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Ofifkers of ihc Histoncal Socfcty J900-1901 ....._, 4 

Stores of Los Angeles in 1850. ..,,*...,... ♦ Laura Evertsen KinR. . s 

Sotne Aboriginal Alphabets (Part 1>. .*,,.,. J, D* Moody.. 9 

To California via Panama in the Early '6o*s,,,.. J. M. Guinn ij 

Olden Time Holiday Festivities , ...,.,,.... Wm. H. Workman . . 32 

Mexican Governors of California H. D. Barrows.. 25 

Fifty Years of California Politics, .Walter R, Bacon* . 31 

Side Lights on Old Los Angeles. ..Mary E. Mooncy.. 43 

Los Angeles Postmasters (1850 to it>oo). H. D. Barrows., 49 

Some Aboriginal Alphabets (Part II}.., J. D. Moody.. 56 

Historic Seaports or Los Angeles.....,,..,,, ,. J, M. Guiiui.. 60 

La Estrella, The Pioneer Newspaper of Los Angeles J. M. Guimi,. 70 

Don Amon;o Coroticl .*...,. ,.,.1L D. Barrows 78 

Secretary s Report , , , ,*,..,.,,.,.,,,. 83 

Report of the Publication Committee ,.,^. . 64 

Treasurer's Rcpdrt ,.,..»»»., * ^ ...*......... . 84 

Curators Report .,,..., 85 

Otiiccr:^ and L^ommittces ot tne Society oi Pioneers of Los Angeles 

County, 1900- igoi 86 

In Meniorium , . , , , , .,...,,.., 87 

Constitution and By-Law s ..,.,.. . , , , , 88 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Pioneers , , , 91 

Stephen C. Foster H. D. Barrows.. 91 

Fraiicjsco Sabichj ,, Commmee Report... 91 

Robert Miller Town ., Committee Report., 92 

Pred W, Wood ...» ^*..* Committee Report.. 9^ 

Joseph Bayer ,,., «... Committee Report.. 94 

Augustus Ulyard .,,, Los Angeles Daily Times., 94 

Rev, A. M, Hough ,...,., ...J. M. Guinn,, 95 

Henry M. Fleishman , ....* C. N. Wilson.. 96 

Frank Lecouvreur. ,. . . ,.. .,-,..,........ Committee Report.. 96 

Daniel Schejck , Los Anijeles Daily Times.. 96 

Andrew Glassell Committee Report. . 98 

Roll of Members Admitted During 1900 99 

Officers of the Historical Society 1901-1902. 103 

First Congregational Church, iS^ (Illustration) 104 

Pioneer Physicians of Los Angeles ,.H. D. Barrows.. 105 

The Old Round House Geo. W. Hazard.. log 

Passing of the Old Pueblo J. M. Guinn 113 

Marine Biological Laboratory at San Pedro 

..,..,..,......,...,., , . , , Mrs, M. Burton Williamson . . 12I 

Early Clericals of Los Angeles H, D. Barrows.. 137 

The Oriffinal Father Junipero F, J. Policy.. 1,14 

Camel Caravans of the American Deserts .J. M, Guinn. . I46 

Dilatory Settlement of California .Walter R. Bacon,. T52 

Officers and Committees of the Society of Pioneers of Los Angeles 

County, I90t-I902 .,..,..., 159 

Constitution and By-Laws of the Society of Pioneers,,,, 160 

Order of Business 164 

Inaugural Address of the President ,,,,,,,.... . -H. D. Barrows. , 165 

The Pony Express J. M. Guinn. . 168 

Overland to California in 1850. ............ ..» , .J. M. Stewart.. 176 

Early Days in Washoe...., ,. ,,, .Alfred James,. 186 



Biographical Sketches of Debased Pioneers... ..,. 194 

Thomas E. Rowan Committee Report.. 197 

George Gephard ....,..,. Los Angeles Daily Times.. 199 

Elizabeth Langley Ensign Committee Report.. 199 

William F, Grosser ....,..,,,..,, ,, Committee Report. ► 200 

Samuel Calvf^rt Foy {Portrait}.*. ,«*.,, Committee Report.. 202 

Charles Erode * Committee Report.. 304 

Frank A. Gibson , , Committee Report* * 306 

In Memoriam ..^ a>7 

Roll of Members, Complete to January. 1902. .......... ^ .............. . 208 

Officers of the Historical Society, 1902-1903 *.*,....*...*,...... 214 

Early Art in California ..,.,,. , ,,,,,. W. L. Judson.. 215 

Poetry of the Argonauts.......,..-., J. M. Guinn.. 217 

Ethical Value of Social Organizations^ , .Mrs. M, Burton Williamson,. 228 
Medicinal and Edible Plants of So. California. ..Laura Evertsen King.. 237 

Andrew A. Boyle.. , ...w,,..H. D. Barrows.. 241 

El Canon Perdido. * * J. M. Guinn, . 245 

Some Old Letters 251 

Dr. John Marsh to Don Abel Stearns, 1837 251 

Hon. Stephen C. Foster to Gen. B. Riley, 1849 252 

The Palomares Family of California. .,,,,.,,,,..,.,. .H- D. Barrows.. 254 

Sister Scholastica. Wm. H. Workman 256 

Officers and Committees of Che Society of Pioneers of Los Angeles 

County, 1902-1903 2S9 

Constitution and By-Laws * 260 

Order of Business .,.,...* ,....., 364 

My First Procession in Los Angeles, March 16, 1847. — 

Stephen C. Foster. . 265 

Some Eccentric Characters of Early Los Angeles. ,,.*. ..J. M, Guinn.. 373 

Angel Pioncera ...._ -^ ^ ^^ Jesse Yarnell., 282 

Trip to California via Nicaragua.- -*........ J. M. Stewart.. 283 

Wm. Wolfskin, The Pioneer H. D. Barrows.. 287 

Pioneer Ads and Advertisers.. ..J, M. Guinn.. 295 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Pioneers ,.....,,,..,.,, 300 

Daniel Desmond .,....,.. Committee Report , ■ 300 

Jessie Benton Fremont ...,,...„ Committee Report.. 300 

Caleb E. White .................. .......... Committee Report.. 30r 

John Caleb Salisbury Committee Report.. 303 

Henry Kirke White Bent ,.,..., Committee Report.. 304 

John Charles Dotter .., ,,.,.,.. ,,...... Committee Report.. 306 

Anderson Rose Committee Report.. 307 

John C Anderson * * A. H. Johnson. . 308 

Jerry Tllich ..* ,... . ,.^..,.Loa Angeles Daily Times.. 309 

In Memoriam ^ * «... ^ .......... « 310 

Roll of Members. Complete to Jantaary, 1903 311 

Org-aniz^d Norember 1, 1883 Incorporated February 13, 1891 




Historical Society 


Southern California 


Los Angeles 



Published by the Society. 


Geo. Rice & Sons. 


Officers of the Historical Society, 1900-1901 4 

Stores of Los Angeles in 1850 Laura Evt^rtscn King 5 

Some Aboriginal Alphabets (Part i ) J, D. Moody g 

To California via Panama in the Early *6os. . . .A M, Guinn 13 

Olden Time Holiday Festivities Wm. H. Workman 22 

Mexican Governors of California H, D, Borroivs 25 

Fifty Years of California Politics. Walter R, Bacon 31 

Side Lights on Old Los Angeles Mary E, Mooncy 43 

Los Angeles Postmasters (1850 to 1900) //, D. Barnn^'s 49 

Some Aboriginal Alphabets (Part II) ,/. D. Moody 56 

Historic Seapcjrts of Los Angeles A M. Guinn 60 

La Estrella — Pioneer Newspaper of Los Angeles . . /. M. Guinji 70 

Don Antonio F. Coronel H, D, Barroics 78 

Secertary's Report , , , . 83 

Report of the Publication Committee , 84 

Treasurer's Report 84 

Curator's Report 85 


Officers and Committees of the Society of Pioneers of Los An- 
geles County, 1900-1901 86 

In Memoriam 87 

Constitution and By-Laws 88 

Stephen C. Foster 91 

Francisco Sahichi 91 

Robert Miller Town 92 

Fred W. Wood 93 

Joseph Bayer 94 

Augustus Ulyard , . . 94 

Rev. A- M, Hough 95 

Henry F, Fleishman 96 

Frank Lecouvreur . 96 

Roll of Members Admitted since January, 1900 99 

Dajiiel Scheick , 96 

Andrew Glassell 98 



WAI.TEB E. Bacom President 

J. D. MooDT First Vice-President 

Mbs. M. Bubtox Williamson , . . . . Second Vice-President 

Edwin Baxter Treasurer 

J. M. GuiKN Secretary and Curator 


Walter R. Bacon, H. D. Barrows, 

A. C. Vroman, Edwin Baxter, 

j. m. guinn, j. d. moodt, 

Mrs. M. Burton Williamson. 



Walter R. Bacon President 

A. 0. Vroman First Vice-President 

Mrs. M. Burton Williamson Second Vice-President 

Edwin Baxter Treasurer 

J. M. GuiNN Secretary and Curator 

]; Walter R. Bacon, J. D. Moody. 

I H. D. Barrows, Edwin Baxter, 

( J. M. GuiNN, A. C. Vroman, 

i Mrs. M. Burton Williamson. 

Historical Society 


Southern California 




(Read before the Pioneers, December, 1900.) 

If a person walking down Broadway or Spring street, at the 
tresent day, could turn "Time backward in his flight" fifty years^ 
how strange the contrast would seem. Where now stand blocks 
if stately buildings, whose windows are aglow with all the beauties 
of modern art, instead there would be two or three streets whose 
business centered in a few **tiendas," or stores^ decorated with 
strings of "chihs" or jerked tjeef. The one window of each "tienda'* 
was barred with iron, the "tiendero'* sitting in the doorway to pro- 
|tect his wares, or to watch for customers. Where red and yellow 
brick buildings hold their heads proudly to the heavens now% fifty 
years ago the soft hills slid down to the back doors of the adobe 
dwelling and offered their wealth of flowers and wild herbs to the 
botanist. Sidewalks were unknown, pedestrians marched single 
file in the middle of the street, in winter to enjoy the sunshine, 
in summer to escape the trickling tears of *'brea'* which, dropping 
from the roofs, branded their linen or clogged their footsteps. Now 
where the policeman '*wends his weary way," the '*vaquero," with 
his lively "cuidado" (lookout) lassoed his wild steer, and dragging 
him to the "mantanza" at the rear of his dwelling, offered him 
fon the altar of hospitality. 

Among the most prominent stores in the '50's were tliose of 



Labat Bros,, Foster & McDougal, afterward Foster & Wadhams, 
of B. D. WilsoTi, Abel Stearns, S. Lazard's City of Paris, O. W. 
Childs, Chas, Ducommon, J. G. Downey, Schumacher, GoUer, Lew 
Bow & Jayzinsky, etc. With the exception of O, VV. Child&, Chas. 
Ducommon, J, G. Downey, John Goller and Jayzinsky, all carried 
general merchandise, which meant anything from a plow to a box 
of sardines, or from a needle to an anchor. Some merchants sold 
sugar and silks, others brogans and barrels of flour, Goller's was 
a wagon and carriage shop. O. W. Childs first sign read '*tins to 
mend.'* Jayzinsky*s stock consisted princii>ally of clocks, but as 
the people of Southern California cared little for time^ and only 
recorded it like the Indians by the sun, he soon failed. Afterwards 
he engaged in the hardware business with N. A. Potter. Jokes 
were often played upon the storekeepers, to while away the time. 
Thus one Christmas night, when the spirit of fun ran high, and 
no policeman was on the scene, some young men, who felt them- 
selves "sold" along with the articles purchased, effaced the first 
syllable of Wadhams' name and substituted "old'* in its place^ mak- 
ing it Oldhams. and thus avenging themselves. It was almost im- 
possible to procure anything eatable from abroad that was not 
not strong and lively enough to remove itself from one's presence 
before cooking. It was not the fault of the vender, but of the dis- 
tance and difficulty in transportation. Mn Ducommon and Mr. 
Downey arrived in Los Angeles together, Mn Ducommon was a 
watchmaker, and Mr. Downey, a druggist. Each had a small stock 
in trade, which they packed in a **carreta'* for transporation from 
San Pedro to Los Angeles, On the journey the cart broke down, 
and packing the most valuable of their possessions into carpet- 
sacks, they walked the remaining distance. Mr. Ducommon soon 
branched out in business, and his store became known as the most 
reliable one in his line, keeping the best goods, although at enor- 
mous prices. Neither Mr, Downey nor any other druggist could 
have failed to make money in the early '50's, when common Epson 
salts retailed at the rate of five dollars per pound, and everything 
else was in proportion. One deliberated long before Fending for 
a doctor in those days — fortunately, the climate was such that his 
services were not often needed. Perhaps the most interesting 
window display in the city in the early '50's v^'as that of Don Abel 
Stearns', wherein common candy jars filled wnth gold, from the 
finest dust to ''chispas/' or nuggets, could be seen from the street 
adorning the shelves. As gold and silver coin were scarce, the 
natives working the placer mines in the adjoining mountains made 


their purchases with gold dust Tied in a red silk handkerchief, 
tucked into the waist-band of their trousers, would be their week's 
earnings; this, poured carelessly into the scales and as carelessly 
weighed, soon filled the jars. What dust remained was shaken 
out of its folds, and the handerchief returned to its place. (No 
wonder that the native became the victim of sharpers and money- 
lenders; taking no thought of the morrow, he lived on, letting his 
inheritance slip from his grasp.) 

The pioneer second hand store of Los Angeles was kept by a man 
named Yarrow, or old *''Cuarto Ojos" (four eyes), as the natives 
called him, because of the large spectacles he wore, and the habit 
he had of loking over them, giving him the appearance of having 
"four eyes." Probably, however, this sobriquet attached to him 
because his glasses had four lenses, two in front, and one on each 
side. His store was on the corner of Retjuena and Los Angeles 
streets, in the rear of where the United States Hotel now stands. 
The store-room was a long, low adobe building with the usual store 
front of that day — a door and a narrow window. This left the 
back part of the long store almost in utter darkness, which probably 
gave rise to the uncanny tradition that certain portions of reputed 
wealth but strangers to the town had been enticed into this dark 
interior to their undoing, and that like the fly in the spider's den 
they **ne'er come out agairu" This idle tale was all owing to his 
spectacles — for in the early 50s all men who wore glasses were 
under suspicion — the general opinion prevailing was that they were 
worn to conceal one's motives and designs, which whtn hidden by 
the masque of spectacles, were suspected to be murderers. In the 
**ticnda" of "Cuarto Ojos" were heaped together all sorts and 
conditions of things, very mtich as they are now in second hand 
stores, but the articles differed widely in kind and quality from 
those found in such stores today. Old "Cuarto Ojos" combined 
pawn broking and money lending with his other business. In close 
contact with the highly-colored shawls, rebosos, gold necklaces, 
silver mounted frenos and heavily embroidered muchillas, hung 
treacherous looking machetes, silver -mounted revolvers and all the 
trappings and paraphrenalia of the robber and the gambler out 
of luck, and forced there to stand and deliver as collateral for 
loans from old '*Cuarto Ojos." 

Coming up Requena street and crossing Main to the southwest 
comer of Main and Court streets, one arrived at the pioneer auc- 
tion house of 1850. Here George F. Lamson persauded the visitors 
to his store into buying wares that at the present day would find 



their way to the rubbish heaps of the city. This story is told 
of his sale of a decrepit bureau: **Ladies and g'entlemen," — ladies 
minus, and gentlemen scarce — &aid the g^enial auctioneer, ''here is 
the finest piece of mahogany ever broug:ht across the plains or 
around the Horn — four deep drawers and keys to all of them; don't 
lose this bargain; it is one in a thousand!" It was knocked down 
to a personal friend of the auctioneer for the modest sum of $24.00. 
After the sale the purchaser ventured to ask for the keys, "Why," 
said Lamson, **when I put up that article I never expected you 
would be fool enough to buy it. There are no keys, and more than 
that, there is no need of keys, for there are no locks to it." 

On Los Angeles street in the same location where it stands to- 
day and kept by the same proprietor, Sam C. Foy, stood and still 
stands the pioneer saddlery of Lus Angeles. Of the pioneer mer- 
chants of the '50*5, Mr. Harris Newmark was the founder of a 
house still in existence. If any youth of Los Angeles would see 
for himself how honesty and strict attention to business commands 
success^ let him visit the establishment of Mn Newmark and 
his successors. 

In the early '50's some merchants were accused of getting their 
hands into their neighbors* pockets, or rather of charging exhorbi- 
tant prices to the depletion of the contents of their neighbors* 
purses. These same merchants never refused to go down into their 
own pockets for sweet charity's sake. If a collection was to be 
taken up for some charitable object, all that was necessary was 
to make the round of the stores, and money was poured into the 
hat without question of what was to be done with it. Now we 
have the Associated Charties and all sorts of charitable institutions, 
but for liberal and unquestioning giving, we take off our hats to 
the ''stores of 1850." 




(Read before the Historical Society, May 3, 1900.) 

The origin of alphabetical writing is lost in the mists of an- 
tiquity. But this one fact is apparent: no matter how far back 
we earn-- this study, the art of writing- is found to be a develop- 
ment. A pre-existent form can be logical ly supposed from which 
every example yet know^n has g^rown. While in most cases, this 
process has been a slow one, by patient study we can trace out 
the steps one by one, until not only the relationship stands dearly 
proven, but this slow process of evolutionary detail can be seen as 
a whole. To this general rule there are among aboriginal people 
some apparent exceptions, two of which we will study l^onight, as a 
step towards a solution of a third. 

These examples are the alphabet of the Vei tribes of Western 
Africa, and the alphabet of the Cherokee Indians of our own coun- 
try. These alphabets instead of being a growth of centuries, and 
the product of innumerable minds, suddenly sprang into existence; 
each the product of one mind, and each in its place bridging the 
chasm between intellectual chaos and order. 

The Cherokee alphabet was fully completed in 1826; that of the 
Vei in 1834. The Cherokee alphabet is certainly known to have 
been developed in one man*s brain. Of the Vei alphabet^ it is 
known to have been largely the product of one mind, but in its 
development assisted probably by a few contemporaries. In each 
case the process of formation occupied but a few years, and, while 
the work of one mind, it was the sight of written characters used 
by foreigners that suggested the idea of an alphabet for them- 

Africa is a great hive of humanity. In the earliest dawn 
of history, in which we get only the faintest glimpses of these 
human movements, we see the true blacks of Africa meeting, on 
the sands of Egypt, the lighter colored Asiatic. There is a glimpse 
of what is possibly a still earlier touch in that first great migration 



from Central Europe, one wave of which reached the northern 
shores of Africa, From these^ probably, eome all that diversity of 
families and languages for which Africa is so famous. Here and 
there, among these peoples, sometimes in fact in the very lowest 
of them, are found evidences that the human souI» even in the black- 
est skin, has been struggling to free itself fromt its environmentSi 
and arise to that place of intelligence which is the inheritance of 
the human race. But in every instance where these linguistic at- 
tainments have been manifested^ there is clearly seen the impress 
of a more advanced people. Some families have reached a certain 
stage, and then all further progress has stopped, as in the Hotten- 
tots of the south. Others have inherited a capacity for improve- 
ment, which, though languishing at times, has not entirely died 
out, as in the Berbers of the north. 

On the west coast of Africa there is found a tribe of natives, 
the Vei. belonging to the great Mandingo family, who have snown 
a capacity for advancement not found in ihe surrounding tribes. 
They came from the western part of that great fertile region of 
Africa called the Soudan. These people are lighter in color and 
fmer in form than those of other parts of Africa. Their intellect, 
low as it is, has felt the impress of a higher intelligence, and shown 
a capacity for development, by originating and using alphal>etical 
writing. Correspondence is carried on by means of it, and even 
a history has been written in these characters. This alphabet is 
said to have been evolved in 1834. There is some uncertainty 
as to its origin. One statement is that a servant in an English 
family, seeing the benefits of a written language, conceived the 
idea of creating one for his people, the present Vei characters 
being the result. There are some indications, however, tending to 
show that it was a slower growth, and the work of more than 
one individual. The initial impulse was probably caused by a sight 
of Arab writing, and what it did for these masters of the Soudan. 

A similar example is found among the Cherokee Indians of 
our own country. I have here for your inspection two copies of an 
old paper printed in these characters, in 1831, shortly after its in- 

In the last century the Cherokee Indians occupied a good por- 
ton of the Gulf States, what is now the State of Georgia being 
their principal seat of residence. They were among the most ad- 
vanced of the southern tribes. They had national traditions and 
a folk lore carefully preserved by theij' prophets, but centuries had 
failed to develop a writing to perpetuate them. These tribes were 



under the supervision of the general government, and while people 
were not allowed, at this time, to enter their territory for pur- 
poses of trade without first procuring a Hcense. However, there 
were not wanting contrabanrl traders. 

In 1768 one such, a German, George Gist or Guess, a peddler, 
entered the Cherokee country with goods to trade for furs, and as 
was the custom of these white traders, he took to himself an Indian 
wife. She was the daughter of one of the principal chiefs. This 
gave him a certain prestige among the Indians. In a Httle less than 
a year he had converted all of his goods into furs, and, apparently 
without the least remorse, left his Indian wife, never to return. 
Shortly afterwards a child was born of this union. The deserted 
wife remained true to her husband all her hfe. She educated her 
boy according to the highest standard of Indian knowledge. She 
lavished the love upon him that would have l)een given to the hus- 
band had he remained. Slie called the the boy Se-quo-yah. He 
inherited the cunning and taciturnity of the Indian and much of 
the skill and mysticism of the German. He associated but little 
with other Indian children, roamed the forest alone, or staid by 
his mother. He early developed a remarkable mechanical genius, 
and made dishes and implements for his mother. When he grew 
up he became a silversmith, and later a blacksmith, and crowned it 
all by learning to draw. He had noticed the trade marks on tools 
sold by the peddlers^ and understood their import. He got an Eng- 
lish friend to write out his English name. He generally was known 
by his father's name. George Guess. From this writing he made 
a steel die and stamped the silver articles which he made. Some 
of these articles are heirlooms in Cherokee families today. His 
Indian countrj^men were proud of him. 

Missionaries had gone into the coijtnry and founded schools. 
His mind began to move. ''White man write on paper, why not 
Indian?" He thought and worked. The Indian language had 
sounds that could not be made by the English alphabet. From 
this point he lost the strictly alphabetical idea and evolved a sylla- 
bic alphabet of eighty-five characters. It has been pronounced by 
some eminent authorities as one of the most complete in existence. 
He got an English spelling book from one of the teachers, and 
from it copied a part of his characters; the others he invented him- 

Dr, D. G. Brinton, of the very highest authority on American 
languages, says: ''The deliberate analysis of a language back to 
its phonetic elements, and the construction upon these of a series 

Organized NoTember 1, 1883 Incorporated February 13, 1891 




Historical Society 


Southern California 


Los Angeles 



Published by the Society. 


Geo. tUc« & Soas. 










(Read before the Pioneers, March, i8g8.) 

The reminiscences of the pioneers of a country have a unique 
historical value. While they may be largely made up of the per- 
sonal adventures of the narrators, even then, Ihey reflect, as no 
formal history can, phases of the social life of early times; and 
they have this distinctive feature, they present views of historical 
events from the standpoint of actual observation. The stories of 
the Argonauts of '49 have an abiding interest for true Californians. 
Even though we may know that these returned seekers after the 
golden fleece are drawing on their imagination to color some of 
their adventures, yet we listen to their oft^old tales with admiration 
for their heroism and kindly toleration for their romancing. 

I can recall the intense interest with which ^, when a boy, lis- 
tened to the stories of returned Califomians. i'ow I longed to 
be a man that 1 might emulate their daring deeds, and see the great 
world as they had seen it. When I reached man's estate, Califor- 
nia had lost its attraction for me. So many of the Argonauts re- 
turned without the golden fleece — returned fleeced of all they had 
possessed — penniless and with so poor an opinion of the country, 
that I gave iip my long cherished desire; gave it up to renew it 
again, but from different motives and under widely different cir- 
cumstances. The beginning of the Civil war found me completing 
a college course in a western college. Five days after the fall of 
Fort Sumter, one hundred of us students were enrolled and on our 
way to suppress the Rebellion. After nearly three years of active 
service, I returned to civil life, broken in health and all my plans 
for life demoralized — the Rebellion had very nearly suppressed me. 
And here allow rae to digress briefly to make a few remarks 
on the cost of war, not to the nation but to the individual. For the 
past mr^nth war microbes have infested the atmosphere. The great 
American people have been in a bellicose mood. How many of 
those who talk so glibly of war have thought of what war may 



mean to them — have counted the cost to the individual as well as 
to the nation. The history of that student company well illustrates 
the cost of war to the individual soldier. Of the one hundred 
young^mcn — their ages ranging from i8 to 25 — who marched forth 
from the college halls on that April day in "61, four years later, 
when the war dosed, thirty-three were dead — killed in battle^ died 
of woundSjOf disease or starved to death in southern prison pens. 
More than one-half of the remainder retunied home crippled by 
wounds or broken by disease. Not one of those who did faithful 
service to the country but what began the struggle for existence 
after the close of the war handicapped for the remainder of his 
days. But to return from this digression. 

My physical delapidation precluded me from settling down to 
any civil pursuit or of again entering the mihtary service. A sea 
voyage having been recommended as a remedial agent in restoring 
my damaged constitution, my old desire to visit California returned 
and was s]ieedily acted upon. The overland railroad was then the 
dream of enthusiasts, and its realization seemed to be distant, de- 
cades in the future. The Indians on the "plains*' were hostile, and 
travel by the overland stage was extremely perilous. Nearly all 
California travel then was by steamer. There were at that time 
two lines of California steamships. One by the Panama and the other 
by the Nicaragua route. The rates of fare were the same by the 
different routes and were prohibitory to a person of small means — 
first cabin, $350; second cabin, $225 to $250, and steerage $150. 
Time, 26 to 30 days. 

Arriving at New York. I repaired to the Nicaragua Steamship 
Company's office, and was informed that owing to a revolution in 
Central America the next steamer of that line would go by the 
Panama route. I was still further discomfited to find every berth 
in the cabins sold, and I had the alternative of going steerage or 
of waiting fifteen days for the next steamer. Having during my 
army life slept on almost everything, from a Virginia rail fence to 
a picket post, and having subsisted on every form of subsistence, 
from faith and hope to raw pumpkins, I thought the steerage of a 
California steamer could present no form of discomfort I had not 
experienced. One night between decks convinced me 1 was mis- 
taken. The foul and feted atmosphere, crying children, quarreling 
women» dirt and discomfort in every form were past my endurance. 
Gathering up my blankets I fied to the upper deck, and for the re- 
mainder of the voyage slept on the soft side of a plank by the smoke 



The %'essel was crowded far beyond her capacity. There were 
a thousand passengers on board, about seven hundred of whom 
were in the steerage. The draft riots had occurred in New York 
about six months before, and another draft was impending. The 
disloyal elements, both native and foreigTi bom, were endeavoring 
to escape enforced service to the country by emigrating to Cali- 
fornia, where there had been no draft- After we had gotten beyond 
the limits of the United States, and they had recovered from sea- 
sickness, they spent their lime cursing the government and abusing 
Abe Lincoln and the Union soldiers* A little squad of eight or 
ten of us, who had been Union soldiers, and were not afraid to show 
our colors, were the especial targets of their abuse. On several 
occasions their taunts and insults very nearly precipitated a riot. 
The only thing that prevented an outbreak was the innate coward- 
ice of the creatures, for although they were twenty to one of us, 
they were afraid to attack us. 

On the twelfth day out we cast anchor in the harbor of Aspin- 
wall. The City of Aspinwall, or Colon, as it is now called, is the 
Atlantic terminus of the Panama railroad. It has an excellent har- 
bor and this is about its only virtue. It had a monopoly on the 
vices. It was buih in a mangrove swamp. Miasmatic vapors hang 
over it and you breathe the malaria of its poisonous climate with 
every breath. It had, at that time, a population of about 3,000. A 
considerable number of the inhabitants were employees of the Pana- 
ma Railroad and of the Pacific and the British steamship compa- 
nies. In addition to its regular population there was at that time 
a floating population, or rather a stranded population, for most of 
it was made up of wrecks. Tliese denizens of the tropical city 
were the misfits of many nations. Many of them had left their 
country for their country's good. Their leaving was not from 
motives of patriotism, but more from motives of economy. They 
left to save their governments the expense of hanging them. They 
existed in a sort of cannibalistic way off the California travel, and 
were ready for anything from stealing a grip-sack to cutting a 

On account of the change of route our steamer on the Pacific 
ude failed to make close connections, and we were compelled to 
remain in Aspinwall eight days. This gave us ample opportunity 
to study its social, political and climatic conditions. Usually the 
California traveler passes from the steamer to the rail cars and sees 
but little of the town. One thing that struck us as very strange was 



the social and political equality of the races. (This was before 
the days of negro suffrage in the United States.) The chief of 
police was a gigantic Jamaica negro, who promenaded the streets 
dressed in a white linen suit and carrying a long cavalry saber — 
his badge of oflice. The police force and the ayuntamiento, or 
town council, were made up of bleached Caucasians, brown or un- 
bleached natives and coal black negroes. They seemed to get along 

As the Panama railroad has often been described, I shall only 
note a few of its most striking characteristics. It had one distinction 
at that time that did not commend it to the California immigrant 
It charged the highest rate of fare of any railroad in the world. 
Its length is forty-nine miles, and the fare over it was $25 — fifty 
cents a mile. It is said that to build it cost a human life for every 
tie of its forty-nine miles of track. The contractors at first at- 
tempted to build the road by white labor. Men were inveigled to 
work on it by the inducement of a free passage to Califomia^ — ^for 
one hundred days labor on the road. Very few of these sun,-ived 
the deadly climate. A shipload of these recruits would be landed 
and set at work — before the vessel returned with another load of 
laborers the first were either under the ground or dying in the 
hospitah destroyed by the deadly Chagres fever and exposure to the 
tropical heat. When the evil reputation of the road and the coutnry 
became known abroad, no more white men could be obtained. The 
company then undertook to finish it with acclimated natives of the 
tropics. Bands of Jamaica negroes were enlisted. These proved to 
be so mutinous that the few white bosses were unable to control 
them. Then some genius hit upon the idea of utilizing the feud 
that existed from time immemorial between the Jamaica and Car- 
thagenian negroes. These antagonistic elements were employed in 
squads of about eqiml numbers. When the Jamaicans rebelled, the 
Carthagenians were turned loose upon them, and vice versa. In the 
fight that ensued their belligerent propensities were mutually grati- 
fied and the survivors were satisfied to go to work and obey orders. 
Such was the story told us at Colon. Maybe it was not true. The 
town was not noted for veracity. 

Our steamer on the Pacific side arrived at Panama and we were 
hurried across the isthmus and on board the steamer — the old City 
of Panama was indulging in one of its periodical epidemics. This 
time it was small pox, and the natives were dying by the hundreds. 

The old City of Panama has an interesting history, in fact two 
histories, for there have been two cities of the same name; one dead 



and buried two hundred and fifty years — killed by the famous Eng- 
lish bucaneer, Sir Heiiry Morgan; the other not dead but in a 
comatose state since the Panama riots of 1856, when sixty Califor- 
nians were massacred by the natives. The steamship company's of- 
ficers, since the massacre, have been very averse to passengers visit- 
ing that city- 
Five years later on my return from California by the sanie route 
I availed myself of an opportunity to visit it. With your permis- 
sion i will digress briefly to describe what I saw. On account 
of the shallowness of the bay, the Cahfornia steamers anchor four 
miles out, and the passengers, baggage and freight are lightered 
ashore. Finding that it would require six to eight hours to trans- 
fer the fast freight and baggage (the passengers being kept on the 
ship untii these are landed), several of us determined to do the old 
city. The officers did not prohibit our goings but they absolved 
themselves of all responsibility for us. Four of us chartered a na- 
tive and his row boat to take iis ashore. Panama is a walled city — 
the wall was built to keep the bold bad buccaneers out. After see- 
ing the wall I confess I lost my respect for the buccaneers. Bad no 
doubt they were; bold they could not have been to he kept out by 
such a walh One regiment of veteran soldiers of the late war 
would have charged thai wall and with a push all together have 
tumbled it over on its defenders and captured them all before they 
could have crawled out of the debris. 

The city stands on a tongue of land and the wall runs around 
its sea face. As we approached the shore our boatman seemed un- 
certain about landing. He kept beating off and on opposite a hole 
in the city AvalL We urged him to land us, but he persisted in 
keeping too far from shore to allow of our jumping to it. His reason 
for keeping us from landing soon became evident. We found that 
his transportation line connected with a transfer company — said 
transfer companv consisting of half a dozen half-naked natives, 
who expressed Iheir willingness to carry us ashore for **dos reales" 
each. As the natives were short and I was long, how to get 
get ashore without wetting my feet worried me. Selecting the 
tallest native, I moimted his shoulders and was safely landed. Our 
squad of four proceeded up town. We had not gone far before we 
found a military company drawm up to receive us This w^as an un- 
locked far honor To he treated to a review of the military forces of 
the sovereign state of Darien in honor of our arrival %vas quite flat- 
tering. The commanding officer, through an interpreter, questioned 
us closely as to our business ashore — how long we intended to stay 



etc. Honors were no longer easy. Dim visions of being stood 
up before an adobe waU and shot fwll of "larg-e, irregular holes" 
floated before us. Our answers seemed to be satisfactory, and 
with our best military salute to the comandante-general we were 
allowed to depart. 

From a French merchant in the town, whose acquaintance we 
made, we learned the cause of our rather unusual reception. There 
had been a revolution that morning before breakfast. A distin- 
guished hidalgo having been insulted by the ruling governor, fired 
off a tierce pronunciamiento reciting the high crimes and misde- 
meanors of the governor, and calling upon the people to rise against 
the tyrant. An exchange of pollysyllabic billinsgate followed. 
The military rallied to the support of the hidalgo. The goberna- 
dor and his staflf rallied to a fish boat and sailed gaily away to 
meet the incoming California steamer. A new government had 
been inaugurated in time for a late breakfast. (From an economi- 
cal standpoint this is a great improvement over our American way 
of changing governors. It costs us about a quarter of a million in 
time and money, to change governors. In Panama they do it for 
about '*six bits/' and really get about as good an article as we do.) 
Our prompt arrival from the steamer had excited the suspicions 
of the new governor. We were suspected of being emissaries of 
the deposed ruler, intent upon the overthrow of the rew govern- 
ment, hence our military reception. 

The city of Panama is credited with a population of 15,000. 
Its streets are narrow — only two being wide enough for wheeled 
vehicles to pass. Its inhabitants are of all shades — black and tan 
predominating. The city seems to be a case of arrested develop- 
ment. It has the appearance of having been built two hundred 
years ago and then forgotten. 

But to resume our voyage. We found the ship, Moses Taylor, 
better known to Californians as the "Rolling Moses," awaiting us. 
It was a high and very narrow side wheel steamer, and navigated 
the ocean with sort of a drunken roll that was very provocative of 
sea sickness. As its capacity was a thousand tons less than the 
vessel we had left, our discomfort was increased in a corresponding 
ratio. Tlie provisions were bad, many barrels of sea biscuit being 
musty. These when the waiter s back was turned, went over the 
vessel's side to feed the gulls, whose taste was not fastidious. 
Slowly we rolled our way up the Coast, our miseries increased by 
the knowledge that small pox had broken out on board the ship. 
We reached Acapulco, Mexico, almost out of coal. Here, how- 



ever, was a coal hulk with a plentiful supply. The captain em- 
ployed about two hundred peons to carry the coal in sacks up the 
side of the vessel on a rope ladder, and down into the hold — a pro- 
cess of coaling that took 48 hours. The brown, half-naked natives, 
with their long, sinewy arms and legs climbing up the ladder, looked 
like a group of monkeys. Indeed both in looks and intelligence, 
it seemed as if the work of evolution had been unfinished in their 
case. The method of taking on cattle was as primitive as the coal- 
ing. The cattle were lassoed on shore, dragged into the water and 
lashed by the horns to the sides of the boat, their noses above the 
water In this way they were floated out to the steamen A der- 
rick was rigged upon deck, a line dropped from it around the horns 
of the steer and he was hoisted, hanging pendent by the horns 
forty or fifty feet in the air and then swung aboard. If his horns 
broke off, as they sometimes did, he dropped into the water and 

b immediately pulled for the shore. 
While the coaling process was going on, no tables were set for 
the steerage passengers, and we were left lo skirmish for our ra- 
tions. After living on orEmges and bananas for 24 hours, my 
partner and I began to yearn for something more substantial. 
Among our purchases from the natives was a bottle of lujescal, a 
firery untamed liquid with the bad qualities of all the intoxicating 
liquors combined in one. One sip each had satisfied us. Mescal 
is distilled from the maguey or century plant. It is vile stuff; a 
single drink of it would mak** a man hate all his relatives, Accord- 
^Hing to a certain California writer, it contains about fifty fights to 
^^he quart, a pronunciamiento to the gallon, and a successful revolu- 
' tion to the barrel. In skirmishing around for sometliing to eat we 
found the negro cook on the coal ship, had a well supplied galley 
and was willing to trade. For the consideration of a bottle of 
something to drink, he would get us a dinner "good enough for a 
commodore." The bottle of mescal was quickly transferred. Seiz- 
ing it greedily, he told us we'd better not '*let the cap'en see us 
loafin' round dan" At the time appointed for the dinner we re- 
paired to the galley. The negro cook was lying dead drunk on 
the floor, and the hungry captain of the coal hulk was swearing 
fearful oaths that if he could find the man that made that nigger 
drunk he would put him in irons for forty-eight hours. It is 
needless to say that we did not inform him we knew the man. 

Our liberality to the sharks and gulls of the Lower Coast 
reacted upon us. We ran short of provisions. When we reached 
the California Coast we were on half rations. Our rations, the 



last day of the voyage, were one slice of bread and a cup of tea. 
We landed in San Francisco at midnight forty days from the time 
we left New York. The gang; plank was scarcely down before we 
were ashore, and hunting for something to eat. We found a little 
hotel an Beale street, stirred up the proprietor, the cook and the 
waiters. The supply was limited to bread, butter.tea and coffee. 
We soon exhausted the landlord's stock on hand and demolished 
the contents of two bake shops before we were satisfied Thanks 
to the glorious climate of California, we survived that meaL 

San Francisco, 34 years ago, although boasting of a popula- 
tion of a hundred thousand* had not a street car line in it. It had 
no free delivery of mail matter; if you had no box you Ptood In line 
and got your mail if your patience held out. 

It was then in the midst of the Washoe mining- boom. Every- 
body was dabbling in stocks. There were seventeen hundred li- 
censed stock brokers in San Francisco, and double that number of 
unlicensed and unprincipled curb-stone operators, whose chief aim 
was to sell >vild-cat stocks in mines located in the sage brush of 
Neveda, or more often, in the imagination of the brokers, to un- 
sophisticated immigrants, as well as to old time residents. 

The true story of the Washoe mining boom has never been 
written. Ross Browne and Mark Twain have touched upon some 
of its serio comic features, but the tragic side of it has ne\'er been 
portrayed. The ruined homes, the impoverished individuals, the 
stiicidesj the heart aches and wretchedness left in the w^ake of the 
bonanza king's march to wealth* are subjects upon which the old 
Califomian does not care to dwell. With that cowardly truckling 
to wealthy no matter how obtained, that so often characterizes the 
press of the country, the tragedy of lost homes and ruined lives 
has been crowded out by adulations of the vulgar display of the 
ill-gotten wealth of the bonanza kings. 

At the time of our arrival the frenzy of Washoe stock gambling 
was raging. The man who did not own feet in some mine was 
a financial pariah — a low caste individual. The prices were accom- 
modating; they ranged from "four bits" a foot in the Roaring 
Griazly or the Root Hog or Die to $6,000 a foot in the Gould 
and Curry. Everbody speculated; the boot black, t!ie servant girl 
and the day laborer invested their small savings in some ignis fatuus 
mine in the wilds of Nevada. The minister, the merchant, the 
mechanic and the farmer drew* out their bank savings or mortgaged 
their homes to speculate in Burning Moscow, ChoUer and Potosi 
or Consolidated Virginia. While the then uncrowned bonanza 



kings got up corners on stocks and ^ew rich off the credulity or 
their ruined dupes. 

Our ship load of immigrants was fresh fish for the curb-stone 
brokers, and soon every on^ of the new arrivals who had any money 
to spare was happy in the possession of nicely engraved certificates 
of stock — stock that paid Irish dividends-assessments, and certifi- 
cates that might entitle the holder to a position in the school of 
Experience where f»x>is learn. Mf>ntgoniery street was then the 
principal street of the city. Market street below Fifth was lined 
on either side by high sand banks. A pony engine and two cars 
made a round trip between the wharf and the old Mission every 
two hours; fare, round trip, "two bits." The site of San Fran- 
cisco's five million-dollar city hall was then a graveyard. It is 
still the graveyard of the peoples* money. 

Oakland was a straggling village, scattered around among the 
live oaks. It boasted of 1500 inhabitants. Stockton and Sacra- 
mento were reached by steam boat and San Jose by b<:>at to Alviso 
at the head of the bay, and from there by stage. Los Angeles was 
a. Mexican town some where down South in the cow countirs. Its 
[(fxact location, population and prospects were matters of such utter 
indifference to the stock-speculating San Franciscan, tliat he had 
never looked them up an<l **made a note on it/' Even its inhabi- 
tants seemed to have Httle faith in its future. The year of my 
arrival in California the lot on the southeast comer of Spring and 
Second streets, wliere the magnificent Wilcox block now stands 
was sold for $37 or 30 cents a front foi:>t Without the building 
it is now worth prubably $2000 a front foot or about a quarter 
million dollars. The same year all the site of East Los Angeles 
was sold by the city council at the rate of 50 cents an acre, and 
the purchaser was not proud of his bargain. The value of a front 
foot in what is now the business center of Pasadena, nt that time, 
would have been so infinitesimally small that the smallest value 
in a currency table would rot express it. Even an acre in the 
Crown of the Valley would not have commanded the value of the 
smallest circulating coin of California in the early '6o*s — namely, 
ten cents. 



(Read before the Pioneers, June 2, 1900.) 

Having been requested by your Literary Committee to present 
you this evening some sketches of the hohday season in early Los 
Angeles, 1 have taken occasion to note down a few episodes as they 
recur to my memory, 

Los Angeles, when I arrived in l854> was a small town of 
about 3,0OD inhabitants, 2,500 of whom were natives of California, 
and the remainder were estranjeros, as Americans and foreigners 
were called. The people, especially the Americans and Europeans, 
always observ^ed the various holidays by characteristic festivities 
and grand reunions. 

On New Year's day almost alt of the American element would 
turn out to make calls, for New Year's calls were then the universal 
custom. No friend was forgotten on that day, and pleasant were 
the reunions of acquaintances and friends, and the making of new 
friends. Nearly every family kept open house, and not infrequently 
entertained hundreds of callers on this occasion. The custom was 
so general that many of the prominent native Cahfornians adopted 
it in their hospitable homes and thereby delightfully increased New 
Year's calling lists of the Los Angeles beaux. But alas, the picture 
has its shadows, though my memory would linger only on its 
brightness. At each place of visiting were prepared refreshments 
of no mean proportions. These refreshments were of a liquid as 
well as a solid nature, and if one did not partake heartily, it was 
a breach of etiquette, which the fair hostess was loath to forgive 
or forget. 

Now, my friends, you can readily see that if each caller par- 
took repeatedly of turkey and cranberry sauce, of plum pudding, of 
mince meat pie» of egg nog, of wine, etc., and particularly of etc., 
he would be pretty full before closing time came round. As a par- 
ticipant for many years in the ceremony, I can vouch for its cor- 
rectness, and I can assure you that many a fellow did not care to 
repeat the calling process before the year rolled around, or at least 




until he had thoroughly digested all that he had eaten or imbibed. 

T will give you a little story of two Christmas days in Lo5 
Angeles. On the first of these Cliribtmas days, I have reason to 
believe, was held the first Christmas tree ever prepared in Southern 
California In 1857 Los Angeles could boast of but a limited 
residence section. The plaza formed the center of the city. North 
of it were the adobe homes of the native CaHfornJans population, 
while south of it were the few business houses of that date and the 
homes of the American residents. Los Angeles street marked the 
eastern boundary, and beyond large vineyards and orchards extend- 
ed toward the Lc»s Angeles riven First street, open only to Main, 
marked the southern limit of population, except, perhaps, a few 
homes just the other side of it. 

On Main street, between First and Court, there was in those 
days a loug r*>vv of adol>e houses occupied by many of the best 
families of primitive Los Angeles, This neighborhfx>d was often 
designated "the row/' and many are the pleasant memories which 
yet linger in the minds and hearts of those who lived there in "good 
o!d days*' and who still occasionally meet an old time friend and 
neighlxjr, In "the row" lived an Englishman and his wife — Carter 
by name. Their musical ability was often a source of great delight 
to those about them, and they possessed the faculty (well called 
happy) of bringing to a successful issne matters pertaining to the 
scK:ial entertainment of others. So it was that about the year 1857, 
when it was proposed that a union Christmas tree be prepared. 
Dr. Carter and his wife were prime movers in the affair. 

Where nrjw stands the McDonald block was the home of Dn 
Carter, and it was there that many Los Angeles families enjoyed 
in common the gaily decorated tree v/hich had been so lovingly pre- 
pared by the many willing hands of friendly neighbors. The chil- 
dren were, of course, the honored guests, for the t!ir>ught of the 
little ones had incited the work of preparation. 

Los Angeles, into which no railroad came, was in those days 
far away from the world, and the limited resources of the time 
would restrict even Santa Claus' possibilities. But on that Christ- 
mas eve no limitations were felt, for the true spirit of the Christmas- 
time illuminated each and every heart. Dr. Carter ofificiated as 
Santa Ctaus, while music and songs, dancing and games and the 
pleasant chatter of friends completed the evening*s festivities. That 
night the children of Lx>s Angeles, than whom none of their suc- 
cessors are happier, did not retire until the wee small hours of 
Christmas day. 


Another Christmas was in 1861, and heavy rains had fallen for 
one whole wedc previous to that Christmas day. The family of 
Andrew Boyle, living on the high lands east of the Los Angeles 
river, had accepted an invitation to dine at the home of Don Mateo 
Keller, who lived on what is now Alameda street, near Aliso. The 
rain fell heavily and persistently, and the river rose gradually 
until it was impossible to ford the swollen stream. There were no 
bridges in that day, and so when Christmas came and the storm 
still continued, the dinner across the river was out of the question. 
This might have been all, but it soon became evident in the family 
of Mr. Boyle that there would be difficulty in securing a proper 
repast at home, for, on account of the weather, they had been un- 
able to replenish the larder, and there was not a bit of flour in the 
house. The question was how to secure the necessary adjuncts of 
culinary success. There were no stores east of the river, and but 
a few scattered adobe homes. At length it was decided that a 
serving man, Jesus, a strong, stalwart Sonorean. faithful and dis- 
creet, could be sent upon this mission, for his life and training re- 
duced all danger to a minimum. He readily undertook the task. 
A note of regret was addressed to Mr. Keller and entrusted to the 

It seems incredible, perhaps, to those who have seen year after 
year the vast expanse of sand which we call a river, but on this 
Christmas day it was a torrent. The Sonorean divested himself of 
much of his apparel and swam to the opposite shore. He reached 
the home of Mr. Keller, delivered his note and secured from the 
grocery store the provisions which he needed. Mrs, Keller, in her 
open-hearted hospitality, would not allow the messenger to depart 
without a goodly share of the Christmas dinner. Jesus prepared 
to return. He secured a board of sufficient surface. On it he placed 
the goods, securely wrapped so as to protect them from the water, 
and plunging into the water he swam across, pushing before him 
the improvised raft with its cargo. He safely reached the opposite 
shore and delivered unharmed the articles entrusted to his care. 
You may be sure that the brave fellow enjoyed to the utmost his 
well-earned Christmas dinner, and, though the rain fell as heavily 
during the ensuing week, there was no lack of cheer in the home be- 
yond the river. 



(Read before Historical Society, Oct. i, 1900.) 

From the time of the achievement of independence by Mexico 
in the year 1822, till 1846, July 7, when Alta California became 
a territory of the United States, eleven persons served as governors, 
or Gefes Politicos, of the Province; two of them serving two terms, 
thus making thirteen administrations during the Mexican national 
regime. All of these eleven governors, except Gov. de Sola and 
Gov. Gutierrez, who were born in Spain, were natives of Mexico; 
and four of them, namely : Governors Arguello, Pico, Castro and 
Alvarado, were born in California. It is not known that any of 
these officials is now living. 

The first Mexican governor was Pablo Vicente de Sola, who was 
in office when Mexico gained her independence in 1822; and his 
term extended till 1823. He was a native of Spain, where 
he received a good education ; and he came to Mexico as a military 
officer prior to 1805. At the time of his appointment by the Viceroy 
as Grovernor of California, in 1815, he was a lieutenant-colonel of 
the Mexican army. He arrived at Monterey August 30, 181 5. He 
filled the office of governor about seven years. Being elected a 
deputy to the Mexican Congress he left Monterey November 22, 
1823, and San Diego January 2, 1824, arriving in the City of Mex- 
ico in the following June, where he soon after died. 

Governor de Sola was succeeded by Luis Antonio Arguello, 
whose term extended to June 1825. Governor Arugello was born 
at the Presidio of San Francisco, June 21, 1784, He died there 
March 27, 1830, and was buried at the Mission by Father Estenega. 
His widow, who was the daughter of Sergeant Jose Dolores Ortega, 
was the owner of Las Pulgas Rancho. She died in 1874. 

Governor Arguello was universally commended by the old-time 
Californians and Americans as an able, amiable and honest citizen 
and governor. The Arguellos of early times, and their descendants, 
have been accounted among the first families of California. 

Jose M. Echeandia was the next governor. Gov. Echeandia 



Anolher Christmas was in 1861, and heavy rams had fallen for 
one whole week previouf* to that Christmas <lay. The family of 
Andrew Boyle, living un the high lands east of the Los Angeles 
river^ had accepted an invilation to dine at the home of Don Mateo 
Keller, who lived on what is now Alameda street, near Ahso. The 
rain fell heavily and persistently, and tlie river rose gradually 
until it was impossible to ford the swollen stream. There were no 
bridges in that day, and so when Christinas came and the storm 
still coniinued, the dinner across the river was out of the question. 
This might have been all, but it soon became evident in the family 
of Mn Boyle that there would Ije difficulty in securing a proper 
repast at home, for, on account of the weather, they had been un- 
able to replenish the larder, and there was not a bit of Hour in the 
house. The question was how to secure the necessary adjuncts of 
culinary success* There were no stores east of the river, and but 
a few scattered adobe homes. At length it was decided that a 
serving man, Jestis» a strong, stalwart Sonorean, faithful and dis- 
creetj could l:>e sent upon this mission, for his life and training re- 
duced all danger to a minimum. He readily undertook the task. 
A note of regret was addressed to Mr. Keller and entrusted to the 

It seems incredible, perliaps, to those who have seen year after 
year the vast expanse of sand which we call a river, but on this 
Christmas day it was a torrent. The Sonorean thvested himself of 
much of his apparel and swam to the opposite shore. He reached 
the home of Mr. Keller, delivered his note and secured from the 
grocery store the provisions w^hich he needed. Mrs. Keller, in her 
open-hearted hospitality, would not allow the messenger to depart 
without a goodly share of the Christmas dinner. Jesus prepared 
to return. He secured a board of sufficient surface. On It he placed 
the goods, securely wrapped so as to protect them from the water, 
and plunging into the water he swam across, pushing l)efore him 
the improvised raft with its carg-o. He safely reached the opposite 
shore and delivered unharmed the articles entrusted to his care. 
You may be sure that the brave fellow enjoyed to the utmost his 
well-earned Christmas dinner, and, though the rain fell as heavily 
during the ensuing week, there was no lack of cheer in the home be- 
yond the river. 



(Read before Historical Society, Oct. I, 1900.) 

From the time of the achievement of independence by Mexico 
in the year 1822, till 1846, July 7, when Alta California became 
a territory of the United States, eleven persons served as g-ovemors, 
or Gefes Politicos, of the Province; two of them sen-ing two tenns, 
thus making thirteen administrations during^ the Mexican national 
regime. All of these eleven governors, except Grtv. de Sola and 
Gov, Gutierrez, who were brjrn in Spain, were natives of Mexico; 
and four of them, namely ; Governors Arguello, Ptco, Castro and 
Alvarado. were born in California. It is not known thai any of 
these officials is now living. 

The first Mexican governor was Pablo Vicente de Sola, who was 
'in office when Mexico gained her independence in 1822; and his 
term extended till 1823. He was a native of Spain, where 
he received a good education; and he came to Mexico as a military 
officer prior to 1805. At the time of his appointment by the Viceroy 
as Governor of California, in 1S15, he was a lieutenant-colonel of 
the Mexican army. He arrived at Monterey August 30, 1S15. He 
filled the office of governor about seven years. Being elected a 
deputy to the Mexican Congress he !eft Monterey Novemher 22, 
1823, and San Diego January 2, 1824, arriving in the City of Mex- 
ico in the following June, where he soon after died. 

Governor de Sola w'as succeeded by Luis Antonio Arguello, 
whose term extended to June 1825, Governor Arugello was born 
at the Presidio t>f San Francisco, June 21, 1784, He died there 
March 2y^ 1830. and was buried at the Mission by Father Estenega. 
His widow: who was the daughter of Sergeant Jose Dolores Ortega, 
was the owner of Las Pulgas Rancho. She died in 1874. 

Governor Arguello was universally commended by the old-time 
Californians and Americans as an able, ainiablc and hnnest citizen 
and governor The Arguellos of early times, and their descendants, 
have been accounted among the first families of Cahfomia, 

Jose M. Echeandta was the next governor. Gov. Echeandia 



was a native of Mexico; he was a lieutenant-colonel and director 
of a college of engineers, at the time of his appointment as Gefe 
Politico^ y Coniandante Militar, that is governor and military com- 
mandant of the Cahfornians. He came to Loreto. Lower California, 
by way of San Bias, in June, 1825. where he remained till October, 
re-organizing the political affairs of the Provinces. He arrived 
at San Diego in November, and made that Presidio his official resi- 
dence. He carefully studied tlie country's needs: and tentatively 
tried some experiments to test the feelings of the friars and the 
capacities of the Tntlians, as to the practicability of secularizing the 
Missions, which Mexican statesmen already foresaw must be 
brought about some time if Cabfornia was ever to ha\e a future 
as a civilized State. As it had lieen demonstrated that it was im- 
possible to make self-governing citizens of the Indians, it became 
apparent that the settlement of the country by Mexican citi^cfts, 
i, c, by gcntc dc rozon, must be encouraged, by making" it possible 
for them to acqtiire a permanent foothold. It was during the in- 
cumbency of Gnv. Echeandia tliat the law or reglamento of 1828, 
relating to the granting of lands was passed by the Mexican Con- 
gress. The Padres naturally distrusted him, because he repre- 
sented, according to their views, the new republic, which they in- 
stinctively felt was inimical to their interests* 

The details of Gov. Echeandia's administration are full of in- 
terest, and as 1 have not room to recount them here, T hope some- 
time to present them in a separate paper, as I have already done 
in the case of Gov. Pico and several other notable governors, whose 
striking characteristics are worthy of separate treatment. 

After administering the office of governor for nearly six years, 
Gov. Echeandia sailed from San Diego in May, 1833, and returned 
to the City of Mexico, where, as late as 1855-6, Mrs. Gen. Ord, 
who knew him well in California, saw him- frequently, and, at a 
still later period, he die<l there at an advanced age- 
Manuel Victoria, who, after Mexico had gained her independ- 
ence, in the struggle for which he took part. was. in 1825. military 
commandant at Acapulco, of which place he was probahly a native; 
and in 1820 be was comandante of Baja California; and in the latter 
year he was appointed Gefe Politico or Civil Governor of Aha Cal- 
ifornia* to succeed Gov. Echeandia. He arrived at Monterey, by 
land from Loreto, and assumed the duties of governor on the 31st 
of January. 183 1, serving about one year or till January, 1832, 
when the people arose in rebellion against his arbitrary rule, and 
drove him out of the country. 



Victoria was generally regarded more as a soldier than as a 
civilian; and, while he was a nian of much force of character, he 
lacked tact, and sought to administer his civic duties by mthtary 
methods, and, naturally, he became a very unpopular ofl^cial. More- 
over, his hig-h-hatided refusal to convene the Departmental Assem- 
bly (as was his duty), in order that the important and heneficent 
land laws of 1824 and 1828 might he made effective in California, 
so exasperated the people that they forced him to resign, which he 
did at San Gabriel, after a hostile encounter between his forces 
and the revolutionists at Cahuenga* and he was succeeded by Pio 
Pico as the senior member of tlie Departmental Assembly. 

How abundant the causes were which moved the people in their 
summary action may be learned from the Manifesto of the revolu- 
tionists, of isTov. 2g, 1831. 

Gov. Pio Pico, the fifth Governor of California after Mexico 
became an independent nation, was a native of the PHvince, born 
at the Mission of San Gabriel in 1801. He was twice governor — 
in T832, and again in 1845-6. he being incumbent of the guberna- 
torial office at the time California came under the jurisdiction of 
the United States. 

As I have already presented to the Historical Society a bio- 
graphical and character sketch of Gov. Pico (printed in the Socie- 
ty's Annual for 1894), it is unnecessary to enlarge here on the 
events and salient characteristics of his life. Our older members 
remember him well. He died in this city September 11, 1894, at 
the age of 93 years. 

Of Gen. Jiise Figiieroa, one of the best and ablest Governors 
|of California, I here give only a brief sketch, hoping at some future 
time to present a fuller account of his hfe. 

Gov, Figiieroa was one of the heroes of Mexico's long struggle 
for independence. In 1824 he was appointed Comandante General 
of Sonera and Sinoloa, He served as Governor and Military 
Commandant of California from January 14, 1833, till shortly be- 
fore his death at Monterey, September 29, 1835. During his ad- 
ministration he did some very good work in organizing terntorial 
and local government. As a capable, patriotic statesman, he served 
the people of California well, and won their respect and good will. 
The older Califoniians— and there are still living some who remem' 
ber him well — had nothing but praise far the character and acts of 
Governor Jose Figiteroa. 

Gov. Jose Castro, the seventh Mexican Governor, was a native 
of California, l>orn at Monterey in afxiut the year 1810, where he 



attended school from 1815 to 1820, or later. In 1828 he was sec- 
retnry of the Monterey Ayiintamiento, He took an active part with 
other citzens in sending representatives to Mexico complaining' of 
Governor Victoria's refusal to convoke the Departmental Assembly 
and of other arbitrary acts of that official. 

In August, 1S35, Gov. Figueroa, because of failng health, ap- 
pointed Castro (he being" then the senior member of the Depart- 
mental Assembly), as Acting- Gefe Politico or Governor, In ac- 
cordance with the national law of May 6, 1822, Gov, Figueroa. just 
before his death, ordered the separation of the ciaHI and military 
chieftainships, and directed that Jose Castro should succeed him as 
Governor ad iftterim. and that Nicolas Gutierrez (as ranking of- 
ficer), should become Comandante General, Castro served as Gov- 
ernor till January, 1836, and later held numerous other official 

Gov. Nicolas Gutierrez was a native of Spain, and came to Mex- 
ico as a boy. He served with Figueroa in the Mexican revolution, 
and came with him to California in 1833, as captain. He was pro- 
moted to a lieutenant-colonelship in July of that year, and in 1834-6 
he was commissioner for the secularization of the Mission of San 
Gabriel, He was acting comandante-g:enera1 from October S, 
1835, to January 2, 1836; and from the latter date till May 3, he 
was governor and comandante. He was also military chief in the 
south during the incumbency of Gov. Chico (who succeeded him as 
Governor), or till July 31, and he was again Governor till his over- 
throw by Alvarado, November 4. 1836. Gov. Gutirrez was arbitrary 
in his methods, and treated the Departmental Assembly brusquely, 
and in his intercourse with the people, he showed little tact ,and as 
a natural result he became very unpopular. Both of his terms 
as Governor were short, and his services to the Province were com- 
paratively unimportant. In person he was of medium stature, 
stout, with light complexion and reddish hair, and he h.^d a squint 
in his right eye, which gave him the nickname of "El Tiierto." 

Gov. Juan Batitista Alvarado, whose term extender! from De- 
cember 7, 1836, to December 31, 1842, was a native of California, 
born at Monterey, February 14, 1809. He was the son of Sergeant 
Jose F. Alvarado and Maria Josefa Vallejo de Alvarado. He ac- 
quired such riidiments of an education as were available in his time; 
and his life was an eventful one, which should be of interest to ua; 
and possibly I may some time give our society a more dej 
sketch of his career, as a somewhat important facto" " 
fomia history-, of the later Mexican period. H*' 



official positions; and, being connected with prominent families, 
and posessing sume natural ability, be exerted considerable influence 
in his time prior to the change of government. He was secretary 
oi the Departmental Assembly from 1827 to 1854; and in 1836, 
having been elected a member of that body, he became its president. 

Gov. Alvarado was elected to the Mexican Congress in 1845. but 
he did not go to Mexico. He was grantee of several ranches, in- 
cluding 1^5 Mariposas, In 1839 he married Martina Castro^ 
daughter of Francisco Castro. They had several children. She 
died in 1875. Gow Alvarado died July 13, 1882, in his 74tb year. 

Those who knew him say he was a man of genial temperament, 
courteous manners, and rare powers of winning friends. There 
are many native Calif ornians as well as Americans still living, 
especially in the upper counties, who knew him well in his lifetime. 

Gov. Manuel Micheltorena, the last Mexican Governor of Cali- 
fornia but one, w^as appointed January 32, 1824; and he served as 
both Governor and mihtarj^ commandant till his surrender to the 
revolutionists. February 22, 1845. He was a native of Oajaca, of 
good family and some eduction. As a political and military chief 
he lacked sound judgment, though personally of amiable and courte- 
ous manners. He was seriously handicapped by having brought 
with him to California (under orders of the Mexican government, 
pursuant to a miserable policy), a considerable numlxr of convicts 
as soldiers, whose lawlessness and brutality shocked decent citizens, 
and tended strongly to make the Governor unpopular. Micheltorena 
and his ''cholos/* as his ragamuffin, thievish soldiers were called. 
became a bye-word with the Californians, and are still unpleasantly 
remembered by the old timers. After Micheltorena's return to 
Mexico, he was elected a member of congress, and later, in 1850, 
he ser\Td as Comandante-General of Yucatan. 

The following is a chronological list of Mexican Governors of 
Alta or Upper California* which may prove convenient for refer- 

Mexican Governors of California: 1822*1846. 

Pablo Vicente de Sola. . .Sept, 16, to Nov. 22, 1822. 

Luis Arguello Nov. 22, 1S22, to June, 1825. 

Jose M. Echeandia June, 1S25, to Jan.. 1831. 

Manuel Victoria^ Jan., 1831. to Jan.. 1832, 

Pio Pico Jan.. TS32, to Jan., 1833, 

Jose Figueroa , , , .Jan., 1833, to Aug.^ 1835. 

Jose Castro Aug., 1835, to Jan., 1836. 


Nicholas Gutierrez Jan., 1836, to May, 1836. 

Marino Chico May, 1836, to July 31, 1836. 

Nicolas Gutierrez July, 1836, to Nov., 1836. 

Juan B. Alvarado Nov., 1336, to Dec. 31, 1842. 

Manuel Micheltorena Dec, 1842, to Feb., 1845. 

Pio Pico Feb., 1845, to July. 1846. 



(Read before the Historical Society Dec. 12, 1900.) 

Fifty years of political conventions and presidential elections 
in California nmy seem a subject from which little but idle statis- 
tcs can be evolved, but a little study of these events discloses the 
error of this conclusion. The period of ten years between the be- 
ginntngf of the American conquest or occupation in 1846. and the 
ending of the second vigilance committee in 1856, was a time of 
trial, of intense excitement and kaleidoscopic changes; and every- 
thing that has since happened in California, or will in the future 
happen, must be considerably affected by the forces thai took their 
origin in that period. The pt^litical conventions, composed of dele- 
gates straight from the i>eople, of course, reflect many of the traits 
of the people^ and being public and of importance to large num- 
bers, sufficient record of them ha? been kept to enable us to fairly 
study them. 

The American settlers of those days fairly represented tlie av- 
erage American character, but nowhere else has the Amrican capa- 
city for self-government been put to severer test. Absolutely 
isolated from the central government; a conquering iwopic in a land 
of untold possibilities, which was settled in by greater numbers 
in a shorter time by more nationalities than any other community 
of which we have knowledge; add to this the condition of moral 
recklessness that seems to come so naturally to any large body of 
men loosed from the restraint of wholesome family environments, 
and set down in a new country where gold is plentiful and to be 
had for the finding, but where no code of laws existed at the incep- 
tion of the occupation, and, afterward, only such as were adopted 
by these same peculiarly situated people, and you have an idea of 
the task that devolved on such of these settlers as desired to luiild 
from this community of divers possibilities a commonwealth tliat 
should 1>e a fairly American State, entitled of its own merit, to a 
place in the list of States of the Union. 

After the seriocomic meetings of the Bear Flag patriots at 
Sonoma, the first real political convention was the Democratic mass 



meeting held in San Fra^ncisco, October 25th, 1849. It was called 
to consider the election to be held November 1 5th, following-, to vote 
on the State Constitution, and for the election of a Governor and 
other Stale officers, and a State Legislature, and two members of 

John W. Geary, for whom Geary street in San Francisco was 
named, presided, and the meeting was sti large that the hall was 
more than filled, and an adjournment to the public square was had. 

Tliey adopted some resolutions, and especially cctndemned those 
who criticised the Mexican war, of which California was the fruit* 
A nominating committee was appointed and the convention ad- 
journed; met again October 27th, to receive the report of the com- 
mittee at which time the committee reported tlmt they had no 
authority, from party usage to make nominations, and suggested a 
party primary election of eleven delegates to name the ticket, but 
there is no record of any further action being taken. 

No attempt seems to have been made by any other iK>litica1 
party to nominate a ticket, local mass meetings were held, inde- 
pendent nominations made and party lines were not drawn. The 
constitution was adopted by a vote of 12,061 for, to Sit against, 
and Peter H. Burnett, Demticrat, was elected governor. 

The legislature that was then elected passed an act providing 
for the holding of an election of county officers and clerk of the 
Supreme Court, and early in the year attempts were made to organ- 
ise the Democratic and Whig parties. The first meetings by both 
parties were held at San Jose, where the legislature was in session, 
and soon the battle was on, that has ever since been waged with 
varying fortune. These first California citizens made positive state- 
ments. The Democrats in their resolution declaring **that no Whig 
should hereafter receive a Democratic vote for any office in the gift 
of the pe:)ple/' and the Whigs replied by inviting all Whigs "to 
repel the assertion that a Whig is unworthy to possess the rights, 
and incompetent to perform the duties of a freeman.** They also 
declared fnr federal aid in the improvement of rivers and harbors 
and harshly criticised the Democratic president, James K. Polk» 
for his veto on constitutional grounds^ of the National River and 
Harbor bill. 

The first Democratic State convention of regularly elected del- 
egates was held at Benicia, at the Episcopal Church, on Monday 
May 19, 1 85 1 John Btgler, Samuel Brannan and others were 
candidates, but Bigler was nominated for governor The Whig 
convention of this year was held at San Francisco in a Methodist 



Church, and P. B. Reading was nominated for governor In this 
convention San Diego was represented by delegates, but Los An- 
geles was not Early in the campaign the people of this en<] of the 
State manifested dissatisfaction with both tickets because the south 
was not represented, and Captain Elisha Kane of the United States 
army stationed in CaHfomia, was nominated for Governor, but 
later he withdrew, and at the election, Big-Ier, Detnocrat, was elected 
by a small majority. Early m 1852 preparations for the first presi- 
dential campaign in California were in full swing. There had been 
enough friction to cause some lieat, each party was anxious for 
the prestige of carrying the State at the first presidential election. 
The Democrats were early divided between adherents of Stephen 
A. Douglas, and the friends of other candidates. Tlie Whigs were 
united; they held their convention at Sacramento February 19th, 
1852, and nominated delegates to the National Convention. Four 
days later the Democrats met at the same city. Neither convention 
adopted resolutions of any kind, but after the national nominations 
of both parties had been made, they both had conventions that 
fairly reveled in platforms and resolutions; and for the first time 
the Chinese question got into California politics by way of a resolu- 
tion by the Democratic convention condemning "the attempt to 
bring serfs or coolies to California to compete with white laborers^ 
the democracy and aristocracy at once, of the State," At the elec- 
tion General Scott, Whig, received 34.971 votes, and Frankhn 
Pierce, Democrat* 39.965. 

On June 2 1st, 1853, at Benicia met the Democratic State Con- 
vention which nominated Jtjhn Bigler for Governor; their platform 
was general in its statements. The Whigs, however^ met in con- 
vention at Sacramento on July 6th, 1S53, nominated W^m. Waldo 
for Governor, and proceeded to roast the Democratic party for al- 
leged mismanagement and inefficiency in the conduct of public busi- 
ness. Bigkr was again successfni, receiving 38,090 votes, to 37.545 
for Waldo. 

The Democratic convention of 1854 met in the First Baptist 
Gmrch at Sacramento on July i8th; it was a stormy one from the 
start. D. C. Broderick then prominent and aftenvard killeci in a 
duel, was active in the struggle for the organization. Two chair- 
men claimed election; both made announcements from the same 
platform at the same time. They ran the turbulent meeting as a 
double-header until about 9 o'clock at night, and then quit business 
and tried to sit each other out, with only one sickly candle on a 
a side. The trustees of the church closed the show by closing the 


building, but in the riots that had occurred the church had been 
damaged, and one wing voluntarily assessed each of its delegates 
$5,00 to repair it. The other wing took a collection of $400,00 for 
the same purpose. They nominated two candidates for Congress, 
Denver and Herbert. 

The Whigs met in State Convention at Sacramento July 25th, 
and nominated Geo. W. Bowie and Calhoun BenJiam for Congress, 
but Denver and Herbert, Democrats, were elected. This year the 
'*Know Nothings'' made their first appearance in politics; they 
took no open part in State politics, hut ran a local ticket in San 
Francisco which succeeded, and before the end of the year they had 
organisations in nearly every town and mining camp in the State* 
The Know Nothings were a secret orgajiization, strongly native 
American in its feeling, organized for the purpose of acting politi- 
cally with the intention of curtailing the political privileges of per- 
sons of foreign birth or descent. Tiie Whig party practically dis- 
banded in 1855. And this secret American party toon its place. 
It was called Know Nothing from the fact that its members were 
required when questioned about the order to declare that they knew 
nothing about it. The party had cut some figure in localities in 
1854. but in 1855 it was deemed sufficiently formidable to be wor- 
thy the steel of the great Democratic party, and the new party car- 
ried so many of the spring municipal elections that most of the 
thunder of the Democratic organs was turned against the secret 
society. On March 5th, at a city election in Marysvillc, then a 
prominent town, the American party elected every local officer, al- 
though their ticket was not made public until election morning. On 
April 2nd, at Sacramento, they had the same success as at Marys- 
vilie; and the Democratic organs began to demand of the divided 
party reunion and a common cause against the new enemy. Their 
party had been split in tw'u, at the stormy convention of '54, and 
they had since had two State conventions, each claiming to be reg- 
ular* In the face of this new party, the two committees united in 
one call for a convention which met at Sacramento on June 27th. 
The first business proposed in the convention was a resolution re- 
quiring each candidate to pledge himself that he was not a mem- 
ber of the Know Nothing society, A substitute stronger than the 
first was offered, both were referred to the committee on resolutions, 
which afterward reported a platform containing sharp strictures up- 
on that party, but holding out the olive branch to such as had inad- 
vertantly strayed into it. John Bigler was renominated lor gover- 
nor, and a full State ticket was nominated. 



The Amwicaji State convention met at Sacramento on August 
'th. They adopted a platform of fifteen para^aphs on the lirst 
day; the whole written platform would fill less than a quarter col- 
umn of the average newspaper. J. Necley Johnson was nomniated 
for governor along with a full State ticket, which included David 
S. Terry for Justice of the Supreme Court, 

On June 20th a State Temperance Convention was held at Sac- 
ramento which made no nominations; but another convention was 
held by them August 22nd. They called themselves the Independ- 
ent Democracy. Toward the close of August an effort was made 
to reorganize the Whig party without success; the election was held 
September 5th, and the American ticket was elected from top to 
bottom, Johnson (Am.) receiving 50,948 votes, and Btgler (Dem.) 
45,677. Judge Terry was elected to the Supreme Court by a vote 
of 64,677 over Bryans' 46,892. The campaign had httn a bitter 
one and enmities were engendered that lasted out the lives of the 
contestants. The State campaign for '55 had barely closed when, 
on November 13th of that year, the American party commenced 
their presidential campaign for 1856, by holding a secret largely at- 
tended council, from which they sent out a long address and plat- 
form, in which they dwelt largely on their party policy respecting 
national issues. The Democratic papers, arguing from this plat- 
form, charged Know Nothingism to be nothing but a Whig move- 
ment. The Democrats met at Sacramento March 5th, 1856, to se- 
lect delegates to the National Convention. The platform indorsed 
Buchanan for President and instructed the delegates for him. 

On the evening of April 19th, 1856, the first mass meeting of 
Republicans in California was held at Sacramento. Mr. E. B. 
Crocker, who had been a Whig* and who had presided at Non- 
partisan State Temperance conventions, presided, and made an 
opening statement to a fair hearing. The next speaker was not so 
fortunate, Americans and Democrats cat-called and hooted so that 
he could not be heard. Henry S, Foote made an appeal for order 
and fair play, which was not heeded; and when the Republican 
speakers again tried to talk, the crowd rushed the stand, overturned 
it and broke up the meeting. But on April 30th, the first Repub- 
lican convention met in Sacramento, and was called to order by 
E. B. Crocker, who was also elected temporary chairman. The 
slavery question was discussed and referred to in the platform with 
moderation, and the caution of the convention is well illustrated 
in the fact that a resolution ofered by Mr Crocker, to the effect 
that the repeal of the Missouri Compromise absolved them from all 

support of any compromise respecting slavery, and that therefore 
they were opposed to the admission of any more stave States into 
the Union, was after discussion withdrawn without coming to a 

An attempt ta instruct the delegates to the National Conven- 
tion for John C Fremont was defeated. The campaign of 1856 
was the hottest and most bitterly contested of any in the history 
of the State, Some ideas of affairs may be had from the fact tliat 
although Geo. C. Bates a Repuhlican, in attempting to speak at 
Sacramento in May, had been peited with rotten eggs and the meet- 
ing broken up by the use of fi re-crackers, an American paper (the 
Sacramento Tribune) next day declared that the mere fact that a 
public discussion of the slavery question had been allowed, spoke 
volumes in favor of public morals in Sacremanto, and that after the 
Republican convention to nominate electors was held in Sacra- 
mento August 27th, the State Journal (Dem,), referring to it said, 
among other things; "The convention of Negro Worshipers assem- 
bled yesterday in this city, ecca signum. This is the first time this 
dangerous fanaticism has dared to bare its breast before the people 
of California; * * * ^ y^gr ago no such scene would have 
been tolerated or thought of; a year ago fanatics would have been 
ashamed to acknowledge allegiance to a party founded by Hale, 
Wilson, Chase, Sumner, etc/' 

The American State Convention met at Sacramento on Septem- 
ber 2nd, 1856, After concluding the nominations a resolution was 
handed to the secretary, but as soon as he had preceded far enough 
with its reading to disclose its impoi% a stormy scene ensued, pan- 
demonium reigned, cat-calls, hisses and protests w^ere hurled at the 
secretary, the reading was stopped and the document suppressed. 
This bombshell was a condemnatory resolution, le\-eled at the 
vigilance committee of 1856 at San Francisco, and its reception 
showed the convention to l>e heartily in sympathy with the work 
of that anumakms body, whose fame has been herjilded to all parts 
of the earth, and whose acts and theories have been discussed by 
historians and political essayists in all the modem languages. Poli- 
tics makes as strange contretemps, as bedfellows. Judge Terry 
had started bis political career as a Democrat; had in '55 been 
nominated by the American party and elected to the Supreme 
bench, and at the time of this convention had barely returned to 
his duties as a judge after seven weeks' confinement at San Fran- 
cisco by the vigilance committee. He had been a white elephant 
on the hands of the committee: but here was the place for the con 





demnation of the ways of the committee if they were ever to be 
condemBcd; here was the 1855 idol of a great party, a Justice of 
the Supreme Court, detained and held seven weeks by a self-ap- 
pointed committee, for resisting by £orce> the unlawful process of 
this unlawful committee, and at a convention in 1856 of the party 
of this judge, within three weeks of his deliverance, a resolution 
that does not even g^o far enough to mention the name of the com- 
mittee, and only condemns it in the abstract, is hooted out of the 
convention without even being read. 

Another State Democratic convention met at Sacramento on 
September 9th, and nominated congressmen and other State officers. 
Their platform was long and discussed the Union fully, advising 
compromise for the sake of maintaining it. After the platform 
had been reported, Mr. McConnell offered the followmg resolu- 
tion: *'That the writ of habeas corpus and the right of trial by 
jury are sacred, and the Democracy of this State will ever guaran- 
tee those sacred privileges to the humblest citizen/' This was cer* 
tainly impersonal, it stated plainly the organic law of the land. Its 
moral tone was commendable, it was a good political statement, 
from any point of view, for any party. But it was understood to 
refer to the vigilance committee that had been ignoring, in fact 
defying, these and similar statements taken from the Bill of Rights. 
rit received different treatment from that accorded the resolution 
in the American convention a week before; it was debated fur abrut 
ro hours, when the chairman announced that the trustees of the 
church in which they were sitting would want the building at 2 
o'clock. A motion to adopt the platform as reported was adopted 
unanimously. No one demanded a vote on the simple resolution 
ind the convention adjourned. 

Condemnatiiin of the vigilance committee had failed in all polit- 
ical conventions, although held at a time when feeling respecting 
it was the highest. The doings of the committee were not defensi- 
ble on legal or ethical grounds, but it had done good; it had dem- 
onstrated the fact that in every conununity, however reckless and 
aliandoned, there is enough latent virtue and manly love of decency 
and order, if it can but once be aroused and centered, to clear the 
moral atmosphere, intimidate or punish the criminal, and start his 
weakly decent and wobbly apologist in the straight way, with 
enough artificial stiffening for his spinal column to maintain him 
for a time in an erect position and straight-forward way. T take 
It that these refusals were conspicuous examples of leaving undone 
those things that ought not to be done. For here was notice from 


Another Christmas was in 1861, and heavy rains had fallen for 
one whole week previous to that Christmas day. The family of 
Andrew Boyle, living on the high lands east of the Los Angeles 
river, had accepted an invitation to dine at the home of Don Mateo 
Keller, who lived on what is now Alameda street, near Aliso. The 
rain fell heavily and persistently, and the river rose gradually 
until it was impossible to ford the swollen stream. There were no 
bridges in that day, and so when Christmas came and the storm 
still continued, the dinner across the river was out of the question. 
This might have been all, but it soon became evident in the family 
of Mr. Boyle that there would l:>e difficulty in securing a proper 
repast at home, for, on account of the weather, they had been un- 
able to replenish the larder, and there was not a bit of flour in the 
house. The question was how to secure the necessary adjuncts of 
culinary success. There were no stores east of the river, and but 
a few scattered adobe homes. At length it was decided that a 
serving man, Jesus, a strong, stalwart Sonorean, faithful and dis- 
creet, could be sent upon this mission, for his life and training re- 
duced all danger to a minimum. He readily undertook the task. 
A note of regret was addressed to Mr. Keller and entrusted to the 

It seems incredible, perhaps, to those who have seen year after 
year the vast expanse of sand which we call a river, but on this 
Christmas day it was a torrent. The Sonorean divested himself of 
much of his apparel and swam to the oj^posite shore. He reached 
the home of Mr. Keller, delivered his note and secured from the 
grocery store the i)rovisions which he needed. Mrs. Keller, in her 
open-hearted hos])ita]ity. would not allow the messenger to depart 
without a goodly share of the Christmas dinner. Jesus prepared 
to return. He secured a board of sufficient surface. On it he placed 
the goods, securely wrapped so as to protect them from the water, 
and plunging into the water he swam across, pushing before him 
the improvised raft with its cargo. He safely reached the opposite 
shore and delivered unharmed the articles entrusted to his care. 
You may be sure that the brave fellow enjoyed to the utmost his 
well-earned Christmas dinner, and, though the rain fell as heavily 
during the ensuing week, there was no lack of cheer in the home be- 
yond the river. 



(Read before Historical Society, Oct. i, 1900.) 

From the time of the achievement of independence by Mexico 
in the year 1822, till 1846, July 7, when Alta California became 
a territory of the United States, eleven persons served as governors, 
or Gefes Politicos, of the Province; two of them serving two terms, 
thus making thirteen administrations during the Mexican national 
regime. All of these eleven governors, except Gov. de Sola and 
Gov. Gutierrez, who were born in Spain, were natives of Mexico; 
and four of them, namely : Governors Argiiello, Pico, Castro and 
Alvarado, were born in California. It is not known that any of 
these officials is now living. 

The first Mexican governor was Pablo Vicente de Sola, who was 
in office when Mexico gained her independence in 1822; and his 
terra extended till 1823. He was a native of Spain, where 
he received a good education ; and he came to Mexico as a military 
officer prior to 1805. At the time of his appointment by the Viceroy 
as Governor of California, in 1815, he was a lieutenant-colonel of 
the Mexican army. He arrived at Monterey August 30, 181 5. He 
filled the office of governor about seven years. Being elected a 
deputy to the Mexican Congress he left Monterey November 22, 
1823, and San Diego January 2, 1824, arriving in the City of Mex- 
ico in the following June, where he soon after died. 

Governor de Sola was succeeded by Luis Antonio Arguello, 
whose term extended to June 1825. Governor Arugello was born 
at the Presidio of San Francisco, June 21, 1784. He died there 
March 27, 1830. and was buried at the Mission by Father Estenega. 
His widow, who was the daughter of Sergeant Jose Dolores Ortega, 
was the owner of Las Pulgas Rancho. She died in 1874. 

Governor Arguello was universally commended by the old-time 
Californians and Americans as an able, amiable and honest citizen 
and governor. The Arguellos of early times, and their descendants, 
have been accounted among the first families of California. 

Jose M. Echeandia was the next governor. Gov. Echeandia 


Another Christmas was in 1861, and heavy rains had fallen for 
one whole week previous to that Christmas day. The family of 
Andrew Boyle, living on the high lands east of the Los Angeles 
river, had accepted an invitation to dine at the home of Don Mateo 
Keller, who lived on what is now Alameda street, near Aliso. The 
rain fell heavily and persistently, and the river rose gradually 
until it was impossible to ford the swollen stream. There were no 
bridges in that day, and so when Christmas came and the storm 
still continued, the dinner across the river was out of the question. 
This might have been all, but it soon became evident in the family 
of Mr. Boyle that there would be difficulty in securing a proper 
repast at home, for. on account of the weather, they had been un- 
able to replenish the larder, and there was not a bit of flour in the 
house. The question was how to secure tlie necessary adjuncts of 
culinary success. There were no stores east of the river, and but 
a few scattered adobe homes. At length it was decided that a 
serving man, Jesus, a strong, stalwart Sonorean. faithful and dis- 
creet, could be sent upon this mission, for his life and training re- 
duced all danger to a minimum. He readily undertook the task. 
A note of regret was addressed to Mr. Keller and entrusted to the 

It seems incredible, perhaps, to those who have seen year after 
year the vast exi>anse of sand which we call a river, but on this 
Christmas day it was a torrent. The Sonorean divested himself of 
much of his apparel and swam to the opposite shore. He reached 
the home of Mr. Keller, delivered his note and secured from the 
grocery store the provisions which he needed. Mrs. Keller, in her 
open-hearted hospitality, would not allow the messenger to depart 
without a goodly share of the Christmas dinner. Jesus prepared 
to return. He secured a board of sufficient surface. On it he placed 
the goods, securely wrapped so as to protect them from the water, 
and plunging into the water he swam across, pushing before him 
the improvised raft with its cargo. He safely reached the opposite 
shore and delivered unharmed the articles entrusted to his care. 
You may be sure that the brave fellow enjoyed to the utmost his 
well-earned Christmas dinner, and, though the rain fell as heavily 
during the ensuing wedc, there was no lack of cheer in the home be- 
yond the river. 



(Read before Historical Society, Oct. i, 1900.) 

From the time of the achievement of independence by Mexico 
in the year 1822, till 1846, July 7, when Alta California became 
a territory of the United States, eleven persons served as governors, 
or Gefes Politicos, of the Province; two of them serving two terms, 
thus making thirteen administrations during the Mexican national 
regime. All of these eleven governors, except Gov. de Sola and 
Gov. Gutierrez, who were born in Spain, were natives of Mexico; 
and four of them, namely : Governors Arguello, Pico, Castro and 
Alvarado, were born in California. It is not known that any of 
these officials is now living. 

The first Mexican governor was Pablo Vicente de Sola, who was 
in office when Mexico gained her independence in 1822; and his 
term extended till 1823. He was a native of Spain, where 
he received a good education ; and he came to Mexico as a military 
officer prior to 1805. At the time of his appointment by the Viceroy 
as Governor of California, in 1815, he was a lieutenant-colonel of 
the Mexican army. He arrived at Monterey August 30, 181 5. He 
filled the office of governor about seven years. Being elected a 
deputy to the Mexican Congress he left Monterey November 22, 
1823, and San Diego January 2, 1824, arriving in the City of Mex- 
ico in the following June, where he soon after died. 

Governor de Sola was succeeded by Luis Antonio Arguello, 
whose term extended to June 1825. Governor Arugello was born 
at the Presidio of San Francisco, June 21, 1784. He died there 
March 27, 1830, and was buried at the Mission by Father Estenega. 
His widow, who was the daughter of Sergeant Jose Dolores Ortega, 
was the owner of Las Pulgas Rancho. She died in 1874. 

Governor Arguello was universally commended by the old-time 
Califomians and Americans as an able, amiable and honest citizen 
and governor. The Arguellos of early times, and their descendants, 
have been accounted among the first families of California. 

Jose M. Echeandia was the next governor. Gov. Echeandia 


all the political parties of the State to every thief and thug, every 
keeper of bawdy house and dead-fall, every pot house politician and 
ward heeler, every law officer and judge, every peace officr and 
sheriff, that the great mass of the people would not now, and hence 
arg^mentatively, would not in the future, condemn an organiza- 
tion, that although without legal authority had, with high purpose 
and apparent justness, hung four murderers, pursued others to the 
confines of the Union, banished others, and compelled civil servants 
and law officers to do their duty. The full benefit of the good done 
by the committee was preserved by wisely ignoring its critics in 
high and influential places. And thus a period of ten years of strife 
of parties, that had grown bitter almost beyond forbearance, and 
a similar period of moral turbulence that had come to be an af- 
front to all decency, came to an end in the same year, and California 
started upon a new epoch in both moral and political methods that 
have been totally unlike those going before. 

At the election held November 4th, 1856, the Democrats elected 
both the State and electoral tickets. Buchanan received 51,935 
votes, Fillmore 35,113, and Fremont 20,339. 

July 8th, 1857, the Republican State Convention met at Sacra- 
mento in the Congregational Church. The platform condemned 
Chief Justice Taney's Dred Scott decision. Edward Stanley was 
nominated for Governor on the first ballot. The Democratic State 
Convention met in the same place on July 4th. Weller was nonv 
inated for Governor. Early in 1857 the idea of abandoning the 
organization of the American party was discussed by prominent 
members. Henry S. Foote, who had been their caucus nominee 
for United States Senator in 1856, published a letter in which he 
advised discontinuance of party organization, and oflfering alle- 
giance to Buchanan and his administration; but after much discus- 
sion, a State convention was called and met at Sacramento on 
July 28th, and nominated Geo. W. Bowie for Governor, together 
with a full State ticket. The election was held September 2nd, and 
the full Democratic ticket was elected, Weller receiving 53,122 
votes, Stanley 21,040, and Bowie 19,481. 

The year 1858 marks the beginning of the period in which the 
questions that led up to the Civil war were discussed at political 
conventions, and voted on at elections. Kansas had been made a 
territory in 1854, in 1857 the legislature of the territory provided 
for a constitutional convention. The history of that struggle is 
familiar to most of us. the two legislatures, the two constitutions 
and all. President Buchanan, in his annual message, and in a 



special message of February 2nd, 185S, urged Congress to ratify 
the Lecoinpton constitution. This would make Kansas a slave 
State. Stephen A. Douglass took strong ground against it. This 
was the beginning of the split in the Democratic party, which re- 
sulted in two National Conventions in i860. The feeling between 
the champions and opponents of the President's policy ran high in 
California; the Democratic party promptly split in two, one faction 
known as Lecompton, the other as anti-Lecompton or Douglas 
Democrats, Both held State Conventions, that of the administra- 
tion wing at Sacramento, on August 4th, 1858, at which the plat- 
form and resolutions were read by J. P. Hoge of the Committee; 
immediately he moved their adoption, and then the previous ques- 
tion on his first motion. The previous question was ordered hy a 
vote of 117 to 49, and the resolutions were adopted as read by a 
vote of 2Sy to 2. Joseph G. Baldwin for Justice of the Supreme 
Court and other nominations were made. 

The Douglas Democrats also met on August 4th, in the Bap- 
tist Churcli in Sacramento. John Curry was nominated for Su- 
preme Judge. The Republican Convention met at Sacramento on 
August 5th; it nominated Curry for judge (he had been nominated 
the day before by the Douglas Democrats), and by resolution ap- 
proved the course of U. S. Senator D. C. Broderick, who liad been 
elected a Democrat, but had taken issue with the President, This 
convention also nominated L. C. Gunn for controller. At the elec- 
tion Judge Baldwin (LeCompton Democrat) received 44,599 
votes. Curry (Douglas Dem. and Rep.) 36.198. while Gunn. for con- 
troller, standing on the Republican ticket, only received 7,481 votes 
out of a total of 79,525, or not quite 10 per cent. 

