and flower garden. 
Stearns, Miss Frances Central High School, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

School garden work. 
Stewardson, Miss E. P Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

Flower gardening. 
Stuart, Miss Mary . . 169 East 62d St., New York 

Landscape gardening. 
Sturtevant, Miss Grace Wellesley Farms, Mass. 

The breeding of iris. 

Sweeney, Mrs. F. D 3248 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

[14] 



Tate, Mrs. H. A Old Fort, North Carolina 

Dahlias, carinas, gladioli. 

Thomas, Miss Martha G Whitford, Pa. 

Thompson, Mrs. A. P New Fields, New Hampshire 

Fruit growing and school gardens. 
Tierney, Miss Grace A 1 18 West Coulter St., Germantown, Pa. 

Flower gardening. 
Tilletson, Miss J. A Wayne, Pa. 

Iris and gladiolus. 
Tongue, Miss Mary V 1 16 W. Lanvale St., Baltimore, Md. 

Hardy garden flowers. 
Tracy, Mrs. B. Hammond Wenham, Mass. 

Cedar Acres Gladiolus Farm. 
Twaddell, Miss Edith 508 Woodland Terrace, West Phila., Pa. 

Peaches and dahlias. 

Vaillant, Mrs. G. H. 

I West 64th St., New York; summer address, Washington, Conn. 

Van Harlingen, Mrs. Arthur Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Van Rensselaer, Mrs. Schuyler 9 West 10th St., New York 

Author. 

Van Sant, Miss Belle. .". George School, Bucks Co., Pa. 

Teacher of Biology; interested in agricultural education for young 
people. 

Varley, Miss Elsie D Lowthorpe School, Groton, Mass. 

Interested in horticultural education. 

Vaux, Mrs. A. H. . Gwynedd Valley, Pa. 

Kitchen-gardening; poultry. 

Vollmer, Mrs. Susan H Huntington, N. Y. 

Fruit-grower and market-gardener on Long Island; from December 
till March shipper of Indian River fruit direct to families from 
Cocoa, Florida. 

Warner, Mrs. S. T. . .Proprietor of Pine Bluff Inn, Point Pleasant, N. J. 
Warren, Mrs. Benj Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan 

Amateur garden; perennials. 
Watts, Dean Ralph L. State College, Pa. 

Dean of Horticultural Department. 
Watts, Mrs. Ralph L State College, Pa. 

Flowers and indoor plants. 
Wenrich, Mrs. John A Wernersville, Pa. 

Flowers. 

Weyl, Mrs. J. S Elkins Park, Pa. 

White, Miss Elizabeth C New Lisbon, N. J. 

Cranberries; blueberries. 
White, Miss Margaret II Highland St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Landscape gardener. 
White, Mrs. N. Willard Dolington, Bucks Co., Pa. 

Farming; floriculture. 
Whitman, Mrs. Alfred A 305 West 78th St., New York City 

Private gardens; interested in succession of bloom and color scheme. 
Williams, Miss Elizabeth 95 Rivington St., New York 

Head-worker at College Settlement with its farm at Mt. Ivy, N. Y. 

[15] 



Williams, Miss Ellen Poultney Haverford, Pa. 

Farming with poultry of all kinds; interest, landscape gardening. 
Williams, Miss Helen W Oak and High Sts., Norristown, Pa. 

Dephiniums. 
Williams, Mrs. William B Lapeer, Mich. 

Flowers and vegetables; member of Garden Club of Michigan. 
Wilson, Mrs. Wm. K Box 44, Cynwyd, Pa. 

Amateur desiring to have some knowledge of sweet peas and egg- 
plant growing. 

Winsor, Miss Ellen Haverford, Pa. 

Wistar, Mrs. Thomas 51 East Penn St., Germantown, Pa. 

Wolf, Mrs. Louis Elkins Park, Pa. 

Wood, Miss Marion 146 Massachusetts Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Wood, Miss Ellen C 7th and Erie Sts., Camden, N. J. 

Woodward, Mrs. George Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Young, Mrs. Thos. Sears 42 East 52d St., New York 

Youngs, Miss Mary Garden City, Long Island, New York 

Hardy garden planting; garden color. 



[16] 



ADDITIONAL MEMBERS TO MAY 12, 1914 

Achilles, Mrs. G. S Stoneleigh, Briarcliff Manor, N. Y. 

Anderson, Mrs. E. R South Hamilton, Mass. 

Ballard, Mrs. Thomas P R. F. D. No. 4, Painesville, Ohio 

Barber, Mrs. St. George Chesterfield, Md. 

Barton, Mrs. H. H., Jr Walnut Hill, Holmesburg, Pa. 

Bliss, Miss Grace Vaughan 404 W. 115th St., New York, N. Y. 

Blunt, Miss Eliza S New Russia, Essex Co., N. Y. 

Brown, Mrs. S. A 165 W. 58th St., New York, N. Y. 

Butler, Mrs. Robert Gordon. . . .Care of Rittenhouse Trust Co., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Chapman, Miss L. P Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

Clark, Mrs. C. Howard, Jr Devon, Pa. 

Comstock, Mrs. A. W Southernwood, Ivoryton, Conn. 

Crawford, Mrs. William LaPorte, Indiana 

Dennison, Miss Ruth. Care of Mrs. Edward Martin, 1506 Locust St., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Doan, Mr. John Lindley School of Horticulture, Ambler, Pa. 

Downs, Mrs. Norton Three Tuns, Pa. 

Eckfeldt, Mrs. Jacob B 6 Lindenwald Terrace, Ambler, Pa. 

Ford, Mrs. George Burdette 404 W. 115th St., New York, N. Y. 

Ford, Mr. George Burdette 404 W. 115th St., New York, N. Y. 

Garrigues, Miss Hannah,, Haverford, Pa. 

Glessner, Mrs. John J 1800 Prairie Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Godfrey, Mrs. Hollis 1906 Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Goodman, Miss Ernestine A Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

Hale, Miss Marcia Elizabethtown, N. Y. 

Hoff, Miss Bertha C 216 Lefferts Ave., Richmond Hill, N. Y. 

Jones, Mr. John A 2 Rector St., New York, N. Y. 

Lewis, Mrs. Theodore J 212 N. 34th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lowe, Mrs. Edward Grand Rapids, Michigan 

Mickle, Mrs. Robert T 430 W. Stafford St., Germantown, Pa. 

Murray, Miss Emily H Cumberstone, Anne Arundel Co., Md. 

McNair, Miss Emily A 1208 Dean St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Nicholson, Mrs. William H., Jr Millville, N. J. 

Norton, Mrs. CD 36 E. 36th St., New York, N. Y. 

Norton, Mrs. J. C Hempstead, N. Y. 

Norton, Miss M. Harriet 540 W. California St., Pasadena, Cal. 

Orum, Miss Ida K 1320 N. 19th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pickett, Mrs. James B Wenham, Mass. 

Piatt, Miss Laura N 1831 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Reeves, Miss Laura 10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rhoads, Mrs. Charles J. 1914 S. Rittenhouse Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rieman, Mrs. Charles E Rodgers Forge, Md. 

Rulon, Miss E. W Linden Hall Seminary, Lititz, Pa. 

Scholes, Mrs. Walter 1234 W. Allegheny Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Schurz, Miss Mariana 24 E. 91st St., New York, N. Y. 

Sessions, Miss Kate 1628 W. Lewis St., San Diego, California 

Snow, Miss Helen H.Care of The Curtis Publishing Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stout, Mrs. C. H Short Hills, N. J. 

Taber, Miss Eleanor W "Braeneuk," Greenwich, Conn. 

Trowbridge, Miss Augusta E 195 Harrison St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Tyson, Mrs. Russell 20 E. Goethe St., Chicago, Illinois 

Walker, Miss Isabella 40 Jacoby St., Norristown, Pa. 

Wetter, Miss Mabel H 4035 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wilson, Miss M. C Box 44, Cynwyd, Pa. 

Wright, Miss Letitia E Fisher's Lane, Logan, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Cedar Acres Gladioli "BuibsthatBioom" 

ILLUSTRATED BOOKLET 
Gives full information how to grow prize-winning Gladioli, and a complete list of the 
best new as well as the old varieties. The garden will be incomplete without Gladioli 

Address Box W B. Hammond Tracy Wenham, Mass. 

Cheltenham Nurseries cl ;nh and oTkLane 

Fruit and OrnamentalTrees 
Shrubs, Evergreens, Bedding Plants 

Catalogue on Request R i f R Roin P c Pn Cheltenham 

Address : KODt. U. ttaineS ^O., Montgome ryCo.,Pa. 

^p I 1 Ifrmc* Sterile White Leghorn Product 

1 aDie ^ggS fr om Carefully-Fed Stock 

Mary A. Homans' Early-Bird Farm 

R. F. D. No. I Hempstead, Long Island, N. Y. 

School of Horticulture for Women 

(Eighteen Miles from Philadelphia) 
Regular twp-year course begins September, 1 914. Practical and theoretical training in 
the growing of fruits, vegetables and flowers. Simple carpentry. Bees. Poultry. 
Preserving. School Gardening and the Principles of Landscape Gardening. Constant 
demand for trained women to fill salaried positions. Write for Catalogue. 

Jessie T. Morgan, Director, Ambler, Pa. 

Indian River May be ordered November 

FVllit *'^ April from 

Susan H. Vollmer, Cocoa, Florida 

Prices in later notice 

Jam Kitchen Orange Marmalade a Specialty 
Nancy Homans 

Huntington, Long Island, N. Y. 



WOMEN'S NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 

QUARTERLY 



February, 1915 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 



Founded "to promote agricultural and horticultural interests among 
women and to further such interests throughout the country." 

OFFICERS 

President 
Mrs. Francis King Alma, Michigan 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer New York 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer Huntington, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Corresponding Secretary 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary 
Miss Margaret Jackson Englewood, N. J. 



Council 

Miss Emma Blakiston Miss Hilda Loines 

Miss Louisa G. Davis Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning 

Mrs. Frank Miles Day Miss Louise Klein Miller 

Miss M. L. Dock Miss E. H. Peale 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Mr. George T. Powell 

Miss J. B. Haines Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang 

Miss Margaret Jackson Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy 

Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Mrs. Francis King Mr. R. L. Watts 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Miss Mary Youngs 

Copyrighted, 191 5, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 



WOMEN'S NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 

QUARTERLY 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 

Vol. I, No. 3 QUARTERLY February, 1915 

THE PROBLEM OF SMALL FARMS WITH 
SMALL MEANS 

The interest in small land holdings has never been so 
great as at the present time. The increasing number of 
persons living in cities who are facing the problem of un- 
employment is one of the causes for interest in trying to 
gain more living from the land. 

In order to be successful in making a living from the land 
it is necessary for those who make the attempt, either 
men or women, to have some knowledge of the soil and of 
its management. There is much need for opportunity to 
acquire such knowledge. With incomes on many securities 
cut down heavily in the present times, investors are seek- 
ing the greater safety that lies in land, and many desire 
to invest in small farms. 

For many, however, this will not be wise or safe until 
more favorable conditions shall be established, whereby not 
only knowledge and training may be acquired, but oppor- 
tunity to borrow money on land, for a long time, and at a 
moderate rate of interest. 

Some capitalists are now investigating the possibility of 
acquiring large tracts of cheap, unimproved land, that may 
be cleared, and put into condition for intensive culture 
where modern machinery may be used to reduce the cost 
of production, the entire tract to be worked as a unit, but 
in which small investors may secure an interest. 

The land is to be used for intensive gardening and small 
fruit orchards ; a guaranteed interest is to be paid for a cer- 
tain time, after which a profit sharing policy is to be adopted. 

Published quarterly for the W. N. A. and H. A. by J. B. Haines at 

Cheltenham, Pa. 

Subscription price, $ .50 per year. 

[i] 



The investigation is including the problem of efficient 
direction and also of efficient labor in carrying out the work. 
For this purpose, opportunity must be provided for train- 
ing and instruction in every operation, that the highest 
efficiency may be obtained in all workers, thereby insuring 
the value of the capital invested, and especially of small 
investors. 

This policy will anticipate community living for those 
investors who may wish to hold an interest in a few pro- 
ductive acres, upon which they may give their own labor 
at the same value as any labor employed; the corporation 
directing all operations of culture and production, as also 
the marketing, of products, which may be done with far 
better results on a large cooperative scale than is possible 
by ah individual. 

The policy of cooperation will make possible the estab- 
lishment of social centers and better schools in country 
districts. 

Efforts are already being made to provide instruction 
for young people, especially in our public schools, which 
will make possible this new line of land development and 
occupation. 

The National Child Welfare League is endeavoring to 
have instruction in gardening introduced into the public 
schools throughout the United States, the work to be done 
in gardens at the homes of such children as have them and 
on vacant land to be provided for others; special teachers 
to be employed for the work. 

The Board of Education of New York city is making a 
special survey of existing vocational education and efforts 
will be made to have boys who take a course in agricultural 
studies in the city high schools, placed on farms where they 
may get actual training in farm work. This will be of 
available value to them later, as efficient wage-earners 
on the land. 

These efforts will open up new avenues in the future for 
women. One of the great values of a school of horticulture 
for women, such as the one at Ambler, Pa., will be the training 
of young women for teachers in this garden work instruc- 
tion that will be established in our public school system, an 
educational policy that I have long advocated, and to which 
I have given some work by way of demonstration, in teach- 
ing without books and in direct contact with the soil. 

There are many women interested in investing in land. 

Many become the unfortunate victims of unscrupulous 

land speculators and agents, and lose the small earnings 

of years. It is a hopeless undertaking for most women to 

[2] 



try to live on isolated tracts of land, with no social life or 
business cooperation. 

As the result of the universal distress caused by the pres- 
ent European war, which has impaired and depressed every 
character of investment and security; with the enormous 
increase of the unemployed in our cities; with the cost of 
foods soaring beyond the reach of millions of consumers; 
the greater production of the soil is attracting interest as 
never before in the history of the world, and is engaging the 
most earnest thought of many educational, social, and 
philanthropic associations. 

The agricultural wealth, produced in our United States 
in 1914, will reach ten billion dollars, and farming may be 
said to be as yet one of our great, but practically undevel- 
oped, industries. — George T. Powell. 

FLOWER FARMING A PROFITABLE 
PROFESSION 

Women are successfully running many flower farms in 
England, and they are being trained for it. One English 
woman, the Viscountess Wolseley, upon whom the honor- 
ary freedom of their ancient guild has recently been be- 
stowed by the Company of Gardeners, was the founder of 
a training school for women gardeners in Sussex, and has 
been principal of it for twelve years. In response to the 
toast at the banquet given by the company in her honor 
she said, in part, addressing the women: 

"Will you tell all your friends that we have big openings 
for women on the land? It is the educated, thinking head, 
to my mind, that is wanted to direct the workingman. 
Other countries are beating us in competition, and I look 
to you women to recommend gardening as a profession for 
women." 

She went on to point out that two quite different training 
grounds are wanted for educating women in horticulture. 
"We have already a number of schools for farmers' daugh- 
ters, but schools of a different type are wanted to train well- 
educated women for the higher branches of the profession, 
to act as advisory experts, and to specialize in landscape 
gardening, etc." 

In the little Sussex village of Henfield is a flower farm run 
by two young women who studied at Swanley College, where 
gardening and all its branches are taught. Despite the 
picturesqueness of the term "flower farming," there is 
much stern reality with which to contend. Digging and 
trenching must be mastered, and the work of digging by 

[3] 



the "spit," or spade's depth, thoroughly understood by the 
pupil. Clad in short skirts of sufficient width to allow 
freedom of movement, the novice practises digging until 
proficient in that health-giving but tiring exercise. 

Then follow glasshouse work, grading and packing for 
market, botany, rural economy, chemistry of the soil, en- 
tomology, micology, and bookkeeping. 

When they finished the course they searched over the 
greater part of Sussex until they found a suitable piece 
of ground. The soil, after careful examination, having 
proved satisfactory, the courageous couple bought some 
three and a half acres of freehold land and began work 
without delay. It must be borne in mind that this kind of 
enterprise cannot be undertaken without capital. For the 
first three years there is little or no return, but after that 
time the reward is in proportion to the skill and persever- 
ance of the workers. 

Fruits and vegetables as well as flowers have found places 
in the greenhouses; strawberries, melons, and tomatoes 
being produced in abundance. 

Work is begun soon after 6 o'clock in the morning and, 
with short intervals for meals, lasts until about 8 in the 
evening. There is a great deal to be done in the glass 
houses, and cutting, bunching, and packing take a long 
time. Much of the labor is monotonous and tiring and 
aptly described as of the "backache" variety. Delicate 
women are well advised to leave farming alone, for all who 
undertake the venture must be prepared to withstand the 
rigors of the east wind, of damp and rain, or to endure for 
many hours incessantly the heat of the glass house, which 
frequently rises to ioo° or more. 

But there is much to be said in favor of the work, and for 
one who revels in the great outdoors, it is a delightful and 
lucrative occupation. 

THE LONG ISLAND PLAN 

The Long Island Railroad Demonstration Farm is a 
place unique unto itself. Traveling eastward 60 miles 
from New York city, one leaves the densely populated 
outskirts of Greater New York, the beautiful villages and 
towns of the suburbs, and reaches a country sparsely in- 
habited and desolate to the eye, for forest fires have raged 
across the rolling country for generations. 

In the midst of this, just beyond the hamlet of Medford, 
one comes to a prosperous, flourishing farm. Nine years 
ago it was but a piece of the surrounding wilderness; to-day 

[4] 



may be found there fruits and berries, nuts and vegetables, 
from all portions of the globe. A small dairy barn houses 
a herd of cattle which are gradually being raised from scrub 
to grade stock; a little dairy, bright and airy, immaculate 
in its cleanliness, is where the butter is made — such butter 
as has won four medals in national and State exhibits in as 
many years. 

Fields of alfalfa, 18 feet field-corn, potatoes, sugar beets, 
market-garden crops, berries of all varieties, and fruit in 
profusion of variety and superb in quality, may all be seen 
in the growing season. 

Nearly iooo varieties were growing upon the 22 acres 
last season, and the following season will include many 
varieties never before grown in this country, though the 
large field crops will be fewer. 

All this work is done in the simplest manner, with the 
least expenditure of money, without the use of any ferti- 
lizer except cover crops or manure and lime. And it is all 
done to prove that land which looks hopeless and desolate 
is capable of producrng the finest quality and maximum 
quantity of food for man and beast. It is but an atom of 
the 240,000 acres lying close to America's greatest market. 

Flowers form a part of the great work being done, and 
many are the visitors who rejoice in the beauty of the roses, 
iris, dahlias, gladioli, etc., in their season. 

The latch-string is always out, and the director and his 
wife ready to welcome visitors, as they have in the past, 
from all parts of the world. — E. L. Fullerton. 

GROW NURSERY STOCK IN THE UNITED 
STATES 

Why not grow our own nursery stock? We have an 
example of what can be done near Boston — the Little Tree 
Farms of South Framingham. Although this firm grows 
large quantities and sells them cheaply, they are specialists 
in a few things, conifers, mostly pines, spruces, and firs — 
large quantities of these are still imported from Europe. 

The European war is not the sole opportunity. It has 
existed a long time and been foreseen — not the war, but the 
opportunity. In the raising and culture of carnations we 
have led the world for a long time, and we are rapidly be- 
coming leaders in sweet peas and gladioli. We are sadly be- 
hind, however, in the raising of nursery stock. Two reasons 
have been given: one is the cheapness of labor abroad, and 
the consequent cheapness of stock ; the other is the difficulty 
of getting experienced help. There should be no difficulty 

[5] 



in getting experienced help. There are plenty of men in 
the country ready to take up such work, and competent 
men, too. If such men be well paid, — and they should be, — 
I am sure I could find plenty of them. 

In this work, as in all such work, one needs what are 
called specialists. All-round men are not just the right sort. 
One man may be especially clever in raising seedling stock, 
another in making cuttings, another at grafting and bud- 
ding, although this work can be readily done under the over- 
sight of a competent man, with inexperienced help. Rais- 
ing seedlings, however, is a more scientific operation, and 
needs knowledge and skill. 

Raising plants from seeds is, in a way, an intuition. We 
must feel, as well as know, and the operations attending 
the work must be well up in details. As an illustration, a 
batch of seedlings may be ruined by half an hour's sunshine, 
or by too much water, or by lack of air. 

The Arnold Arboretum may be rightly called a school of 
horticulture, and among schools of horticulture it occupies 
the premier place. The master minds are Prof. C. S. Sar- 
gent and Jackson Dawson. In their field of work they are 
known the world over. Nearly all trees and shrubs that 
are hardy in Massachusetts and farther north are repre*- 
sented here, and a large majority of them have been raised 
at the Arboretum. Horticulture is benefited throughout 
the civilized world, and representatives from all the coun- 
tries come here for study. Alfred Rehder, one of the great- 
est authorities on plant nomenclature, studied here and is 
still here as a professor. 

Among those who have foreseen the opportunity I could 
mention a Boston firm. About ten years ago one of the 
partners of this firm spoke to me about raising rhododen- 
drons from seed, and I had the pleasure of co-operating with 
him in the beginning of this venture. Now the firm raises 
azaleas and rhododendrons by the tens of thousands. In- 
cidentally, I would suggest that raising rhododendrons 
from seed saved here will (and I believe from my experi- 
ence that it does) tends to harden the type. And in time to 
come we shall depend altogether on American raised rhodo- 
dendrons. 

It appears to me, however, that the nurserymen of the 
United States are not taking advantage of what is done 
for them at the Arboretum. To repeat, propagation and 
cultivation from the very start are practised here, and the 
methods employed are open to investigation. So here, if 
any nurseryman wants to know what is best to grow, and 
how to grow it, he can find out. 

[61 



A propagating department should be an annex to every 
well-managed nursery. With this idea in view I suggested 
to Prof. Bailey, when he talked about revising his Ency- 
clopedia of American Horticulture, that he have two de- 
partments relating to the propagation of plants; one from 
seed, the other to include all other methods. The propa- 
gating department should be in charge of a well-equipped 
superintendent, who besides following the lead of his em- 
ployers, should be unhampered as to methods, — be given a 
free hand, so to speak, to experiment with new subjects, 
ultimately or not to be added to the regular list. Some- 
times subjects have to be abandoned, but it is a progressive 
way, and every enterprising firm should encourage such a 
forward step. If you look at nurserymen's catalogues, you 
will find practically the same things offered in each. I 
believe the reason for this is to be found in the dependence 
of all on a common source of supply — Europe. 

The man who raises seeds must know when and where to 
get his stock supplyr He will have to do some collecting 
himself. An interested man will always be on the lookout 
for new, rare, or valuable kinds. He must know how long 
they take to germinate, how and when to sow them, whether 
in heat or cold, and especially those that need freezing. 

The care of young plants should be his, until they are 
ready for permanent quarters. There is a time in the life 
of seedling stock when the mortality is great. From freezing 
and thawing in winter time many are lost, not because they 
are not hardy, but because they need protection to carry 
them along until they have a permanent foothold. Un- 
fortunately, the need of this extra care is given, indirectly, 
may be, as an excuse for not venturing into this field of 
activity. 

For these and all other methods of propagation proper 
quarters should be found. — T. D. Hatfield, Wellesley, Mass., 
in "Horticulture." 



A PIONEER FLORIST 

Mine is the story of many years spent among flowers in 
garden and greenhouse, begun as a pleasure, later developed 
into a business that has brought to me happiness, increased 
health, valuable information, and a large circle of highly 
esteemed friends whose friendship has been and is much 
to me to-day. 

City born and bred, Boston being my birthplace, June 
28, 1830, ray natural love for flowers, inherited from an- 
cestors prominent in agricultural and horticultural interests, 

[71 



had no chance for expression until the time of my marriage, 
when I went to a home in a small town near the city. In 
a few years we removed to Medford, where our permanent 
home was established. 

For many years I kept about two hundred plants in my 
south windows, and my little garden-plots, the only ones 
in the neighborhood, were attractions to all who passed by. 
I sent for slips and seeds long before my neighbors paid 
any attention to gardens. 

In a short time my husband purchased a place opposite 
on the same street, which was an attractive one and had 
trees and shrubs, and roses climbing about the piazza. 
Later another piece of land was bought, and the whole estate 
as it now stands comprises one-half acre, and on this are 
the house, stable, and three greenhouses erected at different 
times. 

I joined the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in the 
summer of 1865, and the weekly exhibits so increased my 
interest in plants and flowers that I desired a greenhouse 
for the purpose of having at hand suitable stock for these 
exhibitions, which I have attended and exhibited at regu- 
larly to the present time. I was now able to have the wish 
realized, and the first house was built in 1870. I began on 
a lavish scale at first, having, besides the common ones, 
many fine greenhouse plants that I soon found too costly 
for my means. In my zeal I began with stephanotis, alla- 
manda, lapegeria, Amazonian lily, and such plants, but 
these were soon given up, and my stock arranged on a more 
paying basis. 

I found I could not keep my greenhouses for pleasure 
alone, for so many people wanted gifts of flowers, plants, and 
seeds. The business thus begun has since been carried on 
continuously. 

I have always been the head of it, kept one man, not al- 
ways a professional gardener, but have had assistance of 
great value from a daughter who is really the guiding spirit 
at the present day. For a number of years my husband 
and son gave valuable help. 

At various times I have raised the following, changing 
as the houses were found to be better adapted to some other 
crop than the ones being raised : Roses, pinks, callas, smilax, 
sprengeri, chrysanthemums, and various pot plants for 
spring trade. My trade in plants has been mostly local, 
but for several years my gardener drove a load of plants 
to the Boston market several times a week in the spring. 
I have never issued a catalogue and advertising has not 
been in my line. Selling cut flowers, making up funeral 
[8] 



designs, baskets and bouquets, and supplying wedding 
decorations on a moderate scale have been a large part of 
my work. 

Though not a botanist, my natural taste and love for 
flowers have made me a fairly successful grower of them. 

Freesias have been a very profitable crop. I have sold 
at wholesale in Boston, principally to one florist, and bought 
as my orders required, going to market myself at an early 
hour, and have been a familiar figure on the route, and I 
am glad to speak a good word for conductors and motormen 
who have ever been most considerate and helpful. Swedish 
and Norwegian help have proved good, and while employing 
men of these nationalities I had a stall in the market. 

For many years I hired an extra piece of land for bed- 
ding-out plants and growing corn and other vegetables. 
Only the past year was this given up and one greenhouse 
taken down, for I am now doing less work, being "full of 
years." 

The home garden has produced blackberries, grapes, peas, 
lima beans, gooseberries, currants, and strawberries for 
home use and neighborhood sale. Before the greenhouses 
were erected a large strawberry bed yielded at one time 
30 quarts at the first picking. Lately only enough of 
these have been raised for family consumption. There are 
a number of pear trees on the place, and the fruit has been 
regularly consigned to an excellent commission house. In 
the early days, before raspberries were so commonly grown, 
I sold the fruit to private individuals at 50 cents a quart. 

It has been said of the garden that there was not an inch 
of land that was not utilized. 

My garden has given great pleasure to me and others 
also, being, as you might say, an old-fashioned one, planted 
in no formal style — just a profusion of bloom, a mingling 
of color that has been a delight to all passersby, and has 
tempted many a grown-up to lean on the fence and look 
in, and the little child to peep through the slats of the fence 
and say, "Oh! I do love flowers." 

I have many peonies, some of the famous Richardson 
seedlings, three hundred or more hybrid rose bushes, 
phloxes, delphiniums, iris, poppies, lilies of the valley, and 
such annuals as asters, salvia, mignonette, cosmos, salpi- 
glossis, centaurea, and, as the story books say, others too 
numerous to mention; also many biennial double holly- 
hocks of most beautiful colors, and quite a collection of 
dahlias. 

I would advise any one who has a garden to cultivate the 
yellow Scotch rose bush. The one in my garden was on 

[9] 



the place when I came here fifty-five years ago, and last 
June was a wealth of color. 

In a commercial way I have found the peony profitable 
in the selling of roots and the use of blooms for wedding 
decorations. The valley has been a good bloomer (imported 
pips) and sells well for Memorial Day, which is made a great 
deal of in Greater Boston. 

My garden is in the midst of a city, for I am but three min- 
utes' walk from stores, churches, post-office, and railroad. 
Medford is within a five-mile radius of Boston; the State 
House and Bunker Hill Monument can be seen as you drive 
about our city. At times my houses and garden have been 
somewhat shaded by neighbors' stables, but these have been 
removed within a year or two, to my material benefit. 

I have had the odd experience of having a wild doe run 
through two greenhouses, do considerable damage to a 
bed of violets, and break so much glass that the sum of 
fifty dollars paid me by the Great and General Court of 
Massachusetts was in no sense an adequate recompense 
for the damage done. 

The pleasure of raising flowers is not alone for one's self. 
No more acceptable gift to the sick, the sorrowing, or the 
poor can be sent than a bunch of posies from one's own gar- 
den. For many years I have gladly contributed each week, 
with scarcely an exception, during the time of blossoms, 
bunches for the Flower Mission of Boston through our 
local branch. These are distributed regularly and sys- 
tematically in the hospitals and to the shut-ins of our nearby 
great city. 

The lectures at the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
the use of its library, the magazines for florists, all have 
been assets of value. 

As to the method of growing, perhaps the following hints 
may be useful to beginners: 

Hollyhock seed planted early in the fall and raised in the 
greenhouse will often bloom the next spring. Thereby one 
does not have to wait for the second season for blooms. 

Hardy rose bushes do well with the following cultivation : 
When the bed is planted early in the spring, say the middle 
of March, for long-stem roses, cut down to about ten inches, 
or if more blooms are wanted instead of length of stem, do 
not prune. This wood will produce only short-stemmed 
roses. When leaves are formed and growth begins, water 
freely and spray often to free from vermin. Give some bone 
meal to enlarge the flowers. After the blooming season is 
over let the bushes rest, that is, if any flowers are on the 
bushes let them remain some time, then cut off all old 
[10] 



blooms and then the new growth will start. In the fall 
(October) dig or trench about the roots, throwing the loam 
around the bushes, then over the loam fill in with barn- 
yard dressing to protect the roots during the winter. 

For every member of the Women's National Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Association I wish success and 
happiness in the largest measure in the various branches 
of the work she has entered upon. — Mrs. Ellen M. Gill. 

DAUGHTERS AID SOUTHERN FARMERS TO 
DIVERSIFY CROPS 

Daughters of southern farmers who have been members 
of the United States Department of Agriculture's garden 
and canning clubs have been able to give their fathers 
practical demonstrations of the value of crop diversifica- 
tion during the present bad cotton year. The actual pro- 
ducts which the girls have put up are proving an invaluable 
asset in many farm homes where the cotton crop has not 
brought the customary returns, and many farmers are now 
substituting whole acres of onions and tomatoes in place 
of cotton after seeing the success which the young women 
have made with these crops. 

A conference of 15 women agents from 15 Southern 
States took place last December at the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture. These agents supervise the work 
of 369 county agents who direct the work of 33,420 girls. 
Data of some of the State reports given here are merely an 
indication of the general interest that is being taken more 
and more throughout the whole South in the club-move- 
ment work. 

In Tennessee, Madge Farrar has proved the possibilities 
of growing crops all the year round. By raising and selling 
vegetables throughout the year she made a net profit of 
$131.62, while the second-best girl, who also did good work, 
but did not diversify, made $96.20 profit. The girl with 
the second average grew only beans and tomatoes during 
the fall and summer. Miss Farrar, however, having 
grown these crops, put in onions during the winter which 
she sold at a good profit early in February. She then pro- 
ceeded to plant cabbages, which brought her an income 
during April and May, while peas were her main crop in 
June. This brought her back to the tomato and bean 
season, and rounded out a year of profitable vegetable 
growing. 

Another young woman found a peach orchard into which 
hogs had been turned. She took her canner with her and 

[11] 



established herself in the orchard to save what was left 
from the hogs, and made $60 in one week from her work. 
Similar instances have demonstrated the possibilities of 
saving waste in that section, and there has been a more 
general interest exhibited not only by the farmers' daugh- 
ters, but by many of their wives. 

Although the area where figs will grow in this country is 
extremely limited, in certain sections of southern Missis- 
sippi this fruit grows so plentifully that its value is not 
appreciated and barrels of figs go to waste every year. 
The trees require little or no cultivation; the owners eat a 
few, can a few for home use, and permit the rest to go to 
waste, except in localities where commercial canners buy 
the fruit from day to day as it ripens. During the past year 
two counties decided to specialize in canning figs. One girl 
packed 500 pints, which she sold for from 35 cents to 40 
cents a pint. The girls in these sections are now leaving 
tomatoes for other less fortunate districts where figs will 
not grow, and are planting six fig trees on their tenth-of-an- 
acre plots. The demand for the figs in figless sections far 
exceeds the supply. 

Four years ago there were but two counties in Mississippi 
where organized garden and canning club work was carried 
on for the girls; the next year there were twelve counties; 
the next, twenty-three, and during the past year there were 
thirty-five counties organized. 

Pimentoes have proved a particular boon to certain 
counties in South Carolina, as have figs in Mississippi. Cer- 
tain clubs which had been specializing in tomatoes decided 
that there was a possibility in pimentoes, which are not so 
generally grown and which are canned in practically no 
other parts of this country, the main canned product here 
being imported from Spain and Mexico. Since the product 
of these young women has been put on the market, requests 
have come from 45 states for information regarding the 
canning and culture of this valuable food product, which 
the American people in general do not yet understand. 

Two sisters in North Carolina have established such a 
reputation for their canned fruits and vegetables that they 
cannot fill the demand. The rules of the agent in charge of 
the North Carolina work make it necessary that the name 
and address of every club member go on every can she puts 
on the market. " Give me a can of Mabel Norris tomatoes," 
or "Give me a can of Agnes Norris peaches," requests the 
housewife of the grocer in the section where these two 
sisters sell their products. These young women no longer 
put up their product in glass, but in tins, their name on the 
[12] 



outside being sufficient guarantee for the appearance of 
the product. 

The North Carolina girls are being taught to be business 
women as well as to put up superior products. The State 
leaders, when they first interested the girls in the work, 
attempted to find markets for them, but as more girls join 
the clubs this is impossible, so each girl is taught to make 
her own market. Similarly in Mississippi "marketing 
committees" are organized by the girls themselves, and 
club members in one section put those of another section 
in touch with possible markets for their goods. 

Annie Davis, in 1913, was the grand champion for Texas 
and came to Washington with the other champions. This 
year she has come to the aid of her father who was unable to 
sell his cotton crop. She had saved up her money to take 
a course at an industrial school, but when the cotton crisis 
came her money was given to help the family. This young 
woman, from the funds which she earned last year, has 
purchased for her father a team of horses and a wagon. 

The Texas girls have shown an unusual interest in poul- 
try in addition to their canning and garden work. This is 
only the first year of the poultry work, but already 250 
young women are at work, and not a single one has failed 
to make a profit. The result has been that in many cases 
the whole flock of poultry on a farm has been turned over 
to the daughter. One girl cleared last year $180 from her 
turkeys and $338 from her chickens. In addition, being an 
all-round farmer, she made a profit from her garden and 
canning work. This young woman's success has so im- 
pressed her father that he has reduced his cotton acreage 
one-half and has put in vegetables. He has installed a 
small home canner, and the whole family is going to help 
in canning the product for market. 

PRISON LIFE IN THE OPEN— FARMING AT 

THE NEW JERSEY STATE REFORMATORY 

FOR WOMEN 

Clinton Farms — what a plea for out-of-door life for the 
woman in custody! Two years ago she would have been 
sent to Trenton State Prison, where she would have been 
confined in a small wing, with exercise in the open for only 
half an hour on each clear day; now she is sent to Clinton 
Farms, with every help toward moral, physical, and men- 
tal improvement. 

Our farm of 350 acres, most of it productive land, is 
much more than an ordinary farm. With forty women 

[13] 



(many of them in their teens), and the probability of twice 
that number in the coming summer, we are working to 
make the place self-supporting. We have eight girls who 
are directly responsible for the dairy and poultry work; 
about eight more who do the gardening. Many of these 
are city girls to whom farm life is a new experience. Our 
main idea is to give the girls certain tasks and make them 
responsible. They soon see that they have a direct benefit 
from their work. They take care of the cows and have 
all the milk that they can drink, besides fresh butter and 
buttermilk frequently; they raise poultry and have an 
abundance of eggs, and sometimes chicken to eat; they 
raise calves and pigs and have veal and pork on their table; 
they cultivate the gardens and have fine vegetables sum- 
mer and winter; they learn the value of honorable work. 

Then what a hopeful outlook! With good food, fresh 
air, and long hours of sleep, the women have every aid 
toward becoming physically strong; they learn self- 
discipline and to assume responsibility; they eat the fruit of 
their labors; they improve the condition of the farm; and 
they go out at the end of their terms with an interest in 
out-of-door work, perhaps to enjoy little gardens and a few 
chickens of their own. We believe that our women, hav- 
ing found at the Reformatory a wholesome life, well planned 
for work, study, and play, will take their places as useful 
citizens, and in this way Clinton Farms, bearing its own part 
of the heavy burden of delinquency, may become a factor 
in economy to the State. — Harriet B. Bradner, Farm Super- 
intendent, Clinton, N. J. 

THE LIBRARY'S OPPORTUNITY IN RURAL 
SECTIONS 

In a far-distant part of our country, it was destined that 
I should know the keen expectancy of the daily arrival of 
the rural mail carrier. Would that yellow umbrella pause 
before our box with letters, newspapers, and perhaps the 
monthly report of publications of Farmers' Bulletins from 
the Department of Agriculture? 

An interesting hour followed when the report was scanned 
to see what had been recently published on the subjects of 
special interest: on soils, various crops, birds, etc. 

Probably the coming of the traveling library is hailed 
with as much eagerness in the outlying districts to which 
the public library is not always accessible. 

Under the control and supervision, generally, of State 
commissions or State libraries, and sometimes arranged for 
[14] 



as is done by the Woman's Education Association of Bos- 
ton, or by certain county libraries, the traveling library 
work is constantly growing and reaching out to relieve the 
dullness and monotony of farm life; to aid the missionary 
work of the country church; and to carry to the people 
who desire to know, what is being written on topics of vital 
interest to them. 

It is a recognized moral force in any community in which 
it is stationed. A store, the post-office, a bank, a little 
office, a private house, a school, or a grange hall may be- 
come the repository for these books. In many instances 
this little handful of books creates the desire among the 
people to secure a library of their own. 

A village may apply for a traveling library, and, starting 
with this and a library committee of citizens, the nucleus of 
a community library has been formed. 

Free libraries already established receive books to help 
them in their work; study clubs need reference material 
covering subjects on their programs; a town library, as a 
center of a county, -.will circulate throughout the entire 
county the collections which have been carefully and es- 
pecially prepared. Everywhere the desire is to reach the 
rural communities. Whenever there is a request for books 
on any phase of agricultural life they are included, if pos- 
sible, and sometimes even where there has been no request. 

Exhibits are made at State and county fairs, farmers' 
institutes, and grange meetings to reach the farmers, 
their wives and children, and present to those in attendance 
the work of traveling libraries and their value to home and 
community. "Follow-up" visits are made periodically 
throughout the year wherever the collections are placed, 
and as close touch as possible is kept with the workers 
afield. 

Our foreign population is not neglected. In some locali- 
ties Polish, Italian, and French collections are sent out, 
and in one place in Massachusetts the Italian dictionary 
was most popular and a cook-book in demand for a cooking- 
class that had been formed. Near an isolated cranberry 
bog where there were a number of women unable to reach 
the town library a collection of books on various topics was 
sent and received with enthusiasm. 

The books are usually shipped by freight, but there are 
unique ways by which the written pages reach their 
readers. 

Our Government Lighthouse Board provides cases of 
books for the lightships, tenders, and isolated lighthouses 
on our coasts. When inspections of the posts are made 

[i5l 



several times a year, the books are exchanged, and in time 
the carefully selected libraries circulate from Maine to the 
Pacific shores. 

There are numerous other instances of interesting travel- 
ing libraries, and to those who have not heard of Miss Mary 
Titcomb's work in the Maryland mountains the last word 
in this brief article should be given. Her book wagon was 
a familiar figure at the cabin and farm house. The books 
were carried to them and exchanges made at their doors. 
A large automobile is now used to carry on the loving work 
begun with her slow wagon. — Grace H. Birdsall. 

SECRETARY HOUSTON'S "PLAN" 

The Department of Agriculture received a letter from a 
broad-minded man thoroughly in touch with agricultural 
and domestic needs in the country, in which occurred the 
following: "The farm woman has been the most neglected 
factor in the rural problem." Realizing that the woman 
on the farm is a most important economic factor, Secre- 
tary Houston issued a letter of inquiry to the wives of 
55,000 progressive farmers in all the counties of the United 
States. This letter asked no questions and left every 
woman free to discuss any need which occurred to her. 
She was invited "to take up the matter with her neighbors 
or in her church societies, and requested to submit an an- 
swer representing the combined opinions of the women of 
her entire community." She was invited to criticize the 
work the Department of Agriculture was doing for the 
farmer, but specially urged to make her "suggestions con- 
structive ones that we can at once put into effect." 

Secretary Houston and his corps were surprised at the 
ready response to the letter of inquiry. The overwork of 
farm women and their fear of the effect of overwork on their 
children is the text of many of these answers. Many ask 
the Department to prove to the men that their work is 
worth something in dollars and cents. Many more ask 
Secretary Houston to convince the farmers that modern 
appliances in the household, such as water piped to kitchens 
and bath-rooms, are as important to farm success as modern 
machinery for the out-of-door work, for which there al- 
ways seems to be plenty of money. In the far West women 
suggest the establishment of agencies for dish-washing, 
just as there are for laundry work, because in fruit-picking 
and preserving time dish-washing is a heavy task — too 
heavy for the busy housewife to solve alone. "Still others 
express a realization that their own lot is hopeless, and self- 
[16] 



sacrificingly ask that better things in the way of education, 
cheaper school books, lectures, libraries, and museums be 
provided for their children." (Report of Department of 
Agriculture.) 

The report covering these replies will consist of four 
volumes, and is now in the hands of the printer. The De- 
partment of Agriculture issues a pamphlet, "What the De- 
partment of Agriculture is doing for the Housekeeper," by 
the Chief of Nutrition Investigation, C. F. Langworthy, 
which contains valuable information regarding foods and 
diet, cooking problems, waste of materials, etc. The De- 
partment hopes to do much to alleviate the difficulties of 
farm women. 



FROM FARM TO TABLE 

Marketing by parcel post is now possible. A number 
of the large city post offices, Washington, Philadelphia, 
Chicago, St. Louis, etc., are publishing monthly parcel 
post produce lists by. which the consumer who wishes to 
buy direct from the farmer may ascertain where to buy 
butter, eggs, and general produce. The United States 
Post Office is materially helping the farmer in thus ad- 
vertising his products. The September list of the Wash- 
ington, D. C, post office includes producers from Maine 
(haddies and codfish) to Florida (fruits and marmalades). 
In many of the lists careful directions are given, which, if 
observed by both consumer and farmer, should make the 
parcel post service of immense value to each. These lists 
may be obtained by application to postmasters. At the 
Maryland Week Exposition in Baltimore, November, 
1914, the Post Office Department had an official exhibit of 
sample packing-boxes, containers, and methods of packing 
required to send eggs, butter, vegetables, etc., through the 
mail. Certain regulations as to packing, important to 
both consumer and farmer, are enforced by the Post-office. 
Housewives of Washington, D. C, find the method so 
satisfactory that Mr. Otto Praegy, Postmaster, reports 
that "our count for three days of the first week of Novem- 
ber, 1 9 14, showed the receipt from farmers for delivery to 
city consumers of 60 parcels of poultry, 219 of eggs, 92 of 
fruit, and 322 miscellaneous. Saturday receipts will run 
steadily over 300 parcels from the farm. On November 
25th, the date preceding Thanksgiving, we received 1033 
perishable packages. I have received numerous letters 
from farmers expressing their delight over their business 
by parcel post, and a number have requested that their 

[17] 



names be taken from our list, as they have now more cus- 
tomers than they can serve." 



FROM FARM TO FLAT 

The American Express Company, through 10,000 agents 
scattered from coast to coast, is planning to create a market 
for millions of dollars' worth of crops which annually go to 
waste because the farmers cannot find a convenient market. 
A systematic and far-reaching campaign will be carried on 
to discover crops going to waste and to establish an outlet 
for them among wholesale houses, groceries, and even con- 
sumers. The agent out on the line will aid in the work of 
learning where crops are going to waste or being marketed 
at a great sacrifice, and point out to the farmer where he 
may sell his goods to advantage. This should tend to 
equalize the supply of food-stuffs in various parts of the 
country. The Company will charge no commission, and 
whatever advantage accrues to it will be derived from in- 
creased business in shipping to markets which it creates. 
Before the plan can be successfully launched it will be 
necessary properly to organize the farmers and grade and 
standardize their products before shipping, but when this 
is done, the farmer's name will be bulletined among a cer- 
tain number of agents who will make his crops known 
among the consumers, and he will probably receive enough 
orders in a few weeks to enable him to dispose of his entire 
crop. 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE ASSOCI- 
ATION 

Membership Committee — 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Chairman, 4526 N. Paulina St., Chicago, 111. 

Finance Committee — 

Mrs. J. H. Lancashire, Chairman, Manchester, Mass. 

Publicity Committee- 
Miss Jeanne Cassard, Chairman, 1609 Park Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Publications Committee — 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Cheltenham, Pa. 

Law Committee— 

Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, Chairman, Painesville, Ohio. 

Nominating Committee — 

Miss Rose Standish Nichols, Chairman, 55 Mount Vernon St., 
Boston, Mass. 

Conference Committee- 
Miss Hilda Loines, Secretary, 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
[18] 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

The Membership Committee plans to put first emphasis 
on extending the membership geographically. We are 
hoping to find enthusiasts in various parts of the country 
who will serve as centers of interest and influence, and 
who will organize groups which shall undertake practical 
work. 

The formation of small groups, of five or more, as the 
unit, seems the natural one. Any member who sees in her 
community the possibility of organizing such a group is 
urged to write to the membership committee, who will 
forward to her information concerning the scheme of or- 
ganization and suggestions for work to be pursued. Each 
member of a group must be a regular member of the 
W. N. A. & H. A., and each local club must be intrinsically 
a part of the larger organization. 

The work to be undertaken by the clubs will vary greatly 
in different regions. Some communities of producers will 
be largely and practically interested in marketing, mutual 
cooperation, the introduction of labor-saving devices, and 
the improvement of country life esthetically, as well as 
practically. In towns and villages there is the work of 
school and vacant lot gardens, of corn and canning clubs, of 
village shows; in suburbs there are garden clubs for ama- 
teurs, and everywhere practical interest in the economic rela- 
tions between the farmer and the town-dweller. In every 
community there is opportunity for a delightful club to 
undertake some activity which very properly comes within 
the W. N. A. & H. A. 

The Membership Committee urgently requests each 
member to write to the chairman, either offering to organize 
such a group or suggesting some other person (either mem- 
ber or non-member) for this work. We shall be particularly 
glad of suggestions from women living in the South or 
West. 

We plan to do no more general circularizing. All mem- 
bership circulars sent out will be accompanied by a personal 
note. Any members who will write to friends inclosing 
circulars may obtain them from the general secretary, Miss 
Jackson, or from Mrs. Charles W. Deusner, 4526 N. Paulina 
Street, Chicago, 111. — Helen D. Deusner, Chairman. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

The Chairman of the Finance Committee reports the 
members of her committee as Mrs. George Barnard, 
Ipswich, Mass.; Mrs. George B. Douglas, Cedar Rapids, 

[19] 



Iowa; Mrs. F. C. Farwell, Lake Forest, Illinois; with Miss 
Davis, the treasurer of the Association, ex-ofncio. This 
committee has outlined its plans and is at work upon them. 
— Sarah H. Lancashire, Chairman. 

LAW COMMITTEE 

The body of laws relating to farming and agriculture 
is a very old one. Formerly men were more dependent for 
their living on tilling the soil. Then the complicated laws 
of feudal tenure and the transfer of real property grew up. 
In the early days a man was hanged for the theft of a sheep; 
his right to cut trees on the estate entailed to him was for- 
bidden under severe penalty. Thus the intricate web of 
our land laws was woven. The transfer of title still remains 
complicated. 

The trend of modern legislation to protect society rather 
than the individual is seen in land legislation. The federal 
and state governments have established efficient bureaus 
to advance the interests of agriculture. There are laws to 
protect the orchards from insect pests, to improve dairying, 
cattle-breeding, quality of seeds, etc. Legislation already 
authorizes rural free delivery and the parcel post. The 
results of expert investigations and information are mailed 
free. Even personal instruction is given. It is the farmer's 
day. 

Interesting questions are constantly arising concerning 
both new and old legislation on agricultural matters. 
Many personal difficulties can be avoided by a knowledge 
of the legal rights and interests involved. It is the purpose 
of this committee to make a study of both the national and 
state laws relating to agriculture and kindred topics and 
to publish in brief, from time to time in the Quarterly, the 
results of its investigations. 

It is also proposed to furnish certain general legal advice 
to all members who inquire. The committee is to be made 
up almost entirely of lawyers. It will be impossible to 
furnish specific advice in a local case to every applicant. 
The members of the committee will study legal questions 
of general interest and hope to be of assistance to the As- 
sociation. 

A special study of the following matters will be made, and 
a short resume given in the next Quarterly. 

i. The liability of nurserymen who have furnished stock 
not true to name after five or more years' growth. 

2. The rights and duties of property owners in re the 
scale (San Jose and oyster shell). 
[20] 



Experiences, suggestions, or inquiries are to be addressed 
to Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, Keewaydin, Painesville, Ohio. 
— F. A. Ballard, Chairman. 



REPORT OF THE GENERAL SECRETARY 

It has been the privilege of the General Secretary to meet 
members resident in or visiting New York and talk over 
with them their personal work and the work of the Associa- 
tion. In this way she has talked with a member whose 
garden book is now on the press; with a member anxious 
to emphasize the value to our Association of cooperation 
with existing societies; with a member trained in the theory 
of agriculture and horticulture (through correspondence 
courses) who is waiting the time, the place, and the partner 
to put her knowledge into practice; with a member of a 
garden club who wished to have lecturers recommended; 
with a lecturer who wished to have garden clubs and other 
opportunities named. In every case the chat ended with, 
"How I wish that the Association could have a room of its 
own where members might meet each other: a room which 
belonged to us all, in which we were free to come and go, to 
read horticultural magazines and books, and to share our 
common plans and interests." A member in Chicago 
writes: "One thing I wish the Association could do later, 
that is to have a library which could be requisitioned by 
members who are out of reach of public libraries. So often 
there are pamphlets and reports which are extremely 
apropos." 

Another member, whose work has long found a good 
financial market, expresses the wish that with the meeting- 
room and the library might be combined an exhibition of 
the work of those members who rank professionally but 
need an advertising center. 

These are not, we trust, dreams for the future, but pro- 
phetic visions. When the membership of the Association 
is large enough to warrant such an undertaking, the con- 
sensus of opinion will be asked for upon it, and it is hoped 
that each one will give thought to the idea, and that sug- 
gestions for a definite plan may be forthcoming when the 
right time comes. 

In the meantime the secretary asks that those who have 
heard good professional lecturers whom they can recom- 
mend for garden clubs will kindly communicate with her 
that such a list of recommended names may stand on the 
files of the Association. 

The attention of the women students of the University of 

[21] 



Michigan was called to the Women's National Agricultural 
and Horticultural Association at the recent vocational con- 
ference arranged by the Women's League of the University. 

The Director of the Department of Vocational Advice 
and Appointment of the Women's Educational and Indus- 
trial Union of Boston, who speaks frequently on vocations 
for women before women's clubs and college undergraduates, 
has promised to call the attention of the audiences to this 
association. She will be glad to receive from professional 
members, through the general secretary, material relating 
to horticulture and agriculture as a profession which may 
be presented or posted. 

Another member writes that she wishes to find a way to 
continue horticultural work during the winter. In the 
summer she conducts a flower and vegetable garden busi- 
ness. Still another writes that she has had experience in 
business administration and social work, and is taking a 
winter course in an agricultural college with a view to pre- 
paring for commercial work or qualifying as a teacher of 
agriculture. She desires to obtain a position under an ex- 
perienced agriculturist for the purpose of securing addi- 
tional training; floriculture or vegetable gardening, includ- 
ing greenhouse work, is preferred. Remuneration to be 
determined by the service rendered and the value of the 
opportunity. 

Will any member who can offer an opportunity to those 
whose wants are outlined kindly communicate with the 
general secretary, Miss Margaret Jackson, Englewood, N. J. 



PERSONALS 

A volume of garden studies by Mrs. Francis King, President of the 
Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural Association, is an- 
nounced for early spring publication by Charles Scribner's Sons, under 
the title, "The Well-considered Garden." Mrs. King's book will in- 
clude her articles which have recently appeared in the Garden Magazine, 
along with much unpublished material, and will be very fully illustrated. 
Harmony in color and design may be said to be the central theme of the 
book, but many other important aspects of the subject are considered, 
and there are several chapters dealing with the practical side of the gar- 
den, tools, the question of the gardener, etc. Miss Gertrude Jekyll, 
the well-known English writer, author of "Color Schemes in the Flower 
Garden," contributes the preface. The following partial list of contents 
shows the plan and scope of Mrs. King's book: 

Color Harmony in the Flower Garden, Companion Crops in the 
Flower Garden, Joys and Sorrows of a Trial Garden, Balance in the 
Flower Garden, Notes on Spring Flowers, A Small Spring Flower- 
border, "Midsummer Pomps," Gardening Expedients, The Question of 
the Gardener, Necessaries and Luxuries in Garden Books. 

Mrs. A. M. Beardsley, of Greenleaf Farm, Roxbury, Conn., 
[22] 



"swept the show" with her white leghorns at the poultry exhibit of the 
Washington County Fair last September. 

Frances Duncan writes, January 13, 1915: " I am going to exhibit a 
miniature back-yard and suburban garden in February down in my little 
workshop at No. 1 Milligan Place, New York City, to which any of the 
members are welcome; also I have a serial story more or less horti- 
cultural running in the Garden Magazine; a book on the teaching of 
gardening to children (which may come out in the spring); a pictorial 
section for the traveling portfolio of the General Federation of Women's 
Clubs, showing easily made civic and garden improvements. I am ex- 
hibiting at the Country Life Permanent Exhibition and at the Inter- 
national Flower Show in March, both in New York City." 

The following is a synopsis of Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee's cor- 
respondence course mentioned in the November Quarterly; Plan of 
the grounds, with special reference to the placing of the garden. 
Boundaries and backgrounds. The design of the garden. Paths, steps, 
terraces. The soil and fertilizers. Garden pests. Perennials, annuals, 
tender roots. Combinations and cultural directions. Small trees and 
shrubs suitable for the garden. Pruning. Roses. Rhododendrons. 
The gardener's calendar. The lessons will consist of references for 
reading and explanatory papers. The course may be begun any time 
after January 1, 1915, and pursued as suits individual convenience, 
provided it is finished by May 1st. 

Mrs. S. H. Vollmer writes: "I am acting as middleman in my 
orange business, buying at wholesale from growers and selling direct to 
consumers with a fair profit and at low prices. I divide with the con- 
sumer all the profits of the usual four or five handlers of fruit." 

In the preface to her "Joy in Gardens," Mrs. John Crosby Brown 
says: 

"On every hand we see an increased love of flowers and a deepening 
appreciation of gardens. This is evinced by the organization of an 
Agricultural and Horticultural Association for Women, national in its 
scope, which opens up a broad field of new interest and occupation. 
Its aim is to foster a love of flowers, of plant-life, and of outdoor work 
which cannot fail to confer endless benefit on mankind." 



LETTERS FROM MEMBERS 

A member in Pensylvania sends the following letter: 

" I came to this little wide-awake town three years ago, having previ- 
ously been in the florist business in Philadelphia. Financially this 
first venture proved to be an utter failure, but I loved the work too much 
not to give it another trial. Soon after I came here I discovered, to 
my great pleasure, that I had to deal with an intelligent, flower-loving 
people. 

"The first year I rented a store. The second year I bought a piece 
of ground, 20 x 125 feet, in the best business section of the town, and 
built a one-story store with greenhouse attached, running the full 
length of the property. 

"Three months later my neighborly (?) neighbors who had sold me 
the ground at the highest figure for a greenhouse built an adjoining 
building almost the entire length of the greenhouse, thus shutting off 
my sunlight. This was indeed a trial, and for some time I could see 
nothing but financial ruin; but as all the worrying would not remove the 
stone wall, I set about to find the proper plants to thrive in such a 
situation. 

[23] 



"I have successfully grown gloxinias, calceolarias, tuberous-rooted 
begonias, and now have a most flourishing row of orchids suspended 
from the glass; an 8o-foot bench of asparagus plumosa I always keep 
in a growing state by heavy fertilizing. Not one inch of space must be 
wasted. I am a thorough believer in the intensive plan in growing 
things — even the 6-inch 'side yard' is planted to hardy ivy, which 
furnishes all the ivy for our wreaths. 

"On small shelves hung up here and there in the sunny end of the 
house I grow forget-me-not, sweet alyssum, English daisies, and male- 
coides primroses for colonial bunches during the winter. Also two 
thrifty plants of stephanotis are running on a trellis near the glass. 

"This summer I added a second and third story to the store, which 
not only gives me my apartment, but also a much-needed stock-room, 
and three small apartments which were all rented as soon as finished, 
thus tiding over the summer months when the flower business is no 
paying proposition. 

"This, of course, all means hard work and close application, and only 
those who love 'green things growing' as I do can understand how the 
pleasure far outweighs the hard work." 

Mrs. C. D. Kelley writes from North Dakota: "I know plenty 
about the antagonism to women working in farming, and have had 
many hard experiences, but the past year I have received a number of 
courtesies that are recognitions. 

"Last January I was chosen as a member of the Board of Directors 
of our State Pure Seed Association, the first time a woman ever had the 
honor. I am a member of the State Live Stock Breeders' Association, 
and vice-president of our mid-winter Fair Association. 

"We have a number of strong women all through the West who are 
in agricultural and horticultural work, and most of them feel that suc- 
cess lies in organized effort. I am sure there are openings for women 
who want out-of-door work, and that the Association is bound to fill 
a long-felt want, and I believe that the East and the West can be of the 
greatest help to one another. 

"I have felt for four years that there should be an organization for 
women in agricultural lines of work. There are many organizations 
for farm women, but none that has a definite purpose. So I am glad 
to know that real workers have organized. We have an immense terri- 
tory, but through our rural press are well equipped to reach one another." 

Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Francis, of California, writes: 
"Just at present the newspapers are making a to-do about my very 
small success, so I prefer not to deal with my work directly lest it be 
misleading to women, for they are too prone already to rush into work 
that they know little about. If my 'success' is to be an inspira- 
tion to women, it must come from my attitude toward, not my work, 
but all work, and I feel that it is a most vital thing for all women to 
learn that they too are laborers as well as men, and that when they 
enter the field of labor they must stand upon their own merits, not be- 
cause they are women. Women have all sorts of difficulties in this 
transition period that men know nothing of, yet the manner in which 
they adjust themselves to their difficulties proves or disproves their 
worth. _ My own difficulties have at times seemed insurmountable, and 
many times my enthusiasm has died within me, only to burst into bloom 
with renewed vigor when the period of depression was past. No one 
can tell another how to make money — that is something inherent in the 
personality which, if capable of doing so, will not ask advice of others. 
That depends entirely upon the women who wish to enter the field and 
the circumstances with which they are surrounded. 

[24] 



"Knowing the disadvantages that most women labor under from lack 
of training and generations of conventionality, I really feel that the 
majority of them should be discouraged from going into horticulture. 
They seem to have so little idea of the real labor attached to it, and 
though digging and hoeing, potting and weeding, are no harder than 
washing and scrubbing, few women want to do any such work nowadays; 
they are all fitting themselves to be 'bosses' and look at only the es- 
thetic side, forgetting the hours of drudgery it takes to accomplish 
anything in this, as in all, work. Women have exchanged patterns and 
recipes for so long that they take it for granted that when a woman has 
made a success of anything it is perfectly legitimate to ask her for the 
recipe. I constantly receive letters from women wishing to go into 
horticulture, and their misunderstanding of the work and themselves 
is pitiful. The very fact that they ask what and how proves them in- 
competent and incapable of working out their own problems, which 
they must do if they want to succeed. Much of what I would say might 
seem harsh and unfeeling, but women must have truth on this subject, 
not glittering generalities, and, above all, they must learn the joy of 
labor as well as the bitterness. I believe it takes as much temperament 
to be a successful hybridist as to be a fine actor — one must feel her work 
in the inmost depths of her being and love the earth from which we 
receive our life." 

v . NOTES 

The Women's Agricultural and Horticultural In- 
ternational Union, England. — The membership of this 
Union includes farmers, poultry breeders, dairy managers, 
nursery, landscape, and market-gardeners, teachers, etc. 
Positions and pupils have been found for members. Orders 
for produce have been obtained, nearly 1500 letters written 
and 3500 circulars sent from the office during the past year. 

The total membership of this Union, with which the 
W. N. A. & H. A. is now affiliated, is 345. The Union 
reports that, for the next few years, women and girls with 
practical knowledge of agriculture and horticulture will be 
very much needed, not only in English positions, but in 
Belgium and France. "It is not only ourselves who will 
need to use to the full every available acre, but our neigh- 
bors will look to us for help. We are in one mind in hoping 
that a large number of recruits may be enlisted for "wom- 
en's work on the land." A booklet, issued by the Union, 
"Hints on training for women in agriculture and horticul- 
ture," contains information regarding training schools. 

Milch Goats. — Mrs. Bertha Thompson, of Napa, Cal., 
has a herd of more than 40 goats from which she makes 
cheese, on the Swiss plan, for market, as well as selling 
milk. There is also a market for kids in the spring, es- 
pecially at Easter time. 

Forestry. — Nearly 3,000,000 young trees were set out 
this year on the national forests of northern Idaho and 

[25] 



Montana. On the St. Joe national forest in Idaho 3,000,000 
acres will be planted. 

The state school of forestry at Botineau, North Dakota, 
announces that it will have one million trees for distribu- 
tion to the citizens of the State during 1915. 

Lemons in Mississippi. — One thousand lemons, measur- 
ing on an average seventeen inches in circumference, many 
weighing two pounds each, were marketed late in Novem- 
ber by N. M. Font in the vicinity of Pass Christian. The 
lemons are of the Ponderoso variety. 

Tea in California. — Tea plants arrived at San Diego, 
July 29, from Ceylon for the Thomas Lipton tea exhibit 
at the exposition. Three hundred of the plants in glass 
cases arrived with three native Cingalese nurserymen to set 
them out. It is claimed that it will mean the beginning of a 
great tea industry in southern California, and should the 
tea saplings prove that this is true, thousands of plants will 
be shipped here next year by the Lipton Company. The 
leaves will be stripped, and Cingalese girls will serve the 
tea at the exposition exhibit, showing the whole process from 
the raising of the tea to the tea-cup. — Los Angeles Times. 

Olive Growing. — Farmers of Oakdale, Stanislaus 
County, Cal., are making arrangements for planting a very 
large acreage of olives during the present planting season. 
Agents of the nurseries in this district state that they have 
had heavier orders for olives than for any other class of 
fruit trees. 

Perpetual Blooming Hybrid Roses. — On one shore of 
the Shrewsbury River, in northern New Jersey, clay soil is 
found. We are successful in raising these roses on this 
clay soil and have a perpetual bloom from June until 
November. No bloom and small growth can be expected 
the first year; all flower buds must be nipped off. Allow 
the long shoots to remain in the fall and build about them 
a cone of alternate spadesful of cool manure and soil eigh- 
teen inches high. Use bone dust under cover. In March 
break down the cone and dig it not more than three inches 
into the soil. Do not disturb the roots. Prune in March to 
about four inches from the ground. One to five flower- 
bearing shoots then appear. Nip off all but one flower- 
bud on each shoot, and when these mature, cut, leaving 
only several bud points from which new flower shoots will 
appear. Overfeeding is indicated by weak-necked bloom. 
Use scuffle hoe to destroy weeds during summer, and under 
no circumstances disturb the soil around the bushes. — 
Robert Hartshorne. 

[26] 



Farm Women at Wichita. — The annual business session 
of the Oklahoma branch of the International Congress of 
Farm Women was held at Wichita, Kan., October 15, 1914. 

The secretary is Mrs. Florence S. Christian, Ponca City. 

There never was a time when the farm women of the 
state were more alive and keenly on the alert for every- 
thing which pertains to the newer, better, and easier meth- 
ods in farm home life. The officers of the Oklahoma 
branch are planning a busy and profitable year, and are 
anticipating the cooperation of farm women throughout the 
state, both individually and through their various club 
organizations. 

A Garden Course. — National Park Seminary at Forest 
Glen, Md., opened last fall a new department — Floricul- 
ture and Garden planning. The course includes botany, 
lectures on soils, pruning, grafting, budding, insects, etc., 
and garden planning. Practical work is carried on during 
the winter in a large greenhouse. Miss Nora V. Schenck, 
a graduate of the Lowthorpe School of Landscape Archi- 
tecture, is in charge of the department. 

Making Wood-lots. — Women who have farms that con- 
tain any "waste land," or steep or rocky land that is difficult 
to bring under cultivation, or that cannot be used for 
orchard purposes, can use such for future wood lots, no 
matter how useless it may appear at the outset. Let them 
plant white pine seedlings from four to six feet apart, and 
in twenty to twenty-five years they will begin to reap the 
benefit. In the mean time they will have neither bother 
nor expense. The State Forestry Department will always 
help in planning such a plantation, and in many states will 
furnish the seedlings or transplant at a minimum cost. 

I have a little plantation of about six acres that is now 
four years old, and in a few years it will be a crown of beauty 
to the hill that rises behind our house, and later on it can 
be converted into a steady little stream of gold. — Gertrude 
Craven. 

Horticultural Books. — An exhibition of books on 
horticulture is being held at the Public Library in New 
York city, the first of its kind ever held. In other countries 
horticultural books are segregated; this should be done 
here. A list of horticultural books in the New York 
Library has been compiled recently by Edward H. Ander- 
son and Mrs. Max Farrand for free distribution, and will 
be sent on application to the New York Public Library if a 
stamp is enclosed with the application. The list is entitled : 
"Flower Gardens, a selected list of books," and mentions 

[27] 



books on Gardens and garden designs, Herb, Rock, Water, 
and Wild gardens, Individual plants and flowers, Gardens 
of various countries, and Children's and school gardens. 

Drug Plants. — Owing to the war, drugs have advanced 
heavily in price. Many drug plants will not grow here, 
but certain ones now produced chiefly in Europe may be 
grown in certain parts of the United States under suitable 
conditions. Digitalis may be grown by small producers; 
belladonna, peppermint, spearmint, and golden seal in 
larger quantities. Many make good returns per acre. 
The W. N. A. & H. A. will gladly direct members to sources 
of supply of seeds and plants on application. 

The Garden Club of Chester Valley, Pa., has just 
passed through a most successful season. The Club was 
organized to promote an interest in horticulture, floricul- 
ture, and kitchen gardening. 

The Weeders of Pennsylvania. — Members write 
papers, visit places of interest, open public school gardens, 
beautify highways by planting trees, hold monthly flower, 
fruit, and vegetable shows, manage booths at flower mar- 
kets, and hold plant exchanges. 

GOVERNMENT AND STATE PUBLICATIONS 

Farmers' bulletins are issued by the Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C, and sent free so long as the 
supply lasts. Later they may be bought from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents at a usual price of five cents. Among 
recent issues of interest are: 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 621: "How to attract birds in 
northeastern United States," by W. L. McAtee, assistant 
biologist. Means of providing a food supply for wild birds 
about the homestead are described. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 622: "Basket willow culture," 
by George N. Lamb, of the Forest Service. This bulletin 
discusses varieties of willows, methods of willow growing, 
cost of establishment and maintenance, opportunities for 
marketing, etc. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 624: "Natural and artificial 
brooding of chickens," by Harry M. Lamon, of the Animal 
Husbandry Division. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 633: "Growing peaches: vari- 
eties and classification," by H. P. Gould, pomologist. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 635: "What the farm contrib- 
utes directly to the farmers' living," by W. C. Funk, assist- 
[28] 



ant, office of farm management. Applicable to the region 
east of the Rocky Mountains. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 645: "Agricultural outlook," 
contains interesting tables of prices of farm necessaries and 
products. 

By direction of the Secretary the following "Special 
Circulars" have been prepared in certain bureaus for dis- 
tribution among farmers in the cotton belt who desire to 
diversify their farming operations: 

By the Bureau of Animal Indus- Shall southern farmers build 

try: creameries? 

Feeding farm cows in the South. Do you keep a cow? 

Advantages of dairying in the The production and care of 

South. milk and cream. 

The feeding and care of dairy Conveniences for handling the 

calves. farm cow and her products. 

Marketing butter and cream in By the Bureau of Plant Industry: 

the South. Permanent pastures for the 

How southern farmers may get cotton belt. 

a start in pig raising. -• Sorghum for forage in the cot- 
Horse and mule raising in the ton belt. 

South. Rye in the cotton belt. 

Producing sheep on southern Winter wheat in the cotton 

farms. belt. 

Suggestions on poultry raising Winter oats in the cotton belt. 

for the southern farmer. Rape as a forage crop in the 

Making farm butter in the cotton belt. 

South. Hairy vetch for the cotton belt . 
Soy bean in the cotton belt. 

To housewives the Superintendent of Documents will 
send free Price List 11 — ''American Foods and Cooking: 
'Uncle Sam's cook book,'" being an alphabetic list of 
government publications, available at cost price (5 cents 
and upward), which treat of foods and their preparation. 
Among the titles listed are: "What the Department of 
Agriculture is doing for the housekeeper," "Laws," "Pure 
water for the farm," "Canned goods," etc. 

The Weekly News Letter to Crop Correspondents is filled 
with practical articles. Among these may be quoted: 
" Minimizing labor on the farm " (December 9) ; " How the 
farmer may use the facilities of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture" (series); "Making contact for mar- 
keting by parcel post" (December 23); "The indoor win- 
dow box" (December 23); "The two-family garden" 
(January 6, 1915); "The Farmer's income" (January 6). 

The United States Bureau of Education has issued Bulle- 
tin No. 8, 1914 (whole number 579) on the "Massachusetts 
home-project plan of vocational agricultural education"; 

[29] 



"Agricultural teaching; papers presented at the fourth 
annual meeting of the American Association for the ad- 
vancement of agricultural teaching" (Bulletin No. 27; 
whole number 601); etc. 

The Massachusetts Agricultural College Extension Service 
(Amherst, Mass.), issued, as Library leafletNo. 13, a list 
of 35 of the best farm and garden papers, prices and places 
of publication being added. 

The Monthly Bulletin of the State Commission of Horti- 
culture (Sacramento, California) for November, 1914, 
contains a warning as to the possibility of insect pests com- 
ing through shipments by parcel post, with a reference to 
the action of the Government Post Office in this matter. 
Growers or prospective growers of almonds will be inter- 
ested in the article on almonds in this issue. The bulletin 
is sent free to all citizens of the State of California, and is 
exchanged for the bulletins of agricultural organizations. 

The Quarterly of the W. N. A. & H. A. is now regularly 
exchanged with the publications of the Illinois Agricultural 
Experiment Station (Urbana, 111.). The first of the publi- 
cations to reach us from Illinois was a beautifully illustrated 
pamphlet (Circular No. 170) written by Wilhelm Miller, 
on "The Illinois way of beautifying the farm." "A copy 
will be sent free to any one in Illinois who will sign a prom- 
ise to do some permanent ornamental planting within a 
year," and the pages tell how to do it. 

The New York State Department of Agriculture has sent 
valuable bulletins, among them Bulletin No. 62 (part 2), 
being practical suggestions issued by the Bureau of Farmers' 
Institutes for the farm home and the housewife. 

Members of the Association are asked to bring to the 
attention of the Editor of the Quarterly such Govern- 
ment or State publications as have been found to be of 
practical service. 

NEW BOOKS 

Rural Credits; Land and Cooperative. By Myron T. Herrick and 

R. Ingalls. D. Appleton and Co., New York and London, 1914. 

5I9PP- 

"Rural Credits," by our late Ambassador to France, purposes "to 

lay before the American people the customs and laws in operation in 

other countries, so as to prepare the way for more enlightened plans for 

improving land and agricultural credit facilities in the United States." 

The book serves two purposes: It dispels a certain misconception of 

agricultural finance, prevalent in much popular writing and discussion, 

that all projects for facilitating farm credits will ultimately share the 

fate of the Mississippi Bubble and the Massachusetts Land Bank. It 

[30] 



establishes the principles of sound finance with reference to the needs 
of American farmers. 

The book is divided into two parts: "Land Credit" and "Co- 
operative Credit." The first part includes a description of special 
or state aids to agriculture, long-term loans, amortization, debentures, 
the German Landschafts, the French Credit Foncier, and systems of 
rural credits in operation in Egypt, India, and South America. 

Book II is devoted to an account of agricultural co-operative credit 
societies in all parts of the world, and to the possibility of applying at 
home certain methods that have proved successful in other countries. 
The work is primarily a reference book, packed full of valuable fact 
and illuminating discussion. It has the further merit of being in- 
teresting reading. — Marion Parris Smith. 

The Practical Book of Out-door Rose Growing. By George C. 
Thomas. J. B. Lippincott. Philadelphia, 1914. 157 pp. Illus. 

All growers and lovers of roses will be grateful to Mr. Thomas for 
his beautiful book on out-of-door rose growing. The colored plates, re- 
produced directly from the rose to the page, one would think, with the 
immediate advice as to which varieties do best in this locality, make the 
book of special value to us. 

When the long list of tea, hybrid tea, and pernetiana roses, with the 
qualities in detail of each one, will prove of great help to all those who 
venture upon the joys and -disillusions of rose growing. 

One could wish that, for* ease of handling, a lighter paper might have 
been used, but, owing to the large number of illustrations, this was 
perhaps not possible. 

It is, at all events, a book to be most heartily recommended. — 
Marian Moll. 

Fundamentals of Plant Breeding. By John M. Coulter, Ph.D., 
Head of the Department of Botany, University of Chicago. D. 
Appleton & Co., New York and Chicago. 19 14. 347 pp. 109 
illustrations. 
Professor Coulter has written a book for beginners, be they old or 
young, wise or foolish. He has reduced to their simplest terms theories 
of variation, natural selection, and mutation. His statement of Men- 
del's law is admirable and a model of text-book writing. But the most 
interesting and instructive chapters deal with recent experiments in 
genetics, in the combination of characters and the use of hybrids. 
Experiments to secure drought-resistance, disease-resistance, and new 
plant forms are, to the lay mind, a sort of vegetable necromancy, with 
Burbank as chief wizard. We are left at the close of the book, like 
Oliver Twist, crying for "More!" — Marion Parris Smith. 

Commercial Gardening: A practical and scientific treatise for mar- 
ket gardeners; market growers; fruit, flower and vegetable grow- 
ers; nurserymen. Edited by John Weathers. The Macmillan 
Company, New York, 1914. 4 vols., illus. $15.00. 

This work covers a field of wide range and importance and brings 
within the scope of its four volumes much information which the practical 
worker will only find, if at all elsewhere, in scattered places. For this 
reason it will prove of direct value to the large and small fruit grower, 
the nurseryman and florist, as well as the gardener. 

So much has been heard of the French system of intensive cultiva- 
tion of late years that the matter is fully discussed in this new work 
from the commercial gardener's point of view. 

Commercial Gardening not only discusses the purely cultural aspects 
of gardening, but also gives full consideration to its economic aspects. 
The question of rent, rates, taxes, etc., as affecting market gardeners 

[31] 



and growers are fully treated, and reliable figures are given to show 
amount of capital required before embarking on commercial horti- 
culture, the probable returns from various leading crops, and many 
other similar matters. 

The Amateur Garden. By George W. Cable. Charles Scribner's 
Sons, New York, 1914. 119 pp. Mus. 

The Peony Manual. C. S. Harrison, York, Neb., 1914. Paper, 25 
cents; $12 per 100. 
The third edition of the Peony manual is now out. It has been en- 
larged and brought down to date and gives complete directions for the 
propagation and cultivation of peonies. Advice on peony growing as 
a business is also given. 

The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. By L. H. Bailey. 

Macmillan Co., New York, 1914. 600 pp. 769 cuts. Vol. II., 

from C to E. Price per volume, $6.00. 
Every one interested in horticulture will find this volume a library 
in itself, very complete in all details, both botanical and practical. 
The gardener will find the latest methods of culture of plants invariably 
dealt with by well-known specialists. 

Important Timber Trees of the United States. By S. B. Elliott. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston. 1912. 382 pp. 111. $2.00. 
"Important Timber Trees of the United States" is more frequently 
recommended to those desiring a general knowledge of our forest trees 
than any one other volume of similar purpose, because of its vigorous 
English and broad, non-technical treatment, with special emphasis on 
the importance of reforestation. " The forests of the future will largely 
be composed of planted trees, in order to have forests of value. * * * 
Probably our forests today are in no worse condition than those of 
France and Germany two hundred years ago, and there is this to encour- 
age us, that European forests have been restored and made productive; 
so may ours be, especially as we possess so many more valuable species 
than they." (About five to one in our favor.) Chapter II, "Present 
condition of the forest," Chapter 10 on "The woodlot," and Chapter 
13 on "The forest nursery, " are of special importance: one extract from 
Chapter 10 should be spread broadcast: "It is undoubtedly within the 
domain of fact that there are not five farms in a hundred in our country 
that do not have on them from one to twenty acres of land that is un- 
profitable for ordinary crops, but is well suited to growing trees. The 
farmer should no more depend on unaided nature to bring forth his 
fuel, posts, poles, lumber, and other forest products without his super- 
vision and care than he should depend upon her to provide him with 
hay, grain, and fruit without direction and labor." 

The Farm Woodlot. By E. G. Cheyney and J. P. Wentling. Mac- 
millan Co., New York, 1914. 343 pp. 111. $1.50. 
"The Farm Woodlot" is an extended treatment of the idea stated 
above. Its opening chapter, the "Significance of the Forest," early 
states "the crux of the whole question of the development of our lands 
so that they may become most productive, is classification. In the near 
future the question of the division of our lands into the two great classes 
of tillable and forest land will be a pressing one. The best general solu- 
tion for the utilization of unprofitable farm land is to make it a woodlot. 
Not only is the esthetic feature of the woodlot important, but the 
fertility of the land is renewed and increased by forest growth. There 
are few farms that can afford to be without a woodlot." Chapter 5, 
"Practical Sylviculture," and Chapter 13, "History of the forest," 
are of permanent value. — Mira L. Dock. 

[32] 



SOME OF THE BEST FARM AND GARDEN 
PAPERS 

General Farm Papers: 

* Country Gentleman, weekly, Philadelphia, Pa $1-50 

New England Homestead, weekly, Springfield, Mass i.oo 

* Practical Farmer, weekly, Philadelphia, Pa i.oo 

* Rural New Yorker, weekly, New York, N. Y ' i.oo 

* Wallace's Farmer, weekly, Des Moines, Iowa i.oo 

Dairy Papers: 

* Hoard's Dairyman, weekly, Fort Atkinson, Wis i.oo 

Kimball's Dairy Farmer, semi-monthly, Waterloo, Iowa i.oo 

Papers on Farm Animals: 

* Breeder's Gazette, weekly, Chicago, 111 i.oo 

Guernsey Breeders' Journal, monthly, Peterboro, N. H 2.00 

Holstein-Friesian Register, semi-monthly, Brattleboro, Vt 1.00 

Jersey Bulletin and Dairy World, weekly, Indianapolis, Ind. . . . 1.00 

Poultry Papers: 

American Poultry Journal, monthly, Chicago, 111 50 

American Poultry World, monthly, Buffalo, N. Y 50 

* Farm Poultry, monthly, Boston, Mass 50 

Poultry Item, monthly, Sellersville, Pa 50 

Poultry Success, monthly, Springfield, Ohio 50 

Reliable Poultry Journal, monthly, Quincy, 111 50 

Fruit Magazines: 

Better Fruit, monthly, Hood River, Oregon 1.00 

Fruit Grower, monthly, St. Joseph, Mo 1.00 

Market Garden and Greenhouse Magazines: 

* American Florist, weekly, Chicago, 111 1.00 

* Florists' Exchange, weekly, New York, N. Y 1.00 

Florists' Review, weekly, Chicago, 111 1.00 

* Horticulture, weekly, Boston, Mass 1.00 

* Market Growers' Journal, semi-monthly, Louisville, Ky 1.00 

Miscellaneous Illustrated Farm and Garden Magazines: 

American Homes and Gardens, monthly, New York, N. Y 3.00 

* Country Life in America, monthly, Garden City, N. Y 4.00 

* The Craftsman, monthly, New York, N. Y 3.00 

* The Garden Magazine, monthly, Garden City, N. Y 1.50 

House and Garden, monthly, New York, N. Y 3.00 

Suburban Life, monthly, New York, N. Y 3.00 

Bee Journals: 

* American Bee Journal, monthly, Hamilton, 111 1.00 

* Beekeepers' Review, monthly, North Star, Mich 1.00 

* Canadian Horticulturist and Beekeeper, monthly, Peterboro, 

Ont 1 .00 

* Gleanings in Bee Culture, semi-monthly, Medina, Ohio 1.00 

Western Honey Bee, monthly, Los Angeles, Cal 1.00 

* An asterisk is affixed to indicate that the magazine publishes an index for each volume 
usually every six or twelve months. 
By permission, Massachusetts Agricultural College, Extension Service. 
July, 1014 



[33] 



NEW MEMBERS TO FEBRUARY i, 1915 

Honorary Member elected by the Council, Dec, 1014: 

Mrs. Emma Shafter-Howard, The Hillcrest, 1200 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Allerton, Mrs. S. W The Folly, Lake Geneva, Wis. 

Allerton, Mrs. S. W 1025 Highland St., S. Pasadena, Calif. 

Arthur, Miss Kate E Marshfield, Mass. 

Bacon, Miss E. S Prince Street. Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Bacon, Mrs. Leonard 35 Vick Park B., Rochester, N. Y. 

Balch, Miss Emily Greene Professor of Economics, Wellesley, Mass. 

Ballinger, Mrs. Lees 214 W. Main Street, Lansing, Mich. 

Barry, Miss Elizabeth 100 E. 17th Street, New York 

Bishop, Miss Susan Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Boddie, Mr. John T Winnetka, 111. 

Brown, Miss Mary Magoun 36 East 37th Street, New York 

Burr, Miss Margaret W Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Cashman, Mrs. William T. . .South Park Boulevard, Shalar Heights, Warrensville, Ohio 

Catherwood, Miss Hazel H Hoopeston, 111. 

Cooper, Mr. Madison Calcium, N. Y. 

Culver, Mrs. Frederic 13S E. 66th Street, New York 

De Forest, Mrs. Henry L 955 Hillside Avenue. Plainfield, N. J. 

Dennis, Mrs. Frederic S 62 East 55th Street, New York 

Dickson, Mrs. James P 1638 Sanderson Avenue, Scranton, Pa. 

Dutilieul, Miss Anna Chalet des Roses, Waverly, Pa. 

Emerson, Miss Marguerite E 395 Broadway, Cambridge, Mass. 

Farwell, Mrs. A. L Lake Forest, 111. 

Gano, Miss Laura Hagaman Farm, Richmond, Ind. 

Gibson, Mrs. W. M 260 Genesee Street, Utica, N. Y. 

Gunnison, Miss Marion 716 Sassafras Street, Erie, Pa. 

Ham, Miss Annette M., 129 East 76th Street, New York; Summer address. Crags- 
moor, N. Y. 

Harding, Mrs. Earl 15 Fort Washington Avenue, New York 

Hart, Mr. William Howard 131 East 66th Street, New York 

Hoyt, Miss Elizabeth S 171 Madison Avenue, New York 

Hutchinson, Mr. C. L 2709 Prairie Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Hutchinson, Mrs. C. L 2709 Prairie Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Jackson, Miss Florence, Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 264 Boyleston 
Street, Boston, Mass. 

Johnstone, Mrs. Hugo R 703 S. Pasadena Avenue, Calif. 

Kelly, Mrs. Robert 1608 John Avenue, Superior, Wis. 

Kennedy, Mrs. John S 6 West 57th Street, New York 

Ketcham, Miss Ethel B Bellport, N. Y. 

Lias, Mrs. Charles, South Hamilton, Mass.; Summer address, Sunnyslope Farm, 
Wenham, Mass. 

McCauley. Miss Katharine L Highland Park, 111. 

McCoy, Miss Anne Bighorn, Sheridan Co., Wyoming 

Mackey, Miss Linden 7016 Clinton Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 

Markoe, Mrs. John 1630 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Marshall, Miss Lucile Prudence Rislev Hall, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Millen, Mrs. John 1618 Vermillion Road, Duluth, Minn. 

Moon, Mr. J. Edward Glenwood Nurseries, Morrisville, Pa. 

Morse, Mrs. Charles J 1825 Asbury Avenue, Evanston, 111. 

Nicholson, Miss LB 445 Riverside Drive, New York 

Notman, Mrs. George 136 Joralemon Street, Brooklvn, N. Y. 

Ohl, Miss Nora R Primrose Flower Shop, Ardmore, Pa. 

Pratt, Miss Edith L Enosburg Falls, Vt. 

Presser, Mr. Theo 1712 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ralph, Miss Georgia B no North Beatty Street, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Renton, Mrs. H. H Kohala, Hawaii 

Robinson, Mrs. Webster 016 Beeman Street, Augusta, Ga. 

Sand, Miss Alice L 48 East 78th Street, New York City 

Shepard, Miss F. Louise 2422 Hillside Avenue, Berkeley, Calif. 

Simkhovitch, Mrs. V. G Greenwich House, 26 Jones Street, New York 

Stephenson, Mr. Robert S 409 Hillside Place, South Orange, N. J. 

Strother, Mrs. Thomas Nelson Buxton Md. 

Sturgis, Mrs. Robert 152 East 38th Street, New York City 

Tower, Miss E. M 4 Pelham Road, Lexington, Mass. 

Tracy, Mrs. C. E Highland Falls, N. Y. 

Webb, Mrs. Oscar E Sudbrook Park, Md. 

White, Mrs. Clifford E Grosse He, Mich. 

Wilkinson, Miss Marion, 353 West 57th Street, New York; Summer address, The Little 
Red Inn, Provincetown, Mass. 

Williams Mrs. William P 1837 Asbury Avenue, Evanston, 111. 

Wi son, Miss Martha 1450 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wilton, Mrs. H. L Grosse He, Mich. 

Wysong, Mrs. O. C 165 West Chestnut Street, Canton, 111. 

[34] 



You Will Be Glad to Know 

That we can furnish you with some of the finest Peonies 

in the country. The new French varieties are marvels 

of Nature's handiwork in white, blush, shell-pink and 

dazzling crimson. 

We have also Iris and Phlox and many other perennials for 
your hardy garden. Let us send you a catalog. If you are inter- 
ested in evergreens we will send our catalog of these. 

Cherry Hill Nurseries 

T. C. TKurlow's Sons, Inc. 

West Newbury, Mass. 
Box 80 



Cranberries 



Eight quarts of superb cranberries, with recipes, will be 
sent for $1.00, postpaid, anywhere within our second 
parcel-post zone; and to places more than 1 50 miles from 
New Lisbon for $1.00 plus the additional postage on 
nine pounds. 

Order promptly, as the supply for this season is limited. 
New Lisbon is thirty miles direcdy east of Philadelphia. 



Elizabeth C. White 

New Lisbon, N. J. 

All advertisers are known personally to members 



The Dahlia Farm 

East Moriches, New York 
( Suffolk County ) 

Known the world over as the place 
to get all the best to date. 

Catalog for 1915 now ready 

E. Stanley Brown 

Proprietor 



Plants & Flowers 

For All Occasions 

William W. Edgar 
Company 

Waverly, Mass. 



Gladiolus Bulbs 



Grown in America'' 



Bulbs of Quality 



Send for Catalog 



Bidwell & Fobes 

Kinsman, Ohio 



School 

of Horticulture for 

Women 

(Eighteen miles from Philadelphia) 
Ambler, Pa. 

Practical and theoretical training in the growing 
of Fruit, Vegetables and Flowers. Bees. Simple 
Carpentry. School Gardening. Special course 
in Landscape Gardening. Constant demand for 
trained women to fill salaried positions. Write 
for Catalogue 

Jessie T. Morgan, Director 



Indian River Fruit 

May be Ordered from 

Susan H. Vollmer 

Cocoa, Florida 
Prices on Application 

The Garden Gateway 

31 East 48th St. 

This year, for the first time, a shop has 
been established in New York City 
exclusively for the Development 
and Furnishing of Gardens and 
Bird Sanctuaries. 

The Gateway offers for the Garden Beautiful and 
Useful Articles: Furniture. Fountains. Statuettes. 
Baskets, Aprons. Stakes. Seed Markers, and 

Original Implements. 

In the garden of the shop are to be found, for the 

birds, Nesting Boxes, Feeding Tables, Bathing 

Pans and Fountains, Cleansing Tools, Special 

Foods and other modern conceptions. 

For Sale 

Settings & Cockerels 
Rhode Island Red 

( Rose and Single ) 

Very Fine 
Prize Winning Stock 

Miss M. H. Shearman 

1600 W. 7th St., Wilmington, Del. 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



t6 



A Spring Spray with 

Scalecide" 



On yourTREES, Shrubs, Vines, 

Rose Bushes, etc., is like a 

morning bath to the body. 

It invigorates, cleanses and prepares 

for active summer duties like no 

other spray you can use before the 

leaves come out. 

It is non-poisonous, non-injurious, 

easy to prepare, easy to use, and 

inexpensive. 

Our Service Department Catalog Free 

B. G. Pratt Company 

50 Church Street 

New York, N. Y. 



Mrs. Elsie McFate 
Practical Artist- 
Gardener 

of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Begs to announce that a list of 
plants, grown by her at her 
Hardy Plant Nursery, at Turtle 
Creek, Pa. , is now ready. 

Those who desire this inter- 
esting little book should address 
request to 

Hillside 
Hardy Flower Gardens 

Turtle Creek, Pa. 




Garden 

Problems 



Refer your difficult garden 
problems to us. Direct repre- 
sentatives of our nursery (expert 
plantsmen — we have no agents) 
travel widely each year, com- 
bining touch with your local 
conditions with our broad 
knowledge of hardy plants which 
best meet those conditions. 

We can answer your ques- 
tions by mail. Or our repre- 
sentative may arrange to call 
while en tour, if the points in- 
volved necessitate it. 

In any event, get our new 
catalog. It is ready. 

Thomas Meehan & Sons 
Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

L Box 19 



Bewley Farm 

Old English 
Sheep Dogs 

Ayrshire Cattle 

Sweet Butter 
Fresh Eggs 

Mrs. Edward Parker Davis 

Newtown, Bucks Co. 

Pennsylvania 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Spring 1915 

Seed Catalogue 

THIS instructive book of 144 pages, devoted to 
everything for the Farm — Garden — Lawn, brimful 
of useful information and suggestions, is yours for the asking. 

It is attractively and conveniently arranged with many clear 
pictures showing results you can obtain in your garden and text 
explaining how to get these results. 

It contains complete description of the latest novelties and specialties in flowers and 
vegetables as well as standards. 

All plants described are grown from superior strains, selected from types that we 
have tested with splendid results. 

That our seeds give satisfaction is attested by the fact that, from a small beginning 
17 years ago, our business has steadily grown until it has become necessary for us to 
occupy one of the largest buildings in New York devoted to this kind of business. 

A copy of this useful catalog sent free upon request. Kindly mention this publica- 
tion when writing. 

30 & 32 Barclay St. New York 



Hardy Permanent Gardens 

Now an Open Sesame to the Busy Man and Woman 

In our attractive booklet "Hardy Gardens Easily Made For The Busy Man " we have endeavored 
to simplify the making of a Garden of Perennials or Old-Fashioned Flowers by prepared plans adapt- 
able to most situations, with the lowest estimates of cost that make them no longer a Utopian Dream. 
Let us send you one and save hours of needless worry over catalogues and surprise yourself what can 
be done for so little money together with our handsomely illustrated catalogue (48 pages — 9 x 12). 
on receipt of 10 cents in stamps, which pays postage only, and the amount of which is credited on 
first order. 

One of ground plans ^ ^ » "7 /*«• ^ 

in our booklet on ' » ' . r» .' " T^v ^t 

"Hardy Gar- <S - _' A ~ f . -N ^ 

dens Easily / , . / * * ' » s s • -^s ?' 




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' R. W. Clucas, Mgr. 
Growers of Palisades Popular Perennials, and Landscape Gardeners. Visitors always welcome at 
our Nurseries, where they can make selections from more than a thousand varieties of Hardy Plants 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Thorburn's Seed and Bulb 
Catalogs 

are books of truth — not fiction. 

There are no lengthy pen-pictures 

of possibilities nor of results you 

never seem able to attain. 



Rather they are complete lists of 
everything that is best in seeds and 
bulbs — with a series of most com- 
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gardening suggestions that are 
bound to come in handy. 

These books will be mailed free to 

all those who request them. Your 

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£ 



Established 1802 

J. M.Thorburn & Company 

53 Barclay Street, New York 

Through to 54 Park Place 
Dept. 2 

All advertisers are known personally to members 



FEL 



WOMEN'S NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 

QUARTERLY 



May, 1915 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 



Founded "to promote agricultural and horticultural interests among 
women and to further such interests throughout the country." 



OFFICERS 

President 
Mrs. Francis King Alma, Michigan 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer New York 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer Huntington, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 3 Pierrcpont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary 
Miss Margaret Jackson Englewood, N. J. 



Council 

Miss Emma Blakiston Miss Hilda Loines 

Miss Louisa G. Davis Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning 

Mrs. Frank Miles Day Miss Louise Klein Miller 

Miss M. L. Dock Miss E. H. Peale 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Mr. George T. Powell 

Miss J. B. Haines Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang 

Miss Margaret Jackson Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy 

Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Mrs. Francis King Mr. R. L. Watts 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Miss Mary Youngs 

Copyrighted, 1915, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 

Vol. I, No. 4 QUARTERLY May, 1915 

SETTING OUT AN ORCHARD WITH THE AID 
OF DYNAMITE 

When I set out my little experimental orchard of 45 trees 
I had such a hard time getting some one to help just at the 
right moment that the trees had to do the best they could 
in cramped holes on land that had only been ploughed 
and deeply furrowed, for my own strength did not permit 
of much use of pick and shovel. It seemed cruel to give 
them such a poor start and then ask great things of them, 
when they had all they could do to gain a foothold. 

Reading at intervals about using dynamite to loosen up 
a larger area of surrounding ground than even the patience 
of the best gardener would give, and at much less expense, 
I resolved to try the experiment. 

A booklet advertised by Du Pont on "Dynamite for 
Agricultural Purposes" gave further good reasons: — Easy 
cutting up of hard-pan, giving trees a better chance to re- 
sist drouth, making more nourishment available, killing 
insects and grubs that might be contained in the ground, 
and, mainly, doing all this much more quickly and thor- 
oughly than could be done by hand even if one were willing 
to go to the expense. The Du Ponts on request also put 
me into communication with the nearest agricultural 
blaster, as I was not familiar with the handling of dynamite 
and did not care to risk the same shredding I intended to 
give the hard-pan. 

The chosen site seemed ideal — a gentle north-eastern 

Published quarterly for the VV. N. A. and H. A. by J. B. Haines at 
Cheltenham, Pa. 
Subscription price, $ .50 per year. 
Application made for entry as Second-class Matter. 

[Il 



slope, on land fifteen years ago used for hay but now "badly 
run to weeds," as the farmers say, though my own vo- 
cabulary does not call acres of wild strawberry, brown- 
eyed Susans, Virginia asters and goldenrod, weeds. 

After a particularly snowy winter the ground at the usual 
planting-time, in spite of the slope, proved a swamp. 
Tentative holes punched with a crowbar filled up in a few 
minutes. "Hard-pan, sure enough," said the blaster- 
man; "impossible to do anything, — the ground would be 
tamped down instead of loosened up." So the trees had 
to be heeled in for fully three weeks, which was a bad be- 
ginning, but a preferable alternative. 

Finally the eventful day came. There were 236 trees 
to set out. The only thing previously accomplished was to 
mark off the spaces with a dab of whitewash on the ground. 

I managed to get three laborers to help the blaster. 
They worked ahead of him making crowbar holes 2)4. ft. 
deep. The blaster then placed y 2 stick of Red Cross dyna- 
mite in each hole, filled 6 or 8, and then walked along to 
light one after the other. When the first thud came every- 
body stopped to watch the fun. Geysers of smoke, earth 
and stones greeted the unwary bystander, but 20 feet was 
a safe enough distance for taking snapshots or looking on. 

Nearly on the heels of the blaster the men were put to 
work to scoop out the holes and tamp the earth a bit at 
the bottom. I pruned the roots and tops, aligned and held 
the trees while the men shoveled and shook in the earth 
and trampled it tight. Finally we had the work down to 
such system that in two days — just sixteen hours in all, — 
those 236 trees were planted, thus averaging a little over 
four minutes for each tree. But I assure you everyone 
hustled. The blaster's work was all done the first day. 
His pay, including all material, came to I2>4 cents a hole. 
The hire for the laborers, of course, was extra. Thus was 
the work done, hampered by haste and all sorts of unfavor- 
able circumstances. 

As to the results: That first summer was an unusually 
dry one and there was no way of getting water to the trees, — 
our friends the woodchucks sampled the bark of a great 
many, — cows got in and entirely stripped the tops of others, 
and together with the previous heeling in, they had about as 
poor a start as it was possible to give. And yet, of the 236 
trees only one died and that one was too badly chewed by 
the woodchucks. The others late in the season showed 
good growth, looked thrifty and sturdy and carried their 
leaves several weeks later than the well-established 
three-year-olds. — Irma Schueler, New York. 
[2] 



CANNING VEGETABLES FOR THE HOME 

Few women do any canning, though every housewife 
does more or less preserving. The women who live on farms 
put up tomatoes and string beans by old-fashioned methods, 
but the other vegetables go to waste. 

It is an easy matter to have all kinds of vegetables through- 
out the winter, and the new method is far better than the 
old one of standing over a hot stove and filling jars from the 
kettle. 

The first thing to do is to examine the glass jars and be 
certain that they are in good condition. They should be 
absolutely clean, and if previously used, a teaspoonful of 
baking soda in each jar partly filled with hot water and 
allowed to stand a few minutes will sweeten the jar. Rinse 
with clear water before using. Be careful not to put the 
jars in a draught when they contain anything hot, else they 
will crack. 

The jars should be examined carefully to see if they are in 
perfect condition, for-if there is the slightest crack, or the 
tops fit badly, the contents will not keep. To test them, 
partly fill with water, put on rubber ring and top and clamp 
down tight and turn upside down. Discard all jars that 
leak. 

The most satisfactory jar the writer has ever used has a 
glass top, and a spring made by a wire going over the top 
and another clamping down to the side of the neck of the 
jar. Another excellent jar has a metal top and groove 
around the lower edge. This groove contains a composition 
of the consistency of rubber which is melted during canning 
by the heat of the jar and forms a seal which takes the place 
of a rubber ring. These jars have wide mouths, and are of 
clear glass, but the top is of no use the second time, as it 
has to be punctured in order to open the jar. For gen- 
eral purposes, the first jar is the easiest to manipulate. 

The next step is to get ready the receptacle in which to 
sterilize the vegetables. There are canning outfits on the 
market, but one can manage very easily with a clothes or 
ham boiler. The boiler should have a close fitting top. 
Have a tinner make a false bottom of heavy wire to stand 
a little off the bottom of the boiler, as the jars will break if 
they rest immediately on the bottom; also have made a 
wire rack to hold the jars in place and prevent them from 
striking against each other. A simple, inexpensive way is 
to cut a thin board to fit the bottom of the boiler, and bore 
in it several holes with an auger so one can slip the fingers 
in to lift it out, and also to let the water through. Then, 

[31 



to prevent the jars from striking together, twist some paper 
around each one — a deep bucket could be used if there are 
only enough vegetables for one jar, and so in this way one 
could put up a little each day. 

The next thing is to prepare the vegetables. Vegetables 
should be gathered early in the morning, placed in cold 
water and canned as soon as possible; otherwise they get 
tough and lose their flavor. 

Wash and clean the vegetables and fill each jar full. 
Pour in fresh cold water up to the top, and put a teaspoonful 
of salt in each quart jar. Put on a perfectly new rubber 
(never use a rubber more than once), then the glass top, 
and place one wire across the top, leaving the second one 
loose. After all the jars are ready, set them in the boiler 
on the false bottom and pack paper between to keep them 
from striking together ; fill the boiler with cold water up to 
the neck of the jars, put the top on the boiler and set it on 
the stove. Don't move the boiler and don't make up the 
fire during canning process, but have a good fire before be- 
ginning. Let the water boil in the boiler one hour. At the 
end of an hour, clamp down the second wire on each of the 
jars, lift boiler off the stove, and set in a convenient place. 
Next day, set the boiler on the stove, loosen up the second 
clamp on each jar, and boil one hour. At the end of the 
hour, tighten down second wire and set the boiler off the 
stove. The third day loosen the second wire of the clamp 
and set the boiler on the stove, boil one hour, take off the 
stove, and tighten second clamp. This is the final process, 
and when the jars are cool, they can be taken out of the 
boiler, wiped off, wrapped in newspaper to keep dark, and 
put away on shelves in the store room. 

Perfect sterilization is the secret of success in canning. 
There are three classes of germs which cause decay: Yeasts, 
molds and bacteria. 

Those fruits or vegetables which contain sugar have the 
yeast germs; and acid vegetables, like the tomato, are sub- 
ject to mold. These are usually killed at a temperature of 
boiling water, so that in canning tomatoes, boiling one hour 
is all that is necessary. Other vegetables need boiling one 
hour each day for three consecutive days. It is the same for 
fruits. In preparing fruit, sugar should be sprinkled all 
through it before filling the jars with water, the amount of 
sugar according to the acidity of the fruit. Put in as much 
sugar as you would in preparing the fruit for the table, 
and boil only one hour. 

The third germ, bacteria, is the most difficult to kill, 
and therefore it requires three consecutive days of one hour 

[4] 



each at the temperature of boiling for most vegetables. 
Corn is very easy to can, if these directions are followed care- 
fully. Corn should be canned immediately after it is 
gathered. It loses its sweetness very soon. Select the 
ears with full grains before they begin to harden, husk 
them and brush the silk off with a stiff brush. Cut the 
grains off the cob with a sharp knife and pack the can full. 
Put a teaspoonful of salt on top of a quart jar and fill up 
with cold fresh water. Put on the rubber ring. Place the 
glass top on loosely, i. e., with one wire across the top, the 
second wire undamped, and so on according to directions 
given above. 

Tomatoes are scalded, peeled and packed in jars, and their 
own juice is sufficient. No water is necessary. Okra and 
string beans should be young and tender and therefore not 
longer than two inches. Keep the okra whole, or cut in 
slices. Cap and string the beans. 

Egg plant should be peeled, sliced in half -inch pieces 
and soaked in cold water for at least half an hour. The 
slices can then be placed neatly in the jar, one on top of the 
other if cut to fit the opening of the jar, and then proceed 
according to general directions. It is ready to fry in batter 
and serve, or it can. ; be broken up and baked. 

A blanching process is necessary for asparagus and all 
kinds of peas and beans. These are the most difficult of 
all vegetables to sterilize. The blanching can be done by 
boiling these vegetables for ten minutes in a pan before 
placing them in the glass jars. A better way, the writer 
thinks, is after the first day's boiling and when ready to 
put the boiler back on the stove the second day, to pour off 
all the water from each jar and refill with fresh cold water 
putting in a teaspoonful of salt, and then proceed according 
to directions. This prevents the breaking of the asparagus 
by much handling. 

After the vegetables are cold, the jars can be tested by 
lifting the second wire or clamp and holding up the jars by 
the top. If it comes off the vegetables will not keep, and 
one hour's boiling again is necessary, and perhaps a new 
rubber should be used. One could test the jars this way 
occasionally within the first two weeks. Be careful that 
the rubbers fit on evenly and flat. Preserved and canned 
things should be kept in the dark. Newspaper wrapped 
around each jar is a very good plan. 

If jars larger than quart size be used, it is necessary to 
boil longer each day, one hour and a half for half-gallon 
jars for beans, peas, corn and squash, and put in two tea- 
spoonfuls of salt. 

[5] 



Beets can be canned whole if quite small. They should 
be boiled, peeled and packed in jars filled with water, and 
boiled one hour only. — Mrs. M. C. Patterson, Virginia. 

CONSERVING THE WASTE PRODUCTS OF 
THE FARM 

Every good farm housewife is proud of her "preserve 
closet" and she has abundant cause to be proud of it, for 
the tempting appearance, neatness, and uniformity of the 
containers are proofs of work well done. 

Yet I think few of us have ever taken the time to find out 
just how much "money" is in our preserve closet — the pre- 
serving (or jarring, as I prefer to call the work, for one sel- 
dom sees "cans" any more), is done at odd moments and 
between-whiles during the more than busy months, and I 
doubt if many housewives have ever taken the time to find 
out how much a glass of currant jelly or a quart of tomatoes 
has actually cost; therefore they cannot know the monetary 
value of their preserves. 

Most farm housewives "put up" what produce there is 
on the farm, seldom buying their raw materials (except 
sugar and salt), and more often than not we "put up" the 
imperfect specimens that do not go to market. Because a 
tomato has fallen and cracked does not mean that it is not 
a good tomato ; because a cutworm took the first bit of one 
does not mean the tomato is unusable — but it does mean it 
is unsalable as first quality. Those of us who have picked 
tomatoes know how many " unsalables " there are in a patch. 
We also know how many green ones are left on the vine 
when frost comes, and we know too just how good they are 
made into various kinds of pickles. 

How many ears of corn have worms in the tip ; how many 
stalks of asparagus are curled or crooked ; how many berries 
picked Saturday are too soft to ship on Monday; how many 
peaches have cracked or fallen and are bruised on one side ; 
how many apples ripen unevenly; how much fruit is 
"thinned" from our orchards when half ripe, we also know, 
and to every conscientious housewife, waste is a sacrilege. 
Therefore we try in sundry ways to put away for winter use 
as many of these things as we can. 

Let us run over a few of the things we farmers can have 
by the intelligent use of what are usually called "waste 
products": Asparagus (by breaking the crooked stalks into 
small lengths), corn, beans (string, wax and limas), toma- 
toes, summer squash, preserves of innumerable kinds, jel- 
lies ad libitum, pickles of green tomatoes, cucumbers, 

[6] 



cabbage, cauliflower and beans; fruit butters of apple, 
peach, pear and plum; marmalades and plain canned fruit. 

You look aghast, and wonder how one pair of hands can 
do all this besides all the rest of the work we usually do — 
and yet one or two jars or jelly glasses of several articles 
will go a long way toward winter's keep. 

The careful housewife figures this way : From October to 
June there will be but little fresh produce — practically 
nothing except celery, cabbage, potatoes, cauliflower, 
turnips and carrots; and several of these items perhaps only 
until the first of the year. Therefore there are seven months 
during which her store room must supply food — seven 
months are 212 days — three meals a day will make 636 
meals. One or two jars from her store room each day will 
mean 424 containers she will need filled to keep from 
buying "tinned" food. 

Now let us see what it costs to put up this food. I spent 
one entire summer finding out what it costs to put up vari- 
ous products under our conditions. I will not count the 
cost of the glass jars or jelly glasses, for these are permanent 
assets and last several decades, therefore it would be im- 
possible to give the cost per year — it would be in small 
fractions. I will give you the time cost of preparing the 
produce, figured at. 12 cents per hour. (You know a house- 
wife's hour is just as good as any other woman's hour.) 
The fuel I will not count, for most of us use the usual fire 
during the time the daily cooking is in progress. If an 
extra stove is used, a slight advance should be added to 
these prices. I do not put any value on the produce itself, 
for as I have before stated, much of it is considered valueless 
except for fattening pork. 

Corn — 8 cents per quart. 

String beans — ioi cents per quart. 

Raspberry vinegar — I2 T \ cents per quart. 

Currant jelly (drip only) 11^2 cents per 8-ounce glass. 
Add to this the amount we get by squeezing and the price 
is reduced nearly one-half. 

Gooseberry jam— 3.^4 cents per 9-ounce glass. 

Black raspberry jelly — 3^-2 cents per 8-ounce glass. 

Plum jelly — 4^ cents per glass. 

Peach butter — 4! cents per glass. 

Huckleberries — 7 cents per quart. 

Tomatoes — 3 cents per quart. 

Piccalilli — 10 cents per gallon. 

This is sufficient to show you that it pays well to con- 
serve the farm waste. A ten-acre market-garden with 

[7] 



small orchard yielded 5,500 quarts, pints and 8-ounce 
glasses of produce which retail from 25 cents per glass up 
to as high as 95 cents per quart. — E. L. Fullerton, Long 
Island. 

A VILLAGE GARDEN COMPETITION 

Five years ago the Bolton Improvement Association, 
of Lake George, N. Y., decided to start a garden competi- 
tion among the women living in the village. Like so many 
New York villages the yards had little beauty to attract 
the eye — few flowers, save the inevitable potted plants on 
the piazza, no shrubs beyond an occasional lilac or syringa, 
and a neglected looking grass plot. It was an excellent 
field for our endeavors, but one needing much cultivation. 

The first year we secured twenty names but only about 
twelve were bona fide competitors, and of these but two or 
three took a real interest in the work. The gardens were 
visited monthly during the summer from June to September 
and were marked on the following scale : 

General arrangement 20 

Floral display 20 

Neatness and order 20 

Zeal and enthusiasm 20 

These visits were not entirely satisfactory the first year 
as we felt that we were regarded somewhat as intruders and 
our efforts to beautify the village did not meet with much 
encouragement. Two of the competitors, however, took a 
great interest in their gardens from the beginning and 
worked lovingly over their plants, and our visits to them 
were very pleasant. Their interest in the gardens brought 
its own reward, and we felt very happy to be able to give 
them the first and second prizes. 

In the autumn a lecture by Mr. Hemenway on "How to 
Make the Home Grounds Attractive" proved as helpful 
in stimulating interest as did the awarding of the prizes. 

The following summer, in order to create more interest in 
the garden competition, we decided to hold a flower show — 
a bold venture on our part as none of us had any idea how 
to go about it. Fortunately, some of our more experienced 
friends gave us advice and lent their flower show schedules, 
and Mr. Peter Bisset, of the Department of Agriculture in 
Washington, was most helpful in his suggestions. 

The Guild hall where we held the show was unpromising, 
as the walls were in very bad shape and a great stove stood 
prominently at one end of the hall. However, a huge load 
[8] 



of pine and spruce boughs fastened against the walls made 
a wonderful improvement, and a friendly neighbor lent his 
English gardener who transformed the ugly stove into a 
green bower with palms and ferns. He also made an im- 
posing arrangement of vegetables such as one sees at the 
English shows, and the hall was quite worth a visit for that 
alone. 

Thanks to Mr. Bisset's kind offices we had a fine collec- 
tion of gladiolus, sent by Mr. Cowee, including the blue and 
dark crimson shades with which most of us were then un- 
familiar. We had a fine exhibit of flowers and plants from 
both city and village people, and the show was pronounced 
a great success. 

Some of the garden competitors took prizes at the show, 
and the third year found the village much more enthusiastic. 
By this time visitors began to comment on the improved 
condition of the village. Neatly kept yards and more 
shrubs and flowers became the rule, even for those who did 
not take part in the competition. 

We now have from twenty to twenty-five gardens in the 
competition, and the standard is much higher than at first. 
The fourth point in the scoring has been changed to "Im- 
provement" — which, after all is but "zeal and enthusiasm" 
made manifest — otherwise the rules remain the same. 

Some day I trust that the "garden habit" may become 
universal — at present it needs a good deal of help to estab- 
lish it in most parts of the country — but we feel that our 
efforts at Bolton Landing were well repaid. — Hilda Loines, 
New York. 



A NEW CREATION IN FLORICULTURE 

Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd-Francis of Ventura, California, 
writes thus of producing her famous double petunia seed : 
"About twelve years ago I was suddenly called into the 
garden to assist my mother, and before I had been working 
a week I found that she had never been able to fill her single 
petunia seed orders, much less the double. 'How was 
this?' was my question. For those who are not familiar 
with the way the ordinary double petunias are produced I 
will explain that the anthers of a single flower are removed 
before the pollen sack has burst, the flower is then covered 
with a paper bag to prevent insects from fertilizing it, and 
when the stigma is ready the pollen from a double flower is 
dusted on the stigma. 

"At that time my mother was growing fringed hybrids 
as well as California Giants. I often used the large open- 

[91 



throated blooms for the seed parents instead of the long- 
tubed and frilled hybrids. The results of that season's 
work so delighted my mother that she was eager for me to 
continue it, but this I was unable to do for some four 
years. Through carelessness no stock seed had been saved 
from our own petunias, so seed for planting was obtained 
from a local grower, and from the motley array I obtained 
a few which, with several double plants of doubtful origin, 
were the foundation of the strain now known as double 
seeders. 

"Again the giant form appealed to me as more likely to 
give me the loose, double graceful flower for which I was 
striving. Among the doubles resulting from the first 
season's work was a lovely lavender hybrid which I called 
'Quakeress,' whose full and well-formed stamens rose 
straight up through the middle of the flower with more space 
than the doubles usually had, while signs of a rudimentary 
stigma appeared on both anthers and petals. Again the 
idea of a double petunia producing seed took possession of 
me, and I watched all the double plants with the greatest 
care, and one day my patience was rewarded by the sight of 
a tiny bit of green among the anthers, which was the long- 
looked-for stigma. Carefully stripping off the petals, I 
cut the tube which bound the filaments together and there 
in the heart of the flower was a perfect ovary. Fertilizing 
it with pollen from another double I watched it develop — 
and knew that a double petunia would seed if assisted. 

"The next season resulted in thirty-seven double plants, 
and in this third generation the giant or grandiflora blood 
showed in one plant in growth and bloom. All the flowers 
on this plant were perfect, but matured but two capsules of 
seeds. I was also working with our regular doubles, and 
among them was a steel-blue and white, bearing perfect 
flowers which seeded freely when fertilized. This plant was 
again crossed with the hybrid doubles and matured a few 
capsules of seeds. 

"The season of 191 1 660 plants were set out and 102 
single plants rogued, making 85 per cent, doubles with 
140 seeding plants. There was every variety of petunia, 
the hybrid form being wonderfully beautiful. By the end 
of the year a definite line of work had formed in my mind. 
I would develop two varieties of doubles, the one with up- 
right habit, straight, stiff stems and wide range of colors, 
most useful for bedding or cut flower work; the other with 
the color and delicate texture, size and recumbent habit of 
the grandiflora. The planting of 19 12 was successful and 
the season of 19 13 showed an increase from 25 per cent, to 
[10] 



33 per cent, of seeding plants with a wonderful increase in 
size and range of color — and the 'Peony Strain' had ar- 
rived. 

"There are many interesting variations in the reproduc- 
tive organs in both the hybrid and grandiflora varieties. 
Some of the enormously large and ruffled flowers are perfect, 
but it is too much to expect such development with produc- 
tion of seed as well, so I use the pollen on a less double 
flower in order to produce it. Some of the plants when 
left to themselves produce seeds, but when hand fertilized 
the capsules contain one to two hundred more seeds. 
This season for the first time I am breeding a perfect double 
with a perfect double and await the result with interest. I 
have been assured that only highly specialized plants will 
produce seed, but in our fields this year were thirty-seven 
volunteers." 

DEALING WITH SCHOOL YARDS 

An interesting experiment in the beautification of school 
yards was recently tried in a Connecticut town. 

It so happened that the school appropriation had not 
been liberal enough to cover more than actual necessities, 
and most of the eleven school yards were as bare and desolate 
as can be imagined. A generous citizen, feeling that a 
school spirit could be aroused which would improve these 
conditions as well as react favorably upon the pupils, offered 
a handsomely framed picture to that school which should 
show the greatest improvement in its grounds during the 
approaching season. He secured as judge a stranger to 
the town, who was widely known to be an expert in such 
matters. Since improvement was the point at issue, the 
judge made a trip in early spring to each of the eleven 
schools, making notes of their condition at that time. 
Another trip in the fall enabled him to make the necessary 
comparisons. 

The pupils, under the guidance of their principals or 
teachers, were left perfectly free to plan and execute their 
own improvements, and all were at liberty to secure advice 
and even help from well-qualified persons in their respective 
districts. The activity during that summer was universal. 
Not a single school failed to show marked improvement in 
its surroundings, while several yards were fairly trans- 
formed. Two schools particularly achieved wonders, be- 
cause they labored at the start under the disadvantage of 
having bare gravel yards. In the case of one, the boys inter- 
viewed the owner of a vacant lot in the neighborhood and 

[ill 



secured permission to take soil if they would cart it them- 
selves. This they did, borrowing wheelbarrows for the 
purpose. By fall, they had smooth green grass in their 
yard, with neat walks and two beds of bright flowers. This 
was in a "slum" district, too, and of course it involved 
systematic work during the summer vacation. The other 
handicapped school — a large one — gave one or two enter- 
tainments, raising money to pay for the cartage of a certain 
amount of soil. A number of loads were also contributed 
by residents of the district. At the end of the season this 
yard was found to be tastefully laid out with squares of 
green grass outlined by low barberry shrubs, and with 
ampelopsis vines well started on the unsightly brick founda- 
tion of the school-house. 

Some features of this contest are so excellent as to render 
it worthy of imitation in other places. 

The school as a whole is enlisted, and gains a valuable 
experience of working together for a common end. The 
district is interested. The children and their parents are 
together aroused to pride in their school. A right attitude 
towards the school property, a sense of ownership and care, 
are secured. 

These results are more permanent than would have been 
expected. The offer of a prize has not been renewed, but 
the children like to keep up their school yards and to con- 
tinue the improvements. Many, too, now that their 
attention has been drawn to the matter, have gone home to 
suggest improvements in the home yards and to help in 
realizing them. — Lucretia Stow Cutnmings, Connecticut. 

"This article was written by the secretary of the local school board 
in a manufacturing town whose population is about 10,000. Besides 
American and Irish children there are many foreigners, especially 
Italians and Poles, in the public schools." — Ed. 



NON-TUBERCULAR MILK 

In New York State alone 25,000 babies die annually, and 
authorities state that " at least half of these deaths are pre- 
ventable by known practicable methods." 

The infant's sole diet is milk. The mother's milk is the 
food created for the child, but many times the mother 
does not survive or is unable to furnish this nourishment, and 
some other food must be given. For many years cow's milk 
was thought to be the best substitute for the mother's milk, 
but often this coagulated in the child's stomach and indi- 
gestion and bowel trouble were the result. Then, too, cow's 
milk is a great medium for disease germs, carrying the 

[12] 



germs of typhoid, tuberculosis, and diarrhoea. Even certi- 
fied cow's milk may contain the tubercle bacillus. 

The fourth annual report of the District of Columbia 
Association for the prevention of tuberculosis says that 
one-fourth of all cases of tuberculosis among children under 
sixteen years of age, and one-eighth of all fatal cases under 
five years of age, are due to bovine tuberculosis, and among 
children fed exclusively on cow's milk nine out of ten cases 
of fatal tuberculosis revealed that five, or fifty-five per cent., 
were due to bovine infection. 

To overcome these difficulties, in recent years many 
prepared foods have been put on the market, but they have 
often proved to be little better, as they contain a great deal 
of starch, producing an unhealthy fat baby, and a child 
with a starved nervous system. 

Now you are probably saying to yourself, "there is 
nothing else to furnish perfect nourishment for these 
babies." Yes, there is, and it is that foster-mother — the 
butt of all ridicule — the goat. 

America, although far more progressive in many ways 
than foreign countries, has been the last to recognize the 
worth of this faithful little animal. In France and Germany 
there are many sanatoriums, hospitals, and infant asylums 
where goat's milk" is given the patients and good results are 
reported. 

Physicians in America are now awakening to the fact 
that milk from well-cared-for, unimpregnated goats is the 
ideal food for babies, invalids, and the aged. 

Here is a comparison of woman's, goat's and cow's milk. 





Woman's 


Goat's 


Cow's 


Fat 


4.00 per cent. 

7.00 per cent. 

1.25 per cent. 

.20 per cent. 

87.55 Per cent. 


4.6 per cent. 
4.3 per cent. 
7.0 per cent. 
1.3 per cent. 
85.6 per cent. 


3.5 per cent. 

4.3 per cent. 

3.75 per cent. 

.7 per cent. 

87-75 per cent. 




Proteids 

Salts 


Water 





It will be seen that goat's milk contains more fat and 
proteids than either mother's or cow's milk. The fat 
globules of goat's milk because of their extreme minuteness 
are easily assimilated. The cream rises slowly so that the 
milk after a few hours is nearly as rich as when fresh. 
Goat's milk does not coagulate when sour as does cow's 
milk but merely becomes soft and creamy. Good clean 
goat's milk will remain sweet much longer than cow's 

[13] 



milk; in fact, one breeder gives the report of a test made 
after 500 hours — "Sweet as honey." 

Best of all, goats are non-tubercular and are generally 
free from all disease. 

Therefore we have the ideal food — free from the bacilli 
of tuberculosis, easily assimilated by the most delicate 
stomach, and rich in iron, making good pure blood and rosy- 
cheeked babies. 

Many people who have not tasted good goat's milk think 
it has a flavor that is "goaty" and strong. The milk of 
goats allowed to run wild and to seek their existence upon 
all sorts of weeds — posters, ash piles, tin cans, etc. — un- 
doubtedly is strong and of an inferior quality, but goats 
well cared for and properly fed give the richest and mildest 
milk. 

Goats are far more cleanly animals than cows. They 
are also very particular about their food, not eating any 
that has fallen on the floor and been trodden upon, and 
preferring young tender twigs and blades of grass. 

Most American goats do not give milk equal in quantity 
or quality to that of the Swiss milch goats, of which breed 
there are comparatively few pure bred animals in this 
country. The breeders who own the pure Swiss goats use 
them chiefly for breeding purposes as the demand for milch 
goats far exceeds the supply. However, there are many 
grade does giving two, three, and four quarts a day that 
are ideal for the suburbanite with a small back lot. Some- 
times it occurs that a milch goat is needed only for a few 
months and in such cases breeders will often rent their goats 
to responsible persons. 

Goats are easily cared for and many times over repay all 
care and kindness shown them, being by nature very docile 
and affectionate. — Mrs. Jessie H. Watson, Pennsylvania. 

THE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF 
AGRICULTURE 

The International Institute of Agriculture was founded 
in 1905 by an American, David Lubin, who was a merchant 
in Sacramento, California, before he became a scientific 
farmer and promoter of agricultural reforms. The Institute 
is an international clearing-house for agricultural informa- 
tion and is now carrying on studies of crops, plant diseases, 
rural credits, insurance, freight rates, besides issuing reports 
on size and conditions of crops in various countries and 
other matters of agricultural information. 

King Victor Emanuel III provides the Institute with a 

[14] 



building at Rome, contributes $60,000 a year to its support, 
and is its chief patron. But the institute is founded upon a 
treaty signed by fifty-five countries (including all the powers 
now at war). A notice in the Philadelphia North American 
for January 27th stated that delegates from all the countries 
were at their posts at the Institute, "proving the peace- 
breeding power of interest in soil, crops and distribution of 
food-material." — Marion P arris Smith. 



MRS. KING AT VASSAR 

Many are the privileges afforded by the presidential 
office of this Association. One of these was, on March 
nth, a short visit to Vassar College on the occasion of its 
first Vocational Conference under the auspices of the 
Young Women's Christian Association and the Students' 
Association. 

At half-past seven the large audience room of the stu- 
dents' building was well filled with students and faculty, 
President McCracken presiding. The speakers were Miss 
Nancy V. McClelland, head of the department of advertis- 
ing of Wanamaker's, New York, who spoke on advertising 
as a vocation for women, and the writer, whose theme was 
agriculture and horticulture for women from the vocational 
standpoint. The talks averaged half an hour each and had 
most sympathetic attention. Our Association came in 
for a degree of notice. I outlined its objects and invited 
all to come into the fold, that fold which we hope and believe 
will prove both a shelter and a stronghold, as its aims 
materialize. At the close of the session circulars of the 
Association were distributed and a large group of students 
remained to ask questions and for discussion, one men- 
tioning her intention to take up dairy-farming, another 
interested in dry-farming, some in flower-gardening. 

Never was the unfailing kindness of the various officers 
and members to their president better exemplified than on 
this occasion. Miss Florence Jackson sent the excellent 
publication of the Boston Industrial and Educational Union 
" Vocations for the trained woman." Mrs. Vollmer sent the 
published account of Miss Charlotte Passmore's truck- 
farming in Minnesota, which was read to the audience. 
Miss Morgan and Miss Sanders sent literature of their 
respective schools for women, Ambler and Lowthorpe, and 
Miss Morgan also furnished highly interesting photographs 
of Ambler students at work. Miss Cassard, chairman of 
the Publicity Committee, furnished not only catalogues 
from some twenty institutions of agriculture and horti- 

[15] 



culture in this country, but also a very effective poster in 
green and black, the work of one of our members, Miss 
Tongue of Baltimore. This poster attracted much atten- 
tion and was afterward displayed at the New York Flower 
Show. 

Let me here record my gratitude to all who so warmly 
welcomed me at Poughkeepsie, for a visit full of rare 
pleasure. — Louisa Y. King. 



SONNET TO A TOAD 

Oh come into my garden, friendly toad, 
The spotted horned insects are all here. 
To welcome you with luscious tempting cheer 
A shiny worm awaits in your abode. 
My roses fade, so full of bugs are they, 
And crawling things my asters do enshroud. 
(Crickets are singing drearily and loud) 
Oh warted toad, deliver me this day. 
To me your spots shine golden in the sun, 
The secrets of your eyes are still unknown 
To humans but to me you've kindly shown 
That toads do good, as well as anyone. 
On you responsibility I will load; 
Oh come into my garden, friendly toad. 

Elise Str other {aged 14). 



[16 



CONFERENCE, 1915 

The second annual conference of the Women's National Agricultural 
and Horticultural Association will take place under the auspices of the 
New York Horticultural Society, at the Museum Building of the New 
York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, N. Y., on Friday, May 7th. 

The sessions will be held at 1 1 A. M. and at 2 p. m., and the public as 
well as members of the Association is cordially invited to attend. 

PROGRAM 
Dr. N. L. Britton. 

Secretary New York Botanical Garden. 

Mr. Geo. V. Nash. 

Secretary New York Horticultural Society. 
Address of Welcome. 

Mrs. Chas. F. Hoffman. 

International Garden Club, New York. 
Subject: "The Objects of the International Garden Club." 

Dr. S. E. Persons Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Subject: "The Cazenovia County Fair." 

Mr. Arthur Dean. 

State Department of Education, Albany, N. Y. 
Subject: "Agriculture in the Rural Schools." 

Mr. Frank Waugh. 

Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. 
Subject: "Dwarf Fruit Trees." 

Mr. D. G. Mellor New York. 

Subject: "From Farm to Table." 

Mr. William C. Deming. 

Secretary Northern Nut Growers' Association. 
Subject: "The Possibilities of Nut-growing in the East." 

Mr. George T. Powell. 

President Agricultural Experts' Association, New York. 
Subject: "Some Important Requirements in the 'Back to the Land' Movement." 

Mr. Samuel S. Fels. 

President Philadelphia Vacant Lots Association, Philadelphia. 
Subject: "Vacant Lot Gardening." 

Mr. C. D. Jarvis. 

Department of Education, Washington, D. C. 
Subject: "Children's Gardens." 

Miss Louise Klein Miller. 

Curator of School Gardens, Cleveland, Ohio. 
Subject: "The Educative and Civic Value of School Gardens." 

Mr. Maurice Fuld. 

Vice-president Knight & Struck, New York. 
Subject: "Perennials." 

The Museum Building is reached by the Harlem Division of the New York Central 
& Hudson River Railroad to Botanical Garden Station; by trolley cars to Bedford Park; 
or by the Third Avenue Elevated Railway to Botanical Garden, Bronx Park. Visitors 
coming by the subway change to the Elevated Railway at 149th Street and Third Ave- 
nue. Those coming by the New York, Westchester & Boston Railway change at 180th 
St. for crosstown trolley, transferring north at Third Avenue. 

AUTOMOBILES 

Broadway to Concourse and turn due east at 200th Street. 

LUNCHEON 

Arrangements for supplying luncheon at a small cost are being made. Those bringing 
luncheon with them will find a convenient picnic place on the lawn of the Lorillard 
Mansion in the grounds. 

[17] 



GUIDES 

Garden 
Conference Committee: 



The New York Botanical Garden will provide guides between i and 2 p. m. for all 
who care to see the gardens. 



Mr. Geo. T. Powell, 

Mr. B. N. Balker, 

Mrs. A. B. Boardman, 

Miss Alice Robbins, 

Miss Hilda Loines, Chairman. 

EXHIBIT 

An exhibition of garden and farm products and horticultural supplies 
will be held in a room adjoining the conference meeting. Members 
are asked to send books, pictures, plans or prints of gardens, of flowers, 
of grounds, etc.; samples of butter, eggs, preserves and jams, flowers, 
plants, fruit, vegetables, garden pottery and accessories, their own sale 
catalogues, etc. 

Rules for Exhibitors 

1. All exhibits must be in the hands of the Committee before May 
6th, except flowers and perishable articles, which will be received until 
10 A. m., May 7th, 19 1 5. These must be sent direct to the Botanical 
Gardens. 

2. Perishable articles will be disposed of by the Committee. 

3. Live stock not accepted, but we should like any pictures that would 
prove interesting and instructive. 

4. The circular, announcements, or business cards of members who 
desire to receive orders for goods must be sent with each professional 
exhibit. 

5. Books to be marked as follows, "Return to Member C. O. D.," 
or " Keep for the Association's Library." 

6. All exhibits will be handled with care, but all risk of damage or 
loss must be assumed by the sender. 

7. Charges for return either by express or parcel post must accom- 
pany all exhibits or they will be returned C. O. D. 

8. Please address all exhibits as follows: For Mrs. F. M. Hill, care 
of Mr. George Nash, Botanical Gardens, Bronx, N. Y. 

For further information address Mrs. S. A. Brown, 165 West 58th 
St., N. Y. 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE ASSO- 
CIATION 

Membership Committee — 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Chairman, 4526 N. Paulina St., Chicago, 111. 
Finance Committee — 

Mrs. J. H. Lancashire, Chairman, Manchester, Mass. 
Publicity Committee — 

Miss Jeanne Cassard, Chairman, 1609 Park Ave., Baltimore. 
Publications Committee — 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Cheltenham, Pa. 
Law Committee — 

Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, Chairman, Painesville, Ohio. 
Nominating Committee — 

Miss Rose Standish Nichols, Chairman, 55 Mount Vernon St., 
Boston, Mass. 
Conference Committee — 

Miss Hilda Loines, Chairman, 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

[18] 



THE COUNCIL 

The fiscal year of the Association begins on March first, 
and annual dues are payable at that time. 

The Quarterly is the organ of this Association, and 
being supported by the membership fees, is furnished only 
paid up members. 

The Council has advised the Editorial Committee that 
only those members whose dues for the current year are 
paid by May first are entitled to the Quarterly, and that 
it is to be sent to others only after such dues are paid. 

H. Loines, Secretary. 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICITY 

The Committee on Publicity is at present composed of 
nine members: Miss Alderson, Greenwich, Conn.; Miss 
Margaret Johnston, Washington, D. C; Mrs. Clark W. 
Kelley, North Dakota; Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning, 
New York; Miss Anna B. Newman, Pasadena, Cal.; Mrs. 
V. Simkhovitch, New York; Mrs. Arthur K. Stearns, 111.; 
Miss Martha Wilson, Chicago; Miss Jeanne Cassard, Bal- 
timore. 

The organization of the committee began in February, 
191 5. To each new member I suggested means by which 
the aims of the Association might be brought before the 
public through women's clubs, garden clubs, granges, 
settlements, colleges, the press, public conferences, and ex- 
hibitions. 

Miss Johnston of Washington is trying to interest the de- 
partment women and school teachers and to get into touch 
through the Department of Education with the southern 
women farmers, of whom there are many. 

Mrs. Kelley of North Dakota will help wherever she can 
through her state. She invites members who may be 
passing through to the Exposition to visit her stock farm. 

Miss Martha Wilson of Chicago is spending the winter in 
California. I have suggested that she ask permission from 
the Exposition authorities to have our poster hung. 

Miss Newman tells of the live horticultural society in 
Pasadena, the president of which will present the aims of 
our Association on March 19 at his next meeting. She will 
also distribute literature at the annual flower show. The 
Dean of women in the College of Agriculture mentioned to 
Miss Newman the great need for cooperative clubs among 
the farmers' wives. Miss Newman will try to make the 
Association known through various clubs. 

[19] 



Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning is helping through the 
magazines with which she is in close touch at all times. 

Mrs. Simkhovitch has been asked to present the Associa- 
tion to the Neighborhood Association, covering over 30 
settlements. 

I wish that members, whether of committees or not, 

would notify the Publicity Committee of conferences and 

other public affairs to be held in their various neighborhoods. 

Jeanne Cassard, Chairman. 

EXHIBITION COMMITTEE 

At the New York Flower Show of March 16-20, the 
Association rented a small space, and about twenty-five 
members responded to the invitation to send exhibits. 

These were chiefly cards, circulars, announcements, 
pictures and books, showing the diversity of members' 
work, and we were able by these means to attract many of 
the 61,000 visitors who passed by during the Show. An 
attractive poster, designed by Miss Tongue, of Baltimore, 
was sent by the Publicity Committee. The Committee 
felt that it was a decided step forward in introducing the 
Association to desirable members, and one direct result was 
that about 30 new members joined our number. 

This Association stands for the highest standards in the 
flower world, as in other horticultural fields, and this yearly 
show is an excellent opportunity to reach the public in- 
terested in our aims. 

Charlotte Cowdrey Brown (Mrs. S. A. Brown), 

Chairman. 

PERSONALS 

Mrs. Louise S. Marshall, of Lancaster, Pa., writes: "Never does 
the spring come round that I don't feel like telling some one about the 
beauty of my garden, which fifteen years ago was nothing but a dump 
for tin cans. It has meant very little expense but a great deal of work. 
The gospel I preach all summer long to my friends is garden work for 
sheer joy of it." 

Mrs. Charles E. Blue, of Charlottesville, Va., asks where boxwood 
clippings may be sold to advantage. Will any member having this 
information please communicate with her? 

Miss Annie R. Blanchard, of Melrose, Mass., has had good success 
in growing bulbs in fiber. She has made a special study of indoor 
culture of bulbs, and is prepared to give advice and instruction on this 
subject. In the fall she expects to be ready with some informal lectures 
on bulb growing illustrated with her own pictures. She will send her 
rates on application. 

Miss Sarah B. Leeds, of West Chester, Pa., says: "lam beginning to 
take more interest in roses, and had some perfectly beautiful ones last 
year. If they are no more trouble than they have been for the two years 

[20] 



I have had them, they certainly ought to be more generally grown. 
Our peach crop last year was wonderful — 457 baskets from sixty trees 
(some of them not old enough to bear much). Farming grows more 
interesting all the time." 

A member of this Association, having many years' experience in 
gardening, and with training in England and in American colleges, 
wishes to obtain work in a private garden on a small scale where she 
may raise flowers, vegetables, and small fruit for the household. She 
prefers a small garden because she likes to do much of the practical work 
herself, and she wishes in addition the care of the house plants, and of 
the cut flowers for the table. Her address may be obtained from the 
editors of the Quarterly. 

Mrs. Massey Holmes has a "primer" on elementary Flower Gar- 
dening which is valuable to owners of little city lots. She writes simply 
and clearly of plants which can be cultivated easily and inexpensively in 
Kansas City and adds a list of forty annuals and perennials suitable for 
such gardens, stating color, height, blooming period, and method of 
propagation. She gives some desirable roses and climbing plants, and 
hints for planting, soils, and mulching. 

Mrs. Elsie McFate, of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, offers an interest- 
ing catalogue of plants with an introduction by Mrs. Francis King. She 
offers to arrange and plant small area gardens, prophesying success even 
if only a ground plan (drawn to scale) of the garden be submitted to her. 



LETTERS FROM MEMBERS 

Mr. R. L. Watts, Dean of the School of Horticulture, Pennsylvania 
State College, and a member of our Council, writes: 

"I believe that this Association has a great service to render to 
American women. One distinct service might be in urging the various 
agricultural colleges to offer courses of instruction of interest to women. 
For example, many of our colleges do not give courses in home vegetable 
gardening, window gardening, to say nothing of courses bearing on the 
commercial phases of vegetable gardening, floriculture, and pomology. 
We find at the State College that women are taking more and more 
interest in all of our agricultural work, and it is our intention to en- 
courage this by offering attractive courses. I believe that horticulture 
offers special inducements to women, both for pleasure and profit." 

Mrs. Emma Shafter-Howard, of San Francisco, has long been a 
pioneer in many forms of progressive work for women. Her interest in 
agriculture is keen and she was the original founder of the Women's 
International Horticultural and Agricultural Union, whose headquarters 
are in London. Mrs. Howard writes: 

" I am glad to know of the National Union, for which we have waited 
so long. It seems a fine starting point for the women of the world, 
recognizing their common lot, their common nature-bond, their common 
obligation to themselves and to humanity, their mutual helpfulness in 
the widening interests of today. 

" It seems to me that there is no other effective way for women to 
organize now than upon cooperative lines, recognizing ' mother organiza- 
tions ' as their bases and inspiration. 

"We are now where no one lives to himself alone, and the basis of 
our efficiency depends largely upon cooperation with efforts that have 
already been made which invite recognition, inclusiveness and coopera- 
tion in order to become efficient. This I would urge upon you and 

[21] 



other national organizations in other countries — each as part of the great 
whole of human efforts to like ends!" 

Miss Gertrude Welsh writes from New York city: 

" I had good results in my garden in New Jersey last summer from 
using humus instead of manure, although I also had bone meal, leaf 
mould, and a little nitrate of soda as well. 

" I brought a box of humus to town, as it was nice and clean to use in 
the house, and my early seeds have to be started here. I take old sugar 
boxes, as they can stand on my window sills, and fill them, putting a 
layer of sand and earth at the top for the seeds to germinate in, and below 
that earth and humus, making the soil richer towards the bottom, so 
the larger the seedlings grow, the more nourishment they will have. 
At the very bottom of the box I put pieces of broken flower pots for 
drainage. Then I wet the earth well and after planting the seeds cover 
the boxes with cheese-cloth and put them on the steam radiator until 
the seeds appear. They come up very quickly by this treatment. 
My dahlia seeds sprouted in twelve hours, and most of the others you 
could see in two or three days. 

"Some of my seedlings, such as snapdragon, annual larkspur, and 
lobelia, have been growing for two months and they all look very sturdy 
and are a good green. I also have scabiosas, asters, clarkias, mari- 
golds, dianthus, centaureas, salpiglossis and violas. They are a little 
more care in the house as they have to be turned often so they will grow 
up straight, as in half a day they are bent over towards the light, but 
one feels repaid by getting earlier bloom in the garden, and one's own 
seedlings are much more interesting and worth taking trouble over." 

Miss Anna N. Newman sends the following letter from California: 

"Your 'tract' relative to the Women's National Agricultural and 
Horticultural Association is here-by. It seems to me something with 
a present and a future — something I could conscientiously be a party 
to — a 'booster' in the vernacular of California. While I am not a 
ranch-owner yet, I see great possibilities outside of a house for women. 
This is a great region for women out-of-doors. There is so much to be 
said on the subject I hardly know where to break in. ... I came 
out here about a year and a half ago. I've been seeing the world go by 
wondering what under the sun I could do to take the place of my be- 
loved teaching, for they told me I'd better let the wear come in another 
place. No other kind of work seems comparable, and yet I passed a 
schoolhouse this morning without a yearning pang; glad I wasn't in 
there; glad I was going with a market basket over to Pepper Drive for 
ten pounds of luscious Muscat grapes for 25 cents (weighed out by a 
man). When the W. N. A. & H. A. comes into its own, that nice lady- 
like job can be done by more women — a widened sphere with better air 
and cultivated brains. 

"I have been thinking of the few women (I thought few at first) who 
have succeeded in their acres. One of our Evanston teachers resigned 
to raise violets in Michigan. One of our principals and her assistant 
have farms in Idaho. They go there summers and develop the land, 
hoping to have a competence for their old age. They will have it, too. 
I thought of the woman in Wilmette who raised bees. I recalled the 
wonderful story of Mrs. Taylor's success with canning and preserving 
fruit which I read in the current Technical World. She hails from 
Southern California, by the way; and the story of the olive woman — 
how she succeeded in curing them — that is another great victory. 

"I attended several meetings of the Pomological Club in Claremont, 
Cal. Women are interested in that. I met some women there who 
operate orange groves. . . . Dr. Cook, state expert in pomological 

[22] 



pests, would know the organizations here in which women have part, 
and would know many individuals notably successful in the fields you 
cover. He is connected with the University of California. They have 
there also a fine man, Mr. Kern, who was formerly a county superin- 
tendent of schools in Illinois (Winnebago Co.). He did great work with 
school, gardens and consolidated schools. Now he travels all over this 
state in the interests of the child with a hoe. Berkeley seems more a 
public benefactor than most so-called educational concerns. It exists 
to serve the people. Wherever ten persons are interested in a subject 
there will be a teacher sent to add to their knowledge. 

"Perhaps I'm not eligible to membership in your party. The first 
seventeen years of my life were spent on a farm and a fellow never gets 
over it. So here's a dollar and I'd be glad to be counted in. It isn't 
like the real estate business out here. Women engage in that to beguile 
money from the burdened tourist. Your project is humanitarian, is of 
value from any point of view. 

" Here's to you, and if you have any good advice, do help me out, for 
I'm groping after something worthy to occupy my head, heart, and 
hands. 

"I went with the Sierra Club on their outing to the High Sierras, 
slept on the ground five weeks in the mountains. Think of that!" 

The accompanying letter from a new member is so suggestive and so 
forcible in its quaint language that the editors have not felt at liberty 
to correct the imperfect English: 

" I am very happy to enclose here annual dues for W. N. A. & H. A. 
and I hope to become for membership a right confident member. Un- 
happily for me before to be an helping one I believe the membership 
might be advising m6 because I am yet foreign here and I want help 
before to give help. 

"It should be hard for any proudness if I have it, but in this special 
case I have not because I think mutual help is normal and human thing 
and if today I want help, very often in the past I gave it and I hope I 
shall give it again in the future. Excuse my poor English — it is too long 
and bad to say so simple things. 

" Practically I don't like city life. I am afraid it is not very normal 
life. Then I want to live in the country. I have quite simple wants. 
I felt the vanity of very much things so I want to work and earn my daily 
bread in the country. 

"I was business woman (plumber) long time in Paris. I have 2 
sisters and 2 cousins so we are 5 French who have same wants. We 
were learning about country life and we were starting in France few 
months ago. We were planting fruit-trees and potatoes for home use 
and vegetables. Also we tried with textile plants hoping try to make 
our personal clothing but the war — the war is the war ! I know to weave 
and I can to build my little loom. I learned to make shoes for our 
feet, because, usually feet must be done for shoes and I am thinking 
only the contrary is right. In Corsica I was learning to make bread. 
So we try to learn very beautiful things about physical culture, music, 
etc., but the scientific field is so — so large we can only catch the first 
step in several branches. Now we think the work shall teach the 
worker and we must practice, but we don't know where? We are sure 
it is not in New York." — Jeanne Chambon. 



"Our race cannot endure urban life. Country life de- 
velopment is one of the greatest of the present-day humani- 
tarian movements." — Charles W. Eliot. 

[23] 



NOTES 

Clinton Farms (The New Jersey State Reformatory for 
Women) is in need of hardy perennial plants and shrubs. 
Any gifts of this kind would be most appreciated. 

Harriet B. Bradner, Farm Superintendent. 

Home Canning Made Easy. — The Bureau of Industry, 
United States Dept. of Agriculture, issues circulars "Far- 
mers' Cooperative Demonstrations," Forms N-9, N-12, 
and N-3. Form N-9 directs buyers to firms in all parts of 
the United States which supply "steam pressure canners," 
"hot water canners," "seal outfits," and various other 
canning supplies. "Form N-3" gives a time-table for use 
with four varieties of these canners, and "Form N-12" 
gives recipes with directions as to time necessary in the 
same four kinds of canners. Busy farm women should 
certainly secure copies of these three circulars from the 
Dept. of Agriculture, Mr. 0. H. Benson, and after a careful 
study, select and buy one of the canning outfits, and can 
their supplies of winter vegetables in this comparatively 
easy way. Farmers' Bulletin 521 is excellent on tomato 
canning at home and in club work, for it gives recipes for 
catchup, chou-chou, etc., and methods for forming and 
managing canning clubs. 

Decorative Planting at the Panama-Pacific. — Into 
the 65 acres of living gardens surrounding the Palace of 
Horticulture there have been set the enormous number of 
704,000 golden-flowered plants under the direction of Donald 
McLaren, the California gardener. These flowers occupy 
sunken gardens in the main entrance facing the Tower of 
Jewels and in the minor Courts of Palms and Flowers. 
Twenty-seven thousand yellow wall-flowers, and an equal 
number of Spanish golden iris glow in the Court of Palms, 
which looks out upon the Palace of Horticulture. The 
Tower Plaza has been planted with 200,000 yellow pansies, 
100,000 yellow daffodils and 100,000 golden poppies. In 
the Court of Flowers, which opens toward Festival Hall, 
250,000 golden poppies, 100,000 daffodils and 50,000 golden 
tulips flourish. 

So that the 65 acres of flowers and plants will be kept 
constantly in bloom during the ten months of the Exposition, 
it is planned to replace this first setting with other flowers 
when the first cycle has lived its life. Mr. McLaren believes 
that three plantings will be required to keep the vast gardens 
ever in bloom. An unusual decision was made by Mr. 
McLaren to plant no palms in the Court of Palms, the space 

[24] 



being given over to acacias, towering Italian cypresses and 
low-growing eugenias. The balustrade surrounding the 
pool is overhung by low-trailing muehlenbeckia, or maiden- 
hair vines. 

The Exposition's horticultural gardens became inter- 
national in scope when entries of roses from Belgium and 
Holland were planted in the rose gardens. These are 
government exhibits of these two countries and are entered 
in the competitions, one of which has as a prize $1,000 for a 
new unnamed rose. — Horticulture. 

"School Supervised Home" Gardens. — Under this 
title the Bureau of Education issues a most valuable circular, 
the substance of which is so practical that every public 
school should have one. Copies can be obtained from the 
Bureau of Education, Dept. of Interior, Washington, D. C. 
Directions for preparing the "back yard" or home lot, 
selection of crops to fit in with general cropping schemes, 
planting, weeding, thinning, and, in a second circular called 
"The Home Garden, Its Economic Value and Relation to 
the School in Towns and Cities," more general suggestions 
regarding the economic possibilities open to young gardeners, 
make these circulars useful to every town in the United 
States. 

Bureaus of Occupations. — "News Notes" reports 
advance in five Bureaus — Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, 
Boston, and Pittsburg. Good audiences were secured at 
three Conferences on Professional Opportunities for Wo- 
men. At the Fourth Vocational Conference of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin talks to small groups by Dr. Graham 
and personal interviews by Miss Helen Bennett were sig- 
nificant features. The latter interviewed forty-six students 
in the twenty-four hours of her stay in Madison. The 
Bureau in Philadelphia reports 319 positions filled in 1914, 
669 positions filled since March, 1912. 

To Save the Redwoods. — The sum of $75,000 has been 
subscribed by Gifford Pinchot, former chief of the United 
States forestry service, Charles Willis Ward, owner of 
Recreation and The Outdoor World, and Congressman Kent, 
of California, to buy a tract of 20,000 acres of virgin red- 
wood forest recently opened to sale by the ending of liti- 
gation and now in danger of being acquired by the lumber 
interests. Various women's and commercial associations 
of northern California and wealthy timber land owners 
have joined the movement and it promises to be successful. 

Russia's Bees. — According to the Russian year book 
there are in the Russian empire about 5,706,211 bee-hives 

[25] 



owned by private owners and peasants. It is added that 
apiculture is bound to become one of the chief industries 
of eastern Siberia in the near future. 

Breeding Fur-bearing Animals. — Moleskins have been 
much used in this country recently in making fur garments, 
and practically all of the supply has been imported from 
Europe. In the belief that the common mole of eastern 
United States produces fur of equal value, skins were sub- 
mitted to professional furriers, who stated that the quality 
is superior to the foreign article. The mole inhabiting the 
northwestern coast is larger than the common eastern species, 
and if the texture of the fur proves to be as good as that of 
the eastern species, trappers may secure a good income by 
capturing these animals. In many localities an acre of 
ground supports a hundred individuals. If this little 
animal can be profitably trapped for its fur, the problem of 
freeing agricultural areas from it is practically solved. 

BOOK NOTES 

Vocations for the Trained Woman. By Eleanor Martin and Mar- 
garet A. Post, Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 165 pp. 
These concise reports on opportunities in agriculture, social service, 
real estate, etc., are based on exhaustive investigations made by Eleanor 
Martin and Margaret A. Post, of the Committee on Economic Efficiency 
of College Women. Nearly half the volume is devoted to opportunities 
in various branches of agriculture, and in each consideration is given to 
women. Agriculturists were consulted in each branch, and these reports 
are based on their statements. The business outlook is the main point 
under consideration; consequently this volume becomes very valuable 
to the women with small capital who wish to engage in open-air business. 
The other sections are equally instructive but not so necessary to our 
readers. — E. C. Wood. 

Industrial and Commercial Geography. By J. Russell Smith. 
Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1913. 

Professor Smith's "Industrial and Commercial Geography" is more 
than a text-book! for college students, or a source-book for the mer- 
chant. It suffers somewhat from its name, which seems to doom it to 
the confines of the class-room. Its aim is "to interpret the earth in 
terms of its usefulness to humanity, " and the successful fulfillment of 
that aim should extend its usefulness to the mythical man-in-the- 
street and the actual man-in-the-garden. 

Two-thirds of the book is devoted to "Industrial Geography." 
Short introductory chapters on the changing environment and the place 
and nature of agriculture, are followed by a series of essays on the great 
staples of food, industry, and commerce — the cereals, the animal indus- 
try, sugar, tobacco, fisheries, fibers, textiles, ship-building, the metals 
and the minerals. 

The remaining third — "Commercial Geography" — is devoted to the 
trade routes, trade centers, and the industrial aspect of transportation. 
The book is a mine of maps, charts, and figures, but these are artfully 
arranged and do not distract the reader from the merits of the text. — 
Marion Parris Smith. 

[26] 



NEW MEMBERS TO APRIL 17, 1915 

Honorary members elected by the Council: 
Dr. L. H. Bailey, Ithaca, New York. 
Mrs. John Crosby Brown, New York City. 
Mrs. David Houston, Washington, D. C. 

Achelis, Miss M.J 9 East 57th Street, New York 

Addington, Mrs. Keene H Lake Forest, 111. 

Alexander, Mrs. Henry A 840 Park Avenue, New York 

Ayres, Mrs. Steven B 126 Fordham Road West, University Heights, New York 

Bangs, Mrs. Bleecker 400 Lafayette Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Baker, Mr. Bernard N Ingleside, Catonsville, Md. 

Barnes, Miss Katharine 755 Madison Avenue, New York, and Ridgefield, Conn. 

Beals, Mrs. Jessie Tarbox 71 West 23rd Street, New York 

Beckwith, Miss Ada Cobden, 111. 

Beebe, Miss Katherine 800 Bryant Ave., Winnetka, 111. 

Bishop, Mrs. Merle D Hanover, Pa. 

Bliss, Mrs. Walter Phelps 73 Park Ave., New York 

Blumke, Miss Mary M 820 Hill St., Saginaw W. S., Mich. 

Bond, Mrs. Elizabeth P Greene St., Germantown, Philadelphia 

Bullen, Mrs. Henry L 18 Shephard Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Burtenshaw, Mrs. S. D 107 Broadway, Tarrytown, N. Y. 

Cassell, Miss Nettie 404 Massasoit Ave., E. Providence, R. I. 

Cator, Mrs. Franklin P 12 Club Road, Roland Park. Md. 

Chambon, Mademoiselle Jeanne 309 Broad Street, Stapleton, S. I., N. Y. 

Chapman, Mrs. Otis P., Jr 65 Granite Street, Westerly, R. I. 

Clapp, Mrs. Willard M 1928 E. 82nd Street. Cleveland, O. 

Clark, Miss Josephine A 267 Crescent St., Northampton, Mass. 

Clarke, Miss Josephine 28 Glover St., Southbridge, Mass. 

Cochran, Miss Fanny T 131 S. 22nd St., Philadelphia 

Cox, Mrs. Erving Mill Neck, L. I., N. Y. 

Crocker, Miss Clara B Wayland, Mass. 

Crocker, Mrs. George U 378 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

Cross, Miss Jean A 144 Park Avenue, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Crowell, Mrs. Benedict 10710 Magnolia Drive, Cleveland, O. 

Cudahy, Mrs. Joseph M.. . . ; Lake Forest, 111. 

Cummings, Miss Frances W., Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations, 130 East 22nd 
Street, New York 

Deaver, Mrs. John B 1634 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 

Dexter, Miss Agnes Tisdale 22 Lexington Avenue, Greenwich, Conn. 

Dimmick, Mrs. J. Benjamin Scranton, Pa. 

Donoho, Mrs. Matilda A East Hampton, L. I., N. Y. 

Doubleday, Mrs. Frank Nelson Oyster Bay, L. I., N. Y. 

Elliott, Mrs. R. S Greenwich Street, Hempstead, L. I., N. Y. 

Estabrook, Mrs. Austin Memphis Ave., S. W., Cleveland, Ohio 

Farrand, Mrs. Beatrix 21 East nth Street, New York 

Fels, Mrs. Joseph 4305 Spruce Street, Philadelphia 

Francke, Mrs. L. J Glenby, Glen Head, L. I., N. Y. 

Gauffin, Mrs. C. F 1723 Ridge Ave., Evanston, III. 

Getz, Miss Hester A 59^3 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, O. 

Grafflin, Mrs. William Hooper Glencoe, Baltimore Co., Md. 

Green, Mrs. A. H., Jr 813 Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Green, Miss Mary Pomeroy 1149 La Salle Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Griscom, Miss F. E Horsehoe Farm, Tallahassee, Fla. 

Haes, Miss Edith Fernbrook Farm, Mount Kisco, N. Y. 

Hamilton, Mrs. A. B Sparkhill, N. Y. 

Hamilton, Mrs. Claude 37 Terrace Ave., S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Hartwell, Mrs. J. A 27 East 63rd Street, New York 

Haynes, Miss Caroline C Highlands, N. J. 

Helburn, Miss Theresa 425 West End Avenue, New York 

Hewitt, Mrs. Thomas B 122 Remsen Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hill, Mrs. Florence Merriam 202 West 74th Street, New York 

Hitchcock, Mrs. Lucius W Premium Point Park, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Holliday, Mrs. D. C 5520 Hurst St., New Orleans, La. 

Holmes, Mrs. John G Braddock Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Holmes, Mrs. Massey 1040 West 53rd Street, Kansas City, Mo. 

Horak, Miss Irma H N. Y. Public Library, Stapleton, S. I., N. Y. 

Hunt, Mr. and Mrs. Chester Jay 155 N. Mountain Avenue, Montclair, N. J. 

Huntington, Miss Annie O Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Ives, Miss Winifred 32 West 49th Street, New York 

Jacob, Mrs. Lawrence 42 East 49th Street, New York 

Jenkins, Mrs. Helen Hartley 232 Madison Avenue, New York 

Kelsey, Mrs. Charles 434 Cherry Street, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Kelsey, Mrs. Lee Earl Lakeview, Mich. 

Knoblauch, Mrs. Charles Bolton Landing, Lake George, N. Y. 

Kohlsaat, Miss Edith M 25 East 73rd Street, New York 



[27] 



Leonard. Mrs. Frank E 423 Terrace Avenue, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Loinea, Mrs. R. H Dongan Hills, S. I., N. Y. 

Lozier, Miss Edna H 28 Quick Avenue, River Forest, 111. 

McCagg, Mrs. E. B 161 Madison Avenue, New York 

McCauley, Miss Lena M 418 St. James Place, Chicago 

McClelland, Miss Nancy V 622 West 113th Street, New York 

Macfarlane, Mrs. J. R Woodland Road, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

McKay, Mr. Richard Crane 52 Grove Street, West Medford, Mass. 

McKenney, Miss Virginia S 137 South Sycamore Ave., Petersburg, Va. 

Mallory, Mrs. P. Roger Forest Avenue, Rye, N. Y. 

Mellick, Mrs. George P 218 East 7th Street, Plainfield, N. J. 

Merrill, Mrs. M. M Hilltop Farm, Webbs Hill, Stamford, Conn. 

Mizer, Miss Loretta S. Euclid Ave., Cleveland, O. 

Morey, Mrs. William Carey 94 Oxford Street, Rochester, N. Y. 

Morris, Mrs. Dave H 19 East 70th St., New York 

Morris, Miss Mary W 1514 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa., and West Chester, Pa. 

Newberry, Mrs. J. S 99 Lake Shore Road, Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 

Ordway, Mrs. Samuel H 123 East 71st Street, New York 

Pagenstecher, Miss Bertha 52 West 40th Street, New York 

Parke, Mrs. S. Maxwell 101 River Stret, Pittston, Pa. 

Parke, Mrs. W. Howard 592 1 Solway Street, Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Parker, Mrs. Eva Woodward 709 Woodward Ave., Detroit 

Peabody, Mr. George Foster Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Peckham, Mrs. Wheeler H Davenport Neck, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Perkins, Mrs. Newton 65 East 52nd Street, New York, and York Village, Maine 

Pond, Miss Florence L Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 

Pratt, Mrs. Addison S 235 West 76th Street, New York, and Port Jefferson, N. Y. 

Reade, Mr. Charles T., Manager The Reade Mfg. Co., Agricultural Chemists, 1027 

Grand Street, Hoboken, N. J. 

Reed, Mrs. Latham G 151 East 56th Street, New York 

Richards, Mrs. Lewis C New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Dr. and Mrs. Robert Ridgeway Olney, 111. 

Roettinger, Mr. Philip Wyoming, Ohio 

Rogers, Mrs. Homer Parkdale, Ore. 

Schwab, Mrs. Charles M 74th Street and Riverside Drive, New York 

Scofield, Mrs. George 1453 East Boulevard, Cleveland, O. 

Scott, Miss Sadie E n Dominick Street, New York 

Seabrook, Mrs. H. H 118 East 72nd Street, New York, and Water Witch, N. J. 

Sensor, Miss Mabel, . . . Editor of Home Dept., The Dakota Farmer, Aberdeen, S. Dak 

Siedenburg, Mrs. R., Jr 314 West 75th Street, New York 

Simonds, Mrs. O. C 929 Montrose Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Slade, Miss Augusta P Windsor, Vt. 

Smith, Mr. Edgar L. . . Manager The Farmers' Bureau, 150 Nassau Street, New York 

Stearns, Mrs. Arthur K Lake Bluff. 111. 

Strauss, Mrs. Albert 32s West 75th Street, New York 

Swanson, Mrs. Claude 2136 R. Street, Washington, D. C. 

Thayer, Mrs. John E George Hill Road, Lancaster, Mass. 

Tiffany, Mrs. Charles L 128 East 36th Street, New York 

Van Buren, Miss Frances 132 Lafayette Ave., N. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Van Pelt, Miss Sarah Girls' Training School, Geneva, 111. 

Varick, Mrs. I. R Park Hill, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Vaughn, Mrs. O. E 1630 Jefferson Ave., Scranton, Pa. 

Volker, Mrs. H. H Volker Greenhouses, Minot, N. Dak. 

Walton, Miss Lily E 678 East 72nd Street, Cleveland, O. 

Welsh, Miss Gertrude C 383 Park Avenue, New York 

Wernicke, Mrs. O. H. L 830 Bates Avenue. S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Weston, Mrs. Charles S 624 Monroe Avenue, Scranton, Pa. 

Wheeler, Mrs. James R 433 West 1 17th Street, New York 

White, Mrs. E. Lawrence Beverly Farms, Mass. 

Williams Mrs. Charles M 48 East 49th Street, New York 

Williams, Mrs. Clark, 293 Madison Avenue, New York, and Hawthorne Beach, Port 

Chester, N. Y. 

Wood, Mrs. Arthur King Ardsley-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Wood, Mrs. H. A. Wise 194 Riverside Drive, New York 

Wright, Miss Hannah P Logan, Phila., Pa. 



[28] 



The Annual Meeting of the Women's National Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Association will be held at 10 
A.M., on Friday, May 7th, at the New York Botanical Gar- 
dens, The Bronx, New York, one hour before the opening 
of the Second Annual Conference. 

Amendments to the By-Laws will be voted upon at this 
meeting. 

Margaret Jackson, 

General Secretary. 



[29I 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



Hardy Permanent Gardens 

Now an Open Sesame to the Busy Man and Woman 

In our attractive booklet "Hardy Gardens Easily Made For The Busy Man " we have endeavored 
to simplify the making of a Garden of Perennials or Old- Fashioned Flowers by prepared plans adapt- 
able to most situations, with the lowest estimates of cost that make them no longer a Utopian Dream. 
Let us send you one and save hours of needless worry over catalogues and surprise yourself what can 
be done for so little money together with our handsomely illustrated catalogue (48 pages — 9 x 12), 
on receipt of 10 cents in stamps, which pays postage only, and the amount of which is credited on 

One of ground plans s "^ * -^ »"^ -* „. 

in our booklet on +f*'» • T^ * " ^N «Jt 

"Hardy Gar- C^-'^ - s f . > $ 

dens Easily '• >, '-G .' » s v*S* -v "*. 

Made." /^V^Cjki- £ffr:^s8 

i • 

The Palisades Nurseries, Inc., J**^-*: 

Growers of Palisades Popular Perennials, and Landscape Gardeners. Visitors always welcome at 
our Nurseries, where they can make selections from more than a thousand varieties of Hardy Plants 



You Will Be Glad to Know 

That we can furnish you with some of the finest Peonies 

in the country. The new French varieties are marvels 

of Nature's handiwork in white, blush, shell-pink and 

dazzling crimson. 

We have also Iris and Phlox and many other perennials for 
your hardy garden. Let us send you a catalog. If you are inter- 
ested in evergreens we will send our catalog of these. 

Cherry Hill Nurseries 

T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc. 

West Newbury, Mass. 
Box 80 

All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



School 

of Horticulture for 

Women 

(Eighteen miles from Philadelphia) 

Ambler, Pa. 

Practical and theoretical training in 
the growing of Fruit, Vegetables and 
Flowers. Bees. Simple Carpentry. 
School Gardening. Special course 
in Landscape Gardening. Constant 
demand for trained women to fill 
salaried positions. 

Write for Catalogue. 

Jessie T. Morgan 

Director 



Garden Photographs 

TAKEN BY A SPECIALIST 

Trips have been arranged for, to PHILADEL- 
PHIA, BALTIMORE, WASHINGTON. BOS- 
TON, CLEVELAND, DETROIT, CHICAGO. 
Home Portraits; also exteriors and interiors of 
houses taken. Lantern slides made for Lecturers 

from hundreds of my negatives. 

An album of 100 interesting gardens will be sent 

without charge, for exhibition, to any known 

Garden Club on application from the President 

or Secretary. 

Look for it at the Annual Conference, May 7. 

Write for Appointments and Prices. 

Jessie Tarbox Beals, Inc. 
71 West 23d Street New York 



Quarterly 



Will you help your advertising mana- 
ger by speaking to the members 
who advertise, about their advertise- 
ments? Ask those who have not 
advertised why they have not. 




Let us discuss 
the plants in 
which you are 
interested. 

Direct representatives of our 
nursery (expert plantsmen — 
we have no agents) travel 
widely each year. 

In answering your ques- 
tions, whether by mail or 
in person, we thus combine 
touch with your local con- 
ditions with our broad 
knowledge of those hardy 
plants which best meet your 
conditions. 

Why not write to-day for our 
Summer Catalog, showing what 
hardy plants to use before October? 

Thomas Meehan & Sons 

Box 19 

Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Bewley Farm 

Old English 
Sheep Dogs 

Ayrshire Cattle 

Sweet Butter 
Fresh Eggs 



Mrs. Edward Parker Davis 

Newtown, Bucks Co. 

Pennsylvania 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 

Haarlem, Holland 
Grower of 

Choice Bulbs 



Bulbs Imported direct from 
Holland for Customers. No 
supply kept here. Catalogue 
quoting prices in Nurseries in 
Haarlem — free on application. 

E. J. Krug, Sole Agent 

112 Broad Street 
New York 

(Successor to C. C Abel A Co.) 

Waldheim Honey 

Attractive jars suitable for gifts or 

tea trays. Orders taken now for 

the 1915 supply, to be filled 

in September. Supply 

limited 

L.E.& M.F.Wright 

Logan P.O., Philadelphia 

Old Fashioned Perennial 
Flower Garden 

Hardy Plants. Catalogue sent on 
request. Orders promptly filled. 

Rockvale Kennels (Registered) 
Airedale Terriers and Puppies 

Mrs. S. William Briscoe 

R.F.D.West Nyack 
New York 



Gifts 
for Gardeners 

Sent by Parcel Post 

Fitted Garden Baskets . . $2.75 

Country House Baskets . 3.00 

Farm and Garden Timetable 1.00 

A calendar with practical 

hints for every day 

Damp-proof Weeding Pads 1.00 

Garden Hats, Sunbonnets, Aprons, 
Bulb Planters 

Special Rates made for Sales 
and Fairs 

Miss Isabel Frazier 

Crossroads Farm 
Garrison-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Cedar Acres Gladioli 

"Bulbs that Bloom" 
Booklet Free 

B. Hammond Tracy 
BoxN 

Wenham, Mass. 



Pekingese 



Theideal breed, the big-little dog 
full of life, love and brains. 

Puppies and Grown Dogs. Prizewinners and Pets 

Largest Kennel of Pekingese in America 

Only Home Grown Stock for Sale 

Prices Very Moderate 

Peking Kennels 

M. h. Cotton, m.d. Mineola,N.Y. 

Telephone, 1010 M Garden City 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Don't Just Admire Moon's Trees on 

Other Places. Plant Them for 

Your Own Enjoyment 

Your grounds may not be extensive, but that 
doesn't matter, for the very inclusiveness of our 
assortment and the vigor of such plants as make 
beautiful landscapes possible indicate how well qualified 
we are to supply trees and shrubbery that give enjoyment 
to owners of smaller places. ^ Our descriptive catalogue, 
filled with illustrations and containing prices, together with 
many valuable helps for planting the home grounds, will 
be mailed upon request; while those who care to tell us 
of any lawn planting that they have in mind will receive 
the personal attention of such letter-aid as we can give. 

The William H. Moon Company 

Philadelphia Office. 21 S. Twelfth Street Momsville, Pa. 



PRESS OF WM. F. FELL CO. 
PHILADELPHIA 



915 



WOMEN'S NATIONAL AGRICULTURA^^^ 



AL A " TT " 
HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 



QUARTERLY 



August, 1915 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 



Founded "to promote agricultural and horticultural interests among 
women and to further such interests throughout the country." 

OFFICERS 

President 

Mrs. Francis King Alma, Michigan 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer New York 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer Huntington, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary 
Miss Margaret Jackson Englewood, N. J. 



Council 



Mr. Bernard N. Baker 
Miss Emma Blakiston 
Miss Louisa G. Davis 
Mrs. Frank Miles Day 
Mrs. C. W. Deusner 
Mrs. H. B. Fullerton 
Miss J. B. Haines 
Miss Margaret Jackson 
Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 
Mrs. Francis King 
Mrs. J. H. Lancashire 



Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee 

Miss Hilda Loines 

Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning 

Miss Louise Klein Miller 

Miss E. H. Peale 

Mr. George T. Powell 

Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang 

Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Dean R. L. Watts 

Miss Mary Youngs 



Copyrighted, 1915, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 

Vol. II, No. 1 QUARTERLY August, 1915 



REPORT OF THE ANNUAL MEETING 

The first annual meeting of the Women's Agricultural 
and Horticultural Association was held at the New York 
Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York, on May 7, 
1915. Mrs. Francis King, the president, was in the chair. 

A telegram was read from Mrs. J. Willis Martin, a vice- 
president of the Association and president of the Garden 
Club of America, in which she regretted her absence and 
sent her best wishes for success. 

The reports of the Recording Secretary, of the Treasurer, 
and of the Finance, Membership, and Nominating Com- 
mittees were read in due order. 

A resolution was passed that in order to gain the funds 
necessary for the work of the Association the annual dues 
should be as follows: Active, $1.00; associate, $2.00; 
sustaining, $5.00; life membership, $25.00. 

The report of the chairman of the Membership Com- 
mittee, Mrs. Helen Dupuy Deusner, of Chicago, dwelt on 
the efforts of the committee to establish local branch organ- 
izations, and asked each member to make herself responsible 
for the gaining of five new members during the coming 
association year. Mrs. Deusner emphasized the fact that 
half of the membership of the Association is now drawn 
from the states of New York and Pennsylvania, and urged 
its extension in the south and west. 

The Association expressed its interest in the work being 
done by Mrs. Steven Ayres, Dr. W. A. Murrill, and others 
in the following resolution : 

"Whereas we, the members of the W. N. A. and H. A., 
wish to further the training of children and young people 
in gardening, 

"Resolved: That we hereby endorse the proposed plan of 

Published quarterly for the W. N. A. and H. A. by J. B. Haines at 

Cheltenham, Pa. 

Subscription price, $ .50 per year. 

Application made for entry as Second-class Matter. 

[31 



the Garden Committee of the Bronx Society of Arts and 
Sciences for establishing a garden school for boys in the 
Bronx." 

The Drama League of America asked the interest of the 
Association in the National Shakespeare Festival to be given 
under the auspices of the Drama League. A plan is on foot 
to have Shakespeare gardens in connection with the Shakes- 
peare Tercentenary Festival in April, 1916. 

It was requested by one of the members that reports of 
the Conference be sent to agricultural as well as to horticul- 
tural papers, and that members should strive to enlist the 
especial interest of the farm women in the communities 
where they live or sojourn. 

It was suggested that members bring the paper by Dr. 
S. E. Persons, on the Cazenovia Country Fair, to the especial 
attention of their State granges. 

Upon the conclusion of the annual meeting the second 
annual Conference of the Association was opened by Mrs. 
King. 

The program, as announced in the May Quarterly, was 
carried out, with the exception of the address to be given 
by Mrs. Charles Frederick Hoffman, the president of the 
International Garden Club, who was prevented at the 
last from being present. 

The conference was opened with a cordial address of 
welcome by Dr. W. Gilman Thompson, on behalf of the 
New York Botanical Garden, in which he announced a 
splendid gift of land and the Lorillard house to the trustees 
of the Botanical Garden. This makes the Garden the 
largest in America. Mr. George T. Powell followed with 
words of welcome from the Horticultural Society of New 
York, expressing faith in the new movement among women 
toward agriculture, horticulture, and allied interests. 

Mrs. King was then fortunate in being able to present, in 
turn, to an eager audience of some two hundred women, a 
group of men eminent in various lines of educational, busi- 
ness, and practical methods of farm work, whose splendid 
addresses will be presented in this and following numbers 
of the Quarterly. 

The following message was read from Mr. Henry G. 
Parsons : 

"Please extend to the conference an invitation to visit 
the Children's School Farm of the Department of Parks, 
Manhattan, at One hundred and fourteenth Street and the 
Harlem River. This garden has 1000 small gardeners." 

[4] 



An invitation was given to the members to attend the 
conference to be held at the School of Horticulture for 
Women at Ambler, Pennsylvania, on May 22d. 

Luncheon was served at the Garden, under the direction 
of Mrs. H. A. Wise Wood, and a reception committee, 
among whom were Mrs. Albert B. Boardman, Mr. J. E. 
Spingarn, Mr. and Mrs. Fullerton, Mr. George V. Nash, and 
Dr. W. A. Murrill, Assistant Director of the Botanical 
Garden, introduced to each other members from the 
twelve or more States which were represented. 

The conference ended with a vote of thanks to the New 
York Botanical Garden, to which, with the Horticultural 
Society of New York and the Conference Committee of the 
Association, the success of the conference was due. 

"Thrift and Beauty" was accepted as the watchword 
of the Association. 

The Exhibit of members' work was charmingly arranged, 
was interesting in content, and was given much publicity by 
the press. It consisted of books written by members, photo- 
graphs of their gardens, produce from their farms, bulbs 
from their nurseries, flowers arranged in pottery of beautiful 
design, smocks and hats for the amateur, statistical reports 
from the vocation bureaus, pictures of work on institu- 
tional farms, plans of the landscape gardener, programs 
of the garden clubs, cards of professional lecturers, pam- 
phlets on school gardens, and, in fact, represented the many 
interests which make up the reason for a national associa- 
tion. This exhibit was under the charge of Mrs. S. A. 
Brown and Mrs. Florence Merriam Hill, both of New 
York. At the end of the conference a note was read from 
Mrs. Hill in which it was urged that members should con- 
tribute more generally next year, since a wider display 
would add to the success of the conference and prove an 
excellent advertisement for the professional women. 

The first speaker at the conference was Dr. S. E. Persons, 
who spoke upon — 

THE CAZENOVIA COUNTRY FAIR 

The Cazenovia Country Fair is not at all a large enter- 
prise. It serves an area within ten miles of the village 
post-office, lasts but one day, and gathers together about 
3000 people. Yet it has distinctive features that give it 
value as well as uniqueness, and possibly make it worth 
speaking about. 

The fair is an evolution rather than a creation. It grew 
out of an effort on the part of one of the village churches 

[5] 



to carry the gospel message to the rural districts. Before 
it there were preaching services in school-houses on Sunday 
afternoons during the summer, men's meetings addressed 
by agricultural experts from Cornell University, banquets 
with addresses on agricultural as well as religious subjects, 
a field-day in midsummer, with sports and lectures — out 
of these came the fair. 

Its originators held the idea that a fair free from every 
kind of side-show, money-catching device, midway attrac- 
tion and distraction, would be as highly appreciated as the 
other kind; and they determined to build up a fair that 
should have educational, esthetic, moral, and religious 
values. To this end they excluded commercialism in toto. 
Not a thing can be purchased on the grounds. No reserva- 
tions are sold. The gates are wide open to all who will 
come, without money and without price. You bring your 
own dinner, or else borrow from your neighbor. The com- 
mittee furnishes coffee and serves it to you free in your own 
cup. The exhibitors are not permitted to advertise their 
wares or products. The gambler and the faker are absent. 

The effect of this rigid exclusion of the commercial ele- 
ment was most gratifying. The public very soon recognized 
that the promoters of the fair were working for the public 
good in a most disinterested way, putting in their own 
money and time and effort for the community's welfare. 
And the public responded in like spirit. The spirit of co- 
operation was a beautiful thing to witness. 

In order to have a successful fair there must be people as 
well as exhibits. For example: we wanted ten teams for 
the plowing match. We might have secured them in 
Cazenovia, and that would have interested the people of 
Cazenovia. But that was only a small part of our purpose. 
We wished to interest the people in the township of Nelson, 
of Fenner, of New Woodstock, of North Cazenovia, as 
well as of the village itself. So we permitted two teams 
from each of these towns or communities to enter this 
tournament of the plows and contend for the prizes of ten 
and five dollars in gold. People from these neighboring 
towns came to see their teams carry off the honors. The 
same policy was pursued in arranging for the ball game, the 
shooting match, the potato contest, the exhibits by granges, 
the contests by school-children. Hundreds of people from 
surrounding districts found themselves personally interested 
in the fair. The committees and judges, more than a 
hundred in number, were also widely distributed. These 
people "talked fair" to their neighbors, created a general 
interest, and the crowds came. 

[6] 



When we were getting ready for the first fair I told the 
committee that if we had a good day we would have a 
thousand people. That rather took away their breath. It 
was a good day and we had 3000 people. The whole 
countryside turned out. It was their fair. The schools 
closed in village and country. The business men closed 
their stores, and the whole community came together for 
a day of recreation, of fellowship, of fun. They came out 
into God's out-of-doors to make merry with their fellows, 
to renew old acquaintances, and to get a new sense of the 
solidarity of community life. There is something beauti- 
fully human about such a gathering of joyous and cooperat- 
ing people. It brushes away many an old prejudice and 
lets you see how good people can be — at least for a day. 

But the fair! It began with a plowing match, which 
Dean Bailey assured us would be the most attractive feature 
of the occasion. Stalwart yeomen were there with their 
shining steeds ready for the fray and confident of winning 
the prize. But at the last moment an older man who had 
that morning, as usual, done the work alone about the 
barn, came into the field. His outfit was not handsome, 
and as to his horses, both of them were old and one was 
stone blind. But Osgood Putnam knew how to drive a 
furrow across a field of stubble as straight as a gun-barrel, 
backfurrow, and make six bouts with even cut — even in 
depth, even in width, and clean cut at the ends; and the 
ten-dollar gold-piece was his and no one was jealous. 
Fifteen hundred people witnessed that contest. We 
hurried them back to the orchard, where were the exhibits 
— pyramids of agricultural products by granges; needle- 
work, quilts, canned fruits, all kinds of products of the 
home by the women; bird houses by the boys; every kind 
of handiwork by men and boys and girls. Among the 
exhibits were collections of native woods. One boy had 
83 specimens of wood, each eight inches long, not less than 
an inch in diameter, cut to the heart at the middle and slit 
off to one end, thus showing the grain of the wood. These 
were beautifully polished, a leaf from each tree put into a 
book, and each specimen hung by brass eye and hook in a 
cabinet which the boy had made. The collection was a 
gem, and well worth the calf which the boy got as his 
reward. Girls had prizes in this same contest. They 
were rewarded even for bringing the most artistically 
arranged bouquet of wild flowers. Children made collec- 
tions of wild flowers. One boy, having gathered and 
catalogued 313 specimens, got a pen of thoroughbred 
chickens as his prize. Something like 50 prizes, ranging 

[7] 



from twenty-five cents to two dollars, were offered to the 
school-children of 30 districts for their best productions, 
needlework, sloyd work, bread, ginger cookies, or canned 
fruits. One of the things that we have attempted to stim- 
ulate is interest in the home garden. The farmer usually 
neglects the garden, and we had no little trouble in getting 
boys, girls, or women to contest for prizes of ten and five 
dollars by making vegetable gardens and keeping the 
proper records of cost and value of products. Sixty boys 
from four townships brought each a peck of potatoes of 
their own raising. Others were in the corn contest. 

There were egg scoring, apple scoring, contests in pluck- 
ing chickens, lectures by men and women from agricultural 
schools and colleges, after which the whole multitude 
scattered themselves through the orchard for lunch. Then 
came an afternoon of sport and pageant by the lake. The 
sports included throwing a 12-pound maul, 50-yard dash 
for boys under sixteen, 40-yard dash for women, tug-of-war 
for boys, parasol race for ladies, wheelbarrow race, greased 
pole and greased pig, etc. The pageant, which was intro- 
duced last year and was of modest proportions, represented 
the various nations that have had to do with the settling 
and making of Cazenovia and its neighborhood. First 
came the Indians, with a canoe drill on the lake and a 
war dance on the platform. Indian songs, Welsh choruses, 
Irish jig, children's drill, grand tableau of the goddess 
of liberty followed, the whole spectacle closing with the 
singing of "America" by the 3000 people, led by the band. 
Everything that was done from start to finish tended to 
enrich and beautify and sweeten life. It was wholesome, 
it was educational, it was neighborly, and begat a friendly 
spirit. It stimulated to healthful rivalry among the young. 
Such a gathering is within the reach of any village, and 
it creates an atmosphere which makes it possible for any 
one who has the gift of leadership to lead his community 
to higher things — toward a better humanity and nearer God. 

Dr. Persons was followed by Mr. Arthur D. Dean, whose 
subject was — 



AGRICULTURE IN THE RURAL SCHOOLS 

The time has come for the country high school to do more 
than prepare pupils for literary colleges. It is a larger job 
and one of fully as great importance to train people for the 
business of farming. The plan in New York State pro- 
vides that one-half of the pupil's time during the four years 
[8] 



shall be given to the study of agriculture and the other 
half to English, history, and mathematics. 

In view of the fact that agriculture deals with concrete 
material and is to a great extent objective, much of the 
time given to this subject is spent in the field and laboratory, 
connecting in as many ways as possible daily objects and 
occurrences with the general principles of science. For this 
purpose the barns, machinery, herds, flocks, fields, and 
crops of the neighboring farms are usually accessible and 
available. Each school includes in the work of the four 
years something of wood and iron construction, poultry 
husbandry, agronomy, fruit-growing, animal husbandry, 
dairying, and farm management. The amount of time 
given to each I ranch and the phases emphasized depend to 
a large extent upon local conditions. 

Concrete class instruction is not all there is to this work. 
A boy, for example, fixes his knowledge of poultry husbandry 
not only with the text-book and the teacher, but also by 
engaging definitely in the poultry business. About the 
first of March of each year the time given to general class 
instruction is greatly reduced, and each pupil works upon 
the plans of his project, so that when the time comes to 
launch the enterprise, he has a definite course of procedure. 
From the time that the pupil starts the home project he 
keeps accurate account of income and expenditure, includ- 
ing his own time, and at the end analyzes his own business. 
In this way the educational opportunities at home and at 
the school are brought together. 

The parents must be in sympathy with the idea that the 
school and the home are to work together in offering the 
best educational advantages to the pupil. Further, the 
home project plan gives to the teacher a better idea both 
of the home conditions of particular boys and of general 
farming conditions in the community. It helps to keep 
the teacher on the ground within the realms of possibility. 

There are also short courses, two and three months in 
length, for boys who for any reason are prevented from 
attending the regular course. Some of the schools even 
offer evening instruction. 

The teachers are also expected to supervise the boys' and 
girls' agricultural clubs, working in cooperation with the 
farm bureau agent and the district superintendent of 
schools. 

This work has been going on for only five years, and yet 
boys in these schools now have charge of more than 20,000 
hens, the testing of more than 1200 cows, and the spray- 
ing of 25,000 trees. 

[9] 



The State Department of Education of New York has 
the most helpful cooperation of the State College, not only 
in the matter of training teachers for the work, but also in 
giving definite assistance in the preparation of class-room 
material. 

Mr. D. G. Mellor's address upon Efficient Marketing of 
Farm Products was an interesting and suggestive account 
of methods taken by the Wells, Fargo Express Co. to en- 
courage the production by improving the transportation of 
farm and orchard products. As it was of some length and 
too valuable to bear much cutting, it is being held over for 
the November number of the Quarterly. 

Mr. Frank A. Waugh, of Amherst, Mass., then spoke on — 



DWARF FRUIT TREES 

There are three questions always asked by strangers 
first taking up the subject of dwarf fruit trees. 

The first question is, What is a dwarf fruit tree? It is 
simply a tree which is smaller than normal. The two means 
usually employed for making trees dwarf are — (a) propaga- 
tion upon some slow-growing root, which starves the tree; 
(b) repressive pruning. The fruit itself is not dwarfed, 
but is often larger than on full-size trees. 

The second question is, What value have dwarf fruit 
trees? This question must have two answers, the com- 
mercial and the amateur. Commercially, they have been 
successful in a very few cases, but are not generally recom- 
mended for fruit growing on a market scale. For the 
amateur in the suburban fruit garden they have very great 
advantages. The greatest ones are — (a) they take up a 
very small space and a large number of trees can be grown 
on a small city lot; (b) they come early into bearing. 

The third question is, Where can they be secured? The 
best way to get them is to propagate them at home, but a 
few can be bought from reliable nurserymen. 

The dwarf pear tree is secured by budding any variety 
of pear upon a quince root. The dwarf apple tree is secured 
by budding or grafting any desired variety of apple upon 
so-called Paradise or Doucin roots, which are simply dwarf 
varieties of apples, and must be bought from importers. 

Dwarf peaches are secured by budding any desired vari- 
ety upon plum roots. The best stocks for this purpose are 
the native American plum, Prunus Americana, and the 
dwarf sand-cherry, Prunus besseyi. 
[10] 



Dwarf plums are secured by budding or grafting on any 
dwarf-growing species of plum. The two stocks recom- 
mended for peaches are also excellent for plums. 

Dwarf cherries cannot be propagated with the same suc- 
cess, but in a garden of dwarf fruit trees the small growing 
varieties of cherries, like Morello, can be successfully man- 
aged under repressive methods of pruning. 

Pruning of dwarf fruit trees is a matter of considerable 
difficulty — much more complicated than the ordinary 
practice of pruning of fruit trees as conducted in the United 
States. The fruit spurs have to be looked after individually, 
and the tree should be cut back each year sufficiently to 
make all the lower buds put forth. However, there must 
be a careful balance maintained between vegetative and 
reproductive forces. 

This is, after all, less difficult than it seems, though the 
best way to learn it is from some practical gardener. 

Dwarf fruit trees are frequently trained into special forms, 
the more important ones being cordons and espaliers. The 
cordon forms are especially satisfactory for apples and pears, 
and may be used in any amateur's garden with a little 
practice and a good deal of study. 

The next speaker was Mr. William C. Deming, of George- 
town, Conn., whose subject was — 



THE POSSIBILITIES OF NUT GROWING IN THE 
EAST 

Systematic nut culture in America has been neglected, 
except for some rather recent developments in compara- 
tively small areas. 

Two chief reasons for this neglect are, first, that we have 
had an abundance of native nuts, generally considered 
public property, and, secondly, that some of the best kinds 
of nuts are very difficult of propagation by budding and 
grafting, the only ways in which varieties can be obtained 
true to name. 

The superiority of the nuts on some specimens of our 
native nut trees has been often recognized, and many 
attempts to perpetuate them have been made by planting 
the nuts, or by budding and grafting. Both methods have 
almost invariably failed ; planting the nuts because of na- 
ture's preference for cross-pollination, so that many differ- 
ent parents are represented in the progeny of a single tree; 
and also because of the variation of the progeny of the 

[n] 



same parents; and grafting because the methods successful 
with other kinds of trees have not succeeded with nut 
trees. 

Besides these attempts to improve our native nuts, many 
attempts have been made to grow foreign nuts brought from 
temperate climates. These, too, have been failures. The 
almond, except on the Pacific coast, seems to be too tender. 
The filbert, or hazel, has failed in many hands in the East 
because of a fatal susceptibility to a blight to which our 
native, small hazel is resistant. The chestnut, being com- 
paratively easy of breeding and propagation, had been 
highly developed, and was becoming important com- 
mercially, when the unfortunate importation of the Chinese 
chestnut blight checked its progress. 

The English walnut has had a little different story. 
Rather poorly adapted to our country, except to the Med- 
iterranean-like climate of the Pacific coast, it has neverthe- 
less found no absolute deterrent, as in the case of the almond 
and the hazel, and many trees have survived, scattered 
from Canada southward and from Ohio eastward, and a 
few have prospered. From these scattered individuals 
a number have been selected and are being propagated, 
with good ground for hope that they are well adapted to 
our needs and will prove profitable. 

The propagation of nut trees by budding and grafting 
has been practised in the Old World for centuries. In this 
country it was first made a success by the walnut growers 
of California. Later the pecan growers of the South worked 
it out for themselves. Following them the nut growers of 
the North are working upon problems of propagation. At 
the present time we can buy many varieties of nut trees 
propagated expressly for the purpose of growing in the 
North, and we are learning to topwork our native nut trees 
with a reasonable amount of success. 

Unfortunately, all the problems of nut culture in the 
East and North have not yet been so far solved that the 
commercial planting of nut trees can be conservatively 
recommended. Walnut, almond, and filbert growing on 
the Pacific coast, and pecan growing in some of the southern 
states, are commercially established. There would be 
little hesitation in advising the planting of the Indiana 
varieties of the pecan in the regions where they are native. 
But with these exceptions nut-tree planting is entirely experi- 
mental, and must be done at the planter's risk. There 
are no accepted methods, nor lists of varieties, as with 
other fruits, by following which the planter may surely 
attain success. I wish to emphasize this statement be- 
[12] 



cause certain nurserymen are making quite unwarranted 
and misleading claims in their advertisements as to the 
hardiness and productiveness of the nut trees which they 
offer. 

Nevertheless, it is certain that we now have the oppor- 
tunity to put nut culture on a footing with any branch of 
horticulture. Nuts are to furnish a substantial part of the 
food supply of the world in the years to come. Nut culture 
is destined to become a much more important industry 
than fruit growing, because the soft fruits, in contradis- 
tinction to the nut fruits, contain over 80 per cent, of water 
and are of little food value, although, of course, very 
important in the dietary, while nuts are among the most 
nutritious substances known. A nut is a seed, the result of 
nature's supreme effort to pack as much nourishment as 
she can into the smallest possible space for the nourishment 
of the future young plant. Consequently many nuts con- 
tain as much as 70 per cent, of oil, or twice as much as rich 
cheese, five times as much as beefsteak, and seven times as 
much as eggs; as much protein or muscle-building food 
as the cheese, and 50 per cent, more than the beefsteak. 
Chestnuts contain 70 per cent, of starch, nearly as much as 
the best wheat flour, and four times as much as potatoes. 
Many kinds of nuts are more than three times as nourishing, 
measured by calories, as beefsteak. It is the failure to take 
account of the concentrated richness of nuts that gives 
them their bad reputation for digestibility. 

On what are we going to feed the great populations of the 
future when meat is only for the rich, or at most for holiday 
use, as already in the thickly populated countries of the 
world ? 

I venture to suggest that, in preparation for those days of 
meat scarcity, we study a little the art of making food 
savory. Meat in itself is so savory that it needs little art 
of cookery. Countries pass through the stage of plentiful 
venison and game, followed by that of abundant range-fed 
beef and mutton, until the growing populations force up 
the price of meat. Then the cook must find in his art 
something to give milder foods the savoriness of meat. 
That is the reason why in Old World countries the art of 
cookery among the people generally has reached a point 
more advanced than in America. We must learn how to 
use nuts in other ways than as a circus delicacy or an after- 
dessert amusement. A visit to the vegetarian restaurants 
and a browsing in their cook-books will prove suggestive. 

The growing importance of nuts in the dietary is shown 
by our $15,000,000 annual imports of nuts and nut prod- 

[13] 



ucts, in normal times, with an average yearly increase of 
about a million dollars. 

And yet this country is just as good as anybody's country 
for growing nuts. We have such a diversity of climate that 
we can grow most of the world's varieties here in America 
and export a surplus to Europe. But it will take a long 
time to do this because we must first grow the trees. You 
cannot sow them in the spring and reap nuts in the fall. 
All our native nut trees are seedlings, and hardly one in 
ten bears a valuable nut. In Europe they have been grow- 
ing nut trees for centuries, and no chances with seedlings 
are taken, all the trees being grafted. 

More than one writer has called attention to the suit- 
ability of nut culture for women. There is as little heavy 
labor required as with almost any form of horticulture, and 
the rewards for patience, attention to detail, delicacy of 
manipulation, and faithfulness to principle are as great as 
in any occupation. 

Those who have native nut trees should topwork them. 
Trees up to 18 inches in diameter may be topworked, but 
it is better to begin with much smaller ones. The black 
walnut is the best stock on which to graft the English wal- 
nut, although the butternut and the Japanese or other wal- 
nuts may be used. 

Of the hickory, there are about 15 varieties, which in- 
clude the shagbark, or ordinary hickory-nut of the market, 
and the pecan. On any of these may be grafted improved 
varieties of shagbark or pecan. 

To get scions of these improved varieties, especially the 
English walnut and pecan, it is at present usually necessary 
to buy one or more trees from some accredited nut specialist 
nurseryman. Specify that these trees shall not be pruned 
and that they be absolutely dormant. Cut back the tops 
to two or three buds, and use the cuttings for scions, setting 
the trees to grow more scions and eventually to give choice 
nuts. If the trees are bought in the fall, which is a good 
time to get them, put the scions in some kind of cold storage 
and heel in the trees, or, perhaps better, bury them almost 
entirely. 

Those who are experienced in grafting may begin with 
these valuable scions, but the novice had better practice 
with ordinary wood. 

Nut trees to be topworked should have a preliminary 
cutting back, when dormant, a few inches above where they 
are to be grafted, although a considerable degree of success 
is possible when the cutting back is done in almost full leaf. 
If possible, leave some branches on the tree to carry sap. 

[14] 



The best time to do the topworking is when the leaves are 
half or two-thirds grown. At this time cut off the limb to 
be grafted where not over three inches in diameter. Cut 
the scion to two buds, make a long, sloping cut on one side 
only, insert the point of the scion between the bark and the 
wood of the stock, cut the surface toward the center of the 
stock, and push it down the length of the cut surface. Wax 
all wounds and tie a small paper bag over the whole opera- 
tion. If the grafts fail, budding may be done on the new 
shoots that spring up around the cut branches. 

Budding is the operation to choose where it can be used. 
Patch budding is the usual method. This is most easily 
done with a budding tool, with which a patch containing a 
bud is transferred from scion to stock and held in place by 
a strip of waxed cloth. 

Those who have no native trees to topwork should set 
out a few choice grafted trees from the nurseryman and 
plant black walnuts and some kind of hickory nuts in 
nursery rows to grow stocks on which to graft or bud. 

Every one who has a place to plant a tree should plant 
a nut tree. After that he may plant a fruit tree, but trees 
that give only foliage and branches should be left to the 
parks and arborefums. A grafted nut tree is likely to bear 
even sooner than an apple tree, often in the nursery rows. 
But many a babe would be a grown man before a seedling 
nut tree, set at his birth, would bear a crop. 

Nut culture is only part of a larger plan for growing more 
crops on trees, both for man and his domestic animals; 
a plan for a more permanent system of agriculture; the 
agriculture of the future, when we shall grow our crops in 
two or three stories, on the trees, on the vines or stalks, and 
on the ground. On our arable land we shall grow nut trees, 
three or four to the acre, giving them their greatest possible 
development, between them peanuts, beans, alfalfa, or 
wheat, and we shall clothe millions of acres of steep and 
rocky, untillable slopes with oaks, chestnuts, and beeches, 
with persimmons, mulberries, pawpaws, honey locusts, and 
sugar maples, binding the soil, conserving moisture, and 
feeding us and our droves of pigs, flocks of sheep, and herds 
of deer. 

Mr. George T. Powell, President of the New York Horti- 
cultural Society, was then introduced, and spoke on "Some 
Important Requirements in the 'Back to the Land' Move- 
ment." 

[Mr. Powell's address will appear in the November 
Quarterly.] 

15] 



Mr. Maurice Fuld, of New York city, followed with a 
brief paper on — 

THE COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES WITH PER- 
ENNIALS 

Conducting a business in the horticultural line requires 
not only the knowledge of how to grow but of how to sell 
advantageously; unfortunately, these two requisites are 
seldom found in the same person; when they do exist, one 
can always find a successful business person. 

This is the age of specialists, and there are still entirely 
too few in existence. If I were beginning business, I would 
choose to grow something which required the least amount 
of capital, the least amount of labor, and gave me the 
greatest opportunity of selling. Among perennials, the 
iris best meets these requirements. It needs neither hot- 
house nor frame culture, nor even protection during the 
winter; it affords a selling season of nearly six months, and 
it can best be grown upon ground which has been grassland 
in the past, as it then requires no further fertilizer for many 
years. 

I should prefer to grow for retail consumption only, for 
it is more interesting and naturally brings the maximum 
returns. I should select the family of German iris ex- 
clusively in the beginning, and even with this limitation 
one can, if one wanted all, list fully 300 distinct varieties. 
But this is too much to begin with ; 50 varieties would be 
enough. I should not buy the cheapest, but rather attempt 
to get a collection of the best in the market. German iris 
can be bought in Europe which will cost, when laid down, 
from three to eight cents each for the common varieties, 
and ten to twenty-five cents each for the newer. 

The first importation should contain the plants not only 
for the first year, but those for the future as well, and for 
that reason I would buy the list in four duplicates — by that 
I mean that one lot is intended for the sale of the current 
year, the second is to be planted and to be sold the second 
year, the third is to be planted to be divided the second year, 
and to be saleable plants the third, and the fourth lot is 
to be planted and allowed to grow undivided, so that it can 
be offered as clumps. 

The question of selling depends entirely upon the sales- 
man, but any one to be successful to-day must not copy the 
old-fashioned way of doing business, but must originate 
new thoughts which come nearer the ideal service to the 
public. 

[16] 



For instance, catalogues of to-day must be written in sales- 
manship style; they must contain far more information 
than the old-fashioned books did, and they must be pre- 
sented in a dress that will please the flower-loving public 
of to-day. 

There should be an exhibition plot laid aside for the pur- 
pose of establishing clumps, so that the public can see the 
collection offered in its true nature. Invitations to view 
this exhibition ground must be extended freely, and efforts 
must be made to have the public come and see it. One 
should also attempt to participate in every possible exhibit 
during the time that iris are in bloom, and the flowers 
should be so staged that they attract the public and serve 
as an education. 

Next to iris, hardy asters form an equally attractive sub- 
ject. In rapid succession then may follow hardy phlox, 
peonies, hardy chrysanthemums, veronicas, helianthus, 
and ornamental grasses. All of these can be grown with- 
out the assistance of either frame or hothouse, and each one 
comprises a large family of plants. 

It is well to be careful in the beginning and not attempt 
more than one kind, and if one has succeeded with this, 
others can gradually be taken up. 

The President then introduced Mr. S. S. Fels, of Phila- 
delphia, President of the Vacant Lots Cultivation Associa- 
tion. A resume of his address follows : 



VACANT LOT GARDENING 

American cities have grown in a haphazard way without 
much planning. In their midst and on their edges are 
scattered empty lots, large enough to cultivate. Many of 
these plots are in growing sections, and much of the land is 
held for speculative purposes. To one who has not exam- 
ined the situation it is surprising how much waste land there 
is close to large populations. Many of these plots are 
simply eye-sores, covered with old cans, and some are 
dump-heaps. 

Among the people living close to these lots are many with- 
out work, many who are irregularly employed, some who 
are too old to obtain positions, and very many who long 
for a chance to cultivate something. 

It is this waste ground and these needy people that the 
Vacant Lots Associations bring together, to the benefit of 
both the people and the land. 

The first, and sometimes the most difficult, thing to do is 

[17] 



to obtain the right to use the land. Although these plots 
of ground are lying idle and neglected, some owners object 
to their use, making all kinds of excuses for refusal, but 
sooner or later they change their minds, because the work 
improves the appearance of the plot and does not stand in 
the way of a sale, as the Association agrees to vacate in case 
of a sale. In Philadelphia we have had to do this only once 
(in seventeen years) during the season. Of course, we lose 
some plots and obtain others in place of them, but no plot 
of less than an acre is taken. 

In Philadelphia we divide each plot into lots of about one- 
sixth of an acre, giving to each worker or family one of the 
small farms. These lots are assigned in the spring of each 
year, and each family is given a card which entitles it to 
cultivate a particular tract. The land is plowed and har- 
rowed by the Association, and seeds are given out. The 
families then spread the fertilizer, plant the seeds, cultivate 
the growing crops, and gather the matured produce. After 
supplying the family needs, they sell the surplus. The 
work is supervised by the Association; families are taught 
what to do and how to do it, and the more skilled workers 
are constantly aiding the others. They plant potatoes, 
beans, cabbages, and other vegetables. The charge made 
by the Association is $1.00 the first year, $2.00 the second, 
and never rises higher than $5.00. This charge is made to 
prevent the idea of charity, and applies on the cost of seeds, 
fertilizer, plowing, etc. When a family does not properly 
take care of a farm, it is not allowed to continue, but last 
year, out of 600, we had only two such cases. Many fami- 
lies apply year after year, and we have children of five and 
adults of seventy-five, all ages, men and women, working 
on and enjoying the farms. 

Now as to the results. 

Financially, we find that in fair seasons from $50.00 worth 
of produce to $75.00 worth is taken off by each family to be 
used or sold. Sometimes exceptional skill makes it much 
more. 

Nothing need be said about the benefit this open-air 
work must be to the workers, instead of being shut up in 
small unsanitary houses. 

One gets an idea of what it means to these people by watch- 
ing them at work, the joy they take in it, the glad way they 
talk about it. They work before breakfast and after work- 
ing hours. Sometimes the whole family is seen on the 
farm. It is a new experience, and just as good for them as 
is golf for the rich man. 

The gardeners foster the spirit of helpfulness among each 

[18] 



other. Each teaches what he can to his neighbors, and 
although it might be expected that there would be stealing 
of vegetables in open lots within city limits, yet there is 
little, if any. This seems to me to be a wonderful result. 

A number of the vacant lot gardeners have become so 
much interested that they have gone to work on farms, and 
others would go if they could. The work of the Associa- 
tion has proved itself an object-lesson, having encouraged 
the starting of hundreds of gardens in various parts of the 
city entirely independent of us. 

The educational value to the children and their parents I 
believe is very great. 

It cost the Philadelphia Society last year about $7000, 
and the resulting value of the crops to the workers was over 
$30,000, while 600 families were benefited. If carried out 
on a larger scale, the proportionate cost would be less, and 
I believe that 10,000 workers could be given such lots and 
such help if $50,000 or $60,000 were spent. One of the 
greatest points to be considered is that the aid does not 
pauperize. The families work or they do not get results. 
In what other form of charity can you give help to men and 
women where it can be said that you give them healthy work, 
keen pleasure, educational aid, financial assistance, and 
self-respect, and that every dollar subscribed by the public 
grows to four dollars and more in the hands of those who 
are being helped? 

On a final analysis, the burden of unemployment can be 
solved only by men and women going to work on the land, 
and the problems to be solved are — 

First, to free the land so that those who need it can get 
it. 

Second, to systematize and arrange the work on the land 
so that men and women can and will go to work there and 
be independent and happy. It can be done, and it is no 
answer to say that it has not yet been done. 

The vacant lots work is a minor example of what can be 
accomplished in this direction. It is simply a feather show- 
ing the way the wind can be made to blow. The needy 
people and the land are fitted to each other. The future 
is in the hand of the thinkers to work out a system to bring 
them together in the right way. 

The next address was given by Miss Louise Klein Miller, 
curator of school gardens in Cleveland, Ohio. Her subject 
was the Educative and Civic Significance of School-garden 
Work. Miss Miller brought out forcibly and with enter- 
taining illustrations the place and meaning of school-garden 

[19] 



work in the general scheme of education. While eco- 
nomically the value of the produce from the school garden 
is considerable, yet the true value of the work lies in the 
better training of the children, in their appreciation of 
manual effort, and in their enlarged ideals of citizenship. 

To Miss Miller's talk there succeeded an address by Dr. 
C. D. Jarvis, of the United States Bureau of Education, on — 



SCHOOL-SUPERVISED HOME GARDENS FOR CITY 
CHILDREN 

The school-garden idea is not a fad. It is an outward 
expression of an inborn belief on the part of hundreds of 
teachers and educators throughout this and other lands 
that children need some kind of active experience to vital- 
ize their school studies. It is also an expression on the 
part of thousands of parents of the belief that, in order to 
acquire habits of industry and to appreciate the dignity of 
labor, boys and girls at an early age should be encouraged 
to engage in some kind of wholesome employment. 

Parent-teachers' associations, mothers' clubs, and wel- 
fare associations of various names have been most active 
in the instigation and promotion of garden activities for 
children. 

In general, a varying degree of success has followed the 
efforts of individual teachers and of the various organiza- 
tions. Too often, however, extensive garden projects have 
been undertaken without a carefully prearranged program, 
without any provision for instruction and supervision, and 
without sufficient funds properly to administer the enter- 
prise. On account of these and other causes there have 
been some failures. These failures, however, have served 
to make us more cautious and have helped us to formulate 
plans for the future development of the work. 

Although the school officials generally appreciate the 
importance of gardening, they have been slow to take it up 
as a part of the school program. They would like to see the 
work standardized and a definite program substituted for 
the chaotic mass of recommendations. The lack of well- 
organized examples of garden activities has probably been 
the retarding factor. 

To satisfy the demand for some definite information, the 

United States Bureau of Education recently conducted a 

survey of the school-garden work throughout the country. 

As a result of this survey a plan for the introduction and 

[20] 



promotion of garden work in the schools has been made 
available to school officials. 

The plan is simple and economical. It does not in any 
way interfere with the present school program. It pro- 
vides for intelligent instruction and thorough supervision. 
It provides for the utilization of unused land and labor for 
productive purposes. The children working under this 
plan may contribute to the support of the family, thus learn- 
ing the fundamental principles of democracy, and enabled 
to remain longer in school. Under this plan also the children 
are given an opportunity for an active experience to vital- 
ize school studies and an opportunity for acquiring a knowl- 
edge of an occupation that may become the means of a 
livelihood. The plan further provides for a wholesome 
occupation for boys and girls while out of school, and thus 
stimulates industry at the receptive age and guards against 
the evils attending idleness. An additional result of the 
plan in operation is an improvement of home surroundings 
— back yards are cleaned up and the home grounds orna- 
mented with shrubbery and flower borders. 

The plan provides for a system of home gardening in 
each city-graded school. The home garden has many 
advantages over the so-called school garden, where a large 
number of children are brought together and each given a 
small plot of ground on which to plant a few pennies' worth 
of seeds. The child's garden in the home back yard, when 
under school supervision, will supply every opportunity 
offered by the school garden and will do much more. It 
assures a closer relationship between home and school, and 
promises a better understanding between parent and 
teacher. It obviates many of the troubles of the school 
garden, such as that of stealing, fencing, protection, limited 
funds, summer vacation, insufficient land, etc. The home 
garden, furthermore, usually provides sufficient ground to 
grow enough produce to supply the home and to put the 
enterprise on a business basis. The child with a garden 
embracing 2500 square feet or over is able to raise at least 
ten dollars' worth of produce and to obtain a fair idea of the 
possibilities of gardening. Such a proposition tends to 
broaden the child's vision. 

In general, the Bureau's recommendation to schools re- 
garding home-garden work is to engage in each graded 
school one teacher who is prepared, by training and experi- 
ence, to take charge of the garden work for the whole school. 
Such teacher should be engaged for twelve months, and 
with the understanding that she should devote the regular 
number of hours to teaching the usual school subjects, and 
[21] 



that the garden work should be done after school hours, 
on Saturdays and holidays, and during the summer vaca- 
tion. Arrangements may be made for a vacation during 
the winter. Ideally, the gardening teacher should be the 
teacher of elementary science or nature study. Such a 
teacher will demand a higher salary to compensate her 
for the extra service. In a large city, where many such 
teachers have been employed, the services of a garden 
specialist as supervisor would be helpful. 

In the larger schools, where the enrollment exceeds 300, 
one or more additional teachers will be necessary, for one 
teacher should not be expected to supervise properly more 
than about 150 back-yard gardens. Experience has shown 
that as much produce can be raised from this number of well- 
supervised gardens as from twice the number of gardens 
inadequately supervised. 

The teacher should assist the pupils in securing land 
when back yards are unobtainable. Nearby vacant lots 
may usually be procured for the purpose. The teacher also 
assists the children in planning their gardens and ordering 
their seed in advance of the planting season. She instructs 
them in the starting of plants in the window and in hot- 
beds, and she demonstrates the methods of fertilizing, 
spading, raking, hoeing, watering, weeding, thinning, mark- 
eting, and canning. Early in the season she works with 
groups of children. One afternoon she will announce that 
the children in a certain block will meet in Johnnie Smith's 
back yard for a demonstration in preparing the soil and 
planting the seeds. The following afternoon she will repeat 
the performance in Mary Jones' back yard for the benefit 
of the children in that section. This program is continued 
until the field has been covered. After the spring rush she 
works with the individuals, making sure that they are keep- 
ing up a succession of cropping and are making the very 
best use of their land and their efforts. 

These recommendations are intended for the ordinary 
city school. In a few of the larger cities, on account of an 
absence of back yards, the plan cannot be worked out per- 
fectly, but in most cities there are more back yards and 
vacant lots available than is generally believed. In the 
more congested cities the effort should be to approach as 
nearly as possible this ideal. All the available land should 
be utilized and the typical school-garden, with its small 
plots, may be the nearest approach. The resourceful 
teacher usually will find a way. 

It is the hope of the Bureau's garden specialists that 
all who are interested in the promotion of this important 
[22] 



work will bend their efforts toward standardizing the 
garden work in schools, and that all will feel free to call 
upon them for information and assistance. 

The last paper of the conference came as a pleasant sur- 
prise. Mr. John Cook, veteran rose grower of Baltimore, 
originator, among other well-known roses, of My Maryland, 
sent a pleasant and valuable paper on his experiences in 
growing rose seedlings. 

As Mr. Cook was unable to be present, his paper was 
read by Miss Loines. It has been published in full in 
The Gardener's Chronicle for May, 1915, a copy of which 
has been courteously sent by the publishers to every mem- 
ber of this Association. It is, therefore, not reproduced 
here. 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE ASSO- 
CIATION 

Membership Committee — 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Chairman, Batavia, 111. 
Finance Committee — 

Mrs. J. H. Lancashire, Chairman, Manchester, Mass. 
Publicity Committee — 
Publications Committee — 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Cheltenham, Pa. 
Law Committee — 

Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, Chairman, Painesville, Ohio. 
Conference Committee — 

Miss Hilda Loines, Chairman, 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

The first branch of the Association has been formed at 
Youngstown, Ohio, with an enthusiastic membership of 
19. This branch is planning to hold monthly meetings, 
with discussions, lectures, occasional exhibitions, etc., in 
the hope that greater interest, skill, and pleasure in garden- 
ing may result. 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE RECORDING SEC- 
RETARY, 1914-1915 

The Association held its first annual conference at the 
School of Horticulture, Ambler, Pennsylvania. It was 
planned by Mrs. Fullerton, of Medford, L. I., N. Y., and 
her committee, and reported upon by her in the August, 
1914, Quarterly, which she edited. 

The second annual conference, to be held to-day, was 
organized by Miss Hilda Loines, of Brooklyn, and her com- 
mittee, and will be reported in the forthcoming (August) 
Quarterly. Owing to the amount of work involved 

[23] 



in the planning of the conference, Miss Loines has deputed 
to me, as general secretary, the presentation of the annual 
report to the Association. 

The Executive Committee met four times during the 
association year — on April 3, June 30, October 16, 1914, 
and on February 6, 1915. By its decision a circular letter 
was sent to members in August asking for support in money, 
in work, and in the suggesting of other persons for member- 
ship. The response resulted in many of our present com- 
mittee workers. 

Owing to the steady increase of correspondence, a general 
secretary was engaged in August, 19 14, to work for two 
days a week during the next twelve months, and Mrs. 
Susan Homans Vollmer, of Huntington, who had carried 
the correspondence up to that time, retired from the posi- 
tion of corresponding secretary, holding her place among the 
vice-presidents and on the Council. 

The Executive Committee divided the one general com- 
mittee of Conference, Publicity, and Publications into three 
committees, and secured Miss Jane B. Haines, of Cheltenham, 
Pa., as head of the Publications or Editorial Committee. 

As chairman of the Committee on Revision of the Consti- 
tution and By-laws it secured Mrs. Walter King Sharpe, of 
Chambersburg, Pa. 

As chairman of the Finance Committee it invited Mrs. J. 
H. Lancashire, of Manchester, Mass., who has been with us 
for some months. 

Affiliation was made with the Appointment Bureau of the 
Women's Educational and Industrial Union of Boston, with 
the Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations of New York, and 
with other similar organizations, and the reports of the gen- 
eral secretary to the Council show a steadily increasing de- 
mand for and correspondence in regard to lecturers, teachers 
of school gardening, etc., and in particular letters from women 
with limited experience desiring to obtain more on well-run 
farms or from women with small farms of their own who 
wish to get trained women to work with them as partners. 

The Committee authorized the sending out of directory 
blanks, and as a response upwards of 500 women have 
registered with the Association an account of their horti- 
cultural interests and achievements. 

The Council has met twice during the association year. 
It has received with regret the resignation of Mrs. Fullerton 
as chairman of the Publicity and Conference Committee, 
and of Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy, of Wenham, Mass., as 
head of the Membership Committee — both women having 
done such splendid work in the organization of the first 
conference, with its attendant publicity, and in the invit- 

[24] 



ing to membership many of those who are with us to-day. 
It considers the Association fortunate in obtaining Miss 
Hilda Loines, of Brooklyn, as chairman of the Conference 
Committee, Miss Jeanne Cassard, of Baltimore, as tempo- 
rary chairman of the Publicity Committee, and Mrs. Charles 
W. Deusner, of Chicago, as chairman of the Membership 
Committee. Mrs. Deusner's plans for local organizations 
reporting to the main Association were outlined in the 
February Quarterly, the Council considering this a very 
important part of the Association's work. 

Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, of Painesville, Ohio, consented 
to serve as chairman of the Law Committee. 

Affiliation was made with the Women's Agricultural and 
Horticultural International Union, the headquarters of 
which are in London. 

The Council was pleased to elect to honorary membership 
in the Association Mrs. Shafter-Howard, of California, Mrs. 
John Crosby Brown, of New York, Mrs. David Houston, 
of Washington, D. C, and Dr. Liberty Hyde Bailey, of 
Cornell University. 

In addition to the usual officers, the following committees 
show the activities of the Association: By-laws, Confer- 
ence, Editorial, Executive, Finance, Law, Membership, 
Nominations, and Publicity. Fifty women are working 
upon them, and 21 persons are working upon the Council. 
Respectfully submitted, 
Margaret Jackson, General Secretary, 
May 7, 1915. For Hilda Loines, Recording Secretary. 

In addition to the matters reported at the annual meeting 
of the Association, the following notes may be of interest: 

At a meeting of the Council held on June 5, 1915, Miss 
Loines, of 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, Mr. George T. 
Powell, whose help has been of so much value to the Associa- 
tion, and Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang, of Cambridge, 
Mass., were appointed a committee to decide on a place for 
the next conference and on the members of the Confer- 
ence Committee. Notes of ways in which the 19 16 confer- 
ence can be made of value to the members of the Associa- 
tion may be sent to Miss Loines. 

A Photograph Committee was appointed to take up the 
question of collecting and printing photographs of members' 
gardens as a source of revenue to the Association. Corres- 
pondence on this topic may be addressed to the general 
secretary, Miss Margaret Jackson, Englewood, N. J., who 
will forward it to the chairman of the committee. 

The directory of members is now being prepared by the 
general secretary, subject to the suggestions and revision 

[25] 



of the Publications Committee. This directory, which will 
give the horticultural interests and achievements of our 
members (as was done in the May, 19 14, Bulletin), will be 
printed in pamphlet form for purchase by those members 
who desire it. 

By invitation of the president of the Association a num- 
ber of members of experience have consented to act in an 
advisory capacity in the answering of many letters which 
come to the Association in regard to lecturers on garden 
topics, opportunities for work wanted by college-trained 
women, or by women who wish to get their training through 
experience in nurseries, poultry-plants, farms, etc. 

If members who would be willing to speak of the Associa- 
tion to clubs and gatherings in their vicinity would register 
their names with the secretary, a great benefit would be 
bestowed upon the Association. This would be a practical 
way of increasing the membership, — and increase of mem- 
bership is one of the necessities of the Association, — and 
would afford a means of granting requests in localities the 
distance of which from the homes of those members who 
have already volunteered has made the sending of a special 
speaker not practical. 

The Association has been asked if our members can come 
forward in the work of placing as workers in the farms and 
fields women from the reformatories who have been trained 
there for such labor. 

The Council is pleased to announce that, in addition to 
the honorary members listed in the report at the annual 
meeting, acceptance has come from President Kenyon Leech 
Butterfield, of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, and 
that Mr. Bernard N. Baker, of Baltimore, has consented 
to serve on the Council. 

At the annual meeting a resolution was passed making 
the dues of the Association as follows: Active, $1.00; 
Associate, $2.00; Sustaining, $5.00; and Life, $25.00. To 
help the Association, members are beginning to renew under 
heads other than the $1.00, which was the only basis for 
annual membership in the first year, and the following 
also stand on our records as life members: 

Mrs. William E. English, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mrs. F. C. Farwell, Lake Forest, 111. 

Mrs. J. J. Henry, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Charles Hutchinson, Chicago, 111. 

Miss Margaret Johnston, Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Francis King, Alma, Mich. 

Mrs. J. H. Lancashire, Manchester, Mass. 

Miss J. G. Mason, Germantown, Philadelphia. 

Mrs. Elizabeth C. T. Miller, Cleveland, O. 

[26] 



Mrs. Charles Lias, South Hamilton, Mass. 
Miss Martha Wilson, Chicago, 111. 
Mrs. William K. Wilson, Cynwyd, Pa. 

Our Association has been placed on the exchange list of 
the Library of the New York Botanical Garden, and we 
have received their Journal. To complete their files they 
would like to receive our Quarterly for August, 19 14, and 
for February, 1915. As these numbers are out of print, 
they can be supplied only through the kindness of some 
member who can spare them and will send them to me. 

Margaret Jackson, 
July, 191 5. General Secretary. 

TREASURER'S REPORT 

The Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural As- 
sociation, in Account with Louisa Gibbons Davis, Treasurer. 
February, 191 4, to February 28, 191 5 
Dr. 
Receipts 

Annual dues $683.00 

Life membership fees 175.00 

Initiation fees 2.00 

Donations for-salary of secretary 120.00 

Appeal for funds, August, 19 14 33-00 

Sale of donated magazines at conference 4.90 

Sale of Quarterlies 12.45 

Advertising in Quarterly 8.00 

Bank collection and interest on bank deposit .... 3.70 

$1,042.05 
Cr. 
Disbursements 
Organization expenses of Association, printing, 

notices, paper, postage, etc $66.91 

May conference and publicity, printing, notices, 

etc 230.67 

Salary of secretary and office supplies, com- 
mittee expenses, postage, printing, etc 269.04 

Membership committee expenses, postage 9.36 

W. A. & H. International Union affiliation fee . 5.06 

Quarterly, August and November, 1914 212.59 

Total payments $793-63 

Balance, March 1, 19 15: 

Dues $52.87 

Life membership 175,00 

Sundries 20.55 

248.42 

$1,042.05 
Examined and found correct. 
M. B. Niles, 

Certified public accountant. 

[27] 



PERSONALS 

Mrs. Edwin Parker Davis, of Newtown, Bucks Co., Pa., has the 
famous Old English sheep dogs for sale at her home kennels, Bewley 
Farm. They are hardy, faithful, out-of-door dogs, generally of a 
pigeon-blue color, and are thoroughly reliable in temper. 

Miss Mabel Sensor is on the editorial staff of The Dakota Farmer. 
This is a most ably conducted paper, touching every phase of farm life 
in the big State in which it is published. Agriculture, horticulture, the 
farm garden, farmers' exchange, rural hygiene, poultry, dairy, and 
creamery— all claim intelligent study in this paper, and all receive it. 

Mrs. Homans, of Hempstead, N. Y., reports that her advertisement 
of eggs and poultry in the May, 1914, Quarterly brought her several 
good steady orders. It pays to advertise in the Quarterly. 

Mrs. C. W. Hulst has written the preface to Special Day Programs, 
issued by the Michigan State Board of Education. This is a pamphlet 
of some 200 pages, giving well-chosen selections, both of prose and of 
poetry, suitable for school use at the various holiday and special anni- 
versary seasons. The selections for Arbor Day and tree-planting oc- 
casions give the book especial value to our members. It may be had 
from the Commissioner of Education, Lansing, Michigan. 

LETTERS FROM MEMBERS 

Mrs. Parke writes from Pittston, Pa.: "The W. N. A. & H. A. 
appeals strongly to me. I've always loved gardening since I could 
toddle. It was the greatest joy of my life when a tiny plot was laid out 
to be ' all my own ' when I was seven years old, and ' with some of every- 
thing that grandmother had' in it. For I lived with my grandmother, 
and she loved her garden and worked in it many hours on fine days. 
Unfortunately for my gardening now, I have been away from home 
every summer and have had to leave my treasures in the care of a man 
who is only lukewarm on culture of anything except dahlias. These he 
has lavished every attention upon, so I have come home always to nice 
dahlias, but the other things were more or less ailing. 

"Last year I suggested to the Century Club in Scranton that we have 
a Garden Department, so we began in a groping sort of way, which 
turned out in the end rather well. We had Italian, French, German, 
English and Japanese gardens, with stereopticon pictures given by 
people who had visited the gardens they talked about. This year our 
talks are more practical. We have had a talk on dahlias by one who 
has had great success with that flower; another talk on evergreens, care 
and planting, etc. We are to have one on roses by a rose-grower, in 
connection with an exhibition by members and growers. We plan to 
have an exhibition every month until October — spring bulbs in April; 
iris in May; roses and peonies in June; July, annuals; August, gladioli; 
September, dahlias; October, chrysanthemums. We offer small prizes 
for best collection, best grown, or best arrangement. 

"There has been an increasing interest in this department, and we 
are encouraged to go on in a larger way. 

" I had about 5000 dahlia roots, and have been selling them to mem- 
bers and others. The orders amount to about $50.00, and the money 
is used for prizes, lectures, etc." 

The following letter comes from Brooklyn: "We have an acre of 
ground here in this Brooklyn suburb, but it is so disposed in lawn, 

[28] 



paddock, stables, etc., that the space at my actual command is rela- 
tively small. Yet I practise intensive farming to the extent of supply- 
ing our table with our own vegetables in season, canning the surplus — ■ 
with sufficient onions, beets, carrots, celery, etc., to carry us through 
the winter. Potatoes should be excepted. We have all kinds of small 
fruits sufficient for our needs — grapes and peaches, cherry, plum, 
quince, and apple are planted. A small flock of poultry more than pays 
for itself. And there are flowers in abundance everywhere. 

"I call this an experiment station, and am always trying out new 
things with a view to turning the knowledge thus acquired to account 
on a commercial basis, some day and somewhere. 

"The conference just held at the Bronx was read of, beforehand, with 
great interest. So I went, and thought it such a fine thing that I 
marched right up and asked if I might join." 

Miss Ada B. Marot, of Swarthmore, Pa., says: "I have been with 
my brother in the growing of flowers and plants for about nine years. 
We have a steadily growing business, and as we started under the dis- 
advantage of having no reserve capital, it has been a long pull and a 
very hard one, and we are not yet where we aspire to be — so situated 
that we can do some original work, or at least some little work that is 
not primarily (and of necessity) aimed at the getting of daily bread and 
the paying of necessary running expenses. We both love flowers dearly, 
and it was Mr. Marot's great interest in all plant life which primarily 
led him to take up this business. 