The gubernatorial contest of 1859 coming on, found the Re- 
publicans without hope, but the Douglas Democrats were active. 
The independent press advised the Republicans to unite with the 
Douglas Democrats. The advice was rejected as they held a con- 
vention at Sacramento on June 8th. and nominated Leland Stanford 
for Governor, The Douglas Democrats' convention met in Sacra- 
mento June 15th, and nominated John Curry for Governor, and the 
LeCompton Democrats met at the same place on June 22nd. and 
nominated Milton S. Latham for Governor, The election on Sep- 
tember 5th resulted in a victory for the LeCompton Democrats. 
Latham was elected by a vote of 62,255 **^ 31*298 for Curry, and 
10,110 for Stanford. Again the Republican vote was less than ten 
per cent of the votes cast. There is not time in the limit of an arti- 
cle for a meeting like this, to go into detail of the controlling causes 


at] the political parties of the State to every thief and thug, every 
keeper of bawdy house and dead-fall, every pot house politician and 
ward heeler, every law ot^lcer and judge, every peace ofiicr and 
sheriff, that the great mass of the people would not now, and hence 
argumentatively, would not in the future, condemn an organiza- 
tion, that although without legal authority had^ with high purpose 
and apparent justness, hung four murderers, pursued others to the 
confines of the Union, banished others, and compelled civil servants 
and law officers to do their duty. The full benefit of the good done 
by the conmiiltee was preserved by wisely ignoring its critics in 
high and influential places. And ihus a period of ten years of strife 
of parties, that had grown bitter almost beyond forbearance, and 
a similar period of moral turbulence that had come to be an af- 
front to all decency* came to an end in the same year, and California 
started upon a new epoch in both moral and political methods that 
have been totally unlike those going before. 

At the election held November 4lh, 1856, the Democrats elected 
both the State and electoral tickets. Buchanan received 51,935 
votes, Fillmore 35,113, and Fremont :!0,339. 

July Stii, 1857, the Republican State Convention met at Sacra- 
mento in the Congregational Church. The platform condemned 
Chief Justice Taney's Dred Scott decision, Edward Stanley was 
nominated for Governor on the first ballot. The Democratic State 
Convention met in the same place on July 4th. Weller was nom- 
inated for Governor. Early in 1857 the idea of abandoning the 
organization of the American party was discussed by prominent 
members. Henry S. Foote, who had been their caucus nominee 
for United States Senator in 1S56, published a letter in whicli he 
advised discontinuance of party organization, and offering alle- 
giance to Buchanan and his administration; but after much discus- 
sion, a State convention w*a& called and met at Sacramento on 
July 2Sth, and nominated Geo. W, Bowie for Governor, together 
with a full State ticket. The election was held September 2nd, and 
the full Democratic ticket was elected, Weller receiving 53,122 
votes, Stanley 21,040, and Bowie 19,481. 

The year 1858 marks the beginning of the period in wMiich the 
questions that led up to the Civil war were discussed at political 
conventions, and voted on at elections, Kansas had been made a 
territory in 1854, in 1857 the legislature of the territory provided 
for a constitutionaJ convention. Tlie history of that struggle is 
familiar to most of us, the two legislatures, the two constitutions 
and all. President Buchanan, in his annual message, and in a 






Special message of February 2nd, 1858, urged Congress to ratify 
the Leconipton constitution. This would make Kansas a slave 
State. Stephen A. Douglass took strong ground against it. This 
was the beginning of the split in the Democratic party, which re- 
sulted in two National Conventions in i860. The feeling between 
the champions iind opponents of the President's pohcy ran high in 
California; the Democratic party promptly spht in two, one faction 
known as Lecompton, the other as anti-Lecompton or Douglas 
Democrats, Both held State Conventions, that of the administra- 
tion wing at Sacramento, on August 4th, 1858, at which the plat- 
form and resolutions were read by J. P. Hoge of the Committee; 
immediately he moved their adoption, and then the previous ques- 
tion on his first motion. The previous question was ordered by a 
vote of 117 to 49, and the resolutions were adopted as read by a 
vote of jSy to 2. Joseph G. Baldwin for Justice of the Supreme 
Court and other nominations were made. 

The Douglas Democrats also met on August 4th, in the Bap- 
tist Church in Sacramento. John Curry was nominated for Su- 
preme Jt^dge. The Republican Convention met at Sacramento on 
August 5th; it nominated Curry for judge (he had been nominated 
the day before by the Douglas Democrats), and by resolution ap- 
proved the course of U. S. Senator D, C. Broderick. who had been 
elected a Democrat, but had taken issue with the President, This 
convention also nominated L. C. Gunn for controller. At the elec- 
tion Judge Baldwin (LeCompton Democrat) received 44*599 
votes, Curry (Douglas Dem. and Rep.) 36J98. while Gunn» for con- 
troller, standing on the Republican ticket, only received 7,481 votes 
out of a total of 79*525, or not quite 10 per cent. 

The gubernatorial contest of 1859 coming on, found the Re- 
publicans without hope, but the Douglas Democrats were active. 
The independent press advised the Republicans to unite with the 
Douglas Democrats. The advice was rejected as they held a con- 
vention at Sacramento on June 8th. and nominated Leiand Stanford 
for Governor. The Douglas Democrats* convention met in Sacra- 
mento June 15th, and nominated John Curry for Governor, and the 
LeCompton Democrats met at the same place on June 22nd, and 
nominated Milton S. Latham for Governor. The election on Sep- 
tember 5th resulted in a victory for the LeCompton Democrats. 
Latham w^as elected by a vote of 62,255 t^ 31.298 for Curry, and 
10,110 for Stanford, Again the Republican vote was less than ten 
percent of the votes cast There is not time in the limit of an arti- 
cle for a meeting like this, to go into detail of the contmlling causes 



which manifested themselves in the action taken by succeeding- con- 
ventions. The momentous year of i860 cante on. The two Demo- 
cratic organizations held conventions; the Douglas wing denounced 
what they termed the "Federal Heresies' of Buchanan. The ad- 
ministration wing endorsed the President and commended the 
Dred Scott decision as a pecuharly heautiful and true construction 
of the law of the land. The news of the split in the Democratic 
party at the National Convention, and the nominations of Doug- 
las and Breckenridge was received in California on July 15th. 
Governor Downey immediately declared himself for Doug-las and 
Ex-Gt3vernor Weller declared for Breckenridge, Twenty-two 
newspapers in the State were for Breckenridge and twenty-four 
for Douglas. 

News of the nomination of Lincoln and HamJin was received 
in California on June loth, i860, and the Republican convention 
to nominate electors met on June 20th at Sacramento; their plat- 
form was short, merely indorsing the nominees, and not discussing 
the slavery question in any phase. The Union party, supporting 
Bell and Everett, held a convention and nominated electors on 
September 5th. 

The Republicans and two Democratic organizations were active 
and zealous in the campaign, but Bel! and Everett men made little 
stin The election was held Novemlwr 6th, and the official canvas 
of the vote gave the heads of the various elctoral tickets the fol- 
lowing vote: Lincoln 38,733, Douglas 37.999, Breckenridge 33,969, 
Bell g,iii. With one exception the Democrats carried the State 
annually for ten years; during that time the American secret society 
party had carried one election and disappeared. The Republican 
party had been organized and made four campaigns^ and were now 
successful in giving the electoral vote to the first Republican Presi- 
dent, During '61 the two wings of the Democratic party kept their 
organizations and nonxinated State tickets. The Republicans did 
the same. At the election, Leland Stanford received 56,036 votes 
against 30,944 for Canness (Douglas Dem.), and 32.751 for Mc- 
Connell (Breckenridge Dem. ). 

After the election a number of southern sympathizers left the 
State and joined the Confederate army, and numbers of other citi- 
zens enlisted in the Federal army. In 1862 the Repubhcans put a 
ticket in the field under the title of Union ticket. Both branches 
of the Democrats did the same, the LTnion ticket was elected, and in 
'63 the Union Republicans put up a ticket, and the Democrats con- 
solidated. Low, Republican for Governor, received 64,293 votes, to 



44,622 for Downey, Democrat Lincoln carried the State in 1864. 
Sam Bratinaii, a former Democrat, beaded the Republican electoral 
ticket and received 62,053 votes, the highest vote for a Democratic 
elector being that of 43,841 votes for Hamillon. 

In 1865, the first serious division in the ranks of the Union 
party occurred, and this spht supplied our political vocabulary with 
the two new terms, "Long- Hairs" and "Short Hairs.'* Tlie terms 
originated in debate in the legislature on a bill to re-district San 
Francisco, and the tern^ "short haired" boys was used as syonymous 
with roughs. The terms seemed expressive, and have been retained, 
and even some of our respectable members who patronize barbers 
freely are often referred to as long hairs. The division in the Union 
party seems to have been on a hair-line^ so to speak. At its coun- 
ty convention in Sacran^nto on July 25th, 1865, two candidates 
for chairman were put tn nomination similtaneously and both 
elected at the same time, in the rush to take the speaker's chair by 
these two officers, a melee ensued, a mixture of long and short hairs 
took place. Solid hickory canes, which seemed miraciiously numer- 
ous, were plied lustily; spittoons and ink Ixjttles were used instead 
of bombs and solid shot: chairs were used intact as missiles, and. 
in some cases were broken up so that the legs could be used as 
clubs- Victory rested with the short-hairs. Such of the long hairs 
as could, got out of the doors^ others look the window route, and 
after the battle the destruction of everything fragile or portable in 
the roijni seemed complete. The destruction wrought tc^ church 
property by rival Democratic factions at their convention a few years 
before was inconsequential in comparison. 

The Giinese question was first a serious issue in 1867, and the 
Porter Primary law was first applied in the same year, and con- 
tinued in force until 1896, and in that year (1867) Haight. (Dem- 
ocrat) received 49.905 votes for Governor, and Gorham (Repub- 
lican) 40,359, In 1 868, however. Grant and Colfax carried the 
State, the vote being ^'ery close: 54,588 against 54,069 for the 
heads of the tickets. 

In '69 the Democrats at the State election carried it, but the see- 
saw went the other way in *7i, and Newton Booth (Republican) 
was elected over ex-Governor Haigbt by a vote of 62,581 to 57.520, 
In 72 Horace Greefey was a candidate for President; his supporters 
assumed the name of the Liberal party, and Greeley electors received 
40,718 against 54,007 for the Republicans, and straight Democrats, 
In 1873 the Patrons of Husbandry, or Grangers, first attracted at- 
tention as a political force; they called themselves Independents and 



elected Judge McKinstry to the Supreme Court by a vote of 25,609 

over Dwineile (Rejx) 14,380, aiid Ucker (Dem. ) 19,962. The 
Republicans carried tbe State for President in 1876 by an average 
vote of 79*258 to 72,460, 

On September 21, 1877, a meeting of unemployed men was held 
in San Francisco. P. A. Roach was the first speaker and was fol- 
lowed by Dennis Kearney. On Sunday afternoon following a sim- 
ilar meeting was held in the open air opposite the new City Hall, 
and from this location the g^athering; took the name of Sand Lot 
meeting's and the actors the name of Sand Lotters. Tlie move- 
ment grew to considerable proportions and as a result of agitation 
commjenced by them the Constitution of '79 was adopted. In the 
same year Geo. C. Perkins (Rep.) was elected Governor by a plural- 
ity of aobut 20^cxx3 over the Democratic and Workingmen's candi- 

In the Presidential election of 1880, Edgerton was the only Re- 
publican elected. The vote was close, there being only about 200 
difference, except on Democratic elector Terry, who ran about 600 
behind his ticket. California cast five electoral votes for Hancock 
and English^ and one for Garfield and Arthur. James G, Blaine 
carried the State in 1884, the average vote being about 102,369 for 
Blaine to 89,214 for Cleveland. And Harrison and Arthur car- 
ried it in 1888 by an average of 124,754 to 117,698 for Qeveland. 

The Presidential election of 1892 was again a close contest. 
Eight of the electors were Democrats and one Republican. Our 
present U* S. Senator, Thomas R. Bard» was the only Republican 
elected. McKinley got the electoral vote of California in 1896 by 
a very small majority, and carried the State again in the present 
year by a plurality of something like 39,000. 



(Read before the Historical Society, Dec, 12, 1900.) 

The m'xlern resident in the City of the Angels has seen in the 
past fifteen years, the many and sweeping changes wrought by in- 
dustry and capital and brains, which have transformed a sleepy litttc 
Spanish-Mexican pueblo into uur modern, bustling and up-to-date 
metropolis. So that if a Fundador were to rise from his tomb, 
under the floor of la Mission, Nuestra Senora la Reyna de los An- 
geles, and take a pasear over the city, tliere would be few localities 
his shade would recognize. The church and the Plaza, and a part 
of what is now Oiinatown, and old Sonoratown. and an occasional 
ruined adobe— these would l>e all. He would look for his caballero 
paisanos of the olden days, with their great white beaded som- 
breros, the caballos decked out in **frcnos de puro plata/* and urged 
on by sharp-pointed "espuellas" of the same white metal. And he 
would look for ihem in vain, and in vain ! The Fundadores were 
several poor families, brought from Mexico by the government to 
found a town on the plains, westward three leagues from the Mis- 
sion San Gabriel Arcangel, Though of pMDor and humble station in 
their native land, they were courageous and cheerful, as befits pion- 
eers of any race or clime to l:>e. This paper does not pretend to treat 
of the Spanish families of rank and wealth, which early settled in 
and near the old pueblo; but only of the fortunes of some of the 
original founflers. and their descendants. Of the latter* was Caye- 
tano Barelas, one of the earliest settlers in la ca!le Buena Vista. 
His mother, born Anita Galinda y Pinta, came from Mexico, as a 
Fundadores, with the original party. She was Ana Galinda y Pinta 
when, in her native Sinaloa, she married Ignacio Barelas. At the 
same time came the Abila family, Santa Ana Abila, and Ysabel Ur- 
quidez de Abila, his wife. They came from a place called El Fuerte, 
and were styled Fuertenos. They brought with them the following 
children : Antonio Ignacio» Francisco, Jose Maria, Anastasio, 
Bruno and Cornelio, all boys; and these girls — Alfonsa, Augpjstina, 
and Ylaria. a nursing babe, Ylaria was the grandmother, on the 
maternal side, of Dona Teresa Sepulveda de Labory, at present re- 


siding on Boyle Heig^bts. This lady was well known by the pob- 
lanos of early days, and is still hale and hearty despite her seventy- 
three years, and the many vicissitudes of family and fortune, that 
they have brought her. Her only son is a mining' man, residing 
in the city. He is married to an American lady and they have a 
large family of sons and daughters. So here we have a direct and 
unbroken chain, of two familiees of founders, down to the present 
day. And Dona Teresa, who is a naturally bright woman, can 
narrate off hand, all the events of importance in her family, on 
both the Barelas and Abila sides. There were others who came 
with these two families, and figured as founders. It is said that 
these families brought grapes, tunas, grandas or pomegranates, and 
fither fruits, which they distributed at different missions on their 
way to their destination, Santa Barbara. They removed from 
there after a time, to the Pueblo, '*Nuestra Senora la Rcyna de Los 
Angeles." The house of Cayitano Barelas stood in aliout the cen- 
ter of the present old Catholic cemetery on Buena Vista street and 
was of adobe. In the year 1825 it sheltered three generations of 
the Barelas family, viz: Ignacio Barelas and his wife Ana, Caye- 
tano and his wife and their children. Cayetano and his wife each 
had many brothers and sifters, all of whom were married and had 
from ten to twenty children in each family. The cactus and tunas 
they brought from Mexico are still to be seen, tn and near the old 
missions. The indigenous cacti have a small red fruit, and attain 
but to a scrubby growth. The Mexican or cultivated varieties 
are tall and graceful, producing a red and yellowish pear, delicious 
to the taste. The natives were very fond of the fruit, and besides, 
the cacti when properly set out, made perfect corrals for the protec- 
tion of the fine cattle of the missions. 

Although the histories of those early times mention but few 
names of Spanish settlers, '"he decendants of the pobladores stren- 
uously declare, that soon after the founding, there were many 
whole families of Spanish descent, in the pueblo, or settled on some 
of the adjacent ranchos. Almost the first thing they erected was 
the capilla. or chapel, small, and cf the old Dutch mudhouse style. 
It stood on the side of the »hill, ju^^t directly back of the present 
mission church, (and the ruins of it were still to be seen in quite 
recent years,) The roof was thatched with tule, and over that, 
coarse grasses and mud, and it is just possible that it was topped 
with a layer of brea, which was plentiful in certain localities. 
There was a lack of hardware in finishing the "jacales" of those 
days; also a lack of lumber. The small window had neither sash 




nor glass. The door often consisted of a dried hide hung^ over 
the opening. Oflener it was made of willow, or elder branches, 
iaced together with thongs of leather or rabbit hide» and a leather 
string was used to fasten it on the inside. Everything in the 
house was necessarily of the most primitive sort. The table was a 
rude board, supported by notched stakes, stuck into the earth floor. 
Bancos, or benches, made in a simiiar way, served as seats. What- 
ever was lacking in utility or elegance, was more than compensated 
for in appetite and good cheer. The cooking utensils were of stone 
and were brought from the Coast islands. Pots, oUas and metates 
were made from the two kinds of stone, piedra-azul and mal-pais. 
Vessels were made from piedra-azul were most highly prized for 
their durability. They had also clay ollas and coras or baskets 
brought from Mexico. 

Speaking of furniture, the bet! of those days consisted of sort 
ol mde stretcher, made of willow or elder saplings, set down in a 
comer of the room, resting a couple of inches above the earth floor. 
This was heaped with dry grasses, and covered over with a dry 
hide. In some houses there were a few coarse blankets, the gifts of 
the missions. Others boasted of a seat, called a pretil, which was 
of adobe, built around the walls of the corridor or dining room. 

In the year of 1825, the children of the poorer families played 
around Buena Vista street, clad in a skirt, or tunico. to the knee, 
and made of strips of tanned rabbit skin, sewn together. The 
other sole garment was a camisa. of unbleached muslin. The food 
of the time consisted of verdolade, (vulgarly called pig-weed), 
made into a salad, frijoles, niais, lenteja, esquita, or parched corn, 
cooked as a much. Atole was made from corn flour, by grinding 
com in a metate, then straining through a basket seive. It was 
then cooked as a mush, and it is doubtful if the manufacturers of 
modern cereal foods can produce annhing to equal it in flavor or 
quality. But carne (beef) was the most relished, as well as the 
mast imiKirtant. article of food, *Tulpa la carne meant cut and 
dried beef. Tiiere were not wanting experts in the art of cooking 
fresh meats. Rump steak was called puipas. "Un tasajo de carne" 
was a strip o(f the ^oin. There was tea ( cha ) brewed from a native 
wikl herb. Also sugar ami chocolate, but no coffee. Cabbages 
were a favorite vegetable, and known \n the vernacular as "las co- 
las.'* Garlic, and the firery chile fpejiper), together with cavorjas 
or onions and tomatoes^ cut quite an important figure in the stew- 
pots of those olden days, and at the present time they have lost 
little, if any. of their i.)ld-time popularity. The Fnndadores were 



treated with ihe g:reatest respect by their families and friends. 
Grace was said Ijefore and after meals, and each child kissed the 
grandfather's extended hand before taking his or her place, around 
the board. 

The marriage ceremony was ntost interesting. The novios 
knelt side by side at the altar rail, upon which rested lighted 
blessed candles. On either side knelt the padrino and the madrina, 
or sponsors. The bride if a young girl, wore either a pink or blue 
dress with white over-dress, and a long white veil. If a widow, 
or in mourning, (enliitada)» a black dress and veil of the same col- 
or, was the correct thing. Marriage was solemnized in the churches, 
in Quaresma, or lent, but tn La Semane Santa (holy week), there 
was no *'l3elanda." So it was customary for couples married dur- 
ing holy week to go to the church, some time during the following 
week, and have that part of the ceremony i>erformed. During the 
marriage ceremony, a silver plate rested on the altar rail In con- 
tained the two wedding rings, which the priest blessed and placed 
on the wedding finger of bride and groom. It also held the sarras 
or money gift, from the groom to the bride, and was generally six 
silver dollars, and sometimes twelve. A nuptial mass followed 
the marriage ceremony, through all of which the novios knelt, cov- 
ered from shoulder to slK)ulder, with a large silk handerchief, which 
the priest placed over them as a token of their union in matrimony. 
The following is said to have been part of the form: Priest asks: 
Anna, do you take Don J*, here present, to be your husband and 
companion? And to the groom: J. do you take this girl Anna, 
to be your wife and companion ? It is related of a beuatiful 
daughter of the Vilas family, that she replied no, father, at the crit- 
ical moment, causing momentarv^ consternation in the crowded 
church* But her sister, who was the bridesmaid, came to the res- 
cue by saying, *'Well, if you won't take him, I will/' As the 
groom was not lacking in gallantry, the ladies changed places and 
the ceremony proceeded without further interruption. There were 
no church organs in the earliest days, but violins, guitaros and 
other stringed instruments, furnished the choral music. As the 
wedding party left the church, old muskets were fired off in salute, 
and the people went dancing and singing along the road, to the 
wedding festival, which was always as gootl as the times afforded, 
and often lasted for a week. Altogether the Fundadores and their 
descendents were a remarkably happy and cheerful people, and 
made the most of the few diversions that came into their lives, in 
those lonely, early days. They often made merry at the funerals 



of small children. For instance, a funeral going from Los Angeles 
to San Gabriel Mission, while most of tlie people walked, a few 
^of the men rode horses, and at intervals, when tired walking, the 
^'Women and children rode in the carretas, drawn by oxen. At con- 
venient points along" the road, the bearers laid down their burden 
and all rested. Then s<;)nte of the merrier meml>ers of the party, 
danced and sang the humorous "versos*' of the period. At San 
iabriel a temporary brush house or ramada» was ready for the 
^beloria, or wake. Some of the people sang hymns and prayed 
tlirough the long hours of the night, while others were being en- 
tertained by friends amongst the Gabrielenos. The next morning 
the "MIsa de Los Angeles" was chanted by priest and choir, and 
after mass, followed the inlerment in the old churchyard. Next 
the Angelenos were dined by the Gabrielenos, before starting back 
for the Pueblo. 

There is current a tradition of a great flood in 1826. It 
is said to have rained at intervals for forty days. What was 
at first a mild drizzle, toward the last l:»ecanie a heavy, steady 
downpour, lentil the flood waters turned the city streets into a lake. 
By this time the booming of the river s<3 terrified the people, that 
they took to the hills, where the high school is now. An awful 
cloudburst above the Arroyo Seco added force and volume to the 
already raging, roaring river, which, amidst blinding rain and 
fearful thunder suddenly broke its banks and rushed around the 
southeastern part of what is now the city, until it dashed against 
the bluff, on which is now built the Hollenbeck Home. When the 
waters had receded it was seen that the river's course had changed. 
Its former channel was through Alameda and out Figiieroa streets, 
but in that awful flof>d its bed filled with rocks and sand, and the 
swift flowing currents soon were adjusted to other, and lower lev- 
els. After this flood many of the people moved from the Pueblo 
to the beautiful heights which they named el Paredon Blanco, or 
the white biufT, The name was changed after the American occu- 
pation, to that of Boyle Heights. It is said that Petra Rubio^ y 
Bare! as, a great aunt nf Dona Teresa Sepulveda de Labory, was 
the first settler in el Paredon Blanco. She had some land from the 
government and set it to vines. She made wine and sold it to the 
missions. She was born Petra Barelas and was the daughter of 
Anna Casimira, an original founder of the Pueblo de Los Angeles. 
Another member of this family was a sort of Amazon. She cul- 
tivated large fields of corn and grain near San Bernardino, and 
brought her produce to Los Angeles, in the two-wheeled carretas. 



drawn by '*bueys.** Petra built the first adobe house on Boyle 
Heights. It iiad four large rooms and a corridor, supported by 
large pillars of adobe. Around the halls of comedor and corridor, 
ran the adobe pretil. Anna, the nxJther of Petra. died in 1856 
in this house, and was given an imposing funeral. Her shroud 
was a monk's habit of grey cloth, with a hood of the same, and 
fastened around the waist with a grey cord. It had been sent her, 
long before her death, from the mission of Santa Barbara, as a 
mark of respect, and in recognition of her labors as a founder. 
The priest and acolytes came to the house on the bluff to officiate. 
Her body, wrappctl in its shroud had laid on the bare earth all 
night, with an adobe brick for a pillow. When services had l>een 
held at the house, the funeral started, strong men carrying the 
stretcher and corpse, aloft on their shoulders. Along the road 
passed the procession, priest and people chanting and singing in 
Spanish the Penitential psalms. Arrived at the churchy solemn 
mass for the dead was sung, and everything was in readiness for 
the interment. The churchyard w*as at the left side of, and back 
of the church Nuestra Senora la Reyna de los Angeles, and the 
gate was just to the left of the front entrance. This was the oldest 
cemeter)' in the pueblo. But the ashes of Anna, the founder, were 
destined for higlicr honor than a grave in the churchyard* for just 
inside the baptistry they had dug her a deep, last resting place. 
Her son received the body as it was lowered by means of riatas; 
and lastly arranged it and covered the face with the monk's hood. 
Then he ascended and helped to fill the grave. There were no cof- 
fins or trappings, just "dust to dust/' and Anna Casimira de Galinda 
y Barelas was left to sleep her last sleep. She was the last lay per- 
son buried under the church floors. And the scenes have changed. 
The funeral cortege of today mostly wends its solemn way to the 
Campo Santo, on the plains beyond El Paredon Blanco. 



(Read before the Historical Society June n. 19CW. ) 

Although California was declared by proclamation at Monterey 
July 7, 1846, to be a part of the United States, and was ceded to 
the United States by Mexico by formal treaty February 2, 1848, a 
postoffice was not estabHslied at L<js Angeles until April g. 1850. 
The following- is a list of the postmasters from 1850 to 1900, every 
one of whom, except the tirst. 1 knew personally, namely : 

J. Pugh, appointed April 9, 1850. 

Wm. T. B, Sanfordj apfx)inted November 6, 1851. 

Dn Wm. B. Osbourne, appointed October 12, 1853, 

Jas. S. Waite, appointed November i, 1855. 

John D. Woodworth, appointed May 19, 1858. 

Dr. T. J. White, appointed Mar. 9, i860. 

Wm. G, Still, appointed June 8, 1861. 
F. P. Ramirez, appointed October 22, 1864. 
Russell Sackett, appointed May 5» 1S65. 

Geo. J- Clark, appointed January 25, 1866. 

Geo. J. Clark, re-appointed March 2, 1870. 

H. K. W. Bent, appointed February 14, 1873. 

Col. 1. R. Dunkelberg^er, appointed February 3, 1877. 

Col, L R- Dunkdberger, re-appointed 1881. 

John W. Green, appointed 1885, 

E» A. Preuss, appointed 1887. 

J. W. Green, 2nd term, appointed 1890 (died July 31, '91). 

Maj. H. J. Shoulters» acting |X)stmaster about seven months, 
August, 1 89 1, to February, 1892. 

H. V, Van Dusen, January 6, 1892. 

Gen. Jnn. R, Mathews, December 20, 1895, 

Louis A. GrofF, 1900. 

Capl. W- T. B. Sanford, the second incumbent, was a well- 
known and thoroug:h-g:oing business man, here and at San Peilro, 
10 the early '50's. He was a brother of Gen, Banning-'s first wife, 
and was also engaged w^ith him in the freighting business. 



Mr, J. M. Guiim, our secretary, has already furnished the so- 
ciety with a sketcli of versatile Dr. Wm. B, Oslxiurn. 

James S. Waite was fur some years the puLiisher (but not the 
founder) of the pioneer newspaper of Los Ang^eles, "The Star/' 

Mr. J. D. WoodwQfth, who was apfKjinted by President 
Buchanan, was a native of Vermont^ hut he came from Des Moines 
or Keokuck, Iowa, to Los Angeles. The ohice under his administra- 
tion was located in the one-story adobe on the west side of Spring 
street, nearly opposite the Bullard block. Wallace Woodworth, for 
some years president of our county Board of Supervisors, was a 
son of Mr. Woodworih; and he died about the lime of his fatlier's 
death. The Woodw^orth family were relatives of Col. Isaac Will- 
iams of El Chino raiicho. Mr. Woodworth was a cousin of Samuel 
Woodworth, author of **The Old Oaken Bucket.'* In the '6o's and 
'/o's he lived near San Gabriel Mission, where lie had an orcliard 
and vineyard, which, later he sold lu Mr. L. 11. Titus» who died 
recently; and then bought the Dr. Hoover vineyard, adjoining the 
Dr. White place, near the river, where he died September 30, 1883, 
aged 70 years. 

Dr. T, J. White was quite an eminent physician. I think he 
came from St, Louis to Sacramento, which district he represented 
in one of the first legislatures of California. Later he moved to 
Los Angeles with his family. Col. E. J. C. Kewen married one of 
his daughters, and Murray Morrison, at one time District Judge 
here, married another daughter. All are now dead except a son 
and daughter of Col. Kewen, and young T. JefF White, the third of 
that name. This young man is a grandson of the old doctor, Thos. 
Jefferson White, the distinguished pioneer of Sacramento and Los 
Angeles, whom many old-timecrs w^ill well remember. 

Wm. G. Still was appointed postmaster by President Lincoln, 
about the time of the commencement of the Civil war. The office 
was located then hi the one-story frame buildings belonging to 
Salizar, on the west side of Main street, between the Downey block 
and Lafayette Hotel (now St. Elmo). Politcal excitement, I re- 
member then ran high here; and a secessionist ganihler tried to as- 
sassinate Postmaster Still by firing a pistol ball at him through the 
thin hoard partition of the office. 

I remember that Still, Oscar Macey and myself were sent as 
delegates from this coimty to the State Convention of the Union 
party, held at Sacramento in 1S62. 

Mr. Still had been a Douglas Democrat, and he w^as a very in- 
tense Union man ; but t recollect that when the news first came that 





President Lincoln would issue an emancipation proclamation as "a 
war measure/' he remarked to me some^vhat excitely that the F^res- 
ident *'had better leave that slavery (jiicsliun alone." Later he 
thong^ht better of President Lincoln's wise action, I do not know 
from what State Mr. Still came, or if he is still living. 

Mn Ramirez was a talented Cahfomian. a native of Los An- 
geles, who I think w^as educated by old Don I^iuis Vignes. He 
spoke and wmte Enghsh and French, as well as Spanish; he repre- 
sented this county in the Ieg"islature, and edited and published for 
several years, in French and Spanish^ a paper called "El Clamor 

Russell Sackett, who was postmaster for a brief period, was an 
attorney and justice of the peace. Whilst I knew him quite well, I 
never happened to learn from what part of the country he came, or 
anything about his antecedents. I think he has been dead a good 
many years. 

Captain George Johnstone Clarke was for many years a promi- 
nent citzen of Ltis Angeles. He served two terms as postmaster 
of this city, that is, from 1866 to 1873, and also for a long period 
as nc*tary, conveyancer, and as school trustee, etc. His first post- 
master's commission is signed by Andrew Johnson, and is dated 
January 25, 1866, and his second-term commission is signed by 
U. 5. Grant, and dated March 2. 1870. 

At the commencement of his term the ofhce was located on 
Main street between the Downey block and the Lafayette, now the 
St. Elmo Holel. the same place where it had been admisintfred 
by his predecessor, Wm. G. Still; afterwards it was removed to 
the Temple block, on the Spring stret side, near die middle of the 
block, where it remained to the end of his incumbency, and till the 
appointment of his successor, H. K, W. Bent. 

Capt. Clarke, was a native of New Hampshire. He was bom 
on the J3th of July, J817, at Northwood. Tlie family name of his 
mother before marriage was Johnstone. Young Clarke went to 
Australia in 1842. and came from there to California in 1850, Soon 
after arrival in San Francisco he bought 160 acres of land in Haves' 
vallev. He and Thomas Haves, after whom the v^alley was named. 
were intimate friends, and had close business relations. From San 
Francisco he went to San Jose, and later to San Pablo and Russian 
River. At one time he ran a small steamer belonging to Col. 
Harasthy^ between San Francsco and the Embarcadero on Sonoma 
creek : and also to Petaluma. where he first met his future wife. Miss 
Sarah Finley, to whom he was married in 1859. He came to Los 


Angieles county in 1863 and prospected for mines at Soledad, The 
next year he brought his wife here; and a company was formed, of 
which lie was superintendent, for working the Soledad copper 
mines. Afterwards he was interested with James Hayward, son 
of Alvinna Hayward, in working the Eureka gold mine at Acton 
in this county. If 1 mistake not, he served with Judge W. G. Dry- 
den and the writer of these lines on the school board sometime in 
the *6o's. I remember he built a fine two-story residence, where 
he lived several years, on a lot which fronted on both Fort (Broad- 
way) and Hill strets, on a ix>rtion of which the Slatison block, be- 
low Fourth street, now stands. His house was then welt out of 
town, and was a sort of landmark, as there were comparatively few 
residences in that neighborhood at that time. 

During his later years he lived on lower Main street, near 21st 
street. In 1864 a convention of the Union party was held in this 
city; and as a member of that convention, 1 remember very distinct- 
ly that Captain Clarke* as delegate from the Soledad precinct, was 
the first speaker to urge the renomiuation of Abraham Lincoln; and 
that he was very urgent and outspoken in his advocacy of the im- 
portance of such renomination as tjcaring on the prosecution of the 
war fertile preservation o fthe Union. 

Capt. Clarke and CoL Charles H. Larrabee sent to China (and, 
it is believed, were the first) to bring to California mandarin orange 
trees (two kinds), which were widely propagated by budding-, l>y 
Mr. Garey and others. Col Larrabee and Capt. Clarke also in- 
troduced into California at the same time^ Pomelo and Loquat 
trees. Capt. Clarke was an ardent Republican, a faithful official and 
good citizen. He was genial and what the Spanish caU "corriente" 
m his wavs; he was easily accessible to all; and was generally well 

Capt. Clarke died August 2* 1890, Mrs. Clarke is still a resi- 
dent of this city. They had no children. 

Ail of the foregoing are supposed to have deceased. All incum* 
bents since Capt. Clarke, except Mr. Green, are still (Jnne> 1900) 
Mr. Bent, who served as postmaster under President Grant's 
administration, is a resident of Pasadena. He is a native of Wey- 
month. Mass.. where he was born October 29, 1831. He came to 
Los Angeles in October. 1868. 

I assume that the reputation of Mr. Bent and of the other in- 
cumbents, his successors, who are still living, are generally well 
known; and. therefore, it is hardly necessary for me to go very 



fully into details here concerning thenL I believe Mr, Bent's ef- 
ficiency as a public official was universally conceded by the com- 
munity whom lie served, from iSj^ to 1877. 

For many years the postoftice at Los Angeles has been one of 
instantly growing importance, bolh because of the phenomenal 
'growth of the city in population and l>ecause this office has prac- 
lically been a distributing office for S<:"Uthern Califonna and Ari- 
►na. Before tlie railroad era the mails were largely carried over 

re routes, on which the mail matter couM not be worked pre* 

itory to final distribution (as now can be done on postal cars), 
thereby throwing an immense amount of work in the former period 
.OTi the local office* Under Mr. Bent's administration the efficiency 
if the postal service which radiated from Los Angeles, was greatly 
increased in many respects. Mr Bent served one or two terms as 
a member of the city Board of Education. He is at present a resi- 
dent of Pasadena, 

CoL Isaac R» Dunkelberger was appointed by President Grant 
February 3, 1877, and re-appointed by President Hayes in 1881. 
Col. Dunkelberger is a native of Peunsylvania, born in 1S32. He 
was one of the first, if nut the first man, Ui enlist in that State in 
:he Civil war. His regiment, the First Penn, Volunteers, was or- 
dered to Baltimore at the time of the attack on the Massachusetts 
troops^ and while there he received a commission as second lieu- 
tenant in the First Dragons, afterwards the First U. S. Cavalry, 
the same regiment which so disting^iished itself in Cuba in the late 
war between the United States and Spain. Col. Dunkelberger was 
in thirty-six pitched battles* and in innumerable skimiishes. He 
was twice wounded — once through the left shoulder antl left lung, 
lis wound, at the time, being; thought to have been mortal. His 
sufferings from this terrible wound during the last thirty odd years^ 
from alxesses, which contiue to recur at intervals to this day, have 
been most excruciating. His left arm is practically helpless. 

After the close of the war he went to New Orleans with Gen. 
Sheridan* who there relieved Gen. Butler. From thence he was 
ordred to San Francisco, and from there to Arizona, In 1876 he 
resigned his commission in the army, since when he has resided in 
Angeles. Col, Dunkelberger married Miss Mary Mallard of this 
city. They have six children. 

Of Mn John W, Green's nativity and arrival in California, T 
have been unable to obtain information. He was first appointed 
by President Arthur, in J885, and served as postmaster of Los 
Angeles till 1887, being succeeded by Mr, Preuss; he was again ap- 





pointed in 1890, and ser\ed till his death, which occurred July 31, 

Edward Antliony Preuss was born in New Orleans June 7» 1850, 
of German parentage. When he was three years old his family 
moved to Louisville, Ky., where he lived till 1868. when he left, via 
Panama, for California, arriving at Saii Francisco May 31, and at 
Los Angeles soon aften He had learned the drug business with his 
uncle, Dr, E. A. Preuss, in Louisville^ and he came with him to 
Los Angeies, remaining in his employ some time liere and later in 
the employ of Dr. C F, Heinzenian. In 1876 he engaged in the 
drug business on his own account. During this time, from 187O tu 
to 1885, he had successively as partners, John PL Schumacher, the 
pioneer, C. B, Pironi, and C. H. Hance. In 1885 he sold out his 
interest to Capt. Hance* 

Mr. Preuss was appointed postmaster bj' President Cleveland 
in 18S7, and served till July i. 1890, when President Harrison re- 
apointed John W. Green, who had been the immediate predecessor 
of Mr. Preuss, The postoftice during Mr. Preuss' incumbency was 
located on the west side of North Main street, southwest of the _ 
Plaza CathoHc Church; and afterward, on S. Broadway, below ■ 
Sixth street, in the Dnl block, now known as the Columbia hotel. 
In 1877, Mr. Preuss was married to Miss Mary Schumacher. They 
have one son, Kenneth, now a man grown, 

Mr. Preuss gives some interesting statistics concerning the 
phenomenal business of our local postoffice in the boom that culmi- 
nated in 1887. From August I to December 31* of that year, a 
period of five months, over 39.000 forwarding orders and changes 
of address were received at the office, w^hich handled the mail of ■ 
200,000 transients annually. He tells of the double rows of people 
which, on the arrival of the mails, extended from the approaches of 
the postoffice, nearly to the Catholic Church. He says it was very 
difficult to get the department at Washington to furnish sufficient . 
force to handle the business of the office at that time. m 

On the death of Mr. Green, Maj. H. J. Shouhers became acting 
postmaster in August, i8gi, serving till February, 1S92, or about 
seven months, Maj. Shoulters, who is now assistant postmasterB 
under the present incumbent. Judge GrofF, is a native of Montpeher^ " 
Vt., born in '42. He came to Los Angeles in '84. He was in nu- 
merous battles in the Civil war, including the Wilderness campaign, 
where he had a leg smashed. He was elcted city treasurer in 1892 
and served two years. 

Henry Van Dusen was born in Albion, N. Y., July 15. 1842, 




and came to Los Ang^eles in 1885, and was appointed postma&ter 
by President Harris^jn, January 6, 1892, and served four years. 
He enlisted in the nth U. S. regular infantry at the commence- 
ment of the Civil war, was in five battles, and lost his left arm in the 
battle of Gaines' Mills, January 27, 1862. 

Gen, John R. Mathews was appointed postmaster of Los An- 
geles December 20, 1895, by President Cleveland, and served some- 
thing over four years. He is a native of St. Louis, born in 1848, 
and came to California in 1883. Prior to his appointment as post- 
master, he served as State Senator and Brigadier General ; and in 
each and every public position, he proved a very efficient official 
He labored diligently and successfully to improve the postal service 
of this office and section. During his incumbency, full railway 
postal service for Southern California was secured, and some twen- 
ty-seven additional local and mounted carriers, clerks and station 
men \vere ordered. 

The present force of Los Angeles postoffice is: Clerks, 41; 
carriers and collectors, 62; clerks at stations, 12; railway postal 
clerks, 46— total, i5i. 

The increase in business of the office in the four years of Gen. 
Mathews' term, is indicated by the following brief showing: Re- 
ceipts of the office. 1895. $ijy,gn; receipts of the office, 1899, 
S2284 1 7— Increase, $50,506. 

Judge L<:>uis A, Groff, the present incumbent of the Los An- 
geles postoffice is a man of wide experience* having been Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office under the administration of 
President Harrison, and he also served in other offices of trust and 
responsibility. He was only lately appointed postmaster of our 
local office by President McKinley. VVe have every reason to ex- 
pect that he will maintain the high standard of efficiency which the 
office bad attained under his predecessors. Judge Groff, I believe, 
is a native of Ohio, 




(Read before the Historical Society Dec. 12, 1900.) 
It will be remembered that 1 gave at the May meeting a short 
account of two aboriginal alphabets — the Vei and' ibe Clierokee, I 
traced their origin and development with the intention of con- 
trasting them, at a later time, with a still niore singular one that 
was found on Easter Island in the South Seas, 

Easter Island is the most eastern point of inhabited land in 
Polynesia. This island, a mere speck of volcanic land in the South 
Pacific ocean, holds one of the human mysteries of the world. 
It is about ten miles long and four broad ,and contains only about 
thirty-two square miles of cultivable land, tl is over two thousand 
miles from the nearest land towards the east, and five hundred from 
its nearest neighbor on the west in that great archipelago* It stands 
like a lonely sentinel over that waste of waters, as does the Sphynx 
over Egy]}t's sands, and holds in its past as unfathomable a riddle. 
When first discovered, as it was said to have contained two to five 
thousand i>enple, but as in every instance, contact with the Caucasion 
has wrough havoc with their numbers, A century ago slave dealers 
raided the island and carried numbers of the inhabitants into slavery. 
Even less than one hundred years ago, the Peruvian government 
carried away captive nearly the whole population to work in their 
guano islands. Later, on returning a portion of these to their homes, 
smallpox was introduced and the once populous island l^ecame a 
graveyard. At the present time there are only about 150 of the 
native population left. The island is now a dependency of Chili. 
It is leased to a firm of sheepmen, and a resident manager^ assisted 
by a few nf the natives, rules over its destinies. These native?; he- 
long to the great Polynesian family, and possess all the racial charac- 
teristics common to this people. The routes of emigration, by 
which the South Sea islands were peopled, and the relative time in 
connection therewith, are. approximately, fairly well understood. 
Everywhere they either displaced a pre-existent people, or found the 
evidence of snch having occupied the islands. 



In many of the islands scattered througliout these re^ons are 
found Cyclopean structures of stone, of the origin of which the pres- 
ent islanders have no knowledge whatever, lliese structures con- 
sist of pyramidal piles of stone, of walled enclosures, of vast plat- 
forms, and of extensive roadways of the same material. These 
stone structures were laid without the use of mortar: sometimes 
ihey contained enclosed rocmis; the true arch seems to have not 
been known, but frequent examples of the overlapping^ arch are 
seen. Sometimes these hnge stones have been quarried nearby, in 
other instances they have been dragged for many miles overland, 
and in still others brought by water from distant parts of the isJand 
on which they are found, or even from a distant island. Many of 
these stones are so large that it would tax our mechanicid ingenuity 
to put them in place. Tliese structures all present the api>earance 
of great ag^; covered with moss and earth, thrown down by earth- 
quakes, and overgrown by dense forests. Their builders came, erect- 
ed them, occupied them, ami vanished, leaving not even a memory 
behind. Common characteristics pertain to them all yet in some 
isolated groups of islands they have features peculiar to themselves. 
Thus Easter Island, though so remote from the others, and as we 
would think, inaccessible, has more striking ruins than any other 
South Sea island. In different parts of this island, there have Ijeen 
erected great stone platforms, and on these platforms are set up 
huge statues. These statues only represent the body from the hips 
upward. The faces are long and striking in appearance. They are 
not portraits, as they are all fashioned from one pattern, and for 
the same reason they cannot be totems. If they represent gods, 
their m>'tho!ogy must have had a strange sameness to it. On each 
statue is an immense stone head dress. 

But few rock carvings are found in the South Sea islands. 
Ttiose in Easter Islands, while in few in number, are conventional 
in form and present characteristics common to all undeveloped peo- 
ples. On some of these scupltured rocks are figures of birds, which 
in some respects recall those of our own northwest coast Indians. 
All over Polynesia, modern emigration has been from west to east, 
with lateral branchings to the north or south. But strange to say, 
Easter Island traditions which are given with great minuteness, 
claim their arrival from the east and from a troi)ical country. 

Every Polynesian people preserved the geneology of their rulers 
as sacredly as did the old Hebrews. Missionaries, scholars, and in- 
telligent tradesmen who have spent a life time among them, all give 
great credence to these lists. The Easter Islanders have a list of 



57 kings, the first dating from their arrival in the country. Allow- 
ing fifteen years to a reigri, it would give 855 years, or about 1045 
A, D,, as the date of their arrival. 

Some peculiarities pertaining to this people, seem' to lend color 
to this claim of a different origin* Ciraimcission was common to 
the Polynesians* but unknown to the Easter Islanders. 

A novel method in war with them, unknown elsewhere, only 
among the old Romans^ was the use of a large hand-net, which, 
cast over an antagonist, rendered his capture or destruction easy. 
With the sole exception of these Islanders, none of the Polynesian 
race possessed the art of writing. 

We possess many examples of their writing, but cannot read it. 
These inscriptions are all on wooden tablets, varying in size from 
four inches wide to six inches long to one seven inches wide and 
f\\c feet long* 

The ciiaracters apparently have been cut with an ohsedian tool, 
and are peculiar in design, the human figure frequently appearing 
in a conventionalized form. 

*'A casual glance at the Easter Island tablet is sufficient to note 
the fact that they ditTer materially from other Kyriologic writings. 
The pictorial symbols are engraved in regular lines on depressed 
channels, separated by slight ridges, intended to protect the hiero- 
glyphics from injury by rubbing. * * * ^[^^ symbols on each 
line are alternately reversed; those on the first stand upright, and 
those on the next line are upside down, and so on by regular alter- 
nation. This unique plan makes it necessary for the reader to turn 
the tablet and change its position at the end of every line. The 
reading should commence at the lower left-hand comer, * * * " 
— (William J. Thomson, paymaster U. S. Navy, in Te Pito Te 
Henua, or Easter Island.) 

I said "to read it," Tliis, however, is only a surmise. In the 
year 1886, the U. S. S.S. Mohican visited the island for the purpose 
of exploration, A party remained on the island one month, and 
made a very careful examination of ever>' part of it. They succeeded 
in collecting several of these tablets, and in getting photographs of 
others in the hands of parties, who would not dispose of them. Prob- 
ably no others will ever again be found on the islands. Paymaster 
Thomson, who published the main reix>rt of the expedition, learned 
that there was li\'ing an old man who was able to read these in- 
scriptions. This was possibly a last chance to be by no means 
neglected. This man was hunted up. The natives today are nomi- 
nally Catholic. Unfortunately some former Catholic priest, having 



a mission there, had forbidden the natives to read these tablets, the 
knowledge of which had been confined to a few privileged persons- 
This man was asked to read the inscription, but for fear of his 
salvation refused, and on being importuned, ran away and hid. 
Science tnust not be balked. The exigency of the case made per- 
missible extraordinary measures. On a rainy evening be '.vas tracked 
to his house. The explorers entered nnceremoniously and took pos- 
session At first he was sullen and would not talk, but a little ca- 
jollery and a subtrefuge along with the judicious use of a little 
stimulant unloosed his tongue, and he began reading the inscrip- 
tions for them. It was soon noticed that he was not following the 
lines closely, and he was charged with fraud. This somewhat dis- 
concertetl him, but he maintained that while the signification of the 
separate signs had been lost» that his translation was in the main 
correct. This was the best they could do. and the reading was 
carefully taken down as it proceeded. Afterwards another old man 
was found who claimed to be able to read them. On l>eing tested 
he read the same way the first one did, and gave the same interpre- 
tation to each different tablet. Evidently old traditions had been 
carefully transmitted, and certain traditions nnvaringly attached 
to certain tablets. These translations relate to their national his- 
tory and religion. 

In all probability there is some foundation for the claim they 
make. But whence came tliese characters? Did some Cadmus or 
Se-quo-yah of that island world invent them? Reasoning from 
my former standpoint, and one which seems borne out by the con- 
ditions, they were not produced by an unaided native mind. They 
came from without. From whence? Certainly not from the West. 
Their traditions of a former home so minutely recorded, must have 
a basis of fact. But characters like these are found nowhere else, 
at least in connected lines. The nearest approach to them are rude 
pictograpbs found on rocks in both Soutli and North America. We 
cannot reconcile their racial characteristics with their traditions of 
an Eastern origin. 

Are both correct? Who was the Se-quo-yah? Who will un- 
ravel the mystery ? 



(Read before the Historical Society, Oct. 5, 1900.) 

Of the half a dnzen or more ports through which at dirf^reirt 
times the cotiimcrce of Los Angeles has passed, but two can be 
classed as historic, namely San Pedro and Wilmington. Los An- 
geles was not designed by its founder for a commercial town. 
When brave old Felipe de Neve marked off the boundaries of the 
historic plaza as the center from which should radiate the Pueblo 
de Nuestra Senora La Rayna de Los Angeles, no vision of the fu- 
ture city of broad streets, palatial business blocks and princely homes 
climbing the brown hills alx>ve his little plaza and spreading over the 
wide mesa below, passed before his mind's eye. 

When the military and religious services of the foimding were 
ended and the governor gave the pobladores (colonists) a few part- 
ing words of advice: admonishing them to be frugal and indtistri- 
ous, to be faithful servants of God and the king: no suspicion that 
the little germ of civilization that he had that day planteil on the 
banks of the Rio Porciuncula would ever need a seaport entered his 
thoughts. The Spaniards, though the discoverers of the new world 
and bold seamen withal, were not a commercial or trading peupfe. 
Their chief desire was to lie let alone in their vast possessions. 
Philip II once promulgated a decree pronouncing death upon any 
foreigner who entered the Gulf of Mexico. Little did the pirates 
and buccaneers of the Gulf care for Philip's decrees. They captured 
Spanisli ships in the Gulf and pillaged towns on the Spanish Main; 
and Drake^ the brave old sea king of Devon, sailed into the harbor 
of Cadiz, with his tittle fleet and burned a hundred Spanish ships 
right under Philijj's nose — "singeing the king's l>eard/* Drake called 
it. Nor content with that exploit — down through the Straits of 
Magellan, and up the South Sea coast sailed Francis Drake in the 
Golden Hind, a vessel scarce larger than a fishing smack, spreading 
consternation among the Spanish settlements of the South Pacific; 
capturing great lumbering galleons freighted with the **nches of 
Ormus and of Ind:" plundering towns and robbing churches of their 
wealth of silver and gold — silver and gold that the wretched natives 
under the lash of cruel task masters had wnmg from the mines. It 



was robber robbing robber, but no retribution for wrongs inflicted 
reached down to the wretched native. Surfeited with plunder, and 
his ship weig^hed down with the weight of silver and gold and costly 
omamenis. Drake sailed more than a thousand leagues up the Cal- 
ifornia coast, seeking the fabled Straits of Anian^ by which he 
might reach England with his spoils; for in the quaint language of 
Chaplain Fletcher, who did preaching and praying on the (j.)I(len 
Hind, when Sir Francis did not lake the job out of his hamh and 
chain the chaplain up to the main mast, as he sometimes did: "Ye 
governor thought it not good to return by ye Streights (of Ma- 
gellan) le^t the Spanirds should attend to him in great numbers," 

So, for fear of the sea robbers^ who hunted their shores, the 
Spaniards built their principal cities in the new world back from 
the coast, and their shipping ports were few and far between. It 
never perhaps crosseil the mind of Governor Fe]ii>e de Neve that 
the new^ pueblo woukl need a seaport. It was founded to supply, 
after it became self-supporting, the soldiers of the presidios with its 
surplus agricultural products. The town was to have no ci»m- 
merce. why should it need a seaport? True, ten leagues away was 
the Ensenada of San Pedro, and, as Spanish towns went, that was 
near enough to a port. 

But since that November day. one hundred and eighty years be- 
fore, when the ships of Sebastian Viscaino had anchored in its 
waters, and he had named it for St. Peter of Alexandria, down to 
the founding of the pueblo, no ship's keel had cut the waters of San 
Pedro bay. It is not strange that no vision of tlie future commercial 
importance of the little pueblo of the Angelic Queen ever disturljed 
the dreams of brave old Felipe de Neve, 

There is no record, or at least I have none, of when the mission 
supply ships landed the first cargo at San Pedro. Before the end of 
last century the port had become known as the embarcadero of San 

The narrow and proscriptive policy of Spain had limited the 
commerce of its California colonies to the two supply ships sent 
each year from Mexico with supplies for the presidios and missions. 
These supplies were exchanged for the hides and tallow produced 
at the missions. San Pedro was the port of San Gabriel mission 
for this exchange^ and also of the Pueblo of Los Angeles. 

It is not an easy matter to enforce arbitrary restrictions against 
commerce, as Spain found to her cost. Men will trade under the 
most adverse circumstances, Spain was a long way off and smug- 
gling was not a very venal sin in the eyes of la}'man or churchman. 



So a contraband trade grew up on the coast, and San Pedro had her 
full share of it. Fast sailing vessels were fitted out in Boston for 
illicit trade on the California coast. Watching their opportunities, 
these vessels slipped into the bays along the coast. There was a 
rapid exchange of Yankee notions for sea otter skins — the most 
valued peltry of California — and the vessels were out to sea before 
the revenue officers could intercept them. If successful in escaping 
capture the profits of a smuggling voyage were enonnous — rang- 
ing from 500 to 1000 per cent above cost on the goods exchanged; 
but the risks were great. The smuggler had no protection from the 
law. He was an outlaw. He was the legititnate prey of the padres, 
the people and the revenue officers. It is gratifying to our national 
pride to know that the Yankee usually came out ahead. These ves- 
sels were armed and when speed or strategem failed they fought 
their way out of a scrape. 

But it was not until the Mexican government, more liberal than 
the Spanish, had partially lifted from foreign trade the restrictions 
imposed by Spain that commerce began to seek the port. First 
came the hide droghers from Boston with their department store 
cargoes. Trading and shopping were done on board the vessel, and 
the purchasers passed from ship to shore and back on the ship's 
boats; while lumbering carretas creaked and groaned under the 
weight of California bank notes, as the sailors called the hides that 
were to pay for the purchases. As long as the ship lay at anchor^ 
and the bank notes held out. the shores of the bay were gay with 
festive parties nf shoppers and traders. Every one, old and young, 
male and female of the native Califomians, and even the untutored 
Indian too, took a deep interest in the ship's cargo. The drogher's 
display of **silks and satins new" was a revelation of riches on which 
the rustic maiden's mind could revel long after the ship had gone on 
her way. 

Just when the first house was built at San Pedro,! have been 
unable to ascertain definitely. In the proceedings of the Ayim- 
tamineto for 1835, a house is sponken of as having been built there 
"long ago" by the Mission Fathers of San Gabriel Long ago for 
past time is as indefinite as poco tiempo for future. I think the 
house was built during the Spanish era, probably between 181 5 and 
1820. It was a warehouse for the storing of hides, and was located 
on the bluff about half way between Point Firmin and Timm's 
Point. The mins are still extant, Dana, in his "Two Years Be- 
fore the Mast/' describes it as a building w^ith one room containing 
a fire place, cooking apparatus, and the rest of it unfurnished, and 


tised as a place to store goods. Dana was not favorably impressed 
with San Pedro. He says: *'I also learned, to my surprise, that the 
desolate looking place we were in furnished more hides than any 
other port on the coast. * * * We all a^eecl that it was the 
worst place we had seen yet, especially for getting off of hides; and 
our lying off at so great a distance looked as though it was bad for 

This old warehouse was the cause of a bitter controversy that 
split the population of the pueblo into factions. While the secular- 
ization of the missions was in progress, during 18^4 and 1835, Don 
Abel Stearns bought the old building from the Mission Fathers of 
San GabrieL He obtained permission from Governor Figueroa to 
bring water from a spring a league distant from the embarcadero, 
and also to build additional buildings; his object being to found 
a commercial settlement at the landing, and to enlarge the com- 
merce of the port. His laudable efforts met with opposition from 
the anti-expansionists of that day. They feared smuggling and 
cited an old Spanish law that prohibited the building of a house 
on tlie beach of any port where there was no custom house. The 
Captain of the Port protested to the Governor against Steams' con- 
templated improvements, and demanded that the warehouse be de- 
molished. Ships, he said, would pass in the night from Santa 
Catalina, "where they lay hid in the day time, to San Pedro and load 
and unload at Stearns' warehouse, and "skip out'' before he» the 
captain, could come down form his home at the pueblo, ten leagues 
away, to collect the revenue* Then a number of calamity howlers 
joined the Captain of the Port in bemoaning the ills that wijuld 
follow from the building of warehouses, and among other things 
charged Stearns with buying and shipping , surreptitiously, stolen 
hides. The Governor referred the matter to the Ayuntamiento, and 
that municipal body appointed a committee of three sensible and 
public spirited men to examine into the charges and report. The 
committee reported that the interests of the community needed 
a commercial settlement at the embarcadero; that if the Captain of 
the Port feared smuggling, he should station a guard on the beach; 
and finally, that the calamity howlers who had charged Di:>n Abel 
with buying stolen hides should be compelled to prove their charge in 
a court of justice, or retract their slanders. This settled the contro- 
versy, and the calamity howlers, too, but Stearns built no more 
warehouse at the embarcadero. 

The first shipwreck in San Pedro bay was that of the brig 
Danube of New York, on Christmas eve, 1828. In a fierce south- 



eastern gale she dragged her anchors and was driven ashore a total 
wreck. The crew and officers, twenty-eight in number, were all 
saved- Tlie news of the disaster reached Los Angeles, and a caval- 
cade of caballeros quickly came to the assistance of the shipwrecked 
mariners. The query was how to get the half drow^ned sailors to 
the pueblo — thirty miles distant. The only conveyance at hand 
was the backs of mustangs. Sailors are proverbial for their inca- 
pacity to manage a horse, and those (tf the Danube Avere no ex- 
ception to the rule. The friendly Californians would assist a sailor 
to the upper deck of a mustang, and sailing directions given to the 
rider, the craft would be headed towards the pueblo* First there 
would be a lurch to port, then to starboard, then the prow of the 
craft would dip toward China, and the rudder end bob up towards 
themoun; then the unfortunate sailor would go head foremost over 
the b<jws into the sand. 

The Californians became convinced that if they cominned their 
efforts to get the sailors to town on horesabck, they would have 
several funerals on their hands — so they gathered up a number of 
ox carts, and loading the marines into carretas, propelled by long 
horned oxen, the twice-wrecked sadors were safely lauded in Las 

Antonio Rocha was the owner of the largest house in the pueblo 
— the adobe that stood on the northwest corner of N. Spring and 
Franklin streets, and was used for many years after the American 
occupation for a court house and city halL Antnnio's heart was as 
big as his house, figuratively speaking — ^and he generously enter- 
tained the whole shipwrecked crew. The fattest beeves were killed 
' — the huge beehive-shaped oven was soon lighted, and servants were 
set to baking bread to feed the Christmas guests. Old man Lugo 
furnished the wine. The sailors ate and drank bumpers to their en- 
tertainer's health* and the horrors of shipwreck by sea and mustang 
were forgotten. 

San Pedro w'as the scene nf the only case of nmrooning known 
to have occurred on the California coast. Marooning was a dia- 
bolical custom or invention of the pirates of the Spanish Main. The 
process was as simple as it was horrible. When some unfortunate 
individual aboard the piratical craft had incurred the hatred of the 
crew or the master, he was placed in a lx>at and rowed to some bar- 
ren island or desolate coast of the main land, and forced ashore, 
A bottle of water and a few biscuits w^ere thrown him, the Ijoat 
rowed back to the ship, and left htm to die of hunger and thirst, or 



to rave out his existence under the madUening heal of a tropical 


In January, 18^2, a small brig entered tlie bay of San Pedro and 
anchored. Next morning two passengers were landed from a boat 
on the barren strand. Tliey were given two bottles of water and 
a few hi&cuit. The vessel sailed away leaving them to their fate. 
There was no habitation within thirty miles of the landing. Igiior- 
ant of the country, their fate might have been that of many another 
victim of marooning. An Indian, searching for shells* discovered 
them and conducted them to the Mission San Gabriel, where they 
were cared for. They were two Catholic priests — -Bachelot and 
Short — who had been expelled from the Sandwich Islands on ac- 
count of prejtidice against their religion. 

In the many-sided drama of life of which San Pedro has been 
the theater, War has thrust his wrinkled front ufx)n its stage. Its 
brown hills have echoed the tread of advancing and retreating 
armies, and its ocean cliffs have reverberated the Ixxim of artillery. 
Here Michelt(.«rena, the last of the Mexican-born governors of Cal- 
ifornia, after his defeat and abdication at Cahuenga, with his cholo 
army, was shipped back to Mexico. 

Here Commodore Stockton landed his sailors and marines when 
in August, 1846, he came down the coast to capture Los Angeles. 
From San Pedro his sailors an<[ marines began their victorious 
march, and, the conquest completed, they returned to their ships 
in the ha}* to seek new fields of conquest. 

Tu San Pedro came Gillespie's men, after their disastrous ex- 
perience with a Mexican revolution. Commodore Stockton had left 
Lieutenant Gillespie^ with a garrison of fifty men to hold Los An- 
geles. Gillespie, so it is said, undertook to fashion the manners 
and customs oi the Californians after a New England model. But 
he had not obtained the "consent of the governed" to the change, 
and they rebelled. Under the command of Flores and Vareles, three 
hundred strong, they beseiged Gillespie's force on Fort Hill, and 
finally com{>elled the Americans to evacuate the city and retreat to 
San Pedro, where they went alxjard a merchant vessel, and remained 
in the harbor. Down from Stockton's fleet came Merv^ine in the 
frigate Savannah, with 300 sailors and marines, intent on the cap- 
ture of the rebellious pueblo. Once again San Pedro beheld the on- 
ward march of an urmy of conquest. But San Pedro saw another 
sight, **when the dnmis beat at dead of night.*' That other sight 
was the retreat of Mervine's men. They met the enemy at Domin* 
guez, were defeated, and retreated, the wounded borne on litters, 



their dead on creaking carretas, and their flag left behind. Mervine 
buried his dead, liivc in all, on the Isia de Los Muertos, and then — 
if not before — it was an Island of Dead Men. Lieutenant Duvall, 
in his log book of the Savannah, speaking of the burial of the dead 
on Dead Man's Island, says it was '*so named by us." Jn this he is 
mistaken. Ten years before, Dana, in his 'Two Years Before the 
Mast/' tells the story of the English sea captain, who died in the 
port and was buried on this small, dreary looking island, the only 
thing which broke the surface of the bay. Dana says : "It was the 
only spot in California that impressed me with anything like a poetic 
interest. Then, too, the man died far from home, without a friend 
near him, and without proper funeral rites, the mate (as 1 was told) 
gtad to have him out of the way, hurrying hini up the hill and into 
the ground without a word or a prayer.'* Dana calls the isle, "Dead 
Man's Island." 

There are several legends told of how the island came by its 
gruesome name. This is the story an old Calilornian, who had been 
a sailor on a hide drogher, long before Dana's time, told me thirty 
odd years ago : Away back in the early years of the present cen- 
tury some fishermen found the dead body of an unknown white 
man on the island. There was evidence that he had reached it 
alivCj but probably too weak to attempt the crossing of the narrow 
channel to the main laud. He had clung to the desolate island, vain- 
ly hoping for succor, until hunger^ thirst and exposure ended his 
existence. He was sujiposed to have fallen overlward at night from 
some smuggler, and to have been carried in by the tide. From the 
finding of the body on the island, the Spaniards named it Isla del 
Muerto — the Island of the Dead^ or the Isle of the Corpse. It is 
to be regretted that the translating fiend has turned beautiful Span- 
ish into gruesome English : Isla del Muerto, translated Dead Man's 

There have been ten persons in all burie<i on the island — nine 
men and one woman — namely: The lost sailor, the English sea 
captain, six of the Savannah's crew, a passenger on a Panama ship 
in 1851. and the last, a Mrs. Parker in 1855. Mrs. Parker was the 
wife of Captain Parker of the schooner Laura Bevain. Once when 
a fierce southeaster was threatening, and the harbor bar was moan- 
ing, Captain Parker sailed out of San Pedro bay. His fate was 
that of the *'Three Fishers," who 

"When sailing out into the west. 
Out into the west as the sun went down. 



And the night rack came rolling up ragged and brown; 
But men must work and women must weep, 
Though storms be sudden and waters be deep; 
And the harbor bar was moaning/' 
Nothing was ever seen or heard of the Laura Bevain from that 
day to this. The ship and its crew lie at the bottom of the ocean. The 
captain's wife was stopping at the landing. She was slowly dying 
cf consumption. Her husband's fate hastened her death. Rough 
but kindly hands performed the last officers for her, and she was 
buried on top of Dead Man's Island. The sea has not given up its 
dead, but the land has. This vanishing island — slowly but surely 
disappearing — has already exposed the bc^nes of some of the dead 
buried on it* 

At the time of the American conquest of California, San Pedro 
was a port of one house — no wharves stretched out over the waters 
of the great bay, no boats swung with the tide; nature's works were 
unchanged by the hand of man. Three Inmdred and five years be- 
fore Cabrillo, the discoverer of California, sailed into the bay he 
named Bahia de las Hunios — the Bay of Smokes. Through all the 
centuries of Spanish domination no change had come over San 
Pedro. But with its new masters came new manners, new customs, 
new men. Commerce drifted in upon its waters unrestricted. The 
hide drogher gave place to the steamship, the carreta to the freight 
wagon, and the mustang caballada to the Concord stage. 

Banning, the man of expedients, did business on the bluff at 
the old warehouse; Tomlinson, the man of iron nerve and will, had 
his commercial establishment at the point below on the inner bay. 
Banning and Tomlinson were rivals in staging, freighting, lighter- 
ing, warehousing and indeed in everything that pertained to shipping 
and transporation. 

When stages were first put on in 1852, the fare between the 
port and the city was $10.00; later it was reduced to $7.50; then to 
$5.00. And when rivalry between Banning and Tomlinson was par- 
ticularly keen, the fare went down to a dollar. Freight, from port to 
pueblo, by Temple & Alexander's Mexican ox carts, was $20 per 
ton — distance, thirty miles. Now it can be carried across the conti- 
nent for that. 

In 1858, partly in consequence of a severe storm that damaged 
the wharf and partly through the desire of Banning to put a greater 
distance between himself and his rival. Tomlinson. he abandoned old 
San Pedro on the blu!T, and built a wharf and warehouse at the 
head of the San Pedro slough, six miles north of his former ship- 



ping point, and that much nearer to Los Angeles. The first cargo 
of goods was landed at this place October i, 1S58. The event uas 
celebrated by an excursion from Los Angeles, and wine and wit 
flowed freely. 

The new town or port was named New San Pedro, a designa- 
tion it bore for several years, then it settled tJown to be Wdniing- 
ton, named so after General Banning's birthplace, Wilmington, 
Delaware^ and the slough took the name cf the town. That genial 
humorist, the late J. Ross Browne, who visited Wilmington in 
1864, thus portrays that historic seajiort: "Banning — the active, 
energetic, irrepressible Phineas Banning, has built a town on the 
plain alx-'itt six miles distant at the head of the slough. Ke calls 
it Wilmington, in honor of his birthplace. In order to bring Wil- 
mington and the steamer as close together as circumstances will 
permit, he has built a small boat propelled by steam for the purpose 
of carving passengers from steamer to Wilmington, and from Wil- 
mington to steamer. Another small boat of a similar kind burst 
its boiler a couple of years ago, and killed and scalded a number 
of people, including Captain Seely. the popular and e\'er to be la- 
mented commander of the Senator. The boiler of the present boat 
is considered a model of safety. Passaigers may lean against it with 
perfect security- It is constructed after the pattern of a tea kettle, so 
that when the pressure is unusually great, the cover will rise and 
let off superabundant steam, and thus allow the crowd a chance to 
swim ashore." 

"Wilmington is an extensive city located at the head of a slough 
in a pleasant neighborhood of sand banks and marshes. There are 
not a great many houses in it as yet, but there is a great deal of 
room fcr houses when the population gets ready to build them. 
The streets are broad and beautifully paved with small sloughs, 
ditches, bridges, lumber, dry goods boxes and the carcasses of dead 
cattle. Ox bones and skulls of defunct cows, the legs and jaw- 
bones of horses, dogs, sheep, swine and coyotes are the chief orna- 
ments of a public character; and what the city lacks in the eleva- 
tion of its site, it makes up in the elevation of its water lines, many 
of them being higher than the surrounding objects. The city 
fathers are all centered in Banning, wlio is mayor, councilman, 
constable and Avatchman, all in one. He is the great progenitor 
of W^ilmington. Touch Wilmington and you touch Banning, It 
is his specialty— the offspring of his genius. And a glorious genius 
has Phineas R in his way! Who among the many thousand who 
have sought health and recreation at Los Angeles within the past 


ten years has not been the recipient of Banning's bounty in the way 
of accommodations ? His stages are ever ready, his horses ever the 
fastest. Long life to Banning; may his shadow grow larger and 
larger every day ! At all events I trust It may never grow less. 
1 retract all I said about Wilmington — or most of it- I admit 
that it is a fiourishing place compared with San Pedro. I am will- 
ing to concede that the climate is sulubrious at certain seasons of 
the year when the wind does not blow up sand; and at certain 
other seasons when the rain does not cover the country with water; 
and then again at other seasons when the earth is not parched by 
drought and scorching suns*" 

During the Civil war the government established Camp Drum 
and Drum Bannicks at Wilmington, and spent over a million dol- 
lars in erecting buildings. A considerable force of soldiers was 
stationed there and all the army supplies for the troops in Southern 
California, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico passed through the 
port. The Wilmingtonians waxed fat on government contracts 
and their town put on metropolitan airs. It was the great seaport 
of the south, the toll gatherer of the slough. After the railroad 
from Los Angeles was completed to Wilmington in 1869, all the 
trade and travel of the southwest passed through it and they paid 
well for doing so. It cost the traveler a dollar and a half to get from 
ship to shore on one of Banning's tugs and the lighterage charges 
that prevailed throttled commerce with the tightening grasp of the 
Old Man of the Sea. 

In 1880, or thereabouts, the railroad was extended down to 
San Pedro and wharves built there. Then commerce left the mud 
flats of Wilmington and drifted back to its old moorings. The 
town fell into a decline. Banning, its great progenitor, died, and 
the memory of the olden time commercial importance of that once 
historic seaport lingers only in the minds of the oldest inhabitants. 


TI16 PEoseer New0|>a|>«r of Lo* Angel^A 


In our American colonization of the "Great West," tfic news^" 
paper has kept pace with immigration. In the building up a new 
towRf the want of a newspaper seldom becomes long felt before it 
is supplied. 

It was not so in Spanish colonization; in it the newspaper came 
late, if it came at all, Tliere were none published in California dur- 
ing the Spanish and Mexican eras. The first newspaper published 
in California was issued at Monterey, August 15, 1846, — ^just thirty- 
eight days after Commodore ^oat took possession of the territory 
in the name of the United States. This paper was called "The 
Californian/' and was published by Semple & Coiton. The type and 
press used liad been brought from Mexico by Augustm V, Zaruo- 
rano in 1834, and by him sold to the territorial government; and it 
had been used for printing bandos and pronunciamientos. The only 
paper the publishers of The Californian could procure was that used 
in making cigarettes which came in sheets a little larger than or- 
dinary foolscap. 

After the discovery of gold in 1848, newspapers in California 
multiplied rapidly. By 1850, all the leading mining towns had their 
newspapers, but Southern California, being a cow country and the 
papulation mostly native Californians speaking the Spanish lang- 
uage, no newspaper had been founded. 

The first proposition to establish a newspaper in Los Angeles 
was nuitle (o the City Council October 16, 1850. The minutes of the 
meeting on that date contain this entry: Theodore Foster peti- 
tion» for a lot situated at he northerly corner of the jail for the 
inirprfse of erecting thereon a house to be used as a printing estab- 
lislimcnl. The Council — taking in consideration the advantages 
which a printing house oflfers to the advancement of public enlight- 
rnrnrnt, and tticre existing as yet no such establishment in this 
city : Kcsitlvcd. (hat for this once only a lot from amongst those that 
urc n»;irked on the city map be given to Mr. Theodore Foster for 
the purpose of establishing thereon a printing house; and the dona- 



tion be made in his favor because he is the first to inaugurate this 
public benefit; subject, however, to the following conditions: First, 
that the house and printing office be completed within one year from 
today. Second, that the lot be selected from amongst those numbered 
on the city map and not otherwise disposed of" 

At the meeting of the Council, October 30th, 1850, the records 
say : ''Theodore Foster gave notice that he had selected a lot back 
of Johnson's and fronting the canal as the one where he intended 
establishing his printing house; and the council resolved that he be 
granted forty varas each way/' 

The location of the printing house was on what is now Los 
Angeles street, then called Calle Zanja Madre (Mother Ditch 
street), and sometimes Canal street. 

The site of Foster's printing office was opposite the Bell block, 
which stood on the southeast comer of Aliso and Los Angeles 
streets. On the lot granted by the Council Foster built a small two- 
story frame building; the lower story was occupied by the printing 
outfit, and the upper story was used as a living room by the printers 
and proprietors of the paper. Over the door was the sign "Im- 
prcnta" (Printing Office), The first number of the pioneer paper 
was issued May 17, 185 1. It was named 'La Estrella de Los An- 
geles/* The Star of Los Angeles. It was a four-page five column pa- 
per; size of page, 12x18 inches. Two pages were printed in English 
and two in Spanish. The subscription price was $10 a year, payable 
in advance. Advertisements were inserted at the rate of $2.00 per 
square for the first insertion and $roo for each subsequent inser- 
tion. The publishers were John A. Lewis and John McEIroy. 
Foster had dropped out of the scheme, hut when, I do not know. 
Nor do T know anything of his subsequent history^ 

In July. William H. Rand bought an interest in the paper and 
the firm became Lewis^ McElroy and Rand. In November McElroy 
sold his interest to Lewis & Rand. John A. Lewis edited the Eng- 
lish pages and Manuel Clemente Rojo was editor of the Spanish col- 
umns of the Star for sometime after its founding. The press was a 
Washington Hoe of an ancient pattern. It came around the Horn 
and was probably six or seven months of its journey. Even with this 
antiquated specimen of the lever that moves the world, it was no 
great task to work off the weekly edition of the Star, Its circula^ 
tion did not exceed 250 copies. 

The first job of city work done by La Estrella (as it is always 
called in the early records)* was the printing of one hundred white 
ribbon badges for the city police. The inscription on the badge, 




which was printed both in English and Spanish, read **City Police, 
organized by the Conunon Council of Los Angeles, July 12, 1851." 
La Estrella's bill for the job was $25.00. 

The burning political issue of the early '50's in Southern Califor- 
nia was the division of the State, Tlie Star, early in its career, took 
sides in favor of division, but later on, under a different management, 
opposed it. The scheme as promulgated fifty years ago was the 
division of the State into two parts — the northern to retain the 
State organization, the southern to be created into a territory. The 
professed purpose of division was to reduce taxation, and to "eman- 
cipate the south from its servile and abject dependence to the 
north." The real purpose was the creation of a slave State out of 
Southern California and thereby to increase the pro-slavery power in 
Congress. Bills for division were introduced in successive legisla- 
tures for eight or nine years; but all were promptly killed except one. 
Jn 1859 under the Pico law the question came to a vote in the 
southern counties and was carried. The Civil war and the emancipa- 
tion of the slaves virtually put an end to State division. In July, 1855, 
Wm* IL Rand transferred his interest in the Star to his partner John 
A. Lewis, August ist, 1853. Lewis sold the paper to Jas. M. 
McMeans. The obstacles to l>e overcome in the publication of a 
pioneer newsjjaper in Southern California are graphically set forth 
in John A. Lewis's valedictory in the Star of July 30, 1853: 

'Tt is/' writes Lewis, "now two years and three months since 
the Star was established in this city — and in taking leave of my 
readers, in saying my last say, I may very properly be permitted to 
look back through this ixriod to see how accounts stand. 

'The cstahlishnieiit of a newspaper in Los Angeles was consid- 
ered something of an experiment, more particularly on account of 
the isolation of the city. The sources of public news are sometimes 
cut n(T for three or four weeks, and very frequently two weeks. San 
Francisco, ihc nearest place where a newspaper is printed, is more 
tlian five hundred miles distant, and the mail between that city 
and Los Angeles takes an uncertain course, sometimes by sea and 
sometimes by land occupying in its transmission from two to six 
weeks, and in one in?itance fifty-two days. Therefore, I have had to 
depend mninly upon local news to make the Star interesting. And 
yet the more important events of the country have been recorded 
as fully as the limits of the Star would permit. The printing of a 
paper one-half in the Spanish language was certainly an experiment 
hitherto unattempted in the State. Having no exchanges with 
papers in that language the main reliance has been upon translations, 



and such contributions as several good friends have favored me with- 
I leave others to judge whether the 'EstreJIa' has been well or ill 

Under Lewises management the Star was non-partisan in politics. 
He says, *'I professed all along to print an indepentlent newspaper, 
and although my own preferences were with the Whig party, 1 
never could see enough either in the Whig or Democratic party to 
make a newspaper of. I never could muster up fanaticism enough 
to print a party paf)er/' 

McMeans went to the States shortly after assuming the manage- 
ment of the paper. Wm. A. Wallace conducted it during his ab- 
sence. Early in 1854, it was sold to M, D. BRuidige, Under 
Brundtge's proprietorship* Wallace edited the paper. It was stiH 
pubHshed in the house built by Foster. 

In the latter part of 1854, the Star was sold to J. S. Waite & 
,Co, The site donated to Foster by the council in 1850, on which 
'to establish a printing house for the advancement of public enlight- 
enment seems not to have been a part of the Star outfit A pros- 
pectus on the Spanish page informs us that "Imprenta de la Es- 
trella, Calle Principal, Casa de Temple/' — that is. the Printing office 
of the Star is on Main street, in the House of Temple; where was 
added, the finest typographical work will be done in Spanish, French 
and English, Waite reduced the subscription price of the Star to 
$6.00 a year payable in advance, or $9,00 at the end of the year. 
Fifty per cent advance on a deferred payment looks like a high rate 
of interest, but it was very reasonable in those days. Money, then, 
commanded 5, 10 and even as high as 15 per cent a month, com- 
pounded monthly; and yet the mines of California were turning 
out $50,000,000 in gold every year. Here Is a problem in the sup- 
ply and demand of a circulating medium for some of our astute 
financial theorists to solve. 

Perusal of the pages of the Star of forty-six years ago gives 
us occasional glimpses of the passing of the old life and the ringing 
in of the new. An editorial on "The Holidays" in the issue of Jan- 
uary 4th, 1855, says: **The Christmas and New Yearns festivities 
are passing away with the usual accompaniments; namely, bullfights, 
bell ringing, firing of crackers, fiestas and fandangos. In the city, 
cascarones commanded a premium and many were complimented 
Vtlth them as a finishing touch to their head dress.'' Bull fights, fan- 
dangos and cascarones are as obsolete in our city as the Olympic 
games, but bell ringing and firing of crackers still usher in the 
New Year. In June, 1855, El Clamor Publico— The Public Cry — 



the first Spanish newspaper in Southern California was founded by 
Francisco P. Ramirez. The Spanish pages of the Star were discon- 
tinued and the advertising in that department was transferred to 
the Clamor. On the 17th of March, 1855, the Co. dropped from the 

proprietorship of the Star and J. S. Waite became sole owner. 

In the early *5os a Pacific railroad was a standing topic for editor- 
laJ comment by the press of California. Tlie editor of the Star, **while 
we are waiting and wishing for a railroad.*' advocates as an experi- 
ment the introduction of camels and dromedaries for freighting 
across the arid plains of the southwest. After descanting on the 
merits of the *'ship of the desert/' he says: "We predict that in 
a few years these extraordinary ami useful animals will he l}rowsing 
upon our hills anri valleys, and numenms caravans will !je arriving 
and deparihig daily. Let us have the incomparable dromedary, 
with Adams & Co.'s expressmen arriving here triweekly, with letters 
and packages in five or six days from Salt Lake and fifteen or 
eighteen from the Missmiri. Then the present grinding steamship 
monopoly might be made to realize the fact that the hard-working 
miner, the fanner and the mechanic were no longer completely in 
their grasping power as at present. We might have an overland 
dromedary express that would bring us the New York news in 
fifteen to eighteen days. We hope some of our enterprsing capi- 
talists or stock breeders will take this speculation in hand for we 
have not much faith that Congress will do anything In the matter." 

Notwithstanding our editor's poor opinion of Congress, that 
recalcitrant hotly, a year or two later, jxissihly moved by the power 
of the press, did introduce camels into the United States, and cara- 
vans did arrive in Los Angeles. To the small boy of that day the 
■ arrival of a caravan was a free circus. The grotesque attempts of the 
western mule whacker to transform himself into an Oriental camel 
driver were mirth provoking to the spectators, but agony long 
drawn out to the camel puncher. Of all the impish, perverse and 
profanity provoking beasts of burthen that ever trod the soil of 
America, the meek. mild, soft-footed camel was the most exasperat- 
ing. That prototy|?e of perversity, the army mule, was almost 
angelic in disposition compared to the hump-hacked burden bearer 
of the Orient. 

In July, 1^55, the subscription price of the Star was reduced to 
$5 a year. The publisher informed his patrons that he would re- 
ceive subscriptions "payable in most kinds of produce after harvest — 
com, wheat, flour, wood, butter, eggs, etc., will be taken on old 
subscriptions. Imagine, if you can. one of our city newspapers 



today starting a department store of country produce in its editorial 
rooms. Times have chang^ed and we have changed with theni. In 
November, 1855, James S. Waite, the sole proprietor, publisher and 
business manager of tlie Star, was appointed postmaster of Los An- 
geles, He found it difficult to keep the Star shining, the mails 
moving and his produce exchange running. 

In the issue of February 2, 1S56, he offers the "entire estab- 
Hshment of the Star for sale at $1,000 less than cost," In setting 
forth its merits, he says: **To a yotmg man of energy' and ability 
a rare chance is now offered to spread himself and peradventurc 
to realize a fortune.*' The young man* with expansive qualities was 
found two months later in the person of Wm, A. Wallace, who had 
been editor of the Star in 1854. He was ihe first principal of the 
schoolhousc No, i, which stood on the northwest corner of Spring 
and Second streets, where the Bryson block now stands. He laid 
down the pedagogical birch to mount the editorial tripod. In his 
salutatory he says: "The Star is an old favorite of mine, and I have 
always wished to be Its proprietor." The editorial tripod proved to 
be as uneasy a seat for Wallace as the back of a luicking bronco; in 
two months it landed him on his back, figuratively speaking. 

It was hard times in the old pueblo. Money was scarce and 
cattle were starving; f(}r 1856 was a dry year. Tlius Wallace solilo- 
quizes: ''Dull time! says the trader, the mechanic, the farmer — in- 
deed, everylxxly echoes the dull sentiment. The teeth of the cattle this 
year have been so dull that they have been scarcely able to save them- 
selves from starvation; but buyers are nearly as plenty as cattle and 
sharp in proportion to the prospect of starvation. Business is dull — 
duller this week than it was last; duller today than it was yesterday. 
E.xpensesare scarecly realized and ty^ry hole where a dollar or two 
has heretofore leaked out must l^e stopped, Tlie flush times are past 
— the days of large prices and full pockets are gone; picayunes, bad 
liquor, rags and universal dullness — sometimes to dull to complain 
of' — have usurped the minds of men and a common obtuseness pre- 
vails. Neither pistol shots nor dying groans have any effect; earth- 
quakes hardly turn men in their beds. It is no use of talking — 
business stepped out and the people are asleep. What is to be done? 
Why the first thing of course is to stop off such things as can be 
neither smoked or drank; and then wait for the carreta. and if we 
don*t get a ride, it will be because we have become too fastidious, 
or too poor and are unable to pay this expense/' 

Henry Hamilton, the successor of Wallace, was an experienced 
newspaper man. For five years previous to purchasing the Star 



he had been proprietor of the Calaveras Chronicle. He was an editor 
of the old school — the school that dealt out column editorials, and 
gave scant space to locals, Hamilton's forte was political editorials. 
He was a bitter partisan. When he fulminated a thunderbolt and 
hurled it at a political opponent, it struck as if it came from the 
hand of Jove, the god of thunder and lightning. He was an able 
writer, yet with him there was but one side to a question, and 
that was his side of it He was a Scotch-Irishman^ and had all the 
pugnacity and pertinacity of that strenuous race. His vigorous 
partisanship got him into trouble. During the Civil war he es- 
posed the cause of the Southern Confederacy. For some severe 
criticisms on Lincoln and other officers of the government, and his 
outspoken s\*mpathy for the Confederates, he was arrested. He took 
the oalh of allegiance, and was released, but the Star went into an 
eclipse. The last number, a single page, appeared October ist, 1864. 
The press and type were sold to Phineas Banning, and were used 
in the publication of the Wilmington JoumaL The City of the Sloo 
(Wilmington) was then the most prosperous seaport on the south* 
em coast. After the war when the soldiers had departed and Wil- 
mington had faU'en into a state of *'innocuous desuetude" the Jour- 
nal died of insufficient circulation, and was buried in the journalistic 
graveyard of unfelt wants. The old pioneer press of the Star, after 
doing duty for fifteen years, took a needed rest. 

On Saturday, the 16th of May, 186S, the Star emerged from 
obscurity. "Today." writes Hamilton, *Sve resume the publication 
of the Los Angeles Star. Nearly four years have elapsed since our 
last issue. The little *onpleasanlness/ which at that time existed 
in the family* has been toned down considerably^ and if perfect har- 
mony does not yet prevade the circle, our hope is this brotherly feel- 
ing will soon be consummated." 

The paper was no longer the bitter partisan sheet that tt had 
been during the early *6os. Hamilton now seldom indulged in 
political leaders of a column length, and when he did they were of 
a mild type. The new Star was a seven column blanket sheet, and 
was devoted to promoting the welfare of the county. It was ably 
conducted, and was a model newspaper for a town of 5.000 inhabi- 
tants*. June isl, 1870. the first number of the Daily Star was pub- 
lished by Hamilton and Barter. Barter retired from the firm in Sep- 
Irmlier and founded the Anaheim Gazette, the pioneer newspaper 
of Onmgc county. He bought the old press and type of the Wil- 
mingttm Journal— the first press of the Star — and again the old 
\ttvtis Iwvame a pioneer. When tlie Anaheim Gazette office burned 



down in 1877, the old press perished in the flames. The last time 
I saw it it was lying in a junk pile, crooked and twisted and warped 
out of shape or semblance of a printing press. If the spirit of the 
inanimate ever visits its former mundane haunts, the ghost of that 
old press would search in vain for the half dozen or more office 
buildings where in the body long ago it ground out weekly stents 
of news. 

After G. W. Barter sold out the Anaheim Gazette in 1S72, he 
leased the Daily Star from Hamilton. He ran it less than a year, 
but that was long enough for him to take all the twinkle out of it. 
It had almost sunk below the horizon when Mr. Hamilton resumed 
its publication. In July, 1873, he leased it to Ben C. Truman. The 
genial Ben. put sparkle in it. He made it interesting to his friends, 
but more so to his enemies. Like Silas Wegg, he occasionally drop- 
ped into poetry, and satirized some of his quondam adversaries at 
"Sandy Ague* (San Diego), where he had recently published a 
paper. When they felt the pricking of Ben's pungent pen, they 
longed, no doubt, to annihilate time and space that they might be 
near to him to take revenge when their wrath was hot. Truman 
continued its publication until July, 1877, when it was sold to Payn- 
ter & Co. Then it passed to Brown & Co, The Rev. Mr. Camp- 
bell of the Methodist Church, south, conducted it for a time. In 
the last year of its existence it had several different publishers and 
eclitors. Its brilliancy steadily diminished until in the early part 
of 1879, it sunk below the horizon, or» to discard metaphor and state 
facts, the sheriff attached it for debt, and its publication was discon- 
tinued. It remains were not buried in the graveyard of unfelt 
wants. A more tragic fate awaited them, — they were cremated. 
The plant and the files were stored in an outbuilding of Mr. Hollen- 
beck's who was one of the principal creditors. His Oiinese laborers 
roomed in the lower part of the building. In some of their heathen 
orgies they set fire to the house. For a few minutes La Estrella 
bla;;ed up into a star of the first magnitude then disappeared forever. 

Such in brief is the story of La Estrella^ the pioneer newspaper 
of Los Angeles, Its files contain a quarter century's history of our 
city and its environs. It is to be regretted that its early editors 
deemed political essays of so much more importance than local hap- 
penings. If these editors could crawl out of their graves and read 
some of their political diatribes in the light of the Twentieth cen- 
tury, they no doubt would be moved to exclaim, What blind leaders 
of the blind were we [ 



(Read May 7, 1894,) 

In the death since our last meeting", to-wit, at midnight on the 
I7th-i8th of April, 1894, of our co-member and co-laborer. Don 
Antonio Franco Coronel, this society has lost a g'ood friend, and 
this community and this State have lost a most valuable and useful 

Mn Coronel, who had been a resident of Los Angeles for 60 
years, was in many respects a remarkable man; and as, in the flight 
of time, lie recedes gradually into the distance of the past, he will^ 
I imagine, like numerous others of his predecessors and contempo- 
raries of Spanish ancestry in the CaJifornias of whom English- 
speaking Califoniians of today have but partial knowledge, become 
more and more a striking figure in the annals of the times in which 
he lived. 

Being an educated and enlightened man in his own language 
and civilization — for he possessed only a limited knowledge of the 
English tongue — ^and having taken an active interest in public 
affairs during his long career, serving the community in many and 
varied capacities, it is not an easy matter for us who survive him 
who knew him well — probably it is yet too early — to rightly esti- 
mate or measure the extent of the influence of his personality on 
those with whom he associated. 

Don Antonio was born in the City of Mexico in 1817, and he 
came to California in 1834, while yet a boy, with his father. Don 
Ygnacio F. Coronel, who accompanied by his family, came with 
the celebrated Padres "Colonia" which arrived here thai year from 
Mexico. Tlie elder Coronel, whom the writer knew, and who had 
formerly been an officer under General Yturbide. established the 
first school in Los Angeles, under the Lancastrian system. He 
taught a public school in the block at the head of Los Angeles street, 
as it formerly existed, just north of the line of Arcadia street, from 
1844 till about 1856, He was an educated man and gave his chil- 
dren a good Spanish education. He died in 1862. 