"I am much interested in the movement to have more young women 
take up horticultural work, but there are two sides even to this question. 
When, as often happens, young college women (or other enthusiastic 
young girls) come into our greenhouse and exclaim, 'This must be a 
lovely business for a woman! Don't you just love to work among the 
flowers?' 'I think I'll take up the business after leaving school,' etc., 
I wonder if it ever occurs to them that there is any other work involved 
than the picking and sorting of flowers or the making of corsage bouquets 
and funeral designs! No doubt if a woman is young, strong, and a 
lover of nature; with a goodly share of patience and a willingness to 
work seven days a week (and often evenings), and if she has a good 
managing faculty and is a practical mathematician, with a head for 
mechanics and greenhouse construction and repair work, etc., she will 
in time come to be a successful florist, with a chance of having things 
comfortable for her old age. If she has still kept her early enthusiasms, 
she may then have a chance to realize some of her ideals; but unless 
she has capital to begin with and competent helpers or partners, she 
will find a florist's life one of hard work, anxiety, and little or no relaxa- 
tion or social life. 

" I should much like to hear the experiences of other women who have 
taken up various phases of horticultural work, and to learn whether 
they have been able to make a success of their business, and at the same 
time keep sufficiently in touch with the live interests of the day, and 
with some social life, so that their lives are broader than their busi- 
nesses." 

NOTES 
The Report of the New York Botanical Garden on the 
cultivation of drug plants will appear in the July or August 
issue of the New York Botanical Garden Journal. Copies 
can be obtained from the New York Botanical Garden by 
those interested in drug-plant cultivation. 

[29] 



Value of Bees in Horticulture and Agriculture. — 
Some idea of the value of bees for the gardener and farmer 
may be estimated from the following facts: An ordinary 
hive in the summer contains no fewer than 20,000 bees. 
About 80 bees leave the hive every minute, say, from 8 A. M. 
until 5 P. M., making in all 43,000 flights per day, and during 
each of these flights the bee visits about 50 blooms, making 
more than 2,000,000 visits each day. Thus it will be seen 
that in a season of one hundred fine days one colony alone 
may pollinate no fewer than 200,000,000 blooms. — Gardeners' 
Chronicle, London. 

Women in Agriculture. — Over 60,000 women have 
already registered for war service in the labor exchanges of 
the British Isles, and 7000 of these have asked for agri- 
cultural employment. The various schemes of training in 
agriculture which have been undertaken by the Board of 
Trade are progressing very satisfactorily, and the inspector 
reports that the women appear to be enjoying the work and 
that they far exceeded expectation in energy, enthusiasm, 
and capacity. Agricultural colleges and women's horti- 
cultural societies are cooperating. Efforts are made to use 
the women in their own counties. 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden. — "The Second Annual 
Children's Garden Exhibit" leaflet, issued by the Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden, is a model. The exhibit is held September 
24th and 25th, and the leaflet describes fully the measures 
the child must take, both to exhibit with his school exhibit 
and by himself. Those leaflets are published bi-weekly from 
April to June and from September to October inclusive by 
the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 

Home Vegetable Growing. — The Garden Club of 
America has prepared an excellent leaflet on growing vege- 
tables on a plot 30 feet by 20 and saving money. Directions 
for growing seventeen vegetables are given. 

Bermuda or Wire Grass. — This grass is at the same 
time a valuable forage plant and a serious weed pest, 
depending on where it is growing. Its chief field of use- 
fulness is in the Southern States, where sections of the root- 
stocks are scattered broadcast and harrowed in. Bermuda 
grass is sometimes planted with hairy vetch. It makes 
good hay when cut early, and two crops can ordinarily be 
cut each year. — U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

Uses for Honey. — Farmer's Bulletin No. 653, published 
by the Department of Agriculture, gives various ways of 

[30] 



using honey. It is an excellent substitute in many recipes 
for sugar and molasses, the resulting flavor often being 
novel and agreeable. Cakes made with it will keep much 
longer than when made with sugar. The Bulletin gives 
many recipes, including one for Honey Charlotte Russe. 

Trap the House-fly. — "A Maggot Trap in Practical 
Use" is the title of Bulletin No. 200. It describes the trap, 
which in the end is probably cheaper than the screens, 
sprays, fly-nets now necessary to the farmer. The suc- 
cessful operation of the trap rests upon several facts con- 
nected with the habits of the house-fly, which have been 
thoroughly established by observation. — U. S. Dept. of 
Agriculture. 

The Lancaster County (Penna.) Florists' Associa- 
tion will hold a Dahlia Show at the Lancaster Co. fair, 
September 28 to October 1, 19 15. The prizes of the 
amateur class will be $5.00 and $2.50 for double show, 
pompon, peony flowered, and single cactus. The prizes 
of the florist collection will be $10.00 and $5.00. To the 
person showing the largest number of varieties of dahlias 
correctly labeled, bloomed by himself in Lancaster city 
and county, a silver cup will be awarded. 

NEW BOOKS 

The Well-considered Garden. Mrs. Francis King, New York. C. 

Scribner's Sons. Illus. $2.00. 

For a book like Mrs. King's we have waited long, and many will 
welcome it. To "garden finely" is the desire of an increasing number 
of American gardeners, and here is to be found the help we all need. 
Mrs. King does not deal with cultural directions (sending us to Bailey 
for these), but her sound advice on what to plant and where to plant, 
on color harmony and arrangements, is founded on real knowledge and 
experience. It is, moreover, imparted to us in such readable style and 
with such genuine enthusiasm that one feels the power behind the very 
simplicity. The chapters on companion crops, succession crops, and 
midsummer pomps will appeal strongly to many, but it is all so valuable 
that one can hardly choose, and we should all own the book. 

The Key to the Land. By Frederick F. Rockwell. New York, 

Harper and Brothers. 213 pp. Illus. $1.00. 

Written in popular story form, this book contains many useful hints 
and real advice. A family of four undertakes to make a living from an 
old farm, and in spite of many difficulties, succeeds. The strongest 
points in the book are the father's recognition of his own ignorance and 
eager grasping of every opportunity to learn — from a near-by Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station, from his neighbors, even from a tramp. The 
right kind of economy is practised and preached, the care of agricultural 
implements, winter work to forestall spring overwork, and cooperative 
use of horses, men, and machinery. The book is more practical than 
many of its kind. — E. C. Wood. 

[31] 



NEW MEMBERS TO JULY I, 1915 

Honorary member elected by the Council: 

President Kenyon L. Butterfield, Mass. Agricultural College. 

Anderson, Miss E. M Winsted, Conn. 

Austen, Miss E. Alice Rosebank, Staten Island, N. Y. 

Bahlke, Mrs. W. A 608 State Street, Alma, Mich. 

Bailey, Mrs. D. R 412 Fassett Street. Toledo. Ohio 

Beveridge, Mrs. Henry L 1801 N. Penn Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Bissell, Miss Mary C 19 Pelham Road, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Biswanger, Miss Frida E 6407 N. Twelfth Street, Philadelphia 

Britton, Mrs. N. L 2965 Decatur Ave., New York City 

Burgdorff, Mr. F. J 73 Hollywood Ave., East Orange, N. J. 

Burlingame, Miss Josephine L 37 Madison Avenue, New York 

Burnham, Mrs. Lewis Berwyn, Pa. 

Butcher, Miss Theodora S., Manager of the Bureau of Occupations for Trained Women, 

1302 Spruce Street, Philadelphia 

Clinedinst, Mrs. Benjamin West Pawling, Dutchess County, N. Y. 

Cross, Mrs. R. J Bearfort House, Newfoundland, N. J. 

Cumbler, Mrs. Martin A The Yellow House, Highspire, Pa. 

Cunningham, Mrs. J. W 797 Ocean Avenue, West End, N. J. 

Davenport, Mrs. Henry J 253 Rugby Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Davies, Miss Mary Allen 306 Union Avenue, Swarthmore, Pa. 

Dommerich, Mrs. Alex. L Benedict Place, Greenwich, Conn. 

Dunn, Mrs. Alta Booth Cody, Wyoming 

Du Pont, Mr. Henry F Winterthur, Delaware 

Durand, Mr. Herbert Lawrence Park, Bronxville, N. Y. 

Eames, Mrs. Henry C R.F.D. No. 3, New Milford, Conn. 

Ergenzinger, Mrs. G. J R.F.D. 6s (Box 7), Grandville, Mich. 

Falkenhausen, Miss Margaret von 852 Municipal Building, New York City 

Fausner, Mrs. C. E 1258 84th Street, Dyker Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Fletcher, Mrs. Peter 615 Palisade, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Frew, Mrs. W. N 6515 5th Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Gallup, Mrs. Francis 9 East 17th Street, New York 

George, Miss Theodora 72 Pennsylvania Avenue, Rosebank, S. I., N. Y. 

Gignoux, Miss Elise M Great Neck, L. I., N. Y. 

Goodrich, Miss Louise M., Pratt Institute Women's Club, 166 Willoughby Avenue, 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

Groesbeck, Mrs. G. B Elmhurst, East Walnut Hills, Cincinnati 

Hamilton, Mrs. Mary E 330 West 15th Street, New York 

Havemeyer, Mrs. H. 1 East 66th Street, New York 

Hawkes, Mrs. McDougall 8 East 53d Street, New York 

Hays, Miss Anne K South Nyack, N. Y. 

Helmer, Mrs. George J Nyack, N. Y. 

Hifton, Miss Henriette Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

Hilliard, Mrs. W. H. R 204 South Homewood Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Holdt, Miss Marie F 112 Waverly Place, New York 

Homans, Miss Nathalie W 161 Emerson Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Homans, Miss Susan Tyng 121 Maple Avenue, Flushing, N. Y. 

Hubbell, Mrs. George W 128 East 34th Street, New York, and Greenwich, Ct. 

Hutchinson, Mr. Charles Corn Exchange National Bank. Chicago, 111. (Life.) 

Jarrett, Mrs. Edwin Wild Goose Farm, Shepherdstown, West Va. 

Jones, Miss Eleanor P 22s Mill Street, Haverhill, Mass. 

Kean, Miss Elizabeth Ursino, Elizabeth, N. J. 

Kellogg, Mrs. Frederick S New York Mills, N. Y. 

King, Miss A. P 316 Rhodes Avenue, New Castle, Pa. 

King, Miss Elizabeth Orchard House, Alma, Mich. 

King, Mrs. Edward 316 Rhodes Avenue. New Castle, Pa. 

Knox, Mrs. J. H. M., Jr 211 Wendover Road, Guilford, Baltimore, Md. 

Levey, Mrs. Louis H 2902 North Meridian Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Lloyd, Mrs. Finley Hall Red Gables, Shields. Pa. 

Loines, Miss Elma 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mclntyre, Miss Lucy 303 West 74th Street, New York 

McKeen, Miss Anna L Jewel's Island, Maine 

Macy, Mrs. V. Everit Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Mayo, Mrs. G. E 306 Masten Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Melish, Mrs. Thomas G 363 Lafayette Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Mercer, Mrs. William R Doylestown, Pa. 

Miller, Miss Nancy SS20 Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Moshier, Mrs. George (Sheltered Nook, R. 65), Grandville, Mich. 

Mumford, Miss Harriet A 2 East 41st Street, New York 

Mumford, Mrs. John K. . . .R.F.D., Athens, N. Y., and 2 East 41st Street, N. Y. City 

Murphy, Mrs. Henry K 154 East 37th Street, New York 

Neilson, Miss Sarah Mitchell 72 Penn Avenue, Rosebank, Staten Island, N. Y. 

Newbold, Miss Catherine A 109 East 72d Street, New York 

Newbold, Miss Edith 109 East 72d Street, New York 



[32] 



Nichols, Mrs. William Edwin Hubbard Woods, 111. (Associate member. 

O'Reilly, W 6801 17th Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Oldys, Mr. Henry Silver Spring, Md. 

Owen, Miss Lizzie 510 West 124th Street, New York, and Middle Hope, N. Y. 

Pell, Mrs. Stephen Colony Club. New York 

Piatt, Mrs. Charles A 135 East 66th Street, New York 

Powell, Miss Rachel H 490 West End Avenue, New York 

Rehmann, Miss Elsa 492 Mount Prospect Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

Reid, Miss Katherine W 44 Vernon Avenue, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Ridgely, Mrs. Martin E Woodside Farms, Benson, Md. 

Rollinson, Miss Helen W 512 Jefferson Avenue, Elizabeth, N. J. 

Ross, Mrs. Walter H 215 Jefferson Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Royle, Mrs. Emily Taplin Maywood, N. J. 

Sandford, Miss Catherine W 508 West 114th Street, New York 

Sanford, Mrs. George B Lawrence, L. I., N. Y. 

Satterlee, Mrs. Herbert L 37 East 36th Street, New York 

Schultz, Mrs. Frederick 382 East 197th Street, Bronx, New York 

Service, Mrs. Charles A Bala, Montgomery Co., Pa. 

Smith, Mrs. Edward B Gwynedd Valley, Pa. (Associate member.) 

Smith, Mrs. F. W Saint Albans, Vt. 

Smith, Mrs. Gerrit 54 Summit Avenue, Nyack, N. Y. 

Spencer, Mrs. Samuel, 2012 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D. C, and Tuxedo Park, 
N. Y. 

Spingarn, Mrs. J. E Amenia, Dutchess Co., N. Y. 

Steers, Mrs. J. R Port Chester, N. Y. 

Stone, Miss Ellen J 34 East 50th Street, New York 

Swift, Mrs. Alice L 20 North College Avenue, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Thompson, Mrs. L Lake Geneva, Wis. 

Tomkins, Mrs. Calvin 21 West 10th Street, New York 

Tooker, Miss Mary R Evergreen Place, East Orange, N. J. 

Tracy, Miss Edith Hastings Stockbridge, Mass. 

Turnbull, Miss Eleanor 1530 Park Avenue, Baltimore, Md. 

Vaillant, Miss Abby A Washington, Conn. 

Van Etten, Mrs. Lawrence E Beechmont, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Waite, Miss Ella R Hull House, Chicago, 111. 

Weikert, Miss Olga Central Avenue, Richmond Hill, N. Y. 

Weld, Mrs. Francis Minot. 6s East 82d Street, New York 

Westcote, Mrs. Hester H..". Wingaersbeck, Gloucester, Mass. 

Whidden, Miss Marian Tenn. Coal, Iron and R. R. Co., Birmingham, Ala. 

Williams, Mrs. George G Farmington, Conn. 

Winslow, Miss Sophy 456 St. James Place, Chicago, 111. 

Witherbee, Mrs. Frank S 4 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Wolcott, Mrs. H. W 157 Steward Avenue, Jackson, Mich. 

Worden, Mrs. C. S 817 Neck Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Wright, Miss Hannah P Logan, Philadelphia, Pa. 



AUXILIARY BRANCH OF THE W. N. A. & H. A., 
THE GARDEN CLUB OF YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO 

Formed July, 191$. Miss Martha Owsley, Organizer 

Mrs. A. E. Adams Broadway and Fifth Ave., Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. George T. Arrel Lincoln Ave. and Bryson St., Youngstown, O. 

Miss Lida F. Baldwin 1616 Glenwood Ave., Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. L. E. Cochran 741 Wick Ave., Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. George Clegg Hubbard Road. Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. Myron Dennison Poland, O. 

Mrs. W. B. Hall Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. R. P. Hartshorne 244 N. Heights Ave., Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. C. D. Hine Wick Ave., Youngstown, O. 

Miss Belle Pyle Elm St., Youngstown, O. 

Miss Caroline Smith 512 Bryson St., Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. W. A. Smith 246 Broadway, Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. Walter Stett Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. Lloyd Schuman Park Ave., Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. Henry Tod Lincoln Ave. and Elm St., Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. David Tod Hubbard, O. 

Mrs. W. H. Warner Canfield, O. 

Mrs. T. H. Whiteside Pleasant Grove, Youngstown, O. 

Mrs. L. A. Woodward Poland, O 



[33] 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 

Haarlem, Holland 
Grower of 

Choice Bulbs 



Bulbs Imported direct from 
Holland for Customers. No 
supply kept here. Catalogue 
quoting prices in Nurseries in 
Haarlem — free on application. 

E. J. Krug, Sole Agent 

112 Broad Street 
New York 

(Successor to C C. Abel A Co.) 




MEEHANS' 
Mallow Marvels 

are now brightening the 
finest properties everywhere 

THOMAS MEEHAN 
&SONS 

Pioneer Nurserymen 

of America 

Box 19 Germantown 

Philadelphia, Pa. 




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School 

of Horticulture for 

Women 

(Eighteen miles from Philadelphia) 
Ambler, Pa. 

Practical and theoretical training in the grovrint 
of Fruit, Veeetables and Flowers. Bees. Simple 
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in Landscape Gardening. Constant demand for 
trained women to fill salaried positions. Write 
for Catalogue . 

Jessie T. Morgan, Director 

Potatoes 

and AppkS 
for Fall Delivery 
Mrs. Robert S. Newhall 

Camp Wyalusing 
Little Meadows P. O. 

Susquehanna County, Pa. 



Bewley Farm 

Old English 
Sheep Dogs 

Ayrshire Cattle 

Sweet Butter 
Fresh Eggs 



Mrs. Edward Parker Davis 

Newtown, Bucks Co. 

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Do You Know Puschkinias ? 

If not, you have missed the most lovely harbinger of Spring. 
Appearing in April in its lovely dress of sky-blue, it dec- 
orates our gardens in such a charming manner that we 
shall vow to never miss it again in our gardens. 
Bulbs must be planted in October — we book orders now 
Per 100, $1.00; per 1000, $9.00 
This is only one of the hundreds of other flowers which you 
ought to know and which are fully described in the 

Heatherhome Bulb Book for 1915 

A free copy will be mailed to you, if you will kindly apply 



Flower Talks 

by Maurice Fuld 

A monthly paper devoted to the 
practical growing of flowers for the 
amateur exclusively. Sample copies 
mailed free. Per copy, 5 cents; per 
year, 50 cents. 



The Home of Heather 
Knight & Struck Co. 

Plantsmen, Seedsmen 

One Madison Avenue 

New York, N. Y. 



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Did You See Our Wonderful Iris 

blooming at the great Panama- Pacific 

Exposition ? 

Do You Know that at the greatest Peony 

Show ever held in Boston the American Peony Society 

awarded us the Gold Medal for best collection of over one 

hundred .named varieties of Peonies ? 

Do You Know that we have the largest collection of rare and beautiful 

Peonies to be found in the entire world ? 
Would you enjoy having some of these exquisite blossoms in your own 

gardens ? 

Then send for our catalog which will put you in the way of achieving the 

best results 

Stock shipped with safety to any part of the world 

Cherry Hill Nurseries 

T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc. 

West Newbury, Mass. 
Box 80 



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The 

Well -Considered 

Garden 



The author has a graceful style, and is so 
deeply in love with her subject that what she has 
to say is 6ure to find a ready reading and willing 
response." — Horticulture, Boston. 

"Mrs. King's work is both sound and inspiring, 
and who6o has or dreams of a garden will do well 
to peruse it forthwith." — Chicago Herald. 

Illustrated. $2.00 net 



Continuous Bloom 
in America 



This volume will supply what has long been 
wished by gardeners — a comprehensive scheme 
for continuous bloom, presented from the point 
of view of one aiming to give in the simplest, 
briefest way the necessary information for beauti- 
fying a garden. The entire volume is so in- 
geniously arranged and equipped with indexes, 
catalogues, etc., as to be exceedingly convenient 
for practical use; and the peculiar quality of the 
author's style make it a pleasure to read. 

Illustrated. 4to $2.00 



IN PREPARATION 

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By Louise Shelton, Author of "The Seasons in a Flower Garden' 

And the Effect of Climate in Various Sections 

Beautifully illustrated nvith more than 170 photographs and with 8 full-page 

color reproductions. 4to $5.00 



Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 



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Plant Trees With 



Red Cross 

Explosives 

T> LASTING the soil before 
■D setting the tree makes the 
soil porous and mellow. Better 
root systems are secured be- 
cause of deeper and wider root 
beds. Moisture is conserved 
and is available for the needs of ma- 
turing trees in the dry seasons. 
Plant trees in blasted soil and insure 
their lives against the first-year losses. 

DuPont PowderCo. 

Wilmington, Delaware 



Bulbs c°u"r 

I have been specializing in growing bulbs in 

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Prices, SO cents, $1.00, $2.00 

Bags of Fibre, 25 cents. 50 cents 
Write for Circular 

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1 Hillside Avenue 
Melrose, Mass. 

Bearing Dwarf 
Apple Trees 

Eight years old, root pruned and 
ready for transplanting this fall. 

Also all kinds of Standard and Dwarf 
Fruit Trees and Other Nursery Stock 

Samuel Fraser 
Box N, Geneseo, New York 



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Consider Moons' Evergreens 
for August Planting 

They make lawns attractive 365 days in the year. 
In Winter, when one misses the fleeting flowers of 
previous months and the verdure of leaf-dropping 
trees and shrubbery, evergreens brighten a place 
and provide a wholesome enjoyment out-of-doors. 

Moons* are headquarters for Evergreens. They have 

over 100 acres of them; 285 varieties. Here will be 

found an Evergreen for Every Place or Purpose. 

SEND FOR CATALOG 



The William H. Moon Company 

Philadelphia Office: NURSERYMEN The Moon Nursei 

21 South Twelfth ., • •„ D Corporation 

Street MOmSVllle, Ta. white Plains. N. 1 

Delicious Jellies, Preserves, Pickles, Canned Fruit 
and Vegetables 

" Made in Virginia " by Well-tried Recipes. Reasonable Prices 
Address orders to 

G. Mathews, Gardener 

Hill Crest, Richmond, Va. 
R. F. D. No. 2 



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WOMEN'S NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 

QUARTERLY 



CONTENTS 

Orris Root Caroline Coleman 

Efficient Marketing of Farm Produce 

D. G. Mellor 

Orchard Reclamation J. M. Field 

Important Requirements in the Back- 

to-the-Land Movement G. T. Powell 

A Woman's Plant M. A. Romans 

Native Plants for American Gardens 

R. S. Thayer 

Training for Emergencies M. L. Dock 

Farm Experience Supplied A. M. Seaton Smith 

Learn of the Earth (Poem)* 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer 



November, 1915 



Reprinted by permission from Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, Poems, Copyrighted, ioio, by 
The MacMillan Co. 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 

Association 



Founded "to promote agricultural and horticultural interests among 
women and to further such interests throughout the country." 

OFFICERS 

President 
Mrs. Francis King Alma, Michigan 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer New York 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer Huntington, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 



Council 



Mr. Bernard N. Baker 
Miss Emma Blakiston 
Miss Louisa G. Davis 
Mrs. C. W. Deusner 
Mrs. H. B. Fullerton 
Miss J. B. Haines 
Miss Margaret Jackson 
Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 
Mrs. Francis King 
Mrs. J. H. Lancashire 



Miss Hilda Loines 

Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning 

Miss Louise Klein Miller 

Miss E. H. Peale 

Mr. George T. Powell 

Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang 

Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Dean R. L. Watts 

Miss Mary Youngs 



Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee 



Office of the Association, 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 
Telephone Plaza 6638 

Copyrighted, 1915, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 

Vol. II, No. 2 QUARTERLY November, 1915 



ORRIS ROOT 

The great variety of Iris is not confined to a mere change 
in color and size, but each kind seems to have its own par- 
ticular value and place. The oldtime blue flag of our child- 
hood remembrance is as much a part of the old-fashioned 
garden as the oak tree is of the forest. Its root, by the way, 
is very generally used by the Negroes of the South for 
medicinal purposes. Nothing could be more hardy than 
the old blue flag, and it has always enjoyed the advantage 
of flourishing under the edges of the stately syringa, the 
generous snowball, etc. 

Of all the great Iris family, there is only one that has the 
sweet root. This is the Florentine. Its blossom is larger, 
its blade much taller, and its frequent exquisite lilac coloring 
are additional assets. Most of the orris root we buy comes 
from Italy, where it is extensively raised for commercial 
purposes. It often reaches us old and stale — why not grow 
it for ourselves? The Florentine iris has many desirable 
qualifications for introduction into the select circles of our 
well-bred gardens. It is, moreover, a beautiful fact, and 
it does pan out as a commercial success. I feel sure that 
any one who has ever experimented with a farm, tried its 
various branches of livestock, sowed money in orchards and 
fields, and reaped a great harvest of experience and weeds, 
will hail with eager delight one thing that really pays. 
There is always a demand for orris root — the wholesale 
chemists are glad to get it in large quantities. 

It takes about three years to form a good root. It is 

Published quarterly for the W. N. A. and H. A. by J. B. Haines at 
Cheltenham, Pa. 
Subscription price, $ .50 per year. 

Entered as Second-class matter March 22, 1915, at the post office at Cheltenham 
under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 

[3] 



usually planted in the fall, though mine was put out in the 
spring. The ground should be high and dry, with plenty 
of sunshine and free from tree roots. Should a Florentine 
iris be set in a low, wet spot, the root will lose its sweetness. 
A bulb in one year multiplies to three or four; in two years 
there will be eight or ten, and in the third year at least 
fifteen bulbs. They should be dug in the fall of the third 
year, the hard root between the bulbs separated, washed, 
scraped, and dried in the sun. When thoroughly dry, it is 
ready to be ground into powder. 

When the Florentine iris is properly planted, it requires 
little or no attention for three years other than an occasional 
weeding. If there is any indication of sour soil, a little 
sprinkle of lime is very beneficial. It is well to use some, 
anyhow. It is not necessary that the ground should be very 
rich, but a border can be prepared in the same way as for 
the usual vegetables. The bulbs should be planted about 
two feet apart, and when put out in the fall they will bloom 
the next May. This will reward the gardener with a great 
phalanx of large white or lavender fleur-de-lis, wonderfully 
decorative and deliciously fragrant. 

Probably my own experience will give a clearer idea of 
what can be done on a small scale. I planted ioo bulbs in 
March, 191 1. They were left to their own sweet will for 
more than three years. During that time I had a beauti- 
ful hedge of green blades at the back of the garden, throwing 
a gigantic walnut tree into bold relief. I gathered great 
quantities of the blossoms each May, and last October I 
dug about 1700 bulbs and two barrels of root (underground). 
Now, aside from its commercial value, the vigorous growth 
of the gray-green blades along the sides or back of any 
garden makes a wonderful background for summer flowers, 
such as poppies, zinnias, asters, etc. 

Orris-raising could easily be taken up on a large scale and 
a good income derived therefrom. This seems to me to be 
a great opportunity for any woman who lives in the country. 
I have often deplored the inability to see the beauty in 
nature in those who really live with it. To this lamentably 
large class the esthetic value of the orris will not appeal, 
but the multiplication of figures and value received will 
make a welcome exchange for some, at least, of their much 
more arduous work. 

Orris raising is a real fact and not a theory. Far be it 
from me to emphasize the joys that are the portion of the 
farmer's wife, or to overemphasize cash value, when that is 
already her chief point of view; but when we can lighten 
her responsibilities and possibly cultivate her taste for the 
[4] 



beautiful it is a consummation devoutly to be wished. 
And for ourselves, it is a most delightful and satisfactory 
bit of gardening. 

Virginia. Caroline Coleman. 

EFFICIENT MARKETING OF FARM PRODUCE 

I have been asked to say something to you about the 
"Efficient Marketing of Farm Produce." During the 
past two years I have given this subject very close attention 
on behalf of Wells Fargo & Co., and will tell you what our 
express is doing in that direction. 

Farm produce must, first of all, be good and in demand. 
When such has been raised, there remains for considera- 
tion the question of how to market the crop for more than 
the cost of production. Until recently this very important 
subject has not been given the attention it deserves. In my 
opinion, it should have serious consideration, even in ad- 
vance of production. 

Time and money are often wasted in producing inferior 
grades. Quantity, not quality, seems to be the one idea 
of many producers. As a result, there is as much dissatis- 
faction regarding prices among those who raise produce to 
sell as there is among those who buy it. Increased efficiency 
on the part of both the producer and the consumer will help 
both toward better results. 

This question of the cost of living has hit the express 
companies as hard as it has the individual. In 1913, when 
the officials of Wells Fargo & Co. saw their earnings were 
seriously threatened by the Parcels Post, and by the new 
rates ordered effective by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, they realized that it was necessary to secure new 
business and to handle it under the most efficient conditions. 
When they cast about for new business, some one having 
an intimate knowledge of what we have always been doing 
in developing the growth and marketing of food products, 
particularly in the West, suggested that the broadening of 
that work through the organization of a separate depart- 
ment devoted wholly to it promised the best results for the 
company. This would make our service not only more 
remunerative to us, but also more useful to the farmer. 
As a result, our Food Products Department was organ- 
ized. We are a part of the Traffic Department, with a 
manager in New York city, assisted by eight industrial 
agents located in Baltimore, Cleveland, Chicago, St. Louis, 
Kansas City, Houston, Seattle, and San Francisco. Our 
duties are of a very general character, and cover anything 
[5] 



that promises to be useful to producer, dealer, or consumer. 
We familiarize ourselves with the products obtainable in 
our territory — their general quality and quantity, when 
they mature, how packed, and where marketed. We learn 
what produce that might be sold to good advantage is not 
grown in certain districts, and endeavor to interest some one 
in it. We secure data regarding the kind and size of pack- 
age required by law or practice in convenient markets, 
and suggest where they may be bought. The names of 
dealers, hotels, restaurants, and other consumers living in 
towns along our lines are tabulated and given to producers 
who are interested in better markets, and the names of pro- 
ducers located on our lines are given to dealers and others 
who are anxious to secure more and better produce. This 
starts correspondence between them, followed by the move- 
ment of fruit, vegetables, butter, eggs, etc., from the farm, 
not only to the large cities, but to many small towns that, 
under ordinary circumstances, would not receive any of the 
melons, peaches, berries, etc., grown practically at their 
door. This minimizes the opportunity for glutted markets in 
which prices are often forced below the cost of transportation. 
To illustrate: July I, 1914, Wells Fargo succeeded the 
United States Express on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 
The B. and O. officials called our attention to the large crop 
of particularly fine peaches maturing at several points on 
their line in West Virginia in the Cumberland district. 
I went there immediately and found the crop was all it had 
been reported to be. A few years ago a farmer planted 
peaches on the cut over top of a mountain, where the soil 
is covered with broken limestone and resembles a rock- 
ballasted railway right of way. The trees thrived — in a 
few years they began to bear wonderful fruit. The story 
spread through the country for miles around, peach trees 
by the thousands were planted on all the surrounding moun- 
tain-tops, and last year saw about 40 per cent, of them bear- 
ing. I drove many miles over that mountain country, 
saw and talked with the farmers, learned where they planned 
to sell their fruit, the kind of containers they had bought, 
etc. A few large city markets seemed to be in their minds 
very generally. I felt that a very much wider market 
would be necessary if satisfactory results were to be ob- 
tained, and suggested that we would undertake to cir- 
cularize our agents at all fair-sized towns on lines we 
operated east of Chicago and St. Louis, tell our agents 
about the fine fruit, when it would begin to mature, and 
instruct them to call upon all dealers in their cities, advise 
them about the peaches, and leave with each dealer a list 
[6] 



of the growers that we had prepared and sent with our cir- 
cular letter. This idea appealed to the leading orchardists, 
and the advice was sent out within a day or two. In our 
circular we also called for information from our agents re- 
garding the quantity and quality and maturing date of any 
locally grown peaches. We also asked our agents for the 
names of dealers in their city, and how many baskets of 
really fine peaches they thought they could sell daily. 
These data were compiled in convenient form and given to 
the growers. People at each end of the line began to write 
those at the other end. New opportunities for trade sprang 
up. Two thousand carloads of fruit moved to a very large 
number of markets and were sold at good prices — much 
better than would have been pbssible had they gone to 
only a few markets. No glut occurred anywhere. Busi- 
ness acquaintances were started that will revive again each 
year, and in all probability result in the continuation of a 
good market, even for the natural annual increase to be 
expected from the trees that bore last year and also from 
the very large number of trees that will begin to bear this 
year and in years to come. 

The latest example of Wells Fargo's usefulness comes 
from the Imperial Valley of southern California. Green peas 
were produced there early in March, 1914, in large quantities 
for the first time. The growers packed them in 65-pound 
sacks and expressed them to Los Angeles, San Francisco, etc. 
When they arrived at destination, many were spoiled be- 
cause the sacks, packed closely together, shut off all ventila- 
tion, and prices were seriously affected by the poor condition. 

We sent our industrial agent into the valley by the first 
train. The burlap sacks were immediately banished, crates 
being substituted ; racks were put into the cars ; when the 
crates of peas were properly packed on these, air circulated 
freely and better results were secured. But the crates ob- 
tainable in the valley at a moment's notice were not en- 
tirely satisfactory. A telegram was sent to New York for 
samples of the most satisfactory containers used in the 
southeastern States for shipping peas. Other Wells Fargo 
industrial agents were called upon for advice. The agent 
in South Texas sent valuable data. As a result, a container 
was made that carried these delicious vegetables safely 
to California markets and to Chicago, 2000 miles away. 
The peas arrived in splendid condition and were readily 
sold at prices that netted the grower more than double what 
he could realize in California markets at that season. 

D. G. Mellor. 
{Concluded in the February number.) 
[7] 



ORCHARD RECLAMATION BY MODERN 
METHODS 

My experiment in orchard reclamation began in the fall 
of 191 1. I had been in possession for some years of a farm 
on which was an old orchard set during the time of my 
grandfather. It had practically never received any care 
or attention, and its condition was ample proof of this fact. 
The trunks and larger limbs were covered with the scabby, 
scaly bark of two or three seasons' previous growth; the 
tops contained many dead, decaying limbs; the limbs which 
were alive were crossed and matted, and held a moderate 
yield of dried-up, rotten apples, while the bases of the trunks 
were encircled by a good crop of sprouts. 

As I had plenty of young trees growing vigorously, it 
would have seemed but the part of wisdom to have destroyed 
these old ones, but I wished to use them in an experiment 
to see what could be accomplished in the way of putting 
new life into them by modern methods. I felt reasonably 
certain that the judicious use of the pruning knife and pre- 
ventive spray mixtures above ground, and dynamite below, 
would work as great a transformation in those trees as has 
the surgeon's knife and the physician's pill in the reclama- 
tion of the bodies of many men. 

I began the process by simultaneously exploding four 
quarter-pound charges of 40 per cent, dynamite to each 
tree when soil and subsoil were dry, each charge being at a 
depth of 30 inches and at right angles to each other, each 
charge 10 feet distant from the base of tree, which caused 
the soil and subsoil to hold in suspension barrels of moisture, 
enabling the tiny feeders to secure an abundance of nour- 
ishment hitherto inaccessible. 

Then I removed all the loose, shaggy bark from the trunks 
and large limbs by scraping with a hoe; also the accumula- 
tions of rotten leaves in the forks and crotches, and picked 
all the rotten apples, which, with all refuse under each tree, 
was gathered together and burned. 

Then I pruned, determined to be unmerciful. I cut off 
the thrifty bunches of sprouts at the base of each tree trunk. 
All dead or broken limbs were removed. Next I cut out 
such of the live limbs as unduly obstructed the entrance of 
the sunlight or caused the tree to appear unbalanced. 
Each limb was cut close to the body, and each wound 
promptly painted with roofing paint. I had no set rule to 
follow in doing the pruning, but kept in mind the ideal of 
an open, well-balanced tree, and then used a little "horse- 
sense" in working to attain that ideal. 
[8] 



Early in March, 1912, while the trees were yet dormant, 
I began my campaign of spraying. The first application 
was of lime sulphur, 20 gallons to each 200-gallon tank, 
applied through fine nozzles, pressure-gage registering 225. 
Just before blooming period the second application was 
made, using 6 gallons of lime sulphur and 8 pounds of lead 
arsenate to each tank, same nozzles and pressure used as 
before. 

Third application was made when the bloom was off, 
but before the calyx cups were closed. The solution applied 
was 4 pounds lead arsenate to each tank. This time I 
used Bordeaux nozzles under 250 pounds pressure. 

About June 1, 1 applied 16 pounds lump lime, 16 pounds 
bluestone, and 8 pounds lead arsenate to each tank, using 
whirlpool nozzles under 200 pounds pressure. 

The fifth and last application was made about July 1, 
and the solution was the same as that used in application 
No. 4 and described in preceding paragraph. 

No solution was allowed to stand over night, and the 
spraying was done only on sunshiny days. All the way 
through the work was done according to the very best ad- 
vice I could get from the United States Agricultural De- 
partment and North Carolina Experiment Station. 

The early trees began to give returns in July, 19 12, 
among the number being nine horse-apple trees, which 
produced 2*] yi bushels of prime fruit in a season of great 
scarcity, which I readily sold at $2.00 per bushel; two Vir- 
ginia Beauty trees, 15 bushels, bringing $1.50 per bushel 
at Thanksgiving; one Shockley produced 30 bushels, which 
I easily sold for $1.00 per bushel. An old Limbertwig, 31 
bushels, which brought $1.25 per bushel in February and 
March, 1913; three Edwards' Winter, 30 bushels, netting 
$37-50; nine Winesaps netted $84.00; two Mattamuskeets, 
$35.00; one Mountaineer, $12.50. 

Thus from 28 trees which in the past several years had 
produced only small yields of unmarketable fruit, I had in 
the first season sold 248 bushels of first-class fruit, receiving 
$315.25. I figure that $115.25 would be ample to cover 
all cost of explosives, spray materials, labor, depreciation of 
power outfit, and all other items of expense in connection 
with the work done on the trees, thereby leaving me a clear 
profit of $200.00. This takes no account of 150 gallons of 
cider made from inferior fruit — inferior from the point of 
size only, all being practically sound and free from worms — 
nor of a plenteous supply for home consumption in canning 
and making jelly. 

In the two seasons since then the trees have been holding 
[9] 



well up to the record set in the first, no commercial ferti- 
lizers being used, only ashes and barnyard manure under 
drip or edge of limbs. I cannot say how long it will be 
before these trees will need the dynamite treatment again 
or cease to respond to the effect of spraying, though it 
would seem that ten or fifteen years would be a very con- 
servative estimate. 

North Carolina. J. M. Field. 



SOME IMPORTANT REQUIREMENTS IN THE 
BACK-TO-THE-LAND MOVEMENT 

For several years the congestion of population in our 
large cities, and the consequent lowering of wage-earning 
ability for large numbers, have caused a tendency to seek 
land as a source of more independent and certain living. 

In consequence of a very large and increasing class of 
unemployed, some of the most vital industrial and social 
problems are arising that our country has yet had to meet. 
Three-quarters of the nations of Europe are engaged in a 
war that is the most destructive to life and property that 
has ever been known in the history of the world, from which 
it will require two centuries to recover. 

The effect of this war upon our international relations, 
commercially and in many ways, has been most seriously 
to affect the earning ability of very large numbers, whose 
salaries have in many instances been reduced 50 per cent., 
while many others have been without employment and 
means for support. Another large class has been deprived 
of income from securities that have ceased to produce divi- 
dends. 

These conditions have given rise to a general desire to 
own and to live from the land, and the pendulum is swinging 
back toward more of country living. 

For those who, without experience, desire to try to live 
from the land, certain requirements are necessary, and 
among them are knowledge of the soil, of its management, 
of methods of tillage, of fertilizers, of the insect life that lives 
upon every plant that grows, of the many diseases of plants, 
of the domestic animals and their care, which are essential 
in farm life. There is no occupation or business that re- 
quires a wider scope of knowledge than that of farming, 
and the fallacy that any one who has failed in other lines of 
business may be successful in farming has long since been 
exploded. 

The farmer of to-day needs to have scientific and practical 
[10] 



knowledge, for he requires some knowledge of geology — 
the science of the soil; of chemistry, for he has to deal with 
and use chemicals in many farm operations; of botany, for 
he is working with a large variety of trees and plants; of 
entomology, for the insect world has to be understood in 
order to save crops from injury and loss — as also the diseases 
of plants and of the domestic animals. There is no line of 
business in which so many factors are involved that require 
a more diversified knowledge. 

The labor problem is one of the most difficult for men in 
the farming of the present times, and it is a particularly 
difficult one for women . The only real solution for women in 
farming, and this is equally true for men, is cooperation. 
It is practically a hopeless undertaking for a woman to go 
out on a farm alone, in an isolated place, to take up any line 
of farming, gardening, or fruit culture, but it is possible for 
several to locate where they can work through cooperation, 
where they can employ a skilled adviser or director, and 
succeed in almost any line they would take up. There are 
advantages through cooperative organizations, in the em- 
ployment of labor, in the buying of supplies, and particularly 
in marketing, that an individual alone cannot obtain. 

This year, for want of more systematic distribution, and 
with the interruption in foreign marketing, there were vast 
quantities of apples that never were picked from the trees, 
while in certain potato-growing centers potatoes were sold 
for 15 and 25 cents a bushel, which did not pay the cost of 
production. Many crops were not taken out of the ground, 
yet there is not one bushel too many of apples or of potatoes 
for the consumer of our own country, when they have the 
purchasing ability necessary to meet their needs. 

Such unnecessary losses of valuable products may be 
prevented only by a general adoption of cooperation cov- 
ering all sections of our country, in order that information 
may be had at all times upon the quantity of products 
grown and to be marketed, and the distribution so made that 
certain sections and markets will not be over-supplied and 
glutted, while others will have a shortage. 

Were the underconsumption of foods, especially in the 
large cities of the United States, understood and known, it 
would be appalling. Every winter many thousands stand 
in bread-lines to be fed by charity. Only yesterday, 
before meeting the Committee on the Unemployed in New 
York city, I walked along a line of men who were buying 
a cup of coffee for one cent, a roll or a cheese sandwich for 
a cent at the Nathan Straus Coffee-house in City Hall Park, 
made possible by Mr. Straus' charity. I talked with the 
[11] 



men in relation to going out to work on farms. All said 
they would go, and many said they had had experience on 
farms and knew how to handle horses, plow, and cultivate 
crops, and milk and care for cows. Upon questioning one 
man as to which side of a cow he would milk, he was puzzled 
and could not tell. While there were a few men in the line 
who would be able to render good service on a farm, a large 
majority would be of no value and would not remain three 
days if they were sent into the country. 

Many are in the dependent class because of inefficiency 
in their work, but many more are there because of the drink 
habit, their families being deprived of the support they 
should have from the earnings of men who spend them in 
saloons. Alcoholism is one of the big problems that is 
confronting all nations. In our United States the drink 
bill of the nation has reached annually $2,500,000. For 
years the country saloon has been the curse of farm life. 
It has made farm labor inefficient, and has been one cause 
for lack of betterment in farming because of the shiftless- 
ness of many farm laborers who spend their evenings and 
earnings in country saloons. 

No nation that is spending such a vast amount for drink 
— and this is only the first cost — can hope for any large 
degree of prosperity, but the business interests of our coun- 
try are now realizing this fact, and they will be a powerful 
factor in diverting this expenditure in time into the channels 
of trade. When this is done, every wheel in every factory 
will have to run to the fullest capacity to meet the increased 
demands for the necessities of life, and every farm in the 
United States will have to increase its productions. 

It is only through cooperation that this great economic, 
social, and industrial problem can be successfully solved, 
and it will make more rapid progress in rural sections than 
in cities. The recent legislation on employees' liability 
and insurance is going to put every business corporation in 
time against the employment of men who drink, for they 
will not stand for the risk that is involved. 

Our educational system needs changing and broadening 
to meet the needs of the times. 

Our common schools fail to give the children the educa- 
tional opportunity that will be of greatest service to them 
when they are turned out upon the world to make their own 
living. Our schools have educated the boys and girls in 
the country away from the farm, too many of whom later 
find themselves in the ranks of the unemployed in the cities. 

The Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association is doing valuable educational work, and should 
[12] 



be heartily supported in these National Conferences, 
where subjects of vital importance to the welfare of our 
nation are given public discussion. Upon thousands of 
women in the devastated countries of Europe will devolve 
the responsibility of producing the future food supplies of 
the people, and already schools are established in which 
they are being given instruction in gardening and farming 
for this future work. 

How much better and wiser for our country in times of 
peace to consider the real needs of our great and growing 
population, that it may make possible the advantages of 
education and training that shall make for independent 
support and for individual and national prosperity. 
New York. George T. Powell. 

A WOMAN'S PLANT 

After four years' practical experience with poultry, being 
in the business for profit, and having proved to my own 
satisfaction that poultry does pay, I feel the spirit moving 
me to add a few "Don'ts" to the general chorus of "Do's" 
that one usually comes across in the average poultry journal. 
My "Don'ts," from a woman's standpoint, are: 
i. Don't go into the chicken business for a living, think- 
ing it an easy way to make money with quick returns. 

2. Don't think it just the thing for an invalid, or the aver- 
age man or woman (who generally has failed in some other 
business). 

3. Don't think it requires little or no capital. 

4. Don't think it means big money, except in rare cases. 

5. Don't think it all pretty fluffy baby chicks and at- 
tractive looking hens spending all their time filling egg 
baskets. (This is my last, but by no means least, Don't.) 

Take it from one who knows by actual experience what 
one has to contend with that it is dirty work, hard work, 
trying work, and an all-the-year-round job, Saturdays and 
Sundays included. 

I do not wish to discourage any one who seriously wishes 
to take up poultry, but I do feel that too much is written on 
the rosy, profit-making side, and too little on the working, 
practical side. 

If we poultry people wrote the truth, and nothing but the 
truth, there would be far fewer poultry ventures, and cor- 
respondingly fewer failures. 

Having shown the seamy side of the business, I am now 
going to show what can be accomplished by a woman with 
chickens, always asking you to bear in mind that I am not 
[13] 



advocating poultry keeping for any one not fond of hard 
manual labor. 

Starting with ten yearling hens, the flock of Early Bird 
Farm has been increased to between 400 and 500 layers. 

For the first three years, with the exception of the busy 
spring season, when I employed a boy, I carried on all this 
work myself. 

The profit from this business over running expenses has 
averaged from $2.00 to $2.35 per hen. It has come from the 
sale of eggs, sold mostly to private customers; from the 
sale of old birds, at market rates, broilers, and chicken 
droppings. 

After the first season I ceased to incubate, finding the 
buying of day-old chicks from a reliable hatchery every bit 
as satisfactory, a great saving of time and labor, and, most 
important of all, I can actually count my chicks before they 
are hatched. 

This profit has been gained at a time when the price of 
feed has been unusually high, and only the best has been 
used. 

Most of the eggs are shipped to city customers by express 
for quantities over four dozen, and by parcels post for light 
shipments. The quality and safe delivery of every egg are 
guaranteed, and by doing so we seldom lose a customer. 

Starting with personal friends, one customer has led to 
another, the orders increasing with the size of the flock. 

Very little advertising has been done. 

The reason why so many people fail with chickens is 
that they go into the business thinking they need little or no 
capital, and that it is pretty easy work, especially adapted 
to invalids, and with a nice big profit attached, whereas 
the contrary is the truth, and to make a living it requires 
enough capital to live on for the first three years. 

Unless it is a very large plant, one must do all the work 
oneself, just to gain a fair amount of profit for the labor in- 
volved. 

To my mind, it is either the very large plant for a living, 
or the small specialized plant, run as a side line to some 
other business, that pays. The "middling-sized" plant is 
mostly all work with very little profit. 

Long Island. Mary A. Homans. 

NATIVE PLANTS FOR AMERICAN GARDENS 

A visit of only a few days in England is enough to show 
that the love of flowers and of growing them is much greater 
there than here. Flowers are seen everywhere, in the win- 
[14] 



dow-boxes of towns and in the country, down even to the 
humblest cottages. Never before in the history of England 
has there been such a love of cultivating flowers as to-day, 
and it seems to me this is true of our own country as well. 
The Royal Horticultural Society has more than 10,000 
active members. Every county has horticultural societies, 
and flower-shows are held in every part of the country. 

The reason why flowers are more cultivated in England 
than they are in this country is not hard to find. The 
English have studied their local conditions and have 
adapted their gardening efforts to these conditions, while in 
America for many years we have tried to adopt (or adapt) 
the style of gardening of other countries, without consider- 
ing the fact that our conditions here made such adapta- 
tions impossible. An anecdote perhaps will illustrate my 
meaning. 

Some thirty or forty years ago a man who was possibly 
the most famous gardener of his day in America read in an 
English catalogue the account of a wonderful plant called 
Gaylussacia resinosa, which was described as bearing beauti- 
ful heath-like white flowers which were followed by abun- 
dant and delicious black fruits, while in the autumn the 
foliage of this wonderful plant assumed a marvelous scarlet 
color. The price of this plant was £2 (or $10.00) for each 
plant. The American, filled with enthusiasm, ordered a 
dozen, and when they arrived, gave them the best position 
in his garden and tended and watched them with the greatest 
care. One day one of his neighbors, better informed than 
himself, called on him, and, of course, was shown the won- 
derful plants. Imagine the feelings of the gardener when 
this friend smilingly informed him that Gaylussacia resinosa 
was the common huckleberry, and that he had an acre or 
two of them in his own woods. This story perhaps will 
show that if any one wants to be a good gardener, he must 
study and know the plants of his own neighborhood, and 
make these the basis of his garden operations. 

This same importer of the huckleberry plants (at $10.00 
a plant) devoted forty years of his life to trying to copy 
England on his own estate, by planting on it every conifer 
which had been found to succeed in England, and all sorts 
of rhododendrons and other broad-leaved evergreens. 
He would not for a moment have considered planting a 
white pine or a hemlock, because, as he said, they were 
common trees, and yet the white pine and the hemlock are 
among the noblest of all the evergreen trees of the world, 
and for the decoration of United States' parks and gardens 
infinitely superior to any trees of foreign countries. This 
[i5l 



same man, through his reputation, industry, the charm of 
his manner, and his knowledge of foreign gardens, foreign 
estates, especially those of England, had an immense in- 
fluence on his own country people, and for a generation led 
people in this country to try to bring England to America. 
Now I hope we have learned enough to plant more wisely 
and to realize that there are gardening possibilities here in 
New England as great or greater than in any other part of 
the world. England has a climate of mild winters and moist 
and comparatively cool summers. It has a climate in 
which conifers, rhododendrons, and other broad-leaved, 
evergreen trees and shrubs flourish to perfection. Here in 
the United States it is needless to tell you that ours is a 
climate of cold winters, of hot summers, and of long, dry 
autumns. Some things we cannot have in our gardens, 
but other plants we can grow here as well or better than in 
any other part of the world. To find out what these plants 
are and then to develop them to their greatest beauty should be 
the aim of all good gardeners. 

Information is gradually accumulating which makes the 
selection of proper plants for United States' gardens much 
easier than it was fifty years ago. We know now that only 
a few conifers will flourish in this climate, or even live here 
for many years; that while a few rhododendrons can be 
cultivated if especial attention is given to them, on the whole 
they are unsatisfactory plants for our climate, and that, if 
they are grown, their cultivation must be attended by labor 
and expense. On the other hand, in our climate trees and 
shrubs with deciduous leaves flower more freely than they 
do anywhere in Europe, and many of these produce wonder- 
ful autumn effects, with the brilliant tints of their fading 
leaves and their abundant fruits. Such plants are the 
lilacs, the flowering apples, the bush honeysuckles, the 
mock oranges, and the native viburnums and cornels, and 
the clethra, the shadbush, the hawthorn, and a hundred 
other trees and shrubs which must form the foundation of 
every successful American garden. 

In England the spring begins early in March, so for two 
months it is possible to enjoy in the gardens innumerable 
spring flowers which we cannot grow in this country. Our 
springs are very short, and it is hardly worth while to 
attempt to grow plants here which flower much before the 
first of May. July and August are bad months in this 
climate, for the hot sun and the small rainfall make it al- 
most impossible to cultivate successfully here many sum- 
mer-blooming flowers which so delight summer visitors to 
England. May and June, however, are perfect months in 
[16] 



the United States gardens, and as for September, October, 
and November, the United States leads the world in the 
gardening possibilities of these months. 

No other part of the world can boast such floral displays 
as our goldenrod, asters, eupetoriums, and innumerable 
other autumn-blooming flowers, and nowhere else are the 
fading leaves more brilliant or the crops of ornamental 
fruits more abundant. The white pine and the hemlock 
are two of the noblest evergreen trees in the world to form 
the backgrounds for our gardens. If we cannot grow in the 
United States the plant which our English cousins call 
"laurel," but which is really an evergreen cherry, we have 
in our own kalmia one of the most beautiful of all evergreen 
flowering shrubs. All of England, even with its heather, 
gorse, and broom, has nothing to compare in beauty with 
our laurel-covered hillside, and one hillside in particular, 
within twenty miles of Lancaster, has the most wonderful 
floral display of it that I have ever seen. 

Our Garden society, young as it is, has already done good 
work in increasing the love of flowers and their cultivation 
in this town. I hope in a very few years to see every house 
here embowered in masses of lilac, syringas, crab-apples, 
and honeysuckles," and to find people from all the neigh- 
boring towns looking upon Lancaster as a model for flower 
lovers, and that people will come every spring and autumn 
from far beyond the borders of the county to see what a 
love of flowers and a knowledge of their cultivation may do 
for a community. 

Massachusetts. R. S. Thayer. 

TRAINING FOR EMERGENCIES 

One of the most striking facts brought forward by the war 
is the importance of the trained business woman. Every 
reader of the English papers cannot but be impressed by 
the demands made upon the trained business women of 
Great Britain for war service. 

Of the 45,000 women who have registered for war ser- 
vice in response to the call of the president of the Board of 
Trade, more than 4000 are gardeners, agricultural workers, 
and dairy women. 

Agricultural and horticultural schools have arranged 
special course where pupils, at their own expense, are trained 
in outdoor and other occupations, so that men workers on 
these lines may be released for actual military service. 

The special feature to which we should turn our atten- 
tion is this — it was not necessary for Germany to wait for 
[17] 



the strain of wartime to give practical training: it was part 
of their daily routine, but it remained for the exigencies of 
war to reveal to the world at large the real meaning of train- 
ing and the importance of the trained worker, either man or 
woman. 

The real lesson of the war seems not to reach this country, 
viz., the importance of utilizing every personal quality and 
every natural resource to its utmost. 

In each of our States there has been the same struggle in 
the recent legislation sessions to obtain even minimum ap- 
propriations for certain classes of education, notably those 
very phases which affect human health, as the defeat of the 
pure milk bill in Massachusetts; the struggle in Pennsyl- 
vania for increased appropriations for State College, and 
notably the great reaction in Wisconsin on all lines of 
advance. 

The feeling still prevails to a large extent that if men or 
women have a "talent" for any special life work all is well: 
let them secure a training if they can, and develop the talent. 
We have not yet reached the point of recognizing that in 
every walk of life real progress depends not on the few who 
are able to lead, but on the many who are able to follow. 

We must increase our efficiency. The possibilities of 
increased opportunity through state and federal coopera- 
tion by reason of the Lever bill, providing for agricultural 
training on the farm, are limitless. 

But enlarged opportunity calls for more trained workers, 
and the actual problem for members of the Women's 
National Agricultural and Horticultural Association to 
consider is the increase of the usefulness of our Association 
as a vocational center. 

Do we want to wait until we ourselves are in difficulties 
to recognize that the most important asset of any country 
to-day is its trained workers? 

The first important fact for us to face is that it is the 
trained men and women of every country who are asked to 
sustain the burden at home. 

The second fact is, are we going to follow the example in 
education of those countries that provided their education 
in efficiency first, or of those countries that in time of stress 
call for help in training helpers? 

What is our Association for? To compare pleasant 
experiences or to recognize that the members of this As- 
sociation are carrying on its work because they are both 
trained and experienced, and that from such a gathering 
should come a great determination to enlarge every field 
of useful education for those person who wish to dedicate, 
[18] 



not the "talents" of a few, but the energies of the many, 
to lives of usefulness which shall strengthen our country. 
Pennsylvania. Mira L. Dock. 

FARM EXPERIENCE SUPPLIED 

It is said that practical training and experience in farm- 
ing for women are unattainable. It may interest the mem- 
bers of this Association to know that I am in a position to 
give this experience, which is considered "unattainable," 
and am at the present time looking for women farm students 
or pupils. 

I have been farming in California since 1908, but returned 
to England for a time during the period. Myself and a 
friend had at first 80 acres, which we worked up gradually 
with cows and ran with a good profit, and then made 100 
per cent, on selling the property. Later I farmed 80 acres 
with another friend, who is with me still. We did more 
mixed farming, as the land was too poor for cows, and we 
made poultry the chief feature. In this again we were 
equally successful, both in the working up and in the sale. 
In both cases we certainly served a fairly severe "apprentice- 
ship to ourselves." We worked under difficulties, and suc- 
cess was not easy. We paid for all we learned about cows 
and chickens. In both cases we started on land which had 
long been unfarmed and which was cheap and poor. We did 
all the work ourselves — plowing, seeding, harrowing, culti- 
vating, clearing, fencing, carpentering, etc. — and never 
had a hired man. We had but little capital, and had to 
make our own living. Perhaps it would be truer to say we 
determined to use but little capital, and to make our own 
living because we felt that that was the right way to learn 
and the way of most interest and use to ourselves and 
others. 

We are now in a third district, and can this year make 
much bigger plans, as we now own 240 acres, and can very 
cheaply rent more. This time we shall run both dairy- 
stock and poultry. We have also much more fruit to attend 
to than we had before. We are hiring a man this year, 
as we must have help, but, being both of us interested prac- 
tically in women's work, we should now like to have two 
women students and give them every opportunity of gain- 
ing practical experience in all branches of farm work. 

I do not think any experience can be more practical than 

our own has been, and which we now wish to hand on to 

others. At each place, after paying for the land, we have 

begun with the smallest possible outlay, and only increased 

[19] 



our stock step by step as progress justified. For instance, 
in our poultry business we started with an expenditure of 
$11 .00 for a 200-egg incubator. We made our own brooders, 
runs, houses, and appliances as we went along. In ten 
months' time we had two incubators (200 and 250), were 
marketing 100 broilers a week, had housing and appliances 
for 700 to 1000 chickens and hens, and had spent only 
$118.00 on our whole "plant." I think I have given suffi- 
cient detail now to indicate our position, and I shall be 
grateful if you can help us to get into communication with 
any one interested in the matter. Any student who came 
to us could do just as little or as much work as was arranged 
beforehand, dependent on the nature of the experience re- 
quired. Having a hired man will insure that nothing too 
heavy need be attempted. I mention this, as I have laid 
some stress perhaps on the work we have done ourselves. 
I can only say that we have always found it full of the 
greatest interest and enjoyment. I feel strongly that there 
must be so many city workers who would gladly change to 
this country life if they could only hear of a way to set 
about it and a way that would later insure a living. 

California. Miss A. M. Seaton Smith. 

LEARN OF THE EARTH 

1 

Of our great Mother learn forgivingness. 

Her groves of kingly pine, her hemlock-trees' 
Dark massy clouds, man layeth low; the knees 

Of oaks o'erthrown his mastery confess; 

His biting axe, his fire, his foot, have made 
A wreck of the glad fringes of the wood 
Where blueberry, sumach, rose and bracken stood, 

And floods of small and starry flowers were laid. 

Spring coming, wave-like on the sunny grass, 
And through the dusky openings in the green; — 
Yet Earth, as though no ravage she had seen, 

Sends the sweet currents of her blood to pass 

Into the sprouts of his new-planted corn, 

Spreads gold for him where once were verdant things, 
Labors in love to aid his harvestings, 

And laughs to see the riches she has borne. 

And when in after years he passes by, 

Leaving forlorn the stripped and waiting field, 
Forcing again the virgin lands to yield, 

Again the Earth forgives ungrudgingly, 

Takes back the desolate acres for her own 
Fair wilding aims and methods of increase, 
Hides them with herbage, ranks her seedling trees, 

And smiles to see the beauty she has sown. 
[20] 



II 

And of our Mother learn remembrance. See, 

As infant Spring now kisses her from sleep 

How do her stirring looms the patterns keep 
Of all her children's wants — how faithfully! 

The shadbush breaks to snow before, almost, 

The snows are gone; the fleecy baccharis 

Shall wait, for so its own desiring is, 
To greet the asters on the autumn coast. 

The maple of the rock in green will blow; 
His brother of the swampland shall not lack 
The tasseled red. The rose-tints will come back 

To dogwoods that were pink last year, although 

Their many brethren spread their white anew. 

On wings of painted moths there alters not 

The fairy marvel of the smallest spot, 
Nor in the robin's nest the delicate blue. 

The selfsame odor haunts the flowering grape 

That Pliny called the sweetest on the wind. 

As once it found in Hellas, so shall find 
The purple iris here its perfect shape. 

Again the pines wear tips like pallid flame, 
The mosses have their scarlet cups or gray, 
This bird bright eyes for night and that for day: — 

'Twas so of old and ever is the same. 

Ill 

Yet shall Earth teach a wise forgetfulness. 
The past is past, the dead lie still, says she, 
And spends her soul to tend the budding tree, 

The brooding bird, the fern's uncurling trees. 

She loves to hide the witnesses of graves: 

The carven monument she pulls awry, 

Drags down amid the brambled grass to lie, 
Though year by year, intact, unstirred, she saves 

The boulder hollowed by her unseen hand 

To squirrel's drinking-cup; the pious mound 
Heaped o'er the dead she levels with the ground 

The while her own green hillocks safely stand. 

See how she fills from death the founts of life: 
Heeds not the sparrow when it falls, but grows, 
For that its wings are dust, a rosier rose; 

Ignores the victims of the fish-hawks' strife 

With wind and wave because the tall nests hold 
Young beaks a-clamor for their food; mourns not 
That scarlet lilies fail, but clothes the spot 

With all September's purple and its gold. 

And when the last leaves die, her garmenting 
Crystalline, white, she draweth close; so sleeps, 
Forgetting seasons gone and lost, and keeps 
Warm at her heart of hearts the unborn Spring. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer. 

(By permission, The Macmillan Co.) 

[21] 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE ASSOCIA- 
TION 

Membership Committee — 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Chairman, Batavia, 111. 
Finance Committee — 

Mrs. J. H. Lancashire, Chairman, Manchester, Mass. 
Publicity Committee — 
Publications Committee — 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Cheltenham, Pa. 
Law Committee — 

Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, Chairman, Gainesville, O. 
Conference Committee — 

Miss Hilda Loines, Chairman, 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

ASSOCIATION NOTICES 

Conference, 19 16. — The annual meeting and conference 
of this Association will be held in Boston in May, 1916. 
Plans for its work are already being made. 

Watch the Quarterly for further announcements. 

Miss Jackson's Resignation. — To the great regret of 
the Association Miss Margaret Jackson has been obliged 
to resign as General Secretary in order to take up other 
work requiring her full time. 

Miss Jackson has done such splendid pioneer work for the 
Association in organizing and carrying on her office that 
we are all grateful to her and shall miss her much. Our 
best wishes go with her to her new work as Editor of the 
Book Reviews Digest. 

Miss Loines' Appointment. — As the new General Secre- 
tary, the Association is particularly fortunate in securing 
Miss Hilda Loines, the first Recording Secretary of the As- 
sociation. 

Office of the Association. — The new office of the 
Association, at 600 Lexington Avenue, New York city 
(telephone, Plaza 6638), will be in Miss Loines' charge, 
where she may be addressed, and where appointments to 
see her may be made. 

Agricultural Books. — An exhibit of agricultural books, 
published by the Macmillan Co. and others, will be placed 
in the new office for examination by visitors. If purchased 
through the office, the publishers will allow a liberal dis- 
count. 

Christmas Gifts. — Suggestions for Christmas gifts: 
Memberships in the W. N. A. & H. A. Think of your friends 
who would enjoy the Quarterly! 

Special gift cards to accompany these memberships 
may be obtained from the General Secretary. 

Color Chart. — Dr. Robert Ridgway's color chart has 
[22] 



been accepted as standard by many lecturers and writers 
on color arrangement in the garden. It may be obtained 
by purchase from the General Secretary. 

Directory of Members. — The new directory of mem- 
bers of the Association will be ready by January i. Price, 
25 cents to members; $1.00 to others, at the General Secre- 
tary's office. 

Planting Charts. — Planting charts for gardens, etc., 
are being prepared by professional members of this Associa- 
tion, and may be obtained at moderate rate from the 
General Secretary. 

A Garden Sale. — The Women's Educational and In- 
dustrial Union expects to hold a Garden Sale during the 
early part of May, 1916. It is fortunate in being able to 
cooperate with the Women's Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association, which will hold its annual meeting in Boston 
at the same time. It is hoped that the sale may add to the 
income of the Union, and that the cooperation of the As- 
sociation may help to throw light on the problem of women 
in agriculture. It is proposed to sell perennial plants, 
seeds, garden aprons, garden hats, garden sticks, garden 
baskets, etc. It is hoped that every member of the Union 
may be able to contribute something, either in time, material 
or plants. 



THE COUNCIL AND THE GENERAL 
SECRETARY 

The meeting of the Executive Board, held on October 16, 
received the report of the secretary's summary work and 
acted upon it. 

With the special help of the Council and Finance Com- 
mittee, an office is to be opened in New York in November, 
at 600 Lexington Avenue. Here it is hoped that more 
effective work can be done in regard to the demands for 
work and workers which have been coming in during the 
past months. There have been three requests for trained 
women to act as farm superintendents in State Reform 
Schools for women. One of these posts is now filled by a 
member of our Association. A post as manager of a 
country estate in New England (garden, glass, livestock) 
will be open in February. 

A list of successful lecturers (members and others) will 
be kept in the office. Members of garden clubs are asked 
to send to the incoming secretary, Miss Hilda Loines, in- 
formation concerning speakers whom they have heard and 
[23] 



found helpful. The inquiries in this matter have been 
many. 

Material has been collected for the use of a committee 
formed to aid the Drama League in their project of en- 
couraging the planting of Shakspere gardens in 1916 — 
the year of the Shakspere Tercentennial. 

Garden charts of different kinds are to be drawn up and 
sold for the benefit of the Association. Committees having 
the matter in charge will welcome suggestions. 

The office will hold books by members (donated for the 
Conference) in its library, and also papers we receive in 
exchange for our Quarterly. In this connection we re- 
port that the Librarian of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, Amherst, Mass, is desirous of completing his file 
of back numbers of our Quarterly. Will any member 
who can spare hers kindly send to him? Except August, 
1915, the Quarterly is out of print. 

It is hoped that the Directory will be published by the 
end of the year. It will be for sale for 25 cents to members 
and for $1.00 to non-members. Will those members who 
wish to be ranked as professionals, and who did not clearly 
indicate the fact on their directory blanks, kindly send 
on a post-card, to Miss Hilda Loines, the information? 

We record with regret the resignation of Mrs. Frank 
Miles Day from the Council. 

As outgoing secretary, I congratulate the Association 
most heartily on the fact that Miss Hilda Loines has con- 
sented to carry on the work. Many members know her 
through her able management of the Conference of 19 15, 
and of all the women on the Council who have worked for 
the upbuilding of the work of the Association, none has 
given more untiring, effective aid. 

Margaret Jackson, 
October 13, 1915. General Secretary. 

MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

The Membership Committee is concentrating its efforts 
on the establishment of local branches. In Chicago a 
meeting is to be held on November 10 at the Art Institute, 
at which Mrs. King will be present. There will be a morn- 
ing session at 1 1 for members, to effect a plan of permanent 
organization. The members will lunch together at the 
University Club, and reassemble at the Art Institute at 
2.30 for an open meeting, at which Mrs. King will preside. 
All members of the Association from other States or cities 
will be most cordially welcomed. The Fall Flower Festi- 
[24] 



val is to be held during the week of November 9 to 14 at 
the Coliseum. 

It is expected that the eight members living in Cleveland 
will undertake a similar plan for a meeting to be held during 
the week of their Flower Show — November 10 to 14. 

If these meetings are successful, we hope that Boston, 
Philadelphia, and New York, as well as towns where the 
membership is smaller, will try the same plan. 

The branch of Youngstown, Ohio, which has the honor 
of being the first, is adding to its membership. 

The Committee would be grateful if members who know 
of local flower shows, where a campaign for new members 
might be pursued, would write to the chairman on the 
subject. 

Helen D. Deusner (Mrs. C. W.), 
Batavia, Illinois. Chairman. 

PERSONALS 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee is the newly appointed Director of 
the School of Horticulture for Women at Ambler, Pennsylvania. The 
school opened in September with twenty students. 

Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw was the head of the children's exhibit at 
the Brooklyn Botanic Gardens. Miss Jean Cross is her assistant, and 
Miss Hilda Loines acted as one of the judges. 

Miss Bessie Dunlap has accepted the position of farm manager 
at Sleighton Farms. Miss Landman, formerly in charge of this work, 
has returned to Cornell for further study. 

Miss Louise Shelton's new book, "Continuous Bloom in America," 
has been published, and is receiving favorable press notices. 

Mrs. L. S. Strunsky, of the Knickerbocker Nurseries, Englewood, 
N. J., says: 

"We have only started [our nurseries] this summer. We intend to 
have our own price list as soon as possible, and promise it will be all 
that can be desired in the -matter of modernity and art. You may 
remember seeing the catalogue of the Palisades Nurseries, at Sparkill, 
N. Y. It may interest you to know that I worked a whole winter get- 
ting it out for Mr. Clucas, and to my knowledge, the 'trade' thought 
very highly of it. I expect to do even better on my own. We are 
carrying about the same type of plants. 

"Cornell was the home of my first landscape aspirations. From there 
I went to the Palisades nurseries; then I worked on landscape plans 
for Wadley and Smythe and James Greenleaf, both in New York City, 
and both doing landscape work. Then back to the Palisades nurseries 
again, where I took charge of the landscape department for the second 
time. After this I wrote a good deal in New York and Philadelphia. 
I enjoy writing best and most of all, but I am reserving that for when 
I have something real and definite to say. 

"My interest in the Association is that of a layman. I should love 
to know more about it, and to make myself of use in some way. May 
I ask what some of the members are doing, and what work they are 
engaged in? I am so thirsty to meet women and men doing this kind 

[25I 



of work. My lot has been thrown among such contrasting professions. 
I never had any one to discuss these topics with on equal terms." 

Miss Mallon, of Cincinnati, writes: "I am interested in working 
up a course of lectures for a class of young women at the University of 
Cincinnati on Vocational opportunities for the trained woman. Your 
Association, I understand, endeavors to spread information about agri- 
cultural and horticultural fields open to women. On these subjects 
I have found but meager literature, so I am writing to ask you if you 
have any for distribution, and also to subscribe to the Quarterly." 

[Miss Mallon would be glad to hear from members of the Association 
on this subject.] 

Miss Gertrude M. King writes from Nantucket, Mass.: "I am 
busy now with selling plants at wholesale. 

" I have said I would give a hundred single roots of the early Japanese 
white iris to school children in Boston to try growing in pots, and found 
an enthusiastic friend to try them. 

"I want to get in touch, before spring, with church committees who 
would perhaps buy white iris for church decoration. The small single 
ones in June and large single and double ones in July can be shipped 
well in bud, and I should be glad to send a few samples as soon as they 
come along. 

"This summer I did work in three gardens at Beachside; next spring 
I expect to be busy in five, and to make entirely new gardens in two 
places." 

From a Private Letter from One Garden Worker to Another. 
— That remarkable hybrid tea-rose, "Helen Good," made shoots three 
feet long for me this summer. I always find a number of perfect, 
stiff-stemmed, salmon-pink roses at any time from April until frost. 
It is very hardy. I like these roses for the table best of all. They are 
one of the varieties that I find very good on their own roots. I have 
now about two hundred peonies. I either go to the nursery to select 
them when in bloom, or have cut flowers sent that I dispose about the 
garden to study the effect. The very finest pink I know is "Marie 
Crousse." It is the only one I have or have seen that is without a touch 
of lavender. 

If you don't know the lovely new hybrid rambler rose " Wychmoss," 
do get one. I shall use it next year to train over ripening tulips. One 
of its parents is the moss rose, the other the Wichuriana. The buds 
are of a lovely pink, finely mossed, the blossoms white, single, the foliage 
clean bright rambler type — persistent through the season. 

I have a lovely buff hollyhock, with a slight salmon tone near the 
center. This I grow near phlox Elizabeth Campbell, and in the vicin- 
ity of the bluish-gray Tamarisk, and a creamy-white hollyhock — 
lovely! I wish to express my appreciation of your remarks on magenta, 
etc. I am always impressed with a sort of artistic provincialism in a 
person who condemns any color per se. Color is so dependent upon 
texture, substance, and light— whether reflected or transmitted — that 
to like or dislike a color seems to me to have lost its subtlety. Down in 
a remote and secluded corner of my acre is a group of plants, chiefly 
phloxes, in tones of "mauve," magenta, and cerise pinks. Late in the 
afternoon, when the sun strikes this spot at a certain angle, I go to it 
alone or with my appreciative husband, and look on it with keenest 
delight. Guests in my garden sometimes comment, "I should not 
think you would have those horrid magentas and pinks!" 

To return to the roses: my Helen Goods, Mrs. Aaron Wards, and 
Killarneys are the finest I ever saw. I pick pecks at a time. The 
chief cost and trouble are manure and spraying. I have had to fight 
[26] 



black spot all summer. Next year I make my own Bordeaux Mixture, 
as I do the soap-kerosene emulsion, primarily in order to have it fresh. 

This morning is a rare and glorious one of sunshine. Phlox Miss 
Lingard (about 200 plants) has burst forth for the third time this 
summer! A queer season! Must I make pickles? I look at the cu- 
cumbers lying in windrows and wonder! I never eat pickles, but it is 
like having no orthodox religious views not to "put up" pickles! 

My altheas bloomed the second season, and my althea walk is grow- 
ing very lovely. It is a rounding grass path bordered with single white 
altheas, through which the purple, lavender, and white Michaelmas 
daisies show with masses of white Boltonia and big clumps of Funkia. 
These asters are my finest, and I found them all by the roadside. 

As the days shorten and become crisp, I arrange to have "more 
than Oriental splendour" (Alas! poor Kipling and poor, "dearly be- 
loved," dead at eighteen, in France!) in my big rambling sarden. The 
materials are chiefly dahlias, singles, cactus, and decoratives — zinnias, 
and marigolds. Above these rise my hillside, covered with flowering 
dogwood, with leaves coloring most wonderfully and brilliant red ber- 
ries. I use high bush cranberry in profusion, and the trees set on the 
slope were selected from neighboring hillsides, for their autumnal 
glory, as a fine background. 

Mrs. C. R. Williams, of Princeton, N. J., writes about her rock 
garden as follows: 

"Since I became a member of the Association I have been deeply 
interested in a rock garden, which I created with the help of a landscape 
gardener, who carried out an idea suggested to me by Miss Lucy Elliot 
Keeler, of Tremont, Ohio. 

"We purchased a lot" (about a half acre) adjoining our future home in 
Cleveland Lane, which for years was used as a dumping-ground, but 
finally became a weed patch. We found the first surface to be ashes, 
with an occasional shoe, tin can, or bottle, then underneath rocky 
ground. The outlook was anything but promising, but having had 
experience in former years in creating a lovely city garden out of hope- 
less soil, courage did not fail us. 

"In grading this lot down into a sloping garden we made windimr, 
hard-gravel walks. We removed wagonloads of undesirable ground, 
replacing it with rich, well-fertilized earth. In less than a week this 
hopeless lot was in a promising condition for planting. 

"The idea of a rock garden came to us because large, flat stones and 
picturesque rocks were brought to the surface during grading. We 
first gathered in the front garden, around a large, flat, red rock thus 
unearthed, groups of rocks of all sizes, filling the pockets between with 
earth, where endless rock plants and dwarf ferns were placed. A 
bird's bath-tub was placed on top of this rockery, which after the first 
heavy rain the early spring birds were quick to find and delight in. 

"At the end of the slope a more spreading rockery was created, into 
which several hundred minute rock plants were placed in soft rich earth 
pockets, protected from hard storms and rains by mothering rocks. 
This rockery faces a rustic tea-house, to which the winding walks lead. 
Several bird-houses placed on high poles here and there; a rustic feed 
house for winter birds; a seat with penthouse of rustic construction at 
one side, with glimpses of gardens of neighbors, and a full outlook upon 
the hills, make the setting of this new garden ideal. 

"Sitting in the tea-house now, after nine weeks' work, one already sees 
a charming rock carpet, the numerous little plants rivaling one another 
in variety of leafage and color, A rough stone wall five feet in height 
lends the whole a rustic effect. For background, evergreens of many 
species are planted on the upper slope, also along the division fence in 

[27] 



clumps in three corners of the garden. The space between the upper 
and lower rockery is smooth lawn after seven weeks from the time of 
starting. This is kept closely cut to prevent new weeds from making 
headway. 

"There are small clumps of Japanese perennial shrubs which already 
make very good showing. Along one border rare Japanese iris, in deli- 
cate hues of lavender, are now in bloom. Gladiolus in masses between 
the evergreens will soon show forth. A rustic bench, made of native 
rock slabs, and stepping-stones leading down to the tea-house, seem so 
settled and old-looking that no newcomer would believe this little garden 
to be a creation of this year. 

"Only neighbors and people who saw the transformation going on 
are convinced, as I am, that a garden can be created with care and study 
on desperate-looking ground. However, the setting should be good to 
make the effort and result worth while. To me the effort and result 
have been a delight. The money and time spent in any other direction 
could not give as much lasting pleasure. It is an investment which 
brings rich returns every time the eye rests upon this pleasing garden 
spot. I look forward now with joy to August planting and to bulb- 
planting for borders in the autumn." 



NOTES 

Farm Flowers. — The Department of Agriculture is 
responsible for the statement that a very high percentage 
of tenants of farms only hold these from one to five years 
and then move on. The Department believes that if 
gardening and the love of flowers around a home could be 
developed, that would be a strong tie or means of binding 
the tenants to their holdings. The same need of garden 
surroundings holds good, it seems to us, in the case of a 
large number of those who are not farmers, but belong to 
the city commuting class. How bright and pleasant, and 
how much more interesting home surroundings would be, 
with a greater abundance and variety of flowers the year 
through. — Florists' Exchange. 

Roses for France. — The rose party at Willowmere, 
Roslyn, N. Y., given recently by Admiral and Mrs. Aaron 
Ward for the benefit of the American Ambulance Society 
in France, has a delightful sequel. When the committee 
on finance discussed the disposition of the funds it was de- 
cided that a great need was another ambulance, and it was 
proposed that it should be so named as to honor the Ad- 
miral and his wife. Admiral Ward, however, made a most 
acceptable suggestion of pathetic interest. 

As the roses at Willowmere, for the most part, came from 
the celebrated French rosarians, Pernet & Dueher, and as 
Claude Pernet, the only son of M. Pernet, lost his life in 
battle, Admiral Ward asked that the ambulance bought 
with the rose party fund of Pernet's American friends and 
[28] 



patrons should be named in memory of the son who, had 
he lived, would have succeeded to the business established 
and named by not only his father's father, but also by the 
forebears of his mother. This suggestion was approved by 
those having charge of the fund. — Brooklyn Eagle. 

Landscape Gardeners. — Landscape gardeners are scarce 
in Missouri. From 15 to 20 applications have been on file 
in the Landscape Gardening Department at the University 
of Missouri during the last year. At least seven of these 
positions remain unfilled at the present time. The work 
includes supervision of grounds about institutions and parks, 
planting, designing, care of arboretums and nurseries. 

Horace F. Major, assistant professor of Landscape gar- 
dening at the university, says that there are great op- 
portunities in this profession. So great are the oppor- 
tunities, he says, that untrained men are calling themselves 
landscape architects and are turning to this profession. 

About a dozen students are taking the advanced courses 
in this work at the university. A greater number are 
taking the more elementary courses. Many university 
women are taking up the work. A course in floriculture, 
which consists of the care of house plants and gardens, is 
given especially for women. A course in landscape garden- 
ing takes up the principles underlying the ornamentation 
of public and private grounds. Other courses are given in 
the history of landscape gardening, theory and principles 
of landscape design, and engineering, elementary landscape 
design, and ornamental plants. Considerable work is 
given for graduate students. — Horticulture. 

A Seed House Outing. — More than 1500 employees of 
the Michell Seed House held their second annual outing 
at the Michell Nurseries at Andalusia, Pa. A special train 
of twelve cars carried the band of picnickers. 

In addition to those connected directly with the famous 
seed house were hundreds of guests from all over the State, 
including prominent horticulturists, gardeners, and farmers. 
Shortly after the visitors arrived at Andalusia they were 
shown over the grounds and refreshments were served in the 
gardens. Later in the afternoon an extensive program of 
sports was carried out. Fat men, lean men, women and 
children vied with one another in the races. The pie- 
eating contest was a scream from beginning to end. It was 
won by a very lean man. Other events were a sack race, 
a three-legged race, a potato race, a wheel-barrow race, a 
broad jump, and a tug-of-war. 
[29] 



At three o'clock a picture was taken of the whole party, 
and then addresses were made by Henry Michell and 
others. 

Grace a nos Femmes. — " It seems strange to us in France 
to read of processions walking the streets of London to 
plead women's right to serve. In France every man serves 
by law, and every woman serves by necessity. Thanks to 
the women, the nation is enabled to 'carry on.' A striking 
tribute to them is contained in a leading article published 
by a French depute, a member of the Commission of the 
Budget, in Le Matin of July 27. It announces that the 
harvest of 1915 will be sufficient for the needs of the mobil- 
ized men and the civil population during the coming year. 
Then occur these paragraphs: 

' 'With many of our departments invaded; with others 
embarrassed by the necessary movement of troops; with 
the heads of the households away, and the young men mobil- 
ized, resulting in a dearth of labor; with the absence of 
transport facilities consequent upon the requisitioning of 
horses; with the impossibility of obtaining manure — faced 
with all these difficulties, our splendid women have still 
been able to produce and gather in a most satisfactory 
harvest. What a comfort to France, and what a surprise ! 

" ' Side by side with that homage due to her silent heroism 
and devotion to the wounded, what homage should we not 
render to the French woman who has accomplished this 
miracle of determination, energy, and hard work? It is 
a miracle that will not astonish those who know her for 
what she is; but it serves to teach a watching world her 
quality, and to divorce her forever from that stupid and 
snobbish literary image which for so long has depicted her 
as a doll.' 

" It is a gallant and generous tribute. It needs imagina- 
tion to realize what this miracle is that French women 
have accomplished. Picture an agricultural country 
robbed of all her men. Take from her several of her coun- 
ties, and see them in the hands of the invaders. Imagine 
the counties scored and wounded by a network of trenches, 
barbed-wire entanglements among the corn, and machine 
gun emplacements nestling in every coppice. Picture the 
farms robbed of their horses, and all trains and canal- 
boats busy in the service of the army : it is under such condi- 
tions as these that the widowed mothers and bereaved 
wives of France have produced and reaped a wheat harvest 
which will feed the nation for another year." — The Com- 
mon Cause. 

[30] 



Medford Exhibit. — The Medford, Mass., Horticultural 
Society held an exhibition, including flowers and vegetables, 
on September 15. Nurserymen, private growers, and chil- 
dren fourteen years old or under competed for the regular 
prize cards, and for the small money prizes offered by firms 
or individuals. 

Lettuce. — At this time of the year the grower can make 
a few big mistakes. One of the very first temptations is to 
use outdoor grown plants for the first crop under glass. 
We have never seen a strictly first-class crop of leaf lettuce 
under glass from such a practice. It seems that once the 
plants have tasted outdoor life they resent confinement. 
We do not say a good crop cannot be grown — we simply 
would advise the inexperienced to regard any outdoor 
seedlings or plants with suspicion. 

The next serious trouble comes from lack of moisture in 
deep beds. Very often cucumbers or tomatoes have ex- 
tracted the last trace of moisture to a great depth and if this 
is not replaced good results are impossible. We have seen 
growers carry along houses where the moisture was only 
a few inches in depth, kept so by frequent watering, which 
is all wrong. Soak: the beds clear through to the bottom 
and withhold water after the plants are well started. In 
regard to timing the crops we would go slow with fall let- 
tuce, as our market conditions are unfavorable to a big 
output. Things may improve after New Year's and it may 
be a wise move to bring in the bulk of the first crop from 
Christmas on. — Marketman. 

Farm Inventory. — A farmer usually invests current 
moneys in farm implements, cattle, or in paying for things 
bought on credit. He has little or no cash at the end of the 
year. Therefore he should make a careful inventory at the 
beginning of each year and the difference between them will 
show the increase or decrease in value from year to year. 

Drug Plants. — The New York Botanical Garden has 
issued a report on the cultivation of drug and dye plants in 
the vicinity of New York, which may be obtained from Dr. 
N. L. Britton, Bronx Park, New York City, for 10 cents. 
Among other points, it states that persons who "desire 
some form of soil tillage that means quick and large profits, 
with no risk, . . . may count upon a certain failure 
from their attempts to grow drugs for profit. But, on the 
other hand, there are excellent reasons why the cultivation 
of certain drug plants should be developed in this country." 
Mr. Rusby, chairman of the Scientific Directors, mentions 
[31 1 



14 drug plants easy of culture which will pay to grow, and 
a great many more which might pay and are needed. He 
also gives directions for growing these, and a list of books 
on drug cultivation. The report is strongly recommended 
to the attention of members of the Association. 

Bulletin of the American Peony Society. — The 
American Peony Society was formed by a group of peony 
growers in 1903. In 1904 an appeal was sent to European 
and American growers for roots from every variety in their 
collections for a great representative planting in an experi- 
ment ground kindly given by Cornell University. In a 
year or two over 3000 named varieties were gathered to- 
gether by the Society. The report at hand includes brief 
reports and notes from France, Philadelphia, Missouri, 
Ohio, Oregon, etc. Also a report on the Annual Exhibit. 
The Secretary of the Society is Mr. A. P. Saunders, Clinton, 
N. Y. 

The Winslow Dairy and Fruit Farms Company is a co- 
operative enterprise formed to buy a tract of 600 acres in 
central New Jersey, arrange for easy payments for those 
who take up five and ten acres for intensive farming, and 
give a series of lectures in the winter and field demonstra- 
tion in the summer. An effort will be made to open stores 
on the Rochdale cooperative plan in New York and Phila- 
delphia for the sale of produce. The organizing of the 
company is in the hands of Isaac Roberts, former treasurer 
of the Fairmount Savings and Trust Company of Phila- 
delphia, and the educational features of George T. Powell, 
of Ghent, N. Y., former State Commissioner of Agriculture. 



GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS 

Among the interesting bulletins recently published 
by the United States Department of Agriculture are: 

Farmer's Bulletin No. 250: "Food Plants of the Gipsy Moth in 
America." 

Farmer's Bulletin No. 258: "Lessons in Elementary Agriculture for 
Alabama Schools, Outlined by Months." 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 266: "Outlets and Methods of Sale for Shippers 
of Fruits and Vegetables." 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 269: "Farmers' Institute Work in the United 
States in 19 14, and Notes on Agricultural Extension Work in Foreign 
Countries." 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 281: "Correlating Agriculture with the Public 
School Subjects in the Northern States." 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 670 treats of "Field Mice as Farm and Orchard 
Pests." 

[32 ] 



Farmers' Bulletin No. 684: "Squab Raising," by Alfred R. Lee. 
Discusses the general management of pigeons for the production of 
squabs for market. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 680: "A Plan for a Small Dairy Mouse," by 
E. Kelly and K. E. Parks. 

The Experiment Station Record, Abstract number 
XXXIII, 3 (price, 15 cents), is particularly full of good 
references to articles on cooperation and agricultural 
education. 

BOOK NOTES 

Continuous Bloom in America. By Louise Shelton, New York. 

Charles Scribner's Sons. 145 pp. Illus. Diagrams. $2.00 net. 

Garden lovers have long wanted a manual giving a comprehensive 
scheme for continuous bloom, and herein they find it. The author sent 
out her successful book, "The Seasons in a Flower Garden," eight 
years ago, and since then has been "planting and transplanting, seek- 
ing ever a plan more satisfactory" for continuous bloom from May 20 
until frost. As the result of this study we find diagrams for round, oval, 
square, and long beds, with explanations; beautiful photographs of 
successful gardens; notes on height in planting; and the use of annuals 
and perennials. Lists of plants with the same blooming period are 
helpful, and forty pages are devoted to careful descriptions of the cul- 
ture, color, and propagation of perennials and annuals mentioned in 
lists and on the diagrams. These departments are so carefully arranged 
that the book is exceedingly convenient for practical use. — E. C. W. 

Wild Flower Preservation. By May Coley and Charles A. Weath- 
erby, New York. Frederick A. Stokes Company. 197 pp. Illus. 
The subtitle of this book is "A Collector's Guide," and well will it 
fulfil its profession. The chatty style makes entertaining even the dry 
facts about collectors' outfits and directions as to note-books. Explana- 
tions of correct methods of gathering, pressing, and mounting wild 
flowers, so that the product may be a thing of beauty, rather than a 
mass of dried brown specimens, are clearly given by the authors, them- 
selves practical botanists. The definitions of botanical terms are 
excellent for amateur collectors. Part of one chapter is devoted to 
suggestions for "lessons" and "exercises," and a number of books on 
plant life are briefly mentioned. The typography is good. — E. C. W. 

The Care of Trees in Lawn, Street, and Park. By B. E. Fernow, 
New York. Holt. 892 pp. Illus. 
This brings us closer to town than most books on forestry, and is 
large and spirited in treatment, with the broad outlook that might be 
expected from the varied and important experiences of the author, who 
says, "this book is written to make tree owners more sensible to the 
care and attention which their property demands; to create more in- 
terest and to give advice; and to help tree- wardens to care for their 
charges." Of special value are Chapters 5, "General care of trees," 
6, "Control of parasites," 9, "Care in the choice of plant material." — 
M. L. D. 

Shade Trees in Towns and Cities. By William Solokaroff, New 
York. Wiley. 287 pp. Uhis. $3.00. 
This work is the most practical of its kind for towns and cities. Its 
author was for several years superintendent for the Shade Tree Com- 

[33] 



mission of East Orange, N. J., one of the earliest districts to avail itself 
of the splendid New Jersey "Shade Tree Act," now adopted by 50 cities 
and towns. It deals very freely with town conditions, and should be 
in all Village Improvement collections. Of special value are Chapter 
4, "Studies preliminary to planting," Chapter 6, "The care of street 
trees," and Chapter 7, "Injuries to shade trees, and how to protect." 
— M. L. D. 

Pronunciation of Plant Names. Published by the Garden Club of 
Michigan, 1915. 94 pp. Price $1.00. 
A most useful and timely little help on this difficult subject, and one 
that every plant and tree lover as well as gardener will like to own. 
The Club has appropriately dedicated it to Mrs. Francis King. It 
may be had from Mrs. E. H. Parker, The Pasadena, Detroit, Mich. 



[34] 



NEW MEMBERS, OCTOBER 15, 1915 

Allen, Mrs. Dudley P Glenallen, Mayfield Road, Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

Anderson, Mrs. William R.F.D., Elwell, Michigan 

Bellinger, Miss Margaret Belltown Road, Stamford, Conn. 

Briggs, Mrs. James H Scarsdale, N. Y. 

Brinsmade, Miss Alice 166 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Buckner, Mrs. W. V 120 W. Florinda St., Hanford, Calif. 

Bushnell, Miss E. N 21 Clark St., Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Carrere, Miss Anna Merven Red Oaks, White Plains, N. Y. 

Clarke, Mrs. Lucius L 923 Forest Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Clement, Miss Henrietta B 44 Sanford Ave., Flushing, N. Y. 

Cogswell, Miss State Bank, Albany, N. Y. 

Davis, Miss Katharine Bement 14s E. 35th St., New York 

Delzell, Franc 525 Grand Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Director of Brooklyn Music School Settlement 

Duncan, Miss Mary 541 W. 123d St., New York City 

Emory, Miss Julia Chestertown, Md. 

Garretson, Mrs. James ' 15 Claremont Ave., New York 

Graves, Miss Frances Simms Graves Villa, Wilson, N. C. 

Gross, Mrs. Alfred H 1100 Ridge Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Grute, Mrs. Nain 600 W. 114th St., N. Y. 

Guise, Miss Harriette de. Ossining School, Ossining, N. Y. 

Hall, Mrs. Edward H 702 West End Ave., New York 

Hires, Miss Linda S Haverford, Pa. 

Holbrook, Miss Marion F 77 Arlington St., Newton, Mass. 

Hudson, Mrs. Henrietta 456 Riverside Drive, New York 

Hunt, Miss Mabel D Wheaton, 111. 

Kaltenbach, Miss Winifred Park Hill, Yonkers, N. Y. 

King, Miss Gertrude M Nantucket, Mass. 

Lightner, Mrs. W. H 318 Summit Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Linton, Miss Martha M 298 W. Main St., Moorestown, N. J. 

Lobdell, Dr. Erne L Hotel Plaza, Chicago, 111. 

Lutz, Mrs. John A Lincoln, 111. 

Minnis, Miss Lua A 37 East Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Moore, Mr. Charles 197 Parker Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Morris, Mrs. Harrison S j Old York Road, Oak Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Munger, Mrs. Chas. H 2330 E. 1st St., Duluth, Minn. 

Norris, Miss Katherine Madison Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Powers, Mrs. F. W Indiana and Bryson Sts., Youngstown, Ohio 

Pratt, Mrs. Herbert Lee Glen Cove, N. Y. 

Ranger, Miss Gertrude E Bolton Landing, N. Y. 

Reinman, Mrs. A. E Cohasset Road, Youngstown, Ohio 

Safford, Miss Mary A Orlando, Fla. 

Shackford, Mrs. William M Far Hills, N. J. 

Simpson, Mrs. J. D 725 S. Union Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Smith, Mrs. Wallis Craig Upper Jay, N. Y. 

Snow, Miss Alice T 88 W. Church St., Fairport, N. Y. 

Stewart, Miss Ethel Lee 114 W. 23d St., Baltimore, Md. 

Stoddard, Miss Yvonne 197 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

Strunsky, Mrs. Lillie Shostac Knickerbocker Nurseries, Englewood, N. J. 

Tidd, Mrs. John Newton Carter's Bridge, Va. 

Weece, Mr. E. H Woodworth Ave., Alma, Mich. 

White, Miss Gertrude M 176 Kenyon St., Hartford, Conn. 

Wick, Mrs. Henry 416 Wick Ave., Youngstown, Ohio. 

Willing, Mrs. J. Paul 64 E. Elm St., Chicago, 111. 

Wilson, Miss Fanny B Rock Hill, S. C. 

Wood, Mrs. Henry R Englewood, N. J. 

Yeomans, Miss Mary 

Young, Miss Dorothy A 830 Lake St., Newark, N. J . 



[35] 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 

ADVERTISING COLUMN FOR 
MEMBERS ONLY 

Rate ten cents a line. Not less than Jive lines nor more than ten lines 
accepted at this rate. 

Open to members of the Association only 



Burpee's Seeds Grow 

During 1916 the House of Burpee will celebrate its Fortieth Anni- 
versary. We feel that forty years of extensive operation and intensive 
investigation have fitted us to render the best possible seed service. 

For forty years we have tried to make each year's service more 
nearly ideal. This untiring effort has built for us not only the 
World's Largest Mail-Order Seed Business, but a World-Wide Rep- 
utation for Efficient Service and Undisputed Leadership. 

Very much more opportune than anything we ourselves may say 
about Burpee -Quality Seeds are the many remarkable things our 
thousands of customers and friends have said and continue to say about 
them. These customers return to us year after year, not because 
seeds cannot be found elsewhere but because of our superior quality 
and service. 

The Fortieth Anniversary Edition of Burpee's Annual 

The Leading American Seed Catalog for 1916 is brighter and 
better than ever before. It offers the greatest novelty in Sweet Peas, 
the unique " Fiery Cross," and other novelties in Rare Flowers and 
Choice Vegetables, some of which cannot be had elsewhere. This 
Silent Salesman is mailed free. A post card will bring it. Write today. 

W. Atlee Burpee & Company 

Burpee Buildings, Philadelphia 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering- advertisements 



Dell Grove-Sun Dried-Georgia 
Paper Shell Pecans 

Putney, Georgia 

Fresh Fancy Paper Shell Pecans from my private grove. 
Gathered and Sun Dried under my personal supervision. 
These will be at their best for the Christmas Holidays. 
They comprise four standard favorite varieties, Schley, Van 
Dieman, Stewart and Ally. You may have all of one 
variety or mixed. The uniform price is $1.00, sent by 
Parcel Post or Express. Shelled at $2. 50 per pound. Send 
me a list of friends to whom you would like me to send a 
One or Two pound box as a Christmas Gift from you. 

Orders promptly filled. 

Dr. E. L. Lobdell, Plaza Hotel, Chicago, 111. 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 

Haarlem, Holland 

Grower of 

Choice Bulbs 



Bulbs Imported direct from 
Holland for Customers. No 
supply kept here. Catalogue 
quoting prices in Nurseries in 
Haarlem — free on application. 

E. J. Krug, Sole Agent 

112 Broad Street 
New York 

(Successor to C. C Abel 4 Co.) 



Plant Trees With 



Red Cross 

Explosives 

BLASTING the soil before 
setting the tree makes the 
soil porous and mellow. Better 
root systems are secured be- 
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beds. Moisture is conserved 
and is available for the needs of ma- 
turing trees in the dry seasons. 
Plant trees in blasted soil and insure 
their lives against the first-year losses. 

DuPont PowderCo. 

Wilmington, Delaware 




Medians' 

1916 
Handbook 

contains 112 pages — full 

of helpful suggestions on 

hardy plants which grow 

outdoors. 

Collections for various purposes 
are so arranged that choosing is 
easy and ordering is simplified. 
By combining these groups, 
any property of one acre or less 
can be planted from street front 
to small -fruit patch in the rear. 

This book is free. 
Write for it today. 

Thomas Meehan&Sons 

Box 19 
Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Bewley Farm 

Old English 
Sheep Dogs 



Ayrshire Cattle 

Sweet Butter 
Fresh Eggs 

Mrs. Edward Parker Davis 

Newtown, Bucks Co. 

Pennsylvania 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



Did You See Our Wonderful Iris 

blooming at the great Panama-Pacific 

Exposition ? 

Do You Know that at the greatest Peony 

Show ever held in Boston the American Peony Society 

awarded us the Gold Medal for best collection of over one 

hundred named varieties of Peonies ? 

Do You Know that we have the largest collection of rare and beautiful 

Peonies to be found in the entire world ? 
Would you enjoy having some of these exquisite blossoms in your own 

gardens ? 

Then send for our catalog, which will put you in the way of achieving the 

best results 

Stock shipped with safety to any part of the world 

Cherry Hill Nurseries 

T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc. 

West Newbury, Mass. 
Box 80 



Ye Olde Fashioned 
Garden Bouquet 

For Fall Planting 

1 00 Perennials in 1 Varieties 

for varying, continuous 

bloom from spring to frost 

Ten Dollars 

Write to the 

Knickerbocker 
Nurseries 

Englewood, N. J. 
Lillie Shostac Strunsky 

Landscape Architect and Contractor 



White Star 
Cranberries 

The largest and most beautiful 
berries selected from the very 
choicest of the several varieties 
grown on our hundreds of acres. 
Delicious ! ! 

4 Quarts for SI. 00 

postpaid within the second 
zone of Philadelphia 

Send postal for recipe folder 

with rates for more distant 

points 

Joseph J. White, Inc. 

New Lisbon, New Jersey 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 




.g^Don't Just Admire Moon's Trees on Other Places 
Plant Them for Your Own Enjoyment 



doesn't matter, for the very inclusiveness of our assortment and the vigor 
of such plants as make landscapes like this possible indicate how well 
qualified we are to supply trees and shrubbery that give enjoyment to 
owners of smaller places. Q Our descriptive catalogue, filled with illus- 
trations and containing prices, together with many valuable helps for 
planting the home grounds, will be mailed upon request ; while those W-. 
who care to tell us of any lawn planting that they have in mind will 
receive the personal attention of such letter-aid as we can give. 



<: 




School of 
Horticulture for Women 

(Eighteen Miles from Philadelphia) 

Ambler, Pa. 

Practical and theoretical training in the growing of Fruits, Vege- 
tables and Flowers. Bees. Simple Carpentry. School Gar- 
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positions. Write for Catalog 

Elizabeth L. Lee, Director 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



WOMEN'S NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 

QUARTERLY 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS 



February, 1916 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 



Founded "to promote agricultural and horticultural interests among 
women and to further such interests throughout the country." 

OFFICERS 

President 
Mrs. Francis King Alma, Michigan 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Ambler, Pa. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer New York 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer Huntington, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 



Council 



Mr. Bernard N. Baker 
Miss Emma Blakiston 
Miss Louisa G. Davis 
Mrs. C. W. Deusner 
Mrs. H. B. Fullerton 
Miss J. B. Haines 
Miss Margaret Jackson 
Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 
Mrs. Francis King 
Mrs. J. H. Lancashire 



Miss Hilda Loines 

Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning 

Miss Louise Klein Miller 

Miss E. H. Peale 

Mr. George T. Powell 

Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang 

Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Dean R. L. Watts 

Miss Mary Youngs 



Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee 



Office of the Association, 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 
Telephone Plaza 6000 

Copyrighted, 1916, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 

Vol. II, No. 3 QUARTERLY February, 1916 



The Directory. — The long-looked-for Directory of 
Members appears as the February number of the Quarterly 
instead of as a separate publication as previously announced, 
and this chiefly for two reasons. 

First, because every member should have it and will be 
interested in seeing just who her fellow members are. If 
issued separately it would very likely not reach all. Since 
we are such a widely scattered Association we can only hope 
to become acquainted with each other through our common 
interest in the Association and through the pages of the 
Quarterly; and this Directory, if carefully studied, should 
serve as a mutual introduction and should help us all in our 
work of cooperation. 

In this connection we would urge that more of our mem- 
bers should in future fill out the blanks submitted to them, 
for, as will be noticed in the list, many have not done so and 
therefore their especial interests could not be noted. 

Secondly, because the expense of printing this list as a 
separate booklet seemed too great a strain upon our finances. 
Our funds are very limited — being derived entirely from 
membership fees — and it was altogether improbable that 
enough copies could be sold to pay for the cost. 

The Directory as the February Quarterly is furnished 
to all members For additional copies the price is 25 cents, 
but it is not for general sale to others. 

Cooperation. — We ask the loyal cooperation of our 
members in promoting the growth of the Association — 
first, by bringing in new members, for we should be "ad- 
Published quarterly for the W. N. A. and H. A. by J. B. Haines at 
Cheltenham, Pa. 
Subscription price, $ .50 per year. 

Entered as Second-class matter March 22, 19 15. at the post office at Cheltenham 
under Act of Congress of March 3. 1879 

[3] 



vertised by our loving friends," and if each member will 
bring in four new members during the year our possibilities 
of helpfulness will be increased fourfold; secondly, by mak- 
ing a practise of buying gardening or farming books 
through the office of the Association. The price is the same 
and the booksellers' commissions which we receive will 
eventually make the office a source of income instead of 
expense to the Association. Lastly, we ask for increased 
patronage of our advertisers, whether members or outside 
firms. If we expect to make a success of the advertising 
department we must make some reasonable return to our 
advertisers, and we therefore ask each and every member to 
give some of her orders, whenever it is possible, to the firms 
or individuals who advertise in the Quarterly. 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE ASSOCIA- 
TION 

Membership Committee — 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Chairman, Batavia, 111. 
Finance Committee — 

Mrs. J. H. Lancashire, Chairman, Manchester, Mass. 
Publicity Committee — 
Publications Committee — 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Cheltenham, Pa. 
Law Committee — 

Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, Chairman, Painesville, 0. 
Conference Committee — 

Mrs. Geo. W. Crocker, Chairman, 378 Marlboro' St., Boston, 
Mass. 

ASSOCIATION NOTICES 
Conference, 1916. — The Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society has kindly granted this Association the use of their 
lecture hall at 300 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston, and the 
annual conference will be held there about May twentieth. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang and Mrs. B. H. Tracy are 
members of the Conference Committee, together with Miss 
Florence Jackson of the Women's Educational and Indus- 
trial Union. The Union will hold an exhibit and sale of 
women's work, and our members are asked to cooperate 
with them. 

Gardening Books. — Consignments of books on garden- 
ing, farming, etc., from Macmillan, Stokes, McBride, Put- 
nam, Scribner's, etc., are on exhibition at the office and may 
be purchased or ordered there. Members will find this an 
ideal place to select such books, as we have a great variety 
of the best on these subjects and they can look them over 
in comfort before deciding on their purchases. 

How to Form a Garden Club. — House and Garden for 
[4] 



February contains a valuable article by our president, Mrs. 
Francis King, on this subject, which will be reprinted in 
pamphlet form by this Association and will be on sale at 
the office. Price 25 cents. 

"Pronunciation of Plant Names." — This little book, 
published in most attractive form by the Garden Club of 
Michigan, should be the pocket companion of every gar- 
dener. It is now on sale at the office. Price $1 .00. 

Flower Shows. — The Association has taken space at 
the Philadelphia and New York flower shows and will be 
glad to sell and take orders from exhibits sent by members 
on commission. For further information kindly apply to 
the secretary. 

Office Needs. — " O' wad some member the giftie gie us " 
of a letter file to hold our card catalogues and rapidly in- 
creasing piles of correspondence. Books on horticulture 
and agriculture and subscriptions to gardening magazines 
would also be a welcome gift to our reference library. 

Easter Exhibit. — An Easter exhibit and sale will be 
held at the office April 17-20 — and members are asked to 
send appropriate articles to be sold on commission. 

SECRETARY'S REPORT 

The meeting of the Council was held on December 6th 
in the new offices, and the need of cooperation for women in 
horticulture and agriculture was emphasized by Mr. Powell 
as one of the most important considerations to-day. 

The office was opened in November, and the inner room 
fitted up with desk, typewriter, etc. The furniture for the 
outer office did not arrive until after the holidays, but after 
the middle of December the room was filled with a display 
of members' work sent for the Christmas sale, of which a 
report is given elsewhere. Now the room is most attract- 
ively fitted up as a reading room for members, and it is 
hoped that many will avail themselves of it. 

Requests come in from members in regard to training 
necessary for landscape gardeners, etc. How can a woman 
without experience and with little capital best secure the 
training necessary to make a success in horticulture? That 
is the question which comes to us as often as any other, and 
it is not an easy one to answer, especially as the prejudice 
of men engaged in this work against having women enter it 
has by no means been overcome. It must therefore be 
part of our task to show them that the growing interest in 
horticultural work is bound to create a demand for more 
workers — both men and women. 
[5] 



The General Secretary is to speak on "Women in Agri- 
culture and Allied Interests," in the New York University 
Extension Course on Tuesday evening, February 29th, at 
8 P. M. 

Two applications for work were sent to Miss Seaton 
Smith, author of "Farm Experience Supplied," in the No- 
vember Quarterly, but as yet we have not heard whether 
the writers have completed their arrangements and begun 
their work. 

A hybridist would like a position with a seed firm. Two 
State reformatories wish to employ competent women as 
farm managers and to oversee the outdoor work of inmates. 
The owner of a New England farm desires a woman manager. 
An agricultural teacher is desired by Pine Mountain School, 
Kentucky. 

Hilda Loines, General Secretary. 

THE NEW OFFICE 

The Association's first official quarters at 600 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City (telephone, Plaza 6000) is in daily 
charge of Miss Loines, and is proving a veritable home to 
the Association in general. 

One room is furnished as an office, and here the general 
business of the Association is carried on. 

The second is a reception, exhibition and reading room. 
Here is a meeting place for members desirous of exchanging 
ideas, which is such a help and stimulant to garden work. 
Here will be held from time to time exhibits of members' 
work; and here will soon be found a really comprehensive 
horticultural and agricultural library. A good start has 
already been made by contributions of valuable works from 
the authors themselves as well as from publishers, and an 
arrangement has been made with the latter to send here for 
exhibit new books on garden and farm topics, as they 
appear. 

The committee for furnishing these rooms is having a very 
uphill time. It had hoped to get everything for the rooms 
on consignment, thinking this would prove an excellent show 
room for garden furniture, etc., but no firms are willing to 
allow their goods to be used, and so nearly everything must 
be bought. The approximate costs are as follows: 

Letter File 

Furniture $105.00 

Upholstery 25.00 

Rug. . 25.00 

Light Fixtures 50.00 

Accessories 10.00 

Garden Window 75-QO 

[6] 



To date $90.00 has been received from ten members. 
These figures show how much more help is needed to ac- 
complish the work which, because of the needed funds, is 
now at a standstill. 

Donations from members desirous of assisting in making 
the new home comfortable and attractive may be sent to 
the secretary, and will be most gratefully received. 

Florence Merriam Hill, 
Chairman, Committee for Furnishing. 

THE CHRISTMAS EXHIBIT 

We were very pleased by the quick response of our ex- 
hibitors to send their "wares" to our new rooms at 600 
Lexington Ave. for the Christmas sale, and we are equally 
pleased with the results of the selling end. A well-written 
notice in the Sun brought many buyers and showed us the 
demand there is for unusual gifts pertaining to gardens. 

The publishers gave us a good line of books which will be 
kept on sale indefinitely, for we find that many are glad to 
purchase books when they can glance through the volumes 
without the rush of store or a busy clerk behind. 

The committee on "furnishing the rooms" has made them 
comfortable with "chairs, desk and book cases. With the 
gay cretonnes and the lovely silvery wicker to refresh the 
eye, good books at hand and many spring catalogues and 
magazines to while away an hour, and with our hospitable 
General Secretary at hand, we feel that we have a home 
which all our members will enjoy. We shall keep a few 
articles always on sale and are only too delighted to receive 
consignments from those whom we do not always reach by 
notices and who have unusual work to offer. Our com- 
missions (about twenty dollars in December), are applied 
to the maintenance of the rooms. 

We are now planning an Easter sale. Will those who 
read this and who have something to offer write us for 
further information? 

We want our members to feel that this is the beginning of 
an Exchange, of an opportunity to introduce to each other 
our work and interests, and to learn to know each other 
through our handicraft. 

Charlotte Cowdrey Brown, Chairman. 

REPORT OF CHICAGO CONFERENCE 

An interesting conference arranged by the members of the 
Association living in and near Chicago took place on No- 
vember 10th at the Art Institute. 

[7] 



A morning session was devoted to business arrangements, 
and after a pleasant "members' luncheon" the afternoon 
session opened at 2.30. This was an open meeting at which 
Mrs. King was the speaker of honor. The room was filled, 
about 130 women being present. Much interest was shown 
and several inspiring speakers led to a free discussion. 

A temporary Executive Committee was elected and 
charged with two specific duties: 

(1) To plan a spring conference. 

(2) To prepare a plan of permanent organization. 

The Committee consists of Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Batavia, 
Chairman; Mrs. Viles, Lake Forest, and Miss Wilson, 
Chicago, Vice-chairmen; Mrs. Gross, Evanston, Secretary, 
and Miss Lena McCauley, Dr. Lobdell, Mrs. Tyson, Miss 
King, all of Chicago; Mrs. Lozier, of River Forest, Miss 
Katharine McCauley, of Highland Park, Miss Jack, "The 
Ridge"; Mrs. Day and Mrs. Colvin of Evanston. 