His eldest son Antonio^ because of his excellent school training 
and hecause be showed capacity, soon attained prominence both as 
a citizen and in official positions of responsibility. The Ust of 
offices filled by him is a large one. In 1838 he was appninted assis- 
tant secretary of tribunals of the city of Los Angeles. In 1843 
he was made judge of the first instance (justice of the peace), and 
in 1S44 Governor Micheltorena appointed him inspector of the 
Southern Missions. In 1845 he was made commissioner to treat 
for peace between Gov. Micheltorena and Alvarado and Castro, 
commanders of the revolutionary forces. In 1846 he served as 
captain with his patriotic countrymen in their attempts by inade* 
quate means, to defen-i themselves and their homes as best they 
could against the invasion of the country by the .'\merJcars. He 
took part in the battle of the 8th of October, 1S46, on the San 
Pedro rancho, in which the Califomians were victorious. After- 
wards he was appointed aid-decamp of the commanding general and 
took part in the battles at Paso de Bartoio and la Mesa. As the 
Americans then had superior numbers and resources, the Califor- 
nians were compelled to fall back to the interior or to the moun- 
tains, where, under General Flores, an attempt to continue the un- 
equal contest was kept up, till finally* friends got word to Don 
Antonio, urging on him the usdessness and hopelessness of the 
fight; and he and others gave up and came in. But Gen. Flores 
and a remnant of his command retired to Mexico. After peace 
was declared^ and Alta California became permanently a portion 
of the United States territory, and its inhabitants became, if 
they so elected, citizens of the United States, Mr. Coronel with the 
great bixly of Califomians^ transferred their allegiance in good 
faith to the nationality represented by the stars and stripes^ to which 
ever afterwards, or as long as they lived, they remained loyal and 

In 1847-4S Mr. Coronel was a member of the lx)ard of magis- 
trates having in charge the regidation of irrigation. With this 
very important question, which was new to Americans, he was both 
the*iretically and practically familiar. The whole theory of water 
rights under the laws and customs of Spain and Mexico, and of 
all dry countries where irrigation is a necessity, is radically different 
from that of England and the United States, where, as a rule, 
practical irrigation is unknown. The persistent though futile at- 
tempts which Americans in California and other semi-arid States 
and territ<jries have made, and are still making, to apply the theories 
relating to the use and ownership of water as evolved in wet coun- 



tricSj to dry countries, have caused a vast aniount of confusioti and 
loss, and frequently bloodshed, the end of which is not yet. 

The writer of these lines has often discussed this matter with 
Don Antonio, who as often expressed his regret at the inaptitude or 
self-sufficiency or disinclination to learn, what» in spite of all their 
preconceived notions on this subject, they will perforce, have to 
learn at last, for the simple reasons that the theories of non-irriga- 
tion countries concerning water, are, in many fundamentally essen- 
tial respects, utterly inapplicable in practical irrigation. 

So of the rights of cities and puebloe to running streams under 
the laws of Spain and Mexico; Mr. Coronel held that it was of 
tile utmost importance that the people and officials of this city 
slunifd know and asseri to the last, all the rights to all the water 
of ihe l>)s Angeles river, which this city inherited as successor to 
the puchlo. In a conversation I had with him a short time before 
Ills death, it seemed as thougfh he could not impress on me strong^ly 
cnou^Mi his convictions concerning this important matter, 

Mr. Coronel was assessor of Los Angeles county in 1850 and 
*5i, and in 185^^ he was elected mayor of Los Angeles City. He 
was a member of the city council, except during two years, from 
1854 to 1866, when he was elected treasurer of the State of CaJi- 
fornia for four years, He also ser\'ed at various periods, as super- 
visor of the county, member of the State Horticultural society, 
president of the Spanish-American Benevolent society of this city, 

VVheii the cause cdehre^ known as the "Limantour Claim/' was 
l>ef<^ire the United States Courts in 1857* Mr, Coronel was sent on a 
crttifiilcntial mission to the City of Mexico to examine the archives 
thca* and g;ather testimony ,etc.. which his knowledge of the Span- 
ish language and familiarity with Mexican land laws, and acquaint- 
ance with public men in that capital, enabled him to do very effi- 
ciently. Mis lahcTrs were facilitated by President Comonfort and 
other high officials. The evidence be obtained was laid before the 
United States Court, with the result that the claim was rejected 
finally; nnd thus the title to thousands of homes in San Francisco 
were cleared of a cloud that hung over them. Only those who were 
cognixant at the time, of the excitment which was stirred up 
throughout California by this case, can appreciate how intense that 
cxcilnient was. Limantour. who was a Frenchman, maintained 
his colnssnl prcteiUions with the utmost vigor and by the most un- 
scrupulous means, bringing witnesses from Mexico to swear to the 



genuineness of his alleged grant, which, as already stated, the 
Court finally rejected. 

Mr. Coronel, in his lifetime, made a most honorable record as 
a freind of the defenceless Mission Indians of Southern California. 
Of this fact Mrs. Helen Hunt Jackson has borne warm testimony 
in several national publications. When these simple, harmless chil- 
dren of nature were imposed upon^ and robbed of their lands and 
of the waters in default of which those lands became comparatively 
valueless, by greedy and unscrupulous American squatters, they 
came to Don Antonio Coronel for advice, and he always befriended 
them. He gave to Mrs, Jackson the materials of her story of "Ra- 
mona/' and aided her in many ways in acquiring a knowledge of the 
customs and traditions of the people of the country, necessary to 
give characteristic coloring to the story. He also gave her the out- 
lines of another and more dramatic story, based on real life in the 
olden time here in Southern Californiaj the beautiful heroine of 
which, Nacha, was well known by some of the best of the old Span- 
ish families. If Mrs. Jackson had lived she was to have worked 
them up as a companion story of *'Ramona." He also gave her 
the data of her account of Friar Junipero Serra, the vener- 
able founder and first president of the California Missions, Mr, 
Coronel took an active part with Father Casanova of Moneterey 
in the restoralion of the San Carlos Mission, and in the solemniza- 
tion of the centennial, in 1884, of the death of Father Junipero. 

In 1873, Mr. Coronel married Miss Mariana Williamson. In 
1887, Mr. and Mrs. Coronel visited the City of Mexico, and in '93^ 
they went to the World s Fair at Qiicago, where their stay was 
cut short by his illness; and his health continued in a precarious 
state from that time until his death, though he was not confined to 
his house until within a few days prior thereto. Toward the end 
he was fully aware that his hour was near, which he welcomed, only 
regretting the parting with his beloved wife. Twice he fervently 
embraced her, his last words being: "Querida! Ya me voy!" 
(Dearest, I am go\7 gl) As she gently laid him on the pillow, he 
peacefully closed his eyes and one of his attending physicians, who 
held his wrist, said, **His pulse has ceased;" and thus he died with- 
out a struggle. His good friend. Rev* Father Adam, vicar general 
of the diocese, attended him daily and administered to him the con- 
solations of the religion in whose communion he had been born, 
and in which at last he died. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Coronel were active members of this Histori- 
cal Society of Southern California from the time of its founding. 


They had ^fathered, during the course of many years, the largest and 
most valuable coUection of historical materials relating to this sec- 
tion and to this coast, in the country. Mr, Coronel ardently de- 
sired to co-operate with other citizens of wealth and enlightened 
public spirit in the estabhshment in this city of a museum, in con- 
nection with the Historical Society and the Public Library, to which 
he ctmld donate his very valuable collection; and he made a liberal 
offer of either money or land to assist in endowing such an institu- 
Hatk It is to be hoped that other public-spirited citizens of means 
will be seized by the same desire, and thus show in a substantial 
manner Iheir willingness to aid tn preserving and safely guarding 
the materials of local history which they and their fathers and 
nKJthers have helped to make, and at the same time manifest to the 
world by their acts the fact that they recognize the obligations 
they owe tt> the community in which and off of which they have 
made their weatlh. In the many conversations which the writer of 
this brief memeroial tribute to our departed friend has had with 
him concerning the past history of California, and especially of the 
part he took in it, I have been impressed with the vividness of 
his recollections; and I have felt that a record merely of those per- 
sonal recollections would, to a certain extent, constitute a history 
of California. 

Onr kind-hearted friend is gone, but his memory will remain. 



3b th^ Officers and Members of the Hixtftrical Sooieiy ofS(mthem Oal^orrUa.* 
I beg leave to submit the fQliowing report : 

Number of Meetlngfs held ...., ..^„ 

Number of Papers read... *..... , 16 

Number of New Membefselected.....,..,^.^.^ .'.. .,,*<.»« ft 



Inatigaral AddrcsBof the Preindeat... Walter R. Bacon 

Visit to the Grand Canyon ,,,» Mrs. M, Burton WUUamson 

indi&na of the Lob An gelea Valley , ...,..,.. , .....J. M, Gmnn 


The Palomeres Family... H. D. Barrows 

The StorBB of Los Angeles in IfiSO ,.„,....,..., , Laura Evertsen King 

California's Traneition from lionarchy to Hepublicanina...... J. M. Quinu 


An Episode in the Life of a Pioneer,.......,. ..„.,„„ „, „.„H. B. Barrows 

Abori^nal Alphabets (Firat Paper) , « J, D. Mood 



Log Ang'eles Postma^tere .., *.*..• .*>».<*»*.**>•«. ««*,.,.H* D< Barrowa 

The PasiiiDg of the Neophyte... ......,., ♦„,„ ....*-. ..*,.J. M. Umnn 

Some Current Events .......«.........»..*,**,.. * Walter R. Bacon 


The Mexican Governors. *..... ».,.», »<,H. D. Barrows 

Historical Seaports of Los Angeles..,......,...-*,....... .,,*.J. M. Qulsu 


Fifty Years of California Politics „*.*,, ........Walter R. Bacon 

Side Lights on Old Los Angeles >..,. ................Mary E. Mooney 

Aboriginal Alphabets (Second Paper) ...............*,. „.,J, D, Moody 

The meetings of the Society have been held at the roaideace&of Members 
and hare been well attended. 

Reapecifolly Bnbmitted, 

J. M. GUINN, Secretary. 



7b the Officers and Members of the HUtoriGal &>metff of Southern Valtfomia: 

We, tbe undersipnedf merabera of the Society's Committee on PiibUcatioti, 
do respectfully report that iti accord&ace with the order of the Board of 
Directors we have bad printed aix hundred copies of the Society's Annual for 
lOtW. With thia i&sue we begin Volume V. The Annual cantinuea to bear the 
double l.itle adopted at the bieginnjag of Volume IV, ^^Aonual Publication of 
the Historical Society of Southern California and Pioneer Register,'* 

Papers for publication have been aelected frc^m the collectlona of both the 
Historical and Pioneer Societies. These papers embrace a wide rang'e of sub- 
jects, but all pertam to &ome phase of history. 

In this, as In all previous publications of the Society^ it is understood that 
the authors, and not the Society or the Committee^ are respODsible for the 
alatemenlB made in their papers, and for the viewa and opiniona expresaed. 
Respectfully aubmilted, 




VEAR 1900. 


Jany. l^Balance on baud as per last report..... ,*....,.. t 00 45 

Feby. 2— Received from Pioneei Society....,.,,,.,*,,-. ..,..,.... 50 00 

Jan, I to } Received dues of Members *..... 57 85 

t>e& H t Beceived membership fees , , 8 00 

Total Receipta , .,t*,*.. ,$ 176 SO 


Jaay. 39 — Paid Secretary's bill — postag'e and sundries...... „.S 1 90 

F«by, Sfl — PaidOeo. Rice & Sons, printtug Annual..... *...^.«. 125 00 

Dec, 31 — Paid Secretary's Uin^postage, express and sundries It 75 

Total DiBbursmentB... *,.,,.,. f J38 OS 

Balance in Treasury January 1, 1001 f 37 85 

Respectfully submitted, 
January 1, I90t E. BAXTER* 



lb the Oncers and Members of the Historifial Society of Southern Cat^omia,* 

Id the limited sp&ce Altow«d In oar Aonual it U lmpo»sib1e for me to make 
& full report upon the condition of our library and coUectioDs. Theae, con* 
aiBtmg' of books, pamphl^ls, mag'&ziDes, newspaper fllea, curios, relics, pic 
tures, English and Spanish^ manoscripU, mapfl, etc., are still stored in a room. 
In the Court House. On account of want of spEice much of our collection has 
beeo boxad up and is therefore inaccessible for readj reference. We continue 
adding to onr collection hoping that pc^ibly some wealthy donor may be 
tnoved to ^ve ua ereti the limited amount Deoea&ary to procure better quarters 
and to catalogue and classify our collections. 

For nearly eighteen years a fen p^ibtic spirited men and women of Limited 
financial means Kare labored and spent their money to build up iu Soutbera 
California a Historical Society, In that time we have published four com' 
plete volumes of history. These volumes are eagerly sought for by leadinx^ 
Bistorical and Public Libraries of the United States, but such eseemB to be the 
contempt of Califoruiaus for their local history that these books are almost 
unknown in ihe locality where they are published. 

Nearly all of the larger States of the Union and many of the Bmallcr ones 
ha^re State Historical Societies supported by appropriations from the public 
funda. California has none. There is not to my knowledge any Historical 
Society now existing within her borders, except ours, which has made any col~ 
lection or published any historical papers. 

Sa4xesaiTe legislatures have gone on multiplying State schools and piling 
up appropriations for our State University, but have ignored the necessity of 
opllecting and preserWug our historical material. As a consequence of this 
neglect a large amount of California's wealth of historical material has been 
allowed to fall into the handa of relic collectors and literary pot huntera, who 
WU it to eastern museums and libraries^ 

With leas wealth and half a century less history than our State, the State 
of WiBconain has spent more than a million dollars on her Historical Library 
and Museum and in erecting her magnificent^ Historical Society Building. 
The recent legislature of Oregon appropriated S5,O00 to aid her State Histori- 
cal Society, and Montana* with a population about omj-eighth the size of oura 
and less than fifty years of history, spends S3.S(K) on hers. Recent California 
legialatures have been more liberal in allowaoccB for historical purposes than 
past ones. Successive legislatures, iu the past decade, have appropriated $000 
a year to pay the salary of the guardian of Sutter's New Fort, built of adobes 
of the brand of ISQO, and a similar yearly amount to the keeper of the bronze 
monument of Marshall, who was not the first discoverer of gold in California. 

It is to be regretted that none of our many rich men, who have made their 
fortunes in California, have been moved to expend a portion of their wealth in 
preserving the history of the State that has been so kind tothem. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. M. OUINN, Curator. 


Pioneers of Los Angeles County 




Bsn. S. Eatoh, J. M. Gunnr, 

Mathbw Teed, 


Wk. H, Wouhmaw ,.....,, ..Preaidcnt 

B. R* HAures.. » First Vice-President 

S. A, REMIIA1.L ...*.,..»,,..,, , .....,,. Second Vice-President 

LouiB R<]Ei>EB. ...,,., . , , , ► Treasurer 

J. M. Qud™ * . . . ^ , - , Secretary 

H. Teed, Lome Roxdes, U. F. Qxmnr 

H. D. Barbows, C. N. WiLsojT, Joel B, Pabkkb 

Wm. H. Woesnan, B. &. Eatoh, H. D. Babrows, J. M. Guxfm 



Louie RoEDEB, Wu. GBoesEBv B. S. Eaton^ R> R* HAiKsft 

Ub, K, D. Wise, M, Kiiem^b, Mbs. S, C. YAicreia.. 


Mrb. Mary FRAifKi^iTf. Mr«. Eixek G, Teks, Mrh, Dora Bil.derbecs 

Mrs. J. G. Newell, Mrs, Abbie Hillbr, Mita. E^uly W. Davis, 
Mb8. Cecelia Ar Rbwdai*i*» fJKOROE W, Qazard, 3, W* Gillette 

JOHI9 Ij. Slauohteb. 

James J. Ajers, . ^ . . Died noTcmbcr 10, 

Stephen C. Foawr, _ - - Wcd January 27, 

Horace fllllcr, - _ - - - Di^d Maj 23, 

Jonn strotlicr GiUnn, - - - - mcd August 23, 

Henry Clay WUcy, - - * - Died OctoMr 25, 

WUUam Blackstone Abemctliy, - Died {foTcmbcr 1, 

StcphcD W. La Dow, - - - Bled January 6^ 

Herman Raphael, - - . . Died AprlU*, 

Francis Baker, * , • - - Died May tr, 

Leonard John Rose, - - - - Died Way IT, 

E, n, ncDonald, - » - ^ - i>ied June 10, 

James Cralp, _ _ - - j^i^^ December 30, 

Palmer Hilton Scott, - - - Died January 3, 

Francisco Sabkbl, ... - Died April 13, 

Roteri Miller Towat, - - - Died April 24, 

Fred w. Wood, Bled Way t9, 

josepb Bayetr * - - - - ^icd July 27, 

An^n^stus Ulyard - - - - pted Ang^ust 5, 

A. M. Hou^h, , - - - D[cd August 28, 

Henry F. Fleishman . - _ Died octotcr 20, 

Frank Lecouvrcur, - - - Died January i7, 

Daniel Schelck, . - - - Died January 20, 

Andrew GlasseU, * * - - Died January la. 



[Adopted September 4, 1897.] 


This society shall be known as The Honeers of Los Angeles 
County. Its objects are to cultivate social intercourse and friend- 
ship among its members and to collect and preserve tlie early history 
of Los Angeles county, and perpetuate the memory of those who, 
by their honorable labors and heroism, helped to make that history. 

All persons of good moral character, thirty-five years of age 
or over, who, at the date of their application, shall have resided at 
least twenty-five years in Los Angeles county, shall be eligible to 
membership; and also all persons of good moral character fifty 
years of age or over, who have resided in the State forty years and 
in the county ten years previous to their application, shall be eligible 
to become members. Persons born in this State are not eligible 
to membership, but those admitted before the adoption of this 
amendment shall retain their membership, (Adopted September 4, 


The officers of this society shall consist of a board of seven di- 
rectors, to be elected annually at the annual meeting, by the mem- 
bers of the society. Said directors when elected shall choose a 
president » a first vice-president, a second vice-president, a secretary 
and a treasurer. The secretary and treasurer may be elected from 
the members outside the Board of Directors, 


The annual meeting of this society shall be held on the fourth 
day of September, that being the anniversary of the first civic set- 
tlement in the southern portion of Alta California, to wit, the foun- 
ingof the Pueblo of Los Angeles, September 4, 1781. 



Members guilty of misconduct may, upon conviction, after 
proper investi^tion has been held, be expelled, suspended, fined or 
reprimanded by a vote of two-thirds of the members present at any 
stated meeting; provided, notice shall have been given to tlie society 
at least one month prior to such intended action, Any officer of this 
society may be removed by the Board of Directors for cause; pro- 
vided, that such removal shall not become permanent or final until 
approved by a majority of members of the society present at a stated 
meeting and voting* 


Amendments to this constitution may be made by submitting 
the same in writing to the scxiety at least one month prior to the 
annual meeting. At said annual meeting said proposed amendments 
shall be suhmitted to a vote of the society. And if two-thirds of all 
the members present and voting shall vote in favor of adopting said 
amendments then they shall be declared adopted. (Amended Sep- 
tember 4, 1900. 


[Adopted September 4, 1897.] 

Section i. All members of this society who shall have signed 
the constitution and by-laws, or who shall have been duly elected 
to membership after the adoption of tile constitution and bydaws 
shall be entitled to vote at all mieetings of the society. 

Section 2. The annual dues of each member shall be one dollar, 
payable in advance. 

Section 3. Each person on admission to membership shall sign 
the constitution and by-laws with his or her name in full, together 
with his or her place of birth, age, residence, occupation and the 
day, month and year of his or her arrival within the limits of Los 
Angeles county. 

Section 4. At the annual meeting, the president shall appoint 
a committee of three on membership. He shall also at the same time 
appoint a committee of three on finance. All applications for mem- 
hership shall be referred to the Committee on Membership for exam- 

Section 5. Every applicant for membership shall be recom- 
mended by two members of the society in good standing. The appli- 
cation shall state the applicant's full name, age, birthplace, place of 



residence, ocapation and date of his or her arrival in the county of 
Los Angeles, 

Section 6. Each application must be accompanied by the annual 
fee (one dollar) » and shall lie over for one month, when a vote shall 
be taken by ballot. Three negative votes shall cause the rejection ^M 
of the applicant. ^1 

Section 7. Any person eligible to membership may be elected 
a life member of this society on the payment to the treasurer of $25. 
Life members shall enjoy all the privileges of active members, but 
shall not be required to pay annual dues. ^M 

Section 8, The Finance Committee shall examine all accounts ^B 
against the society, and no bil! shall be paid by the treasurer unless 
approved by a majority of the Finance Committee, ^ 

Section 9. Whenever a vacancy in any office of this society oc- H 
curs, the Board of Directors shall call a. meeting of the society within 
thirty days thereafter, when said vacancy shall be filled by election ^ 
for the remainder of the unexpired term. f 

Section 10. Whenever the Board of Directors shall be satisfied 
that any worthy member of the society is unable for the time being 
to pay the annual dues, as hereinbefore prescribed, it shall have the 
power to remit the same. 

Section 11. The stated meetings of this society shall be held 
on the first Tuesday of each month, except the month of Sei>teml>er» 
when the annual meeting shall take the place of the monthly meet- 
ings Special meetings may be called by the president, or by a ma- 
jority of the Board of Directors, but no business sail be transacted at ^d 
such special meeting except that specified in the call. H 

Section 12, Changes and amendments of these by-laws may be 
made by submitting the same in writing to the Board of Directors ^^ 
at least one month prior to any stated meeting. Said proposed ^| 
amendments shall be submitted to a vote of the soceity. If said " 
amendments shall receive a two-thirds vote of all members present 
and voting, the same shall be declared adopted. 



Ex-Mayor Stephen C. Foster, whose portrait appears in this 
issue of the Annual, died in this city, January 28, 1898; and a sketch 
of his life appears in Volume IV. pp. 179-183, of the Historical So- 
ciety's publications, from which a brief summary of the primary 
facts of his life is condensed here. 

Mr. Ft^ter was bom in Maine, December 17, 1820. He grad- 
uated from Yale College in the class of 1840; later attending lectures 
at the Louisiana Medical College, and afterwards practicing medi- 
cine in Jackson county, Missouri. In 1845 he started for Califor- 
nia via Santa Fe, Chihuahua and Sonora. At Oposura he l^imed of 
the breaking out of the Mexican war; and not being able to find 
any party going to California^ he returned in June, 1846^ to Santa 
Fe; and in October he was employed as interpreter of the '*Mormon 
Battalion," which, under the command of Col. Philip St. George 
Cooke, set out for California, by way of Tucson, and the Pima Vil- 
lages, arriving at San Diego January 20, 1847, and at Los Angeles, 
March 16, 1847, 

For more than fifty years, Mr. Foster was a prominent citizen 
of Los Angeles. His familiarity with the Spanish language^ in the 
early days, enabled him to serve the community in many capacities. 
Col. Mason, the then military Governor of the Territory, appointed 
Mr, Foster as Alcalde of this city^ January i, 184S. Mr Foster 
was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1849; ^^ served 
as State Senator during 1851-53, and he was twice elected Mayor 
of Los Angeles, In 1848 he was married to Dona Maria Merced, 
daughter of Don Antonio Maria Lugo and widow of Jose Perez. 
She and their two sons still survive him. 


Francisco Sabichi, a member of the Society of Los Angeles Pion- 
eers, who died suddenly of heart disease on the 12th of April, 1900, 
in the 59th year of his age, was a native of this city. He was born 
October 4, 1842. His father, Matias Sabichi, was a native of Aus- 
tria, or Austrain Italy, who came to Los Angeles at a very early 



day; and his mother was Josef a, daughter of Don Ygnacio Coronet 
and sister of Antronio F, CoroneL Matias Sabichi in 1852, after the 
death of his wife, took his two boys, Francisco and Matias, and set 
out on his return to his native land, but he died on the way. His two 
sons were taken in charge on their arrival in England by the Ameri- 
can consul, Mr. Joseph Rodney Croskey, who became a true foster- 
father to them, taking them into his own family and carefully 
educating them, Frank was in the British navy three years. Matias 
was a portion of the time at school in France. Both learned to 
speak French, and of course English and Spanish, the latter being 
their mother tongue. They returned to Los Angeles in i860, hav- 
ing been away about eight years. Matias Sabichi was accidentally 
shot while on a hunting^ trip, from the effects of which he died not 
long afterwards. Frank studied law and was admitted to the bar. 
He was several times elected a member of the City Council in the 
early 70's and also once in the 8o's. In 1865, he was married to 
Magdalena, daughter of Wm. Wolfskill, the pioneer. She, with 
their eight children survive him. 

Mr. Sabichi was prominently identified with the **Sons of the 
Golden West/' being at the time of his death, a grand trustee of the 
#rder for the State of California, 

H, D, Barrows, 
Louis Roeder, 
K. D, Wise, 



Robert Miller Towne, a charter member of this societv. who died 
in this city April 21, 1900, was bom in Batavia, Illinois, November 
12, 1844, He came to Los Angeles in the fall of 1869. For some 
years he engaged in sheep-raising. Afterwards he went to New 
Mexico, where he did a freighting business between Las Vegas and 
the mines. 

In 18S1 he married Miss Lillie M. Fisher, daughter of Judge 
Fisher of this city, whom most of the members of this piopeer So- 
ciety knew well. Two daughters were horn to this union. Th^ 
with their mother survive Mr. Towne. After his marriage he and 
kts family resided for a time in Kansas. During the latter por- 
tion of his life, and while suffering from tuberculosis, he lived on 


the desert. Mr. Towne was a man of much decision of character; 
he was ever a good citizen, and was highly respected by all who 
knew him. H. D Barrows^ 

^ Louis Roeder, 

^^ K. D, Wise, 

^^f Committee. 

Fred W, Wood was born at Praire du Chien, Wisconsin, April 
28, 1853. At the breakii^ out of the Civil war, his father enlisted 
in the Union Army, and became colonel of the 17th llHnots Volun- 
tter Infantry. He had two brothers in the service, and only his 
youth prevented him from enlisting. 

In 1868 the family removed to Kansas City, Mo,, where Fred W. 
attended the High School. He left school at the age of sixteen, and 
for a year or more afterwards he was employed in the office of the 
Kansas City Engineer. From Kansas City he went to Northern 
' Wisconsin, where he was engaged for three years in the construc- 
tion of some of the lines of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad 
system. In 1873 he came to California and in March of the follow- 
ing year he arrived in Los Angeles. After spending a few months 
in varioys engineering, surveying and mining enterprises, he became 
interested with Prudent Beaudry in the construction of the Los An- 
geles city water works. For several years he was in the abstract 
business as a member of the firm of Gillette, Gibson & Wood. His 
next employment was the laying out and superintending the planting 
of J. De Barth Shorb's extensive vineyards at Alhambra and estab- 
lishing the winery there. In 1889 he became identified with the 
Temple Street Cable Railway line. He managed the business of 
the Beaudry Brothers, Victor and Prudent, who were largly in- 
terested in the Temple street road After the death of the brothers 
he was executor of their estates. In 1895 Mr. Wood became super- 
intendent and general manager of the Los Angeles Street Railway 
Company, the most extensive street railway system in the cit>*. In 
this service he continued until his death. In politics he was a Re- 
publican and served as chairman of the County Republican Central 
Committee from 1894 to 1896. He stood high in the Masonic and 
Odd Fellows orders. 

Seventeen year ago Mr. Wood married Miss Leona Pigne-Du- 
puj^ren, who was born in California, and is grand niece of the re- 
DOwed Parisian physician Dr. Dupuytren, One son, Warren Du- 
puytren, was horn of this union. 

Mr. Wood died in Los Angeles, May 19. 1900, 




Joseph Bayer was bom in Germany, November i» 1846. He 
emigrated to the United States during his early boyhood. During 
the Civil war he entered thte Union Army, enlisting in the Second 
United States Infantry. He served three years. After the war he 
went to St. Louis, where he engaged in business until 1868, when 
he came to California. He arrived in Los Angeles July 4, 1S70. He 
engaged in business on the comer of Requena and Main street. In 
1872 he went to Tucson, Arizona, where he remained two years 
Returning to Los Angeies, he opened a wholesale liquor house on 
North Main street. He built up an extensive business, dealing in im- 
ported and domestic wines and brandies. He was one of the pioneer 
oil producers of Southern California. 

In 1875 Mr. Bayer married Miss K. B. Happ, a native of Buffalo, 
N. Y. He died in this city July 27, 1900, 

(Los Angeles Daily Times.) 

Augustus Ulyard, whose funeral was held yesterday afternoon 
at his late residence, No. 809 South Flower street, died in his eighty- 
fifth yean He has been a modest and model citizen during the half 
century he lived in Los Angeles, and political honors were thrust 
upon him but once in all that time, he having been a member of the 
City Council in 1856. 

Ulyard was born in Philadelphia on February 22» 18 e6, where 
in his young manhood he learned the trade of a baker, and must 
very soon after its completion have started west, for he enlisted and 
served as a Texas Volunteer in the war with Mexico in 1837. In 
184 1 he went to St. Louis, opened a bakery, remained there until 
1846, whai he married Miss Mary Field, a native of England, who 
survives him. With his new wife and worldJy l>elongings he again 
started west and next appears as a citizen of Council Bluffs. Iowa. 
In 1852, in company with a large party of immigrants, Mr. and 
Mrs. Ulyard set out from Council Bluffs for the Pacific golden 
shores, traveling by wagon train. Their passage across the plains 
would seem to have been uneventful. They profited by the horrible 
catastrophe that befell the Donner party in 1846, and in order to 
avoid spending the winter at Salt Lake, or taking the risk of the 
cold passage over the Sierra Nevadas, they chose the southern route, 
by way of the Cajon Pass and San Bernardino, and arrival at Los 
Angeles on the last day of the year 1852. 

At that time there were but fiv^ American women 



geles aside from Mrs. Ulyard. The town consisted of a small g^roup 
of adobe buildings in the neighborhood of the plaza, one of which 
Mr. Ulyard succeeded in renting, and as behooves the thrifty citizen 
at once set himself up in business as a baker. He baked the first 
loaf of American bread ever cooked in Los Angeles, using yeast 
brought across the plains by his wife. He soon sought a new loca- 
tion on the outskirts of the pueblo, which is the site now occupied 
by the Natick House, at First and Main streets. For twenty years 
he continued to follow his vocation as a baker, but having ac- 
cumulated a competency, he then retired. He owned the property on 
the southwest corner of Fifth and Spring streets. 

In 1856 he was quite active in politics and helped to organize 
the first Republican League in California, in an old frame building 
on Main street belonging to Capt. Alexander Bell. It was in the 
Fremont campaign, and Ulyard was a member of the City Council, 
which seems to have been the only office he ever held. 

From the time of his arrival to the time of his deaths on Sunday 
last, Mr. Ulyard was a permanent resident of Los Angeles. No 
children were born to him, but at different periods he adopted home- 
less children until there were seven in all 

He died August 5, 1900. 


Rev. A. M. Hough, a member of the L:>s Angeles Society of 
Pioneers, who died Aug., 27, 1900, was a native of Greene county, 
New York; born June 4. 1830. He received his education at the 
New York Conference Seminary in Schohaire county. In 1S64 Mr. 
Hough went to Montana, then a territory, as Superintendent of Mis- 
sions, and established the Methodist Episcopal Churcli there. In 
i868» on acct.ant of his wife's failing health, he came with her to 
California, driving his own team from Montana to Los Angeles, 
where he arrived November 22. He served as pastor of various 
churches, here, in San Franisco and in Sacramemo, till 1875, when 
the conference was divided and he became presiding elder of the 
southern body, in which capacity he served four years. He retired 
from active service as a pastor about 1885, 

In 1854 Mr. Hough was marrie<l to Miss Anna Gould, a native 
of New York, who survives him. Mr, Hough was a man of great 
intellectual force, and yet of kindly, gentle manners, broad charity 
and pure life: and as a sequence of these cardinal qualities he 
exerted a wi<le influence for good in the community in which he 
lived so many years. 


Henry F. Fleishman wa& bom at Charleston. S. C, in 1845; he 
died in this city, where he had resided a number of years, on the 
13th of October^ 1900, He served in the Confederate army during" 
the Civil war, from be^nning to end^ participating in many of the 
great battles, and surrendering with General Lee's command al Ap- 
portiatox. Mr Fleishman, at the time of his death, was a member 
of several beneficent orders, in which, and in the community gen- 
erally, he was universally respected, 


Oitr society is called upon to mourn the death, which occurred 
January 17, 1901, of our associate, Mr. Frank Leoouvreur. Mr. 
Lecouvreur, who was a native of Ortelsburg, Prussia, born June 7^ 
1830, came via Cape Horn to California in 1851, and to Los An- 
geles in 1855. He was by profession a civil engineer, and he served 
as County Surveyor of Los Angeles for four years; he also, first 
and last, surveyed many ranchos for private parties. He at one time, 
during- the *6o's served as deputy county clerk, and later was cashier 
and a director of the Fanners* and Merchants' bank. In June, 1877, 
he was married to Miss Josephine R. Smith, who survives him. 

The members of this society, and of this community, in which 
he lived so many years, universally concede the sterling worth of our 
brother, and sincerely mourn his death. 


(Los Angeles Daily Times,) 

Daniel Schieck, a quaint old memento of the days when Los 
Angeles was a half way Mexican town, has gone from the streets 
forever He lies dead in the home that he built half a cenury ago, 
on the lonely outskirts of the hamJet and lived to see sucked into 
llii- licart of a city. It is on Franklin street at the head of New 

It was one of the first plastered houses in the pueblo. Additions 
and ivew fronts and changes have been made, but Schieck never 
moved from the place all through the years. When he first moved 
in, Mrs. Schieck was very lonely, becaui^e there would be days wlien 
noi a juml passed the house. For many years the httle German and 
Jiis wife have been familiar figures driving about the city in their 
phaciiMi, Fur twenty-five years since the city reached out and ab- 



aorbed his suhurban place, Schieck has been living on his money in 
placid ease. 

He was tlie pioneer drayman of the city, an^ for a time was its 
Gunga Din, with a water-cart, peddling Adam*s ale from house to 

He came here in 1852. He had come over from Baden in 1845 
and made the trip across the plains in 1852. The journey was made 
on horseback, and Schieck was once abandoned by his party to die. 
About half way across the plains he was suddenly taken very ill, 
and the party would not take him on. He was too far gone to travel 
anyhow. They would have deserted him like a sick wolf, but he 
made a bargain with one of the men, who, having^ no horse, was 
walking. Schieck told him that he would buy him a good horse 
and saddle and bridle if he wou!d stay and nurse him through the 

They put Schieck out under a tree by the side of the road and 
the man fell out of the party to stay with him. He was a reasonably 
faithful nurse for two days. Then one morning Schieck woke up to 
find that the man had run away in the night with his saddle, horse 
and outfit. He would probably have died from hunger and neglect 
but that he was on the road to one of the Mormon trading posts. 
The Mormon traders found and cared for him until he got well 

Just as soon as he could possibly travel, Schieck set out with a 
new horse with a Teutonic determination to find that party that 
deserted him. He paid tlie managers to take him out to Sacramento 
and intended to get his money's worth. By hard riding he overtook 
the party as it was crossing the borders of California. 

They took him the rest of the way into Sacramento and gave 
him one of the best pair of oxen in the caravan to atone for having 
allowed him to make half the journey alone and without the accom- 
modations due him. 

He went to farming near Sacramento, but one of the oxen died 
before long, and he wandered into the gold fields. He got rheuma- 
tism, but no gold. Looking for a better climate, Schieck came 
down the State into Southern California. 

When he hit Los Angeles, the nian who peddled water was about 
to leave and Schieck took hts place. For a little while he followed 
this job* getting water every morning from the zanja and delivering 
it around to the houses. He charged $2 a month for each of his 
customers. This didn't pay and he went into the dray business. 

He drove a funny, old-fashioned, two-wheeled dray cart and 
had a mononoply. He used to meet the Banning coaches coming in 


from San Pedro, and the other stage lines. He charged about what 
he liked. 

The little place that he bought on the outskirts of the city ran 
along seventy-five feet on what is now Spring street, and the whole 
length of Franklin street. It made him rich. 

In the early days he cut quite a figure in aPfairs, and one of the 
reminiscences that he liked to tell was of serving on the first vigi- 
lance committee that introduced Judge Lynch to Los Angeles, 

When he died Sunday night. January 20, 1901* he was aged 
81 years, 3 months and 20 days. It was just old age that took him 
off. About five weeks ago he was out driving with his wife and 
became so dazed that he could scareciy drive home, narrowly es- 
caping several accidents. He went to bed when he got home and 
never was up again* 

He leaves a widow^ who was his second wife, and two children, 
Mrs. S. E. Boecher and Mrs, C. E, Jenkins, besides a daughter-in- 
law, Mrs* John Schieck. 


Andrew Glassell was bom in Virginia, September 30, 1827, 
When he was seven years old his parents moved to Alabama, where 
his father engaged in cotton planting. Andrew was educated in 
the University of Alabama, from which he graduated in 1848. Af- 
ter graduating he studied law. In 1853 he came to California, and 
the same year was admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of the 
State. A friend of his being United States Attorney at San Fran- 
cisco, Mr Glassell received the appointment of Deputy United 
States District Attorney, to assist in trv'ing a large number of 
accumulated land cases pending in the Federal District Court, and 
was thus employed about three years. Then resuming his private 
practice, he did a prosperous legal business till the Gvil war broke 
out. His sympathies were with the Confederates, but not caring to 
take part by discussion or otherwise on either side, he quit the prac- 
tice of law and engaged in the manufacture of lumber and staves 
near Santa Cruz, employing a large force of men in a steam sawmilL 
After the war he came to Los Angeles, and in partnership with 
Alfr«i B. Chapman and George H. Smith, established the law firm 
of GlasselK Chapman Si Smith. In 1883 Mr. Glassell retired from 
the practice of law^ to devote his whole time to his private business. 

Mr. Glassell was twice married. In 1855 he married a daughter 
of Dr. H. H. Toland, an eminent phyiscian of San Francisco, by 
whom he had nine children. She died in 1S79, His second wife he 
married in 18S5. She was. a daughter of Wm, C. Micou of New 
Orleans. She died about tw'o years since. Mr, Glassell died Jan- 
uary 28, 190 1. 

^^^ List of Members Admitted Since Last Report, 




January, 1900, 







RH. AS. m 


AlTftrez, Ferdln&nd 




M«rl, 1B7S 

M7 S. Siehel 



Bi-«n, Anwl U. 




Nov.. 1873 

m Hewitt 



Brif lit, Totktrs 





Sept. 1874 

218 Reqtieaa 





July 4. 1850 

M W. 12tll 


Orelli. Sebftstian 


Hal J 

R«B tauraa Leur 

Nov, % l«ri 

811 San Fernando IWJi 


Cocipton. Qpo. D. 




May, 1897 
Juuel 1S6S 

fi2» W. JefferBOti 


COWBD, O. W. C. 




824 W. Tenth 



Carter, JuUub M. 




Mar. i, 187« 



IT ^H 

Darlfl. Jobti W- 




Dec. 10. 1872 

San Pedro 


D&Tlfi. Virg-tnta W. 



House wtJe 

Sepv, im^ 

Saa Pedro 



Delftoo. Th.0%. A. 


N, H. 


April. IbSO 

New boll 



rreneh, Oms. E 


Mai re 


April. IfiTl 

UIH N. Brofld^ 



OrUnib, J»- B. 



Stock Raiser 

May. 1S«1 








Jbm, JB75 

4S8 3^, Grand 



Onea. MorHi M. 


K. Y. 


NOT,, leffi 

90(7 Klnifsley 



^^ft BwE, Wade 




Sftpt.. 1855 
April 7. 1856 




^^P Han, Sarefiu S. 


N. Y. 


1519 W. Elffbtt) 






Sept Sn, 1875 

aiO Avenue 5S 



■ Hewitt, Hrmeoe E, 




Feb. 27. 1H73 

SSi S. Gllve 



^^m Kahrts,. Susas 




May. tW& 

lOf? W. First 



^^B KUi«, lAura E. 




Not- 27, 1M9 

412 N, Breed 



^^B KlMkeiibrlDk, Win. 



Oct. tSTO 




W Liu?, Robert A. 




Sept., tST3 

1101 T>owaey ar 



ft Lookh&n, TbomaB X 



tte&l ^Htate 

May 1. im 

1020 Lovelace av 



■ LockbarC, l«eT[ J. 



Goal Merc!iant 

May 1, lerra 

1814 S. Grand av 



■ Lockirood, Jftmes W, 


N. V. 


Apr. 1. tS'TS 

Water si 



^^^L Heitsod, jyon, 




Nov. 14. 1878 

n2 E, 17th 



^H uead«,jotaii 




Sept fl. 1809 

floa w. iBth 



^^^B Morm, SuDBel 




May 15. I97S 




^^m UelTlIJ. J. H. 



Sec. Fid. Ab. Co 

Am., ms 

4^ N. BeaxJdry ftv lOTi 





Oi!t. ;;, iKifl 

]'J2 E. a^tii 






Jaa. 28. im 

13S4 W, IVcKth 



r Proflltt, GreQD 1.. 





1612 W. Twelfth 



^^ Ruisell, Wm. H. 



Fruit GFOwer 

Apr 0, !BQ« 
Sept., 1873 



^B HunoD. Albert St. Q. 




128 N, Main 



^ Smith. W J. A. 




Apr. 12, 1674 

820 Linden 



Senious. J»n 




April. IBM 
July, 1876 

545 S. Grand av 



Sbewcn MrB. TUUe 




U^ ei MOllDD 



Tluiyer, John S. 


N. Y. 


Dot, % 18T4 

1*7 W. 2filh 



VlgDOlo, Ambrofiio 




Feb. 17, 1867 

Los AiiKeiea 



Vawter, E. J. 




Apr, IS, 1875 

Gceun Park 



Vftirter, W. S. 




July !0. 1W5 

8 an la Monica 



Warteritwrg. Louis 



Com. TraT. 

Nov., 1856 

1067 S. Grand av 



Whisler, U»c 




Aug., 18B2 

535 San PedjTOSL 






'i . 

OrgtLnlxtA Noyember 1, 1883 Incorporated FebniKry 13, 1891 

PART n. VOX*. V. 



Historical Society 


Southern California 


Los Angeles 


Published by the Society. 


Geo. RIc* fle Sons 




Officers of the Historical Society, 1901-1902 104 

Pioneer Physicians of Los Angeles H, D. Barrows 105 

The Old Round Hou&e, . . , .George W, Hazard 109 

Passing cf the Old Pueblo /. M, Guinn 113 

Marine Biological Labratory at San Pedro^ 

Mrs, M. Burton IVilliatnson 121 

Early Clericals of Los Angles //./>. Barrozvs 127 

*rhe Original Father Junipero .F, J. Polley 134 

Camel Caravans of the American Deserts. . . ./. M. Guinn 146 

Dilatory^ Settlement of Califoniia IVaUer R. Bacon 152 


Officers and Committees of 'the Society of Pioneers of Los 

Angeles County, 1901-1902. 159 

Constitution and By-L,aws 160 

Order of Business 164 

Inaugural Address of President H. D, Barrows 165 

The Pony Express AM, Guinn 168 

Overland to CaHfomia in 1850 J. M. Stewart 176 

Early Days in Washoe .Alfred James 186 


Fred \\^ Wood M, F, Quinn 194 

Thomas E. Rowan Committee Report 197 

George Gephard L. A. Times 199 

Elizabeth Langley Ensign. ,...,,,., .Committee Report 199 

Willia-m F. Grosser Committee Report 200 

Samuel Calvert Foy (Portrait) Committee Report 202 

Charles Brrjde Committee Report 204 

Frank A. Gibson Committee Report 206 

In Memoriam , 207 

Membership Roll 2c* 




Walter R. Bacox President 

A. C Vroman First Vice-President 

Mrs. M. Burton Williamson Second Vice-President 

Edwin Baxter Treasurer 

J. M. GuiNN Secretary and Curator 


Walter R. Bacon, J. D. Moody, 

H. D. Barrows, Edwin Baxter, 

J. M. Guinn, a. C Vroman, 

Mrs. M. Burton Williamson. 


OFFICERS (elect). 

Walter R. Bacon President 

J. D. Moody First Vice-President 

Mrs. M. Burton Wiluamson Second Vice-President 

Edwin Baxter Treasurer 

J. M. Guinn Secretary and Curator 

board OF directors. 

Walter R- Bacon^ J. D. Moody, 

H. D. Barrows, Edwin Baxtee^ 

J. M. Guinn, George W. Hazard, 

Mas. M. BimroN Williamson. 

Historical Society 


Southern California 




[Read Oct. 7, 1901.] 

The first three educated physicians who practiced their pro- 
fession in Los Angeles for long'er or shorter periods, of whom 
we have any record, were : 

Dn John Marsh, who came here in January 1836; 

Dr. Richard S. Den, who arrived in California in 1843; 

Dr. John S. Griffin, assistant surgeon, U. S, A,, who arrived 
in 1846. 

A brief account of each of these trained physicians and sur- 
geons ought to be of interest to the present generation. 

Dr. Marsh was a native of Massachusetts, and a graduate of 
Harvard college, and also of its medical school. He came to 
Los Angeles by way of Santa Fe, In the Archives of this ctty, 
Translations, Vol, 2, p, 113, (session of the Ayuntamiento or 
Town Council, of i8th February, 1836,) the following record 
is found : 

** . . , A petition from foreigner, Don Juan Marchet, 
(John Marsh; the sound of sh at the ending of a word is un- 
known to the Spanish tongue;) a native of United States of the 
North, was read. He asks that this illustrious (honorable) 
Ayuntamiento consider him as having appeared, he declaring 
his intention of establishing (locating) in this city, and also that 
he is a physician and surgeon^ The III. Aynumiento decided, 



in conformity with the law of April 14, 1828, Art. 3, as follows: 
Record and forward the certified copy, solicited, reminding said 
Marchet (Marsh) that he cannot practice surgery until he has^ 
obtaine<J permission from this Ayuntamiei:ito.'* . . . (Min- 
utes of this meeting were signed:) "Manuel Requena, Pres.; 
Tiburcio Tapia, Rafael Guirado, Basilio Valdez^ Jose Ma, Her- 
rcra, Abel Stearns, Narcisco Botello.'* (Each with his proper 
Rubric attached.) 

At page 117 of Archives, (session of 25th February, i836t) 
this minute occurs : , . . "A petition from Mr. Juan 
Marchet (Marsh) asking- to be permitted to practice his profes- 
sion, was read. The III Bod^ decided to give him permission 
to practice medicine, as he has siibmitted for inspection his di- 
ploma, which was found to be correct, and also for the reason 
that he would be very useful to the community." 

His diploma being in Latin, it is said that, as no one could 
be found in Los Angeles who understood that language, the 
document had to be sent to San Gabriel for the Mission priest 
to translate^ and which, as noted, was found correct. Dr. 
Marsh, however, only remained in Los Angeles about a year, 
when, early in 1837^ he went north and settled finally on the 
rancho Los Medanos, or New York ranch, near Monte Diablo, 
of which he became the ow^nen Here he lived until his death in 
1856, being murdered by natives. Dr. Marsh was naturalized as 
a Mexican citizen in 1844. 

Dr, R, S, Den was born in Ireland in 1821. After receiving 
a thorough education as a physician, surgeon and obstetrician, 
he was appointed surgeon of a passenger ship bound for Austra- 
lia in 1842. From thence he came via Valparaiso to Mazatlan, 
where he received with delight news from his brother, Nicolas, 
from whom he had not heard for some years, and who was then 
living at Santa Barbara. Resigning his position as surgeon^ he 
came to California, arriving at San Pedro, August 21, and at 
Santa Barbara, September i, 1843, at the age of 22 years. 

In the winter of 1843-4, ^^- ^^^ was called to Los Angeles 
to perform some difficult surgical operations, when he received 
a petition, signed by leading citizens, both native and foreign, 
asking him to remain and practice his profession. And so, in 
July, 1844, he returned to Los Angeles. From that time on, till 
his death in 1895, he made hi? home here, with the exception of 
a brief period in the mines, and about twelve years, from 1854 
to 1866, in which he had to look after the interests of his stock 
lancho of San Marcos, in Santa Barbara county. 



A mtich fuller account of Dr, Den and his long and honora- 
ble career in Southern California during the pioneer times, may 
be found in the ^'Illustrated History of Los Angeles County," 
published in 18S9, pp. 197-200, which also contains a steel en- 
graving- and good likeness of Dr. Den, 

In the Medical Directory of 1878 the following paragraph 
appears: *'It is of record that Dr. R. S. Den, in obedience to 
the laws of Mexico relating to foreigners, did present his di- 
plomas as physician and surgeon to the government of the coun- 
try, March 14, 1844, and that he received special license to 
practice from said government/' The document here referred 
to, Dr, Den, in the latter years of his life, showed to me. It was 
signed by Gov. Micheltorena; and, as it was an interesting his- 
torical document, I asked that he present it to the Historical 
Society, which he promised to do. At hig death, I took consid- 
erable pains to have the paper hunted up, but without success. 
His heirs, (the children of his brother Nicolas,) apparently had 
but little idea of the historical value of such a document, and 
therefore it probably has been lost. 

Dr- John S. Griflin, who for nearly half a century was an 
eminent citizen, and an eminent physician and surgeon of Los 
Angeles, was a native of Virginia, bom in 1816, and a graduate 
of the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. 
After practicing his profession some three years in Louisville, 
he entered the United States army as assistant surgeon, serving 
under Gen. Worth in Florida and on the southwest frontier. 
As I presented the Historical Society a condensed sketch of Dr. 
Griffin's life on the occasion of his death, three years ago, (pub- 
lished in the society*s Annual of 1898, pp. I83-5.) I would here 
refer members to that sketch; and for further details, to the ac- 
count that I WTote, taken down mainly from his own lips* for th-o 
Illustrated History of this county of 1889, pp. 206-7, which lat- 
ter is accompanied by an excellent stipple steel portrait of Dr. 
Griflfiin. There are many citizens of Los Angeles and, in fact, 
of California, still living w^ho knew Dr. Griffiin well and esteemed 
him highly. His death occurred in this city, August 23, 1S98. 

Of other physicians and surgeons who practice*! their pro- 
fession in Los Angeles in early times, there were Doctors A. P. 
Hodges, the first mayor of the city, (July 3, 1850. to May 15, 
1851 ;) and A. W. Hope, who was the first State Senator, (1850- 
51,) of the First Senatorial District, (San Diego and Los An» 
geles;) and Doctors McFarlane, Downey, fafterwards Governor 
of the State:) Thos. Foster, T. J. White. R. T, Hayes, Winston, 



*'In the years from 1854 to 1886, an odd-shaped building 
stood on lots fronting 120 feet on Main street, Los Angeles, 
and running- through to Spring. The latter street was in the 
earlier part of this time httle more than a country road The 
building was a conspicuous landmark of the town, and was 
universally known as the Round House, though within the mem- 
ory of most American residents who were here then it was, 
strictly speaking, an octagon in shape. Its exact location was 
ninety-one and a half feet south of Third street, on the site of 
the present Pridham and Pinney blocks. The old well, from 
which water was drawn by a private arrangementf called a well 
sweep, consisting of a long pole, resting in the middle on an up- 
right forked timber, and a rope at one end. to which the bucket 
was attached^ and the other end weighted with rocks. 

This land was granted by the Ayuntamiento of the pueblo of 
Los Angeles to Juan Bouvette and Loreta Cota, his wife, Au- 
gust 31st. 1847. On March 3rd, 1854, it was purchased by Re- 
raundo Alexander and Maria Valdez, his wife. Mr. Alexander 
was a native of France, and came to California as a sailor In 
Africa he had seen houses of stone built cylindrical in form. So 
when he married Dona Maria, daughter of Sefior Valdez, a 
prominent citizen and native of California, though a grandson 
of Spain, he varied the uniform style of building in Spanish- 
American countries and fashioned the new adobe dwelling for 
his bride after the architecture of Africa. The building was 
two stories high, with an umbrella -shaped shingle roof, and cost 
(Mrs, Alexander thinks), with the lawn, from fifteen to twenty 
thousand dollars. On July 28th, 1856, it was sold to George 
Lehman and his wife, Clara Snyder. In transferring the prop- 
erty, the wording of the deed follows established custom, for in 
Spanish countries a woman does not lose her maiden name. 
After marriage that of her husband is aflfixed to her own with 
the preposition de (of) between. Mr. L-ehman was a native of 
Germany, familiarly known to his fellow-citizens as "Dutch 
George." He is described by those who knew him welL as a 



good-natured, knid-heartedp well-nijeaniig; man, full of vagaries 
and fantastic notions. 

After Lehman came into possession of th^ Round House he 
enlarged it by enclosing it in a frame extension about ten feet 
deep, which on the exterior was an octagon, and in the interior 
divided into additional rooms. Over the windows he painted 
the names o fthe thirteen original States, with that of Cali- 
fornia added. Mr. Lehman had a strange hallucination (excep- 
tional in Californians) that he had found the garden of Eden, 
and lie set to work to make his grounds as nearly as possible 
his conception of the dwelling place of our first parents. He 
built a labyrinth of arbors, which in time were hidden under a 
profusion of vines and roses. He planted fruit and ornamental 
trees, shnd^ben*- and plants, in quantity and variety, supposed 
to have delighted the senses and sheltered the bodies of tho pro- 
genitors of the race. 

The entrance to this modem Eden was not guarded by cher- 
ubim and flaming sward, but by something probably more ef- 
fective in excluding intruders; a row of "tunas'" (cactus) ex- 
tended across the Main and Spring streets sides that grew from 
ten to fifteen feet high, with branches so closely interlaced that 
they formed an impenetrable hedge. This garden became a 
thicket of foliage and bloom, to w^hich the owner charged a 
small admission fee: and he sold beer and pretzels within its 
shady recesses. It was embellished with cement statties repre- 
seniing Adam and Eve reclining under a tree, with the wily ser- 
pent presumably alluring Mother Eve to take the initial step in 
himian progress that bequeathed her name to posterity as the 
first woman who aspired to a higher education. Scattered about 
under the trees were effigies in cement of the animals which 
passed in review before Adam to receive their names. 

For more than twenty years this garden was one of the re- 
sorts of the town, and was used on public occasions, notably the 
centennial celebration of July 4th^ 1876. On March 6th, 1879, 
il passed out of possession of Lehman, sold under foreclosure 
of mortgage. The cactus hedge was cut down in July, 1886, 
when the city ordered the laying of cement sidewalks. 

The building was used as a school house after Lehman left 
it : then n?? a lodging house, antl in its last estate became a resort 
for tramps. It disappeared before the march of progress in 18S7. 
An air of myster\- in later years surrounded the unique structure 
and strange stories were told of the eccentric owner, not sub- 
stantiated by thc^e who knew him best." 


The foregoing is from the "Land of Sunshine" for August, 
£897, written by Mary M. Bowman, 

It was my pleasure to see the Round House built. It was 
the wonder of the town; and when I first saw it, the fountktion 
was up about 18 inches. It was buih of adobe. The exact num- 
bers of the land it occupied are 31 1-3 13-3 15 and 317 South 
Main street. The old cactus hedge was an Spring^ street, where 
the Breed block now stands; and, to be exact, covered the space 
now included in Nos, 308-310-312 and 314 South Spring street. 
Mrs. Bowman says that Georgetown *(called after George Leh- 
man) was at the comer of Broadw^iy and Fifth streets; it should 
read Sixth and Spring. Tliere he built an addition of two 
stories of brick to the old house of Jose Rais, which is still standi 
ing — No. 605 (now the Owl Bakery); also No. 607 South Spring 
street, now known as "Bob's Place" lunch counter. Tliat takes 
you to the alley. He cut the corner and made it octagon; and 
there today you can read "'Georgetown Bakery." The Ralphs 
painted over it in black, but it has peeled oflf* so you can see 
the gold letters. Across the alley is the old house of Jose Lopex, 
now the Le Long building. The Ralphs brothers bought it in 
1870* tore doAvn the adobe and built the present block on the 
comer. Lehman, later, had a wine cellar on Sixth street, where 
the Lindley Sanitarium now stands, between the Widney block 
and the First Methoilist church. 

It IS not true that Lehman gave the Sixth Street, or Central 
Park to the city. Donations were asked for, trees and shrub- 
bery, etc; and he was the first to donate. And he did with his 
own hands plant the first trees there: and he kept them watered 
with his five-gallon cans from his Sixth Street house. 

The following extract from the Los Angeles Star of October 
■"sd, 1858. gives an account of the opening of the resort, v^rhich 
was then well out in the country': 


"The handsome grounds of the Round House in the South 
part of Main street have lately been fitted up as a public garden. 

*My wife and I were at the christening of Georgetown^ which took place 
at an adobe house on tlie Ea^t side oi Spting street, south of Sixth street, 
one afternoon when George Lehman brought a bottle or two of wine and some 
^■baker's cookies and invited my wife and nic to the christening: we were then 
fliving in a house owned by him where the store long known as Ralphs* 
grocery now stands. The native California girls who were there enjoyed it 
very much. — A. G. Mappa. 


tinder the above rather high sounding- title. In it are to be seen 
elegantly portrayed the primeval family, Adam and Eve, Cain 
and Abel; also the old serpent and the golden apples, all accord- 
ing to the record. There is beside a frame work containing 
what are called flying horses, for the amusement of children. A 
band of music stationed on the balcony of the house plays at in- 
tervals. The garden is tastefully laid out and is much frequented 
by citizens, especially on Sundays." 



[Read December, 1901.] 

No era of Califoniia history is so little known or understood 
as that which may be called the transition period — the period in 
which California was passing; from a Mexican province to an 
American state. This is due to the fact that the discovery of 
gold, shortly after the conquest, directed the attention of the 
world to the g:old regions in Northern California, which were 
uninhabited before the conquest, and where no transition took 
place; while Southern California, where the population was cen- 
tered under the Mexican regime^ received but few accessons 
from immigration and the native inhabitants were left to trans- 
form themselves into American citizens as best they could. 

The last Mexican stronghold, Los Angeles, surrendered to 
Commodore Stockton, January 10^ 1847. ^ semi-military, 
semi-civil government was inaugurated and the inhabitants were 
encouraged to continue their municipal government under the 
Mexican laws of the Territory, The treaty of peace in 1848, 
made all the native Califomians who elected to remain in the 
country, citizens of the United States nolens volens. For three 
years and a half the anomalous condition existed of citizens of 
the United States living in the United States governed by Mex- 
ican !aws administered by a mixed constituency of Mexican- 
bom and American-born officials. 

Just what these laws were, it was difhcuk to find out. No 
code commissioners had codified the laws and it sometimes hap- 
pened that the judge made the law to suit the case. Under the 
old regime the alcalde was often law-giver, judge, jury and ex- 
ecutioner all in one. And it did not astonish the native to find 
the American following Mexican precedents. That such a state 
of affairs produced no serious difficulties was largely due to the 
easy good nature of the native Californians. Had their adhesion 
to the mother country, Mexico, been stronger there might have 
been strenuous protests and even armed uprising against an 
enforced allegiance to a government for which they could have 
no love. But Mexico, at best» had been to them only a step- 



mother, and their separation from her caused them no heart 

Had they been given a choice* it is doubtful whether many 
of tliem would have elected to become citizens of the United 
States — a country whose inhabitants were alien to them in race, 
religion and customs. Tlie conditions under which they became 
citizens were humihating^ to their pride and were often made 
more so by the arrogance of fellows of the baser sort who as- 
sumed the airs of conquerors. To the credit of the native Cali- 
fornian be it said that throughout the trying ordeal of transition 
he bore himself as good citizen and a perfect gentleman. 

The transition period (as I have said) from the rule of Mex- 
ico to the introduction of American laws and the inauguration 
of American forms of local governments lasted three years and 
a half. The Legislature of 1849-50 divided the State into 27 
counties and provided for county, town and city governments. 

The first election for city officers in Los Angeles imder 
American law was held July t. 1850, and on July 3, three days 
later* the most Illustrious Ayuntamiento gave place to the hon- 
orable Common Council. For nearly three score years and ten 
under the rule of Spain and her descendant, Mexico, the Aytm- 
tamiento had been the law-maker of the pueblo. Generations 
had grown to manhood under its clomination. Monarchy, em- 
pire and republic had ruled the territory, had loosened their hold 
and lost their power, but through all the Ayuntamiento had held 
its sway- Now. too. it must go. Well might the old-time An- 
gelena heave a sigh of regret at the dovvnfall of that bulwark 
of his liberty, Muy lUustre Ayuntamiento. 

The first Common Council of Los Angeles was organized 
July 3» 1850. The records say that Jonathan R, Scott, a Justice 
of the peace, administered the oath of office to the members- 
elect, solemnly swearing them to support the constitution of the 
State of California — and yet there was no State of California 
and no Iceral constitution to support. The people of Californiat 
tired of the anomalous condition in which they w^ere held, had 
rebelled against the delays of Congress and had elected State 
officers, a legislature and congressmen, and had put into opera- 
tion a state government before the territory had been admitted 
into the Union. The legislature had made counties and in- 
corporated cities, had appointed judges and provided for the 
election of city and county officers and these when elected had 
sworn to support the constitution of a state that did not exist. 
The State of California, at this time^ w^as a political nondescript 



— a governmental paradox. It had divested itself of its terri- 
lorial condition, but it could not put on the toga viriles of state- 
hood until Congress admitted it into the Union, and the slave- 
holding faction in that body would not let it in. It was actu- 
ally a state dc facto nine months before it became a state de 

The members of the first Council of Los Angeles were David 
W. Alexander, Alexander Bell, Manuel Reqnena, Juan Temple, 
Morris L. Goodman, Cristoval Aguilar and Juliaji Chavez. All 
of these except Goodman, who was an Israelite, had been citi- 
zens of Mexico — some by birth, others by naturalization. 

The Legislature of 1849-50 passed an act, April 4, 1850, in- 
corporating the city of Los Angeles. Fifteen years before, the 
Mexican Congress had decreed it a ciudad. Twice by different 
nations, it had been raised to the dignity of a city, and yet it was 
not much of a city after all. There was not a sidewalk nor a 
graded street v\'ithin its bounds; not a street lamp nor a water- 
pipe — ^not a school bouse nor a postoflice; not a printing press 
nor a newspaper. It owned no municipal buildings — not even 
a jail. It had a church and a graveyard, neither of which be- 
longed to the city; and yet these were the only public improve- 
ments (if a s;raveyard can be called a public improvement) that 
seventy years of Ayuntamiento rule had produced. It was high 
{.!m*e "to ring out the old — ring in the new." 

The act of incorporation gave the city an area of four square 
miles. Why the Legislatin*e of a "Thousand Drinks" pared 
down its domain of four square leagues that for seventy years 
under monarchy, empire and republic tt had held without dis- 
ptite does not appear either in the act or in the city records. 
As the members of that Legislature were mostly tenderfeet. re- 
cently the plains across, they may not have known the dif- 
ference between a Spanish league and an English mile, but the 
most charitable conclusion is that they deemed four square miles 
area enotiJ^h for a city of sixteen hundred people. Why incor- 
pornte chaparral-covered hills and mustard-grown mesas inhab- 
ited* by coyotes, jackrabbits and ground squirrel?? So they 
made its dimension a mile to each wind from the Plaza center; 
yn<l the City of Los Angeles half a century ago ended at Fifth 
street on the south; on the north at the Catholic cemetery: its 
eastern boundary- skirtetl the mesa beyond the nver and its west- 
cm was hopelessly lost in the hills. No one on that side knew 
just where the city ended and the country began; and nobody 
cared, for the land was considered worthless 


The first Common Council of the city was patriotic and self- 
denying. The first resolution passed read as follows: *'It hav- 
ing been obsen^ed that in other places the Council members 
were drawing a salary, it was unanimously resolved that the 
members of this Council shall receive neither salary nor fees of 
whatsoever nature for discharging their duties as such/' But 
some of them wearied of serving an ungrateful public and taking 
their pay in honors. Before sixty days passed, two of them had 
resigned and at the end of the year only two of the original 
members, David W. Alexander and Manuel Requena, were left. 
There had been six resignations in eight months and the first 
Council of seven had had thirteen different members during 
its short existence. It might be remarked in passing that there 
was no "solid six" in that Council, 

The process of Americanizing the people w^s no easy under- 
taking. Tlie population of the city and the laws were in a chaotic 
condition. It was an arduous task that these old-time municipal 
legislators had to perform — ^that of evolving order out of the 
chaos that had been brought about by the change of nations. 
The native population neither understood the language nor the 
customs of their new rulers, and the newcomers among the 
Amercans had very little toleration for the slow-going Mexican 
ways and methods they found prevailing in the city. To keep 
peace between the factions required more tact than knowledge 
of law in the legislator. Fortunately the first Council was made 
up of level-headed men. 

What to do with the Indian was the burning issue of that 
day- — not wnth the wild ones from the mountains who stole the 
rancheros' horses and cattle. For thern^ when caught, like the 
punishment provided in the cocle of that old Spartan code com- 
missioner, Draco, there was but one penalty for all offenses and 
that was death. The rancheros believed in the doctrine that 
there is no good Indian but a dead Indian and with true mis- 
sionary zeal they converted poor Lo so effectually that there was 
no fear of his back-sliding. It was the tame Indians — the Chris- 
tianized neophytes of the Missions that worried the city fathers. 
The Mission Indians constituted the labor element of the city 
and country. When sober they were harmless and were fairly 
good laborers, but in their drunken orgies they became verita- 
ble fiends, and the usual result of their Saturday night revels 
was a dead Indian or two on Sunday morning. And all the 
others, o^d an'd young, male and female, were dead drunk. They 
were gathered up after a carousal and carted to a corral and 



herded there until their day of judgment came* which was Mon- 
day: then they were sentenced to hard labor. At first thej were 
worked in chain gangs on the streets^ but the supply became tot> 
great (or city purposes. So the Council, August i6, 1850, 
passed this ordinance: 

'*When the city has no work in which to employ the chain 
gang, the Recorder shall, by means of notices conspicuously 
posted, notify the public that such a number of prisoners will 
be auctioned oflF to the highest bidder for private service; and 
in that manner they shall be disposed of for a sum which shall 
not be less than the amount of their line for double the time 
which they were to serve at hard labor/' It would have been 
a righteous retribution on the white wretches who sold the in- 
toxicants to the Indians if they couk! have been sold into per- 
petual slavery. Evidently auctioning off Indians to the high- 
est bidders paid the city quite a revenue, for at a subser|uent 
meeting, the Recorder was authorized to pay the Indian alcaldes 
or chiefs the sum of one real (1254 cts.) out of ever>' fin^.- col- 
lected from Indians the said alcaldes may bring; to the Recorder 
for trial. A month or so later the Recorder presented a bill 
of $15.00. the amount of money he had paid the alcaldes t'Ut of 
fines- At the rate of eight Indians to the dollar the alcaldes had 
evidently gathered up a hundred and twenty poor Los. 

Usually poor Lo paid a higher penalty for sinning than his 
white brother but there was one city ordinance which reversed 
this custom^ArticIe 14 — "For playing cards in the streets re- 
gardless of the kind of game; Ukewi&e for playing any other 
game of the kind as is played in houses that are paying a license 
for the privilege, the offender shall be fined not less than $10 nor 
more than $25, which shall be paid on the spot; otherwise he 
shall be sent to the chain gang for ten days. If he be an Indian 
then he shall be fined not less than $3 nor more than S5, or 
sent to the chain gang for eight days." 

At first glance this ordinance might seem to have been 
drafted in the interests of morality, but a closer inspection shows 
that it was for revenue only. The gambling houses paid a 
license of $100 a month. So, for their benefit, the Council put 
p protective tariff on all outside gambling. 

The whipping post, too, was used to instil lessons of honesty 
?nd morality into the Indian, One court record reads: Chino 
Valencia (Indian) was fined $50 and twenty-five lashes for steal- 
ing a pair of shears; the latter fine — the lashes — was paid 
promptly in full; for the former he stands committed to the chain 



gang for two months unless sooner paid." At the same session 
of tire court Vicente Guera, a white man, was fined $30 for sell- 
ing liquor to the Indians — ^*'fine paid and defendant discharged." 
Drunkenness, immorality and epidemics, civilization's gifts to 
the aborigines, settled the Indian question in Los Angeles — 
settled by exterminating the Indian. 

Under Spanish and Mexican rule in California there was no 
municipal form of government corresponding to our county or- 
ganizations. The Ayuntamientos exercised control over the 
contiguous country districts, but there were no district boundary 
lines. The Ayuntamiento of Los Angeles exercised jurisdiction 
over territory now included in four counties and the old pueblo 
was the seat of government for a district as large as the Emerald 
Isle. The only drawback to the old town's greatness was the 
lack of inhabitants in its back country. The first legislature 
divided the State into counties beginning with San Diego. The 
original county of Los Angeles was an empire in ttself. It ex- 
tended from the Pacific Ocean on the west to the Colorado 
River on the east, and from San Diego County on the South 
to Mariposa on the north. Its area was about 32,000 square 
miles, or over one-fifth of the area of the entire State, It was 
equal in size to the aggregate dimension of five New England 
States, namely, Massachusetts. Connecticut, Rhode Island, Ver- 
mont and New Hampshire. In 1853, San Bernardino sliced oflF 
from the eastern side of Los Angeles about 23,000 square miles. 
In 1866 Kern County chipped off about 4000. and in 1889 Or- 
ange County cut oflF nearly a thousand, leaving its present area 
a litt[e less than 4000 square miles. The county of Los Angeles 
set up in business for itself June 24, 1850. Tlie Court of Ses- 
sions, an institution long relegated to oblivion, wvs the motive 
power that started the county machinery running. The first 
judge of that court was Augiistin Olvera, one of the signers of 
the treaty of Cahuenga. His house still stands on the north side 
of the Plaza and a misspelled street name tries to perpetuate 
his memory. The associate justices were Jonathan R. Scott and 
Louis Roubideau, Roubideau was the ow^ner of what is now the 
site of Riverside, then an arid w^aste so barren and waterless that 
the coyotes were compelled to carry haversacks and canteens 
when they crossed it. 

The first Mayor of the city. Dr. A. P. Hodges, was the first 
County Coroner; and the first County Clerk. B. D. Wilson, was 
the second Mayor. The Mayor took his pay in honors, but the 
office of Coroner was exceedingly lucrative. It cost $ioo to 



hold an inquest on a dead Indian, and as violent deaths were of 
almost daily or nightly occurrence the Coroner could afford to 
serve the city a^ Mayor for the honor. Los AngeleSi in the early 
50". was an ungodly city, yet some of the verdicts of the Cor- 
oner's juries showed remarkable familiarity with the decrees of 
the <leity. On a native Californian named Gamacio, foimd dead 
in tlie street, the verdict was. *'Death by the visitation of God." 
Of a dead Indian found near the zanja the Los Angeles Star 
says: '^Justice Dryden and a jury sat on the body. The ver- 
dict was 'Death from intoxication or by the visitation of God' — 
the jury cannot decide which/ 'Bacilio (said the verdict) was 
a Christian In<lian and was confessed by the reverend padre yes* 
terday afternoon.*' 

Some one has sneeringly said that the first public buildings 
the Americans erected in California were jails. The first county 
jail in Los Angeles was an adobe building on the hill back of 
the Downey Block. There were no cells in it. Staples were 
driven into a heavy pine log that reached across the building and 
short chains attaclied to the staples were fastened to the hand- 
cuflFs of the prisoners. Solitary confinement was out of the 
<|uestion then. Indian prisoners, being considered unfit to as- 
sociate with the high-toned w^hite culprits inside, were chained 
to logs outside of the jail where they conld more fully enjoy the 
glorious climate of Southern California. This building was 
not built by the county, but in 1853 the city and county did 
build a jail on the present site of the People's Store, and it was 
the first public building erected in the county. 

Even at this early day, before Caltfornia had become a State, 
there w^ere what the native Californians called "Patriotas de 
Bolsa" — patriots of the pocket — men who knew how to set a 
high value on their public services. In the summer of 1850 
an expedition imder Gen, Joseph C. Morehead was sent against 
the mountain Indians, who had been stealing horses from the 
Los Angeles rancheros. In a skirmish with these Indian horse 
thieves a militiaman named Wm, Carr was wounded. Gen. 
Morehead sent him back to Los Angeles to be taken care of. 
At a meeting of the Court of Session the medico who doctored 
the w^ounded soldier presented a bill of $503; the patriotic Amer- 
ican who boarded him demanded $120, and the man who lodged 
him charged $45 for house rent. The native Californian who 
nursed him was satisfied with $30, but then he was not a patriot; 
he did not set high enough value on his services. The bills were 
approved, but as the county treasury was as empty as the 
rancheros* corrals after an Indian raid, the accounts were re- 



On the Pacific shore the Leiand Stanford, Jr., University 
has its marine biological laboratory at Padfic Grove, and the 
summer school of marine biology at San Pedro has been started 
by the zoological department of the State University at 

An impottant undertaking represents the growth of an idea 
expressed in action. Tentative trials often precede work of 
greater significance. There are several links in the develop- 
ment of the marine biological laboratory at San Pedro, One 
link in the chain of events was begun in the summer of 1891 
at Pacific Grove, In the summer of 1^93 investigation was car- 
ried on at Avalon for about one month. In the simimer of 
1895 a party was located at Timm's Point, in San Pedro Bay, 
This preliminary work had been carried on under the super- 
vision of Prof. William E, Kilter, now at the head of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology at Berkeley. In the sunmier of 1S99 Prof. 
Ritter was with the Harriman party in Alaska and had charge of 
the marine vertebrate work. 

The undertaking at San Pedro is the expression of Prof, 
Ritter's hope for a permanent station in Southern California, 
On the 15th of May of this year (1901) the gasoline launch Elsie 
was hired for the purpose of dredging. The Duffy bathhouse 
on Terminal Island — locally known as East San Pedrch — was 
leased for the use of the laborator>\ This bathhouse, situated on 
the breakwater of San Pedro Bay* was prepared for the use of 
the summer school, under the immediate supervision of Prof, 
Ritter. In June the bathhouse was ready for occupancy. The 
building, facing the inner harbor of the bay. stands a long, 
white, one-story structure containing seven little rooms,, a smalt 
room for laboratory stores and a long room for the use of 
the summer classes. In this room each student had the use of 
a window above the long tables, fitted out for the accommoda- 
tion of about fifteen pupils. On the outside of these windows, 
of which there are nine, on the channel side* each one is covered 
with a white tent awning. The row of little rooms referred to 
was for the use of Prof. Ritter and his corps of teachers, the 
library, and for the use of specialists. Fresh water and water 
from the bay was piped into the room. 

The library and equipments were brought from the north. 
The use of aquarium facilities, glassware, reagents, microscopes 
and books were furnished the pupils^ but not dissecting iiistru- 
ments. paper, etc. 

The following were in charge: Prof. Wm, E. Ritter, As- 



sistant Professor W. J. Raymond, Hydrography; Assistant Pro- 
fessor C. A. Kofoidt Zoology; Dr. F. W. Bancroft, Pliysiology^ 
and Mr. H. B. Torrey, Zoology, Among the specialists pres- 
f nt from Eastern colleges were ProT Wesley Coe of Yale, Prof, 
Samuel J, Holmes of Michigan University, and Prof. T. D. A. 
Cockereil of the State Normal School at Los Vegas, New 

Lectures were delivered on an average of about twice a week 
during the term. They were given in the evening, and with 
one exception, — when one of the ladies on the island gave the 
use of her summer cottage, — they were delivered in the class 
room of the school. The following list of topics will give an 
idea of the scope of these lectures! 

**The Ocean as a Habitat of Living Beings f* Prof. William 
E, Ritter. (July 3.) 

"A Sketch of the History and Methods of Marine Biolog- 
ical Exploration f Dr. C A. Kofoid. (July 5). 

"Geographical Distribution of Terrestrial Animals in the 
West:" Prof. T. D. A. Cockereil (July 12). 

"The Habits of Amphepod Crustacea:" Or, S. J, Holmes* 
(July 12). 

"Some Problems of Regeneration :" Mr, H. B. Torrey, 
July 16). 

"Locomotion of Marine Animals:*' Dr. Frank W. Bartcroft. 
(July 18). 

^'Biological Exploration:" Prof. William E. Ritter. 
(July 26). 

'The Study of Variation:" Dr. F. W. Bancroft. (Aug. i). 

"Distribution of Mollusca on the Pacific Coast of North 
America:*' Dr, William H. Dall. (Aug. 5). 

"Phototaxis;" Dr. S. J. Holmes. (Aug, 6), 

One of the lecturers in this course was Dr. William H. Dall 
of the Smithsonian Institution, who ivas a visitor at the Marine 
Station for a few days. 

Dr. F. W. Bancroft and Mr. H. B. Torrey. who had immedi- 
ate supervision of the class work, w^ere untiring in their efforts 
to assist students in their departments- Five, and more often 
six, days in each week, from June 27,, to August 7» were covered 
by the course of instruction. Occasionally students went out 
with the dredging launch Elsie. Little parties also made early 
morning excursions in quest of marine invertebrates for class 
As we all know, it was during the session of the school that 



lh« wonderful phosphorescence appeared on our Southern wa- 
Icm. The prc&etice of theperidinium, the cause of the luminos- 
ity of the ocean, added to the interest of the class-room, and 
catited thou&ands of persons to visit the various beaches. 

On the evening of July ii^ 1901, Prof. W.R. Raymond asked 
the writer if she had noticed a peculiar light, or phosphorescence, 
in (he l>ay on the ocean side. He had remarked its presence in 
the channel That evening the phosphorencence was j^ainly vis- 
ible on the ocean side of the bay, and each evening after, for 
frevrral days the peculiar light was intensified in brilliancy, and 
the ilhiniination increased in area. During the rest of the month 
of July and the first week in Augijst this display of phosphores- 
cence coiitituieil During this *ime it was visible, with varying 
(h'K'^''*''* ^*f hjminosity, from Santa Barbara, Ventura, Santa 
Mf intra, l^eiloudo, Son Pedro Bay, including- Long Beach and 
down the coast to Coronado and San Diego. 

At tlie CDve, on Terminal Island, when the waves dashed 
hij;h and inuncnsc breakers rolled in. each billow was capped 
li)' a Ma/.c i>f li^lu Uiat broke against the rocks or lost itself in 
u Mprontling 5hect of gttmniering undulations. A pail of this 
water Kcinly stirred in a dark room was brilliantly starred with 
tiny lijihu, and a scintillating mass of light followed a more vig- 
onuis jj;itation of the water. Any object, like a hand, immersed 
in the pail was covered with little sparks, as of fire, when it was 
rctnovccl from the water, 

Rfuving in a skiff over the water at night, one could plainly 
»cc fishes <lartjng away from their enemies, sharks and stingrays 
in search of prey. Tlie movemest of the boat caused a brilliant 
display of phosphorescence on either side of it, and the splash 
of the paddle was like playing with burning brimstone. 

( htv »hc ocean the crest of the waves shone with a brilliant 
flninr* and the light merged into a glistening, yellowish-green 
ilhnniiialion iliat died away in a fringe of red. 

In Ihe (tnytime the ocean was of a red or reddish-brown 

(Jn Sunday morning, July 21, we were conscious that there 
Win lomc unustial condition of affairs on the beach at the cove. 
*rhi> *cn-(?ull3i were flying in flocks, or quacking in groups on the 
wi»t »ftud at the water's edge, and the beach was strewn with 
m|Ulrniing and flopping TOung stingrays, which the gulls eagerly 
ilvvnurcd. While on the sand, on the breakwater side, the beach 
Wfltt covered by dead fish. In a short space of time Mr Torrey 
AU\\ MIha Robertson of the laboratory- had collected almost a 



dozen different species of fish in a small area on the sand. These 
fishes included flat sharks, sting^ys^ edible fishes, and several 
devil-fish or octopi; hundreds of sea cucumbers and thousands 
of small crabs were also lying lifeless on the wet sand. 

Some of these were too far gone for laboratory use» but some 
of them were opened to see what could be the cause of this 
wholesale destruction of life. The gills of the fishes were studied 
to see if they contained many of the peridinium, — which were 
now dying in immense quantities, — and the stomachs of the 
fishes were dissected for the same purpose. When the peridi- 
num^ were dying and dead, the odor from the ocean was unbear- 
able, and even enthusiasts, who are supposed to be oblivious of 
rank odors^ were annoyed and enervated by the rank odor wafted 
by the sea breeze. 

For days these little protozoas had been the subject of much 
study in the laboratory. The peridinums appeared to keep to- 
gether in flocks or colonies. In a glass tube these microscopic 
animals could be seen moving as a flock of birds might move, 
some leading, others following. Their appearance, as a whole, 
was that of a light, yellow-brown gelatinous looking substance, 
passing upward in a glass of water. Even in a tube, their grega- 
rious nature was visible. 

Although the season of the summer school at the Biological 
Station was such a success, everyone knows this was only of sec- 
ondary importance. The real object in locating the Biological 
Station in San Pedro Bay was on account of the rich faunse of 
the San Pedro region. Santa Catalina region and that of San 
Diego Bay. To make hydrographic investigations, including a 
study of the temperature and salinity of the w^aters, currents 
and tides, exploring from loo to 150 fathoms, and collecting 
at various depths the rare and new specimens sure to be found 
in these rich areas — these were of first importance. The results 
more than equaled the expectation. Eighty-six stations were 
dredged, and 157 hauls were made. Several (12) barrels of val- 
uable material was secured for the University at Berkeley, 
Common species were placed in the station for school use, but 
the rarer specimens w-ere reserved for the State University, The 
dredging w^as under the supervision of Dr. C. A. Kofoid, re- 
cently from Berkeley, but fonnerly from Champlain, III. He 
and his corps of assistants — Dr. C. A. Whiting of Los Angeles, 
Mr, Cook of Whittier, and others — dredged in the vicinity of 
San Diego for nearly three weeks. In the San Diego region 
there is a deep depression or canon, and dredging in this deep 



gorge descended to over 630 fathoms. The hydrography of 
the Catalina and San Pedro regions was in charge of Prof. W. 
R. Rayrnond, who had also the work of determining the mol- 
luscan species. In this he was very ably assisted by Mrs. T. S- 
Oldroyd. This meant the sorting out and classifiying of im- 
nieJise quantities of drift material, rich in molluscan life. 

All material collected was, after sorting out species, or gen- 
era, tied in JIttle cheese-cloth bags, containing labels of the sta- 
tion from which each specimen was collected, then thei^e bags 
were packed in barrels in alcohol. Small or very rare specimens 
were placed in vials or bottles containing alcohoK Miss Rob- 
ertson of Berkeley had charge of the material temporarily left 
at the Biological Laboratory, Miss Gulilema R. Crocker sorted 
and identified the echinodenns; Proi Wesley R. Coe of Yale 
had charge of the nemertina, (worms), making drawings and 
naming a number of new species^ and Dr. S. J. Holmes of Mich- 
igan University had supervision of new forms of Crustacea. Be- 
sides these, there were a number of persons engaged in special 
study of various branches. Diatoms, Dr. W. C. Adler-Musch- 
kowsky; Peridiniimis, Mr. H. B. Torrey; Echinoderms in con- 
nection with the reproduction of rays, Miss Monks; Bryozoa, 
Mis-^ Robertson; Ascidians, Dn Bancroft; Enteropneusta, Prof. 
Rtiter; Sea Slugs, Prof. Cockerell. 

Although the university's endow^ment is capitalized at about 
^'eleven million dollars," and its yearly income is about "five 
hundred thousand dollars," and it has received "private bene- 
factions to the amount of four million dollars.'^ there does not 
seem to have been any adequate sum set apart for research in 
Southern California. Capitalists in Los Angeles were appealed 
to, and they responded, as the following note of acknowledge- 
jTient. issued in the University Bulletin of April, 1901, attests, 
After this was issued, other friends of the enterprise in Los An- 
geles responded. Tliese are now added to the other names ' 

"The investigations here projected are made possible, finan- 
cially by the co-operation with the university of Mr. H. W. 
O'Melveny, Mr. J. A. Graves, Mr. Jacob Baruch, Mr. Wm. G. 
KerckhofF, Mr. Wm. R. Rowdand, the Los Angeles Terminal 
Railway. Mr. J. H. Shankland, Mr. Jno. E. Plater, and the 
Banning Company," Mr. L N. Van Nuys, Mr. C, M. Wright, 
Mr. H. Newmark, Mr. H, Jevne, Miss M. M. Fette, Mr. H. H. 
KerckhofF, Mr. R, H. F. Varieh Mr, W. J. Variel, Mr. L. R. 
Hewitt, Mr. Russ Avery, E. K. Wood Lumber Co.. Standard 
Oil Company, all of Los Angeles. 



[Read before the Historical Society Dec. 2, 1901.] 

As Alta California was settled by Spanish-speaking people 
who tolerated no other fonti of religion except the Roman 
Catholic, of course there were no churches except of that faith 
in Los AngeleSj from the time of the settlement of the ancient 
pueblo, in the year 1781. until the change of government in 

From and after the founding of the mission of San Gabriel, 
in 1778, until,, and after the completion of the old Plaza 
church in the latter part of 1822, that mission became and 
remained the center of industrial activity, as well as the head- 
quarters of clerical authority for this portion of the province. 

Fathers Salvadea, Sanchez, Boscana and Estenega managed 
with zeal and great ability the extensive concerns, both spiritual 
and temporal, of the mission, sending a priest occasionally to 
the pueblo, or coming themselves, to say mass, at the capilla or 
chapel Avhich had been erected north and west of the present 
church. After the latter was built. Father Boscana became the 
first regular rector or pastor, scrvang till 1831. He was suc- 
ceeded by Fathers Martinas, Sanchez, Bachelot, Estenega. Jim- 
enez, Ordaz, Rosales. etc., who ser\'ed as local pastors, for longer 
or shorter periods, of the only church in the town, from 1831 
to 1851. 

The first priest, whom I knew of, but did not know person- 
ally, was Padre Anacleto Lestrade, a native of France, who was 
the incumbent from '51 to '56. Padre Bias Raho, who came 
here in 1856, I knew well» and esteemed highly. He was broad- 
minded and tolerant. He told me that he had lived sixteen years 
in the Mississippi valley before he came to Los Angeles, He 
was a native of Italy. 

It was during his pastorate that the old church building 
was greatly improved. It was frescoed inside and out. by a 
Frenchman. Mr. H. Penelon, the pioneer photographer of Los 
Angeles, The lettering on the front of the building as seen to- 
day was done by Penelon, viz. r "Los Fieles de Esta Parroquia 



A la Reina dc Los Angeles, 1861;" and also on the marble 
tablets ; 

Dios Te Salve, Maria. Llena De Gracia. 
El Senor Esta En Su Santo Tem-plo: Calle La Tierra ante 

su Acatamiento. 

Habac 2, 20. 
Santa Maria Madre dc Dios> Ru^fa por nosotxos Pecadoros. 

Padre Raho was the first Vicar General of the diocese, under 
Bishop Amat. 

Later. Padre Raho, who served his parish faithfully for a 
number of years, and who was respected and revered by his par- 
ishoners, fell sick and went to the Sisters' Hospital, which was 
then located in the large two-story brick building which stood, 
and I think still stands, to the east of the upper depot, and be- 
tween the latter and the river, which the Sisters bought of 
Mr. H, C. Cardwell, who built it. 

I visited Padre Raho here during his last illness, at his re- 
(juest. He told me that he had not a cent of money (having 
taken vows of poverty,) in the world; and that the good sisters 
furnished him refuge, etc. The venerable Sister Ann, whom 
many will remember, and who, I believe, is still living at an 
advanced age, at the home of the order of Sisters of Charity, 
at Emmettsburg, Pa,, was at that time the superioress of the 
order here. 

Fathers Duran and Mora succeeded Father Raho. There 
were other priests whom I did not know so well, who made 
their home at different times at the parsonage adjoining the old 
church. But none of these, so far as my acquaintance per- 
mitted me to know, with the possible exception of Father Mora, 
were as liberal as Father Raho. The bishop of the diocese dur- 
ing these times w^s Tadeo Amat, who, though his jurisdiction 
extended to Monterey, made his headquarters first for a time 
at Santa Barbara, and then at this old church of **Nuesta Senora, 
la Reyna de Los Angeles." Bishop Amat was succeeded by 
Bishop (formerly Father) Mora, & gentle and scholarly prelate. 
It was during the latter's administration (in 1S74, I think,) that 
the cathedral (and bishop's residence) was built^ on Main street, 
snd the official headquarters of the diocese were removed 
thither. Bishop Mora was succeeded by Bishop Montgomery, 
the present head of the local church]. 

When Father Mora was made bishop, Father Peter Verda- 
guer, who was a very eloquent Spanish orator, became pastor of 
3sc old church. "Father Peter," as he was widely known, was 



made a bishop a few years ag-o, and he was succeeded by the 
present rector, a youngs and talented priest, Father Liebana. 
"Father Peter/' now Bishop Verdagiier, presides over tht dio- 
cese of Texas, 

Bishop Mora, and genial, gentle Father Adarn^ long his 
Vicar General, and long an honored and active member of 
our Historical Society, both now reside with their relatives, in 
retreat, during the closing years of their lives, at Barcelona, 

Of the early Protestant ministers who came to Los Angeles, 
I knew personally nearly all of them, as they were comparatively 
few in numbers; whilst of the many, many who now reside here, 
1 hardly know one, intimately. 

One of the first to come here, I think, was Parson Adam 
Bland, who had the reputation of being a smart preacher and 
a shrewd horse-trader. But I heard^how truly I know not— 
that after laboring here a year or two in the early '50's, he 
abandoned the field as hopeless^ though in after years he came to 
the county again, when he found the gospel vineyard vastly 
more encouraging than during his former missionary labors. 
Where Parson Bland is now located, or whether he is still living, 
I do not know. 

When I came here in '54, there was only one church building 
in town — that fronting the Pla^a; and no regular Protestant 
church edifice at all. 

Rev. James Woods, a Presbyterian, was holding protestant 
services then in the adobe that stood on the present site of the 
"People's Store;" and he came to tnc and asked me to assist in 
the music each Sunday, which T did. Just how long he preached 
here, I cannot now recall. But 1 remember that when the bodies 
of the four members of Sheriff Barton's party, who were killed 
in January, 1S57, by the Juan Flores bandits, were brought here 
to town from San Juan for buriah there was no Protestant min- 
ister here then to conduct funeral services. But, as it happened, 
two of the murdered men were Masons, and that fraternal, semi- 
religious order, whose organization extends throughout the civ- 
ilized world, in sheer pity» turned aside, after decorously and 
reverently burying their own two brethren, and read a portion 
of the Masonic burial service over the bodies of the other two 
men. who were not Masons, The alternative, which at that time 
was imminent, of dumping those two bruised, dumb human be- 
ings into the ground without any religious service whatever, 
seemed to me then, and has seemed to me since, a ghastly one. 