This Committee is planning a spring conference to be 
held in the club room of the Art Institute on April 12th, 
13th and 14th at 10.30 A. M. and 2.30 P. M. each day. 
The six sessions will be devoted to Amateur Horticulture 
for Women, Commercial Horticulture for Women, Agri- 
culture for Women (including dairy and poultry), Market- 
ing, Business Meeting, Outdoor Professions and Occupa- 
tions for Women. 

The speakers will be chiefly women of actual experience 
and open discussion will be encouraged. 

It is hoped that many Middle West women who cannot 
go to the conference in Boston may find it possible to attend 
this one. The Committee will be glad to make hotel ar- 
rangements for women coming from out of town. Please 
write to Mrs. Deusner. 

Helen D. Deusner, 
Batavia, III. Chairman. 

NOTES 

Rural Progress Association. — A conference will be 
held in Philadelphia on February 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th. 
Mr. L. H. Bailey is one of the chief speakers and three of 
our own members are on the program. For further informa- 
tion watch the daily papers or address Mrs. Julius Smith, 
166 E. Main St., Moorestown, N. J. 

The National Flower Show will be held in Convention 
Hall, Broad Street and Allegheny Ave., Philadelphia, 
March 25-April 2. The price of general admission is fifty 
cents, but to exhibitors special tickets are being issued 
which are sold in blocks of one hundred at a cost of twenty- 
[8] 



five cents each and may be obtained from Mr. E. J. Fan- 
court, Chairman of the Committee on Trade Tickets, 1608 
Ludlow Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The attendance at the last International Show held in 
New York was 70,000, and Mr. W. F. Therkildson, Chair- 
man of the Publicity Committee in Philadelphia, assures 
us that this number will be exceeded at the National Flower 
Show to be held in Philadelphia. 

The International Flower Show will be held in New 
York, at the Grand Central Palace, Lexington Ave. and 
Forty-sixth Street, April 5-12. The price of general ad- 
mission is fifty cents. A special trade ticket is also issued 
to exhibitors for this show at a cost of $25.00 per 100. 

Additional information about both these shows, the 
renting of space, rules governing exhibits, etc., may be ob- 
tained from Mr. John Young, Secretary, 53 W. Twenty- 
eighth Street, New York, N. Y. 

Flower Show. — Members of the Lancaster County 
Florists' Club are already laying plans for their flower show 
to be held during the autumn of 1916. The members are 
already planting for competition. 

Dasheen. — The following letter is self-explanatory. 
"My Dear Mrs. King: Would you not be interested in 
using a lantern-slide lecture which we have prepared for 
distribution, giving an account of the work which has been 
done with this new vegetable called the dasheen. Our plan 
has been to send out the slides and a quantity of the dash- 
eens, the latter being cooked and served while the former is 
being given. A printed lecture would accompany the slides. 

If your organization or any organization with which you 
are connected would like to experiment with this dasheen, 
please let me know. Our object in sending out this illus- 
trated lantern-slide lecture is to create an interest in this 
new vegetable. 

I should indeed be much pleased to appear at one of your 
conferences should it be held at a time and place where I 
could do so. 

With kindest regards, I remain, 

Very truly yours, 

Daniel Fairchild, 
Agricultural Explorer in Charge." 
Washington, D. C, December 22, 1915. 

Flowers in Municipal Art. — One of the most inter- 
esting features of the exhibition held by the Municipal Art 
[9] 



Society of New York in their rooms, 119 East Nineteenth 
Street, on October 20th, was the fine showing made by the 
Committee on Flowers, Vines, and Area Planting. Mrs. 
Edward Hagaman Hall was in charge of the exhibit which 
consisted of a large collection of remarkably beautiful and 
educative photographs of window boxes, roof gardens, areas 
— also of factories, hospitals, hotels, schools, as well as pri- 
vate houses covered with vines. 

Many of the photographs were taken by Mrs. Hall and 
Mrs. Jessie Tarbox Beals, members of the Women's Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Association. They give a good 
idea of the enormous amount of work done by the committee 
under Mrs. Hall's leadership during the last ten years. 

This committee has endeavored to promote the adorn- 
ment of New York City with Nature decorations, by the use 
of trees, vines, shrubs — by window and balcony boxes. 

In this way the much-needed touch of Nature can be in- 
troduced into our monotonous streets, and the hot and dusty 
areas near buildings can be greatly improved by the cool 
and beautiful tones of green. Men, women and children — 
rich and poor, ignorant and educated, uncouth and cultured 
— unite in being attracted to and refreshed by flowers, and 
nowhere are their softening and restful influences more 
needed than in large cities. 

The Committee on Flowers, Vines, and Area Planting 
has valuable suggestions to make as to the selection of 
flowers, shrubs, and vines to be used in sunny or shady 
places, and also on the construction of window boxes. 

Jeanne Cassard. 

A New Field. — Speaking recently before the Horticul- 
tural Club of Boston, W. A. Manda urged that the prop- 
agation of hardy garden herbaceous plants by seed should 
be more generally followed by growers in this country in 
preference to the common method of root division. The 
result, Mr. Manda believed, would be, in time, a substan- 
tial increase in new forms and a general advancement in 
quality over the long-cultivated types. Once a "break" is 
started the progress of evolution would be startling. Many 
of our native plants, for example, still exist only in their 
primitive forms although even in that stage they seem to 
suggest more promising possibilities than are apparent in 
the original wild chrysanthemum of China and Japan from 
which our highly cultivated varieties have all been evolved. 

Made in America. — One of the direct results of the 
European war affecting the florist trade is the necessity for 
providing in some way the fancy baskets and other goods 
[10] 



formerly supplied by the artisans of the central European 
countries. Our wide-awake importing houses did not take 
long to size up this situation or to perceive its possibilities 
following the closing of their long-established sources of 
supply. Already the domestic production of these goods 
has assumed astonishing proportions, and yet the industry 
as an American institution is only in its infancy. It is to 
be noted that the styles and originality in the goods being 
turned out here are superior in bold conception and artis- 
tic finish to the goods formerly imported from Europe. 
Everything seems to indicate that this industry is a perma- 
nent acquisition. — Horticulture. 

An Appeal from the Kentucky Mountains. — Miss 
Pettit writes from the Pine Mt. School in Harlan County, 
Kentucky, of the great need for a teacher to instruct 
boys and girls in the school and other people in the neigh- 
borhood in better methods of farming and gardening. 
The school has 234 acres and serves as a center among an 
isolated, intensely rural population. C. N. Kendall, 
Commissioner of Education in New Jersey, says, "You 
have an unique opportunity in these mountains and you 
are establishing a school of the right sort." It is on both 
industrial and agricultural lines. Here is an opportunity 
for a teacher of agriculture to assist the school in a very 
practical way. 

NEW BOOKS 

My Growing Garden. By J. Horace McFarland. New York: Mac- 

millan Co. 216 pp. Illus. $2.00 net. 

This cheerful book of growing things entices one into the country, on 
to a small farm with possibilities. It is not statistical, nor full of cul- 
tural directions, but instinct with the joy of developing the waste places 
of the nearer localities. "Come and try me," is the message it brings 
from neglected woodlands and farm lands. Enough suggestions are 
given to make the book of real value to any one who wants to make a 
successful estate out of an old place, and beginners will do well to heed Mr. 
McFarland's hints about varieties of shrubs, trees, roses, etc. — E. C. W. 

Means and Methods of Agricultural Education. By Albert 
Leake. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Co. 273 pp. $2.00 net. 
The education of the farmer is a matter that concerns the urban as 
well as the rural population. Town and country are mutually depen- 
dent. The problems of the country and of the city can be no longer 
wholly separated. Until recently the interests of these have been re- 
garded as antagonistic; but, as Sir Horace Plunkett says, "The well- 
being of a people is like a tree: agriculture is its root, manufactures 
and commerce are its branches and its life; if the root is injured the 
leaves fall, the branches break away, and the tree dies." 

Agricultural prosperity is one of the most important factors in finan- 
cial stability and the development of agriculture is a national question. 
Agricultural education is a phase of the broader problem of industrial 
education. 

[HI 



This volume discusses the present methods of agricultural education, 
especially in the United States and Canada, outlines plans for improve- 
ment and suggests new methods by which rural schools may give our edu- 
cation based on environment and adapted to the needs of rural districts. 
The Holy Earth. By L. H. Bailey. New York: Charles Scribner's 

Sons. 170 pp. $1.00. 

Mr. Bailey desires that we should realize the spiritual values of the 
earth in its relation to the masses of humanity which more or less inti- 
mately dwell upon it. That " the giant smile of the great brown earth " 
is wonderfully stimulating and restful to humanity, is becoming more 
and more a recognized fact. This recognition is due to a more intimate 
knowledge of the earth, Mr. Bailey holds, and as conservation ideas 
permeate the masses a real appreciation of the holiness of the earth 
will become part of the working thought of the nation. To this end the 
author presents this series of brief essays in which he strikingly sets 
forth the "brotherhood relation," the "underlying training of a people," 
the "tones of industry," and the forest, the open fields and the ancestral 
sea as the "background spaces" claimed by every needy soul in these 
days of crowded life and environment. — E. C. W. 
The Principles of Floriculture. By Edward A. White. New 

York: Macmillan Co. 467 pp. 7 Illus. $1.75 net. 

This is a practical and comprehensive treatise on the growing of 
flowers, chiefly under glass, by the professor of floriculture at the New 
York State College of Agriculture (Cornell). Compiled largely from his 
lectures, the work is the outgrowth of much experience and observation. 
The scientific notes and botanical classifications add much to the use- 
fulness of the book in describing plant relations and characteristics, and 
the cultural directions are clear and concise. Many who make a busi- 
ness or a pleasure of flower growing will find that it meets their needs. 
The Marketing of Farm Products. By L. D. H. Weld. New York: 

Macmillan Co. 483 pp. $1.50. 

Mr. Weld's book is based on much experience with market problems 
and much study of the economics of the subject. Its aim is "to set 
forth the fundamental principles of market distribution as applied to the 
marketing of agricultural products. It points out the place that market- 
ing occupies in the general field of economics, and applies accepted 
economic principles to the marketing process." Special problems also 
are treated — such as price quotations, transportation, public markets, 
cooperative marketing, etc. The author describes existing conditions 
and does not attempt to outline any plan for improvement. The book 
is well worth the attention of the many producers and consumers who 
are to-day so much puzzled by the strange inconsistencies and fluctua- 
tions of prices. 
The Gardenette: or City Backyard Gardening by the Sandwich 

System. By Benjamin F. Albaugh. Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd 

Co. 138 pp. Illus. $1.25. 

This third edition of this original little volume attests its value to city 
dwellers. It is full of common-sense directions for beginners, the result 
of years of experience in the author's particular environment. To get 
a successful crop of early vegetables for private consumption and also 
for sale, he suggests several means of forcing seeds and protecting early 
plants, all of which are of moderate price, as opposed to the cold frames 
and hot beds, the initial cost of which seems excessive to the gardener 
on a city lot. Careful cultural directions for the best vegetables under 
city conditions apply equally to suburban homes, and a final section 
shows how the same methods may be applied to many varieties of 
flowers, vines, and shrubs. "The Sandwich System" makes intensive 
growing practical. — E. C. W. 

[12] 



DIRECTORY OF MEMBERS 

January I, 1916 



HONORARY MEMBERS 

Dr. L. H. Bailey Ithaca, N. Y. 

Mrs. John Crosby Brown 36 E. 37th St., N. Y. City 

Kenyon L. Butterfield . Pres. Mass. Agric. College, Amherst, Mass. 

Mrs. David Houston Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Emma Shafter-Howard. . 1200 California St., San Francisco, 
Cal. 

Abbot, Miss Mary P Harvard, Mass. 

Apple growing; gardening. 
Achelis, Miss M. J 9 East 57th St., New York 

Interested in fruit growing and her own garden. 
Adams, Mrs. A. E Broadway and 5th Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Member of the Youngstown Garden Club. 
Addington, Mrs. Keene H Lake Forest, Illinois 

Interested in landscape gardening, her own garden, and social work. 
Alderson, Miss Lilian 67 Lafayette PL, Greenwich, Conn. 

Garden designer; ;trained at Swanley, England. 

Alexander, Mrs. Henry A 840 Park Ave., New York 

Allen, Miss Annie E 263 Harvard St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Small home vegetable garden; interested in school gardens. 
Allen, Mrs. Dudley P..Glenallen, Mayfield Road, Cleveland Heights, O. 

Allerton, Mrs. S. W Lake Geneva, Wisconsin 

Allerton, Mrs. S. W 1025 Highland St., S. Pasadena, Calif. 

Anderson, Miss E. M 173 Amity St., Brooklyn 

Small fruits; made her own garden. 
Anderson, Mrs. F. P Grosse He, Michigan 

Small fruits. 
Anderson, Mrs. William R. F. D., Elwell, Mich. 

Honorary President of Garden Club of Alma, Mich. 
Andrews, Miss Harriet A 417 West 120th St., New York 

Specializing in flowers and small fruits for profit. 

Archbald, Mrs. R. W 236 Monroe St., Scranton, Pa. 

Armour, Mrs. George Princeton, New Jersey 

Arrel, Mrs. George T. . .Lincoln Ave. and Bryson St., Youngstown, Ohio 

Member of the Youngstown Garden Club. 
Arthur, Miss Kate E Marshfield, Mass. 

President of the Marshfield Garden Club. 
Artman, Miss Estelle 1620 Oxford St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Principal of the McClellan School Garden. 

Atkinson, Miss Anna Berwyn, Pa. 

Atkinson, Mr. Geo. F Department of Botany, Cornell University, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

Botany; publishes in scientific journals in Europe and the United 
States. 
Atkinson, Mrs. T. O Doylestown, Pa. 

Raises nut trees from seed. 

* Indicates Life members 

[13] 



Austen, Miss E. Alice Rosebank, Staten Island, N. Y. 

Organized the Staten Island Garden Club; published articles on 
photography. 
Austen, Miss Lucilla C Cockeysville, Md. 

Raspberries, grapes, medicinal herbs; designs gardens for small lots. 
Avery, Miss Florence O Maple Road Farms, Oxford, Mich. 

Interested in farming. 
Ayres, Mrs. Steven B 126 Fordham Road W., Uni. Heights, N. Y. 

On the Garden Committee of the Bronx Park Association. 



Bachman, Mrs. Frank H Jenkintown, Pa. 

Bacon, Mrs. George W St. James, Long Island, N. Y. 

Interested in farming and dairying. 

Bacon, Mrs. Leonard B 35 Vick Park B., Rochester, N. Y. 

Bahlke, Mrs. W. A 608 State St., Alma, Mich. 

Bailey Mrs. D. R 412 Fassett St., Toledo, Ohio 

Interested in school gardens. 
Baker, Mr. Bernard N Ingleside, Catonsville, Md. 

Interested in farming. 

Baker, Mrs. John C Great Neck, New York 

Baldwin, Miss Lida T 1616 Glenwood Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Member of the Youngstown Garden Club. 

Ballard, Mrs. Thos. P R. F. D. 4, Painesville, Ohio 

Ballinger, Mrs. Lees 214 W. Main St., Lansing, Mich. 

Bangs, Mrs. Bleecker 400 Lafayette Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Fruit growing; has lectured on Markets, and Foods for girls earning 
a minimum wage. 
Barber, Mrs. St. George Chesterfield, Md. 

Interested in dairying and farming. 
Barker, Miss Ellen M East Road, Sheffield, Mass. 

Dairying, farming, and poultry raising. 
Barnard, Mr. George E County Road, Ipswich, Mass. 

Flowers; has published articles in "Country Life in America." 
Barnard, Mrs. George E County Road, Ipswich, Mass. 

Made own garden and exhibited. 
Barnes, Miss Katherine 755 Madison Ave., New York 

Made own garden and exhibited. 
Barry, Miss Elizabeth M The Westmoreland, 100 E. 17th St., N. Y. 

Market-gardening; planning and caring for small gardens. 
Barton, Jr., Mrs. H. H Holmesburg, Pa. 

Interested in Horticulture. 

Bass, Mrs. Perkins 936 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 

Summer address, Peterboro, N. H. 
Beals, Mrs. Jessie Tarbox. . . 71 West 23rd St., New York 

Photographer; specializes in garden photographs. 
Beardsley, Mrs. A. M Greenleaf Farm, Roxbury, Conn. 

Chickens, vegetables and flowers. 

Beckwith, Miss Ada Cobden, 111. 

Beebe, Miss Katherine 800 Bryant Ave., Winnetka, 111. 

Bell, Mrs. Laird Hubbard Woods, 111. 

Bellinger, Miss Margaret Belltown Road, Stamford, Conn. 

Vegetable raising for profit. 

Bentley, Mrs. Cyrus 1505 Astor St., Chicago, 111. 

Bentley, Miss Margaret 1505 Astor St., Chicago, 111. 

Beveridge, Mrs. Henry L 1801 N. Penn. St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Biddle, Mrs. Arthur Gwynedd Valley, Pa. 

Biddle, Mrs. Charles Andalusia, Pa. 

Biddle, Mrs. Edward W Carlisle, Pa. 

[14] 



Birdsall, Mrs. Grace H Osterhout Free Library, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Gardening in general and indoor plants. 
Bishop, Mrs. George S Poland, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Bishop, Mrs. Merle D Hanover, Pa. 

Bishop, Miss Susan Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Bissell, Miss Mary C 19 Pelham Road, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Planted own garden and others, and exhibited in local flower shows. 
Biswanger, Miss Frida E .6407 N. 12th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Farming, poultry, and gardening for profit. 

Blair, Miss Alice M 631 E. Dupont St., Roxborough, Phila., Pa. 

Blake, Mrs. Tiffany Lake Forest, Illinois 

Blakiston, Miss Emma Fort Washington, Pa. 

Organizer and Vice-president of School of Horticulture, Ambler, Pa. 
Blanchard, Miss Annie R 17 Hillside Ave., Melrose, Mass. 

Bulbs for winter blooming. 
Bliss, Mrs. Walter Phelps 73 Park Ave., New York 

Interested in dairying, landscape gardening and social work. 
Blue, Mrs. Chas. E Charlottesville, Va. 

Bulbs and perennials; propagating from cuttings; has box cuttings 
for sale. 
Blumke, Miss Mary M 820 Hill St., Saginaw, Mich, 

Growing flowers chiefly for altar decorations. 
Blunt, Miss Eliza S New Russia, Essex Co., N. Y. 

Made a sandy field into a garden. 
Boardman, Mrs. H. A 1336 River Boulevard, St. Paul, Minn. 

Commercial greenhouses and landscape design. Exhibited at 
Minnesota State Fair and Horticultural Society's shows. 
Boddie, Mr. John T. . • . . Winnetka, 111. 

Designed and made his own garden. 
Bond, Miss Elizabeth P 6300 Green St., Germantown, Phila., Pa. 

Roses and amateur gardening. 
Bonnell, Mrs. J. M 315 Wick Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Borden, Miss Eleanor W 4622 Wayne Ave., Germantown, Pa. 

Teacher of gardening for children. 
Borden, Miss Lydia Prichett Manoa, Del. Co., Pa. 

Teacher of biological sciences in National Farm School, Bucks Co.; 
especially interested in botany and economic entomology. 
Bowman, Mr. Daniel W Phoenixville, Pa. 

Prize peach orchard of four hundred trees. 
Bradley, Miss Marjorie 2631 Prarie Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Landscape gardening and school gardening; has planned public and 
private grounds. 
Bradner, Miss Harriet B Englewood, N. J. 

Formerly farming director at the N. J. Reformatory for Women; 
lectured. 

Brandeis, Miss Susan 6 Otis Place, Boston, Mass. 

Brazier, Mrs. Joseph H 1803 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brazier, Miss E. Josephine 1803 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brewster, Mrs. Walter S Lake Forest, Illinois 

Vice-president of Garden Club of America. 

Briggs, Mrs. James H Scarsdale, N. Y. 

Brinsmade, Miss Alice 166 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Briscoe, Mrs. S. W R. F. D., West Nyack, N. Y. 

Hardy plants for sale; has Airedale Terrier kennels. 
Britton, Mrs. N. S 2965 Decatur Ave., New York 

Published on botany and plant protection; lectured before garden- 
ing clubs and organized Wild Flower Preservation Society. 
[15] 



Brown, Miss Mary M 36 East 37th St., New York 

Brown, Mrs. S. A 165 West 58th St., New York 

Color; amateur judge of flower shows. 

Brush, Mrs. Alamson P 101 Rowena St., Detroit, Mich. 

Buckingham, Mrs. John 266 Linden St., Winnetka, 111. 

Interested in fruit, flower and vegetable growing. 
Buckner, Mrs. W. V 120 W. Florinda St., Hanford, Calif. 

Pansies; hopes to grow them commercially for the seed. 

Bullen, Mrs. Henry L 18 Shephard Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Burden, Mrs. Henry Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Organized her own farm, exhibited hens, and published articles in 
"The Rural New Yorker." 
Burgdorff, Mr. F. J 73 Hollywood Ave., E. Orange, N. J. 

Fruit growing; lectured at Columbia University. 

Burgess, Mrs. George E Cedarwood, Hyde Park, Mass. 

Burlingham, Miss Josephine L 37 Madison Ave., New York 

Interested in fruit-growing for profit and landscape gardening. 
Burnham, Mrs. Lewis Berwyn, Pa. 

Weeders' Club and Garden Club of America. 
Burr, Miss Margaret W Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Farming and dairying. 

Burtenshaw, Mrs. S. D 107 Broadway, Tarrytown, N. Y. 

Bushnell, Mrs. E. H 21 Clark St., Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Flower raising for profit. 
Butcher, Miss Theodora S 1302 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manager of Bureau of Occupations for Trained Women. 
Butler, Mrs. Henry A Poland, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Butler, Mrs. Robert Gordon 61 E. 86th St., New York 



Cambell, Mrs. Elizabeth W Elliott, Conn. 

General horticultural interest. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Augusta A 1130 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 

Carrere, Miss Anna M White Plains, N. Y. 

Carter, Mrs. Emmett B Greene & Mt. Airy Ave., Germantown, Pa. 

Secretary of Garden and Orchard Society. 
Cassard, Miss Jeanne 165 W. 83rd St., New York 

Settlement Worker; interested in farming. 
Cassell, Miss Nettie 404 Massasoit Ave., E. Providence, R. I. 

Runs a small but successful market garden. 

Catherwood, Miss Hazel H Hoopeston, 111. 

Cator, Mrs. Franklin P 12 Club Road, Roland Park, Md. 

Chambon, Mile. Jeanne South Lee, N. H. 

Came to America when her farm was destroyed by the war. 

Chapman, Mrs. L. P Norwood Ave., Chestnut Hill, Phila., Pa. 

Chapman, Jr., Mrs. Otis P 65 Granite St., Westerly, R. I. 

Chard, Mrs. Alfred 54 Melrose PL, Montclair, N. J. 

Choate, Miss Caroline Pleasantville, N. Y. 

Church, Miss Florence A 17 E. 60th St., New York 

Small fruits and vegetables. 

Clapp, Mrs. Willard M 1928 E. 82nd St., Cleveland, Ohio 

Clark, Mrs. Clarence M Indian Queen Lane, Germantown, Pa. 

Clark, Jr., Mrs. C. Howard Devon, Pa. 

Clark, Mrs. Francis B Garden City, Long Island, N. Y. 

Clark, Miss Josephine A 267 Cresent St., Northampton, Mass. 

Apples. 
Clark, Mrs. Robert S Maple Shade, Dillsburg, Pa. 

Farming and horticulture. 

[16] 



Clarke, Miss Elizabeth 50 South St., Williamstown.Mass. 

Clarke, Miss Josephine 28 Glover St., Southbridge, Mass. 

Three acres of vegetables and two thousand gladiolus bulbs. 
Clarke, Mrs. Lucius L 923 Forest Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Bee-keeping. 
Clegg, Mrs. George Hubbard Road, Youngstown, Ohio 

Fruit growing and hardy garden; Youngstown Garden Club. 
Clement, Miss Henrietta B 44 Sanford Ave., Flushing, N. Y. 

Home garden. 
Cleveland, Mrs. Charles D Eatontown, N. J. 

Iris; nursery business for hardy plants. 

Cleveland, Mrs. Clement 925 Park Ave., New York 

Clinedinst, Mrs. Benjamin W Pawling, N. Y. 

Interested in all but dairying and bees. 

Clow, Mrs. Harry B 21 14 Lincoln Park, West Chicago, 111. 

Cochran, Miss Fanny T 131 S. 22nd St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Cochran, Mrs. L. E 741 Wick Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Cogswell, Miss State Bank, Albany, N. Y. 

Vacant lot work. 

Colgate, Mrs. Richard M Llewellyn Park, W. Orange, N. J. 

Colt, Mrs. James D Suffolk Road, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Home garden. 
Comstock, Mrs. A. W Southernwood, Ivoryton, Conn. 

Interested in farming and landscape gardening. 
Condict, Mrs. Henry V 217 Roseland Ave., Essex Falls, N. J. 

Organized a Children's Garden Society; published in "Suburban 
Life." 
Cook, Miss Catherine E 122 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Exhibited at Lake Forest County Fair; published articles on "Gar- 
den Literature." 
Cook, Mrs. Maxfield R. F. D. 6, Chula Vista, Calif. 

Home garden; exhibited. 
Cooley, Miss Elizabeth S. . 17 McKinley PI., Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 
Cooper, Mrs. CM Sewaren, N. J. 

Rose culture and pond lilies. 

Cooper, Mrs. D. M 1523 W. Lake St., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Cooper, Mrs. Emma R 113 Sumac St., Wissahickon, Pa. 

Floriculture. 
Cooper, Mr. Madison Calcium, N. Y. 

Gladiolus; operating grain and dairy farms. 
Cooper, Mr. William S 1523 W. Lake St., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Department of Botany, University of Minnesota. 

Corbett, Mrs. Merritt J 99 Clark St., Binghamton, N. Y. 

Cotton, Dr. Mary H Mineola, Long Island, N. Y. 

Breeder of Pekingese dogs; intensive farming in small gardens. 
Cox, Mrs. Erving Mill Neck, Long Island, N. Y. 

Home garden. 
Craven, Miss Gertrude Roxbury, Conn. 

Perennials, vegetables, small fruits. 
Crawford, Mrs. W 1602 Ind. Ave., La Porte, Indiana 

Peonies, iris, aquilegia, bulbs and hardy perennials. 
Crew, Miss Caroline L Kennett Square, Pa. 

Horticultural interest. 

Crocker, Mrs. Courtenay Wayland, Mass. 

Crocker, Mrs. Geo. U 378 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

Crockett, Mrs. Eugene A 298 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

General farming. 

[17] 



Cross, Miss Jean A 144 Park Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Gives illustrated talks on school gardens, backyard and window 
box gardens. 
Cross, Mrs. Laura B 924 Fourth Ave., Louisville, Ky. 

Iris; farming; stock raising; teaching botany; organized Insti- 
tutes by counties. 
Cross, Mrs. R. J Bearfort House, Newfoundland, N. J. 

Farming, poultry, school gardens. 
Crowell, Mrs. Benedict 10710 Magnolia Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 

Home garden; has exhibited. 

Crowell, Mrs. Henry P Winnetka, 111. 

Cudahy, Mrs. Joseph M Lake Forest, 111. 

Home garden. 

Culver, Mrs. Frederic 135 E. 66t h St., New York 

Cumbler, Mrs. Martin A Highspire, Pa. 

Cummings, Mrs. David M Lake Forest, 111. 

Cummings, Miss Francis W 130 E. 22nd St., New York 

Manager of Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations for Women 
Cunningham, Mrs. J. W 797 Ocean Ave., West End., N. J. 



Damon, Miss Teresa 11 Park Ave., New York 

Davenport, Mrs. Henry J 253 Rugby Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Davies, Miss Mary A 306 Union Ave., Swarthmore, Pa. 

Davis, Miss Alliene S Tenafly, N. J. 

Iris. 
Davis, Mrs. Edward Parker Bewly Farm, Newtown, Pa. 

Breeder of Ayrshire cattle, draft horses, old English sheep dogs, and 
Rhode Island Red poultry. 
Davis, Miss EmmaC .-9 ate . s Mills . 0nio 

Nature study in Cleveland public schools, and initiation of school 
garden work. 
Davis, Miss Helen Isabel 46 Dover Rd., Wellesley, Mass. 

Instructor in landscape gardening and horticulture, Wellesley Col- 
lege. 
Davis, Miss Louisa Gibbons Ambler, Pa. 

Poultry farm. 
Davis, Miss Katherine Bement 145 E. 35th St., New York 

Commissioner of Corrections. Farm at State Reformatory for 
Women, Bedford Hills, N. Y. 
Dawes, Miss Emily M Lydecker St., Englewood, N. J. 

Farming in New Hampshire. 
Dawes, Mrs. Lewis Englewood, N. J. 

Plants and flowers. 
Day, Mrs. Clinton S 635 Milburn St., Evanston, 111. 

Garden color schemes. 

Day, Mrs. Frank Miles Allen Lane, Chestnut Hill, Phila., Pa. 

Day, Miss Sarah J Englewood, N. J. 

Plants and flowers. 

Deaver, Mrs. John B 1634 Walnut St., Phila., Pa. 

Dell, Miss Beatrice Lake Ave., Greenwich, Conn. 

Garden designer, trained at Swanley Horticultural College, Eng. 
Delzell, Franc 525 Grand Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Director of Brooklyn Music School Settlement; has a farm in Vir- 
ginia. 
Dennison, Mrs. Myron Poland, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Denton, Mrs. Eugene W Goshen, N. Y. 



[18] 



Deusner, Mrs. Chas. W R. F. D. i , Batavia, 111. 

Landscape architect. 
Dewey, Mrs. John Huntington, N. Y. 

Bees. 
Dexter, Miss Agnes Tisdale 326 West 58th St., New York 

Teacher of Nature Study. 

Dick, Miss Mabel E Lake Forest, 111. 

Dickinson, Mrs. Susan T Hadleigh Hill Farm, St. Joseph, Mich. 

Home garden. 

Dickman, Mrs. George Petersham, Mass. 

Dickson, Mrs. James P 1638 Sanderson Ave., Scranton, Pa. 

Dimmick, Mrs. J. Benj Scranton, Pa. 

Home garden. 

Dixon, Mrs. William A 207 Wendover Rd., Baltimore, Md. 

Doan, Mr. John Lindley School of Horticulture, Ambler, Pa. 

Doane, Miss Rachel A Palenville, New York 

Farming. 

Dobbins, Miss Laura E 181 1 Arch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dock, Miss Margaret Fayetteville, R. F. D. 2, Pa. 

General gardening. 
Dock, Miss Mira L Fayetteville, R. F. D. 2, Pa. 

Botany, forestry. Former member of Penn. State Forestry Reser- 
vation Commission. 
Dodd, Miss Marion E 504 E. 58th St., New York 

Vegetables. 

Dommerick, Mrs. Alex. L Benedict Place, Greenwich, Conn. 

Donoho, Mrs. Matilda A Easthampton, Long Island, N. Y. 

Easthampton Garden Club. 
Doolittle, Miss Elizabeth F 4025 Grand Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Buyer of garden furniture and accessories for Marshall Field & Co.; 
has engaged in farming and landscape gardening. 
Doubleday, Mrs. Frank Nelson Oyster Bay, N. Y. 

Organized school gardens, exhibited in local shows; published as 
"Neltje Blanchan." 
Doughty, Miss E. N 170 Engle St., Englewood, N. J. 

Successful flower garden for twenty years. 

Douglas, Mrs. Geo. Bruce Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Douglas, Mrs. James H 4830 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Home garden. 
Driggs, Miss Alice A 829 Park Ave., New York 

Garden Clubs. 
Drury, Mrs. F. E 8615 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 

Farming, dairying, poultry-raising, fruit-raising. 
Dudley, Mrs. Chas. B. Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Asparagus and spring flowers. 

Dudley, Mrs. J. Sherman 5447 Indiana Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Dull, Mrs. A. P. L 211 N. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Duncan, Frances 1 Milligan Place, New York 

See Manning. 
Duncan, Miss Mary 541 W. 123rd St., New York 

Teacher. 
Dunlap, Miss Bessie Darling, Pa. 

Farming, poultry; farming director, Sleighton Farms. 
Dunn, Mrs. Alta Booth Cody, Wyoming 

Rural women's clubs; published in "Country Gentleman"; poultry, 
du Pont, Mr. Henry F Winterthur, Delaware 

Published on narcissi. 



[19] 



Durand, Mr. Herbert Lawrence Park, Bronxville, N. Y. 

Planting of "average" lots; wild gardens, using native plants ex- 
clusively. 
Dutilleul, Miss Anna Chalet des Roses, Waverly, Pa. 

Fruit for profit. 

Eames, Mrs. Henry G R. F. D. No. 3, New Milford, Conn. 

Farming. 

Earle, Miss Doris Stenton Ave., Chestnut Hill, Phila., Pa. 

Eastman, Mrs. M. L Model School, Jamaica, N. Y. 

Small fruits. 

Eckfeldt, Mrs. Jacob B 6 Lindenwald Terrace, Ambler, Pa. 

Eddy, Mrs. James A 27 First St., Troy, N. Y. 

Hardy perennials. 
Edgar, Mrs. W. W Waverly, Mass. 

Growing plants for the Boston market. 
Eels, Miss Mary E 2253 Calumet Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Paper-shell pecan grower. 

Egan, Mr. W. C Highland Park, 111. 

Elliott, Mrs. R. S Hempstead, Long Island, N. Y. 

Ely, Miss Ruth 94 Waterman St., Providence, R. I. 

General horticultural interest. 
Emerson, Miss Julia T 131 East 66th St., New York 

Published articles in botanical magazines. 
Emerson, Miss Marguerite E 395 Broadway, Cambridge, Mass. 

Organized school gardens in Cambridge. 

Emerson, Mrs. William 6 East 70th St., New York 

Emory, Miss Julia Chestertown, Md. 

Farming, poultry, fruit. 

Englesing, Miss Edith 40 Concord Ave., Cambridge, Mass. 

*English, Mrs. William E Indianapolis, Indiana 

Landscape work and farming; publishes in newspapers. 
Ergenzinger, Mrs. G. J Box 7, Grandville, Mich. 

Wyoming Park Garden Club of Grand Rapids. 

Erwin, Mrs. Thomas C 35 Oakdale Rd., Atlanta, Ga. 

Estabrook, Mrs. Austin Memphis Ave. S. W., Cleveland, Ohio 

Forty acre farm, 500 chickens, stall in market. Organized Com- 
munity Welfare Association, Brooklyn, O. 
Evans, Miss Elizabeth C Gwynedd Valley, Pa. 

Vegetables and flowers. 

Falconer, Mrs. M. P Sleighton Farms, Darling, Pa. 

Superintendent of Girls' House of Refuge. 
Falkenhausen, Miss Margaret von 852 Municipal Building, N. Y. 

Farm and 500 fruit trees in Somerville, N. J. 
Farrand, Mrs. Beatrix Jones 21 E. nth St., New York 

Landscape gardener. 

Farwell, Mrs. A. L Lake Forest, 111. 

*Farwell, Mrs. F. C Lake Forest, 111. 

Farwell, Mr. John V Lake Forest, 111. 

Fausner, Mrs. C. E 1258, 84th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Professional grower of dahlias. 
Faxon, Miss Harriet Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 

Interested in farming in Salisbury, Conn. 

Fay, Mrs. Chas. S Whittier, California. 

Fay, Miss Irene Cromwell, Conn. 

Landscape gardening; flowers in commercial greenhouse. Work- 
ing for A. N. Pierson, Inc. 

Fels, Mrs. Joseph 4305 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

[20] 



Field, Mrs. Stanley Lake Forest, 111. 

Home garden. 

Fisher, Mrs. Alice G 427 E. Main St., Batavia, N. Y. 

Fisher, Miss Elizabeth W 2222 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Forestry; birds; vacant lot gardens. 
Fletcher, Mrs. Julia L 206 Burton St. S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Director of Playgrounds Association. 
Fletcher, Mrs. Peter 615 Palisade, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Exhibited in local flower shows. 

Ford, Mrs. Geo. Burdett 404 W. 115th St., New York 

de Forest, Mrs. Henry L 955 Hillside Ave., Plainfield, N.J. 

Forrest. Mrs. Geo. D Hubbard Woods, Illinois 

Fountain, Mrs. Gerard Scarsdale, N. Y. 

Fowler, Miss Caroline M 922 Euclid Ave., Princeton, 111. 

Fox, Mrs. Wm. Henry 23 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Francis, Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Ventura, Calif. 

President of the Theodosia B. Shepherd Seed Growing Company; 
specialist in petunias. 

Francke, Mrs. L. J Glen Head, Long Island, N. Y. 

Frazier, Miss Isabel Crossroads Farm, Garrison, N. Y. 

Poultry farm; exhibited garden baskets. 

Freeland, Miss Mary H Elkins Park, Pa. 

Frew, Mrs. W. N 6515 5th Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Garden Club of Allegheny Co., Pa. 
Frismuth, Miss Anna Groton, Mass. 

Horticulture and landscape work. 

Fuller, Mrs. Frank R House in the Woods, Winnetka, 111. 

Fuller, Mrs. Pendleton Las Cruces, New Mexico. 

Farming. 
Fullerton, Mrs. H. B. :.L. I.R. R. Experimental Station, Medford, N. Y. 

Editor of the Long Island Agronomist; specializes in market gar- 
dening, fruit, dairying, flowers and nursery stock. 

Gage, Mrs. S. E West Morris, Conn. 

Garden Club of Litchfield, Conn. 

Gallup, Mrs. Francis 9 E. 17th St., New York 

Gano, Miss Laura Hagaman Farm, R. R. No. 3, Richmond, Ind. 

Garlick, Mrs. Henry 505 Wick Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Garretson, Mrs. James 15 Claremont Ave., New York 

Garrett, Miss Laura B 225 W. 68th St., New York 

Nature work; vacant lot gardens. 
Garrigues, Miss Hannah Haverford, Pa. 

Roses; published in the "Garden Magazine." 
Gauffin, Mrs. G. F 1723 Ridge Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Jellies and pickles. 
George, Miss Theodora. . . .72 Pennsylvania Ave., Staten Island, N. Y. 

Fruit for profit. 
Getz, Miss Hester A 5923 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 

Florist. 
Gibson, Mrs. Walter 258 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y. 

Lectured on gardening; published in garden magazines. 

Gibson, Mrs. W. M 260 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y. 

Gignoux, Miss Elise M Great Neck, Long Island, N. Y. 

Gilbert, Mrs. Lyman 203 N. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Gill, Mrs. Ellen M 28 Ashland St., Medford, Mass. 

Peonies, hollyhock hybrids, perpetual roses. 
Gillette, Mrs. Curtenius " Wabasso," Fort Solange, L. I., N. Y. 

White turkeys and hens. 

[21] 



Gillette, Mrs. John W Hudson, N. Y. 

Gilman, Miss Dorothea 3 Fayerweather St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Gilmore, Mrs. Jas. Campbell 1434 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Glessner, Mrs. John J 1800 Prairie Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Godfrey, Mrs. Hollis 1906 Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Goldmark, Miss Pauline 270 W. 94th St., New York 

Goodman, Miss Ernestine A Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

Secretary-treasurer of Garden Club of America. 
Goodrich, Miss Louise M 166 Willoughby Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The Pratt Institute Women's Garden Club. 
Gotthold, Mrs. F Cos Cob, Conn. 

Home garden. 
Grafflin, Mrs. Wm. Hooper Glencoe, Md. 

Designed and made her garden. 

Grasselli, Miss Josephine 2275 E. 55th St., Cleveland, O. 

Graves, Miss Frances Simms Graves Villa, Wilson, N. C. 

General farming. 

Graves, Miss Louise B 8 Chestnut St., Boston, Mass. 

Gray, Mrs. Wm. Steele 39 W. 53rd St., New York 

Green, Mrs. A. H., Jr 813 Jefferson Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Garden Club work. 

Green, Miss Mary Pomeroy 1 143 La Salle Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Greene, Miss Louise D 82 Pinckney St., Boston, Mass. 

Potatoes and small fruits. 
Greene, Dr. M. Louise, Ph.D 14 University PI., New Haven, Conn. 

Director children's gardens; author "Among School Gardens," 
Russell Sage Foundation Publication. 
Gribbel, Mrs. John Wyncote, Pa. 

Gardening. 

Griscom, Miss F. E Horseshoe Farm, Tallahassee, Fla. 

Griswold, Miss Grace H.. .238 N. Lafayette Ave., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Secretary Kent Garden Club. 
Groesbeck, Mrs. G. B Elmhurst, E. Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, O. 

Garden design and color arrangement. 
Groobey, Mrs. Sara M Riverton, N. J. 

Pears, peaches, apples, cherries, and small fruits on thirteen acres. 

Gross, Mrs. Alfred H IIOO Ridge Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Grute, Mrs. Nain 600 W. 114th St., New York 

Guise, Harriette de Ossining School, Ossining, N. Y. 

Had charge of garden work at Ossining School 19 14-15; trained at 
Swanley, Eng. 
Gunnell, Miss Edna School of Horticulture, Ambler, Pa. 

Organized horticultural education in Germany and Swanley, Eng., 
and published articles on the subject. 
Gunnison, Miss Marion 716 Sassafras St., Erie, Pa. 



Haes, Miss Edith Fernbrook Farm, Mt. Kisco, N. Y. 

Dairying. 
Haines, Mrs. Caroline Scull. .221 Kings Highway W., Haddonfield, N. J. 
Horticulture. 

Haines, Miss Jane B Cheltenham, Pa. 

President of the School of Horticulture for Women at Ambler, Pa. 

Haines, Miss Mary M Cheltenham, Pa. 

Nursery work, Cheltenham Nurseries. 

Hale, Miss Marcia E Elizabethtown, N. Y. 

Planning and planting gardens; Dutch bulbs and alpines; pub- 
lished in Garden Magazine, N. Y. Evening Post, Appleton's 
Pop. Science 

[22] 



Hall, Mrs. Edward Hagaman 702 West End Ave., New York 

Urban decoration by means of window-boxes, shrub, tree and vine 

planting in areas. Chairman Coram, of Municipal Art Society. 

Hall, Mrs. Frank G Lake Forest, 111. 

Home garden. 
Hall, Mrs. W. B Stop 19, Y. & S. Line, Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Hamilton, Mrs. A. B Sparkhill, N. Y. 

Hamilton, Mrs. Claude 37 Terrace Ave. S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Hamilton, Mrs. Mary E 330 W. 15th St., New York 

Small farm at S. Norwalk, Conn. 

Hardin, Mrs. John H 1202 Sheridan Rd., Hubbard Woods, 111. 

Hart, Mrs. Harry C Ambler, Pa. 

Hart, Mrs. H. Stillson Barrington, 111. 

Flower culture 

Hart, Miss Mary M Ambler, Pa. 

Hart, Mr. Wm. Howard 131 E. 66th St., New York 

Harter, Mrs. Isaac Dongan Hills, Staten Island, N. Y. 

Hartshorne, Mrs. R. P 244 N. Heights Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Hartwell, Mrs. J. A 27 E. 63rd St., New York 

Havemeyer, Mrs. H. 1 E. 66th St., New York 

Haven, Mrs. J. Woodward 18 East 79th St., New York 

Hawes, Mrs. Chas. H 36 College St., Hanover, N. H. 

Archaeologist. 

Hawkes, Mrs. McDougall 8 East 53rd St., New York 

Haynes, Miss Caroline C Highlands, N. J. 

Cryptogamic botany; has published books on botany. 
Hays, Miss Anne K. . .'• South Nyack, N. Y. 

Interested in school gardens. 

Hazard, Mrs. F. R Syracuse, N. Y. 

Hazeltine, Mrs. Chas. S 221 John St., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Healy, Mrs. John J 2728 Pine Grove Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Heinsfurter, Miss Edna L 4345 Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Heinsfurter, Mrs. Jacob 4345 Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Helburn, Miss Theresa 425 West End Ave., New York 

Owns a farm. 

Helmer, Mrs. George J Nyack, N. Y. 

Henderson, Mrs. W. D 1001 Forest Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich 

Henry, Mrs. Charles W Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

*Henry, Mrs. John Jackson St. Martins, Chestnut Hill, Phila., Pa. 

Herr, Miss Etta 108 E. King St., Lancaster, Pa. 

General horticultural interest. 

Hess, Mrs. E. K 621 Lefferts Ave., Richmond Hill, N. Y. 

Hetzer, Miss L. Louise Lowthorpe School, Groton, Mass. 

Hardy perennials and greenhouse plants; lectured and instructed 
in horticulture. 

Hewitt, Mrs. Thomas B 122 Remsen St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Heyworth, Mrs. James O r . . .Lake Forest, 111. 

Hibbard, Jr., Mrs. Wm. G : . . 840 Willow Rd., Winnetka, 111. 

Hifton, Miss Henriette Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

Farm of five acres in Virginia. 

Higgins, Miss Helen T White Marsh, Pa. 

Teacher of Biology in Germantown High School; has bees, 
chickens, garden. 

Hill, Mrs. Florence Merriam 202 W. 74th St., New York 

Summer address, Siasconset, Mass. 

Landscape gardener; specializes in color effects and succession of 
bloom; lectures before garden clubs. 
[23] 



Hilliard, Mrs. W. H. R 204 S. Homewood Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Hine, Mrs. CD Wick Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Hires, Mrs. J. Edgar 129 Grandview Rd., Ardmore, Pa. 

Hires, Miss Linda S Haverford, Pa. 

Two years training at Ambler, specialized in fruit-growing. With 
the Wm. H. Moon Co., Philadelphia. 
Hitchcock, Mrs. Frank Boardman, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Hitchcock, Mrs. Lucius W. . . Premium Point Park, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Gardening and bee-keeping. 
Hitchcock, Mrs. N. D 224 Buckingham PL, W. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Poultry-raising and farming; published in farm papers. 
Hodges, Mrs. Leonie Rose 

Care Martin Dennis Co., 859 Summer Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Poultry husbandry; studied at Cornell and R. I. State College; 
managed small farms successfully; exhibited and published. 
Hoffman, Mrs. Charles F 620 Fifth Ave., New York 

President of International Garden Club; organized the Newport 
Garden Club. 
Hoffman, Mrs. Max 11 Podere, St. Joseph, Mich. 

Farming, fruit-raising and school gardens. 
Holbrook, Miss Marion F 77 Arlington St., Newton, Mass. 

Peonies and phlox. 

Holden, Mrs. Arthur Old Bennington, Vt. 

Holden, Mrs. Hale 844 Bryant Ave., Winnetka, 111. 

Interested in landscape gardening. 

Holdt, Miss Marie F 112 Waverly Place, New York 

Holliday, Mrs. D. C 5520 Hurst St., New Orleans, La. 

Holmes, Mrs. John G Braddock Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Holmes, Miss Mary S 147 Manheim St., Germantown, Pa. 

Holmes, Mrs. Massey 1040 W. 53rd St., Kansas City, Mo. 

Published a book on "Elementary Flower-gardening in Kansas 
City." 
Homans, Miss Nancy Box 8, Huntington, Long Island, N. Y. 

Jams and marmalade. 

Homans, Miss Nathalie W 161 Emerson PI., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Homans, Miss Sarah M 146 Franklin PL, Flushing, N. Y. 

Interested in school gardens. 
Homans, Miss Susan Tyng 121 Maple Ave., Flushing, N. Y. 

Flower-raising for profit; published in Garden Magazine. 
Homans, Mrs. Thos. S R. F. No. I, Hempstead, Long Island, N. Y. 

Has run a successful poultry plant. 
Home, Miss Wilhemina L. . . Home for Consumptives, Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

Farming. 

Hooker, Mrs. Elon H Rock Ridge Rd., Greenwich, Conn. 

Hoopes, Miss Jessie L Swarthmore, Pa. 

Dairying, poultry-raising and gardening. 
Hopkins, Mrs. Johns 1713 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Farm in New Jersey. 

Hoppin, Mrs. Hamilton L Mt. Kisco, N. Y. 

Horak, Miss Irma H. . . N. Y. Public Library, Stapleton, S. I., New York 

Librarian and organizer of vacation children's gardens. 

Houghton, Mrs. Clement Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Howe, Mrs. Charles Merwin 1800 Asbury Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Hoyt, Miss Elizabeth S 171 Madison Ave., New York 

Hubbell, Mrs. George W 128 E. 34th St., New York 

Hudson, Mrs. Henrietta : . .456 Riverside Drive, New York 

Color photography. 

[24] 



Hulst, Mrs. Henry ioo Fountain St., E. Grand Rapids, Mich. 

President of State Teachers' Association; interested in Arbor 
Day planting and provision for state parks. 

Hunt, Mr. Chester Jay 155 N. Mountain Ave., Montclair, N. J. 

Importer of spring flowering bulbs. 

Hunt, Mrs. Chester Jay 155 N. Mountain Ave., Montclair, N. J. 

Importer of spring flowering bulbs; trial garden on exhibition at 
Montclair during season. 

Hunt, Miss Maud D Wheaton, 111. 

Huntington, Miss Annie O Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Study of trees; has written on "Studies of Trees in Winter," 
"Poison Ivy and Swamp Sumach." 

Husband, Miss Anna 241 S. 8th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hutcheson, Mrs. Wm. A 45 E. 82d St., New York City 

Summer address, Gladstone, N. J. 

Landscape gardener; published and lectured on garden subjects; 

member of Somerset Hills Garden Club. 

*Hutchinson, Mr. Charles L. . .Corn Exchange Nat'l Bank, Chicago, 111. 

Hutchinson, Mrs. Charles L 2709 Prairie Ave., Chicago, 111. 



[ves. Miss Winifred 32 W. 49th St., New York 



Jack, Mrs. Chas. Walter 10440 S. Seeley Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Exhibited at Ridge Flower Show and won Chicago Horticultural 
Society medal; Chairman of Horticultural Department, Ridge 
Woman's Club, Chicago; interested in landscape gardening. 

Jackman, Mrs. Edwirf-S Blackstone Hotel, Chicago, 111. 

Jackson, Miss Elizabeth H De Pere, Wisconsin 

Landscape gardener; lectured on gardening and civic improvement 
and organized Civic Improvement Ass'n; designed Shattuck 
Park. 
Jackson, Miss Florence 264 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 

Secretary of the Women's Educational and Industrial Union. 
Jackson, Miss Margaret . . Care of H. W. Wilson Co., White Plains, N. Y. 

Horticultural interest. 
Jacob, Mrs. Lawrence 42 E. 49th St., New York 

Interested in gardening and fruit-growing. 

Jacobs, Mrs. M. W 217 S. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

Jarrett, Mrs. Edwin Wild Goose Farm, Shepherdstown, W. Va. 

Jay, Miss Mary Rutherfurd 19 E. 75th St., New York 

Garden architect. 
Jeffress, Mrs. Thomas F Meadowbrook Manor, Drewrys Bluff, Va. 

Farming, landscape gardening. 

Jenkins, Mrs. Helen Hartley 232 Madison Ave., New York 

Johnson, Miss Hazel. School for the Deaf, Flint, Mich. 

Johnson, Mrs. Henry E Lansdowne, Pa. 

Johnston, Mrs. Hugh McBirney Lake Forest, 111. 

Flowers. 

*Johnston, Miss Margaret A 21 12 Bancroft PI., Washington, D. C. 

Johnstone, Mrs. Hugo R 703 S. Pasadena Ave., Pasadena, Calif. 

Jones, Miss Eleanor P 225 Mill St., Haverhill, Mass. 

Interested in dairying, poultry-raising and gardening. 

Jones, Mr. John A 2 Rector St., New York 

Joy, Mrs. Henry B Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 

Judson, Mrs. Chas. N 12 Pierrepont St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Justice, Miss Caroline L Narberth, Pa. 

Horticultural interest. 

[25] 



Kaltenbach, Miss Winifred Park Hill, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Kauffman, Miss Edith 748 Bryson St., Youngstown, O. 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Kean, Miss Elizabeth Ursino Elizabeth, N. J. 

Keep, Mrs. Chauncey 1200 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 

Keenan, Miss Mary Rickey 410 S. Main St., Greensburg, Pa. 

Curator of children's gardens. 
Kelley, Mrs. Clark W Devils Lake, North Dakota 

Cattle, hogs, turkeys, poultry: lectured on better farming and house- 
hold conveniences, organized clubs. 
Kellogg, Mrs. Frederick S. . New York Mills, Y. Y. 

Farming, dairying, gardening; has exhibited peonies. 

Kelsey, Mrs. Lee Earl Lakeview, Mich. 

Kennedy, Mrs. John S 6 W. 57th St., New York. 

Ketcham, Miss Ethel B Bellport, L. I., Yew York 

General horticultural interest. 

King, Miss A. P 316 Rhodes Place, New Castle, Pa. 

King, Mrs. Edward 316 Rhodes Place, New Castle, Pa. 

King, Miss Elizabeth Orchard House, Alma, Mich. 

King, Miss Florence 1653 Monadnock Building, Chicago, 111 

Lawyer; President Woman's Ass'n of Commerce, Chicago. 
♦King, Mrs. Francis Alma, Mich. 

President W. N. A. and H. A.; President of Garden Club of Michi- 
gan; Vice-president of Garden Club of America. Author "The 
Well-considered Garden"; publishes, lectures. 
King, Miss Gertrude Box 301, Nantucket, Mass. 

Flower raising for profit. 

Knapp, Mrs. H. P Painesville, Ohio 

Knauth, Mrs. Percival 302 W. 76th St., New York 

Kneedler, Miss Miriam R. 1741 N. 19th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Owns fifty acre farm in Bucks Co. 
Knoblauch, Mrs. Charles Bolton Landing, Lake George, N. Y. 

Pansies, poultry. 
Knox, Jr., Mrs. J. G. M.. .211 Wendover Rd., Guilford, Baltimore, Md. 
Kohlsaat, Miss Edith M 25 E. 73rd St., New York 

Manager The Garden Gateway, 31 E. 48th St., New York. 



Laflin, Mrs. Louis E Lake Forest, 111. 

Lambert, Miss Marjorie. .Georgia Nor. & In. College, Milledgeville, Ga. 

Instructor in horticulture, poultry husbandry, floriculture and 
botany. Owner of a farm in New Hampshire. 
♦Lancashire, Mrs. J. H Manchester, Mass. 

Bulbs, indoors and outdoors. 
Landman, Miss M. V 802 University Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Institutional farming; lectured on agriculture for women, and in- 
stitutional farming. 

Lansing, Miss Gertrude Ogunquit, Me. 

Lapham, Mrs. Edwin N Peru, N. Y. 

Farming, dairying. 
Law, Mrs. G. W Elmhurst, 111. 

Peonies. 
Lazenby, Miss Mary E 1606 K. St., Washington, D. C. 

Home garden. 
Lee, Miss Elizabeth Leighton Ambler, Pa. 

Landscape gardener. Director School of Horticulture for Women, 
Ambler, Pa. 
Leeds, Miss Sarah B R. F. D. 6, West Chester, Pa. 

Orchardist and manager of a forty-five acre general farm. 
[26] 



Leonard, Elizabeth 83 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass. 

See Strang. 

Leonard, Mrs. Frank E 423 Terrace Ave., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Levey, Mrs. Louis H 2902 N. Meridian St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Levy, Miss Adeline 797 E. 170th St., Bronx, New York 

Lewis, Mrs. Herman 120 Grove St., Haverill, Mass. 

Lewis, Mrs. John L R. F. D. i, Erie, Pa. 

Horticultural interest. 

Lewis, Mrs. Theodore J 212 N. 34th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lightner, Mrs. W. H 318 Summit Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Linton, Miss Martha M 298 W. Main St., Moorestown, N. J. 

Poultry, fruit, gardening. 
Lloyd, Mrs. Finley Hall Red Gables, Shields, Pa. 

Garden Club of Allegheny Co. 
Lobdell, Dr. Effie L : 1555 N. Clark St., Chicago, 111. 

Markets fancy paper-shell pecans grown on her trees at Dell Grove, 
Putney, Ga. 
Lockwood, Miss Julia B Norwalk, Conn. 

Farming, fruit, poultry. 
Loeb, Mrs. Howard A Elkins Park, Pa. 

Poultry, vacant lot gardens. 
Loines, Miss Elma 3 Pierrepont PI., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Interested in landscape gardening; exhibited at Bolton Landing 
Flower Show; developed a new flower, columba. 
Loines, Miss Hilda 3 Pierrepont PL, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Perennials, especially delphiniums; children's gardens; village 
garden competition and flower shows. 

"Loines, Mrs. Mary H 3 Pierrepont PL, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Loines, Mrs. R. H. . . . > Dongan Hills, S. I., New York 

Home garden. 

Lord, Miss Isabel Ely 176 Emerson PL, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Lovell, Miss Fannie B School Lane, Germantown, Phila., Pa. 

Low, Mrs. Edward Gilchrist 28 Allerton St., Brookline, Mass. 

Founder and president of Lowthorpe School of Landscape Archi- 
tecture and Horticulture for Women. 
Lowe, Mrs. Edward Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Roses. 

Lowe, Mrs. W. E 34 East 63rd St., New York 

Lozier, Miss Edna H 28 Quick Ave., River Forest, 111. 

Perennials. 
Luckins, Mrs. Pauline 1807 E. Hazzard St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Floriculture. 
Ludington, Mrs. Chas. H Ardmore, Pa. 

President "Main Line School Garden Association." 

Lukens, Miss M. McF Conshohocken, Pa. 

Lundy, Mrs. Frederick K 331 High St., Williamsport, Pa. 

Lutz, Miss Emeline. Plaza Hotel, Chicago, 111. 

Interested in pecan growing. 
Lutz, Mrs. John A Lincoln, 111. 

Poultry, fruit, flowers. 
Lyons, Dr. Hannah McK Lincoln University, Pa. 

Poultry, gardening; published in Grange News of Pa. 



McBride, Mrs. Malcolm 1583 Mistletoe Drive, Cleveland, O. 

Home garden. 

McCagg, Mrs. E. B 161 Madison Ave., New York 

McCauley, Miss Katherine L 522 Vine Ave., Highland Park, 111. 

McCauley, Miss Lena M 418 St. James PL, Chicago, 111. 

[27] 



McClelland, Miss Nancy V. M 622 W. 113th St., New York 

McClelland, Mr. Will 419 N. Jefferson Ave., Saginaw, Mich. 

McCormick, Miss Anne Harrisburg, Pa. 

*McCormick, Mrs. Cyrus Hall 50 E. Huron St., Chicago, 111. 

McCormick, Mrs. H. B 305 N. Front St., Harrisburg, Pa. 

McCoy, Miss Anne Bighorn, Sheridan Co., Wyoming 

MacDonald, Miss Margaret State College, Pa- 
Associate Professor of Agricultural Chemistry in Pennsylvania 
State College; interested in agricultural education for women. 

MacDonald, Miss Pearl School of Agriculture, State College, Pa. 

Macfarlane, Mrs. J. R Woodland Rd., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

McFate, Mrs. Elsie General delivery, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Proprietor Hillside Hardy Flower Gardens, Turtle Creek, Pa. 

Mcllhenny, Miss Selina B 220 W. Upsal St., Germantown, Pa. 

Mcllvaine, Miss Francis Edge Glen Isle Farm, Downingtown, Pa. 

Chinese and English primroses; Secretary of Garden Club of Chester 
Valley, Pa., and member of "The Weeders." 
Mclntyre, Miss Lucy 303 W. 74th St., New York 

Amateur botanist. 
McKay, Mr. Richard Crane 52 Grove St., W. Medford, Mass. 

Home garden. 
McKeen, Miss Anna L Jewel's Island, Maine 

Farming and gardening. 
McKenney, Miss Virginia S 137 S. Syracuse St., Petersburg, Va. 

Chairman Executive Committee Bureau of Vocations for Women; 
Richmond, Va. 

McKinney, Mrs. Price Wickliffe, Ohio 

McLeod, Mr. John D Kindersley, Saskatchewan 

Home garden. 
McMullin, Jr., Mrs. David "Shadyside," Ambler, Pa. 

Landscape gardening. 
Mackey, Miss Linden 7016 Clinton Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 

Agriculture; owns a farm of one hundred acres in Warren, Ohio. 

Macy, Mrs. V. Everit Scarborough on Hudson, N. Y. 

Mallon, Miss Mary 234 McGregor Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio 

Lectures on vocations for women. 

Mallory, Mrs. A. D Batavia, 111. 

Mallory, Mrs. H. R Bonnie Cliff, Port Chester, N. Y. 

Vice-president of Rye Garden Club. 

Mallory, Mrs. P. Roger Forest Ave., Rye, N. Y. 

Manning, Mrs. Frances Duncan 1 Milligan Place, New York 

Author of garden books; maker of the Gardencraft Toys. 
Manning, Mr. Warren H 1101-1104 Tremont Bldg., Boston, Mass. 

Landscape designer; President of American Society of Landscape 
Architects. 

Markoe, Mrs. John 1630 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Marot, Miss Ada B Swarthmore, Pa. 

Commercial greenhouses. 

Marquand, Mrs. Allan Princeton, N. J. 

Marshall, Mrs. C. L 717 E. Orange St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Flowers. 

Marshall, Mrs. Harry Taylor University of Virginia, Va. 

Marshall, Miss Lucile B. A 11311 Bellflower Rd., Cleveland, Ohio 

Research work at Cornell University on culinary herbs; keeps bees. 
*Martin, Mrs. J. Willis 1721 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

President of the Garden Club of America. 
Martin, Mrs. Walter Irving Martinoaks, Barrington, 111. 

General interest in agriculture and horticulture. 
*Mason, Miss Jane Graham . Cerne, School-house Lane, Germantown, Pa. 
[28] 



Matz, Mrs. Rudolf Hubbard Woods, 111. 

Home garden. 
Mautner, Mrs. Louis L 618 S. Jefferson Ave., Saginaw, Mich. 

Vacant lot cultivation. 
Maynard, Mrs. Chas. H 260 Rosedale Court, Detroit, Mich. 

Hardy phlox; Secretary Ladies' Society of American Florists. 
Mayo, Mrs. G. E 306 Masten St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Home garden. 
Meeker, Mrs. Arthur 3030 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 

Home garden; has exhibited gladioli. 

Melish, Mrs. Thomas G 363 Lafayette Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio 

Mellick, Mrs. Geo. P 218 E. 7th St., Plainfield, N. J. 

Home garden. 

Mercer, Mrs. Wm. R Doylestown, Pa. 

Merrill, Mrs. M. M Hilltop Farm, Webbs Hill, Stamford, Conn. 

Middleton, Mrs. F. H 860 N. 5th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Millen, Mrs. John 1618 Vermillion Rd., Duluth, Minn. 

Home garden. 

*Miller, Mrs. Elizabeth C. T 3738 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 

Miller, Miss Julia West Mentor, Ohio 

Graduate of Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture and 
Horticulture for Women. 
Miller, Miss Louise Klein. . . .Care Board of Education, Cleveland, Ohio 

Director of School Gardens. 
Miller, Miss Martha H Sage College, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Student of landscape gardening at Cornell. 

Miller, Miss Nancy 5520 Woodlawn Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Minns, Miss Lua A 37 East Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Instructor in floriculture in Cornell University; lectured and pub- 
lished on floriculture. 
Mizer, Miss Loretta. . . .Stop 10 Green Rd., S. Euclid Ave., Cleveland, O. 

Flowers, vegetables, poultry. 
Mofnt, Miss Charlotte La Jolla, California 

Has charge of garden of Bishop's School for girls. 
Molitor, Mrs. Edward 936 Lakeshore Rd., Grosse Pointe, Mich. 

General horticultural interest. 

Monroe, Miss S. Margaret 1433 N. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Moon, Mr. Henry T. 

The Wm. H. Moon Co., Glenwood Nurseries, Morrisville, Pa. 
Moore, Mr. Charles 197 Parker Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Published, lectured, organized. 

Moore, Mrs. Edward G 21 Kirkland St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Morehouse, Miss Clara 156 Fifth Ave., New York 

Morey, Mrs. Wm. Carey 94 Oxford St., Rochester, Y. Y. 

Argenteuil asparagus culture; helped organize the Rochester Garden 
Club. 

Morgan, Mrs. Byron Middletown, N. Y. 

Morgan, Miss Jessie T 109 Oak St., Binghampton, N. Y. 

Horticulture; exhibited, lectured, organized, published. 

Morris, Mrs. Dave H 19 E. 70th St., New York 

Morris, Mrs. Harrison S Old York Rd., Oak Lane, Phila., Pa. 

Morris, Miss Mary W 1514 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Farm of twelve acres in West Chester, Pa. 

Morron, Mrs. John R 22 East 47th St., New York 

Morse, Mrs. Charles J 1825 Asbury Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Moseley, Miss Fannie 922 S. Euclid Ave., Princeton, 111. 

Horticultural interest. 
Moshier, Mrs. George Grandville, Mich. 

Organized the Wyoming Park Garden Club. 
[29] 



Moss, Mrs. J. B Lake Forest, 111. 

Mott, Miss Marion Radnor, Pa. 

Hybrid tea roses. 
Mumford, Miss Harriet A 2 East 41st St., New York 

Librarian who has collected and catalogued agricultural literature. 
Mumford, Mrs. John K Athens, N. Y. 

Poultry raising and dairying. 
Munger, Mrs. Chas. H 2330 E. 1st St., Duluth, Minn. 

Farming. 

Murphy, Mrs. Henry Killian 154 E. 37th St., New York 

Murphy, Miss J. B 417 High St., Germantown, Pa. 

Flowers. 
Murray, Miss Emily H Cumberstone, Md. 

House plants. 
Myers, Miss J. Kirtland 139 E. Seventh St., Plainfield, N. J. 

Interested in vacant lot gardens. 



Nathanson, Mrs. H. M Rydal, Pa. 

Neilson, Miss Sarah Mitchell 72 Penn. Ave., Rosebank, S. I., N. Y. 

Newhaus, Mrs. H 613 N. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Newberry, Mrs. J. S 99 Lake Shore Rd., Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 

Garden Club work; also interested in farming and poultry-raising. 

Newbold, Miss Catherine A 109 E. 72nd St., New York 

Newbold, Miss Edith 109 E. 72nd St., New York 

Newell, Mrs. John E West Mentor, Ohio 

Newman, Miss Anna W 1647 N. Lake Ave., Pasadena, Calif. 

Farming. 

Nice, Miss Susan W Ogontz, Pa. 

Nichols, Miss J. Blanche 2 Riverview Terrace, New York 

Nichols, Miss Edith 100 Meeting St., Providence, R. I. 

Nichols, Miss Rose Standish 55 Mt. Vernon St., Boston, Mass. 

Garden architect; gives illustrated lectures on "Pleasure Gardens" 
and "Garden-making." 
Nichols, Mrs. Wm. Edwin Hubbard Woods, Illinois 

Helped organize the Garden Club of Evanston, Illinois. 
Nicholson, Miss Irene B 445 Riverside Drive, New York 

Gardener, trained in England and Germany. 

Nicholson, Jr., Mrs. Wm. H 327 South 2nd St., Millville, N. J. 

Nixon, Miss Laura V Wilton, Conn. 

Vegetables and old-fashioned flowers. 
Noble, Mrs. Samuel L Roslyn, Pa. 

Flowers and vegetables. 
Nordstrom, Mrs. C. J. . .Tratelja Farm, Diamond Pt., Lake George, N. Y. 

Farming; exhibited at county fairs. 
Norris, Miss Katherine Madison Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Northrop, Mrs. William Norcroft, South Richmond, Va. 

Agriculturist ; has sixteen acres in alfalfa. 
Norton, Mrs. CD > 3 E. 85th St., New York 

General horticultural interest. 

Norton, Mrs. J. C Hempstead, Long Island, N. Y. 

Norton, Mrs. Strong Vincent . . . .Valhalla-in- Aqueduct- Rd., Akron, Ohio 

Gardening. 

Norton, Miss M. Harriet 540 W. California St., Pasadena, Cal. 

Notman, Mrs. George 136 Joralemon St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Nourse, Mrs. Emily L 2823 Q St., Washington, D. C. 

General horticultural interest. 

[30] 



Oates, Mrs. James F 2252 Irvington Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Secretary of Evanston Garden Club. 
Oatman, Mrs. Erie T Dundee, 111. 

Perennials. 
Ohl, Miss Nora R Primrose Flower Shop, Ardmore, Pa. 

Commercial florist. 
Oldys, Mrs. Henry Silver Spring, Md. 

Interested in economic and aesthetic value of birds; published arti- 
cles on same and organized bird protection societies. 
Ordway, Mrs. Samuel H 123 E. 71st St., New York 

Lectures on Japanese Flower Arrangement. 

O'Reilly, W 6801 17th Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Osborn, Miss Mary Big Rapids, Mich. 

Otis, Mrs. Wm. A 644 Oak St., VVinnetka, 111. 

Owen, Miss Lizzie 510 W. 124th St., New York 

Owns a small farm. 

Owsley, Mrs. Charles F 1335 Ohio Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Owsley, Miss Martha M 238 Broadway, Youngstown, Ohio 

Garden consultant; gives informal talks on gardening; President of 
Youngstown Garden Club; and organized Youngstown branch 
of W. N. A. & H. A. 



Pagenstecher, Miss Bertha 52 W. 40th St., Yew York 

Payne, Mrs. John Barton Elmhurst, 111. 

Home garden. 
Parke, Mrs. S. Maxwell 101 River St., Pittston, Pa. 

Peonies and dahlias* organized garden department of Century Club 
of Scranton, Pa. 

Parke, Mrs. W. Howard 5921 Solway St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Parker, Mrs. Eva Woodward 709 Woodward Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Horticultural interest. 
Parker, Mrs. Henry Griffith 165 College Ave., New Brunswick, N. J. 

Vacant lot gardens. 

Parrish, Mrs. Joseph Radnor, Pa. 

Parsons, Miss Gertrude Stonover, Lenox, Mass. 

Horticultural interest. 
Passmore, Miss Charlotte W R. F. D. No. 2, Hopkins, Minn. 

Market -gardening. 

Patten, Miss Jane B Simmons College, Boston, Mass. 

Home address, Elm Brook Farm, South Natick, Mass. 

Teaches botany and elementary horticulture; also supervises a small 
apple orchard. 
Patterson, Mrs. M. C R. F. D. No. 2, Richmond, Va. 

Organized Garden Club of Richmond; published in Garden Maga- 
zine. 
Patterson, Mrs. Wm. T Box 23, Ambler, Pa. 

Interested in home garden and orchard; iris culture. 
Peabody, Mr. George Foster Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Interested in forestry and child welfare league work. 
Peabody, Mrs. S. R. G 14 Elk St., Albany, N. Y. 

Gardening. 
Peale, Miss Elizabeth Hale Lock Haven, Pa. 

Chairman of Conservation in State Federation of Pennsylvania 
Women; has planted small parks and school grounds. 
Peck, Miss Alice L.. . 

Pa. Hospital for the Insane, 44th and Market Sts., Phila., Pa. 

Agricultural and horticultural pursuits; special study of vegetable 
[31] 



growing under glass; at present engaged in trying to make 
gardening an occupation and an interest for the insane. 

Peckham, Mrs. Wheeler H Davenport Neck, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Tulips; helped organize the New Rochelle Garden Club; published 
on Sweet Peas, etc. 

Pell, Mrs. Stephen Colony Club, New York City 

Pennell, Miss Ethel A Lakeville, Conn. 

Interested in planning week-end vacation and farm scheme. 
Pennypacker, Miss Anna M. W. . .Pennypacker Mills, Schwenkville, Pa. 

Perkins, Mrs. H. F 6106 Kenmore Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Perkins, Mrs. Newton 65 E. 52nd St., New York 

Summer address, York Village, Me. 

Perrigo, Mrs. Stephen Miller 3931 N. Hamlin Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Encouraging women in horticultural pursuits in her own neighbor- 
hood; has written for Garden Magazine on " Roses from Slips." 

Philbrick, Miss Eliza 182 Walnut St., Brookline, Mass. 

Owns commercial greenhouses. 

Pickett, Mrs. James B Wenham, Mass. 

Pierson, Miss Louise R 18 Hillyer St., Orange, N. J. 

Pitt, Mrs. Wm. R. Sutton 254 Cedar Rd., New Rochelle, N. Y. 

President of New Rochelle branch of National Plant, Flower and 
Fruit Guild; has started home and school gardens. 

Piatt, Mrs. Charles A 135 E. 66th St., New York 

Home garden. 

Piatt, Miss Laura N 1831 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Piatt, Mrs. Orville H Washington, Conn. 

All horticultural and agricultural subjects. 

Poillou, Mrs. Cornelius 125 E. 70th St., New York 

Summer address, Water Witch Club, Highlands, N. J. 
Art potter and color maker; exhibited garden pottery. 

Pomeroy, Mrs. C. K 26 East Huron St., Chicago, 111. 

Pomeroy, Mrs. F. W 1832 Asbury Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Home garden. 
Pond, Miss Florence L. 

The New Weston, Madison Ave. & 49th St., New York 
School gardens. 

Pond, Mrs. G. G State College, Pa. 

Especially interested in ferns. 

Pope, Mrs. Charles 1040 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 

Potter, Mrs. Ashton H 52 Park Ave., New York 

Trying to make things succeed at an altitude of 8000 feet at Aspen, 
Colo. 

Potter, Mrs. Frank Hunter Araloma Farm, Katonah, N. Y. 

Organized the Bedford Garden Club; exhibited flowers and vege- 
tables. 

Powell, Mr. George T Orchard Farm, Ghent, N. Y. 

Fruit grower; consultant on agricultural and horticultural work, 
also upon economic or educational problems in agriculture. 

Powell, Miss Marion 1013 De Kalb St., Norristown, Pa. 

Studied at State College, Pa. ; made her own and other small gardens 

Powell, Miss Rachel H 490 West End Ave., New York 

Powers, Mrs. F. G Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Pratt, Mrs. Addison S 235 W. 76th St., New York 

Summer address, Port Jefferson, N. Y. 
Home garden. 

Pratt, Miss Edith L Enosburg Falls, Vt. 

Horticultural interest. 

*Pratt, Mrs. Harold I Welwyn, Glen Cove, Long Island, N. Y. 

[32] 



Pratt, Mrs. Herbert Lee Glen Cove, Long Island, N. Y. 

Preston, Miss Isabelle. . . .Ontario Agri. College, Guelf, Ontario, Canada 

Gardener; interested in cross breeding and growing the seedlings. 

Proctor, Mrs. Redfield Proctor, Vt. 

Provan, Miss Idalia Hempstead, N. Y. 

Social worker interested in horticulture. 
Pyle, Miss Belle Elm St., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 



Ralph, Miss Georgia G Sleighton Farms, Darling, Pa. 

Ranger, Miss Gertrude E Bolton Landing, N. Y. 

Reade, Mr. Chas. T. . . .Reade Mfg. Co., 1027 Grand St., Hoboken, N. J. 

Agricultural chemist. 
Redfield, Mrs. John Lincoln Red., Grosse Pointe, Mich. 

Gardening for pleasure. 
Reed, Mrs. Latham G 151 E. 56th St., New York 

Helped organize the Rumsen Garden Club; published article on 
color schemes. 
Reeves, Miss Laura 10 South 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Photographer. 
Rehmann, Miss Elsa 492 Mt. Prospect Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Landscape architect, gives illustrated lectures. 
Reid, Miss Katherine W 44 Vernon Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

Student at New York Botanical Garden. 
Reinman, Mrs. A. E Cohasset Rd., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Rexamer, Mrs. G. W Claymont, Delaware 

Rhoads, Mrs. J. Howard Bala, Pa. 

Flowers. 
Rhoads, Miss Lydia W 152 Schoolhouse Lane, Germantown, Pa. 

Amateur gardener; flowers and vegetables. 
Rhodes, Mrs. James M Ill Glenn Rd., Ardmore, Pa. 

Hardy perennials; exhibited, organized, lectured, published. 
Richards, Mrs. Lewis G New Rochelle, N. Y. 

New Rochelle Garden Club. 
Richardson, Miss Anna Torresdale, Pa. 

Flowers and vegetables; organized a boys' Corn Club and a girls' 
Flower Club in the Byberry Friends' School. 

Richardson, Mrs. Howard G 1404 S. Jefferson Ave., Saginaw, Mich. 

Ridgely, Mrs. Martin E Woodside Farms, Benson, Md. 

Helped organize the Garden Club of Harford Co., Md. 
Ridgway, Dr. Robert Olney, 111. 

Published "Color Standard and Nomenclature," also written arti- 
cles on birds. 
Ridgway, Mrs. Robert Olney, 111. 

A lover of flowers, shrubs, trees, and birds. 

Ring, Mr. Clark L Saginaw, Mich. 

Ripley, Miss Jean K 1620 W. 102nd St., Chicago, 111. 

Interested in landscape gardening and school gardens. 
Ritchie, Mrs. Albert C Catonsville, Md. 

Farming and horticulture. 
Robbins, Miss Alice E 176 Nassau St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Head worker in United Neighborhood Guild; interested in farming. 

Roberts, Mrs. C. Wilson Southampton, Pa. 

Robertson, Miss Kate F Crosswicks House, Jenkintown, Pa. 

Farming and horticulture. 
Robinson, Miss Sarah Bowne Ash Brook, Union Co., N. J. 

Interested in fruit culture. 

[M] 



Robinson, Mrs. Walter S 149 Mill St., Springfield, Mass. 

Robinson, Mrs. Webster 916 Beeman St., Augusta, Ga. 

Roettinger, Mr. Philip Wyoming, Ohio 

Poultry-raising and flowers. 
Rogers, Miss Hariette Garrison, N. Y. 

Home garden. 

Rogers, Miss Helen 127 Spring St., Rochester, N. Y. 

Rogers, Mrs. Homer Parkdale, Oregon 

Rogers, Mrs. Howard L 34 Spooner Rd., Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Rogers, Mrs. J. Gamble 164 E. 70th St., New York 

Rollinson, Miss Helen W 512 Jefferson Ave., Elizabeth, N. J. 

Experienced in apple packing, poultry raising and gardening. 
Root, Miss Lena H 631 E. Leverington Ave., Phila., Pa. 

Peaches and apples. 
Roseman, Miss Lillian 1829 N. VanPelt St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Teacher of biology; interested in school gardening and vocational 
training for women. 
Rosenstone, Mrs. Bertram W Palos Park, Cook Co., 111. 

Has marketed vegetables; interested in the conservation of wild 
flowers. 

Ross, Mrs. Walter H 215 Jefferson Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Royle, Mrs. Emily Taplin Maywood, N. J. 

Ruff, Mrs. D. W. C 530 Globe Building, St. Paul, Minn. 

President of the Minnesota Garden Flower Club; interested in 
finding hardy plants suitable for Minnesota. 

Rulon, Miss E. W 1507 Poplar St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rumsey, Miss E. S 40 E. Huron St., Chicago, 111. 

Rumsey, Miss E. V 40 E. Huron St., Chicago, 111. 

Russell, Mrs. Archibald Douglas Princeton, N. J. 

President Princeton Garden Club. 



Saam, Miss C. Elsa 2245 N. 8th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Safford, Miss Mary A Orlando, Florida 

Had charge of an orange grove. 

Sand, Miss Alice L 130 E. 67th St., New York 

Sanders, Miss Georgiana J care of Prof. Sanders, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Sandford, Mrs. George B Lawrence, Long Island, N. Y. 

Organized and is President of the Lawrence Garden Club. 

Sanford, Miss Catherine W 508 W. 1 14th St., New York 

Sarmiento, Mrs. F. J Arlington PI., Detroit, Mich. 

Satterlee, Mrs. H. L 37 E. 36th St., New York 

Sayles, Mrs. Robert W 263 Hammond St., Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Interested in horticulture. 
Schenck, Miss Nora V Seminary PI., New Brunswick, N. J. 

Landscape and practical gardening; organized Gardening Depart- 
ment in National Park Seminary, Forest Glen, Md. 
Schively, Miss Adeline F 318 Winona Ave., Germantown, Pa. 

Teacher in charge of Nature Study in Normal School; general inter- 
est in agriculture and horticulture. 

Scholes, Miss Sarah E Southampton, Pa. 

Scholes, Mrs. Walter 1234 W. Alleghany Ave., Phila., Pa. 

Gardening and poultry. 
Schueler, Miss Irma 2878 Briggs Ave., Bedford Park, N. Y. 

Has planted orchards. 
Schultz, Mrs. Frederick ; .2627 Webster Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 

Has interested residents in the vicinity in beautifying their grounds; 
sells iris in the fall. 

[34] 



Schuman, Mrs. Lloyd Park Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club; published on familiar trees and wild- 
flowers. 
Schurz, Miss Marianne 24 E. 91st St., New York 

Helped organize the village garden competition at Bolton Landing, 
Lake George, N. Y., and has exhibited at local flower shows. 
Schwab, Mrs. CM 74th St. & Riverside Drive, New York 

Interested in social work and in preserving home grown berries. 
Scofield, Mrs. George 1453 E. Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio 

Interested in all but dairying, poultry-raising and bee-keeping. 

Scott, Mrs. John Wm Hubbard Woods, Illinois 

Scott, Miss Sadie E 122 Theodore St., Detroit, Mich. 

Scribner, Mrs. Arthur H 39 E. 67th St., New York 

Summer address, Mt. Kisco, N. Y. 

Bee-keeping; president of Bedford Garden Club; lectured. 

Seabrook, Mrs. H. H 118 E. 72nd St., New York 

Searing, Mrs. A. E. P 177 Pearl St., Kingston, N. Y. 

Sears, Mrs. Stephen A 42 Terrace Ave. S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Sener, Miss Emma E 230 W. Orange St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Fruits and flowers. 
Sener, Miss Miram 233 Charlotte St., Lancaster, Pa. 

Roses and hardy plants. 
Sensor, Miss Mabel Aberdeen, S. Dakota 

Editor of Home Department of The Dakota Farmer. 
Service, Mrs. Chas. A Bala, Pa. 

Poultry and flowers. 

Shackford, Mrs. Wm. M Far Hills, N. J. 

Sharman, Mrs. R. R 273 Fairgreen Ave., Youngstown, Pa. 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Sharpe, Mrs. Walter King Chambersburg, Pa. 

Amateur flower gardening; hardy mixed borders; has published. 
Shaw, Miss Ellen Eddy Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Organized children's work of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden; lectures 
before women's clubs, schools and colleges; written "Book of 
Gardening" in Children's Library of Work and Play. 
Shearman, Miss M. H 1600 W. 7th St., Wilmington, Del. 

Poultry. Sells Rhode Island Red settings and cockerels; has ex- 
hibited. 
Sheldon, Miss Georgiana R 69 bis Via Bolognese, Florence, Italy 

Interested in landscape gardening. 
Shelton, Miss Louise Miller Rd., Morristown, N. J. 

Author of "Seasons in a Flower Garden," "Continuous Bloom in 
America," "Beautiful Gardens in America." 

Shewell, Miss Julia A 100 Tappan St., Brookline, Mass. 

Shields, Miss Mary A 121 Maplewood Ave., Germantown, Pa. 

Home culture of flowering plants and ferns. 
Shrigley, Miss Ethel Austin Landsdowne, Pa. 

General interest in horticulture. 

*Sias, Mrs. Charles D South Hamilton, Mass. 

Siedenburg, Jr., Mrs. R 314 W. 75th St., New York 

Simkhovitch, Mrs. V. G Greenwich House, 26 Jones St., New York 

Interested in gardening. 

Simmons, Miss Ada E. A Elwyn, Pa. 

Simonds, Mrs. O. G 929 Montrose Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Simpson, Mrs. J. D 725 S. Union Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Slack, Mrs. Joseph C Penn's Park, Bucks Co., Pa. 

Slade, Miss Augusta P Windsor, Vt. 

Smith, Miss Caroline 512 Bryson St., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

[35] 



Smith, Mr. Edgar L 150 Nassau St., New York 

Manager of The Farmers' Bureau. 

Smith, Miss Editha Cora Sage College, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Smith, Mrs. Edward B Gwynedd Valley, Pa. 

Smith, Miss Elizabeth Gwynedd Valley, Pa. 

Smith, Miss Emily Kaighn Gwynedd Valley, Pa. 

Home garden. 

Smith, Mrs. F. W Saint Albans, Vt. 

Smith, Mrs. Gerrit 54 Summit Ave., Nyack, N. Y. 

Interested in bee-keeping. 
Smith, Miss Mary Byres Andover, Mass. 

Perennials. 

Smith, Mrs. Sibley C Wakefield, Rhode Island 

Smith, Mrs. W. A 246 Broadway, Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Smith, Mrs. Wallis Craig Upper Jay, N. Y. 

Dahlias, iris. 
Smith, Mrs. Wm. Roy Low Buildings, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

General farming, especially potatoes; apple growing and small 
fruits. Teacher of economics in Bryn Mawr College. 
Snow, Miss Alice T 88 W. Church St., Fairport, N. Y. 

Took agricultural course at Cornell; interested in vegetables and 
flower raising for profit; school gardens. 
Snow, Miss Helen H Northwood Centre, N. H. 

Farming. 
Solberg, Mrs. T Glen Echo Heights, Md. 

Especially interested in forestry, fruit culture and floriculture. 
Somers, Mr. H. L Onchiota, Franklin Co., N. Y. 

Andirondack Florida School. 
Sparks, Miss Ethel C State College, Pa. 

Tree surgery, grafting, propagation and landscape gardening. 

Spear, Mrs. Walter E Merrick, Long Island, N. Y. 

Spencer, Mrs. Samuel 2012 Mass. Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Spicer, Mrs. R. B Grubbs P. O., Delaware 

Market gardening; specialty-Asters and perennials. 
Spicer, Mrs. Vibe K Kenilworth, 111. 

Gardening; lectured before clubs and settlements; published arti- 
cles on planting shrubs and flowers; helped Village Improve- 
ment and Park Board with their work. 
Spingarn, Mrs. J. E Amenia, N. Y. 

Co-operative rural recreation; helped organize Amenia Field Day. 
Squire, Mrs. Andrew 3443 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 

Organizer and Honorary President of the Garden Club of Cleveland. 

Stearns, Mrs. Arthur K Lake Bluff, 111. 

Stearns, Miss Frances 451 Terrace Ave., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

School garden work. 
Steers, Mrs. J. R Port Chester, N. Y. 

Poultry, fruit. 
Stein, Mrs. Otto J 928 Argyle St., Chicago, 111. 

Poultry-raising, fruit-growing. 
Stephenson, Mr. Robert S 2 W. 45th St., New York 

Architect. 
Stevens, Miss Louise Bancroft 4 Joy St., Boston, Mass. 

Landscape architect. 
Stewardson, Miss E. P Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

Flower-gardening; interested in the Ambler School of Horticulture, 
and in the Arts and Crafts Guild, Phila. 

Stewart, Miss Ethel Lee 114 W. 23rd St., Baltimore, Md. 

Stillwell, Mrs. Addison 1315 Astor St., Chicago, 111. 

[36] 



Stitt, Mrs. Walter Youngstown Dry Goods Co., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Stoddard, Miss Yvonne 197 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 

Stone, Miss Ellen J 34 E. 50th St., New York 

Stout, Mrs. C. H Short Hills, N. J. 

Dahlias, has exhibited. 
Strang, Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard 83 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Landscape architect; teaches at Lowthorpe School; has published. 
Strauss, Mrs. Albert 325 W. 75th St., New York 

Roses. 
Strother, Mrs. Thos. Nelson Ruxton, Md. 

President of the Hardy Garden Club of Maryland. 
Strunsky, Mrs. Lillie S. . Jane St. & Knickerbocker Rd., Englewood, N. J. 

Landscape work; hardy herbaceous perennials on a commercial 
scale. 
Sturgis, Mrs. Robert 152 E. 38th St., New York 

Horticultural interest. 

Sturtevant, Miss Grace Wellesley Farms, Mass. 

Styer, Mrs. Samuel Ambler, Pa. 

Swanson, Mrs. Claude 2136 R St., Washington, D. C. 

Farm at Chatham, Va. 
Sweeney, Mrs. F. D 3248 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Farm at Media, Delaware Co., Pa. 

Swift, Mrs. Alice L 20 N. College Ave., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Swift, Miss Cleora E 515 West 111th St., New York 



Taber, Miss Marion R 348 Lexington Ave., New York 

Talcott, Mrs. Allen B. ,. Old Lyme, Conn. 

Organized school gardens in Old Lyme; manages her own farm. 
Tate, Mrs. H. A Old Fort, North Carolina 

Dahlias, cannas, gladioli. 
Templeton, Mrs. Walter B Chicago Ave., Wheaton, 111. 

Interested in dairying, landscape gardening and school gardens. 

Thayer, Mrs. John E George Hill Rd., Lancaster, Mass. 

Thomas, Miss Augusta M 224 E. Jacoby St., Norristown, Pa. 

Asters, sweet-peas, sweet-williams. 
Thomas, Miss Martha G Whitford, Pa. 

Farming, dairying. 

Thompson, Mrs. Charles N 1824 N. Penn. Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Thompson, Mrs. L Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. 

Tidd, Mrs. John Newton Round Top, Carter's Bridge, Va. 

Tierney, Miss Grace A 118 W. Coulter St., Germantown, Pa. 

Flower gardening. 
Tiffany, Mrs. Charles L ..... 128 E. 36th St., New York 

Home garden; exhibited in local shows. 

Tod, Mrs. David , Hubbard, Ohio 

Tod, Mrs. Henry Lincoln Ave. & Elm St., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Tomkins, Mrs. Calvin 21 W. 10th St., New York 

Tongue, Miss Mary V 116 W. Lanvale St., Baltimore, Md. 

Hardy garden flowers. 

Tooker, Miss Mary R Evergreen Place, E. Orange, N. J. 

Torrey, Mrs. Henry A 404 W. 12th St., Davenport, Iowa 

Interested in landscape gardening. 

Tower, Miss E. M 4 Pelham Rd., Lexington, Mass. 

Townsend, Miss Sue R 322 Lafayette St., Ionia, Mich. 

Tracy, Mrs. B. Hammond Wenham, Mass. 

Cedar Acres Gladiolus Farm; has lectured and published. 
[37] 



Tracy, Mrs. C. E Highland Falls, New York 

Truax, Mrs. Charles 126 Hazel Ave., Highland Park, 111. 

Interested in fruit-growing, vegetable and flower raising; specialty 
perennials. 
Turnbull, Miss Eleanor 1530 Park Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Interested in promoting gardening in city backyards, through an 
annual prize contest. 

Tuttle, Mrs. Henry Lake Forest, 111. 

Twaddell, Miss Edith 508 Woodland Terrace, W. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Peaches and dahlias; farming in Medford, N. J. 
Tyson, Mrs. Russell 20 E. Goethe St., Chicago, 111. 

Underhill, Mrs. E. B Bay Shore, Long Island, N. Y. 

*Upham, Mrs. Frederic W Golf, Illinois 

Poultry-raising; fruit growing. 

Upton, Mrs. Edward L Larchmere, Waukegan, 111. 

Tree expert; published articles on Hedges, Women in Civic Life, 
School Gardens, and Small Parks; lectured on "Conservation," 
"Forestry," etc.; Former President of Chicago Woman's Club, 
and Nat'l President of Women's Outdoor Art League. 



Valliant, Miss Abby A Washington, Conn. 

Flower gardening. 

Vaillant, Mrs. G. H I W. 64th St., New York 

Horticultural interest. 
Van Buren, Miss Frances . 132 Lafayette Ave. N. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
School garden work; lectured for School Garden Association of 
America. 

Van Etten, Mrs. Lawrence E Beechmont, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Raises shrubs, trees and plants for sale for Club House Fund; 
Chairman of committee for vacant lot gardening for men and 
home gardening for school children. 

Van Pelt, Miss Sarah Girls' Training School, Geneva, 111. 

Poultry-raising, fruit-growing, bee-keeping. 

Van Rensselaer, Mrs. Schuyler 9 West 10th St., New York 

Author. 

Varick, Mrs. I. R Park Hill, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Interested in farming and vegetables for profit. 

Vaughn, Mrs. 0. E 1630 Jefferson Ave, Scranton, Pa. 

Interested in raising first-class vegetables for her table. 

Vermilye, Mrs. W. Gerard Closter, N. J. 

Poultry farm. 

Viles, Mrs. James Lake Forest, 111. 

Volker, Mrs. H. H Minot, North Dakota 

Interested in the largest greenhouses in North Dakota, and land- 
scape gardening. 

Vollmer, Mrs. Susan H Box 8, Huntington, Long Island, N. Y. 

Fruit grower and market gardener on Long Island. From December 
until March shipper of Indian River fruit direct to families 
from Cocoa, Florida. 



Wadsworth, Miss Emma L Upland Farms, Chatham, N. Y. 

Waite, Miss Ella R Hull House, Chicago, 111. 

Walker, Mrs. Chas. M 1128 N. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

Walker, Miss Isabella 40 Jacoby St., Norristown, Pa. 

Cactus dahlias. 

[38] 



Walton, Miss Lily E 678 E. 72nd St., Cleveland, Ohio 

Poultry, fruit, gardening. 
Ward, Mr. Harold Bay Road, Amherst, Mass. 

Intensive raising of fruits and vegetables. 
Warner, Mrs. Willis H R. F. D. No. 2, Canfield, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Warren, Mrs. Benjamin Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich. 

Perennials. 

Warren, Mr. George H 3343 S. Irving Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Warren, Mrs. George H 3443 S. Irving Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Watson, Mrs. H. F 356 W. 6th St., Erie, Pa. 

Managing her 250-acre farm. 
Watson, Mrs. Jessie H Wycombe, Bucks Co., Pa. 

Poultry and goats. 
Watts, Dean Ralph L State College, Pa. 

Dean of the Horticultural Department, Penna. State College. 
Watts, Mrs. R. L 215 Foster Ave., State College, Pa. 

Indoor plants and flowers. 

Webb, Mrs. Oscar E Sudbrook Park, Md. 

Webster, Mrs. W. C 179 Prospect St., E. Orange, N. J. 

Roses and strawberries. 

Weece, Mr. E. H Woodworth Ave., Alma, Mich. 

Weikert, Miss Olga Central Ave., Richmond Hill, N. Y. 

Interested in school gardens. 

Weld, Mrs. Francis Minot 65 E. 82nd St., New York 

Welling, Mrs. J. Paul 64 East Elm St., Chicago, 111. 

General horticultural interest. 
Welsh, Miss Gertrude C 383 Park Ave., New York 

Gardening. 
Wenrich, Mrs. John Adam Grand View, Wernersville, Pa. 

Flowers. 

Wernicke, Mrs. O. H. L 830 Bates Ave. S. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Westcote, Mrs. Hester H Wingaersbeck, Gloucester, Mass. 

Coloring photographs and lantern slides. 

Weston, Mrs. Chas. S 624 Monroe Ave., Scranton, Pa. 

Wetter, Miss Mabel H 4035 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Horticultural interest. 
Weyl, Mrs. J. S Elkins Park, Pa. 

Farming and horticulture. 

Wheeler, Mrs. James R 433 W. 1 17th St., New York 

Whidden, Miss Marian. .Tenn. Coal, Iron & R. R. Co., Birmingham, Ala. 

Interested in landscape gardening and school gardens. 

Whitall, Miss Helen Church Lane, Germantown, Pa. 

White, Mrs. Clifford E Grosse He, Mich. 

White, Mrs. E. Lawrence Beverly Farms, Mass. 

Gardening and poultry-raising. 
White, Miss Elizabeth C _ New Lisbon, N. J. 

Cranberries and blueberries; commercial grower. 

White, Miss Frances E 2 Pierrepont PL, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

White, Miss Gertrude M 176 Kenyon St., Hartford, Conn. 

Studied floriculture and horticulture at Mass. Agricultural Col- 
lege at Amherst, Mass. 
White, Miss Margaret 101 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. 

Landscape architect. 
White, Mrs. N. Willard Dolington, Bucks Co., Pa. 

Farming; flowers for sale. 

White, Mr. Wm. Augustus 158 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Whiteley, Miss Ethel C 2253 N. 53rd St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

School gardens. 

[39] 



Whiteside, Mrs. T. H Pleasant Grove, Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club; has a palm house containing 130 varie- 
ties. 
Whitman, Mrs. Alfred A 305 W. 78th St., New York 

Helped organize Rumsen Garden Club; interested in succession of 
bloom and color schemes. 
Wick, Mrs. George D 656 Wick Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 

Wick, Mrs. Henry 416 Wick Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Williams, Mrs. Charles M 48 E. 49th St., New York 

Williams, Mrs. Chas. Richard 25 Cleveland Lane, Princeton, N. J. 

Rock gardens. 

Williams, Mrs. Clark 293 Madison Ave., New York 

Williams, Miss Elizabeth S 95 Rivington St., New York 

Director of College Settlement with its farm at Mt. Ivy, N. Y. 

Williams, Mrs. George G Farmington, Conn. 

Williams, Miss Helen W Oak & High Sts., Norristown, Pa. 

Delphiniums. 
Williams, Mrs. Marie J 2253 Calumet Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Paper shell pecan growing. 
Williams, Mrs. T. S Huntington, Long Island, N. Y. 

Gardening, poultry-raising and dairying. 
Williams, Mrs. Wm. B Lapeer, Mich 

Flowers and vegetables; member of the Garden Club of Michigan. 

Williams, Mrs. Wm. P 1837 Asbury Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Williamson, Miss Mabel A. 

Kalamazoo Ave. & Benton St., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Horticulture and poultry. 

Wilson, Miss Fanny B Rock Hill, S. C. 

*Wilson, Miss Martha 1450 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Farm at Charlevoix. 

*Wilson, Mrs. William K Box 44, Cynwyd, Pa. 

Wilton, Mrs. H. Leonard Grosse He, Mich. 

Winslow, Miss Corisande 170 N. Parkway, E. Orange, N. J. 

Winslow, Miss Sophy 456 St. James PI., Chicago, 111. 

Winsor, Miss Ellen Haverford, Pa. 

Secretary of "The Weeders"; interested in school gardens. 

Wistar, Mrs. Thomas 51 E. Penn St., Germantown, Pa. 

Witherbee, Mrs. Frank S 4 Fifth Ave., New York 

Interested in National Fruit, Plant, and Tree Planting Ass'n, Inter- 
national Garden Club and American School of Forestry. 
Wolcott, Mrs. H. W 157 Steward Ave., Jackson, Mich. 

Wolcott Nurseries, choice and rare hardy plants. 

Wolf, Mrs. Louis Elkins Park, Pa. 

Wolff, Mrs. Louis Edgewood, Wheaton, 111. 

Farming and gardening. 
Wood, Mrs. Arthur King Ardsley-on- Hudson, N. Y. 

Interested in landscape gardening. 
Wood, Miss Ellen C 405 W. Stafford St., Germantown, Phila. 

Horticultural interest. 
Wood, Mrs. H. A. Wise 194 Riverside Drive, New York 

Interested in municipal improvements and preservation of parks, 
also photography of flowers and gardens. 
Wood, Mrs. Henry R Englewood, N. J. 

Expert amateur flower grower; also experienced in raising chickens, 
fruit and vegetables. 

Wood, Miss Marion Wolfboro, N. H. 

Wood, Mrs. Walter C New Canaan, Conn. 

Farming and gardening; exhibited at local garden club. 
[40] 



Woodward, Mrs. George Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Vacant lot gardens. 
Woodward, Mrs. L. A Boardman, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Worden, Mrs. C. S 817 Neck Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Published articles on "Wild Flowers in the City," "The Garden in 
the City." 

Wright, Miss Hannah P Logan, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wright, Miss Letitia E Logan, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Has an apiary. 
Wright, Mrs. Wm. Redwood Logan, Philadelphia, Pa. 

General horticultural interest. 
Wysong, Mrs. O. C 165 W. Chestnut St., Canton, 111. 



Yeomans, Miss Mary Central Village, Mass. 

Young, Miss Dorothy A 830 Lake St., Newark, N. Y. 

Vegetable and fruit-growing for profit. 
Young, Mrs. Percy 129 Madison Ave., Youngstown, Ohio 

Youngstown Garden Club. 
Youngs, Miss Mary 26 Cathedral Ave., Garden City, N. Y. 

Hardy garden planting and garden color; lectures; published in 
Garden Magazine, House and Garden. 



Zimmerman, Miss R. E 1340 Pacific St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Made her own gardens in Belgium, France, and Spain; lectures on 
"Famous Gardens," and others. 



[41] 



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ADVERTISING COLUMN FOR MEMBERS ONLY 

Rate ten cents per agate line. Not less than Jive lines nor more than ten 
lines accepted at this rate. 



A YOUNG woman of wide experi- 
ence and unusual thrift, desires 
management of a country estate 
where there is a variety of stock; 
where also there is need of an inter- 
ested, responsible person in charge 
who can supply excellent home- 
grown products for the family's use. 
Well referenced. Address Harriet 
B. Bradner, Englewood, New Jersey. 

ENGLISH PRIMROSE Yellow 
(Munstead Strain); Red 
and Pink Polyanthus, 25 cents per 
plant, $3.00 dozen, $20.00 per 100. 
F. E. McIlvaine, Glen Isle Farm, 
Dowingtown, Penna. 



DELL GROVE Georgia Pecans. 
Paper shelled — Sun Dried. 
By Parcel Post or Express, $1.00 per 
pound: Shelled $2.50. Orders 

promptly filled. Dr. E. L. Lobdell, 
Plaza Hotel, Chicago, 111. 



CEDAR ACRES Gladioli. Send 
for 1916 Booklet, full informa- 
tion and cultural directions. It is 
free. B. Hammond Tracy, Wen- 
ham, Mass., Box J. 



DAHLIAS. Choicest named 
dahlias from $1.00 up to$io.oo 
a dozen; your choice, 20, very choice, 
for $1.00; 12 higher priced ones 
$1.00. Also Gladiolus and Cannas. 
Send for Catalog. Mrs. H. A. Tate, 
Old Fort, N. C. 



OLD English sheep dogs, Ayr- 
shire cattle., sweet butter, fresh 
eggs. Bewley Farm, Mrs. E. P. 
Davis, Newtown, Bucks Co., Penna. 



BEFORE you begin your spring 
work send for the farm and 
garden time table. It will save its 
cost many times over. Daily re- 
minders of the most practical kind, 
covering every department of the 
country place. $1.00 postpaid to 
your address. Crossroads Farm, 
Garrison on Hudson, N. Y. 



ASPARAGUS. For sale: one 
year old Argenteuil asparagus 
roots grown from best selected seed. 
In prime condition for planting this 
spring. Mrs. W. C. Morey, 94 Ox- 
ford St., Rochester, N. Y. 



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C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 

Haarlem, Holland 

Grower of 

Choice Bulbs 



Bulbs Imported direct from 
Holland for Customers. No 
supply kept here. Catalogue 
quoting prices in Nurseries in 
Haarlem — free on application. 

E. J. Krug, Sole Agent 

112 Broad Street 
New York 

(Successor to C. C Abel & Co.) 



Plant Trees With 



Red Cross 

Explosives 

BLASTING the soil before 
setting the tree makes the 
soil porous and mellow. Better 
root systems are secured be- 
cause of deeper and wider root 
beds. Moisture is conserved 
and is available for the needs of ma- 
turing trees in the dry seasons. 
Plant trees in blasted soil and insure 
their lives against the first-year losses. 

DuPont Powder Co. 

Wilmington, Delaware 




Meehans' 

1916 
Handbook 

contains 112 pages — full 

of helpful suggestions on 

hardy plants which grow 

outdoors. 

Collections for various purposes 
are so arranged that choosing is 
easy and ordering is simplified. 
By combining these groups, 
any property of one acre or less 
can be planted from street front 
to small-fruit patch in the rear. 

This book is free. 
Write for it today. 

Thomas Meehan&Sons 

Box 19 
Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 



School 

of Horticulture for 

Women 

(Eighteen miles from Philadelphia) 
Ambler, Pa. 

Practical and theoretical training in the 
growing of Fruit, Vegetables and Flowers, 
Bees. Simple Carpentry. School Garden- 
ing. Special Course in Landscape Garden- 
ing. Constant demand for trained women to 
fill salaried positions. Write for Catalogue. 

Elizabeth L. Lee, Director 

Sweet Peas 

Specially selected tested seeds 
The Blanchard Collection 
Blue, crimson, Lavender, Maroon, 
Pink, Primrose, Pink and White, 
Rose, Scarlet, White, (io packets in 
all) by parcels post, £.50 prepaid, or 
$.10 per layer packet any color, or 
three large packets for $.25. 

Annie R. Blanchard, 17 Hillside Ave. 
Melrose, Mass. 



All advertisers are known personally to membt 



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Burpee's Seeds Grow 

During 1916 the House of Burpee will celebrate its Fortieth Anni- 
versary. We feel that forty years of extensive operation and intensive 
investigation have fitted us to render the best possible seed service. 

For forty years we have tried to make each year's service more 
nearly ideal. This untiring effort has built for us not only the 
World's Largest Mail-Order Seed Business, but a World-Wide Rep- 
utation for Efficient Service and Undisputed Leadership. 

Very much more opportune than anything we ourselves may say 
about Burpee - Quality Seeds are the many remarkable things our 
thousands of customers and friends have said and continue to say about 
them. These customers return to us year after year, not because 
seeds cannot be found elsewhere but because of our superior quality 
and service. 

The Fortieth Anniversary Edition of Burpee's Annual 

The Leading American Seed Catalog for 1916 is brighter and 
better than ever before. It offers the greatest novelty in Sweet Peas, 
the unique "Fiery Cross," and other novelties in Rare Flowers and 
Choice Vegetables, some of which cannot be had elsewhere. This 
Silent Salesman is mailed free. A post card will bring it. Write today. 

W. Atlee Burpee & Company 
Burpee Buildings, Philadelphia 



For the Season of 1916 we are offering a 

Choice Collection of German Iris, a Rare 
Assortment of Beautiful Peonies, Hardy 
Garden Perennials, Handsome Japanese Iris 

Specimen Ornamental Shade Trees and 
Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs 

We want to send you our catalog describing our stock. Will 
you drop us a line saying that it will be agreeable? 

Cherry Hill Nurseries 

T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc. 

West Newbury, Mass. 

All advertisers are known personally to members 



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Theodosia B. Shepherd Co. 

Ventura, Cal. 

Rare Plants, Choice Flower Seeds 
Bulbs and Cacti 



Petunias our great specialty 
Awarded Gold Medal at Panama-Pacific Exposition 
Our distinctive Catalogue sent to those interested 



"An Old Fashioned Garden of Hardy Flowers" 
A special collection of ioo plants in twenty varieties 
chosen to give a succession of bloom continuously from 
early spring to late fall, including all your favorites. 
Ten Dollars, Prepaid. 

Our catalogue of " Hardy Garden Flowers " will interest you. 

Lillie Shostac Strunsky, 

Landscape Architect and Contractor 

Knickerbocker Nurseries, 
Englewood, N. J. 



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L 




T)on't Just Admire Moon's Trees on Other Places 
Plant Them for Your Own Enjoyment 



Your grounds may not be as extensive as these, but that | 
doesn'tmatter, for the very inclusivencss of our assortment and the vigor ?, 
of such plants as make landscapes like this possible indicate how well 
qualified we are to supply trees and shrubbery that give enjoyment to 
owners of smaller places. Q Our descriptive catalogue, filled with illus- 
trations and containing prices, together with many valuable helps for 
planting the home grounds, will be mailed upon request ; while those 
who care to tell us of any lawn planting that they have in mind will 
receive the personal attention of such letter-aid as we can give. 

THE WILLIAM H. MOON COMPANY 

Philadelphia Office, 21 S. Twelfth Street Morri8ville, Pa. 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



WOMEN'S NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 

QUARTERLY 



CONTENTS 

Primroses Frances Edge Mcllvaine 

Native Trees for Formal Gardens 

Warren H. Manning 

Pecan Culture Effie L. Lobdell 

Efficient Marketing of Farm Produce 

(Concluded) D. G. Mellor 

English Women and the Shortage 

of Labor on the Land .... Edith L. Chamberlain 

Dahlias Mrs. H. A. Tate 

A Plea for the Children Henry Youell 

High Levels and Higher Standards . . . Mira L. Dock 



May, 1916 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 



Founded "to promote agricultural and horticultural interests among 
women and to further such interests throughout the country." 

OFFICERS 

President 
Mrs. Francis King Alma, Michigan 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Ambler, Pa. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer New York 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer Huntington, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 3 Pierrepont Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 



Council 



Mr. Bernard N. Baker 
Miss Emma Blakiston 
Mrs. S. A. Brown 
Miss Louisa G. Davis 
Mrs. C. W. Deusner 
Mrs. H. B. Fullerton 
Mrs. A. H. Gross 
Miss J. B. Haines 
Miss Margaret Jackson 
Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 
Mrs. Francis King 



Mrs. J. H. Lancashire 

Miss Hilda Loines 

Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning 

Miss Louise Klein Miller 

Miss E. H. Peale 

Mr. George T. Powell 

Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang 

Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Dean R. L. Watts 

Miss Mary Youngs 



Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee 



Office of the Association, 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 
Telephone Plaza 6000 

Copyrighted, 1916, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 

Published quarterly for the W. N. A. and H. A. by J. B. Haines at 
Cheltenham, Pa. 



Entered as Second-class matter March 22, 1015, at the post office at Cheltenham 
under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 



Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association 

Vol. II, No. 4 QUARTERLY May, 1916 

PRIMROSES 

The very name "primrose" has a fascination for many- 
people; it may be an association, perhaps connected with 
the poets — a line of Keats or the well-worn one of Words- 
worth ; or it may be because of an English spring long ago ; 
or to many a staunch Britisher it may mean only politics — 
the symbol of the Primrose League. But to a gardener, a 
primrose is a wholly different thing ; to a gardener who knows 
the primrose at all, the whole genus Primula is bafflingly, 
confusingly and alluringly fascinating. 

Several years ago a conference of the Royal Horticultural 
Society in London was devoted to this numerous and di- 
verse-habited family. Many learned papers were read; 
many beautiful photographs of varieties from England, 
Ireland, the Alps, India, China and Japan were shown; yet 
at the end, the wise authorities came to no fixed conclusion 
as to which division or subdivision certain primulas belonged. 

Starting with the primrose, plain and proper, one may 
safely say it is Primula vulgaris, the English pale yellow 
single-stemmed variety; but it often merges into the bunch 
primrose, P. polyanthus, and is closely allied with the ox- 
lip, a coarser leaved, stronger-growing sort. Then one 
comes on variations of color, the reds and magentas, the 
gold-laced types with tawny yellow eye, the outer edge dark 
maroon, and so on until in a garden where all these live un- 
molested and their seedlings are transplanted one may 
have almost as many hybrids as were discussed at the R. 
H. S. conference. 

This branch of the family, P. vulgaris, P. polyanthus, etc., 
is delightfully interesting to cultivate and one could not 
wish for a longer lived plant for our middle Atlantic States. 
Plant colonies have lived in a certain New Jersey garden 
for over a hundred years and in Virginia also, while in 
southern Pennsylvania they flourish quite luxuriantly. In 
northern States they may be lifted into a cold-frame in late 
October, or a box (with a few leaves inside) turned over 
[3] 



them will do as well. Some secrets of their culture must be 
observed; often a bad season will upset methods or some 
new insect or worm pest will invade the rows and have to be 
met and conquered, but withal they are sturdy inhabitants. 

And now comes a new held of these charming plants — for 
charming is not too strong a word to those who love them — 
the very habit of their growth, their beautiful leaves, even 
the faint spice-like fragrance of their roots when crown is 
pulled from crown to make new plants — these traits endear 
them to us almost as much as their burst of bloom in spring. 

This new held consists of the Chinese and Indian species 
which are slowly coming to our part of the world. The 
English have already hybridized a number of the Chinese 
varieties with wonderful results. A few enthusiastic ama- 
teurs in this country have had their interest aroused only 
to find the plants well-nigh impossible to get. 