Rev, J. W. Douglass, founder of the *Tacific" newspaper, 
who taught a private school in the family of Wm. Wolfskill in 
ihe forepart of 1854, was a minister, but I believe he never held 
public religious services here. A Dr. Carter, and also W, H, 
Shore, deputy county clerk, read the Episcopal service for brief 
periods during the late '50*3; but with these exceptions, my im- 
pression is tliat there was no resident Protestant clergyman, 
or lay reader, who conducted religious services here from the 
time Rev. Mr. Woo<ls left, sonietime in 1855, till 1858, or '59, 
when Rev. VVm. E. Boardman, a Presbyterian clergyman, came 
here and held regular Simday services, sometimes in one place 
and sometimes in another, until 1861 or '62, or until after the 
c*omniencement of the Civil War, when he went east and entered 
the ser\*ice of the "Christian Commission," an organization 
which did a noble work, similar to that done by the Red Cross 
Society in the late Spanish wan 

Mr. Eoardman was an able and eloquent preacher and writer, 
and the author of a popular book, entitled "The Higher Chris- 
tian Life,'* The want of a commodious place of meeting, stim- 
ulated a movement to raise funds for the erection of a church 
building: and, as good Benjamin D. Wilson had donated a lot, — 
a portion of the hill on which the county court house now 
stands — to the **First Protestant Society/" which should build 
a house of worship, people of various denominations, who, with- 
out regard to sect, attended Mr. Boardman's ministrations, 
formed an organization, under the name of '*The First Protes- 
tant Society of Los Angeles," and erected the walls and roof of a 
church on the lot donate<l by Mr, Wilson. But this work came 
to a standstill after Mr. Boardman left; and not until the arrival 
of Rev. Mr, Birdsall, about Christmas, 1864, was any further 
progress made in the erection of "The First Protestant 
Church building in Los Angeles. 

I do not pretend here to give a consecutive account of all 
the Protestant ministers who^ a quarter of a century or more 
ago, helped to establish churches of the different denominations 
here, much less to connect them chronologically with the many 
churches of today: but rather to give some recollections of those 
of the former epoch, whom 1 knew well, either personally or by 

Rev. J. H. Stump was a Methodist minister here in the '6o's, 
Rev, A. M. Hough was another early preacher of the same de- 
nomination, who came in 1868, and who, with the exception of 
brief intervals, resided here till his death, in Aifgust, 1900. On 


the establishment of the ''Southern California Conference/' Mr. 
Hough became the Presiding- Elder. Revs, Mr. Hendon and 
Mr. Copeland were other local Methodist pastors of that period. 
It is said that Rev. J. W. Brier preached the first sermon 
ever preached in Los Angeles, in 1850: but I do not 
think he stayed here lon^, as there were neither Methodist wor- 
shippers nor a house of worship in Los Angeles at that early 

Re\'. A. M. Campbell, now deceased, was the pastor of the 
first "Metho<:list Church. South/* established here in 1873. His 
widow, daughter of Judge B, L, Peel, is now a missionary in 
the peninsula of Corca. 

Rev. Elias BJrdsall, who came to Los Angeles in December, 
1864, soon after his arrival organized an Episcopalian church, 
of which he was the rector for niany years. I knew Mr, Bird- 
sail %^ery well, and learned to admire and respect him as one of 
the best men whom I ever knew. Although he was a zealous 
churchman, he was in all respects an admirable citizen. He was 
a logical thinker and a fine elocutionist. He believed— and most 
laymen will certainly agree with him — that everv^ person who 
is to become a pulilic speaker should make a special preparatory 
study of elocution. 

At the funeral services of President Lincoln, held in this 
city, simultaneously with those held throughout the United 
Slates on the iQth of April, 1865. Mr. Birdsall delivered an ad- 
mirable oration before a large concourse of our citizens. Mr. 
Birdsall died Noveml>er 3, 1890, 

Other rectors of the original Saint Athanasius Church of 
Los Angeles (afterwards changed to Saint Paul's) were Dn J. 
J. Talbot, H. H. Messenger, C. F. Loop, Wm. H. Hill. J, B. 
Gray, G, \V. Burton, and again, subsequent to 1880. Mr. Bird- 
sail. Dr. Talbot, who came here in i868, froni Lousiville, Ky., 
where he had had charge of a wealthy church at a salary of 
$3,500 a yean was a venr' gifted and impassioned orator, and 
he had withal a slight tinge of the sentimental or poetical in 
his character^ and his sermons were much admired, especially 
by the ladies. His published address on the occasion of the 
death of President Lincoln, delivered in the East before he 
came to Los Angeles, w^as considered one of the best of the 
many public orations delivered on that sorrowful theme. Dr. 
Talbot, sad to say, however, was only another instance of a man 
with brilliant talents who threw himself a\vay and went to the 
bad. He lived, in the main^ an exemplary life here, at least up 
to within a short time before he left. 



To those who knew him intimately during- his brici residence 
in Los Angeles, he used sometimes — ^I remember it well — to 
speak With tcnderest regard of his dear children and his **wife. 
Betty/* in thetr pleasant home near Louisville. And to rhem» 
i. e., hii5 friends here — his last words, uttered at the very 
threshold of death, as quoted by Major Ben. Truman in the 
"Alta California," in 1884. are full of startling pathos and inex- 
pressible sadness; indeed, I know of no sadder passage in all 

"I had chilflren — beautiful, to me at least, as a dream of 
morning, and they had so entwined themselves around their 
father's heart that no matter where he might wander, ever it 
came back to them on the wings of a father's undying love. 
The dcstoryer took their hands in his and led them away. I 
had a wife whose charms of mind and i>erson were 5uch that 
to 'see her was to remember; to know her^ was to love/ *I had 
? mother, , , . and while her boy raged in his wild de- 
lirium two thousand miles away, the pitying angels pushed the 
goklen gates ajar, and the mother of the drunkard entered into 
rest. And thus I stand a clergyman without a church, a bar- 
rister without a brief or business, a husband without a wife, a son 
without a parent, a man with scarcely a friend, a soul without 
hope — all swallowed up in the maelstrom of drink!'' 

It seems that Dr, Talbot, after he left here, went back east, 
and was put out of the ministr\\ became a lawyer, was again 
permitted to resume his clerical functions, again fell, and again 
was compelled to retire from his rectorship in 1879; shortly after 
which he died as above, with the above pathetic words on his 

Mr. Messenger, prior to his coming here, had been a mis- 
sionar>' in Liberia, Africa. After his rectorship here, he. I think, 
founded the Episcopal church of San Gabriel. 

Mr. Messenger was a jovial, optimistic, but withal a zealous 
servant of the church, possessing not a little of the missionary 
spirit. Afterwards he went to Arizona* 

There are many old-timers still living who well remember 
Revs. Messrs, Loop, Hill and Gray, Mr. Loop, after serving 
the parish here for a considerable period, moved to Pomona, 
where he became a prominent, public-spirited citizen, and where 
he died a year or two ago. Mr. Hill moved from here to San 
Oiicntin, where, for some years, he was chaplain of the State 
Penitentiary, and where, I understood, he became totally blind. 
He died se^^eral years ago, Mr. Gray went from here to Ala- 




bama. I know not if he is still living". Mr. Burton is still a 
resilient of this city, where he has been for years connected 
tvith the daily and weekly press. 

The early ministers of the Congregational church in Los An- 
g-eks were Revs. Alexander Parker, (1866-7); I- W. Atherton, 
(i867-'7i); J. T. WiUs, (1871^3); D, T. Packard, (1873-9); C. 
J. Ilutchins, (1 879^*82); and A. J. Wells, (1882-87). 

The first churcli building, erected under the ministration ol 
Mr. Parker, was on New High street, north of Temple, a photo- 
graph of which I herewith present to the Historical Society. 

Early Baptist clergymen were Revs. Messrs. Hobbs, Zahn 
Fryer, Reed* etc., ail of whom have deceased. 

Rabbi A. W. Edelman organized the Hebrew congregation, 
B'nai B'rith, in 1862. Rabbi Edelman is still a citizen of Los 

I should mention that Drs, J, W. Ellis, A. F. White and W. 
J, Chichester were comparatively early pastors of the Presby- 
terian church; and also that Dr, M, M. Bovard was president of 
the University of Southern California, 

Dr Eli Fay was the first Unitarian minister to hold public 
reiigjous services here. Dr. Fay was, intellectually, a very able 
man, though somewhat aggressive and self-assertive. His ser- 
mons, barring a rather rasping flavor of egotism, were models 
of powerful reasoning. Before coming to Los Angeles, Dr. 
Fay had been pastor of Unitarian congregations at Leominster^ 
Mass., and at Sheffield, England. In addition to his sacer- 
dotal qualifications, Dr. Fay was a very good judge of the value 
of real estate. Soon after he came here from Kansas City, he 
bought what he called "choice pieces of property," on which it 
was understocwl he afterwards made big money. Like many 
other shrewd saints who came here from many countries, his 
Caith in Los Angeles real estate seemed to be only second to his 
faith in the realty of the land of Canaan, or, in other words, in 
"choice lots" in the "New Jerusalem," 

I might recount many anecdotes concerning those ministers 
and priests of Los Angeles of a former generation, of whom' I 
have spoken; for in those olden times, in this then small town, 
everybody knew almost everybody. In a frontier town, — which 
this then was,^there are always picturesque characters, among 
clericals as well as among laymen. 


(Legends from the "Flowers of St Francis.") 


We know little of Father Serra prior to his work in the New 
World: yet he was then a man of mature years, with refined 
powers of mind and a character so firm of purpose and a plan of 
work so well considered that he seldom swerved from the ideals 
of his youth. 

It becomes an interesting problem to trace the growth of 
this man's ideals^ and. if possible, to ascertain who had an as- 
cendency over him, and what influences helped him to shaj>e his 

As time passes, I see more clearly that Father Serra was not 
of the eighteenth centtir^', but of those before. I see that he 
was highly gifted in the spiritual sense, a devout churchman, one 
highly susceptible to the influence of his order> and an admirer 
of those in whose footsteps he forged to follow. But just here 
arises the question* Who were his ideals? 

Naturally* the modern mind turns to St. Francis as the chief 
among those whose lives had influenced our priest. The litera- 
ture of St. Francis and his times is abundant and accessible. 
This we are entitled to use, having <lue regard for critical can- 
ons in helping out the unknown hi^itory of Scrra's formative 
years; but yet the fact remains we are lacking in the main details 
of Serra's growth. 

Tliat he had an ideal is well known. His assumption of the 
name ^^Tunipero" perhaps may have been influenced by the cur- 
rent belief that nothing evil in animal life could live under the 
shade of the juniper tree; so Serra had hoped by his labors to 
route the Devil and like a juniper banish evil from the world. 

Another mentions a certain Brother J^nip^i a companion 
and follower of the Holy St, Francis, and a man whose life ap- 
pealed so strongly to Serra that he assumed the name in connec- 
tion with his own. Father Paiou says: 

''At an early age JunJpero- was w*e11 instructed by his par- 
ents in the rudiments of the Holy Catholic faith," Later he 
pursues his studies at the Convent of Jesu. I now quote Palou : 



"During the year of his novitiate, Junipero stuped carefully 
the austere rules of the Franciscans, and read the lives of many 
saints which that glorious order had given to the church: like 
another, Ignatius of Loyola. This riding inflamed his heart 
with love and 2eal for souls, , , . Tlie year of his proba- 
lion being ended, Fr. Junipero was professed on the 15th of 
September^ 1731. On account of his great devotion to one oF 
the just confessions of St. Francis — ^Friar Juniper— he took that 
name in his professian. Such was his spiritual joy on that sol- 
emn day that each year he renewed his vows on the anni- 

There is nothing scientificaUy accurate in thus retelling these 
vague surmises; nor is there in what follows, yet it is of this 
Friar Juniper I wish to sf)€ak. Such a mail existed, and his Hfc 
was undoubtedly knowTi to Father Serra. Beyond this, it is 
merely a question of inference. 

You will find no mention of this old saint in the general 
discussion of our local history* and yet, if we grant a grain of 
truth back of the reason assigned for Serra's name Junipero* he 
must have known and approved the main outlines of the life I 
now present. I trust T shall not be misunderstood as claiming 
either absolute truth for the old biography and collection ctf 
monkish legends that I have drawn upon, nor as stating it to 
be more than a reasonable hope that I niay be correct when I 
make my suggestion that in this collection fay one of the inspi- 
rational sources of Serra's life. 

Edward Everett Haie ha.s published a paper on the probabil- 
ity of the name California having been borrowed from a romance 
widely known in that period of discovery, and hence in the 
minds of the men who iirst visited our coasts. The argumen* 
of Dr. Ha!e is equally useful in my present inquiry, and I adopt 
it iTi the main as applicable to my paper, i. e., a book existed 
telling of the life of a certain Brother Jimiper, and our Serra 
had read and believecl it all Unrterstand, then, that what fol- 
lows is ofTered solely as a contribmion towards the solution of 
an interesting point in our local annals and nothing more. 

First, as to the prevalance of monkish legends of the past. 
Yon see from the quotation from Father Palmi that Juni^tero 
Serra was deeply read therein. They constitute an important 
part of the early literature of the Romance nations. The col- 
lections were widely known and extensively cofwed, were reaid, 
discussed, used in sermons with a firm belief in their literal truth 
by the mass of the people, though modem criticism can now 



detect the symbolic nature of parts that once passed for truth 
as sacred as hps could utter 1 have spent days in the ancient 
libraries of Europe, and the charm of th^e old records, with 
their beautiful vellums and lovely lettering, grows greater as 
each opportunity arises to examine them. It is impossible to 
make one realize in California what tangible evidence these old 
manuscripts offer of the loving care bestowed upon them and 
how highly their contents were prized, Mr Aldrich, in Friar 
Jeronie*5 Beautiful Book, has done more than tell a legend; he 
has entered into the true spirit of the past. As printing arose, 
the Golden Legend of Caxton, with its lives of saints, at once 
testifies to the importance of these stories as material for books. 
Not to be tedious on a non-debatable subject, think of the vast 
iaier compilations known as Butler's Lives of the Saints and 
their present importance- You will find full legends of our 
Padre Juniper in a book entitled "TheFlowers of St. Francis" 
and long used by the common people of Italy. 

The earliest dated manuscript is 1390, The book is almost 
unknown to the Protestant people. It is accessible to the trans- 
lators, by T. W, Arnold, printed by Dent fit Co., of London. 

In the Italian compilation known as the Flowers of St. Fran- 
cis, the life of Padre Juniper is placed toward the latter part of 
the book. 

As to the book from which I have drawn these legends, it 
is not my purpose to speak. 

My paper is not critical, because the legends are not histor- 
ically true as to facts; no one pretends they are, and my aim 
is simply to enforce this well-known fact to your minds that 
thev were immensely popular in the centuries succeeding St. 
St. Francis' life and death. In the Italian our brother is known 
as Eorther Ginipero. It was the pun made by St, Francis that 
converted the name into Junipero, or the Juniper tree, 

Mrs. Alithaut retells a few* legends in her work on St, 
Francis, but Sabatier. in his great critical work on St. Francis, 
p. 415, et seq., goes so fully into the authorities for these Fioretti 
that nothing more need be said in this paper except to copy a 
couple of short extracts. 

The fioretti. 

"With the Fioretti we enter definitely the domain of legend. 
This literary gem relates the life of Francis, his companions and 
disciples* as it appeared to the popular imagination at the begin- 
mng of the fourteenth century. We have not to discuss the lit- 



erary value o\ this document, one of the most exquisite reli- 
gious works of the Mi<!d]e Ages, but it may be said that from 
the historic point of vie\v it does not deserve the neglect to 
which it has been left* 

'*Yel that which gives those stories an inestimable worth is 
what, for want of a better term, we may call their atmosphere. 
They are leg"endaryt worked over, exaggerated, false even^ if you 
please, but they give us, with a vivacity and intensity of color- 
ing, something that we shaJ! search for in vain elsewhere — the 
surroundings in which St, Francis lived. More than any other 
biography, the Ftoretti transport us to Umbria, to the motm- 
tains of the March of Ancon; they make us visit the hennitages, 
'dn<\ mingle with the life, half childish, half angelic, which was 
that of their inhabitants. 

"it is difficult to pronounce upon the name of the author. 
His work was only that of gathering the f1o\vers of his bouqiiet 
from WTJtten and oral tradition. The question whether he wrote 
in Latin or Italian has been much discussed, and appears to be 
not yet settled; what is certain is that though this work may 
be anterior to the Conformities, it is a little later than the Chron- 
icle of the Tribulations, for it would be strange that it made no 
mention of Angelo Ciareno, if it was written after his death. 

**The stories crowd one another in this book like flocks of 
memories that come upon us pell-mell, and in which insignifi- 
cant details occupy a larger place than the most important 
events: our memor>^ is. in fact, an overgrown chiid, and what 
it retains of a man is generally a feature, a word, a gesture, 

"It is easy to understand the success of the Fioretti. The 
people fell in love with these stories, in which St. Francis and 
his companions appear both more human and more divine than 
other legends; and they began ver}' soon to feel the need of so 
completing them as to form a veritable biography. 

'The second, entitled Life of Brother Gtnepro, is only indi- 
rectly connected with St. Francis; yet it deser\^es to be studied, 
for it offers the same kind of interest as the principal collection, 
lo which it is doubtless posterior. In these fourteen chapters 
we find the principal features of the life of this Brother, whose 
ma<I and saintly freaks still furnish ntaterial for conversation in 
Umbrian monasteries. These unpretending pages discover to 
tts one aspect of the Franciscan heart. The official historians 
have thought it their duty to keep silence upon this Brother, 
who, to them, appeared to be a supremely indiscreet personage, 
very much in the way of the good name of theOrder in the eyes 



of the laics. They were right from their point of view, but wc 
Bwe a debt of gratitude to the Fioretti for having presented for 
us this persofiaJity, so blithe, so modest, and with so arch a 
good nature. Certainly St. Francis was more like Ginipero than 
like Brother Elias or St, Bonaventura/* — Sabatier, p. 415. 

I have drawn from the book alluded to by Sabatier the fol- 
lowing legends of this Brother Ginipero, making my abstract 
as brief as possible to economize time and space, though by so 
doing the literary flavor of the original is hopelessly lost to you. 
It certainly is "an exquisite religious work." 

The narrative begins abruptly, as follows: "Brother Juni- 
per was one of the most elect disciples and first companions of 
St Francis, a man of deep humility, of great fervor and great 
chanty, of whom St. Francis, speaking on a time with his holy 
companions, said: 'He would be a good Brother Minor who 
had conquered himself and the world iike Brother Juniper.' " 

This is all by way of prelude. The brother thus introduced 
is taken rapidly through a series of episodes in his hfe that illns- 
irate his character. 

In the first legend he is visiting a sick man, and, all on lire 
with love and compassion, he asked, "Can I do thee any serv- 
ice?" The sick man replied. '*Much comfort would it give me 
H thon couldst get me a pig's trotter to eat." 

Brother Junipero rushes to a forest, seizes a pig, severs its 
foot. pre|>ares the morsel and presents it to the sick man. But 
while Brother Juniper, with *'great glee for to glad the heart 
of the sick man/' is telling him the tale of its capture, a different 
scene is being enacted: The owner who saw the mayhem of 
Ills pig. reports to his lord, and from thence hurries to the house 
of the brothers, whom he upbraids with a copious selection of 
choice epithets as hypocrites, thieves, liars, rogues, knaves, etc. 
St. Francis could not appease him. even though he ofiFered the 
man restitution, for he leaves in a rage, telling his woes to all 
be meets upon the road. 

St, Francis is shown as a student of human nature. He 
Leeps counsel and wonders if Brother Juniper be not the cul- 
prit *'in zeal too indiscreet/' so, secretly calling, he asks him* 
The brother, glorying in the deed, details the facts, and thinks 
100 pigs could be similarly sacrificed and yet he would say "well 
done.'* But St. Francis* level head, foreseeing the evil effect of 
the owner^s wrath, gently reprimands Brother Juniper, who now 
gioes forth ch^ged to apologize until the man is pacified. 

Juniper is unable to understand the nature of his wrong, "for 



it seemed to him these tcinporal things were naught save so 
far as men of their charity shared them with their neighbors." 

A doctrine certainly now objected to by the property owners 
md governing classes of our age and by those of the past as well. 

The man heaps abuse upon our brother^ who cannot under- 
stand why the owner should do so, for it seems to him a matter 
of rejoicing rather than wrath; but yet he rejoiced to be "ill 
spoken of." 

Once again the incredulous brother retells his tale, and by 
tears and caresses so works up the irate fellow that he capitu- 
^tes, and, conquered by the devotion and humility of Brother 
Juniper, kills his pig, cooks it and serves it to St. Francis at St. 
Mary of the Angels, The episode ends with the sentence that 
] think lodged in Father Serra's memory and influenced his 
life — '^A.nd St. Francis, pandering on the simplicity and .the 
patience of said holy Brther Juniper, in the hour of trial, said to 
his companions and others standing around, **Would to God 
my brothers that I had a whole forest of such Junipers.*' 

It is not my intention to give a full analysis of this valuable 
record, and I have given one chapter more in detail as a type of 
the rest than for any special interest attached to it beyond the 
closing sentence last quoted, and which is so pertinent to my 

Of the remaining chapters it must suffice for the limits of my 
paper to say that in each and every one Brother Juniper, out of 
many adventures, emerges more holy and beloved by all. I 
will now abstract a few narrations and anecdotes. 

A man afflicted with demons had a rational moment, be- 
cause. Juniper passing that way, the devils, by their owri con- 
fession, could not endure his holiness, and fled until he passed. 
After this, when an afflicted man was brought him, St. Francis 
would say, *'H thou come not out of this creature straight away, 
] will send for Brother Juniper to deal with thee*" A most 
efficacious threat, and far more sure of a cure than all the medi- 
cal science in our modern asyhams, if we are to believe this little 

The most detailed episode relates how this devil attempted 
revenge by assuming the guise of a peasant, and then in this 
form warning the tyrant Nicolas of a spy who will attempt his 
life. Says the wily devil : **He will com^ as a t>eggar, in gar- 
ments torn and patched, his cowl hanging all tattered on his 
shoulder, and he will bring with him an aul wherewith to kill 
you, and a tinder box to set fire to your castle/' 


picture shows Juniper silent for six months — the first day for 
love of God, the next for the Son, for the Holy Spirft, for th€ 
Virgin^ and then a saint for each succeeding day. Surely the 
li^ of saints did not give out, but presumably the brother s the- 
ory did, and he welcomed a change; else there might have been 
eternal silence and no more tales to chronicle. Once to abase 
himself, he made a bundle of his clothes and stood half naked 
the day in the market place of Niterbo. The description of the 
howling, taunting. mud-slinging:» rock-casting mob is quite 
vivid, as is also the fierce rage of his brothers, when they heard 
of it. They said he was a madman and deserved jail and hanging 
for the disgrace and ill repute brought upon the convent. And 
"Brother Juniper, full of joy, replied in all humility, 'Well and 
truly have you spoken, for these punishments am I worthy, and 
of much more.* *' 

Upon another occasion^ hearing of a festival to be held at 
Assisi. he stripped himself to his breeches, and so made the jour- 
ney to its convent. These brothers were for hanging him. and 
when the General reproved htm severely for the disgrace and 
ill repute he brought upon them, all, until he knew not what 
penance he could inflict, Juniper asked "Tliat in the same man- 
ner as I came hither, so for penance' sake T should return to the 
place whence I started for to come to this festival." ■ 

Such an utterly silly and illogical request carries its own f 
commentary; yet apparently his reputation for sanctity grew 
with each new episode. _ 

When a friend and brother died, he wished to go to the ■ 
grave, disinter the body, sever the head and from it make two 
porringers to use in his eating and drinking in memory of the 
deceased. Only his certain knowledge of the rage of his broth- 
ers at such an act prevented its accomplishment. 

At his devotions he was wrapped in ecstacies. He saw a hand 
in mid air and heard a voice say, "O, Brother Juniper, without 
this hand thou canst do nothing;*' and for days after he went 
about repeating in a loud voice^ " 'Tis true, indeed; 'tis true in- 

One episode is partly comic, though the writer meant it as 
£1 glorious recital It is long, and I brief it baldly. 

Visiting a monastery^ Juniper is asked to prepare food for 
the brothers' return. He plans to provide a week's rations at 
one cooking that more time may be had for prayer He begs 
cooking pots, provisions and fuel and begins. 

"Everything is thrown into the pots— flovis with their fca- 

"h^ originai, father juntpero 



clever just in proportion as he is able to baffle the opposing at- 
torney who asks for it. It is a matter that can be relegated to 
Hamlet's class of 'Hliings more honoretl iti the breach than in 
the observance/* and we who live in glass houses oug'ht to be 
tender with Brother Juniper, with his quibbles and white lies. 

Our Brother Juniper seems to have had no conception of 
private ownership, ^ving; away everything that came to his 
bands, or, more properly, what his hands came to, for be levied 
toll upon all until books, vestments and mantels were locked and 
guarded from him. 

The altar especially rich in decorations had a zealous guar- 
dian, who took much pride in an altar piece fringed with gold 
and set with silver bells of great price. While at the table» a 
sudden fear of Brother Juniper, who was at solitary worship, 
caused him to rush suddenly from the table. He was too late; 
3 woman had solicited alms, and the brother, meditatively say- 
ing, "These things are a superfluity, had cut them from the 
fringe and given them to the poor woman, '*for pity's sake," 
What follows is a delightful picture of a monastic tempest. We 
have details of the sacristan's rage, his search throughout the 
city for the fringe, the formal complaint to the Father General, 
who severely alludes to the sacristan's stupidity, he well know- 
ing Juniper's weakness^ but he adds, "Nevertheless, 1 will correct 
him well for this fault,*' 

Juniper is summoned, and the Father General is so lovingly 
true to his promise that eventually, from over-wrath, has to de- 
sist from hoarseness and inability to scold more. The brother, 
however, "cared little and well-nigh nothing for his words, for 
he took delight in insults whenever he was well abused, but in 
piety for the hoarseness of the General, he began to bethink him 
of a remedy/' Juniper wishes to cure the throat, so that he can 
be cured at great length. Next we find the remedy in process — 
a pottage of flour and butter. It is well into the monung hours 
when Juniper knocks at the Generars celh They have another 
scene, the irate General calhng him scoundrel and caitiff for dis- 
turbing him at that unseemly hour^ for how can he eat in semi- 
darkness? At last Jumper, in the simplicity of his heart, pro- 
poses that the General hold the candle while he (the brother) 
consumes the pottage, "that it be not wasted/' This breaks the 
Generars wrath. He is reconciled, and together **they twain 
eat the pottage of flour, by reason of his unfortunate charity, and 
they were refreshed much more by devotion than by the food/' 

Devotional acts were not neglected, and another side of the 




Absurd as many of the acts enumerated are now, they were 
the acts of so-called holy men, and the authors who wrote, and 
the people who read, saw only the deeds of saintly persons, fit 
to be held up for profitable imitation. 

If we lose sight of the fact that such recitals formed the basis 
and guide for preaching and practical living, and consider them 
merely as literature, we miss the key that unlocks the inner 
meaning of a past religion and life, just as surely as will the 
future historian misunderstand our age who one day writes of 
the nineteenth century Bil>Ie, considered purely as literature 
and not as the religious guide of the century under his critical 

The vital question is not how we judge the tales, but how 
Father Serra did. The problem of his life, to us, in the present 
inquin', lies in the sources from which he drew his inspinition. 
He lived according to his light, for be was not great enough 
like Wiclif to be a beacon for a waiting world. Father Serra was 
no "morning star of a Reformation. " He was a disciple, not a 
creator — spiritual within his narrow credulities, but not an orig- 
inator of his ideals. Through life until death he was zealous for 
the interests intrusted to him. and within the lines of his trust 
he brought such worthy characteristics into action that he was 
then and now a man among men in the history of the West, 

Yet in all this any sincere admirer of Serra sees his limita- 
tions, and reasoning from the causes of early piety and inspira- 
tions, can trace the effects of a highly de\^elopei:l belief in mira- 
cles and special providences that are to be opportunely furnished 
when unreasoning zeal had rendered a natural solution of diffi- 
culties incurred almost an impossibility. The man with a call on 
miracles does not have to look before he leaps, and the doctrine 
and its effects are often serious for the world. 

This book of tales must have proved a great comfort to one 
of Serra's temperament- He could read of men whoUy devoted 
lo their order — over-zealous, meek bevond reason ; almost sense- 
less in the extreme to which their emotional instincts led them — 
seeking martyrdom, assuming burdens^ mocked at and generally 
themselves inviting the occasion for trouble, yet, all in all .tri- 
umphing in each and every case of wild folly of conduct; revered 
by high and !ow. and at their death received among the saints 
by miracles so taxing nature that the episodes of Christ's cruci- 
fixion and resurrectian seem to pale beside the reversal of nat- 
ural laws called out to do honor to these dead. 

This, however, is dead issue with us, but when, in studying 



thers on and eggs in their shells, and all the rest in like fashion." 
The roaring fire burns him. He lashes a plank in front of his 
body, a.nd thus warded, skips and jumps from pot to pot in a fe- 
ver of earnestness. Brothers return, peep in and are lost in won- 
der. The summons comes for refreshment. Brother Juniper, all 
heated and flushed, serves his stew, and says, eat quickly that we 
may hasten to prayer. When the covers are lifted, the stew 
gives forth such a frightful odor that not a pig in the land of 
Rome could have eaten it. 

The brothers rage over the waste of so much food, and 
the guardian rebukes him for stupidity. When the evil is done, 
Juniper begins to see the eflfects of his unthinking acts, and 
with tears and lamentations begs that his eyes be put out or that 
he be hung for the waste to the Order committed. 

He hides for a day in shame. "Then, quoth the guardian, 
my brothers dear, if only we had it, I would that every day this 
brother spoiled as much as he hath today, if so we might be ed- 
ified, for great simpltcitv and charity have made him do this 

Upon a journey to Rome, our brother displayed another 
trait. People crowded from Rome to welcome and escort him 
to the convent of the Brothers Minor, but he wished to turn 
their devotion to scorn, and so we are told that upon the road 
''There were two children playing at see-saw, to witj they had 
put one log across another log and each sat at his own end and 
so went up and down," Brother Juniper, displacing one child, 
assumed its place upon the log. The people gather, salute and 

"And Brother Juniper paid little heed to their salutations, 
their reverence and their waiting for him, but took great pains 
with his see-sawing." Some thought him mad; others more 
devout than ever; but the crowd disperses and then Brother 
Juniper remained altogether comforted, because he had seen 
some folk that made a mock at him. So he went on bis way and 
entered Rome with all meekness and humility, and came to the 
convent of the Brothers Minor.** 

And here, for the limitations of time, we m-ust leave him, 
and even forbear critical comment upon the strange episodes 
enumerated. In this brief summary no attempt has been made 
to reproduce the genuine charm of the child-like narrative. 

As a guide for mod'em life, it may lapse into obscurity, but 
as a naive, unconscious picture of the p^t, it is worth more than 
a baJf contemptuous glance. 



[Read May 6, 1901] 

The story of the experiment made nearly fifty years ago, to 
utilize the Arabian camel as a beast of burden on the arid plains 
of Arizona, New Mexico and the deserts of the Colorado is 
one of the many unwritten chapters in the history of the South- 
west. A few fugitive locals in the newspapers of that time and 
the reminiscences of some of the camel drivers who survived the 
experiment are about the only records of a scheme that its pro- 
genitors had hoped would revolutionize travel and transporta- 
tion over the American deserts. The originator and chief pro- 
moter of the project was Jefferson Davis, late president of the 
Southern Confederacy. 

During the last days of the session of Confess in 185 1, 
when the army appropriation bill was under consideration, Mr. 
Davis, then Senator from Mississippi. ofTered an amendment 
providing for the purchase and introduction of 30 camels and 
20 dromedaries, with ten Arab drivers and the necessary equi- 

In advocating his amendment, Mr Davis alluded to the ex- 
tent to which these animals are used in various countries in Asia 
and Africa as beasts of burthen; and among other things stated 
that they are usetl by the in the East Indies in trans- 
porting army supplies and often in carrying light guns upon 
their hacks; that camels were used by Napoleon in his Egyptian 
campaigns in dealing with a race to which our wild Coman- 
ches and Apaches bear a close resemblance. Mr. Davis thought 
these animals might be used with effect against the Indians on 
our Western frontier. Drinking enough water before they start 
to last for one hundred miles; traveling continually without 
rest at a rate of ten or fifteen miles an hour, they would over- 
take these bands of Indians, which our cavalry cannot do. 

They might be made to transport small pieces of ordnance 
with great facility; and in fact do here all that they are capa- 


ble of doin^ in the East, where they are accustomed to eat the 
hardiest shrubs and to drink the same kind of brackish water 
which is stated to exist in some portions of our Western des- 
erts. Ewing of Ohio expressed the opinion that our climate 
was too cold for the camel, Mr Ranrtoul of Massachusetts had 
no doubt the camel might be useful, but thought $200 apiece 
sufficient to pay for the animals. 

The amendment was lost—ig yeas and 24 nays. The ap- 
propriation of $30*000 to buy camels with was a reckless extrav- 
agance that the Senators could not sanction. 

This was long before the days of billion dollar Congresses. 
The total appropriations for all purposes by that Congress was 
$41,900,000 — eight millions less than the appropriation of the 
River and Harbor bill alon-e that Senator Carter of Montana 
talked to death in the last Congress, 

Then the newspapers of California took up the scheme, and 
the more they agitated it. the mightier it became. They dem- 
onstrated that it was possible to form a lightning dromedary ex- 
press» to carry the fast mail and to bring eastern papers and let- 
ters to California in 15 days. 

It would be possible, too, if Congress could only be induced 
to import camels and dromedaries to have fast camel passenger 
trains from Missouri River points to the Pacific Coast. The 
camel, loading up his internal water tank out of the Missouri 
and striking straight across the country regardless of watering 
places, and boarding himself on sage brush the plain? across, 
would take his next drink of the trip out of the Colorado River; 
then after a quiet pasecer across the desert he would land his pas- 
sengers in the California coast towns in two weeks from the time 
of starting. Ko more running the gauntlet of Panama fevers 
and thieving natives on the isthmus. No more dying of thirst 
on the deserts. No freeizng to death in the snows of the Sierras; 
no more shipwrecks on the high seas* The double-decked camel 
train would do away with all these and solve the transportation 
problem until the Pacific railroad was built. 

Although beaten in his first attempt at camel importation, 
Jefferson Davis kept his scheme in view. While Secretr-ry of 
War under President Pierce from 1853 to 1857 he obtained re- 
ports from army officers stationed on the Southwestern frontier 
in regard to the loss of animals on the plains — the cost of trans- 
portation of array supplies and the possibility of utilizing the 
camel in hunting Indians. These reports were laid before Con- 
gress and that body authorized the sending out of a commission 



from San Antonio, Texas, to Arizona to ascertain the military 
uses to which camels could be put in the Southwest. The com- 
mission made a favorable reiwrt and Congress in 1854 appropri- 
ated $30,000 for the purchase and importation of camels. 

In December, 1854, Major C. Wayne was sent to Eg>'pt and 
Arabia to buy seventy-five camels. He bought the first lot in 
Cairo and taking these in the naval store ship "Supply/' he 
sailed to Smyrna, where thirty more of another kind were 
bought. These had been used on the Arabian deserts. They 
cost from seventy-five to three hundred dollars each, some\vhat 
more than had been paid for the Egyptian lot. The ship ''Sup- 
ply" with its load of camels reached Indiaiiola, Texas, on the 
Gulf of Mexico. Feb. 10, 1857. Three had died during the voy- 
age, leaving seventy-two in the herd. 

About half of these were taken to Albuquerque, New Mex- 
ico, where an expedition was fitted out under command of Lieut, 
Beale for Fort Tejon, California, The route lay along the 35th 
parallel, crossing the Mojave desert. The expedition consisted 
of 44 citizens, with an escort of 20 soldierSj the camels carrying 
the baggage and water 

The expedition arrived safely at Tejon and the camel caravan 
made several trips between Fort Tejon and Albuquerque. The 
other half of the herd was employed in packing on the plains 
of Texas and m the Gadsen Purchase, as Southern Arizona was 
then called. 

The first caravan to arrive in Los Angeles reached the city> 
Jan, 8, 1858. The Star thus notes its arrival: 

"A drove of fourteen camels under the management of Lieut. 
Beale arrived in Los Angeles. They were on their way from 
Fort Tejon to the Colorado River and the Mormon country, and 
each animal was packed with one thousand pounds of provisions 
and military- stores. With this load they made from 30 to 40 
miles per day, finding their own subsistance in even the most 
barren country and going without water from six to ten days at 
a time." 

Again, the Star of July 21, 1858, makes note that "the 
camels have come to town." It says: "The camels, eight in 
number, came into town fromi Fort Tejon, after provisions 
for that camp. The largest ones pack a ton and can travel six- 
teen miles an hour." 

It would seem that a beast of burden that could pack a ton, 
travel sixteen miles an hour, subsist on sage brush and go from 
six to ten days cm on-e drink would have supplied most effectu- 



ally the long-felt want of cheap and rapid transportation over 
the d-esert plains of the Southwest* The promoters of the 
scheme, to utilize the camel in America, made one fatal mis- 
take. They ftgured only on his virtues; his vices were not 
reckoned into the account. 

Another mistake they made was in not importing^ Arab 
drivers with the camels. From the very first meeting- of the 
camel and the American mule-whacker who was to be his driver 
there developed between the two a mutual antipathy. 

To be a successful camel driver, a man must be bom to the 
business. Indeed, he must come of a guild or trade union of 
camel drivers at least a thousand years old; and, better still, if 
it dates back to the days of Abraham and Isaac. The first disa- 
greement between the two was in the matter of language. The 
vig-orous invective and fierce profanity of the quondam mule- 
driver irritated the rentes and shocked the finer feelings of the 
camel, who never in his life, perhaps, had heard anything more 
strenuous than "Allah, el Allah '^ lisped in the softest Arabic. 

At first the mild submissiveness of the camel provoked his 
drivers. They could appreciate the vigorous kicking of an army 
mule in his protest against abuse. But the spiritless dejection 
and the mild-eyed pensiveness of the Arabian burden-bearer was 
exasperating; but they soon learned that in pure meanness one 
lone camel could discount a whole herd of mules. His sup- 
posed virtues proved to be his worst vices. He could travel 
i6 miles an hour. Abstractly that was a virtue; but when camp 
was struck in the evening and he was turned loose to sup off 
the succulent sage brush, either to escape the noise and pro- 
fanity of the camp or to view^ the country, he was always seized 
with a desire to take a pasear of twenty-live or thirty miles 
before supper. While this only took an hour or two of his 
time, it involved upon his cnfortunate driver the necessity of 
spending half the night in camel chaffing; for if he was not 
rounded up there was a delay of half the next day in starting 
the caravan. He could carry a ton— this was a commendable 
virtue- — but when two heavily laden *'ships of the desert" col- 
lided on a narrow trail, as they always did when an opportunity 
cflfered, and tons of supplies were scattered over miles of plain 
and the unfortunate camel pilots had to gather up the flotsam 
of the wreck; it is not strange that the mariners of the arid 
wastes anathmctized the whole camel race from the benst the 
prophet rode, down to the smallest imp of Jefferson Davis's im- 



The aniiy horses and mules &hared the antipathy of the 
drivers for ihe Arabian desert trotters. Whenever one of the 
humpbacked burden bearers of the Orient came trotting along 
past a corral of horses and lifted his voice in an evening; orison 
to Mahommed or some other Turk, every horse of the caballada 
^•as seized with fright and broke loose and stampeded over the 

All of these little eccentricities did not endear the camel 
to the soldiers of Uncle Sam's army. He was hated, despised 
and often persecuted. In vain the officers urged the men to 
give the camels a fair trial No one wanted anything to do vi^ith 
the misshapen beast. The teamsters when transformed into 
camel drivers deserted and the troopers when detailed for such 
a purpose fell back on their reserved rights and declared their 
was nothing in army rules and regulations that could compel 
American soldiers to become Arabian camel drivers. So because 
there was no one to load and navigate these ships of the desert 
their voyages became less and less frequent, until finally they 
ceased altogether; and ihe desert ships were anchored at the 
different forts in the Southwest. 

It became evident to the army officers that the camel experi- 
ment was a failure. Every attempt to organize a caravan re- 
sulted in an incipient mutiny among the troopers and teamsters^ 
No attempt, so far as I know, was ever made to utilize the camel 
for the purpose that Davis imported him — that of chasing the 
Apache to his stronghold and shooting the Indian full of holes 
from light artiller>' strapped on the back of a cameL Instead 
of the camel hunting the Indian, the Indian hunted the camel. 
In some way poor Lo's untutored appetite had learned to love 
camel steaks and stews. So, whenever an opportunity ofleredi 
the Apaches killed the camels; but the camel soon learned to 
hate and avoid the Indian, as all living things learn to do. Some 
were allowed to die of neglect by their drivers; others were sur- 
reptitiously shot by the troopers sent to hunt them up when 
they strayed away — the trooper claiming to have mistaken the 
wooly tufts on the top of the twin humps of the camel as they 
bobbed up and down in the tall sage brush, for the top'knot of 
an Indian, and in self-defense to have sent a bullet crashing, not 
into an Indian, but into the anatomy of a camel. 

At the breaking out of the Civil War, some thirty-five or 
forty of the camel band were herded at the United States forts — 
Verde, EI Paso, Yuma and some of the smaller posts in Texas. 
When the Eastern forts were abandoned by the government 



the camels were turned loose to take care of themselves. Those 
at Ynma and Fort Tejon were taken to Benicia, condemned 
and sold at auction to the highest bidder. They were bought 
by two Frenchmen who took them to Reese River, Nevada, 
where they were used in packing salt to Virginia City. After- 
wards they were taken to Arizona and for some time they were 
used in packing ore from the Silver King mine down the Gila 
to Yuma, But even the Frenchmen's patience gave out at last. 
Disgusted with their liunch-backed burden bearers, they turned 
the whole herd loose upon the desert near Maricopa Wells. 

Free now to 1^0 where they pleasetK instead of straying away 
beyond the reach of cruel man^ the camels seemed posessed with 
a desire to linger near the haunts of men. They stayed near the 
line of the overland travel and did mischief. The apparition of 
one of these ungainly beasts suddenly looming up before the 
vision of a team of mules frightened the long-eared quadrupeds 
out of all their senses; so they ran away, scattering freight and 
drivers over the plains. The mule drivers, out of revenge, shot 
the camels whenever they could get in range of them. In 1882 
several wild camels were caught in Arizona and sold to a mena- 
gerie* but a few have survived all enemies and still roam at large 
in the desert regions of Southern Arizona and Sonora, Mex. 
The Tnternattonal Boundary Commission that recently surveyed 
the line between the United States and Mexico, reported see- 
ing wild camels on the alkali plains amid sage brush and cactus. 
These are probably descendants of the imported ones, as those 
seen appeared to be in their prime. OccacionaJly the soldiers 
in the garrisons of New Mexico and Arizona catch sight of 
a few wild camels on the alkali plains. All reports agree that 
the animals have grown white Avitb age. Their hides have as- 
sumetl a hard leathery appearance and they are reported to have 
hard prong hoofs, unlike the cushioned feet of the well-kept 
came!. Whether these are some of the survivors of the original 
importation brought into the country nearly fifty years ago, 
I or whether their descendents are gradually being evolved 

I to meet the conditions with which they are surrounded, I do 

I not know. 




(Read Nov. 4, 1901.) 

We have read considerable of late about the influence of 
the Japanese current upon our climate and of the possible ef- 
fects from a, deflection of it from its accustomed course 
One writer lately claims to have discovered that ow- 
ing to seismic disturbances to the east and north of 
Japan that the current is turned southward five hun- 
dred miles from its usual path. This, of course, brings 
it to our shores at a higher temjjerature than it would have, 
had it (lov,^ farther north to meet tlie cold currents (as it 
usually does) that flow out of Bchrjng; sea, and being' warmer 
will cause more humidity in the atmosphere, more rain on land, 
larger crops on the farms, more money in the pockets of the 
people, making necessaries easier and luxuries possible, life bet* 
ter and a higher civilization for alt the people, all flowing from 
a casual earthquake in the west Pacific Ocean. This may be 
a fanciful conclusion, but if the earthquake did happen, and the 
current was defiectefU all these things arc easily possible as a 
result of that simple event. 

The summer trade winds blowing shoreward from the north- 
west, and they alone make this country comfortably habitable 
during the summer. Next to the winter rains these winds are 
the most valuable of our climatic assets, yet these same winds 
were without doubt the most potent factor of delay in the set- 
tlement of the country after its discovery and exploration by 
the Spaniards, 

California was known to the maritime nations more than 
400 years ago. The Spanish, the Portuguese and the English 
knew of its salubrity and many of its natural resources, and 
that its settlement would be practically without opposition from 
aboric^ines. yet the English planted their colonies in India, the 
Spanish theirs on the west coast of South America and in the 
tropical Ph'*' ' Dutch in Sumatra and Java, while 

Califr Mexico than any other of its 

Pj= ty at one side, and its settle- 


ment never attempted — that is to say, the usual Spanish settle- 
ment was not attempled; for the missionary invasion of 1769 
was not for commercial aggrandizement nor for gold or trade^ 
for as long as the Missions existed trade was discouraged and 
isolation courted. It can be demonstrated that the beneficent 
Northwest summer trad-es had much to do with this stale of af- 
fairs. Just think of it, in 1578 Sir Francis Drake landed in 
California just north of San Francisco; Raleigh had not yet 
sailed on his first voyage to Virginia, and nine-tenths of the Pil- 
grims wht^ afterward landed on Plymouth Hock, had not yet 
been bom. But 2^ years before this, in 1542, Cabrillo, the Span- 
ish explorer, had discovererl and named many bays and islands 
including Cape Mendocino and the Farralone Islands. The 
Monks in the Philippines were thrifty and soon developed a 
large trade with Spain, a large part of which passed through 
Mexico. Their westbound vessels left Acapulco and kept in a sea 
lane between latitude to° and 15° N„ thus getting the benefit 
of the westerly tropic breeze and returned at about latitude 35° 
to 37*^ North to get the benefit of the northwest trades. They 
thus sighted California near San Francisco, from whence they 
coasted down to Acapulco. There the cargo was transferred 
by mules to Vera Cruz and thence by sail to Spain. This 
trade was of great magnitude, as evidenced by the fact that 
Anson, an English commodore, in 1742 took one of the vessels 
engaged in this trade and realized $1,500,000 in coin from the 
single transaction. The vessels were half men-of-war and half 
merchantman, but wholly lazy, as it usually took six months to 
make one way of the voyage, and scurvy was almost invariably 
present at the close of the trip. They were improvident, as wit- 
nessed by their dependence for drinking water, upon catching 
rain water en route. 

This trade was carried on for centuries. The Spanish ves- 
sels engaged in it and the British pirates that preyed upon it 
drifted along our coasts for hundreds of miles and no doubt 
prior to the Missions, the entrance oF San Francisco Bay was in 
view from, the decks of more than a hundred of these vessels 
\hat passed it lazily to the South. 

The Count of Monterey, then Viceroy of Mexico, under the 
direction of the King, sent out an expedition in charge of Se- 
bastian Viscayno. that landed at Monterey and named the place, 
on December i6th, 1602. and there is no record or tradition, 
oral or written, that it was again visited by a white man for 168 



The vessels engaged in California exploration by the Span- 
ish were mostly constructed at Acapulco, and the Northwest 
trade wind seems to have been an almost insuperable obstacle 
to their coasting north, as there was hardly a vessel so engaged, 
however well equipped and provisioned, but that landed its men 
in California in ill health and generally afflicted with scurvy* 
Even the iate expedition of Junipero Serra had much trouble 
to gel even as far north as San Diego, their first landing place 
in Alta California, 

In 1769 the history of white men in California began, and 
in the expedition of the Franciscan friars of that year was wafted 
to the shores of California the last ripple of the wave of Spanish 
conquest that for two himdre^l years had rolled along the shores 
of the Pacific, The story of their effort, the establishment and 
decline of the Missions is famitiar. Tlieir efforts, as such, wxre 
appreciated at their full worth, and the Mission buildings that 
still remain are held in proper regard as interesting survivors of 
a curious incident in our history^ but the enterprise with all its 
effort, had little influence upon civilization. 

Sixteen years after the first voyage of Serra, La Perouse, a 
celebrated French explorer, came to Monterey in the month 
of September, 1786, and made a ten days' stay; he was a Cath- 
olic, and carried credentials that gained him the co-operation 
of the Fathers in securing all possible information concerning 
the country; of course, the Mission was the country. All their 
methods were the most primitive and laborioiis, and he pre- 
sented the Mission with a small hand-mill for grinding corn, 
which was for many years the only mill of any kind in Cali- 

In November, 1792, George Vancouver dropf>ed anchor in 
San Francisco Bay. La Peronse and Vancouver, besides the 
Mission Fathers, were the only recorded visitors to California 
after Drake, and before the beginning of the 19th century, 
Menzies, the celebrated naturalist, whose name is inseparably 
interwoven in the nomenclature of California flora* accompanied 

They were hospitably received and given opportunity for 
observation, and their narrative corroborates La Perouse as 
to the primitive conditions that prevailed among the converts 
at the Missions, Vancouver spent the following year explor- 
ing the coast to the northward, and on his return was received 
coldly, the haibtual jealousy of race overcoming the natural 
hospitality of the Spanish fathers. 



For fourteen years after this visit, the pious Franciscans of 
San Francisco and Monterey saw no foreign ships, They had 
no occasion for fear of invasion and contamination. Then in 
March, 1806, the Russian ship Juno came to San Francisco for 
supplies for the Russian settlement at Sitka, then in a starving 
condition. Langsdorff, an ofl^icer of the expedition, wrote the 
best detailed account of California as it then existed that was 
ever written. Tlie jealousy of foreigners prevented their land- 
ing for son>e lime. The Spanish had notice that two Russian 
vessels would call, and the authorities had been directed to re- 
ceive them courteously, and the Russian commander of this 
expedition with the usual Russian diplomacy, by shrewdly rep- 
resenting- that he came instead of the expected vessels, secured 
for himself the courtesies reserved for them, and was allowed 
to purchase provisions and make repairs. While their ship was 
thus lying in the Bay, Langsdorff and two men tried to make 
the San Jose Mission in a small boat; after many hardships they 
'got back to the ship, barely escaping death, Langsdorflf says 
that there was not a single Spanish boat on San Francisco Bay, 
that they knew nothing at all of the North and East shore of 
the bay from lack of facilities for crossing the bay. That part 
of the country accessible on foot they never explored, and had 
no knowledge of» except such as was derived from the excuf' 
sions of the soldiers who went into the interior hunting for 

On these pious crusades the soldiers had penetrated to the 
East and South as far as the San Joaquin River, which they dis- 

These outposts of Spian were truly afar off — it took two 
months by courier from Mexico, though the route and stations 
for the entire distance were kept by the military, and the Euro- 
pean news that the courier brought was six months old when 
they started with it. Langsdorff comments on this isolation 
and upon the filthy vermin and general misery with which the 
converts were inflicted, he says that the monks complained of 
the Tn(h"an converts, that as soon as one gpt sick he became 
despondent, and was hard to do for. The only medicines pos- 
sessed by the monks were emetics and cathartics, which they 
reserved exclusively for themselves. 

On October 1st, 1816, Kotzebue, another distinguished Ris- 
sian, entered San Francisco Bay and stayed a month for repairs. 
He is authority for the statement that at that time trading ves- 
sels were not allowed at the ports of San Francisco and Mon- 
terev. He came again in 1824. 



Between his two visits, California, with Mexico, had de- 
clared its independence of Spain, and from lack of support of 
the imipertal ami, the Mission Fathers had lost prestige, the con* 
trol of the soldiers and many of their converts, all of which con- 
tributed to one of those opera bouffe incidents that seem to 
happen only in Spanish-ridden countries or in China. As 
Kotzebue passed the fort, he noticed that all of the populace 
were out, and that all of the military in full regimentals were 
in attendance on the guns and under arms in battle array. In 
their honor he fired a salute^ which^ to his amazement, was not 
returned. Shortly a boat put off from the shore containing an 
officer, who, being- taken aboard, begged that he be supplied 
with powder (of which the garrison had none) sufficient to re- 
turn the salute. This incident fairly illustrates the comic opera 
phase of military operations of that period^ which is so strongly 
characteristic o^ all the Spanish troops that were in California 
from the foundation of the missions to the Mexican war. 

Kotzebiie observed and remarked the utter lack of people in 
the countr)\ He saw not a single canoe on this voyage; but 
some of hife remarks about the future of the country seem pro- 
phetic* He says: *'It has hitherto been the fate of these re- 
gions, like modest merit or humble virtue, to remain unnoticed* 
but posterity will do them justice. Towns and cities will here- 
after flourish where all is now desert; the waters over which 
scarcely a solitary boat is seen to glide will reflect the flags of 
all nations, and a happy, prosperous people receiving with 
thankfulness what prodigal nature bestows for thetr use, will 
disperse her treasures over every part of the world.'* He also 
speculated on what great use the country would be to Russia. 
He landed on Goat Island, and claims (as he probably was) that 
he was the first white man to set foot thereon. He went down 
and examined the Santa Clara Mission, noted the convent where 
the Indian girls were kept, how the girls were married off, and 
generally condemned the missions as cruelly oppressing the 

The Commandante of San Diego, Don Jose Maria Etsudillo, 
and a small party went with him to the Russian settlement of 
Bodega, and from there made the first recorded expedition into 
Marin county's interior. He says that to the east of the Russian 
settlement was a large valley known as White Man*s Valley, 
the Indians relating that years before a ship had been wrecked 
and the survivors had gone into the interior, where they lived 
for years at ararity with the Indians. On this trip Estudillo 


told him that the cavalry supplied the converts by going into 
the mountains and capturing with a lasso such free heathen as 
seemed lusty and worth keeping. 

Kotzebue spent two months ia San Francisco Bay, He 
went up it as far as the Sacramento, and seems to have fully 
appreciated the beauties and value of that wonderful sheet of 
water. With this expedition was the botanist, Escholtz, after 
whom the golden yellow California poppy was named. 

After the Mexican revolution, California ports, instead of 
repelling trade, invited it; but for years it seemed to have 
been considered by Europeans and Americans living on the 
Atlantic coast as the most distant and impossible of all coun- 
tries, China, India and the South Sea islands were familiar 
ground to Yankees compared with California as late as the war 
of 1812, and to have been to California was a passport to won- 
dering admiration in any comnmmity. In the years immedi- 
ately following 1824, many adventurous spirits visited and ex- 
plored California. The first of these was Jedidiah S. Smith* 
who, commencing in 1825, made two trips into and through 
California. In one of these he traversed the State from San 
Gabriel to the Oregon. 

Edmund Randolph, in an oration delivered to California 
pioneers at San Francisco in i860, spoke eloquently or Smith 
and his accamplishments* He shortly afterward received a 
letter from a Mr. Sprague, who then lived in Nevada, who said 
he knew Smith; that although he had lived for many years on 
the farthest frontier, he was a man of education, a linguist, a 
man of sentiment, refinement and great force of character, and 
that in 1825. in returning to Salt Lake from San Diego, Smith's 
party had discovered fine placer gold deposits in California, at 
what he thinks is now Inyo county. Smith was an adventur- 
ous trapper and explorer, a close and scholarly observer. He 
made copious notes, and many maps of the country he explored. 
These he sent, as opportunity offered, to St. Louis, intending 
to publish a narrative of his travels; but all this data was de- 
stroyed by fire, and he was soon after killed by Indians. Many 
lovers of the natural sciences came into the country after Smith. 
David Douglas^ a rare soul, by his gun, won his Hving from 
the interior mountains and valleys of California for five years. 
From 1S26 to 1831, he explored the almost impenetrable fast- 
nesses of its great Sierras, ranging from the Santa Lucias at 
Monterey to the Columbia and its tributaries. He discovered 
and classified many new plants and trees — Pinus-Sabiniana, and 



Finus Grandus, among others, were contributed by him, Doug- 
las, in all his wanderings in California, was accompanied by a 
f-ersistent little Scotch terrier. Taking his dog with him, he 
started on his return to England via the Sandwich Islands. 
There he strayed away from port one day and fell into a pit 
that had been constructed by the natives to trap the native 
wild cattle. Into this, before him, had fallen a wild bull. The 
terrier, still his companion, by his distressed howling, discov- 
ered Douglas to his friends. They found him in the pit, gored 
and trampled out of all semblance to man by the infuriated bull 
In 1831, before leaving California, Douglas met Dn Thomas 
Coulter, who was in the country on the same errand, having 
penetrated it from Central America, 

Coulter traveled and explored California from the Sacra- 
mento to the south line of the State. Tlie pine bearing the 
heaviest cone of all pines perpetuates his name. 

In 1826 Beechy, in command of H, M, ship Blossom, visited 
San Francisco Bay and surveyed it as far as Benicia, He was 
struck with the beauty of the bay, and wrote such a favorable 
and glowing account of it as to greatly excite British cupidity. 

Sir Edward Belcher, who was with Beechy, in 1837 returned 
in another British ship, and again attempted a survey of the 
bay and the Sacramento river as far as the San Joaquin. Al- 
though he had a soldier with him who had formerly hunted that 
part of the country^ for converts, they did not find the San 
Joaquin, and hence he would not believe it existed. 

In 1841, Commodore Wilkes, with a U. S, squadron, came 
to California, His report of that voyage is familiar to all stu- 
dents of California history. The British, who had had an eye 
on the country since 1824, caller! at Monterey in force in 1846; 
but it had already fallen into the hands of America. 


Pioneers of Los Angeles County 

I 90 I -1902 


Henry D. Barrows^ George W. HazarDj 

Louis Roedeh^ Wm> H. Workman^ 

James M. Guinn, J. W. Gillette. 
M, F, QoiNN, 


Henry D. Barrows. ,.. ..President 

M- F. QuiNN First Vice-President 

George W. Hazard .,..,...,....,. ,., ..Second Vice-President 

LoLns RoEDER Treasurer 

J. M. GuTNN , * Secretary 

Mathew Teedf Robert McGakvin, Jerry Newujl, 


Will D. Gould, J. M. Stewart, * E. K. Green. 


B. S. Eaton, Wm, H- Workman, J, M, GcnwN, H. D. Barrows. 
Mrs. Laura Evertsen King. 


Louis Roedeji, H, W. Stoll, J. C. Dotteb. 

N. Mercadante, Mrs. VtRcrNtA Whisler Davis. 


Mrs. Mary Frankuk, Mrs. Dora Eilderbeck, Mrs. Ellen G. Teed^ 
Mrs* HARRrET S, Perry, Mrs. Emm.a E. Hehwig, George W. Hazard^ 

J, VV. Gillette. 



[Adopted September 4, 1897.] 


This society shall be known as The Pion^rs of Los Angdea 
County. Its objects are to cultivate social intercourse and 
friendship among its members and to collect and presence the 
early history of Los Angeles county, and perpetuate the mem- 
ory of those who, by their honorable labors and heroism, helped 
to make that history. 


All persons of good moral character, thirty-five years of age 
or over, who, at the date of their application, shall have resided 
at kast twenty-five years in Los Angeles county, shall be eligi- 
ble to membership; and also all persons of good moral char- 
acter fifty years of age or over, who have resided in the State 
forty years and in the country ten years previous to their appli- 
cation, shall be eligible to become n>embers. Persons bom in 
this State are not eligible to membership, but those admitted 
before the adoption of this amendment shall retain their mem- 
bership, (Amended September 4, 1900.) 

The officers of this society shall consist of a board of seven 
directors, to be elected annually at the annual meeting, by the 
members of the society. Said directors when elected shall 
choose a president, a first vice-president, a second vice-president, 
a secretary and a treasurer. The secretary and treasurer may 
be elected from the members outside the Board of Directors, 


The annual meeting of this society shall be held on the 
Tuesday of September, The anniversary of the foun 'i ■ 
the society shall be the fourth day of September, that bi 
anniversary of the first civic settlement in the 50"**— ^ 
of Alta California, to wit, the founding of th- 
Angeles, September 4, 1781. 




Metnbers guilty of misconduct may, upon conviction after 
proper investigation has been held, be expelled, suspended, fined 
or reprimanded by a vote of two-thirds of the members present 
at any stated meeting; provided, notice shall have been given to 
the society at least one month prior to &uch intended action. 
Any officer of this society may be removed by the Board of 
Directors for cause; provided, that such removal shall not be- 
come permanent or final until approved by a majority of mem- 
bers of the society present at a stated meeting and voting. 

Amendments to this constitution may be made by submit- 
ting the same in writing to the society at least one month prior 
to the annual meeting. At said annual meeting said proposed 
amendments shall be submitted to a vote of tl^e society. And 
if two-thirds of all the members present and voting shall vote 
in favor of adopting said amendments, then they shall be de- 
clared adopted, (Amended September 4, 1900, 



[Adopted September 4, 1897; amended June 4, 1891.] 

Section i. Applicants for membership in this society 
shall be recomrnended by at least two members in good stand- 
ing. The applicant shall give his or her full name, age* birth- 
place, present residence^ occupation, date of his or her arrival 
in the State and in Los Angeles county. The application must 
be accompanied by the admission fee of one dollar, which shall 
also be payment in full for dues until the next annual meeting. 

Section 2. Applications for admission to membership in 
the society shall be referred to the committee on membership, 
for investigation, and reported on at the next regular meeting 
of the society. If the report is favorable, a ballot shall be taken 
for the election of the candidate. Three negative votes shall 
cause the rejection of the applicant. 

Section 3. Each person, on admission to meml?ership, shall 
sign the Constitution and By-Laws. 

Section 4. Any person eligible to membership may be 
elected a h*fe member of this society on the payment to the 
treasurer of SzK. Life members shall 



of active members, but shall not be required to pay annual dues. 
Section 5. A member may withdraw from the society by 
giving notice to the society of his desire to do so, and paying 
all dues charged against him up to the date of his withdrawal. 


Section 6, The annual dues of each member (except life 
members) shall be one dollar, payable in advance, at the annual 
meeting in September. 

Section 7, Any member delinquent one year in dues shall 
be notified by the secretary of said delinquency, and unless said 
dues are paid within one month after said notice is given, then 
said member shall stand suspended from the society. A mem- 
ber may be reinstated on payment of all dues owing at the date 
of his suspension. 


Section 8. Tlie president shall preside, preserve order and 
decorum during the meetings and see that the Constitution and 
By-Laws and rules of the society are properly enforced; appoint 
all committees not otherwise provided for; fill all vacancies tern** 
porarily for the meeting. The president shall have power to 
suspend any officer or member for cause, subject to the actioa 
of the society at the next meeting. 

Section 9. In the absence of the president, one of the vicc^ 
presidents shall preside, with the same power as the president, 
and if no president or vice-president be present, the society shall 
elect any member to preside temporarily. 

Section 10. The secretary shall keep a true record of all 
the members of the society; and upon the death of a member 
fwhen he shall have notice of such death) shaJl have published 
in two daily papers of Los Angeles the time and place of the 
funeral; and, in conjunction with the president and other officers 
and members of the society, shall make such arrangements with 
the approval of the relatives of the deceased as may be necessary 
for the funeral of the deceased member. The secretary shall 
collect all dues, giving his receipt therefor; and he shall turn 
over to the treasurer all moneys collected, taking his receipt for 
the same, 

He shall make a full report at the annual meeting, setting 
forth the condition of the society, its membership^ receipts, dis- 
bursements, etc. 

He shall receive for his services such compensation as the 
Board of Directors may allow. 



Section II. The treasurer shall receive from the secretary 
all moneys paid to the society and give his receipt for the same, 
and shall pay out the money only upon the order of the society 
upon a warrant signed by the secretary and president, and at the 
end of his term shall pay over to his successor all moneys 
remaining in his hands, and render a true and itemized account 
to the society of all moneys received and paid out during his 
term of office. 

Section 12, It shall be the duty of the finance committee 
to examine the books of the secretary and treasurer and any 
other accounts of the society that may be referred o them, and 
report the same to the society. 


Section 13. The president, vice-presidents, secretar)' and 
treasurer shall constitute a relief committee, whose duty it shall 
be to see that sick or destitute members are properly cared for. 
In case of emergency, the committee shall be empowered to ex- 
pend for immediate relief an amount from the funds of the soci- 
ety not to exceed $20, without a vote of the society. Such expen- 
diture, with a statement of the case and the necessity for the 
expenditure shall be made to the society at its next regular 

Section 14. At the first meeting after the annual meeting 
each year, the president shall appoint the following standing 
com^mittees: Tbree on membership; three on finance; five on 
program; five on music; five on general good of the society, and 
seven on entertainment. 


Section 15. Whenev^er a vacancy in any office of this soci- 
ety occurs, it shall be filled by election for the unexpired term. 

Section 16. The stated meetings of this society shall be 
held on the first Tuesflay of each month, and the annual meeting 
shall be held the first Tuesday of September. Special meetings 
may be called by the president or by a majority of the Board 
of Directors, but no business shall be transacted at such special 
meetings except that specified in the calh 

Section 17. These By-Laws and Rules may be temporarily 
suspended at any regular meeting of the society by unanimous 
vote of the members present. 

Section 18. Whenever the Board of Directors shall be satis- 
fied that any worthy member of this society is unable, for the 



time being, to pay the annual dues as hereinbefore prescribed, 
it shall have power to remit the same. 

Section 19. Changes and amendments of these By-Laws 
and Rules may be made by submitting- the same in writing to 
the society at a stated meeting. Said amendment shall be read 
at two stated meetings before it is submitted to a vote of the 
society. If said amendment shall receive two-thirds of the 
votes of all the members present and voting, then it shall be de- 
clared adopted. 

Ordhk. of Business. 


Reading minutes of previous meeting. 

Reports of committee on membership. 

Election of new members. 
Reading of applications for membership. 


Reminiscences, lectures, addresses, etc. 

Music or recitations. 

Recess of 10 minutes for payment of dues. 

Unfinished business. 

New business. 

Reports of committees. 

Election of officers at the annual meeting or to fill vacancies. 


Is any member in need of assistance? 

Good of the society. 

Receipts of the evening. 



[Tuesday, October i, 1901,] 

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Pioneer Society: 

In assuming the duties of president for the current year of 
the society's existence, I desire, first of all. to express my thanks 
and appreciation of the honor that has been conferred on me 
by my election as the presiding o-fificer of this honorable body. 

For, I assure you, that, though the duties of the office, if 
properly and faithfully performed, are somewhat onerouSj and 
would seem to require the services of a younger and more active 
man than I am; nevertheless, the honor that attaches to the 
position is one that any member might be justified in coveting. 

And. in this connection, I cannot forbear remarking that, in 
my opinion — in which I am sure you will all concur — much of 
the prosperity and success of our society have been the result 
of the faithful and active work of our associate, who, during 
the last three years, has served as your presiding officer. If I 
can serve you anywhere near as well, during the next one year, 
I shall be content. 

I have thought that the present is a fitting occasion on which 
to offer some observations concerning the aim and scope of our 
Pioneer Society, and to snggest the best means, so far as I may, 
of realizing the same. 

Our society has come to seem like one large family, bound 
together by strong ties analogous to those which bind together 
an ordinary family. Our bond of union extends back 25 years 
or more — and in some cases, 30. 40 and 50 years — to times 
when we were neighbors, and more or less intimate friends — or 
perhaps even only distant acquaintances — in a community and 
amidst surroundings in many respects vastly different from 
those in which we now live. For, probably in few cities in the 
United States, have such great changes occurred as in Los An- 
geles during the same period of time 

When, as a large family of former neighbors, we meet; or 
when we meet each other on the street or elsewhere, we in- 
stinctively are remanded of former times and of a former world, 
in wliich we — each one of us — were actors, and of scenes and 
associations with companions and dear friends or near relatives, 



who long ago passed away, leaving to us, now reduced to a 
comparatively small band, the privilege of cherishing their 
memof)', and of living over again a former life, which then was 
in fact so real, but which now almost seems like a dream. 

It is indeed a source of genuine pleasure, in these, our 
monthly meetings, to renew and cultivate our acquaintanceship 
of former years, and to learn to know each other better and 
better as the end of life's drama for each of us draws near 

Only a few days ago I met an old friend (Col, I. E, Mess- 
more), and an old man- — though he is not a meinber of our so- 
ciety — who stopped and saluted me, saying. *AVhenever I see 
you, I have a kindly feeling towards you and desire to extend a 
friendly greeting/' The cordial, and. as T believed, entirely sin- 
cere manner in which he said ihis^ gave me great pleasure; and 
T instantly responded, and with perfect truth: 'That's exactly 
the way I feel towards yon." 

In the renewal, in this society, of our old acquaintanceship, 
we have come lo have, more and more, a ''kindly feeling** for 
each other. Let us, in every way we can, encourage and stimu- 
late that friendly feeling. 

And one of many wavs in which this can be done is bv giv- 
ing more time at our monthly gatherings to informal social 
intercourse. This can be done without changing the regular 
time of 8 o'clock for our formal opening, by having it generally 
understood that, if members will get together an hour earlier — 
say at 7 o'clock — that much time can be devoted to social in- 
tercourse, in talking over "old times" as well as present times, 
and matters of present current interest, etc.; and then we can 
commence the formal or regular business of the evening 
promptly at 8 o'clock, and dispatch it without running far into 
the night, which, I think, would be satisfactory to all our mem- 
bers. This innovation can easily be adopted, as the evenings 
in the winter season are long, 

I am moved to offer this suggestion, as I have often noted 
the great interest with which members engage in conversation 
before each meeting, sometimes delaying the call to order from 
one-half to three-quarters of an hour. Instead of repressing this 
desire of members "to talk over old tim^" informally, I think 
their wish in the matter is entirely commendable, and should 
be encourage*'!, as it can be by the plan I suggest, and that 
without interfering at all with our regular programs. 

I desire to repeat tonight what I have often urged before, 
namely, the desirability of this Pioneer Society's possessing, in 




writing", either briefly or in extenso, a sketch of the life of every 
one of its members. We have already a record in the ''Pioneer 
Register*' of the dates of the births and coming to California 
of each member. But those primary facts should be supple- 
mented by some details, long or short, and in writing, for pres- 
ervation for the benefit of those who come after us, of the life 
of every member. Some members have recounted to us verb- 
ally, stirring episodes of their lives, which were of exceeding' 
interest, but which, as they were not of record, will not be 
available for their and our children, unless they shall yet be 
written, out. The recorded story of the principal events of 
every member of this society, if preserved, will be of inesti- 
mable value. And I earnestly hope the society will yet, and 
at no distant day, possess such a recortl, as it may, if each mem- 
ber who has not already done so, will furnish the same, so far 
as it refers to his own individual life. 

The last half of the nineteenth century in Southern Califor- 
nia— in Los Angeles county^ — was certainly, as we all of its well 
know, an exceedingly interesting and eventful period. Let us 
all contribute what we can to preserve the memory of the life 
we have lived here in the olden times, and w*hich we know more 
intimately than any outsider can know. 


BY J. M. GUltm. 

[Read before the Pioneers, May 7, 1901,] 

With our daily newspapers before breakfast, chronicling the 
history of the whole world for the previous day, it is hke going 
back into the Dark Ag'es to take a retrospect of California as it 
was fifty years ago. 

Then Eastern Slate news a month old, and European dis- 
patches that had voyaged on two oceans for 50 days or more, 
w^ere the latest, and, on the arrival of the steamer, the San Fran- 
cisco papers got out extras, and prided themselves on their en- 
terprise as news disseminators. When mail matter was sent out 
from the metropolis of California to the mines in the north ajid 
the cow counties in the south, it often took it another monh to 
reach its destination. 

It is of record that one mail from San Francisco for Los 
Angeies, in 1851, was fifty-two days in reaching the old pueblo; 
and four weeks was not uncommonly slow time. Tlie Star of 
October i, 1853, under the head of "Information Wanted/' 
wants to know "what has become of the mail for this section of 
the uorkL" ''Some four weeks since,** says the editor, '*the 
mail actually did arrive; since then, two other mails are due, 
but none have come/' 

A^ain. the Star of November 20, 1852, says the latest dates 
from San Francisco are October 28, now 23 days ok!. Of the 
results of the State election that took place three weeks ago, 
we are in the most profound ignorance, having received returns 
from no county in the State except Los Angeles. Think of the 
protracted agony of a candidate still waiting three weeks after 
the election to know his fate! 

While the newsmongers, the merchants and the candidates 
suffered from the mairs delay* how was it with the honest min- 
ers, in the lonely mining camps? No novelist or sentimentalist 
has written of the hope fleferred that made the heart sick of 
many an Argonaut — and all because of the maiPs uncertainty. 
Isolated from the world in mountain mining camps, where no 
mail reached them, the miners of the early '50's were depend- 


ent upon private carriers, who brought them at irregular inter- 
vals the few letters that ran the gauntlet of ocean disasters, 
careless postmasters and reckless stage drivers. 

As the Argonaut, in most cases, was a young man, fresh 
from home, who had left a girl behind him to await his return 
with a fortune, the anxiety with which he watched for a letter 
from home to know whether his girl was still waiting for him or 
whether some other fellow was waiting on her, was truly pa- 
thetic. Home-sickness killed many an Argonaut,and the defect* 
ive mail system of the early '50's ought to have been indicted 
for manslaughter. I know we laugh at a homesick, individual, 
but a genuine attack of the disease is no laughing matter. The 
medical reports of the Union army during the Civil War attrib- 
ute no less than lo^ooo deaths to nostalgia, the medical name 
for home-sickness. 

As the population of the Pacific Coast increased* the de- 
mand for quicker mail service became more imperative. The 
scheme of im.porting camels and dromedaries and using them 
in carrying the mail and express across the plains was agitated. 
It was claimed that the camel, filling his internal water tank 
out of the Missouri river, could strike straight across the water- 
less wastes of New Mexico and Arizona, stopping occasionally 
lor a meal of sage brush, and taking a drink at the Colorado 
river, he could trot across the Colorado desert and deliver the 
mail in the California coast towns fifteen days from New York. 

As some of you will recollect, the camels did come to the 
coast in 1857, but they were not delivering mail; they were 
carrying freight, and were not miich of a success at that. The 
Butterfield stage route was established in 1858, It was the 
longest stage line in the world. Its western terminus was San 
Francisco, and its eastern termini Memphis and St. Louis. It 
brought the eastern news in 20 days. That was such an un- 
precedented quick time that the Los Angeles Star rushed out 
an extra edition and proposed a hundred guns for the overland 
stage. But the people wanted faster time, and the Pony Ex- 
press was established in i860. I take the following graphic de- 
scription of its first trip across the plains from the Kansas City 

"An important event in the history of St. Joseph, Mo>, was 
the starting of the Tony Express' on April 3» i860. The facts 
and incidents connected with this ride of 2,000 miles to San 
Francisco form a most interesting chapter in the story of early 
western progress. 



"In 1859 St. Joseph was the western terminus of railroad 
communication, Beyonfl the Missouri river the stage coach* 
the sar]<|]e horse an<] the ox trains were the only means of com- 
merce and communicaiion with the Rocky Mounlams and the 
Pacific Slope, across a space now traveled by a do^en vestibuled 
trains daily, 

"In the winter of i860 a Wall street lobby was in Washing- 
ton trying to get $5,000,000 for carrying the mails one year be- 
tweeti New York and San Francisco. The proposition was 
nothing more or Jess than an attempt to bunko the government. 
William II, Russell, who was then interested largely in freight- 
ing business on the plains, backer! by the Secretary of War, re- 
solved to give the lobby a cold ?ho\ver bath. Russell offered to 
wager $200,000 that he could put on a mail line between San 
Francisco and St. Joseph that couUl make the distance. 1,950 
miles, in ten days. The wager was accepted, and April 8. i860, 
was fixed upon as the date for starting. 

"Mr. Russell summoned his partner and general manager 
of business on the plains, A. B, Miller, for many years a prom- 
inc citizen of Denver, told what he had done, and asked if he 
could perfnrm the feat. Miller replied^ 'Yes, Fll do it. and Til 
do it by pony express/ 

"To j'.ccnfnplish this service, Miller bought 300 of the fleet- 
est horses he could f\ni\ in the West, and employed 125 brave 
an<l har<ly riders. These men were selected with reference to 
their light weight and courage. It was highly essential that 
the horses shoultl he loaded as lightly as possible, because some 
sections of the route had to be covered at the rate of 20 miles 
an hour 

'The horses were stationed from 10 to 20 miles apart, and 
each rider was required to ride J$ miles. For each change of 
animals and the transfer of the United States mails two minutes 
were allowed, Where there were no stage stations at proper 
distances, tents capable of accommodating one man and two 
horses were provided. Indians, it was supposed, would some- 
times give chase, but their cayuse ponies could make only sorry 
show in pursuit of Miller's thoroughbreds, many of which 
could make a mile in ! mintite and 50 seconds. 

"All nrraugements being completetl for this great under- 
taking, a signal gun on a steamer at Sacramento proclaimed 
the meridian of April 8, tS6o, the hour for starting. At that 
signal Mr. Miller's private saddle horse. Border Ruffian, with a 
brave rider in the saddle, bounded awav toward the foothills 

Thk pony 


of the Sierra Nevadas. The first 20 miles were covered in 49 
minutes, and this feat was repeated until the mountains were 
reached. Tlie snows were deep in the nionntains, and one 
rifler was lost for several hours in a snow stomi. After Sa]t 
Lake Valley had been reached, additional speed became nec- 
essary to reach St. Joseph in lime. From there on, however, 
all went well until the Platte river was to be crossed at Jules- 

'The stream was swollen and running rapidly, but the horse 
plunged into the flood, only, however, to mire in quicksand 
and drown. The courier succeetled in reaching the shore with 
his mail bag safe and traveled ten miles on foot to reach the 
next relay. The journey from this point to within 60 miles 
of St. Joseph was made quickly and without incident. 

Johnny Fry, a popular rider of his day, was to make the 
finish. He had 60 miles to ride, with six horses upon which to 
do it. When the last courier arrived at the 60-niile post out 
from St. Joseph* he was one hour behind time, A heavy rain 
had set in and the roads were slippery. 

*'Fry hati just 3 hours and 30 minute^ in which to win. It 
was the finish of the longest race and largest stake ever run 
in America. 

'*When the time for Fry's arrival was nearly up, at least 
5,000 people stood upon the river bank, with eyes turned to- 
ward the woods from which the horse and its rider should 
emerge into the open country in the rear of Ehvood^ one mile 
from the finish. 

'* 'Tick, tick!' went hundreds of watches. The time was 
nearly up. Only seven minutes remained. 

"Hark ! 

*' 'Hurrah !' A shout goes up from the assembled multi- 
tude. The courier comes* A noble little mare darts like an 
arrow from the bow and makes the run of the last mile in i 
minute and 50 seconds, landing upon the ferryboat oflE Francis 
street with five minutes and a fraction to spare. 

"The story of this remarkable feat is only 2 scrap of history 
now. A fe%v of the riders who participated in the great race 
are stiil living, and hundreds of old timers recall the scenes and 
incidents that marked the finish of the splendid contest against 
time. It w^as a great event in the history of St. Joseph. 

"It was ^\'€ days prior to the running of the great race for 
the $200,000 wager that the first Pony Express left St. Jcseph 
for the west. At 7:15 p. m. on Tuesday, April 3. i860, a rider 



ia^ letters nineteen hundred miles in eight days! Think ol 
that for perishable horse and human flesh and blood to do! The 
pony rider was usually a little bit of a man, brimful of spirit 
and endurance. No matter what time of the day or night his 
\\-atch came on, and no matter whether it was winter 
or summer, raining, snowing, haihng or sleeting, or whether 
his beat was a level, straight road or a crazy trail over 
mountain crag^s and precipices, or whether it led through peace- 
ful regions or regions that swarmed with hostile Indians, he 
must be always ready to leap into the saddle and be off like 
the wind. There was no idling" time for a pony rider on duty. 
He ro<le fifty miles without stopping by dayhght. ntoonlight, 
starlight, or through the blackness of darkness— just as it hap- 
pened. He rode a splendid horse that was bom for a racer 
and fed and lodged like a gentleman — kept him at his utmost 
speed for ten miles, and then, as he came crashing up to the 
station where stood two men liolcling fast a fresh, impatient 
steed, the transfer of rider and mail-bag was made in the twink- 
ling of an eye. and away flew the eager pair and were out of 
sight before the spectator could get hardly the ghost of a look. 
Both rider antl horse went flying light. The rider's dress was 
thin and fitted close; he wore a roundalx>iit and a skull cap, 
and tucked his pantaloons into his boot-tops like a race rider. 
He carrird no amis — he carried nothing that was not absolutely 
necessary, for even the postage on his literary freight was worth 
five dollars a letter, 

"He got but little frivolous correspondence to carry — his 
bag had business letters in it. mostly. His horse was stripped 
of all unnecessary weight too. He wore a little wafer of a rac- 
ing saddle, and no visible blanket. He wore li,c:ht shoes or 
none at all. The little flat mail packets strapped under the 
rider's thighs would each hold about the bulk of a child's 
primer They held many and many an important business 
chapter and newspaper letter, but these were written on paper 
as airy and thin as gold leaf, nearly, and thus bulk and weight 
were economized. The stage coach traveled about a hundred 
to a hundred and twenty-five miles a day of 24 honrs: the pony 
rider about 250, There were eighty pony riders in the^addle 
all the time, night and day, stret- In ^ scattering pro- 

cession from Missouri to C jr j; eastward and 

forty toward the west kmsUun^ fi>tir hundred 

gallant horses r je a deal of 

scenery every 



tare of a man on horseback spurring at a gallop across the 
plains. During the exciting times at the breaking out of the 
Civil War in 1861, the pony express was the sole reliance of 
the whole Pacific Coast far the quickest news. The Indians 
on the western end, and the Confederates on its eastern end 
had destroyed the Butterfield stage line* It was to the Pony 
Express that every one looked for the latest intelligence. 

Although the enterprise failed to pay expenses, to the praise 
of Russell and Majors, be it recorded, they kept it up 
until the overland telegraph was cotnipleted, in November, 

The Pony Express required to do its work nearly 500 
horses* about 190 stations, 200 station keepers and 80 riders. 
Each rider usually rode the horses on about 75 miles, though 
tonietime^ much greater distances were made. One rider — 
Robert H* Haslam — or Pony Bob, as he was usually called — on 
one occasion made a continuous ride of 380 miles within a few 
hours of schedule time. Another — Wm. F. Cody, now famous 
as Buffalo Bill — rode in one continuous trip 384 miles without 
stopping, except for meals and to change horses. The greatest 
feat performed by the Pony Express was in carrying Presi- 
dent Lincoln's inaugural message, in March, 1861. The time 
on that trip from the Missouri river to Sacramento was 7 days 
and 17 hours, which is perhaps the quickest time, considering 
the distance^ ever made on horseback. 

Majors, the originator of the Pony Express^ a veteran of 
70 years' pioneering on the frontiers, died a few weeks ago* 
He was a man who had done much for his fellow men. He 
was a public benefactor. Yet a few lines in an obscure corner 
of the daily newspapers told the story of his life — at least, it 
told all the reporter or editor o-f the paper knew of it: and hun- 
dreds who read it had no idea what the Pony Express was. 
Most of the riders who forty years ago braved the perils of 
mountain and desert and savage beast and more savage men, 
in lonesome rides of the Pony Express have crossed the divide 
between time and eternity. 

The following graphic description of the pony rider on his 
journey is taken from Mark Twain's "Roughing It," Mark 
saw himi in all his glot7 on his ride, when he (Twain) crossed 
the plains in the overlanti stage^in 1S61 : 

"In a little while all interest was taken up in stretching 
our necks watching for the pony rider, the fleet messenger who 
sped across the continent from St. Joe to Sacramento, carry- 



[Read before the Los Angeles County Pioneers Sept. 3, 1901] 
Fifty-one years ago, on the 22nd of March last, five young 
men left their homes in Central Wisconsin on a trip overland 
for the gold mines in California, of which we had been reading 
some favorable accounts, yet knowing very little of what we 
mig^ht expect on a joruney of 2,000 miles, mostly through a 
country partially occupied by hostile Indians^ with only one 
settlement of white men between the Missouri river and the 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas — that at Salt Lake; but as 
others had successfully made the journey the previous year, we 
felt equal to the undertaking, 

I was the youngest of the party, being twenty-two years 
old, the eldest twenty-seven. Our route through Wisconsin 
and Iowa to Council Bluffs direct, was through a partially set- 
tled community, but through Western lowa^ where are now 
found large towns and cities, we saw the bare prairies only. 

On the 19th of April, 1850, we crossed the Missouri at the 
Mormon winter quarters of three years before, and near where 
is now the flourishing city of Omaha, Our route was the Mor- 
mon road to their settlement in Utah, Like most other emi- 
grants in those days, we thought the only safe way to travel 
was in large companies for protection from the wily Indian, 
So we joined a company of 150 men with 45 wagons, and 
stuck together just three days.. As our outfit consisted of 
eight American horses and two wagons, we did not wish to go 
into camp after making only 15 or 20 miles, as many of the 
ox teams did, but we wished to make the trip inside of three 
months: and to do so we must make an average of twenty 
miles for every day, so when the ox-drivers commenced to un- 
yoke, we kept on with a few companions for six or eight miles, 
and encamped on the famous Platte. The bed of this stream 
being composed largely of quicksand, renders it almost impos- 
sible to ford, except in favorable places, and the water only a 
few inches deep most of the way, is difficult to navigate with 
boats. Had it been necessary to cross here, as we expected 



to do, the only way would have been to wade out a mile or 
two to deep water, and there establish a ferry. But the animals 
must not be allowed to stop even for a few minutes, or they 
would sink out of sight. We kept the north' side, and did not 
have to cross till we reached Fort Laramie. Some one of our 
company asked the question, ''What was sucha river ever made 
for?*' But so far as I know, never gat a satisfactory answer. 
Two days' travel from this point brought us to Loupe Fork, 
a stream 600 feet wide, on April 26th. Like the Platte, this 
was a tlifficult stream to cross, but after a hard day's work we 
encamped on the right bank; saw a few friendly Indians, but 
all they said or did was to beg for tobacco. About this time, 
at the close of one of the warmest days we had, dark and heavy 
columns begn to rise from the southwest, indicating a severe 
storm. At sundown the wind commenced blowing, and soon 
changing to the northwest, it blew a perfect gale for several 
hours. We exerted our best skill and strength in attempting to 
keep the tent over us. but all in vain. We crept into the wagon 
to escape the fur>' of the blast "and wished for the day/' For- 
tunately for us, no rain fell during the nighty but it was ex- 
tremely cold. When the morning dawned we found that we 
were not alone in our misery, for not a solitary tent was stand- 
ing on the ground. For a week or ten days, commencing with 
April 28th, our road was through a territory burned over, or 
the dry grass the n burning, the fires having been set by emi- 
grants ahead of us through carelessness or neglect to put out 
their camp fires. This was a great hardsliip, for our horses had 
nothing to eat but a little grain from the wagon. On this 
burned territory, black and dreary far as the eye could reach, 
we met our first buffalo, many of them with hair completely 
burned ofT. and entirely blind. We were obliged to kill eight 
or ten to keep them from running into the teams. One nigrt 
we heard the most unearthly noise you could imagine. It was 
one entirely new to me, but some of the boys more used to 
frontier life sai(! "Prairie wolves/* and that probably there were 
not more than three or four of them^ but I thought there must 
be a thousand. 

May 4th. We have succeeded in getting ahead of the fires, 
but they are raging in the dr>* prairie grass behind us, to tlie 
right, with inconceivable h^ry\ Today we passed the grave of 
a man from Towa who died four days ago; the first fresh grave 
we have yet seen on our route, but have passed many bearing 
date of *49, nearly all of whoch had been opened by the wolves, 




ynih occasionally a stray human bone lying about the opening, 
the only exceptions being those which their friends had taken 
the precaution to cover with large stones. The following day 
was Sunday, and as there was dry grass for the horses, we 
laid by to give them and ourselves a day of rest. Away to the 
south and west was a beautiful valley, extending at least four 
miles, to the ven' hank^ of the Platte, and over this vast area 
were innumerable buflPalo feeding leisurely all day long. It w^as 
by far the largest herd we had seen, and by a careful estimate 
there must have been at least 4^000, with wolves and antelope 
in larj:;fe members scattered here and there among them. One 
of the latter was brought into camp by tw*o of our exf>ert hunt- 
ers, and we enjoyed a royal feast. Choice steaks from a buflfalo 
calf were ver\' acceptable and much sought for( but the meat 
from the full grown animal was not to our liking, being too 
tougli and of an undesirable tlavor. Some of these old fellows 
are har.l to kill, and one I saw die only after 18 rifle balls had 
been shot into him at short range. On the 9th we had rain, 
the first since we crossed the Des Moines back in Iowa, nearly 
six weeks a^o. And here w*e found the first green grass <^f the 
season. Saw many Indians of the Sioux tribe, all kind and 
frienflly. Passed "Chimney Rock" on the nth. situated on the 
south side of the river, resembling a steeple or chimney, 200 
feet high, and visible at the distance of 40 miles. This is one 
of the main landmarks for the California-bound emigrant who 
travels on either the north or the south side of the Piatte. 

On the 13th we came to timber, the first we have seen on 
our side of the riven save one lone tree, for 200 miles. 

Like all others who travel that road, we had to resort to 
buffalo chips for fuel to cook our daily meals, and they proved a 
good substitute. The next day we reached Fort Laramie, after 
crossing the Platte on a good ferry. It is 522 miles from the 
Missouri river, and we were 22 days traveling this distance, av- 
eraging 24 miles per day. After first striking the Platte our 
route was an unbroken level as w*e followed along the river bot- 
tom most of the way, but when the bluffs came down to the 
river, as we found they often did. sometimes for miles together, 
our only alternative was to pass over them, where the road was 
invariably a deep, heavy sand. The valley is several miles in 
width from the river bank to the sand hills, and has a rich 
soil. Our grain being gone, we exchanged the heavy wagon at 
the fort for a pack horse, and with the light wagon and two 
horses packed with 3CHD pounds of flour, started on our journey 
up the south side of the Platte. 


Our road lay during the day over high, steep bluffs and 
through deep ravines* as we are now ascending the foothills of 
the Rocky Mountains. The night set in dark and rainy. To 
add to our troubles, one of our men who had been ailing for 
several days, was taken down with mountain feven We nursed 
him in the tent by night and carried him in the wagon by day. 
Eleven days afterwards he was sufficiently recovered to surren- 
der his couch to another who was attacked by the same fever. 
Two days after leaving Fort T.aramie, we re-crossed the Platte 
on a ferry, and the first 20 miles was over heavy sand. A week 
or so later, we parsed the first alkali springs that we s:iw oti 
our journey, but they were not the last. On the 2istf we 
reached the Sweetwater, a swift-running stream, but fordable, 
which we followed to its very source in the Rocky Mountains. 
We met several ox teams from Salt Lake, bound for the States 
to assist the Mormon immigration. We passed Independence 
Rock, another celebrated landmark, noted for its great size. 
It covers several acres, and rises to a great height, and is cov- 
ered with the names of passing emigrants. Two mountain 
sheep were killed and brought into campj furnishing all with a 
most delicions meal. 

On the 23rd we passed DeviTs Gate; the name is suggestive. 
It is the passage of the Sweetwater through a deep cut in the 
solid rock. The river is about 75 feet wide on an average, 
bnt as it approaches the rocks which rise 400 feet, perpendicu- 
largely. on each side, it is compressed into half that width, and 
rushes through the narrow apace a foaming cataract. 

Sunday. May 26th. we encountered snow and sleet the whole 
day, and traveling with overcoats was the most comfortable 
way of spending the Sabbath, We were all the day traveling 
far up in the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains. 

When we reached the top, it did not seem as if we w^ere on 
the summit of the great divide between the Atlantic and the 
Pacific Oceans, for we were in an extensive valley, nearly leveL 
several miles in width and thirty in length. Its altitude is 
6085 feet. As we came out on the western side ne.xt morning, 
where the waters run to the Pacific, and raised out eyes to the 
lofty chain of mountains on the right and gazed on their sum- 
mits, still thousands of feet above us, and the countless glaciers 
sparkling in the sunbeams, the scene w^as grand beyond de- 
scription. The first night after leaving the Pass, we reached 
Pacific Springs. A pony turned out to graze with a halter about 
its neck, became entangled and was cast; before morning the 



wolves actually ate htm alive. The next day we traveled 30 
miles over a sandy desert all the way to Black Fork, a small 
stream usually fordable, but now greatly swollen by the melt- 
ing snow on the mountains, Tlie Mormons had a small ferry 
established here, but as many were already waiting few a pas- 
sage, and the price was exorbitant, we thought best to establish 
an opposition. So, calking one of our wagon boxes, we trans- 
ported our loading, pulling our Ixjai back and forth by a rope, 
swam the horses and drew our wagon across by hand, all at the 
expense of three hours* time. Others profiting by our example, 
reduced somewhat the receipts of the Mormon ferry* Here we 
found an encampment of friendly Indians, but we did not learn 
to what tribe thy belonged. We were told by friends along the 
road that a few days before a young man from a western State, 
while camping here, made the acquaintance of these Indians to 
such an extent that he married one of the good-looking young 
squaws; at least the Indians so considered it as far as they were 
concerned, and were well pleased with the idea of one of their 
tribe being chosen by a pale-face. Next morning when his com- 
pany was ready for a start* the young woman was on hand with 
her dowry, consisting of a camp kettle, a skillet and same few 
other traps suitable for Indian housekeeping, and insisted on 
going with him to California. The indiscreet young man was in 
a fix, and a bad oiie^ too, for the Indians insisted that she was 
his wife* according to their customs, and he must take her 
along. That, of course, was impossible, for his company would 
not consent to it, even if he was so disposed, which he was not. 
To say the least, there was one fellow badly scared. To get 
out of a bad scrape and pacify the Indians, cost him his riding 
pony and all the money he had. 

Our company, which numbered 45 wagons at the starting 
point, and 15 when we left Fort Laramie, has continued to de- 
crease, some going ahead, others falling behind, till now it is re- 
duced to four. 

June 1st we met a large number of Snake Indians with a big 
herd of cattle and horses. Passed Fort Bridgen and for two 
days had a difficult road, following up a canyon crossing the 
stream back and forth many times, the water frequently com- 
ing to the top of our wagon box. On either side were bluffs, 
300 to 400 feet high, tn many places leaving us barely room for 
a wnjfjon road. Sorae emigrants had established a ferry, com- 
posefl of six cedar logs for a raft, and charged $3 to transport 
each wagon and the men. We dared not to attempt to cross 



in DUr frail boat, for the river was 150 feet wide, with a rapid 
current. When in midstream, on account of not being prop- 
erly balanced, one end of the raft begfan to sink, and before 
reaching: shore was a foot under water, 

June 6th we reached Salt Lake City, where we remained 
nearly two days. As no rain falls here during the summer 
months^ the farmers resort to irrigation. The city is located 
three miles from the foot of the mountains on the river Jordan, 
the outlet of Lake Utah, and ^z miles from Great Salt Lake. 
It is handsomely and well laid out. Salt Lake is a beautiful 
sheet of water, whose specific gravity is so great, being strongly 
impregnated with salt as to buoy almost every object upon 
its surface. It is almost impossible to sink in it, and it is 
a great bathing resort. Vast quantities of saJine matter are 
cast upon the short every autumn, and the moisture retained 
in the deposit evaporates during the next summer, leaving a 
bank of the purest white salt, which may be shoveled up by the 
ton. In the center of the lake is a large island that towers up 
mountain high^ and from its sides gush out the purest springs 
of fresh water. There the Mormons have vast herds of fine 
cattle, and this mountain island is the shepherd^s home. 

Just north of the city is a spring 60 feet in diameterj strongly 
impregnated with salt and sulphur, said to contain medicinal 
qualities, with a temperature above blood heat. The Mormons 
are preparing to pipe it into the city. The weather is delightful, 
so mild in winter that the cattle, which are suffered to run at 
large, thrive well and are fat in the spring, and yet the moun- 
tains, whose base is but three miles distant, have their summits 
covered with perpetual snow. 

We became acquainted with a young man by name of 
Davis, from Wisconsin, who told us he had an uncle who moved 
to Utah with his family three years before, when the Mormons 
first settled here, but he was no polygamist, and he would like 
very much to find his uncle and aunt. We met him- again a 
few weeks later, out on the desert. He said he called on his 
uncle a few miles out of the city, and found him living in per- 
fect happiness, apparently, with three wives. The distance 
from Fort Laramie to this point is 509 miles, and 103 1 from the 
Missouri river, about one-half of our journey over 

Instead of finding the Black Hills and Rocky Moimtains 
covered with timber, as we expected, we found them entirely 
destitute of trees of any kind. Greasewood serve<i as fuel for 
many miles. Having purchased a guide book describing the 



route to Sacramento, and tarried with the Mormons a day and 
a half, we again started on our western journey, June 8th, We 
found settlements along the road for 20 miles, and reached 
the second crossing of Bear river on the nth, swam our horses 
and paid $5 for wa^n on a Mormon ferry. For several days 
nothing occurred worthy of note. Some days our road w^as 
good, on others bad — very bad. Some days we found both 
feed and water, other days we found neither. 

On the i8th of June we were at Cold-Water Creek^ in 
Thousand-Spring Valley, 

The prairie dag \Tnages are a real curiosity. We have 
passed through several of them, each covering several acres, 
and each hole inhabited by a curious combination, consisting 
of the dog an<l a small owl and a rattlesnake. We saw many 
of the dogs and owls enter the holes together, but the rattle- 
snakes did not show themselves, Sunday, the 23rd. we laid by, 
and not less than a hundred wagons passed us, with five times 
that number of men, from whose hearts "the root of all evil," 
or the love of it, had for the time being absorbed their love of 
ease, of friends and even social comfort. The 27th, we en- 
camped on the banks of the Humboldt, which stream we found 
unusually high, being on an average 75 feet wide, 8 to 10 feet 
deep, with a swift current Crossed over in our wagon-box- 
boat, swimming the horses. We found the bottom land adja- 
cent to the river where the Mormon trail ran, overflowed to 
such an extent we were compelled to keep along the bluffs on 
higher ground. We had learned our route would be down the 
Humboldt to the sink, where the river loses itself in the sands 
of the desert. But of the distance we had little knowledge. 

After a day's travel, we were told here was the place to pre- 
pare our hay for crossing the desert, which we would reach 
after 18 miles' travel But, to our utter dismay, no grass was 
to be found A\Hthout wading into the marsh knee deep for nearly 
half a mile. We had learned long before this that an overland 
journey to California was not in all resj>ects a pleasure excur- 
sion, butt like every other means to the accomplishment of a 
desirable end, it was attended with some labor and sacrifice. 
So we spent the afternoon and the next day in cutting grass 
with a scythe, when we could borrow one. othenvise with our 
belt knives, packing it out on our backs, drying and sacking it 
for an early start the following morning. At 12 o'clock we 
were roused by the guard, and in less than an hour were on 
the niove in high hopes of soon reaching and passing that 40 



miles of barren sand and no water, so much dreaded by all 
emigrants. We goaded ourselves on after the first few hours, 
till the sun hsd climbed into the mid^heavens, having traveled 
25 miles, but no desert yet. During the afternoon we again 
waded the marsh for fresh grass that the horses might eat dur- 
ing the night. Next morning the rising sun found us ready 
to resume our joumeyH, expecting ever^' hour to have a view of 
the desert. Thus we passed on till 10 o'clock, when we found 
a company preparing hay for the desert, who assured us it was 
80 miles ahead. **Never fret" had been our motto, so now we 
made up our minds to take it easy as circumstances would 
permit. During the day we passed many dead horses and ten- 
antless wagons; saw clothing, tools of every description and 
many other articles too numerous to mention, strewn along the 
road, which nobo<:Iy wanted. At night those of our company 
who could ?wim crossed the river and brought back grass on 
their backs for the horses. We had all read about the *7^'"^y 
Mosquitoes," but if they are larger, or more numerous, or blood- 
thirsty than those we met on the Humboldt, I have no wish to 
see them. They actually shut off the rays of the sun. 

July I St we had a general consultation as to the best method 
of getting to the golden land. On leaving the Missouri, it 
was supposed we had provisions for 100 days. Although we 
added somewhat to our stock at Salt Lake, it was found that 
what we had would' not serve us more than ten days, and we are 
300 nii!es from California, the worst part of our journey be- 
fore us and our teams nearly exhausted. Shall we take our 
wagon across the desert and over the mountains, consequently 
protracting our journey several days, or shall we leave our 
wagon and things we can best part with, and pack our horses 
with what is essential, and make all possible dispatch? To the 
latter proposition we all agreed, and it was done with the 
greatest unanimity, because all our neighbors were reduced to 
the same extremities with ourselves, and neither love nor money 
could obtain provisions. Next day we came to the forks of 
the road, the right being an old trail to Oregon, made by trap- 
pers years ago. This was the road taken by so many unfortu- 
nate emigrants last season, who perished in the mountains. 
About 100 teams, by mistake, took the same road this year, 
and among them were some who left Missouri with us. After 
traveling six or eight days across the desert and up into the 
mountains, they discovered their mistake. Some returned al- 
most famished; others struck out for a settlement in Oregon, 
400 miles distant, with what success we never heard. 



The 4th of July was celebrated by our second attempt in 
preparing for the desert crossing. It was a repetition of our 
former effort — wading knee deep across the Humboldt bottoms, 
cutting grass with our knives, and packing it on our backs 
half a mile away- The next day we came in sight of the long 
looked for desert, and the sink of the Humboldt, This river, 
anlong whose banks we had been traveling for the last 300 
miles, entirely disappears and is lost to sight, if not to memory. 
The water was thoroughly saturated with alkali, and has proved 
w^ry destructive to stock, both cattle and horses. Here, too, 
we found the "Sulphur Spring" spoken of in most of the guide 
books, that has caused the death of so many horses, and the 
sickness of many emigrants. We had received warning of its 
ill effects, and profited thereby. 

Our stock is now reduced to four horses; the other four 
having been left at diflferent points along the road to the tender 
mercies of the Indians. The big company to which we once 
belonged has entirely vanished. At 4 o'clock p. m. we started 
out across the desert for 15 miles, where we were to leave the 
wagon. We had no difficulty in getting fuel to cook our last 
meal with the A\^gon; by placing the camp-kettle on the hub 
of one of the wheels and filling in around it among the spokes 
portion of the wagon box. we soon had a rousing fire. The 
night was cool and pleasant, far more so than if we had crossed 
in the day time. At sunrise we struck the heavy sand, where we 
found w^ter for sale at one dollar per gallon. The next ten 
miles was through loose sand, ankle deep, to the Carson riven 
Pure, cold water never looked better, and we all made good use 
of a liberal portion. We passed many horses, both dead and 
dying, and hundreds of wagons abandoned by owners. We 
have been able to walk from 20 to 30 miles each day, and found 
tit no great hardship. Out of the nearly 2000 miles, we have 
made nt lea^t 1500 on foot. No one rode but the driver and the 
sick. But the hard part was standing guard at nighty when one 
wanted to sleep, but was not allowed to do so. One night I 
went on at dusk, taking the horses a short distance where a 
little bunch grass was found here and there, and was to be 
relieved at 12 o'clock. T sat down by the side of a big rock, 
in full view of the horses and the plains for a long distance, and 
drew around me the blanket I had brought from home, for the 
night was chilly. I had no thoughts of sleep, but alas! I did 
fail asleep, and when I awoke 20 minutes later, not a horse was 
in sight, I went direct to camp, told the boys the horses were 



all gxjne — for I supposed they had been stolen — told them to 
charge it up to me, and I would settle, if ever able. But they 
said, "We will help you find them/* which they did in a half 
hour's time, where they had found better feed. Any one who 
has traveled **the plains across" will admit that on this trip is 
a good place for the display of human nature. I saw many 
wordy quarrels among the members of other private compa- 
nies, but I will say for all five of us, we never had any disputes 
or differences that were not settled on the spot at the time, and 
to the satisfaction of all. At the base of the mountains was a 
trading post recently established, where we replenished our 
short stock of provisions with flour and sugar at $2 per pound 
and fresh beef at $1. From the gth to the 14th of July we were 
crossing the Sierra Nevada mountains, which we found heavily 
timbered. Snow covered both hill and valley for twenty miles, 
with a few exceptions of the latter, and on the 13th we en- 
camped in a deep mountain gorge; the frost was severe and the 
water was frozen in our camp kettle. On the 15th we arrived 
at Hangtown, now called Placerville, 83 days after leaving the 
Missouri river, and our journey was at an end. 



[Read before the Pioneers^ December, 1901.] 

I will say as a prelude and introduction to what I may say 
directly touching the discovery of the Comstack mine, that 
prior to 1856 there was very httle inter-communication be- 
tween California and the country east of the Sierras, known as 
Washoe, for the reason that the great Sierras presented a for- 
midable barrier to travel — -rendering such inter-conimuntcation 
both difiticuit and expensive. Moreover, the country was 
sparsely settled and but little known, there being up to this 
time no mineral discoveries in the country worthy of mention, 
an<l withal, it was regarde<l as very uninviting. 

It therefore Ijecomes a pertinent inquiry as lo what should 
primarily lead one to leave so attractive and prosperous a coun- 
try as California to seek a home in this land of sage brush and 
desert wastes; the sequel to which may not be uninteresting as 
a scrap of unwritten history, even at this late period in the 
history of this interesting country. 

Along the eastern base of the Sierras, the summit of which 
forms tPie coterminous boundary between California and Ne- 
vafla. as it did between Utah and California, there is a chain of 
beautiful antl comparatively fertile valleys, which even in their 
primeval condition, were sufficiently inviting to attract thither 
a mmiber of settlers who establishexl homes here and there 
throughout these valleys. These settlers were nearly all dis- 
ciples of Brigham Young. In 1S57 the Saints were having a 
Httle difficulty with Uncle Sam, on which occasion the Mormon 
President called in all his disciples from these distant outlying 
settlements. Most of them obeyed the call and returned to 
Salt Lake City, whereupon a few adventurous spirits, citizens 
of Downieville, rear the border, consisting of J. J, Musser, 
Abraham Curry, Benjamin Green, Frank Proctor and myself, 
crossed over the mountains in July* 1858. to possess ourselves 
of some of the vacated territory. 

We did not contemplate the broad field For enterprise and 
adventure which we were then entering, nor di dwe even dream 


of the fact that we were upon the very threshold of the most 
marvelous mineral discoveries known to the world's history. 
Our ultimate object was to push the proposition of the organi- 
zation of a new territor\* out of Western Utah. 

With this object in view, after visiting nearly all the valleys 
and becoming' fully satisfied with the outlook, and considering 
the probable outcome of the scheme in contemplation, as to 
a beterment of chances financial, political and otherwise, I 
returned to CaJifoniia. Here, having associated with me W. L. 
Jemigan, a practical printer, then in an office in Downieville, 
we issued a prospectus of the Territorial Enterprise. 

Leaving Mr Jemigal to complete details for the purchase 
of press and office* I returned to Washoe, by way of Placerville, 
leaving there on horseback the latter part of October. About 
six miles out from Placerville I overtook Mr. Klauber, late of 
the firm of Klauber &: Levi^ of San Diego, who, as he informed 
me, was on his way to Carson Valley for the purpose of pur- 
chasing a ranch. I also disclosed to him my purpose. We trav- 
eled the entire distance in a merciless snow storm, and being 
fellow sufferers as well as fellow travelers, we became confiden- 
tial friends, 

I digress to make mention of this incident, as I may make 
mention of further co-relative circumstances of interest later on. 

I had on my first visit determined to locate at the town of 
Genoa» in Carson Valley, which, though a mere village of not 
more than 50 inhabitants, was the largest and most important 
settlement east of the Sierras and west of Salt Lake City. The 
business houses consisted of two hotels, two stores, post office 
and telegraph office, the latter established in November, 1858* 
After the Mormon exmlus. there were very few settlers left in 
any of the valleys. In Eagle Valley, near the center of which 
Carson City, the capital of the state is situated, there were uM 
at that time more than a dozen inhabitants, and not a single 
house on the site of the present capital city. The subscriplion 
list of the Enterprise embraced a wide territory, forty-five o! 
them being in Salt Lake City. Forty of these subscribers 
cancelled their subscriptions on the appearance of an article 
which I wrote and published in the sixth number, criticising 
the polvgamons side of Mormonism, in view of the treasona- 
ble and defiant attitude of the Mormons against the govern- 

I felt fully justified in doing this, as the Enterprise was the 
only gentile paper then published tn the territory. A1! per- 



sons in Utah at that time not members of the Mormon church 
were catted "gentiles." 

The Enterprise was a success from its incq>tion; but I must 
concede that its long and prosperous career was largely due to 
the unanticipated discovery of the great Comstock Lode, and 
its marvelous consequences — an event which ended Us tabors 
in its chosen field in a few months, when the territory of Nevada 
was organized. 

The discovery of the Comstock lode, with the coincident 
and manifold results pertaining thereto, and resulting there- 
from, comprises one of the most marvelous and noteworthy 
mining events in the world's history; and therefore, any retro- 
flpective and reliable narrative, embracing its prehistoric con- 
dition, its discovery, and the incidents and circumstances lead- 
ing thereto* is lx>th interesting and instructive. 

in contemplating and passing over in review, the unwritten 
history of the discovery and development of this great mine, 
embracing the flush times of the early *'Sixties/* wliat tragic 
and dramatic scenes are rehearsed! What tales of woe and dis- 
appointed hopes are told! What an array of dissipation and 
moral depravity, and what a pathetic record of the broken foun- 
tains of domestic felicity, are unfolded — all of which leads one 
to believe that, verily, as a sage has said, *'Money is the root of 
all evil" 

I might present a pitiable array of disastrous effects in a 
large percentage of instances, of sudden transition from poverty 
to affluence which came under my personal observation during 
the early days of the Comstock, consisting of broken domestic 
ties, wreck, ruin and premature death, of many persons of my 
personal acquaintance of the class herein referred to, many of 
whom were young men of ability, with bright hopes, lead into 
temptation, gambling and dissipation, either through personal 
financial flush times, or through environment. But the picture 
is a sad one, which awakens unpleasant memories, over which 
it is more pleasing to spread the mantle of charity and forget- 

The great vein of the Comstock is located on the eastern 
slope of Mount Davidson, and passes southeasterly through 
the divide between Virginia and Gold Hill, coming out on the 
Gold Hill side, very n^rly in the head of Gold Canon, the 
length of which is about seven miles, and its course is south- 
easterly. It contains gold its entire length, which was in paying 
quantitira at the time of my first visit some time previous to the 
discovery at Gold Hill and in "Six-Mile Canon." 



Six-Mile Canon virtually heads at the Com^tock lode. It 
is six miles long, and its course is very nearly east. Both of 
these caiions discharge into Carson river. It appears from an 
item in the Enterprise of January 29th, 1 859, that Com&tock 
and French discovered and located very rich diggings at the 
head of Gold Canon, which created no little excitement, and 
resulted in the location of the entire ground in the vicinity 
within a few days. 

These locations were the first made at Gold Hill, and were 
subsequently found to be on the south or Gold Hill end of 
the Comstock, in which gold largely predominated, while the 
north or Virginia end of the vein, carries very little gold. A 
few days prior to this discovery, the discovery was made in 
Six-Mile Canon by Yount and Gould, where they obtained 
gold in large quantities. This gold contained so large a per- 
centage of silver that it sold for only $8.00 per ounce, while 
that obtained at Gold Hill was worth $13.00. 

The deposits of gold in both these canons doubtless resulted 
from erosion and disintegration of ore from the great lode. 
None of the miners in the vicinity being familiar with the quartz, 
it was some months later before they realized the existence or 
magnitude of the great vein. 

In fact, the original discoverers and locators of this great 
lode, with very few exceptions* entertained but the most limited 
and crude conception of the great magnitude of the discovery, 
and the enormous fortunes which they had within their grasp, 
as manifested by the astonishing low figures at which they 
parted with their holdings. 

As to the all important fact in a historical point of view as 
to who was the actual first discoverer of this great mineral won- 
der, considering aJI the circumstance and facts which I have 
been able to summarize in relation thereto, I find it a most diffi- 
cult problem. 

From the items which I gathered in the premises for the 
Enterprise, and from personal information, I am satisfied that 
at least Comstock and French made the first discovery of the 
rich placers at Gold Hill, and which ultimately and in a very 
short time, led to the ledge which made great fortunes for Sandy 
Bowers and many others, 

I remember also that Comstock was a prominent figure on 
the north end or Virginia side, and was among the first locat- 
ors on the lode on that side of the Gold Hill divide, and that by 

I go 


mutual consent, he was accredited with the honor of making the 

However, the miners working in Six-Mile Canon encoun- 
tered great quantities of float from the croppings of the vein, 
which would have led a modem prospector to the vein in twenty 
mimites. This increased in quantity, in its metaliferous appear- 
ance, and in weight, to such an extent, as they worked up the 
canon, as to arouse a suspicion that possibly it might contain the 
silver which so depreciated the value of their gold dust. None 
of these miners were familiar with mineral ores cm- mineral veins 
of any kind, and were especially unfamiliar with silver ore, or 
the appearance of silver veins. 

About this time two Mexicans made their appearance in the 
camp, and being familiar with silver ore, on examination of this 
f^oat, pronounced it silver ore of probable high grade. Upon 
this information, a quantity of the ore was Fent over to Cali- 
fornia for assay, and showed the astonishing result of $1500.00 
per ton. This was about the later part of June or early in 
July, 1859. 

Conspicuous among the miners on the ground at that time 
were Comstock, **01d Virginia," or James Finney; Peter 
O'Reily. Patrick McLaughlin, Gould and Yount. and practi- 
cally all oF the eighteen whom I met at Johntown on my first 
visit: many of whose names I do not remember now, who made 
a rush for the new^ diggings upon catching the first breeze of the 
exciting ncw's from Gold Hill. 

And thus it was that this little band of miners, this van- 
guard of wandenng prospectors, in this desolate and apparently 
almost worthless country, discovered, located and ovmed that 
which has gi^en business, commercial, political and social life 
to a vast, trackless desert waste; peopled and changed the face 
of a great inland empire, from the Rocky Mountains on the 
east to the Sierra Nevada*s on the west. **That which has pri>- 
ducerl hundreds of millions of dollars, inspired and hastened the 
construction of the first great trans-continental railway, 
stretched cables under the sea. built palaces, and. perhaps. ha( 
much to do with deciding the result of the migli-tiest war of mod- 
em times." 

It is evident from the circumstances here related, that the 
discovery and many of the locations were practically made si- 
multaneously. About this time, or to be more exact, on July 
9lh, 1859. an item was published in the Enterprise stating that 
Bowers & Co., of Gold Hill, from one pan of rock, pounded up 



in a mortar, obtained $100,00, This item is the first historical 
or authentic mention of the recovery of gold or silver from 
rock in place in the State of Nevada. 

A correspondent of the Enterprise, writing from Gold Hill, 
under date of July 16th, '59, says: that the hills are swarming 
with prospectors and adventurers; that claims are changing 
hands at from $i,ocx) to $5000^ and that Rogers & Co., with a 
run of three days, with two arastras cleaned up $776.00. 

While these exciting discoveries were being made on the 
Gold Hill or the south side, the discoveries on the north or 
'Virginia side were equally sensational. These sensational items, 
together with the $1500,00 assay, caused a rush from the neigh- 
boring valleys, and from every village, town and city in Cali- 
fornia came excited thousands. New conditions and exigencies 
were presented and continually multiplied, and called for non- 
existent remedies. 

Silver mines were unkncm-n in America and to Americans; 
the metallurgy of silver was a sealed book. Tlaere were a few 
Freyburgers in the country, notably Kutstell and Mosheinier, 
who were familiar with the system in vogue in Germany for the 
reduction of silver ores, and their services were invoked with 
success in this emergency. This slow process, however, which 
had been satisfactorily used in Germany for a century or more, 
was unsatisfactory to American push and American genius. In 
a few months the Freyburg process was supplanted and rendered 
obsolete by the substitution of American machinery and Ameri- 
can methods, since which time there has been but little demand 
for Fre yburgers in American reduction works. 

Previous to the introduction of Freyburg reduction works, 
claim owners having become fully informed by frequent and 
numerous assays of the great value of the ore discovered, not 
only in the croppings. but of the float as well — which they had 
been casting aside, commenced shipping to California; and as 
the road over the summit of the mountains was not in condition 
to admit of teaming, the ore was packed on mules to Placerville 
at an expense of ten cents per pound. In this manner large 
quantities of ore from the float and croppings was shipped. 

Much carelessness was manifest in making locations of 
claims. Interminable disputes arose and endless litigation en- 
sued. Personal conflict with tragical consequences was of fre- 
quent occurrence, and vahiable ground, in some instances, was 
fortified and held by force of arms. New* laws had to be evoJved 
to meet the extraordinary circumstances, which had been so 
suddenly and unexpectedly thntst upon the country. 



To meet this serious emergency, the people of Carsaa 
County elected my brother, John C* James, a representative 
to the Utah legislature, shortly to convene, to secure such legist 
latton as was imperatively demanded. Whether he was a good 
Mormon during" his stay with the "Saints" I cannot say, but 
being the only Gentile member, he secured the passage of every 
measure which he introduced. 

Of all the great mining excitements, which have so often 
convulsed the mfining commumties on the PaciHc Coast, the 
Washoe was, perhaps, in point of numbers and impetuosity, the 
most extraordinary; and by the time these laws were in force, 
the country was literally swarming with an excited, unrestrained 
and restless people, and matters were becoming somewhat cha- 
otic, which, however, assumed a normal condition when re- 
straining and equitable laws were put in force. 

I find that I am approaching a period presenting too broad 
a fidd for eventful narrative for the pr^ent occasion, and T will 
therefore, revert back to those whom I shouJd be pleased to 
designate, as the fortunate discoverers and owners of the most 
wonderful and valuable mine in America, if not in the world. 

But were they fortunate? Let the following events an- 

Henry Page Comstock, who was an honest, confiding, rather 
simple-minded man, with but little knowledge of the wicked 
ways of the world, through a number of unfortunate and un- 
business-like transactions, (which I might mention: including 
the sale, for a trifling consideration, of property which should 
have made him a multi-millionaire), was soon divested of his 
little fortune, became a roving prospector through Idaho and 
Montana, and finally committed suicide in a small mining camp 
in Montana. 

McLaughlin, with his full claim on theComstock — a princely 
fortune, sold for $500 and died in penury in California. Peter 
O'Reily held on to his claim until he received $50,000 for it^ 
which he lost in stocks and finally died in a mad-house. James 
Finney v^s thrown from a mustang, or California horse, and 
sustained injuries from which he died. 

Sandy Bowers, one of the early locators, a conspicuous 
operator at Gold Hill, recovered from his mines a considerable 
fortune; built what is known as the "Bower's Mansion/' in 
Washoe Valley, in which the door knobs are all solid silver, and 
died of consumption many years ago. His widow was left in 
poverty and has made a precarious living practicing clairvoy- 



A. Klauber, whom I have heretofore mentioned in this nar- 
rative as having been my companion in crossing the mountains 
from Placerville, with the apparent business intuition of his 
people, proceeded at once on his arrival in Carson Valley, to 
buy the ranch which he had mentioned on the way^ and from it 
he cut a great quantity of hay. He also built a large store house 
in Genoa and filled it with goods, the like of which, as to quan- 
tity, had never been seen on the eastern slope, which was, under 
all business and speculative conditions at that time, an appar- 
ently doubtful business adventure. Yet, I paid him in the fol- 
lowing spring $25 for a fifty-pound sack of flour, and at the rate 
of $500 per ton for a considerable quantity of hay, under cir- 
cumstances which I may hereafter relate. 



Once more, we are called upon to chronicle the loss of 
one of our most honored and brightest members, who, by his 
skill and enterprise built for himself a lasting monument in the 
hearts of the people of Los Angeles City. 

Fred W. Wood was bom in Prarie du Chien, Wisconsin, 
April 28th, 1853. and died in Los Angeles, California, May 19th, 
1900, His father, Dn E. P. Wood, was a Colonel of the 17th 
Illinois Infantry in the Civil War. Dr. E. P. Wood, father of 
our subject) married Miss Miriam P. Cleaveland, July 3, 1836, 
in Peoria, Illinois. She was the great-granddaughter of Gen, 
Joseph Warren who was killed, June 17, 1775 at the battle of 
Bunker Hill When Gen. Washington heard of his death, he 
knelt an<l said : "May God receive hts soul in heaven. He 
won the day, and fell." Thus Fred W, Wood was a descendant 
of noble stock, of which he was justly proud. And it may well 
be said, he has added lustre to his ancestry. 

At the close of the Civil War. his father and family moved to 
Kansas City* where young Fred entered the High School. He 
remained in this school but a s-hort time when he entered the 
L^niverstty of Michigan. His chief aim and specialty was to 
complete his studies as civil engineer, which he chose as his pro- 
fession. He remained at the University about two years, then 
returned to Kansas City and entered the office of the city en- 
gineer as draughtsman. The accuracy of his work and the skill 
of his designs soon won for him the confidence of the head of 
the department 

At the age of eighteen his efficiency became so well known 
that he was offered and accepted a portion in the civil engineer 
department of the Chicago & Great Northwestern Railroad 
service, where he. at nineteen, became Assistant Chief Engineer 
in selecting and locating the lines of this enterprise. Endowed 
by nature with an earnest, energetic and progressive spirit* he 
soon rose to a position of prominence in his profession, and 
gained the confidence of the great railroad magnates. 

At the age of twenty, after two years service in this great 
railroad company, he resigned and entered the University at 


Ann Arbor, Michigan, in order to polish his practical acquire- 
ments, but he soon concluded that the University polish was 
not of sufficient importance to justify the time required to com- 
plete his studies, so he soon left the University. 

He came to California in the fall of 1873, and in March, 1874, 
came to Los Angeles, His ability as an eng-ineer soon became 
known. He suggesterl the scheme and became interested with 
Mn Prudent Beaudry in the construction of the Beaudry City 
Water Works* which proved to be a great success in the de- 
velopment in the hills west of old Los Angeles, supplying that 
portion of the city with good^ pure water. In this enterprise he 
established his engineering ability, and his services were in 
great demand. 

He soon became afRhated in the devdopment of the Lake 
Vineyard Land & Water Company at Pasadena, of which he 
was secretary' for five years. In 18K2 he was given charge of, 
and became general manager of the laying out and planting 
of the great San Gabriel vineyard, and building of the immense 
San Gabriel winer\' and distillery, which, at that time, was con- 
sidered the largest winer%' in the world. All of which wa>s done 
with so mwch skill and ability that Mr. Shorb, the principal 
owner and president of the company said : "This man. Fred 
Wood> is the genius of the age." 

In 1886 he resigned management of the winery, and again 
became identified with Mr. Prudent Beaudry in reconstructing 
the Temple Street Cable Railway line in Los Angeles, which 
proved a great benefit and success, and he soon became the 
general manager of the business of Prudent Beaudry' and Victor 
Beaudry, and upon the death of Mr. Victor Beaudry, Mr. Wood 
was appointed executor of his large estate, without bonds. He 
managed this estate and settled it up to the full satisfaction 
of all the parties interested. 

In 1893 Mr. Prudent Beaudry died, he also leaving his 
immense estate and the management of his business in the hands 
of Mr, Wood, which he continued to look after and manage 
until his death, at which time every part and parcel was found 
by the heirs to be straight and satisfactory. 

In 1895 Mr. Wood became the general manager of the Los 
Angeles Street Railway Company which controls nearly all of 
the most important street railways in Los Angeles City, the 
system: and sen^tce of which is equal to any large city in the 
L^nited States. Under the judicious supervision of Mr. Wood, 
the general efficiency of the system was greatly improved and 
placed on a paying basis. 



His greatest ambition was the success of this railway sys- 
tem and the upbuilding of the City of Los AngeJes. He con- 
tinned the general management of this street railway until his 
death. When he was too feeble to leave his sick'bed^ he had 
his stenographer come and sit by his bedside while he dictated 

He was a member of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, The American Electrical Engineers, and the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects. He studied law at home in his 
leisure moments and was admitted to the bar of the Supreme 
Court in 1893; this knowledge of law assisted him greatly in the 
management of his business affairs. During his earlier life he 
was a great student and seldom found time for light amuse- 
ments. He always kept a room fitted up as a laboratory where 
he spent his leisure time studying — and even the late hours of 
night often found him experimenting in chemistry, electricity or 
engineering problems. He tried to learn everything he could 
about the different methods and results of each. \Vlien he could 
learn no more from others, he would forrn^ new ideas of his own 
upon which he would practice until success would reward him 
for his labor. He w^as a great admirer of Edison, to whom he 
^ve credit for the success of his business life. 

He was a man of exceptionally good habits, temperate in all 
things. He had the fullest confidence and respect of all his 
business associates. He had strong convictions of right and 
wrong, paid strict attention to his own business: he w^s shrewd 
and honest to the core; his heart was pure and tender as that of 
a child. His influence and sympathy was always with the de- 
ser\'ing and the weak. The writer once asked him why it was 
he knew so little about ancient history: his reply was» **I have 
never found time to read it; it takes all of my leisure time to read 
and study modern science: this is an age of progress; there is 
something new to learn every day that needs our attention." 

He possessefl a clear, logical mind, a capacity to compre^ 
hend details, a strong will power, with great perseverance and 
industry. He knew how to handle men. so that they loved 
him for his. kindness and iustice. Mr, Wood said to a friend 
shortly before his last illness. "Yes, I know I cannot live many 
more years, but I would rather make my life a success and live 
the remainder of my day*^ among successful business men, than 
to give up an active career merely to live in idleness/* 

His mother said of him, "Fred was always a good, obedient 
child; he never gave me any uneasiness. When he was about 



fifteen years of age, I noticed him getting letters from men of 
note* which he seemed to cherish* He would read them, then 
store them away carefully. I asked him why he read them with 
so much interest and of what use were they to him aher he 
read them. His reply was, "Mother, they may come handy 
and be useful some day." And so they were. They were letters 
from some of the greatest civil engineers in America. She 
also said, "My advice to him was, let your life be such that the 
world will be the better for your having Jived in it, and when 
you look in the glass you will look in the face of an honest 

Mr. Wood was married in Los Angeles, December, 1882, 
to Miss Lcona P, Dupuytren, a native of California, and a 
grand niece of the celebrated French physician, Dr. Dupujrtren. 
Mrs. Woo<l is a highly educated lady of fine business ability. 
She proved herself a good helpmeet. One son* Warren Du- 
puytren Wood, bom October 15th. 1885, is tlieir only child. 
He is a bright, vigorous young man of sixteen, the pride of 
his mother. The mother, wife and son have a warm place in 
the affections of this commiunily, and in the hearts of all 


M. R OuiNN. 


Los Angeles, CaL, July 2nd, 1901. 



Los Angeles, May 7, 1901. 
To the Pioneers of Los Angeles County. 

Brothers: We, your committee appointed to report a 
memorial record of our departed member, Thomas E. Rowant 
respectfully submit the following: 

Our brother, who. at the age of 59 years, passed behind the 
vail that limits earthly vision, was bom A. D, 1842* in the State 
of New York, of honest parents, whose strong industrial traits 
they transmitted nndiminishetl to him. In 1858 the whole fam- 
ily came to San Francisco, remaining in the upper part of this 
State until i860, when they came to Los Angeles. Here the 
lather started the American Bakery, which prospered until he 
died. Thomas, with an eye on a business future, sought and 


obtained a position with 1. W. Hellman (our now famous 
banker), who had a general merchandise establishment on the 
comer of Commercial and North Main, where h now the 
Farmers & Merchajits' Bank. This position was additionally 
valuable to Mr. Rowan in. fitting him for a useful business 
career, for he learned of nne who has shown what ability he 
possessed by his marvelous success in finance. The Pacific 
Union Express, a quasi-corporation doing a surety steamer 
business between this city and San Francisco (with a branch to 
Sacramento) then competed with Wells-Fargfo, and L W. Hell- 
man was its first ag;ent here; Mr. Rowan, asystant. Later Mr. 
Hellman resigned the ag'ency, and Mr Rowan took his place. 
In the year i86q. the Pacific Union suspended business, and 
Wells, Farg-o & Co. took over the property (all personal) of the 
defunct cnrporation. It was not long till banks were organized, 
and through each mutation Mr. Rowan accompanied Mr. Hell- 
man till he became a prominent and tnisted officer in the operat* 
irg" force of the Farmers & Merchants' Bank. Mr. Rowait 
faithfully ser\^ed there till called by his fellow citizens to public 
life, filling the honored position of City Treasurer, Mayor, 
County Treasurer, Under Sheriff, and Supervisor. In all these, 
correctness^ promptness, neatness and affability were dominant. 
During his term as Supervisor, our noble court house was 
mainly, by liis insistence, decided necessary, and l>efore he left 
the board the magnificent structure was complete. There were 
few who coincided with his views how necessary then to begin 
what people have never adequately given him due praise for; 
we having what, even in its greatness, is hardly commensurate 
with our needs. 

He has done with years, but he was one of those who 
left in their steps for those to come, and' so left car\'ed in the 
history of his field of action the imperishable record of a true 

Of his domestic life, a loving^ wife and children hold sacred 
memories. Friends he had in platoons, but we have only to 
view him in the light of achievement, and that done, we can only 
say, "Peace to thy ashes, good and faithful servant/' His re- 
ward is not only in our grateful remembrance, but with God, 
who doeth all things well. 



Louts Roeder, 
H, D, Barrows, 






George Gephard, a California pioneer of 1850, died April 12, 
1901, at his residence, No. 238 North Grand avenue. He had 
been in failing; health for some time, but had been bed-ridden 
for a little more than a week. 

Mr, Gephard was born in Germany tn 1830, but was brought 
to America as a babe in the arms of his mother. His early 
boyhood was spent in Pennsylvania, and he came across the 
plains to CaUfornia In 1850, He soon became engrossed in 
mining" and lumbering in Nevada county, CaL, and tn his iate 
years spent in the northern part of the State, he owned a toll* 
road from Grass Valley tn Smartville. In 1875 he removed 
to Los Angeles, and at once invested in real estate. When 
he died he was the owner of valuable property on Broadway, 
HilK Fifth, Temple and other streets in this city. 

He was always a modest and unassuming- gentleman, with 
the deepest interest in every public improvement. He had a 
particular regard for the State Normal School, and when a 
site was to be purchased, in order to get the appropriation for 
the building, he personally assumed charge of the matter and 
raised $8000 to buy the ground. He was an active member of 
the Chamber of Commerce, was for one term a member of the 
City Council, and at one time came within a few votes of being 
elected County Treasurer, although the majority was strongly 
against his party. 

He leaves a widow and two daug-hters. One daughter is 
the wife of Capt, J. J. Meyler of this city, and the other, Miss 
Nettie Gephard, lives with her mother. 



September 20th, 190T, another one of this society received 
the summons to go forward, and quietly, peacefully passed to 
the realm of eternal rest. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Langfley Ensign was bom in Morgan county, 
Missouri, April i6th, 1845. Her father, Mr, Shrewsbury, 
brought his family to this State, November, i860. Miss Bettie, 



the second daughter, l>ecanie the wife of Mr. Samuel Ensign, 
a teacher in the county public schools, in the fall of 1875* Two 
children were bom of this union, a son* Ralph, who died when 
young hfe is so filled with promise, at the age of 17 years; a 
daug^hter, Miss Ohve L. Ensign, is a resident of this city, an 
honored member of our schools. 

Many of us present will recollect with pleasure the Miss 
Bettic Shrewsbury fas her friends loved to call her) of thirty 
years ago. Her charming personality, quiet wit and humor, 
and her exalted consideration for others, made her a favorite in 
the social circles of pioneer society. The Shrensbury home 
was a synonym for old-time Virginia hospitality* the family hav- 
ing originally come from the State from which that article is 
supposed to have originated. The presence of two young ladies 
and several grown up sons added much, also, to the attraction 
of the home. If we were privileged to lift the veil of years, and 
disclose the struggle and trials of this life* we would discover 
gold, tried in the furnace nf affliction — womanhood, mother- 
hood, widowhood, become consecrated, idealized. 

Mrs, Ensign was a member of Bethany Presbyterian Church 
in this city. At the memorial service, both pastor and people 
gave earnest expressions to her work as a Christian, as well as 
to her faithfulness as a teacher in the Sunday school. 

In this brief chronicle of a beautiful life* we may not esti- 
mate character or give its results, but all should know that 
Elizabeth Shrewsbury Ensign's desires and efforts were for the 
highest and noblest ideal in this life, which shoiUd prepare one 
for a death that should be without fear. 

''Some one has gone from this strange world of ours^ 

Xo more to gather its thorns with its flowers; 

One more departed to heaven's bright shore; 

Ring the bells softly, there's one gone before/' 

Virginia W. Davis^ 
M, F, Qltikn, 




At his home, 622 South Spring street, on the 15th of April, 
J901. died Wm, F, Grosser. Such is the brief record that tells 
the end of a useful hfe. 

;raphicai, sketch el 

For more thaa a quarter of a century the people of Los 
Ang-eles have known William F. Grosser as a business man* a 
citizen, a scientist and an astronomer; and in every sphere of 
life in which he has moved he has been respected and honored. 

William F. Grosser was bom at Potsdam, Prussia, Decem- 
ber i6, 1835. When but 1 1 years of age he came with his 
parents to New York City, where his father located and set up 
in business. He was a skillful optician, and besides had devoted 
his leisure time to the study of astronomy. His son William 
learned his fathers trade, and also acquired a knowledge of 
astronomy. This knowledge he turned to practical use. 
Equipped with a powerful telescope, he visited most of the 
larger cities in the United States, giving astronomical lectures 
and exhibitions. 

March 15, 1S62, Mr, Grosser, at Washington, D, C, was 
married to Miss Eleanor Nipper, a native of Weimar, Germany. 
The iinion proved a happy one, husband and wife being de- 
voted to each other until death removed the former. 

In October, 1873. Mr. Grosser came to California via Pan- 
ama. Early in 1874, they located in Los Angeles. Here he 
first engaged in the furniture business, his store being located 
at the corner of Fifth and Main streets. He purchased a tract 
of land on Vejar street, south of Fourteenth street, now known 
as the Grosser tract. This was subdivided into lots during the 
great real estate boom of 1887, and a portion of it sold. 

He erected a three-story brick block on the corner of San 
Julian and Fifth streets, where he and his sons established in 
the grocery business. 

After retiring from active business, he again devoted him- 
self to his favorite study, astronomy. In addition to his knowl- 
edge of astronomy, he was an expert microscopist. He was 
always ready to give his services to the schools and scientifiG 
societies of the city in the study of astronomy and kindred sub- 
jects, with the aid of his telescope and microscope. He gave 
public astronomical exhibitions, not so much for pecuniary re- 
ward as for the pleasure he derived from giving instruction id 
this favorite science. 
He is survived by his widow and five children — three sons 
and two daughters. William and Arthur are engaged in the 
grocery business. George, the youngest, is an accomplished 
musician. The elder daughter, Amelia, is a well-known and 
highly accomplished vocalist, and the younger, Lenore. is an 
instructor of painting in the art department of the University 



of Southern California, of which institution she is a ^duate. 
Mr. Grosser was a member of the Tumverdn Gerniania of 
Los Angeles, and had held almost every position of honor in 
the gift of the order. He was a charter memiber of Los Angeles 
Lodge, No. 55, A. O. U. W., and also a member of the Pioneers 
of Los Angeles County. 

Loving husband, kind father* faithful friend and brother 
pioneer, thou art gone from among us, but thy memory shall 
be treasured and thy name honored. 

Resolved, That a copy of this memorial be sent to the 
family of our deceased brother, and that one be preserved in 
the archives of the society for publication in the Pioneer 


Louis Roeder, 
August Schmidt, 
G^o- W. Hazard^ 




Samuel Calvert Foy died in Los Angeles, California, April 
24th. 19Q1, He was bom September 23rd, 1830* in Washing- 
ton, D, C. His father, Capt. John Foy; was bom in the county 
of Roscommon, Province of Connaught, Ireland, about 1783, 
and emigrated to America when a young man, and settled in 
the city of Washington. He was a graduate of Trinity College, 
Dublin* and was a civil engineer. He laid out and superin- 
tended the grounds of the White House and the Capitol, and 
for many years had charge of the botanical gardens. Much 
of his work there still remains as a monument to his taste and 
skill. He died in Washington, July 23rd, 1833. He was the 
sixteenth child of his parents. He was married about 1817 to 
Miss Mary Calvert, of Lexington, Kentucky, daughter of Chris- 
topher and Eliza Calvert, nee Cox, both of whom were natives 
of Virginia. The Calverts of Virginia were of the Maryland 
Calverts, well known in the history of those States, Capt. John 
Foy and wife spent all of their married life in Washingtort 
where their children were bom. After his death his widow, 
with her three little boys, returned to her people in Kentucky, 
where she married Mr Rich of Covington. Mrs. Foy was a 



woman of much force of character^ and she took great pride in 
the education of her children, training them for the proper pur- 
suits of Hfe. 

Mr. Samuel C. Foy, the subject of our sketch, was educated 
at the Burlington Academy, Kentucky. Among his teachers 
were Prof. Ray, the author of Ray's Arithmetic; and Prof. Mc* 
GufTey, author of AlcGufTey's Readers and SpeJiing Books. 
After completing' his education^ he learned the harness trade 
with Mr. Perkins of Cincinnati, who estabhshed the Perkins* 
Campbell firm of Cincinnati, which firm is still in existence, and 
Mn Foy continued to order goods from them until his death. 
After completing his trade, Mr Foy went to Natchez, Miss., 
and worked at harness making. Like niany others of his day, 
he was "stricken with the California gold fever,'' and left for 
California by way oi Panama, and arrived in Saii Francisco 
about January, 1852. He immediately left for the gold mines 
in Calaveras county, where he joined his brotherSj John and 
JameSt who had preceded him. Not being very successful in 
the mines, he concluded to return to his trade. In 1S54 he pur- 
chased a stock of goods in San Francisco and came to Los An- 
geles and started the harness business. Later his brother John 
came to Los Angeles, and Ihey formed a co-partnership, which 
continued until 1865. During this period they also engaged in 
cattle raising, which business was managed by Mr, Samuel C. 
Foy. having headquarters at San Juan, San Benito county, and 
Stockton, San Joaquin county. The partnership was dissolved 
in 1865. John M. Foy going to San Bernardino, and S, C. Foy 
continuing the business at No. 315 North Los Angeles street, 
where they had established themselves in 1861. 

Mr. S. C. Foy was married to Lucinda Macy. daughter of 
Dr. Obed Macy, in Los Angeles, by Rev, Wm. E. Boardman, 
on October 7th, i860. She came with her parents to California 
in 1S50, arriving at the Palomares Rancho. where North Po- 
mona now stands, on New Year's Day^ 185 1. Dr. Macy set- 
tled one-fourth mile east of the present town of El Monte, 
where they lived until 1853, when he moved to Los Angeles, 
and bought the Bella Union Hotel, now known as the St. 
Charles. His death occurred in 1856. Mrs. Macy was a grand- 
daughter of Charles Polk and Delilah Polk^ nee Tyler, related 
respectively to Presidents Polk and Tyler. 

Mr. and Mrs. Foy had ten children^ — four sons and six 
daughters — of whom one son, James Calvert^ and five daugh- 
ters — Mary E.. Cora, Edna, Alma and Florence — are living. 



James Calvert married Adell, daughter of the late H. K. S. 
O'Melveny, and they live in this city. Alma marrieil Thomas 
Lee Woohnne, formerly of Nashville, Tenn., now of this city. 
The other daughters are unmarried, and reside with their 
mother at the old home on Figrieroa street. The son for many 
years assisted his father in the management of his business in- 
terests, and he is well known throug-hout this State, being a 
prominent member of the Native Sons. Mary has long been 
identified with the educational interests of our city, and is at 
present a teacher in the English departmrent of the High School. 
Cora is a reader of no mean ability. Edna is a violinist^ whose 
education was supplemented by three years' study in London. 
Florence is a student in the senior class of the High School. 

Mr Foy was for many years a member of the Masonic order. 
He took no active part in politics^ although always a strong 
Democrat, He was a careful business man. and the fever of 
speculation nether attacked him. His investments were made 
with care, and the competency he left to his family was the 
result of industry, economy and the natural increase in values 
of real estate, Mr. Foy was a man of exceptionally good hab- 
its, and was devoted to his home and family. He enjoyed the 
fullest respect and confidence of all his business associates, His 
long residence in Los Angeles and his straight forward, genial 
manner brought around him many friends, who regret his death, 
and will long cherish his memory. His fellow pioneers of Los 
Angeles county extend to his bereaved family their warmest 
friendship and deepest sympathy. 


M. R QuiNN, 
J, M. GuiNN, 
J. M. Stewart, 
r Committee. 



Charles Erode was born at Boreck, province of Posen. Prus- 
sia, February 6, 1836. At the age of 19 he left his native land 
for Australia, where he engaged in mining for seven years. At 
the age of 26 he came to the United States, engaging in various 
kinds of business in the territories of Montana, Idaho and Utah. 

In 1868 he came to Los Angeles and engaged in grocery 



business, which he followed for nearly twenty years. His store 
was located on South Spring street, adjoining- the Hollenbeck 
Hotel, He acquired some other valuable property on Spring 
street in early days, which he recently disposed of. His real 
estate investments gave him a comfortable income. In 1890 
he retired from the grocery business. He was a director of 
the Germ an -American Savings Bank at the time of his death. 
He was a member of the Odd FeJlows and the Tumverein Ger- 

Charles Erode was one of the sterling, enterprising German 
pioneers who formed so large an element of the early business 
community of Lo«s Angeles* 

He was intelligent, progressive, public-spirited and pos- 
sessed a high sense of justice which made him respected and 
esteemed by his fellow citizens. 

He died at his home in this city August, 13, 1901. He i^ 
survived by a widow and six children — Mrs, Emma Friese, Mrs. 
Louisa Bruntng, A, C. Brocfe, W, C. Erode, Mrs. Oscar Lawler 
and Leopold Erode. For 23 y^ars he has lived among us and 
has been identified with the city's growth and prosperity. A 
man without reproach, honest and honorable in e^ery trust that 
he has held. 


John Osbornt, 
J, D, Young, 
John Shaffef, 




Los Angeles, Nov, 30, 1901. 
To the Honorable Pioneers of Los Angeles County: 

Brothers and Sisters : We, the committee by you appointed 
to submit a tribute to the memory of our late brother, F, A. 
Gibson, respectfully present the following: 

Mr, Gibson was bom November 23, 185 1, in Pittsburgh, 
Iowa, and died in this city October 13, 1901, aged 49 years 10 
months 28 days, leaving in the home a widow and son, with 
whom we deeply sympathize, and to whom we would say. look 
for strength to the Father of all, who has spared us all so long 
on life's toilsome road. 



In the year 1866, the Rev. Hugh Gibson, a Methodist 
clergyman, with his family — among them, our late brother, 
Francis Asbury Gibson^ — came to the San Joaquin Valley, Cali- 
fornia. The father was appointed ag^ent of the Round Valley 
Indian reservation, and the son served as his clerk. The father 
W3S a man of impressive presence, noted for his integrity; the 
mother, a model matroti. noted for her active charity. In his 
varied career in this city, where he arrived in 1872, Frank 
showed these traits strongly in his daily life — his helpfulness 
of others drawing not alone on his purse, but on his strength 
of brain and body, and the tim« needed for rest was unself- 
ishly given, till at last, tired nature could do no more, and he 
fell in the harness — died at an age that shoudl have been his 
prime The death of his father in 1873 saw him the head and 
support of the family, and his active talent led him through im- 
portant undertakings to a high position where his word and 
judgment were sought fon 

His blessed mother went long years ago to her rest, where 
the parents await the son. To use a pioneer expres5ion. our 
brother "over-drove" himself. True, he willingly did all, but 
we lament the sacrifice* 

His team outspanned and gone, , 

His camp deserted — lone; 
Our brother Pioneer 
Has reached the last frontier — 
And that is Heaven. 
Frank A, Gibson died in this city. October 11, 1901. 

J. W. GlLLETTfi, 

G^. W. Hazard, 



In Memoriam. 

Oeceftsed Membors of tHo I^ioiteera of l#os An^elea 

Jame« J. Ayret ., ,..,,.. Died November 10, 

eteptien C^ Foster „.,...,. Oled January 27, 

Horace Hiller Died May 23, 

John Slrother Gritnn Died August 23, 

Henry CJay Wiley Died October 25, 

William Blackstone Abernethy .... Died November i, 

Stephen W. La Dow Died January 6, 

Herman Raphael ,... Dfed April 19, 

Francis Baker ,,,,,,..,... ^ ... . Died May 17, 

Leonard John Rove , , , , *.,,,... ^ , , Died May 17, 

E. N. McDonald Died June 10, 

James Craig DJed December 30, 

PaJmer Milton Soott... Died January 3, 

Franciitco SabtchI Died April 13^ 

Robert Miller Town , Died April 24, 

Fred W. Wood Died May 19, 

Joseph Bayer ..,,,,. , ,.. Died July 27, 

Augustus Ulyard « Died August 5, 

A. M. Hough .. ,, ,.,.,.,.,,,. Died August 28, 

Henry F. Fletshnnan .............. Died October 20, 

Frank Lecouvreur ,,.. Died January 17, 

Daniel Shieck Died Jansuary 20, 

Andrew Glasael) ,.,,.,.., Died January 28, 

Thomas E. Rowan Died March 25^ 

Mary Ulyard Died April 5, 

George Gephard ...., , , Died April 12, 

Williann Frederick Grosser ., Died April 23, 

Samuel Calvert Foy ...< Died April 24, 

Joseph Stoitenberg ... ^, .,,,,,,,., , Died June 25, 
Charles Brode ....... ^ ... ^ ...... . Died August 13, 

Joseph W. Junkins Died August^ 

L^ura Gibson Abernethy , , .Died May 16, 

Elizabeth Langley Ensign Died September 20, 

Frartk A. Gibson ...,..., Died October tt, 

Godfrey Hargltt Died November 14, 











amr. nr 



At. M 1 

GfUlCk, Jmm. VL 







GncOk Morris M. 

X. Y- 




30 17 Kin«*iey 


CalbBtT, Ciiftrtrt 




t$« ru«eT 


Griffith. J. U. 





Loa AnfclcB 


Ore«i. E. K. 

N. Y. 




W. Mmh 

tB7' 1 

Green, Flc^d E. 





W, Ninth 


GmiiD, Junes M. 



Oct. ra. 


tT;S & Graad avoiac 


Coldsvoftby. Joton 



Uar. 20. 


(07 N- Main 


Gilbert, BaAow 

N. Y. 

Not. I. 


Belt Station 


fierltin*. Jacob F. 






IB54 > 

GarreR. Ro6ert U 



N#*. 5* 


yoj S. Grand a^enn* 


Grebe. CKrictiu 





&I t Sao Fernando 


GsrdU G-wrg:c E, 



48s Sao jMquin 


CeUcr, Mafarct P. 







Grcenbatun, Epbrum 




iSi? Cherry 


^ Cliddm. Edward C 

S, H. 

Mfgr. a^ent 



ysfi Avenue xr 

■ &68 

^^B G^wer. C^DTte T. 

H. t. 






^^^^T Grosser, Elea.nor« 





««« S. Sprinc 

187 J 

^f Colding. THormu 




LoA Angflei 


■ Ola», HcQfT 



Jooe aa» 


W, Fourth rtrtsd 


^^^^ Haines. Rufai it 





2Tg W. Twenty-seraitb 


^^K Harns. Emil 



April 9. 


ia;6 ^^'. Ei«htb 

t8sy ' 

^^B Harper, C F. 

N. C. 






^^ Haicard, G«, W. 



Dec- JS. 


1307 S Alvarado 


■ Hetlmaft. HemiAit W. 



May u. 


954 HiU 


H Hdnxcntan, C F. 



Jddc 6. 


6 jo S- Grand aventK 


H Horgan, T. 



Sept. tS. 


330 Jackson 


1 Hunter. Jane E. 

N. Y. 




3*7 S. Bniadwty 
85^ S. Broadwu 



> H*tpiUon. A. X. 



Jan. a4. 


fill Temple 


^^^ HolbrtMlc, J. F. 




iSj Via* 


^^^f Httntanii, Guftave 





7^7 Catifomia 


Button. Aureliui W. 



Ant 5. 


Lot An<el» 


HilJer. Mr^ Abbie 

N. Y. 




M7 W. TwMtT-thrird 


Herwigr. Henry J, 



Dec J5. 


739 Wall 


HubbeH. Stephen C- 

X. Y. 



1515 Pleasant »Teouc 


BMy%, Wade 







Hats. Sar«pta S. 

N. Y. 


April 17. 


.519 W, Eislifth 


HamiltDn, EErm BC 



Sept. 3v, 


jto Avenue sj 


Hc»Stt, HoKoc E. 



Feb. »7. 


J37 S. OliT* 


Houjhtao, Sheman 0. 

N. Y. 


Jtdy 1. 


Bultard Block 


Houehton. EH«a P, 



J«ir I. 


Lo* Anjelo 


H»kcU. John C 






Hmrtg, Ewtna E. 







Hatit«, Ah 




Lo^ Ang*'" 


Hunter, JesK 






mich, Jerry 





miS Hill 


Jacobs, Kuban 





739 Hope 


jKohj, Morri* 


Merc bant 


La* Angles 


Jaffld, Alfred 





(fit \. Banker Hill ift 

■ »9J 

JenkiDs, Cbarlea M. 



Mar, P9. 


1158 S»ticee 


Jolinaon, Charles R. 




T.fls Anfclea 


JniuoB. A. iL 

N. Y. 




I^sadetta ■TCflttC 


Jordon, Js»eph 





Lofl Angetes 


1 Johanseu. Mrx Cecilia 




Los ARCclei 





^^^^^^^^H • 




ikk. iir ^H 



Ataiv. IH 




Cmrier* A. T. 



July I 



iMi ^T| 

a*tk, Frank E. 



Feb. 3j, 


Hyde Park 

t669 J 

Carter, N, C 





Sierra Madre 

1&7> ^1 

Conner, Mfs, Kate 



June 32, 


1QS4 S. Grand 

- — ^H 

ChapmuL, A. B. 





San Gabriel 

iSiS ^I 

CuBitBiogs. Geo. 





First street 


Cunningham. RobL G. 



Nov. ts. 


[501 W> Second 

1S73 ^ 

Clarfcc^ N. J. 

N. H. 



317 S. Hill 

1^ H 

Compton, Go. D 





»3$ W. Jefferson 

—— ^H 

Ci»wan. D, W, C 



Jiute t. 


B24 W. Tenth 

i84» ^ 

C»rt€r, Julius M. 



March 4. 




Clarke, Jamu A, 

N. Y. 



,13 W- Second 


C&mpbelU J. U. 




716 Bonnie Brae 


Cable. Jonathan T. 

N. Y. 


April 10 


n6 Wilhardt 

i»6t ^J 

Culver^ Francis F. 






iS4» ■ 

Dalton, W. T. 


Fruit Gro«er 


1^0 Central avenue 

1851 H 

Davis, A. E. 

N. y. 

Fruit Grower 




'Bi7 ^ 

DmDcr. P, W. 



May I. 


848 S. Broadway 


Dohs, Fred 





6t4 E. First 


I>citeef, John C 



June 20, 


$0& Temple 


Dmnond, D 



Sept- s, 


9i? S. Hill 

isfia 1 

Desmond, C C 





724 Coronado 

2870 i 

Diinkclberffcr, I. R. 





jarS W, Ninth 

iS«« { 

■ DunUp, J. D. 
I Drydcn, Wm. 
» Durfce, Jaa. D, 

N. H- 





iSso 1 

N- Y. 

Far Bier 



Los Angeles 

1861 1 



Sept. IS, 


El Monte 

165s 1 

Davis. Kmily W 





i8s& 1 

Davis. John W. 



Dec, 10. fSyj 

51a San Julian 

187a ^i 

ft Davis. Virginia W. 



Sept., I 


SrS San Julian 

TS51 ^H 

ft Delann. TboE. A. 

X. H. 





isso H 

■ Davis, Phoeb« 

N- Y. 


Dec. 15, 


?97 E. Serenteenth 

ifi63 ^1 

Eaton, B«nj. S. 


Hyd. engineer 


43 J Sherman 


EhinscT, Louis 



Oct. 9^ 


755 Maple 


Elliott, I, M. 

s. C 






Evart3, Myran E 

N. Y. 

Pai Dtcr 

Oct 26. 


Los Angelea 

iSsa H 

Eddman. A. W. 





134J Flower 

»SS9 ^ 

E6e&u Mfi. W. F. 

N. y. 


April iS* 


514 E- Washib^on 


Fnrguson, Wm. 





303 S. HiU 

1S50 . 

PtiTTcy, Wra, C. 

N. Y- 




1103 Ingraham 


French. LpiiiiB W, 





83;' Alvarado 

1863 1 

Franklin, Mrs. Mary 



Jan. I, 


^5^ Avenue ii 

■asa ^ 

Fickett, Chrarlea R. 



July 5. 


El M6nte 

i86a ^H 

Fisher. L. T. 



Mar. ^4, 


Loa Angelefl 

1873 ■ 

Fojr, Mrs. I,ucinda M. 



Dec. 14, 


65: S, Figueroa 

1S30 H 

French, Cai. E- 





141 i-J N. BroadwDiy 

i£fig H 

Flood, Edward 

N, y. 

Cement worker 



131 j Palmer avenue 

rSS9 H 

- Foflle, Lswreqee 





43S Avenue J3 

1^55 ^M 

ft Foulks, Irving 



Oct. T&. 


404 Btaudry avenue 

1853 H 

1 Carey, Thamagi A, 



Oct- 14. 


28^3 Maple avenue 

i6sa H 

m Garvcy. Richard 





San Gabriel 

E858 V 

Caee. Hearr T 

N. y. 

Gflv. Stale 



1 146 W. Twenty-cightli 


Gillette, J. W, 

N, Y. 




Saa Temple 


Gill^te, Mra. K- S, 





322 Temple 


Gould. Win D, 



Feb. aB. 


Bcaudry avenue 

1 87 J . 



n.*ot oGcuvATim. 

Worfcaaa. Wm. H. 


City Treunrcr 


375 Boyfc anna 


Warfann. E. H. 


Real Ectata 


ija Bgylc arennc 


Witt, KcniKtb a 



Sept. '7M 

IJ5I S. Grand avcane 


WilKiMinn, G««k W. 




Loa Ai^clca 


Wcyac, Rodolph a 




Tbompaoa MraeC 


Wcirac^ Mn. A. W. 

a CaL 


Jaly ■«,-«> 

Santa Monica 


Wri^c Chark* H. 



J»»y. •» 



WUtcv Charlo H. 


& P. Ca 


1137 lagrahaa 






74» SMaia 


«lboa.C N. 



J«-. 9. Vi 



Wafd. Jaacs P. 

N. Y. 


Jan.. '7» 

list S. Grand 

toartMn, Alfred 



Not. jS. 'CS 

jij Boyle avesne 

White, Caleb E. 






Waadhead, Chai. R 



Febw at. '74 

■5« Bneaa Vlrta 


Waitaabcrg. Looia 


Com. Trav. 

Nor., 'si 

1057 S. Grand BTcaac 


WUder, laae 



A-t.. '5* 

S3S Saa IVdro Mree* 


WofB. AoptX W. 




pio W. nth 


Wrigkt, Edward T. 




aj6 S. Sprinc 


WaUfarth, Aagnrt 



Sept.. '74 

■604 Pleamat aveana 


WUlCh J. P. 



May, 'TO 

9S9E. 55th 


YaradI, Jcae 



April. -67 

1808 W. ist 


Yooac JTohB a 



Oct. '53 

J607 Ficneroa 


YatiKiU Mn. S. C 



April. -67 

1808 W. lit 




Officers of the Historical Society, 1902-1903. . . * 214 

Early Art in California, W. L. Judson 215 

Poetry of the Argonauts J. M. Guinn. . 217 

Ethical Value of Social Organizations. 

Mrs. M. Burton Willianison , . 228 

Some Medicinal and Edible Plants of Southern California 

Laura Evertsen King 237 

Andrew A. Boyle H. D. Barrows, . 241 

EI Canon Perdido J. M. Guinn. , 245 

Some Old Letters; 251 

Dr John Marsh to Don Abel Stearns, 1837 251 

Hon Stephen C. Foster to Gen. B, Riley, 1849, .,.,,,.. 252 

The Palomares Family of California H. D. Barrows. . 254 

Sister Scholastica Wm. H, Workman, . 256 


Officers and Committees of the Society of Pioneers of Los 

Angeles County^ 1902-1903 , , 259 

Constitution and By-Laws , . , 260 

Order of Business 264 

My First Procession in Los Angeles — March 16, 1847. - . . 

- Stephen C. Foster , . 265 

Same Eccentric Characters of Early Los Angeles , 

,. J. M. Guinn. . 2^^ 

Angel Pioneers ...,,,..,,, Jesse YarnelL . 28e 

Trip to California via Nicaragua J. M. Stewart. . 283 

Wm. Wolfskin The Pioneer H- D. Barrows. , 287 

Pioneer Ads and Advertisers J. M. Guinn. , 295 


Daniel Desmond Committee Report . . 300 

Jessie Benton Fremont Committee Report, , 300 

Caleb E, White Committee Report . . 301 

John Caleb Salisbury Committee Report . . 303 

Henry Kirke White Bent Committee Report. , 304 

John Charles Dotter .Committee Report. . 306 

Anderson Rose .Committee Report. * 307 

John C. Anderson A. H. Johnson . . 308 

Jerry Illich Los Angeles Daily Times , , 309 

In Memoriam 310 

Roll of Members, Complete to January, 1903 311 




WAL-not R. Bacon President 

J. D. Moody First Vice-President 

Mxs. M. Burton Williamson Second Vice-President 

Edwin Baxter Treasurer 

J. M, GuiNN Secretary and Curator 

board op directors. 

Walter R. Bacon, H. D. Barrows, 

J. D. Moody, Edwin Baxter, 

J. M. GuiNN, George W. Hazard, 

Mrs. M. BtTRTOK Williamson. 


OFTTCERS (elect). 

Walter R. Bacon President 

A. C Vroman First Vice-President 

Mrs, M. Burton Williamson Second Vice-President 

Edwin Baxter Treasurer 

J. M. Guinn Secretary and Curator 

board of directors. 

A. C Vroman, Walter R. Bacon, 

H. D. Barrows, J. M. Guinn, 

J. D. Moody, Edwin Baxter, 

Mrs. M. BtntroN Wiluamson. 

Historical Society 


Southern California 




In the early art of California, when carefully examined, we 
find evidences of a crude and primitive yet genuine art impulse 
which must have been a measurable factor in the happiness of 
bygone generations. 

It is not necessary to go back to the barbaric hieroglyphs 
of the Santa Catalina caves, or to retrace the theoretic voyages 
of ancient South American peoples, whose frequent rock pic- 
tures repeat the familiar outlines of Sugar Loaf rock in Avalon 
bay. Theories point to an early international commerce and 
an Aztec or Peruvian origin of the latent art talent of the coast 
tribes. In the Santa Barbara cave pictures there is unmistak- 
able evidence that a certain graphic talent did exist, whatever 
its origin may have been. And in some of the native tribes 
of today, notably witli the Pimas, this pictorial and artistic in- 
stinct is well illustrated in their basketry, which displays a degree 
of aesthetic discernment far above that of the ordinary savage. 

The crude work of some Indians of early mission times, both 
in carving and paintings is very Interesting. They strove with 
inadequate materials, poor tools and awkward hands to imitate 
what had doubtless impressed thetn deeply in the paintings and 
architectural designs which had been brought out from Spain 
by the mission fathers. 

In the lumber room of the old Plaza church lie fourteen pic- 
tures covered with dust and broken furniture. They are evi- 
dently considered of no value, for they receive no care, except 



the shelter of a roof, and yet they bear the potential of a very 
great value in the future. 

Considered as fine art, from the nnodem standpoint^ they 
are worthless, but as relics of the most interesting period in the 
development of Southern California they become endowed with 
great interest. 

Who painted them? An Indian evidently. What was his 
name? No one remembers it. When were they painted? 
Probably in the days of mission building, when it was impos- 
sible to obtain originals or even decent copies of originals with- 
out delays of many months, perhaps years. They are painted 
on a coarse linen doth similar to that we Icnow as butcher's 
linen . glued in the orthodox way to preserve the fiber of the 
cloth, heavily covered with oil paint as a ground and executed 
with common earth pigments, probably ground by hand and 
with a base of common white house paint. 

There is something intensely pathetic in the work, which was 
surely a labor of love. The sweetness and sincerity which are 
evident, coupled with the unconscious simplicity, makes even 
such crude and imperfect work worth while. 

There is no attempt at shading and very little at perspective 
in these pictures, the drawing is childish and the execution as 
rough and crude as can be imagined, and yet they tell the story 
of the via crucis in a vivid and startling manner. 

There are some remains of primitive frescoes at Pala mis- 
sion and in the remaining half dome at San Juan Capistrano, 
which ten years ago had some charm of color and story, but 
they are rapidly fading out of existence. 

There are also some evidences remaining that the pastoral 
period of California life had its art. There were wandering 
artists, portrait painters^ who seem to have wandered from one 
great estate to another, painting the dons and their ladies and 
an occasional altar piece for the private chapel. In the Coronel 
collection of relics of this picturesque period there is shown the 
work of at least twK> of thiese early artists, but their names have 
been lost. Primitive as the work may be, tt still shows an ad- 
mirable sense of both beaut v and character. 



Never before in the world history has there been a migration 
similar to that which peopled California after the discovery of 
gold. There have been greater outflows of population but they 
have been slow-moving. The Aryan migration into Europe 
went on for centuries. The Children of Israel wandered forty 
years in the wilderness before they reached the promised land. 
An Argonaut of '49 would have made the journey in forty days 
with an ox team. 

In the year 1849, it is estimated that 100,000 people found 
their way into the land of gold. They came from almost every 
country on the globe— from Europe, Asia, Africa, America and 
the islands of the sea — all grades, castes and conditions of men 
came — the good and the bad, the virtuous and the vicious — the 
industrious, the idle and the profligate. Australia and Tasmania 
sent their ex-convicts and ticket-of-Ieave men; Mexico its vicious 
peones ; Polynesia its reckless gamblers and the Flowery Kingdom 
its '*Heathen Chinee." They came by every known means of 
conveyance and by every possible route — around Cape Horn 
storm tossed and scurvy racked tn floating channel houses — 
across the isthmus of Panama scourged by miasmatic fevers and 
decimated by cholera — by the isthmus of Tehauntepec — around 
the Cape of Good Hope and across the broad Pacific. Those 
who came by land traveled the unpeopled and almost unknown 
expanse between the Missouri and the Sierras by a dozen routes 
unheard of before. They lost themselves by taking mythical 
cut-offs and in their wanderings they penetrated mountain fast- 
nesses and floated down unknown rivers. Ignorant of their 
danger, they strayed into waterless deserts and perished alone, 
uncoffined and unknelled. Lured by the treacherous mirage they 
entered valleys of death and lay down to die on their burning 
sands haunted by visions of green fields and babbling brooks. 
They climbed np into the eternal snows of the Sierras seeking a 
gateway into the land of sunshine and perished of cold and 
hunger on the very verge of warmth and plenty. Stricken by 
that dread plague cholera, five thousand graves by the wayk- 
side marked the line of their march from the Missouri to the 



The one bait that lured them all was Gold! Gold! Gold! 
Their pilgrimage in the land of gold brought out the noblest 
quaJities and the meanest. It made and unmade men. There 
they wore no masks* The inherent character of the man came 
to the surface. The accretions that social standing at home had 
thrown around a nature base born and sordid, gilding it into 
respectability and high standing were often rudely torn away 
by the rough life of the mines and the individual was shown up 
in all his inherent baseness. The wild free life of the mines was 
the crucible of character, separating the dross from the pure 

There was enough of the heroic, enough of adventure in 
the search of these modern Argonauts for the *'Golden Fleece" 
to have furnished material for an epic grander and more fasci- 
nating than the Odessy of Homer but it has never been written. 
There were poets among the Argonauts, but it was seldom they 
sang. Life was too strenuous and the battle for existence too 
fierce for them to tune the lyre. Their occupation was not con- 
ducive to wooing the muses. Gold digging, in early days, was 
a socialistic leveler. The standard of merit was a man's capacity 
to perform so much physical labor. The unlettered hind mip:ht 
surpass the finished scholar. The ex-convict might labor beside 
the judge who had sentenced him and be classed as the better 
man. It was an anomolous condition of society. Under such 
conditions and amid such surroundings it was not strange that 
the hards but rarely tuned their harps, and when they did sing 
it was not of California in 

"The days of old. 
The days of goJd, 
The days of '49." 

"Tticy sang of love and not of hmc. 

Forgoi was Britain^s glory: 
Each heart recalled a different name, 

Bm all sang Annje Laiirie." 

Unlike the soldiers of the Crimea on the eve of battle it 
was not "Annie Laurie" the miners sang, but when they did sing 
of home, like the soldiers before the "dark Redan,'* 

"Each heart recalled a different name." 

There was one song of purely Argonau*' 
has been sung around miners' camp fires 
to the jungles of Panama; sung amid 



Sierras and on the burning sands of the Colorado, Although in 
composition it was somewhat crude and homelyt and its the-me 
an oft-told story, there was a sentiment in it that touched a re- 
sponsive chord in the breast of many a miner. The ballad I 
refer to bore the inexpressive title, "Jpe Bowers of Pike/' The 
sentiment that made it popular among the Argonauts in the 
early '50's you may possibly detect in the stanzas I quote: 

"My name is Joe Bowers, Tvc got a brother Ike, 
I came from Old Missouri, yes all the way from Pike. 
rtl tell you why I left thar, and how I came to roam. 
And leave my poor old mammy so far aw^ay from home, 

I used to court a girl thar, her name was Sally Black, 
I axed her if she'd marry me, she said it was a whack, 
But then says she, *'Joe Bowers, before we hitch for life 
You ought to get a little home to keep ycr Httle wife." 

Oh Sally, dearest Sally! Oh Sally for your sake 
rU go to California and try to raise a stake. 
Says she to me, "Joe Bowers, you'r the man to win ; 
Here's a kiss 10 hind the bargain/* and she hove a dozen in. 

Right soon I went to the mines^ put in my biggest Ucks, 
Came down on the boulders jest Uke a thousand o' bricks* 
I worked both late and early, in sun* in rain, in snow. 
I was workin' for my Sally — 'twas all the same to Joe/* 

Joe continues to work in the mines, but he doesn't raise a 
stake. Time passes and the denoument comes to Joe's little 
romance in a letter from brother Ike which said '*Sally has wed a 
butcher whose hair is red." The bell rings, the curtain drops, 
Joe's life drama is played out. From this point in the song the 
singer was at liberty to improvise any continuation to the story 
he pleased or rather that would please his auditors. One, that 
I recollect, was that the auburn haired vendor of steaks and 
prime roasts dies^ Joe makes a raise in California, returns and 
marries the widow and they live happily ever afterward. Who 
was the author of the ballad? T do not know, It may not 
have had an author, but, like Topsy. "just growed," 

The Argonauts of California, and particularly those who 
crossed the plains, were nearly all young men. Many of these, 
like Mr. Joseph Bowers, had left girls behind them, wham they 
had promised to marry. Each hoped to pick up gold enough 
in a few months, or a year at most, to get "a little home to keep 
his little wife." In the language of a song popular in the days 
of ^49, 



"I soon <iha]l ht in Frisco 

And then I'll took all rouii4» 
And when I see the gold lumps ihere 

I'll pick 'em off the groimd; 
I'll scrape the mountains clean, my boys, 

ril drain the rivers dry. 
A pocket full of rocks bring home; 

O! Susanna, don't you cry," 

But the miner soon found gold was not be picked up in lumps, 
Like Joe, he put in his biggest licks, he dammed creeks and turned 
rivers, tunneled into mountains and ground-sluiced hills away, 
joined in a wild rush to Gold Lake, to Silver Mountain, searched 
for the Lost Cabin, the Padres Mine, the Wagon Tire Diggings 
and other ignes fattti that have deluded honest miners, and came 
back from his chase after phantoms rich in experience but poor 
in gold. Meanwhile time was passings and it kept doing so 
with great regularity. He was growing old and Susanna, who 
had ceased to cry, was growing impatient. Then the denoue- 
ment comes in a letter from home — Susanna has wed a man who 
had not learned to roam but who had a little home, Another 
romance is ended. The miner curses his luck — perhaps he gets 
drunk. He ceases to write home, he becomes driftwood on the 
current of fate. In the homely ballad of Joe Bowers many a 
miner has beheld his own life drama portrayed. Hence its olden 
time popularity in the mines. 

The earliest poem printed in a California periodical appeared 
in the issue of the Californian of October 3, 1846, and is en- 
tilled "On Leaving the United States for California." This was 
followed in the next issue of the paper by a poetical effusion en- 
titled *'On Leaving California for the United States," Both are 
anonymous. They were probably written by the same author 
In the Californian of October 31st, 1846^ is a poem bearing the 
title, "To My Mother." It is signed A. D. F. R. All these 
mentioned are sentimental and have but little local coloring. In 
the Californian of November 14, 1846, is a poem on the con- 
quest of Los Angeles. Commodore Stockton and Captain John 
C, Fremont, with their united forces — Stockton advancing from 
San Pedro and Fremont from San Diego — entered Los Angeles, 
August 13, 1846, Governor Pio Pico and Genera! Jose Castro 
had lied to Mexico at the approach of the American troops, and 
the Californian soldiers disbanded and returned to their homes. 
The gringo army under Stockton took possession of the city 
without firing a shot. The *'sounds of woe/' "the blood-stained 
earth," "the murdVous arms" and "haggard eyes" in the poem 



are figments of the poet's imagination. Evidently his muse was 
fooled with a fake report of the conquest. 

In the first conquest of Los Angeles nobody was hurt, not 
a hostile shot was fired. It was during the second, in January, 
1847, that the battles of Paso de Bartolo and La Mesa were 
fought- The poem is entitled "Angeles/' and is signed W. G. 
I give it in full. 


Soft o'er the vale of Angeles 

The gale of peai^c was woul to blow 
Till discord raised her direful horn 

And fillcd the vale with sounds of woe. 

The blood stained earth, the warlike bands. 
The trembling natives gaw with dread. 

Dejected labor left her toil^ t 

And summer's blithe enjoyments fled. 

But soon the avenging sword w^s sheathed. 
And mercy*s voice by "Stockton" heard 

How pleasant were the days which saw 
Security and peace restored. 

Ah think not yet your trials o'er; 

From yonder mountain's hollow side, 
The fierce banditti issue forth, 

When darkness spreads her ctirtains wide. 

With murdVous arms, and haggard eyes, 
The social joys away they fright ; 

Sad expectation clouds the day. 

And sleep forsakes the fearful night 

Now martial troops protect the robbed. 
At distance prowl the ruffian band ; 

Oh coniidence f that dearer guard. 

Why hast thou (eft this luckless land. 

We droop and moum o'er many a joy, 

O'er some dear friend to dust consigned. 

But every comfort is not fled, 
Behold another friend we find. 

Lo "Stockton" comes to grace the plan. 
And friendship claims the precious prize; 

He srrants the claims nor does his heart 
The children of ihe vale despise. 

W. G. 

In my researches, the earliest poem that I have found which 
has a local coloring, is one entitled "Blowing Up the Wind/' It 
was written by Edward C Kemble, editor of the California 
Star, and published in that paper April 24, 1847. Kemble came 
to the coast in 1S46 and became editor of Sam Brannan's paper, 


the California Star, in April, 1S47. The Star was the first paper 
published in San Francisco, or Yerba Buena, as the town was 
then called, (The Californian was established at Monterey and 
afterwards removed to San Francisco.) Kcmble was an Ar- 
gonaut of the Argonauts. He visited the gold diggings shortly 
after their discovery io 1848 — pronounced them a fake and ad- 
vised people to stay at home. His subscribers all went to the 
mines. He followed them, made a hundred dollars a day for 
a few weeks, then came back and resurrected his newspaper. 
Any one who, in early times before the streets of San Francisco 
were paved, has wandered over its sand hills and had his face 
rasped and his eyes blinded by the flying sand will appreciate the 
blowing up that Kemble gives the winds of Trisco. 


"Ever blowing, colder growing, sweeping madly through the town. 
Never ceasing, ever teasing, never pleasing, ncvct down; 

Day or night, dark or Mgnt, 
Sand a-flying, clapboards sighing^ 

Groaning, moaning, whistling shrill, ^ 
Shrieking wild and never still. 

In September, in November, or December, ever so. 

Even in August, will the raw gust, flying fine dust, roughly blow. 

Doors are slamming, gates a-banging, 
Shingles shivering, casenienU quivering, 
Roaring, pouring^ madly ydlitig^ 

Tales of storm and shipwreck telling. 

In our bay, too, vessels lay to, but find 

No shelter from the blast, 

Whitecaps clashing, bright spray splashing, 

Light foam flashing, dashing past. 
Yards arc creaking, blocks a squeaking^ 
Rudder rattling^ ropes all clattering. 
Lugging, tugging at the anchor. 

Groaning spsirs and restless spanker. 

Now the sun gleams, bright the day seems, 

Hark ! he comes is heard the roar ; 
Haste to dwelling, dread impellingt heap the fire, 

Close the door. 
Onward coming, humming, drumming. 
Groaning, moaning, sighing, crying. 
Shrieking, squeaking, (reader, 'tis so). 
Thus blowelh the wind at 'Frisco," 

Kemble's "Crow/' a parody on Poe's "Raven," is another 
pioneer poem antedating' the discovery of gold. The city coun- 
jCil of San Francisco had passed an ordinance forbidding any- 
one from killings the carrion fowl that frequented the streets of 


the city, Tlie crows were the scavengers that removed the 
garbage. One of these birds of ill omen flies into Kemble's 
house and perched beneath the ceiHng proceeds to help himself 
from a side of bacon. The poet raises his gun to shoot, when 
his eyes fall on the ordinance. 1 quote the closing stanzas ; 

"Then the thrilling and revealing of thai crow still neath my ceiling, 
Perching, peckin;g on that bacon which never may he devour 
And that paper open spreading and that fla:^hing Pica heading 
Of that ordinance forbidding, ah I must deplore* 
And my eyes from off that ordinance frowning, rustling on the floor 
Shall be iifled nevermore. 

And I reached me down my gun, charged with slugs half a score; 
Croaked he hoarsely, No, Sefior." 

The following' poem, which Samuel C Upham in his "Scenes 
in Kl Dorado— 1849-50/* says was the earUest poem written 
and published in California, appeared in the Pacific News of 
March 22, 1850, Mr. Upham, although good authority on the 
days of ^49, is in error when he claims that it was the earliest, 
I have shown that there were several published over three years 
before this one. The poem in the News is anonymous. It is 
entitled "A Rallying Song for the Gold Diggers/* It consists 
of eight stanzas and a repeat of the first* I omit two which 
seem to be defective: 

To the mines! to the mines! away to the mines 
Where the virgin gold in the crevice shines I 
Where the sha]e and the slate and the quartz enfold. 
In their stony arms the glittering gold, 

'Tis in vain that ye seek any longer to hide 
Your treasures of gold in your rivers so wide. 
In your gulches so deep, or your wild canon home* 
For the Anglo-American race is come. 

And the noise that ye hear is the sound of the spade, 
The pick, the bar, and the bright shining spade. 
Of the knife and Che shovel, the cradle and pan. 
Brave adjuncts of toil to the laboring man I 

Far lip in the mountains, all rugged and steep. 
Far down in the canon^ all foaming and deep. 
In the bars of the river, the small mountain plains. 
Lies the wealth that ye seek for, in numberless grains. 

Turn the stream from its bed — search the bottom w»th care. 
The largest, the richest, the finest is there; 
Dig deep in the gulches, nor stop till the stone 
Reveals there it's trcastjres, or tell there's none. 



Nor be ihou dish^rtened^ dismayed nor c^st down, 
If success should decline thy first efforts to crown; 
Go ahead! Go ahead I Since Crcaiion began* 
"No wealth without toiT* is the record to man. 

To the mines! to the tnines! away to the mines! 
Where the virgin gold in the crevice shines! 
^Vhere the shale and the slate and the quartz enfold. 
In their stony arms the gltltering gold. 

Of the anonymous poetical gems of Argonaiitic days this 
one describing the inflowing human tide to the golden shores of 
California is among the best : 

From the sunny Southern Islands, from the Asiatic coast, 
The Orient and the Occident arc mingled in the host. 
The flowing star of Empire has forever stayed its way. 
And Its western limb is restinfif o'er San Francisco Bay. 

A hundred sails already swell to catdi the willing breeze, 
A hundred keets are cleaving through the blue Atlantic seas, 
Full many a thousand leagues behind their tardy courses borne 
For a hundred masts already strain beyond the stormy Horn. 

Soon from the channel of St. George and from the Levant shore^ 
To swell the emigrating tide, anotner host shall pour 
To that far land beyond the west where labor lords the soil, 
And thankless task& shall ne'er be done by unrequieted toil. 

To banks of distant rivers whose flashing waves have rolled 

For long and countless centuries above neglected gold, 

Where nature holds a double gift within her lavish hand, 

And teeming fields of yellow grain strike root in golden Sand. i 

No state in its infancy could boast of so many talented men 
as California. Among these there were none more gifted than 
Col. Edward D. Baker. As an orator he had no superior; as a 
statesman he towered above his compeers; as a warrior he won 
fame on the bloody fields of Cerro Gordo and Buena Vista. He 
was killed at the battle of Ball's Bluff. After his death the fol- 
lowing beautiful poem from his pen was published. It was writ- 
ten about 1850, It is entitled 


Dost thou seek a star, with thy swelling crest 
O, wave, that lavest ihy mother's breast ? 
Dost thou leap from the prisoned depths below 
In scorn of their calm and constant flow? 
Or art thou seeking some distant land 
To die in murmurs upon the strand? 



Hast thou tales to tell of pcarMk deep. 
Where the wave*whclmed manner rocks in sleep? 
Can'st thou speak of navies that sank in pride 
Ere the roll of their thunder in echo died? 
What trophies, what banners, are floating fre« 
In the shadowy depths of that silent sea? 

It were vain to ask, thou rollest afar, 
Of banner, or mariner, ship or star^ 
It were vain to seek in thy stormy face 
Some tale of the sorrowful past to trace. 
Thou are swelling high, thou art fiashmg free. 
How vain are the questions we ask of thee ! 

1, (oo, am a wave on a stormy sea ; 

I, too, am a wanderer, driven like thee ; 

I, toO| am seeking a distant land 

To be lost and gone ere I reach the strand. 

For the land I seek is a waveless shore. 

And Ihey who once reach it shall wander no more. 

Among the versatile writers of California in the early '50^8 
few rank higher than William H. Rhodes, better known by his 
nom de plume, "Caxton/* One of his best efforts is a short 
poem on the death of James King of WiJIiam. 

In 1855-56 the criminal element of San Francisco had vir- 
tually obtained control of the city. The officials^ were either too 
weak or too corrupt to enforce the law. Many of them had se- 
cured their offices through ballot box stuffing and violence, and 
the thieves, incendiaries and murderers who had helped them 
into office went unwhipt of justice. King, through his paper, 
the Bulletin, exposed the prevailing corruption and poured out 
invective on the corrupt officials. He was shot down on Mont- 
gomery street by James P. Casey, a supervisor of the Twelfth 
ward, whose state's prison record King had exposed, Casey 
and Cora, another murderer, were hanged by the Vigilance Com- 
mittee while the bells were tolling King's funeral Caxton's 
poem is entitled 


The patriot sleeps in the land of his choice. 

In the robe of a martyr, all gory, 
And heeds not the tones of the world-waking voice, 

'Ihat cover his ashes with glory. 
What recks he of riches? What cares he for fame^ 

Or the world decked in grandeur or beauty? 
If the marble shall speak that records his proud name, 
'*Hc died at his post, doing duty!" 

The pilot that stood »ie the helm of our bark^ 

Unmoved by the tempest's commotion, 
Was swept from the deck in the storm and the dark, 



Aad taok m the deaths of the ooea. 
Bat Istdc bell gnttt ior the life it hM cost. 

If ow Ittaoer shall ttQl Ooai in beauty. 
And onbluc Ofi its fokt of tlw piloc we lost, 

*^c died au his po«t, «lo«ng dotyT 

Tile mrrien-'diiefiaixi las smdc to hi« rrtt — 

The sod of Looe Monntaio liis pilknr; 
For his bed, Califortkia ha$ oposed bcr breast; 

His dirge, the Pacific's sad bilknrl 
As lofw ^ ilie oceao-w3Tc «e<ep8 on our sbore. 

And otar Tallcrs bloom oat in titcsr bcaaCy, 
So kiQK ttrJli our caamrj bcr hero deplore^ 

Wbo Idl at his post aoa^ datyl 

The Argonauts in their long voyag«s to California by way of 
Cape Horn^ which lasted all the way from six to ten tnonths» 
were put to their wits* ends to devise amusements to while away 
the monotony of the voyage. One means quite popular was to 
publish a newspaper aboard the vessel These papers were writ- 
ten out by hand (for this was long before the days of type- 
writers) and often illustrated by pen and ink sketches of scenes 
and incidents on board- The paper was read once a week and 
furnished a source of amusement. It was my good fortune sev 
era] years since to secure for the Historical Society several copii 
of the "Petrel/* a paper published on the ship Duxbury^ which 
sailed from Boston via Cape Horn for San Francisco in 184^ 
From its numerous poetical effusions I quote one entitled "SkiiH| 
ning the Duff/' Duff, as you know, is a kind of pudding popu- 
lar with sailors. It is made of flour, tallow, raisins and other 
ingredients and boiled in a bag. Skinning the duff consisted 
in removing the cloth bag in which the pudding was boiled. 