If we but had a few of those garden-wise English clergy 
over here, who seem to harmonize their cure of souls with 
a keen quest and care for rare plants, what might we not 
accomplish in our rural parishes in the way of beauty as 
well as holiness, and incidentally raise our standard of 
gardening. Whenever I see a country church with even a 

- g garden about it. I stop, hoping to find a Canon 

EUacornbe or Dean Hole, or a Mr Bowles whose new books 
"'My Garden in Spring." "'My Garden in Summer." etc., 
are so delightfully witty and botanically awe-inspiring. 

Turning from these traditional sources of garden lore and 
rare stocks of plants in England and the continent, we should 
make our own opportunities here. In the case of these 
Chinese and Asiatic primulas we should certainly be able 
to import them direct to California rather than by way of 
Europe. If there are any members of the W. X. A. H. A. 
who care for this genus of plants, we might work up a chan- 
nel for these new varieties which promise so much — "glor- 
ious salmon-orange flowers on stems two feet high," reads 
one description. Who would not long for this? 

The Alpine and Japanese species are already fairly well 
known and occasionally grown in this country, but it may 
take some time before the newer ones arrive. 

It seems to be hard to be a specialty gardener. I am by 
way of trying to be one myself, but have a difficult time 
getting my specialty in all its varieties. I have plenty of 
the English polyanthus and some Japanese, yet it has taken 
a long while to get them and raise them. I now have a 
few plants of some Chinese that are worth their weight in 
gold to me as a collector: and the few that are in this 
countrv seem to be worth their weight in s;old to the dealers. 
[4] 



Sometimes they list them and are merely hoping they will 
arrive from Europe. 

The prirr. r to grow from seed, but with patience 

and a let-alone policy one can get a fair amount of plants 
from a ax penny packet. I plant in June, in open 

ground, and let the seedlings stay in place just as they come 
up. In the autumn, turn a wooden box over them, putting 
some dry W ^ed a char. 

. ;sh packfe- 5 .me may not come up for 

a twelvemonth. .." If you ha- told frame, 

transplant the seedlings into it in late October, and some 
may bloom the following spring, but you risk losing that 
slow twelvemonth seed that may give the most beautiful 

Large plants are perfectly hardy and make a 
border in shady garc ne wants to increase one's 

stock take them up after flowering and divide with a sharp 
knife, leaving two or three crowns to a plant- Often they 
can be divided with a quick wrench, as the roots separate 
easily. 

Replant in nur ;n rich soil. If early fiow^ 

wanted, place in cold frames in late October or November; 
put sash on when freezing weather comes, but g: 
whenever possible." If one wants long-stemmed flowers and 
good leaf growth for picking, it is always wise to grow some 
in this way. If they wilt when bunched, they i 
quickly when placed in hot water, and last longer after this 
treatment. 

Are there not other gardeners who have heard the call 
of the primrose? If they live in China or Calif om: 
they not make the beginning o: 

to West, so that our spring may soon be gay with these 
new and wonderful varieties? — Fmassces Ei :z McIlvatke, 

NATIVE TREES FOR FORMAL GARDENS 

It would be distinctly to the advantage of those who work 
in gardens if some nurseryman would be enterprising enough 
to grow trained plants of various kinds in quantities that 
would enable him to offer them at a price that would be 
reasonable enough to justify their being used by many 
people. My experience with nurserymen, howt 
they are not enterprising or ambitious enough to take up a 
: n it probably means a good deal of trouble 
experimenting and advertising to make it profitable. I see 
no reason whv some of vour ladies should not undertake to 



do this, because it is the kind of work that they would like 
to do — this trimming trees into forms for formal work. 

I feel that your society, together with the Garden Club 
movement, is one of the most significant evidences of pro- 
gress and interest in the outdoor life that has come before 
us for some time. It is the beginning, I hope, of the day of 
simple little gardens filled with flowers everywhere. They 
now are really much too rare, excepting in the few towns 
and cities where organized efforts have been made by indi- 
viduals or companies to encourage gardens largely through 
the offer of prizes. The result seems to be that the gardens 
are continued when the prizes are discontinued, showing 
that all people need is a little knowledge and experience for 
the growing of plants and flowers to make them really 
lovers of the work. 

There is also the element of profit, either in supplying 
their own vegetables, which they otherwise need to buy, 
or in growing vegetables to sell, that should lead a great 
many people to cultivate even small back lots to better 
advantage. Of course, the chief difficulty comes in the sell- 
ing after the plants are grown. While there undoubtedly 
would be a market in many homes for fresh vegetables, 
there are comparatively few people who have the faculty 
of hunting up such homes and then continuing to supply 
them in such an attractive way as to hold and extend their 
custom. 

I think one of the functions of your society and your clubs 
should be to teach people how to find and please customers, 
as well as how to grow crops successfully. 

Of course, to most people, the formal garden makes the 
strongest appeal. More and more, however, are coming to 
appreciate the beauty of the wild garden, and especially 
that kind of a wild garden that is represented in one form 
or another on almost every place where there is a natural 
tree, a group of shrubs, or a ground cover of herbs. To my 
mind, the choicest garden is the one in which the natural 
beauty is developed from a tangle of wildness and crudeness 
to the utmost refinement of detail through the gradual 
selection and encouragement of the attractive plants on the 
ground, regardless of whether they are weeds or the finest 
flowering things. 

Examine, if you please, the pattern of the "Shepherd's 
Purse" leaves, before they push into flower in the spring, 
or late in the season, when they have made themselves 
ready for their period of spring fruitfulness, and you will 
recognize beauty. It is not necessary to let the plants go 
to seed. 

[6] 



I can readily see how a person could plan a weed garden, 
because of the beauty of most weeds at certain periods in 
their growth. 

I think, back of all the garden endeavor, there should be 
a clearer recognition of the intimate relation between the 
work of the gardener and the work of the artist. In other 
words, the gardener should think in pictures, not in plants. 
The plants are the pigments with which the artist gardener 
works. The interest in individual plants with such a de- 
signer would be somewhat similar to the interest of the 
artist in the color, texture, and, to a certain extent, in the 
method of producing the paints that he uses in his paintings. 

I would continually urge the last point, that is, the 
element of designs that plants represent, as the primary 
interest, with an interest in the plant and its cultivation as 
a secondary one. Of course, I recognize that the interest 
of an individual, when once established, is not very likely 
to be diverted to different lines, but the beginners can often 
be led to take a broader point of view as to the underlying 
motives that should control their work than they would 
take if they were guided by gardeners alone instead of by 
designers too. 

Referring again to work for women in training standard 
trees, a typical reference should be made to the special trees 
that different localities offer. 

At Pinehurst, N. C, a very much larger proportion of the 
American holly trees that were collected from the adjacent 
fields and woods have been transplanted with more success- 
ful results than I have been able to secure eleswhere. As 
this plant is a common one in that region, as land costs are 
low at some distance from Pinehurst now, as labor cost is 
low, as the privilege of collecting can be secured at a nominal 
price, as plants can be found in all forms with perfectly 
straight stems or round tops or branching from the bottom 
up, it would be comparatively easy to establish a nursery 
for training pyramids, standards, or other forms for gardens. 

The only difficulty would be high freight rates from that 
section to the north, where, for the present, most of the 
plants would be used, but this would not deter garden- 
owners from purchasing this material, provided it could not 
be secured elsewhere to as good advantage. 

In the same region the flowering dogwood and the sour- 
wood could be secured and treated in the same way, al- 
though these two plants cannot be trained into pyramids 
as readily as the holly, and, of course, are not evergreen. 

In other sections the common red cedar could be collected 
and handled in just the same way, but it should be done 
[71 



with the knowledge that the red cedar will, after a time, 
lose its lower branches, and could be trained better as a 
standard than as a pyramid. 

Elsewhere it would be the common Arbor Vitae. In 
California it would be the Madrona and Manzanita, both 
difficult to transplant, but this need not deter the woman 
who was bound to be successful, for she would find a way 
of handling them successfully. — Warren H. Manning, 
Massachusetts. 

PECAN CULTURE AS AN OUTDOOR OCCU- 
PATION FOR WOMEN 

In this article on pecan culture the first consideration is 
its value as an investment for women. 

About eight years ago the agents and owners of large 
groves induced many investors to buy, among whom were 
a large number of school teachers, stenographers, nurses 
and others — women with moderate but definite incomes, 
who wished to have something to count on as income-bear- 
ing when their professional usefulness became less. 

I was among these. However, I determined to familiarize 
myself with the details of this branch of horticulture and 
to use the grove as a place for annual recreation, so that 
when it came wholly into my possession I should be ready 
to manage it. 

This was not intended by the agents, as was shown by a 
series of "contracts" from time to time presented for sig- 
nature as the trees reached bearing age and the original 
contract with them came to maturity. However, in per- 
sisting, I have been able to afford greater personal care, 
improve the soil and condition of the trees, improve the 
fruit of the trees and establish the nucleus of a homestead, 
proving also the pecan grove a good investment for a woman 
— if she assumes personal responsibility when the trees 
begin to bear. 

I emphasize this because the consensus of opinion is that 
the small grove, ten to one hundred acres, will always be a 
better investment than the large, commercial grove. This 
was also stated by Professor W. N. Hutt at the last conven- 
tion of the National Nutgrowers Association. 

Next to the choice of soil location and selection of varie- 
ties to be grown is the personal care as the trees come into 
bearing, which means so much to a pecan tree. Its life at 
this time has its needs as definitely as an adolescent child. 

In food value, the pecan stands at the head of nuts and 
all other foods, yielding 29.8 per cent protein; 70.7 per cent 
fat and 3,300 calories, fuel value. 
[8] 



The term "paper shell pecan" implies the "cultivated" 
pecan as distinguished from the "seedling." To be popular 
with the investor the varieties planted should be those 
which are relatively heavy in average yield, the nuts of good 
appearance before and after cracking, and of good quality. 
These trees have definite sex qualities, which is important 
in making one's choice of varieties. For this reason four 
varieties are usually planted alternately in the grove. One 
or more varieties will bear more heavily than others in 
alternate years, and with at least four different varieties in 
a grove the owner will regularly have a good average yield. 

Although enormous tracts of land are being converted 
into pecan groves, there is no danger of overproduction as 
the demand is still much greater than the supply, and of all 
kinds of nuts used in the United States, we grow only one- 
fourth of what we use, three-fourths being imported. 

A well-chosen pecan orchard is undoubtedly a good in- 
vestment. Land that will grow pecans must be good land, 
therefore expenses can be reduced by growing crops be- 
tween the trees while they are young. There is a market for 
the nuts. The fruit is easily handled and not perishable. 
The land has an increasing valuation as the grove ages. 

A pecan grove "'furnishes a pleasant outdoor occupation 
easily directed by a woman. The most important part of 
the cultivation and care of the product comes in definite 
seasons of the year, allowing her to plan for absence between 
seasons. The small grove will give its owner a living when 
she is ready to live the simple life or to retire from active 
life. 

The business-trained woman together with the coopera- 
tion of other women can bring grove culture up to its high- 
est point and help to distribute and standardize its market 
product. It is sure to give good returns on capital invested, 
if a personal interest is taken in its management. — Effie 
L. Lobdell, M.D., Chicago. 

EFFICIENT MARKETING OF FARM PRODUCE 

(Continued from November issue) 

Our Food Products Department is also doing a great 
deal of work on the direct-from-farm-to-you idea. The 
possibilities in connection with it are immense. How far 
we may be able to go with it depends very largely on the 
interest others take in it. Quality in this movement is an 
absolute essential. For this we must depend upon the 
producer. With an up-to-date thinking person we have no 
difficulty in making this point clear, but we cannot consider 
[9] 



working with any one who will not properly grade his 
produce and adopt good business methods. Our difficulty 
has been to find the up-to-date producer. I am glad to say 
we have found some, and their number is on the increase. 
When we find some one with good things to sell at fair 
prices, we tell interested consumers about it. 

Each Monday morning we receive quotations at New 
York and many other important cities on various kinds of 
produce. These prices hold good for the whole week. 
These data are tabulated and a weekly bulletin sent off 
each Monday to agents and to a considerable number of 
people who have asked for them. Against each kind of 
produce we show where it can be had — how it is packed. 
(Eggs, for instance, are in cases of 15 or 30 dozen; butter, 
in packages of 10 or more pounds.) We also show the price 
in the country and the price delivered. The latter in the 
country cost plus express charges. On butter from Indiana 
points to New York city in 10-pound lots the express rate 
is three cents per pound; on 15 dozen eggs it is four cents 
per dozen; on 30 dozen it is three cents per dozen. 

With these data in hand, it is an easy matter for any one 
to determine which items offer an advantage over ordinary 
retail prices and how much. A very large and constantly 
increasing number of orders for produce are given to our 
agents to fill. One creamery in Ohio is shipping 15 to 18 
tons of butter per month as a result. Two in Indiana ship 
10 or 12 tons each per month — their total capacity. Scat- 
tered through several States there are many other similar 
instances. Eggs are another commodity that move in small 
lots direct from producer to consumer advantageously. 
During the past year many shippers have come to me offer- 
ing to guarantee that all orders sent them for eggs will be 
filled with absolutely fresh stock. We have mentioned their 
station as one from which eggs may be had; some orders 
result; then, if the shipper fulfils his obligation, satisfied 
patrons send repeat orders — they ask for the name of the 
shipper and begin ordering directly. They increase the 
quantity, tell friends about the quality, and eventually 
we are asked to discontinue mentioning such stations in our 
regular weekly bulletin because they have secured so many 
regular customers they cannot consider new ones. Usually 
eggs in 15 or 30 dozen cases can be had for from five to ten 
cents per dozen less than the retail city price. Many fami- 
lies cannot use a large quantity of either butter or eggs at 
one time. For such people we have shippers who put up 
10 pounds of butter and 10 dozen eggs in one package, or 
any other quantity that will better suit requirements, 
[10] 



but less will not be economical. Recently a chicken has 
been added to such combinations, and the packages are 
increasing in popularity. 

Apples and potatoes are things every one buys. In large 
cities people live largely in flats, in which there is little 
space suitable for storing vegetables. For that reason 
they are generally bought in small quantities — a few quarts 
at a time at high prices. This condition has given us a 
great deal of business. Farmers are putting up bushel 
boxes of either apples or potatoes, also boxes containing 
a half bushel of each. At 10 cents per quart at retail a 
bushel would cost $3.20. Good potatoes have been de- 
livered in New York all winter through our Food Products 
Department for about $1.00 per bushel, and apples from 
$1.00 to $1.50. Honey is another product with which we 
have been successful in our direct marketing. Thirty tons 
were shipped in small lots during the fall and winter of 
19 13-14 from one station in Michigan. This successful 
movement resulted in the production of 40 tons last season, 
which were easily disposed of. Ham and bacon, maple 
sugar and syrup, country sausages, fancy cheese, buck- 
wheat flour, dressed poultry, either by itself or in combina- 
tion boxes with eggs and butter, are popular. Chestnuts 
and pecans are also seasonable products that take well. 
Between Thanksgiving and New Year in 19 13 we took 
many orders for a combination lot consisting of a turkey, 
celery, cranberries, and sweet potatoes. Last year there 
was a still greater demand for the same package. 

We also find that in the small towns we have been able to 
satisfy a demand for appetizing foods not usually carried 
by dealers. For instance, fish dealers in Seattle have re- 
cently had a very large supply of very fine salmon that 
could not be successfully marketed through ordinary chan- 
nels. They printed a considerable number of circulars and 
mailed them to express and railway agents, offering to 
deliver a seven- to nine-pound salmon anywhere for $1.25. 
Our agents saw local dealers at once, and in many instances 
took orders for fish. In other cases individuals were the 
only ones who ordered. In one town two members of a 
local town club tried the salmon. They were fine, and 97 
more were ordered by other men in that little town. Ninety 
seven families learned something definite about fresh sal- 
mon. The probability is that local dealers will now have 
sufficient demand for them to induce them to order regularly 
from the fisheries. This is an actual result, and is only 
one of many similar experiences we have had. Nearly 
2000 single salmon were sent directly to consumers in March. 
[HI 



For the purpose of developing trade in California special- 
ties we made a rate of four cents per pound, with a mini- 
mum of 35 cents per package to apply on all kinds of food- 
products from the Pacific Coast to any point reached by 
Wells Fargo, the American, or Adams Express. In other 
words, the rate applied entirely across the continent to the 
farthermost point in Maine. A little booklet of twenty 
pages, mentioning many of the products for which Cali- 
fornia is famous, was printed and distributed from our 
important offices east of the Missouri River. In this 
booklet we explained that raisins, prunes, figs, olives, nuts, 
oranges, and all kinds of dried and preserved fruits and vege- 
tables would be delivered at your door for a certain price. 
A gallon of ripe olives cost only $1.28. Nine pounds of 
freshly packed prunes were delivered for $1.28. Orders 
were received by hundreds. Between November 1, 19 13, 
and May 1, 19 14, 80,000 packages of these delicious prod- 
ucts moved directly from the producer to consumer. The 
season of 19 14-15 was even more successful — over 70 tons 
of the small boxes of raisins were shipped from one station 
by express in four days. Many housewives learned for 
the first time that these home-grown fruits were the best in 
the world. Hereafter, " Made in America " will mean some- 
thing when shown on a box of raisins or prunes. That the 
popularity of these California products will continue to 
increase is beyond question. The great war now in pro- 
gress will result in reduced imports of these commodities, 
and will afford our own people a great opportunity to se- 
cure our home market, something that is highly prized by 
shippers in foreign lands, and that should not be lost sight 
of in the agitation for an extension of our markets abroad. 

In this direct-marketing idea one difficulty developed 
early. That was, the inability of small families to buy 
much at one time of many things in almost daily use. The 
transportation, through any medium, of the small quantities 
they could use in a few days, ate up all that could be saved 
by buying direct from the producer. Our buying clubs are 
the result of this condition. In offices, stores, factories, 
police and fire stations, also in post offices, men have seen 
the advantages to be secured through collective buying. 
For instance, 10 men decide that between them they can 
use a 30-dozen case of eggs or 20 pounds of butter. One 
of them acts for the club: he collects the cost of the eggs 
and butter from his fellows, and takes it, with the order, 
to our nearest agent. He issues a money order and sends 
both to the producer. The eggs and butter are promptly 
shipped. On arrival a division is made — each man carries 
[12] 



his share home. All are actually doing something them- 
selves to reduce their cost of living. They can usually 
save about five cents per dozen on eggs and five cents per 
pound on butter. What they do with eggs and butter is 
being done with all kinds of produce by hundreds of buying 
clubs. 

The problem before us is that of increased efficiency all 
along the line, not only on the part of the farmer and the 
dealer, but also with the housewife. Efficiency is just as 
necessary in the home as it is in the office or factory. The 
express cannot solve the marketing problem all by itself, 
but we are doing something to promote efficiency, to make 
it possible to market a larger proportion of farm products 
more directly to the consumer, and we hope to make our 
service useful in some way to each one of you. — D. G. Mel- 
lor, Wells Fargo Express Co., New York. 

ENGLISHWOMEN AND THE SHORTAGE OF 
LABOR ON THE LAND 

It has been suggested that an interesting exchange of 
articles might be made by us of the Women's Farm and 
Garden Union, having its headquarters in London, and 
some of the contributors to your charming Quarterly. 

At the present time, I feel that it would be unsuitable to 
write of any one aspect of agriculture or horticulture ; and 
that the only thing I can do is to give you some idea of 
what has been done and is being done by women here, to 
meet the situation brought about by this terrible war, on 
the farms and in the gardens of England. 

During the first few months after war was declared the 
reduced amount of labor available did not make itself felt. 
What did at once affect farmers and gardeners of both sexes 
was the tendency everywhere to reduce expenditure, and 
the increased cost of many of the things needed to carry on 
this work. 

Letters came pouring into the office from poultry-keepers 
who said they must get rid of all their birds at once; from 
nursery-gardeners who could find no sale for high-priced 
specialties; from trained and experienced head-gardeners, 
dismissed because their employers were taking on cheaper 
labor. 

To all these our advice was, "Hold on," explaining that 
it was much too early to take such trenchant measures as to 
sacrifice stock or to despair of other openings. They must 
wait and see how matters further developed. In some cases 
this advice was followed, in others it was disregarded. But 
[13] 



the passage of time proved its soundness. Our employ- 
ment department rather languished from August to No- 
vember ; but by December it began to be realized that men 
were growing fewer, and some effort must be made to fill 
their places with women. Application for women gardeners 
began to come in at a rate unknown before. January 
demands for women to help on farms, to do specialized 
work in nurseries for the spring season, and so on, came in 
overwhelming force. 

Recognition also was made of the necessity for training, 
and the good after-prospects. A result of this was that 
many training schools, depleted of students in the early 
months of the war, gradually filled up again, until (so far as 
dairying and some other lines were concerned) there were 
not opportunities for all to be received who were ready to 
train. 

By degrees we got some arrangements, here and there, for 
short-course students to be taken by some of our members 
on special "war" terms. When summer approached, re- 
quests for workers on the farms increased. These were met 
by us, and by other societies, by organizing bands of women 
(mostly of the educated classes) to go down to spend their 
summer holidays, or longer periods if they were not other- 
wise engaged, to make hay, pick fruit and hops, help with 
harvest and so forth. 

Meantime men gardeners were enlisting everywhere, and 
women to take their places were required both in public 
and private gardens, market-nurseries, nursery-gardens, 
and places small and great. Now all their needs are in- 
creased tenfold, since compulsory enlistment has swept 
away more than two-thirds of our men workers, and others 
are going. As the want becomes greater so are the efforts 
made to meet it. Several other societies, whose ordinary 
work is suspended by the war, have set themselves to this 
work of "placing women on the land." All honor to their 
good intentions, though in some cases good results have not 
always followed, since the organizers are new to the work 
and have not any inner knowledge of what is required or 
of who is fit or unfit. 

As our Society, under its old title of "The Women's Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural International Union, " has always 
been doing this work on a small scale, and as our knowl- 
edge (acquired in seventeen years' experience) enables us 
to judge which is the right candidate for the special job 
offered, it has been recognized by the Government that 
ours is the most dependable society to supervise and arrange 
training to fit women and girls for farm work. A grant has 
[14] 



been made for the purpose, and we have had to engage extra 
offices and more secretaries to deal with this matter. 

The openings before described, as given by some of our 
farming members, are now more extensive, and in addition 
several large landowners have come forward and allow 
us to send groups of students under forewomen already 
trained, to work on their estates. After short terms of such 
training these girls are readily accepted by farmers to help 
them through the present emergency. 

Last week on three separate days our Selective Committee 
met to interview candidates for training. About forty- 
two were dealt with that week. 

A question frequently asked is, "And what will happen to 
these women when the war is over?" 

It will not happen to them all alike. Some have proffered 
themselves entirely from patriotic motives, and do not con- 
template continuing the work when the special need is at 
an end. Others mean to farm or garden (as the case may 
be) for themselves after a time : not a few have emigration 
in view. And it must be remembered that it will prob- 
ably be necessary for some years to come, to have women 
as paid workers on the land, since many of the men will not 
return either because they have left this earthly scene, or are 
disabled, or wish to turn their attention elsewhere. 

The whole situation now is unprecedented ; it is impossible 
to foretell what it will be "when comes the longed-for 
peace." 

But, dear members of our sister society, know this, that 
we here are doing our best to meet the difficulties, and to 
bring order out of the somewhat chaotic ranks of the enthus- 
iastic girls and women who come forward — so willing but 
so ignorant — to offer to "do their bit" for England, "on the 
land." — Edith L. Chamberlain, F. R. H. S., Honorary 
Editor .Women's Farm and Garden Union, London, England. 

DAHLIAS 

The dahlia as a flower has come into its own. There is 
nothing in the Floral Kingdom so popular to-day. Even in 
far away China and the Isles of the Sea they are growing 
dahlias — the new dahlias — dahlias that are big and fluffy, 
debonnair and riotous of color. They appeal to those who 
love beauty of form, diversity of coloring, great quantity 
of bloom, ease of cultivation, and now that some are sweet- 
scented, what more can we ask of a flower? 

From an insignificant, single purple flower from the 
mountains of Mexico has developed all of these beautiful 
[15] 



shapes and colors — dainty fluffy whites to almost black — 
every color of the rainbow, with delicate shades and tints 
found only in the Southern skies at sunset. 

The dahlia has well been called the Empress of Flowers, 
for there is something stately in the big decoratives and 
even the largest of the cacti with their long incurved claw- 
shaped petals. Those who like something exceedingly grace- 
ful and airish find it in the peony-flowered ones or "art 
dahlias" as they are sometimes called. 

I have never had any trouble about the non-blooming of 
dahlias. They have to make a certain growth (some more 
than others), and if seasons, soil and cultivation have been 
what they should be this growth is made quickly and they 
are ready to bloom. A bulb, dropped by carelessness last 
spring at my kitchen door, sprouted (it wasn't even all 
covered). I cared for it, staked it and saw that it had 
plenty of water. In six weeks it was blooming and in two 
months it had twenty-odd blooms on it. When killed by 
frost it was one mass of big red blooms. Some of them 
measured 9 inches across. It was a "Le Geant," and 
there's magic in the name for those who know the dahlias. 

H. L. Bronson, John Riding, Clara Olympic, Richard 
Box, Golden Wave, Pierrot, Starlight, The Quaker, Scor- 
pion, and Mrs. Henry Randal do not grow tall, and are my 
favorites for making beds of one color and one variety each. 

A bride's bouquet was made of Mrs. C. G. Wyatt (a 
fluffy white) and The Quaker (palest pink) and it was com- 
plimented highly. A bouquet of Snowden (white) with just 
one big red John Riding was a prize winner. 

The pale salmon pink of C. E. Wilkins and the gold of 
Golden Eagle make a French combination that is very 
pleasing. The rich royal purple of Commodore Revoire 
looks fine with a very pale pink called Clara. Also I like it 
with white and yellow ones. 

Monsieur Lenormand is a bouquet of red, yellow and 
white just of itself and is not bizarre. The dark velvety 
red of Papa Charmet is splendid combined with a pale pink 
like Clara or The Quaker. Thais, I love in a bouquet all its 
own — it is so fluffy and white with the faintest tinge of 
lavender, mostly on reverse petal. 

Don't be afraid to cut your dahlias. They love to be cut. 

Cut down on the stalk so as to have a few leaves for foli- 
age. If they wilt too soon dip the stems into very hot 
water for one-half minute and then place in cold water. 
— Mrs. H. A. Tate, North Carolina. 



16] 



A PLEA FOR THE CHILDREN 

When one has passed more than three score and ten mile- 
stones on life's rough journey and is plodding up the hill 
beyond which the sun is setting, it is quite natural that he 
should pause and recall the pleasant spots in his long 
journey — and who shall say that one's childhood days are 
not the brightest — and when one's heart still remains young 
and he can join the children in their joys and sorrows, he 
has much to be thankful for. 

How many grown-ups ever stop to consider that the boys 
and girls of to-day will soon take our places and upon them 
will fall the destinies of this great country? 

We all know the tendencies of the age — theatres, picture 
shows and the like : I find no fault with them in moderation. 
Let us ask ourselves honestly, are we doing anything to 
make the children grow up better and purer men and 
women? Some may say they teach Sunday-school classes; 
that is very good and laudable, but there is another work 
almost as important, i. e. inculcating the love of flowers 
among the children. I would that this were more widely 
diffused. 

The writer has in mind a section of this city that a few 
years since was simply a disgrace: houses and yards, yes, 
and the children too, dirty and unkempt. The whole place 
was looked upon as "tough," yet what a change has been 
wrought — just as if a fairy with her wand had passed over 
it. What wrought the change? The love of flowers, first 
instilled into the children and then into the parents. Go 
through that section now and you will see flowers every- 
where, houses covered with roses or clematis and unsightly 
fences hidden with morning glories or nasturtiums, and all 
this change was wrought through the efforts of one man, 
Professor James A. Shea, Principal of Lincoln School, who 
has nearly nine hundred scholars under him, not one of 
whom has ever been arrested since he became principal. 
Has not he much to be proud of? Surely when his time 
comes he will leave the world the better for his having lived 
in it. The writer had the privilege many times of talking 
to the children on plants and flowers. These talks were 
illustrated with living plants such as tea, rubber, etc., and 
their cultivation was explained ; this always held the atten- 
tion of the listeners and gave them something to remember. 

Let me plead with every reader of this article to try and 

encourage the little ones to lay out a few cents in the 

purchase of seeds or a plant or two — anything that will get 

them started. The writer found that it was the greatest 

[17] 



stimulus to the children when they were shown the great 
pleasure and enjoyment they would find and give in taking 
flowers from their own gardens to sick friends. Those who 
teach in Sunday schools have a splendid opportunity to 
undertake the work, and the holding of flower shows by 
children should be encouraged in every possible way. — H. 
Youell, Syracuse, N. Y. 

HIGH LEVELS AND HIGHER STANDARDS 

FOR THE MANY 

If one were suddenly asked to define any one benefit re- 
sulting from the formation of this Society it could be given 
somewhat as above, for high levels and higher standards 
of both theory and practice existed before this Society was 
formed, but its leaflets, its conferences, its general purposes 
have resulted in a quickened spirit due to the organization 
forming a medium of exchange between many individuals 
and groups hitherto isolated by locality and special interests. 

Of thirteen distinct purposes listed in one of the early 
circulars six have been realized in a constantly increasing 
degree, viz. "the interchange of ideas" between members, 
the holding of conferences, compiling a directory of women 
engaged in farm and garden work, the encouragement of 
village shows and exhibitions, publication of a leaflet with 
varied and useful information, and to a certain extent the 
"increase of the knowledge of and use of existing institu- 
tions." 

Two are not fully reported upon as yet, viz., the "estab- 
lishing of a standard for diplomas," and the "encourage- 
ment of founding cooperative clubs"; these two will be 
treated elsewhere. 

Five, and some of them of vital importance, are in var- 
ious stages of beginnings, and it is these five that should 
now take the center of the stage, viz. " (a) bringing together 
supply and demand, (b) producer and consumer, (c) em- 
ployer and employee, (d) gardener and land, (e) individuals 
who might form a partnership." 

A and b are gradually being worked out by existing 
agencies, but c, d, and e will fail of solution unless some 
satisfactory system of credit is devised by which women can 
with safety enter upon rural occupations. 

It is idle to urge a woman earning a salary to leave even an 
overcrowded profession unless she has some capital to estab- 
lish her, or unless her experience, her training, or both, are 
such as to justify one or more persons with capital but 
without experience taking her as a partner. 
[18] 



English women are earnestly advised not to take up land 
in British Columbia unless they have a capital of at least 
four thousand dollars, or sufficient means laid by to tide 
them over a year. In several states in this country where 
two or three women have taken a farm in partnership, as a 
rule one of them has continued in her other gainful occupa- 
tion until they had made sure of their buildings and stock, 
when she also took to rural life. 

We must face the fact that each year sees larger numbers 
of educated women forced into so-called gainful occupations 
by necessity, and this organization can do no higher good 
than by realizing and acting upon the knowledge that the 
three questions of employer and employee, gardener and 
land, and partnership all stand on one and the same ground, 
capital. 

How to supply it, how it can be used to advantage, these 
are the next steps to higher levels of achievement and still 
higher standards in country life. — Mira L. Dock, Pennsyl- 
vania. 

"Who that hath reason and a smell 
Would not among roses and jessamine dwell, 
Rather than all his spirits choak 
With ^exhalations of dust and smoak, 
And all uncleanness which does drown 
In pestilential clouds a populous town." — Cowley. 

CONFERENCE, 1916 

The Third Annual Conference of the Women's National Agricultural 
and Horticultural Association will be held in Horticultural Hall, Boston, 
Mass., on Thursday and Friday, May 18th, and 19th. 

The meetings are open to the public, and every one interested in agri- 
culture and horticulture for women is welcome. 

In connection with the Conference will be held an exhibit of members' 
work, and a garden sale will be conducted by The Women's Educational 
and Industrial Union. 

PROGRAM 

Thursday, May 18, 1916, 9.30: Business Meeting. 11.00: Addresses 
of Welcome. His Excellency, Samuel W. McCall, Governor. His 
Honor, James M. Curley, Mayor of Boston. Richard M. Saltonstall, 
President Mass. Hort. Association. 

11.30: Mr. George T. Powell, President New York Experimental 
Station. Subject: " Preparedness in Agriculture." 

12.00: Mrs. Edith L. Fullerton, Medford, N. Y. Subject: "Some 
Recent Developments in Horticultural Training." 

12.30: Miss Mabel A. Turner, Milton, Mass., Supervisor School 
Gardens. Subject: "School and Home Gardens." 

1-2.30: Luncheon. 

2.30: Short addresses by Ralph W. Curtis, Assistant Professor Land- 
scape Art, Cornell University; Jane B. Patten, Simmons College; 
Jane B. Haines, President Penn. School of Horticulture for Women; 
Amy L. Cogswell, Principal Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture; 
Florence I. Davis, Bridgewater, Mass., State Normal School. 
[19] 



3.30: Miss Helen Holmes, Kingston, Mass. Subject: "Our Grand- 
mothers' Roses." 

4.00: Miss Edna Cutter. Subject: "The Day's Work." 

4.20: Mr. Arthur A. Shurtleff, L. A. Subject: "Trees and Hedges 
for City and Town Planting." 

Friday, May 19, 1916, 10.30: Miss Mary Youngs, Garden City, N. Y. 
Subject: " English vs. American Gardens." 

11.00: Mrs. Francis King, President, W. N. A. & H. A. Subject: 
"Ten Less Familiar Garden Flowers." 

11.30: Miss Alice L. Day, New Canaan, Conn. Subject: "Egg 
Farming for Profit." 

12.00: Miss Annie E. Burke, Brockton, Mass. Subject: "Vignettes 
of Brockton's Gardens." 

12.30: Mr. C. T. Whitcomb, Director Mass. Educational Exhibit, 
Panama Pacific Exposition. Subject: " Mass. State-aided Agricultural 
Schools." 

1-2.30: Luncheon. 

Evening Session: 8.00: Mr. E. P. Wilson, of the Arnold Arboretum. 
Subject: "Flowers and Gardens of Japan." Stereopticon lecture with 
colored slides. 



Luncheon (50 cents) will be served each day in Horticultural Hall by 
the Women's Educational and Industrial Union. Apply for tickets be- 
fore Tuesday, May 16, to Miss Florence Jackson, 264 Boylston Street, 
Boston. 

Excursions 

On Friday afternoon a trip will be made to the Arnold Arboretum, 
permission to enter in automobiles having been kindly granted by the 
city. 

Excursions are being planned for Saturday, when visits to some of 
the wonderful private gardens and farms around Boston will be made 
by invitations of their owners. 

Mrs. George U. Crocker, 

Chairman. 
Exhibit 

An exhibition of garden and farm products and horticultural supplies 
will be held in connection with the conference in Boston, May i8th-20th. 
Members are urged to send books, pictures, plans or prints of gardens, 
of flowers, of grounds, etc.; samples of butter, eggs, preserves and jams, 
flowers, plants, fruit, vegetables, garden pottery and accessories, their 
own sale catalogues, etc. 

Rules for Exhibitors 

1. All exhibits must be in the hands of the Committee before May 
17th, except flowers and perishable articles, which will be received until 
9 A. M., May 18th, 1916. These must be sent direct to the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Hall, Boston, Mass. 

2. Perishable articles will be disposed of by the Committee. 

3. Live stock not accepted; but we should like to receive pictures 
which would prove interesting and instructive. 

4. The circulars, announcements, or business cards of members who 
desire to receive orders for goods must be sent with each professional 
exhibit. 

5. Books to be marked as follows, "Return to Owner, Express Col- 
lect," or "Keep for the Association's Library." 

6. All exhibits will be handled and staged with care, but all risk of 
loss must be assumed by the sender. 

[20] 



7. All exhibits must be sent by Parcel Post, or by Express Prepaid. 

8. Charges for return, either by Express or by Parcel Post, must ac- 
company all exhibits, or they will be returned Express Collect. 

9. Please address all exhibits as follows: "For Mrs. B. Hammond 
Tracy, care of Massachusetts Horticultural Hall, Boston, Mass." 

For further information, address Chairman. 

Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy, Cedar Acres, Wenham, Mass. 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE 
ASSOCIATION 

Membership Committee — 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Chairman, Batavia, 111. 
Finance Committee — 
Publicity Committee — 
Publications Committee — 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Cheltenham, Pa. 
Law Committee — 

Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, Chairman, Painesville, O. 
Conference Committee — 

Mrs. George U. Crocker, Boston, Mass. 

ASSOCIATION NOTICES 

The annual meeting of the Association will be held in Horticultural 
Hall, Boston, Mass., on Thursday, May 18, 1916, at 9 A. M. 

The business to be taken up includes the revision of the By-laws and 
other matters of general interest. 

Hilda Loines, Secretary. 

The fiscal year of the Association begins on March 1st, and annual 
dues are payable at that time. 

L. G. Davis, Treasurer. 

The Quarterly is the organ of the Association, and being supported 
by the membership fees, is furnished only to paid-up members. 

The Council has advised the Editorial Committee that only those 
members whose dues for the current year are paid by May 1st are entitled 
to the Quarterly and that it is to be sent to others only after such dues 
are paid. — Editors. 

Office for Rent. — The Association would be glad to sublet the office 
furnished, for the summer months, from the middle of June to the middle 
of September, at a moderate rental. The rooms are cool and airy, and 
the building offers unusual advantages. For particulars apply to the 
office, or to Mrs. S. A. Brown, 155 E. Fifty-eighth Street, New York 
city. 

THE COUNCIL AND THE GENERAL 
SECRETARY 

The work of the Association is increasing so rapidly 
that the Council finds it necessary to meet more and more 
frequently, and the General Secretary to give much more 
than the one-third time due from her. 

At the Council Meetings in February and March Mrs. 
[21] 



S. A. Brown, of New York, and Mrs. A. H. Gross, of Chicago, 
were elected Council members, and the resignation of Mrs. 
Lancashire as chairman of the Finance Committee was re- 
ceived and regretfully accepted. Miss Gertrude Jekyll and 
Miss Ellen Willmott, of England, have been elected as 
honorary members of the Association. 

We have taken part in the two large flower shows recently 
held in New York and Philadelphia, where our exhibits 
were in charge of Mrs. H. H. Westcote and Miss Anna 
Richardson respectively. Many varied and interesting 
exhibits of members' work were shown and attracted much 
attention. 

It is not possible yet to make an exact statement of the 
returns from these exhibits, but the commissions received 
will largely help in paying expenses, and the exhibits were 
of value both to the Association and to the individual exhib- 
itors in making their work known to the public. About 
thirty members have joined us as a result of learning of our 
work in this way. 

The Association will have a booth outside the Seventh 
Regiment Armory, at Park Avenue and Sixty-sixth Street, 
at the Biennial Meeting of the General Federation of 
Women's Clubs, May 23d to June 2d. Small articles, such 
as flowers, gardening books, postcards, photographs, etc., 
will be acceptable for sale here, and the Association will 
have an excellent opportunity to make itself known to 
thousands of women from every part of the United States. 
The Secretary will be glad of volunteers to help in the booth. 
The hours are from 9.30 A. M. to 5 p. m. except Sunday. 

The Association has been asked to send an exhibit to the 
Salisbury (Conn.) Fair on September 2d to September 4th. 
The Salisbury Association makes a special feature of educa- 
tional exhibits, and the W. N. A. & H. A. is very fortunate 
in being offered space there. 

OFFICE NOTES 

The postcards of gardens printed specially for the Associa- 
tion are on sale at the office; price, two for five cents. Six 
different garden views offer excellent suggestions to the 
amateur and to the landscape architect. The office also 
has on sale postcards of the beautiful Japanese garden in 
Brooklyn. 

Suburban residents will find helpful the planting plans 

and seeds for annual gardens in yellow, red and white, and 

pink. The plans were made by Elizabeth Leonard Strang, 

and were published in the Garden Magazine for January. 

[22] 



Here you may buy a yellow garden with fifteen different 
kinds of seed all ready to plant for $1.50, — little more than 
the price of the seeds alone, — and the cost of the other 
gardens is in proportion to the number of varieties. 

Subscriptions to House and Garden, Landscape Architec- 
ture, the Gardener s Chronicle, the Garden Magazine, etc., 
may be sent through the office, which receives a commission 
on all its sales. 

The Christmas sale proved so satisfactory and remuner- 
ative that it was arranged to have an Easter sale of flowers, 
seeds, plants, bulbs, garden books, garden plans, and garden 
baskets from April 17th to April 20th. This also has been 
a great attraction and brought many strangers to the office. 

The reading-room is attractively and comfortably furn- 
ished, and with its beautiful garden photographs and well 
selected gardening books is an inspiration to gardeners. 
Beside garden books and magazines, a wide selection of seed 
catalogues is kept on display for the use of members. 

Furnishing Committee. — The Committee on Furnishings 
gratefully acknowledges the receipt of $20 as the result 
of the appeal in the February number of the Quarterly. 
Up to the present time $199 has been received, and of this 
amount $150.65 has been spent for furniture, upholstery, 
lamps, and other necessities. The balance will suffice for 
the letter file and bulletin board, but not for the rug and 
garden window, which would add the needed touches to a 
garden room. Any further contributions to the fund will 
be very welcome. 

The committee has also received a present of two large 
ivy plants and lattice for the reading-room window from 
Mrs. Alfred Whitman, and a decorated window box from 
Miss Sylvia Loines. 

POSITIONS OFFERED 

Social secretary, qualified as a typist, who would also take part in 
the work of the gardens of a woman by whom she was employed. 

General manager of a truck farm in Minnesota, to keep records and 
accounts, direct the house, and help handle mushrooms. 

Helper to a woman florist in greenhouse and outdoor garden work. 

Teacher of "poultry" at a horticultural school. 

Position in a hospital — Department of Women — to interest and work 
with patients in their flower and vegetable gardens. Same work in 
Department for Men. 

POSITIONS WANTED 
Hybridist — to work for seedsmen. 

Teacher of poultry husbandry, or lecturer or farm manager. 
[23] 



Undergardener on a model farm or country estate 

Garden helper by an intelligent but untrained woman who wants to 
learn. Could help with housework. 

Two experienced women would like a position on a country estate to 
take charge of the dairy, butter-making, farm animals, poultry, green- 
houses, flower and vegetable gardens, etc. 

Position to learn greenhouse work or on poultry farm run by a woman. 

Hilda Loines, Secretary. 



THE CHICAGO CONFERENCE 

On April 12th, 13th, 14th a notable conference was carried 
through in Chicago by the Middle West members of the 
Association. 

The conference was held in the hospitable Art Institute 
building, and was attended by several hundred women from 
Illinois, Ohio, Minnesota, Iowa, and Pennsylvania. Much 
interest was shown, and most of the speakers were compli- 
mented by arousing questions and discussion. 

The dinner on Wednesday evening was an enjoyable affair, 
with capital humor and good fellowship in evidence. 

The program may be of general interest, and was as 
follows : 

Wednesday, April 12th, 10 A. M.: Amateur Development of a Country 
Place. Illustrated. Mrs. Walter S. Brewster, Lake Forest. Amateur 
Vegetable Garden: A Personal Experience, Mrs. C. W. Hubbard, 
Winnetka. 

2 P. M.: Flower Growing for Profit, Mrs. H. A. Boardman, St. Paul. 
Truck Gardening, Miss C. W. Passmore, Minneapolis. Pecan Grow- 
ing, Dr. Effie L. Lobdell, Chicago. 

6 p.m.: Informal dinner, open to all. Miss Lena McCauley, hostess. 

8.15 p. m.: Greetings from Mrs. King. Some Illinois Gardens in 
Lumiere Pictures by Mr. H. Wells. Outdoor Professions and Occupa- 
tions for Women. Illustrated. Miss J. B. Haines, School of Horti- 
culture, Ambler, Pa. 

Thursday, April 13th, 10 A. M.: The Marketing of Garden Produce in 
Chicago: from the consumer's standpoint, by Mrs. C. F. Leavitt; from 
the producer's standpoint, by Mr. August Geweke, President, Farmers' 
Grange. The Co-operative Grocery Store at Woodlawn, Mr. Stickney. 

2 p. m.: A Diversified Farm, Mrs. Russell Tyson, Chicago. What 
Women Can Do for the Farm, W. E. Skinner, of National dairy council. 
Milk as Infant's Food, Dr. I. A. Abt, Chicago. Milk Supervision and 
Control, J. A. Gamble, United States Department of Agriculture 

Friday, April 14th, 10 A. M.: Business meeting, followed by personal 
experience of women who have "done things." 

2 p. M.: School and Home Projects, Mr. E. J. Tobin, Superintendent 
Cook County Schools. Shakespeare Gardeits, Miss A. M. Houston 
of the Drama League. A City Arboretum for Chicago, Dr. C. F. 
Millspaugh. Neighborhood Flower Shows and Plant Markets, Mrs. 
C. W. Jack, Chicago. 

[24] 



THE FLOWER SHOWS 

The Fourth National Flower Show, under the auspices of the Society 
of American Florists, held in Philadelphia March 25th to April 2d, was 
an eminent success. Over 120,000 persons were present, and at times 
the great Convention Hall was uncomfortably crowded. 

The magnificent collection of 118 acacia plants, shown by Thomas 
Roland, was a noteworthy feature. This attracted much attention, 
and was finally bought for the Widener gardens at Ogontz, Pa. 

Rose gardens were a special feature, and won much admiration. It is 
impossible to list the wonders in floral display, or mention in detail the 
booths, but the public will long remember these and has learned much of 
the beauties of unusual flowers, as well as wise methods of cultivating 
more familiar ones. A wonderful catalogue of exhibits was issued for 
would-be purchasers. 

The International Flower Show in New York, April 5th to 12th, was 
also a wonderful exhibition. The display of orchids was excellent; the 
bulb Dutch garden covering 500 square feet a novel endeavor; but the 
special features were the rose gardens and the rock gardens, worked out 
with the greatest perfection of detail and with charming floral effect. 
Another interesting class consisted of groups of flowering plants, and 
was designed primarily for private growers. Very charming and dis- 
tinctive displays were noted. 

Garden Books Exhibit 

A most interesting loan exhibition of books on botany, gardening, 
and landscape art was held under the auspices of members of the Garden 
Clubs of Philadelphia, March 20th to April 3d, 1916. The exhibition 
took place in rooms lent by the University of Pennsylvania, the Botanical 
department of that institution cooperating. Several hundred volumes 
were displayed, among them being about 50 books printed before the 
Nineteenth Century. Among these were original editions of Gerard's 
"Herbal" (1596), Parkinson's "Paradisus in Sole" (1629), Otto Brun- 
fel's "Herbarium" (1530). Modern books were also well represented. 
One of the handsomest of these was Miss Willmott's fine work on Roses — 
in two magnificent folio volumes. 

FORTHCOMING EVENTS 

Annual Meeting W. N. A. and H. A., Boston, May 18th, followed 
by conference, May 18th, 19th. 

A Short Six Weeks' Course in gardening and horticulture is offered 
by the School of Horticulture for Women, Ambler, Pa. The instruction 
consists of daily lectures with class and garden work. The special 
feature of the school is the practical work offered to all its students, and 
the short-course scholars will find this particularly advantageous to 
them. The course runs from May 3d to June 25th. For further 
particulars write to the Director. 

A Summer School of Landscape Architecture will be held at 
Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, Illinois, from June 26th to August 5th, 
1916, under the direction of Professor R. R. Root, of the University of 
Illinois, and Mr. N. P. Hollister. 

The course is planned to be of special value to students in professional 
schools, to landscape architects, to owners of private estates, and to 
others interested in gardening and out-of-door life. 

For further information apply to Professor R. R. Root, Urbana, 111. 

A Spring Flower Show. — A spring flower show is to be held under 
[25] 



the auspices of the International Garden Club on June 1st to June 4th. 
The show will be held at Pelham Bay Park, Pelham Bay, N. Y. Par- 
ticulars may be obtained from the President, Mrs. Charles F. Hoffman, 
620 Fifth Avenue, New York city. 

Admiral Ward's Roses. — The rose garden of Admiral and Mrs. 
Aaron Ward at " Willowmere, " Roslyn, Long Island, will be open to the 
public on Thursday, June 8th, from 3 to 7 p. M., for the benefit of the 
American Ambulance Hospital at Neuilly, France. Last year Admiral 
Ward offered his garden for this cause, and the proceeds of the enter- 
tainment paid for an ambulance, which he named in memory of Claude 
Pernet, the son of the famous rosarian in Lyons, who was killed in battle. 
Although the rose fete, last year, was not widely announced, there were 
1200 people in attendance. This year they will be shown on Thursday, 
June 8th, from 3 to 7 o'clock, and Mr. E. H. Wilson, of the Arnold Ar- 
boretum, will deliver a special lecture on the hybridization of roses dur- 
ing the afternoon. 

In case of rain the exhibition will be postponed until the following day. 

Tickets of admission $1.00; can be obtained from Mrs. Robert 
Bacon, Westbury, Long Island, or at "Willowmere," Roslyn, Long 
Island. 

Roslyn is on the Long Island Railroad, and may be reached in about 
forty-five minutes from the Pennsylvania Railroad station in New York. 

General Federation Biennial. — The biennial convention of the 
General Federation of Women's Clubs takes place in New York city 
May 23d to June 2d. 

Headquarters are at the Hotel Astor, and most of the meetings will be 
held at the Seventh Regiment Armory, Park Avenue and Sixty-sixth 
Street. 

The Home Economics Department conferences will be of special 
interest to our members, touching as they so closely do upon agricultural 
life. These are scheduled for May 26th at 2.30, May 29th at 4 P. M., 
both in the Hotel Astor ball-room, May 30th at 4 P. M. in Room F, 
Seventh Regiment Armory, and May 31st, 4 P. M., Hotel Astor. 

The Home Economics exhibit is under the charge of Miss Jane 
Fales, of Teachers College, Columbia University, to whom inquiries 
may be addressed. 

PERSONALS 

One of the most popular exhibits at the New York Flower Show was 
that of Mrs. Henrietta Hudson, whose Lumiere plates and lantern 
slides of flowers and gardens attracted great interest. After three men 
photographers had refused to take a color picture of the First Prize 
rose garden because of the difficult lighting, Mrs. Hudson succeeded, 
on her ninth attempt, in getting a very beautiful plate, which she was 
able to exhibit as a proof of a woman's persistency and success. 

Miss Susan Tyng Homans, of Flushing, L. I., exhibited colored 
photographs of a seedling wistaria and seedling roses which she had 
raised herself. 

Miss Elma Loines showed a photograph of her spurless columbine, 
Columba, which she has developed, and which is now being tried out by 
several nurserymen. 

Miss Margaret H. Shearman, of Wilmington, Del., has taken 
sixteen blue ribbons at the last three Diamond Poultry Shows, and 
two first prizes at the 191 5 Delaware State Fair with her Rhode 
Island Reds. She advocates the feeding system in use at the Dela- 
ware College Division of Agricultural Extension. Bulletin No. 2, giv- 
[26] 



ing feeding formula, can be obtained from Delaware College, Newark, 
Del. Miss Shearman says her success is largely due to her method 
with her houses, which are entirely open to the south in all weathers, 
with the perches fourteen feet back from the front. She has two spe- 
cially fine pullets bred from a Madison Square Garden cockerel, Duchess 
Louise, and Duchess Mary. She has been greatly encouraged by re- 
ceiving orders for settings from these pullets. 

Miss Minnie Douglas Foster, of Sayville, Long Island, raises 
Rainbow Corn Seed, which she sells by the pound to Dreer and Hender- 
son. This was on sale at our booth at the New York Flower Show, 
together with her pyrethrum seed. 

Miss MlRA L. Dock, of Pennsylvania, is chairman of the conserva- 
tion exhibit of the Biennial Convention of the General Federation of 
Women's Clubs in the Seventh Regiment Armory, New York city. 

Mrs. Herbert Wolcott, of Jackson, Michigan, has made a great 
study of horticulture, has established nurseries, and is making a spe- 
cialty of rare plants. Her new catalogue gives plants never before offered 
in America, and many new varieties of plants are being tried out, which, 
if they will stand the climate of Michigan, will be of great value all over 
the States. 

Miss Anna Richardson, in Philadelphia, and Mrs. H. H. Westcote, 
in New York, were very efficient as chairmen of the exhibits committees 
at the recent flower shows, and they deserve the warm thanks of the 
Association for their untiring work. 

Mrs. Edward Hagaman Hall, of New York, has had charge of the 
installation of the exhibit photographs of plants and vines used in 
urban decoration now on show at the Museum building in the Bronx. 

The remarkable success of our member, Mrs. C. H. Stout, of Short 
Hills, N. J., with her seedling dahlia Sunshine, should be recorded here. 
Mrs. Stout raised the plant from seed in 1913: last year it was shown 
at the exhibition of the Garden Club of Short Hills, where it took first 
prize in the single class. The American Dahlia Society, however, calls 
it duplex; the National Dahlia Society considers it single. It has 
already taken eight prizes and a medal. 

This dahlia is without doubt the rarest of all the yellows, from many 
points of view, and the texture of the flower is rich beyond description. 
Its color is thus described from Ridgeway's chart: " By strong daylight 
the petals are Pinard yellow shaded with salmon yellow, and the center 
is Capucine orange. The flower turns at night to an indescribable 
pink." Mrs. Stout has been selling the tubers for the benefit of the 
American Red Cross Society. 



LETTERS FROM MEMBERS 

Mrs. McFate, of Hillside Hardy Flower Gardens, Turtle Creek, Pa., 
writes: "I have many inquiries from young women regarding the work 
set forth in the Quarterly, and I hesitate many times in giving advice, 
as it is a large undertaking for a woman without experience. There are 
many things I wish I could take up with the Association. One of the 
things that appeals strongly to me is the matter of providing a suitable 
selling place for the products grown. There is no place here but the 
regular city market, and I should hesitate in advising a woman to take 
chances in such a rabble. Catalogues are expensive, and it takes 
years to build up a mail order trade. Why can we not establish, in our 
cities, an exchange of some kind, after the order of the Woman's In- 
dustrial Exchange, where the products of the land may be disposed of? 
[27] 



If you can help me regarding these inquiries I shall be earnestly- 
grateful. 

" I will let you know what luck I have in getting Iris Florentina over, 
but stock is much delayed this season." 

Mrs. N. S. Sawyer, Excelsior, Minn., says: "A friend recently 
brought to my attention a publication concerning the Women's National 
Agricultural and Horticultural Association. I am greatly interested in 
it and wish to become a member. May I not tell you enough about 
my business and work to furnish the data which you require and pro- 
pose myself for membership? 

"Mine was the pioneer commercial hardy perennial garden of Minne- 
sota, and as far as I have been able to ascertain, there was no other 
garden of this kind in either of the States adjoining Minnesota at that 
time. My garden and home are at Excelsior (Lake Minnetonka), a 
summer resort a few miles from Minneapolis. My business is growing 
and I am selling hardy perennials, annuals, garden cut-flowers, and in- 
cidentally planning small gardens. My specialty is hardy perennials — 
their propagation, culture, varieties, adaptability, uses, etc. I am keenly 
interested in landscape gardening (although I have had no training) 
and American horticulture. 

"Have I made my own garden? My garden was started with eleven 
dollars' worth of flower seeds, part of a village lot, no business knowledge, 
scant garden knowledge, and a man one day in the week to do spading 
and other rough work. By increasing experiment and practice the 
problems of the soil, culture, and varieties were worked out. Have 
never employed skilled help. Have taught common laborers, have 
personally superintended all shipping and every gardening operation, 
done all the seed sowing, propagating, and transplanting myself. Have 
exhibited infrequently and rarely in competition. 

"Organized and conducted classes in the study of garden plants and 
in flower gardening in its various branches. Have lectured before 
Minnesota State Horticultural Society (of which I am a member), var- 
ious agricultural improvement and garden clubs in Minneapolis and 
vicinity; for the Minnesota Garden Flower Society (also member of 
this) in St. Paul last winter; for the tenth district M. F. W. C. at State 
Fair in St. Paul last September on Flower Gardens for Country Women. 
Gave a series of talks on garden topics before the Minneapolis Women's 
Club (Mrs. T. G. Winter, President) last winter. If I become a mem- 
ber I shall be glad to receive the Quarterly and any other literature 
which explains this organization." 

Mrs. Van Etten tells of club work in New Rochelle, N. Y.: "To the 
Flower, Plant and Fruit Guild and its very able president and garden 
enthusiast, Mrs. William R. Pitt, must be credited the beginning of the 
gardening enthusiasm that has become so universal in New Rochelle, 
N. Y. Twelve years ago this branch of the Guild began its work, and 
besides the aim of providing flowers, plants, and jellies to the shut-ins, 
it established the first school gardens, which are now continued by the 
Board of Education. Their annual sales enable them to raise funds to 
carry on their work, as well as giving an opportunity for competition to 
the exhibitors. In 191 1 Mrs. Henry D. Noyes started the Garden Club 
of New Rochelle, which has been the means of stimulating interest in 
every line of horticulture. 

"In March, 1912, in order to improve conditions in New Rochelle, 
we started the Woman's Club of New Rochelle. The first work done 
was by the Civic Section to clear up the unsightly places, including back 
yards and vacant lots. The school-children's interest was aroused by 
giving seeds to those showing to a visiting committee a clean back yard. 
This was the beginning of Home Garden work which was last year car- 
[28] 



ried on through the public schools under the Department of Education. 
The Board of Education has arranged this year to carry on the work 
alone, so that the amount raised by the Home Garden Fund committee 
may be used for some other educational work. 

"Another phase of work is vacant lot gardening. This was started in 
1912 by the Woman's Club, when many unsightly neighborhood dump- 
ing-grounds were cleaned and turned into gardens. Besides innumer- 
able gardens of this kind scattered over the city, a strip of land was 
divided and eighteen gardens, 50 x 150 feet, given to men applying for 
the same. Seed was furnished by the committee in charge. In most 
cases enough vegetables were raised to provide for the families and large 
quantities sold. Another activity of the Civic Section of the Woman's 
Club was a nursery for trees and shrubs, cared for largely by boys of the 
ungraded school. From this nursery several thousand trees have been 
given the Park Department, Board of Education. 

"The success of these accomplishments for civic betterment and 
improvement in New Rochelle is due to the spirit of cooperation pre- 
vailing in the different organizations." 

Mrs. Charles O. Bell, of Denver, Colorado, writes: "Your letter 
came as a surprise to me, as I had not thought I was doing anything 
which would be of real interest to co-workers. But it also gave me 
equal pleasure, as I am so thoroughly interested in my work. I am 
delighted to have the opportunity to add my mite. My real reason for 
taking up this line of work was the search for congenial occupation. For 
many years I had taught music, but this was very confining. As a 
rule, I do not think elderly women do themselves full justice as they 
journey down the western slope of life. This is the time of life to please 
oneself, to have fads, ajid to do altogether as one wishes. During child- 
hood and young womanhood we are usually subservient to the will of 
our elders. . . The mature years are given to our families, and to the 
interests of those who are dependent on us. When the children have 
formed other ties, have made for themselves independent homes, our 
hearts and arms feel empty, but it is then we come into our heritage: 
the years that by right of nature are our own. 

"Five years ago, at the age of sixty-one, my opportunity came. I 
bought some lots and took up the cultivation of the dahlia. With little 
training, and that only on general lines, I have absolutely made a suc- 
cess of the business. This spring I will ship bulbs to eighteen States. 
At first I did not consider it as a commercial proposition. Growing 
old in the usual way did not appeal to me in the least; I wanted to play 
with something I liked. 

"Good attributes that would contribute to the success of work in 
this field are: Love for downright hard work; a good memory, and 
patience to await results. I consider work, particularly garden work, 
a panacea for all ills, either of the body or of the mind. I do the most 
of my work myself. It keeps me very busy, but also very happy. I 
have my ground plowed in the spring, and a man to help me dig the 
bulbs in the fall. I have in stock the best varieties that money will buy, 
both standard varieties, and new introductions. This costs money but 
it pays. I read everything I can find on dahlia culture; in fact, make 
a study of the whole business. As regards women in the business, 
personally I think the idea of sex and skirts should be eliminated. This 
is only figuratively speaking, however; we should not ask for recogni- 
tion because we are women. We should simply take our place as 
business women, asking nothing but fair treatment, giving nothing 
but straight goods. This is the only way we can successfully enter the 
business world." 

[29] 



NOTES 

Agricultural Index. — A cumulative index to agricultural periodicals 
and bulletins is being published quarterly by the H. W. Wilson Co. of 
White Plains, N. Y. Vol. I, No. i, for March, 1916, indexes fifteen 
periodicals and bulletins, and others will be added in succeeding issues. 
Publishers and others interested in this work are asked to cooperate 
with the Wilson Co. by sending to them copies of their publications. 

Immune Chestnuts. — Plant breeders are succeeding in producing 
chestnut trees resistant to the blight disease by cross-breeding Asiatic 
varieties of chestnut with our native chinkapin. These cross-bred trees 
quickly form handsome dwarf trees, laden with nuts five or six times the 
size of the chinkapin parent. — United States Department of Agriculture. 

Florentine Iris. — Many inquiries in regard to the growing of 
Florentine iris have been received by the Secretary, as a result of the 
article on Orris growing in the November Quarterly. Mrs. Patterson, 
of Virginia, writes that Miss Coleman dries the orris in September, 
when the weather is hot and dry, and that the orris field will next year 
justify her getting a machine so that she can grind it herself. Mrs. 
Tracy reports that Iris Florentina grows very luxuriantly at Wenham, 
Mass., so that there seems no reason why it should not do well on Long 
Island. Further information on the curing and grinding of the root 
would be very acceptable. 

Women in Agriculture. — The London Daily News announces 
that the British Government has decided to organize a recruiting cam- 
paign for women to work on the land. It is proposed that armlets be 
issued to women willing to undertake farm work and that they be en- 
titled to wear especial uniforms. Every village will be canvassed 
by women's committees, as it is considered essential that an army of at 
least 400,000 women be mobilized. All who volunteer will be registered 
and given armlets and uniforms which will consist of coat, skirt, stout 
boots and gaiters. Already more than 250,000 men have been with- 
drawn from agriculture and it is anticipated that 100,000 more will be 
called. Practically only shepherds, ploughmen and others indispensable 
will remain. 

Asparagus. — Mrs. William C. Morey, of Rochester, N. Y., a member 
of the W. N. A. and H. A., is growing asparagus on her farm at Cold 
Water, Michigan. She began in the true scientific fashion. She had 
the soil analyzed and found it to be a sandy loam suitable to asparagus 
culture. Then began a long correspondence with expert growers, in 
this country and France, and finally a trip abroad to see the great as- 
paragus farms at Argenteuil and other centers before a root was planted. 
They say women are always impatient for results. But this woman was 
not, and learning that the soil must be practically pulverized before the 
" grass " roots were set, and that onions did it best, she grew onions for 
two years before the first asparagus root was planted. Fifty bushels of 
onion sets were planted in August, even the very tools for planting being 
made on her own place. The crop of onions proved good so that they 
were advantageously sold. After the onions had done their work in the 
soil, the " grass " roots, one year old, were imported from France by ex- 
press, and were planted in rows five feet apart. To be sure that the first 
steps were taken correctly, Mrs. Morey secured a French farmer from 
the neighborhood of Argenteuil, brought him to her farm, and had him 
direct the work. Some cutting has been done, but the plants are only 
just now beginning to bear. 

Four-year Gardens. — Extension of the Course in Garden and Can- 
ning Club Work for Girls in the Southern States. — To meet the demands 
[30] 



of thousands of southern girls who have been successful in raising a tenth- 
acre of tomatoes, and who want to "go on," the representatives of the 
department and the State colleges in charge of the canning clubs in the 
15 Southern States have worked out what might be called a progressive, 
four-year practical garden and canning course for girls. The purpose 
of this course is to start the girls with one crop and from year to year 
add new annual crops, encourage them to run winter and glass-frame 
gardens, and, finally, in the course of their work to lead them to plant 
perennial small and orchard fruits. It is hoped that under this sytem 
the girls will gain knowledge of how to handle a wide variety of garden 
vegetables and trees, and that each member, by the time she gets ready 
to go to high school or college, will have a garden of perennial fruits that 
can readily be cared for by other members of her family. 

Women Herb-growers in England. — After consultation with lead- 
ing firms of drug dealers and medical men, the Women's Herb Growing 
Association, which was only formed three months ago, has drawn up a 
list of the medicinal plants which it is both desirable and profitable for 
women to grow in their gardens and allotment plots. 

Formerly England grew most of its own drugs, and this new associa- 
tion intends to prove that it can do so now. Miss Wilkinson, principal 
of Swanley Horticultural College, is chairman. A central drug farm and 
systematic collection from small growers will make the plan renumera- 
tive, it is believed. Within two months there were 630 members. 

Strawberry By-products. — Every year immense quantities of 
strawberries go to waste in producing districts. Farmers' Bulletin No. 
664, Department of Agriculture, shows how this wasted fruit can be 
easily turned to usefulness. For instance, barrels of berries and sugar 
in equal parts can be kept in cold storage until needed for marmalade, 
fruit syrups, etc. 

Black Walnut. — The Department of Agriculture recommends plant- 
ing black walnut trees in unused patches of farm land, in fence corners, 
etc. Black walnut is free from insect attack; affording valuable crops 
of nuts and high priced lumber; farmers will do well to follow the sug- 
gestion. 

To Educate Women Farmers. — The Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries of England has recommended itinerant instruction of organ- 
ized classes of women so that every part of a county shall be covered in 
a definite cycle of years. Farm schools will be increased so that each 
county has one or more. 

The National Marketing Campaign Committee, 1012 Broadway 
Central Building, Los Angeles, Cal., issues "A Brief Explanation of the 
Resolution Providing for a National Marketing Commission," a very 
interesting leaflet. It is too long to reproduce here, but contains a 
comprehensive, though simple, plan for marketing small quantities of 
farm produce in the quickest way. This plan is presented by Mr. 
David Lubin, who has been living in Rome for ten years as the United 
States delegate to the International Institute of Agriculture. Every 
one interested in the problem of marketing produce should send for 
one of these leaflets and assist in getting the plan worked out. 

Urban Decoration. — A permanent exhibition of photographs, show- 
ing how decorative plants may be used to enhance the beauty and value 
of city property, is now installed on the main floor of the Museum build- 
ing in the N. Y. Botanic Garden at the Bronx. 

Peppermint and Spearmint. — Nearly 250,000 pounds of a total of 
600,000 pounds of peppermint and spearmint oils are produced annually 
in the United States, and mint culture on suitable soils gives fair aver- 
[31] 



age returns when intelligently conducted from year to year, says Farm- 
ers' Bulletin No. 694, on the cultivation of peppermint and spearmint. 

Outdoor Wintering of Bees — Farmers' Bulletin No. 695 — 
This bulletin deals with the care of bees when wintered outside and is 
of interest to beekeepers in all parts of the United States, as the need of 
protection from cold and wind in winter is practically universal. Bee- 
hives should have abundant insulation, and colonies must be protected 
from the wind, for when the temperature of the hive falls to 57 F., 
the bees form a cluster, and those in the center begin to generate heat 
by muscular activity. This is unprofitable labor, and results in the 
weakening of the colony. The beekeepers of the United States lose at 
least one-tenth of their colonies of bees every winter. Many losses are 
due to starvation, which can be easily avoided. If the excessive winter 
losses are prevented, commercial bee-keeping will be greatly benefited. 

NEW BOOKS 

Beekeeping. — By E. F. Phillips, Ph.D. The Rural Science Series, 

edited by L. H. Bailey, New York. The Macmillan Co. 1916. 

457 pp. Illus. $2.00. 
This full and interesting discussion of beekeeping is authoritative. 
Mr. Phillips is in charge of bee culture investigation, of the Bureau of 
Entomology, in the United States Department of Agriculture. The 
book thoroughly covers the ground, and contains an exhaustive treat- 
ment of some parts of bee cultivation. Illlustrations of best kinds of 
beehives, details of food supplies, and general hints regarding wintering, 
etc., are of use to the amateur, while careful diagrammed studies of the 
life process of the bee, marketing of the crop, etc., will prove valuable to 
the expert. — E. C. W. 
Our Early Wild Flowers. By Harriet L. Keeler, New York. 

Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916. 252 pp. Illus. Col. plates. $1.00 

net. 
Miss Keeler describes with vividness and vivacity some 130 of the 
wild flowers common throughout the middle and North Atlantic States. 
Written with sympathy and scientific skill, this little book brings out 
in condensed and serviceable form just what most of us want to know 
about the common flowers around us. An admirable companion for a 
botanical walk. 
Looking Forward. A Study in Social Justice. By Isaac Roberts, 

New York. Roberts and Co. $1.00. 
This dialogue between a group of friends attacks a subject which 
needs study, the subject of cooperation. Success has attended exper- 
iments in this in some parts of Europe, so success can be attained here, 
we suppose. Every contribution to the subject is of service, and Mr. 
Roberts presents this sincere and thoughtful addition to the literature 
on this cooperative idea at a time when people are looking for a way out 
along such lines. We believe his audience will be interested in his 
various suggestions, and will be inclined to accept many of them. — 
E. C. W. 
Beautiful Gardens in America. By Louise Shelton, New York. 

Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915. 341 PP- 176 pi. $5-0? net. 
A series of beautiful views of gardens throughout the United States 
from Maine to Florida, and as far west and south as California, New 
Mexico, and Alaska. These "gardens were planned, with few excep- 
tions, by their owners, earnestly endeavoring to express their sense of 
the beautiful in these outdoor homes." The sight of beautiful gardens 
[32] 



is an inspiration to the possibilities of what may be done, and next to 
the real sight comes the pictured garden, especially when it is accomp- 
anied by Miss Shelton's brief but satisfying descriptions. 

American Rose Annual, 1916. Edited by J. Horace MacFarland. 
Harrisburg. J. H. MacFarland, 1916. 180 pp. pi. 50 cents. 
If this first American Rose Annual is only a foretaste of things to come, 
the future of rose-growing in these United States is to be well served 
and well stimulated indeed. Mere cultural directions being mostly 
omitted, a real survey of rose progress is given, present conditions 
throughout the country are touched on, and the wonderfully hopeful 
outlook for the future is indicated. The widening work of the American 
Rose Society is brought out, and a general invitation to membership is 
given — an invitation not lightly to go unheeded, if Rose Annuals like 
this one are to be repeated. 

The Principles of Plant Culture. By E. S. Goff. 8th edition. 
New York. MacMillan Co. 1916. 295 pp. Illus. $2.50. 
This new volume in the Rural Text-book series in the 8th edition of a 
standard work now brought up to date. It contains a thorough and 
systematic study of plant culture as the beginning of all good farming 
and gardening. The nature of the plant, how it responds to external 
conditions, how it is protected and modified, its propagation and im- 
provement under cultivation, etc., are clearly and interestingly set forth 
by a trained scientist and a most practical and delightful teacher. 

Talks for Farmers. Published by the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, Amherst, Mass. Edited by E. H. Forbush. Vol. 6, No. 
5, for January, 19 16, contains "Street and Roadside Planting," 
by Mr. F. A. Waugh and P. H. Elwood, Jr. 

The American Civic Association has issued two bulletins of especial 
interest to our members. They may be obtained from the office 
of the Civic Association, Union Trust Building, Washington, D. 
C, for 25 cents each. 

Real Estate Subdivisions and the Best Method of Handling 
Them. By J. C. Nichols, Series II, No. 5, Second Edition. Feb- 
rurary, 1912. 
An account of Mr. Nichols' achievement in the making of an ideal resi- 
dential section, contiguous to, and some day to be part of, the great city 
of Kansas City. Treats in a most informing way of the development 
of the right kind of residential suburbs, and is an important contribu- 
tion to the general subject of city planning. 

Country Planning. By F. A. Waugh. Series II, No. 8, January, 
1916. 
A statement of the purposes of the committee on country planning of 
the American Civic Association, and of some of the problems with which 
it has to deal. 



More than one hundred and fifty new members joined 
the Association during January, February and March. 
Their names are omitted from this number of the Quarterly 
on account of lack of space. There are now in all 1250 
members. 

[33] 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 

ADVERTISING COLUMN FOR MEMBERS ONLY 

Rate ten cents per agate line. Not less than Jive lines nor more than ten 

lines accepted at this rate. 



PEKINGESE— the most popu- 
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hardy, affectionate, quaint; un- 
canny in intelligence,pathetic in their 
devotion. Peking Kennels — the larg- 
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all colors. Prices most reasonable. 
Dr. Mary H. Cotton, Mineola, N. Y. 



GARDEN planning. — How to 
group trees and shrubs. Suc- 
cess with lilies, roses, and verbenas. 
Trellises. Lectures on Famous Gar- 
dens, on French, Italian, English 
and Oriental Gardens. R. E. Zim- 
mermann, 1340 Pacific Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



ENGLISH PRIMROSE Yellow 
(Munstead Strain); Red 
and Pink Polyanthus, 25 cents per 
plant, £3.00 dozen, $20.00 per 100. 
F. E. McIlvaine, Glen Isle Farm, 
Dowingtown, Penna. 



CEDAR ACRES Gladioli. Send 
for 1916 Booklet, full informa- 
tion and cultural directions. It is 
free. B. Hammond Tracy, Wen- 
ham, Mass., Box J. 



MRS. S. A. BROWN offers for 
sale 100 gladiolus bulbs Prim- 
ulinus "Sunbeam"® $2.50 per dozen, 
postpaid, to your address. These 
are Dr. Van Fleet's hybrids and are 
of a pure yellow pale in tone (Massi- 
cot Yellow). 165 West 58th St., 
New York City. 

GARDENS. — Practical service 
tendered. Two graduates of 
The School of Horticulture, Ambler, 
are prepared to plan, plant and 
manage gardens large or small; 
especially fitted to care for orna- 
mental trees, shrubs and perennial 
plants. Emily Exley, M. Frances 
Shinn, 235 So. nth St., Phila. 



Old English Sheep Dogs 

Ayrshire Cattle, Sweet Butter 

Guaranteed Fresh Eggs 

Bewley Farm 

Mrs. Edward Parker Davis 

Newtown, Bucks Co., Pa. 

REFINED woman wants position 
with ladies only who are living 
alone and farming for profit. Oppor- 
tunity to learn something of farming 
more important than wages. Would 
help with housekeeping. References 
exchanged. Miss C. A. Mullen, 314 
Fifth Ave., Lakewood, N. J. 

BE Patriotic and buy American 
grown Gladiolus Bulbs. My 
catalog describing over fifty of the 
best varieties, as well as valuable 
helpful hints, will be sent free on 
request. H. Youell, 538 Cedar St., 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

TO KILL INSECTS is one thing, 
but to do so without injuring or 
even staining flowers or foliage is 
quite another. "Readeana" Rose 
Bug Exterminator kills the in- 
sects and improves the foliage. For 
sale at all reliable dealers. Reade 
Mfg. Co., Hoboken, N. J. 



FRANCES DUNCAN'S garden 
planning sets: A device for 
enabling the amateur gardener to 
arrange his planting in miniature 
and see how it looks. Lawn, earth, 
walks, and plants for small garden, 
$2.50; larger garden with pergola, 
lake, summerhouse, $5.00; garden- 
craft for children with country 
house, $3.50. Frances Duncan, 1 
Milligan Place, New York. 



PROVINCETOWN, Cape Cod, 
Mass. Red Inn opens May 30, 
19 16. A motor Inn on the European 
plan. All rooms with baths. Single 
Rooms, $2.50; double rooms, #5. 
Chauffeur's accommodations. Tele- 
phone in advance. Miss Marion 
Wilkinson, Red Inn, Provincetown, 
Mass. 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 

Peonies 

The Largest Collection of Choice 
Varieties in the Entire World 

VISIT US IN MID-JUNE AND VERIFY OUR STATEMENT 

Iris that won a Silver Medal at the World's 
Fair for Excellence. 

Hardy Phlox and Perennials in a large assort- 
ment. 

Specimen Shade Trees, Shrubs, Ornamental 
Evergreens in a choice variety. 

Catalogs on request. 

Cherry Hill Nurseries, 

T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc., 
West Newbury, Mass. 

"Sunshine" Dahlia 

Described in these pages, offered by Mrs. Stout 
for the Benefit of the American Red Cross, through 
John Scheepers & Co., the Flowerbulb Specialists, 
2 Stone Street, New York. 

Plants $3.00 each. Delivery May. Stock limited. Order 
at once. All best variety of Bulbs in Highest Quality. 







School 


The 


of Horticulture 


Well Considered 


for Women 


Garden 


(Eighteen miles from 
Philadelphia) 

Ambler, Pa. 


A practical and delightful garden 
book by Mrs. Francis King, Presi- 
dent of the W. N. A. and H. A. 

Price $2.00 


Practical and theoretical training in 
the growing of Fruit, Vegetables and 
Flowers, Bees. Simple Carpentry. 
School Gardening. Constant demand 
for trained women to fill salaried posi- 
tions. Write for Catalogue. 

Elizabeth L. Lee, Director 


For sale at the office of the 
Association 

600 Lexington Ave. 
New York City 

Special attention given to mail orders 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 




JDon't Just Admire Moon's Trees on Other Places 
Plant Them for Your Own Enjoyment 

Your grounds may not be as extensive as these, but tliat 
:*sn't matter, Cor the very inelusivenessof our assortment and the vigor 
such plants as make landscapes like this possible indicate how well 
lifiedweare to supply trees and shrubbery that give enjoyment to 
lers of smaller places. (J Our descriptive catalogue, filled with illus- 
itions and containing prices, together with many valuable helps for WF\ 
inting the home grounds, will be mailed upon request; while those ^' 
10 care to tell us of any lawn planting that they have in mind will 
?eive the personal attention of such letter-aid as we can give. 

THE WILLIAM H. MOON COMPANY 

iladclphia Office, 21 S. Twelfth Street Morrisvillc, Pa. 



C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 

Haarlem, Holland 
Grower of 

Choice Bulbs 



Bulbs Imported direct from 
Holland for Customers. No 
supply kept here. Catalogue 
quoting prices in Nurseries in 
Haarlem — free on application. 

E. J. Krug, Sole Agent 

112 Broad Street 
New York 

(Successor to C. C. Abel & Co.) 



Plant Trees With 



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T? LASTING the soil before 
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and is available for the needs of ma- 
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Plant trees in blasted soil and insure 
their lives against the first-year losses. 

DuPont Powder Co. 

Wilmington, Delaware 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



WOMAN'S NATIONAL FARM AND GARDEN 
ASSOCIATION 

FORMERLY 

WOMEN'S NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 

QUARTERLY 



CONTENTS 

Egg Farming for Profit Alice L. Day 

Some Recent Developments in Horticultural 

Training Edith L. Fullerton 

Herb-growing Association. . .Edith L. Chamberlain 
Annual Meeting and Conference of 1916 
Constitution and By-laws 



August, 1916 



Woman's National Farm and Garden Association 



Founded "to enable women to co-operate in furthering agricultural and 
horticultural interests throughout the country." 

OFFICERS 

President 
Mrs. Francis King Alma, Michigan 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Ambler, Pa. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer New York 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer Huntington, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Jean A. Cross 144 Park Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 



Council 

Mr. Bernard M. Baker Miss Hilda Loines 

Miss Emma Blakiston Mrs. Elsie McFate 

Mrs. S. A. Brown Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning 

Mrs. George U. Crocker Miss Louise Klein Miller 

Miss Louisa G. Davis Mrs. M. C. Patterson 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner Miss E. H. Peale 

Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Francis Mr. George T. Powell 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw 

Mrs. A. H. Gross Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang 

Miss J. B. Haines Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy 

Miss Margaret Jackson Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Mrs. Francis King Dean R. L. Watts 
Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee 

Office of the Association, 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 
Telephone Plaza 6000 

Copyrighted, 1916, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 

The Quarterly is the official organ of the Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association (formerly the Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural Associa- 
tion), by whom it is owned and under whose authority it is published. There are no 
bond or stock holders. Edited by Miss J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa., and Miss E. C. 
Wood, 405 W. Stafford St., Germantown, Pa. Published quarterly at Cheltenham, Pa. 

Entered as Second-class matter March 22, 1915, at the post office at Cheltenham 
under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 



Woman's National Farm and Garden Association 
Vol. Ill, No. 1 QUARTERLY August, 1916 



EGG FARMING FOR PROFIT 

In speaking of egg farming for profit I shall dwell es- 
pecially on the necessity of attention to detail from a busi- 
ness point of view. 

The motto of the poultry woman should not be "watch- 
ful waiting," but must be "watchful working." In Mrs. 
Homan's most concise and delightful article, recently pub- 
lished in the Association's Quarterly, she outlines the 
practical side of poultry raising for egg production. Al- 
most every word she has written there has been identical 
with my own experience. There is nothing easy about 
raising chickens, getting them in lay and keeping them 
laying, breeding tnem correctly, incubating large hatches, 
and last, but not least, marketing the products successfully 
not only from the financial point of the producer, but to the 
satisfaction of the consumer. 

We say to the little twentieth century hen — "You can- 
not roost in the trees and run about seeking your livelihood 
of grains and seeds and bugs, and lay, during the mating 
season, from 12 to 20 eggs. Oh, no! You are to roost each 
night in a well-ventilated house; you are to exercise half 
of the year in straw placed on the floor of your house in 
which we have thrown grains that are good for you to eat; 
you are to have green food and dry mash and meat provided 
for you at proper times and in proper quantities; then to 
show your gratitude for this polite captivity you are to lay, 
not a handful of eggs in the mating season, but a couple of 
hundred eggs throughout the year with especial attention 
paid to your lay during the months of the early winter!" 
The hen has shown herself a rather remarkable little ma- 
chine, but she must be understood by the engineer. 

Personally, I have never found much mental stimulus 
in the company of a chicken, but I do find plenty of mental 
stimulus in making a living out of poultry! 

I remember asking a gentleman poultryman who was 
just beginning his career as such, how his hens were laying. 
[3] 



It was in the fall of the year and a fresh egg was a very rare 
article. He replied, "Oh, I forgot to shut the doors of their 
houses one windy night and the fool hens took cold and it 
looks to me like roup. They make me tired!" There is 
no doubt about it that a laying hen depends on her care- 
taker so absolutely for all her conditions of life that one 
must realize this responsibility pretty clearly before going 
into the business or else be made to realize it very expen- 
sively afterward. 

I began my experience eight years ago as the fearful 
beholder of sixty laying Leghorns. I knew nothing about 
them, but determined to learn, and the foreman of the farm 
was most patient. 

I remember one very hot day going by their yard and to 
my horror seeing two or three of them evidently in the last 
stages of convulsions. I rushed to the foreman, reported 
their condition, and together we ran breathlessly back to 
find them still convulsing! He looked at them, he looked 
at me, and then with remarkable self-control said, "Say, 
Miss, they's only dusting themselves to kill the varmin!" 
After that I watched their strange actions in nervous silence. 

Since those first confusing months the poultry has been 
steadily increased and to-day we have about 400 laying 
stock and 1500 small chicks. Each year we have made 
some financial profit and each year we have had much 
valuable experience. 

We selected the S. C. White Leghorn breed because we 
wished to cater to the fancy egg market of New York and 
vicinity, and have never regretted our choice. The much- 
exploited facts of the Leghorn maturing more quickly than 
the heavier breeds, and laying a larger egg and more of 
them than any other breed for the amount of feed she con- 
sumes, are to be taken into serious consideration in these 
days of high prices of feed, if financial profit is to be 
considered. And to me financial profit must be considered 
more and more the standard of success of our farming. 
If food cannot be produced other than by obsolete methods 
and stupid wastefulness, the consumer will always have to 
pay dearly for what he receives. 

For several years we ran our own incubators and had some 
excellent hatches, but we have now done away with them 
entirely and buy our little chicks when a day old; for in 
order to hatch large quantities at a certain time so as to 
have them ready for fall laying one must maintain a large 
breeding pen, have large incubators and a proper place in 
which to run them. All this costs money, and in order to 
obtain satisfactory results either financially or with the 

[4] 



stock produced, one must give unending time and study to 
the selecting and trap-nesting of the breeders, utmost care 
in handling the fertile eggs, and great skill and patience in 
running the incubators themselves. 

On the other hand, if one can keep in touch with the most 
interesting experimental work in regard to the breeding of 
poultry and has the intelligence necessary to adopt the 
ever-changing ideas in regard to it, the breeding and incu- 
bation of chickens is not only extremely interesting, but 
can be made as lucrative as any other side of the poultry 
business. But I strongly advise all beginners to buy their 
chicks "ready made," if they can find a reputable hatchery 
near their farms. 

This also does away with the necessity of keeping any 
cocks with the hens throughout the year, and assures us of 
having nothing on the farm but the much-desired virgin, 
or infertile, table egg. 

In brooding chickens we have been greatly helped by the 
coal -burning brooder stove. I used one last year for the 
first time and was most successful in brooding 820 chicks 
under one stove and losing only about 10 per cent, in the 
brooder house. This year I am using two stoves, brooding 
750 chicks under each stove, and although I have been very 
fortunate considering the very trying spring, am planning 
not to brood more than 500 under each stove in the future. 

I placed the stove in the brooder house, a room about 12 
by 30 feet, and the first few days kept the little chicks as 
quiet as possible about the stove, by having a temporary 
partition set up to keep them in. After that I gave them 
the run of the whole room and also a grass-covered run in 
front of the brooder house, and never have I had chicks 
develop more evenly or had less illness and loss than I have 
had with these brooder stoves. 

I feed and handle them entirely according to the Cornell 
method, except that I do not use moist mashes. The stock 
grows and develops so satisfactorily on the dry mash that 
I do not find the more forcing moist mash necessary, and it 
is a great relief not to have to risk the souring of a moist 
mash in the warm summer days, resulting in serious illness 
in the entire flock. 

The little cockerels are taken away from the little pullets 
as soon as they can be distinguished, and are put on a fat- 
tening mash and shut up in colony houses, where we run 
lamp brooders for them until the nights are warm enough 
not to tempt them to crowd. They are sold as broilers as 
soon as they weigh about a pound, and the proceeds help 
to pay for the feed for their ravenous little sisters until they, 

[5] 



in their turn, become self-supporting in the laying houses 
in the fall. 

The Leghorn cockerel will never plump up as many of the 
heavier breeds, but if fed a fattening mash, given plenty of 
skim milk and green feed, it has a most delicious flavor 
which is being more and more appreciated by the public. 

As soon as the pullets are from six to eight weeks old they 
go out on range in colony houses, and there they remain 
playing about under the trees until they are put into the 
laying houses and made to face seriously the problem of 
self-support. 

Here it is that the heartless executioner must step in in 
earnest ! 

All through the brooder house stage the weakling chick, 
the malformed chick, the undeveloped chick, must be re- 
moved, for the risk of its becoming really ill and dragging 
down the whole flock is too great. The culling of the pul- 
lets is even more severe. At first this seems very difficult, 
but after years of "watchful working" among them it be- 
comes more simple. Only the well-developed pullet with 
a look in the eye that means business, a tendency to talk 
confidentially about the possibilities of her future, and with 
that splendidly developed feminine trait of curiosity which 
takes her into every nook and cranny of her home and 
incidentally out of any door or window which absent- 
mindedly may be left open for the moment, only this keen, 
business-like little pullet can we afford to keep. The blink- 
ing, hunched-up, depressed-looking pullet is much better 
off in a stew than in a laying house — at least as far as its 
owner is concerned ! 

So in early September we pick out the happy, bright-eyed, 
conversational little pullets with red combs and yellow 
legs (here of course I am speaking especially of the Leghorn), 
deep in body and full of energy. These are put into their 
laying houses and kept there shut up for about a week, 
well fed, with plenty of water, skim milk and green food. 
The mysteries of the nest-boxes and the different furnish- 
ings of their new home cause much comment and interest. 
At the end of a few days, when they settle down, they are 
let out and roam about the place until the winter storms 
drive them in until spring. 

During the winter their mash boxes are opened about 
10 A. M., and skim milk is given to them at the same time, 
fed in long narrow pans hung from the ceiling, well out of 
the reach of the litter on the floor. Green food — either 
cabbages, sprouted oats or mangels — goes to them at noon, 
and an hour before sunset they are given a heavy feeding of 

[61 



mixed grains, more than they can eat that night, thrown in 
the litter, the balance of which gives them an excellent early- 
breakfast if they will work for it. Fresh water is given 
them daily about 7 a. m. 

The dropping boards are cleaned three times a week, and 
at the Saturday cleaning the whitewash brush is used 
wherever needed. The nests are kept clean and are closed 
at night to prevent their being roosted in. 

Once a year the entire house is "turned-out" — cleaned 
and whitewashed with a strong disinfectant. The roosts 
are sprayed several times during the summer to kill the 
possible red mite. The hens are dusted once or twice a 
year to prevent body lice, and a dust wallow is provided in 
each house for winter use. So far, we have never had any 
trouble with vermin, or any serious illness in the flock, and 
I consider fresh air and cleanliness the most excellent pre- 
ventives. 

We use no patent medicines nor feeds. If a pen or an in- 
dividual needs toning up, sulphate of iron is excellent; and 
in case of colds or digestive troubles, permanganate of 
potash is an admirable disinfectant, used either externally 
or internally. The moment a sick hen is discovered she is 
removed from the pen and placed in the hospital coop by 
herself, until she either regains her health or dies. Some- 
times in a very evident case of indigestion she is given a dose 
of castor oil instead of either of the above remedies. Then 
if she does not recover she is killed and "buried deep." 

The chicken manure is a very valuable asset from the 
chickens, and is often wasted through ignorance of its value 
as a fertilizer. It should be kept in a shed or pit, sheltered 
from storm, and should be mixed with sawdust or earth in 
order to retain its full value. A very interesting Govern- 
ment bulletin is published on this subject and can be ob- 
tained from Washington by request. 

The feed is all mixed on the farm according to Cornell 
formulas, and I should strongly advise that all poultry 
women superintend this mixing themselves, so that they 
may learn as soon as possible the different grades and values 
of what they are buying. Much illness can be avoided by 
the use of clean, fresh, unadulterated grain and feed, and 
much money saved by knowing good feed and insisting 
upon having what one is paying for. 

The pullets lay pretty steadily throughout the winter, 
of course increasing their production during the spring 
months, and continue to lay until their period of rest or 
moult. It has been fully proved by experts that the hen 
which lays all through the summer and moults late is the 

[7] 



heavy layer. So we want to cull out all summer moulters 
and keep as many as possible of those who do not moult 
until after the first of October. This moulting or resting 
period lasts from forty-five to ninety days, and we must 
see to it that none but those who come through this trying 
period in good physical condition be carried through the 
winter. The eggs when gathered are kept in a cool, well- 
ventilated room until shipped, and each egg is candled be- 
fore it is stamped with the initials of the farm. Only those 
that are large, clean, heavy, and perfect in shell go to my 
high-class market. The "culls" are disposed of sometimes 
to peddlers and sometimes to the village as "just eggs." 

The eggs are shipped twice and sometimes three times a 
week. I am a strong believer in shipping "direct to con- 
sumer," as I wish to benefit by every cent of profit that is 
to be made on the egg and also wish the eggs to reach the 
consumer as nearly as possible perfect. In marketing the 
eggs I have found an excellent market for my supply in 
shipping direct to consumer either by parcel post or by 
express. For the first few years private customers took 
my very limited supply, but as my produce increases I 
am shipping to sanitariums as well, and later on hope to 
place my surplus with hospitals and first-class hotels. 

In reference to housing and arrangement of plant, there 
are several points which must be kept in mind. The land 
must be well drained either by sandy soil or by sufficient 
grade to carry water, either surface or spring, away from 
the houses. In selecting the site we must include trees 
to give necessary shade during hot summer days. The 
houses themselves must be free from draft, flooded with 
sunlight, and the floors dry. We use the shed-roof type 
of laying house, windows along the southern front, alter- 
nating glass with muslin sashes. 

The number of laying stock to a pen is a question of great 
diversity of opinion. We carry from 50 to 150 in each pen, 
according to the size of the pen, and every season the smaller 
flock lays a higher percentage of eggs than the larger one. 
Many poultry men feel that one cannot afford to take the 
extra time needed to care for the small pen flocks, to say 
nothing of the extra cost of building the houses divided into 
small pens, etc. Personally, I think that the small pen can 
be made to produce a greater number of eggs which will be 
more than sufficient to pay for the extra cost of labor and 
equipment. 

I believe that the hen can be developed far beyond her 
present abilities as an egg machine; but in order to do well 
she must be well provided for from her point of view as well 
[8] 



as our own. The story of the man who "didn't keep no 
hens, but just kept a comfortable chicken house with all 
the doors open an' his neighbors' chickens came and laid " — 
is a good story to remember in housing and handling the 
stock. 

I believe that there will always be a high-priced market 
for a fresh egg, properly delivered to the consumer, and 
I also believe that the poultry man or woman who has 
the capital to build and equip proper houses, stocked with 
well-bred fowls, can reasonably expect to net $2 to $2.50 
yearly per hen. But it will not come as a gift from above. 
It will come as the result of patient ability, hard work, con- 
stant touch with poultry bulletins for improved methods, 
a keen knowledge of the market for both buying and selling, 
and lastly a faith in the really wonderful little hen ! 

Alice Lavinia Day. 
Connecticut. 



SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN HORTI- 
CULTURAL TRAINING 

One of the most significant recent developments in agri- 
cultural training is its introduction into the public schools. 
The all too prevalent idea that farming is a "last resort" 
for those who have failed in every other profession, is slowly 
but surely ceasing to exist ; and in its place comes the con- 
viction that farming (lovingly and exaltedly spoken of as 
scientific agriculture) is one of the most exacting, brain 
requiring, worth while professions extant. 

I sometimes think we have to thank the imported bugs 
and blights, which have cost no end of trouble and money, 
for placing farming among the scientific professions. If 
things grew with as much ease and freedom from troubles as 
they did several hundred years ago, our scientists would 
not have turned their attention in our direction, but we now 
hold our heads up with the proudest and most exalted pro- 
fessional people. 

Because of the troubles which have beset the profession 
our educators have seen the need of teaching agriculture to 
the youth of the country; it is taught not alone in the sub- 
urban and country schools, but in the city schools as well. 
The chance for practical work in the latter is woefully small, 
nevertheless the city school garden is already a great factor 
in agricultural training. 

School gardens have become tremendously popular, for 
there is a natural craving in nearly every human being to 
dig in the soil, to plant seeds, and watch the plants grow. 

[9] 



This is a natural instinct that it is criminal to thwart, be- 
cause its effect is so far reaching and so good. It makes 
for a different type of men and women; an independent, 
self-reliant, nature-loving people. Therefore I think every 
effort put forth in behalf of school gardens should have the 
support of every loyal American. These gardens, as a rule, 
are the workshop of the very young and form a love for and 
leaning toward agriculture that may lead the boy and girl 
into the profession that nature intended they should pursue. 
Next come the clubs, — nation-wide Corn-, Potato-, Cauli- 
flower-, Garden- and Canning-Clubs, — where all the youth 
of a state may strive for the honor of prize winning. The 
clubs go a step farther than the school gardens — they are 
placing these particular crops on a professional basis, where 
acres or portions of acres must be tilled, where cultural 
excellence and low cost plus a perfect harvest count high. 
Many of these clubs require from each member a complete 
record of the crop. The reco r d starts with a measured 
piece of land usually one-half to one acre; this measure- 
ment must be accurate and sworn to by some person in 
authority. 

Lesson No. I. — Land measurement. The lessons follow 
in perfect order. 

Amount of fertilizer used, kind, cost, and time consumed 
in applying. 

Time cost of preparing land and methods used. 

Amount of seed planted, cost and time used in planting. 

Number of cultivations and time required. 

Amount of spray materials used and time required to 
apply, charging all costs. 

Time required in harvesting. 

Amount of yield and income if sold. If not sold the pre- 
vailing price for the commodity in that territory is 
used as a basis for computing income. The prize is 
then awarded by points. Fifty points for agricultural 
operations, forty-five points for commercial excellence, 
which includes yield and expenses and selling, and five 
points for the completeness of the report. 

Surely this is an education! Not alone for the boy or 
girl member of the club, but for the family and the com- 
munity. 

The next step takes us to the farm bureau or county 
agent. These men are graduates of some agricultural col- 
lege and are supposed to be men of practical experience as 
well. We owe this help to our neighbor on the north. 
Canada was the first to take up this method of education — 
[10] 



politely called "helping the farmer." The Canadian method 
is to establish one of the farm agents in any community ask- 
ing for him. An office is opened in some store in the village, 
which is really a club and reading-room for all the farmers 
in that locality. A good library is installed and the farm 
agent provided with a horse and buggy or auto so that he 
can go to any farm which asks his help. He will do any- 
thing in his power to help the farmer; he helps him test his 
cows, his soil, his seed; suggests crops and methods of rota- 
tion, and works with him on any problem until it is solved. 
If some trouble arises which the agent cannot conquer, he 
knows where to appeal for help. 

Our own country is rapidly following the suit of our 
northern neighbor, and county agents are increasing very 
rapidly. Our method is somewhat different from Canada's ; 
not quite as broad and complete, because our agents are 
limited to one to a county, while Canada allows one to 
every community desiring it. These agents never go to a 
farm uninvited — they never suggest any change in a farm 
until the farmer wishes help. If there is one thing the 
average farmer is very sure of it is that he "knows his own 
business and no one can show him." Therefore, there 
is no attempt to, "show him," it is a case of letting him 
show himself, also his neighbors. Let us take, for instance, 
a dairy farmer who is not doing very well. The county 
agent can see at a glance where he is not making the money 
that he might; possibly his pastures are poor, he is not 
growing alfalfa, or his stock has never been tested. When 
the agent has gotten on friendly terms with the farmer, 
sometimes through the grange, through a neighbor, even 
through the farmer's real desire to know, he suggests trying 
a little alfalfa. The farmer pleads he is too poor "to mon- 
key with new-fangled notions." The agent is then author- 
ized by the Government to buy seed and lime, prepare the 
ground and sow the seed, if the farmer will give the land 
and the team. This little patch is a practical demonstra- 
tion ; and the steps to testing the cows and eliminating the 
non-payers, to erecting a silo and various labor-saving 
devices, is a perfectly logical and steady progression. 

Is this education? You surely know that every farmer in 
a community knows what every other farmer is doing! It 
is the quintessence of education without its name. The 
farmer eventually realizes he is getting something for noth- 
ing. No, not quite nothing — hasn't he been paying taxes 
all these years ! 

The railroads are going even a step farther, for they real- 
ize the necessity for greater agricultural activity both for 

[11] 



their own sake and the sake of the country. The railroads' 
educational work is many sided, and although this work is 
only ten years old, yet it has grown by leaps and bounds. 
I have just returned from New Orleans, where I attended the 
annual meeting of the Railway Development Association, 
founded ten years ago by the industrial, immigration and 
colonization agents of the various railroads of the United 
States and Canada. 

The success of the railroad work shows that some of the 
biggest brains of the country are turned in our direction; 
they look years ahead and know the coming needs. It is 
no wonder that there are agricultural trains, costing for- 
tunes, to run through railroad territory to stimulate agri- 
cultural activities. There are demonstration farms which 
show what a given territory can produce, — and agricultural 
and marketing agents, who go wherever called to help to 
solve any problem the farmer may meet. 

Many of the railroads are sending thoroughbred stock 
into the communities to breed up the live stock. A pure 
bred bull, for instance, is given to a farmer to care for, for 
a period of two years, the only demand of the railroad being 
that they be notified in case of any illness of the animal, and 
that the farmer give him the best of care. He is for use for 
the good of the community, the farmer keeping him, of 
course, gaining the greatest benefit. At the end of two years 
this bull is exchanged for another one which has been used 
in the same way in a different section. This prevents 
inbreeding. The railroad still owns the animal and no 
favoritism exists, as was the case when a pure bred animal 
was given to the farmer in fee simple. The actual ocular 
demonstration of what good stock will do compared with 
scrub stock is the only kind of education some people are 
capable of absorbing. 

In the marketing of produce the railroads are taking an 
unusual interest. They even take photographs of a ship- 
ment of produce when it arrives at its destination, which 
may be taken to the producer that he may see faults of 
packing or package and correct them. 

The express companies are doing the same thing through 
their Bureau of Markets: bringing producer and consumer 
or wholesaler into close touch, by helping a producer dis- 
pose of a crop he seems unable to market, and showing him 
how to grade, pack and sell. This all sounds a good deal 
like "first aid to the injured," the "aid" being mostly on 
the side of the railroads and express companies. But it is 
not ; it is good business education for the farmer — the side 
of him which needs the most education. 
[12] 



The railroads are also very active in helping to stimulate 
interest in the Young Folks Club work. 

Now let us turn to the colleges and see what develop- 
ments are there. 

Up to the present time the agricultural colleges have been 
turning out agricultural teachers, the percentage of farmers 
being infinitesimally small. They have given four year 
courses in the growing of produce and live stock, and have 
taught agriculture in the class room and the laboratory, 
trusting that the students would be able to get practical 
work on farms during the summer months. This old 
regime is slowly passing and the colleges are beginning to 
realize that agriculture is an all-year-round profession. 

What is the result? We are getting a new type of school 
of which I know two, the School of Horticulture for Women 
at Ambler, Pa., and a State School at Farmingdale, Long 
Island, where the school year is the whole year, where the 
laboratory is the field and workshop, where the theory 
learned in the class-room is immediately put into practice, 
where there is land enough for each student to do actual work, 
and where the old axiom, "Learn by doing, " has come true. 
Edith Loring Fullerton. 

Long Island. . 



THE HERB-GROWING ASSOCIATION 

Since an allusion to this movement in England has been 
kindly made in your last Quarterly, it may be permitted 
to insert a line bringing the information more up-to-date. 
The scheme was made public in January, and in five months 
1500 members were enrolled. As both sexes are equally 
interested, the idea of making it a women's movement was 
dropped at once. Miss Wilkinson, who accepted the chair- 
manship of the Provisional Committee, resigned directly 
she found how the matter was being taken up, because she 
could not possibly give the requisite time and attention. 
For this year, at any rate, the Association is not attempting 
to grow, as it soon proved that all the time of the staff would 
be taken up by organizing those who wished to cultivate 
or to collect such medicinal herbs as grow wild throughout 
the country. Fifteen local centres are already established 
in different counties, and others are being rapidly formed. 
These centres collect material in small quantities, dry it, 
if not already done, and then forward to the headquarters 
in London. Thence distribution to the wholesale dealers 
takes place. All the leading firms are in treaty with the 
Association, and there seems every hope that the trade may 

[13] 



be recaptured for home benefit in continuity. A monthly 
circular of instruction is issued to members. The pam- 
phlet of general directions is to be had at the office, 6}4d. 
exclusive of postage. The secretarial office is at No. 7, 
sixth floor, Queen Anne's Chambers, Westminster; the 
managerial office at 44, ground floor, in the same building. 

Edith L. Chamberlain, 
Hon. Editor Monthly Leaflet of The Women's Farm & Garden Union (of 
England). 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE 
ASSOCIATION 

Membership Committee — 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Chairman, Batavia, 111. 
Finance Committee — 

Mrs. Lester H. Williams, Chairman, Boston, Mass. 
Publicity Committee — 
Publications Committee — 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Cheltenham, Pa. 
Law Committee — 

Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, Chairman, Painesville, 0. 
Conference Committee — 

Mrs. M. C. Patterson, Chairman, Richmond, Va. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING 
The second annual meeting of the Women's National 
Agricultural and Horticultural Association was held in 
Horticultural Hall, Boston, Mass., on Thursday, May 18, 
1916, Mrs. King in the chair. 

The chief business of the meeting was the discussion of the 
revised constitution and by-laws, which included the change 
of name of the Association. The text of the constitution 
and by-laws as adopted will be found on p. 38 of this number 
of the Quarterly. 

The following protest in regard to the erection of the great 
power-house in Washington, D. C, was presented and or- 
dered sent to the Senators and Representatives from Massa- 
chusetts. 

Whereas, the beauty and dignity of the National Capital, with its 
memorials to Washington, Lincoln, and other great men, and its beauti- 
ful park system, are threatened by the erection of a Government power 
plant, the location of which has been condemned by the National Com- 
mission of the Fine Arts; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural 
Association, in conference assembled, 

request the Senators and Representatives from this State to urge the 
reconsideration of the location of this building and to submit the 
question to an expert commission to study its artistic and economical 
aspect, in accordance with the resolution presented in the Senate by 
Senator Francis G. Newlands. (Senate Joint Resolution 92.) 
"Whereas, the beauty and dignity of Washington, the Nation's 

[14] 



Capital, and its development along logical and systematic lines are 
matters of interest to the whole nation, and 

Whereas, the development of Washington under the plans proposed 
by the Park Commission is based upon plans laid out with remarkable 
foresight and understanding more than one hundred years ago and in 
accord with the best thought of today, and 

Whereas, the erection of a government power plant in the Park 
System will prove unsightly and damaging to the development of the 
city in accordance with these accepted plans: 

Therefore, be it resolved, That we request the Senators and Repre- 
sentatives from our State earnestly to urge upon Congress the enactment 
of a law directing that the development of Washington be in accordance 
with the Park Commission Plans under the supervision of the National 
Commission of Fine Arts, and 

Be it further resolved, That we urge upon the President of the United 
States and Congress that they reconsider the location of the Govern- 
ment power plant. 

A letter from Miss Marcia Hale, of New York, asked the 
Association to protest against the removal of the Shakes- 
peare Garden from Central Park, New York city, on the 
ground of economy. As this seemed to be a local, not a 
national, affair, the matter was referred to the Council 
with power to act. 

Miss Mira L. Dock, of Pennsylvania, sent a letter asking 
the Association to send a contribution of $25 or $50 to the 
Women's Farm and Garden Union of England as a fraternal 
help in their splendid work in placing women "on the land" 
during the present war. The meeting approved Miss 
Dock's suggestion and twenty-five members are invited to 
contribute $1 or $2 to the fund, sending it at once to the 
Treasurer, Miss Davis. 

The Nominating Committee reported the election of 
officers and Council members as presented on the ballot, 
with the addition of Miss Jean A. Cross, of Yonkers, N. Y., 
as Recording Secretary. 

New members of the Council are: Mrs. S. A. Brown, of 
New York city; Mrs. George U. Crocker, of Boston; Mrs. 
Myrtle Shepherd Francis, of Ventura, Cal.; Mrs. A. H. 
Gross, of Chicago; Mrs. Elsie McFate, of Pittsburgh, Pa.; 
Mrs. M. C. Patterson, of Richmond, Va.; Miss Ellen Eddy 
Shaw, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mrs. King presented an invitation from Professor and Mrs. 
Charles Sprague Sargent, asking the members of the Associa- 
tion to visit their gardens and to take tea on Friday, May 1 9th. 

The possibilities of holding the 191 7 annual meeting and 
conference in Chicago and Washington, D. C, were dis- 
cussed and the decision referred to the Council.* 

The meeting then adjourned that the Conference might 
open at the appointed hour. 

* Washington, D.C., was decided upon. (See page 28.) 

[15] 



THE 1916 CONFERENCE 

The third annual conference was opened by Mrs. King, 
who presented Governor McCall, of Massachusetts. The 
Governor welcomed the Association in the name of the Com- 
monwealth, and Mayor Curley, who was unfortunately un- 
able to be present, sent his secretary to represent him in a 
welcome from the city. Mr. Saltonstall, President of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, in his address of wel- 
come touched upon the horticultural achievements of the 
Society, now in its eighty-eighth year, and spoke of Park- 
man's renown in horticulture as well as in history. 

A large and interested audience filled the room at all the 
sessions and more than one hundred new members were 
enrolled. 

The program, as announced in the May Quarterly, was 
carried out, with the exception of the talk on English vs. 
American Gardens by Miss Mary Youngs, who was unable 
to be present. All the papers and addresses were of extreme 
interest, and the Quarterly is fortunate in being able to 
print some of them in this and succeeding numbers. 

The trip to the Arnold Arboretum, the Larz Anderson 
place, and the delightful reception at Professor Sargent's 
helped to make the Conference stand out as being one of 
unusual opportunity and charm. 

Mrs. Tracy, Chairman of the Exhibits Committee, had a 
large number of interesting exhibits from members very 
well displayed. One of the members generously lent a 
collection of rare gardening books, valued at more than $500. 
The School of Landscape Architecture for Women at Cor- 
nell sent an excellent exhibit of drawings, plans, etc., as 
did the Lowthorpe School, and the School of Horticulture, 
at Ambler, Pa., sent photographs of students at work. 
One member exhibited a new kneeling pad of her own in- 
vention, with a pocket for gardening tools. Mrs. Tracy's 
report shows that it is distinctly profitable to the individual 
member to exhibit at the Conferences. 

The cooperation with the Women's Educational and In- 
dustrial Union of Boston was of benefit to both Associa- 
tions in making known their work to a wider public. Our 
thanks are due to the Union, among other things, for a 
delicious lunch served by them on both days. 

The Association went to Boston as the Women's National 
Agricultural and Horticultural Association and returned as 
the Woman's National Farm and Garden Association. We 
trust that this simplification will appeal to the members 
who were not present to make known their desires. The 
[16] 



meaning is the same, and we have but abandoned the Latin 
for the Anglo-Saxon term. Atter all, it rests with the in- 
dividual members of the Association what the name shall 
stand for in the years to come. 

REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 

Said a friend to me — "I have a niece of twenty-three, a 
clever girl but not very strong. She loves flowers and all 
out-of-door work. You will remember how at our Garden 
Club meeting lately we listened with such interest to the 
woman from another town who makes a large sum every 
year by the growing of annual asters for market all on one 
acre of ground. I thought, ' Oh ! if my niece had only heard 
this, such an occupation might be not only her comfort in 
money but her physical salvation as well ' ; and I wrote her 
all that I could recall of the talk." 

This was one of those chance hearings and impartings 
which may bring benefit with them. This, however, was 
an accident. The province of this Association is to make 
such accidents not only frequent but constant, to see that 
they shall happen ; that those who wish to know how, when 
and where to go" to work in gardening or farming may get 
quick and expert help. 

Your officers own today to a pardonable sense of ex- 
hilaration. We can point to remarkable achievements 
during this second year of existence. Listening, as you 
have, to the various reports, you, as members, must feel 
that back of this activity and accomplishment there is, to 
use the phrase of William James, "something definite and 
enthusiastic." This is indeed the fact. The aims of this 
Association as set forth in its circular are always borne in 
mind by its Officers and Council; and their enthusiasm is 
boundless. 

Striking examples of this optimistic attitude of your 
officers are seen in the whole-hearted, generous and efficient 
work of our General Secretary, Miss Loines, in the equally 
able and faithful service of Miss Davis, our treasurer, and 
in the expert labors of Miss Haines and Miss Wood, to whom 
we owe our Quarterly's regular appearance, and that of 
the Directory just published. In this last we have docu- 
mentary evidence of the need of the Association by and for 
women. The growth of the Association in members is in- 
creasingly rapid, bringing with it its own pressing questions. 

Last autumn it became necessary to have a central office 
or headquarters. The rent could not at that time be under- 
taken by the treasury. The rooms at 600 Lexington Ave- 
[17] 



nue, New York, were, however, taken, members of the 
Council guaranteeing the rent for ten months in the hope 
that the proceeds from sales of members' produce might 
meet the remaining sum required for the additional two 
months. Our work has grown very much, and a central 
office had proved a necessity; it has been furnished by the 
gifts of friends. We hope the membership of the Associa- 
tion may so increase as to provide funds for an office during 
the coming year. 