Oh, 'tis pleasant to sail 

Before the gale 

Aa the wind pipes loud and free 

And we da^h away 

Amid foam and spray 

Across ite dark blue sea. 

And we feel the wrath 

Of the tempest's breath, 

As it fills our spreading iail, 

Atid we shouE with glee 

Ai the foAming ^ea 

Dashes high o'er the Dujtbuiy's rail 

But a pleasaiiter sight 

Than ihe tempest's flight 

As it roars in tones so gruff 

U to see ecr the larboard watch b called 
The Steward skinning the duff. 


And *tis pleasant to ride 
O'er the swellii^ tide. 
On the breast ofthe oi>en sea. 
To the waves* soft chime 
In their low, sweet melody, 
And 'tis pleasant to gaze 
On the moon's mild rays. 
Reflected wide o'er the deep. 
While the evening star 
Her vigils of love to keep. 

But it is pleasanter far 

Than moon or star, 

Or wind so smooth or rough, 

To sec e'er the larboard watch is called 

The Steward skinning the duff. 

And 'tis pleasant at night 

When day's rich light 

Has faded away and gone; 

And the crowd collects 

Between the decks 

To listen to story or song; 

And the full heart swells 

And the eyes will 611, 

As we talk of friends afar. 

And our pulses bound 

As the toast goes round, 

God bless them wherever they are; 

But a pleasanter sight 

Than day's rich light 

Or music or any such stuff 

Is to see e'er the larboard watch is called 

The Steward skinning the duff. 



Social organizations have tbcir rise in the social instinct. 
And it will be my purpose this evening to sketch vei^' briefly the 
origin and develc^ment of this instinct, as well as to prove the 
value of social organizations. By these terms I do not include 
the purely social clubs, the rendezvous for eating* smoking and 
lounging; nor any of the various secret societies. Strictly 
speaking, a social organization would not come under the classi- 
fication of a club formed for philanthropy, reform^ or study 
along social lines, although the social clement is often so closely 
allied with clubs organised for work of some kind that a strict 
line of demarcation is difficult, unless the object of the club is 
kept in mind. 

What is its object? Has a social organization any ethical 
value ? 

Before attempting to answer these questions it will be nec- 
essary to study the genesis of the social instinct and also the 
intellectual development that has given rise to social organiza- 
tions. We know the social instinct is inherent and can be traced 
back through gradations of animal life. Not in the form which 
we mean when we allude to social feelings, but in the more prim- 
itive segregation of species into colonies^ schools, flocks and 
herds of animals. In invertebrate Hfe the gregarious masses 
are due to the immense quantities that are generated in certain 
localities, and these only represent a part of the germs that fail 
to survive. This gregariousness was illustrated in the little 
pelagic,, miscroscopic peridiniums which were so abundant on 
our coast at one time, summer before last, A vial filled with 
sea water was seen to be alive with peridiniums. Not scattered 
in haphazard fashion in the vial» but these tiny brown specks 
were seen following each other in two moving streams, as a flock 
of birds flying, some leading, others following. We cannot, 
strictly speaking, call this a social instinct, yet in these gregari- 
ous masses we might see the germs of a more advanced segre- 
gation of animals. A tiny, one-celled animal cannot represent 
much more than a possibility. The social instinct to be recog- 
nized as such, must be evolved from a more complicated system 



of nerve tissue than is found in any invertebrate represented by 
a jelly fish, or an oyster. But in an insect, a bird or an animal, 
scientists tell us the structural units or microscopical cells and 
fibers are more or less similar, and that "mind has a physical 
basis in the functions of the nervous system and that every men- 
tal process has a corresponding equivalent in some neural pro- 
cess/'* With the evolution of the nervous system the social 
instinct evolves. 

Social instincts not only are shov^n in animals of the same 
genera and species, but animals both wild and domesticated have 
formed friendships. In domestic life the friendship of birds, 
cats, dogs and horses for their owners or keepers is of common 
occurrence. "Cats often like to associate with horses, and in 
some cases with dogs, birds and rats," Anecdotes of this social 
instinct are numerous. A pet minorca chicken raised by our 
family showed a decided preference for one member of the 
household. Dade knew his name and would run to his mis- 
tress whenever she called him. Often he would perch for the 
half hour on the arm of her chair if she were in the garden. For 
a short time he had two or three hens under his supervision. 
He always called them to eat first and would wait until they, the 
greedy ones^ had satisfied themselves before he would swallow a 
mouthful^ although he would pick up a grain of corn, then place 
it in front of a hen. In going into the chicken yard of evening 
it was always noticed that Dade called the hens, then when they 
were in front of the gate, he would stand on one side with as 
much grace as a cultured human, then pass in after the hens. 

In Romanes* "Mental Evolution in Animals*' he gives an il- 
lustration of a dog's attachment for his mistress. The anecdote 
was told by the author to show that dogs have an imagination, 
but it also adds another illustration of a dog's fondness for hu- 
man society, "I have," he says, "known a case in which a ter- 
rier of my own household, on the sudden removal of his mis- 
tress, refused all food for a number of days* so that it was 
thought he must certainly die, and his life was only saved by 
forcing him to eat raw eggs. Yet all his surroundings remained 
unchanged, and every one was as kind to him as they always 
had been. And that the cause of his pining was wholly due 
to the absence of his beloved mistress was proved by the fact 
that he remained permanently outside of her bedroom door (al- 
though he knew that she was not inside), and could only be 



induced to go to sleep by giving^ him a dress of hers to sleep 


The author just quoted from not only enumerates the social 
feelings as one of the products of the emotional development 
of animal life, but he lists among the products of the intellectual 
development comnnmication of ideas and w.hat he Lalls *'indefi- 
nite morality/' That is, the morality that, in a psychogenetic 
scale, would be equal to an infant of 15 months. Under this 
category he lists dogs and anthropoid apes. 

What is the impulse that has been the origfinal source and 
stimulus of organic activity? The struggle for existence, or, 
in other words^ the craving for food, the nutritive impulse. 
Evans says ; '*Every expression of feeling, every exercise of 
the will, every exhibition of intelligence in the lower animals 
and in man can be traced to hunger as its fountain head. From 
the pressure of hunger and the desire to prevent its occurrence 
spring the love of acquisition, the systematic accumulation of 
wealth, the idea of ownership in things, or the general concep- 
tion of personal property, which is the strongest element of so- 
cial and domestic life, codes of laws and system of morals, dis- 
coveries, inventions, industrial and commercial enterprises, scien- 
tific researches, and the highest achievement of culture and 

He further says : "It is true that as man arises in the scale 
of intelligence, other and nobler incentives to activity come into 
operation and act even more powerfully than the primal nutri- 
tive impulse. The latter, however, always assert and insists 
upon the priority of its claims, and not until these have been 
satisfied and the stress of hunger relieved, and in some way per- 
manently guarded against^ does the individual think of devoting 
his energies to higher pursuits/' 

This has been illustrated in the struggle for existence of pio* 
ncer life. Plowing, and hunting, for food, and a rude habita- 
tion, were necessities. From the rough cabin, or shack, to the 
palace, there is represented the evolution of man from primitive 
labor to that of large conimcrcial and industrial enterprises 
where many men labor together in the interest of one man. He 
rears a palace to adequately meet his social requirements that 
must follow along the line and keep pace with his monetary 
interests. Society, in its restricted sense, could only be possible 
when the struggle for existence was not the dominant idea. 
The social code, the particular attention to forms and the fre- 
quent and punctilious occasions of social Intercourse have no 



meaning to the man who is daily haunted with the impulse of 
nutrition for himself and his family. 

We have seen that with the social instinct inherent there 
must still be certain conditions to influence the growth and pro- 
gress of social development. 

It is my aim to show that social organizations are due to the 
growth of both mental and social development. Not either 
alone, but together. The intellectual modified and influenced 
by social customs and the social elevated by seeking pleasure in 
a more rational manner than mere recreation as an excuse for 
passing time. Living in a world of activity, yet trying to kill 
time. This is the abuse of the social instinct. 

It may be urged that the intellectual status represents tfie 
highest intelligence, or capacity for the function of the intel- 
lect, then how can it be modified and influenced by society? 

I would not be misunderstood ; there is nothing that should be 
more valued than the intellect, the power to understand* but if 
the intellectual person fails to adjust himself to his social en- 
vironment, if his own personality is at war with the social judg- 
ments of his times, his influence is circumscribed, his intellectual 
attainments are not valued. He must care for the rights and 
privileges of his fellow men. 

Whatever faults or failings may be laid at the door of polite 
society, it, in its best sense, is polite, seeking for the happiness 
of individual members of it. In social relations the ethical must 
necessarily be the groundwork of such relationships. The 
"ought" and ought not of the individual in his relation to so- 
ciety is ever present. Without this regard for the happiness of 
others there could be no such thing as ethical culture, which 
is only another rtame for refined altruism. Take, for instance, 
a company of what we term ladies and gentlemen ; what is their 
characteristic in their relation to others? Poliieness, No one 
must be made unhappy; self must be secondary to the feelings 
of others, and although this is often abused into a form of un* 
truth, knoi,vn as "white lies" or ''fibbing/' the exaggeration often 
has its root in the desire to do, and say, things that give pleasure. 
Politeness is not only the sesame to good society but is a strong 
factor in making life easier in every avenue of life, 

A lady was once trying to give her little grandchild a lesson 
in politeness when the application of the lesson came home to 
her in a way she had not anticipated, ''G — ' — ,'* said she to the 
child, who was visiting her, '*if you want any one to do any- 
thing for you, you must be polite, you must say 'please/ " A 



little white after that the child had made some paste in a tin-cup 
and was busy on the floor pasting bits of paper together. The 
grandmother after a while became tired of the litter and said : 

*'G? , you have played with that paste long enough; take the 

cup out into the kitchen.'' The little five-year-old arose, straight- 
ened herself erect, and said with much indignation, "\N'here 
is your polite ?" 

James Mark Baldwin, in a study in social Psychology, en- 
titled, "Social and Ethical Interpretations/' lays much stress 
upon the ability of a person to conform to the social community. 
We know there must be variation if there is growth, but he says 
that, **The limits of individual variation must lie inside the possi- 
ble attainment of the social heritage by each person, in the 
actual attainment of this ideal, any society finds itself embar- 
rassed by refactory individuals." 

He further says: '*It is the duty of each individual to be 
born a man of social tendencies which his communal tradition 
a man, then, as faj as his variation goes, he is liable to be foun-^ 
requires of him: if he persist in being born a different sort of 
a criminal before the bar of public conscience and law, and to 
be suppressed in an asylum or a refomtatorv. in Siberia or in 
the Potter's field.'* 

This refers, of course, to society in general, not to social 
organizations, for in these there is a selection of the fittest, the 
unfit is seldom invited or is soon socially suppressed. Not of 
course by drastic measures such as general society advocates, 
but merely ignoring his personality — not rudely, but silently, yet 
none the less effectively. For social organizations must be com- 
posed, for the most part, of individuals whose judgments are in 
unison with the social judgments of the club. A man or woman 
to be eligible to membership ntiust be a clubable person. By this 
is meant a person who respects the rights of others. One whose 
attitude is aggressive, who is unmindful of others' rights, would 
certainly be unsuitable to a social club- 
Receptions to notable persons and monthly banquets or 
luncheons, or cosy teas, combine two inherent instincts in life. 
The instinct of nutrition, as has been satd. is the first organic 
emotion, and it is still a dominant factor in friendly intercourse. 
Even the *'Man of Sorrows" gathered his chosen twelve around 
the social bfiard when he broke the bread and drank the fruit of 
the vine while he foretold the saddening future. 

If social organizations have introduced more hospitable rela- 
tions between the member? than was practicable in a club formed 




for work, they are also fine mediums for educating women to- 
wards greater simplicity in entertaining. This question cannot 
be discussed in society functions where discussion is strictly ta- 
booed» but is a legitimate topic at the club, where anything that 
is carried to extreme may be criticised in a general way. Articles 
written upon such topics by persons who are conversant with 
social abuses have, and dOf popularize simplicity and grace, rather 
than display that borders upon vulgarity* If there is one trait 
of character that is the ruling passion in America, not of women 
only, it is that of imitation. In business, if one man branches 
out in a new line, he runs the risk of becoming bankrupt by com- 
petition in this new line. Women imitate in dress, furnishings, 
and style of living and entertaining^ — with the desire, however, 
to do a little more, or add more elaborate features of display. 
The social instinct would impel the victim even to the verge of 
bankruptcy in money and nerve! Intellectual culture would seek 
the happy medium. The social club, in this respect, can be a po- 
tent factor. 

In the intellectual activity of such a club, the discussion of 
topics of general interest covers a wide field. The best talent, 
both outside and inside of the club membership, is at its service. 
Specialists along various lines readily use their talents for the 
good of such a club. 

This is,of itself, of great ethical value to the members. Sci- 
ence is presented in a popular form ; philosophy is given in terms 
less didactic : tbe best fiction is reviewed; music is interpreted by 
professionals : art is made more realistic* and educational meth- 
ods are presented. All this is inspiring, uplifting and helpful 
as social steps in the advance in life. 

I would not be misunderstood — mental growth does not de- 
pend upon cktbs, nor, we may say, colleges, alone. With books 
and free libraries for their dissemination, there is no lack of edu- 
cational aids. But such clubs are useful to persons who are by 
nature students. When one reads and studies alone, he sees only 
one side of the author's meaning or intent. This may be correct, 
and yet it is helpful to learn how other minds receive the sniue 
information. Social expression of ideas is an adjunct to mental 
growth. Growth is an ethical factor. When we think of de- 
generation, we immediately form an image of something that 
has been dwarfed for want of nutrition. This argument also 
holds good in a study club, but in such a club the tendency is to 
specialize; consequently there is not so much diversity in the 
range of topics discussed before the same persons. 



There is an tnspiratioti in associating in dub life with men 
and women who have a broader insi|^t into life, a finer concep- 
tion of relative values, a more comprehensive \ision of humanity 
than one possesses. 

The social club is a be^p in breaking down imaginary social 

Genius is often the child of penury^ and brains have been 
rocked in a pine cradle. But when genius and brains cocne to 
the front, social distinctions vanish. 

Social organizations for women are often connecting links 
l>etween the mother and society. A club represents individual 
home factors, held together by a coramon interest, yet diversified 
by hereditary gifts and home environments. The social club 
supplies a human want in the life of the mother. She may have 
no time to study* with her young family clamoring for her atten- 
tion; but she may possess her soul in peace for an occasionai 
half day in the club. The club demands less of her than society 
would. It gives her ideal thinking for a time which is a refresh- 
ing change from purely domestic, economic details. Surely it 
needs no argument to prove thai such a mother would be happier 
because of her glimpse of the world outside her narrow horizon ; 
nor that her home would also be benefited. As happiness is the 
desideratum, if not the ultimatum, of human desires, any club 
that tends towards the happiness of its members and of society 
at large is of value. 

The social organization is a medium through which reforms 
can be disseminated. For a progressive club must discuss some 
of the issues of the day. Clubs for philanthropy or reform have 
taken their rise from such a club. As an instance, some years 
ago a member of the Friday morning Club was in favor of hav- 
ing a cooking school for girls in one of our poorer districts. A 
graduate of a Boston co<jking school was asked to present this 
subject to the club. The need of such a school was discussed, 
and the result was the formation — outside of the club—of such 
a school* Through the liberality of another member an indus- 
trial department was added, and the Stimson-Lafayette Indus- 
trial Association was incorporated, and is now in a flourishing 

While furnishing the impetus to organized activity, the ideal 
social club commits itself to no restricted line of labor. In this 
respect it shows its strength* for it is able to educate and send 
out workers in many lines. Its sympathies are as broad as hu- 
man wants. 



In such clubs there must be neutrality in religious beliefs, and, 
it naturally follows that this religious liberty cannot do other- 
wise than have a reflex influence in ^eneraJ society. Without 
the social elements in clubs and societies do you believe that the 
Jewish women of our country could have been recognized and 
given a place at the Jewish Congress during the World's Fair? 

It was said that never before in the history of Judaism had 
a body of Jewish women come together for the purpose of pre- 
senting their views, nor for any purpose but that of charity or 
mutual aid; never in the representation of Judaism. The club 
formed for social improvement draws no line between Jew and 
Christian, Theosophist and Agnostic. 

Is this too broad a platform? It may be for narrow secta^ 
nanism, but not for a belief in the brotherhood of man I Not for 
Christian ethics. 

Social organizations, or clubs^ are not usually organized for 
the good of the public, but for the pleasure of its individual mem- 
bers; but that does not invaHdate the claim that such organiza- 
tions are of ethical value. 

In answer to a letter of inquiry regarding the Sunset Club, 
which meets once a month, Mr. Charles Dwight Willard says; 

"Usually about forty attend. The papers are on all classes of 
subjects; and there is usually one principal paper, about twenty 
minutes' long, and two short ones of five minutes each, after 
which, in the discussion, five to twelve men usually participate. 
Literary topics are infrequent, and economics occur most often. 
I have generafly found that sociological subjects are most satis- 
factory to the general club membership." 

A club like the Sunset Club, composed of a number of rep- 
resentative men of the city, men who are identified with various 
lines of activity as doctors, lawyers, ministers, bankers, archi- 
tects, authors, merchants and men in other special fields of in- 
dustry, must tend towards the ethical growth of the individual 
members, and consequently influence society at large. If the 
tendency is to ''broaden those who are participants in the discus- 
sions/' then certainly the community is benefited. Public opin- 
ion is something that changes; it never remains the same. Every 
lecture, every public discussion^ has some share in the growth 
of ideas. The masses are led by the few. The discussion of so- 
ciological subjects, questions that deal with the phenomena of 
society, of the right relations of man to man, which include ques- 
tions of "rightness" and **oughtness." might not seem to the sixty 
members of any great benefit to persons outside of the club, but 



no body of intellectual men could meet monthly to think and talk 
over topics that are bound up in society at large without, in some 
way, affecting the general public. 

No life stands all alone, and it is the problem of social psy- 
choid^ to ascertain to what extent the development of the indi- 
vidual mind applies to the evolution of society and how far so- 
ciety influences the individual. 

No thought is useful to society while it remains merely in 
the mind of the individual Social organizations are excellent 
mediums for the expression of ideas. Thoughts must have pub- 
licity; they cannot have any general value until they find expres- 
sion and are available; then they become alive* a part of the gen- 
eral mind. If socia! organizations, composed of men or w*omen 
of intellectual abilities and culture, did nothing more than require 
that all members should be persons who are known for their 
moral character, persons whose influence is in an ethical direc- 
tion, who would say that such a club was not of ethical value. 
In chemistry we know by analysis the character of any substance, 
and in the same way we judge of a society by its units, or indi- 
viduals composing its membership. Moral growth must be 
greater when societies are composed of individuals who aim to 
act ethically, and who are indulging in ideal thinking. The 
moral nature develops when the individual aspires to reach, in 
himself, an ideal status. A combination of such individuals is 
the ideal social organization. 



Three or four days succeeding the first rains of the season 
there conies over the face of nature in Southern California a 
marked and magical change — from a dry and apparently bar- 
ren landscape, the sweet-scented "Pelio" with its musky odor 
covers the earth with a mantle of vivid green. The early in- 
habitants of this countrj', living very near to nature and believ- 
ing that the spicy perfume of the fresh and tender grass was in- 
vigorating and rejuvenating^ to the old and infirm, brought 
them into the sunlight on their respective rawhide beds and left 
them to doze and dream the day long. From the first rains and 
throug'h all the seasons of the year until the last dry days of 
fall and early winter can be gathered herbs and plants, of va- 
rieties too numerous to mention in this brief paper, for edible 
and medicinal purposes. Their range is from the mountain tops 
to the seashore. I say from the mountain tops, because the 
mehing snows of winter and the cloudbursts of spring and sum- 
mer wash the seeds down the canons' sides into the valleys 

Seventy years or more ago, when physicians were like an- 
gels' visits^ "few and far between/' each mother of a family con- 
stituted herself the adviser of her family and friends, and in 
every small village or "pueblo" there was the "Vieja," whom 
every one respected and consulted, and who dispensed with a 
lavish hand her various herbs, which she had gathered, dried 
and put into safe-keeping for future use. A call from a fever 
patient hastened her with a package of "sauco," which she made 
into tea and administered at stated intervals, until relief came in 
the shape of a profuse perspiration. If her patient became too 
weak or debilitated she administered "Paleo" as a tonic. For 
cancer she made a poultice of the pounded leaves of "Totoache," 
which removed cancerous growths if applied in time. For in- 
ducing an appetite a decoction of "Concha L'agua" was given 
until the patient was able to eat his accustomed allowance of 
broiled beef and '*AtoIe." If in the annual "rodeo" a vaquero 



was thrown from his horse or otherwise bruised, he was removed 
to his home and "Yerba del Goipe*' applied to his contusions. 
Then a bath of "Ramero" to rejuvenate his discolored flesh 
was used and soon the rider was at work again among his cattle. 
Week and inflamed eyes were cured by a wash nxade of "Rosa 
de Castilla." A pomade of the same was used for tenderness 
or chafing of the skin. '*Yerba del Manso" and ** Verba del 
Pasmo'* were favorite remedies and used for almost every form 
of disease. 

There is a sweet smelling little flower of pure white called 
"Selama/* whose root of crimson furnished the young Indian 
^rjs a paint to improve their complexions, which^ unlike the 
cosmetics of latter days, left no bad effects^ remaining the same 
day after day, 

In the early morning when the dew was on the ^rass, the 
old women gathered "Lanten" for boils and inflamed swelling^. 
The large leaves bruised and soaked in olive oil served to con- 
centrate the inflammation. The leaves of the "Tmira" were used 
for the same purpose. We all know how deliciously refreshing 
the fruit of the Tuna is on a hot summer day, and it formed one 
of the principal items of an Indian's winter store — ^Tunas. ground 
acorns, "Pinones," roasted "Mescal*' and "Chia"* made the Indian 
wax fat and happy. 

When a washerwoman wished her black clothes to look 
bright and new, she sought the '^Campo" for "Verba*" or 
"Amole/' which, pounded and soaked over night in water» made 
a beautiful and cleansing suds. ^*Cichiquelite/' a small seed for 
edible purposes, was also beneficial as a gargle for sore throats 
"Petata" is a root eaten by the Indians before the introduction of 
the potato — in fact, served the same purpose. In the "zanias" 
and |X)oIs along the rivers grows a plant which makes a salad 
highly prized by the native Californians, called "Flor del Aqua *" 
It possesses a slightly bitter flavor, which is very appetizine- 
There is another with the small name "Beno" also relished for 
salads by "Paisanos." 

Hair tonics and hair washes grow everywhere in both sprine 
and summer, "Caria" being one of the many. And every C^i* 
fornian knows of tlie medicinal virtues of the different "Malvas " 
both black and white being used for congestions, and as a wash 
for "Yedra" (or poison oak) it is healing and soothing '"Cardo" 
and '^Yuelite*' are spring greens and may be eaten also as salads 
and hundreds of persons can speak of the "Mostassa," the best 
spring vegetable of all. 



Then there is the San Lucas plant for rheumatism and many 
others, whose names are difficult to pronounce on account of 
their Indian origin. Some of these medicinal herbs may be 
found in various pharmacies under botanical names — these are 
the native Californian and Indian names given here. But in the 
surrounding country, where hve Indians and natives, the old 
women still administer their herbs under the well-known, 
homely and suggestive names given in this paper. The early 
pijysicians of Lo<s Angeles could vouch for the efficacy of nu- 
merous herbs used by them in their practice among the residents 
if they were here to tell. 

This has been writen to show that the lazniess of the Cali- 
fornian is in a measure excusable. For what use had he for 
work when everything grew at his hand— bis food, his medicine, 
his shelter. If his "adobe^* house or **Ramada*' required sweep- 
ing, he had but to gather his "Escobita" or **Tules/' tie them in 
broom shape and sweep when necessary. Disinfectants in the 
form of lovely flowers grew on the hills and on the plains. A 
hundred pages could be writen of the herbs, edible and medicinal, 
that are "born to bloom and blush unseen and waste their sweet- 
ness on the desert ain" 

In continuation. I should say that there were many plants 
used by the Indians in wicked incantations, herbs used in con- 
juring decoctions so powerful, that a small quantity adminis- 
tcred* crippled or blinded a subject for life. It could not have 
been that his mmd was wrought upon, for these herbs were given 
unbeknown to the sufferer, and therefore affected him tbrough 
their poisonous influences. Except the few plants which the 
native Californian has discovered for himself, the knowledge 
of the medicinal and edible plants of Southern California has 
been handed down to him through his Indian aticestors, who 
subsisted on the roots and seeds of this countryp gathering some 
in the mountains and others in the valleys below, but always 
busy in the different seasons of their growth and ripening. 

After the founding of the missions the Indians had tbeir 
corn, beans and different edibles for consumption which were 
introduced by the "padres," and under their subjection ceased 
to gather seeds and herbs, but now and then there would be an 
eld woman who still dung to tradition and believed that there 
was nothing better than the old way of living, and consequently 
lived and suffered under the "sobriquet" of "Chisera/' or witch, 
who was only visited in secret by the jealous husband, or sought 
for love potions by the Indian maiden in the "dark of the moon.*' 



These old women crept about with packs upon ihdr backs filled 
with dri«d fruit, seeds and countless small and mysterious pack- 
ages, which were the awe of the uninitiated. They lived in 
small jacalcs or huts made of "tules" on the outskirts of the 
mission and died of old age, true to their convictions. 

There are also plants deleterious to animals, one in particular 
— "Ramaloco" — which when eaten by horses causes them to be- 
come dangerously mad, and while under its influence to endan- 
ger the lives of human beings as well as other animals. There 
IS also '*Bledo Cimaron," which when dry seems to have an 
affinity for others, thus forming into immense rolling mounds 
and skipping before the winds, terrorized and stampeded the 
countless herds of cattle and horses tliat roamed the plains. 
There is a weed which is deadly poison to sheep. In a little 
wayside plant not unlike a tiny apple in looks and odor, called 
**MansaniIla," we have a strong purgative, used to reduce the 
temperature in fever. If you walk or ride with an old native 
woman she will pick flowers and plants by the wayside and ex- 
pound their virtues to you until you arc convinced that you are 
walking over untold treasures. Indeed, every creeping plant in 
Califomia has a meaning and a history* 



In learning the life-story of many of the early English- 
speaking settlers of Los Angeles, as recounted to me by them- 
selves, I have been struck with the infinite variety of adven- 
tures and dangers which they went through. 

Many of the older members of this society, or those who 
lived here in the sixties or fifties, or before (of these latter, how- 
ever, very few remain), well remember Andrew A. Boyle, that 
early Pioneer, after whom '*Boyk Heights" was named. But 
not all of you, I presume, are aware of the fact that Mr. Boyle 
was one of the three or four men of Col. Fanning's unfortunate 
band of more than 400 Texas soldiers who escaped slaughter in 
the terrible tragedy at Goliad, Texas, in 1836. 

Mr. Boyle was bom in Ireland, county of Mayo, in i8i8» 
eighty-two years ago. At the age of 14 years he came to New 
York. Two years later, he with his brothers and sisters went 
to Texas with a colony, which settled at San Patricio, on the 
Nueces river. 

On the breaking out of the revolution, Texas then being a 
province of Mexico, Mr. Boyle enlisted January 7^ 1836, in West- 
over^s artillery of the Texan army, and his command was or- 
dered to Goliad, where it was incorporated with the forces of 
Col. Fanning, and after sundry engagements with greatly su- 
perior numbers, the Texans were compelled to surrender. Mr. 
Boyle, who had been wounded, expected to be shot, as nearly all 
his comrades were, to the number of almost 400 men, notwith- 
standing the fact that by the terms of their capitulation they 
were guaranteed their lives. Mr. Boyle, who understood Span- 
ish, learned that this was to be their fate, but before their exe- 
cution an officer asked in English if there was any one among 
their number named Boyle, to which he answered at once that 
that was his name. He was immediately taken to the officers' 
hospital to have his wound attended to, where he was kindly 
treated by the officers. 

A Mr. Brooks, aid to Col. Fanning, who was there at the 
time with his thigh badly shattered, knew nothing of what had 



happened, or what was to be their fate, and upon being in- 
fornic'il. he remarked* "I suppose it will be our turn next/' In 
less than five minutes, four Mexican soldiers carried him out, 
cot and all, placed him in the street, not fifteen feet from the 
door, where Mr. Boyle could not help seeing him, and there 
shot him. His body was instantly rified of a gold watch, 
stripped and thrown into a pit at the side of the street. 

A few hours after the murder of Mr. Brooks, the officer who 
hAd previously inquired for Mr, Boyle^ came into the hospital, 
and. addressing him in English, said: "Make your mind easy, 
sir; your life is spared.** 

Mr. Boyle responded, "May I inquire the name of the person 
to whom I am indebted for my life?" 

^'Certainly ; my name is General Francisco Garay, second in 
command of General Urrea's division." 

It seems that when Gen, Garay's forces had occupied San 
Patricio that officer had been quartered at the house of the Boyle 
family, and had been hospitably entertained. Mr. Boyle's 
brother and sister had refused all remuneration from him, only 
asking that if their younger brother, then in the Texan army. 
should ever fall into his hands he would treat him kindly* Af- 
terward, by order of Gen. Garay, Mr. Boyle obtained a pass- 
port, and went to San Patricio, where he remained. 

After the battle of San Jacinto and the capture of Gen. Santa 
Ana and the retreat of the Mexican forces. Gen, Garay. in pass- 
ing through San Patricio, called to see Mr. Boyle, wlio, at the 
General's request, accompanied the latter to Matamoras. The 
General also invited Mr. Boyle to accompany him to the city 
of Mexico, but this invitation he was compelled to decline; and 
so he set out on foot for Brazos, Santiago, where he took passage 
on a brig for New Orleans, Being out of money and in rags 
on arriving at New Orleans^ he engaged at $2,50 a day in paint- 
ing St. Mary's market. Working !ong enough to buy some 
I clothes, he availed himself of the Texan Consul's offer of a free 
passage to the mouth of the Brazos river, where Gen. Burnett, 
the first President of the Republic of Texas, gave him a letter to 
Gen. Rusk, at that time in command of the army on the river 

Mr, Boyle walked to Gen. Rusk's carnp^ a distance of 150 
miles* Gen. Rusk gave Mr. Boyle his discharge on account of 
impaired health. After recovering from a severe sickness, he 
went to Columbia, the seat of government of T^cas, where he 
obtained a passport for New Orleans, 



After his return to the latter city and the rc-establishtnent 
of his health, he engaged in merchandizing on the Red river 
till about the year 1842, 

In 1846 Mn Boyle was married to Miss Elizabeth A. Christie 
at New Orleans. Miss Christie was a native of British Guiana; 
from whence, in 1838, her father brought his family to New 
Orleans, One daughter was born to this marriage, who is now 
the wife of Ex-Mayor William H. Workman. Mrs, Boyle died 
in New Orleans. October 20, 1849, This daughter (Mrs. Work- 
man) was cared for and brought up by her great aunt, Char- 
lotte Christie, who, at the age of over 80 years, died rec-ently in 
this city, at the home of her foster-daughter. 

Returning from the Red river, Mr. Boyle went to Mexico, 
where he engaged successfully in business till 1849, when he 
set out for the United Staes with about $20,000 in Mexican sil- 
ver dollars, which he had packed in a claret box. At the mouth 
of the Rio Grande, in passing a sidewheel steamer in a small 
skifF, his frail boat was upset, and his treasure sank to the 
bottom, and was a total loss, and he himself came near losing 
his life. 

Mr. Boyle finally returned to his home in New Orleans, to 
find that his wife, who was in delicate health, had died two 
weeks before, from nervous shock and brain fever, caused by 
hearing that he had been lost at the mouth of the Rio Grande, 
From that time on, all his interest centered in his infant daugh- 
ter, then a year and a half old. 

The next year the family started for California via the isth- 
mus, arriving in San Francisco in the early part of 1851* Here 
Mr. Boyle engaged in the boot and shoe business, but he was 
burned out by iKith of the fires that occurred that year. 

In company with a Mr. Hobart, he then went into the whole- 
sale boot and shoe business, and they built up a very large trade, 
which extended to Los Angeles and other coast towns. Among 
their customers in those years (1851-58) were Mr. Kremer, the 
late Mr. Polaski and others. 

Mr. Boyle made the acquaintance of Don Mateo Keller in 
Texas and at Vera Cruz, Mexico, whither both went on trading 
expeditions in the early 40*5. It was through the influence of 
Mr. Keller that Mr. Boyle was in<hiced to sell out his intrests 
in San Francisco and come to Los Angeles, which he did in 
1858. Here he bought a vineyard (planted in 1S35 by Jose 
Rubio) on the east side of the river, under the bluffs. Here 
he made his home, and in 1862 or '63 he commenced making 



wine, and dug a cellar in which to store it^ just under the edge 
of the bluff- Prior to 1862 he shipped his grapes to San Fran- 
cisco, as did many other vineyardists here at that period, gi^pes 
then bringing" high prices in that market. In the '50's and 
earlier, and before vineyards had been generally planted in the 
upper country, and during the flush mining era. grapes and other 
fruit conunanded. at times, fabulous prices- Those who had 
bearing vineyards in Los Angeles at that period had a better 
thing than a gold mine or than oil wells, 

Mr, Boyle was a valuable member of the City Council sev- 
eral years during the '6o's. Mr. Boyle and Mr. George Dalton 
were the only members who, on the final vote, cast their ballots 
against the thirty years lease of the city's domestic water system 
to a private company. Mr. Boyle made a strong minority 
committee reix>rt against said lease, which we can now see. as we 
look back, was a prophetic document. If the city had followed 
Mr. Boyle's advice it would have saved millions of dollars and 
no end of vexatious and costly htigation, 

Mr. Boyle was of a very genial, social nature, and all who 
visited his hospitable home were cordially received and enter- 
tained. I have only pleasant memories of ray visits to the Boyle 
mansion during the lifetime of its former owner — as so many 
others in later years have of their visits to the present hospitable 

Down to the time of the death of Mr. Boyle, there were hut 
few houses on the east side of the river, either in that beautiful 
suburb now known as *'Boyle Heights" or in '*East Los An- 
geles.*' Mr. Clemente lived on the flat near the river; the old 
John Behn place was south of Mr. Boyle, and the Bors mill and 
the Julian Chaves and Elijah Moulton places were further up the 
river, on the east side. 

Perhaps I should add that General Garay, the savior of Mr. 
Boyle's life at Goliad, had been educated in tlve United States 
and that he spoke English perfectly, and that he keenly regretted 
the barbarous butchery of the disarmed Texans at Goliad, which, 
as he afterward told Mr. Boyle, would ever be looked upon as a 
blot and a disgrace on the Mocican name. 



The Stranger strolling through the city of Santa Barbara 
will be forcibly impressed by the Spanish nomenclature of its 
streets. The famous men of the Spanish and Mexican eras of 
California's history have been remembered in the naming nf 
the highways and byways of the channel city. Sola, Victoria, 
Ftgueroa, Ortega, Carrillo, de La Guerra and many others have 
their streets. Nor alone have the famous men, but also famous 
and infamous deeds, too, have been immortalized in choice Cas- 
tilian on the guide boards. Sandwiched in among the calles 
named for bygone heroes the stroller will find one street name 
that, if he is not up in his Spanish, \v\]] impress him with the 
unpleasant sensation as he reads its name, — Canon Perdido,*' — 
that he has entered upon the broad road that leads down to 
perdition canon; and he will be on the qui vive for some tra- 
dition of the days of the padres or the story of uncanny orgies 
held in some lonely canon by the Indian worshipper of Chupu, 
the channel god. If he should ask some Barbareno what the 
street's name means^ he will be informed that its name in Eng- 
lish is *'Lost Cannon street" — for cafaon is California Spanish 
for a grm or a gulch, and perdido may mean in Castilian simply 
'lost'* or intensified — doomed to eternal perdition, Of the 
deed, the legend or the tradition that gave the calle its queer 
appeJationt unless your informant is an old-timer, you will learn 
but little and that little perhaps may be incorrect. 

The episode that the street name commemorates occurred 
away back in the clo-sing years of the first half of the nineteenth 
century. In the winter of 1847-48, the American brig Eliza- 
beth was wrecked on the Santa Barbara coast. Among the 
flotsam of the wreck was a brass cannon of uncertain caliber — 
it might have been a six, a nine or a twelve-pounder. The ca- 
pacity of its bore is unknown. Nor is it pertinent to my story 
for the gun unloaded made more commotion in Santa Barbara 
than it ever did when it belched forth shot and shell in battle. 

The gun, after its rescue from a watery grave, lay for some 
time on the beach devoid of a carriage and useless apparently 
for offense or defense. 



the treaunent of the citizens and expressed his fear that the en- 
forcement of the assessment might result in an outbreak. After 
talking the matter over with Col Stevenson, he became soroe- 
wliat mollified, and asked the Colonel to make SanU Barbara his 
headquarters. ?Ie inquired about the brass band at Colonel Ste- 
venson's headquarters and suggested that the Califomians were 
very fond of music. Stevenson took the hint and sent for his 
band. The band arrived at Carpinteria on the afternoon of the 
3d of July, The 4th had been fixed upon as the day for die pay- 
ment of the fines, doubtless with the idea of giving^ the Cali- 
fomians a lesson in American patriotism and fair deahng. 
Colonel Stevenson met the leader of the band and arranged with 
him to serenade Don Pablo and his family with ail the Spanish 
airs in the band's repertoire. The musicians stole quietly into 
town after night, reached the de La Guerra house and broke 
the stillness of the night with their best Spanish airs. The 
effect was tnagpcal. The family, who were at supper, rushed out 
as if a temblor had broken loose. Don Pablo was so delighted 
that he shed tears and hugged Colonel Stevenson in the most 
approved California style. The band serenaded all the dons of 
note in the old pueblo and tooted until long after midnighL 
Then started in next morning and kept it up until 10 o'clock, the 
hour set for each man to contribute his dos pesos to the com- 
mon fun<L By that time every honibre on the list was so filled 
with patriotism* wine and music that the greater portion of the 
fine was handed over without protest. 

Don Pablo insisted that Colonel Stevenson should deliver a 
Fourth of July oration, all the same as they do in the United 
States of the North. So Stevenson orated and Stephen C. 
Foster translated it into Spanish. The day closed with a grand 
ball. The beauty and chivalry of Santa Barbara danced to the 
music of a gringo brass band and the brass cannon was for- 
gotten for a time. But the memory of the city's ransom rankleil 
and although an American Imnd played Spanish airs, 'American 
injustice was still remembered. When the city's survi 
made in 1850 the nomenclature of three streets kept_ 
episode green in the memory of the Barbarenr 
dido (Lost Cannon street). Quinientos (Five I 
and Mason street. It is needless to say th- 
favorite thoroughfare nor a very prominei 

When the pueblo by legislative 
it became necessary to have a city 
pondered long over a design. an< 



First, a capitation tax of $2.00 on all males over 20 years of 
age; the balance to be paid by the heads of families and property 
holders in the proportion of the value of their respective real 
and personal estate in the town of Santa Barbara and vicinity. 

Second, Col. J. D. Stevenson, commander of the Southern 
Military District, will direct the appraisement of property and 
the assessment of the contribution, and will repair to Santa Bar- 
bara on or before the 2Sth of Jane next, when, if the missing 
gun is not produced, he will cause said contribution to be paid 
before July 1st. When the whole is collected he will turn it over 
to the acting Assistant Quartermaster of the post to be held for 
further orders. 

Third, Should any person fail to pay his capitation, enough 
of his property will be seized and sold at public auction to realize 
the amount of the contribution due by him and the cost of sale* 
By order of Colonel R. B. Mason. 

Wm. T. Shehman, 
First. Lieut. 3rd Art. & A. A. Adjt-General. 

The order was translated into Spanish and promulgated in 
Santa Barbara. 

Then there was indignation in the old pueblo, and curses, 
not loud, but deep and withering in their bitterness, against the 
perfidious gringos. To be taxed for a cannon used in their 
own subjugation was bad enough, but to be charged with 
stealing it was an insult too grievous to be borne, and the loudest 
in their wail were the old-time American born residents of the 
town. Had not their New England ancestors gone to war with 
the mother country because of "taxation without representa- 
tion?*' and put British tea to steep in Boston harbor- without the 
consent of its owners? And here on the western side of the con- 
tinent they were confronted with that odious principle. Why 
should they be taxed? They had not a single representative 
among the cannon thieves. 

Col. Stevenson ordered Lippitt to make out a roll of those 
subject to assessment. This order was issued June 15, and the 
Colonel left Los Angeles for Santa Barbara^ arrivftig there June 
23d, Immediately on his arrival he held an interview with 
■Don Pablo de La Guerra, one of the most distinguished citizens 
of Santa Barbara, and a man highly respected by both the na- 
tives and the Americans, 

Colonel Stevenson expressed his regret at the ridiculous 
course of Captain Lippitt. Don Pablo was very indignant at 



mended the gnn, it was adjtK^nl to bdon^ to tbem. They 
sold it to a loercbam for $8a He shipped it to San Francisco 
and soAd it at a handsome prodt for old brass. And then it was 
Vale (Earewdl) Canon Perxlidor 

The names of the five men who buried the gun were Jose 
Garcia, Joec Antonio de La Gncrra, Jose Lugo, Jose Dolores 
Garda and Padfioo Cota. 

It was auTcndy reported that the Prefwrt, believing that 
Santa Barbara desencd a handsocner and more commodious 
jail than ^oo would build, risked the whole ajDotmt of the mili- 
tary cOQtribatfOfi on a card in a game of inontc. hoping to 
doubk it and thus benefit the city, but luck was against him* and 
the deaJer, with no patriotism in his soul, refusing to return it, 
raked the coin into his coffers ; and the mimicipality had to worry 
along several years without a jail. 

Sudi is the true story of how Calle dd Canon Pcrdido — the 
Street of the Lost Cannon— came by its queer name. 


The first letter published below was written by Dr, John 
Marsh, a native of Massachusetts, the first American physician to 
locate in Los Angeles. Dn Marsh was a gratluate of Harvard 
College and also of its medical school. He came to California 
in 1835 from Santa Fe, where he had lived several years. He 
petitioned the Ay^ntamiento to be allowed to practice medicine. 
He was given permission. The proceedings of the Illustrious 
Ayuntamiento for February 25, 1836, read: "The Illustrious 
Bo<ly decided to give Juan Marchet (Marsh) permission to prac- 
tice medicine, as he has submitted for inspection his diploma, 
which was found to be correct; and also for the reason that he 
would be very useful to the community," 

He entered upon the practice of his profession, but as money 
was an almost unknown quantity in the old pueblo, he had to 
take his fees in horses, cattle and hides, a currency exceedingly 
inconvenient to carry around. So early in 1S37 he abandoned 
the practice of medicine, quitted Los Ang-eles and went up north 
to find a cattle range. Verba Buena, now San Francisco, at the 
time the letter was wrtten contained two houses. He located 
on the Rancho Los Medanos, near Monte Diablo, where he lived 
until he was murdered by a Mexican in 1856, A letter written 
by him descriptive of California, and published in a Missouri 
paper in 1840, was instrumental in causing the organization in 
the spring of 1841 of the first immigrant train that crossed the 
plains to California. J. M. Guinn, 

Verba Buena^ March 27, 1837. 

Dear Sir: — I have been wandering about the country for 
several weeks and gradually becoming acquainted both with it 
and its inhabitants. This is the best part of the country, as you 
very well know, and is in fact the only part that is at all adapted 
to agriculturists from our country. Nothing more is wanted but 
just and equal laws and a goverrmient — yes, any government that 
can be permanent and combine the confidence and good will of 
those who think. I have good hope, but not unmixed with doubt 
and apprehension. News has just arrived that an army from 
Sonora is on its march for the conquest and plunder of Cali- 
fornia. Its force ts variously stated from two to 600 men. This, 
of course, keeps everything in a foment. 


I have had a choice of two districts of land offered to me» 
and in a few days I shall take one ch- the other. A brig of the H. 
B. Co. (Hudson Bay Co.) is here from the Columbia with Capt. 
Young^ (who has come to buy cattle) and other gentlemen of the 
company. I have been at the head waters of the Sacramento and 
met with near a hundred people froin the Colunibia; in fact, 
they and the people here regard each other as neighbors. In- 
deed, a kinder spirit exists here and less of prejudice and dis- 
trust to foreigners than in the purlieus of the City of Angels. 

It is my intention to undergo the ceremony of baptism in a 
few days* and shall shortly need the certificate of my applica- 
tion for letters of naturalization. My application was made to 
the Most Illustrious Council of the City of Angeles, I think in 
the month of January last year ( 1836) . 1 wish you would do 
me the favor to obtain a certificate in the requisite form and 
direct it to me at Monterey to the care of ^lr. Spence. Mr, 
Spear is about to remove to this place. Capt. Steele's ship has 
been damaged and is undergoing repairs which will soon be 
completed. His barque is also here. I expect to be in the An- 
gelic City some time in May. 

Please give my respects to Messrs. Warner and William M- 
Prior and all "enquiring friends," 

Very respectfully, 

Your ob't. servant, 

John Marsh. 
A. Stearns, Esq., Angeles. 

Los Angeles, September 29, 1S49. 

To His Excellency, B, Riley, Brig.-Gen,, U, S. A., Gmfemor of 
California, Monterey — 

Sir: — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
appointment of myself as Prefect of the District of Los Angeles, 
dated Sept i, 1849, While thankful for confidence reposed in 
me, I trust my poor services may prove acceptable to all con- 

As Prefect of said District of Los Angeles I beg leave to 
state that this district is particularly exposed to the depredations 
of Indian hor^ thieves — and other evil disposed persons, and at 
present the inhabitants are badly armed and powder cannot be 
obtained at any price. Under these cricumstances I would re- 
spectfully request that you place at my disposal for the defense 
of the lives and property of the citizens of said district, subject 


to such conditions as you may deem proper, the followii^ arms 
and ammunition, viz. : 

One hundred flint lock muskets with corresponding accoutre- 
ments; ten thousand flint lock ball and buckshot cartridges; five 
hundred musket flints. 

Respectfully your ob't, serv't, 

Stephen C Foster, 
Prefect, Los Angeles, 



killed, both good and valuable citizens. The people of this part 
of the territory, feeling that they had abundant cause to resist 
the oppressive acts of Victoria^ had risen in rebellion; and, as a 
result of the hostile meeting at Cahuenga, Gov. Victoria was 
driven out of the country, 

Senora Palomares de Arenas retains a very vivid remem- 
brance of the exciting events of that day, nearly 70 years ago, 
when she, then only 16 years of age, lost within a few hours, 
both her dashing, chivalrous husband, and her aged father : for 
her father was at the time very ill, and the shock he received 
from hearing, of the tragic end of his son-in-law, caused his 
own death the same day. 

Shortly, or two or three months after their death, the be- 
reaved young widow gave birth to a posthumous child. 

Gov. Victoria was seriously wounded at Cahuenga and he 
retired to San Gabriel, where he voluntarily resigned his office 
and left the country, and his tyranical administration of the af- 
fairs of the territory came to an end; and thus, the revolution 
was successful, Pio Pico becoming Victoria's successor. 

Four years after the death of Senora Abila's first husband, 
she married Luis Arenas, 

The children of this second marriage are: Josefa, married 
to J. M. Miller; Amparo, married to L, Schiappa Pietra; Luisa, 
married to L. Stanchfield ; Amelia, married to Charles Ross. 

Although Mrs. Abila-Arenas from advanced age is quite 
infirm, as is natural, she is still a fine looking woman. She re- 
tains the clear use of her mental faculties; her reminiscences of 
the olden times of fifty, sixty and seventy years ago are exceed- 
ingly interesting. 



They always delighted to tell of how generous the people 
were when they held their Fairs in the old Perry and Wood- 
worth building or in the old Stearns' h^l in the Arcadia block, 
and how they received most valuable aid from Jewish and 
Protestant* as well as from Catholic women. There were im- 
portant considerations to decide the date of a Fair. It could not 
be held except on "Steamer day," as there was no ice save that 
which came from San Francisco, and it could not be held except 
at the right time of moon as no one cared to grope about the 
streets in Egyptian darkness. In spite of all, the generous wo- 
men of Los Angeles aided the Sisters in their work, and the 
Sisters of Qiarity do not forget their friends. 

In 1889, on the 50th anniversary of Sister Scholastica's life 
as a Sister of Charity, many of her friends gave her, as a sub- 
stantial tribute of their esteem and love, the gift of a purse of 
$3,000, which she at once devoted to the building fund for the 
erection of a new and more commodious home for the rapidly in- 
creasing number of orphans* On the 9th of February , 1890, was 
laid the comer stone of the magnificent Orphanage now overlook- 
iag the city. When the home was completed, the Sisters moved 
thither, and here it was, surrounded by a family of nearly four 
hundred orphans^ that Sister Scholastica, whose life was all gen- 
tleness and peace even in the midst of trials, folded her willing 
hands in her last long sleep. She had lobored long and with 
steadfast purpose, each day found her the same, faithful in all 
things, ever kind, ever courageous. When her body failed 
through age, she, whose life had been so pure and undeviating, 
knew no physical ailment. She was just tired, she said, and un- 
complainingly bore the gradual ebbing of her strength. Of the 
band whose leader she was, but two survive her, Sister Ann, now 
at Emmitsburg, and Sisters Angelita, at present in El Paso, 

Sister Scholastica's eulogy I cannot pronounce, for that can be 
justly given only where she now receives her "hundred fold." 




This society shall be known as The Pioneers of Los Angeles 
County. Its objects are to cultivate social intercourse and 
friendship among its members and to collect and preserve the 
early history of Los Angeles county, and to perpetuate the 
memory of those who, by their honorable labors and heroism, 
helped to make that history. 


All persons of good moral character^ thirty-five years of ag^ 
or over, who, at the date of their application, shall have resided 
at least twenty-five years in Los Angeles county, shall be eligi- 
ble to membership; and also all persons of good moral char- 
acter fifty years of age or over, who have resided in the State 
forty years and in the country ten years previous to their appli- 
cation^ shall be eligible to become members. Persons born in 
this State are not eligible to membership, but those admitted 
before the adoption of this amendment shall retain their mem- 
bership, (Amended September 4, 1900.) 


The officers of this society shall consist of a board of seven 
directors, to be elected annually at the annual meeting, by the 
members of the society. Said directors when elected shall 
choose a president, a first vice-president, a second vice-presi- 
dent, a secretary and a treasurer. TTie secretary and treasurer 
may be elected from the members outside the Board of Di- 


The annual meeting of this society shall be held on the first 
Tuesday of September. The anniversary of the founding of 
the society shall be the fourth day of September, that being the 
anniversary of the first civic settlement in the southern portion 



of Alta California, to wit; the founding of the Pueblo of Los 
Angeles* September 4, 1781. 


Members guilty oi misconduct may, upon conviction after 
proper investigation has been held, be expelled, suspended, fined 
or reprimanded by a vote of two-thirds of the members present 
at any stated meeting^; provided, notice shall have been given to 
the society at least one month prior to such intended action. 
Any officer of this society may be removed by the Board oi 
Directors for cause; provided, that such removal shall not he- 
come permanent or final until approved by a majority of mem- 
bers of the society present at a stated meeting and voting, 


Amendments to this constitution may be made by submit- 
ting the same in writing to the society at least one month prior 
to the annual meeting. At said annual meeting said proposed 
amendments shall be submitted to a vote of the society. And 
if two-thirds of all the members present and voting shall vote 
in favor of adopting said amendments, then they shall be de- 
clared adopted. (Amended September 4, 1900.) 



[Adopted September 4, 1897; amended Jime 4r 1901] 

Section i. Applicants for membership in this society 
shall be recommended by at least two members in good stand- 
ing. The applicant shall give his or her full name, age. birth- 
place, present residence, occupation, date of his or her arrival 
in the State and tn Los Angeles county. The application must 
be accompanied by the admission fee of one dollar, which shall 
also be payment in full for dues until the next annual meeting. 

Section 2. Applications for admission to membership in 
the society shall be referred to the committee on membership, 
for investigation, and reported on at the next re^lar meeting 
of the society. If the report is favorable, a ballot shall be taken 
for the election of the candidate. Three negative votes shall 
cause the rejection of the applicant 



Section 3. Each person, on admission to memberships 
shall sign the Constitution and By-Laws. 

Section 4, Any person eligible to membership may be 
elected a life member of this society on the payment to the 
treasurer of $25. Life members shall enjoy all the privileges 
of active members, but shall not be required to pay annual dues. 

Section 5. A member may withdraw from the society by 
giving notice to the society of his desire to do so, and paying*! 
all dues charged against him up to the date of his withdrawal 


Section 6. The annual dues of each member (except life 
members) shall be one dollar, payable in advance, at the annual 
meeting in September* 

Section 7. Any member delinquent one year in dues shall 
be notified by the secretary of said delinquency, and unless said 
dues are paid within one month after said notice is given, then 
said member shall stand suspended from the society. A mem- 
ber may be reinstated on payment of all dues owing at the date 
of his suspension. 


Section 8. The president shall preside^ preserve order and 
decorum during the meetings and see that the Constitution and 
By-Laws and rules of the society are properly enforced ; appoint 
all committees not otherwise provided for; fill all vacancies tem- 
porarily for the meeting. The president shall have power to 
suspend any officer or member for cause, subject to the action 
of the society at the next meeting. 

Section 9. In the absence of the president, one of the vice- 
presidents shall preside, with the same power as the president, 
and if no president or vice-president be present, the society shall 
elect any member to preside temporarily. 

Section 10. The secretary shall keep a true record of all 
the members of the society; and upon the death of a member 
(when he shall have notice of such death) shall have published 
in two daily papers of Los Angeles the time and place of the 
funeral; and, in conjunction with the president and other offi- 
cers and members of the society, shall make such arrangements 
with the approval of the relatives of the deceased as may be 
necessary for the funeral of the deceased member. The secre- 
tary shall collect all dues, giving his receipt therefor; and he 



shall turn over to the treasurer all moneys collected, taking his 
receipt for the same. 

He shall make a full report at the annual meeting, setting 
forth the condition of the society, its membership, receipts, 
disbursements, etc. 

He shall receive for his services such compensation as the 
Board of Directors may allow. 

Section 11, The treasurer shall receive from the secretary 
all moneys paid to the society and give his receipt for the same, 
and shall pay out the money only upon the order of the society 
upon a warrant signed by the secretary and president, and at the 
end of his term shall pay over to his successor all moneys 
remaining in his hands, and render a true and itemized account 
to the society of all moneys received and paid out during his 
term of office. 

Section 12. It shall be the duty of the finance committee 
to examine the books of the secretary and treasurer and any 
other accounts of the society that may be referred to them, and 
report the same to the society. 


Section 13. The president, vice-presidents, secretary and 
treasurer shall constitute a relief committee, whose duty it shall 
be to see that sick or destitute members are properly cared for. 
In case of emergency, the committee shall be empowered to ex- 
pend for immediate relief an amount from the funds of the so- 
ciety not to exceed $20, without a vote of the society. Such 
expenditure, with a statement of the case and the necessity for 
the expenditure shall be made to the society at its next regular 

Section 14. At the first meeting after the annual meeting 
each year, the president shall appoint the following standing 
commtitees: Three on membership; three on finance: five on 
program; five on music; five on general good of the society, and 
seven on entertainment. 


i Section 15. Whenever a vacancy in any office of this so- 
ciety occurs, it shalf be filled by election for the unexpired 
Section 16- The stated meetings of this society shall be 



hefd on the first Tuesday of each month, and the annual meet- 
ing shall be held the first Tuesday of September. Special meet- 
ing's may be called by the president or by a majonty of the 
Board of Directors, but no business shall be transacted at such 
special meetings except that specified in the calL 

Section 17. These By-Laws and Rules -may be temporarily 
suspended at any reg^ular meeting of the society by unanimous 
vote of the members present. 

Section 18. Whenever the Board of Directors shall l>e 
satisfied that any worthy member of this society is imable, for 
the time being, to pay the annual dues as hereinl^efore pre- 
scribed, it shall have power to remit the same. 

Section 19, Changes and amendment? of these By-Laws 
and Rules may be made by submitting the same in writing to 
the society at a stated meeting. Said amendment shall be read 
at two stated meetings liefore it is submitted to a vote of the 
society. If said amendment shall receive two-thirds of the 
votes of all the members present ami voting, then it shall be 
declared adopted. 



Reading minutes of previous meeting. 

Reports of committee on membership. 

Election of new members. 
Reading of applications for membership. 


Reminiscences, lectures, addresses* etc. 

Music or recitations. 

Recess of 10 minutes for payment of dues. 

Unfinished business. 

New business. 

Reports of committees. 

Election of officers at the annual meeting or to fill vacancies. 


Is any member in need of assistance? 

Good of the society. 

Receipts of the evening. 




(Read before Historical Society^ 1887. Read before Pioneer 

Society, 1902.) ^ 

The writer has witnessed forty celebrations of the 4th of July 
in this city, commencing with 1847, when he read the Declara- 
tion of Independence on Fort Hill, in Spanish, for the infor- 
mation of our newly-made fellow-citizens, who spoke only the 
Castilian tongue. As I marched in the procession the other 
day (July 4, 1887), I recalled the appearance of the city when 
I first knew it, so widely different from the present. 

The outbreak of the Mexican War (May. 1846) found the 
writer at Oposura. Sonera* \Vh'ich place he reached December. 
1845 on his way to California, by the way of Santa Fe and El 
Paso, from- Missouri. The first news we had of the war was 
of the capture of Capt. Thornton's command of U. S. Dragoons 
by the Mexican cavalry, on the Rto Grande, and the people 
rang; the bells for joy. But shortly after> we g'ot the news of 
the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma^ and they did 
not ring the bells then. 

In June, 1846. arrived at Oposura, a small party of Ameri- 
cans headed by James Kennedy, a machinist from Lowell, 
Mass.. who with his wife had come around Cape Horn, three 
years before, to the cotton manufactory at Horcasitas, Sonora; 
the husband to superintend the machinery, and the wife to 
teach the Mexican girls the management of the looms and spin- 
dles. As there was no chance to leave by sea, Kennedy had 
made up a party to see him safe through the Apache range to 
Santa Fe. where he expected to secure passage in the traders' 
wagons across the plains to Missouri, and I accompanied him; 
and after a hard, hot trip, we reached Santa Fe safely in Jiuly. 

"August 18. 1846. I witnessed the entry of the American 
army, under General Kearney, into Santa Fe, 

in 1845, the Mormons were driven out of Nauvoo. T!l, and, 
under the leadership of Bri^ham Ynung-. took up their march 


wcstwardly. Their first intention was to reach California, then 
occupied by a sparse Mexican population and a few hundred 
American emigrants. They stopped one season at Council 
BlulTs, to raise a crop and procure means for further progress. 
When the call was made for volunteers in Missouri, for service 
in New Mexico and California, none were willing to enlist as 
infantr)', to make such long marches afoot, and Capt. James 
Allen» of the First U. S. Dragoons, was sent to Council BlulTs 
to try and raise a battalion of infantry, enlisted for twelve 
months, to be discharged in California- The order was given 
by Brigham. and within forty^eight hours five full companies 
(500 men) were raised and on their march to Fort Leavenworth. 
The conditions were, that they were to choose their company 
officers, but were to be commanded by an officer of the regu- 
lar army, and were to receive army clothing at Fort Leaven- 
worth. The Missouri troops furnished their own clothing, for 
which the Government paid each man $29.50 a year. 

So they started on their long march with their poorest 
clothing. When they reached the Fort they learned that the 
steamboat bringing their clothing and percussion muskets had 
been snagged in the Missouri* and everything was lost. Their 
commander, Capt. Allen, was taken sick and died. He had 
their confidence, and they objected to serving under another 
commander, and to start for California without the promised 
clothing; but the order was imperative to march, and the cloth- 
ing could not be replaced in less than a month. So they sent 
to Brigham for advice, and he ordered them to push on, even 
if they had to reach California barefooted and in their shirt- 
tails. So, flint-lock muskets, of the pattern of 1820. were fur- 
nished them, and they reached Santa Fe under the command 
of Lieut. A. J. Smith, of the First Dragoons — the Maj. Gen. 
A. J. Smith of the Civil War. On their arrival at Santa Fe, 
Gen. K!eamey ordered Capt. Cooke, of the ist Dragoons, 
to command them, and Lieut. Smith went with them to Califor- 
nia, to rejoin his company which had started a month before 
with Gen, Kearney. Lieut, (now Gov.) Stoneman, who had 
just graduated at West Point* also went with them. 

Gen, Kearney had started with six companies of dragoons, 

• on the Rio Grande he met Kit Carson with dispatches 

■^'ashington, From Com. Stockton, announcing that Cal- 

had been taken possesion of, without resistance. So 

only took two companies, mounted on mules, with 

o convey their provisions, by way of the Gila River, 



At Santa Fe -mnles were scarce, and money scarcer vvith the 
quartermaster, who also had to provide transportation for the 
1st Missouri Cavarly, under Col. Doniphan, then starting on 
their famous march through Northern Mexico to Camargo, 
where their period of enlistment expired. But seventeen 6- 
mule teams, hauling sixty days* rations, could be spared for 
Cooke's coimnand, and no wagon had ever crossed from the 
Rio Grande to California; so, a road had to be found and made 
as they went, after leaving the Rio Grande. 

Kit Carson had accompanied Kearney as guide, and Pauline 
Weaver, the pioneer of Arizona, who had come with Carson 
from California, awaited Cooke. Five new Mexican guides 
were hired, all under command of Joaquin Leroux, an old 
trapper, who had trapped on every stream from the Yellowstone 
to the Gila. 

I was then clerking in a store, waiting for something to turn 
up, when I was informed that an interpreter was wanted to ac- 
company Cooke to California, and I went to Capt. McCusick, 
the quartermaster, with my recommendations. Enoch Barnes, 
who was killed in a drunken brawl at the Ballona, in this countv, 
some twenty years ago. who drove a wa^on across the plains in 
1845. in the same caravan as myself, was also an applicant. 
McCusick was a prompt, stern man. and the competitive exami- 
nation of the Yale graduate and the Missouri mule-Avhacker was 
short, and turned on transportation and money. I had a good 
mule, rifle and blanket, and as to money, I could wtait until 
Uncle Sam was able to pay me, as long as my wages were run- 
ning on and I got my rations. Barnes was just off a spree* 
in which he had drank and gambled off all his money, and 
pawned bis rifle, and it would have cost $!00 to fit him out. 
So I won the appointment, and the contract was quickly drawn» 
that for $75 a month and rations T was to serve as interpreter 
to California, furnish my own animal, clothing' and arms. The 
contract was made October, 1846, and I served under it until 
May 17th, 1849. when the people of Los Angeles selected their 
Ayuntamiento. and the garrison evacuated the place, and the 
last seventeen months of my term T also acted as 1st Alcalde 
of the district of Los Angeles, without any extra compensation. 
On leaving the Rio Grande. I volunteered to join the guides, 
as there was nothing for me to do in camp, and we did not ex- 
pect to pass through any Mexican settlements until we reached 
the Pima villages, on the Gila. Leroux's party, ten in number, 
started ahead, with six days' rations, on our riding animals, to 



find a practicable route for wagons, and wood, and water, at 
such intervals as infantry coultl march — fifteen to twenty miles 
a day. in one case forty miles, between camps; one man to be 
sent back from each watering place to guide the command until 
our rations were expended* and then all to return to the com- 
mand. We thus found our way by the Guadaiiipe Canyon and 
San Pedro River to Tucson, from which place there was a trail 
to the Pima villages, and from there to California. Weaver had 
just come over the road, and there was no diflficuhy in finding 
our way. We ate our last flour, bacon, sugar and coffee by 
January 14th, 1847, on the desert, between the Colorado and 
Warner's Pass. A supply of beef cattle met us at Carrizo Creek, 
on the west side of the desert, and we lived on beef alone imtil 
April. 1847. when supplies, brought from New York on the 
ships that brought CoL Stevenson's regiment, reached us at 
Los Angeles. At Gila Bend, we met two Mexicans, w^ho told 
us of the outbreak that took place in Los Angeles, September, 
1846; and at Indian Wells, on the desert, we met Leroux. who. 
with most of the guides, had been sent ahead from Gila Bend, 
to get assistance from the San Luis Indians, who had declared 
for the Americans, and held all the ranches on the frontier; 
and he brought the news that Stockton and Kearney had 
marched from San Diego to retake Los Angeles. We pushed 
on by forced marches toward Los Angeles* and at Temecula 
received a letter, stating that Los Angeles w^as taken, that 
Kearney and Stockton had quarrelled about who was to com- 
mand, and that Kearney had returned with his dragoons to San 
Diego, to wBiich place we were ordered to proceetl. Arriving 
there, together with the dragoons, we were ordered to San Luis 
Rey, where, from the Rancho of Santa Margarita, we procured 
beef, soap and candles, the only articles of rations the country 
could furnish. In a few days, fifty of the men were attacked 
with dysentery, and the surgeon said breadstuff of any kind 
would be of more use to check the disease than all his medicine. 
So the commissary and myself w^ere ordered to Los 'Angeles^ 
to try and get some flour. We found the town garrisoned by 
Fremont's Battalion, about 400 strong. They, too. had noth- 
ing but beef served out to them, but as the people had corn and 
beans for their own use. and by happening around at the houses 
about meal-time, they could occasionally get a square meal of 
tortillas y frijoles. Here we met Louis Roubideau, of the Ju- 
rupa Ranch, wiho said he could spare us some 2.000 or 3.000 
pounds of wheat, which we could grind at a little mill he had 



on the Santa Ana River, So, on our return, two wagons were 
sent to Jiurupa, and they brought 1,700 pounds of unbolted 
wheat flour and two sacks of beans, a small supply for 400 men. 
I then messed with one of the captains, and we ail agreed that 
it was the sweetest bread we ever tasted. 

March 12th, 184^, we received important news in six weeks 
from Washington, overland. Stockton and Kearney had been 
relieved, and ordered East, and Com. Shubrick and Col. R. B. 
Mason were to take their places, and the military to command 
on land, and what was of far more interest to us, that Steven- 
son's ships were daily expected at San Francisco, and that we 
should soon have bread, sugar and cofFee again, and we were 
ordered to Los Angeles to relieve Fremont's Battalion, So, 
with beautiful weather^ and in the best of spirits, we began our 
march to the city of the Angels. Our last day's march was 
only ten miles» and we camped on the San GabrieU at the Pico 
crossing, early, and all hands were soon busy preparing for 
the grand entree on the morrow. Those who had a shirt — 
and they were a minority — could be seen washing them, some 
bathing, some mending their ragged clothes, and as thert was 
plenty of sand, all scouring their ^muskets till they shone again. 
We made an early start the next morning, and when we forded 
the Los Angeles River, at Old Aliso, now Macey street, there 
was not a single straggler behind. The order of march was, 
the dragoons in front. They had left Missouri before receiving 
their annual supply of clothing, and they presented a most 
dilapidated appearance, but their tattered caps and jackets gave 
them a somewhat soldierly appearance. They had burned their 
saddles and bridles after the fight at San Pascual, but a full 
supply of horses to remount them had been purchased of the 
late Don Juan Forster, and all the Mexican saddlers and black- 
smiths in the country had been kept busy making saddles^ 
bridles and spurs for them. Their officers were Capt. A, J. 
Smith, ist Lieut. J. B. Davidson, 2nd Lieut, George Stoneman; 
then came four companies of the Towa Infantry, Company B 
having l>een left to garrison San Diego. In all we numbered 
300 muskets and 80 sabres. The line of march was by Aliso 
and Arcadia streets, to Main, and down Main to the Govern- 
ment House, where the St. Charles now stands, where the dra- 
goons dismounted and took up their quarters. The infantry 
turned out of Main street past the house of John Temple, now 
Downey Block, and pitched their tents in the rear, where they 
remained until they were mustered out. June. 1847. 



I have described the apfH^arance of the dragoons, but can- 
not do justice to the infantry-, only by saj'ing it was FalstafTs 
ragged company multiplied by ten. The officers had managed 
to have each a decent suit of clothes, but they brought out in 
stronger contrast the rags of the rank and file. On Los An- 
geles street were some 300 or 400 Indians, the laborers tn the 
vineyards, who had taken a holiday to witness our entry, while 
a group of about 100 women, with their heads covered by iheir 
rebosos, who had met at the funeral of the mother of the late 
Don Tomas Sanchez, ex-Sheriff of the county, stood looking 
at the ragg^ed gringos as they marched by. On Main street 
were some thirty or forty Califomians. well dressed in their 
short jackets and breeches with silver buttons, open at the sides 
showing the snow-white linen beneath. I noticed they looked 
with most interest at the dragoons, so many of whose comrades 
had fallen before their lances at San Pascual that cold I>ecem- 
bcr morning, and lay buried in that long grave, or lay groaning 
in the hospital at San Diego. We had no wavng flags, but 
waving rags, and many a one; nor brass bands, only a solitary 
snare drum and fife, played by a tall Vermont fifer, and a stout, 
rosy-cheeked English drummer; and they struck up the "Star 
Spangled Banner*' as we passed the Government House, and 
kept it up until orders were given to break ranks and stack 
arms. And then came a loud hurrah from all that ragged sol- 
diery. Their long and weary march over mountains, plain and 
desert, of 2,200 miles, was over, 

I wit! now describe two indviduals who marched in that 
procession- One is the writer. *Tis nearly forty years ago. 
and I was a younger and a better-looking man than I am now. 
I had left Santa Fe with only the clothes on my back, and a 
single change of under-clothing. T had been paid off at San 
Lus Rey, and had $200 in my pocket, and I tried to find some 
clothing in Los Angeles on my first visit, but could find none. 
So, I rode to San Diego, and through the kindness of a friendly 
man-of-wat^s man T got a sailor's blue blouse, a pair of marine's 
pants and brogans, for which I paid $20, My place in the col- 
umn, as interpreter, was with the colonel, at the head, and I 
rode with my rifle slung across the saddle, powder-horn and 
bullet-pouch slung about my shoulders. My beard rivaled in 
length that of the old colonel by w»hose side 1 rode, bi3t mine 
was as black as the raven's wing, and his was as grey as mine 
is now. But if I was not the best-looking, nor the best-dressed 
inar. I was the best-moimted man on Main street that day. 


When the horses were delivered for the dragoons, a young 
man named Ortega, a nephew of Don Pio Pico, rode an iron 
grey horse, with flowing mane and tail, and splendid action. 
I tried to buy him for the colonel, but he would not sell him. 
The day we left San Luis, I had mounted my mule, and w^as 
chatting with Ortega, admiring his horse, when he offered to 
sell him, and I could fix the price. I gave him $25. The 
dragoon horses cost $20 each, 'A few days after my arrival in 
this city, Lieut- Stoneman was ordered to scout with a party of 
dragoons towards San Bernardino, to look out for Indian horse 
thieves, and I sold the horse to him; and well the Governor 
remembers the gallant grey that bore him on many a long and 
weary scout, 

I have thus described my appearance at my first public 
entry into this city, from no spirit of egotism, but only to give 
my fellow-citizens some idea of the appearance of the former 
Alcalde, Prefect, Mayor and Senator of Los Angeles. 

But the most conspicuous man on Main street that day was 
of a different type. On our march. December, 1846, we were 
moving from the Black Water, just south of the present Mexi- 
can line, towards the San Pedro River. TTie snow was falling 
steadily, but it was not very cold- Our order of march was, 
with an advance guard of twenty men, and twenty pioneers with 
pick-axe and shovel, commanded by Capt. A. J. Smith, to re- 
move any obstruction to our wagons. I was riding that day, 
with the colonel and surgeon, when we overtook the advance 
guard. The pioneers had been cutting down some mesquite 
trees that obstructed our way, and had just finished as we over* 
took them. Tlieir officer gave the order "fall in. shoulder 
arms/* and they formed in ranks of four, so that for about fifty 
yards we could not turn out to pass them. The right-hand 
man in the rear rank was at least six and a quarter feet tall. 
The crown of his hat was gone, and a shock of sandy hair, pow- 
dered by the falling snow, stuck out above the dilapidated rim. 
while a huge beard of the same color sw^ept his breast, His 
upper garment had been a citizen's swallow-tailed coat, but- 
toned by a single button over his naked chest, but one of the 
tails had been cut off and sttched to his waistband, where it 
would do the most good, for decency's sake, and an old pair 
of No- 12 brogans, encased with rawhide, protected his feet. 
The right sleeve of the coat was gone, and his arm was bare 
from wHst to elbow, and, by way of uniform, the left leg of the 
pants was gone, leaving the leg bare from knee to ankle, His 



underclothing had long since disappeared. Bui the way he 
marched and shouldered his musket, showed the drilled and vet- 
eran soldier That ragged scarecrow had seen fifteen years* 
service in the British army, from the snows of Canada to the 
jungles of Burmah. The conirasi between the soldierly licar- 
ing of the man and his dilapidated dress brought a smile to 
every face. After we had passed, the colonel pulled his long 
grey mustache, and said, "I never thought, when 1 left West 
Point, that 1 should ever command such a set of ragamuffins 
as these. But, poor fellows, it is not their fault; and better 
material for soldiers I never commanded." And that day, when 
J sat on my horse, where Ducommun's Block now rears its tall 
front, to see my old comrades march by, in the front rank of 
Company A, with cadencecl step and martial mien, as he had 
marched in his younger days to the martial music of the regi- 
mental band, dressed in the scarlet uniform of a British gp"ena- 
dier, strode ihe old ragged veteran. 




The early years in the history of the new towns of the West 
were productive of eccentric characters — men who drifted in 
from older civilizations and made a name for themselvsc or 
rather, as it frequently happened, had a name made for them by 
their fellow men. 

These local celebrities gained notoriety in their new homes 
by their oddities, by their fads, their crankiness, or some other 
characteristic that made them the subject of remark. With 
some the eccentricity was natural; with others it was cultivated, 
and yet ag^in with others force of circumstances or some event 
not of their own choosing made them cranks or oddities, and 
gave them nick-names that stuck to them closer than a brother. 

No country in the world w^s more pro<hictive of cjuaint 
characters and odd g-eniuses than the mining camps of early 
California, A man's history beg^ii with his advent in the 
camp. His past was wiped out — was ancient history, not 
worth making- a note of. What is he now? What is he good 
for? were the vital questions. Even his name was sometimes 
wiped out, and be was re-christened — given some cognomen 
entirely foreign to his well-known characteristics. It was the 
Irony of Fate that stood sponsor at his baptism. 'Tious Pete'' 
was the most profane man in the camp, and Pete was not his 
front name. His profanity was so profuse, so impressive* that 
it seemed an invocation, alnK>st a prayer. 

Deacon Sturgis was a professional gambler of malodorous 
reputation, but of such a solemn face and dignified mien that 
he often deceived the very elect. Sometimes these nick-names 
were utilized in advertising. I recollect a sign over a livery 
stable in the early mining days of Idaho, which informed the 
public that the Pioneer Stables were kept by Jpws Harp Jack 
and Web'Foot Haley. On one comer of the sigri was painted 
an immense jews-harp ; on another corner was a massive foot 
with webs between the toes. Haley came from Oregon, and 



as the legend goes, on account of the incessant rains in the big 
Willamette ValJcy the inhabitants there, from paddling around 
in the water, grow webs between their toes, Haley brought 
hi s nick-name and his webs wi th him, H ow Jews Harp 
Jack picked up his name I do not know. In a residence of 
several years there I never heard any other name for the man. 

My first mining partner was known as Friday. Not one 
in iifty of his acquaintance knew that his real name was William 
Geddes, Years before in California he had owned in a claim 
with a man named Robinson, Robinson was a man of many 
expedients and make-shifts. Geddes was an imitator or echo 
of his partner. The miners dubbed the first "Robinson Crusoe** 
and the other "My Man Friday," a name that followed him 
through a dozen mining campus, and over two thousand miles 
of territory. If he is still Hving I doubt whether he has outlived 
that nick-name. 

Bret Hartc, in his "Outcasts of Poker Flat/' has, in John 
Oakhursl, pictured the refined and intelligent gambler. There 
were very few of that class in the mines, and none that carried 
around such an elegant and aristocratic name as Oakhurst. In 
the Idaho mines* where I was initiated into placer mining, the 
professionals of the pasteboard fraternity, who w1ere mostly old 
Californians, had all been re-christened by their constituents 
or patrons, and the new cognomen given each was usually more 
expressive than elegant. Vinegar Bill, Cross Roads Jack, 
Snapping Andy and Short-Card Pete are short-cut names of 
real characters, who passed in their checks years ago; i, e,, died 
with their boots on. Each nick-name recalls some eccentricity 
not complimentary to the bearer, but which lie had to bear with- 
out wincing. It was one way in which their victimized patrons 
tried to get even on the deaL 

There was another class of eccentricities in the cities and 
towns of California wliere life was less strenuous than in the 
mining camps. These were men with whims or fads sometimes 
sensible, sometimes half-insane, to which they devoted them- 
selves until they became noted as notorious cranks. 

San Francisco had its Philosopher Pickett, its Emperor 
Xorton and a host of others of like ilk. Los Angeles had 
representatives of this class in its early days, but unfortunately 
the memorv of but few of them has been salted down in the 
brine of history. 

In delving recently among the rubbish of the past for scraps 
of history. I came across a review of the first book printed in 



Los Angeles — the name of the book, its author and its pub- 
lisher. But for that review, these would have been lost to 

It is not probable that a copy of the book exists, aJid pos- 
sibly no reader of that book is alive today — not that the book 
was fatal to its readers; it had very few— but the readers were 
fataJ to the book; they did not preserve it. That book was the 
product of an eccentric character. Some of you knew him. 
His name was William Money, but he preferred to have the 
accent placed on the last syllable, and was known as Money'. 
Bancroft says of him: "A Scotchman, the date and manner of 
whose coming are not known, was at Los Angeles in 1843/' 
I find from the old archives he was here as early as 1841. In 
the winter of 1841-42 he made repairs on the Plaza Church 
to the amount of $126.00. Bancroft, in his Pioneer Register, 
states: "He is said to have come as the servant of a scientific 
man, whos€ methods and ideas he adopted. His wife was a 
handsome Sonorena. In '46 the couple started for Sonora 
with Coronel, and were captured by Kearny's force. They 
returned from the Colorado with the Mormon battalion. Mo- 
ney became an eccentric doctor, artist and philosopher at San 
Gabriel, where his house, in 1880, was filled with ponderous 
tomes of his writings, antl on the simple condition of Imying 
$1,000 worth of these I was offered his pioneer reminiscences. 
He died a few years later. His wife» long divorced from him, 
married a Frenchman. She was also living at Los Angeles 
in '80. It was her daughter who killed Chico Forster," 

Bancroft fails to enumerate all of Money's titles, He was 
variously called Professor Money, Dr. Money and Bishop 
Money. He was a self-constituted doctor, and a self-anointed 
bishop. He aspired to found a great religious sect. He made 
his own creed and ordained himself Bishop, Deacon and De- 
fender of the Reformed New Testament Church of the Faith 
of Jesus Christ. Dn Money had the inherent love of a Scotch- 
man for theological discussion. He was always ready to attack 
a religious dogma or assail a creed. When not discussing the- 
ological questions or practicing medicines, he dabbled in science 
and made discoveries. 

In Book II of Miscellaneous Records of Los Angeles 
County, is a map or picture of a globe labeled, Wm, Money's 
Discovery of the Ocean, Around the North Pole are a number 
of convolving lines which purport to represent a "whirling 
ocean." Parsing down from the north pole to the south, like 



About this time he commenced those powerful discussions 
with the Romish cJergy in which our author launched forth 
against the Old Church those terrible tlenunciations as effect- 
ive as they were unanswerable, and which for thirty years he 
has been hurling against her. 

Perhaps the most memorable of all his efforts was the occa- 
sion of the last arguments had with the Roman clergy concern- 
ing abuses which came off in the Council of Pitaquitos, a small 
town in Sonora, commencing on the 20th of October, 1835, and 
which continued to May 1st, 1840, a period of live years. This 
convocation had consumed much time in its preparation, and 
the clergy, aware of the powerful foe with whom they had to 
deal, and probable great length of time which would elapse, 
selecte<:l their most mighty champions; men. who in addition 
to a glib tongue and subtle imagination, were celebrated for 
their wonderful powers of endurance. There were seven skilled 
disputants arrayed against Money, but he vanquished them 

**The discussion opened on the following propositions : The 
Bishop of Culiacan and he of Durango disputed that \Vm. Mo- 
ney believeti that the Virgin Mary was the mother of Jesus» 
but not the mother of Christ. William Money makes his ap- 
plication to God, but not to the Virgin Mary." 

These and other learned propositions were discussed and 
re-discussed constantly for five years, during which writing 
paper arose to such an enormous price that special enactments 
were made» withdravving the duties thereon. Time would not 
admit of detailing the shadow of what transpired during the 

Suffice -it to say that through the indomitable faith and 
energy of Mn Money, his seven opponents w^re entirely over- 
come; one sickened early in the second year and was constrained 
to take a voyage by sea; two others died of hemorrhage of the 
lungs; one went crazy; two became converted ami left the coun- 
cil in the year 1838 and were fotmd by Mr. Money on the break- 
ing up of the council to have entered into connubial bonds, and 
were in the enjoyment of perfect happiness. The other two 
strenuously held out to the year 1840, when, exhausted, sick 
and dismayed, the council in the language of the author, was 
broken up by offering me money to give up my sword, the Word 
of God, but I protested, saying, "God keep me from such treach- 
erous men, and from becom-mjcr a traitor to my God," 


sits Upon seven hills, and is linely gotten up and executed 
af the Star office in this city. Its title denotes the general ob- 
jects of the work which have been followed ont in the peculiar 
style of the well-known author, and in the emphatic language 
of the Council General, Unper Cahfoniia. City of Los Angeles. 
"We pronounce it a work worthy of all dignified admiration, a 
reform which ecclesiastics and civil authorities have not been 
able to comply with yet." 

The work opens with an original letter from the aforesaid 
Council General, which met August the 7th, 1854, near the 
main zanja in this city; said letter was indited, signed, sealed 
"by supplication of the small flock of Jesus Christ" represented 
by Ramon Tirado, president, and Francis Contreras, secretary, 
and directed with many tears to the great defender of the new 
faith, VHflho, amid the quiet retreats with which the rural dis- 
tricts abound, had pensively dwelt on the noble objects of his 
m^ission, and, in fastings and prayer, concocted, this great work 
of his life." 

"Tlie venerable prelate, in an elaborate prefix to his work, 
informs the public that he was bom, to the best of his recollec- 
tion, about the year 1807, from which time up to the anniver- 
sary of his seventh year, his mother brought him up by hand. 
He says, by a singular circumstance (the particular circum- 
stance is not mentioned). I was born with four teeth, and with 
the likeness of a rainbow in my right eye/' 

It would seem that his early youth was marked by more 
than ordinary capacity, as we find him at seven entering upon 
the study of natural history; how far he proceeded, or if he 
proceeded at all, is left for his readers to determine. At the 
age of twelve, poverty compelled him to "bind himself to a 
paper factory," Next year, being then thirteen years of age. 
having made a raise, he commenced the studies of philosophy* 
civil law, medicine, relation of cause and effect, philosophy of 
sound in a conch shell, peculiar habits of the muskrat, and the 
component parts of Swain's vermifuge. Thirsting for still fur- 
ther knowledge, four years afterwards we find him entering 
upon the study of theology: and as he says, "In this year (1829) 
I commenced my travels in foreign countries/* and the succeed- 
ing year found him upon the shores of the United States, inde- 
fatigable in lx>dy and mind; the closing of the same year found 
him in Mexico, still following the sciences above mentioned, 
but theology in particular. 


Cain was a philosopher, and had original aud rather start- 
ling theories which he propounded from the steps of the old 
Court House whenever he could get an audience. 

A colored preacher, the Rev. John Jasper, of Richmond, 
Va,, made himself famous by a sermon that he vi^as accustomed 
to deliver from the text, '*The sun do move." In that sermon 
he demolished the theory that the earth moved around the 
sun^ "The sun does the movnn', not the yearth. The good 
book says that once, when Joshuar had a big killing of Akak- 
elites o;i hand; he says 'sun stand stilT till I get through with 
the killin', and she stopped and stood still/' Now, said the 
Rev. Jasper* how could a thing stop if it wasn^t going? How, 
indeed! And the Rev. Jasper removed that theological stum- 
bHng block that has tripped over theologians for centuries. 

Professor Cain's theory was more original and more start- 
ling than Jasper's, It was that the original color of the human 
race was black. Adam was the first Sambo, and Eve the primi- 
tive Dinah. The white race were bleached-out blacks. 

Cain*s proof was conclusive, if you admit his premises, "The 
good book, says Adam, was created out of the dust of the 
yearth. WTiar did the Lord get that dust? Cain was accus- 
tomed to ask. "In the Garden of Eden. The soil of the garden 
was a black soil, bec;ause it was rich and produced all manner 
of yarbs and trees. Now, if Adam was made from black dust 
his color was black, wa'n't it? And Eve being made from Ail- 
am*s rib, the rib were black, and consequently Eve was black, 

As long as Adam's descendants remained in warm countries 
they retained their primitive color^ but after a time some of 
them wandered off to cold countries and lived in the shade of 
the woods, where the sun could not get at them. Then they 
began to fade, just as a plant grown in the shade loses its orig- 
inal color and turns white. Consequently^ the Professor would 
say, as he clinched his argument, "Tlie white man is only a 
faded-out nlggah." 

Some practical jokers induced the old philosopher to di 
a lecture on his favorite theme. He secured th« 
Theater* which still stands up near the Pico Hoilj 
charge an admittance fee, and he acted as hi^ nwnj 
So popular was his lecture that before he en 
making change with some of the ^t^ 
come in a nish and filled the house. 



the receipts were lig-ht. In knocking around the world he had 
picked up a number of big words that he used indiscriminately- 
He put them in because they sounded well. To give force to 
his argument he would quote at length from some authority. 
The quotations were manufactured; the Professor could not 
read. He would preface a quotation by saying, *'Thus says the 
famous Sock-rats" (meaning Socrates), or "I find this in the 
writings of the distinguished Hypocrits" (meaning Hippoc- 
rates, the father of medicine). Tlie lecture was as amusing as 
a circus. 

The old gentleman was very prond, and quite dignified. In 
assemblages of the colored brethren, when they d-id not agree 
\vith his views, he was accustomed to berate them as a pa'cel 
of plantation niggahs. Consequently he was not popular with 
his colored brethren. 

There are some other eccentric characters of early days that 
might come in for a notice but my paper is already too long. 


We are angel pioneers. 

As for fivc-and-twenty years, 

With our wives, the preiiy deiiT% 

We have had the land of angels for a home ; 
We came here long ago, 
And we like the country so. 
That we*r« going to stay you know. 

For wc never want to einigraTc or roam. 

Yes, weVe angels without wings, 
Without feathers and such thingSj 
And each heart with rapture rings. 

Thinking of the glorious country wc have found; 
With our climate and our soil. 
Bringing fruits with little toil. 
Let U5 live without turmoil, 

And let Joy and peace and jollity abound. 

We have seen our city grow. 
With a pace that's far from slow, 
And the country 'round us, too, 

Where frwit and flowers bloom on every hand; 
But there's room enoitgh for all. 
Rich and poor and great and small, 
And may pleasant places fail 

To the tender-foot from each and every land. 

Let them come, yes let them come — 
And, you bet, theyVe coming some — 
Don't you hear the car-wheels hum, 

Bringing tho^e who storm and bliziards wish to shun 
We extend a welcome true, 
From our hearts we mean it, too, 
For there's room for not a few, 

To fin the places we leave when we are gone. 

We will tell from whence we came — 
How we gat here, just the same — 
And we're surely not to blame, 

If we pass some resolutions when we diej 
As our hair is turning gray. 
We may not have long to stay^ 
When we have to go away, 

Let us hope we'll find as good a place on high. 



[Read before the Los Angeles County Pioneers, Feb.^ 19C2*] 

It was on the morning of an October day in 1865, with my 
wife and daug;hter, we took passage on the steamer Santiago 
de Cuba, via the Nicaragua route for San Francisco. The sev- 
eral forts at the entrance of New York harbor present a bold 
and warlike appearance^ as viewed from the deck of a passing 
steamer. In less than two hours after leaving the dock a call 
for tickets was made, and among the passengers was a young 
lady who told her story in this wise: Said she came from 
Massachusetts, expecting to meet a neighbor of hers, accom- 
panied by his wife, with whom she had previously entrusted her 
money. But not meeting them at the hotel as she expected, 
had come on board the ship to look for them. Here she was, 
W'ithout money or friends. The officers of the ship said they 
would have taken her through and given her letters of recom- 
mendation to officers on the Pacific side, if they could have be- 
lieved her story. Shortly after, our boat stopped to discharge 
the pilot, and this lady, whether worthy or other\vise, was com- 
pelled to enter the small boat with him. when they were con- 
veyed on board a steamer which was in waiting, and taken 
directly back to New York. 

Having now got outside the harbor, our l>oat glides more 
r.oidly over the smooth surface of the water, and the distatit 
J^-sey shore* as it becomes more indistinct, with the high tow- 
ers of the great city, the broad expanse of waters on either side, 
together with the approach of a beautiful sunset, render the 
scene worthy to be transferred to canvas. 

Our course was a southwesterly direction, along the west- 
erly coast of Cuba, only a few miles distant. How very differ- 
ent were our feelings now as to safety from what they were a 
year previous while traveling over these same waters, on our 
way to New York by the Panama route! Then our beloved 
country was in the throes of a mighty civil war. Privateers 
were supposed to be at any point on the Atlnntic waters, and 



the Panama steamers were known lo carry large amounts of 
treasure (for no overland road was then completed), and it was 
feared these privateers might attack the steamers returning 
from California. At any rate* as we were leaving the Caribeaa 
sea on the afternoon of a southern summer day, a steamer was 
sighted following in our track, and apparently gaining on us 
rapidly. Our captain gave orders for all steam to be used that 
could be done with safety, and it was easy to see our good ship 
was goinf' at a more rapid rate than usual towards her destined 
port. We had nothing to do but \\'atch the craft, whatever 
she might be, and speculate on what would be our fate if over- 
taken. The sumnilng*up of the opinions of the many passen- 
gers was numerous and various. Soon as it became dark all 
the lights above the water line were turned down, the course of 
the ship changed to nearly a right angle, and the evening spent 
in utter darkness. The morning sun found us on our regular 
course with no other ship in sight, and we all felt relieved. Now 
the cruel war was over, and peace reigned throughout our bor- 

Our captain had made the trip to and from Aspinwall many 
times, but this was his first trip to Greytown. By carefully 
studying his charts he took us safely into port in eight days. 
Here we were transierred to a small steamer, which was to take 
us up the San Juan river to Lake Nicaragua. We were very 
comfortably housed on the ocean steamer, but when you come 
to put 600 passengers on a boat less than one-fourth the size 
of the formter» you can make your calculations there was not 
much vacant space, A portion of the way along this river, 
which is the outlet for the waters of Lake Nicaragua, is low 
and marshy, but most of it, if properly cleared, looked like good 
farming land. 

The vegetation and scenery it would be hard to excel any- 
where: and the climate is said to be very healthy. It h no 
more like the Isthmus of Panama than day is like night. Ban- 
anas seem to grow spontaneously all along the river, but no doubt 
would do much better by proper cultivation. Vines of various 
kinds hang from the tall trees, making an impenetrable thicket, 
and covered with bright flowers, with every color of the rain- 
bow- During the day some of the passengers amused them- 
selves and others by shooting aUigators as they lay sunning 
themselves in the sand on the banks. 

The day passed quickly, for the country was so unlike any- 



thing we had ever before seen, it was very interesting. As 
night came on, inquiry was made about sleeping accomnioda- 
tions» especially for the ladies. But it was &eH-€vident that so 
small a boat could not accommodate the number of passengers 
she was carrying^, except in an upright position. So a few of us 
who ha 1 become acquainted while on the ocean steamer, got 
together amidships for a sociol hour, more or less* which finally 
led into story-telling, on any subject whatever; several gave 
their experiences of hatr-breadth escapes, or told us of 
some love affair, whether true or false it mattered not, so 
long as it amused and helped to pass away the time and keep 
us wide awake. 

The few who first gathered there, by 12 o'clock had in- 
creased to hundreds, and better order \v^s never observed in 
any Quaker meetinp" than during the small hours of that night 
on the San Juan river. One of these stories I remember in par- 
ticular, and as it is short I will here relate it. It was told by a 
njiddle-a^ed man, a doctor of medicine, who, with his wife and 
family, was making his first trip to California. He commenced 
by saying his story was of ancient origin and would be on the 
subject of political economy. He went on for several minutes 
before he got down to the real stor>\ causing us to believe we 
were to hear something instructive, if not amusing, for he was 
knowti to be an educated gentleman. And this was his story: 

Jack Spratt could eat no fat; 
His wife could eat no lean; * 

Between them both Ihey * 

Licked the platter clean. 

Daylight found us still entertaining one another, when it 
was announced we were nearing the greatest rapids on the river, 
(the name of which I have forgotten). The company broke up 
to go and see how the boat could climb the rapid current. A 
large cable was anchored on shore and attached to the engine. 
In two hours' time we were in comparatively still water. 

Here is where most of the locks will be required when the 
Nicaragua canal is built, as we all hope it soon will be. After 
one night and two days on the river we reached Lake Nicar- 
agua, a beautiful sheet of water, surrounded by low rolling hills. 
Crossed over by daylight on a steamer Which accommodated all 
our passengers without a murmur. Twelve miles bv stage took 
us to San Juan del Sur on the Pacific, 



This was a most imeresting- ride over a good mountain road, 
or what we in California would call foothills. The native pop- 
ulation were numerous at certain points on the road, offering 
their fniits, wares and curios for sale. Passed jnany acres of 
pineapple and bananas, apparently under a good state of culti- 
vation, in rows as straight a5 our orange orchards in Southern 

On our arrival at San Juan the connecting steamer had not 
arrived, but next day she made her appearance, and we were 
soon on board. On the followintf day she v\ias ready for her 
departure north. As is known to many of you, we are in plain 
view of the coast most of the way up; only at one pomt are 
we out of sight of land — while crossing the Gulf of Califoniia. 

When the ship's doctor was making his daily rounds on the 
fourth day, he found a very sick man in the steerage, whose 
disease he at once pronounced to be confluent smallpox. The 
captain's cow was at once hustled out of her comfortable berth 
and tied to a stanchion alongside the dining tables of the steer- 
age passengers, and the poor unfortunate fellow placed therein. 
But it was the safest place for him and the other pasengers, to 
be found on board. 

Five days later sometime during the night, he died, and 
was buried at sea. Everything in the shape of bedding was 
put into the furnace, and the room thoroughly fumigated. In 
the morning the cow \vas back in her former pen. and the num- 
ber of passengers was one less. Whether any one contracted 
the disease or not. \ve never knew. Tliere was also a birth on 
board — a child was born, whose young life went out in a few 
hours, when the captain ordered it to be buried, but out of re- 
spect for the feelings of the mother, the little body was kept for 
two days and buried on Mexican soil. 

Fourteen days on the Pacific brought us into San Francisco. 
nraking twenty-eight from New York. 


[Read June 23. 1902.] 


Of that notable group of American pioneers who arrived in 
Los Angeles about the year 1830, and who afterwards became 
permanent and influential citizens of this then almost exclu- 
sively Spanish-speaking province, I have already presented the 
Historical Society with brief sketches of John Temple, Abel 
Steams and J, J^ Warner; and I now propose to give some ac- 
count of WilUam WolfskilL Mn Wolfskill was born in Madi- 
son county, Kentucky, March 20, 1798, and was reared from 
the age of eleven to twenty-one, in wihat is now Howard county, 
Missouri, but which then was in the heart of the Indian country. 
The Indians of that region during the War of 1812 were so 
bafi that the settlers had to carry their fire-arms at the plow 
and to he unceasingly on their guard, night and day- 
After the w^ar^ in 1815, William went back to Kentucky to 
attend school In 1822, at the age of twenty-four, he started 
out in the world on his own account to seek his fortune, to 
penetrate still farther into the far West, and to find "a better 
country" in which to settle. 

With a party under a Captain Becknell, he went to Santa 
Fe. New Mexico. He spent the summer of 1822, at Santa Fe. 
and in the fall enjTaged in trapping beaver. He went down the 
Rio Grande to El Paso clel Norte in January, 1823. 

He was accompanied on this trip by a single companion, a 
New Mexican, w:ho had trapped beaver wath him the fall before. 
They caught what beaver they could as they proceeded down 
the river. The weather was cold, the ground being covered 
with snow; and to protect themselves from the cold they built 
a small brusii house 

Within this, with a fire in front, they could lie down and 
keep warm. One night (the 27tli of January, 1823) Mr, Wolf- 
skill waked up and saw that the New Mexican had built a big 
fire at the door; hut he thought nothing of it, and dropped 
asleep again. But some time after he w^^as aroused to con- 
sciousness by receiving a rifle ball in his breast. He jumped 



up and rushed outside, where he stumbled and fell, and although 
it was moonlight he saw no one. He had first reached for his 
rifle, which had been lying beside him. but that was gone, only 
the shot-pouch remaining. 

Supposing that maraxjding Indians had shot him and killed 
his companion, who was missing, he thought it was all over 
with him. At first he believed himself mortally w^ounded, which 
doubtless he w^ould have been had not the hall been retarded 
by passing through his blankets and also through his right 
arm and left hand, his arms having been folded across his breast 
while asleep. 

He was able to rise again, and he started back on foot for 
the nearest Spanish settlement, called Valverde (Green Va'V^-*i 
twenty or twenty-five miles distant, where a small military force 
was stationed, and where he finally arrived late the next morn- 
ing, well-nigh exhausted — cold, faints and weak, from the loss 
of blood. He went to the Alcalde, who made the matter known 
to the guard. 

Meantime, who should make his appearance but the New 
Mexican, who reported that he had been attacked by Indians, 
and that his partner (Mr. Wolfskill) was killed. But he was 
considerably astonished to learn that Mr. Wolfskill had got 
in before him. 

He was compelled to eo back with the soldiers at once 
(much against his will), and show them w^here Mr. Wolfskill 
had been shot. 

There they found, in the snow, the footprints of the two 
trappers, and none others. 

The New Mexican had told the soldiers that the Indians 
shot Mr. Wolfskill and had taken the gim, etc, and that he (the 
New Mexican) had shot several arrows at them. No signs of 
Indians were discovered, and of the arrows he had been known 
to have had beforehand, none were found missing. 

They took him back to Valverde bound, and kept him con- 
fined several days, where he came near being frozen. He fin- 
ally promised to go. and did go, and show them where the gun 
was Hidden. He then pretended that he had shot Mr. Wolf- 
skill accidentally, not being used to the hair-trigger of the rifle. 
He got on his knees, and opening his shirt, bared his breast and 
asked Mr. Wolfskill to take his life, if he had wronged him. etc. 

Bnt the evidence was too strong to be evaded, or to be 
explained, except by his guilt. 

He was examined by the Alcalde, who ordered htm to be 



sent off to the Governor of New Mexico, at Santa Fc, for trial. 
But Mexican fashion— is it not sometimes also an American 
fashion? — his punishment was delayed, and he was kept going 
back and forward, under escort, between Valverde and Santa 
Fe; and at last, as Mr Wolfskill afterwards learned, he was 
turned loose — a denouenient which in similar cases has been 
known to happen i]i the United States. 

What motive the New Mexican could have had for thus 
shooting- his companion. Mr. Wolfskill never could imagine, 
unless possibly it was for the sake of the old ritie, for that was 
about all Mr. Wolfskill had in the world, except a few old beaver 
traps; and there existed no enmity between them. They had 
never had any quarrel, or any cause for quarrel, 

But an old Mexican — a g'ood-hearted man, with whom they 
had once stopped, up the river — had warned Mr. Wolfskill to 
be on his guard aga-inst that man, "for/' said he, '*he -is a bad 

For so little cause, or for no cause at alK other than the 
ir.stincts of a deviltsh heart, will some men attempt mnrden 

Mr. Wolfskill was of the opinion that the loss of blood, and 
his nearly freezing in that long tramp to the settlement, saved 
his life. The ball did not penetrate his breast-bone, and was 
soon afterwards extracted. He bore the marks of the wounds 
on his person to his dyin^ day. In fact, it is a question if 
they were not the remote origin of the (heart) disease of which 
he died, although his death o<:curred many years after those 
ghastly wounds were received. 

If this society could gather the multitudinous and exciting 
episodes of hair-breadth escapes of each one of the adventurous 
pioneers who came to this distant land, either overland or by 
water, the collection would be unique In variety and interest as 
well as in permanent historical value. 

Mr. Wolfskill returned to Santa Fe, and about Christmas 
he went to Taos. In 1824 he. with others, fitted out a trapping 
expedition for the head-waters of the Colorado, or the Rio 
Grande of the West, as it was then called, returning to Taos 
in June, Soon after, with a Captain Owens and party, he went 
to Chihuahua to buy horses and mules to take to Louisiana. 
With many adventures, and with the loss of many of their ani- 
mals by attacks of hostile Indians, Mr. Wolfskill finally returned 
by way of the Mexican settlements, to avoid the Indians along 
the Gulf, and up the Mississippi, to his father's home, where he 
arrived in ill healthy June» 1825. Thus ended his first expedi- 



lion westward, be having been gone something over three years, 
and having penetrated as far as the tributaries of our great 
Colorado River on the Pacific Slope. 

He soon, however, left for Natchitoches, where Belcher had 
promised to meet him on the Fourth of July of that year, with 
the mules of Capt* Owens, who had been killed in an attack by 
the Indians near the Presidio del Norte in November of the 
previous year. These mules were to be taken East by Mr. Wolf- 
skill and sold for the benefit of Capt. Owens' family. The latter 
were near neighbors of his father and they had authorized bini 
to act as their agent. Not finding Beldier at Natchitoches at 
the time agreed upon, he traveled on west to San Felipe, where 
he found Belcher. 

Mr. Wolfskin took charge of the mules, and proceeded with 
them across Louisiana and Mississippi to Greenborough, Ala- 
bama, where he wintered and sold the animals. In March, 1826, 
he left by way of Mobile and New Orleans and the Mississippi 
river^ for his home in Missouri to make returns to the family of 
Capt, Owens* Here he found Capt. Young with whom he first 
went to Santa Fe, in 1822, and with whom he had trapped on 
the Rio Pecos and the Rio Grande of the West, etc., and en- 
gaged with him, after a brief stop at home, to go again to Santa 
Fe. Arrived there, Yoimg was taken sick, and he hired Mr, 
Wolfskin to go with a party (Sublette, Peg-Leg Smith, etc., 
being of the number), that he. Young, had fitted out to trap on 
the ^v-aters of the Rio Gila. The party being only eleven men 
strong, was attacked by Indians and driven back to Taos. 
Young soon after started out with about thirty men for the 
same place, where he chastised the Indians, so that his party 
were enabled to trap unmolested. 

During the winter. 1826-7, in company with Wm. and Rob- 
ert Carson, Talbot, and others, Mn Wolfskil! made a trip from 
Santa Fe to Sonora. to buy work -mules, mares, etc.. to take 
back to Missouri. He was at Oposura, Arispe and other towns 
in Ihe northern part of that State. Taltot and himself gath- 
ered about 200 animals and started back with them by way of 
Taos: but they lost all but twenty-seven of them by the Indians. 
With these they finally arrived at Independence a little before 
Christmas, Most of this winter he spent at home, only making 
a short visit to Kentucky on business for his father. 

The next Spring. 1828. he left home finally — never after re- 
turning thither He bought a team and started with goods on 
bis own account for Santa Fe. There were about too wagons 



(in two companies), which went out at the same time. On ar- 
rival at Santa Fe he sold his goods to his old friend. Young, 
wiho had returned from his Gila expedition. Some time after, 
Young, with whom he had formed a co-partnership, made an- 
other trip to the Gila* while Mr. Wolfskin went to Paso del 
Norte after a lot of wines, brandy, panoche. etc., which he 
brought up to Taos in the spring of 1829. He remained in Taos 
the balance of this year^ waiting the return of Young, who, it 
seems* had come on into California, 

In 1830, as soon as the trading companies from the States 
got in, which was not till Jiuly, MnVVoIfskil] got ready himself 
for an expedition to Cahfornia to hunt beaver,, expecting to find 
Young somewhere in the comitry. 

Of the company of twenty-txvo or twenty-three men, of 
which Mr, WoUskill was the leader, which started for California 
at this time, Messrs, Branch, Burton, Yount. Shields, Ham and 
Cooper remained west of the Rocky Mountains, whilst the bal- 
ance, soon after their arrival in California, generally returned to 
New Mexico or to the United States. Probably not one of this 
pioneer band is now living. Shields and Ham died soon after 
arrival in the country, and the others all died now many years 
ago: Yotmt in Napa, Branch in San Luis Obtspo. Cooper in 
Santa Barbara, and Young in Oregon. 

The party had intended to reach the Tulare and Sacramento 
valleys to make a winter and spring hunt. For this purpose 
they obtained a license from the Governor of New Mexico. 
Winter compelled them to turn south, and they reached Los An- 
geles in February, 1831. Here the party broke up — being 
mostly without means. Some members fitted out with what 
guns, traps, etc, there were left, and went to hunting otter on 
the coast* Very few of the disbanded party had any intention 
of stopping in California permanently. But they must do some- 
thing to enable them to ^et away. 

Mr Wolfskin with several others went to work and built a 
schooner at San Pedro, with which to hunt otter among the 
neighboring islands. The timber was cut in the mountains and 
hauled a hundred miles or more to San Pedro. The schooner 
was named the "Refugio," and was larger than some of the fieet 
of Columbus. 

[ At that time no one was permitted to hunt fine-furred ani- 

I mals within the jurisdiction of Mexico unless he held a license 

I from the Governor of a State or Territory, In New Mexico 

I the provincial name of beaver is nutria (otter). From ignorance, 



or more l-ikely carelessness, on the part of the Governor or of 
his secretary, the license of Mr. Wolfskill to hunt beaver (cas- 
tor) was written nutria. By this inadvertence of the New Mexi- 
can officers, Mr, Wolfskill was possessed of a license to hunt the 
highly-prized sea otter, which license he could not have obtained 
from tile then Governor of California, A strong objection was 
made by the officers here against the validity of a hcense given 
by the Governor of New Mexico; but through the interposition 
of Father Sanchez, who was at that time a power in the land, 
the objections were overcome. With this schooner, the "i^e- 
fugio/' Mr. Wolfskin and his party hunted along the coast of 
Baja California as far south as Cerros or Cedros Island. They 
had indifferent luck, and this was about the only trip they made 
with her; and they afterwards sold her to a Captain Hinkley, 
who took her to the Sandwich Islands. 

Mr. Wolfskin then directed his attention to vineyarding and 
to general horticulture, which he followed with great success 
till his death, which occurred October 3, 1866, It was not» 
however, till some years after his arrival, that he finally made up 
his mind to settle in the country. He bought and moved onto 
his homestead vineyard (now known as the W^olfskill Orchard 
Tract), in March. 1838, with his brother John, who came 10 
California the preceding year. The growth of the city compelled 
the dividing up of his extensive orchards, situated as they were 
near the heart of the city, some fourteen years since, and the 
old house which he built more than sixty years ago. and around 
which, to so many persons, both living and dead (for he always 
had a large number of people in his family), so many, many 
pleasant associations and remembrances have clung, is now be- 
ing demolished. 

Mr. Wolfskin married Magdalena, daughter of Don Jos^ 
Ygnacio Lugo and Dona Rafaela Romero Lugo, of Santa Bar- 
bara, in January. 184 1. by whom he had six children, three of 
whom are still living, namely, Joseph W, Wolfskill, Mrs. Fran- 
cisca W. de Shepherd, and Mrs. Magdalena W. de Sabichi. 
Of grandchildren there i>s a goodly number. Mrs. Woifskill died 
in 1862, the eledest daughter. Juana, in 1863, and Luis, the 
youngest son, in 1884. 

In the year 1841 Mr. Woifskill planted an orange orchard, 
the second in California, the first being planted by the Mission 
Friars at San Gabriel. 

In ihe same year (1841) he went to the upper country to 
look for a ranch on the then public domain. He selected lands 



lying on both sides of Putah creek (now in Yolo and Solano 
counties), and the next year he obtainetl a grant from Governor 
Alvarado in his own name» of four square leagues. His brother 
John took up stock to put on the rancho in 1842, The latter 
lived on the rancho thereafter till his death, receiving one-half 
of the same. Of the five brothers Wolfskill who as pioneers set- 
tled in California, only one. Mr. Milton Wolfskill, is now living 
in Los Angeles at an advanced age. 

After the old Padres, William Wolfskill and Don Louis 
Vignes may be called the pioneer growers of citrus fruits in 
California, a business which is now worth many millions of dol- 
lars to the people of California, and especially to the people of 
Southern California- 
William Wolfskin, who was of German-Irish ancestr)% had 
a strong physical constitution and an immense amount of vital 
energy. During his long and useful life he saw a great deal 
of the world and picked up not a httle of hard, sound sense. He 
was an extensive reader, and being possessed of a xvonderftilly 
retentive memory, he gained a store of information on most 
subjects of practical human interest that would not have shamed 
those who have had a more liberal education, and who may have 
passed their lives with books, instead of on the frontier. 

He was a man of no mere professions: What he was, he 
was, without any pretense. 

In religion he believed in the teachings of the New Testa- 
ment, and, at the last, he received the consolations of the Ro- 
man Catholic church. But in all things he loved those prime 
qualities of human character, simplicity and sincenty. He 
was one of that large number, of whom there are some in all 
churches, and more in the great church of outsiders, who be- 
lieve that a loyal, honest heart and a good life, are the best 
preparation for death. He was disposed, to as great an extent 
as any man whom I ever knew, to always place a charitable 
construction on the acts and words and motives of others. He 
believed (and acted as thongh he believed) that there ts no room 
in this world for malice, 

William Wolfskill was one of the very few Americans or 
foreigners, who came to California in early times, who never, 
as I firmly believe, advised the native Californians to their hurt, 
or took advantage of the lack of knowledge of the latter of 
American law, or of the English language, to benefit themselves 
at the expense of the Californians. As a consequence, the 
names of *'Don Guillern^o" Wolfskill and a very few other 



Americans of the olden time, were almost worshipped by the 
former generation of "hijos del pais/' who spoke only the Span- 
ish lang^uage, and who, therefore, in many, many important 
matters, needed honest and disinterested advice, 

Mr. Wolfskin was one of the most sociable of men. In his 
interconrse with others he was direct, and sometimes blunt and 
brusque; but in the language of Lamartine, "Bluntness is the 
etiquette of sincerity." 

In reality he had one of the kindest of hearts. Finally, in 
honesty, and in most of the sterling qualities that are accounted 
the base of true manhood, he had few superiors, 

I should add that most of the above facts of Mr. WolfskiU's 
life — and especially the account of the building of the first ves- 
sel or schooner, the "Refugio," at San Pedro, about which con- 
flicting versions have been promulgated — were derived directly 
from his own lips in 1866; and therefore they may be depended 
upon as authentic. 

In conclusion I am permitted to quote the following com- 
ments, in verse, on the foregoing paper, by Miss Gertrude Dar- 
!ow. a talented member of the staff of the Los Angeles Public 
Library : 

"It is from sturdy, stalwart sons Mk^ this 

Our State has reared its splendid edifice; 

Men who explored life's hard and dangerous ways, 

Who 'scorned delights and lived laborious days.' 

The stirring incidents oi such careers. 

Their toils and !>tnisgles, varying hopes and fcars^ 

Tenacious courage, honesty and pride ; — 

By a|] of these our past ts glorified I 


"Now, on the ground tlietr rugged virtues won, 
T*is ours Eo forward what was ttell begun. 
Cities have risen where they planted tree*. 
Old land-marks vani&h. But the names of these 
Brave Pioticers, ah let us not forget: 
Time cannot cancel^ nor we pay the debt 
We owe to lives so simple and sincere. 
Whose memories we should cherish and revere," 



About three thousand years agOj Solomon, King of Israel, 
remarked that there is nothing new under the sun. Solomon 
had the reputation of being a wise man. No doubt he was. 
With 700 wives to keep him posted, he certainly ought to have 
been "up to date." Our inordinate conceit -inclines us to be- 
lieve Solomon somewhat of a back number and his sayings out 
of date, just as the Native Sons are inclined to regard the Pio- 
neers as a little slow and their old yarns ancient history. 

Self conceit is perhaps the most dominant characteristic of 
the present age. We pride ourselves on our wonderful achieve- 
ments and draw invidious comparisons between the progressive 
present and the benighted past. And yet it -may be possible 
that in the progress of the race for the past five or six thousand 
years there may have been more arts and inventions lost than 
ue now possess. 

Before the Christian era the Phoenicians made maleable 
glasSt yet with all our wonderful discoveries in chemistry we 
have never yet been able to weld a broken pane. No modem 
artist has ever been able to make such permanent or so bright 
colors as the ancient painters used. 

It !S supposed that the original Argonaut, Jason, came 
home from Ithica on a steamboat. His vessel had neither oars 
nor sails to propel it. Tlie remains of a railroad have been 
found among the ruins of Thebes. The Panama ship canal is 
just now one of the burning issues before Congress. An Isth- 
mian canal is regarded as such a wonderful undertaking that it 
has taken the progressive nations of the world fifty years to 
talk about it before beginning to dig, yet Egypt, 5,000 years 
ago. dug a canal deepen broader and longer than the Panama 
ditch will be when Congress gets through talking about it and 
some country digs it. 

The crime of '73 was perpetrated in Assyria four thousand 
years before John Sherman or Wm. J. Bryan were bom. and the 
question of the demonitization of silver was fought over during 
political campaigns in Babylon years before Nebuchadnezer was 
turned out to grass. 



The discoveries that explorers are making among the buried 
cities of Assyria, Egypt and Greece reveal to us that many of 
our inventions are onlv the discovers of lost arts, and that Solo- 
mon was about correct when he remarked that there was noth- 
ing new under the sun. 

It would not surprise me if some delver in Egyptian ruins 
discovered that that wonderful invention, the telephone, was 
known and used in the time of the Shepherd kings and that the 
children of Israel got the start of Pharaoh because the wires 
were crossed. It may be possible that some antiquarian may 
find hidden away in an Egyptian sarcophagus the mummy of a 
hallo girl, and when the mummy cloth has been lifted from her 
face she will sweetly lisp, "'Line's busy; hang up, please/' 

Now all this may seem a little foreign to my subject, but I 
have introduced it here to vindicate Solomon, A man who 
could keep peace in a family as large as his was long enough to 
write a book of proverbs deserves our respect. 

My subject, "Pioneer Ads and Advertisers," relates to the 
advertisers and advertisements in Los Angeles more than half 
a century ago. Recently in loc4dng over some copies of the 
Los Angeles Star of fifty years ago I was amused and inter- 
ested by the quaint ways the advertisers of that day advertised 
their wares and other things. Department stores are great ad- 
vertisers and the pioneer department store of Los Angeles was 
no exception. Its ad actually filled a half column of the old 
Star, which was an astonishing display in type for those days. 
It was not called a department store then, but I doubt whether 
any of the great stores of Chicago or New York carry on so 
many lines of business as did that general merchandise store that 
was kept in the adobe house on the corner of Arcadia and North 
Main street fifty years ago. The proprietors of that store were 
our old pioneer friends. Wheeler & Johnson. The announce- 
ment of what they had to sell was prefaced by the following 
philosophical deductions which are as true and as applicable to 
terrestrial affairs to day as they were half a century ago. 

"Old things are passing away," says the ad; ''behold all 
things have become new. Passing events impress us with the 
mutability of human affairs. The earth and its appiirtenances 
arc constantly passing from one phase to another. Change and 
consequent progress is the manifest law of destiny. The forms 
and customs of the past are become obsolete and new and en- 
larged ideas are silently but swiftly moulding terrestrial matters 
on a scale of enhanced magnificence and utility. 


*Terhaps no greater proof of these propositions can be 
adduced than the evident fact that the old mercantile system 
heretofore pursued in this community with its 7x9 stores, its 
exhorbitant prices, its immense profits, its miserable assortments 
of shop-rotten goods that have descended from one defunct es- 
tablishment to another throug"h a series of years, g^reeting; the 
beholder at his every turn as if craving his (wty by a display of 
their forlorn, .mouldy and dusty appearance. These rendered 
venerable by ag*e are now considered relics and types of the 

**The ever expanding mind of the public demands a new state 
of things. It demands new goods, lower prices, better assort- 
ments, and more accommodations. The people ask for a suit- 
able consideration for their money and they shall have the same 
at the new and magnificent establishment of 


"in the House of Don Abel Stearns on Main street, where they 
have just received $50,000 worth of the best and most desirable 
merchandise ever brought to the country." 

Wiien the customer had been sufficiently impressed by the 
foregoing propositions and deductions they proceed to enu- 
merate, and here are a few of the articles: 

''Groceries, soap, oil, candles, tobacco, cigars, salt, pipes, 
powder, shot. lead. Provisions, flour, bread, pork, hams, bacon, 
sugar, coflfee. Dry Goods, broadcloths, cassi meres, blankets, 
alpacas, cambrics, lawns, ginghams, twist, silks, satins, colored 
velvet, nets, crepe, scarlet bandas. bonnets, lace, collars, needles, 

"Boots, shoes, hats, coats, pants, vests, suits, cravats, gloves, 

"Furniture, crockery, glassware, mirrors, lamps, chandaliers, 
agricultural implements, hardware, tools, cutlery, house-fur- 
nishing goods, liquors, wines, cigars, wood and w^illow ware, 
brushes, trunks, paints, oils, tinware and cooking stoves. 

"Our object is to break down monopoly,*' 

Evidently their method of breaking down monopoly was to 
monopolize the whole business of the town. 

When we recall the fact that all of this vast assortment was 
stored in one room and sold over the same counter we must ad- 
mire the dexterity of the salesman who could keep bacon and 
lard from mixing with the silks and sattns. or the paints and oils 
from leaving their impress on the broadcloths and velvets. 

pioxES&s OF vos AJiGBLes cotimr 

Ladies' botmcts were kept in stock* The sales-lady had not 
yet made her appearance in Ijos Angles and the sales gentle- 
utan £OJd bonnets, IxEiagiDC him ii^h from supplying a pur- 
chaser with a side of bacoo, fitting a boonet on the head of a 
lady customer — giving it the proper tilt and stiddng the hat 
pin into the coil of her hair and not into her cranium. Fortun- 
ately for the salesman the bonnets of that day were capacious 
affairs, tnodded after the prairie schooner, ^id did not need 
hat pins to hold them on. 

The old time department store sales gentleman was a genius 
in the mercantile line; he could dispose of an}thing from a lady's 
lace collar to a caballada of broncos. 

Here is the quaint ad^^ertiscment of oar Pioneer barber. 
The Pioneer barber ot Lx)s Angeles was Peter Biggs — a gentle- 
man of color who came to the state as a slave wnh his master, 
but attained his freedom shortly after his arrival. He set up a 
hair cutting and shaving saloon. The price for hair cutting was 
a dollar — sha^'ing 50 cents. In the Star of 1853 he advertises 
a reduction of 50 per cent. Hair cutting 50 cents, shampooing 
50 cents, shaving 25 cents. In addition to his tonsorial services 
he advertises that he blacks boots, waits on and tends panics, 
runs errands, takes in clothes to wash, iron and mend; cuts, 
splits and carries in wood; and in short performs any work, 
honest and respectable, to earn a genteel living and accommo- 
date his fellow creatures. For character he refers to all the 
gentlemen in Los Angeles. Think of what a character he must 
have had. 

Among the quaint advertisements in the old Star of the 
early 50s is this one, signed by Stephen C. Foster: 

"The undersigned offers himself as a candidate for the office 
of Mayor in the election that will take place on the 25th inst 

"Confident that the motives which caused my resignation 
are good, as also my conduct afterwards and approved by my 
fellow citizens, I appeal to their judgment and let them manifest 
it by ihdr votes/' 

On its face this advertisement has an innocent and inoffen- 
sive look, but between the lines old timers can read the story 
of a deep tragedy. 

The motives which caused Mayor Foster to resign were to 
take part in a lynching. Two murderers, Brown, a native 
American^ and Alvitre* a native Californian. had been convicted 
and sentenced to be hanged. Just before the day set for their 
execution a reprieve came for Brown, but the poor Mexican 



was left to his fate. The people were indignant. A mob gath- 
ered for the puq>ose of seeing that either both were reprieved 
or both hanged. The sheriff proceeded with the execution of 
Alvitre. The mob threatened to prevent it. The military was 
called out atid ablootly riot was imminent. At this point Mayor 
Foster harranged the people, advising that they allow the 
sheriff to proceed with the execution of Alvitre according to 
the forms of law. And when that was done he would resign 
the office of Mayor, head the vigilantes and execute Brown, 
He was as good as his word. The military was dismissed, their 
arms stacked in the jaii^ the sheriff's posse discharged. Then 
it was the vigilantes' chance, The Mayor resigned and joined 
the lynchers. The jail door was broken down, the arms of the 
nvilitary guards seized, Brown was taken out and hanged from 
a beam over the gate of a corral on Spring street, opposite 
where now stands the People's store^ within two hours after the 
legal execution of Alvitre, A special election was called to fill 
the vacancy in the office of Mayor. So thoroughly and com- 
pletely did his fellow citizens approve of Foster's course that 
he had no opposition, and was the unanimous choice of the 

There is often both tragedy and comedy, as well as business, 
mixed up in advertisements. In the Star of forty-eight years 
ago appears the ad of a great prize lottery or gift enterprise. 
It was called the Great Southern Distribution of Real Estate 
and Personal Property, by Henry Dalton. The first prize was 
an elegant modern-built dwelling house on the Plaza valued 
at $lijOOO. There were 84*000 shares shares in the lottery, 
valued at $1.00 each, and 432 first-class prizes to be drawn. 
Among the prizes were 240 elegant lots in the town of Benton. 
Who among you Pioneers can locate thac lost and long s-inc^ 
forgotten metropolis of the Azusa? The City of Benton. For 
some cause unknown to me the drawing never came off, A 
distinguished Pioneer whom many of you know sued Dalton 
for the value of one share that he (the Pioneer) held. Tlie case 
was carried from one court to another and fought out before 
one legal tribunal after another with a vigor and a viciousness 
unwarranted by the trivial amount involved. How it ended I 
cannot say. I never traced it through the records to a finish. 

Old ads are like old tombstones. They recall to us the 
memory of the "has beens;" they recall to our minds actors who 
have acted their little part in the comedy or tragedy of life and 
passed behind the scenes, never again to tread the boards, 



nineteen years of age he started to California, being one of a 
party of fifteen who purchased the brig Arcadia which sailed 
from Boston January 1849 for San Francisco via the Straits of 
Magellan, After a tedious voyage of two hundred and sixty- 
three days the vessel passed through the Golden Gate, October 
29, 1849. 

In 1850 Mr. White embarked in the general mercantile biisi- 
iress in Sacramento as a member of the firm of Haskell, White 
8: Co, This firm dissolved in a short time. Subsequently he 
engaged in farming on a ranch on the American riven For 
se\^enteen years he was a member of the firm of White & Hol- 
lister in the nursery business. December 24. 1868, he came to 
Los Angeles and engaged with a partner in the sheep industry* 
The firm was White & Denman^ and the ranch was near Flor- 
ence. In 1874 he became a member of the Los Angeles Immi- 
gration and Land Co-operative Association. This association 
was incorporated December 10, 1874, with a capital stock of 
$250,000. Its first board of directors consisted of the foHowing 
named Pioneers: Thomas A. Garey, president; Caleb E. White, 
vice-president; L. M. Holt, secretary; Milton Thomas, man- 
ager; R, M, Town, assistant manager; H, G, Crow, treasurer. 
Only two of these, Garey and Holt^ are living. The principal 
object of the association was the purchase and subdivision of 
large land holdings and the placing of these on the market in 
small tracts. The association in 1874 purchased 2.500 acres of 
the San Jose Rancho, subdivided it and founded the City of 

In 1880 Mr. White took up his residence at Pomona and 
engaged in fruit growing. He owned an orchard of sixty acres 
just east of the city. He was active in advancing the growth 
of the young city- He served on the board of town trustees 
several terms. He was one of the organizers and for many years 
vice-president of the People's Bank of Pomona, and was always 
active in furthering any measure that would benefit the city and 
aid in developing the resources of the district in which he lived* 

In 1854 Mr, White was married to Miss Rebecca Holship 
of St. Louis. Mo. Three children were born of this union — 
Helen M,, the wife of Hon. R. F. Del V^alle of Los Angeles; 
Annie C, wife of Charles L. Northcraft, also of Los Angeles, 
and Harry R. cf Pomona. 

Mr, White died at his residence in Pomona September 2, 
1902, at the age of 72 years. In the language of one of his old 



General Fremont, which occurred at her home in this city De- 
cember 27, 1902, 

Tlie names of both General and Mrs* Fremont, so intimately 
and so romanticaJly associated with early California history, 
will always possess peculiar interest for us and for our children 
and for our children's children. 

Senator Thomas H. Benton, Mrs. Fremont's father, Gen. 
John C Fremont, her husband, and Jessie Benton Fremont her- 
self, probably had more to do with the acquisition of Alta Cali- 
fornia in 1846 by the United States^ than any other three per- 
sons who took part in the stirring events of that dramatic 

Jessie Benton Fremont was a noble woman of high intel- 
lectuality and culture, and of amiable disposition, w*ho, because 
of the possession of these admirable qualities, and because of 
her prominence in our early national and State history, may well 
be classed, as doubtlessly she will be by the future historian, 
alongside of Martha Washington and Dollie Madison, as one of 
the grand dames of the republic. 

Inasmuch as the Fremont family made their home in Los 
Angeles since December, 1887, they, and each of them, seem 
especially dear to our people; and the warm aflFection we all 
frel for the father and mother %vill be continued with unabated 
strength to the devoted daughter, whose loving solicitude and 
care solaced the last years of both her parents, as the infirmities 
of age undermined their health and strength; wherefore, it is 

Resolved, by the Society of Pioneers of Los Angeles County, 
that the heartfelt sympathies of the members of the Society are 
respectfully tendered to the children and grandchildren of the 
deceased in this, their great affliction. 

K. D. WISE, 

Committee. ^ 


Caleb E. White, a California Pioneer of 1849, was born at 
Holbrook, Mass., February 15, 1830. His father, Jonathan 
White, was the son of a Revolutionary soldier. His mother, 
Abigail Holbrook, was a descendant of the man after w^om 
the town of Holbrook was named. Caleb received his education 
in tlie grammar and high school of his native town. When 



in Illinois, by wliom he had one son, Fred A, Sahsbury. now 
residing in this city. He was married to Miss Ellen A, Graves 
in, Merrill Lodge, Order of Good Templars, in this city, in 1876, 
by whom he had one son, Howard G. Salisbury, also residing- 
in this city. 

Brother Jphn C Salisbury was an honest member of the 
Pioneers of Los Angeles County, many of whom attended his 
funeral He was burierl with Masonic rites in Rosedale Ceme- 




Henry Kirk White Bent was born at Weymouth, Mass.» 
October 29, 183 1, He w^s educated at WilHston Seminary 
and Mason Academy^ and was ready to enter Amherst when 
measles prevented by seriously impairing^ his eyesight. He 
then engaged in civil engineering on railroad construction in 
Southern Wisconsin, In 1858 he came to California, worked 
at mining for a year at French Corral, Nevada County; taught 
school a year and a half at Downieville; was elected County 
Surveyor in 1861, and later Public Administrator of Sierra 
County. During the war he was chairman of the Republican 
County Committee, and worked as mining engineer until 1866. 

His health gave way, and he went to Boston, where he un- 
<Ierwent medical treatment for two years. Returning to Cali* 
fornia in 1868, he located in Los Angeles, as an experiment, 
wTth the result that he tarried in this section until his death. 
Here he recovered his health almost completely, the climate, 
in his opinion, doing more for him than all the medical treat- 
ment he had tried. Soon he engaged in the real estate business, 
taking the agency of the Santa Gertrudes Land Association, 
and later he went into the sheep industry. With returning 
health began his active and successful career in public works, 
which he continued up lo within but a few months ago. 

Under Gen. Grant*s second administration from 1873 to 
^^77. be was postmaster of Los Angeles. 

In 1878 he was elected to the Los Angeles City Board of 
Education, and was made president of that bo<ly. At this pe- 



riod he was an active and powerful (actor in many municipal 
works; was one of the founders of the present Public Library 
and for a number of years was vice-president and acting head of 
the Horticultural Society. In the religious field he was a de- 
voted worker for a hfetime. He was a charter member of the 
First Congregational church of this city, and for many years 
trustee and superintendent of the Sunday-school; also a charter 
member of the North Congregational Church of Pasadena, 
where he was trustee and deacon for the past fourteen years. 

To education Mr, Bent devoted the best of his abiUty and 
his unselfish record over a period of nearly a score of years^ and 
his work attained marked and lasting success. In 1S88 he be- 
came one of the original trustees of Pomona College, and re- 
mained a member until within the past year, when failing health 
compelled bis retirement. For seven years he was president 
of the board, often being re-elected when differing in judgment 
from the majority of the members— a special tribute to his 
honor and ability. Under his guidance the Claremont institu- 
tion has passed through many dangerous crises and been placed 
on an enlarged and permanent foundation. 

Mr. Bent was a kind man. After the history of his life work 
is related, that tells all the rest. 'Among the pioneers, business^ 
church and political associates he will be mourned by a host. 
But it 19 among the student body which has within the past 
decade gone forth into active life that his passing will be most 
sincerely lamented^ In his w^ork in Los Angeles and at Clare- 
mont he exerted a rare influence over the young people stri\nng 
for learning, and many were assisted to their desired ambition 
through his kindly interest and substantial aid. Scores of the 
younger generation in active life throughout Southern Califor- 
nia owe their education and success to the encouragement or 
assistance of Mr Bent. 

During most of his long life deceased combated disease in 
some form, and for the past several months had been confined to 
his bed with a lung affliction not at all like tuberculosis, but 
wliich baffled cure, and the end has for some time been known 
to be approaching rapidly and inevitably. He was twice mar- 
ried* and all of his five children and widow survive htm. In 
1855 he married Miss Crawford of Oakham, Mass.. and the 
children of this union are Mrs. Florence Halstead of Smarts- 
ville, Arthur S, and H, Stanley Bent of this city. Mrs. Bent 
died in 1876, and in 1878 he married Miss Mattie Fairman. 
There are tw^ sons by this union. Earnest F. and Charles E. 



Bent, the latter being city editor of the Pomona Daily Review. 
The death of Mn Bent removes a character that for over 
thirty years has been a potential influence in the progress of 
the educational, religious and political life of Southern Cali- 

Mr. Bent died at his home on Marengo avenue, Pasadena^ 
July 29, 1902, ag^ 70 years and 9 months. 




Cham.ber of the Pioneers of Los Angeles County, 

Los Angeles, Cal,, April i, 1902. 

John Charles Dotter, a native of Lohr, Germany, was born 
May 4th, 1837, and immigTated to the United States of Amer- 
ica in A. D. 1852, working his way westerly across the continent 
via the Great Salt Lake route to Los Angeles, California, arriv- 
ing in 1S56, and has ever since made this city his home. 

He married Miss Elizabeth Kemy and the issue of said mar- 
riage was George C, Corine Frances (the wife of Prol Milton 
Carlson), Idella and Charlotte, all of whom survive him. 

His home life was exemplary as a loving and kind husband, 
a devoted and affectionate fattier, and when freed from business 
requirements he spent his time with his devoted family and old 
time friends. 

He was a student of political economy and delighted in true 
progress, advancement and civilization; was a truly assimilated 
citizen of this republic, patriotic, and devoted to the principles 
of our country and the cause of freedom. 

He never failed to vote accord-ing to the dictates of his own 
conscience and "principles/* not men, was his motto* 

In his diary under date of February 27, 1902, is found the 
following: "V^ery dizzy; wonder what is the matter.*' On the 
28th he remained at home, and the day following he kept his 
bed. On Sunday, March 2nd, 1902, visited his office and enter- 
tained a few^ friends. On Monday, March 3rd, at about IT :oo 
a. m., he was attacked with nausea, continuing until 3 :oo p. m,, 
when he passed into a quiet and unbroken sleep for three hours. 
When awakened he complained of pains, which continued until 
8:30 p. m., when, from a stroke of apoplexy, he passed to the 
great beyond. 



Therefore, be it resolved by the Society of Pioneers of Los 
Angeles County^ State of California, in regular session con- 
vened, that while we humbly bow to the inevitable, in the removal 
from our midst of our esteemed and beloved brother, John 
Charles Dotter, we deplore the loss, and sincerely sympathize with 
his family and relatives in their bereavement and the irreparable 
loss of a loving husband, a kind and devoted father of whose life 
it can be said he was honest and conscientious through all 
the walks of an upright life. 

Quoting his own words when commenting on the death of 
his numerous Pioneer friends who passed away, "Another good 
man gone." 


To the Officers and Members of the Pioneer Society of Los An- 
geles, California: 

We, your committee appointed at your last meeting, Sep- 
tember 8th, for the purpose of drafting resolutions of respect 
to the memory of the late Anderson Rose, would respectfully 
report that said Anderson Rose was born in Macon County, 
Mo.» February 17th, 1836, and in the year of 1852 he came to 
California over the plains with an ox team, locating in El Dorado 
County, where he resided with his parents until about 1867, at 
which time he came to this county and located near the Ballona, 
where he purchased large estates, and he has beeti a resident of 
this county ever since. Mr. Rose was a frugal, industrious man, 
always attentive to his business, at the same time mindful of 
the welfare of his fellow men, courteous to his friends, for they 
were legion. He was a member of the Chamber of Commerce, 
and took active part in advancing the interests of this section; 
was a member of the Masonic Fraternity for Ihirty-five years. 
He was married to Miss Annie E. Shirley in i86g. He departed 
this life Ausjust 30th. 1902, leaving a wife, one son and two 
daughters to mourn his untimely taking off. 

And, Whereas, he who rules all things for the best has seen 
fit to call him from among us, w^ deeply mourn our loss and 
point to that particular portion of Scripture as our guiding star, 
viz.: "Be ye also ready, for in such a time as you think not 
the Son of man cometh." 



And, now therefore, be it resolved, by this society, tliat we 
extend to the widow and family our heartfelt sympathy in this 
their hour of grief. 

And be it further resolved, that a copy of these resolutions 
be forwarded to the family, and that a copy of said resolutions 
be spread upon our minutes. 




John C Anderson was born in Columbiana County, Ohio, 
on June 1st, 1844, and passed his youth and young manhood 
there. In July, 1863, at the age of 19, he joined the Ohio Na- 
tional Guards and in May, 1864, in response to the call for one 
hundred day men, he was mustered into the United States ser\'- 
ice — 1430! Ohio Infantry, from which he was honorably dis- 
charged as Corporal, in December of the same year, also re- 
ceiving a Certificate of Thanks for Honorable Service, signed 
by Abraham Lincoln and Edvrin M. Stanton. 

Mr. Anderson, from early manhood, was a member of the 
Masonic Fraternity. 

He learned the carpenter trade with his father, and worked 
at it in his native state until 1S73, when he came to Los Angeles, 
California, and has followed his trade -in this part of the State 
ever since, having had charge of the construction of the Nadeau 
Hotel and other large buildings. In the Fall of 1880 he re- 
turned to his old home for a visit, returning to Los Angeles in 
March. 1881. The following winter he again visited Ohio, and 
was married to M-iss Lizzie Lindersmith; and in March, 1882^ 
brought his wife to Los Angeles to reside. Two sons were bom 
to them, Louis H.* in 1B83, and George H., in 1886. In the 
spring of 1887 he moved his family to Monrovia, and ever after 
he made that city his home till his death. 

He was elected and served one term in the Monrovia City 
Council; was re-elected, but obliged to resign on account of fail- 
ing health. 

In the fall of 1899 his health began to fail, and he had to 
give up work almost entirely. Being of an active, energetic 
disposition, it was a great trial for him to keep quiet. He con- 
tinued with light occupation up to within a few days of his death, 


-which occurred on the 25th day of January. 1902; and on Jan- 
nary 27th he was buried in Live Oak Cemetery, at Monrovia, 
California, with Masonic honors, assisted by members of the 
G. A. R, 

He leaves his family in comfortable circumstances. He was 
a good soldier, a loving and devoted husband, a kind and in- 
dulgent parent, a good neighbor, and a citizen whom we de- 
lighted to honor. 



Jerry IlHch is dead. After lying for many months on a bed 
of suffering the well-known restaurateur passed away Dec. 5th, 
at his home, No. 1018 South Hill street. The funeral will 
be held at 2 o'clock Sunday aitemoon at the Masonic Temple. 

For twenty-five years the residence of Mn Illich was in Los 
Angeles, and during his closing years he was a prominent figure 
in the life of the city, being a member of various fraternal or- 
ganizations and owning considerable property in business and 
residence sections. He is remembered principallv for his good 
fellowship and for his ability to provide good things to eat. 

Starting in a modest way with a small chop-house on North 
Main street in the late '70s. his business expanded until he be- 
came proprietor of the largest restaurant in the city. His con- 
nection with the old Maison Doree on North Main street made 
that resort popular with business and club men. and when he 
moved into his own building on Third street in 1896 his patron- 
age fonowed. "J^^rry's" was headquarters for political and so- 
cial banquets, and there's many a man in Los Angeles who still 
has pleasant memories of the celebrated "paste'* and other for- 
eign dishes that were served at midday luncheon. 

The ravages of Bright's disease laid Illich low several years 
^go, causing his retirement from business to seek health in travel 
and recreation. His demise was expected on many dates^ but 
his constant good cheer buoyed him up, and the end came only 
when his constitution had become so undermined that his will 
power was ineffective in retaining the spark of life. 

Jerry Illich was bom in 1850 in Dalmatia. Austria. From 
the age of i^^ until he was 20 he sailed the seas, finally leaving 
his vessel at San Francisco and engaging in the restaurant busi- 
ness. A w^tdow and a young son and daughter survive him. — 
Los Angeles Daily Times, 

In Memoriam 

Deceaseti Men^ber^ of the Pioneers of Loa Angeles 

Jame* Jp Ayrei .,.,... Died November 10^ 

Stephen C- Foster ,*,,,,, Died Januarys Z7, 

Horace HiUer Died May 23^ 

John Strother Griffin Died August 23, 

Henry Clay Wiley Died October 25, 

WMIiam Blackstone Abernethy- - -Died November 1, 

Stephen W. La Dow Died January 6, 

Herman Raphael Died April 19, 

Franc l« Baker ....,,*....*..**. Died May IT, 

Leonard John Roee ♦ ,..*...,..... Died May ^7^ 

E. N. McDonald Died June ^0, 

Jame« Craig ...,...,.. Died December 30» 

Palmer Milton Scott ...w.^w.*. Died January 3> 

Francisco SablchI Died April 13, 

Robert Miller Town Died April 24, 

Fred W. Wood Died May 19. 

Joeeph Bayer ,...,., ^ Died July 27* 

Augufttua Ulyard Died Auguat 5, 

A. M, Hough Died August 28, 

Henry F. Fleishman .,. Died October 20, 

Frank Lecouvreur .,..,,.* Died January 17, 

Daniel Sbieok Died January 20, 

Andrew Glaseell Died January 28, 

Thomas E. Rowan ...... ... ....... . Died March 25, 

Mary Ulyard Died April 5* 

George Gephard .,...,... Died April 12, 

WUtiam Frederick Grosser .......... Died April 23, 

Samuel Calvert Foy Died April 24, 

Joseph Stoltenberg Died June 25, 

Charles Brode Died August 13, 

Joseph W. Junkina Died August, 

Laura Gibson At^ernetKy Died May 16, 

Elizabeth Langley Ensign^ . . . . . .Died September 20, 

Frank A. Gibson Died October IK 

Godfrey Hargttt *,.... Died November 14j 

John C* Anderson Died January 25« 

John Charles Dotter Died March 3, 

John Caleb Salisbury Died July 10, 

H. K. W. Bent Died July 29. 

Anderson Rose ..,,.,.. ^ .....*,... . Died August 30. 

Caleb E. White ,,..* Died September 2, 

Jerry lllich .,.,,. . , . .Died December 5, 

Daniel Desmond Died January 23, 













Ut. IN 




AfttlV. IN CO. 



AndenOD, L. U. 



July 4. '73 

Los Anacles 


Anderson. Mri. David 



Jan. 1. *53 

641 S. Grand *v. 


Auslifl, Hefifj' C. 



Aug^ jD, '6^ 

jiifi FiguerM 


MrtTtx., Ferdinaad 



May 1, •?> 

647 s. Sichd 


AdAOii. JulU A. r. 



July u. 'B8 

Los AnselcB 


BarclflT. John H. 



Ao(., Vi 



Barrowi, Heary D. 



Dec. [j, '54 

7^14 Beacon 


Bftrrnws, )amt» A. 


Sett red 

May, '68 

236 W. JefferBOQ 


Bilderbeck, Mr*. Dora 



Jan. 14, *6] 

1000 E. Eiijttb 


Bi*by, Jonathan 



June» %6 

Long Beach 


Bic knell. Jofaa D. 



May. *7a 

1115 W. Seventh 


BoutoOt Ed-<M«Td 

N, y. 

Rtfll Estate 

Aor. '6S 

1J14 Bond 


Brd&imer^ Slfl. 



N». ja. '6g 

id^ WilmifljptOft 


Bush, Cbirlei H. 



March, 'yo 

3t& N. Main 


BiimB. Jiraw F, 

N. Y. 


Not, 18, 'S3 

153 W right 


Buttcriidd, S. H. 



Aug., 'A« 

Loa Angeles 


Bell. Horace 



Oct, *sa 

tJ37 Figueroa 


hUzM, Hn, €t]»betfa S. 



J«ty. 'y3 

141 N. Olive 


Biles^ AJhert 



July. '7J 

141 N. Olive 


■ Broaimfr, Mrs. E. 



May 16. '68 

17 1 J Brooklyn 


I Blanchard, Jaifica II, 



April. '?a 

9T9 W. Second 


I Bftldwin, Jeremiah 



April. >4 

7JI Darwin 


f BtrcUjr. Henry A. 



An J. t, '74 

tjji S. Main 


Bitiford. JoMph B. 


Banlt Teller 

July 16. *?4 

150J E. First 


BArrowft, Carnelta S- 


Houses tfe 

May, '68 

236 W. Je£fer«ofl 


BiAg^, Anicl M. 



Nov., '7j 

i£o Hewitt 


Bright. Toney 



Sept. '74 

jift Requena 


Buffum, Wm. M, 



July 4. '59 

144 W. Twelfth 

I«BTham, RicbsTd M. 


U. &. Gauger 

Feb, aj, V4 

114J W. Se^entb 


Braly, Jdhn A. 



Feb.. 'flt 

Van Nuya 


Balei, Lcooldu 




i4$z Iambic 


Blumve, J, A. 

N. J. 


Dec. aS, "yj 

J lot Hoover 


Braffum. Bebetca E. 



Scp(. 19, '64 

144 W. Tweirtb 


BeH. AleuDder T. 



Dec. ao. 'tifl 

ioj9 S. HtU 


Biktt, Edwwd L, 

N. Y, 


Dec., *« 

141 S. Flower 


Baxter. Wijlim 0. 



May, U? 

Santa Monica 


BTdTiJjeaiu, Jiiliui 

N. Y. 


Jan. 16, '7? 

34 J4 Hooter 


Burkt, Joseph H. 



April i3* '$i 



Booth, Edward 




740 W. Seventeenth 


Caiwell, Wn, M. 



Aug. 3. '67 

I09J £. WailiiAitQD 


Cerelli, Scbaitimn 



Nov, 34. '74 

Bi 1 San Fernanda 









Aft. nr 




AUiv. IK ca. 



CDnkelmAn. Bemird 



J»ft- J. 


J 10 S. L<rt Anjele* 


Cohn, Kacpare 





1601 S. Grand 


Coronel, Mm. M. W. De 





Lm Aneclef 


Crimmicis, John 


Muc. Flunber 



1*7 W. TwCTty-fifth 


Crawford. J. S* 

N, Y. 



Downey Block 


Currier, A. T. 



Jub I, 




Qark. Frmnk B. 



Feb. 23. 


Hyde P»rk 


Carter, K- C. 





Sierra Madre 


Conutr, Mrs, Kate 



June ai. 


1054 S. Gfud 

QimpiMOt A, B. 





San Gabri«| 


Canminss, Ceo. 





First itreet 


Cunningbsnij Robt. C 


Den tilt 

KOT. lit 


UDi W. Secflnd 


Cluke, N. J- 

N. H. 



]i7 S. Hill 


ConptDn, Ceo- D. 





a?8 W. Jefferwn 

Cowmn, D. W- C. 



Junt I. 


8^4 W. Tenth 


Carter, Jutiu* M, 



March 4. 




CUrke. jMtnti A. 

N. Y. 



tti W. Second 


CKiiipbell, J. M. 




7 If! Bonnie Brae 


Catilfr, Jondftban T, 

N. Y. 


April to. 


)i£ Wilhudt 


Culver. Francii F. 







Crtne, W. H. 

N, Y. 




r^e W. Seventh 


Cook, Atonxo C. 




Ironff Beacb 


Dalton. W. T. 


Fruit Gr Direr 


lOoA Central ■venue 


Davii. A. E- 

N, Y. 

Fruit Grower 





Doonet. R W, 



May ). 


84S S. Broadway 

■ S7i 

Dobfl. Frtd 





614 £. Pint 


Cetraond. C C. 


Merc bant 



r« Coron*do 


Dunkelbcrger. L R. 





ots W. Ninth 


Dunlap. J. D. 

N. H. 






Dry den, Wm 

N. Y, 




Lod Angles 


Durfee, Jm. D. 



SetJt, 15. 


El Mont* 


DiYiji, Emily W. 






Davis, Jofaci W. 



Dec. I*, 


$iS San Julian 


DtT», Viffrinia W. 





5tS San Juliaa 


DeUna, Thoi. A. 

N. H, 






Davii, PhDcbe 

N, Y, 


Dec. IS. 


797 E- SeTentecnth 


D»vi9, John 

N. Y, 






Dougherty, Omer R, 



Marcb jj, 


South Paudcna 


De Turk. Jas G. 



April 14. 


241* Edwin street 


DiUejr. UuTs 





Tosf S. FIgrueroa 


Eaton, Beni. S* 


Hyd. Engineer 


43J Sherman 


Ebin^er, L«uls 



Oct. 9. 


755 Maple 


EUioK, J. M. 

s. c 




9M W. Twenty -etglith 


Evarcs» Hyron E. 

N. y: 


Oct 36, 


Lo* Angrlet 

Edctman, A. W. 



J line. 


t343 Flower 


Edgar, Mn. W. F. 

K Y. 


Apnl 1 8, 


514 W. Waibineton 


ElUworth, DBnicl 

N. Y. 

Oil Prodocer 

Sept . 


6j9 S. Flower 


Eaien, Theadore A. 





J626 S. Figueroa 


FurriMn, Wm. 





303 S. HiU 


TuTTty, Wm. C 

N. Y. 




nej Ingraham 


French, LoriRS ^^^- 





3j7 Alvarado 


Fianklin, Mn. Mary 



Jan, .. 


*5J Avenue jj 


Pkkett, Cfaarlei R. 



Jaty J. 


El Monte 








U.IM ' 






fftAT*. ' 

Fisber. L. T. 



Mar. 24. 


t,oa Angelea 


Foy. Mrs. Lucinda M. 



Dec. a4. 


65] S. Figueroa 


French, Cbas. E, 





Mij4 N. Brnadwar 


Flflod, Edward 

N. V. 

Cement workcr 



ijiS Palmer avenne 


Foglc, L>wreiic« 





43S Avenue 3J 

iiss ; 

Fotilk5, Irvine 



OcL IB. 


404 Bcaudry avenue 


Franck, Adolph 





4aS Col y ton 


Frankel. Samud 




818 S- Hope 

■ 8«5 

Fel«. L, Pcnni* 





11*5 S. Grand avenue 

iS7S ^ 

Garry^ Tbocnas A- 



Oct. M. 


*82J Maple avenue 

185^ ■ 

Garvcy> Richard 





San Cahricl 

16&8 1 

G«Bff. Henry T. 

S. Y. 




1146 W. Twesiy-fifbth 

«874 1 

Gillette, J. W, 

N, Y, 




312 Temple 

[8sfi ' 

Cillttte. Mrs, E- S. 





322 Temple 

tS&4 1 

Gould, Wdi D. 



Feb, aB, 


Bcaudry avenue 

iSya \ 

Griffith, Jw, R. 






i«45 ; 

Creeo, Mcirria M. 

V. Y, 




3017 Ktngsley 


Collrarr, Charles 




T5^0 Flower 


Griffith, J. M. 





Los Angele* 

■as* , 

Gr«n, E. K. 

N. Y. 




W. Ninth 

i87« ' 

Green, Floyd E. 





W. Ninth 


Culnn, Jamrft M. 



Oct. it. 


lis S. Grand avenue 


Gotdswarthy, John 



M4r. io. 


107 N. Main 

■ 8sj 1 

Gilbert, Harlow 

N Y. 

Truit Grower 

N0¥. I, 


Bell Station 


Cerlrin9« Jacob F. 





Glen dale 

1854 1 

Girrelt, Robert L. 



Hov. 5. 


701 N\ Grand avenue 


Grebe, Christian 



J*n. a. 


Stt San Fernando 


Card, Ceorgt E- 


Detective agetKj 


488 San Joaquin 


Geller. Margaret F. 






rB6a < 

Greenbaum, Ephraini 




tfity Cherry 

i85» i 

Qidden, Edward C. 

N. H. 

Mfr. agent 



756 Avenue 2a 

iB6« 1 

Gower« George T. 

H. 1. 






Grossen Eleauore 





663 S. Spring 

■ 8?3 

Gotding. Thomaa 




Los Angel ei 


G]«*i. Henry 



June 21. 


\V. Fourth street 


Gordon, John T» 

D. C 




Grow, G. T. 




7j8 S. Rampart 


Gicae, Hcnr^ 




T944 Estrella 


Haines. Rufui K, 





ai« W. TwcTily-seventh 


Harris^ Emil 



ApTit 9. 


102S W. Eighth 


H«per, C. K 

N. C. 






Haiard. Geo, W. 



Dec. J 5. 


T307 S, Alvarado 


Haiard, Hcnrjr T. 



Dec- as, 


38a6 S. Hope 


HeHman, Hertnati W. 



May 14. 


fi$4 Hill 


Uctnzemafi, C F. 



June i. 


£jo S- Grand avenue 


Hunter, J*ne E- 

N. Y, 



327 S. Broadway 

Hob*T, C, E. 





S16 S. Broadway 


HamiltDTi. A. N. 



Jan. >4i 


61 1 Temple 


HclbTook, J. F, 



May JO, 


155 Vine 


Heimann. Cuatave 





727 CalifomiiL 


Button, Auftliua W. 



An*, i. 


Lot Angelci 


Hiller, Mrs, Abbie 

N. Y, 




147 W. TweDty^third 


Hemvie, Henry J. 



Dec. asi 



itsj 1 

Htibbell. Stephen C. 
^ 1 

N. Y. 



1515 Pleasant avcDDc 






Al. IN 



ace ir ratio if. 

aitiv. lit CO. 



Hiyi. Wftde 







Han. Screpta S. 

N. Y. 


April tj. 


iS(9 W. Eitfhth 


Hamilton, Ern U. 



Sept. JO, 


310 Avenue ts 


Hewitt, Roicoe E. 



Feb. J7. 


J3r S. OUve 


Houshtoa. SbennmD 0, 

N. Y. 


July u 


Butlard Btofk 


HouK^ton, Hliia P. 



July I. 


Los Angeles 


Hasket], Jobn C 






Herwj^, Emm* E, 







Hunter, An 




ho* Angeles 


Hutit«r Jti« 






Haucb, Isuc 



April 14* 


514 Temple 


Hall, ThDm»j W. 

K Y, 




La CaEada 


Hoplcini, Susan Clubjr 





Long Beack 


Hewitt, L«liF R. 



Mar^ 21, 


t7t} S. Olive 


HartQJck, August 





74B Gladys avcBue 


Herrick, Jdbo 



Feb. 27. 


6ai Main 


JuobSTi NttboQ 





739 Hope 


Jacchy, Mom* 




Los Antelea 


J«iii«^ AUrtd 





101 N. Bunker Hill ave 


Jcnkstis, Charles M. 



Mar. 19. 


ris8 Santcc 

IBs I 

Johnsoa, Chftrlet R, 




Lo9 Anffeles 


JudMii, A. H, 

N, y. 




FuadEtia avenue 


Jordon^ Joseph 





Los Angclea 


jobanien, Mr*. C«iUs 




Los Angrle* 


Jenliiai. Wm. W- 



Mar. 10, 




Jobnton, Micijili D, 



Mar. ji. 


136 N. Griffin STenut 


Jofita^ John J. 






J«htUKa. Edvard P. 

I Ad. 

Prea. L. A. Fonu Co. June. 


547 S. Hope 


K«y«, CtaarlH C. 


C*anty Clerit 

Nov. as. 


a 09 N* Worlnnu 

i8s» ™ 

Kremer, M. 


Ina. agent 



9 S3 Lake street 


Krtmef. Mfi. Matilda 

N. Y. 


QSX Lake street 


Kuhrts, Jacob 



May to. 


J07 W. First 


Kurts, Joiieph 



Feb. a. 


36i Buena Vista 


KyMT, E. F, 

N. Y. 




j2j Bonnie Bne 


Kut£, Samuel 


Dept Co. Clerk 

Oct. 39, 


aiy S. Soto 






107 W. First 


Kmgr T^ura £, 



Nov. J7. 


413 K, Breed 


Klocktnbrmk, Wcru 







KniKMen. Will A, 

I ad. 




150 W. Thirty.finl 


Kiefer, Peter P. 



J»n. IS, 


240 N. Hope 


Kearney, John 



Sept. il, 


7^6 E. Efxbch 


Kipp, Nicholas 




749 Bannine 


Ljnch* Joseph D. 


Editor and Fob. 



3JI New High 

it^ V 

LAmb« Cbas. G. 


Real Estate iffcnt 




Lambourn^ Fred 





S^o Judwn 


Lapker^im, J. B 




950 S, OUve 


Liizatd* Solomon 




607 SercnCh 


Locb. Leflia 





t^ai Westlake arenue 


L«ck, Henry Vander 



Dec. 14. 


2309 Flower 


Lembecke- Chartei M. 


Pickle works 

Mar. 20, 


577 Loi Ante lea 


LevT, Michael 





6ii Kip 


Lyon. LewU H. 







Lccbler, George W, 














AM. ijr 1 






■TAT«. 1 

Leiu. Edmund 



June tj, 


J907 S. Hope 

Ling. Robert A. 





ttoj Downey arenufe 


Lockliart, Tbomu J. 


Re*l Estate 

May i. 


19*9 Lovelace avenue 


LockhAft, Levi J. 


Coal mere bant 

May I, 


J&14 S- Grand avenue 


LcKkwood. James W. 

N. Y, 


April I, 


Water street 


techier, Abbie J. 





Ri^h street 


LoouDorc, James 



Jan. t6. 


ttji Lafajrette 

Loybcd, Mollie A. 






Lanning, Sfttnue] W, 

N. j. 

Stair builder 



7SD S. Olive 


Lewis, WiH. Robert 





Loa Angeles 


Mwy, Oscar 






M4ppa, Adam G. 

K. Y, 

Searcb. Rec. 



Los Angel M 


Mercadante, N. 



Apn) ]6, 


43$ San Pedro 


Mcfmer, Joseph 





170$ Manitou avenue 


Me«<r, R. 





326 J^cltion 


Meyer. Samuel 





1 35? S. Hope 


Mel£cn Louif 



April (. 


900 FigueroB 


Mitchell rfewell H. 


Hotel keeper 

Sept. 26, 




Moore* Isaac N, 





Cal. Truck Co. 


Mullally, Joseph 



Marcfa s. 


4 1 7 CoUe^ 


Mct.ain* Geo, P, 



Jan, a. 


446 \, Grand avcfluc 


McLean, Wm. 




5«i S. Hope 


McMuIUti. W, G. 





Station D 


Moulton* Klijah 



Mir ti. 


Los Atigeles 


MeCflmai, Jos, E. 






«t5J 1 

Motl. Thomas D. 

M, Y, 



*45 S- Matt! 

-S«9 H 

Miller, Willum 

N. Y. 


Nov, 3 a, 


Santa Monica 

— ■ 

Marxaon. Bora 



Nov. 14, 


213 E, Sevcnteeflth 

I87i 1 

Mndr, John 



Sept, 6, 


J03 W. Eiffbteenth 


Mnrsn. Samuel 

D. C. 


May 15. 




Maicr, Simoa 




13? S, Grand 


Melvill. J. H., 


Sec. Fid. Ah. Co, 



4S5 N. Feaudry avenue 


Montaeue. XewelL S- 



Oct. a. 


i3;t E, Twenly-egbtli 


Mc Far land, SiUi R. 



Jan. iB. 


i334 W. Twelfth 


Mtn, Henry 





106 Jewett 

Uoodj, Alexander C 

N. S. 


Jan. 9. 


1*5 Avenue 35 

Moore, Mary E. 

N. Y. 


1467 E- T*entieth 

Morgan, OctaviuB 





iSt^ Westlake avenue 


M<x>re, AUnd 



July *T, 


70& S. Workman 


Morton. A, J, 




315 New High 

Morris, MoHti 



■5 J 

33.6 S, Eroadway 


Morton^ Job?) Jay 







McArthuT, John 




1^04 5, FigueroR 

MtArthur, Catheriac 

N. Y. 



igog S. Figueroa 

McC.arvin, Robert 


Real Estate agent 

April s. 


aao$^ S. Sj^rinff 


Uc Donald. Juneft 




^5 7 

T509 G' Twentieth 


McCfccry, Mary B. 

N. Y. 


Nov. 3, 


9 1 1 5. Hope 

McCrctry. Rufua K. 



Nov. 3, 


Q[] S, Hope 


Mcllmoil, John 

N, V. 


May JO, 




McCoyc. Frank 

N. Y. 




ij8 S. Broadway 


Worton, Iiaae 


Sec. Loan AiiD. 



13G4 Pisneroa 


Kcfrmark. Harril 



Oct. 32. 


tosi Grand avenue 


Ncwmark. M. J. 

K. V. 




1047 Grand avenue 


Kewe]l. J. C. 



July 14. 


1417 W. Ninth 














U. tH 







fir At E. 

Nithel*. Thoniai E. 


County Auditor 


aai W. Thirty^firrt 


NtwcU. Mrt. J. a 





24*7 W. Ninth 


N*dt.u. G*a, A. 





Ne»mfirh. Mra, H. 

N. Y. 

Sept. i6, 


losi S. Crmnd 


Nadcfiii Martha F. 

N, a 




iSDi CcntrtI ftvcBuc 


Nicteng«r, Edward 


Reml Estate broJ»r 



Fifth street 


Orme, Henrjr S. 



JttJy 4. 


Douglas Block 

■ 868 

Oibortie^ John 



N*r. 14, 


3*a W. Thirties 


OfthorTi, Wm. M- 

N, Y. 




9?3 W. Twelfth 


O'Melvcny. Hcnty W. 





Baker Block 


Qwcp, Edward H. 


Clerk V. S. Court 





Orr, Beujamin F. 





lAij Bush 


Ftrker, Robert 



April to. 


:3jo S. Dcaudry 


Pwker, Jw] B. 

N, Y. 


April aq, 


sra E. Twelfth 


Puchkt, Willivn 



April ij,. 


5JB Uacy 


Pike, Geo, H. 




Lh Angelet 


Peek, Ceo, H. 





El Monie 


Potiet. Victor 







Pndham, Wm. 

N. y. 

Supt. W. F. Co. 

Aug. x&. 


Baker BtrKk 


PriEcr^ Saniue] 





LoA Angelea 


PrectOT. A, A, 

N, Y. 


Drc- «, 


tfioi M*plc »«n«e 


Pilkm^tob, W. H. 




jifi N. Cumoun^ 


Pfoifii, Gretft L, 





t5i* W. Twelflb 


Perry. Harriet S. 



May IS. 


(7^3 Iowa 


Few like, Emil 



Nov. jOt 


040 Summit »Ttnii» 


Pye, Thomaa 





ii4« H 

FfHioa. John £. 



July 7. 


S14 Golding BveDu« 

tsr« H 

Quinn, Hi£bard 





El Monte 

IMI " 

Qutnn, Michael F. 

N, Y* 




El Uoote 


Rub, David M. 



Hay 12. 


South Fasadena. 


RaytifS, Frank 







Reichard, Daoicl 





4S9 Beaudry 


Riley, Jamei M> 





M05 S. Olive 


Richardson, E- W. 







RjcturdKiii, W. C B. 

N. e. 





Rocder. Louii 



Nov. jS 


Jig Boyd 


Robinson, W. W- 

N. S. 




It? S. OtJM 


Hob*tti. Henry C 


Fniit Grower 




Rinaldi, Carl A. R. 







Rendall. Stephen A, 


Rtyil Estate 

May t, 


9(1 S Alvarado 


Rcavis, Walter S. 



June 8, 


[407 Sunset Boulevard 

■ BSd 

Hoffcrs, AtejE H. 





iisa Wall 


Ready, RuewU W. 


Actor ncy 

Dec. [B, 


Saji Pedro street 


Raft*, Eirakine M. 


U S. Judge 

June ig, 


Lob Angeles 


Rm«n, Wm. H. 

N, Y. 

Ffuit Grower 

April $, 




RTwton, Albert St C. 





iji N. Main 


E«ivi«. Wm. E. 



April 33, 


T40S Scott 


RoIsiDD, Wm 




£1 Monte 

Read, Jennie Sanderson 

N. Y. 

Vocal Mlrtitt 

June 3Q, 


T153 Lerdo 


Koque£, A. C. 



Aui. ifi. 


City Hall 












Schmidt. CoEtfned 





Los Angeles 


Schmidt, Auffttsc 





710 S- Olive 


Sluil«r. John 





aoo N. Boyle arenue 

■ 049 

Shorb. A- S. 





6^* Adams 


StolU Simon 





80* S. Broad^^ay 


Stewart, S, Bi, 

N. H. 


May 14. 


SI3 W. Tbifticth 


Stephens, Diniel G. 

N J 




Sinth and Olive 


Stepli*hs, Mr*. E. T 



Sixth and OLivt 


Smith. liaac S- 

K. Y. 

Sec. Oil Co. 



*i* N. Olive 


Smith. W. J. A. 



April 11, 


Sao Linden 


S*ntous. Je»n 





54$ S. Grand avenqe 


SbcAfcr. Mrs. Ti[ltc 





TIJ4 EI Molino 


Strong, Robert 

H. y. 






Snxdcr. Z. T, 







Sliughter, John L. 



Jan. 10. 


614 N. Bunker Hill 


Scott, Mr*. Annnds 

W. Ohio 

House wife 

Dec. *r. 


sag Misaiob Road 


StgM, H. W. 



Oct. 1, 


U* S. Hill 


Sumner, C. A. 



May 8, 


tjni Oringe 


Si&ith, Mrs. Sirah J. 


House vrife 


'7 a 

Temple street 


Starr^ JoKph L,^ 




Les Aagcltt 


Schmidt, Frederick 




Los Anselc* 


Sprjwe. Mrs* Annie 




445 S. OUve 


Smith, Simon B, 



May 17, 


fja N. Avenue jt 


Sharp, Robert L. 


Funeral Director 



Loa Angeles 


Shaffer, Cornelia R. 





.»DO N. Boyle avenue 


Slaughter. Fnnk R. 

N, Y. 




Lrgt Angeles 


Stauib, George 

N. Y. 



1,0* Angeles 


Short, Corneliu* H- 



Aug. B. 


M17 MisKion Boulevard 


Etarle*. JohB F. 





St. ElmQ Hotel 


Stewart, MelisM A. 

M. Y. 




iij W. Thirtieth 


Steer*. Robert 

N. Y, 




i6o S. Olive 


Tobennin, J. R. 





<iS S- FiRuerda 


Teed, Matbew 





J13 Califflroia 


Thorn. Cameron E. 





118 E. Third 


Taft. Mrs. Mary H. 



Dee. as. 




Thomas, John M. 



Dec. J, 




Truman* Ben G. 

R. L 


Feb. I. 


looi Twenly-tliird 


Turner, Wm. F. 





6o3 K. Gr)%o 


Tha.yer, John S. 

N. Y 


Oct. as, 


14? W. Twcnty.fifth 


TuWji, Geo. W, 





1641 Central 


Udell, Joaeph C 




St. George Hotel 


Vignolo, Ambroiio 



Sept. t6, 


535 S. Main 


Vetiable. Joseph W. 







Vogt. Henry 



Jan. 4. 


Caste lar 


Viwter, E. J. 



April ta. 


Ocean Park 


Vaorter, W. S, 



July 10. 


Sani* Monica 


WorkniM, Wm. H. 


City Treasurer 


J7i Boyle aTenoe 


Worlcmaa, E. H. 


RcaI Estate 


lao Boyle avenue 


Wi»e> Kenneth D. 





il$i S. Grand avenue 


Weyie, Rudolph G- 



Jan. *9, 


Thompson street 


Weyse, M". A. W. 

B. Cal. 


July i6. 


Bas Wcstlakc avenue 


Wright. Ciurle* U. 













AW. Ill 




aimv, !}■ CO. 



\^'bi^p. Cbftrles H. 


S. P. Co. 



J 137 Inffnhtm 


Weid, Wit A. 




741 S> Main 


WilMD, C N. 



JVL 9, 




Wtrd, Jarne* F. 

N. Y. 




iiji S- Grand 

WDrbrnaR, Alfred 



Not. >8. 


aia Boyk avenue 

Woodhead, Ch»«. B. 



P^ 11. 


Sja Buetia Vina 


Warlenberg, Louii 


Com, Trav. 



1057 S. Grand avenue 


Whiilcf. Is*»C 





SJS San Pedro street 


Wcrm, Ausu«t W. 




g](} W. Eleventh 


Whght, Edwird T. 





326 S. Sprmg 


Woh]f*rth, August 





1604 Flr:iunt avenue 


WTiit*. J. P. 


Well borer 



Q89 E. Fifty fifth 


Wrait, Umtj TtiompMa 







Wyitt. J, Blftckbtirn 






Wolf, George W. 



Oct. s. 


4J31 VertDOMt avenue 


WoHikUU JobA 



Dec. la. 


1419 S. Graftd avenue 

• 854 

Yaritell, JeMC 





1 80S W. First 


Youngf JohQ D. 





jfifl? FiK«eroft 


Yaj-iuH. Mr«. S. C. 


Route vifa 



i«oB W. Fir»f 


Ydbok. Robert A. 




Loi Anklet 


(ANNUAL PUBLICATIONS OF 1 90J- 1904- 190 j) 






Contents of Vol. VI 

Officers of the Historical Society, 1903-1904 

Portrait of Captain Benjamin Daviess Moore 

A Flag Staff and Flag for Fort Moore. . .Evening Express. 

Flag Raising on Site of Fort Moore, Daily Times. 

Fort Moore J. M, Guinn , 

Captain Benjamin Daviess Moore M. J. Moore 

History of Santa Catalina Island , .Mra, M. Burton Willianison . 

Illustration: Indian Soapstone Quarry. ,,..... 

Illustration : A valon , 

American Governors of California H. D. Burrows. 

Renunciation of Chona , Laura Everteen King. 

Two Decades of Local History. . J. M. Guinn, 

Yuma Indian Depredations and the Glanton War, J. M* Guinn . 
Yuma Depredutions^Massacre of Dr. Lincoln and His Men. 

Deposition of William (Wr 

Deposition of Jeremiah Hill 

Officers of the Pioneers of Los Angeles County, 1903-1904. . . 

Constitution and By-Laws . . 

Reports of Secretary and TreELSurer 

In the Days of '49 J, M, Guinn. 

An Exciting Episode of the Early '60'e H, D. Barrows, 

Los Angeles Pioneers of 1836. . . . . . .Steplieii C. Foster. 

The Myth of Gold Lake J. M. Guinn. 

Biographical Sketches of Deceased Pioneers 

George Huntington Peck .,,...... . .Autobiography. 

Edmund C. Glidden ...,....._ .J. M. Guinn. 

Samuel Meyer Committee Report . 

Carl Felix Heinzman .Committee Report. 

Jean Sentoiis , H, D, Barrows . 

Micajah D. Johnson Loa Angeles Times 

Ivar A. Weid. * , Committee Report 

Julius Brousseau L. A. Evening Express 

Morits Morris H. D. Barrows 

In Memoriam 

Roll of Members ... , 

Officers of Historical Society, 1904-1905 

Portrait of Prof. Marcus Baker 

In Memory of Marcus Baker Dr. Robt. E. C, Steams 

Down in Panama J- M. Guinii 

Sequoyah Dr. J. D. Moody 

A ITolaUe KailHte H. D. B^mm 

. lAon ErertBCB Kiog 
of the I'iocwers of Loo Angela C4xxxKty, 19M-1905 

tC^M tittrtioo and Bj-Lawv 

of the ScrretATT' and Treasurer 

Report of th« FinaiKe ConuniCMe . 

loi Ang^;le»— The Otd and Tbe Ke« U T. Fisber 

Borne ilwtonc Fads acid Fakts J. )f - Gutnn 

Borne of M v Indian Expenenee« . i. W. Gillette 

Portrait of Wm. H. Workman 

FtooMn CroMing the Plains Ohistration 

Baoqnet Ciiveo to the I^oneeiv by Wm. H. WoHcman 

Rain and Itajn-makem . . J. M. Guinn 

Biographicat Sketches of Deceased Pionaers 

Mathew Teed Cdm|»ied 

Nathaniel (*obuni Carter Committee Report 

Oniri J, llultitf Committee Report 

Geor«« IvJwin Gard Committee Report 

Joimthun l>i<rkcy Dunlap. , Committee Report 

K C<*rncli II R, .Shaffer. - .. Committee Report 

lOH U. Miitt ....... ... LoB Angeles Times 

Kil juri Me«ser ,...». Committee Report 

PuMf'fLl Ballade. < ^ . * Committee Report 

John (Yimrnina. ..... Committee Report 

In Mcmoriam . . 

Roll of Memljers. , , , 

Officcnt of the Historical Society 1905-1906 

Lob Angeles Fifty Years Ago H. D. Barrows. 

How New Zealand Got Its Honey Bees,. Mary M. Bowman. 
Pioneer Courts and Lawyers of Los Angeles, W. R. Bacon, 

How (-Vlifornia Escaped State Division J. M. Guinn. 

Two Pioneer Phyaicians of Los Angeles. . . H. D, Barrows. 

J. JvancHster Brent H, D. Barrows . 

Extrartft Kroui the Los Angeles Archives H. J- I^lande. 

The Old Highways of Los Angeles. J. M. Guinn. 


Los Angeles County 


Gbo, Bice & Sohb 



I 'I 







Officers of the Historical Society, 1903-1904 4 

Portrait of Caplain Benjamin Daviess Moore 4 

A Flag Staff and Flag for Fort Moore, .L. A, Evening Express. , 5 
Flag- Raising on Site of Fort Moore. ..,.., .h- A, Daily Times, , 6 

Fort Moore J. M. Guiim., 7 

Captain Benjamin Daviess Moore , ,M, J, Moore. . lO 

Historj' of Santa Catalina Island. .Mrs. M. Burton Williamson, * 14 

Illustration — Indian Soapstone Quarry 20 

Ilustration — Avalon . . , , ^8 

American Governors of California H. D. Barrows. . 32 

Henunciation of Chona , . . . . .Laura Evertsen King. . 38 

Two Decades of Local History. , . , J, M. Guinn. . 41 

Letter of CoL J. C. Fremont to Secretary of War 48 

Yuma Indian Depredations and the Glanton War, .J, M. Guinn, . 50 
Yuma Depredations — Massacre of Dr. Lincoln and His Men, . . , 52 

Deposition of William Carr 52 

Deposition of Jeremiah Hill 57 


OfScers of the Pioneers of Los Angeles County, 1903-1904. . - - . 63 

Constitution and By-Laws 64 

Order of Business 68 

Reports of the Secretary and Treasury. , , ^ . 69 

In the Days of '49. J. M, Guinn, . 71 

An Exciting Episode of the Early '60s. H, D. Barrows. , 78 

Los Angeles Pioneers of 1836 > Stephen C. Foster. . 80 

The Myth of Gold Lake J. M, Guinn. , 82 


George Huntington Peck Autobiography. . 87 

Edmund C, Glidden J. M. Guinn, . 89 

Samuel Meyer .Committee Report, . 90 

Car! Felix Heinzman, . * * Committee Report. . 90 

Jean Sentous. . , .H. D. Barrows. , 92 

Micajah D. Johnson, Los Angeles Times. . 92 

Ivar A. Weid. ... Committee Report. . 93 

Julius Brousseau. Los Angeles Evening Express. , 95 

Morit2 Morris H. D. Barrows . . 96 

In Memoriam ,,....,.».....,.* * 07 

Roll of Members 9^ 

Officers of the Historical Society 


WALTn FL Bacoh .., .President 

A. C Vrowan Firit Vice- President 

MUi. M. BuKTON W[LUAM30iv..,< *...,,Second Vlct-Presidcnl 

Edwin Baxtes ^ ,.»»» Treasurer 

J, M. Gumtt .SecrcUrr and Curator 


A. C Vroman, WALtES R- Bacon, 

H. D» Baeeows, J. M- Gurww, 

J. D. Moody, Edwin Baxtei, 



omcESS (elect). 

Walter R. Bacon ,,...., , , President 

Mas, M. Burton WtU-fAifsoN ■ First Vice-President 

DiL J. E. CowLES, .Second Vice President 

EiJwiN Baxt£b * ,..,.*.., « Treasurer 

J, M. GiJiNW Socretajy and Curator 


Waltxr R* Bacon, Edwin Bax 

H. D. Barrows, A, C Vi 

Da. J. E. CawLES» J. M. Guinn 

Mas. M. Bumon William?<»v 

Historical Society 


Southern California 


(Evening Express Sept. 3, 1903.) 

Fort Moore, the first Amenican fort erected in So'uthern 
California, is to have a mem^orial* the Native Sons and Daugh- 
ters of California, the Pioneer Society* the G. A. R. and the 
Historical Society having' united in the project of erecting; a 
flag pole on the site of the famous fort, on the crest of Fort 
Hill, at the head of Broadway, just over the Broadway tunnel. 

Yesterday the pole arrived in the city. It was procured 
in Siskiyou County and was brought by water to San Pedro, 
from where it was hauled by wagonj the stick being too long to 
be handled by the railway company. It is a magnificent fir tree, 
127 feet long, fourteen inches in diameter at the base, eight 
inches at the tip, and straight as an arrow. 

Recently the allied societies applied to the City Council 
for permission to erect a pole over the Broadway tfunnel, and 
this was granted with the understanding that the work should 
be done under the supervision of Julius W, Krause, the City 
Superintendent of Buildings, It is his intention to have the 
pole set in cement, thus insuring its solidity, for it is expected 
to remain for many years as a landmark in the city. The flag 
is to be provided by Stanton Post G. A. R., the Women's Re- 
lief Corps* Daughters of the American Revolution and other 
patriotic organizations. 


Several months' time was passed in th€ search for a pole 
suitable for the purpose. Thanks are expressed to the E. K, 
Wood Luiriber Company, which aided in securing a spar of 
such superior quality, there being few like it even on this 
coast. No date has been set for the flag^ raising, as the erection 
of <he pole will be a work of considerable care. It is intended 
to have the formal exercises within a month, and the occasion 
doubtless will be one that will long be remembered. 


(From Los Angeles Times December 19, 1903-) 
One hundred yards south of where the American flag was 
raised in Los Angeles over fifty-six years ago, on the site of 
Fort Moore, two thotisand people assisted yesterday (Decem- 
ber :8) in the exercises attending the raising of another flag 
in commemoration of the olden days when this queen city 
was in her swaddling clothes. 

The flag raising was under the auspices of the Native Sons 
and Daughters and was preceded by a lengthy programme 
of music and speeches. Mrs. A. K. Prather, of the Native 
Daughters, was chairman, and F. A. Stephenson, of the Na- 
tive Sons, master of ceremonies. The programme, which be- 
gan at 2 o'clock, was as fallows: Music, Seventh Regiment 
Band; depositing "sacred earth" from famous American bat- 
tlefields, Mrs, Sade L, Rios; music, band; speech, "Conquest 
of Los Angeles,*' Grant Lorain e of Los Angeles High School; 
speech, "The Pioneers," by Mendle Silberberg of Commercal 
High School; music, band; address, ''Buildng of Fort Moore/' 
by J. M. Guinn, of the Historical Society and Pioneers; music, 
band; address, John G Mott, of the Native Sons; music, band; 
presentation of flag, by Rev, Will A. Knighten, of Stanton 
Post G. A. R.; unfurling the flag, Mrs. A. S, C Forbes, chair- 
man of Flag Committee, and Mrs. A. K, Prather, chairman 
of Flag Pole Committee; music, "Star Spangled Banner," by 
the band; national salute by detail of Co, F, Seventh Regiment, 
N. G. C 

The exercises were held on a platform surrounding the base 
of the big flag pole, planted as everyone knows on the hill 
crowning the southern or city end of the Broadway tunnel 
The big flag was presented by the Women's Relief Corps, 
Stanton Post, G. A. R., Daughters of American Revolution and 
navaJ organizations, and was unfurled from a pole 115 feet in 


height above the ground and buried fifteen feet in the ground. 

A feature of the occasion was the presence on the platform 
of a son of Capt. Moore (M. J. Moore of Carpinteria), 
after whom the fort was named, and a daughter of Gen. Fre- 
mont, the pathfinder. 

Another noteworthy circumstance was the presence of a 
spectator — Willam Beddome — one of the soldiers who helped 
build Fort Moore, who lived in it with 400 other soldiers for 
five months, and who witnessed that other flag raising July 
4, 1847. He is a hale, hearty veteran, 74 years old, and has 
many interesting stories to teH of those old days when the pop- 
ulation of Los Angeles was about fifteen hundred. He has 
lived in this vicinity for twenty years and now conducts a 
ranch at Garvanza, He is the only kno^\'n person alive here 
today who helped huild Fort Moore. 




Los Angeles was surrendered to Conunodore Stockton and 
General Kearny, January 10, 1847. General Flores' army, 
which had been defeated by the American troops in the battle 
of Paso de Bartolo, January 8th, and in the battle of La Mesa, 
January 9th, were still in the neig^hborhood of the city. Com- 
modore Stockton decided to erect fortifications not only to 
resist an attack should one be made by Flores, but also in the 
event of another revolution, (as Lieutenant Emory puts it) "to 
enable a small garrison to hold out till aid might come from 
San Diego, San Francisco or Monterey, places which are des- 
tined to become centers of American settlement." 

On the nth, Lieutenant Emory, of General Kearny's staff, 
was detailed "to select a site and place a fort capable of con- 
taining- one hundred men." On the 12th, the plan of the fort 
was marked out and ground broken. Work was continued 
on it up to the 17th by the marines and soldiers. 

In the meantime General Andres Pico, in command of the 
Mexican troops* surrendered to Colonel Fremont at Cahuenga, 
and the war was over. Work on the fort ceased. Commodore 
Stockton and General Kearny having quarreled, Kearny left 
for San Diego, Stockton and his sailors rejoined their ships 
at San Ped*o, and Lieutenant Emory was sent ELast via Panama 
with dispatches. Fremont's battalion, numbering about five 
himdred men, was left in command of the city. 



On the 2oth of April, 1847, reports supposed to be reliable 
reached Los Angeles stating that the Mexican Congress had 
appropriated $600,000 for the conquest of California, and that 
a force of 1500 men under oomtnand of General Busiamente 
was advancing by way of Lower California against Los An- 
geles, On the 23rd day of April, work was begun on a second 
fort planned by Lieutenant J. W. Davidson of the First Reg- 
iment U. S, Dragoons. Its location was identical with Lieu- 
tenant Emory's fort, but it was twice the size of that earth- 
work. The work on it was done by the Mormon Battalion. 
This battalion was recruited from the Mormons in the spring 
of 1846, who were encamped at Council Bluffs, la,, prepara- 
tory to their migration to Salt Lake. The battalion came to 
California under the command of Colonel Cooke, arriving at 
Los Angeles March 16^ 1847, Its route was by way of Santa 
Fe, Tucson, Yuma and Warner's Ranch to San Luis Rey, and 
from there to Los Angeles. The battalion numbered 500 men 
at starting, but a number gave out on the march and were 
sent back. 

On the 4th of July, 1847, the fort having been completed, 
the Stars and Stripes were raised to the top of the flag pole, 
which was 150 feet high. The timber for the flag staff had 
been brought down from the San Bernardino mountains and 
consisted of two pine tree tnmks. one about eighty and the 
other seventy feet long. These were spliced together and 
fashioned into a beautiful pole by the carpenters of the bat- 
talion. It was raisd in the rear of the fort about where is 
now the southeast corner of North Broadway and Fort Moore 

Col. J. D. Stevenson of the Seventh Regiment, New York 
Volunteers, who had succeeded Colonel Cooke in the command 
of the Southern Military District, issued an official order for 
the celebration of the 4th of July and the dedication of the fort. 