In regard to the secretaryship, the Council decided that 
in addition to such work as is being done by officers and 
committee members the time of a salaried secretary would 
be needed. While the Association was still small, — from 
19 14 to October, 19 15, — this work was done by a secretary 
working two days a week. Since October, however, Miss 
Loines has given practically her entire time to the work, 
accepting payment for one-third of it only. She has also 
employed clerical assistance at her own expense. 

It has been estimated that when our membership reaches 
four thousand the dues will bring in enough to run the office, 
with its abundance of clerical detail, but until that time we 
have to rely upon the help of the Council, the individual 
members, and the Finance Committee. Yet we cannot, 
we should not, expect a continuance of these gifts. 

It may be that those members present do not know of 
their President's ambitious hope for the ultimate member- 
ship of the Association as expressed in numbers. This is 
neither more nor less than the present membership of the 
Royal Horticultural Society of Great Britain, now some 
fourteen thousand. To this I know we shall attain! 

But the immediate wish and hope of the Council is, as I 
have said, for a membership of four thousand by the end of 
this coming year. You have heard of all that has been done 
in exhibitions, conferences, correspondence, and so on. 
Since we are agreed that the Association is fast becoming a 
national effort toward thrift and beauty, will not each mem- 
ber help to put it on a practical business basis by undertak- 
ing to bring in before our next Annual Meeting women who 
wish to be life members, women who will become sustaining 
members at five dollars a year, contributing members at 
two dollars, or active members at one dollar? If each of 
our thousand present members would secure three new 
active members our four thousand would at once be reached. 
It is only in this way that we shall grow in a wholesome, be- 
cause natural, manner. While active members are greatly 
desired, sustaining and contributing members may count 
themselves, by reason of their larger support in money, 
[18] 



quite as important to the general welfare of the Association 
as its active membership — and indeed their activities are 
solicited as well as their dues. 

The work of the Association speaks for itself in many 
ways. It speaks in the existence of this meeting and con- 
ference: in the atmosphere felt here of the conviction that 
food for body, mind and spirit is to be found in life upon 
the land. It is high testimony to the fact that women of 
America, the rank and file of them, are rapidly waking to 
the value of this our "matchless earth." 

Louisa King. 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL AND SECRETARY 

The third annual conference finds the Association mak- 
ing rapid and sturdy growth. During the past year a 
branch has been organized in Youngstown, Ohio, and a 
large body of members in and near Chicago only await the 
necessary changes in our by-laws to organize themselves 
into a branch of this Association. They have already held 
two successful conferences during the past year, which have 
brought in many valuable members. 

The opening of an office at 600 Lexington Avenue marked 
a great step in advance for us, as it has given a room for 
Council meetings, and enabled the Secretary to find a 
place for all the bulletins, books and correspondence of the 
Association. Thanks to the untiring work of Mrs. Hill and 
her committee, the reading room has been very attractively 
furnished. In the autumn a letter was sent out to near-by 
members asking for contributions, and as a result $199.00 
was received by the Furnishing Committee and the neces- 
sary furniture was thus provided. 

Under the efficient Chairman of Exhibits, Mrs. S. A. 
Brown, two exhibits and sales of members' work have been 
held, and the proceeds from them, together with the small 
but steady sale of garden books, etc., have helped materially 
toward paying the office expenses. 

Mrs. King's article on "How to Form a Garden Club" 
has been reprinted in pamphlet form, and we hope that it is 
only the first of a series of practical articles to be published 
by the Association. 

Through the generosity of Mrs. S. A. Brown, who do- 
nated a set of three garden postcards, a start has been made 
toward a series of cards illustrating beautiful gardens, and 
the Association now has on hand a set of six which are in 
constant demand. 

The Association had booths at the Philadelphia and New 

[19] 



York Flower Shows, where members' work was exhibited 
and sold, and, thanks to the efforts of the Chairmen, Miss 
Richardson and Mrs. Westcote, many new members were 
brought in and increasing interest in the work was aroused. 

One piece of work of which we feel justly proud is the 
Directory of Members, printed as the February number of 
the Quarterly. This is the visible tie that binds us to- 
gether, and our members have found it both stimulating 
and most helpful in putting them in touch with people of like 
interests. 

The Council has met four times during the Association 
year, on May 4, June 5, December 6, 1915, and February 
12, 1916. 

The resignation of Miss Margaret Jackson as General 
Secretary was received with great regret in October. Miss 
Hilda Loines was appointed in her place. The resignation 
of Mrs. Lancashire as Chairman of the Finance Committee 
was received with regret. No chairman has been appointed 
as yet for the Publicity Committee, but accounts of the 
Association and its work have appeared in the New York 
Evening Post, Mail, and Sun, Baltimore Sun, and a St. 
Louis newspaper. 

Miss Gertrude Jekyll and Miss Ellen Wilmott, of England, 
have been elected honorary members of the Association. 

In accordance with the decision of the Council a multi- 
graphed letter was sent out by the Treasurer to 250 of the 
members, asking then to renew as sustaining members, 
and thereby provide funds for the work of the Association. 
Both this letter and the appeal for new members in the 
February Quarterly have met with a gratifying response. 

The increase in membership and the publicity given to 
the work have necessitated a much larger amount of clerical 
work in the office, so that it will be necessary to provide for 
an office assistant another year if the work is to be properly 
carried on. 

Requests for information on almost every horticultural 
or agricultural subject come in constantly, and the secre- 
tary looks forward to the establishment of special com- 
mittees as outlined by Mrs. Deusner, who shall have ex- 
perts at their head, and to whom inquirers can be referred. 

Many applications for work are received, mostly from 
untrained women, while the demand for workers is for 
experts, so that it is not easy to fit the worker and the job 
together at present. Through the aid of one of our members 
a young Russian woman has been placed in a commercial 
greenhouse and it is hoped that much more of this placing 
may be done in the future. 

[20] 



Opportunities for helpfulness on every side are limited only 
by the amount of funds in the treasury and by the willingness 
or ability of individual members to cooperate with the Coun- 
cil in its plans for the growth and work of the Association. 

The third annual conference, under Mrs. George U. 
Crocker's Chairmanship, opens to-day and a varied and 
extensive program gives promise of its being the best that 
has yet been held. The fact that the speakers are chiefly 
women and members of this Association speaks for the 
value of our Association's work as nothing else could do. 
Hilda Loines, General Secretary. 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER, LOUISA GIBBONS DAVIS 
March I, 1915, to February 29, 1916 
Receipts Dr. 

To Balance, March 1, 1915: 

Life Membership fund $175.00 

General fund 73.42 $248.42 



Life membership fees $275.00 

Dues 1 ,036.00 

Quarterly account : 

Sales $20.30 

Advertising 328.60 348.90 

Commissions on sales 38.66 

Donations toward rent of office 69.00 

" for N. Y. Conference 148.86 

" Chicago Conference 7.40 

Telephone calls, bank collections, etc 3.00 

Interest on bank balances 5.09 1,931.91 



$2,180.33 
Disbursements Cr. 

Salary of Secretary with office expenses, postage, print- 
ing, and stationery $748.29 

Committee expenses, also postage, printing, and stationery 

for Committee and Treasurer 103.71 

Rent of N. Y. office 100.00 

Quarterly for Feb., May, Aug., Nov., 1915, with postage, etc. 760.92 

May Conference, New York city, 1915 148.21 

Flower Show, New York City, 19 15 66.44 

Flower Show, Philadelphia, 1916, part payment for space. . . 6.25 

Chicago Conference, 1915 39-55 

Audit of Treasurer's account, 1915 5.00 



Total expenses $1,978.37 

Balance Feb. 29, 1916: 

Life membership fund $450.00 

General fund overdrawn 248.04 

Cash in bank Feb. 29, 1916 201.9b 



$2,180.33 
Examined and found correct. M. B. Niles, Certified Public Accountant. 

[21] 



REPORT OF THE MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

The policy of the Membership Committee has been to 
extend the membership geographically, for we find that 
there is a natural growth of membership once a nucleus is 
formed. We have not tried to force the membership to 
unwieldy proportions, for we feel that there are immense 
possibilities for usefulness in the present membership, and 
that the first thing to be done is to define these possibilities. 

We are planning for an extension of the Committee to 
include the heads of geographical districts, each of whom 
will be definitely responsible not only for growth of mem- 
bership in her district, but for acquiring a knowledge of the 
individual members in her territory; of their interests 
and accomplishments, in other words, of their relation 
strategically, to the Association. 

Up to this time the Committee has been small and scat- 
tered, but, thanks to the cooperation of many enthusiastic 
members, the membership is growing steadily. The gain 
in membership during the last year was 465; from 791 
to 1256; and 39 states are represented, some of them by 
only one member. Pennsylvania still leads, with New York 
second, in numbers. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Helen D. Deusner, Chairman Membership Committee. 
May 15, iqi6. 

REPORT OF THE PUBLICATIONS 
COMMITTEE 

The chief duty of the Publications Committee is the issu- 
ing of the Quarterly magazine of this Association. 

During the year 19 15 the four regular numbers were 
published in February, May, August, and November, and 
with the succeeding numbers issued in February and May, 
1916, Volume II has been completed. 

For the information of members as to reliable commercial 
houses, and as to other members having horticultural prod- 
uce for sale, also in order to reduce the cost of the maga- 
zine, we began in February to introduce advertisements of 
firms known and tried by members. This has proved most 
satisfactory, and the policy will be continued and extended. 
The editors ask that the members at large will bear this 
feature of the magazine in mind and will send them the 
names of possible advertisers for whose wares they can 
vouch. 

As the membership of the Association has increased it 
has been necessary to enlarge each issue of the Quarterly, 
[22] 



the growth running from an edition of 950 copies in Febru- 
ary, 1915, to 1,700 copies of our latest number. During 
1915 the whole number of Quarterlies printed were 
4,650, at a total cost (including everything) of $760.92, or 
16JM5 cents per number. Advertisements to the value of 
$355.80 have been received, and sales amounting to $20.30 
have been made, thus reducing the actual cost of the Quar- 
terly to the Association to $384.82, or to 49^ cents per 
number for the four numbers. Since the editors were 
allowed 50 cents per number for the Quarterly they feel 
that they have kept well within their allowance. 

With the further cooperation of members, both in recom- 
mending possible advertisers and in buying from those who 
do advertise (always remembering to mention the Quar- 
terly on such occasions), the editors feel that they may be 
able to reduce the above costs somewhat, although with the 
prices of paper and ink soaring ever higher — not very much. 

The editors offer their hearty thanks to the various mem- 
bers who have so generously helped with articles, letters and 
notes of various kinds. They would beg the membership 
at large to remember the needs of the Quarterly, and to 
continue to send items of interest and information, thus 
really cooperating one with another to make our Quarterly 
ever better and better. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Jane B Haines j PuhUcations Committee. 
May 17, 1916. Ellen C. Wood j 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON EXHIBITS 
AT ROOMS 

In the five months since we began to offer, at our rooms, 
members' work for sale we can show to the credit side of the 
ledger a total of $79.88 in commissions. This we feel justi- 
fies the continuation of that work, making the sales a per- 
manent policy of the Association. 

The past six months were in a way experimental, but the 
results show that in spite of the keen competition of a great 
city there is a constant demand for the "unusual," and our 
members have sent us articles that were, as a rule, very 
saleable. When we have been unable to show a large order 
it is because of the competition that we have with New 
York's attractive individual shops that have sprung up 
on every side-street. I heartily recommend to the Council 
that they appoint a permanent chairman for this important 
committee, so that the work may be carried on for another 
year. 

[23] 



We found the sale preceding Christmas more profitable 
than the Easter sale, but felt that the two large flower shows 
(in Philadelphia and New York) conflicted with the un- 
usually late Easter season. For the future we would sug- 
gest a garden sale in the early part of March, before the 
majority of garden lovers send in their orders for seeds else- 
where. We would also remind our members that we have 
but limited space for storing boxes and that we cannot 
handle goods on any large scale; we would, therefore, 
appreciate their sending us small shipments. 

The Committee take this opportunity of thanking all 
members who cooperated with it during the past year, 
especially Mrs. Westcote and Miss Richardson, who had 
the flower shows in charge, as we felt they were a part of 
this work as well. Miss Loines comes in for a special vote 
of thanks for her time and cooperation as well as allowing 
the office to be used as a store-room. 

We beg to acknowledge the sum of $30.00, contributed to 
our Committee through Mrs. King, also donations of ten 
copies of "A Garden Club Member's Diary," and a pam- 
phlet on roses from Miss Kohlsaat, and several boxes of 
gladiolus bulbs from Mrs. Tracy. 

Charlotte C. Brown, Chairman. 



REPORT OF CONFERENCE COMMITTEE 

The Chairman of the 19 16 Conference begs to report as 
follows : 

Our first meeting was held at 378 Marlboro Street on 
February 19, 1916, at which we had present representatives 
not only from our own Association, but two members of the 
Women's Educational and Industrial Union, with whom it 
was proposed to cooperate. 

The Chairman of the Garden Sale, Mrs. John Oldham, 
and Miss Florence Jackson gave us a sketch of their pro- 
posed work, and the latter consented to serve on our Con- 
ference Committee, and has been of great help in every way. 
Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy consented to take the Chair- 
manship of the Exhibit Committee, and has had associated 
with her two most willing and efficient workers — Mrs. W. 
W. Edgar, of Waverly, Mass., and Mrs. J. B. Pickett, of 
Wenham, Mass. The increased interest in this part of the 
conference work reflects great credit on the indefatigable 
work of these members, and we hope may serve to bring to 
the public the aim of the Association in a very practical 
way. 

[241 



At this first meeting it was decided to send out notices 
to all our Massachusetts members, asking for their co- 
operation in the proposed conference. A typewritten 
letter, to which was added a personal appeal from the Chair- 
man, was mailed to each member of the Association as 
listed at this date. Our need of sympathy, service and 
funds was set forth, and we asked for $250 in order that 
the work of the Conference Committee be put upon a dig- 
nified working basis. In response to this our Treasurer 
reports the receipt of $206.40. 

Our Conference Committee meetings have been marked 
by a most cheerful readiness to do all necessary work, and 
the various subcommittees have reported on their work 
with great definiteness, and the increasing membership 
from month to month has been most encouraging. The 
Publicity work was admirably performed by Mrs. Lester 
Williams, who contributed a wonderful amount of energy, 
ability, and never-failing enthusiasm to this very necessary 
and exacting part of the work, as shown by her report as 
follows : 

36 advance notices sent March 10th to magazines. 

50 notices sent to women's clubs, March 20th. 

38 invitations sent April 18th to clubs and societies. 

53 invitations to Conference and request for "write-ups" sent to 
newspapers, April 22d. 

13 invitations sent to women florists, April 20th. 

1000 invitations sent to members of the Association. 

90 posters put up in stores, hotels, stations, and in the suburbs, May 
nth. 

1500 dasher signs to be carried on front of Boston elevated cars, May 
18th, 19th, and 20th. 

3 signs put up in front of Horticultural Hall, May 15th. 

Respectfully submitted, Marion C. Williams. 

In our general advertising scheme we were aided most 
efficiently by the Women's Educational and Industrial 
Union, several of whose members helped us in many ways. 
We are also under deep obligations to the same organiza- 
tion for the arrangements for luncheon which we were able 
to make for our guests. The Union's share in this part 
of our conference cannot be spoken of too highly. The 
luncheon was dainty, well served, and most satisfactory, 
and presented to our visitors a fine example of the efficiency 
of this well-known Boston organization. 

A ready response came in reply to the Chairman's re- 
quest for speakers, showing a most gratifying and satis- 
factory interest and appreciation of the aims of the As- 
sociation. Speakers, without exception, contributed their 
services cheerfully. Mr. Wilson's generous offer of his 
[25] 



stereopticon talk gave our visitors an evening's entertain- 
ment of rare interest, and his personally conducted visit to 
the Arnold Arboretum calls for sincere gratitude. Mrs. 
Clement S. Houghton, as Chairman of the Reception Com- 
mittee, offered a large number of automobiles for this after- 
noon's trip, and thanks to the courtesy of His Honor, the 
Mayor, we were allowed to enjoy in this way the beauties of 
the Arboretum. 

We are indebted to Mrs. Larz Anderson for her kindness 
in opening to us her beautiful estate in Brookline, and to 
Professor and Mrs. Sargent for the hospitable entertain- 
ment of our guests at their beautiful home. 

Our treasurer's report is as follows: 

Receipts: 
Donations $206.40 

Disbursements: 

Stationery and printing $56.34 

Clerical work 6. 14 

Stereopticon 10.00 

Poster expenses 22.95 

Speakers' expenses 59-70 

Advertising 12.47 

Total expenses $167.60 

Balance in hand 38.80 

$206.40 
Clara B. Crocker, Treasurer Conference Committee. 

The very general interest in our organization's work leads 
the Chairman to feel that the Massachusetts members may 
soon be able to form a branch in regular standing, with a 
permanent committee. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Emma L. Crocker, Chairman, igi6 Conference Committee. 



1916 EXHIBITS COMMITTEE 

The Chairman of the 1916 Exhibits Committee begs to 
report as follows: 

The exhibit of members' work at the May conference in 
Boston proved quite conclusively what the Woman's 
National Farm and Garden Association has accomplished 
since its organization two years ago. It is certainly an 
association of women for women, and it is bringing into 
prominence the work done by women, to the mutual benefit 
of the individual and the public in general. The exhibit of 
work done by women in landscape architecture was in- 
tensely interesting and must have given many a young 
[26] 



woman an inspiration. Prominent exhibitors in this line 
were Miss Margaret White, Miss Louise Stevens, Miss 
Clara Boltz, and students from Cornell University and the 
Lowthorpe School of Horticulture. The Bridgewater Nor- 
mal School staged a fine exhibit of specimen grafting, seed- 
ling plants, and seedling pines. 

The bees and bee products from the apiary of Mrs. Susan 
B. Howard were of unusual interest and attracted many 
visitors. Mrs. Howard was fully competent to answer all 
questions, and the exhibit proved very gratifying to her 
financially. 

From her iris gardens at Wellesley Miss Grace Sturte- 
vant staged a collection of new and unusual iris, tulips and 
other spring bulbous stock. Tulip clusiana, I feel sure, will 
be grown by many who saw it so daintily placed here. 

Raffia, beautifully colored and woven into baskets, pic- 
turing scenes in grandmother's garden, the work of Mrs. 
John Timlin, was an artistic revelation. 

Garden "togs" and garden accessories were well shown 
by the exhibits of Mrs. Chard, Miss Bissell, and Mrs. 
Bloomfield, giving a practical demonstration of the very 
necessary articles in this branch of the work. Settlement 
work in gardens, as carried on by the women in Boston, 
was shown by excellent pictures of the children's gardens 
with the children at work. The interest shown by both the 
trained and untrained young women in this undertaking is 
increasing and their work is in great demand in many cities. 

Prize-winning asparagus was sent from Long Island by 
Mrs. Vollmer, from Rochester, N. Y., by Mrs. Wm. Morey, 
and from Wenham, Mass., by Mrs. J. Porter Brown. 

Palms, roses, potted plants, seedling and bedding plants 
from the commercial greenhouses of Mrs. W. W. Edgar, 
seedling pines and arbor vitae from the estate of Miss Mabel 
Baldwin, and tulips from Cedar Acres gave evidence that 
there is money for women in the horticultural business. 

The collection of books on all subjects pertaining to this 
line of work, as loaned by the MacMillan Publishing Co., 
Doubleday, Page & Co., Orange Judd Co., were a constant 
source of interest during the conference. Many books were 
sold and members who exhibited their books found it to 
their advantage. Mrs. Hamlin's new Garden Record sup- 
plied a long-felt want and sold well. 

Space forbids mention of everything exhibited, but the 
committee feels that nothing so advances the interest of 
members as these exhibits of members' work. 

We bespeak your hearty cooperation when the committee 
of 1917 appeals for aid. 

[27] 



The financial account is as follows: 

Expenses — 

Postage, telephone $4.56 

Expressage 2.10 

Record book, clips, etc 85 

Printing of rule cards 4.50 

Total $12.01 

Receipts — 

Commissions on sales for non-members $6.50 

Donation, Mrs. Tracy 4.50 

Total $10.90 

Showing total expenses almost covered. 

No commissions charged members. 

Sales during Conference: 

Plants, flowers $7.85 

Members' books 16.85 

Publishers' books 16.00 

Baskets 61.55 

Garden accessories 16.70 

Miscellaneous 14.22 

Mrs. Howard realized for bees and bee products about 250.00 

Total $383-i7 

Kathryn Beach Tracy, Chairman 1916 Exhibits Committee. 

THE COUNCIL 

The Council reports the appointment of Mrs. Lester H. 
Williams, of Medford, Mass., as Chairman of the Finance 
Committee in place of Mrs. Lancaster, resigned. 

Washington, D. C, has been decided upon for the 191 7 
annual meeting and Conference. Mrs. M. C. Patterson, 
of Richmond, Va., has been appointed Chairman of the 
Conference Committee. She asks the cooperation and help 
of the members of the Association far and wide in making 
this Conference in the national capital a notable affair. 

A Committee of the Association on School Gardens has 
now been formed and Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw has been 
appointed Chairman. 

The following recommendations to the Council speak 
for themselves. They are submitted by the able Chair- 
man of the Membership Committee and represent a well- 
considered point of view also of the activeChicago members. 
The Council has considered them at length and now pre- 
sents them as an outline of the future policy of the Associa- 
tion. Discussion and criticism of them by the member- 
ship at large will be of value to the Officers and Council. 

"My work with the Temporary Executive Committee 
[28] 



in Chicago, my experience in planning the Conference for 
Chicago, my work on the Membership Committee, my con- 
versations with various individuals, notably Professor 
Carver, of the Harvard Department of Economics, have all 
led me to these conclusions: 

It is very important that we further define and organize 
our work now, since the interests of our members are widely 
divergent, and to meet them our activities must continue 
to be widely divergent. I do not believe that concentration 
on fewer interests is the key-note for our procedure, but 
careful definition and organization of the recognized in- 
terests within our ranks. 

These might be divided as follows: 

A. Personal: Amateur. 

B. Personal: Professional and Commercial. 

C. Altruistic and Sociological. 

A. Personal: Amateur. 

Interests represented: 
Flower-gardening. 
Vegetable-gardening. 
Development of a country place. 
Development of horticulture as a fine art. 
Holding of shows. 
Garden club organization, etc. 

B. Personal: Professional and Commercial. 

Interests represented: 

Landscape gardening. 

Managing and supervising of gardens, nurseries, 

school-gardens, etc. 
Truck gardening. 
Nursery and florists' business. 
Gardening instruction. 
Orcharding. 
Herb-growing. 
Nut-growing. 
Poultry raising. 
Bee keeping. 
Dairying, etc. 

C. Altruistic and Sociological. 

Interests represented: 

Developing outdoor occupations for women 

(employing women in untried positions). 
Beautification of the countryside. 
Organizing village and rural garden-clubs, shows 

and competitions. 
Developing close relations between producer and 
consumer. 

[29] 



Cooperating with school and city gardens move- 
ments and Department of Agriculture exten- 
sion work. 

Striving for improvement of rural life conditions 
in all possible ways. 

Periodical exchange, etc. 

Of course, the interests of many individuals will overlap, 
but the more the individual concentrates, the more effective 
may we hope to have our work become. 

To the end that all these interests may receive due atten- 
tion, I suggest that each specific interest be given into the 
hands of a committee, the chairman of which will be (or 
will become) : 

(a) An expert in her line. 

(b) Ready to answer the questions of any member rela- 
tive to that line. 

(c) A member of the Council. 

(d) Alert to extend the usefulness of her committee by 
gaining close touch with the members of kindred 
interests, enlisting some of these in committee work. 

As such committees, I suggest: 
Department of flower growing, 
truck gardening, 
nursery work, 
garden design. 

village flower shows and competitions, 
remunerative outdoor occupations for 
women (information as to where 
training may be obtained), 
the work of local branches, 
country life improvements, 
cooperation with existing agencies, 
poultry, 
dairy. 

bee keeping, 
orcharding, 
garden literature, 
herb growing, etc. 

Such departments with their chairmen would be widely 
advertised in the circulars and Quarterly; they would be 
constantly sending brief reports to the Quarterly, and, 
when desired, could furnish interesting material for articles 
for the Quarterly. Those whose work comes under Class 
C would be constantly initiating and supervising activities 
in their several directions. When they felt the need of the 
[30] 



cooperation of the Association as a whole, or its ratification, 
they could obtain this through the Council. 

I think this plan, with the territorial extension of the 
Membership Committee and the growth of affiliating and 
supporting branches, would give point and direction to the 
work of the Association, and tend to clarify the minds of 
many people, both members and non-members, as to its 
intentions and the fields of its usefulness." 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

During the summer months the Secretary has moved 
her office to be near her own farm and garden. All mail 
addressed to New York will be forwarded and all orders 
promptly attended to. This is a good time to get the 
Plant Pronunciation book, and we must warn our members 
that there are not many more copies to be had. 

Owing to a misunderstanding the Association was unable 
to take the booth outside the Armory at the General Fed- 
eration meeting in New York, as announced in the May 
Quarterly. Miss Dock, however, had a small exhibit of 
our circulars, Quarterlies, etc., at the Conservation Exhibit 
inside the building. 

By special arrangement with Mr. Ebel, editor of the 
Gardener's Chronicles of America, the office will now re- 
ceive subscriptions for this useful magazine. The price is 
$1.50 a year; sample copies will also be sent on request. 

A detailed statement of the office receipts from commis- 
sions during the six months since we began to offer mem- 
bers' work and agricultural books for sale is of interest and 
is as follows: 

December $20.79 

January 1 1.41 

February 7.9 1 

March 16.62 

April 23.81 

May 21.79 

Boston Conference 1 1.44 

Total $1 13-77 

POSITIONS VACANT 

For a good strong woman to aid in a dairy of nine cows and about the 
farm, besides assisting in the house (in southwestern Vermont). 

For two women to run a greenhouse as a commercial proposition — 
wanted at once. 

The use of a ten-acre apple orchard, six years old, in the Bitter Root 
Valley, Montana, is offered for three or four years in return for the care 
of the trees. 

Hilda Loines, General Secretary. 

[31] 



PERSONALS 

Mrs. Stout writes (June 23d) in regard to the sale of her dahlia "Sun- 
shine": "I have just sent 800 pounds of dressings to Verdun and some 
supplies to the Texas border with the last proceeds received, and feel 
much gratified at the result." 

Country Life for July has a page of photographs of "Grey Cote" at 
Sayville, L. I., the home of Miss Minnie Douglas Foster. 

Mrs. Walter Bennett, of Greenwich, Conn., and Miss Hilda 
Loines were two of the judges at the June Flower Show of the New 
Rochelle Garden Club. 

Miss Mary Bissell, of New Rochelle, received the award for the 
best exhibit of flowers in the Show, for a very fine collection of roses. 

Mrs. Henrietta Hudson took some successful color photographs of 
the International Garden Club Flower Show, one of which has been 
purchased by the Club. 

A feature of the Show was the exhibit sent by the Garden Clubs. 
This included lumiere pictures and exhibits of iris, tulips, and other 
flowers grown by the members and effectively displayed. The Woman's 
National Farm and Garden Association had an interesting exhibit of 
members' work, including a special display of clays, colors, etc., shown 
by Mrs. C. E. Poillon, to illustrate the processes of pottery making. 

Mrs. Hamlin has sold 125 of her Garden Records this spring. They 
were not on the market until April. 

Miss Ethel Sparks, of Pennsylvania, has started a movement to 
beautify the immediate surroundings of country schools in Center 
County. She has made the plans and secured gifts of trees and shrubs 
and is herself directing the children in doing the work. She asks the 
cooperation of club women, seedsmen, and educators as well as private 
individuals. 

Miss Catherine Mullen has accepted a position with Mr. and Mrs. 
Fullerton at the Long Island Railroad Experiment Station. 

Miss Louise Klein Miller, of Cleveland, O., and Miss Ellen 
Eddy Shaw, of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, were speakers at the 
recent annual meeting of the School Garden Association held in connec- 
tion with the National Education Association. 



LETTERS FROM MEMBERS 

"A small garden of rich soil has caused most of my perennials to 
multiply so rapidly that I have no room for making new acquaintances, 
and I shall be glad to exchange hardy phlox in named varieties and seed- 
lings, bocconia, achillea, physostegia, boltonia asteroides, valerian, New 
England aster, and a yellow and maroon Iris germanica — given me many 
years ago from an old-fashioned garden. All these I shall be glad to ex- 
change for other perennials which I do not already possess. If there is 
any member of the Association who wants any golden glow, she may 
have it for the price of the postage or express. I should like to possess 
more of the blue shades of iris, and some dictamnus and red pentstemon 
among other things." — Hilda Loines, Bolton Landing, Lake George, 
N. Y. 

Mr. J. D. McLeod writes from Kindersley, Saskatchewan, in June: 
"At about the time of my joining the W. N. A. H. Association, in cor- 
respondence with Mrs. King, I mentioned that I had just set out some 
tulips and narcissi, with a view to learning whether they would survive 

[32] 



our winters in this latitude, and I believe Mrs. King asked me to ad- 
vise you of my success. 

"Although I set out only a few tulips, making a border some thirty 
feet in length, I have been delighted with the results. I do not think 
that more than a half-dozen bulbs failed to germinate or flower. The 
bulbs were set in a mixture of very old, well-rotted mature, and our 
ordinary prairie soil, about six inches deep, and covered with straw to a 
depth of about six inches. The planting was made late in November, 
just a few hours before the winter freeze-up set in. And such a freeze- 
up! It will be the talk of the old-timers for a good many years, I am 
sure. 

"In December we had cold weather and snow, temperatures ranging 
down to — 30 and thereabouts, while during the greater part of January 
the mercury stood between — 40 and — 6o°. We had a fair snowfall, but 
not a great deal — possibly eighteen inches altogether. I had small hopes 
of seeing anything grow from my plantings, but as soon as the danger of 
frosts was over, about the middle of April, I uncovered the border and 
very shortly my hardy tulips began to project their green noses upward 
and prepare for business. Our springs, contrary to the generally ac- 
cepted idea of springs, are absolutely rainless, so I suppose the lack of 
moisture retarded growth and flowering, for it was well past the middle of 
May before the border was in bloom, by which time the summer rains 
had set in. 

"The blooms were most satisfactory, however. I planted only Artus 
and Due van Thol (yellow), and had a blaze of color that inspired at 
least a dozen of my neighbors to emulate my example for another year. 
To make sure of them I have already ordered their bulbs for fall planting, 
along with my own, and next spring our dry little prairie town should 
look like a bit of old-Holland. 

"As to my narcissi, I planted Emperor, Bicolor Victoria and Von 
Sion, but whether they will bloom is a question still unsettled, for the 
leaves are only now appearing above ground. We have had a very 
cold spring which no doubt accounts for the delay. The Iris which I 
planted a year ago has also withstood the winter's cold and promises to 
bloom shortly. I have just set out a quantity of Japanese Iris in a 
border as a further experiment, and await their reappearance next year 
with interest. 

"Our town is in latitude 52; the soil is an exceedingly heavy chocolate 
clay loam, better known as gumbo, and unless very carefully worked be- 
comes as hard as a brick in dry weather. We usually have about six 
weeks of rain in the summer, and a very light snowfall in the winter. 
I had never known under just what conditions it was possible to grow 
tulips, but having survived our climate, I think they would bear up well 
under the Arctic Circle." 

From Mrs. Mary Moser, Walhalla, S. C, June, 1916: "Can you 
help the mountain women of the South that live from ten to one hundred 
miles from the railroad by finding some way to get them to gather the 
roots, barks, and things? They have the poorest chance in all the world, 
yet it seems as if some one could help them." 

NOTES 

Salisbury (Conn.) Fair. — The Salisbury Fair will take place on 
Sept. 2nd and 4th, and the Association has been invited to send an ex- 
hibit. If any of the members will be in the neighborhood at that time, 
we should be glad to have them volunteer as helpers. 

Imported Nursery Stock. — New rules and regulations governing 
the importation of nursery stock in the United States have been issued 

[33] 



by the Federal Horticultural Board and will take effect on and after 
July I. In the revised regulations the most important change is the 
provision which makes permits for the importation of nursery stock from 
countries which maintain nursery stock inspection and for the importa- 
tion of orchids and tree seeds from those which do not maintain such in- 
spection, valid until revoked. Hitherto all permits had to be renewed 
each year. The other changes in the regulations are chiefly minor and 
matters of form. 

To Save Shakespeare Garden in Central Park, New York City. 
— "Unless $1,500 can be raised by private subscription for the present 
season, the Shakespeare Garden in Central Park, said to be the only 
old-fashioned garden accessible to New Yorkers, will have to be dis- 
continued because of the curtailment in expenses in all departments of 
the city Government, including the Park Department. 

"Cabot Ward, Park Commissioner, has allowed the Central Park 
Shakespeare Garden Committee, of which George F. Kunz is Honorary 
President, to maintain the garden from private funds. Subscriptions 
to this work may be sent to Gilbert D. Lamb, Treasurer, 1 15 Broadway." 
— N. Y. Evening Post, June 5, 19 16. 

On June 29th it was announced that $600 was still needed to complete 
the fund. Members of the W. N. F. and G. Association who are in- 
terested in the preservation of this charming little garden are asked to 
send their contributions to our General Secretary, Miss Hilda Loines, 
who will forward them to the committee. 

American Dahlia Society. — The recently organized American 
Dahlia Society has commenced the publication of a monthly bulletin 
under the direction of J. Harrison Dick, the able editor of the Florists' 
Exchange. The bulletin is replete with information, both cultural and 
otherwise, bearing on the Dahlia, which makes it of exceptional value to 
the members of the Society. The initiation fee is only a dollar and a 
like sum for annual dues. Applications for membership may be sent to 
Mr. Dick, 142 E. Seventy-third Street, New York city. 

A Call for Nursery Specialists. — The nursery business has now 
reached that stage when the demand for one thing is sufficient to war- 
rant investment to produce it in perfection. It is true there are already 
many specialists but there needs to be more. Fruits are perhaps the 
furthest developed along this line, but the ornamental section of the 
business is sadly lacking in this respect. We need more rhododendron, 
azalea, paeonia, phlox, delphinium, street tree, magnolia specialists; in 
fact, the list is endless and the possibilities unlimited. — National Nursery- 
man. 

More Sheep Needed. — The growing of wool and raising of sheep in 
this country are on the decline. We produce all the cotton and cereals 
we need and have a large surplus left for export, but when it comes to 
wool we use twice the amount we produce and are forced to go to foreign 
markets for 50 per cent, of our requirements. We have as good facilities 
for growing wool as we have of any other of the staple products, yet 
our 19 15 yield showed a decrease of over 13 per cent, less than the yield 
of 1901. 

Sheep are good animals to have on the farm and their worth should 
not be overlooked. They are great creatures to rid the farm of weeds, 
and for cleaning up the grass around stumps in the pasture they are 
unsurpassed. It is remarkable how well they will clear a slashing in a 
comparatively short time. They will get more out of poor and hilly 
pastures than any other animal, and will thrive on pasture land from 
which cattle could not get sustenance. A shearing sheep should net 
at least six pounds of wool a year, and at the present prices would bring 

[34] 



well over $3. Twenty sheep should raise thirty lambs a year, which 
should bring from six to ten dollars a piece. 

Sheep are revenue producers and there is scarcely a farm on which 
a few could not be kept to advantage at practically no additional cost. 
Due to the unsettled conditions abroad, and to the decline of the number 
of sheep in this country, there is every reason to believe that there will be 
an extra good market in the future for wool and mutton. If you haven't 
"animal weed eradicators" on your farm, better consider the advisa- 
bility of getting a few and letting them earn dividends for you. 

Girls May Have To Do Work. — Harvesting of the great wheat crop 
of North and South Dakota, as well as of western Iowa, has not been 
helped by the mobilization of the national guards. The harvest-hand 
situation, already serious because of the lack of floating labor, due to the 
generally improved industrial situation throughout the country, has 
been intensified by the calling out of several thousand young men from 
this section. Farmers were anticipating that there would be plenty of 
college students to help with the crops. When the guards were mobil- 
ized, however, it was found that a surprising number of students were 
enrolled in that organization. Besides, many farmer boys belong to <"he 
guards, and these have been compelled to join their regiments and go 
to the front. 

"It looks as if our American girls will have to follow the example of 
their French and English sisters," said an official of the South Dakota 
department of labor at Pierre a few days ago. "The women and girls 
in Europe saved the crops when the men were called away to fight. 
They may have to do the same thing over here unless the present labor 
situation is relieved in some way." 

Frenchwomen in Horticulture. — We learn from the Revue Horti- 
cole that the society known as the Union pour l'enseignement agricole 
et horticole feminin, which established the first horticultural college for 
women in France, has completed a scheme for giving instruction to 
women and young girls on a plot of five hectares situated at Clamart 
(Seine). The land has been presented by the owners, Monsieur and 
Madame Destombes. The instruction, which will be given to groups, 
is intended for (1) women or young girls desirous of qualifying for po- 
sitions as gardeners, from among whom the Union will choose the most 
capable to send, later on, to devastated districts, to re-make the gardens 
which have been destroyed; (2) to amateurs; (3) to refugee women, to 
whom will be given the sole charge of a small plot, and who will receive 
the necessary seeds and plants. The President is Mile. Latappy, 43, 
Rue Claude-Bernard, Paris (Ve.). 

Workingmen's Gardens in France. — Vice-Consul David B. Levis, 
under date of May 16, reports from St. Etienne, France, that in order to 
assist worthy workingmen to combat the increasing cost of living the 
city authorities, in conjunction with the hospital commissioners, have 
set aside seventy acres of tillable land owned by the hospital, in various 
conveniently located tracts to be used for gardens. Under certain 
conditions 360 square yards will be allotted to each applicant, preference 
being shown to such as have large families. The produce raised must be 
for the use of the worker's family and may not be sold. 

While to American ideas the amount of ground available to each 
applicant is not large, the intensive methods of cultivation in vogue in 
France and the general skilfulness of its gardeners make the plan of 
great assistance to the beneficiaries. 

Raise More Vegetables in Germany. — Two special organizations 
have been formed in Germany for the purpose of increasing the vegetable 
output, says the Seed World. A meeting was held recently in Berlin of 

[35] 



representatives from gardeners, dealers, and planters in all parts of the 
empire. An organization was formed called the "Royal Vegetable 
Growing and Sales Company, Ltd.," which will supply the growers with 
seed, fertilizer, etc., and help them to market their crops. This associa- 
tion will receive a substantial subsidy from the government. Another 
organization was recently organized called the "Central Bureau for 
Small Vegetable Growers." It will see that every tract of land in Ger- 
many is devoted to raising vegetables during this year. 

School Garden Association. — At the general meeting of the Na- 
tional Education Association in New York city, two periods were de- 
voted to a meeting of the School Garden Association of America, where 
reports were made concerning the progress of this work not only in the 
United States but in Canada and Nova Scotia as well. The topics 
discussed included "The Relation between School Gardens and Home 
Gardens," "Ideal Gardens for Country Schools," "Gardening in the 
City Schools of Tomorrow." "What can a Botanic Garden do to Help 
School Gardens," etc. Excursions were made to see various school 
gardens of New York city and Brooklyn. 

Society of Little Gardens. — This Philadelphia Society has for its 
objects: (i) To promote the love for and the culture of growing plants, 
and the making of gardens in restricted spaces, such as backyards, and 
window boxes; (2) to obtain such an interest in this main object that 
many garden plots may be planted and maintained in hitherto barren 
city limits. 

Any one actively interested in street trees, backyard flowers, window 
boxes, house plants, aquaria, green-spots, as well as in that larger unit, 
the "City Beautiful," is eligible to membership. The membership fees 
are very moderate, and members, active and associate, are most wel- 
come. Meetings and lectures on garden topics are held during the winter. 

The work of the society during the past year has included the holding 
of meetings, with valuable talks on gardening topics; cooperation with 
the Rittenhouse Square Flower Market; the holding of a sale of plants 
and seeds; a competition for the most attractive backyard; the forma- 
tion of a small lending library at the disposal of all members of the so- 
ciety; and the publication of a series of most attractive and informing 
leaflets about the society. 

"The Society aims to become a clearing house for those starting city 
gardens, and welcomes cooperation with kindred societies." 

For further information address the Secretary, Mrs. Charles Davis 
Clark, 2215 Spruce St., Phila., Pa. 

The Character and Uses of Raffia. — Almost every nurseryman 
and experienced gardener knows raffia and its utility in his business, 
but all do not know its natural history, says the National Nurseryman. 
It is of interest to know that this tying material is the understrippings 
of the leaves of the palm Raffia arabica, which grows wild in Madagascar 
and parts of East Africa. After being bleached and dried it is plaited 
or twisted into hanks, packed in tightly compressed bales of about 225 
pounds, and shipped to foreign ports. Europe takes by far the greatest 
share, although the thrifty Japanese and Hungarians quickly recognized 
its adaptability and its cheapness. As a tying material it has no equal; 
it is strong and pliable, heat or cold does not affect it, and water will not 
damage it. Nurserymen were the first to recognize its value in the 
United States, and its cheapness is proved by the fact that but a single 
pound is needed in budding or grafting 4000 trees. It is also used by 
the natives, where it grows in great abundance, for the making of cloth 
and mats. The plants are sensitive to frosts, hence suited only to moist 
and frostless regions. 

[36] 



NEW BOOKS 

Productive Vegetable Growing. By John W. Lloyd. Philadelphia. 
Lippincott. C1915. 339 pp. Illus. $1.50 net. 
A systematic discussion of the principles underlying the best modern 
methods of vegetable growing. Treats particularly of this form of horti- 
culture in the great central prairie region of the Middle West. Designed 
for use as a class textbook and in use in many of the State Colleges in 
this country and Canada. 

Productive Orcharding. By Fred C. Sears. Philadelphia. Lippin- 
cott. C1916. 315 pp. Illus. $1.50 net. 
This professor of pomology in the Massachusetts Agricultural College 
presents a fresh treatment of fruit growing. Omitting the merely 
theoretical, he bases conclusions and directions upon his own experiences 
in the management of an orchard where many theories have been sifted 
and only the most practical and workable retained. 

Productive Poultry Husbandry. By Harry R. Lewis. Philadelphia. 
Lippincott. C1914. 536 pp. Illus. $2.00 net. 
The object of the author, who is an experienced poultry husband- 
man, is to furnish a "book on poultry husbandry which should contain 
in proper form the most complete and logical discussion of the subject 
which is possible from the knowledge at present available." A com- 
prehensive discussion covering every phase of poultry keeping for 
profit. 

Productive Bee-keeping. By Frank C. Pellett. Philadelphia. Lip- 
pincott. C1916. 302 pp. Illus. $1.50 net. 
Systematic and clear in arrangement and treatment. Describes 
exactly fundamental and accepted methods of bee culture, and does not 
confuse the mind with theoretical discussions of new or untried possi- 
bilities. Takes up bee-keeping as a pursuit as well as a business and 
deals with the life-history of the bee, handling, wintering, and diseases, 
honey and wax production, marketing, laws concerning bee-keepers, etc. 

Sub-tropical Vegetable Gardening. By P. H. Rolfs. New York. 
MacMillan. 1916. 409 pp. Illus. $1.50. (Rural Science series.) 
A unique contribution to the literature of vegetable gardening. The 
growing of many kinds of vegetables in the southern states, with especial 
reference to Florida and the adjacent territory. Specific directions for 
the culture in the south of varieties known in the north and west and 
of marketable value there, as well as of those peculiar to the south and 
as yet but little known and used elsewhere. Of much interest to the 
general reader as well as of value to the grower. 

How to Overcome the Difficulties in Backyard Gardening and 
Window-box Gardening. By Emily Exley. Price, 15c. 
This little pamphlet of only seven pages contains the text of the lecture 
given before the Society of Little Gardens by Miss Exley, one of the 
early graduates of the School of Horticulture at Ambler, Pa. It con- 
tains in concise and useful form a brief discussion of culture and care of 
backyard gardens and window boxes, with formulae for fertilizers and 
lists of plants suitable for these unpromising places. 

Pronouncing Handbook of Plant Names. Compiled by Mrs. H. 
A. Boardman. Price, 25c. 
A useful little reference book from whose study one may avoid the 
pitfalls attending the pronunciation of our plant names. It is intended 
to include most of the plants that grow commonly in our gardens. 

[37] 



WOMAN'S NATIONAL FARM AND GARDEN 
ASSOCIATION 

CONSTITUTION 

ARTICLE I 
Name 
This Association shall be known as the Woman's National Farm and 
Garden Association. 

ARTICLE II 
Object 
The object of this Association shall be to enable women to co-operate 
in furthering agricultural and horticultural interests throughout the 
country. 

BY-LAWS 

ARTICLE I 
Membership 

§ I. Any person interested in the objects for which the Association is 
formed may become a member of it upon the payment of due9 as, (a) 
an active member; (b) a contributing member; (c) a sustaining member; 
(d) a life member. 

§ 2. Persons of prominence in agriculture or horticulture may be 
elected as Honorary Members by the Council. They shall pay no dues 
and have no vote, and they shall not hold office. 

§ 3. A member may be dropped from the Association upon unani- 
mous vote of the Council. 

§ 4. Branch associations containing not less than ten members may 
become affiliated with this Association by complying with the following 
requirements: 

(a) By co-operating with the National Association while carrying on 
independent local work in accordance with the general purposes of the 
Association. 

(b) By paying annual dues to the National Association of $1.00 per 
capita. 

(c) By making an annual report to the National Association either 
in writing or by delegate. 

(d) By compliance with such other regulations as the Council may 
from time to time establish. 

ARTICLE II 
Management — Council 

§ 1. The administration of the affairs of the Association shall be en- 
trusted to a Council. 

§ 2. The Council shall consist of thirty (30) members, one-third (J/3) 
of whom shall be elected by the Association at each annual meeting to 
serve for three (3) years, or until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied. 

§ 3. The Council may fill vacancies arising in its own body, such 
appointments to hold until the next succeeding annual election of the 
Association. 

§ 4. The Council may appoint an Executive Committee with such 
powers and duties as it may determine. 

[38] 



ARTICLE III 
Management — Officers 
§ I. The officers of the Association shall be a President, a Vice-presi- 
dent, a Recording Secretary and a Treasurer, who shall be elected an- 
nually by the Association at the annual meeting. Honorary Vice-presi- 
dents of the Association, who are not necessarily members of the Council, 
may be chosen by the Council. 

§ 2. A salaried General Secretary shall be employed by the Council. 

ARTICLE IV 
Duties of Officers 

§ I. The President shall preside at the meetings of the Association and 
of the Council, and shall perform such duties as regularly pertain to the 
office. She or the Recording Secretary shall approve all bills before 
they are paid by the Treasurer, and she shall be ex officio a member of 
all Committees. 

§ 2. The Vice-president shall perform all the duties of the President 
in the absence or inability of the latter. 

§ 3. The Recording Secretary shall perform such duties as regularly 
pertain to her office. She or the President shall approve all bills before 
they are paid by the Treasurer. She shall present a report to the As- 
sociation at its annual meeting. 

§ 4. The Treasurer shall be the custodian of the funds of the As- 
sociation and shall pay them out only on bills approved by the Presi- 
dent or the Recording Secretary. She shall collect all dues and assess- 
ments, shall file receipts for all disbursements, and shall keep a balanced 
account of all receipts and expenditures. She shall keep the accounts 
and monies in a separate bank account opened in the name of the As- 
sociation. She shall report on the finances when called upon, to the 
Association or to the Council, and shall make to the Association at its 
annual meeting a full report for the year, which must be audited by a 
certified public accountant. She shall be ex officio a member of the 
Finance Committee. 

ARTICLE V 
Dues 

§ 1. The annual dues shall be as follows: 

(a) For active members one dollar ($1.00). 

(b) For contributing members two dollars ($2.00). 

(c) For sustaining members five dollars ($5.00). 

§ 2. The life membership fee shall be twenty-five dollars ($25.00), 
payable at one time. 

§ 3. Honorary members shall be exempt from all dues and assess- 
ments. 

§ 4. The names of members failing to pay dues for two (2) successive 
years may be omitted from the membership list. 

§ 5. The fiscal year of the Association shall begin on March first, and 
all annual dues are payable at that time. 

ARTICLE VI 
Committees 
§ I. As soon as practicable after the annual meeting the President 
shall appoint the following standing committees, the members of which 
shall serve until their successors are designated: 

1. Committee on Membership. 

2. Committee on Publicity. 

3. Committee on Finance. 

[39] 



4. Committee on Conferences. 

5. Committee on Publications. 

6. Law Committee. 

§ 2. Other committees may be appointed by the President at the 
discretion of the Council. 

§ 3. The President shall be ex officio a member of all committees. 

ARTICLE VII 
Duties of Committees 

§ 1. Committee on Membership. 

The Committee on Membership shall be composed of a Chairman and 
of a member from each of twelve or more different geographical sections 
of the country. It shall be their duty to invite suitable persons to mem- 
bership in the Association, to devise local methods of extending the 
membership, and to encourage the founding of branches. 

§ 2. Committee on Publicity. 

The Committee on Publicity shall be composed of a Chairman, and 
of members from each State, at the discretion of such Chairman, in 
consultation with the President of the Association. Its duty shall be to 
bring the Association and its objects before the public through the 
public press, through addresses at meetings, etc., etc. 

§ 3. Committee on Finance. 

The Finance Committee shall consist of six members, and of the 
Treasurer of the Association, ex officio. It shall act as an advisory 
committee to the Council in financial matters, and shall devise ways and 
means of raising the funds needed by the Association for its work. 

§ 4. Committee on Conferences. 

The Conference Committee shall consist of three members, one of 
whom shall be the general secretary of the Association. Its duty shall 
be to arrange for conferences to promote the objects of the Association. 

§ 5. Committee on Publications. 

The Committee on Publications shall be composed of three members. 
This committee shall have charge of issuing the Association's magazine 
and of publishing such other books, reports, etc., as may be authorized 
by the Council. 

§ 6. Law Committee. 

The Law Committee shall be composed of three members, whose duty 
shall be to make some study of such legal matters as may be of interest 
to the Association, and to report on them through the pages of the 
Association's periodical, and to undertake such other legal work or in- 
vestigation as may be authorized by the Council. 

§ 7. All these committees shall have power to add to their numbers 
upon consultation with the President of the Association. 

ARTICLE VIII 
Meetings 

§ 1. The annual meeting of the Association shall be held in May at 
such place and upon such date as shall be decided at the previous annual 
meeting. Special meetings may be called by the President and must be 
called by her upon the written request of 15 members. Two weeks' 
notice of special meetings must be given. Fifteen members shall con- 
stitute a quorum for the transaction of business. 

§ 2. The Council shall meet regularly in October, December, Febru- 
ary, April and June, on such days as it shall decide. Special meetings 
may be held at the call of the President, or on notice signed by five (5) 
members of the Council. Five (5) members shall constitute a legal 
quorum of the Council. 

[40] 



§ 3. Conferences and lectures shall be arranged for by the Committee 
on Conferences. These shall be open freely to members and their 
friends, but, if considered desirable by the Committee, a small fee may 
be charged to the general public. 

ARTICLE IX 
Publications 

§ I. The Association shall publish a periodical, one copy of which shall 
be furnished free to all members of the Association not in arrears for 
dues. Members whose dues for the current year remain unpaid on 
June 1st shall not be entitled to receive the periodical until such arrears 
are paid. Extra copies and copies to non-members may be sold at a 
price to be fixed by the Council in consultation with the Committee on 
Publications. 

§ 2. The Association may also publish such books, reports, etc., as 
the Council may authorize. These special publications shall not be 
considered a prerogative of membership. 

ARTICLE X 
Elections 

§ I. Three (3) months before the annual meeting of the Association 
the President shall appoint a Nominating Committee of three (3) mem- 
bers. They shall prepare and issue a ballot for officers and members of 
the Council, sending it to all members of the Association not less than 
three (3) weeks before the annual meeting. 

§ 2. Any member may suggest names to the Nominating Committee. 
Any fifteen (15) members acting together may suggest names to the 
Nominating Committee, which must be placed upon the ballot. 

§ 3. Ballots must be received by the Nominating Committee in a 
sealed envelope marked "ballot," and before the time of the meeting, 
otherwise they will not be counted; the name of the member voting 
to be written on the envelope. 

ARTICLE XI 
Quorum 

Fifteen (15) members of the Association shall constitute a quorum at 
all meetings of the Association. 

Five (5) members of the Council shall constitute a quorum. 

Three (3) members of the Executive Committee shall constitute a 
quorum, and in the case of other committees a plurality of the members 
shall constitute a quorum. 

ARTICLE XII 

Amendments 

§ 1. The Constitution or By-laws may be amended by a two-thirds 
{^i) vote of the members of the Association present at any meeting of 
the Association, provided the proposed amendments are reported by the 
Council, and that notice thereof has been sent to all members of the 
Association not less than ten (10) days before the meeting. 

§ 2. The publication of the proposed amendments in the periodical 
of the Association shall be sufficient notice within the meaning of this 
article. 



41] 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 

ADVERTISING COLUMN FOR MEMBERS ONLY 

Rate ten cents per agate line. Not less than Jive lines nor more than ten 

lines accepted at this rate. 



PEKINGESE — the most popu- 
lar and fascinating dog — 
hardy, affectionate, quaint; un- 
canny in intelligence,pathetic in their 
devotion. Peking Kennels — the larg- 
est breeder of Pekingese in America, 
all colors. Prices most reasonable. 
Dr. Mary H. Cotton, Mineola, N. Y. 

ENGLISH PRIMROSES — P. 
vulgaris and Munstead strain. 
25 cents per plant. P. polyanthus 
and gold-laced; all colors, 20 cents 
per plant. F. E. McIlvaine, Glen 
Isle Farm, Downingtown, Pa. 

PERENNIALS for the old-fash- 
ioned garden. Write for price 
list of seed and plants. Geo. Math- 
ews, Gardener, Hillcrest, R. F. D. 
No. 2, Richmond, Va. 

THOROUGHBRED S. C. White 
Leghorn Stock as follows: Year- 
ling Laying Hens at $1.25 each. 
April hatched pullets for October 
eggs, $1.50 and $2.00 each. All in 
superb condition. Miss Alice La- 
vinia Day, Ponus Ridge Farm, New 
Canaan, Conn. 

PERENNIALS; supply limited; 
$1.00 per dozen; good strong 
plants of the following: helenium 
autumnale hybrids, bocconia cordata, 
physostegia denticulata, viola alpes- 
tris and hybrids, valerian, Oeno- 
thera, lily of the valley, iris german- 
ica variegata, bergamot, and hardy 
phlox in colors. Hilda Loines, Bol- 
ton Landing, Lake George, N. Y. 

PERENNIAL FLOWER GAR- 
DEN. Old-fashioned hardy 
plants, Iris, Peonies and Dahlias a 
specialty. All stock guaranteed true 
to name and color. Catalogue sent 
on request. Mrs. S. Wm. Briscoe, 
R. F. D. West Nyack, New York. 



MY OWN GARDEN REC- 
ORD." A complete record 
of gardening for four years' entries; 
one hundred pages to each year, with 
index, for #2.50 each. The book may 
be ordered direct by mail of Mrs. 
Grace Ayer Hamlin, Greenwich, 
Conn. 

PROFESSIONAL advice on the 
establishment and management 
of large or small poultry plants. 
Miss Alice Lavinia Day, Ponus 
Ridge Farm, New Canaan, Conn. 

WANTED by young man, nine- 
teen, just out of school, work 
on farm or in seed house, where order 
and thrift are observed. TheWall- 
roff, 3025 15th St., N. W., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

LECTURE ON ARRANGE- 
MENT OF CUT FLOWERS. 
It treats of the Ike-Bana of Japan, 
and gives demonstration of artistic 
assembling of cut flowers. Address 
Mrs. E. W. Varney, Newton Cen- 
tre, Mass. 



G 



ARDENS.— Practical service 
tendered. Two graduates of 
The School of Horticulture, Ambler, 
are prepared to plan, plant and 
manage gardens, large or small; 
especially fitted to care for orna- 
mental trees, shrubs and perennial 
plants. Emily Exley, M. Frances 
Shinn, 235 So. nth St., Phila. 

FRANCES DUNCAN'S garden 
planning sets: A device for 
enabling the amateur gardener to 
arrange his planting in miniature 
and see how it looks. Lawn, earth, 
walks, and plants for small garden, 
$2.50; larger garden with pergola, 
lake, summerhouse, #5.00; garden- 
craft for children with country 
house, $3.50. Frances Duncan, 1 
Milligan Place, New York. 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering ad 



vertisements 



GARDEN planning.— How to 
group trees and shrubs. Suc- 
cess with lilies, roses, and verbenas. 
Trellises. Lectures on Famous Gar- 
dens, on French, Italian, English 
and Oriental Gardens. R. E. Zim- 
mermann, 1340 Pacific Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

CEDAR ACRES Gladioli. Send 
for 1916 Booklet, full informa- 
tion and cultural directions. It is 
free. B. Hammond Tracy, Wen- 
ham, Mass., Box J. 

Old English Sheep Dogs 

Ayrshire Cattle, Sweet Butter 

Guaranteed Fresh Eggs 

Bewley Farm 

Mrs. Edward Parker Davis 

Newtown, Bucks Co., Pa. 



TO KILL INSECTS is one thing, 
but to do so without injuring or 
even staining flowers or foliage is 
quite another. "Readeana" Rose 
Bug Exterminator kills the in- 
sects and improves the foliage. For 
sale at all reliable dealers. Reade 
Mfg. Co., Hoboken, N. J. 



PROVINCETOWN, Cape Cod, 
Mass. Red Inn opens May 30, 
1916. A motor Inn on the European 
plan. All rooms with baths. Single 
Rooms, $2.50; double rooms, #5. 
Chauffeur's accommodations. Tele- 
phone in advance. Miss Marion 
Wilkinson, Red Inn, Provincetown, 
Mass. 



Peonies 

Our Peonies, Iris, and Phlox are at 
Their Best this year. 

Shall we Send you a Catalog so that 
you may make Your Selection for your 
planting this fall? 

Remember that in buying from us you 
are selecting from the Choicest Col- 
lection of Peonies to be found in the 
Entire World. 

Cherry Hill Nurseries, 

T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc., 
West Newbury, Mass. 

School of Horticulture for Women 

(Eighteen miles from Philadelphia) 
Ambler, Pa. 

Practical and theoretical training in the growing of Fruit, Vegetables and Flowers, Bees. 
Simple Carpentry. School Gardening. Constant demand for trained women to 611 salaried 
positions. Write for Catalogue. 

Elizabeth L. Lee, Director 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 




t^Don't Just Admire Moon's Trees on Other Places 
Plant Them for Your Own Enjoyment 

Your grounds may not be as extensive as these, but that 
doesn't matter, for the very inclusiveness of our assortment and the vigor 
of such plants as make landscapes like this possible indicate how well 
qualified we are to supply trees and shrubbery that give enjoyment to 
owners of smaller places. Q Our descriptive catalogue, filled with illus- 
trations and containing prices, together with many valuable helps for 
planting the home grounds, will be mailed upon request ; while those 
who care to tell us of any lawn planting that they have in mind will 
receive the personal attention of such letter-aid as we can give. 

THE WILLIAM H. MOON COMPANY 

Philadelphia Office, 21 S. Twelfth Street Morrisville, Pa. 




C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 

Haarlem, Holland 

Grower of 

Choice Bulbs 

Bulbs Imported direct from 
Holland for Customers. No 
supply kept here. Catalogue 
quoting prices in Nurseries in 
Haarlem — free on application. 

E. J. Krug, Sole Agent 

112 Broad Street 
New York 

(Successor to C. C. Abel A Co.) 



Plant Trees With 



Red Cross 

Explosives 

BLASTING the soil before 
setting the tree makes the 
soil porous and mellow. Better 
root systems are secured be- 
cause of deeper and wider root 
beds. Moisture is conserved 
and is available for the needs of ma- 
turing trees in the dry seasons. 
Plant trees in blasted soil and insure 
their lives against the first-year losses. 

DuPont Powder Co. 

Wilmington, Delaware 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



WOMAN'S NATIONAL FARM AND GARDEN 
ASSOCIATION 

FORMERLY 

WOMEN'S NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND 
HORTICULTURAL ASSOCIATION 

QUARTERLY 



CONTENTS 

Farming fpr Women Susan H. Vollmer 

Ferns R. MacKenzie 

Farm Industrial Colony for Women Pris- 
oners Harriet B. Bradner 

Amaryllis Mrs. E. B. Murray 

Berry Picking for a Holiday . Constance E. Hamilton 

Salads for Winter Jessie H. Watson 

Message of the Flowers K. W. Reid 



November, 1916 



Woman's National Farm and Garden Association 



Founded "to enable women to co-operate in furthering agricultural and 
horticultural interests throughout the country." 

OFFICERS 

President 
Mrs. Francis King Alma, Michigan 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Ambler, Pa. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer New York 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer Huntington, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Jean A. Cross 144 Park Ave., Yonkers, N. Y. 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 

Council 

Mr. Bernard M. Baker Miss Hilda Loines 

Miss Emma Blakiston Mrs. Elsie McFate 

Mrs. S. A. Brown Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning 

Mrs. George U. Crocker Miss Louise Klein Miller 

Miss Louisa G. Davis Mrs. M. C. Patterson 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner Miss E. H. Peale 

Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Francis Mr. George T. Powell 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw 

Mrs. A. H. Gross Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang 

Miss J. B. Haines Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy 

Miss Margaret Jackson Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Mrs. Francis King Dean R. L. Watts 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Mrs. Lester Williams 

Office of the Association, 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 
Telephone Plaza 6000 

Copyrighted, 1916, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 

The Quarterly is the official organ of the Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association (formerly the Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural Associa- 
tion), by whom it is owned and under whose authority it is published. President, Mrs. 
Francis King, Alma, Mich.; Secretary, Miss J. A. Cross, Yonkers, N. Y.; Treasurer, 
Miss L. G. Davis, Ambler, Pa. There are no bond or stockholders. Edited by Miss 
J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa., and Miss E. C. Wood, 7th and Erie Sts., Camden, N. J. 
Published quarterly at Cheltenham, Pa. 

Entered as second-class matter March 22, 1915, at the post office at Cheltenham, 
under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879 



Please detach this sheet and return to Miss Hilda Loines, General 
Secretary, 600 Lexington Ave., New York City. 

Shall we change the Quarterly 
to a Monthly ? 

The Farm and Garden Quarterly is the only magazine pub- 
lished in America designed to appeal to women of every agri- 
cultural interest. Among our members are owners of estates 
and owners of window boxes, civic workers, school garden 
teachers, successful farmers and farm demonstrators, botanists, 
and poultry-raisers. It is the agricultural organ managed by 
women for women. 

In order to keep pace with the growing interests of the Asso- 
ciation and to make the magazine a better advertising medium, 
the Council is seriously considering changing the Quarterly to a 
monthly publication. As the present funds of the Association are 
not sufficient for this purpose, the following methods of financing 
are proposed: 

1. Raising the yearly dues. 

2. Forming a stock company with shares which may be pur- 

chased by members. 

3. The underwriting or guaranteeing of the expenses for a term of 

two or three years (one member is ready to help in this plan) . 

4. Combining with an existing publication (for which we have 

an offer). 

Of these methods, the second and third seem to the Council to 
be those best suited to the situation. It is for the members of 
the Association to express their wishes. Will you kindly answer 
the following questions and return the sheet to Miss Hilda 
Loines, General Secretary, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York? 

1. Would you prefer a quarterly or a monthly? 

2. Would you like the present form preserved or would you 

prefer a larger illustrated sheet? 

3. In order to meet expenses, would you be willing to see the 

advertisements run side by side with the reading matter? 

4. If you wish the magazine continued as a monthly, would you, 

in order to meet expenses, subscribe to stock in a stock 
company? 

5. Do you advise, and would you share in, a project to under- 

write (or guarantee against loss) the magazine? 



Name.... 
Address 
Date 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 

Haarlem, Holland 

Grower of 

Choice Bulbs 



Bulbs Imported direct from 
Holland for Customers. No 
supply kept here. Catalogue 
quoting prices in Nurseries in 
Haarlem — free on application. 

E.J. Krug, Sole Agent 

112 Broad Street 
New York 

(Successor to C. C. Abel A Co.) 



Plant Trees With 



Red Cross 

Explosives 

BLASTING the soil before 
setting the tree makes the 
soil porous and mellow. Better 
root systems are secured be- 
cause of deeper and wider root 
beds. Moisture is conserved 
and is available for the needs of ma- 
turing trees in the dry seasons. 
Plant trees in blasted soil and insure 
their lives against the first-year losses. 

Du Pont Powder Co. 

Wilmington, Delaware 



Oranges and Grape-fruit 
Tree-ripened 

Supplied from December to March by 

Mrs. S. H. Vollmer 

Cocoa, Florida 



School of Horticulture for Women 

(Eighteen miles from Philadelphia) 
Ambler, Pa. 

Practical and theoretical training in the growing of Fruit, Vegetables and Flowers. Bees. 
Simple Carpentry. School Gardening. Constant demand for trained women to fill salaried 
positions. Write for Catalogue. 

Elizabeth L. Lee, Director 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Woman's National Farm and Garden Association 
Vol. Ill, No. 2 QUARTERLY November, 1916 



FARMING FOR WOMEN 

There are four classes of women that are becoming in- 
creasingly interested in farming: 

i. First, there is the trained woman graduate from the 
agricultural school and the woman with long experience in 
farming; these are successfully competing with men. In 
just so far as farming is a matter of physical labor, in just 
so far is a woman handicapped by her inferior strength, but 
in so far as farming is a matter of knowledge and foresight, 
of bargaining with customers and keeping accounts, trained 
women have a chance. I have a neighbor, a man who I 
feel sure would-, be a better farmer if he were suddenly 
physically incapacitated and obliged to sit at his desk and 
think while hiring some one else to do his heavy work. 

2. Second, the farmer's wife is taking a new interest in 
out-of-door things, and her outlook is widening to include 
the kitchen garden as well as the kitchen. This class of 
women would be greatly helped if the domestic science de- 
partments in our State agricultural colleges, attended by 
hundreds of farmers' daughters, would broaden their cur- 
ricula and require certain courses in vegetable growing 
and poultry and bee keeping, instead of limiting themselves 
to the indoor sciences. A change of occupation would surely 
brighten the lot of the farmer's wife, and often enable her 
to hire help for part of her drudgery. 

3. Third, the commuter's wife is discovering that her 
management of the garden may bring about a lower cost 
of living for her family and make an out-of-town life an 
economy instead of a luxury. 

4. But the fourth class, the would-be farmer, whom I 
want to talk about to-night, is the woman city worker who 
wishes to exchange her city job for a small farm. The 
question is, is this practical? Can she do it? Let us look 
at all sides of the problem. 

It would surely improve country conditions if numbers of 
women took up small land holdings. I mean worked the 
little farms that the American man has had to abandon. 

[3] 



The foreigner has done this on many of the New England 
farms, and I believe that a practical business woman has 
some of the qualifications that have enabled the foreigner 
to succeed — patience and application for intensive methods, 
ability to practise small economies, and few demands upon 
her purse. I remember once seeing in Connecticut the sad 
spectacle of an alien family on a New England farm who 
had turned the beautiful colonial homestead into a human 
pig-sty, and I could not help thinking at the time how dif- 
ferent would be its appearance if a retired school-teacher 
had taken possession instead of that farmer. 

I could enumerate many advantages of country life over 
city life, but it is all a matter of individual taste. Just 
recently, when I was enlarging on the joys of farm life to a 
friend, I discovered that she was pitying me because I had 
not heard an opera since I moved to the country ! But I 
know that many women agree with me and want to go back 
to the land. So let us suppose that a certain city busi- 
ness woman has decided to become a farmer, and discuss 
what serious obstacles confront her. 

First, we will consider the less difficult points. To begin 
with, she must discover a bargain in farms with a prospect 
of increased valuation, and she must buy it. We can all 
concede that with good advice and judgment suburban and 
country property is a safe investment for surplus funds, 
and if the little property is purchased before the city job 
is given up, it can be used for holidays and week-ends and 
vacations before her final change of residence. Also the 
sooner she buys, the cheaper will be the land. If this wo- 
man asks a good business man how to invest her funds, he 
will pretty surely say, "the savings bank is the only safe 
place," but then if you ask him if he puts his balance in a 
savings bank, the answer will probably be "no," from which 
we can draw conclusions. 

Now, as owner of a farm, I think we can also concede 
that this woman who has earned her own living in town will 
be able to produce farm products. I mean she can grow 
garden stuff, raise fruit, or succeed with poultry or bees, 
whichever she undertakes. Most of these things can be 
done like cooking, with a recipe combined with hard work, 
and unlike any city work, she will have Mother Nature for 
a partner, who does her share of the job. Then, for better 
training, there is the Horticultural School at Ambler, with 
instruction arranged for just such students; there are home 
correspondence courses in agriculture; and in planning and 
laying out the farm, as well as in solving later problems, an 
expert may be called in. Mr. Powell, our fellow-member, 
[4] 



is such an adviser. I shall never forget a visit he paid me 
some years ago when my problems seemed difficult. He 
came down and walked over my farm. I told him my 
troubles, and he asked some questions, and then he went 
away. Two days after he sent me some closely typed sheets 
of advice, which have helped me ever since. But she must 
be careful about choosing her adviser. As Bill Nye used 
to say, " It is not what we do not know that does the harm, 
it is knowing what is not so." 

So far everything has been fairly encouraging to our book- 
farmer, but now let us consider the almost insurmountable 
obstacle. When this woman has produced her marketable 
article, what shall she do with it? The agricultural journals 
have been full lately of the discovery that the average 
farmer gets 36 cents of the dollar he has earned. If this is 
true of a trained and experienced farmer, what chance has 
the inexperienced woman? 

She simply cannot succeed if she sells to the open market. 
She must do something different to get some of that 64 
cents usually used for distribution of farm stuff. I have 
some suggestions to make as to what our woman farmer 
might do. She might turn her city acquaintances into cus- 
tomers, and send her produce directly to city families. The 
Fullertons introduced this method on Long Island through 
their home hamper system. Or if her farm is near a sum- 
mer colony, our woman may be able to introduce her wares 
among the summer people, and again sell directly to fami- 
lies and receive the retail prices. In either case there would 
be a reasonable profit for the work done. 

Another solution which I once heard Mr. Powell suggest 
is for a number of women farmers to settle in one spot, 
forming a small community, and let the market end be done 
cooperatively by a special agent. 

But in my opinion the most practical way for a woman to 
meet the risks of a farm venture is to let her house earn, as 
well as her land, and to find her market on her own table. 
If she takes boarders in one form or another to use her 
products, she will get a double profit — the restaurant profit 
and the farm profit. This is the safest beginning, and can 
be dropped whenever the strictly farm success justifies it. 
There is demand for various kinds of commercial hospi- 
tality, for summer boarding-houses, for week-end rest 
places, for lunch and dining rooms, for motoring tourists. 
Did you ever realize that the roadhouses of America are in 
the hands of the brewers? Isn't that a disgrace to the 
American woman? In the old days the comfort of European 
travel was due as much to the fact that a woman was al- 
[5] 



ways in evidence in every country inn as to the sightseeing. 
I do not want to be lacking in sex loyalty, but several times, 
when would-be women farmers have come to me for ad- 
vice, I have said all this to them and got the answer, "Oh, 
but I do not want to take boarders; that is an odious idea." 
Now a man will go for work to the Klondike or to the 
equator, upheld by visions of the future, but a woman is 
apt to want her work to be socially pleasant all along the way. 
We women must learn to be willing to pay for what we want. 

As I said, if a woman makes her beginning in this way, she 
may gradually work out of it as her strictly agricultural 
success increases, and she may even gain skill enough to 
live on the 36-cent dollar, as the real farmer does, but this 
method can at least lessen the risks of her initial under- 
taking. 

Cooked food always has a better market than raw ma- 
terial, so the growing of small fruits and selling them as 
jams and jellies is another way of using a woman's skill for 
farm purposes. 

A story illustrating all this comes to mind: Two young 
women came to ask my advice on this popular subject of 
buying a farm; one was a music teacher, the other gave 
lessons in voice culture. They lived in a fifty-dollar-a- 
month apartment in this city, in the uptown student dis- 
trict. They are New England women and good house- 
keepers. Each one has a few thousand dollars of capital. 
My advice was this: Buy a small place near New York, 
with an old house on it; put the house in living order; raise 
all you can on the land, and feed it to some form of paying 
guests. My sister, who is more conservative than I am, 
upbraided me for advising these two to risk their all in a 
farm venture. But this was my reply: What about the 
risk of living in New York on music and voice culture 
through their old age? When all the pupils have gone, 
their capital would last possibly ten years; then what? 
Which is the greater risk? 

I do not know what these two women will decide to do, 
but I do know that several women have tried this method 
and are making good. One has an inn on Cape Cod; one 
has a lunch-room for motorists on a highway in Connecticut; 
one who had to support a sick husband opened a tea-house 
in Massachusetts which is frequented by the students of 
three nearby colleges, who come for country suppers and 
dinners, eating the broilers the raising of which has in the 
mean time restored the husband's health. — Susan H. Voll- 
mer, Long Island. 

Address before the League for Business Opportunities for Women. 
[6] 



FERNS AND THEIR PROPAGATION 

The ferns, or Filices, comprise one of the largest natural 
orders of that great group of the vegetable kingdom, 
"Floweriess Plants." They are almost universally dis- 
tributed, and are found most abundantly in damp climates. 

The herbaceous perennial species prevail throughout the 
temperate zones, and the tree ferns are confined entirely 
to the tropical and subtropical zones. 

Though ferns are much prized and much cultivated for the 
beauty of their foliage, they have but few economic values. 

In passing it might be said, however, that their rhizomes, 
or rootstocks, contain starch, and those of some species have 
been made use of as an article of diet by the Maoris of New 
Zealand and the South Sea Islanders. 

Horticulturally, they have attained the greatest im- 
portance, and few indeed are the gardens of to-day where 
they are not made liberal use of. 

Though not preeminently suited by the dry summers of 
our southern California, they will amply repay any care 
they may require in the way of watering by a wealth of 
green, glistening foliage, especially pleasing at a season 
when nearly all plant life not under the influence of water 
and cultivation becomes brown, dry, and dusty. 

We are told by botanists that the fern family consists of 
75 genera and about 2500 species, and while all of these 
cannot easily be obtained, yet the assortment readily ob- 
tainable is sufficiently large to answer any purpose or re- 
quirement of the cultivator. 

The classification of ferns provides a fascinating study, 
but as the purpose of this article is to deal with their prop- 
agation, we must perforce pass it by. 

There are several ways in which the propagation of ferns 
can be accomplished, but the method must be determined 
by the plant: its structure, its habit, and its mode of growth. 

There are ferns which produce embryo ferns on the apex 
of their fronds, — Woodwardia radicans, for instance, — 
and by the simple expedient of pegging these growths on 
some loose soil the healthy little plants are soon secured. 

Division of the crowns is a favorite method of propaga- 
tion, and the only one possible in some cases. Adiantum 
Farleyense furnishes a case in point. This fern, the queen 
of all ferns, can be propagated in no other way. It is one 
of a few that have never been known to produce spores. 
The plants are cleared of all roots and foliage, the remain- 
ing crowns broken up into small pieces, and started anew 
either in a bed of sand or in small pots. 

[7] 



Division of the rhizomes can also be resorted to, but 
where the rhizomes are of a strong, robust nature, the better 
method is to remove the growing points without disturbing 
the parent plant and place them in small pots, in which they 
will soon develop. 

Layering is a simple method of propagation resorted to 
when ferns produce long, slender, creeping rhizomes. 

Moss is used. It is tied securely around the available 
part of the rhizome, and kept moist at all times. 

When roots have formed and penetrated this ball of moss, 
the rhizome is severed from the parent plant, and a new 
individual is sent on its way. 

Though the propagation of ferns by spores cannot be re- 
garded as an easy method, it is by far the most interesting 
one. It furnishes also a remarkable botanical study. It 
is by this method that such immense quantities of our 
favorite Adian turns, the maidenhair ferns, are raised. 

The spores, exceedingly minute, are found on the under 
surface of the fronds. If a frond is taken just as the spore 
cases are turning brown, laid on a sheet of white paper, in a 
few days these small cases open, liberate the spores, and we 
have them ready for sowing. 

Prepare clean, shallow pans by filling them to within 
one-half inch of the brim with soil, as a receptacle on which 
to germinate the spores. 

A good stiff heavy loam is the best compost to use, and 
it must be prepared in such a way that all seeds which it 
may contain will have no power to germinate. 

A most effective method is to saturate the prepared pans 
of soil with water at the boiling-point; this insures the de- 
struction of all mosses and seeds, and also gives the saturated 
condition of soil necessary when sowing the spores. 

The spores are sown on the surface of the soil, and as no 
watering overhead can be done after they are sown, the 
pans are placed and kept in saucers of water. It is also 
necessary to cover the pans with a piece of glass to safe- 
guard the spores from insects and from being disturbed. 

Spores require a period of from two to three months to 
germinate, and then appear on the surface of the soil as a 
covering of green moss. On examination this covering 
will be found to consist of a number of small, flat, heart- 
shaped individuals which are known as prothallia. 

They are true plants in every sense of the word, and differ 
entirely from the plant which bore them. On their under 
surface they develop male and female organisms, and it is 
as the result of the fusion of these organisms that our true 
fern plant is produced. The fact that these organisms, 

[8] 



antheridia and archegonia, as they are respectively known, 
have to be magnified from 400 to 500 times to be clearly seen, 
indicates that hybridizing of ferns cannot readily be ac- 
complished by the usual methods of hybridists, and explains 
the absence of hybrid ferns in any quantity. 

This procedure in the life history of a fern, the changing 
from a generation of ferns which produce spores to a genera- 
tion of plants which produce gametes, or male and female 
organisms, is known as the "alternation of generation." 

To return to our propagating. As soon as the prothal- 
lia can be handled transfer them, in small clumps, with the 
aid of a sharp-pointed stick, to other pans or boxes, where 
they will remain until the prothallia have disappeared and 
sturdy fern plants have been formed. They are then ready 
to be placed in small pots, afterwards potted and repotted, 
until the desired specimens are obtained. 

Though we have seen ferns wonderfully well grown in 
the heaviest of loam, with no other ingredient, it is a good 
plan (especially in their earlier stages) to use as a potting 
medium leaf-mold and sand in conjunction with a heavy 
loam. 

When established and thoroughly rooted, either in beds 
or in pots, ferns are" benefited by weak applications of ferti- 
lizer applied occasionally, but sparingly. For this no hard 
and fast rules can be laid down: experience teaches, and the 
observant cultivator can soon determine how to use fer- 
tilizer to the best advantage. 

Ferns are naturally dormant during winter months. 
They attain their highest degree of perfection during sum- 
mer and autumn. For decorative purposes they are un- 
excelled, and no matter how choice your flowers may be, 
they lose nothing in value by the addition of a few sprigs 
of suitable fern foliage. 

In conclusion, grow ferns, if only a few — a very few. 
With little care they brighten the home or the home grounds, 
and horticulturally we know of few more pleasing objects 
than a well-grown fern plant. — R. MacKenzie, in Suburban 
California. 

THE FARM INDUSTRIAL COLONY FOR WO- 
MEN PRISONERS 
Is the farm industrial colony the best type of institution 
for women prisoners? To answer the question we must 
subdivide it. Is the farm industrial colony best while the 
women are in prison, and does it best fit them for life after 
release? The second is the more difficult question to an- 
swer, and indeed the answer is primarily in your hands, 

[9] 



women agriculturists! Are you willing to take these wo- 
men into your homes and give them employment in your 
agricultural undertakings? 

The National Committee on Prisons receives many re- 
quests from State officials as to the methods to adopt in 
developing penal farms for women. It has found a dearth 
of information on the subject, and has appealed to the De- 
partment of Agriculture at Columbia University for assis- 
tance. The matter is of far-reaching importance, so the 
Department has been willing to cooperate and asks help 
from the women agriculturists of this country. Can they 
employ women in farm operations and are they willing to 
try women laborers who come from our prisons? 

The percentage of women in a prison who show aptitude 
for farming or interest in it can be determined only through 
the method of "trial and success." Some reformatories 
have a very high percentage of women of foreign birth and 
training; these have been used to field labor, and often do 
exceedingly good, conscientious work, preferring out-of-door 
life to housework. The influence of nearness to growing 
things, the responsibility for plant and animal life, bring 
out the best that is in these women, whose love for little 
children is very strong. As dairymaids, they often do ad- 
mirable work; at gardening, many are skilful; some even 
find in the rougher field work their best place. 

Shall a State purchase broad acres for its colonies for 
women prisoners? Realizing that women come into our 
penal institutions broken in health, shall we give them the 
benefit of a temporary farm home? Shall we give those 
who choose it training in an out-of-door occupation? The 
agricultural work at a farm industrial colony for women 
prisoners may justify the existence of the colony because 
it furnishes these women — practically all of whom need 
hospital treatment — with a healthful occupation. It also 
makes possible a much-needed improvement in prison fare 
without necessitating greater expenditure of money. These 
are definite advantages, but if we keep our women at agri- 
cultural labor during their entire imprisonment and there 
is no demand for their labor upon release, we shall then dis- 
charge them without means of self-support. 

The proof of the value of all prison reform lies in the 
ability of the released prisoners to make good. The main 
work of the prison, therefore, — after improving the health 
of the prisoners, — is to prepare them for self-support. 

Will women of our Farm and Garden Association take 
some of these girls and women on faith, giving them work, 
homes, and kindness, until the value of agricultural work for 
[10] 



them has been demonstrated? When this time comes, we 
can make our farm industrial colony an agricultural school, 
fitting those inclined toward agricultural employment to 
be farm laborers, assistants in horticultural pursuits, and 
general workers for farmers' wives, combining out-of-door 
work with housework. 

Hitherto the employment open to released women prison- 
ers has been almost exclusively housework, against which 
this type of untrained worker has an inherent prejudice. 
The training of women along agricultural lines has not been 
popular with prison administrators because it has been easy 
to obtain positions for these women at housework, and it 
has been exceedingly difficult to place them at agricultural 
work in the right kind of homes and under women employers. 

In European countries women have always labored in 
the fields, and the war has enormously increased their ac- 
tivity along these lines. In America the industries are so 
prosperous that laborers flock to them, and thousands of 
farmers, unable to secure help, have been obliged to leave 
their crops ungathered in the fields. Cannot American 
women be as successful farmers as the women of Europe, 
and meet the opportunity which the shortage of men far- 
mers presents? 

Do you need help on your farm, in your garden, and will 
you give the woman prisoner from our farm industrial 
colony a chance to help you and to prove that she is worthy? 
— Harriet B. Bradner, New Jersey. 

AMARYLLIS 

This is the general name applied to a race of plants, num- 
bering over 70 varieties, which include some of our choicest 
bulbous favorites. Those which are best known are the 
amaryllis proper, or Hippeastrum, Crinum, Pancratium, or 
spider lily, Vallota, Ismene, Eucharis, Nerine, Clivia, 
Agapanthus, Lycoris, Zephyranthes, Cooperii, and Cli- 
danthus. With the exception of the first mentioned, none 
of these are as well known as they should be, when one con- 
siders their beauty and ease of culture, provided certain 
requirements are understood and met. Under the name 
Hippeastrum are the various varieties of amaryllis, the 
best known of which is A. Johnsonii, and no farmer's wife's 
collection of house-plants is considered complete without a 
potful of these. It is one of the cheapest and also one of the 
finest varieties, and, rightly handled, will give blooms twice 
a year. It is a large, trumpet-shaped lily, dark crimson in 
color, with a white stripe through the center of each leaf, 
usually four on a stalk, and a large bulb will sometimes 

[11] 



throw up two flower-scapes at once. It also increases very 
rapidly, and a large potful in bloom is a sight to be remem- 
bered. Another beautiful variety often seen is called 
August lily, but the correct name is Vallota purpurea, or 
Scarborough lily. This blooms only once a year, but if of 
blooming size, every bulb is sure to bloom, giving four to six 
intense, fiery scarlet blossoms on a stalk. These also multi- 
ply very rapidly, and an old specimen, with from 10 to 20 
flower-stalks in bloom at once, is a gorgeous thing. This is 
probably the most easily grown of any variety. It re- 
sents disturbing and should be repotted only when it ceases 
to bloom because crowded, and should, if possible, be 
wintered in the cellar, although it should never be allowed 
to become absolutely dormant. 

Other varieties in my collection are Equestre, Regina, 
Forraosissima, Solandriflora, Psitticum, Hovey's Giant, 
Empress of India, Aulica, Prince of Orange, Oriflame, J. L. 
Child's, Aigberth's, Neurensis, Nehrling's, Dreer's, and 
Burbank's hybrids. Would I had space to tell of each of 
these as they deserve ! Of the new hybrids, of comparatively 
recent introduction, Burbank's, Nehrling's, Aigberth's, and 
Kerr's (each of which is named from the originator), mixed 
bulbs can be purchased very reasonably (as amaryllis go), 
but the choice named kinds run from $1.00 to $10.00 a 
bulb, and even higher. Needless to say, my own collec- 
tion does not number any of these, nor are they often seen. 

The Foreign Plant and Seed Distribution, Bureau of 
Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. (gardens, Chico, Cal.), 
has been working on this bulb for some years, with a view 
to distributing some choice bulbs, and thereby awakening 
an interest in its culture. Their first flower show was 
held some years ago, in Washington, D. C. I saw an 
account of it. An enthusiastic amaryllis crank for years, 
I at once sent in my name, and the following spring ob- 
tained one of the first sent out. It was a huge bulb, but 
for some unknown reason has never bloomed — and right 
here is a good place to say that there certainly are two sides 
to every story, and perhaps its delightful uncertainty is 
one of the fascinations of amaryllis culture. We are so con- 
stituted by nature that we better appreciate what costs us 
some thought and labor than what we get for nothing. A 
floral writer once said that the life of the amaryllis grower 
was full of delightful surprises. To this another one re- 
torted that it was also full of surprises that were very far 
from being delightful — quite another kind, in fact. Both 
these sayings are true. The first jolt one gets is the price 
of the best named bulbs. Another surprise may await you 
[12] 



if, trusting to some one's advice, you confidently put your 
cherished pots of amaryllis bulbs in the cellar, leaving them 
unlooked after and uncared for until February. When 
you go down for them, instead of sturdy bud-stalks pushing 
up vigorously, which you are told you may expect, you find 
a worthless, rotten mass. This has been my sad and 
bitter experience. The cellar is the ideal place for winter- 
ing most species of amaryllis, provided it is just right. But 
there are various kinds of cellars, and mine is no bulb keeper. 
A good healthy amaryllis bulb is almost human — it is 
so downright contrary and cranky. Do your very level 
best for it — give it alternate rest and growth periods, keep 
it warm, and stimulate while growing, and it will surely sur- 
prise you by its luxuriant leaf growth — and not one sign 
of a bloom. On the other hand, sometimes entirely out of 
season, when you least expect it, up pops a big fat bud, 
which grows like Jonah's gourd, and before you deem it 
possible there are your gorgeous red lilies, and you immedi- 
ately forgive and forget all its past years of barrenness, and 
vow to have every kind ever catalogued, be the price what 
it may. As to its culture, avoid overpotting and disturbing 
of the roots. Use a small pot, and do not repot until ab- 
solutely necessary.* Any good garden soil will do. Use a 
good third sand, and if manure is used, it should be very 
old. Bone-meal is the best fertilizer, as there is no danger 
of rotting either bulbs or roots. Water well when in active 
growth, and very little when dormant. One thing is ab- 
solutely necessary: a season of rapid, healthy growth, 
during which the embryo buds are formed, followed by a 
season of rest, and in summer the bulbs should be exposed 
to the full heat of the sun, and thoroughly seasoned or 
baked. When potting, leave one-half the bulb above the 
surface of the soil. These are the secrets of successful 
amaryllis culture. — Mrs. E. B. Murray, New York. 

BERRY RICKING FOR A HOLIDAY 

Some years ago my mind was much exercised by two 
problems: one came from the scarcity of steady labor for 
harvesting the small fruits in our district, the other grew out 
of the fact that hundreds of girls in our nearby city cannot 
afford a summer holiday, though many are actually suffering 
for want of a few weeks of good country air. 

The result of regarding these two questions as demand and 

supply brought about the establishment of the Lome Park 

Hostel for Women Berry Pickers, fifteen miles from Toronto, 

in the center of this fruit-growing and market-gardening 

[13] 



district. The need of this was accentuated by a large num- 
ber of inquiries from girls in the old country who wanted 
to get open-air work in Canada, or to spy out the land before 
settling down in it. 

I began in the summer of 1912, with a capital of $500 
(five hundred dollars), of which $125 went in the rent of two 
buildings from a neighboring farmer; the balance bought 
equipment for 26 people, with something kept in hand for 
emergency or in case the work should be run at a loss. We 
soon had the place full ; the emergency happily never came, 
and instead of a loss, I ended the season with a nice little 
surplus, which has been kept up every year since, and which 
enables me to begin each season comfortably, and to put 
in a few improvements year by year. I engaged a cook 
matron, for the girls were to be relieved of any housekeeping 
or cooking, and kept my own managing eye on the business 
and social end of the enterprise. The following year my 
husband, who had in the mean time acquired a new piece 
of property, gave me the use of the farm buildings upon it. 
We converted the large drive-shed into a bright, airy dining- 
room by the addition of three large windows on each side, 
which overlook a fine stretch of rolling farmland, and in 
19 14 enlarged our bedroom accommodation, which had been 
up to this time in the farm-house and another smaller build- 
ing, by the addition of a long bungalow. This is divided 
into six rooms of two beds each, doors and windows being 
at each end of every room, thus giving a good through draft 
of air. The whole building is finished with a veranda run- 
ning its full length. With this provision we were able to 
take 35 girls, and the place has been generally filled to 
capacity. 

Our season begins with strawberries, about the end of 
June, runs through the gamut of raspberries, currants, 
cherries, black-caps, Lawton berries, summer apples, plums, 
and pears to September; after which many of the girls go 
on to other districts, such as the peach orchards of Niagara 
Peninsula or to individual growers. The girls pay $3 
(three dollars) a week, and at this price I am able to give 
them plenty of good substantial food, and to send them 
back to town strong and healthy. They come from stores, 
factories, offices, and banks; we get teachers, musicians, 
domestic servants — in fact, all sorts and conditions of girls. 
Picking is paid by the piece; weeding and hoeing, which 
some do in odd times, by the hour. Even in the bad seasons 
the girls were able to pay their board without undue exer- 
tion, and under good conditions they make considerably 
more. 

[14] 



The routine of the day consists of a good three-course 
breakfast at 6.30; then the wagons arrive from the various 
farms at 7, and the lively parties go off for the day's work 
in groups of two or more, according to the varying needs. 
Each girl carries her lunch-pail, containing sandwiches or 
meat-pie, cake or fruit, etc., and a small package of tea, for 
which the farmer supplies boiling water and milk. At 
about 5.30 or 6 the wagons return; there is a light refresh- 
ment ready of biscuits and a cool drink, and after a bath or 
dip in the lake, the girls sit down refreshed to a good hot 
dinner. Early to bed is the rule, as rising is also early. 
Saturday afternoons are free, and are generally spent on the 
shore of Lake Ontario, and, of course, a girl can occasionally 
take a half-day off, though there is an unwritten law as to 
obligations to the farmer, and the dignity and reputation of 
the Hostel. After a little preliminary shyness and some 
prejudice on the part of the district, the girls have adopted 
a bloomer costume, which is now regarded by the farmers as 
quite the proper thing — safer for the cherry picker, and less 
destructive to the strawberry patch than the skirt. 

With 35 lively girls, there has been every year quite a 
delightful amount of interest and fun; many lasting friend- 
ships have been made, and many a lonely girl has found 
congenial companionship; several girls have gone perma- 
nently into agricultural work as a result of the Hostel ex- 
perience, and many more have learned to love country life. 
We have had plays and sing-songs, corn roasts and concerts, 
ice-cream socials, etc. Many of our good farmers have been 
converted to an organized method of dealing with the berry- 
picking difficulty, to the value of supervision, and some have 
even established little hostels of their own. Others now 
take groups of friends in tent or cottage who do their own 
housekeeping, but who feel, as at the Hostel, under obliga- 
tion to work for one grower and to live up to certain stipu- 
lated conditions. The educated girl is proving herself a 
very reliable addition to our fruit district; and although 
this little activity is limited in extent, it has brought a new 
element into our whole fruit-picking question, which has 
lifted up the standard considerably. 

By the second year the work became widely known, and 
I became a sort of general employment bureau, not only to 
this, but many other districts. The rural telephone was 
kept busy, and I answered many letters asking for women to 
pick and pack fruit and vegetables. When the war came, 
our Women's Patriotic League in Toronto formed an em- 
ployment bureau, and this work was handed over to them. 
It is now very well organized, and pickers have been sent 
[15] 



far and wide, which shows how far a little enterprise will 
carry us. The experience with peach packers enabled me 
to convert some (perhaps many) growers to the advantages 
of seats for their workers. I found my girls were standing for 
ten hours a day, and said that this would never do. I was 
told that no packer could do efficient work while seated, but 
fortunately was able to give chapter and verse (and illustra- 
tion too) about California and Oregon, where a capital type 
of table with seats is used by most of the best growers. 
The wrapping of peaches and pears also had its lesson, for 
many of the packers were in the habit of moistening the 
fingers at their lips to enable them to grasp the thin paper. 
This speaks for itself. I have seen the same thing in orange 
packing in Florida only a year or two ago, and would suggest 
action regarding this to American women. It is quite easy 
to provide sponges, such as are used in banks, and they 
should be obligatory. 

One of my converts is the factory or store girl who has 
never been into the country, or has never thought of taking 
a holiday. This year I have followed her up, and through 
the women's institutes have persuaded a number of farmers' 
wives in different localities to give board to working girls 
at cheap rates — for my Hostel will not hold everybody! 
This enterprise bids fair to develop into a Factory Girls' 
Holiday Association, which will encourage the girls to take 
a rest and to save for the "sunny" day. And who knows 
what will come next? 

And now can any one tell me how that quotation goes 
about "small beginnings and great endings"? I have for- 
gotten it, and here we are. We began with a strawberry, 
and we are ending with a Holiday Association spelt with a 
big A. Well, in any case, I recommend the small beginning 
to you all. — Constance E. Hamilton, Ontario. 



SALADS FOR WINTER 

The pleasure of raising and gathering many of the salads 
throughout the winter may be for the city or flat dweller, 
as well as for her country sister. By an eastern or south- 
ern window, in a warm room, the tasty garden cress may be 
raised, so that there is a continuous supply. Garden cress, 
with its pretty, lacy leaf, will appeal to the artistic taste, 
and may be used either as a salad or garnish. At the 
poultry or seed supply house procure a device called an oat 
sprouter. This is an iron rack, three feet high and eighteen 
inches square, holding six tiered galvanized pans. These 
pans are perforated, but burlap or coarse cloth may be 
[16] 



placed over the bottom to keep the earth from sifting out. 
If you have not access to good earth, a florist will fill them 
at small cost. Buy the seed by the pound — it is cheaper 
and can be kept for some time, as it does not lose vitality 
quickly. The cress is ready for use when about three inches 
high. 

In any partially shaded corner in your garden plant 
garden sorrel in the spring. During the midsummer it will 
go to seed, but will send out new leaves in September, 
and in October may be put in a deep box and placed at a 
cellar window. Sorrel is a perennial, and when left in the 
garden and protected, will be ready for use in April. Sorrel 
has a delightful piquant flavor, and if served with lettuce, 
is delicious. 

Parsley may also be raised in a box at the cellar window, 
but being a slow grower, must be started in the garden two 
or three months in advance to be of any size by fall. It 
requires quantities of water. 

Salad may also be had from turnip tops, if a bushel or 
more are thrown on the cellar floor in partial light. — Jessie 
H. Watson, Penna. 

THE MESSAGE OF THE FLOWERS 

When the throngs come to look on the flowers, 

And admire the foliage rare, 
Are there many among them who realize, 

They look on an answer to prayer? 
The answered prayer of the gardener, 

The flower — exquisite, apart — 
How he's toiled o'er that wondrous blossom, 

The gardener, with faithful heart. 
Each day as he labors and watches 

O'er his treasure with tender care, 
What wizardry and magic 

In his humble art so rare! 
In the vast array of people 

We see him wandering too, 
While all the time he is dreaming 

Of what some day he will do. 
There's a slight stoop to his shoulders, 

A tan on his patient face, 
Yet ever close about him, 

Lingers a lowly grace. 
As he passes on with the people, 

And mingles with the throng, 
How little homage we give him, 

The man who has labored so long! 
He gives to us all this beauty; 

We enjoy it with pure delight; 
It is right and only fitting 

Him with honors to bedight. 

— K. W. Reid, New York. 

[17] 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE 
ASSOCIATION 

Membership Committee — 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Chairman, Batavia, 111. 
Finance Committee— 

Mrs. Lester H. Williams, Chairman, Boston, Mass. 
Publicity Committee — 

Miss Lena M. McCauley, Chairman, Chicago, 111. 
Publications Committee — 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Cheltenham, Pa. 
Law Committee — 

Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, Chairman, Painesville, O. 
Conference Committee — 

Mrs. George U. Crocker, Chairman, Boston, Mass. 
Exhibits Committee — 

Mrs. S. A. Brown, Chairman, 158 W. 56th St., New York City. 
School Gardens Committee — 

Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw, Chairman, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

ASSOCIATION NOTICES 

The Council meets regularly in the second week on October, 
December, February, April, and June. Members of the Association 
wishing to suggest matters for discussion or of policy are asked to com- 
municate with Council Members or with the General Secretary before 
the first day of the month of meeting. 

The Quarterly is the organ of the Association, and being supported 
by the membership fees, is furnished only to paid-up members. 

The Council has advised the Editorial Committee that only those 
members whose dues for the current year are paid by May 1st are en- 
titled to the Quarterly and that it is to be sent to others only after 
such dues are paid. 

To Our Readers: Many are the means offered to inquirers for se- 
curing expert knowledge on farm and home matters, but inquirers 
frequently cannot secure this knowledge because it is hidden in bulletins 
and magazines galore. The editors of this Quarterly will be glad to 
have inquiries regarding these matters and will hope to secure adequate 
replies by means of experts, bulletins, and articles which may be known 
to others of our membership. An exchange of this kind, if it meets 
with the approval of our members, may be of use to many. — Editors. 

GENERAL SECRETARY 

The office was opened on October 2d, and the Christmas 
sale will commence on December 4th. Members who wish 
to send articles to the sale are asked to communicate with 
the Secretary as soon as possible. There will be a wide 
selection of gardening and nature books, and members will 
find Christmas shopping here both restful and agreeable. 
Orders from out-of-town members will receive prompt at- 
tention. Help the Association by ordering all farming and 
gardening books through the office. 

The demand for lecturers at garden clubs is a constantly 
increasing one, and it would be of assistance if the members 
[18] 



would send to the Secretary the names of lecturers whom 
they have found helpful. 

The Congressional Library has asked for a copy of the 
May, 191 5, Quarterly to complete their files. Will any 
member who can spare hers kindly send it to the Secretary, 
as all the back numbers except May, 1916, and August, 
191 5 and 1916, are out of print. 

The Secretary will be grateful for any information from 
members in regard to openings for women in agricultural 
or horticultural work in their neighborhoods. Several of 
our own members have been working on farms or in gardens 
during the past summer, and if the present shortage of labor 
continues, there should be many new openings for women 
next year. 

POSITIONS VACANT 

For a capable woman to run a small farm in Connecticut on shares ; 
good market for all produce available for use in a tea-room. For a 
Manager of Reformatory for women. For a woman to learn care of 
small dogs and to help with garden and chickens. 

POSITIONS WANTED 

Vegetable forcing-house work; greenhouse or garden work; poultry 
work on a farm; gardening work by a Horticultural School graduate 
who can also take charge of office work; work on a fruit farm by two 
trained English women; pouljtry or greenhouse work in connection 
with housekeeping or secretarial duties. 

Hilda Loines, General Secretary. 

COMMITTEE ON CHILDREN'S GARDENS 

It seemed advisable first to find out the requirements for 
school-garden teachers in different localities, and the maxi- 
mum and minimum salaries paid to such teachers, before the 
committee could do their work. 

During N. E. A. the committee met, and the Chairman 
assigned different sections of the country to different mem- 
bers who should write to superintendents of schools and 
others interested in the work to find out those two questions. 

The school-garden committee is composed of the follow- 
ing members: 

Miss Louise Kleim Miller, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Miss Caro Miller, Philadelphia, Penna. 

Miss Mabel Turner, Melrose, Mass. 

Dr. M. Louise Greene attended the meeting, but thought 
she could do no active service on the committee this year. 

Miss Cross, the recording secretary of the Association, 
also attended. 

It is hoped that by January the committee will be ready 
to make some sort of definite report. — Ellen Eddy Shaw, 
Chairman. 

[19] 



PERSONALS 

Miss Elma Loines had an article on "Opportunities in Gardening" 
in Landscape Architecture for August, andthe article has been reprinted 
in the September Gardener's Chronicle. 

Miss Ida F. Gillette and Miss Minnie Foster were prize- winning 
exhibitors at the first annual flower show held at Sayville, Long Island. 
In the amateur class, Miss Gillette was first with a collection of 
dahlias raised from seed, and among commercial exhibits Miss Foster 
received the green ribbon and special mention for an exhibit of hardy 
perennials. 

A quart of wild blueberries "tamed," grown at the plantation of Miss 
Elizabeth C. White, at Whitesbog, New Jersey, is one of the most 
indicative illustrations in Mr. Frederick V. Coville's illuminating article 
on "The Wild Blueberry Tamed," in the July number of The National 
Geographical Magazine. Mr. Coville's article shows Miss White's 
success as a grower of wonderfully large blueberries, a feat thought im- 
possible not many years ago. 

Mrs. S. Wm. Briscoe, of West Nyack, N. Y., has issued a most 
business-like little catalogue of old-fashioned hardy perennials with 
which to tempt the garden lover. Directions when and how to plant, 
height and color of plants, and month of bloom are given. 

Miss Mira Dock and Miss Margaret Dock recently offered their 
grounds at Fayetteville, Pa., for a benefit for the American Ambulance 
in France. A special feature of the sale was the offering of small pine 
trees and evergreens grown from seed from Austria, Germany, Italy, 
France, England, Russia, Japan, and North America, as well as a few 
hardy perennials and "fat-pine" fagots. Orders were also taken for 
small Christmas trees. 

Miss Sadie Scott has been working as under-gardener for Mrs. 
Skae at Pontiac, Michigan. 

Miss Rachel Doan, Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer, Miss Elizabeth 
Leighton Lee, and Miss Alice L. Day were among the speakers at a 
recent meeting of the League for Business Opportunities for Women 
held in New York city. Mrs. Vollmer's address appears as an article 
in this number of the Quarterly. 

A charming series of garden articles by Miss Lena May McCauley 
has been appearing in the Chicago Evening Post. They appear on Tues- 
days under the heading "The Garden of Delights." 

Miss Jane B. Haines acted as one of the judges at the first fall ex- 
hibition of the Lansdowne (Penna.) Flower Show. At this very charm- 
ing little show dahlias and hybrid tea-roses and vegetables of many 
kinds formed the chief features. 

Miss Van Name, of New Haven, Conn., has over 600 varieties of 
iris in her collection. At the peony and iris show of the New Haven County 
Horticultural Society last June Miss Van Name exhibited 40 vases of 
iris. Among those calling for special mention were seedling No. 6, 
purple and gold, fine; Rhein Nixe, a very delicate specimen; Iris versi- 
color, Kermesina; and Thorbeck, white overlaid with dark purple. 

LETTERS FROM MEMBERS 

" My new dahlia is a pale pink, opalescent peony type, on long stiff 
stems. The Dahlia Society gave me a certificate, as well as the silver 
cup for it, so you see that I am very proud. 

"The dealers are after it already, and as I have but two stands of it, 

[20] 



I at once made cuttings from the growing plants, and so can supply the 
demand. 

"As 'Sunshine' was nearly sold out last year at $3.00 per plant, and 
as I shall not have half the number of plants of this one, I feel justified 
in letting them be sold at $3.00 per plant — -two for $5.00. I have had 
many orders already. 'Sunshine' may be sold at $2.00 per plant, or 
$3.00 per tuber — two tubers or three plants for $5.00. The money this 
year goes to Mrs. H. B. Binsse, Short Hills, N. J., for use among the 
war sufferers. Her sister has upward of a thousand Belgian and French 
refugee children on her estate at St. Briac in Brittany, and I know that 
every cent goes direct to help them. 

"'Sunshine' received another certificate from the Bronx Botanical 
Gardens in September. 

"I have had a very clever man take Paget pictures of both dahlias, 
duplicates of which may be bought from him at $1.75 a piece. His 
colors are very fine, particularly of 'Sunshine.' His name and address 
are Mr. P. O. Gravelle, 114 Prospect St., South Orange, N. J." — Mrs. 
Charles H. Stout. 

Mrs. Russell Tyson writes from Rice Farm, Brattleboro, Vt.: 
"It was dark and rainy when I was called at half-past five yesterday 
morning, but I armed myself with umbrella and rain-coat and started 
off shortly after six o'clock with some companions to attend the National 
Dairy Show in Springfield, Mass. 

" It was about half-past ten when we reached the Coliseum in Spring- 
field, and they had just begun the judging of the wonderful Guernsey 
cattle brought from different parts of the country. Those of Mr. W. 
W. Marsh, of Waterloo, Iowa, of F. P. Frazier and Son, of Ipswich, 
Mass., of the Brandon Farms in Groton, Mass., and of the Duluth 
Farms in Duluth, Minn., took many of the premiums. We walked around 
among the different cattle in their stalls, visited the machinery hall and 
the farm products exhibitions, and after luncheon, consisting of sand- 
wiches, milk, and pickles, which we ate on the baseball grand-stand, we 
saw the prizes awarded to the winners of the judging contest of butter 
scorers. Pennsylvania college men were first, with the Iowa State 
University second. Many universities and schools are adverse to 
competitions and the awarding of prizes, but I cannot help feeling that 
the youth of the present day need a certain stimulus. The interest 
shown by the boys and girls under eighteen in the competitions for 
domestic and agricultural products certainly demonstrated the en- 
thusiasm which these competitions aroused. Such exhibitions are not 
only instructive, but some of them very beautiful. The careful arrange- 
ment of the fruit and vegetables, the modern equipment for the dairies 
and stables, the machinery for rapid handling of produce — everything 
was demonstrated most efficiently. 

"We could not stay through the evening session, but the parade of 
animals was a wonderful sight which repaid us for arriving home on a 
very late train. I wish that more of our women farmers might have 
attended Guernsey Day at the National Dairy Show." 

Miss Harriet B. Bradner has just completed a study of Industrial 
Farm Colonies for Women Prisoners, made under the joint supervision 
of the Department of Agriculture at Columbia University and the Na- 
tional Committee on Prisons. Miss Bradner has visited farm colonies 
in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Massachusetts, and has 
gathered much information which the National Committee on Prisons 
will make available to those interested in the development of colonies 
for women prisoners. 

Miss Katharine Jones, a new member in California, writes: "Miss 
Willa Cloys has just handed me the paper you so kindly sent recom- 

[21] 



mending my name to be added to the roll of the Woman's National 
Farm and Garden Association. I promptly signed my name, and am 
proud to do so, as I think it is a move in the right direction. I feel more 
and more that the small home garden is a problem for the women land- 
scape gardeners, as the men seem to know little and care less for the 
color harmony in gardens, and in fact do not care to handle problems 
that bring in such small financial returns. 

"Then again it is a great thing for women to be associated in such a 
movement, for I am strongly convinced that women must stand to- 
gether shoulder to shoulder in order to secure proper recognition. 

"The 'Herbs and Vines,' written for Bailey's Cyclopedia, was hurriedly 
written, and I feel very keenly its shortcomings, but I must say that 
there are many women here in California who are well able to write in- 
telligent articles were they rightly encouraged." 

Mrs. E. B. Murray, of Ballston Lake, N. Y., says: "I am especially 
interested in amaryllis and crinums. I have probably over ioo bulbs in 
nearly as many varieties. I have a large flower garden — too large. 
I cannot handle it nor can I give up one inch. I keep spreading every 
year! Also a large and interesting collection of house plants, con- 
taining many choice southern plants, obtained largely in exchange. 
I would be glad to help the Association in any way I can by my pen." 

Mrs. Frederick Schultz, of New York, writes: "Growing rhubarb 
for profit in a basement can be successfully accomplished with little 
expense. In the fall, after the first frost, dig out large clumps. Sprinkle 
a layer of earth about two inches deep. Place the clumps of rhubarb on 
this, packing them close together. Then sprinkle earth over the clumps 
to fill up empty spaces and cover all about two inches deep. Keep 
moist in the beginning so the crowns do not shrivel. Water once in 
fourteen days and until thoroughly soaked through. Always give water 
in the daytime. 

" In a short time the white shoots will come out — very tender. When 
twelve inches long they can be cut and put in bundles for market, where 
they will bring good prices. The clumps will continue to yield until the 
outdoor crop is ready. They can be replanted in the garden for out- 
door growth the following season, and other crowns taken up in the 
fall the same way. 

"The writer has had experience in the marketing of rhubarb, having 
been engaged in market gardening, and growing rhubarb is a very lucra- 
tive business. Linneus is a very early variety, and Victoria a large late 
variety." 

NOTES 

American Horticulture Advancing. — Two uncommonly inter- 
esting lists of plants have lately appeared in this country, under enticing 
names. "New and Rare Plants," sent out by the Messrs. Farquhar, 
of Boston, is a treasure-house of potential beauty. It offers for the 
first time in this country many shrubs, trees, and creepers hitherto seen 
only in the Arnold Arboretum.. "Choice and Rare Hardy Plants," a 
list issued by our member, Mrs. Wolcott, of the Wolcott Nurseries, 
Jackson, Michigan, is the second of this wonderful pair of catalogues. 
This deals with perennial plant subjects principally, although shrubs 
and vines are not left out. I venture to say to those whose chief inter- 
est is spring gardening, or who are planning or imagining rock-gardens, 
that this is their list. Nineteen varieties of Dianthus may here be found, 
thirty of Campanula, a dozen Ambretias, nearly all new on this side of 
the sea, and as many Primulas as Campanulas. Grown in the vigorous 
climate of Michigan, these will flourish in any northern garden, and too 
much praise cannot be given to firms who venture forth as these have 

[22] 



done. Such things raise the level of fine gardening in this country, and 
serious amateurs will recognize and respond to the movement. — Mrs. 
Francis King. 

Can American Women Grow Endive? — Last summer imported 
endive sold in our great cities for a dollar a pound and more, no domestic 
product being available at any price. It has been asked whether this 
vegetable cannot be grown commercially in this country, and why not. 
Members who have knowledge on this subject will please communicate 
their experiences to the editors of the Quarterly. 

Potato Importers Warned. — Washington, Oct. 4. — With the potato 
crop so short that thousands of bushels must be imported, the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture today issued a warning to importers of the strict 
regulations to be complied with. For the present, permits will be issued 
only for the ports of Seattle, Portland, Ore.; San Francisco, Minne- 
apolis, Port Huron, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. 

Attention is called to the quarantine against imports from the United 
Kingdom, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Newfoundland, and the Islands 
of St. Pierre and Miquelon on account of potato wart or black scab. 
Potatoes from other places are not barred. 

Shakespeare Garden. — All New York city members are urged to 
visit the Sheakespeare Garden in Central Park, near West Seventy- 
seventh Street, and to interest themselves in its preservation. The garden 
fills a need that nothing else in the Park has met, and it would be a 
great misfortune for the public to lose it. 

Donations to the amount of $15.25 have been received toward the 
support of the Shakespeare Garden, but as the full amount has not yet 
been completed, your Secretary will be glad of further contributions. 

The National Agricultural Society is the result of an important 
movement for the improvement of agricultural conditions throughout 
the country. The founders are some of the most active men of the 
country, and their design is to "Nationalize American Agriculture," 
to serve as a clearing house of agricultural problems, to record progress, 
and to act as a non-partisan sponsor for all national movements leading 
forward in rural affairs. James Wilson, of Iowa, becomes its president, 
and Theodore N. Vail, of New York, its vice-president. The directors 
are men famous in their own lines and States. 

Dahlias. — At the fall exhibition of the American Institute and the 
American Dahlia Society, held in New York, more than 10,000 blooms 
were shown by 300 exhibitors. The largest blossom, nearly eight inches 
in diameter, was a coral cactus, the "Valiant"; the smallest was a 
pompon, the "Belle of Springfield." 

The seedling selected from six competitors to be named after "Mrs. 
Gertrude Dahl Mordecai" was a pale primrose pink, a beautiful peony- 
flowered variety. It was staged by Mrs. Charles H. Stout, Short Hills, 
N.J. 

Mrs. Mordecai, of Charleston, S. C, is the only living descendant of 
Professor Dahl, after whom the dahlia is named. 

At the autumn show of the Short Hills (N. J.) Garden Club this 
dahlia occupied a premier position. 

Work of the Royal Horticultural Society.— In war time it is 
the duty of every one too old for active service to do his best to maintain 
trades and industries, among which horticulture in its various branches 
occupies a by no means inconspicuous position. The following shows 
what is being done in England: 

"Our Society issued an appeal to the public to increase the general 
food supply of the country by planting a larger part of their gardens 

[23] 



(and all waste land) with vegetables. This we did by means of a letter 
to the Times the very day after war had been declared, and it had a 
magnificent result. Following closely upon this we circulated a hundred 
thousand flyleaves advising what and how to plant, and how to preserve 
fruits, etc., for winter use. Subsequently we published a pamphlet 
giving instructions how to obtain an autumn crop from lands generally 
left fallow after the summer crops have been gathered in. Since then 
we have supplied the French and English camps at Salonika with vege- 
table seeds, and the base hospitals in France and Flanders with bulbs 
and flowering shrubs, and plants and seeds to brighten the surroundings 
of our wounded men. We have also been asked, and gladly undertaken, 
to cooperate with the Committee charged with the laying out of the 
various cemeteries behind the lines where the bodies of the fallen rest. 
The Council of our Society very seriously debated the question whether 
to give up our shows or not. The matter was found to resolve itself 
into the question : Would the great national industry of gardening suffer? 
It was unanimously felt that it would, and we therefore considered 
it to be our duty to help to maintain the industry by continuing our 
shows, though on a smaller and more limited scale than heretofore." — 
W. Wilks, Sec, R. H. S. 

Women on the Land. — The Spectator (London) prints a letter en- 
couraging able-bodied women of England to apply for situations on the 
land. We print part of it: 

"Sir: While economy is being preached to us on all sides, there is one 
obvious form of economy which cannot be sufficiently emphasized — 
that is, the saving of the home-grown food supply of this country. For 
this purpose very soon the only labor available will be women's labor. 
The Women's National Land Service Corps has been asked by the Board 
of Agriculture to do all in its power to speed up the recruiting of edu- 
cated women, and to procure for them practical short war-trainings on 
the land. One farmer writes that unless he can have ten women to 
work for him by the middle of April, he cannot 'drop' any potatoes 
for this year. We hear of many farmers selling their cows to the butcher 
for want of milkers. It is unnecessary to labor the point. We want 
strong, healthy, educated women under thirty-five, fond of animals and 
outdoor life, to come forward and give their services as farm workers on 
the land, at the local agricultural rate of pay, for the duration of the war. 
Application can be made to the Organizing Secretary, Headquarters of 
the Corps, 50 Upper Baker Street, London, N. W. 

Teutonic Women. — The leading women of Germany, Austria, and 
Hungary, not satisfied with their daily duties, are making plans for the 
part that they must assume in the affairs of their respective countries 
after peace has been declared. These women propose to increase their 
household efficiency, to the end that children may have the benefit of 
thoroughly sanitary surroundings and every helpful advantage for de- 
velopment into men and women of sound minds and sound bodies. 

This convention of women lends its authority to the creation of organ- 
izations of women throughout the kingdoms of Europe, the purpose of 
which is to teach women how to raise domestic animals, and how to pro- 
duce the best of vegetables and fruits. 

Some Specimen Trees. — The A merican Botanist in a late issue calls at- 
tention to the recent effort by the American Genetic Association to locate 
and identify the largest American trees. This resulted in the discovery of 
a sycamore or buttonwood (Platanus occidentalis) which is more than 
42 feet in circumference and 150 feet high. Other large trees reported 
were a valley oak (Quercus lobata), 37 feet in circumference, a chestnut 
(Castanea dentata), 35 feet in circumference, a tulip tree (Liriodendron 

[24] 



tulipifera), 34 feet, a sassafras (Sassafras variifolium), nearly 16 feet, a 
pecan (Carya illinoensis), 10 feet, and a catalpa (Catalpa speciosa), 16 
feet in circumference. The largest elm reported was the "great elm" 
at Wethersfield, Connecticut, which is about 28 feet in circumference. 

Farm Fencing. — The cost of a good general-purpose farm fence con- 
structed from durable materials, according to United States Agricultural 
Department Bulletin 321, should be approximately as follows (excluding 
interest on the value of the land occupied by the fence): 

First cost: Per rod 

Line posts: red cedar, hedge, locust, cement, or steel 

(1 rod apart) $0.28 

Ends and braces: cedar, hedge, locust, cement, or steel 

(every 40 rods) 125 

Woven wire, 10 strands, 47 inches high, stays 12 inches 

apart, all No. 9 40 

Barbed wire, 1 strand placed 4 inches above top of the 

woven wire 035 

Staples 005 

Labor cost of construction 09 

Total $0,935 

Annual cost of upkeep: 

Repairs, including the cost of keeping the fence row 

clean $0,024 

Interest, at 5 per'cent. on average investment ($0.4675) .023 
Depreciation, estimating that the life of the fence is 22 
years 043 

Total $0,090 



New Plants from China. — The third expedition into China to dis- 
cover new plants suitable for introduction into the United States has 
been completed by F. N. Meyer, plant explorer of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, who recently returned to Washington after 
a three-year trip in the far East. As a result of this expedition through 
the center of China, of the many specimens secured, the specialists re- 
gard as most significant the jujube, a fruit new to this country, which 
may be suitable for use in the Southwest; a wild peach resistant to 
alkali, cold, and drought, the root system of which offers great possi- 
bilities as a grafting host; certain Chinese persimmons, larger than any 
hitherto known in this country; a number of aquatic food roots and 
vegetables which offer promising possibilities for the utilization of 
swamp land; some thirty varieties of vegetable and timber bamboos; 
and a number of Chinese vegetables, bush and climber roses, shrubs, and 
trees. 

The wild peach discovered in China, and now brought to this country 
for the first time, is considered of great interest, although its fruit is not 
desirable. Investigation in its native habitat showed that the roots of 
this plant are not as susceptible as our native peach to alkali in the soil, 
while it will withstand cold and does not require much moisture. Ex- 
periments are under way, therefore, to determine the usefulness of the 
rootstock of this peach for grafting with different hardy American 
varieties. If success is achieved, the specialists believe that they can 
develop peach trees which will make possible the raising of peaches in 
the Southwestern or alkaline sections. 

[25] 



Of special interest also are the collections of aquatic food plants se- 
cured in the recent expeditions. These include water chestnuts, water 
nuts, and a number of aquatic bulbs, as well as the water bamboo. The 
Chinese, the explorer found, have mastered, through centuries of ex- 
periments, the process of using swamp lands for the raising of food crops, 
and their success is believed to point to commercial possibilities for some 
of our swamp regions where reclamation by drainage is not practicable. 

To lovers of flowers the new Chinese rose known as the Rosa xanthina 
should be of special interest. This bush has small, light yellow flowers, 
but its great quality is its hardiness which will enable it to flourish in 
the North even as far as Canada. The chief promise of this rose, how- 
ever, lies in the fact that it will in all probability lead to the production 
of new hardy types of yellow roses adapted to cultivation in America. 
In addition, the explorer found a number of new rambler roses, par- 
ticularly certain yellow ramblers, which, if locally successful, will meet 
a demand for a climbing rose with a flower differing in shade from the 
crimson and pink flowers of the well-known rambler varieties. — Gar- 
deners' Chronicle. 

Diseased Plants. — All parcel-post shipments of plants or fruits 
into the State of California must be delivered to the quarantine in- 
spector for examination. The importance of this was shown in one ship- 
ment from Atlanta, in which was found a garden plant carrying, by 
actual count, 1,282 larvae of the citrus white fly. Citrus white fly was 
introduced into California at Marysville about eight years ago, and when 
it was discovered, every tree. in the vicinity was denuded of its leaves, 
the total expense being something like $5,000. — Suburban Califomian. 

Horticultural Risks. — Professor J. G. Sanders, in an address before 
the American Association of Nurserymen, which appears in the July 
number of the Suburban Califomian, presents forcibly the danger to 
horticulture from the importation of diseases with imported stock. 
The chestnut blight from China, the citrus canker from the Orient, the 
San Jose scale, the pine shoot moth from Europe, and many more, have 
all come in, he says, with a few comparatively worthless trees. 

"At a meeting of the American Association of Official Horticultural 
Inspectors held in Columbus, Ohio, January 1, 1916, the Assistant 
Entomologist of New Jersey offered a report on ' Introduced Insect 
Pests Recently Established in New Jersey.' This list included more 
than twenty species of insect which have been imported and have re- 
cently become established in New Jersey." 



NEW BOOKS 

Productive Farm Crops. By E. G. Montgomery. Phila. Lippin- 
cott. [C1916.] 501 pp. Illus. $1.50 net. 
The author endeavors "to develop the fundamental principles of crop 
production, as demonstrated by practical experience." The various 
cereals are taken up, corn (to which nine chapters are devoted), wheat, 
oats, barley, rye, buckwheat; cotton; flax; potatoes (Irish and sweet). 
The root crops, forage crops, and grasses of various kinds, besides the 
legumes and tobacco. Intended primarily for use among students, the 
book is of reference value also to the practical farmer. 

Fight for Food. By L. A. Congdon. Phila. Lippincott. [C1916.] 
207 pp. D. $1.35 net. 
A popular presentation of the many problems in the fight for pure 
and "sanitary" food. Interestingly written and very informing, par- 



[26] 



ticularly as to adulterations and misbranding, both of food and drugs, 
and as to the enforcement of the various food and drug acts. Attention 
is also paid to sanitation and the sanitary handling of food-stuffs. 

Roses for Home Gardens. By F. L. Mulford. Farmers' Bulletin 
No. 750. 
Of general interest to gardeners, and of much practical value to rose 
growers. The cultural directions are plain and simple, and the advice 
as to planting good. 

Agriculture after the War. By Alfred D. Hall. London. John 
Murray. 1916. 137 pp. D- 3 sh. 6 pence. 
Preparedness in agriculture is preparedness of the wisest kind, and is 
in this compact volume exemplified in the wisest way. Mr. Hall is a 
Commissioner under the Development Act, and Director of the Roeham- 
stead Experiment Station. He knows conditions thoroughly, and deals 
with them frankly. That many of the vast estates of England and 
Scotland will be divided after the war in order that England may be 
more nearly self-feeding seems to him a necessity. The reclamation of 
bog, peat, swamp, and sandy lands is proved possible. In many re- 
spects the volume is worth consideration by Americans, though written 
exclusively for England. — E. C. W. 

The Agricultural Digest is a new magazine published under the auspices 
of the National Agricultural Society. Its scope is given in full on page 
54 of the June-July issue, and promises much of wide-spread interest 
and value. The copy before us contains thirty pages of important in- 
formation for farmers, and is profusely illustrated. No line of interest 
is neglected, and the magazine is certain to win favor among agri- 
culturists. 

The third Bulletin of Peony News has appeared. It contains the pro- 
ceedings of the American Peony Society at its fourteenth annual meet- 
ing, last June, the list of members, a discussion of the newer foreign 
varieties, and other matters of interest. For copies apply to A. P. 
Saunders, secretary, Clinton, N. Y. 



[27] 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 

ADVERTISING COLUMN FOR MEMBERS ONLY 

Rate ten cents per agate line. Not less than Jive lines nor more than ten 
lines accepted at this rate. 



UTILITY Poultry for Women. Suc- 
cess in small plants. For practical 
advice apply to Mrs. T. S. Homans, Van 
Cott Ave., Hempstead, N. Y. 

MY OWN preserved fruits, jellies, 
jams, and conserves. Send for 1916 
price list. Mrs. Geo. W. Alexander, 
Meadowlark Farm, Amityville, Long 
Island, N. Y. 

GARDENS planned now will be ready 
for spring planting. Special atten- 
tion given to color and succession of 
bloom in flower gardens and shrubbery 
beds. Entire grounds planned Lecture 
on Roadside Planting. Clara M. Boltz, 
328 Pelham Road, Germantown, 



Phila., 



/GARDENS— Practi 



service ten- 
- dered. Two graduates of The School 
of Horticulture, Ambler, are prepared to 
plan, plant, and manage gardens large or 
small; especially fitted to care for orna- 
mental trees, shrubs, and perennial plants. 
Emily Exley, M. Frances Shinn, 235 
So. 11th St., Phila. 

HOMECRAFT '• Food Products. 
Pure jellies, jams, marmalades, con- 
serves, and pickles made to order. Our 
"Family Box" at $10.00 contains an 
attractive assortment of above varieties. 
Mince meat SI. 00 per qt.; $11.00 per doz. 
Send for price list. Marys Garden, 
Wakefield, Mass. 

YE OLD English Christmas Plum 
Pudding. Made to order from 
genuine old-time recipe. Sixty cents per 
pound. Mary A. Homans, Van Cott 
Ave., Hempstead. N. Y. 



THE Blanchard Christmas Gift Box. 
This daintv, attractive box contains 
a selection of choice bulbs for home 
culture. A charming gift for all flower 
lovers. Sent with your card enclosed for 
50 cts. Postage 10 cts. extra. Annie 
R. Blanchard, 17 Hillside Ave., Melrose, 
Mass. r . . , _, ,. 

Circular of Select Varieties of Bulbs 

fo r Home Culture on application. 

RS. S. A. BROWN offers the follow- 
ing lecture of special interest to 
Garden Clubs: 

HERBS. 
(.4) The Garden of Enchantment. 
(B) The Commercial demand for drug 
and dye plants. 
155 W. 58th St. New \ ork. 

VIRGINIA Hams. Delicious jams and 
pin money pickles. Write for prices. 
G. Mathews, Gardener, Hillcrest, 
R. F. D. 2. Richmond, Va. 

ESTHER HAWLEY'S Bran Cookies. 
A laxative both children and grown- 
ups delight in; made of choice materials 
bv careful women in a light, airy bakery. 
One box (2 dozen packed in tin), 35 cents; 
3 boxes, $1.00. Sent by prepaid parcel 
post. 35 Pearl Street, Boston, Mass. 



PERENNIAL Flower Garden. Old- 
fashioned hardy plants, Iris, Peonies, 
and Dahlias a specialty. All stock guar- 
anteed true to name and color. Cata- 
logue sent on request. Mrs. S. Wm. 
Briscoe, R. F. D. West Nyack, New York. 
ROFESSIONAL advice on the es- 
tablishment and management of 
large or small poultry plants. Miss 
Alice Lavinia Day, New Canaan, Conn. 
HITE Star Cranberries. Beautiful 
specimens of a native American 
fruit greatly improved under cultivation. 
A revelation in size, beauty, and delicious 
flavor. Donor's card enclosed in gift 
boxes. Will carry to any part of U. S. 
Four quarts for $1.00, recipes included. 
Postpaid within the second zone. Eliza- 
beth C. White, New Lisbon, N. J. 

RS. WALDO RICHARDS'S Garden 
Readings for Garden-Lovers given 
in- or out-of-doors. Programmes chosen 
from old and modern Poets and Authors. 
For detailed information please write 
Miss Caroline Lewis, 120 East 31st 

Street, New York City. 

RANCES DUNCAN'S Gardencraft. 
The ideal Christmas gift for garden- 
lovers. A joyous and fascinating pas- 
time which interests gardening folk from 
eight to eighty. Gardencraft for Chil- 
dren, $3.50; Garden Planning Set, $2.00 
(for grown-up gardeners). The Chicken 
Farm, $1.00. Gardencraft Toy Co., 

1 Milligan Place, New York City. 

OGWOOD NOVELTIES. As-Best- 
OS Ash Trays; My Own Garden 
Records; Long Distance Phone Records. 
Neatly boxed Christmas trifles at mod- 
erate prices. For further particulars, 
address G. C. Hamlin, Greenwich, Conn. 
strong 
:hick- 
Mrs. 



'ANTED, by March 1st, 



ens, and milch goats on small farm. 

J. H. Watson, Wycombe, Pa. 

LD English sheep dogs, Ayrshire 

cattle, sweet butter, guaranteed 

fresh eggs. Mrs. Edward Parker Davis, 

Bewl ey Farm. Newtown, Bucks Co., Pa. 

CAPABLE woman, two seasons' ex- 
perience in vegetable and flower 
garden, would like position. Any local- 
ity. Would prefer work with poultry, 
bees, or in greenhouse. Miss Sadie E. 
Scott, care of Secretary W. F. & G. Ass n, 
600 Lexington Ave., New York city. 

slides and photographs 
gardens colored for 
lecturers. Slides furnished if desired. 
H. H. Westcote, 521 West 111th St., 
New York City. 



T ANTERN 

J-' of flowers and 



PEKINGESE— the most popular and 
fascinating dog — hardy, affectionate, 
quaint; uncanny in intelligence, pathetic 
in their devotion. Peking Kennels — the 
largest breeder of Pekingese in America, 
all colors. Prices most reasonable. Dr. 
Mary H . Cotton, Mineola, N. Y. 

All Advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 

Members' Advertising Column Continued 



PRONOUNCING HANDBOOK OF 
PLANT NAMES. Compiled for 
the Minnesota Garden Flower Society, 
by Mrs. H. A. Boardman, 598 Lincoln 
Ave., St. Paul, Minn. Price, 25 cents. 

"L7VERY AMATEUR GARDENER 
-L-' needs one of our Kneeling Cushions 
with Tool Bag Attachment. When kneeling 
upon the cushion to weed or plant the bag 
lies open at the side. Or it may be closed 
and hung upon the wrist when standing. 
Christmas orders mailed in holly boxes. 
Price, 13.50 each; special terms to clubs. 
K. C. Co., 254 Cedar Road, New Rochelle, 
N. Y. 



Members are securing 
good results from this 
page — what have you 
to offer in February? 



Plant Now 

Select your Peonies from the Choicest 
Collection to be found either in This 
Country or Abroad, and plant before the 
ground freezes. You will be amply repaid 
another summer. 



CATALOGS 



Cherry Hill Nurseries 

(T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc.) 
West Newbury, Mass. 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 




"■ 



't Just Admire Moon's Trees on Other Places 
Plant Them for Your Own Enjoyment 

Your grounds may not be as extensive as these, but that 
doesn't matter, for the very inclusiveness of our assortment and the vigor 
of such plants as make landscapes like this possible indicate how well 
qualified we are to supply trees and shrubbery that give enjoyment to 
owners of smaller places. Q Our descriptive catalogue, filled with illus- 
trations and containing prices, together with many valuable helps for 
planting the home grounds, will be mailed upon request; while those 
who care to tell us of any lawn planting that they have in mind will 
receive the personal attention of such letter-aid as we can give. 

THE WILLIAM H. MOON COMPANY 

Philadelphia Office, 21 S. Twelfth Street Morrisville, Pa. 



New and Rare Hardy 
Plants 

Including 

Trees, Shrubs, and Vines 

Collected 

From the Wilds of China for the Arnold Arboretum of 

Harvard University 



Special Catalogue will be Mailed on Application 



R. & J. Farquhar & Co. 

6 South Market St., Boston, Mass. 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



WOMAN'S NATIONAL FARM AND GARDEN 
ASSOCIATION 

QUARTERLY 



CONTENTS 

Blueberry Culture Elizabeth C. White 

Something New in Vegetables. . . Jessie H. Watson 

Nassau Cottage Association Idalia Provan 

The Society of Little Gardens. . . . Bertha A. Clark 
Interesting Facts About Herbs. Charlotte C. Brown 



February, 191; 



Woman's National Farm and Garden Association 



Founded "to enable women to co-operate in furthering agricultural and 
horticultural interests throughout the country." 

OFFICERS 

President 
Mrs. Francis King Alma, Michigan 

Vice-Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines . .Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee . . Ambler, Pa. 

Mrs. J. Willis Martin . .Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer New York 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer Huntington, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Jean A. Cross 339 Lincoln Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 



Council 
Mr. Bernard M. Baker Miss Hilda Loines 
Miss Emma Blakiston Mrs. Elsie McFate 
Mrs. S. A. Brown Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning 
Mrs. George U. Crocker Miss Louise Klein Miller 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Mrs. M. C. Patterson- 
Mrs. C. W. Deusner Miss E. H. Peale 
Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Francis Mr. George T. Powell 
Mrs. H. B. Fullerton Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw 
Mrs. A. H. Gross Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang 
Miss J. B. Haines Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy 
Miss Margaret Jackson Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 
Mrs. Francis King Dean R. L. Watts 
Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Mrs. Lester Williams 

Office of the Association, 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 
Telephone Plaza 6000 

Copyrighted, 1917, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 

The Quarterly is the official organ of the Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association (formerly the Women's National Agricultural and Horticultural Associa- 
tion), by whom it is owned and under whose authority it is published. President, Mrs. 
Francis King, Alma, Mich.; Secretary, Miss J. A. Cross, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Treasurer, 
Miss L. G. Davis, Ambler, Pa. There are no bond or stockholders. Edited by Miss 
J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa., and Miss E. C. Wood, 7th and Erie Sts., Camden, N. J. 
Published quarterly at Cheltenham, Pa. 

Entered as second-class matter March 22. 191s. at the post office at Cheltenham, 
under Act of Congress of March 3. 1879 



Please detach this sheet and return to Miss Hilda Loines, General 
Secretary , 600 Lexington Ave., New York City. 

How the Association Can Reduce the Cost of 
Living 

The price of everything from paper and ink to butter and 
eggs has greatly increased during the past year and there 
seems little prospect of immediate relief, though Federal 
and State legislators are proposing various remedies. 

Much of the cost seems to be due to unnecessary handling 
of products, and we are told that the average farmer re- 
ceives but 35 cents out of every dollar paid by the consumer, 
whereas the farmer who sells to a direct market gets higher 
prices while his customers pay less in proportion. It would, 
therefore, seem desirable to put our members directly in 
touch with reliable producers, and to that end the office is 
now receiving weekly bulletins of farm to table service by 
express. It would also be glad to have members send in the 
names of farmers or producers whom they can recommend 
as reliable. These will be kept on file, and made known 
through the Quarterly. By this means we shall help 
both the farmers and the Association, and perhaps even- 
tually a strong co-operative society may be the outcome of 
this small beginning. Will all who are interested kindly 
fill in the following blank, and return it to Miss Hilda 
Loines, General Secretary, 600 Lexington Avenue, New 
York City. 

I am glad to recommend as reliable the following firms: 

For butter, etc. — 

Name 

Address ' 

For eggs- 
Name 

Address 

Poultry — 

Name 

Address 

Vegetables — 

Name 

Address 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



Roses! 



Special Pre- Season 
Offer 

Unusually large Holland purchase 
enables us to make these attrac- 
tive offers, in face of rapidly ris- 
ing costs. Roses are fully guar- 
anteed. Send your order at once 
in order to secure these prices. 

Lady Hillington. — Choicest of 
the yellows. Two-year-old grafted 
plant, free flowering. Each plant, 
35 cts. prepaid; per doz., $3.60 
prepaid. 

Mrs. Aaron Ward. — Splendidly 
formed, Indian yellow, of strong 
compact growth. Beautiful under 
all color variations. Each plant. 
35 cts. prepaid; per doz., $3.60 
prepaid. 

Caroline Testout. — Large, full 
globular flowers of bright satiny 
rose. Free and fragrant. Each 
plant, 35 cts. prepaid; per doz., 
$3-6o prepaid. 

White Killarney. — Pure white 
sport with large, pointed buds 
and petals. Each plant, 35 cts. 
prepaid; per doz., $3.60 prepaid. 

Frau Karl Druschki. — The 
White American Beauty. Each 
plant, 35 cts., prepaid; per doz., 
$3.60 prepaid. 

Richmond. — Brilliant crimson 
scarlet. Beautiful in bud form. 
Always in bloom. Each plant, 
35 cts., prepaid; per doz., $3.60 
prepaid. 

Your choice of one each of the above 
for $2.00 

Roses come carefully packed, 
ready for planting. 



Knickerbocker Nurseries 

Lillie Shostac Strunsky 

Member W. N. F. & G. A. 
Englewood - - - N. J. 



When You Want 
the Best 

Seeds, Plants, 
Bulbs 

And Horticultural 

Supplies 

"Get them at Dreer's" 

Dreer's Garden Book offers and 
describes everything worth grow- 
ing in the Vegetable or Flower 
Garden, Greenhouse and Farm, 
also Plants, Bulbs, etc. 288 pages, 
hundreds of fine illustrations, some 
in natural colors, and contains 
valuable cultural notes written by 
experts. 

A copy sent free if you mention 
this publication. 

Henry A. Dreer 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 

Haarlem, Holland 
Grower of 

Choice Bulbs 



Bulbs Imported direct from 
Holland for Customers. No 
supply kept here. Catalogue 
quoting prices in Nurseries in 
Haarlem — free on application. 

E. J. Krug, Sole Agent 

112 Broad Street 
New York 

(Successor to C. C. Abel A Co.) 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Woman's National Farm and Garden Association 
Vol. Ill, No. 3 QUARTERLY February, 1917 

As the Association begins its fourth year of activities, the 
editors of the Quarterly invite the co-operation of the 
members in making the advertising columns of increasing 
value to the Association. 

The editors feel a just pride in the advertisements be- 
cause all firms are known personally to members of the 
Association as being reliable, and are therefore recommended 
to the patronage of the Association. 

Horticulture and agriculture are both in their infancy in 
America, but the garden clubs have been the most powerful 
factor in stimulating an intelligent interest in flower growing 
throughout the country during the past five years. This 
is only the beginning of a wave of interest in gardening and 
farming that is bound to sweep the whole country. 

The readers of the Quarterly are, for the most part, 
amateurs with a keen interest in gardening; and firms will, 
therefore, find it to their advantage to advertise desirable 
novelties as well as standard varieties. 

New York and Pennsylvania firms have been chiefly 
represented so far in the Quarterly, but there are many 
worthy firms outside these localities. The membership 
of the Association is largely distributed throughout the 
country; therefore, the editors ask the assistance of the 
members in forming local Quarterly committees to secure 
advertisements of trees, plants, seeds, fertilizers, insecti- 
cides, tools, etc., from firms whose stock has proved good 
and whose dealings have been straightforward. 

Members can be of great assistance to the editors by 
filling in the blank in the front of this number and returning 
it to the secretary, and by always mentioning the Quarterly 
when writing to advertisers. 

In this way we shall build up a strong advertising sec- 
tion that will prove of mutual benefit to the Association and 
to the advertisers. — Editors. 

BLUEBERRY CULTURE 

Most of us in New Jersey do not associate the name "blue- 
berry" with the delicious fruits of Vaccinium corymbosum. 

[31 



These berries with their small unobtrusive seeds are best 
known to us as "swamp huckleberries," while the huckle- 
berries with large seeds that crackle between the teeth, 
fruits of the genus Gaylussacia, we distinguish as "upland 
huckleberries." 

The cranberry and blueberry plants, while so dissimilar 
in habit, — the first being a trailing evergreen vine, and the 
second a tall deciduous bush with woody stems sometimes 
exceeding two inches in diameter, — belong to the same bo- 
tanical genus, Vaccinium, and have many characteristics 
in common, besides both being native to the swamps of 
the Jersey Pines where the wild cranberry vines are found 
with gander bush, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and other 
plants in the wetter portions; while scattered through them 
on the hummocks or old stumps and on slightly higher 
ground grow the swamp huckleberry bushes. 

Early in 191 1 in the Monthly List of Publications issued by 
the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture was announced the publication 
of a bulletin entitled "Experiments in Blueberry Culture," 
by Frederick V. Coville, which I immediately sent for. 

It proved to be a considerable book of 100 pages, dis- 
cussing broadly the principles governing the growth of 
blueberries in common with cranberries and allied plants 
which differ so widely from the principles governing the 
growth of most agricultural crops. 

To me it was most fascinating reading, for never before 
had I known that the soil of our bogs was acid, as was the 
water of our streams, that it was this which made our bog 
water brown, as in acid water the humus is held in solution 
while in alkaline waters it is deposited and the water 
becomes white. Never before had I known that associated 
with the roots of blueberry, cranberry, and most other 
plants which grow in acid soils is a symbiotic fungus which, 
in some still unexplained way, assists these plants in ob- 
taining the nitrogen necessary for their growth. 

In March of 191 1, Mr. Coville send me from Washington 
a few blueberry plants, seedlings of the best bush, the 
"Brooks," he had up to that time located in New Hamp- 
shire. He visited the plantation from time to time and in 
this way and by correspondence kept me advised as to the 
progress of his experimental work in Washington. When 
in 1914 it became desirable for the Department to try in 
the field a large number of hybrid seedling blueberry plants, 
the testing ground was rented at Whitesbog and since then 
we have co-operated on an extended scale with the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, as represented by Mr. Coville, in its 
experiments in blueberry culture. 

[4] 



In starting our experiments, the first thing necessary was 
to locate some superior plants to begin with. I knew that 
this could best be done with the aid of our people from 
the Pines who made a business of picking huckleberries. 
During the season they visit thousands of plants in the 
course of each day's work, and it would be a simple matter 
for them to mark for me the occasional exceptionally fine 
bush they found. 

The first season, that of 191 1, I spoke to one man about 
it and he selected three bushes for me. The summer of 

1 912 several people were interested so I had some rude 
gauges made and 20 or more plants were marked while in 
fruit, to be moved when the dormant season arrived. By 

1913 I had my plans for locating plants quite perfected. 
For each huckleberry picker who was interested I provided 
a neat little aluminum gauge 16 mm., or a trifle less than 
$4 of an inch, in diameter, three two-ounce jars for samples 
of the largest berries on a bush, and a paper of typewritten 
directions. In the jars were wooden plant labels for the 
bushes and there was also a bottle of a weak solution of 
formalin, 15 parts of water to one part of formalin, to keep 
the berries in good condition. 

The finder was to receive a dollar for marking any bush 
the largest berry on which would not drop through the 
gauge, and in addition be liberally paid for the time spent 
in guiding me to it. 

That summer, however, my hopes were doomed to dis- 
appointment for a severe frost while the plants were in 
bloom almost wiped out the crop of wild huckleberries, and 
apparently only one bush with the berries was left unin- 
jured in New Jersey; at least that was all that was marked 
for me. 

Fortunately, the bottles and gauges were not perishable 
and kept perfectly for the season of 1914 when I was really 
embarassed by the number of plants marked. There were 
about 60 of them, and in November, after the plants had 
become dormant, I spent three weeks in superintending the 
digging. The plants were scattered over a wide area; 
some down at Jenkin's Neck, eight miles below Chats- 
worth, some near Vincentown, some in the neighborhood of 
Cranberry Hall, and in almost any swamp between. Five 
bushes a day was the very best I could accomplish, more 
often it was less. 

For 19 15 and 1916 I raised my offered price for bushes, 
but required that there be at least five berries on the bush 
that would not drop through the gauge. 

I have tried moving the dormant huckleberry bushes both 

IS] 



in the spring and in the fall, and find that either time does very 
nicely if the plant is easily accessible; but, as a rule, the au- 
tumn is the more convenient season. The swamps are slow 
to freeze and slow to thaw ; in consequence, there are usually 
several weeks between the time the leaves fall and the 
freezing of the ground, while in spring the time between the 
thawing of the ground and the starting of the new growth 
is very brief. The swamps are also much wetter in the 
spring. 

It is almost, if not quite, impossible to move a well- 
developed huckleberry bush as a whole. Not infrequently 
the mass of roots is so large that it would require four or 
five men and special apparatus to move the entire plant 
even if it were growing in open ground instead of in the 
tangled swampy thickets where it is most frequently found. 
Then, too, the roots are usually so interwoven with those 
of other plants that even if it were otherwise practical, 
the moving of the plant as a whole would make impossible 
the clean culture that we wish to practise. 

At first the larger pieces of root from these wild bushes 
were planted directly in the field, with a part of the top left 
on, if it could be done; the smaller pieces of root, and the 
portions of the top pruned away were made into tubered 
cuttings, and planted in cold frames according to the method 
developed by Mr. Coville. 

Experience has proved not only that it is better to leave 
no top in connection with these roots, but that it is best to 
cut the entire plant, root and branch, into small sections 
and start them as tubered cuttings; even the chunks of 
root as large as your fist. 

When a piece of root is planted directly in the field, it 
sends up from two to a dozen or more sprouts which really 
make from two to a dozen or more independent plants all 
crowded into one hill. When treated as a tubered cutting 
these sprouts are divided as soon as they are well rooted, at 
the end of the first season, and each is given sufficient space 
to develop to perfection. By the latter method we get the 
first fruit from the new plants a year later than by the first, 
but we get more plants and the plants not being crowded 
together develop more rapidly to a condition where they 
are capable of producing a commercial crop. 

The finding and moving of these selected wild bushes 
has been an expensive as well as a troublesome business. 
On an average the bushes have cost considerably more than 
$5 apiece delivered at Whitesbog. After arriving there, 
each bush has been treated as if it were the one and only 
best blueberry bush that ever grew, and from it have been 
[6] 



propagated as many new plants as our knowledge of the art 
of cultivating blueberries at the time permitted. 

The plants from the 6o-odd bushes located the summer of 
1914 have not yet fruited in the field. Of the plants from 
the 36 bushes located before that time there are only two 
stocks which we consider sufficiently good to propagate 
extensively, and five or six lots of plants have been entirely 
discarded. One because of its susceptibility to spring 
frosts, others because of disagreeable flavor, poor texture 
of the fruit, undesirable habit of growth, or some other ob- 
jectionable characteristic. 

The land we are using for our cultivated blueberries is 
of the kind known to cranberry growers as "savannah 
ground"; that is, the land between the swamps and the 
upland, too wet to permit large growth of the pines and 
too dry for the best development of the swamp cedar, and 
therefore comparatively treeless. The dwarf laurel "Kal- 
mia angustifolia " is one of the most characteristic plants 
of the "savannah ground" in Burlington County. This 
land has a thin layer of peat, from two to six inches deep, 
overlying the sand. 

The best method we have found of preparing this land 
for blueberry culture is first to cut and burn the brush and 
any small trees there may be; next to turf out the lower 
spots which carry a thick heavy growth of gander bush, 
the roots of which could not be turned under with a plow. 
At least a year before the land is to be planted, and prefer- 
ably in July or August, we plow deeply with a new ground 
plow; this turns the turf completely under and puts the 
white sand on top. The following summer we go over the 
ground a number of times in several directions, first with 
a disc harrow and then with a smoothing harrow, sometimes 
using a scraper to help work the high spots into the de- 
pressions. This work is done whenever the teams are least 
needed elsewhere. By September, thirteen or fourteen 
months after the ground was plowed, it should be in ex- 
cellent condition for planting. 

We have planted on land where the plowing was done only 
three or four months before; but the longer period of pre- 
paration is much more satisfactory, for the wild growths can 
be so much more thoroughly killed. These wild growths 
include unselected swamp huckleberries and many other 
plants with foliage so similar to the blueberries that they are 
not recognized as weeds by the men who do the hoeing, and 
so make more trouble than an equal number of plants of a 
different nature. 

The blueberries are planted four feet apart in rows eight 
[7] 



feet apart. It is our intention later to take out the alter- 
nate plants leaving the spacing eight by eight feet. None 
of the plants in the field has as yet nearly reached their 
maximum size, but it is already plain to me that the maxi- 
mum size will vary greatly with different stocks. I pre- 
dict that in years to come when different varieties of blue- 
berries have become standardized, as varieties of apples 
are now, they will be found to fall into several distinct 
classes for each of which a different spacing will be found 
most desirable. 

At Whitesbog the blueberries occupy four different fields, 
all of which come under the influence of reservoirs main- 
tained at a higher level for the benefit of the cranberry bogs. 
The ground is underlaid by a hard pan, two to two and 
one-half feet below the surface, and the water percolating 
through the soil from the reservoirs follows above this hard 
pan and profoundly influences the water content of the soil 
for half a mile or more below the reservoirs. Thus, the 
blueberries at Whitesbog are in a manner subirrigated. 
For a considerable proportion of the planting there it has 
been found necessary to install tile drainage. The be- 
havior of the blueberry plants in the field clinches abso- 
lutely the fact established by Mr. Coville's work in the 
greenhouses at Washington, that thorough drainage and 
aeration of the roots are quite as necessary to the welfare 
of the blueberry plants as an adequate supply of moisture. 
They will not flourish where the soil is at all soggy. 

We keep our blueberry plantings cleanly cultivated and 
the plants flourish best in those portions of the field where 
during the summer the surface of the soil is loose, dry, white 
sand. As I showed the cultivated blueberry plants to one 
of my piney friends who had located some of the wild 
stocks, it was a curious sensation to hear him talk of the 
"huckleberry swamp'' in which we were walking, with our 
feet burned by the hot dry sand. 

By scratching up a little of the sand, however, you would 
find the soil damp within two inches of the surface and the 
peaty layer turned under by the plow in a condition of 
moisture not unlike that existing in the spagnum moss and 
loose, partly decayed leaves and vegetable matter on top of 
some old stump, where in their native swamps the wild huckle- 
berry bushes find conditions most favorable for their growth. 

I believe that the proper balancing of irrigation and 
drainage will always be one of the most important problems 
to be solved by the man or woman who undertakes the com- 
mercial cultivation of blueberries; a problem which in its 
details will vary in each case. 
[81 



We do not yet know that our method of solving the irri- 
gation and drainage problem will meet the needs of varying 
seasons, and even if it should in our case it might not be the 
best method for persons undertaking blueberry culture 
apart from a cranberry bog already supplied with reservoirs. 

We have done little fertilizing. Where the peaty layer 
turned under by the plow is two inches or more thick the 
plants grow very vigorously without it. Portions of the 
blueberry fields, however, had an exceedingly thin turf 
plowed under and as on these portions the plants were much 
less vigorous than elsewhere, early last summer we applied 
rotted peat turf to two rows, and treated others to an ap- 
plication of our cranberry fertilizer, leaving check rows in 
between. At the present time there is little choice between 
the rows which received the fertilizer and those which re- 
ceived the rotted turf, but both have made a much more 
vigorous growth than the check rows. 

The fields first planted to blueberries had two compost 
heaps in them a year or two before we became interested 
in blueberries, and in another place a little lime had been 
thrown. Although we cleared away all the compost and lime 
that we possibly ceuld before the blueberries were planted, 
the bushes on these spots have never flourished, remaining 
small and stunted, with red sickly leaves; the spots where 
the lime was thrown being worse than the sites of the com- 
post heaps. This again corroborates the results of Mr. 
Coville's work in the greenhouses at Washington. The 
sites of the compost heaps are also the only spots where 
ordinary weeds have given us trouble. 

As yet there has been no insect damage sufficiently ex- 
tensive to necessitate remedial measures, but I have no 
doubt that as the plantation grows larger and the balance 
of nature is thereby disturbed we are going to encounter 
difficulties similar to those with which the growers of all 
other fruits contend. 

There are two insects, each of which has caused the death 
of a number of plants by feeding on the roots, the cranberry 
root worm and a species of white grub. 

The larvae of many insects feed upon the leaves, including 
two of the three cranberry fire worms, the yellow head, and 
the red striped. Among the leaf feeding larvae is one which 
appears especially dangerous; a black and yellow striped 
worm which works in colonies, each member of which erects 
head and tail in a threatening manner the instant its host 
plant is touched. Very small when hatched, these worms 
grow to nearly two inches long and they eat every vestige of 
foliage as they feed. The cranberry flea beetle has also 

[91 



seriously injured a number of plants by its work on the 
foliage. 

There are several borers which kill the branches of the 
blueberry plants; a weevil, which eats into the blossom 
destroying the tiny green berry, and two larvae which in- 
fest the ripening fruit. Any one of these insects might be 
very serious if not kept in check. The blueberries are also 
subject to attack by various scale insects. Being opti- 
mistic I trust that their natural enemies will long keep these 
potential pests down to moderate numbers. — Elizabeth C. 
White, New Jersey. 

SOMETHING NEW IN VEGETABLES 

For all lovers of novelties in food and garden there are 
new vegetables that are rapidly gaining in popularity. 
Many of these are from the Orient, mainly Japan: 

Pe-tsai, or celery cabbage, from China, is possibly the 
greatest favorite. It can be used in several ways. The 
outer leaves may be boiled and served as spinach or as 
slaw, and the inner leaves or heart make an excellent salad. 
Pe-tsai does not head as ordinary cabbage, but is long, 
cylindrical in shape, and not firm. It is easily raised, but 
does not transplant well. For a spring crop, seed must go 
into the ground as early as possible, for the warm weather 
tends to produce seed. For fall use, plant about the first 
of August and harvest after the first light frost. Leave 
the roots on and hang in the vegetable cellar. 

The Japanese turnip, perhaps, is next in favor. It is a 
rapid grower, is snowy white, and of a much milder flavor 
than our native turnip. It makes a tempting dish, either 
creamed or mashed, or served as cream of turnip soup. 

The greatest novelty is the Japanese Udo. It is ready 
for use earlier than asparagus, and if heavily mulched with 
straw may be gathered at Christmas time. The young 
shoots must not be allowed to become green or the flavor 
will be strong. The shoots are blanched by any convenient 
method. Udo has a piney flavor that may be removed by 
peeling the shoots and soaking them in cold water. It can be 
served in many ways. Chipped on lettuce as a salad it is 
excellent, but if allowed to stand in the dressing any length 
of time it will become stringy. 

There are also many other vegetables from Japan that 
have a milder flavor than our native sorts — onions, leeks, 
eggplants, peppers, carrots, peas, etc. The writer has just 
received a packet of Japanese squash and pumpkin seed for 
experimental work, also a new radish from Holland. 
[10] 



The Japanese radishes grow to an enormous size, and are 
a wonder as well as being very edible. If planted late in 
the season, they will keep well into the winter. 

The Japanese climbing cucumber needs no introduction 
as its excellent qualities have been known to vegetable 
lovers for some years. Also the Japanese long runner bean 
has been upon the market. The very long and curious 
shaped pods are unusually stringless and of a rich flavor. 

There are other vegetables not generally in the markets 
that, were they better known, would be very popular. 
Swiss chard I think is the most deserving of praise. It is 
cooked and served as spinach. It grows about a foot and 
a half tall, and may be planted very early in the spring and 
all summer in succession. A slight frost does not effect it. 
In fact, I gathered some in my garden just before Thanks- 
giving last season. 

Among the new salads is the garden sorrel. This is a 
perennial, and may be planted in any partially shaded 
corner. It has a delightful, piquant flavor, and when 
served with lettuce is delicious. It may also be cooked, 
but if served alone is a little too tart. If used one- third 
sorrel with beet greens or Swiss chard or spinach you will 
find it delicious. Garden cress is another excellent salad 
and better than water cress. It is very hardy, may be 
planted in a succession, raised in boxes at the kitchen win- 
dow in winter, or in a hot bed. 

Many do not know that the Department of Foreign Plant 
and Seed Introduction at Washington is very ready to send 
seeds and plants, either flower, vegetable, or fruit, for ex- 
perimental work. — Mrs. Jessie H. Watson, Pennsylvania. 

NASSAU COTTAGE ASSOCIATION 
The Nassau Cottage Association is a group of earnest 
women of Nassau County, N. Y., interested in girls. Last 
October, Nassau Cottage, a real home, was opened to them 
in Hempstead. Here, girls are trained in all branches of 
homemaking and gardening. The work is so planned that 
each girl in turn serves a month as kitchen maid, laundress, 
waitress, cook and chambermaid. She learns how to sew, 
to mend, and make her own clothes, to upholster, paint, 
and whitewash. She spends some time each day at her 
studies, and learns to care for children. As the girls qual- 
ify, positions are found for them, and the mistress, as well 
as the maid, has to live up to her agreement when she takes 
the girl into her home. Before going to work, a girl is fur- 
nished with a proper working outfit, and pays for it from 
her first earnings. 

[HI 



But to the garden ! In the spring a sad looking lawn was 
spaded, plowed, and planted by the girls. No man has 
taken any part in our garden. Man's sole contribution has 
been discouraging advice. But the okra, over which he 
sadly shook his head, has grown and flourished, the tomatoes 
have tipped the scales at from ^ to i^ pounds, and 25 
other vegetables have rewarded our efforts. Meanwhile, 
the girls have grown strong and straight and self-reliant, as 
they have left their secrets with Mother Nature and started 
life afresh. — Idalia Provan, New York. 



THE SOCIETY OF LITTLE GARDENS 

The Society of Little Gardens was founded in May, 1914, 
in order to form a Garden Club among those whose only 
garden was a city yard. 

But, as membership rules were discussed, the question 
naturally arose whether a tree on the front pavement, a 
vine growing over the house, a window box, a house plant, 
or an aquarium might not constitute a right to member- 
ship quite as fully as a flower bed. And it was decided that 
any growing thing, no matter how insignificant, rendered 
its owner eligible to the city Garden Club. Meanwhile 
so much interest had been shown in the scheme and so many 
wished to join, that in a comparatively short time the small 
club has become a large one. Aquaria, bird lore, wild 
flower protection, and bee-keeping had been included in its 
activities; branches had been formed, and the name of 
The Society of Little Gardens had been chosen. 

As it now exists, the principal aim of the society is the 
city, village, or roadside made beautiful by means of 
growing things, and to attain this end it includes any and 
every activity that may serve its purpose. 

In Philadelphia already much has been accomplished. 
Several blocks have been planted with trees, ugly back- 
yards have been transformed into flower gardens, and a 
taste for artistic garden architecture is being developed. An 
exchange for plants has been established, and sales have 
been held in the poorer parts of the city. The Society has 
been asked to hold sales next spring in some of the factory 
districts, where no flowers are obtainable, and has been 
promised the use of some of the public school yards for the 
purpose. It is hoped that the happiness of growing flowers 
may thus be brought into the lives of those who most need 
it. A competent teacher has been engaged, who, on re- 
quest, visits the Little Gardens Centers, and gives lectures 
or garden instruction to the members. Public lectures are 
[121 



given, a back-yard competition has been held, and a win- 
dow-box movement has been created. 

But probably the best work has been done in the Southern 
States, where, through the instrumentality of a monthly 
letter, written by Mrs. Lindsey Patterson, for the "Pro- 
gressive Farmer," hundreds of women living in isolated 
places and on farms have become interested in the move- 
ment, and are planning to beautify their homes, their yards, 
and their roadsides. 

The Society of Little Gardens now aspires to become 
national, and therefore invites not only every individual 
interested in its aims, but every Garden Club and Village 
Improvement Society to join it. 

If all such societies had some bond of union, no matter 
how slight, what might not be accomplished by their co- 
operation ! 

The Society of Little Gardens offers itself as the clearing 
house, and its small "Bulletin" as the medium for the ex- 
change of plans and ideas. 

On request, leaflets will be sent or information will be 
gladly given by the Secretary, 2215 Spruce St., Philadelphia. 

Any Group can become a Branch of the Society by the 
payment of 25 cents a year. There are no rules to be 
obeyed, nor obligations involved, as it is realized that each 
locality is the best judge of its own needs. — Bertha A. 
Clark, Secretary. 

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT HERBS 

That there is a market awaiting anyone who will under- 
take the cultivation of certain herbs suitable to the locality 
of the grower is a fact which has been brought to our minds 
by the marked increase in the price of household as well as 
medicinal herbs. The various State experimental stations, 
as well as the Federal Government, issue pamphlets with 
full instructions as to market value, commercial possi- 
bilities, cultivation, and harvesting of many of the herbs 
or vegetable drug plants that have been pushed aside or 
given in up foreign countries owing to the conditions of war. 

One has no excuse to sit with folded hands and sigh for 
"new lands to conquer" when a perfectly good business 
and great possibilities are so close at hand. The restric- 
tion put upon importing castor-oil beans, for instance, 
has given their cultivation a good future for American 
growers, as the oil is used for aeroplanes and the demand for 
it is growing. 

The "Journal of the New York Botanical Garden" for 
[13 1 



August, 1915, (from which the following quotations are 
taken), gives some valuable data as to a list of "promising 
drugs that could probably be cultivated successfully about 
New York." Among these are : 

"Atropa belladonna (leaves and roots used) which before 
the war was difficult to obtain in sufficient quantities, and 
now has greatly increased in price. 

"Spigelia marilandica, used as a vermifuge. 

"Arnica montana, used in large quantities. 

"Cascara sagrada. The amount of bark that is used 
annually is almost incredible, and the native supplies are 
being rapidly exhausted. It must ultimately be cultivated. 

"Capsicum or Cayenne pepper. Very profitable for 
Florida; there is a limitless demand for it. 

"Aspidium (male fern). A very important drug, and 
largely used; grows in rich mountain soil. 

"Larkspur (delphinium). There is a large, steady and 
permanent demand for this seed. The plant grows well in 
such soils as these of central New Jersey and Long Island. 

"Caraway, coriander, dill and fennell are used in enor- 
mous quantities, and can hardly be produced in excessive 
amounts. They are to be regarded as staple farm crops." 

It is interesting to note that during the three months 
July, August, and September, 19^5, there were imported 
into the United States anise, 108,982 pounds; caraway 
1,067,246 pounds; castor-oil beans, 110,121 pounds; flax- 
seed, 5,693,172 pounds. Any one of these may be culti- 
vated here with an assured market for the harvest. 

One can hardly credit the statement made by Farmers' 
Bulletin 663, "Drug Plants under Cultivation," that this 
country averages "40 tons of dandelion annually imported," 
or that "of orris (the root of the Iris florentina) are im- 
ported approximately 500,000 pounds annually." 

One could quote indefinitely, but this article aims merely 
to suggest to the reader the growing of many drug plants 
that have hitherto been imported, thus offering an interest- 
ing activity for women in outdoor life, as well as giving our 
country its place in "home preparedness." 

A few figures as to the increase in price of drugs from 
the wholesale market of April, 1916, are of interest: Castor 
oil, 15 cts., increased to 33 cts. per pound; camphor, 40 
cts., increased to 55 cts.; belladonna, 36 cts., increased to 
$1.90; digitalis, 45 cts., increased to 80 cts.; rhubarb, 55 
cts., increased to 70 cts.; aconite, 35 cts., increased to 55 
cts.; balsam of Peru, $1.95, increased to $5.20. — Charlotte 
Cowdrey Brown, New York. 

[14] 



The following song was given by a quartet of men's 
voices at an enthusiastic meeting held at Aiken, South 
Carolina, to consider methods of escaping the ravages of 
the cotton boll weevil which threatens the entire South. 
Influential citizens and farmers crowded the opera house 
and greeted the song with applause. The speakers sug- 
gested the raising of crops other than cotton, mentioning 
the fact that timothy hay from Canada commands $30.00 
a ton in South Carolina, although South Carolina can raise 
it during nine months of the year against three months in** 
Canada. Rotation of crops, such as sorgum, and rye or 
oats for cover crops, etc., were strongly recommended, 
and the raising of stock was mentioned as most important 
for the South. 

A boll weevil sat on a tender cotton square, 

When a bird came along — then the weevil wasn't there, 

For he gobbled him up off that tender cotton square. 

Sweet was his voice on that tender cotton square. 

Sweet was the juice he drank from the cotton square. 

And happy, happy was the birdy dear 

Who made a meal of him — 

In the morning bright and fair, off the tender cotton square. 

A bold little boy came along with his gun, 

Or perhaps it was only a son-of-a-gun, 

But he killed the poor dickey bird just for fun. 

Sweet was the tune that the weevils sang, 

Sad was the news that the tidings rang, 

And, oh, how cruel was the naughty boy 

Who killed the birdy dear — 

In the morning bright and fair, off the tender cotton square. 

Now the bird is gone and the weevils dance and play 
They laugh, jump, and sing and eat cotton all the day 
We must work hard to kill them, or the farmer has to pay ! 

Sad is the fate that waits the tender cotton square, 

Worse is the lot the poor farmer needs to fear, 

For cruel, cruel is the weevil's stare, 

It'll make you tear your hair, and sell the old grey mare 

In the morning bright and fair. Oh, beware! Oh, beware. 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE 
ASSOCIATION 

Membership Committee — 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Chairman, Batavia, 111. 
Finance Committee — 

Mrs. Lester H. Williams, Chairman, Boston, Mass. 
Publicity Committee — 

Miss Lena M. McCauley, Chairman, Chicago, 111. 
Publications Committee — 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Cheltenham, Pa. 

[15] 



Law Committee — 

Mrs. Thomas P. Ballard, Chairman, Painesville, O. 
Conference Committee — 

Mrs. George U. Crocker, Chairman, Boston, Mass. 
Exhibits Committee — 

Mrs. S. A. Brown, Chairman, 155 W. 58th St., New York City. 
School Gardens Committee — 

Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw, Chairman, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



ASSOCIATION NOTICES 

/ 

The Council meets regularly in the second week on October, 
December, February, April, and June. Members of the Association 
wishing to suggest matters for discussion or of policy are asked to com- 
municate with Council Members or with the General Secretary before 
the first day of the month of meeting. 

The Quarterly is the organ of the Association, and being supported 
by the membership fees, is furnished only to paid-up members. 

The Council has advised the Editorial Committee that only those 
members whose dues for the current year are paid by May 1st are en- 
titled to the Quarterly and that it is to be sent to others only after 
such dues are paid. 

Our membership increases so rapidly and Quarterly pages are so 
limited that it has been thought best not to continue to print the names 
of new members in each number. It is hoped to issue a complete Direc- 
tory of Members every two years and the attention of all members is 
called to this now, that they may be ready to co-operate with the Edi- 
tors in answering promptly the questionaire when it is sent out. 



SCHOOL GARDEN COMMITTEE 

The Committee on School Garden work divided the 
United States into four sections. The object was to find 
out the type of position in school garden work open to wo- 
men, the average salary given, and the auspices under 
which the work was done. The report for the New England 
States only has come in. 

The average salary for workers is $900 a year. These 
represent three types of positions — normal school work, 
where the teacher has both the subjects of nature study and 
gardening; school garden work, where the teacher works in 
connection with the public schools, and farm management, 
where the position requires a woman who understands the 
running of a small farm. 

The following women are engaged in this work in New 
England : 

Miss Susie D. Livers, State School for Girls, Lancaster, 
Mass. Teacher of gardening. 

Miss Persis Bartholomew, Westboro, Mass. Agricul- 
turist, director of seed distribution work of Boston, super- 
visor, of school gardens. 

[16] 



Miss Sarah J. Strange, Keene Normal School, Keene, 
N. H. Teacher of nature study. 

Miss Louise Fay, Waltham, Mass. Supervisor of school 
gardens. 

Miss Annie L. Burke, Brockton, Mass. Supervisor of 
school gardens, teacher of agriculture. 

Miss Adelaide B. Murry, Boston, Mass. Secretary, 
School Garden Association. 

Miss Mary Murphy, Framingham, Mass. Supervisor 
of school gardens. 

Miss Mabel E. Turner, Milton, Mass. Supervisor of 
school gardens. 

Miss Sarah L. Bates, Durham, New Hampshire. In 
charge, Home Economics Extension Work. 

Miss Mary L. Sanborn, Durham, New Hampshire. 
Girls' club work. 

Miss Elizabeth Sawyer, Dover, New Hampshire. Farm 
manager. 

After the report from each of the four sections has been 
handed in to the chairman, the committee will proceed to 
find out from the educational sources thus sorted out just 
what educational and practical requirements are laid down 
for such positions. It is hoped that we may be able to 
raise the standard both for salaries in such positions and 
also of workers. — Ellen Eddy Shaw, Chairman. 

COUNCIL NOTES AND NEWS 

The Council met at the office of the Association on Oc- 
tober 2 ist and December 15th. 

Miss Lena May McCauley, of Chicago, has been ap- 
pointed Chairman of the Publicity Committee. 

The Council announces with regret the resignation of Mrs. 
Charles W. Deusner as Chairman of the Membership Com- 
mittee. Mrs. Deusner's work has been of great value to the 
Association, and she has given her services most generously, 
but now her own work demands her entire attention. 

Less than 50 answers have been received so far to the in- 
quiry slip printed in the November Quarterly, and the 
offers to take stock or help financially were not sufficient 
to warrant the Council, at present, in changing to a monthly. 
The Middle Western and professional members all expressed 
a desire for a monthly, while the non-professional members 
in the East preferred the Quarterly form. Several 
valuable suggestions and offers of help have been received, 
for which the Editors are grateful. As the proportion of 
answers was nearly two to one in favor of a monthly, it 

[17] 



may seem wise to change later on, but the Council would 
like to hear further from the members before making a 
final decision. — Jean Cross, Recording Secretary. 

THE OFFICE AND THE GENERAL 
SECRETARY 

The clerical work has increased so much during the past 
year that it has become necessary to employ a stenographer. 
This will enable the Association to have more of the work 
done through the office where it can be most easily handled. 

The Secretary has taken over the members' advertising 
department, and will be glad to receive advertisements from 
the members. She will also welcome reports from members 
who have advertised, as to the returns they have received. 

If members who have farm or garden produce, including 
butter, eggs, and chickens, will undertake a parcel post 
business through the Quarterly, they will have no trouble 
in getting orders. 

The members' column offers an unusual opportunity to 
the small grower or producer to secure a market at a low 
cost. If her product is uniformly good in quality and is 
sold in a business-like manner, its success should be assured. 

It is unfortunately true that excellent products often be- 
come commercialized and deteriorate in quality after gain- 
ing a name for themselves. Here, as elsewhere, eternal 
vigilance is the price of attaining and keeping a reputation. 

The books and government and State bulletins belonging 
to the Association have been catalogued, so that they are 
now much more accessible and members are invited to make 
use of them. 

Dr. N. L. Britton, of the New York Botanical Garden, 
has presented to the Association a framed set of pictures of 
wild flowers needing protection. The original water colors, 
of which these are a reproduction, were painted by Miss 
M. E. Eaton, a member of the Association. 

The Association wishes to thank the 191 6 Boston Con- 
ference Committee for the gift of an attractive green rug 
for the office. 

The Christmas sale has been a very satisfactory one, and 
has served to introduce a number of new members, through 
their excellent products. 

For another year the Chairman of the Exhibits Commit- 
tee offers the following suggestions: Wreaths of ground pine, 
Christmas bouquets of barberries, alder berries, catbrier 
and other seed stalks, and berries are proving very popular. 
One word of warning! If wild flowers or shrubs are used, 
[18] 



care should be taken to cut the branches and stalks so as 
not to injure the plants. Fish bowls, filled with growing 
ferns and partridge berries, bring a bit of the country into 
city rooms. Bags of dried lemon verbena leaves and laven- 
der are especially welcome to noses that dislike the heavy 
scents of the perfumers. A coat hanger of lavender stalks 
braided with ribbon, sent from California, offers another 
suggestion. Candied fruits are hard to get these wartime 
days, and together with candied orange and grapefruit 
peel in dainty boxes would be sure of a ready sale. We 
suggest to Florida members that they send some guava 
jelly, as that has not yet found its way to the office. 

The Association has taken space at the International 
Flower Show, which will be held at the Grand Central 
Palace, New York, from March 15th to 22d. The Exhibits 
Committee will be glad to hear from members who wish to 
send exhibits, but, as the space is limited, application should 
be made at once to Mrs. S. A. Brown, 600 Lexington Ave- 
nue, New York city. Members may secure tickets at 
special rates on application to the Secretary, Miss Hilda 
Loines, 600 Lexington Avenue. 

The Easter sale^will be held at the rooms, beginning 
March 26th. 

The office is sending to Sutton & Sons, England, for 
special seeds, which will be on sale at the Flower Show and at 
the Easter Sale. 

POSITIONS VACANT 

Director of school gardens. Teacher of gardening. 

POSITIONS WANTED 
Greenhouse manager or assistant, private place preferred. Green- 
house or garden work. Gardening work, can combine with stenographic 
and office work. Undergardener on private place or in a small com- 
mercial house. Vegetable or flower gardening. 

Hilda Loines, General Secretary. 

PERSONALS 

Mrs. Emma Shafter Howard died at her home in San Francisco, 
July 27, 1916. A woman of unusual ability and strong character, Mrs. 
Howard took the greatest interest in everything connected with the 
advancement of women, and particularly in the club and educational 
work of her State. Holding and managing immense agricultural inter- 
ests herself she looked upon co-operation in agriculture as the keynote 
of success, particularly for women. Mrs. Howard had represented the 
State of California more than once at International Congresses in Lon- 
don, Rome, and elsewhere; and in 1899 she was the originator and virtual 
founder of the Women's Horticultural and Agricultural International 
Union, now the Women's Farm and Garden Union, of London. Mrs. 
Howard welcomed the advent of our American society and its principles 
of co-operation with hearty words and genuine enthusiasm, and in letters 

119] 



to and conversations with its founders expressed the liveliest interest in 
its work. 

Miss Jane B. Patten, Instructor in Horticulture in Simmons Col- 
lege, gave four of the series of six garden lectures arranged by the 
Woman's Educational and Industrial Union of Boston for October and 
November. The subjects covered out-door and in-door bulbs, the 
autumn garden and house plants. 

Miss Annie D. White, of Lansdowne, Pa., has been experimenting 
in growing arbutus from seed. 

Miss Hilda Loines, of Brooklyn, has been invited to act as assistant 
editor and vocational counselor on the "Bulletin of the League for 
Business Opportunities for Women," for the year 1917. 

Mr. Charles Moore, Chairman National Fine Arts Commission, 
had a delightful article "Gardens that Inspire Art" in the "Detroit 
Saturday Night," of October 14 last. 

The death of Mr. Bayard Thayer of Lancaster, Mass., last Novem- 
ber is a real loss to American horticulture. At the age of thirty-eight, 
when he established his home on a nearly treeless hill in Lancaster, 
he began to plant trees on a large scale, wisely selecting for his principal 
plantations the white pine and the hemlock, the two conifers best suited 
for New England. Every year these plantations have been extended, 
and now contain several hundred thousand trees. A few years ago he 
made a pinetum which contains representatives of every coniferous 
plant which can grow in Massachusetts. No collection of conifers 
which has been made in the United States has now so great promise of 
beauty and interest. In the Thayer nurseries are growing seedlings of 
all the new Chinese and Japanese conifers raised at Lancaster from seeds 
distributed by the Arboretum, and in these nurseries have been raised 
many of the best of Wilson's deciduous-leaved Chinese trees and shrubs. 

Of the gardens created under the direction of Bayard Thayer — the 
Terrace garden with its unsurpassed Japanese yews, the crabapple and 
lilac gardens, and the Dutch garden with its brilliant display of tulips, 
it is unnecessary to speak here for they are known to all American lovers 
of gardens, and every year when the daffodils and tulips bloom are en- 
joyed by thousands of visitors from all the country round. It is doubt- 
ful if any American has, as a gardener, shown more good taste and imagi- 
nation than Bayard Thayer, or in the short period of less than twenty 
years has accomplished more for the uplift of American horticulture. 
Mrs. Thayer is a life member of this Association. 

LETTERS FROM MEMBERS 

From the Women's Farm and Garden Union, London, England, 
November 13, 1916: "It is my pleasant duty to write and inform you 
that your very kind donation and letter were placed before our Execu- 
tive Committee and also before our Council at their half-yearly meeting. 
In both cases I have been asked to express to you their great apprecia- 
tion of your sympathy and help. We are passing through very trying 
times and our Union is straining every endeavor to be of some use at 
this juncture. 

"We are sorry to say that the leaflets which have been forwarded to 
you have been returned, as the censor refuses to pass them. Under the 
circumstances it may interest you to know that during the present year 
the Women's Farm and Garden Union, together with the branch — the 
Women's National Land Service Corps — which has been started, have 
been the means of training close upon 800 educated women to do work 

[20] 



on the land. This may seem a very small number, but these educated 
women being sent into all parts of the country have been the means of 
drawing out many of the village women, and it is impossible to say what 
the Union has accomplished through its influence. 

"Our editor is doing her best to get permission for the leaflets to be 
sent on to you as usual, and we then hope you will be able to have all 
particulars regarding this work. 

"Again thanking you very cordially, I am, Yours sincerely, 
"Caroline Grosvenor, Chairman Executive Committee, Vice-Chairman 
of Council." 

Mrs. Fred Schultz writes from 3091 Webster Ave., Bronx, New 
York: " In answer to inquiries, in the November issue, "Can American 
Women Grow Endive," the writer, a member, has had success in mar- 
keting endive grown as follows: Sow seed in flats in February; if no 
greenhouse, raise indoors. Never let dry out while germinating, other- 
wise it will be a failure. When the second seed leaf is about an inch 
high, transplant one inch apart each way. Give them all the light and 
sun possible. As soon as weather permits, the young plants can be 
again transplanted outdoors about one foot apart in a little trench, 
which protects them, and keeps them moist. ' White curled endive for 
very early.' When nearly full grown, they must be bleached. This is 
done by gathering the leaves together and tying with yarn or fine string 
to exclude the light and air from the inner leaves in order to prevent 
chlorophyl, and must be done when quite dry or they will rot. Water- 
ing must be done at the roots. Repeat the same with seed sowed out- 
doors about the middle of May, and for succession, sow in June and 
July. White curled fdr early. Moss curled for late. Broad-leaved 
batavia " Escarolla " for fall and winter. Asparagus also is a very lucra- 
tive vegetable for marketing. Any inquiries about the marketing, I 
shall be pleased to answer." 

Mrs. Minnie Lincoln Hansel, of Crawford, N. J., writes: "I am 
a very enthusiastic flower gardener, for nine years or so raising my own 
perennials from seed, etc. For two years past I have made quite a little 
profit from my hardy seedlings, as well as from selling clumps of things, 
as my garden grew too full. I also sell cut flowers — just the old-fashioned 
things — to people who board here in summer or who want something 
suddenly for the table or verandah. The joy, to me, in gardening is the 
doing it all oneself, and it is very little money I have laid out. My 
garden is only a commuter's back- yard, so to speak, probably 50 by 100 
feet, laid out in borders with paths, rose arches, high fence with ram- 
blers, honeysuckles and clematis, all made of rough cedar, all of my own 
designing, and a bird bath of my own creation." 

Mrs. Charles Marshall, of Lancaster, Pa., writes: "I am a back- 
yard-garden enthusiast. In this old town of Lancaster most of the 
houses are built flush with the street line, the gardens extending to a 
considerable depth in the rear, hence they are called back-yards. A 
great many people take little interest in this kind of gardening, because 
the back-yard don't show, so they have the florists fill them up with 
cannas and red geraniums and feel they have done their duty by their 
back-yards. Then they buy, very cheaply, the summer flowers from 
the farmers' daughters, decorate their porches, and sit peacefully and 
crochet. 

"My best friends wonder why I 'slave' in my 'back-yard' when I 
might be sitting in a spic-span dress knitting a pink or a green sweater. 
They don't understand the joy of garden work. To me it is more fas- 
cinating than golf or tennis. Tennis courts are just across the street 
from me in a beautiful park, yet I 'slave' in my back-yard garden." 

[21] 



From Miss Elsie D. Varley: "My work in the summer is going 
around Ossining into the children's gardens at their own homes, advising 
and helping them. The boys get results; crops of potatoes measured 
in bushels, beans, cucumbers. I feel they really fed and helped their 
families and believe that the home garden idea is the only practical one. 
The school garden is merely a demonstration. All the parents highly 
approved of this, as they regarded the boy's garden at home as some- 
thing that was really producing. I live at the big boarding school in 
Ossining and teach also in the three public schools. I have quite a big 
piece of ground in the Ossining School for our girls. I also do a good 
deal in superintending the other part of the garden as well — pruning, 
raising vegetables, etc. We had a very nice garden last year." 

Miss Nora Jamieson writes as follows: "I am working for one of 
the most successful vegetable forcing houses in the country, R. W. Gris- 
wold's place. Ashtabula, as you probably know, is about the largest 
vegetable forcing center, and there should be lots of opportunity to 
learn from observation. They won't let women do much of the work. 
Unfortunately, we have a ten-hour working day which leaves very little 
time to see what is going on in the other plants. I hope to be able to 
manage to make my day a little shorter, but I did want them to know 
first that I was not afraid of the hours or the work. The women (there 
are five of us) clean and sort the tomatoes, wrap and pack them. We 
also trim, prune, and tie the vines. I hope later to work with the let- 
tuce, rhubarb, cucumbers, and mushrooms. They are the only other 
crops Mr. Griswold has. This is a very interesting experiment, but I 
should like to get a position in a smaller place where they grow a greater 
variety and where I would be allowed to do more of the actual green- 
house work. 

"The other women working with me are of the laboring class. They 
are doing this instead of working in the basket or canning factory. They 
are nice women and good workers, planning their work ahead, never 
wasting a moment, and some of them take quite a little responsibility in 
the matter of shipping, etc. I cannot understand their being paid so 
little, 15 cents an hour." 

Since writing the following suggestive words, Miss Palmer, of Provi- 
dence, has acquired her farm of 40 acres. She will be glad to come into 
communication with other women of kindred ideas who are interested 
in her plans. 

"As for the farm I haven't it yet, and one scythe doesn't make a farmer! 
But I will try and tell you briefly what is in my mind. I want a place 
where some troubled spirits from the old world can find a shelter after 
the war — a place with light and air and space where we can support life 
with dignity, if necessary, on lentil soup. (I know how to make lentil 
soup, and this fact gives me confidence to proceed with my idea!) 
Europe has learned far more than we who are young in experience. 
She has learned to suffer and endure; to sacrifice all, if need be, for an 
idea. But she cannot produce the handful of grain that each individual 
needs to keep body and soul together, and so her people must scatter 
to the ends of the earth. (Think of these mountaineers in Switzerland 
who contend with the eagle for the last acres of cultivated earth !) Under 
these circumstances the problem of living becomes acute. When a 
country becomes overcrowded, the stronger and more determined push 
the weaker to the wall. When we look for the cause of the war we must 
bear this fact in mind. Perhaps, as a result of the war, we shall develop 
a race of beings of another type. This is my hope for the future— a 
hope that is based on my war-time observation of men and my reading 
of the new literature. Have you, I wonder, read Dostoevsky's 
'Idiot' or any of Chekhor's stories, or Claudel, the French romanticist? 

[22] 



Their thought is very advanced, but I feel that we must advance with 
it and look the future squarely in the face. What we need is enlighten- 
ment, but of the heart. 

"I am much interested in the Farm and Garden Association. I do 
not feel that mere organizations, numbers, and programs mean anything 
in themselves, but I believe most strongly in co-operation among women, 
and I like the ideas that underlie your program." 

NOTES 

Landscape Architecture. — Courses in architecture and landscape 
architecture for women are offered this year by Mr. Henry Atherton 
Frost and Mr. Bremer Whidden Pond in Massachusetts. The courses 
have been planned to cover normally a period of three years, but the 
length of time will depend very largely upon the application and pre- 
vious training of the student. Work for the year 1916-1917 began 
September 18th, and will end June 16th. 

Business and Professional Opportunities for Women. — A 
series of five monthly conferences on these subjects has been arranged 
by the leading women's clubs, the vocational schools and college ap- 
pointment bureaus in and near Philadelphia, beginning in January. 
Of chief interest to our members is the one on Farming and gardening 
(with exhibits) — general farming, poultry raising, commercial flower 
growing, citrus-fruits, landscape architecture. Thursday, May 10th 
at 4 p. M. At Acorn Club, 1618 Walnut Street. Tickets on sale at the 
Bureau of Occupations, 302 S. 13th Street. Course ticket, $2.00. Sin- 
gle admission, 50 cents. Students' tickets free upon application. 

The Farmers' Loan Bill is deservedly attracting much attention. 
Those of our readers who wish to know of it in detail will find concise 
articles on it in the "Outlook" for September 13, 1916, and in recent 
numbers of the "Survey." 

The Flower Show held at Lancaster, Pa., in November was most suc- 
cessful. Florists from Michigan, Indiana, New York, and other States 
sent exhibits. Sixteen amateurs responded to the invitation to exhibit, 
fourteen of whom were women. Wives and daughters of Lancaster 
farmers raise beautiful flowers for home use and sale. 

The Fourth National Conference on Marketing and Farm 
Credits was held at Chicago on December 4-9. Two thousand farm 
producers, experts and editors, including some women, came from every 
State in the Union to consider such social-economic keynotes as the 
basis of farm credits in the standardization of products as well as in 
legislation, and other equally important matters. The federal farm 
loan act was "heartily recommended to the farmers for the fullest pos- 
sible use." Fully a third of the five days' discussion was devoted to the 
relation of land tenure to the distribution of immigration. None of the 
initiatives of this conference may prove to be more necessary and far 
reaching than a committee on a constructive national immigration pol- 
icy which was launched at the end of the session. Four women, Grace 
Abbott of Chicago, Mrs. Van Rensalaer and Mrs. Mumford of Boston, 
and Miss Robinson of New York, and nine men are on this committee, 
which will strive to promote a really national constructive immigration 
policy. 

The Cocozelle, or Italian Squash, is not nearly as well known as it 
deserves to be, and I am glad to recommend it to the attention of our 
members generally. Either the bush or climbing variety may be 
grown, but my own choice is the bush kind as it takes up less space. 
The squash, itself, is from nine to sixteen inches long and five or six 

[23] 



inches in circumference, and is dark green in color. Cut in thin slices 
and fried, it is more delicate in flavor than egg plant, and is far more 
easily grown. It is also very good when baked in the oven with crumbs 
and cheese. Try it next summer, and you will never omit it from your 
list. Hilda Loines. 

Belladonna. — The University of California issues a Bulletin (No. 
275) on the cultivation of this important herb. After a series of un- 
successful experiments the Agricultural Experiment Station has deter- 
mined methods by which it can be cultivated successfully in regions 
having sunny days and moisture-laden nights, such as the immediate 
coast regions of California. Seeding in canvas-covered seed beds with 
transplanting to the open field insure returns of about 1800 pounds per 
acre of seeds and stems for the first year and a ton for the two following 
years. For the fourth year the yield should be 2200 pounds of the herb 
and 1000 pounds of roots, both dry weight. 

The Queensland Nut. — This nut, macadamia ternifolia, is new to 
many eastern people. It is now being imported in large quantities from 
Australia to California to be grown on the Pacific slopes. The nut is 
about the size of the Persian or English walnut, is one of the most nutri- 
tive and toothsome in cultivation, and the oil has great commercial 
value. 

Profit in Christmas Trees. — "Every farmer in Michigan can 
grow Christmas trees profitably," says Professor A. K. Chittenden, 
head of the Forestry Department of the Michigan Agricultural College, 
in his new bulletin on "The Growing of Trees and Greens for Holiday 
Use." "The stock for planting one acre of Christmas trees will not cost 
much over $124, and figuring interest at six per cent, for five years, the 
total cost would be in the neighborhood of $165. 

"From this a crop of 5,000 trees can be easily produced, providing 
good strong transplants are used, which would sell for nearly $800. 
The college will furnish trees in small numbers for such plantations." 

Woodland Industries. — A number of half-obsolete trades have 
become remunerative in England since the opening of the war. Char- 
coal making, osier-cutting, bark-stripping, faggot-making, and other 
trades are occupying the energies of many people. 

Sheep-Raising. — Wool producers are waging a determined fight 
against "the menace of the dog." Sheep raising means a welcome in- 
crease of both the food and clothing supply, but sheep cannot be raised 
where there are dogs, and dogs are non-producers. Mr. Robert M. 
Carrons makes a strong plea in "Town Development" (New York) for 
the elimination of the dog in favor of sheep. Sheep raising on New 
England farms is a good occupation for women. 

A Rhode Island Garden Club Home. — The Newport Garden 
Association, made up of prominent women of the summer colony, headed 
by Mrs. Charles Frederick Hoffman, is to have a home of its own. It 
was announced that the club had purchased from Eugene F. Sulli- 
van the old Bruen estate that runs through from Bellevue avenue to 
Coggeshall avenue and adjoins the summer home of Mr. and Mrs. 
George L. Rives. The estate contains between 1 1,000 and 12,000 square 
feet of land and will make an ideal place for the garden club's annual 
flower shows and will also permit the establishment of trial gardens. 

Garden Clubs' Work. — The garden committee of the Iris Club of 
Lancaster, Pa., last summer helped the women in the poorer sections of 
the town with their back-yard gardens. The committee supplied about 
75 gardens with plants from their own gardens, and with the generous 
response from the florists about 700 plants were donated to these gar- 

[24] 



dens. The committee visited them every week, and helped the women 
(who were mostly busy foreigners) to care for the plants. This move- 
ment was quite independent of the school-gardens, and its object was to 
try to make every woman — no matter how small her "yard," nor how 
limited her time or purse — feel that she, too, has a part in the City 
Beautiful. The committee intends planting hardy plants in these 
gardens in the fall, to make them as attractive as possible. All the 
women who accepted the plants were grateful, and very much inter- 
ested in caring for them. 

The National Herb-Growing Association. — This Association 
was organized in England January, 1916, and has now 2,000 members. 
Their lecturers have visited 26 places, have taught herb-growing and 
drying, and are supplying 100 tons of herbs to hospitals. Sixty thousand 
instruction pamphlets have been distributed, and a monthly magazine is 
under consideration. A chain of scientifically constructed drying sheds 
will provide places where growers can have their produce dried under 
trained supervision. 

National Market Planned. — Plans for a great "national market," 
through which food products, both for consumption in New York city 
and shipment abroad, will be handled in the latter city under govern- 
mental supervision for the purpose of eliminating the middleman as an 
economic factor, have been announced by Joseph Hartigan, Commis- 
sioner of Weights and Measures of New York city. 

He said a conference would be held in April, which would be attended 
by leading producers and shippers from every State, as well as official 
representatives appointed by the various Governors. 

"The fact that New- York city in itself represents a market of 6,000,- 
000 consumers for food supplies, as well as being the chief distributing 
center for Europe, has interested the producing men of the country in 
this plan purely as a good business proposition," the Commissioner said. 
"It is no attempt to put the middleman out of business by legislative 
means, but a plan to be operated purely on business lines." 

Farm Women in British Columbia. — What four women have done 
to better conditions for the wives of farmers in British Columbia should 
not stop on the northern side of the Canadian line. Under the sanction 
of the Canadian Government, four women were appointed an advisory 
board to the British Columbia Department of Agriculture. Women's 
agricultural institutes, to which farm women could carry their prob- 
lems, were set on foot with results which have remedied many of the 
problems driving women off the farms and into the towns. Frequent 
conferences of the four women of the board with the women living on 
farms have led to such recommendations by the board to the Govern- 
ment as have already made rural life more possible and have checked 
migrations to congested centers. It seems to have paid the Canadian 
Government to get the point of view of women in answering the prob- 
lems of the rural regions in the provinces. 

To Friends of France! — I would it were possible to bring nearer 
home, make more real to your life, a tiny village on the Eastern front, 
such as the one where I first started my chateau-hospital. How can 
one depict the agricultural difficulties that have been obliterated by the 
untiring labor of old men, women, and even of children; to bring vividly 
before your minds the hundreds of humble cottages where the mother 
with tears in her eyes joins the hands of her little ones, and piously re- 
peats with them: "O God, our Father in Heaven, keep papa and our 
big brothers safe and bring them back to us." 

Here all is sadness, hard labor, and resignation. 

From time to time a mounted gendarme rides up to the town hall. 

[25] 



Our mayor, a very old man, talks a moment with him, and as the horse- 
man takes his leave, he hands out a paper which the mayor thrusts into 
his pocket, going with tender heart about his various daily duties, as 
though nothing had happened. 

At nightfall the old man, unaccompanied, glides along the outer walls 
of the chateau, enters by the side door, and directs his steps towards my 
little study, which is now in the possession of my head-nurse and her 
aids. He knocks gently, then enters. He has come so often on this 
sad mission that the words "Which one?" are now superfluous; the 
interrogation in the woman's eyes suffice. 

"It is So-and-so! Dead! Will you come?" 

Silently the nurse dons her dark blue cape, and together they go to 
break the sad news. For alone he finds himself incapable of saying the 
tender word, of proffering the simple gesture that consoles. 

Does it not then seem both fitting and proper that those of us who 
are in sympathy with the glorious French should find some tangible way 
of expressing that sentiment? There are many who feel so disposed, 
but cannot find proper means. Imagine, then, the surprise in a tiny 
township, when, after rolling the drum, the town crier announces that 
some lone sympathetic citizen of a far-off foreign country has taken the 
trouble to write a personal letter to the mayor, praising the valor of 
those at the front, lauding the courage of those who wait! Think what 
a change from the much-dreaded "casualty roll"! 

Therefore, with no other thought in mind than that of making real 
and more human the great bond of sympathy between the sister repub- 
lics, I appeal to each of you, readers of this paper, to write a personal 
letter to the mayor of some little town, anywhere in France. 

It would be my pleasure to supply names of persons to whom one may 
write in English, and for those who do not speak French, a sample letter 
has been printed, which will be enclosed with name on request to 
Madame Charles Huard, 44 Gramercy Park, New York city. 

BOOK NOTES 

Agricultural Commerce: The Organization of American Com- 
merce in Agricultural Commodities. By Grover G. Huebner. 
New York. Appleton & Co., 1915. 406 pp. $2.00. 
This book is designed as a text for college classes, but the general 
reader will find it useful in describing all phases of the marketing process 
and a mine of special information for reference. Two chapters are 
especially valuable: Chapter XIV, on "Collection and Dissemination 
of Crop Reports" and Chapter XVII, on the "Prices of Agricultural 
Commodities," which presents a condensed summary of all the factors 
that affect the price of farm produce. The Bibliographies alone make 
the book indispensable for the farm reference library. — M. P. S. 
Altar Flowers and How to Grow Them. By Herbert Jones. New 
York, 1914. Benziger Bros. Illus. 90 cts. 
The cultural directions in this attractive book apply only to England, 
but the selection of flowers will interest those who are interested in 
church flower production. The book is well written and the typography 
attractive. — E. C. W. 

How to Grow Roses. Conard & Jones Co. West Grove, Pa. Illus. 
121 pp. $1.00. 
Knowing that amateur rose growers are frequently puzzled by the 
technical phrasing of books on rose cultivation this admirable little book 
presents such subjects as soil, drainage, when and how to plant, in such a 
simple way that the most timorous amateur can successfully begin her 
desired rose garden. Species for a variety of purposes are listed, selec- 

[26] 



tions for various parts of the United States are offered, and various 
forms of classification add to the value of the book. — E. C. W. 
Markets for the People. By J. W. Sullivan. New York. Macmillan 
Company. 1913. 316 pp. $1.25. 
A rambling, unsystematic, and delightfully interesting book. The 
author collected data about markets while acting on a Commission of 
the National Civic Federation. The markets of Paris, Berlin, and Lon- 
don are described and contrasted with American city markets. The 
author believes in co-operative distribution, and holds a special brief 
for the street market, the so-called "curb-stone" or "push-cart" mar- 
ket.— M. P. S. 

College Women and Country Leadership. By Jessie Field. Pub- 
lished by the National Board of the Young Women's Christian 
Association, 600 Lexington Ave., New York. 59 pp. 25 cents. 
This excellent study of what is needed, what may be done, and what 
is being done, will prove an inspiration to every reader. The author 
has a thorough knowledge of country needs, an anecdotal style in telling 
us how to meet these needs, and a personal acquaintance with many of 
the college women who are quietly and wisely dedicating themselves to 
the uplift of their own neighborhoods. Every country college woman 
should possess a copy. — E. C. W. 

Women and the Land. By Viscountess Wolseley. London. Chatto 
& Windus. 230 pp. Illus. 
Since the war has taught England that it is a national necessity to 
become independent of imported food, much has been done toward an 
intelligent knowledge of possibilities. Viscountess Wolseley sums these 
up in a most convincing way, though her pleasant, almost colloquial 
style, may hide her depth and breadth of knowledge from the reader. 
Deprecating the dangerous "individualism" of most of the farmers' 
wives, she shows that co-operation must come that waste may be elimi- 
nated. Peasant ownership she proves, citing conditions in Belgium, 
Holland, and France, to be necessary to interest in increasing peasant 
residence on the land. Her intimate knowledge of details will interest 
organizers as well as owners. — E. C. W. 

The first issue of the Monthly Bulletin of the League for Business Op- 
portunities for Women appeared in December, and is a vigorous paper 
of twelve pages issued at 242 Lexington Ave., New York city. "To 
define the scope of this Bulletin were to define the scope of women's 
work," says the editor, and this opening number makes good her an- 
nouncement in the variety of subjects on which it touches. To non- 
members The Bulletin is one dollar a year. — E. C. W. 
Studies in Gardening. By A. Clutton-Brock. N. Y. Scribner, 
1916. 337 PP- $2.00 net. 
Mrs. King has written the introduction and notes to these very charm- 
ing studies which, although based on English experience, treat so largely 
of the general theory and principles of gardening that they cannot fail 
to be both stimulating and valuable to the American gardener too. A 
pleasant style and gentle wit add great attraction to this book. 
Practical Landscape Gardening. By R. B. Cridland. New York. 
De La Mare Printing and Publishing Co., 1916. 266 pp. Illus. $1.50. 
A book full of most practical advice and directions, especially for the 
owners of suburban homes. Contains excellent planting plans with 
lists of plants to be used, and gives illustrative pictures of the effects 
produced, as well as many timely and concise directions about the right 
and wrong ways of planting. Originally issued in the "Florists' Ex- 
change," the articles have been improved and enlarged, and the result 
is this interesting and valuable little volume. 

[27] 



R. H. S. WAR RELIEF FUND 

Amidst all the vast amount of relief work for the war 
sufferers, there is little which should appeal more keenly 
to the sympathetic interest of Americans than that which 
the Royal Horticultural Society War Relief Fund is under- 
taking. 

Difficult as it is to realize the ravages and misery produced 
by the war, surrounded as we are by beautiful, unspoilt 
scenery, yet we can picture to ourselves to a small extent 
what the agricultural and horticultural conditions of Bel- 
gium, the North of France, Poland and Servia, which have 
been over-run by the armies, must be. The greater part 
of these countries has been laid waste and their commercial, 
agricultural, and horticultural industries destroyed. 

In all these countries cultivation of the land was carried 
on with great intensity. 

In Belgium each district had its own horticultural spe- 
cialty. The land all around the city of Ghent was devoted 
to the raising of flowering plants, and particularly begonias. 

Around Brussels flowers were extensively grown not only 
in the open air, but also under glass, particularly roses and 
lilacs being forced during the winter. 

The value of the flowers and flowering plants alone ex- 
ported in 1 91 3 was over two and one-half million dollars. 
Now most of the beautiful gardens, with their valuable 
glass-houses, in some cases containing priceless collections 
of orchids and other rare plants, have been totally destroyed 
or their cultivation has ceased, as the men are either away 
fighting, or the remaining women and men are engaged in 
procuring the bare necessities of life. Besides these com- 
munities of flower-growers, there are many small holders 
who have specialized in the raising of fruit and vegetables. 

Five million pounds weight of whitloof chicory grown in the 
southwest of Brussels was exported to Paris alone each 
winter, besides vast quantities which were sent in cold 
storage to America. 

Around Aerschot the villagers specialized in asparagus 
growing, and the extent of their industry may be gathered 
from the fact that Malines alone used to take 25,000 bun- 
dles a day, and the smaller local markets each about 5,000 
bundles. Around Louvain the peasants had specialized in 
the raising of early cauliflowers, and around Malines in early 
potatoes and peas — the former being sent mainly to Ger- 
many and the latter to North and South America. 

One hundred and seventy thousand acres, that is to say, 
one-thirtieth of the 5,000,000 acres of cultivated land in 
[28] 



Belgium, were devoted to fruit-growing. Belgium sent 
in 1913 25,000,000 pounds weight of apples to Germany 
alone, besides large quantities to other countries. Vast 
numbers of glass-houses were also erected in recent years 
for the forcing of fruit. 

The Belgium fruit-growers are responsible for introducing 
to the world at large many varieties of choice fruits, in 
particular peas. By a long and patient process they have 
transformed many of the semi-wild hard fruits into the large 
and luscious ones which we now enjoy. In many of the 
countrysides there is — or rather was — hardly a wall which 
was not covered with a beautifully trained fruit-tree — a 
form of fruit-growing in which the French and Belgians 
have excelled above all others. The enthusiasm for fruit- 
cultivation is innate in the people, and was encouraged by 
instructors who visited the villages and country towns in 
order to show the people the advantages of growing fruit 
and how the best results might be obtained. 

The purpose of the Royal Horticultural Society War Re- 
lief Fund is to be able to step in immediately peace has been 
declared and the armies have evacuated the occupied coun- 
tries, and to assist -.the people in starting again their fruit, 
vegetable, and flower-growing industries. The Royal Agri- 
cultural Society is devoting itself to the farming side, which, 
of course, will need help just as urgently, and is working in 
close sympathy with the Horticultural Society. 

On the day war was declared, every able-bodied man 
of military age was called. The French woman stepped 
at once into the breach, and is carrying on the indus- 
tries in a marvelous manner, even working the land 
to a certain extent right up to the firing zone. But 
where the country is devastated nothing can be done until 
peace is declared, and in what a vast area is this the case! 
Agricultural implements will have to be replaced — glass- 
houses rebuilt. Everything must be ready so that the mo- 
ment peace is declared the machine can be set running. 

As far as possible the necessary agricultural and horti- 
cultural implements will be bought on the spot. In many 
cases this will not be possible, and they will have to be sup- 
plied from outside, but in France, for instance, every effort 
will be made to encourage local industries. 

Numbers of men who have been fighting all these months 
will not wish to return to the confining occupations of the 
office or factory, and to them an out-of-door life will appeal 
far more. Every encouragement will be given to them to 
take up farming and horticultural work, especially in the 
case of men in any way disabled. — Ethel Bagg, England. 

The editors of the Quarterly or the General Secretary of the Association will furnish 
further information about this fund on request. 

[29] 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



Do You Know 

What soil produces the earliest crops? 
The best way to lay out your garden? 
Which plants should be started in a hot bed? 
How to prepare a cold frame? 
Which plants will grow best in your climate? 

Thorburn will answer these and many other 
questions for you. Loads of valuable in- 
formation of this nature is contained in the 

1917 Catalogue 

For over a hundred years J. M. Thorburn 
& Co. have been gathering knowledge and 
information about seeds and the best ways 
to plant them. The result of this century 
of conscientious effort is the new catalogue. 
Write now for a 

Free Copy 

Send your request today so that it will reach us before the supply 
is exhausted 

J. M. Thorburn & Company 

Established 1802 

"A century of square dealing" 

53 Barclay St. — 54 Park Place, New York 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 

ADVERTISING COLUMN FOR MEMBERS ONLY 

Rate ten cents per agate line. Not less than five lines nor more than ten 
lines accepted at this rate. 



MRS. WALDO RICHARDS'S Garden 
Readings for Garden-Lovers given 
in- or out-of-doors. Programmes chosen 
from old and modern Poets and Authors. 
For detailed information please write 
to Mrs. Richards, 144 East 40th Street, 
New York City. 

MRS. S. A. BROWN offers the follow- 
ing lecture of special interest to 
Garden Clubs: 

HERBS. 
(.4) The Garden of Enchantment. 
(B) The Commercial demand for drug 
and dye plants. 

155 W. 58th St. New York. 

YOUNG WOMAN with School train- 
1 ing and practical experience wants 
position as under gardener in private or 
institutional vegetable garden. N., care 
Secretary W. N. F. & G. Association, 600 
Lexington Ave., New York City. 
pEACH SYRUP. Pure peach juice 
•*■ and sugar. Woodmere "-Fruit Farm, 
Hector, N. Y. Mrs. H. M. Johnston- 

Wqod. 

LECTURE OF SPECIAL INTER- 
EST on "How Three Women Trans- 
formed a Fruit and General Farming 
Venture from a Failure to a Success." 
For terms, etc., address the following: 
Mrs. E. Spencer Large, care of The 
Young Friends Association, 15th and 
Cherry Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. 

p EAD " Blue-Bird." Published in co- 
AX - operation with the Cleveland Bird- 
Lovers' Association, and devoted to 
Bird Study and Conservation. $1.00 a 
year. 10 cents a copy. Agents wanted. 
Address Editor Blue-Bird, Dept. R., 1010 
Euclid Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 
f^REEN ASPARAGUS by parcel post 
^-* or express at market price may be 
ordered during asparagus season from 
Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer, Huntington, 
Long Island, N. Y. 

LECTURES for Garden Lovers: "A 
Year of Flowers," "The Gardens of 
Yesterday: A Story of Many Gardens;" 
"Everybody's Garden: A Plea for Road- 
side Planting." All lectures illustrated 
with lantern slides if desired. Clara M. 
Boltz, 328 Pelham Road, Germantown, 
Phila., Pa. 



A 



VX7 ANTED: Assistant in a successful 
'" Tea-room on a farm at Amherst, 
Massachusetts, about April first. Ex- 
perience would be valuable to anyone 
interested in establishing similar business. 
Write to Bessie H. Ward, Box 86, Co- 
coa, Florida. 



M 1 



TTALIAN GARDEN SLIDES. A 
x collection of lantern slides of Italian 
villas and gardens, made from unusually 
beautiful photographs, are for rent to 
garden clubs, students or classes in land- 
scape gardening, or to private individuals 
wishing to lecture on "Italian Gardens." 
Annie D. McKibbin, 83 Virginia Ave., 
St. Paul, Minn. 

ISS STURTEVANT extends a cordial 
invitation to all those who are in- 
terested in a spring garden and hybrid 
seedling irises to visit The Glen Road Iris 
Gardens, Wellesley Farms, Mass., during 
May and June. 

p AINBOW CORN, ornamental foliage, 
-^ variegated leaves, striped green, sil- 
very white, rose and yellow. Highly 
effective. One-half oz., 25 cents. Min- 
nie D. Foster, Greycote Gardens, Say- 
ville, N. Y. 

UALITY ROSES. Ophelia; Sun^ 
burst; Killarney, pink and white; 
Richmond Red; Sawyer Pink; Hoosier 
Beauty. Dormant Hybrid Teas, two 
years old. Any Five sent on receipt of 
One Dollar. A little Garden of Roses 
for Five Dollars. Delivery free at proper 
planting time. Failures replaced. Minnie 
Lincoln Hansel, Cranford, N. J. 

GARDENS planted now will be ready 
for spring planting. Special atten- 
tion given to color and succession of 
bloom in flower gardens and shrubbery 
beds. Entire grounds planned. Clara 
M. Boltz, 328 Pelham Road, German- 
town, Phila., Pa. 

/GARDENING.— A course of six prac- 
^* tical lectures on gardening, begins 
Tuesday, February 6th, at 2.30 p. m., and 
continues weekly until March 13th, at 
235 S. nth St., Philadelphia. Course 
ticket, $5.00; single lecture, $1.00. — 
Emily Exley. 

GARDENS.— Practical service ten- 
dered. Two graduates of the School 
of Horticulture, Ambler, are prepared to 
plan, plant, and manage gardens, large or 
small; especially fitted to care for orna- 
mental trees, shrubs, and perennial plants. 
Practical lectures on flowers and vege- 
tables can be arranged for clubs and so- 
cieties. Emily Exley, M. Frances 
Shinn, 23s S. nth St., Philadelphia. 

HARDY PLANTS for the Rock Gar- 
den, old-fashioned hardy chrysanthe- 
mums, iris, etc. All stock guaranteed 
true to name and color. Catalogue sent 
on request. Mrs. Wm. Briscoe, R.F.D., 
West Nyack, N. Y. 



All Advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 

Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture 
for Women 

Groton, Massachusetts 

(Thirty-six miles from Boston) 

Lowthorpe School aims to fit women to practise Landscape 
Architecture as a profession, and offers a three-year course 
in Landscape Design, Planting Design, Surveying and Con- 
struction, Plant Identification, Practical Horticulture and 
Allied Subjects. Catalogs may be had on application. 

Amy L. Cogswell, Principal 

Stumpp & Walter Co.'s Spring, 1917, Catalog 

Our 1917 Spring Catalog is now being mailed. 
Many New and Exhibition Varieties of Flower and Vegetable Seeds are 
offered. Farm and Grass Seeds are also a Feature. Cannas, Dahlias and 
Gladiolus — the best varieties to date. 

Every need for the Farm, Garden, and Lawn is offered. 
Write today for a Copy. 

30-32 Barclay Street, New York 



I 



Burpee's Seeds Grow, 

Burpee's Seeds are grown not only to 
sell but to grow again. 

Burpee's Annual for 1917 
The Leading American Seed Catalog, 

contains 204 pages in colors and better than 
ever, it is a safe guide to success in 
the garden. It is mailed free. Write today. 
A postcard will do. 

,W. ATLEE BURPEE & CO., 

Seed Growers, Philadelphia, Pa 




All advertisers are known personally to members 



1 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



It is of the Utmost Importance that you 
buy of Those Who Can Speak With 
Authority. 

We were among the Pioneers to bring 
New and Rare Peonies before the Pub- 
lic, and have the Best Obtainable. 

Visit us in Mid-June and see for your- 
selves, or, if unable to do so, You May 
With Safety trust your order with us. 

Our aim is to give Better than Promised. 

Large Specimen, Evergreens and 
Ornamental Shade Trees. Choice 
Shrubs and Vines. Iris, Phlox and 
Hardy Garden Perennials in fine 
assortment. 

Cherry Hill Nurseries 

(T. C. Thurlow's Sons, Inc.) 
West Newbury, Mass. 



YouelFs Ne Plus Ultra Mixture 

Is made up from named varieties of various colors (except 
blue) and is recommended with the greatest confidence. It 
will especially appeal to those who want a variety of the 
choice flowers without the trouble of making a selection. Price, 
per doz., postpaid 6oc; per hundred, by express collect, $4.00. 

Mixture of all blue shades, same as above. 

A short and interesting history of the Gladiolus, with full 
cultural directions, will accompany each order. 

H. Youell 
538 Cedar St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



In Sutton's Seed Catalogue 
You'll Find the Unusual 

BY the "unusual" we do not mean necessarily 
novelties, but just good, sensible productions 
that are unusual in their very goodness. Choice 
things you will find in our catalogue that will receive 
a most hearty welcome to every garden. 
Every new thing in this year's catalogue, just as in 
previous years, has stood the Sutton test. That 
means they are choice, dependable, worth-while 
things, every one of them. 

Send 35 cents for our Garden Guide. When your orders have 
totaled $5, the 35 cents will be promptly refunded. 



WINTER SON & 

CO. 

64-K Wall St., 

New York 

Sole Agents East 

of the Rocky 

Mountains 



SuiEGnisrtciiai 



THE SHERMAN 
T.BLAKE CO. 

29-K Sacramento 

St., San Francisco, 

Cal. 



S °of dfe'RocYy 8 ' 



READING, ENGLAND 



lountains 



Horsford's Cold Weather Plants 

Will stand the severest winters unharmed. Old-fashioned Flowers, Hardy 

Ferns, Wild Flowers, Shrubs, Trees, Bulbs, Vines, etc. All grown up in 

Vermont, where winters are of the most rigorous kind 

Send for Catalogue 

F. H. HORSFORD, Charlotte, Vermont 



School of Horticulture for Women 

(Eighteen miles from Philadelphia) 
Ambler, Pa. 

Practical and theoretical training in the growing of Fruit, Vegetables and Flowers. Bees. 
Simple Carpentry. School Gardening. Constant demand for trained women to 611 salaried 
positions. Write for Catalogue. 

Elizabeth L. Lee, Director 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



WOMAN'S NATIONAL FARM AND GARDEN 
ASSOCIATION 

QUARTERLY 



CONFERENCE 
NUMBER 



WASHINGTON 

APRIL 25-27, 1917 



Woman's National Farm and Garden Association 



Founded "to enable women to cooperate in furthering agricultural 
and horticultural interests throughout the country." 

OFFICERS 

President 

Mbs. Fbancis King Alma, Mich. 

Vice Presidents 

Miss Mira L. Dock Fayetteville, Pa. 

Mbs. H. B. Fullebton Medford, N. Y. 

Miss Jane B. Haines Cheltenham, Pa. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Ambler, Pa. 

Mbs. J. Willis Mabtin Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mbs. Schuyleb Van Rensselaeb New York 

Mbs. Susan H. Vollmeb Huntington, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary 
Miss Jean A. Cboss 339 Lincoln Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Treasurer 
Miss Louisa G. Davis Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary 
Miss Hilda Loines 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 



Council 



Mb. Bebnabd M. Bakeb Miss Hilda Loines 

Miss Emma Blakiston Mbs. Elsie McFate 

Mbs. S. A. Bbown Mbs. Fbances Duncan Manning 

Mbs. Geobge U. Cbockeb Miss Louise Klein Milleb 

Miss Louisa G. Davis Mbs. M. C. Pattebson 

Mbs. C. W. Deusneb Miss E. H. Peale 

Mbs. Mybtle Shephebd Fbancis Mb. Geobge T. Powell 

Mbs. H. B. Fullebton Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw 

Mbs. A. H. Gboss Mbs. Elizabeth Leonabd Strang 

Miss J. B. Haines Mbs. B. Hammond Tbacy 

Miss Margabet Jackson Mbs. Susan H. Vollmeb 

Mbs. Fbancis King Dean R. L. Watts 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee Mbs. Lesteb Williams 

Office of the Association, 600 Lexington Ave., New York City 
Telephone Plaza 6000 

Copyrighted, 1917, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 

The Quarterly is the official organ of the Woman's National Farm 
and Garden Association, by whom it is owned and under whose authority 
it is published. President, Mrs. Francis King. Alma, Mich. ; Secretary, 
Miss J. A. Cross, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Treasurer, Miss L. O. Davis, Ambler, 
Pa There are no bond or stockholders. Edited by Miss J. B. Haines, 
Cheltenham. Pa., and Miss E. C. Wood, 7th and Erie Sts., Camden, 
N. J. Published quarterly at Cheltenham, Pa. 

Entered as second-class matter March 22, 1915. at the post office at 
Cheltenham, Pa., under Act of Congress of March 3, 1879. 



ANNUAL MEETING 

The annual meeting of the Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association will be held on Thursday, April 26, in the hall of 
the National Museum, Washington, D. C., at 10:30 a. m. 

J. A. Cross, 
Recording Secretary. 

CONFERENCE, 1917 

The fourth annual conference of the Association will take place 
on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, April 25, 26 and 27, in the 
hall of the National Museum, Washington, D. C. The use of 
the hall is by kind invitation of the Smithsonian Institution. 

The sessions will begin at 10:30 a. m. and at 2:30 p. m. 

The meetings are open to the public, and everyone interested 
in agriculture and horticulture for women is welcome. 

An exhibit of members' work will be held in connection with 
the conference. 

Headquarters of the conference will be in Hotel Powhatan, 
and members of the Association are requested to register there 
on arrival. 

Among the leading hotels in Washington are the Powhatan, 
Lafayette, Grafton, ^and New Willard. 

PROGRAMME 

Mas. David F. Houston, Honorary Chairman 

WEDNESDAY, APRIL 25, 10:30 A. M. 

Mrs. King, President Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association, presiding. 

Address of Welcome, Hon. Carl Vrooman, Assistant Secretary 
of Agriculture. 

"What the Government Will Do for Farmers," Mr. Herbert Quick, 
of the Farm Loan Board. 

"Work of Women's Horticultural and Agricultural Associations 
of England During the War," Miss Ethel Mather Bagg, Spe- 
cial Representative in America of the Royal Horticultural 
Society of England. 

"The Marketing of Women's Products," Miss Anne Evans, of the 
Bureau of Markets. 

1 P. M— LUNCHEON. 

2:30 P. M. 

Mrs. Robert Lansing, Chairman 

"Waste," Mrs. Charles Thompson. 

"Balance in Farming," Dr. Bradford Knapp, Chief of Extension 

Work in the South, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
"Canning," Miss Cresswell. 



[3] 



"How the Government Aids the Farmers," Dr. L. O. Howard, of 
the National Museum and the Smithsonian Institution. 

8 P. M. 

"Development of Washington" (illustrated), Col. William W. 

Harts. 
"Canadian Wild Flowers" (illustrated), Mrs. C. D. Walcott. 

THURSDAY, APRIL 26, 10:30 A. M. 

Mrs. King Presiding 

Annual business meeting of the Association, followed by Round 

Table discussion. 
Address — "Purposes of This Association," Mrs. King. 

2:30 P. M. 

Mrs. Newton Baker, Chairman 

"School Children in Gardening," Dr. P. P. Claxton, U. S. Com- 
missioner of Education. 

"School Gardens in Washington" (illustrated), Miss Susan B. 
Sipe. 

"Japanese Gardens" (illustrated), Miss Eliza R. Scidmore, Foreign 
Secretary National Geographic Society. 

4:30 P. M. 

Garden party at Miss Hegeman's. 

FRIDAY, APRIL 27, 11 A. M. 

Visit to U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

2:30 P. M. 

Visit to Mr. David G. Fairchild's cherry trees, with talk by Mr. 
Fairchild. 



The National Museum is at Tenth and B Streets N. W. Any 
car line will either take or transfer you to it. 

Mrs. C. W. Wetmore, 

An exhibition of members' products will be held in connection 
with the annual meeting. Every member who has produced any- 
thing from the soil, or who works with poultry, bees, or dairying; 
or whose work is in some way an appreciation of horticulture 
or agriculture, is cordially urged to be represented in this ex- 
hibition. If you can't send a sample of your work, send a photo- 
graph of it; if it can't be photographed, write an account of it. 
There is an inspiration for somebody in the least thing that you 
have done in this honest cooperation with the forces of Nature. 
Let us have the benefit of it. 

Please write at once to the Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association, care Hotel Powhatan, Washington, stating what you 
will send and when you will start it. 

[4] 



Woman's National Farm and Garden Association 

Vol. Ill, No. 4 QUARTERLY Apbil, 1917 

WOMAN'S NATIONAL FAEM AND GARDEN ASSO- 
CIATION: ITS AIMS, OBJECTS AND IDEALS 

"America for Americans!" The slogan is as old as the 
"Spirit of '76/' as strong as democracy, as broad as inter- 
nationalism. Crevecceur, the great French-American gar- 
dener, the friend of Washington, president and farmer, voiced 
it in our early days when he told us that "He is an American 
who, leaving behind him all his old prejudices, is prepared to 
embrace new ideas." National unity is founded not on race, 
not on language, .not on creed, but on devotion to a common 
ideal. Believing that the ideal for an American is the prac- 
tice of thrift, the love of beauty, the fitness for service, the 
little group who four years ago founded this organization, 
claimed the right to call it a NATIONAL Association. 

National associations are usually the union of State asso- 
ciations, the center towards which all the rays of the circle 
have naturally converged. We took "Thrift, Beauty and 
Cooperation" for our watchword, and asked all gardeners 
and would-be gardeners who believed with us to join us in 
national service. To the original 100, who at Ambler, Pa., in 
1913 expressed a wish for this cooperative effort, some 1,500 
have been added, and we are ready for 15,000, if each mem- 
ber expresses his or her willingness to serve according to 
power and opportunity. The central organization is here. 
It is radiating through thirty-nine States. It remains with 
the members to perfect the circle. 

Our country, which should be one in its love of liberty, is 
divided by factions — factions of capital and labor, of open 
and closed shops, factions productive of misunderstandings 
which are swept away when we meet on the ground of a com- 
mon cause. Ruskin said years ago: "People who like the 
things that I like belong to the class of society that I belong 
to." Wells's Mr. Britling lived in one social stratum and 
the station-master at Matchings Easy lived in another. But 
it did not take a European war to bring these two together. 

[5] 



They had already met — on the common ground of sweet peas ! 
There are no class distinctions between those who meet in 
their common love of gardens, and the first meeting accom- 
plished, may not the path open to a wider understanding of 
social problems? 

This, then, is our appeal to all who are like-minded: Come 
and help us to make thrift and beauty grow in our national 
life. Do it through the means at your hand — estates, farms, 
market-gardens, suburban flower-gardens, hot-houses, city 
back-lots, window-boxes. Grow something and teach your 
neighbor to grow it, or be taught by her. Qualify to join 
your home garden club. Encourage school gardens, consult 
your county agent. Work with the Extension Service. Work 
with a canning club. Get a partner and cut down the cost 
of living in your neighborhood. Consult the Association 
library for the best books to guide you. Ask the Association 
secretary for advice from a fellow-member who has accom- 
plished that for which you are striving. Offer your help to 
the Association council. The nation, with its gates open to 
all who are fit to serve her or be served by her, calls for 
trained leaders. Whether we can lead or whether we can learn, 
in war or in peace, we must give our lives to her. Trans- 
late then your patriotism into action. Unite with us. In 
Union there is Strength. Out of many, help us to make one. 

A Council Member. 

HISTORY OF THE ASSOCIATION 

The Woman's National Farm and Garden Association was 
organized in January, 1914, under the name of the Women's 
National Agricultural and Horticultural Association. 

A small group of women, successful in different lines of 
agricultural and horticultural work, met together at the office 
of Miss Elizabeth Lee, the Philadelphia landscape architect, 
to form an association which would do for the trained woman 
gardener and farmer in America what the Women's Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural International Union had done for 
the individual gardener and farmer in England. The great 
value of the English societies' work can be appreciated by 
the fact that the English government recognized it, and gave 
it a grant of money in order to train women properly for 
agricultural wartime work. 

The object of the Association has been to enable women to 
cooperate in furthering agricultural and horticultural inter- 
ests throughout the country, and this it has done chiefly by 

[6] 



means of the Quarterly magazine, the Office and the yearly 
Conferences. The Quarterly publishes articles by members 
on practical work in gardening and farming, and has also 
valuable notes on agricultural work, reports of bulletins, etc. 
The Office has held exhibitions and sales of members' work, 
thereby encouraging the small producer and giving her a 
market; it has sent out lists of lecturers to garden clubs, 
helped them to organize flower shows, and assisted them with 
their programs of work; helped members with their farm 
and garden problems, secured opportunities for untrained 
women to learn agriculture — in fact, there are very few de- 
partments of agriculture in which it has not given assistance. 

Through the Quarterly Directory a valuable list has been 
compiled of trained women who would be available for teach- 
ing practical agriculture and horticulture in case of necessity. 

The annual Conferences held at Ambler, 1914; New York, 
1915, and Boston, 1916, have aroused great interest, and 
the practical talks given by women farmers and gardeners, 
and the exhibits of their work — "the fruit of their hands" — 
have proved better, than any arguments that women can suc- 
ceed in the field of agriculture. 

The Association has never made any general campaign for 
membership, but it has made a steady growth, until it now 
numbers nearly 1,800 members. We shall not be content, 
however, until all the women in the country who have agri- 
cultural and horticultural interests are included in its mem- 
bership. 

Hilda Loines. 

THE NEED OF TRAINED WORKERS ON THE LAND 

In a stirring piece of writing in the Quarterly of this 
Association for November, 1915, Miss Mira L. Dock says: 
"What is our Association for? To compare pleasant ex- 
periences, or to recognize that the members of the Associa- 
tion are carrying on its work because they are both trained 
and experienced, and that from such a gathering should 
come a great determination to enlarge every field of useful 
education for those persons who wish to dedicate, not the 
talents of a few, but the energies of the many, to lives of 
usefulness which shall strengthen our country." 

At no time in the history of this country was the necessity 
for trained workers among women so vital as today. Condi- 
tions are such that women as individuals must take a hand 
in providing foodstuffs, in improving marketing conditions, 

[7] 



in lowering high prices ; but without training how can women 
act? 

Moreover, there is no lack of opportunities for training. 
These are here in plenty. Special schools, departments of 
colleges and universities are all at hand ; sometimes, too, prac- 
tical work on farms where scientific methods are practiced, 
in poultry establishments of the same order, or in places 
where other out-of-door occupations may be thoroughly learned. 
No, it is the acceptance of the idea that the trained woman 
in these occupations is the valuable woman ; it is this that we 
need to bring before our members and those whom we want 
as members. It is this that they must realize. 

It has long been an established fact that the trained woman 
is a success in some of the learned professions, in business, 
in library and secretarial work, and in kindred vocations. 
Farming and gardening are newer occupations for women. 
Poultry raising, dairying, market-gardening have only lately 
been recognized as suitable, practicable and profitable for our 
sex. In these directions keen discouragements, money losses, 
are inevitable unless the mind is prepared to meet the ques- 
tions which arise. I quote from another member of our 
Council, Mrs. Vollmer: "The trained woman graduate from 
the agricultural school and the woman with long experience 
on the farm are successes, fully competing with men. In just 
so far as farming is a matter of physical labor, in just so far 
is a woman handicapped by her inferior strength, but so 
far as farming is a matter of knowledge and foresight, or 
bargaining with customers and keeping accounts, trained 
women have a chance." 

Constant requests come to our office for women trained 
in farming and the occupations represented in this Associa- 
tion; these requests, owing to the shortage of labor, surely 
now will grow in volume. To touch upon one need only, 
teachers — trained teachers for school gardening — are hardly 
to be found. The demand is great; the supply almost none. 
We, to whose interested eyes this condition is only too clear, 
feel it incumbent on us to warn inexperienced members who 
now consider launching forth in agricultural directions to 
study where and as they can. 

War or no war, the problems of the land now face this 
country. The office of this Association is in a position to 
point out to those in need of training or experience, places 
where these may be found. We welcome all such inquiries; 
we long for members and yet more members, that through 
the agency of the Association those who desire training may 

[8] 



get it, and that through us again the country's present need 
of well-equipped women workers on the land may be in a 
measure supplied. 

Louisa Y. Kino. 



AMONG OUR MEMBERS 

Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Francis, of Ventura, Cal., is president 
of the Theodosia B. Shepherd Co. (seedsmen). She makes a 
specialty of hybrid petunias, and her creations in fringed 
and double varieties are justly famous. 

Mrs. N. S. Britton, of New York, is a writer and lecturer on 
botanical and plant protection subjects. 

Mrs. Jennie M. Conrad, of Conrad, 111., raises registered hogs 
of the Spotted Poland China breed on a 5,000-acre farm. 

Mrs. C. M. Cooper, of Sewaren, N. J., grows roses and water lilies 
for profit. 

Miss M. H. Shearman raises prize Rhode Island Red poultry at 
Wilmington, Del. 

Mrs. Clark W. Kelly and Mrs. Nellie Richardson operate large 
farms in North Dakota and Iowa, respectively. 

Miss Elizabeth C. White, of New Lisbon, N. J., grows cran- 
berries on a large scale, and is experimenting with blueberry 
culture and improvement. 

Dr. E. L. Lobdell and Miss M. E. Eels, of Chicago, manage pecan 
orchards in Georgia. 

Mrs. E. P. Davis, of Newtown, Pa., runs a large dairy farm and 
raises Ayrshire cattle and Old English sheep dogs. 

Mrs. S. H. Vollmer has truck gardens at Huntington, N. Y. 

Mr. and Mrs. H. B. Fullerton, of Medford, N. Y., are managers 
of the experimental farms of the Long Island R. R. Co., and 
do a large business in supplying "home hampers" to customers 
in New York City. 

Mrs. H. A. Tate, of Old Fort, N. C; Mrs. C. E. Fausner, of 
Brooklyn, and Mrs. C. O. Bell, of Denver, are commercial 
dahlia growers. 

Mrs. C. H. Stout, of Short Hills, N. J., has originated prize- 
taking varieties of dahlias. 

Mrs. T. S. Homans, of Hempstead, N. Y.; Miss L. G. Davis, of 
Ambler, Pa.; Miss A. L. Day, of New Canaan, Conn.; Mrs. 
W. G. Vermilye, of Closter, N. J., are expert poultry raisers. 

Miss Louise Klein Miller, of Cleveland, and Miss Ellen Eddy 
Shaw, of Brooklyn, are prominent in school-garden work. 

Mr. and Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy have large gladiolus gardens 
at "Cedar Acres," Wenham, Mass. 

Mrs. Elsie McFate, of Turtle Creek, Pa.; Mrs. H. W. Wolcott, 
of Jackson, Mich.; Miss Rose Williams, of Newark, N. Y.; 
Mrs. L. S. Strunsky, of Englewood, N. J.; Mes. S. William 
Briscoe, of West Nyack, N. Y., are in commercial nursery 
business, and are specializing in hardy perennials. 



[9] 



Do not fail to mention the Qtjabterly when answering advertisements 

ADVERTISING COLUMN FOR MEMBERS ONLY 

Rate ten cents per agate line. Not less than Jive lines nor more than ten 
lines accepted at this rate 



(GARDENING WITH THE POETS. Mrs. 
^* Waldo Richards has arranged fascinating and 
varied programmes especially delightful for pre- 
senting in Gardens or on Porches; for private en- 
tertaining or before Garden Clubs. For detailed 
information address Mrs. Richards at 144 East 
40th Street, New York City. 

\Y/ ANTED: Housekeeper by teacher owning 
" cottage with modern conveniences and gar- 
den in college town. Address Miss M. B. Mac- 
Donald, State College, Pa. 



...Plant Gladioli Every Month... 

WRITE FOR MEMBERS' 
CLUB RATES :: 

WOMAN'S NATIONAL FARM AND GARDEN ASSOCIATION 

GOO Lexington Avenue, New York City 



SUN DIALS 
GAZING GLOBES 



SHRUB POTS 
WINDOW BOXES 



Qovzfoowi 

INCOR PO R A T E D 
... IMPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS OF ... 

GARDEN ORNAMENTS, FLOWER VASES IN POTTERY AND 

GLASS, SUMMER FURNITURE, PORCH RUGS, ETC. 

342 BOYLSTON STREET 

BENCHES «^„^,^v, T ,» . „„ FOUNTAINS 



BIRD BATHS 



BOSTON, MASS. 



GARDEN FURNITURE 



THE BARN SWALLOW INN, BROOKE FARM 

BROOKEVILLE ROAD. CHEVY CHASE. MARYUND 

The most unique dinner and tea 
house. Visit the quaint old house, 
100 years old, and get your din- 
ner in the orange or blue room. 
Open April 10th. Telephone No. 
Cleveland 60. For further infor- 
mation call at the 

BROOKE SHOP 

730 IStb Street N. W. Washington, 0. C. 



A BIRD BY MAIL 

So cunningly shaped, of 
wood and metal, and so 
truly colored and carved, 
that it almost deceives the 
live birds. Complete with 
stick and metal swivel, for 
use as flower stick, weather 
vane or on shrubbery, in- 

Twenty kinds, a few of 
which are Robin, Creole, 
Cardinal, Woodpecker, 
Swallow, etc., in natural 
colors, life size, finished 
in weatherproof varnish. 

Send a dollar for two. by 
mail, postpaid. w:th price 
list and interesting story of 

THE BIRD STUDIO 
136 Fifth Ave., New York City 




Lowthorpe School of Landscape 
Architecture for Women 

Groton, Massachusetts 

(Thirty-Six miles from Boston) 

Lowthorpe School aims to fit women 
to practise Landscape Architecture as a 
profession, and offers a three-year course 
in Landscape Design, Planting Design, 
Surveying and Construction, Plant Identi- 
fication, Practical Horticulture and Allied 
Subjects. Catalogs may be had on appli- 
cation. 

AMY L. COGSWELL, Principal 

Write for Members' 

Club Rates on 

These^. 

Dwarf Apple Trees 
Climbing: Roses 
White Pines 
Currants 

Woman's National Farm 
and Garden Association 

600 Lexington Avenue 
New York City 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



For Your Poultry 
Runways 

You will find "Buffalo'' Portable Poultry Runways 
helpful. They add to the pleasure and profit of 
poultry raising, on small plots or large country estates. 
Erected by pressing Galvanized steel posts of sections 
in ground. Quickly changed. Permit yard rotation, 
no extra posts. No tools or staples necessary. Add 
new sections as your flock increases. Last a life time. 
Always neat Safely confine Chicks, Rabbits, Puppies 
and any small domestic bird or animal. Sections come 
in three sizes. Write for free booklet No. 67 F on the 
"Buffalo" Portable Poultry Fencing System. 

BUFFALO WIRE WORKS CO. 

f Formerly Scheeler's Sons) 
SOI TERRACE BUFFALO, N. Y. 




Hardy American Evergreens 

FROM APPALACHIAN SLOPES 

Kalmlas, Rhododendrons, Hollies, Leucothoes, Azaleas 

Samples of 12 seedlings, postpaid, $1. Or 2 of each and 6 sward plants, inc. 
Arbutus and Galax, $1. By express, your expense, 12 samples, 1-2 ft. trans- 
plants of above, or of Azaleas, C. Hemlocks, Silver Bells, Tulip Trees, etc., 
well-rooted and burlapped, $2. 

HARDY EVERGREEN GARDENS OLD FORT, N. C, R. I. 



DAHLIAS 



STRONG FIELD ROOTS 

My carefully selected collection of over three hundred distinct varieties of 
the Dahlia comprises some of the most wonderful creations to date. 

For profusion of bloom, quality and size of flowers, my Dahlias are 
unsurpassed. I have exercised a great deal of care and patience in my en- 
deavor to obtain these results, and I have been successful. A trial order will 
convince. Write for 1917 Catalog— Free. 

W. L. HOWLETT, Grower, 208 Thirty-Second St., Norfolk, Virginia 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



APPLY OUR LAWN PLANT FOOD NOW-THIS MONTH. 
It will cause a marked improvement in your lawn throughout the 
=== year at very little cost to you ===== 

TAKOMA ODORLESS PLANT FOODS 

PREPARED ESPECIALLY FOR SUBURBAN NEEDS 



CONCENTRATED — SCIENTIFICALLY CORRECT- 

LAWN PLANT FOOD 

10 lbs., enough for 1000 sq. ft $1.00 

25 lbs., enough for 2500 sq. ft.... 1.75 

50 lbs., enough for 5000 sq. ft 2.75 

100-200 lbs. at 4V 2 c. per lb. 

200-500 lbs. at 4c. per lb. 

500-1000 lbs. at ,3%c. per lb. 

1000 lbs. or more at 3j^c. per lb. 



EFFICIENT— ECONOMICAL— ODORLESS j 

GARDEN PLANT FOOD 

10 lbs., enough for 400 sq. ft $1.10 | 

25 lbs., enough for 1000 sq. ft 2.00 i 

50 lbs., enough for 2000 sq.ft.. 3.25 I 

100-200 lbs. at 5%c. per lb. j 

200-500 lbs. at 5c. per lb. I 

500-1000 lbs. at... 4Hc.perlb. i 

1000 lbs. or more at -.4%c. per lb. I 



Orders shipped by freight or express same day they are received 
Twenty-eight page book, "The Maintenance of Lawns," full of the latest authoritative infor- 



mation, sent free with every order on request 

ODORLESS PLANT FOOD COMPANY 

BOX 7, TAKOMA PARK WASHINGTON, D. C 

Note:— We are the only fertilizer company catering exclusively to the suburban trade 



Each year as our soils become more impoverished the necessity for giving vegetables and flowers 

proper and sufficient food increases. OUR GARDEN PLANT FOOD 

SUPPLIES THIS UNIVERSAL NEED 




j In Sutton's Seed Catalogue 
You II Find the Unusual 

!T3 Y the "unusual" we do not mean necessarily novelties, but 
■LJ just good, sensible productions that are unusual in then- 
very goodness. Choice things you will find in our cata- 
logue that will receive a most hearty welcome to every garden, j 

Every new thing in this year's catalogue, just as in previous ! 
years, has stood the Sutton test. That means they are choice, I 
dependable, worth-while things, every one of them. 

Send 35 cents for our Garden Guide. "When your orders have totaled" $5, the 
35 cents will be promptly refunded. 



WINTER SON & CO. 

64-K Wall Street, 
New York 



Sole Agents East 

of the Rocky 

Mountains 



SUTTON I SONS 

Royal Seed Establishment 
READING, ENGLAND 



THE SHERMAN T. 
BLAKE CO. 

429-K Sacramento 
St., San Francisco, 

Cal. 

Sole Agents West 

of the Rocky 

Mountains 



All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 

THE SCHOOL OF HORTICULTURE FOR WOMEN 

AMBLER, PENNSYLVANIA 

Offers three SHORT COURSES in Practical Horticulture for Amateurs. The 

Course includes Flower Gardening, Fruit Growing, Vegetable Gardening, 

Bee-Keeping, Canning and Preserving, Poultry Work 

Spring Course . 5 weeks, May 15 to June 16 
Summer Course, 5 weeks, June 19 to July 21 
Fall Course ... 10 weeks, September U to November 17 

TUITION:— Spring or Summer Course, $30.00; Fall Course, $50.00 



BULBS—Gladiolus, Tuberoses, Lilies 


ORCHIDS 


Flower—SEEDS— Vegetable 
New and Rare PLANTS 


Largest Importers and Growers of 
ORCHIDS in the United States 

Send twenty-five cents for catalo?ue. This amount will 
be refunded on your first order. 


VAUGHAlSrS SEED STORE 


LAGER & HURRELL 


(CATALOG FREE) 


Orchid Growers and Importers 


CHICAGO NEW YORK 


SUMMIT, N. J. 



PLANT 
KING'S 
HARDY 



OLD FASHIONED FLOWERS 



The old favorites, Columbine, Larkspur, Hollyhocks, Foxgloves, Sweet 
Williams, Phlox and many others, planted now, will take care of them- 
selves and increase in size and beauty each year, and with the proper 
selection you can have a handsome garden with an ever changing color 
from May to December. New catalog lists more than 200 varieties, 
beautifully illustrated, tells you honv to get more pleasure out of your 
garden. Send for catalog and special offer. 



Specialist in Hardy- 
Old Fashioned Plants 



W. E. KING 

Box 352, Little Silver, New Jersey 

Youell's Ne Plus Ultra Mixture 

Is made up from named varieties of various colors (except blue) and is 
recommended with the greatest confidence. It will especially appeal to 
those who want a variety of the choice flowers without the trouble of 
making a selection. Price, per dozen, postpaid, 60c; per hundred, by 
express collect, $4.00. 

Mixture of all blue shades, same as above 

A short and interesting history of the Gladiolus, with full cultural 
directions, will accompany each order. 

H. YOUELL 
538 Cedar Street Syracuse, N. Y. 

All advertisers are known personally to members 



Do not fail to mention the Quarterly when answering advertisements 



Mount Desert's Review 

New and Rare 
Plants of Special Merit 

Mount Desert Nurseries beg to announce the publication of an attractive 
little brochure designed to more intimately acquaint plant, lovers with par- 
ticularly good things among the new or rare shrubs and hardy herbaceous 
plants. Among them will be found some old favorites, rarely met with in the 
modern garden. Others are offered for the first time in this country. 

Special attention has been given to the many remarkable introductions of 
Mr. E. H. Wilson, so well known to Garden Magazine readers through his 
illuminating articles on rare and new plants from China. Our new "Review" 
offers all those which we have been able to secure and propagate within the 
limited time since their introduction. A copy of the "Review" may be had 
free for the asking. 

MOUNT DESERT NURSERIES 

BAR HARBOR, MAINE 







(Erimr Arras 

dlautnlt 

'•Sulha 31ptt llonm" 


Sunnybrook 
Farm Iris 
Garden 

: GROWER OF : 

THE IRIS 


the most beautiful 
hardy flower in cul- 
tivation. Compre- 
hensive collection of 
Standard and New 
Varieties. : : 

Free catalog. 

Mrs. Frances E. Cleveland 

Eatontown, N. J. 







All advertisers are known personally to members 



Woman's N. F. & G. A. 

The Only Girl 
Who Commanded 
A Nation's Armies 

A simple little girl of sixteen played one 
day in a little lost village. The next year, 
in supreme command of all the troops of 
France, she led them in triumph to victory. 
Great dukes bowed before this girl who 
could not read. Sinful men, men who had 
cursed and drank and murdered all their 
days, followed her meekly. 

It is the most dramatic, the most amazing 
story in the whole story of human life. In 
the dim, far-off past, Joan of Arc went her 
shining way in France — and her story was 
never told as it should have been till it 
was told by an American — 

MARK 
TWA I N 

To us whose chuckles had turned to tears over "Huckleberry Finn" — to us who felt the cutting edge of "In- 
nocents Abroad " — the coming of Joan of Arc from the pen of Mark Twain was no surprise. 
We were ready to receive from him this book. It has almost the simplicity, the loftiness of the Bible — it has a 
whimsical touch which makes it human. Mark Twain's Joan of Arc is no cold statue in a church — no bronze 
on a pedestal, but a warm, human, loving gin 

Read "Joan of Arc" if you would read the most sublime thing that has come from the pen of any American. 
Read "Joan of Arc" if you would know Mark Twain in all his greatness. It is accurate history, told in warm 
story form. 

The Price Goes Up 

Essays 
History 




The Great 
American 



Born poor — growing up in a 
shabby little town on the 
Mississippi — a pilot — a 
seeker for gold — a printer 
— Mark Twain was 
molded on the frontier of 
America. 

The vastness of the West — 
the fearlessness of the pioneer 
— the clear philosophy of 
the country Doy were his — 
and they stayed with him in 
all simplicity to the last day 
of those glorious later days 
when German Emperor 
and English King, Chinese 
Mandarin and plain Ameri- 
can, all alike, wept lor him. 



25 Volumes 



Novels 
Humor 



Stories 
Travel 



This is Mark Twain's own set. This is the set he wanted in the 
home of each of those who love him. Because he asked it. Harpers 
have worked to make a perfect set at a reduced price. 
Before the war we had a contract price for paper, so we could 
sell this set of Mark Twain at a reduced price. ** 

The last of the edition is in sight. The price of paper has 
gone up. There can be no more Mark Twain at the f 
present price. / 



Send the Coupon Without Money 



Harper & Brothers 

New York 



y HARPER * 
f BOTHERS 

There never again will be any more Mark Twain / Franklin 8quar» 
at the present price. Get the 25 volumes now / Sew Tort 

while you can. / ~ _ . _ „ 

* / Send me, all 

Every American has got to have a set of ' charges prepaid, a set 
Mark Twain in his home. Get this ',*}^J™>$*™i? 
now and save money. ,\ol£^^^^ 

Your children want Mark Twain. ' cloth, stamped in gold, gold 
You want him. Send this ' *??•" ""trimmed edges. If not 

rminnn todav now while / satisfactory, I will return them at 

™?, P »™ I™IL B ? Z S your expense. Otherwise I will send 

you are look.ng at it. ,' y £ $I . 00 ^j th j n s days an d $2.00 a 

• month for 12 months, thus getting the 

• benefit of your half-price sale. 

S Woman's N. F.&G A. 



Name. 



1917 



'Thrift and Beauty 



....... ...... .»..C..«.. 



Please see if below you do not find a peg upon which to hang 
your interest, your profession, or your calling. 

A. Personal: Amateur. 

Interests represented: Flower-gardening; Vegetable-gardening; 
Development of a country place; Development of horticulture as 
a fine art; Holding of shows; Garden club organization, etc. 

B. Personal: Professional and Commercial. 

Interests represented: Landscape gardening; Managing and 
supervising of gardens, nurseries; school-gardens, etc.; Truck- 
gardening; Nursery and florists' business; Gardening instruc- 
tion; Orcharding; Herb-growing; Nut-growing; Poultry raising; 
Bee keeping; Dairying, etc. 

C. Altruistic and Sociological. 

Interests represented: Developing outdoor occupations for 
women (employing women in untried positions); Beautification 
of the countryside; Organizing village and rural garden-clubs, 
shows and competitions; Developing close relations between pro- 
ducer and consumer; Cooperating with school and city garden 
movements and Department of Agriculture extension work; 
Striving for improvement of rural life conditions in all possible 
ways; Periodical exchange, etc. 

If you fit anywhere into this scheme as amateur, professional, 
or philanthropist, then you belong to the Woman's National 
Farm and Garden Association, and we cordially urge you to 
claim your membership today. 

Greater eras of opportunity for service to their country are 
dawning for women. Let not those who farm and garden lag be- 
hind IN AVAILING THEMSELVES OF THE POWER WHICH LIES IN OR- 
GANIZATION. Working together we shall be a power to help 
our country and to help each other, which we could never be 
working separately. 

Every American woman who has access to a bit of land should 
enlist with the LAND SERVICE LEAGUE. 

Classes of membership: Active, $1.00; Contributing, $2.00; 
Sustaining, $5.00. 

Please mail your check today. It will help to double our 
membership by May 1, and thereby increase our usefulness ten- 
fold. 



Woman's National Farm and Garden Association 

600 Lexington Avenue, New York City 



Woman's National 



JAN 22 19 



Farm and Garden Association 



cuitu 



BULLETIN 



JUNE, 1917 



President, 
Mrs. Francis King. 

Vice-Presidents, 
Miss Myra L. Dock, Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee, 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton, Mrs. J. Willis Martin, 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer. 



Council, 



Mr. Bernard M. Baker, 

Miss Emma Blakiston, 

Mrs. S. A. Brown, 

Mrs. George U. Crocker, 

Miss Louisa G. Davis, 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, 

Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Francis, 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton, 

Mrs. A. H. Gross, 

Miss Jane B. Haines, 

Miss Margaret Jackson, 

Mrs. Francis- King, 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee, 



Miss Hilda Loines, 

Mrs. Elsie McFate, 

Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning, 

Miss Louise Klein Miller, 

Mrs. M. C. Patterson, 

Miss E. H. Peale, 

Mr. George T. Powell, 

Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw . 

Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang, 

Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy, 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Dean R. L. Watts, 

Mrs. William Conant, 



Recording Secretary, 
Miss Jean A. Cross, 339 Lincoln Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Treasurer, 
Miss Louisa G. Davis, Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary, 
Miss Hilda Loines, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City- 



Office of the Association, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 
Telephone, Plaza 6000. 



Do not fail to mention The Bulletin when answering adverti 



(Eriar Arrra (Sla&tnlt 

( rLA I ) flowers for the summer 
garden. 

Brilliant Showy Effective. 

Illustrated 1" >oklet F R EE upon 
request. 

B. HAMMOND TRACY 
Cedar Acres, Box v 

Wenham. Mass. 



School of Horticulture 
for Women 

AMHLKIt, l»A. 

Practical and theoretical train 
ing in all branches of horticultui i 
Full course for diploma students, 
two years. Entry January, [918. 
Special shori courses. Writi 
particulars. 

Elizabeth Leighton Lee, Director 



The Glen Road Iris Gardens 

I Iffer for sale the finesl varieties of 
BEARDED IK' IS. VISITORS arc 
welcome during the blooming season, 

and have a wonderful Opportunity to 

study the effeel of IK IS, w hether new 
seedlings or standard varieties, as used 
in a hardy garden. 



Wellesley Farms 



Massachusetts 



Do not fail to mention The Bulleti e^tisementi 

\D\ ERTISING C( >LUMN F< >R MEMBERS I >NL^ 

Rate, ten cents pel oi li than five lines nor 1 e than ten line 

pted ;m this rate. 



/V/lkS. (' \l.\ 1 1 I (Ml 1 FS, I mi and 

1 Hd fai hioned Flowers, $1 00 an 

roi < ove, New Vork. 



L'l.S \ K'MIM ANN, Land icapi An hi 

' ' tect, 1 iun< c lici illustrated lei 

tun . rin Landsi api I 1 1 ml oi 

Small Propertii Thi Garden: its 

Flowei Arrangement, Bloom and I oloi " 

I mi 1, lei mi e "i ei ie oi le< 

: pi 1 pared upon 1 eque 1 \g ■ Mi 

Pro pei 1 Avenue, Newark, N I 



\A/ 1 1 . 1 I \ M W. EDGAR COMPANY 
* » [mpoi ters and 1 .1 owei i of Plants 
and F low ers, \\ ;i\ ei Ij VI 



DOISON IV > Are you aware thai 

' ■ .in gel .1 bad case i [ vj 

I ' Mm" w ithoul touching eithei I \ \ 01 

1 Do you know the si ii ntifii 
thing i" 'I" vi hen the rash appi ai to 
averi .1 painful illness? Send fi n 
"Poison Ivj and Swamp Sumach." II 
lustrated, $1.00. Miss Huntington, 
R, F I) No 1 1 mi on, Maine 



Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association Bulletin. 



THE SPIRIT OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

MRS. FRANCIS KIN< 

A penetrating remark was that of H. G. Wells made lately: 
"Organization is the life of national and the death of mental and spiritual 
processes." May 1 speak on tl the Association as 1 conc< 

it. and call upon my associates in office to dwell upon iis actual purposes 

Some years since, in a novel in some ways remarkable for power and 
charm, I caught sight on the title page of the key to the hook, rhis 
was the phrase. "Only connect." lake the refrain oi a son- have the 

words haunted me since. The) contain the \er\ essence oi wisdom as 

applied to life. Nor could they ho truer or more vital than in relation 
to this body of women and of men whose interest is in the blessing, the 
glory, of work in the open. If democrac) is the compelling principle 
of this Association, "onl\ connect" connect, as our circular sots forth 
those who know farming and gardening with those who <\o not; those 

active workers on the land with those others who need such help; the 

institutions which provide farm and garden training, with such folk as 

are eager to learn, and this i> of as great importance as an) oi the loie 

going— individuals with each other. "Onl) connect:" how often in the 
three short years oi life of our organ! ation. have we who most closel) 
watch its interests met with the heart warming results oi this connecting. 

What help we have seen passed from hand to hand, wh.it friendships 
made, friendships of the truest, help oi the soundest, because founded 
upon that most real, most enduring of common interests, work upon 

the land. There is no other such meeting ground. There i> no eom 
nmnity of interest such as this. "Gardening and farming ate OCCU 

pations for which no man is too high oi too low." Hiere is common 
ground here for all classes, all kmds oi human beings, yes, foi all races 

oi men. 

A member of the Association wrote latel) : "] cling to the idea that 
if anything can .stop the impending civil war between laboi ~nu\ capital, 
it is the mutual forbearance that comes from just such common interests 
and inspiration as love of flowers." You remember in Wilkie Collins 
" The Moonstone. - ' those pleasanl interludes in the work o\ finding the 
criminal, when Sergeant Cuff, renowned detective, and Mr. Begbie the 
gardener, held earnest converse together; and what were then topics 

Whether the while moss rose did or did not require to be budded on 

the dog rose to make u grow well; and as to whethei grass 01 ■■ 
walks W ere best for the rose garden. Wide apart in station, fai from 

each other in vocation, here these two were as brothers 

Tell me. you who lean upon your garden -ate (if in this ,\a\ . when 

we are bereft of that necessity, the fence, you aie so fortunate as to 



possess a garden gate to lean upon), tell me as you stand there of a 
summer's evening in friendly intercourse with your neighbor, does not 
your talk always lead to one or more of the aspects of horticulture — to 
flowers, vegetables, shrubs, trees? Is there a more thrilling rivalry than 
that of the appearance of your bit of land as compared to his? What 
about the traveller who sits across the aisle from you upon a railway 
journey, if he holds in his hand a garden book, a seed list, a work on 
farming, are you not drawn to him, do you not long to talk with him, 
to hear him recite his interests, his experiences in the beloved region 
of growing things? Or if he shows a trace of interest in watching even 
in winter the black and white fields sliding by the windows of the moving 
train, if his eye kindles as he notes the "lay" of the broad acres resting in 
the cold, if his imagination pictures those fields first purple under the 
plow, then green, then golden, do you not involuntarily say to yourself: 
"There is one who speaks my language — with him I have a common and 
thrilling concern." 

It need not be a book, the sight of a broad field; it need not be a 
great garden, a single plant, a window box in the city street, a cluster 
of flowers — all differences fall away, all so-called class feeling, which, 
Heaven knows, is as strong in our country as in any other, melts be- 
tween those who meet upon the plane of work upon the land. Oh, if 
all of the still unenlightened rich could but see this, if those who spend 
only for dull and stuffy material things, in short, for things, might realize 
the full significance of the change of inanimate objects for those better 
activities of body, mind and spirit which always accompany the pursuits 
we in this Association have made our own, if this should come, what 
fervor of delight, what blessing of true comradeship, might be theirs 
and ours! Then what a step forward should we take in true democracy! 

I will tell you what I think. The love of gardening, the love of 
farming, the love of all the heavenly beauty of the earth, kindles within 
the meanest of us the holiest of fires. And when that is aflame, it must 
warm our neighbor. We cannot help being friendly and useful where 
we have this bond. "The best kind of community interest," says L. H. 
Bailey, in his book, "The Holy Earth," "attaches to the proper use and 
partitioning of the earth, a communism that is dissociated from propa- 
ganda and programs. The freedom of the earth is not the freedom of 
license; there is always the thought of the others that are dependent on 
it. It is the freedom of utilization for needs and natural desires, without 
regard to one's place among one's fellows, or even to one's condition of 
degradation or state of sinfulness. All men are the same when they 
come back to the meadows, to the hills and to the deep woods: 'He 
maketh His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sendeth rain on 

the just and the unjust.' The lesson of the growing, abounding 

earth is of liberality for all and never exploitation of very exclusive 
opportunities for the few." 

Numerous organizations to further American farming and garden- 
ing have been born since the first of the year; new ones are daily seeing 
the light. The Woman's National Farm and Garden Association for 
the three years of its existence has stood for thrift and industry out-of- 



doors and indoors. It is not an exaggeration — how can it be? — to say 
that in the offer of our services, as an Association, to the President and 
to the Secretaries of Agriculture and of War, we put forward as valuable 
expert help toward woman's part in farming and gardening as can be 
given by a woman's organization to-day. The Association then enters 
upon its fourth year of existence with a sense of seriousness only equalled 
by its sense of pride and confidence in its present and future service to 
the State. 

In the last year we have added some seven hundred and sixty mem- 
bers to our list; we have raised and spent three thousand dollars. But 
we need thousands of members, thousands of dollars, and I beg of you 
that from this day on you make this Association known as never 
before. Speak of it where you go. Ask your listeners to tell others 
of it. Urge all to join it, that by means of strength, personal and finan- 
cial, we may be prepared to do great things for our land in its time of 
need. 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Membership Committee — Mrs. Charles W. Deusner, Chairman, 
Batavia, 111. 

Finance Committee — Mrs. William Conant, Chairman, 62 Beacon 
Street, Boston, Massr- 

Publicity Committee — Miss Lena McCauley, Chairman, 418 St. James 
Place, Chicago, Illinois. 

Publications Committee — Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Chelten- 
ham, Pa. 

Law Committee — Miss Florence King, Chairman, 1653 Monadnock 
Building, Chicago, 111. 

Permanent Conference Committee — Mrs. George G. Crocker, Chair- 
man, 343 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

School Gardens Committee — Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw, Chairman, 161 
Emerson Place, Brooklvn, N. Y. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING AND CONFERENCE. 

Owing to lack of space, we regret that a full account of the Annual 
Meeting and Conference, held at Washington, under the care of Mrs. 
C. W. Wetmore and her Committee, will have to be postponed until a 
later issue. The Association is greatly indebted to Mrs. Wetmore for 
an exceedingly interesting three days. The following resolution was 
passed: 

Resolution. 
The Woman's National Farm and Garden Association desires to 
offer a hearty vote of thanks to Mrs. Wetmore, the women of the Cabinet 
and all others who have so generously contributed to the success of the 
Conference. A special vote of thanks is offered by the Association to 
Dr. Walcott for the use of the National Museum for its Conference. 



ANNOUNCEMENT FROM THE PUBLICITY COMMITTEE. 

It is the duty of the Publicity Committee to keep the Woman's 
National Farm and Garden Association, and its helpful intentions, before 
the public. Its officers should increase the membership, be of service 
to the women in the agricultural fields, and be a bureau of information. 
It should spread notices of meetings in every section of the country, 
stimulate curiosity, and promote the advancement of the Association 
through the press and through an intimacy with garden clubs and all 
societies with similar aims. 

Therefore, the Publicity Committee must be in close contact with 
the Editorial Staff of The Bulletin. The membership should under- 
stand its friendly attitude and constructive purpose, and that no Pub- 
licity Committee can work without the aid of every member who should 
tacitly agree to be a publicity agent in her own section. The great 
difficulty has been the lack of news to disseminate. Dates for Confer- 
ences should be sent to the Publicity Committee not less than a month 
in advance, as it takes time to send them forth. 

Lena M. McCauley, Chairman. 

REPORT OF LOUISA GIBBONS DAVIS, TREASURER. 

March i, 19 16, to February 28, 19 17. 

Dr. 
To Balance March 1, 1916: 

Life Membership Fund $450 00 

General Fund overdraft 248 04 

Cash Balance March 1, 1916 $201 96 

Receipts. 

To Life Membership $300 00 

" Dues, x\nnual Members — 1,262 1,262 00 

" Dues, Annual, advanced — 14 14 00 

" Dues, Sustaining, Advanced — 1 5 00 

" Dues, Associate Members — 64 128 00 

" Quarterly for Advertising 295 50 

" Quarterly for Sales 15 74 

" Commission on Sales in New York Office 186 35 

Boston Conference ... 5 53 

Chicago Conference . . 2 35 

Phila. Flower Show. . . 21 52 
New York Flower Show 34 91 

" Sales in Office 15 9° 

" Donations to Rent of Office 6 00 

" Donations to Salary of Stenographer 43 °° 

" Donations to Farm and Garden Union, England 48 00 

" Interest on Bank Deposits and Exchange 19 38 

$2,993 18 

$3- T 95 14 
4 



Cr. 
Disbursements. 

Salary of General Secretary, twelve months $498 00 

Rent of New York Office, eleven months 220 00 

Salary of Stenographer 204 00 

Office Expenses, Postage and Printing, Stationery and Pay- 
ments on Typewriter 183 21 

Committee Expenses, office sales account 31 48 

Including audit of Treasurer's accounts 51 83 

Postage, printing and stationery 236 19 

Publicity 16 75 

Quarterly, February, 1916. and sundry costs 207 62 

May, August, November, February 617 11 

Manilla envelopes, express, telegrams, etc 39 9° 

Telephone, Telegraph, Express and Sundry Expenses 29 61 

Reprint of By-Laws 5 50 

English Farm and Garden Union 5 1 °° 

Philadelphia Flower Show 39 04 

Xew York City Flower Show 18 75 

Boston Conference 5 2 2 ° 

$2,502 19 
Balance for March 1, "4917: 

Life Membership Fund $750 00 

General Fund overdraft 57 05 

Cash Balance for March 1, 191 7 692 95 



$3,195 14 



Examined and found correct. 

N. B. Niles, Certified Public Accountant. 



AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL COURSES FOR 
WOMEN IN THE MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES. 

Alfred University, Alfred, New York; Director, Paul E. Titsworth— 
Rural courses for New York State School Teachers: Elements of Agri- 
culture, Gardening, Farm and Home Mechanics, Farm and Home Arith- 
metic; July 5th to August 16th. Tuition, $15.00. Expenses, $6.00 a 
week, rooms and board. 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, New York— Training course 
for teachers or supervisors of gardening. Open to college or normal 
school graduates and to certified teachers, July 5th to August 16th. 
Tuition, $20.00. 

Columbia University, New York City; address, Prof. O. S. Morgan, 
Room 511 Schermerhorn— Emergency courses in gardening for women. 
May 8th to June 19th. Hours depending upon course selected. Tui- 
tion, $6.00, $9.00 or $18.00, according to course selected. 

Connecticut Agricultural College, Storrs, Conn.; Director, H. J. 
Baker— Canning and Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables (one week), 



June 4th-9th, June nth-i6th, June i6th-23rd, June 23rd-30th. Tuition, 
Free. Expenses, $7.00 per week. 

Delaware College, Newark, Delaware; Director, George S. Counts; 
Dean of Women, Mary E. Rich — Course for teachers: School and Home 
Gardening, Fruit Growing, General Poultry ; June 25th-August 3rd, Au- 
gust 6th-August 31st. Tuition, Free to residents of Delaware, others 
$5.00. Expenses, Free to Delaware teachers; $30.oo-$35.oo for six 
weeks; $5o.oo-$6o.oo for ten weeks. 

Long Island R. R. Experimental Station, Medford, L. I. ; Director, 
Mrs. H. B. Fullerton — Complete course in practical farming. Further 
information on application. ; 

New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York City; address, 
Henry Griscom Parsons, Supervisor of Garden Instruction — (1) Home 
Garden Courses, Tuesdays in May at 4.30 P. M. ; to be repeated monthly 
as needed. Tuition, $50.00 for each course. (2) Training in courses for 
teachers for school gardens, daily, except Saturday, May 14-22, 2.30-5.30. 
Tuition, $25.00 for each course. (3) Special or partial courses, July 9- 
August 17, 9.30-12.30, to be arranged for if applications warrant. 
(4) Autumn course in seasonal subjects, daily, except Saturday, Septem- 
ber 10-October 26, at 4-5.30. Tuition, $20.00. (5) Greenhouses 
Courses, to be arranged for November and December, January and 
February. 

New York College of Agriculture, Ithaca, New York — Regular 
summer session open to all persons engaged in educational work, and 
to others who have completed two years' work at Cornell University or 
equivalent, July 9th-August 17th. Tuition, Free to residents of New 
York State. A fee of $30.00 to all others. A fee of $5.00 charged for 
all first registrations. Expenses, in women's dormitories, $52.00 to 
$64.00. For the session outside, $7.00 a week upward. 

Women's Section of the Navy League (in co-operation with New 
York State School of Agriculture, Farmingdale, L. I.), address, Room 
410, 50 East 42nd Street, New York City — Practical course for women 
over eighteen years in the fundamentals of farming, including vegetable 
gardening, animal husbandry, storing, canning, etc., April 23-July 23. 
Tuition, free. Expenses, $25.00 a month. Incidentals about $10.00 for 
three months. 

The School of Horticulture, Ambler, Pa.; Director, Elizabeth L. 
Lee — Summer course, June 19- July 21. Tuition, $30.00. Fall course, 
September n-November 17. Tuition, $50.00. Further information on 
application. 



Mrs. Francis King. 

Dear Madam: — In reply to your appeal of March 15th to the mem- 
bers of the Woman's National Farm and Garden Association, I will say 
that I am greatly interested in the work of the Land Service League, 
and desire to render what aid I can in promoting its object. I have a 
proposition to make which I believe is practical, and which I trust will 
meet with your approval and co-operation. I am a woman farmer, and, 
with my two sisters, own and operate a fruit and poultry farm near New- 



burgh, N. Y., about sixty miles north of New York City. T have had 
five years of practical working experience on this farm, specializing in 
fruits and poultry. During the summer months I need much additional 
help, and this year I intend to employ women as far as possible for pick- 
ing and handling my fruit. What I propose to do, briefly outlined, is this : 

(a) To organize the Endaian Agricultural School for Women, giv- 
ing opportunity for six "intelligent and strong" women to "work and 
learn." 

(b) To establish a well-equipped camp, finely located on my farm. 
close by beautiful woods, with running water and a pool for bathing, 
where these women may enjoy a fine summer camping experience. 

(c) To furnish work for these women, a minimum of thirty hours 
per week, for which they will be paid the regular rates of this commu- 
nity; this will more than offset their living expenses. 

(d) To give a course of lectures, with practical illustrations and 
applications, on scientific and practical agriculture, along these lines: 
i. Fruits; 2, Poultry Raising; 3, Vegetable Gardening; 4, Commercial 
Canning and Preserving. These lectures will be given daily, except 
Saturdays and Sundays. 

(e) To arrange and supervise classes of reading and study along 
the lines above mentioned. 

(f) To have these women care for and carry on their own camp, 
which I shall equip with tents, beds and cooking outfit. All food sup- 
plies can be conveniently obtained. In addition to ordinary personal 
equipment, each one should bring stout shoes and rubbers, bath robe 
and bed slippers, bed blankets and pillow, khaki suit, big. straw hat and 
sweater. 

Saturdays there will be opportunity for general field work, visitation 
to neighboring farms, excursions, etc. Sundays will be for rest and such 
recreation as they may elect. Each woman must pledge to remain 
through the fruit season, i. e., from six to eight weeks, during June and 
July, and to perform the minimum of labor, i. c, thirty hours per week. 
Extra work will be paid for at regular rates. The work will be picking 
and packing fruits, taking care of chickens, working in vegetable garden, 
and canning fruit and vegetables. If you can send me the women who 
desire to take advantage of such an opportunity. 

Very truly yours, E. Allen. 

Living Expenses — I furnish tent, beds, mattresses, dishes, cooking 
outfit. There will be no fuel cost, as there is plenty of firewood for 
camp cooking. Fruit on the place free. There will also be fresh vege- 
tables at that season. Grocery wagon goes to my place four times a 
week with supplies, including bread. Meatman passes twice a week, ami 
will take orders for meat, or our shipper can purchase supplies tor the 
campers. Milk can be bought at five cents a quart. Eggs at wholesale 
price, cereals and staple groceries and meats at standard prices. It 
would be well if a half dozen congenial women could club together and 
co-operate in their living expenses. 

As to Pay.— Picking berries pays one and a half cents per quart, with 
one-half cent per quart bonus at the end of the season, if they stay 
through. A good picker can make from $1.00 to $2.00 a day. We have 

7 



had pickers who could do $3.00 to $4.00 a day, but they were experts. 
One sixteen-year-old boy last year did 80 to 100 quarts per day — a 
city boy who had never seen raspberries grow. Other work — Garden- 
ing, canning, poultry work, etc., is paid by the hour, 10 cents to 15 cents 
per hour, according to quality of work done. 

1 West 34.TH St., New York City- 
My dear Miss Loines: — Mrs. Hill gave me your address and told 
me of your work. My sister has a farm six miles from Willimantic of 
two hundred acres, seventy of which have been cultivated, new house, 
fourteen rooms, spring water piped into the house, acetaline gas all over 
the house, nearly new out-houses. Very little furniture in the house, 
but easily furnished. She has been trying to sell it, but no customer 
as yet. She is very willing to allow responsible women of any number 
the use of the farm this year. Splendid crops of potatoes and corn have 
been raised there. If you can use it, please let me hear from you. 

Very truly yours, Louise Elser. 

OFFERS OF SERVICES AND REQUESTS FOR WORK. 

Phoebus, Miss Natalie (and sister), 179 Joralemon Street, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. — Agricultural or canning (volunteer). 

Hicks, Miss C. W., St. Denis, nth Street and Broadway, New York, 
N. Y. — Stenography, nursing, indexing, library experience, wishes ex- 
ecutive work (volunteer). 

Pollard, Mr., 733 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. — As farm 
manager or to run a place on shares. Many years' experience, espe- 
cially in growing cabbages and potatoes. ($70.00 per month and living 
expenses.) 

Stevens, Miss, The Barber House, 330 West 36th Street, New York 
— Work on farm, poultry farm, if out-doors. (Small compensation, 
$10.00 per month.) 

Teal. Elizabeth H. (and friend). 93 High Street, Glen Ridge, N. J.— 
Wishes work in country, vegetable garden (volunteer). 

Schwarzkopf, Miss Olga, 211 East 18th Street, New York — Wishes 
farming work (volunteer). 

Schwiefert, Miss Mollie, 75 West 95th Street, New York — Wishes 
out-door work. Has had experience in out-door work and butter- 
making. 

Kimball, Miss L. E., Woman's University Club, New York — Out- 
door work (volunteer). 

Emery, George, and wife, 287 Lexington Avenue, New York — 
( )verseer, can take charge of enterprise and direct workers. Wife can 
cook (salary). 

Cavanaugh. Miss— Gardening, poultry, hogs. 

Finlav, Miss Alice E.. 332 West 86th Street,. New York; telephone, 
Schuyler 6256 — Offers two hours' clerical work three times per week. 
Student last year of landscape gardening (volunteer). 

Gretta, Miss Garnet E., 628 West 227th Street, Sputen Duyvil, New 
York— Wishes work in vegetable garden. Would go immediately alone. 



though prefers to take aunt. Wish to live by themselves, if possible 
(To be paid what she is worth.) 

Little, Eleanor H., .Clinton Farms, X. J. State Reformatory for 
Women, Clinton, Hunterdon County, N. J. — Supervise groups doing 
garden work. (Desires a position with salary.) For five years has had 
experience supervising farm work at Clinton Farms and another similar 
to it. 

Moore, Louise, 450 77th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. — Practical farm 
work for summer. Entering Agricultural College in fall. 

Frishmuth, Miss Anna Biddle, 60 Chestnut Street, Boston, Mass. — 
Supervising vegetable garden work near Boston (volunteer). 

Sargent, Elizabeth Collier, Walker School for Girls, Lakewood, 
X. J. — Offers services in any direction that can be suggested. Is a 
gardener. Will be in Xew Haven after June 1st, and prefers work there. 

Newton, Edith E., 42 West 12th Street, New York, N. Y. — Wishes 
work on farm. Can milk. 

LETTERS FROM MEMBERS. 

Miss Lena McCauley sends the following from Chicago: 
"The Woman's National Farm and Garden Association Mid-West 
Branch Conference Committee, Mrs : Scott Durand, Chairman, an- 
nounces the first of a series of open lectures on practical vegetable grow- 
ing at Fullerton Hall Art Institute, Saturday afternoon at two o'clock. 
Behring Burrows, of Decatur, 111., will be the speaker. The lectures will 
be given the first Saturday of every month throughout the summer, and 
experts will speak on vital topics in gardening. They are free to the 
public, and women and girls are especially invited. 

"Mrs. A. H. Gross, of Evanston, President, of the Mid- West Branch 
of the Woman's National Farm and Garden Association, called a meet- 
ing of the Board of Directors April 27th, at which two important lines 
of action were decided upon. The first was a series of monthly confer- 
ences, beginning May 5th, at the Art Institute, as a place centrally 
located for the public. Following the address of the speaker of the day, 
the discussion will lead from experiences of members of the audience 
and questions will be answered. By this means the Woman's National 
Farm and Garden Association hopes to be of real service in the commu- 
nity, and to bring together those who are actually working in agricul- 
ture, floriculture and horticulture, and beginners and students from 
agricultural colleges." 

From New England comes this letter: 

"When I was a child on a farm, my father made maple sugar. He 
didn't have the apparatus of nowadays, only a sugar house, where the 
sap was boiled down to a syrup. Then it was brought into our home 
to be 'sugared off,' as we called it. This was boiling the sugar down 
still more, to make sugar in cakes, or put in pails, etc. W r hen it got 
to the right temperature, or would wax on snow, my father would let 
us children, also those of our neighbors, have pans of snow. Then we 
would pour the thick syrup on the snow, and when cooled we picked 



this wax up from the snow, eating it with great relish. After we had 
eaten all we wished in this way, we had a saucer of this thick syrup, which 
we stirred into maple cream. This we put away in the most unheard-of 
places, waiting a day when we should be sugar hungry. 

"Lately it seemed to me there were great possibilities in this sugar, 
if one worked out a suitable process for making it. Two years ago I set 
about it, and was quite successful. My brother, a traveling salesman, 
was ill, and came home, and I soon interested him in the work, so we 
joined forces last year. This year's business has been a big increase 
over last season. Wishing you great success in the Association, 

"Very truly yours, Alice Brown." 

Miss Margaret B. Gray, of Elizabeth, writes: 

"I recently sent you a copy of the Elizabeth Journal, giving an 
account of what the public schools are trying to accomplish in the gar- 
dening line. In vacant lot gardening some sixty odd lots have been 
given out, and two lots of five acres each are to be divided up into twenty 
plots each, and to be worked under a supervisor, one lot in the center 
of each five-acre plot to be a demonstration plot. You are really re- 
sponsible, I feel, for the latter scheme, as it all started from the report of 
the Vacant Lot garden in Philadelphia, which I read with great interest 
in one of the Woman's National Farm and Garden Quarterlies. I passed 
it on to Mr. Dean Otis, head of our Recreation Center. Various mer- 
chants in town have donated loads of manure, and private individuals 
are donating money, so we hope this to be the starting of a permanent 
movement in Elizabeth. Our first Nature Club Meeting was held April 
20th, with twenty present. After our business meeting, Mr. Dean Otis 
spoke on the Vacant Lot Movement. We have decided to meet twice 
a month and from a small beginning are hoping to be of service to our 
town." 

Mrs. John W. Paris, of Flushing, L. I., writes: 

"Very early in February, The Park Garden Club, realizing the im- 
portance of reducing the high cost of living, and the need of getting 
back to the land, decided to devote their time and energy to the directing 
of the Garden Movement. When the National League for Women's 
Service was organized, Flushing decided to work as a unit, and the 
Garden Club was asked to take charge of the agricultural and gardening 
part of the work. Under our care, more than five thousand new gardens 
have been planted. Many acres have been planted in early potatoes, 
and acres more are being planted in late crops. Vacant lots and waste 
places are transformed into Neighborhood Gardens. Wherever one 
may look, men, women and children are working earnestly, each doing 
their bit as best they may. In one neighborhood alone we have one 
hundred and twenty-five neighborhood gardens, in charge of a teacher 
and Mothers' Club of Public School No. 24. They have also a large 
school garden. Fifteen of the high school teachers offered their services 
to our committee." 

Mrs. Lawrence E. Van Etten writes from New Rochelle, N. Y.: 

"We would like to appeal to golfers not to employ caddies when 
they are needed for agriculture. In the vacant lot garden work, many 

10 



workmen live too far from their gardens to go both morning and even- 
ing before and after work. Therefore we suggest that the daylight 
saving bill's passage will help the agricultural movement. It will also 
give commuters much more chance for gardening. In encouraging 
vacant lot gardening, mosquito extermination will also be aided. A feu 
suggestions you may care to pass on are: that used drinking cups and 
egg boxes are good to transplant seedlings. A neighbor of mine has 
been carrying them out from his company to us for three months. As 
the small committee of three that carried on the vacant lot, school and 
home garden work for the past three years, raised enough plants to 
provide for those gardens, we expect this year to have enough to provide 
all New Rochelle, including extended vacant lot gardens, school farms. 
Boy Scout gardens, truant and other school gardens, residence, park 
and neighborhood gardens, as well as home gardens and the Country 
Club, which is turning over its unused land for that purpose. This is 
the part of the work that the Garden Club and the Flower, Plant and 
Fruit Guild have undertaken to help with. We distributed large quan- 
tities of tomato, lettuce, cabbage and pepper seeds in February, much 
of it through the schools, for house starting. It is surprising how few 
seem to know that beets can be transplanted by cutting off the tops. 
I have had twenty-five years' experience, and have found the plan suc- 
cessful. Burpee's beet seeds are unsurpassed, specially Detroit Reds. 
On account of scarcity of seed, I give this suggestion. During the last 
two years, when selling for the Women's Club fund. I could not raise 
them fast enough." 

Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Francis writes from California: 
"I am sending you a clipping showing the work that is being done 
here. Ventura is always short of laborers, and, of course, this year the 
shortage will be greater than ever. In the summer the fruit-drying 
takes all hands, then comes the walnut picking, later the beans are picked 
over at the warehouses, and in the winter comes the orange crop. From 
this you can see that no one need be out of work long in Ventura. At 
present there is hardly a vacant lot in the town, every one being planted 
to some kind of vegetable. In fact, I think that perishable stuff is going 
to be a drug on the market. This is going to be one of the difficulties in 
this preparedness movement. So many localities are going to be over- 
stocked, and the workers lose money, that next season will find them 
unwilling to start to work without knowing where they will find a 
market. This should be looked into immediately, lest much that is of 
value should become a drug on the market. Of course, you may not 
have such conditions where there are the great cities, but it will surely 
be the case in California, unless some means is taken by which the grower 
can dispose of his crop of perishable goods." 

Mrs. Francis herein opens up a very important point, and The 
Bulletin will be glad to hear from the membership regarding it. In 
various localities the same difficulty, no doubt, exists, and will be met. 
Will not those who are considering this subject present their solutions t< 
other members of the Association? — The Editor. 

11 



RECIPES FOR DRYING VEGETABLES AND FRUIT. 

There may be a shortage of tin and glass containers this year, so members of 
the Association have sent well-tested recipes for the preservation of vegetables and 
fruit by processes other than sterilizing. 

Preservation of Corn by Salt Process. 
Cut your corn young and plunge into boiling water for ten minutes. Remove 
and cut down before cold, taking care not to scrape the cob. Cool thoroughly and 
place in jars between layers of salt till jars are nearly full. Cover with layer of 
salt one and one-half inches thick. Press down, pressing salt towards side of jar, 
to avoid entrance of air. If possible, preserve in jars holding enough for only two 
meals, and when removing enough for one meal, press upper layer of salt very care- 
fully back and to the edges of the jar. If preserved in large jars, use jars with 
wide mouths. Corn too yonng loses its milk to the salt, but if too old may become 
hard and tough.— Mrs. Thos. F. Jeffries, Meadowbrook Manor, Drewey's Bluff, Va. 

Drying Tomatoes — Up-State Style. 
The ripe fruit (which must be firm) is sliced, each tomato into about three 
slices, put on a buttered dish, and the excess moisture is dried off in a warm oven 
(not hot enough to cook the fruit). The dish is then covered with a screen and put 
in the sun, and this repeated each day until the fruit actually rattles with dryness. 
It is then put in paper bags and hung in the kitchen for a week or two, then hung 
in a dry closet until winter. "I have had these tomatoes cooked the following way 
in May and they were certainly delicious : "Moisten the fruit in water, add bread 
crumbs, pepper, salt, onion, and green peppers, cut in slices, and butter and bring 
to a boil, pour over toast and serve. Flour can be used instead of bread crumbs, 
or the tomatoes can be baked. — Charlotte Cowdrey Brown. 

String Beans for Winter. 
A good way to save string or wax beans for winter use is to take your surplus 
while still tender, wash and string them, then slice each bean twice lengthwise. In 
case you have as much as one-half bushel at a time, it would pay to buy a bean slicer 
— a small grinder with a number of rotary blades, which quickly does the work 
that becomes rather tedious if there is much of it. The beans are then laid on 
papered boards and covered with mosquito net to keep off the ever-inquisitive flies 
and bugs, and dried as rapidly as possible until quite brittle — turning them often. 
They are then stored in sugar bags, etc., and take up but little room. They make 
delicious bean salad, or cooked with a sweet-sour sauce they can scarcely be told 
from fresh ones. Previous to cooking, they can be soaked over night, or may be 
cooked with a little soda, throwing away the first water. — I. Schueler. 

Cherries to Keep 
Cut stems carefully from sound and dry cherries, put them into clean and 
dry bottles; when full, cork tight and seal; bury them in the ground with the 
corks downward. 

Candied Cherries. 

Stone, drain and weigh ; one pound sugar to one pound fruit ; add a little water, 

bring to boiling point and skim. Throw in the cherries, set back so they will not 

boil for an hour, then cook slowly until clear. Skim, drain, sprinkle with sugar, 

and place on a sieve in the sun or oven to dry. Place between waxed papers in layers. 

Dried Cherries. 

Equal parts of pitted fruit and sugar. Dissolve sugar in as little water as pos- 
sible ; when like syrup, drop in cherries, and let remain till cold. Take out, put 
on plates and drv in oven or sun. 

The time for making jellies and jams is at hand. There may be a shortage 
of <dass containers for some time to come, so we suggest that the paper containers, 
with a paraffin finish, are very satisfactory. We have known of success in using 
the same ones twice. If they cannot be obtained in every center, Wanamaker, Thir- 
teenth and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, carries them in several sizes, holding from 
a pint downwards. They are called paper jelly and jam containers. They can also 
be used to store dried fruits.— E. C. W. 

12 



Do not fail to mention The Bulletin when answering advertisements 



ADVERTISING COLUMN FOR MEMBERS <>XLY 



CTRONG ROOTS of Hardy Plants. 
^ Rock Plants and Alpines a specialty. 
Prices moderate. L. B. - Wilder, 
Pomona, N. Y. 



BULB PLANTER and Transplanting 
Tool. Length, 3 feet ; capacity, 
2000 bulbs per day. A great labor-saver. 
Indispensable for gladioli, tulips and 
other Fall bulbs, placing stakes, poles, 
etc. Price, $1.50; by parcel post, 25c. 
extra. Ideal Bulb Planter Co., 15 
Union Street, Portland, Maine. 



A BUSINESS WOMAN" of education 
** and refinement (IV 
sires to hear from a woman living alone 
and doing farming and greenhouse work 
for profit. Opportunity to learn some- 
thing of fanning and floriculture object, 
Would accept position, or consider part- 
nership. References exchanged. L. 
M. S., care Secretary W. X. E & G. 
Association. 600 Lexington Avenue, New 
York City. 

CORSGATE FARMS, Cranbury, X.J. 
* M. V. LANDMANN, Experimental 
Department. 



WANTED. — Small family to share attractive farm home with a former teacher. 
No improvements, but convenient. Ground for garden. Fifty miles from 
New York; fifteen minutes from station. Moderate rent. Mrs. E. V. A. Lixi< 
Cannondale, Conn. 

ASSOCIATION NOTES. 

The Librarian of the Massachusetts Agricultural College desires the following 
numbers of The Quarterly to complete his files: August, 1914; November, 11)14; 
November, 1915; February, 1916. The office will be glad to forward any that the} 
receive to him. 

At the Fourth Annual Meeting, The Quarterly became a monthly, and will 
appear under the name of The Bulletin of the Women's National Farm and 
Garden Association. Owing to the illness of Miss Jane B. Haines, members art- 
asked to address all communications for The Bulletin to Miss Ellen C, Wood, 
Seventh and Erie Streets, Camden, N. J., during the summer. 

The Garden Service of the Hampshire Bookshop of Northampton, Mass., has 
issued a most attractive folder giving a list of books for Veterans and Recruits. 
As current articles on gardening contain many misleading statements, it is wise- 
to check our information by reference to leading books, and the folder supplies a 
list of standard works on fruit, vegetable and flower raising, cooking and preserving. 

Copyrighted, 1917, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham. Pa. 
The Bulletin is the official organ of the Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association, by whom it is owned and under whose authority it is published. Presi 
dent, Mrs. Francis King. Alma, Mich.: Secretary, Miss J. A. Cross, Brooklyn, X. Y. : 
Treasurer, Miss L. G.' Davis, Ambler, Pa. There are no bond or stockhol 

Edited by Miss J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa., and Miss E. C. W 1. Seventh and 

Erie Streets, Camden, N. J. Published monthly at Cheltenham, Pa. , 



Entered as second-class matter March 22, 1915, at the Post Office at Cheltenham 
under Act of Congress of March 3. [879. 



Do not fail to mention The Bulletin when answering, advertisements 

Green-Briar Home Preserves 

Sun-cooked fruits and fruit juices 
one of the specialties. Novelties 
in Christmas and Bridge Whist 
boxes and baskets containing 
preserves and jellies. : : 



Green Briar 



Price List on request 

IDA PUTNAM 

East Sandwich, Mass. 



WHEN YOU WANT THE BEST 

Seeds 

for the Farm or Garden 

Plants 

and 

Horticultural Supplies 

of any kind 

"Get them at DreerV 

Catalogues issued in Spring, Summer 
and Autumn, contain the best of every- 
thing needed for your success. Copies 
mailed free to all applicants who men- 
tion this publication. 

HENRY A. DREER 

714-716 Chestnut St. 

PHILADELPHIA 



C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 

Haarlem, Holland 
Grower of 

Choice Bulbs 

Bulbs Imported direct from 
Holland for Customers. No 
supply kept here. Catalogue 
quoting prices in Nurserids 
in Haarlem — free on appli- 
cation. 

E. J. Krug, Sole Agent 

112 Broad Street 

NEW YORK 

Successor to C C. Abel & Co ) 



Woman's National 
Farm and Garden Association 

MONTHLY BULLETIN 

JULY, 1917 



President, 
Mrs. Francis King. 

i " Vice-Presidents, 

Miss Myra L. Dock, Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee, 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton, Mrs. J. Willis Martin, 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer. 

Council, 

Mr. Bernard M. Baker, Miss Hilda Loines, 

Miss Emma Blakiston, Mrs. Elsie McFate, 

Mrs. S. A. Brown, Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning, 

Mrs. George U. Crocker, Miss Louise Klein Miller, 

Miss Louisa G. Davis, Mrs. M. C. Patterson, 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, Miss E. H. Peale, 

Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Francis, Mr. George T. Powell, 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton, Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw, 

Mrs. A. H. Gross, Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang, 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy, 

Miss Margaret Jackson, Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer 

Mrs. Francis King, Dean R. L. Watts,. 

Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee, Mrs. William Conant, 

Recording Secretary, 
Miss Jean' A. Cross, 339 Lincoln Place, "Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Treasurer, 
Miss Louisa G. Davis, Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary, 
Miss Hilda Loines, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 



Office of the Association, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 
Telephone, Plaza 6000. 



ASSOCIATION NOTES. 

_ The Council of the Woman's National Farm and Garden Association has voted 
to invest five hundred dollars of the Life Membership Fund in Liberty Loan bonds. 

The membership of the Association was increased in April by ninety-three, and 
in May by thirty-four. 

On going to press we hear that the demand for the copies of the list of Colleges 
giving Agricultural and Horticultural Courses is increasing. 

Prizes for Iris.— Of the nine novelties which received a first class certificate 
last year from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, three were Iris grown by 
Miss Grace Sturtevant, a member of the Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association. 'They were Iris Mme. Cheri (Caterina Iris. King), a strong grower of 
Germania type, with broad massive flowers; Iris Merlin (Oriflamme Iris King), 
a strong, vigorous, free-flowering variety; and Iris Stanley H. White (Hector 
Caterina), a very desirable variety for the garden or for cutting. 

The Mayor's Committee of Women on National Defense of New York City 
has appointed a sub-committee on Agriculture, of which Miss Virginia Gildersleeve 
is Chairman. A meeting was first held of representatives of all clubs and asso- 
ciations in the city which are interested in agricultural work. Each representative 
was asked to tell about her work, and the chief problems confronting her. Miss 
Gildersleeve has appointed a small committee, of which Miss Loines is a member, 
and a central bureau of information will soon be established to correlate all the 
activities of the different associations. 

Miss Allen, of "the Endaian School, Newburgh, N. Y., writes that twelve young 
women from Barnard College have signed up to handle her fruit this summer. 
The first relay of girls arrived on the eleventh of June. We hope to hear from 
Miss Allen later, and that her experience may encourage others to present similar 
happy opportunities to women. 

Farm Women in England.— A poster has just been received from England 
headed, "10,000 Women Wanted for Farm Work." The following are the inter- 
esting "terms of employment:" "A FREE OUTFIT, high boots, breeches, overalls 
and hat. MAINTENANCE during training. TRAVELING expenses in connec- 
tion with the work. WAGES, eighteen shillings per week or the district rate, which- 
ever is higher. MAINTENANCE during terms of unemployment up to four weeks. 
HOUSING personally inspected and approved by the Women's War Agricultural 
Committee in each county. WORK on carefully selected farms. PROMOTION, 
good work rewarded by promotion -and higher pay. AFTER THE WAR, special 
facilities for settlement at home or overseas. DON'T DELAY. ENROL TO- 
DAY. Forms at every Post Office and all Employment Exchanges." Signed by 
the Director-General of National Service. 

Copyrighted, 1917^ by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 
The Bulletin is the official organ of the Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association, by whom it is owned and under whose authority it is published. Presi- 
dent; Mrs. Francis King, Alma, Mich. ;• Secretary, Miss J. A. Cross, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; 
Treasurer, Miss L. G. Davis, Ambler, Pa, There are no bond or stockholders. 
Edited by Miss J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa., and Miss E. C. Wood, Seventh and 
Erie Streets, Camden, N. J. Published monthly at Cheltenham, Pa. 

Entered as second-class matter March 22, T915, at the Post Office at Cheltenham, Pa., 
under Act of Congress of March .3. 1879. 



Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association Monthly Bulletin. 

Vol. IV. July, 1917. No. 2. 

HOG RAISING FOR WOMEN. 

To a woman who has made a living for years from breeding and 
raising hundreds of high-class, recorded hogs, it has always been myste- 
rious that other women, whose need for maintenance is great, overlook 
this profitable and practical industry, which brings the greatest return 
in the quickest time, from the smallest comparative outlay of any branch 
of agricultural labor. 

To me, it is astonishing (although my love for the beautiful has 
never been eradicated by my interest in practicality) that so many self- 
supporting women will grub all the hot summers in a garden and worry 
all the rest of the time over marketing the products, giving most tire- 
some labor for meagre returns, dependent on wind and weather, when 
they can have some old sows work while they sleep, their pigs maturing 
easily, thus securing much greater compensation in one-half of the time. 
I inherited a huge place, and, of necessity, was obliged to develop 
a business in a large way to make expenses, before profits, and I chose 
hog specializing to accomplish this. But, if one has a location, it really 
requires little capital to start, and the rewards surpass everything 
horticultural. 

Hog breeding and feeding, however, are exact sciences if successful. 
The ordinarily well-educated woman, aided by swine publications, can 
quickly acquire the necessary knowledge, and with a small beginning 
can rapidly evolve a business of prosperous proportions. 

Because the hog in numerous instances has been confined to re- 
stricted quarters, which became noisome and foul, an almost ineradicable 
idea that the hog is an unclean animal was created. Nothing of the 
kind is true, and I constantly wish I could show to women the sweet- 
smelling, cleanly, bright-colored, spotted Poland-China hogs, which keep 
their yellow straw beds clean, and in whose houses the daintiest-clad 
could linger, bringing out not the faintest odor— a distinct contrast to 
what happens after a visit to a fashionable dog, cat or poultry show. 

The woman of modest means is foolish to neglect owning a pure- 
bred, recorded sow, which she can buy for fifty dollars, whose offspring, 
coming eight to sixteen in a litter, can be sold for twenty-five dollars 
each at weaning time, or thirty dollars each at three months ; and from 
then on at prices according to development. 

I have seen six months' old pigs sell for two hundred dollars each; 
and I have myself sold hogs for three hundred dollars to over nine hun- 

1 



dred dollars each, and I can sell all I can raise for fifty dollars each, and 
then be unable to fill every order. 

If one has plenty of blue grass, alfalfa, and clover, the question of 
feeding pigs cheaply is solved, for with these only a moderate amount 
of grain is needed, until the hogs are more mature. 

Small pigs require milk mixed with their ground feed, therefore a 
cow and a sow will start a woman on the road to a bank account quicker 
than any flower or vegetable garden that ever grew. 

I love flowers, fruits, vegetables and bees, but I prefer watching 
my big sow, "Best Ever No. 46," suckle her litter of roly-poly pigs, sired 
by my one thousand pound boar. "Paul No. 20," and knowing that, when 
their little bellies are full, they will flock around me, rolling over at my 
feet and lying breathless in begging expectation of being rubbed into 
ecstacy. 

It happens I have succeeded in hog raising, not, however, without 
hard work, mental strain, and drawbacks. That the age of chivalry is 
dead, every woman in business knows, and the result is to foster a bull- 
dog tenacity of purpose, with a mind centered on the intention to win 
out by good work. A woman is so admirably constructed mentally that 
she is sure to win, and the ultimate result is to view the vain inimical 
manceuverings of men with complacent grunts. A grin beats a groan. 

In the end, it is so easy that worry moves to Mars. To succeed in 
hog raising, as in other businesses, a woman must do exactly as she 
agrees, must not exaggerate, must "produce the goods," never whine, 
nor trade on sex. Avoid dissatisfied customers; but if, when a hog is 
shipped to a customer, he voices the least objection, return his payment 
at once, requesting return of the animal, paying express charges both 
ways. Sometimes this request disarms him, and, at all events, it prevents 
his complaints, and if the hog does come back, it can frequently be sold 
for more money to some one else, for "many men, many minds." 

In selling recorded hogs, money is received by reputable breeders 
in advance of shipping the hogs, and those who ship on approval or 
collect on delivery are, to my mind, those who are not sure of the quality 
of their stock nor of themselves. 

I raise seven hundred or more hogs, and am aspiring to one thous- 
and per year. So far I have not had disease among them, and have sent 
to nearly every State, especially in the middle western corn belt, and 
the western States. I frequently ship a whole herd to one man, who 
sends hundreds of dollars; and, fearing he will not get the best, he con- 
tracts and pays months in advance. By selecting the hogs myself, I 
rarely fail to give complete satisfaction; and, strange to say, I have never 
seen, personally, a dozen of all my hundreds of customers. 

The keeping of records and pedigrees is engrossing and most in- 
teresting work. I write all the letters, several hundreds a month, my- 
self, both because I know what to say, and because I think the buyers 
appreciate this personal touch. 

2 



A competent, faithful herdsman is the main factor; then good hous- 
ing- (not necessarily expensive); good, dry bedding, tight fencing, prop- 
erly balanced rations; pure water constantly on hand, and, not least, 
the effective self-feeding system, promoted by the clever John S. Evvard, 
Professor of Animal Husbandry of the University of Iowa. Last, with- 
out which one cannot succeed, is attractive advertising in the right farm 
papers. Begin with illustrated, big advertising. Get on the map, and 
the way is clear. 

Breeders should give prompt replies to inquiries; strong, safe ship- 
ping crates; and personal understandings with the heads of the Express 
Companies regarding care en route for long journeys, sometimes of 
four days. All record and breeding certificates must be furnished free, 
and without long delay after shipments, for customers are eager to know 
pedigrees and data. Above all, have each hog ear-tagged or ear-clipped 
for identification. 

Many breeders are careless, bookkeeping is irksome, and many are 
too ignorant to do the work, so orders are filled by grabbing a pig, 
clapping on a pedigree, the more high-sounding the better, often dupli- 
cating the name of a well-known hog of a well-known breeder. 

I have a long list of women customers, and in buying they are hard 
to please and particular, but they get their money's worth and make 
money afterwards. One of them, in Idaho, takes her hogs to fairs and 
wins the ribbons. 

Girls, take my advice, and do not potter around with messy flower 
pots, but buy a pig, while pigging is good, and soldiers need pork. 

Jennie M. Conrad. 

FOOD FOR ALL. 

"I feel it my duty to emphasize that the food situation is one of the 
utmost gravity, which, unless it be solved, may possibly result in the 

collapse of everything we hold dear in civilization The only hope 

is by the elimination of waste and actual and rigorous self-sacrifice on 

the part of the American people We do not ask that they should 

starve themselves, but that they should eat plenty, wisely and without 
waste." — Herbert Hoover. 

Save the Wheat. 

On the eve of going to press, the Council of National Defense tele- 
graphed to Mrs. J. Willis Martin requesting that this "Bread Circular" 
appear in the Bulletin of the Woman's Farm and Garden Association: 

A New Way to Save Bread. 

Few women know of the commercial machinery which makes it 
possible to buy at any hour a loaf of freshly-baked. bread. We so take 
this convenience for granted that we do not exercise even ordinary fore- 



thought about the amount of bread that we order in the morning. We 
know that if we take two loaves and find ourselves short toward tea 
time, an extra fresh loaf is easy to get. It is only when our attention 
is challenged that common sense tells us that this is no matter of course, 
but the result of preparation on somebody's part. What the preparation 
is has just been made clear by the Council of National Defense. 

The fact that this war is to be fought on wheat as much if not more 
than on guns and men, is becoming clear to all. The government is 
studying the practical points of saving wheat without too largely dis- 
turbing business. The Council of National Defense includes a Com- 
mercial Economy Board. It is the business of this Board to see where 
we can make useful economies. Naturally the members of this Board 
turned their attention to wheat products, and the first thing that they 
challenged was the continuous supply of fresh bread on the bread re- 
tailer's shelves. They saw that he was carrying every dav a surplus, 
which meant that the bakers who supplied him were making more than 
they sold. The Commercial Economy Board undertook an investigation. 

The Board discovered that for competitive reasons these bakers 
kept the shelves of the bread retailers overstocked. They did not expect 
the retailer to sell all the bread. Their point was that the retailer should 
always have a surplus. The retailer, knowing that he would have more 
bread than he could sell, never required his customers to order ahead. 
It requires little thinking to see that this reckless method means waste 
at some point. As a matter of fact, the Commercial Economy Board 
finds that it means a considerable waste, one which at the present time 
cannot be allowed to continue. As nearly as the Board can estimate, 
fully four per cent, of the bread baked in this country is returned by 
the retailers. 

Now, what is done with this four per cent, of returned loaves? 
Some of it is sold to the poor, and probably one and one-half per cent. 
is fed to pigs, chickens, etc. Now make a little calculation. Suppose 
in your town the bakers put out ten thousand loaves a day, a small town 
requires as many, there are one hundred and fifty loaves fed to the pigs 
and chickens. Extend this calculation. There are bakers in our large 
cities who turn out at least half a million loaves a day. That means 
7,500 for animals. 

It needs no argument to those who realize that this leakage must 
be stopped. The bakers themselves are beginning to take steps. In- 
quiry among the bakers shows that at least eighty per cent, are in favor 
of stopping bread returns. 

And here the women come in. They are the bread buyers, and 
they must make their calculations in advance for the day's supply. 

This essential saving can only be effected if women everywhere 
generally adopt it. The Women's Committee of the Council of National 
Defense ask all housekeepers to immediately begin to order their bread 
supply for the day instead of for temporary needs. Intelligent women 

4 



must everywhere stand by the bakers and bread dealers in the no-return 
plan. If they do this, we can save the waste that now goes to animals. 
This saving will furnish a supply for hungry women, children and our 
fighting soldiers, and will enable us to so handle the wheat crop of the 
world that all may have enough to eat in the long and hard struggle 
ahead. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING AND CONFERENCE. 

The Annual Meeting and Conference were held at Washington, with 
a large attendance. Mrs. David F. Houston opened the first session, 
and presented Mrs. King as Chairman. The program provided by the 
committee, under the leadership of Mrs. C. W. Wetmore, offered so 
many enticing subjects that a large attendance of members resulted. 
Hon. Carl Vrooman, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, gave the 
address of welcome, and announced arrangements whereby members of 
the Association were to be shown many of the practical workings of 
the Department of Agriculture, a privilege afterwards greatly enjoyed. 

The program of the Conference was carried out in full, and a fre- 
quent note conveyed to the audience the need for thorough training 
and persistent effort in agriculture and everything pertaining to the pro- 
duction of growing things. The following resolution was passed: "With 
the alarming shortage of the food supplies of the United States and the 
world, be it resolved that the members of the Woman's National Farm 
and Garden Association, now in session, appeal to the National Govern- 
ment to close, as a war necessity, all distilleries and breweries, that the 
grain used by them may be available for food, except in such cases where 
the manufacture is for mechanical and medicinal purposes; and that steps 
be taken, in view of the vast army of able-bodied men incapacitated for 
labor because of alcoholic drink, to prohibit saloons and hotels from 
selling any liquor, thus making more available a large supply of farm 
labor." 

Dr. P. P. Claxton, U. S. Commissioner of Education, gave a most 
illuminating address on School Gardens in Washington, and, in course 
of it, explained the necessity for instruction for children in vegetable- 
growing. The Association passed the following: "Resolved, That the 
Association endorse the proposition explained by Dr. Claxton, that 
every boy and girl in the Public Schools be taught, as part of his course, 
the growing of vegetables, thus adding to the nation's food production, 
and laying the foundations of love for out-door work, with all the results 
in mental, moral and physical benefits which this implies." 

A delightful garden party at Miss Hegeman's, and a long motor 
trip about Washington, including the beautiful outlying parks, sent visi- 
tors from a distance home with an intensified admiration for this our 
National City, and warm gratitude towards those who had made the 
visit so productive of good. 

5 



STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Membership Committee — Mrs. Charles W. Deusner, Chairman, 
Batavia, 111. 

Finance Committee — Mrs. William Conant, Chairman, 62 Beacon 
Street, Boston, Mass. 

Publicity Committee — Miss Lena McCauley, Chairman, 418 St. James 
Place, Chicago, Illinois. 

Publications Committee — Miss Jane B. Haines, Chairman, Chelten- 
ham, Pa. ; Miss Ellen C. Wood, Vice-Chairman, The Tracy, 20 South 
Thirty-sixth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Law Committee — Miss Florence King, Chairman, 1653 Monadnock 
Building, Chicago, 111. 

Permanent Conference Committee — Mrs. George G. Crocker, Chair- 
man, 343 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

School Gardens Committee — Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw, Chairman, 161 
Emerson Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

HARVESTING CROPS IN VENTURA, CALIFORNIA. 

Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Francis writes of the excellent method the 
Ventura County Council of Defense is taking to secure the harvesting 
of crops for the season of 1917. The Superintendent of Schools has 
issued to teachers a circular from which we quote: 

"One of the most threatening factors in the problem (of food supply) 
by which we are confronted, is the fact that there may be an insufficient 
supply of labor to harvest the crops. This applies to our own county, 
as well as to the nation as a whole. Our farmers may have difficulty in 
getting the help that must be had if the crops are to be saved. The 
Council of Defense, foreseeing and seeking to lessen the danger, have 
devised a plan to take what may be called a census of the labor available 
to harvest the crops of the county. They want your help in this. They 
want you to distribute the enclosed blanks, that one may reach every 
family represented in the schools, explaining to the children, in order 
that they may in turn explain to the parents, that the blanks should be 
filled out so as to show exactly how much and what kind of labor each 
family can furnish for the harvest season. As soon as the blanks are 
returned to you, forward them to me." 

The blanks "most respectfully request that the people of this county 
co-operate in an effort to secure the harvesting of crops." And further. 
"It may be necessary that the women and children of this county, in 
much larger numbers than usual, will be needed to assist in harvesting 
the apricot and walnut crops this year, and for that purpose we desire 

to make an enrollment of all who will assist in the harvest We 

earnestly urge that the blanks be filled out, signed and returned imme- 
diately." The return blank states that "the undersigned hereby enrolls 
the following members of his family who will be willing to render such 

6 



assistance for compensation as each is qualified to perform in harvesting 
the crop grown in Ventura County." Below this are spaces for the 
names, ages and addresses of those so registering. No doubt any one 
desiring to obtain copies of these excellent blanks may be able to do so 
by applying to Ventura County Council of Defense. They are sugges- 
tive for future summers for other districts in this country. 

BACK YARD, LITTLE, AND VACANT LOT GARDENS. 

Miss Frances L. Stearns writes from Grand Rapids, Michigan: 

"The Quarterly has always furnished me with valuable and interesting 
material for my work, and now by the establishment of the Land Service 
League it seems to me that the Association is offering a service most 
timely and significant. 

"The back yard and vacant lot garden movement is gaining here, 
and if you publish any directions or suggestions or information which 
would be of value to those interested in the work here, I would be glad 
to receive them in the Association. 

"The school garden work is carried on this year under the super- 
vision of a director, who is paid partly by the Board of Education and 
partly by the Department of Agriculture. 

"Some 1,200 children in this city are now entered for this work, 
and 200 to 300 in the country. The high school offers credit for home 
work along agricultural lines, and we now have about fifty registered for 
that work, and expect that the number will grow." 

Miss Frances Stearns no doubt voices the desire of many others of 
our members, and we are glad to recommend to their attention "Far- 
mers' Bulletin 818," issued by the Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington, prepared under the direction of the Bureau of Plant Industry. It 
is called "The Small Vegetable Garden," but should be ordered by 
number. It can best be obtained from the Senators of the State in which 
the applicant lives, for the Department of Agriculture has so distributed 
copies. It covers subjects such as the "Essentials of Gardening," 
"Planting the Small Garden," "Choosing Crops," "Preparing the Soil," 
"Cultivation," etc. It contains an excellent table, showing the quantity 
of seeds or number of plants (of fifty-six varieties of plants^) needed to 
set out rows of 100 feet in length. The Department of Agriculture at 
Washington still has some copies for distribution. — Editor. 

Five Thousand Gardens at Flushing, New York. 

The wonderful posters put out by the Park Garden Club to encour- 
age owners of small plots to farm them are well worthy of consideration 
by members of our Association who are interested in similar enterprises. 
Printed in bold type, the address of the Committee, where information 
can be obtained, is always in red, the rest of the poster in black. One 
reads: "PLANT NOW." DON'T WAIT UNTIL TOO LATE. Start 



your garden to-day. Remember the country faces a grave danger in 
a threatened food shortage, so that it is the duty of every one to help. 
And for every potato you plant there should be ten for you and ten for 
your neighbor. ENLIST TO-DAY AS A SOLDIER OF THE SOIL. 
If you don't know where or how, we will tell you." Another begins: 
Plant $i; Reap $10. You Can Do It In Your Yard or on a Vacant 
Lot, Which We Will Plow and Fertilize for You." The address given 
is: Flushing Home Gardens Committee, Eighty-nine Main Street, Flush- 
ing N. Y. 



The Society of Little Gardens' Preparedness Work. 

Having no rules and no by-laws, and being unhampered by either 
regulations or precedents, the Society of Little Gardens is able to take 
up any line of work that may be deemed advisable. 

From the time of its organization, vegetable gardens were named 
as part of its objective, though no action was taken. But when war was 
declared, the Officers realized that the Food Supply was one of the 
questions of the hour, and that on them rested a share of the responsi- 
bility to increase and preserve it. Accordingly, it was at once arranged 
to have two lectures given, in order to inspire interest, one an excellent 
practical talk and demonstration on "Bee-Keeping," the other on "Vege- 
table Growing in Small Yards." These were well attended and great 
interest was shown. Since these lectures, teachers have been visiting 
the different centres of the Society, giving instruction, and vegetables 
are being grown in many small enclosures. 

A practical talk and demonstration will be given at the next general 
meeting of the Society on "Vegetables That Can Be Grown in Pots." 
At this and similar meetings, penny packets of seeds will be on sale, 
besides plants, garden soil and small packages of fertilizer. All these 
things the Society buys wholesale and sells to its members at cost. 

1 litherto the Society has sent its teachers only to centres in the city 
or suburbs, but now a new opportunity offers. 

Some of the town dwellers have plots in the country offered them 
on which to raise crops, and the Officers are asked if the teachers will 
help these beginners to start their work in the right way. It is with 
the greatest satisfaction that they agree to do this. 

The Society of Little Gardens is not a charitable institution. It 
wishes rather to be considered co-operative. Help is gladly given to 
those who wish to start gardens, hoping that they in turn may help 
others. Some of the members respond promptly to this suggestion. 
A new branch was formed last winter, its object to bring some touch 
of beaut \ and brightness to the sick at the Philadelphia Hospital by 
means of growing plants or window-boxes. When the scheme was out- 
lined at a Chairman's meeting, the Chairman of the Girls' Friendly 
Branches said she felt sure that some of her members would like to raise 



bulbs to give to the sick at Easter. And when the suggestion was mad 
by her to her girls at their next gathering, the response was eager and 
practically unanimous. And so the work grows. 

Philadelphia. Bertha A. Clark. 

TOMATOES AS AN ESPALIER VEGETABLE ON THE 
BACK YARD FENCE. 

One of the difficulties of back yard gardening is to arrange satisfactory planting 
for the back yard fence, and tin's difficulty may be solved at once by training tomatoes 
as an espalier. The result is obviously pleasing to the eye. Plants trained to clothe 
the rather uninteresting fence are appreciated as decoration, but more important 
are the practical advantages. The fruit is earlier, cleaner, and of better quality 
than can be produced as plants grown on the ground. From late planted tomatoes 
one can gather well-developed fruit nut inclined to rot until the vines are cut down 
by the frost. 

The principle of training tomatoes as an espalier is not difficult to understand. 
Early in the season a tomato plant consists of a stem with leaves and at intervals 
hunches of flowers, which develop into fruit. Later lateral branches appear, and 
these are similar to the main stem, also bearing fruit, and thus a bushy plant is 
produced. For an espalier one retains the main stem, and, if desired, two or three 
strong laterals, all of which are trained in an upward direction about eight inches 
apart. All other side shoots are removed when quite small, the main stems bearing 
only leaves and fruit. 

Prior to planting, make a trellis to which the tomato may be trained. This 
may lie simply and inexpensively done by securing string horizontally to the fence 
at intervals of six inches,-and running the entire length of the row. The tomatoes 
.ire tied to the string wherever the two cross. Another method is to run upright 
strings every eight inches and train one shoot to a string. 

Plant the tomatoes two feet apart in a sunny position. Thorough watering at 
night is necessary for wall plants, for wall plants suffer more quickly and seriously 
from drought than those in the open ground. — Edna May Gunnell, School of 
Horticulture, Ambler, Pa. 

LETTERS FROM MEMBERS. 

Mrs. Fullerton, of Medford, Long Tsland, writes: "You may be interested to 
know that Long Island is doing wonders towards increasing the nation's food 
supply. A Long Island Food Reserve Battalion has been formed, and the Com- 
mittees are made up of the most wealthy, influential and practical people on the 
island. At the very beginning of the season, owing to (lie scarcity of labor and 
seed, only fifteen per cent, was to have been put under cultivation. Now the island 
not only has made up that deficiency, but is already preparing to put under cultiva- 
tion thirty-five per cent, more than the normal acreage. The battalion hopes to 
raise five million bushels of potatoes, besides vast quantities of corn, beans and 
root crops, bight tractors have been in use and are ploughing three furrow 
time, night and day. Twenty-two more are expected to be in action at tin end 
of next week. These tractors are being run by volunteer college- boys, mechanics 
and automobile drivers. We feel grateful that Nature is holding the season hack, 
so that more acreage can be put under cultivation, and while the nights have been 
cold, everything is making a wonderfully normal strong root growth. Seeds in 
the ground are not rotting, but making a phenomenal root growth, which wdl. no 
doubt, increase the yield." 

Miss Marv I. Potter writes from Ithaca, N. Y. : "I enjoy greatly reading the 
Quarterly, and found eight very helpful suggestions in the February number. I do 
not wish to discourage any one from entering my chosen profession of Landscape 
Design. We need earnest women who are willing to work hard, but a word of 
warning might be advisable. No girl who- is not well grounded in tin- elements Oi 
the exact sciences and who is not willing to work bard over surveying, perspective 



and mechanical draughtman's work, should think of applying. She could specialize 
in planting' and garden work, study soils, entomology (economic), and floriculture: 
but I should not advise her to major in Landscape Art with the idea of becoming 
a Landscape Architect. This is not in any sense an implied derogatory statement 
of the excellent women Landscape Architects we already have, but to urge my 
sisters to study the question thoroughly before taking any decisive steps. In two 
years I bave met with eight discouraged girls, who 'did not know it was so hard,' 
and are sorry they had not specialized in market gardening, nursery management, 
etc. The art of Landscaping is going forward by leaps and bounds, and we need 
to be very much alive and very much in earnest to keep up. I am proud to state 
that three young women out of ten have made the young men sit up and take 
notice, so excellent has been their work. All three are doing well in the world. 
The other seven may develop later on. I am jealous for two things : 
that my younger sisters (I am grey-haired, you may recall) may keep their standard 
of what is 'good work' high ; and that Landscape Art may also keep a high standard 
and be ranked with the true arts." 



PERSONALS. 

Miss Miriam Sener, of Lancaster, Pa., a member of the Woman's National 
Farm and Garden Association, who raises fine young plants under glass for her own 
pleasure and the pleasure of her friends, decided to sell the plants to her friends 
this spring, for the benefit of the local Red Cross Society. Miss Sener sold snap- 
dragons, Delphinium, cactus dahlias, Marechal Neil roses, and handed a nice sum 
to the Red Cross treasury. 

Miss Louise F. Anderson, 154 East Superior Street, Chicago, 111., writes: "We 
do not raise any vegetable seeds on our small place that I could distribute, as I buy 
my own seeds every spring, but I have from time to time some flower seeds, espe- 
cially some very fine double hollyhock seeds, that I can exchange for other seeds 
with members, if you think any might desire to do so. You have my very best 
wishes for the progress of the "Woman's National Farm and Garden Association." 

Boy Scouts at Work. — Mr. H. B. Fullerton, who is a member of the W. N. 
F. and G. Association, has recently been made Chief Grub Scout of the Boy Scouts 
of America. He is lecturing in various parts of the country, to not only induce 
the Scouts to take up farm work, but to actually show them how to do it. The 
Scouts now number over 290,000, and their slogan will be, until the war is over, 
"Every Scout to Feed a Soldier." Troops, under their Scoutmaster, will probably 
be sent to farming communities where there is demand for labor. The Scouts are 
to work one-half a day only, but many hands make light work, and we feel confi- 
dent they are going to be a great saviour of the farming problem this year and 
possibly for many years to come. 

Nubian Goats. — Mrs. Jessie H. Watson, of Beech Haven Farm, Wycombe, 
Pa., has a herd of valuable Nubian Milch goats, of which she has sent photographs 
to the Bulletin. The picture of twelve little goats is exceedingly pretty, for they 
crowd about the feeding trough in a very playful fashion. 

Flower Decoration. — Mrs. Lewis C. Richards gave a most illuminating lecture 
on Flower Arrangement in New Rochelle. "Relationship of flowers and the recep- 
tacle which is to hold them should be given much thought," she said. "Line, color, 
blending of color, ease and grace of decoration, are points which a good judge will 
look for first. Light and shade, daylight and candlelight, all affect table decoration. 
This is needed all the 'year, and it is well to be prepared. At Thanksgiving there 
are fruits and nuts and vines covered with gay berries. If one starts in time with 
Chinese primroses, they will be ready when the Christmas holly is gone." Mrs. 
Richards had filled baskets to illustrate how such should and should not be handled. 

An article on small gardens by Mrs. Elsie McFate appeared in the Pittsburgh 
Chronicle-Telegraph, from which we quote several paragraphs: "Don't despair be- 
cause of poor ground. Even a slag pile is not impossible. If you have hard clay, 
dynamite it with warm, fresh stable litter. If you have hot sand, cool it off with 
clay. Beware of 'top soil' from old gardens sold for good money because it is 
'black.' Such soil is usually worn out. Often this alluring color of soil is taken 
on onlv bv environment of soot and dirt. Some near day our women may feed 
• 10 



the nation. Never was there a time when such an important task seemed just he- 
fore us. In case of actual war, all other works of 'preparedness' fade against the 
gigantic work of providing food." 

RECIPES. 

For Preserving Vegetarles and Fruit Unsterilized. 

Beans in Salt. 
Take young, tender, green string beans, preferably in the fall, string and cut as 
for the table. In a stone crock put a layer of rather coarse salt (dairy salt), just 
covering so that you cannot see the bottom of the crock. Then put a layer of the 
raw beans about an inch deep; another layer of salt just obscuring the beans, and 
so on, ending with the salt as top layer. Tie a piece of muslin over the top. In a 
day or so they will have settled at least one-third, and you can fill'up with more fresh 
beans and salt, and cover as before. I set the crocks holding several quarts in the 
cellar, and find the beans are good and preserve their natural color all winter. 
When using, take out each time the quantity required, and wash them thoroughly 
through several waters, letting them soak a while in each, until you have washed 
away all salt or as much as desired, and cook as if fresh, but do not soak all night. 
If the beans, the salt and the crock are all the same temperature when packing, 
I fancy they keep better, and the salt does not melt much, as indeed it should not. 
Sometimes the salt has not melted at all ; other times I find it has. It is always 
better when it does not. — Lydia VV. Rhoads, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Swiss Method of Drying Beans and Apples. 
" String beans are picked in their prime, the strings, if any, are pulled out. Then 
they are washed and strttng through the middle of the length and width of the 
bean with a needle and strong double white cotton or linen thread a yard and a half 
long. String them close together. Then they are put into boiling water for fifteen 
minutes, then hung up in the sun to dry. If you have poles a yard or more apart 
with nails nine to ten inches apart, and leave loops to your strings, they can easily 
be removed before the dew falls or in case of a shower. Protect from flies with 
gauze. Two or three sunny days will suffice to dry them. They shrivel and do not 
look very well, but fill up in soaking, which takes longer than if the beans were 
fresher. The dried flavor is different from the fresh, but nice. 

Apples should be pared, cut into eighths, cores removed, and strung up like the 
beans, but without parboiling. Hang to dry in sun for several days. Cover with 
gauze. 

Blueberries and black cherries are placed on wooden trays, close together, but 
only one layer thick. They should be covered with gauze and allowed to remain 
in sun until quite shrivelled and dry. When cooked they fill up and are quite good. 
— Mrs. M. J. Hendricks, 76 Lincoln Road, Glen Ridge, N. J. 

Dried Corn. 
Select young ears and plunge into boiling water for ten minutes or just long 
enough to set the milk. Slice from the cob, not cutting too deeply : then scrape 
as clean as possible. Place in shallow pans, spreading to cover bottom thinly, and 
put into oven to dry quickly. Be careful not to scorch. It takes about twelve hours 
to dry properly. It may then be put into bags and hung near the stove, more 
corn being added as it is dried. Pack in weevil-proof packages for winter use. 

Green Beans in Salt Brine. 
Take fresh beans, string, wash and cut as for table use. dry with cloth and 
place a layer in bottom of crock. Add thin layer of salt and repeat till crock is 
nearly full". Press with potato masher or stone until enough juice has been extracted 
to form a brine to cover the beans. Cover with cloth, and weight to keep beans 
in place. Must be soaked before using. Will keep beautifully in a cool place. 
Parslev, celery and summer savory may be dried in the oven or hot sun and 
keep indefinitely.— Mrs. B. W. Rosenstone, Palos Park, 111. 

11 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Children's Gardens. By Louise Klein Miller. Published by D. Appleton & Co. 
Illustrated, cloth, pp. 235. 
Brief sketches of children's gardens in various parts of the world, with illu- 
minating suggestions by the way, comprise the opening third of this wise little book. 
Chapters on native shrubs and trees follow, and propagation, grafting and budding, 
soil and fertilizers, are then discussed. The studies of insects, beneficial and in- 
jurious, are extremely valuable for teachers who intend to instruct children, and 
the chapter on the uses of birds adds a charming touch to the practical outlook. 
Teachers in the country will find this book specially helpful. 

Co-operation in Agriculture. By G. Harold Powell. The Rural Science Series. 
L. H. Bailey, Editor. Published by Macmillan. Cloth, pp. 327. 
After a brief chapter on Changes in Industrial Methods, Mr. Powell gives chap- 
ters on the organization of a co-operative association, with specimens of some 
already in existence. He then goes more fully into the details of methods in use 
in a variety of such associations, horse and cattle, egg, cotton and fruit. Co-opera- 
tion in Irrigation is discussed, and a chapter on Rural Credit, and another on the 
Rural Telephone, add interest. As the American co-operative movement is yet in 
the formative stage, those desiring enlightenment will do well to study Mr. Powell's 
presentation of what has been accomplished, as well as what needs to be done. Per- 
haps at the present time, to the small farmer, the co-operation in the purchase of 
supplies, as he presents it, will be exceedingly helpful. An intimate knowledge of 
the working details of a great number of associations enables Mr. Powell to put 
at the convenience of his readers a great mine of information, which he will find 
exceedingly useful in working out similar associations in parts of the country not 
yet assisted by co-operative institutions. 

Little Gardens. By Charles M. Skinner. Published by D. Appleton & Co. Cloth, 
pp. 250. Illustrated. Price, $1.35 net. 
This is a charming study of what a small city garden may be. Suggestions 
for planting small spaces are aided by diagrams so clever that the reader wishes 
she had a space of the size mentioned in which to try all the plans in turn. Under 
the title of "A Country Yard," larger spaces are considered. The suggestions 
regarding flowers, color and arrangement, are exceedingly practical, and no one will 
go astray in getting this book if possessed of a small space and the desire to make 
a thing of beauty out of it. 

Community Civics. By Jessie Field and Scott Nearing. Published by Macmillan 
Co. Cloth, pp. 270. Illustrated. Price, 60 cents. 
The low price of this very valuable book should do much to put it just where 
it should be, in the hands of every community leader in the United States. It is a 
text-book, but so charmingly written that one does not realize it when reading it. 
It fairly teems with suggestions, which are what leaders want in these days, when 
so busy giving out material to eager workers. It also is contagiously enthusiastic, 
a very valuable quality. "Country Life Ideals," "The Art of Home-Making," and 
"The "Nation as a Community," are titles of three of the chapters. 

Milady's House Plants. By F. E. Palmer. Published by A. T. De La Mare Co., 

438 to 448 West 37th Street, New York. Cloth, pp. 176. Price, $1.00, 

Illustrated. 

It is evident that Mr. Palmer is an expert in the line he is presenting in this 

book. Directions for the care of ferns, palms and other foliage plants ; for begonias, 

roses, azalias, bulbous plants, and geraniums, not to enumerate many others, are 

clear' and concise. A chapter on seeds and cuttings, and one on insect pests, is 

important. A new note is struck in the suggestions for a combination plant and 

tearoom or lounge, which are so enticing that we are sure that many of them will 

be promptly adopted bv lovers of home and flowers. The illustrations are so soft 

and clear that they are an aid to students of this old, yet new, winter solace. 

12 



The Joyous Art of Gardening. By Frances Duncan. Cloth. Published by Charles 
Scribner's Sons. Price, $1.75 net. Pp. 140. Illustrated. Diagram-. 

Joy in the garden is the topic and tone. But the^ text is also practical, and 
from so practiced a gardener that one can almost see one's plants grow even on a 
windy day in March. A study of an old-fashioned garden is specially fetching. 
The compost-heap, winter injuries and other necessary subjects, are carefully treated, 
as well as ornamental ones, such as lattices and garden seats. The book runs over 
with enticing cut's, diagrams and charts. A joyous book for a dull day. 

My Garden. By Louise Beebe Wilder. Published by Doubleday, Page & Co. 
Price, $1.50. Cloth, pp. 308. Illustrated. 

Spring rounds to winter in delightful informal talk by the author on flowers 
which Blow and grow from April till October. Many plants unusual to the casual 
gardener are introduced, and whet the appetite for a fuller understanding of "How 
shall my garden grow ?" To the lover of the olden time, "The Herb Garden" is a 
fragrant invitation to devote a corner to thyme, lavender, basil and woodruff ; while 
"Green Draperies" suggest roofs of summer green underhung with rainbow tints : 
wisteria, trumpet creeper and moon flowers. The illustrations are helpful. 



Do not fail to mention The Bulletin when answering advertisements 



GMrnr Arrrs (Slafctnlt 

GLAD flowers for ihe summer 
garden. 

Brilliant — Showy — Effective. 

Illustrated booklet FREE upon 
request. 

B. HAMMOND TRACY 
Cedar Acres, Box F 

Wenliam, Mass. 



A BIRD BY MAIL 

So cunningly shaped, of 
wood and metal, and so truly 
colore^d and carved, that it 
almost deceives the live birds. 
Complete with stick and metal 
swivel, for use as flower stick, 
weather vane or on shrubbery, 
indoors or out. Robins, 

Orioles, Parrots, Larks, Blue- 
jays, etc.. 2 birds for $2. 6 in 
box for $5. 12 assorted in 
artistically painted box, $10 
prepaid. 

GARDEN STUDIO 

122 Waverly Place.NewYoik 




ADVERTISING COLUMN FOR MEMBERS ONLY 

Rate, ten cents per agate line. Not less than five lines nor more than ten lines 
accepted at this rate. 



I RIS SEEDLINGS.— Mrs. L. B. Cross, 
* 924 Fourth Avenue, Louisville, Ky., 
has some fine seedling Iris. She writes : 
"\ am most anxious to co-operate in any 
activity the Association may find 
adapted to the need of the hour in this 
most strenuous time." 



\\7ILLIAM W. EDGAR COMPANY, 
vv Importers and Growers of Plants 
ar.d Flowers, Waverly, Mass. 



C ORSGATE FARMS. Cranhury, N. J. 
*■ M. V. Landman, " Experimental 
Department. 



T HE list of "Agricultural and Horti- 
* cultural Courses for Women in the 
Middle Atlantic States," which appeared ■ 
in the June number of The Bulletin, is 
issued in leaflet form, and can be ob- 
tained at the Office of the Association. 
Single copies, 5 cents : $1.50 per hundred. 



Do not fail to mention The Bulletin when answering advertisements 



Green-Briar Home Preserves 



Sun-cooked fruits and fruit juices 
one of the specialties. Novelties 
in Christmas and Bridge Whist 
boxes and baskets containing 
preserves and jellies. : : 

Price List on request 

IDA PUTNAM 



Green Briar 



East Sandwich, Mass. 



WHEN YOU WANT THE BEST 


C. G. van Tubergen, Jr. 


Seeds 


Haarlem, Holland 


for the Farm or Garden 






Grower of 


Plants 

and 


Choice Bulbs 


Horticultural Supplies 


Bulbs Imported direct from 


of any kind 


Holland for Customers. No 


"Get them at DreerV 


supply kept here. Catalogue 


Catalogues issued in Spring, Summer 


quoting prices in Nurseries 


and Autumn, contain the best of every- 


in Haarlem — free on appli- 


thing needed for your success. Copies 


cation. 


mailed free to all applicants who men-* 


tion this publication. 


E. J. Krug', Sole Agent 


HENRY A. DREER 


112 Broad Street 


714-716 Chestnut St. 


NEW YORK 


PHILADELPHIA 


(Successor to C. C. Abel & Co.) 



Woman's National 
Farm and Garden Association 

MONTHLY BULLETIN 

AUGUST, 1917 



President, 
Mrs. Francis King. 

Vice-Presidents, 
Miss Mira L. Dock, Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee, 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton, Mrs. J. Willis Martin, 

Miss Jane B. Haines, Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer. 



Council, 



Mr. Bernard M. Baker, 

Miss Emma Blakiston, 

Mrs. S. A. Brown, 

Mrs. William Con ant, 

Mrs. George U. Crocker, 

Miss Louisa G. Davis, 

Mrs. C. W. Deusner, 

Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd Francis, 

Mrs. H. B. Fullerton, 

Mrs. A. H. Gross, 

Miss Jane B. Haines, 

Miss Margaret Jackson, 

Mrs. Francis King, 



Miss Elizabeth Leighton Lee, 

Miss Hilda Loines, 

Mrs. Elsie McFate, 

Mrs. Frances Duncan Manning, 

Miss Louise Klein Miller, 

Mrs. M. C. Patterson, 

Miss E. H. Peale, 

Mr. George T. Powell, 

Miss Ellen Eddy Shaw, 

Mrs. Elizabeth Leonard Strang, 

Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy, 

Mrs. Susan H. Vollmer . 

Dean R. L. Watts, 



Miss Ellen C. Wood. 

Recording Secretary, 
Miss Jean A. Cross, 339 Lincoln Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Treasurer, 
Miss Louisa G. Davis, Ambler, Pa. 

General Secretary, 
Miss Hilda Loines, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 



Entered as second-class matter March 22, 1915, at the Post Office at Cheltenham, Pa., 
under Act of Congress, March 3, 1879. 

Annual dues in the Association, $1.00 per year, which includes subscription to the 
Monthly Bulletin. 



ASSOCIATION NOTES. 

Office of the Association, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 
Telephone, Plaza 6000. 

The Association gratefully acknowledges the gift of two Lumiere garden 
pictures, presented by Henrietta Hudson, to be sold for the benefit of the Associa- 
tion. These pictures were shown at the exhibit of members' work in Washington, 
where they were much admired. They are now on exhibit at the rooms. 

The following day letter was sent to President Wilson and Secretary of War 
Baker, April 14th, 1917 : "Our Association submits this plan for your consideration. 
We urge Universal Service for men, women and children, not available for army 
service, for agricultural and home work, under Federal control. Enlist these classes 
of citizens under their specific lines of work, and make them feel that they are doing 
as patriotic work as sailors or soldiers at the front. We would suggest departments 
for enlistment as follows : Canning, preserving, home and canteen cooking, sewing, 
conservation of land, paper, etc., farming and small gardens, growing of herbs, 
vegetable dyes and essential oils. 

"(Signed,) Hilda Loines, General Secretary." 

The Recruiter, the organ of the Resource Mobilization Bureau of the New 
York State Defense Council (published weekly, in the office of the Adjutant General, 
Albany, N. Y.), has published the list of Agricultural and Horticultural Courses 
for Women in the Middle Atlantic States, prepared by the Woman's National Farm 
and Garden Association. 

The officers of the Mid-West Branch of the Woman's National Farm and 
Garden Association gave a luncheon at the Woman's Athletic Club, on June 29th, 
in honor of Mrs. Francis King. The guests were the Board of Directors and 
temporary Advisor}^ Committee, whose work preceded the formation of the Mid- 
West Branch. The purpose of the luncheon was to discuss the extension of the 
work and arrange for the Conference of the National Association, which is to be 
held in Chicago, October 4 and 5, 191 7. 

The Charm of Gardening. — I can tell "the women of Canada" this, that if 
once they begin cultivating their back yard or their front plot, they will become 
so enamoured of the work and its results, that they will continue it, to their own 
and the country's great advantage, and that probably in the process they will dis- 
cover many essentials in their daily housekeeping which will sink into insignificance 
beside the charm and interest of gardening. — Constance E. Hamilton, Lome Park, 
Ontario. 



Copyrighted, 1917, by J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa. 

The Bulletin is the official organ of the Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association, by whom it is owned and under whose authority it is published. Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Francis King, Alma, Mich. ; Secretary, Miss J. A. Cross, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; 
Treasurer, Miss L G. Davis, Ambler, Pa. There are no bond or stockholders. 
Edited by Miss J. B. Haines, Cheltenham, Pa., and Miss E. C. Wood, Seventh and 
Erie Streets, Camden, N. J. Published monthly at Cheltenham, Pa. 



Woman's National Farm and Garden 
Association Monthly Bulletin. 

Vol. IV. August, 1917. No. 3. 

WASTE.* 

BY MRS. CHARLES THOMPSON. 

As President of the Housekeepers' Alliance of Washington, I have 
been invited to speak to you on the subject of waste. The idea is, no 
doubt, that I should be able, in the present stress, to give you some 
eloquent recipes for the use of left-overs. That, however, is not the 
purpose I have in speaking. The time has passed, if it ever existed, 
when the use of left-overs was the substance of household economy. 
National defense demands, if not organized, syncronized household 
economy, administered by the same elements of authority that direct 
the whole matter of National Defense. 

The reason is this: The United States is at war with a nation that 
is armed with household economy as surely as with Zeppelins or Krupp 
guns. It is a war, moreover, in which victory will belong to the nation 
that can shoot the lasfloaf of bread into the field. And what use is the 
United States making of household economy — of housewives as a means 
of National Defense in this war? 

The minute Germany went to war, the housewives of the country 
were mobilized the same as soldiers. Cooks sat in a body in the con- 
gress hall of Germany and organized a policy of national defense. Neither 
military experts nor engineers did this for them. Cooks did it them- 
selves. The housewives were lined up for National Defense by the time 
the army was on the march, and when the first guns of Germany were 
firing, trained, organized housewives were marching into rural districts, 
and at the doors of the school houses, on the porches of churches, in 
the kitchens of the poor, telling all the house-mothers of the land what 
they must do to save the country. 

Consider the economic force of housewives in relation to our gov- 
ernment's policy of commercial economy — first, it is necessary to in- 
crease the food production. 

The Woman's National Farm and Garden Association is here in 
Washington organic proof that women work in growing and making 
food. 

But there is another means than production to increase food. It 
is the particular excellence of the housewife. It is to increase food by 
increasing the utilities of food materials. That is the housewife's 
metier; it is the substance of home economics, which is so definitely 
recognized in France that, allied with efficiency in making munitions of 
war, the Cruesot iron works have long been organized on a plan pro- 



*Address delivered at the Annual Conference of the Woman's National Farm 
and Garden Association, at Washington, D. C, April 26th, 191 7. 



viding that the wives of their working men shall be trained and applied 
to housework because, as is explicitly stated in the science of the French 
economist, Paul Leroy Beaulieu, "Every economy in the home is equiva- 
lent to an increase of wages." 

In England throughout the war, under the personal patronage of 
the Queen and other members of the royal family, national agencies 
have been employed to organize in women the means of defense that 
household economy is. Increase of food is the direct object. Incidental 
benefits to national defense are money gain and increased productive 
power of women. 

At the outset of the war, England found cause to lament the ama- 
teur spirit which her women had taken into housework, which, at the 
expense of national efficiency, they took into other work as they re- 
placed men drafted by war from industry into military service. All 
that is changed now. The United States might, perhaps, pull through 
the war with England and France doing the housekeeping as well as 
the shooting; but as the United States is in this war to win the victory 
of lasting peace, it is important to look ahead to the economic condition 
in which we shall emerge from war. If we are to maintain our industrial 
supremacy in peace following this war, we are bound to be able to do 
our housekeeping as well and cheaply as any nation. Otherwise we 
cannot produce goods and sell them at prices to the advantage of the 
United States. 

The matter of distribution of food is the second big item of the 
United States Government war policy of economy. Enormous waste 
operates in commerce from the error of looking upon the housewife only 
as a consumer. Pampered as such by business, to bait the housewife's 
trade, a fearfully expensive duplication of retail delivery of goods oper- 
ates, as when one dollar is spent to send home a two-cent yeast cake. 
All that sort of waste can be eliminated only by the co-operation of 
commerce with systematic housekeeping designed in the interest of 
national defense. 

Why not give the American housewife a fair chance to show what 
she can accomplish for the relief of the food situation ? 

The Agricultural Department does splendid work in home eco- 
nomics. American women should never cease to hail with respect and 
gratitude the Wilson administration, which, in the person of Secretary 
Houston, discovered the American housewife on the farm in money 
relations with agriculture. That is precisely what we want to get or- 
ganized in the scheme of the defense of the nation — the American house- 
wife in her money relations, for thus only may her efficiency be directed 
and controlled to increase food, to provide money and material for war, 
to fortify industry and the home. It is not sufficient to simply give 
women information on these matters. The women should be compelled 
to act. 

I should like, briefly, to propose a program of action in this regard, 
and I wish that, with the Woman's National Farm and Garden Associa- 
tion meeting here in Washington, results might follow. 

The President of your Association, in the Conference number of 



your quarterly review, puts her finger on the first thing needing to be 
done. She says the trained woman is the valuable woman in working 
the la