"At sunrise a Federal salute will be fired from the field 
work on the hill which commands this town, and for the first 
time from this point the American standard will be displayed," 

The troopSj numbering about 700, were formed in a hollow 
square at the fort and the Declaration of Independence was 
read in Eng-lish by Capt. Stuart Taylor and in Spanish by 
Stephen C. Foster. To Lieutenant Davidson, who had planned 
the fort and superintended the work on it, was g-iven the honor 
of raising the flag to the top of the flag pole. 


Colonel Stephenson in dedicating- the field work paid this 
high tribute to Capt. Benjamin D. Moore, after whom the 
fort was named : 

"It is the custom of our country to confer on its fortifica- 
tions the name of some distinguished individual who has ren- 
dered important services to his country, either in the councils 
of the nation or on the battlefield. The Commandant has 
l|herefore determined, unless the Department of war shall 
otherwise directt to confer upon the field work erected at the 
post of Los Angeles the name of one who was regarded by all 
who had the pl^sure of his acquaintance as a perfect specimen 
of an American ofhcer, and whose character for every virtue 
and accomplishment that adorns a gentleman was only equaled 
by the reputation he had acquired in the field for his gallantry 
as an officer and soldier, and his life was sacrificed in the con- 
quest of this territory at the battle of San Pasqual. The Com- 
mander directs that from and after the 4th inst. it shall bear 
the name of Moore." 

The fort was simply an earthwork with six embrasures 
for cannon. It was not inclosed in the rear Two hundred 
men could have held it against a thousand if the attack had 
come from the front, but it could have been captured from the 
rear by a small force. It stood intact for about thirty years. 
It was demolished when the streets that pass through its site 
were graded and the lots it crossed were built upon. No trace 
of it now remains. 



{Bod of Capt, B. D. Moore.) 

My father was bom at Paris, Kentucky, September lo, 
1810. I know little of his boyhood. A few years after his 
father's death, about 1820, his mother removed to Shelbyville, 
Ilhnois* where lived her two sons by a former husband, Captain 
Matthew Duncan and the Jpseph Duncan who was afterward 
Governor of the State, He received the best education to be 
had in those days, and at 18 was appointed midshipman in the 
navy and assigned to duty on board the U. S. ship Erie, David 
Connor commanden The Erie was soon afterAvard ordered on 
a long cruise, touching at Mediterranean ports, spending some 
time in the West Indies and in the Caribbean Sea. He was at 
home on leave in 1832, when the news came of the rising and 
threatened invasion of Black Hawk. Captain Duncan's com- 
pany, of which my father was made First Lieutenant by ex- 
change from the navy, was among the first to respond to the 
call of the Governor, and was soon floundering through the 
mud and swollen streams of the all-but-submerged country. 
The campaign was a short one, and the old chief was worsted 
at the battle of Bad Axe. 

In 1S33, "The U. S. Regiment of Dragoons" — of which 
Henry Dodge was Colonel, S. W. Kearny, Lieutenant Colonel, 
and R. B. Mason, Major— was organized by Congress^ with 
Jefferson Davis as Adjutant, my father being First Lieuten- 
ant of Co. C. The regiment became the First Dragoons in 
'36, when the Second Regiment was raised. In '33 the five 
companies were sent to Fort Gibson, and in '34 on the "Paw- 
nee Expedition/' in which one-fourth of the command died of 
fever. From '36 to '45 there were numerous Indian expedi- 
tions, without serious losses, but much severe service, being 
interchanges between Forts Leavenworth, Gibson. Wayne and 
Des Moines. In 1839 my father was married to Martha, a 
daughter of Judge Matthew Hughes of the then recently nego- 
tiated Platte Purchase. My mother died in '43 from exposure 
the previous winter on the march from Fort Gibson to Leaven- 
worth, In May, 1845, General Kearny, with Companies A, 



C, Fp G and K, left Leavenworth on an expedition to the 
South Pass, in the Rocky Mountains. They reached Laramie 
Jiune 14th and South Pass July 6th, returning by Laramie 
and Bent's Fort to Fort Leavenworth A^ugust 24tb, having 
made a march of 2000 miJes in 97 days. The officers and men 
were comphmented on the length of the march, rapidity of 
the movements and small losses, with '*pride and pleasure" 
June 30, 1846, Colonel Kearny was promoted Brigadier Gen- 
eral and placed in command of the "Army of the West." In- 
cluding five companies of Dragoons, there were about 1800 
men under his immediate command. After conquering New 
Mexico, he started from Santa Fe. September 26th, with the 
five companies of Dragoons for Caifornia* I insert here some 
extracts from a letter dated Santa Fe, N. M., September i6th, 
addressed to Judge Hughes — the last that was received : 

"My Dear Father: — I am sorry I did not know the Ex- 
press left so soon, that I might have written you a longer let- 
ter^ but it leaves for the United Slates in one hour^ so you 
must excuse a short one. * ♦ * xhe people so far seem 
to be well pleased with their new government; how long it 
will continue, time will show. All the Dragoons leave here 
the 25th with General Kearny for California. It not being 
practicable for horses, the General has directed the Quarter- 
master to purchase mules to mount the whole command. 
♦ * * \Ve have a march before us of 1300 or 1400 miles, 
and almost a desert from the beginning to the end of the 
journey. From all accounts it is a very severe trip on ac- 
count of the scarcity of water, grass and game. Some say we 
will never get through, but I know better. The trip has been 
performed (though not by so large a party) and we can go 
where Mexicans or Indians can, and can stand as much fa- 
tigue, cold, hunger and thirst as they can* * * * Gen- 
eral Kearny told me yesterday that he was going to the United 
States next summer. * * * 1 tdc^ \^\^ that if it was prob- 
able that my company was to be stationed there (in California) 
that I would not stay; I would resign. I told hire I would 
not be separated from my children longer than the war con- 
tinued; that they were a greater consideration to me than a 
commission of any grade in the army could be. * * * 


B. D. MOORE/' 



Near Socorro, New Mexico* October 6th, General Kear- 
ny's command met Kit Carson bearing an express from Com- 
modore S'ocktoii to Washington, to the effect that "Califor- 
nia had surrendered without a blow and that the American 
flag" floated in every port/* Tliis news caused General Kear- 
ny to reduce radically the personnel of his force. Major Sum- 
ner with 250 Dragoons was ordered to retrace his steps, and 
General Kearny, taking Carson as his guide, with one hun- 
dred Dragoons officered by Captain Moore, Captain Johnston 
and Lieutenants Hammond and Davidson^ proceeded October 
15th to the head waters of the Mimbres, a tributary of the Gila, 
which they soon reached and followed to its junction with the 
Colorado, With the loss of half their mules, they reached War- 
ner's ranch December 3rd, In answer to a note informing Stock- 
ton of his comingj Captain Gillespie with 35 men joined Gen- 
eral Ktamy on the 5th with a note from Commodore Stockton 
advising him of the proximity of Pico's Cahfornians and sug- 
gesting that he "attack and defeat them," 

Judge Pearce of Sonoma County, who \vzs a member of 
Company C, but had been detached as body guard to Gen- 
eral Kearny, in his biography (see "History of Sonoma Coun- 
ty), relates the following facts — not, that I am aware, else- 
where accessible: 

"After a fatiguing day's journey in the rain, we camped 
in the mountains about eight or ten miles from the enemy's 
forces under Pico. After the camp fires were lighted, Gen- 
era! Kearny sent Mr, Pearce with his compliments to Cap- 
tains Moore and Johnston and Lieutenant Hammond, and 
asked them to a conference on the propriety of reconnoitering 
the enemy's position that night and attacking him in the 
morning. Captain Moore opposed, mainly on the ground 
'that discovery of our presence would necessarily follow a re- 
connoisance, and discovery would result in failure to obtain 
an advantage, as the enemy were well mounted and were, per- 
haps, the most expert horsemen in the world, and we were for 
the most part on poor, half-starved and jaded mules; that it 
would be kr better for the whole of us to move and make the 
attack at once; that by this course we should more than likely 
get all the horses of the enemy^. and to dismount them was to 
whip them,* The objections of Captain Moore were overruled 
and Lieutenant Hammond. Sergeant Williams and teji men 
were forthwith detailed and did reconnoitre the enemy's posi- 




Mr. Pearce was present at the conference above mentioned 
and was present and heard the report of Lieutenant Hamanond 
on his return from the reconnoissance- They had seen Pico's 
men asleep in some Indian huts, and while talking to an In- 
dian outside of one of the huts the detachment was hailed by 
a sentinel. As soon as this report was made '^boots and sad- 
dles" was sounded and the little army advanced. 

In a letter from Judge Pearce, written June 18, 1884, to 
me, he says: **1 was near your father during the engagement 
and saw him remount his horse after his first wound. He was 
mounted on a fresh horse^ was in the very front, and seemed 
to me to be trying his utmost to do all the fighting himself." 

Two years ago in a conversation with Philip Crosthwaite^ 
who was a volunteer in Captain Gillespie's detachmient from 
San Diego, and who it will be remembered captured the only 
prisoner taken at the battle of San Pasqual, he informed me 
of some occurrences, a part of which I had heard from other 
sources, but which I have not seen in any printed account. 
Crosthwaite knew personally many of Pico's men, and was 
an eye witness to a part of the event here related : 

Andres Pico was not lacking in personal courage, but for 
some reason *his heart was not in the fi^ht' at San Pasqual. 
While his men and the Dragoons under Captain Moore were 
still engaged, he started away from the field. Captain Moore 
saw and followed Pico and in a few hundred yards came up 
with him. Two Califomians, Celis and Osuna, drew out of 
the fight and went in pursuit of them, stopping a few yards 
away, as they said, *to see which would win — lance or sabre/ 
'After a few passes Captain Moore's sword was broken off a 
few inches from the guard. He attempted to draw his pistol 
from the holster and was lanced by Osuna. Lieutenant Ham- 
mondj coming up at this time, in an eflFort to save Captain 
Moore was mortally wounded. They were brothers-in-law, 
and warmly attached to each other. It seems not too much 
to say, in the words of St. John. "Greater love hath no man 
than this, that he lay down his life for his friend." Thty lie 
side by side at Point Loma. 



(Read Dec. 7, 1903.) 

Santa Catalina is one of an interesting^ group of islands ly- 
ing south of Point Concepcion, along the coast of Southern 
California. These are often divided into two groups, the 
jnore northern ones, known as the Qiannel Islands, being com- 
posed of San 'Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz and Anacapa, 
along the coast of Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties. Santa 
Catalina, Santa Barbara, San Nicolas and San Clemente are the 
group of Santa Barbara Islands that lie along the coast of 
Los Angeles and San Diego Counties. 

Although belonging to Los Angeles County, some twenty 
mtil^ or more must be sailed over before Santa Catalina is 

The length of Santa Catalina is variously estimated at froni 
18 to 22 miles. The greatest width is estimated at eight miles, 
the narrowest being at the isthmus, which is only one-half mile 

The island is mountainous and covered with jutting peaks 
that rise on every side. There are no beaches excepting in the 
crescent-shaped cafions, for bold rocks stand out in the water, in 
some places like immense granite walls, against which the ocean 
dashes in its fury. Even at the isthmus the curving beaches 
are limited to small areas. 

Prof* Lawson,* the geologist, says the "larger part" of the 
island is "composed of volcanic rocks, not essentially different 
in their general field character from those of San Clemente," 
The greatest elevations on the island are known as Orizaba and 
Black Jack, which rise near the center of the island to a height 
of over 2000 feet, 

*'There are half a dozen or more springs and creeks which 
do not dry up during the sunrmier, and a few wells supply the 
other points. All the water is decidedly alkaline."* 

* "The Past Pliocene Diastrophism of the Coast of Southern 
California," by Andrew C. Lawson, University of Cal "Bull. 
Dept, GeoL, Vol. i, No. 4.) 



A casual visitor on Santa Catalina Island in the summer 
time will tetl you that, aside from trees and plants under culti- 
vatioHj the island is devoid of vegetation, save a few scrubby 
trees, the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) running in riotous 
growth over the hills, and the long yellow grass that covers 
the otherwise bare earth, 

But Ehe botanist tells another taJe of rare trees and shrubs 
not reported elsewhere. And besides these he finds plants that 
lie hidden in the canons, needing the winter rains to encour- 
age their unfolding. Many years ago a friend of mine, who 
was something of a botanist, was enthusiastic over the wealth 
of wild flowers that followed in the train of the winter showers 
and grew in beauty on the hills and in the vale of Avalon. Our 
so-cailed Mariposa Lily, which is a tuhp, was first reported 
from the island, and bears the name of '^Calochortus Catalinse/' 
Wats, or *'Catalina Mariposa TuHp." This is only one of a 
number of plants new to science found on this island. 

To one who loves to indulge in the play of fancy amid prim- 
itive surroundings, there is no spot more ideal than one of the 
lonely foothills overlooking the ocean in this island. Encom- 
passed by a wild and tangled growth that climbs the perpen- 
dicular mountains* with dry grass under one's feet, the blue 
Pacific splashing and dashing against the upright rocks below, 
one can sit and forget he is a part of the rushing procession of 
the world. The petty cares of yesterday with the multitude 
have gone; they have fallen off like a mantle that is too heavy 
when the sun has risen. Surrounded by the Eternal, your sour 
ts at peace. 

This is the Isle of Summer as it has arisen from the hand 
of nature, but man — restless^ struggling man — has invaded the 
island and a new environment is replacing the primitive one. 
The calculating engineer, the landscape gardener and architect. 
with all their concomitant following, are dotting the canons, 
and the slippery trail of the wild goat gives place to the upland 
stage drawn by many horses. The fame of the nervy jew fish 
and albacore has given the island an international reputation, 
and the unrest of the summer visitor is fast converting the land 
of sweet idleness into a fashionable watering place. 

Many years ago when I visited the little crescent-shaped 
vale of Avalon, it was only a diminutive, quiet tent town, 
nestled between towering peaks. In other cafions a Ittle soli- 

* "The Geology of Santa Catalina Island,*' by William Tan- 
gier Smith. (Proc* Cah Acad. Sciences.) 



tary shack of a home, and at the isthmus the deserted barracks 
of the U* S* government, used during the Civil war, was stand- 
ing in sohtary abandonment. 

On my last visit in 1902 the automobile rushed along the 
shaded avenues of transplanted trees to the golf grounds, and 
up the steep hills the wireless telegraph had caught a sound- 
proof resting place, A teeming crowd of restless humanity 
surged up and down the beach in front of Avalon, with her 
numerous hotels and stores, and her cottages dotted the hill 
sides, only reached by steep flights of steps. 

Instead of a two-masted yacht landing her dozen passen- 
gers, two, and oftener three, steamships daily filled from the 
upper to the lower deck with a crowd of passengers^ puffed up 
to the pier with the haste of a time limit. 

Even the shore has felt the change. Dredging, so as to 
enable boats of deeper caliber to land, has changed this gently 
receding beach to one of more abrupt declension. The dead 
shells no longer are stranded upon the beach; they He amid the 
sands, rarely uncovered by the tide. The white valves of the 
Cliione and the rare pink-ljned ones of the Hemicardium and 
the pure white pebbles no longer strew the beach. 

Bath houses, rustic seats and fishing stands, hung with fish 
whose single weight runs up into the hundreds of pounds, en- 
circle the water front almost to Sugar Loaf rock. 

Where, years ago, tiny golden fish played in and out under 
the skiff as we rowed over the water, on my last visit to Ava- 
lon an expert diver went down into the water to seek for miss- 
ing diamonds dropped overboard by a hotel visitor as she 
returned on a vessel from a pleasure trip to the isthmus. 

But, while diamonds and dollars pervade the Avalon of 
other days, and have sought a landing place at the isthmus — 
which, no doubt, will be joined by the rushing trolley car — yet 
the hills, with their rugged sides, cannot be irrigated in a day, 
and so will long jut out alluring peaks to tempt the lover of 
Nature to seek the solitude of uncultivated slopes. 

We are glad the scientists' iron-clad rule of precedence in 
nomenclature does not obtain in the naming of the island, else 
the more euphonius name of Santa Catalina would give place to 
that of 'Victoria/' named by Cabrillo, the earlier navigator. 
For Vizcaino (variously spelled Viscaino, Vircaino and Vis 
cayno) sighted this pile of mountains in the sea at a later date 
than Cabrillo, but he remembered it was Saint Catherine's day 
and he gave her the island as a namesake. But Victoria would 



have been far more preferable than "Pimugna" (also printed 
Pineug^a), the Indian name [or this island. 

Viscaino journeyed from San Die^o when he sighted the 
tslandj and Hittell says: 

"Here he found many Indians — ^men, women and children — 
all clothed in seal skins, and was received by them with extreme 
kindness. They were a fine-looking race, had large dwellings 
and numerous rancherias; made admirable canoes, some oi 
which would carry twenty persons; and w^ere expert seal hunt- 
ers and fishermen. There were many things of interest there, 
but the most extraordinary were a temple and idol, the most 
remarkable of which any account remains among the Califor- 
nians* The temple consisted of a large circular place orna- 
mented with variously colored feathers of different kinds. With- 
in the circle was the idol, a figure supposed to represent the 
devil*, painted in the manner in which the Indians of New 
Spain were accustomed to depict their demon, Eind having at 
his sides representatives of the sun and moon. To this idol 
it was said the Indians sacrificed large numbers of birds, and 
that it was with their feathers that the pJace was adorned. When 
the Spanish soldiers, who were conducted thither by an In- 
dian, arrived at the spot, they found within the circle two ex- 
traordinary crowstt much larger than common, whicli, upon 
their approach, flew away and perched upon the neighboring 
rocks. Struck by their size, the soldiers shot and killed them 
both; whereupon their Indian guide began to utter the most 
pathetic lamentations. *I believe/ says Father Torquemanda, 
'that the devil was in those crows and spoke through them, for 
they were regarded with great respect and veneration;' and in 
further illustration of this he relates that on another occasion, 
when several Indian women were washing fish upon the beach, 
the crow's approached and snatched the food from their hands; 
and that the women stood in such awe that they dared not drive 
them away, and were horrified when the Spaniards threw stones 
at them.''** 

To quote further, Mr. Hittell says: *'Amon^ the natural 
productions of Santa Cataliua were large quantities of edible 
roots, called '*gicamas/' and in these, according to Viscaino, the 
Indians carried on a sort of trade with their neighbors of the 
mainland"t _^ 

* See Hugo Reid's account in this paper. 

t See also Bancroft's Native Races, Vol. III. 

**Hitten*s History of California, Vol. I. 

t Torquemanda L. V,., Chap. LII, quoted in HitteH's Hist, 
California, Vol. I. 



He also mentions as another significant fact that the wo- 
men of the island had pleasant conntenanccs, fine eyes, and 
were modest and decorous in their behavior*, and that the 
children were white and ruddy and all very affable and agree- 
able. Frotnr these statements, as well as from those made by 
Cabrillo in reference to the Indians of the opposite coast, it 
is evident that the natives of these regionst. on account of a 
difference either in blood or in the circumstances under which 
they lived, were far in advance of the other natives of Califor- 

Bancroft* mentions some of the uses that shells were put 
to; that "The beard is plucked out with a bi-valve shell which 
answers the purpose of pinchers/* and also that "The more in- 
dustrious and wealthy embroider their garments profusely with 
small shells/'* 

In Farnham's quaint volume on the "Early Days of Cah- 
fornia/* he says of Viscaino's voyage to the island, which he 
calls Santa Catarina: "The inhabitants of Santa Catarina make 
the most noisy and earnest invitations for them to land. Tlic 
General (Viscaino) therefore orders Admiral Gomez, Captain 
Peguero and Ensign Alaxcon, with twenty*four soldiers, to 
land on the island and learn what the natives so earnestly de- 
sire. As soon as they reach the shore they are surrounded by 
Indian men and women» who treat them with much kindness 
and propriety, and intimate that they have seen other Span- 
iards. When asked for water, they give it to the whites in a 
sort of bottle made of rushes 

'*They explore the island. It appears to be overgrown 
with savin and a species of briar* A tent is pitched for re- 
ligious service, and Padre Tomas (de Aquino), being ill, Padres 
Antonio (de la Ascencion) and Andrez (de la Assumpcion) 
celebrate mass in presence of all the people. These Indians 
spend much of their time in taking the many varieties of fish 
which abound in the bay/* 

Besides having plenty of fish, the natives were supplied 
with quail, partridges, rabbits, hare and deen 

At that time, according to this writer, the people of the 
neighboring islands were in direct communication with the na- 
tives of this island. 

♦Torquemanda L. V., Chap, LIII, translated in Hittell*s 
Hist. Cal.. Vol I. 

t "Other islands of Santa Barbara Channel/* 

* Bancroft's Native Races, Vol. T 

* Bancroft's Native Races, Vol I. 



From the landing of Viscaino to the time of the Missionary 
Fathers, history furnishes us with little data regarding the 
people of this island, A writer in Bancroft's Native Races says: 
"When first discovered by Cabrillo, in 1542, the islands off the 
coast were inhabited by a superior people, but these they were 
induced by the padres to abandon, following which event the 
people faded away."* 

The Very Reverend Joseph J. O'Keefe, Superior of the 
Franciscans^ in a letter on this subject says : "The lapse of time, 
from the exploration of Cabrillo to the coming of the Mission- 
ary Fathers to this part of the coast, was somewhat over two 
centurieSf during which long period many and radical changes 
could have easily taken place, and must have taken place, if 
Cabrillo found, as Bancroft states, a superior people on the 
islands. The f^ct that there is no record by the Fathers of their 
having found any such people on the islands, after their arrival 
here in I768'9» goes far to prove that if such people existed at 
the time of Cabrillo's explorations in 1542, they had even be- 
fore the advent of the Fathers (1769) either left the islands and 
become mixed up with the Chumas and other tribes on the 
mainland, or were exterminated by disease or war." 

William Henry Holmes^ the well known anthropologist of 
the U. S, National Museum, is of the opinion that the natives 
cf this island did "not differ essentially, in blood or culture, from 
the people of the mainland,"* 

The question has often been asked. "Why didn't the Fath- 
ers establish a mission on Santa Catalina Island?" In his bi- 
ennial report of the missions in 1803-4 it appears that President 
Estevan Tapis did favor the founding of a mission on the isle 
which he calls "T imu." In his report he says : "Limu abounds 
with timber, water and soil Tliere are ten rancheri:.s on the 
island, the three largest of which, Cajatsa, Ashuael and Liam, 
have 124, 145 and 122 adults respectively. The men are naked^ 
live on fish, and are eager for a mission."* He also reports that 
the natives of Santa Rosa were willingc to move to Santa Cat- 
aline, or Limn, ^s they had *'no facilities for a mission." But 
in his later report of 1805-6, according to Bancroft, "the presi- 
dent confessed that as the sarampion, or measles» had carried 
off over^wo hundred natives on the two islands^ and as a recent 

* Bancroft's Native Races, Vol. I. 

* Anthropological Studies in California, by William Henry 
Holmes. (Report U. S. Nat. Mus, 1900,) 

* Bancroft's History of California, VoL IL 




investigation had shown a lack of good lands and of water, 
the expediency of founding a mission was dotibtfuL" 

Captain Wm. Shaler, of the Lelia Byrd, who landed at 
Santa Catalina in 1805, reported that he found about one hun- 
dred and fifty Indians un the island, and they were very friendly 
to hin>— "he believed himself the first explorer"t of the harbor 
where he anchored, and he named it after his former partner, 
Port Rouissillon.t He stayed at the island about six weeks, 
and afterward published a narrative of his voyages. 

In 1807 Jonathan Winship of the vessel 0*Cain "hunted] 
otter for a time at Santa Catalina Island, where he found forty 
or fifty Indian residents who had grain and vegetables to sell'** 

The reports of these two Captai^s^ one of 150 Indians in 
1805, and the other, two years later, of 50 Indians, would indi- 
cate that the measles, or some other cause^ had greatly reduce* 
the number that in 1803-4 had been reported by the president 
of the m-issions as almost 400. 

The Rev. Father O'KeeFe f^ives us the reasons why no mis- 
sion was founded upon the island. He writes :t '*! always 
understood that there were not many Indians on Santa Cata- 
lina Island at the time of the missions; also that the govern- 
ment was opposed to and would not aid in founding any mis- 
sions, except on the mainland. So this is the true reason why 
no mission was established on the island, apart from the fact 
that the Indians were but few at the time* As missions could 
not be established on the islands, lacking government consent, 
I know the Fathers invited the few Indians of the islands to 
join the missions on the coast, so they might more conveniently 
instruct them in Christian doctrine; as the Fathers were not 
many, and those appointed to the newly established missions 
could not be absent from them for many days» they could go 
but seldom to the islands^ and then with great hardship and 

There is a legend that the male natives of Santa Catalina 
were killed by the Aleuts, or Kodiak Indians, of Russian Amer- 
ica, but I have not been able to verify this statement. In Rob- 
inson's Life in California, in referring to the importance of the 

t "Captain Shaler's narrative, published in 1808, was the 
first extended account of California printed in the United 
States." — Bancroft's History of California, Vol. II. 

* Count Rouissillon, a distinguished Pole. 

* Bancroft's History of California, Vol. II. 
t In a letter. 

* Bancroft's History of California. Vol 11. 



trade in fur seals and sea otters, which had "called the atten- 
tion of the Russian Codiaks" to the islands, he says: "On one 
occasion, in a quarrel with the islanders at St- Nicholas (San 
Nicolas), they inhumanly massacred nearly the whole of the 
male inhabitants, which act naturally induced the entire pop- 
ulation of these islands (Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Nic- 
olas) to seek refuge and protection among the several mis- 
sionary establishincnts on the mainland.*' 

As Mr. Robinson was familiar with Santa Catalina^ where 
as super-cargo^s clerk his vessel often weighed anchor, if the 
islanders had met a similar fate, he certainly would have 
mentioned it. 

In the autumn of 1838, according to Bancroft,* Captain 
John Bancroft of the ship Llama landed at Santa Rosa Island 
with "twenty*five fierce Kaiganies." Later he went to Santa 
Catalina Island to hunt otter, and on November 21, after a 
quarrel with one of these northwestern Indians, he was shot in 
back and mortally wounded. His wife, who was on board the 
vessel, threw herself upon his body and was also wounded. Mrs. 
Bancroft died about two months afterward, "from the effects 
of her wounds." 

Father Geronimo Boscano* interviewed some of the natives 
to ascertain their original conceptions, and his MSS,, trans- 
lated after his death, give us some insight into the religious be- 
liefs of the Indians of Alta Cahfornia. Boscano writes: *'It 
is difficult, I confess, if unacquainted with their language, to 
penetrate their secrets." To their god, Chinigchioick, they 
attribute this command: '"And to those who have kept my 
commandments I shall give all they ask of me; but those who 
obey not my teachings* nor believe them* I shall punish severely. 
I will send unto them bears to bite, and serpents to sting them; 
they shall be without food and have diseases that they may die/* 
They evidently feared punishment only in this world, 

* Chinigchinick: A Historical Account of the Indians of 
Alta California, by the Rev. Father Friar Geronimo Boscano. 
Translated from the original MS. by one who was many years 
a resident of Alta California (1844). This translation by Al- 
fred Robinson was bound with his Life in California by an 
American (Alfred Robinson). 

Hugo Reidt or Prefecto Hugo Reid, a Scotchman, who 
cam e to California in 1834 or *3S and settled neaj^ the San 

* See Hist, of Cal. by Hubert Howe Bancroft, Vol. IV, 
pages 90-119* 


Gabriel Mission, has given \is a series of articles on the Indians 
of Los Angeles County. These letters were written for the 
Los Angeles Star in 1852.* Hugo Reid had mamed an In- 
dian woman and lived much among the natives. He is re- 
puted to have been a man of education. Although referring 
mostly to the Indians of ihe mainland, reference is occasionally 
made to those upon the islands. Keid makes no mention of 
the islanders as being unlike those of the rest of Los Angeles 
County. Had they been so at the time he knew them* he 
certainly would have noted their differences. 

Mrs, Laura Evertsen King, who knew the Indian wife of 
Hugo Reid, speaks of her as a refined woman of affectionate 
disposition. She was very proud of her Scotch husband. They 
had two children, from whom presents were often received from 
Scotland. Of Mr. Reid, she says he bad been a great traveler, 
had a large library, for that time. Among his eflfects was a 
letter of Byron's written to his publisher. While living in San 
Gabriel. Reid often was gone three months at a time. Mrs. 
King speaks of him as being a reticent man. Both his son and 
his daughter died before reaching 20 years of age. The Indian 
wife died of smallpox in 1864. 

In Davis' Sixty Years m California," he also says of Reid's 
wife: '*We were surprised and delighted with the excellence 
and neatness of the housekeeping of the Indian wife, which 
could not have been excelled. The beds which were furnished 
us to sleep on were exquisitely neat, with coverlids of satin, 
the sheets and f illow cases trimmed w^th lace and highly or- 

Reid says: "Fish, seals, whales, sea otter and shell fish 
formed the principal subsistence of the immediate coast range of 
lodges and islands," 

Acorns were dried, pounded and careftilly prepared and 
cooked to form a mush. "Salt w^as used sparingly, as they con- 
sidered it having a tendency to turn the hair grey/' All of 
their food was eaten cold, or nearly so. He says that next to 
the acom» the favorite "food was the kernel of a species of 
plum which grows in the mountains and islands, and called 
by them islay." "Some call it the 'mountain cherry/ although 
it partakes little of either the plum or cherry." 

These mountain cherries (Prunus illidfoUa Walp,) still grow 
on Santa Catalina, and Cherry Valley received its name from 
the presence of these shrubs, or small trees, in the cove. Their 

♦ Hugo Reid died in December, 1852, 




pots to cook in were made of soapstone of about an inch in 
thickness and procured from the Indians of Santa Catalina; 
the cover used was of the same material. 

The natives of Santa Catalina and those of the coast line 
appear to have exchang:ed their local productions and to have 
had much in common. Pottery from the now famous soap- 
stone quarries (see cut of Indian quarry) of the island figured in 
the '^barter and trade" carried on with the Indians of the inter- 
ior, who brought their "deer skins and seeds" to trade with the 
aborigines of the coast. 

Hug"o Reid gives some very interesting accounts of mar- 
riage and burial ceremonies, use of medicines, sports^ games 
and legends. The chief instructed some of the male children 
orally with long stories, which they repeated word for word 
until they became such adepts at recitation that no oration was 
too long for them to recite it. 

He says of one legend that he has reproduced : "Whenever 
this legend was to be told, the hearers first bathed themselves, 
then came to listen/' 

As much of the data gi^^en us by this writer was related to 
him by the old Indians or was noted by the writer himself, I 
am tempted to quote still further: ''Before the Indians* be- 
longing to the greater part of this county were known to the 
whites, they comprised, as it were, one great family, under 
distinct chiefs. They spoke nearly the same language, with 
the exception of a few words, and were more to be distinguished 
by a local intonation of the voice than by anything else. 

"Being related by blood and marriage, war was never car- 
ried on between them. When war w^as consequently waged 
against neighboring tribes of no affinity^ it was a common 

Like Giristian nations, they had their family feuds, often 
passing down from one generation to another, yet their vari- 

* In judging Los Angeles County Indians during the period 
of their degeneration we must bear in mind the influences sur- 
rounding them — aside from the Fathers. Alex. Forbes, Esq., 
writing in 1835, says: '^For whatever soldiers are sent to Cal- 
ifornia are the refuse of the Mexican army» and most frequently 
are deserters, mutineers or men guilty of military crimes." Add 
to this influence, whisky for the Indians, and the absence of 
marriage vows toward the Indian women, and degeneration 
is the natural result. 



ances never reached the point of bloodshed, in which they 
could not be likened to Christian nations. 

*'Their huts were made of sticks covered in around with fiag 
mats, worked or plaited, and each village generally contained 
from 500 to 1500 huts." 

Of language he says: "They have many phrases to which 
we have no equivalent." He said that after the coming" in of 
the Spaniards, or, as he puts it, *'the conquest/' their language 
degenerated until **the present generation barely comprehends 
a part of what one of the old 'standards' says." "They believed 
in one God, the maker and creator of all." The term "Giver 
of Life" was used for ordinary occasions. "The name of God" 
was never taken in vain» Iheir nearest approach to an oath 
being a term equivalent to "Bless me!" They had "never 
heard of devil or hell until the coming of the Spaniards." They 
*'had no bad spirits connected unth their creed." They "be- 
lieved in no resurrection whatever," but beheved in the trans- 
migration of souls into the botlies of animals. 

The "chiefs had one, two or three wives, as their inclina- 
tion dictated. The subjects only one." *'The last case of big- 
amy, or rather polygamy* was one of the chiefs from Santa 
Catherina (Catalina), who was ordered by the priest to San 
Gabriel and their baptized. He had three wives, the first one 
of whom was allowed him, and the others discarded.'* Reid 
said this Indian was still living at San Fernando and called 
"Canoa or Canoe." 

Children were taught to be respectful to their elders, "for 
if an adult asked a boy or girl for a drink of water, they 
were not allowed to put it to their lips unti! the other had satis- 
fied his thirst. If two were in a conversation, a child was not 
permitted to pass between them, but made to go around them 
on either side. No male from childhood upward was allowed 
to call his sister *liar' even in jest, the word for liar being 
'yayare.* " 

That such refined regard for the amenities of life existed 
among the aborigines of this coast appears incredible. 

Shells have always been prized by af>origines for adornment, 
and Santa Catalina, as well as the other isles of Southern Cal- 
ifornia, has always been rich in beautiful irridescent abalones 
(Haliotts splendens, H. Cracherodii) as well as other forms. 

*Note — If Reid is right the Spanish writers were mistaken 
in supposing the idol was a demon or devil. 



"Althoug^h money in ihe strict sense of the word did not 
exist among them, they had an equivalent consisting of pieces 
of thick rounded shells, less than a five-cent piece. These had 
a hole in the center and were strung on long^ strings. Eight of 
these yards of beads (for they were also used as such) made 
about one dollar of our currency."* 

Before passing from the occupation of Santa Catalina by the 
aborigines, to its usurpation by the white man, some notice 
must be taken of history written by their own hands as they 
shaped their implements of bone and stone and carved their 
"ollas" from the serpentine quarries. These utensils are today 
the pride of the archaeologist as well as the study of the eth- 
nologist. A few years ago anthropologists were enthusiastic 
over these "finds." It was rumored that "a vast collection of 
curios" had been removed and sent to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute. Through the courtesy of Mr. W. de C. Ravenel, adminis- 
trative assistant of the U, S. National Museum, I have received 
a list of Santa Catalina relics now in that museum* A fine list 
of Indian relics now in the Peabody Museum at Cambridge 
has very kindly been furnished by Prof. F. W, Putnam, Pea- 
body Professor of American Archeology and Ethnology. 
Through the kindness of Mr. Frank Wiggins. Secretary' Los 
Angeles Chamber of Commerce^ I have been able to copy a list 
of relics found on Santa Catalina Island, and now in the Cham- 
ber of Commerce. These lists will be published by the U, S. 
CaL Acad. Science. 

The soapstone specimens were made from the soapstonc* 
quarries of Empire Landing, or Potts Valley. Mexican Joe 
says there is one big rock from which as many as 64 pots have 
been cut. (See cut of Indian quarry.) 

Charles Frederick Holderf says of these serpentine ollas: 
"There was little need for pottery with such vessels. From this 
Btone, which today is made into mantels and tiles, and lines the 
entrance to the Los Angeles Court House, the ancients formed 

* For data regarding the use of shells by Sou. Cal Island- 
ers» see *'Ethno-Concholog>*: A Study of Primitive Money/* 
by Robert K C Stearns, Rep't U. S. Nat. Mus.. 1886-87. 

* In Mr, Wm, Henry Holmes' Anthropological Studies in 
California, he mentions a series of relics collected by him when 
on the island. 

* Also known as Catalina marble, or Verde antique. 

t An Isle of Summer: Santa Catalina. By Charles Fred- 
erick Holder. 



dishes, spoons, stone plates, medicine stones, sinkers and a 
variety of objects. 

"The old out'door manufactory is most interesting, and the 
unfinished ollas can still be seen, with others marked in the 
rock ready to be cut, when the workmen dropped their tools, 
never to return." 

The remains found upon the island prove that the largest 
townsite was at the isthmus^ where, according to William Henry 
Holmes, "an important village stood for a long period."* 

As early as 1826 or '27 the Mexican governor, Echeandta, 
appears to have entertained fears of American usurpation. 
Hittell* says: 'The general feeling of distrust against Ameri- 
cans was further exhibited in 1827^ in reference to a house 
erected in 1826 by Captain Cunningham of the American ship 
Courier, on Santa Catalina Island. It is not unlikely that the 
maintenance of this establishment, though claimed to be for 
hunting purposes, may have had something to do with illicit 

Captain John Bradshaw of the Franklin was accused "of 
having touched at Santa Catalina in defiance of special orders/' 
and John Lawlor of the Hawaiian brig Karimoko had been ac- 
cused of departing from San Pedro without paying duties. It 
is said : "He had, in spite of repeated warnings, touched at 
Santa Catalina Island and had even deposited goods there, he- 
sides breeding animals, the exportation of which was contra 

As the policy of the Mexican government was opposed to 
foreign traffice on California shores, unless heavy duties w^ere 
paid, most American ships indulged in contraband trade, and 
Santa Catalina Island, with its natural harbors, was a very con- 
venient port for such trade. Charles Dwight Willard in his 
History of Los Angeles City says: "During the years from 
1826 to the American occupation, Catalina was a favorite resort 
for smugglers, and some of the most prominent citizens of Los 
Angeles were believed to take part in contraband trade," 

Santa Catalina also had her period of gold excitement. 
Professor J. M. Guinn,* our Secretary, has given an interestin g 

* Anthropological Studies in California^ by William Henry 
Hohnes. (Rept, U, S. Nat. Mus.) 

* Hitteirs History of California, Vol. IL 

* Bancroft's History of California, VoL TIL 

* An Early Mining Boom on Santa Catalina, by J. M. 
Guinn. Overiand Monthly, Vol. XVI (1890). 


history of mining in the island. He says: "The existence of 
these metals on the Island of Santa Catalina was known long 
before the acquisition of California by the United States. 
George Yount, a pioneer of 1830, who, with Pryor* Wolfskill, 
Laughlin and Prentiss, built a schooner at San Pedro for the 
purpose of hunting sea otter, found on one of his trips to the 
island some rich outcroppings. It does not appear, however, 
that he set much value upon his discovery at the time. He 
was hunting sea otter, not gold mines. After the discovery 
of gold at Coloma, and the wild rush of gold hunters to the 
coast, Yount recalled to mind his find on Santa Catahna. He 
made three trips to the island in search of his lost lode, but 
without success. His last trip was in 1854/' 

Professor Guinn further says: "A tradition of Yount's lost 
mine was still extant in Los Angeles. This directed attention 
to Catalina as a prospective mining region." 

The first location of a claim was made in "April, 1863, by 
Martin M. Kimberly" and "Daniel E. Way." 

''The first discoveries were made near the isthmus on the 
northwestern part of the island. The principal claims were in 
Fourth of July Valley, Cherry Valley and Mineral Hill. Later 
discoveries were made on the eastern end of the island." Ac- 
cording to Professor Guinn there must have been something 
like a real estate boom on the island: "A site for a city, called 
'Queen City/ was located on Wilson Harbor/' lots were staked 
off and numerous claims *'were recorded in the Recorder's of- 
fice of Los Angeles County/* "Numerous assays were made, 
showing the lands to be rich in gold and silver-bearing rock, 
the assays ranging from $150 to $800 per ton/* "Stock com- 
panies were formed with capital bordering- on the millions/' 
But the millions in stock did not materialize in cash for their 
enterprise, as the busy miners soon found themselves without 
money to develop their mines. As the writer says: "It was 
the famine year of Southern California, the terrible dry season 
of 1863-4. Cattle were dying by thousands, and the cattle 
baronSj whose wealth was in their flocks and herds, saw them- 
selves reduced to the verg'e of poverty/' 

Another difficulty arose, and this effectually stopped the 
progress of mining on this island during the Civil war. As 
the island had fine harbors for the landing of ships* it was ru- 
mored that privateers from the Confederacy were intending to 
make the island a rendezvous, so the U. S. government built 
the barracks and stationed troops on Santa Catalina. Orders 



were published forbidding any **person or persons, others than 
owners of stock and corporate companies' employes." to land 
on the island. This order was issued from the headquarters on 
Santa Catalina Island, February 5, 1864. 

Mrs, S. A. Rowland tells me that something like eight or 
ten thousand dollars' worth of ^old was sent to San Francisco, 
but the one who carried it there failed to report afterward; also 
that the "Gem of the Ocean*' mine in Fourth of July Valley 
was blasted for ore, with the result that the blast stopped all 
future expectations, as water, instead of ore, now filled the mine. 
The "Argentine/* another mine in this valley, could only be 
worked at low tide; at other times the mine was completely 
out of sight. 

Before this time the island had become well known as a 
fine grazing island for sheep. Men settled on it to look after 
their sheep interests and little homes or shacks were butlt in 
some of the coves. In some cases men had their wives w'ith 
them, and the settlers on the island began the era of "squatter 
suprenxacy." Trees and vines were planted, wells dug, and each 
settler raised his vegetables, tended his herds of sheep, and 
only made trips to the mainland for necessities he could not 

I am indebted to Mrs. S* A. Rowland, widow of Captain 
Howland, for the following data relative to those days: 

The cove now called Johnson's Landing was settled by John 
Benn, a German, and his wife. He built the present house, but 
this was not the first one he lived in at that place. The cove 
was known as John Benn's Place. His wife was Spanish. 

About ten years after John Benn settled in the cove, Cap- 
tain and Mrs. Howland bought a squatter's right to the valley 
now known as Howland Valley, They bought the right of 
Mr, Harvey Rhoads. 

Samuel Prentiss, or Prentice, a native of Rhode Island, and 
known as "Old Sam," was one of the settlers. He died on 
the island about the year 1865, and was buried at Rowland's 
Valley. A small picket fence surrounds his grave.* 

*Samuel Prentiss was a sailor said to have deserted from an 
American man-of-war, in South America. He was subsequently 
one of the crew of the brig Danube, December 25, 1828. Ste- 
phen Foster writes "Prentiss," Prentice. Mrs. Howland tells 
me that this hunter and trapper was an unlettered man but full 
of information gathered in his roving and outdoor life. 



Avalon Valley was settled by two bachelor brothers, Ger- 
mans, named Johnson — not related to the Johnson who gave 
his name to Johnson's Landing". There were about five families 
on the island when Mr. Howland lived there. 

The first Ainerican child born on the island was William Per- 
cival Howland. on April 8. 1866. He was the second son of 
Captain and Mrs, Howland. He grew up to manhood, but died 
ten years ago. 

Sheep shearing and election days were events on the island. 
Election was held at the cove of the Johnson brothers^ now 
known as Avalon, and the big fig tree on F street was planted 
by Mrs. Howland to commemorate the re-election of Abraham 
Lincoln. The election was in November, 1S64, but the tree 
planting was deferred until February, 1865, 

Captain and Mrs. Howland lived on the island for over thir- 
teen years. After some htigation the settlers learned that the 
U. S. Government had never owned the islands it having passed 
from the Mexican Government, through Pio Pico to Don Jose 
Covarrubias." After James Lick acquired the island the *'set- 
tlers'' left it. 

As the statement is frequently made that Santa Catalina at 
one time belonged to the United States Government and "was 
sold by the government to James Lick," the following reliable 
data received from Mr. S. J. Mathes, of Avalon, may set this 
vexed question of ownership at rest. 

**The Island of Santa Catalina never belonged to the U. S. 
Government. It was given as a grant by the Mexican Govern- 
ment along in the forties, to Don Jose Covarrubias, of Santa 
Barbara (father of Nick Covarrubias, of Los Angeles), He sold 
it to a lawyer of Santa Barbara named Packard. After this 
there were quite a number of transfers, perhaps a dozen persons 
being interested in the island before James Lick acquired it. 
Lick owned it about twenty-five years. 

^'George R. Shatto bought it in 1887, owned lE about a year 
or a little more, when he sold it to an English syndicate. They 
were to pay $400,000. They actually paid $40,000 and defaulted 
in their payments. The sale fell through because the mines 
did not prove to be as valuable as they thought them. They 
supposed from the specimens shown them that they had a ver- 
itable bonanza. 

*The Bannings* acquired the island in 1891. I do not know 
just what they paitl. Shatto paid $150,000. 

*The Banning brothers of the Wilmington Transportation 



*'Shatto held an auction sale of lots while he owned the 
island and disposed of about 200 lots. The Banningfs have re- 
duced this by purchase to about eighty lots, which are in other 

I am indebted to Mrs, E, J. Whitney of Avalon, Santa Cata- 
lina Island, for valuable information regarding the early days 
of Avalon. She says: 

"George R- Shatto of Los Ang^eles purchased the island 
from the Lick estate of San Francisco in July, 1887, and im- 
mediately began to lay out the town site and prepare for the 
buiiding of a hoteli the first load of lamber for it coming over 
the first week in August/' This town was called '*Shatto" in 
the first maps which were printed, but Mr, Shatto did not accept 
the name and the map was not recorded. How did the town 
come to be called Avalon? In a letter from Mrs. Whitney, who 
is a relative of the Shattos by marriage, she writes: **Mn and 
Mrs. Shatto and myself were looking for a name for the new 
town^ which in its significance should be appropriate to the 
place, and the names which I was looking up were 'Avon' and 
'Avondale/ and I found the name 'Avalon/ the meaning of 
which, as given in W^ebster's unabridged, was *Bright gem of 
the ocean/ or 'Beautiful isle of the blest/ " Mrs. Whitney was 
certainly very happy in her choice of names, as none could be 
more appropriate. The site of the town had only been used 
as a camping ground and called ^'Timm's Landing/' I quote 
farther from Mrs. Whitney's letter: "The first meeting of the 
Board of Trustees of 'Catalina School District' was held July 
4, 1891. They were Mrs. S. A. Wheeler, Mr. Frank P. Whitt- 
!ey and Mr, E. J. Whitney. The first teacher was Mrs. M. P. 
Morris, wife of the pastor of the church The first church v/as 
'The Congregational Church of Avalon/ organized July 15, 
1889, The first pastor was Rev. Chas. Uzzell. A Catholic 
church was built almost two years ago/' 

The first child bom in the town of Avalon was Douglass 
McDonell, about eleven years ago. 

Among the first permanent residents of Avalon were Mr. 
and Mrs. S. A. Wheeler, Mr, Wheeler was the first tn buy 
property for the purpose of engaging in business. He built tije 
"Avalon Home'* (hotel)^ afterward called by the Banning Co. 
"The Island Villa Hotel" Mr. Wheeler conducted the first 
bakery on the island. Mrs. Wheeler reported many plants new 
to science and others before unknown on the island. 



The Banning brothers built an aquarium on the water front 
of 'Avalon and opened it to the public in July, 1899. The build- 
ing is 30x60 feet and has 10 large tanks and 13 smaller ones. 

In the summer of 1902 Santa Catalina Island was connected 
with the mainland at White's Point by wireless telegraph. The 
first message was sent to Ava!on on August 2, 1902. This sys- 
tem,* on the island^ was perfected under the management of 
General A. L. New. 

Santa Catalina Island is widely known as a "watering place," 
and !t is estimated that the little town of Avalon has numbered 
6,000 persons at one time. 

The need of another town on the island has become appar- 
ent to the Banning Co. The site chosen is at the Isthmus, the 
old Indian townsite. Here a large hotel is to be built and houses 
erected. Boulevards, wharves and a new steamship are among 
the expected improvements* And, in the evolution of events, 
the little isthmus site, lying between mountains on two sides 
and washed by the Pacific ocean on the others, will rise, as if 
by magic, over the deserted graves and forgotten middens of 
a race that has almost ceased to exist. 

The writer wishes to acknowledge her obligation to the fol- 
lowing : 

The Rev. Father J. Adam. Barcelona, Spain. 

The Very Rev, Ji. J. 0*Keefe, Superior of the Franciscans, 
San Luis Rey. 

Mr. S. J. Mathes, Avalon, Santa Catalina Island, 

Mrs. S. A- Howland, Loma Vista, CaL 

Mrs, E. J. Whitney, Avalon, Santa Catalina Island, 

Professor Ji. M. Guinn, Secretary Southern California His- 
torical Society, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Also to Miss Mary L. Jones, librarian of the Los Angeles 
Public library, and her able corps of assistants, for many favors, 

*A newspaper, "The Wireless," was started at Avalon on 
March 25, 1903, Tliis is stated to have been the first newspaper 
in the world to receive its press notices by wireless telegraph. 



Althoug^h the flag of the United States was raised over 
Monterey by Commodore Soat, conunander of our naval forces 
on the Pacific Coast, on the 7th of July, 1846. Los Angeles, 
the then capital of the Province of Upper California, was only 
taken possession of by the combined forces of Commodore 
Stockton and Colonel Fremont on the 13th day of August, 
1846, Don Pio Pico, the Mexican Governor, ha\nng left the 
city Augi^st 1 2th. These being the facts of the case, the ob- 
vious inference would seem to have been that the true legal 
date of the change of government should have been the latter 
date, instead of Jfuly 7th, as is commonly understood. 

On the 17th of Augusts 1846, Commodore Stockton, who 
had succeeded Commodore Sloat as commander of the Pacific 
squadron, issued a proclamation to the people, signing him- 
self *'Commander-in-Chief and Governor of California,'* He 
announced that the country now belonged to the United 
States and that as soon as possible would be governed like any 
other territory of that nation, but meanwhile by military law, 
though the people were invited to choose their local civil of- 
ficers, if the incumbents declined to serve. 

On the same date. to-TA'St, August 17th, the "Warren," 
Comfmander Hull, anchored at San Pedro from Mazatlan, 
bringing definite news of a declaration of war. 

California, as an unorganized territory, remained under mil- 
itary Governors from the time of the change of sovereignty 
till December 20, 1849, or over three years, and during a very 
important period of its history. 

August 22, 1846. Governor Stockton ordered an election 
of Alcaldes and other local municipal officers to be held Sep- 
tember isth in the several towns and districts of the territory. 

Governor Stockton on the 2nd of September, the last day 
of his stay in Los Angeles (and before the receipt of the order 
from Washington requiring the Governorship to be turned over 
to a ranking military officer), issued a general order creating 
the oflFice of Military Commandant of the Territory, which was 
divided into three departments, and appointing Fremont to fill 
the new command. 



Orders from Washington were brought by Colonel Rich- 
ard B. Mason, who arrived at San Francisco, February 12, 1847, 
that Gen, S. W, Kearny on his arrival in California (and the 
senior officer before his arrival) was to be recognized as Civil 
Governor After Kearny's departure for the East* Colonel 
Mason succeeded him in command and also as Governor, 
May 31, 1847. Alcaldes who had been elected or appointed 
continued to administer justice within their several districts, 
according to Mexican law and usage, appealing to the Gover- 
nor only in difficult cases, it being his j>olicy to interfere as 
little as possible in local matters. 

But before these orders were received in Cahfomiaj Com- 
modore Stockton, namely J on January 16, 1847, issued com- 
missions to Fremont as Governor and to W, H. Russell as 
Secretary of State. 

January 22nd Governor Fremont issued a proclamation 
announcing the establishment of civil rule. His headquarters 
were at Los Angeles, where he won many friends, especially 
among the native Califomians, by joining in their festivities, 
and to some extent in their ways of dress and life. He occu- 
pied the large two-story house (since demolished) of Capt. 
Alexander Bell, on the northeast corner of Aliso and Los An- 
geles streets. 

The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, by which Alta Califor- 
nia w^as ceded to the United States by Mexico, was signed on 
February 2, 1848, and was proclaimed by the President on 
June 19th, and news of the same reached California and was 
proclaimed by Governor Mason, August 7, 1848. 

Gen. Persifer F. Smith arrived and superseded Governor 
Mason, February 26, 1849. General Mason left California May 
I, 1849, and died of cholera at St Louis the same summer at 
the age of 60 years. 

Gen. W, T. Sherman, who had ample opportunity to judge 
of his work as Governor, in his Memoirs says of Governor 
Mason: '*He possessed a strong native intellect, and far more 
knowledge of the principles of civil government and law than 
he got credit for/' and that *'he was the very embodiment of 
the principles of fidelity to the interests of the general govern- 

Genera] Smith's incumbency of the office of Governor 
was brief and unimiportant; it extended only from February 
26 to April 12, 1849, 



On the latter date Gen. Bennett Riley, Lieutenant Colonel 
of the Second U. S. Infantry, arrived at Monterey, with in- 
structions to assume the administration of civil affairs in Cali- 
fornia, not as Military Governor, but as the executive of the 
existing quasi-civil government which the people under Gov- 
ernor Mason had established. 

On the 3rd of June, 1849, Governor Riley issued a procla* 
mation calling for an election on August ist of delegates to 
formulate a Constitution, who were to meet at Monterey Sep- 
tember 1st. 

Among the notable men in that convention was W, E, 
Shannon, an Irishman by birth and a lawyer, who introduced 
that section in the bill of rights which made California forever 
a free State; borrowed, it is true, but as illustrious and imper- 
ishable as it is American. 

At the first general election held in the Territory, Novem- 
ber 13, 1849, the Constitution was adopted by a vote of i2»o64 
ayes to 811 noes; and on the same day Peter H, Burnett was 
elected Governor and John McDougal Lieutenant Goveinor. 

Governor Riley's term extended from April 12th to Decem- 
ber 20, 1849, He made a most excellent executive during a 
transition period, when the affairs, pohtical, social and eco- 
nomic, of the territory were in a somewhat chaotic condition. 
General Riley continued to reside at Monterey until Jiily 1, 
1850. when he returned to the Eastern States. The ciiy of 
Monterey voted him a medal of gold weighing one pound, 
with a heavy chain composed of nuggets of gold in their native 
shapes. One side of the medal was inscribed with this pithy 
motto: **The man who came to do his duty and who ac- 
complished his purpose," which expressed epigramatically the 
general appreciation by the people of his thoroughly prac^ic^l 

P. H. Burnett, the first Governor of California under the 
Constitution^ was a native of Nashville, Tenn., bom in 1807. 
He moved to Oregon in 1843, and to California in 1848; was 
elected Governor in 1849; resigned January 9, 185 1, and was 
appointed a Justice of the Supreme Court in 1857. 

On the resignation of Burnett, Lieutenant Governor John 
McDougall became Governor, and served from Jianuary, 1851, 
till January, 1852. when he was succeeded by John Bigler. 
Governor McDougall was a native of Ohio, born in 1818. He 
arrived in California in February, 1849. He w^s elected a 
member of the Constitutional Convention of 1849 from the 



Sacramento district. He died at San Francisco March 30, 

Governor Bigler was bom in Pennsylvania in 1805. He 
came to CaJifornia in 1849, and served as Governor from Jan- 
uary, 1852, till January, 1856; he v^as afterward appointed by 
President Buchanan Minister to Chili, which office he held 
till 1861. He died at Sacramento, November 29, 1871. 

J. Neely Johnson, a native of Indiana, was born in 1825; 
came to California in 1849, and served as Governor from 1856 
to 1858, during the exciting era of the great San Francisco 
Vigilance Committee. He afterward moved to Nevada, where 
was elevated to the Supreme Bench. He died in Salt Lake City 
in 1872. 

John B. Weller was Governor from 1858 to i860. He was 
born in Ohio, February 22, i8r2; served in the Mexican war; 
was appointed by President Polk in 1S49 as a commissioner 
to mn a boundary line between the United States and Mexico; 
was elected U. S, Senator in 1852 to succeed Fremont, and 
served the full term of six years, and for two years was the 
only Senator from California. He served as Minister to Mex- 
ico from November, i860, till May, 1861. He died at New 
Orleans August 7, 1875. 

Milton S. Latham^ sixth Governor of California under the 
Constitution, was born at Columbus, Ohio, in 1827. He was 
graduated from Jefiferson College, Pennsylvania, in 1845; went 
first to Alabama, and from there came to California in 1850; 
was elected to Congress, and was appointed Collector of the 
Port at San Francisco in 1856; was elected Governor, with 
John G. Downey as Lieutenant Governor, in 1859. Two days 
after his inauguration, Januar}' nth, he was elected Senator, 
and Downey became Governor. Governor Latham died at 
New York March 4, 1882. 

John G .Downey, a native of Ireland, and for many years 
a citizen of Los Angeles, having been elected Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, became, by virtue of the provisions of the Constitution, 
Governor on the resignation of Governor Latham, and served 
from. January 14, iB60y to January 9^ 1862. He died in Los 
Angeles March i, 1894. 

Letand Stanford, a native of New York, became the eighth 
Governor of California under the Constitution in January, 
1862, and served till December, 1863. He died at Palo Alto, 
the seat of the University he founded, June 20j 1893. 



Governor Stanford was succeeded by Frederick F. Low, 
who was bom at Frankfort, Maine, January 30, 1828, and who 
came to CaJifomia in 1849. He served as a member of the 
House of Representatives in 1862-3. ^^ ^^ elected Gov- 
ernor and served from December 10, 1863, to December 5, 
1867, four years* His death occurred at San Francisco July 
24* 1894, 

H. H, Haight. son of Fletcher M. Haighi, U. S. J,ud^e of 
the Southern District of California, and a native of Rochester, 
N. Y. (1825), became Governor by election, and filled that 
office from December, 1867, to December, 1871. Governor 
Haight arrived in California in 1850. He was a graduate of 
Yale College in 1844. He died at San Francisco September 
2, 1878. 

Newton Booth, eleventh Governor, was born in Indiana, 
December 30, 1S25. He arrived in California in 1850; he was 
elected State Senator from Sacramento in 1863, and was elected 
and served as Governor from 1871 to February 27, 1875, when 
he resigned, having been elected U, S. Senator. Governor 
Booth died at Sacramento July 14, 1892. 

On the resignation of Governor Booth, Lieutenant Gover- 
nor Romiualdo Pacheco became the chief executive of the 
State, and served from February 27, 1875, to December 9th of 
the same year. Governor Pacheco was a native of California, 
both his parents being of Spanish descent 

Wm. Irwin, a native of Ohio, bom in 1S27, came to CaU- 
fornta in 1852. He represented Siskiyou County in both 
branches of the Legislature between the years i860 and 1S75, 
and as President of the Senate be became acting Lieutenant 
Governor as a result of the advancement of Pacheco to the 
Governorship. At the general election in September, 1875, 
he was elected Governor, and was inducted into office Decem- 
ber 9th of that year. His term ended January 8, 1880. He 
died in San Francisco March 15, 1896. 

George C. Perkins, the fourteenth Governor of California 
under her first or old Constitution, and the first under the new 
Constitution^ is a native of Maine, born August 23. 1839. He 
came to California in 1855, and his term as Governor of the 
State extended from January, 1880, to January, 1883. Gov- 
ernor Perkins is now serving his second term as U. S. Senator 
from California. 

General George Stoneman. a graduate of West Point, and 
afterward Lieutenant of the First Dragoons, U, S. A., and who 



came to Califomia as Assistant Quartermaster o[ the Mormon 
Battalion in 1847, was born in Chautauqua County, York 
State, AijgTist 8, 1822. He was elected Governor and served 
from 1883 till January, 1887. As Captain of the Second Cav- 
alry, he served in Texas. August 13, 1S61, he became Brig- 
adier General of U. S. Volunteers and Chief of Cavalry. He 
was in many battles of the Civil War and was promoted to 
brevet Major General U. S. regular army. He retired from the 
army in 1871 and settled near Sail Gabriel, in Los Angeles 
County. Governor Stoneman died at Buffalo, N, Y., Sep- 
tember 5, 1894. 

Washington Bartlett, bom in Savannah, Ga., February 
29, 1824, and who arrived in California via Cape Horn in 1849, 
was elected Governor for the term commencing January 8, 
1887, but he only served till his death, which occurred Sep- 
tember 1 2th of the same year, or during a period of a little 
over eight months. 

Governor Bartlett was succeeded by Lieutenant Governor 
Robert W, Waterman, who filled the office for the balance of 
the term, or till 1891 He died at San Diego April 12, 1891, 
0T)ly a few months after the expiration of his term of ofKce as 

H. H. Markham*s term as Governor extended from Jan- 
uary 8, 1891, to January, 1895. Colonel Markham was born 
in Wilmijng^on, Essex County, New York, November 16, 1840, 
He served through the Civil war, first as private in the Thirty- 
second Wisconsin Infantry, and afterward as Lieutenant. He 
was in many battles, and was with Sherman in the march to 
the sea. In 1879 he removed from Milwaukee to Pasadena, 
which city is still his home. 

James H. Budd's trem commenced January n, 1895, and 
ended January 4 ,1899. Governor Budd is a native of Cali- 
fornia. He is still living. 

Henry T. Gage was the twentieth constitutional Governor 
of California, his term extending from January 4, 1899, to 
January, 1903. Governor Gage is a native of New York. He 
has been a citizen of Los Angeles County for many years. He 
was a delegate from California to the National Republican 
Convention of 1888 at Chicago. 

George C. Pardee, the present incumbent of the Guberna- 
torial office, commenced his term in January, 1903- Gover- 
nor Pardee is a native son, having been born in San Francisco 
July 25, 1857, He is a graduate of the State University and 
also of the University of Leipsic, Germany. 



Old "Chona" was the best washer-woman in the Mission 
San Gabriel; her clothes were the whitest and sweetest, and 
when she broug-ht theni home tied in a snowy bundle, balanced 
so expertly on her head, La Senora exclaimed with delight over 
their fragrance, which, she said, was like unto the fresh spring 
grass on which they had lain and bleached from Monday until 
Saturday. She disdained to use common soap for her wash- 
ing, preferring that made by the Padres of the mission, the 
soft, velvety soap of Castile. What difference if it were more 
expensive; were not the clothes sweeter and whiter? As she 
adjusted her native washboard in the dear rippling stream, 
putting two stones under the upper length that it might have 
the proper incline, she talked — talked to her clotheSi which 
she had invested with human attributes, and was rough or gen- 
tle according to their quality and beauty. Coming upon a gar- 
ment lace-trimmed and dainty, she was wont to clasp it in her 
hands, and smile and pat it, her simple and loving Indian na- 
ture investing it with life. "Here I shall put you in this new 
and clean basket, within the clear stream> so that nothing shall 
injure your fineness. How pretty, how soft, how sweet it is/* 
she would exclaim; Eind turning reluctantly away» would give 
her attention to the clothes of coarser fibre, rubbing and slap- 
ping them upon her board, conscienciously and honestly giving 
them all the attention due them, but with a feeling of disdain 
for their coarseness. 

Old "Chona" had never worn shoes; when she was younger 
none of her people wore them; but in later years often times 
came the thought and wish to possess a pain When her hus- 
band, Gabriel, used for drink the money she had so laboriously 
earned, she never once dreamed of shoes, but now^ that she was 
alone, and he in the church yard behind the mission church, 
the thought would come unawares — why not have shoes? 
There was no one but herself, unless she gave to others. Others 
micant the little Indian children who tormented her when 
washing by throwing stones into the stream, disturbing its 
clear depths. Her anger wasn't more lasting than the dis- 
turbed water, and she punished them by bringing them "dukes" 



from the mission store when she returned home in the evening. 
Old "Chona's*' feet had become hard and caloused from con- 
stantly traversing the narrow paths which led to the homes of 
her patrons; this she had done for many long years uncomplain- 
ingly, *'and now perhaps she might be able to work far into 
old age if her feet did not hurt so." She had confided her dream 
to La Seiiora, who sympathizingly listened and donated a pair 
of bright stockings, which old *'Chona" clasped in her hands 
and exclaimed in an ecstacy of feeling, "How beautiful T' Now 
that the dream had taken definite shape, she began to save; 
even the little Indian children got no more "dulces/* She said 
her *'heart was getting hard.** Was it because she had let 

a selfish thought creep in? 

♦ •***♦♦* + ♦ 

Lent was almost over; it was Saturday, the eve of Palm 
Sunday. Old "Giona" had delivered her last bundle of clothes, 
and safe in her bosom, wrapped about with her bright stock- 
ing;Sj lay the money for her shoes. The sun was only an hour 
high as she turned into the little narrow path which led her 
to the mission. The long spring afternoon had been balmy 
and the air was filled with the f>erfume of the "pelio" and wild 
flowers. The slim shadows of the younger willows cast them- 
selves before her and fled across the tinkling stream to lose 
themselves in the tall grass beyond. Her tired feet sank into 
the gophers' freshly plowed earth, which felt cool and refresh- 
ing to her after her long walk. Soon her thoughts became 
words: "Little Chonita (her namesake). Lulita, Juan and Ga- 
brielito would be there to see her shoes;" they would stand 
round-eyed in admiration and forget to take their fingers from 
their mouths. '*But she would have more dulce and cakes, 
too: they should celebrate for her good fortune." 

The last rays of the setting sun were gilding the old church 
as she drew near. The old church yard lay in the shadows of 
the aged peach trees which gleamied paley pink behind the 
old church wall, a still, bright spot in the evening twilight. 
Standing before the broad church door was a 'Vareta/' the 
weary oxen with drooping heads supporting their heavy yoke 
standing with closed eyes, dreaming of the fresh and dewy 
grass, for their day had been long and weary. Far from home 
had they traveled that day; many miles had they hauled the 
heavy cart up steep mountain roads, mere paths some of them, 
their driver being in search of palms and laurel for the Padre 
to bless and distribute among his faithful followers. Old Chona 


watched the unloading of the greeos, and with a sharp indraw- 
ing breath exclaimed, "iladre mta; I had foi^tteo!" Putting 
her hand to her bosom, she drew forth her precious and hard- 
earned mone)-, and drawing nearer, she whispered to the In- 
dian driver, who knew her well» ''Give me a leaf of palm; see, I 
have money/' She received it, and putting it under her shawl 
near her heart, she turned away. Next morning as the bells 
of the mission were ringing for early mass, old "Chona" entered 
the church, proudly carrying an unrecognizable branch of palm 
braided and gaily tied in bits of red and yellow and green 
ribbons. Waiting patiently until the last olive branch had been 
blessed, she crept to the altar, knelt and silently asked a bless- 
ing upon hers. Rising, she placed it at the feet of a blue-robed 
figure, saying. **For thee. Virgin Mother." With what feel- 
ings she left the church none but those who understand the 
Indian nature can surmise. What her thoughts were she' 
would never tell. She bad made her renunciation; that w^as 
sufficient for her. When La Sefiora asked her about her shoes, 
she smiled and shrugged her shoulders. When her friends^ the 
little Indians, asked her, she said. "Oh, do not molest me," and 
they were silenced with "dulces." 

Then there came a day when Old "Chona'* failed to come 
for her washing, and I-a Senora sent a messenger to inquire 
the cause. All was silent in the little hut, except the mocking 
bird which, flitting in and out among the eaves of the "ramada/' 
sang his cheery song. The Indian boy, creeping to the door 
with a feeling of awe at the silence, saw that which made him 
cry out with feeling. Old **Chona'* lay on her rawhide bed 
with her hands clasped over a pair of bright red stockings- 



(Read November i, 1903.) 

This evening- we celebrate the twentieth anniversay of the 
org;anization of the Historical Society of Southern Cahfornia, 
It is the oldest historical society on the Pacific Coast; the only 
literary association in Southern California that has maintained 
its organization intact for twenty years. In this paper I have 
briefly outlined the origin of our society and have given some 
of its early history. I have contrasted the city as it was twenty 
years ago with what it is now^ and have endeavored to show 
that had our society done nothing more than preserve the rec- 
ords of two decades of our city*s history, it would deserve well 
of the community. 

In conclusion I have called attention to the almost crim™ 
inal neglect of our State in not collecting and preserving her his- 
torical material, and have contrasted her remissness in this re- 
spect with what other states with less history and less wealth 
have done. 

On the evening of November i, 1883, twenty years ago, 
a little coterie of representative men of the city gathered in a 
room of the old Temple Block to organize a histoiical so- 
ciety. Some of these were comparatively new comers, others 
were pioneers whose residence in the city covered periods of 
thirty, forty and fifty years. They had watched its growth 
from a Mexican pueblo to an American city, had witnessed its 
transition from the inchoate and revolutionary domination of 
Mexico to the stable rule of the United States, 

The purpose for which they had gathered was clearly stated 
in the call, but the scope, the purpose and the province of a 
historical society were not so evident. Only one of the assem- 
blage had been a member of a historical society, and there were 
those who doubted whether a society purely historical could 
be maintained. They argued that it would be better to or- 
ganize a society dual in its nature — part historical and part 
scientific, A few weeks laten when a constitution was evolved, 
among the objects for which the society was created were "the 
discussion of historical subjects, the reading of such jmpers 


and the tria! of such scientific experiments as shall be deter- 
mined by the General Cominittee/* 

This General Committee deserves a passing notice. Tt has 
long since passed out of the existence of the society, and the 
memory of it has become ancient history. 

It was a decemvirate, a body of ten that was supposed to 
stipervise the affairs of the society. It decided who should be- 
come members, what papers should be read before the society, 
and who outside of the society should listen to their reading. 

The society was organized as a close corporation. It was 
very select. If any outsider yearned to hear the historical 
discussions or to witness the scientific experiments made with- 
in the society's sanctt^n sanctorum, he apphed to some mem- 
ber of the General Committee for permission to enten His 
application was submitted to the decemvirate, and if that aug*- 
ust body deemed him worthy of the honor and capable of un- 
derstanding the mysteries of the inner sanctuary, he was al- 
lowed to enter. This was the theory of admission. It never 
got beyond the theoretical stage. No outsider ever ran the 
gauntlet of the General Committee, The uninitiated remained 
outside, nor sought to enter; and the society, after trying for 
several years to be very exclusive, mended its rules, abolished 
its General Committee and opened its doors to the public. 

Of the fifteen men who gathered in that room twenty years 
ago to form a historical society, nine are dead, two have 
dropped out of the society through non-payment of dues^ two 
have removed from the city, and only two — H, D. Barrows 
and J. M, Guinn — are now members. 

The names of those who formed that coterie are: J. J, 
Warner, Antonio R Coronel, J. G. Downey. George Hansen, 
H. D. Barrows, J. M, Guinn, C. N. Wilson, John Mansfield, 
Noah Levering, Ira More, J. B. Niles, A, Kohler, A. J, Brad- 
field, E. W. Jones and Marcus Baker. 

The Historical Society of Southern California is not proud 
of its birthplace. The room where it %vas bom was then used 
for a Police Court. There the Mayor as Police Judge meted 
out punishment to tramps and drunks and other transgressors 
of municipal ordinances. 

The walls were dingy and smoke-begrinimcd; the furni- 
ture consisted of a few wooden benches, A rough table and 
a few chairs completed the scanty furnishings. Two smoky 
lamps dimly lighted the interior. Uncongenial as were the 
environments, they were the best the society could aflford then, 



for it was poor and obscure at its birth; and it might be added 
that in its mtaturer years it is still poor, but not obscure. 

A scare of years is less than the third of the allotted span 
of a human life, and but an atom of time in the life of a city. 
Looking- backward through the mist and murk of t>venty years 
to the time when our society was born, and comparng Los 
Angeles of 1883 with the city of today, it seems as if some 
magician's w^nd had wrought the wondrous change. ThcB 
there was not a business house on Spring- street south of Sec- 
ond. Fort street (now Broadway) was the aristocratic resi- 
dence street of the city, and we pointed with pride to the pa- 
latial homes of our aristocracy that lined the western side of 
that street between Second and Third. The city then had 
but two parks — the Plaza and Central park. The latter was 
enclosed by a dilapidated picket fence. An open ditch rati 
through it and irrigated the straggling trees that were making 
a pretense of growing. There w^ere no flowers in it and no 
grass. A sign at the corner of Sixth and Olive streets warned 
heavy teams not to cross it. The zanja that watered it mean- 
dered through the principal part of the city before it reached 
the park. It flow*ed through the Chinese market garden that 
occupied the present site of the Westminster Hotel. It crossed 
Main street south of Fourth and then zigzagged across the 
block bounded bv Main and Spring, Fourth and Fifth streets, 
just below, where now looms up the Southern California Sav- 
ings Bank sky scrapen Then it meandered across Fort street 
and on to the Dark, and out beyond that to the rural regions 
of Figueroa and Adams street, where it watered the orcharads 
and the barley fields of that sparsely peopled suburb. Thai ditch 
was not the Zanja Madre^the mother ditch — of the pueblo: it 
was not even a pretentious ditch as irrigating ditches go; and 
yet from the view point of cost it was the most expensive im- 
provement the city has ever made. 

A few years before the city fathers had given two of our 
enterprising citizens t6o acres of city land extending from Main 
to Figueroa and lying between Seventh and Ninth streets for 
constructing that irrigating canal. The land donated for that 
insignificant improvement — for the digging of a ditch— that 
long since disappeared from the face of the earth— that is lost 
to sight but to memory so expensive — is today worth fifteen 
millions of dollars. At that time the city authorities consid^ 
ered they had received full value for the few worthless acres of 
the many thousands they had at their disposal, but posterity 



rises up in judgment against them and rails at them for thdr 
woeful waste of a royal patrimony. It is not in good taste, nor 
is it just to bring railing accusations against our olden time 
Councilmen for thetr seemingly lavish disposal of our city lands. 
Without water the pueblo lands were worthless. With irri- 
gating facilities they could be made productive. Homes wotild 
be built* population would increase, and the city's exchequer. 
which was chronically in a state of collapse, would expand and 
become plethoric. To make two blades of grass grow where 
but one grew before is the secret of agricultural wealth. The 
city fathers well knew that neither the one blade nor the two 
would grow without water., Had they known that posterity 
would plant houses where they plantetl trees, and would grow 
sky scrapers where they grew grain, they might have done dif- 
ferently and escaped the waiUngs and the railings of posterity. 
It is easy to look backward and see errors you have .made, but 
to look forward and avoid making others — that is another story. 
If the surviving padres and madres of the pueblo could live 
their lives backward to the beginning, they would be both 
wealthy and wise when they reached that goal. In giving away 
city lands for public improvements, the city fathers followed 
the policy of the national government in the disposal of the 
public domain. 

But to return from this long digression. Twenty 
years ago when our historical Society was in its infancy, 
that beauty spot of the municipality of which we are all 
so proud — ^Westlake Park — was an alkaline gulch. A few 
years before the City Council had offered in vain the square 
now occupied as a park for 25 cents an acre but found no 
takers. The old timers who had been accustomed to get a 35- 
acre tract of city land for the making of a hundred dollars* im- 
provements scorned to purchase refuse real estate and perforce 
the city wus compelled to keep the undesirable alkali hole. 
Two decades ago that aristocratic region that now surrounds 
Westlake Park, if not quite a howling wilderness, was not ex- 
empt from the coyote's nightly wail. Then the scattered fam- 
ilies living west of Figueroa street and south of Sixth street 
only furnished school population enough to fill a single school 
room — the little school house at the comer of Georgia and 
Eighteenth streets. The latter street was then called Ocean 
avenue. Then the public school department of Los Angeles 
employed fifty teachers — now seven hundred. Then the 
monthly pay roll of the teachers footed up $3,700 — now $53,- 



ooo, or more than haJf a million a year. Then there was not a 
telq>hone in the city. The n^ail and the messenger tx>y were 
the mediums of intercommunication between citizens, and the 
wrath o£ a sender as often boiled hot against the leaden-footed 
errand boy as it now does against the slow-moving hallo girl 

Twenty years ago the street car system of Los Angeles con- 
sisted of two horse car lines. One, starting from the junction 
of Spring and Main, ran down to Washinerton street, then west 
on Washington to Figueroa and southwestward to Agricul- 
tural Park. The other line extended from Pear! and Sixth 
streets to Jphnson street in East Los Angeles. Time on these 
lines, a car every 15 minutes. This was regarded a great im- 
provement; only a short time before the cars ran every half 
hour — that is if the mules consented. Should the propelling 
power object, or if the car jumped the track, as it frequently 
did when the mule became frightened, there might be a delay 
of half an hour or so in prying it back to the track, a labor in 
which the passengers were expected to lend a hand. There was 
a branch line that ran up Main to Arcadia and on to AUso and 
across the river to Boyle Heights. The one car of this system 
made a round trip every two hours. It was regarded as a great 
convenience to the dwellers on the Heights. A single fare was 
10 cents, and a patron bad to buy a dollar's worth of tickets to 
secure a five-cent fare. 

When our society was born there was no free mail delivery — 
no letter carriers, and not a mail box in the city except at the 
postoflice. E\'ery one went to the postoffice, then located near 
the corner of Spring and First streets, for his mail. The popu- 
lation of the city was about 14,000, 

The conditions in the country around were as primative as in 
the city. There was not an intenirban railroad in the country- 
Electricity as a propelling power was unknown and as an illu- 
minating agent it was regarded as a bugbear to frighten gas 

Los Angeles, two decades ago, had but one transcontinental 
railroad, the S. P. R. R. Many of the flourishing towns of the 
county that now aspire to be cities had neither a habitation or a 
name. T!ie site of Monrovia was a cattle range, and that of 
Ocean Park uninviting sand dunes. The sites of Azusa City, 
Duarte, Glendora, Liortlsburg, Claremont, Covina, Arcadia, 
Garvanza, Burbank, Alhambra, Ocean Park, Whittier, Holly- 
wood and Avalon were either barley fields or barren wastes. 
Pasadena had a postoffice and a cross-roads store — these and 


nothing more in the shape of a town. That aristocratic city of 
millionaires, twenty years ago, had no railroads, no hotels and 
no public conveyance to and from Los Angeles except a spring 
w^gon that made a round trip once a day and carried passengers 
when there were any to carry at the rate of 50 cents fare each 
way. Long Beach, then known as Willmore City, was an in- 
significant burg of a dozen rough board houses. It was vainly 
trying to attract settlers by promising to be veiy, very good, 
and to exclude forever from, within its portals intoxicating 
drinks. Its promises were regarded as pipe dreams. How 
could a city thrive and grow without stimulants? Tliere was 
not then a temperance town in the county. Avalon* the me- 
tropolis of Catalina Island, had no place on the map. Its site 
Vr^as a houseless waste where the wild goats nibbled the scanty 
verdure unscared by sound of human footfall. Three years later 
the wild goats were driven away and the jew fish vexed by the 
founders of Shatto City — the predecessor and progenitor of 
Aval on. 

Briefly and imperfectly I have endeavored to limn for you a 
picture of Los Angeles and the country around as they were 
when our society was formed. Then and now are only two 
decades apart, yet what changes, what momentous events fill 
up the space between! Even had our society done nothing 
more than record the current events of our city's history as 
they passed it would deserve well of the community. It has 
done more. It has gathered the history of the long past as 
well as that of more recent years. We have endeavored to pre- 
serve these for the future historian. We have published five 
volumes of history, aggregating 1500 octavo pages. We have 
issued seventeen annual publications of papers read before the 
society. Ten thousand copies of these have been distributed 
throughout the United States and foreign countries. They have 
gone into England, France, Germany, Austria, Sweden, Italy 
and Spain. They have crossed the wide Pacific to Australia 
and New Zealand, They may be found in the historical so- 
cieties and universities of the Dominion of Canada. Through- 
out the United States from Maine to Alaska and from the great 
lakes to the gulf in public or in historical society Hbraries you 
may find copies of the annual publications of the Historical 
Society of Southern California. Our publications are valued 
and appreciated by the librarians of the great libraries of our 
own and foreign countries. Bound volumes of our books could 
be found on the shelves of the great historical Hbrary of Wis- 



consin; in the library of the University of New York; and in 
that of the Royal College of Belles Lettres of Stockholm, Swe- 
den, long before they appeared in the reference room of our 
own city library. 

Judging by the past it would seem as if Californians were 
•afraid or ashamed to have the history of their state written. 

The one man — Hubert Howe Bancroft — who by collecting 
and preserving historica] material that but for him would have 
been destroyed — has made it possible to have a complete and 
reliable history of California, has been abused and his work 
belittled by scribbling flunkeys and partisan bigots because he 
told some unpalatable truths about certain men and certain 
institutions. The state should buy his collection and build an 
historical building" in which to place it where it might be made 
available to students of history. 

No state of the Union has a more varied^ a more interesting 
or a more instructive history than California, and no stare in 
the Union has done less to preserve its history. 

Wisconsin, with less wealth and half a century less history, 
has spent a million dollars on her historical building and library. 
Minnesota, that was an inchoate territory with a few white in- 
habitants In it when California become a state, has recently 
completed a handsome and commodious building for its his- 
torical society. When Kansas and Nebraska were uninhabited 
except by buffaloes and Indians, California was a populous state 
pouring fifty millions of gold yearly into the worId*s coffers. 
For more than a quarter of a century, these states from their 
public funds have maintained historica! societies that have gath- 
ered great stores of valuable historical material, while Califor- 
nia, without a protest, has allowed literary pot-hunters and 
curio collectors to rob her of her historical treasiires. 

Montana, Washington and the two Dakotas, that were In- 
dian hunting grounds when California wai a state of a quarter 
million inhabitants, have each its State Historica! Society sup- 
ported by appropriations from the public funds. How long 
will California endure the disgrace of being the only state 
west of the Rocky Mountains that has no state historical so- 
ciety—the only state that does not appropriate a dollar to pre- 
serve its history? How long! How longf 


(Presented to the Historical Society by his daughter, Miss 
Elizabeth B. Fremont-) 

Washington City, October Sth, 1847. 

To the Secretary of War. 

Sir: In the execution of my duties as military commandant 
during the war in California and afterwards as civil governor 
of the territory I incurred many liabilities, some of which I 
think it absolutely necessary to bring to your attention. These 

1st, The payment of the volunteers for their services dur- 
ing the war and for supplies in arms and other necessaries fur- 
nished by them. 

2nd. Payment to citizens of that territory of money loaned 
to me by them, and which was required and expended in ad- 
ministration of the government and partial payment of the 

The principal amount required for payment of the troops 
is comprehended in what is due to the volunteer emigrants for 
services during the insurrection in the southern part of Upper 
California. These men were just arriving on the frontier of the 
territory and at the first call for their service quitted their fami- 
lies, leaving them unprotected and exposed to the inclemencies 
of a rainy winter, and repaired to my camp, bringing with them 
armSt ammunition, wagons and money, all of which they freely 
contributed to the public service. These men returned to their 
families without money and without clothes, and the long delay 
of payment has consequently created much dissatisfaction. 

Paper given to them by properly authorized officers as cer- 
tificates of service has been depreciated by officers recently in 
command and much of it consequently sold at one tenth of its 
true value. As these public services were rendered promptly 
and in good faith by all concerned at a time of imminent gan- 
ger to the American army, I trust that some measure will be 
taken properly to recognize them and to redeem the pledges 
made to the people by myself in my public and private ca- 
pacity. For this purpose I enclose a brief estimate from the 
paymaster of the battalion, (This paper has been lost.) 



Amounts of money required for civH and military purposes were 
at different times an<l by different individuals principally Mex- 
ican citizens loaned to me as the Governor of the Territory, 
acknowledged as such by them. The sums of money are not 
large, but, having been obtained under the high rates usual in 
that countr3^ public interest is suffering by the delay. The 
Hbilities which require immediate attention amount to forty 
thousand dollars. 

The two subjects which I have here presented for your 
consideration are causes of much dissatisfaction in the terri- 
tory, and I have thought it a matter of duty to myself and the 
people with whom I have been connected, as well as to the 
government, respectfully to apply for the means of removing it. 
I have the honor to be with much respect 
Your obedient servant, 

Lieut, Col. Regiment Mounted Riflemen. 



(By J. M. Gainn.) 

The following depositions taken before First Alcalde Don 
Abel Steams of Los Angeles in 1850 give the most correct ac* 
count in existence of the Indian depredations on the Colorado 
which gave rise to the first Indian war in which the Americans 
were engaged after the conquest of Califomia. 

These depositions have nev^er before been published, nor is 
there a correct account of the massacre of Dr. Lmcoln^s party 
given in any history of CaUfomia, 

Dr. A, L. Lincoln, an educated man, a native of Illinois, 
and a relative of President Lincoln, came from Mexico to Cali- 
fornia in 1849, After \isiting the mines he relumed to the 
Colorado river* and about the first of January, 1850, estab- 
lished a ferry at the junction of the Colorado and Gila* The 
Sonoranian migration to the gold mines of California was then 
at its height and the ferry business was immensely profitable. 
Glanton's party, mainly Texans and Missonrians, came by way 
of Chihuahua and arrived at the Colorado February 12, 1850. 
Dr. Lincoln, being short of hands, employed nine of them to 
assist him, and the six men then in his employ remaining made 
a party of fifteen. Glanton, from all accounts, seems to have 
been somewhat of a desperado, and Lincoln would have been 
glad to have gotten rid of him; but he constituted himself chief 
manager of the ferry. His overbearing conduct and ill treat- 
ment of the Indians no doubt brought about the massacre of 
the eleven ferry men. The Americans and Sonoranians had not 
suffered from Indians previous to Glanton's arrival. The ac- 
count of the origin of the hostility of the Indians to the Ameri- 
cans, as given by Hill in his deposition is doubtless the true one. 
The Yumas continued to commit atrocities on American immi- 
grants by the Gila route for several years. They were finally 
subjugated by CoL Heintzelman and forced to sue for peace. 

11-u - .1.- * f ^i^g massacre of the ferrymen reached 

<hp nor Burnett ordered the sheriff of Los 

ty men and the sheriff of San Diego 
placed under the command of Major 



General Bean of the State Militia, a resident of Los Angeles. 
Bean ordered his quartermaster, General Joseph G Morehead, 
to provide supplies for the expedition. Morehead did so, buy- 
ing Hberally at extravagant prices and paying in drafts on the 
state treasury. 

Gen. Morehead, with a force of forty men and supplies for a 
hundred, marched against the Indians. By the time he reached 
the Colorado his force had been increased to 125 men — ^recruited 
principally from incoming' immigrants. On the approach of 
the troops the Indians fled up the riven Morehead and his In- 
dian fighters encamped at the ferry crossing and vigorously 
attacked their rations. After a three months* campaign against 
their rations, liquid and solid, Governor Burnett, who in the 
meantime seems to have lost sight of the fact that he had an 
army in the field, issned a peremptory order to Major Gen. 
Bean to disband his troops. Bean ordered Morehead to return, 
but that valiant soldier chimed he was affording protection to 
the immigrants by the Gila route, and asked for an extension of 
time. But the orders from the Governor were imperative, and 
the force was disbanded. 

Thus ended the "Gila Expedition/' or, as it was sometimes 
called, the ''Glanton War." It was short and inglorious, but 
fearfully expensix^e. It cost the infant commonwealth $120,000 
and was the first item of the Indian war debt that two years later 
amounted to nearly a million dollars and came near bankrupt- 
ing the state. So far as known no Indians were killed. Neither 
Bean nor Morehead made an official report of the expedition, 

William Carr. whose deposition is given, like Achilles, was 
shot in the heel with an arrow» but, unlike that doughty chief- 
tain, he survived the wound. Carr, after his escape from the 
Indians, although wounded, went to San Diego to secure some 
mules left there by Glanton. He came from there to Los An- 
geles, when he fell into the hands of good Samaritans, who 
dressed his wounds and cared for him. The doctor who dressed 
his wound charged $500. The man who boarded him put in a 
bill of $120. The patriot who housed him wanted $45; and the 
paisano who nursed him figured his services at $30. The Los 
Angeles Court of Sessions allowed the bills and charged them 
up to the state. With such charges for one wounded man it 
was fortunate for the state that Morehead's Gila Expedition was 
a bloodless affair. 


Declarations Taken in Relation to the Massacre of Dr. Lincoln 
and His Party on the Colorado Riven — Deposition of 
WiJIiam Cam 

On this ninth day of May, in the year of Our Lord, Eighteen 
Hundred and Fifty, before me, Abel Stearns, first Alcalde of 
the District of Los Angeles, and Judge of the first instance in 
the criminal law, personally appeared William Carr* who being 
duly sworn, deposeth and saith, that on the 23rd day of April 
in said year, being one of the company hereinafter named as 
owning the boats and other property connected with the ferry 
on the Colorado at the junction of said river and the Gila» he 
and Marcus L, Webster and Jpseph A. Anderson, were engaged 
about midday in the woods within three hundred yards of the 
houses belonging to said company at said ferry, which said 
houses were within one hundred yards of the river and on the 
American side, within the jurisdiction of the state of California. 
Deponent and the persons above named were cutting poles, 
and while thus engaged, some fifteen or twenty Indians of the 
Yuma tribe came out, some of them saying that the captain, 
that is to say, John Glanton, had sent them to cut poles, and 
asking for a hatchet* As it was unusual, in fact, they had never 
before been thus employed, deponent determined to watch 
them; a hatchet was given to one of them, vrith which he com- 
menced cutting. Deponent observed that he was cutting very 
near the head of one of the said Americans, and, distrusting his 
intentionSt drew a pistol, whereupKJn they ran away, circling 
round to get to the houses. Deponent and his said companions 
immediately determined to make for the houses, but before they 
got out of the woods heard a yell; they went on out of the 
bushes and instantly were fired upon by the Indians, Deponent 
thinks at least forty guns were fired. There being Httle chance 
for escape, deponent and the others commenced firing, running 
at the same time to gain the houses; from these they made for 
a Mexican camp, but were refused admittance; they then made 
for the river, the Indians retreating from the boat, which depon- 
ent and the others immediately entered. When deponent went 
to the woods as above stated, six men of the company had 
crossed to the other side with one of the boats, for the purpose 



of bringing over the animals, etc., of the Sonoranians. many of 
whom were crossing at this time. The rest of the company, 
numbering five, remaining on the American side at the houses. 
Deponent, on approaching the shore, was well satisfied that the 
imUviduals last named were all killed, but thongl"it the others 
who had crossed were safe, seeing them, as he supposed, in the 
boat; he called to them, but received no answer, though tlie 
boat was crossing then. In the meantime, the fight between 
the deponent's party aiid the Indians continued, during which 
they received many voUies from the Indians, both of arrows and 
balls, and from each side of the river, deponent receiving a 
wound with an arrow in his leg. Deponent's party pushed ofif 
with the boat, down the river, the Indians pursuing on foot anil 
horseback; but alter going thus about fourteen miles, deponent 
found they had outstripped the Indians, only one being able to 
keep up. He and his companions landed on the side of the 
river nearly opposite Algodones, abandoned the boat and took 
to the woods, and remained there till moonrise. Going down to 
the river they found the Indians had taken their boat and towed 
it up the river. Apprehensive that the Indians were still in the 
neighborhood, they returned to the woods and proceeded that 
night down the river some fourteen miles below Algodones, 
where they made a raft and crossed the river, this being the 
24th; unexpectedly, having taken up a creek, they came upon 
some twenty Indians who had evidently been watching them. 
On presenting a pistol at them, all ran for their animals, except 
a man and boy, who followed deponent's party, saying in Span- 
ish : "You had better get away, for we intend to kill you." 

These were repeatedly defied to come near, but they never 
could be got within pistol shot. Deponent turned and ran after 
them, when aJI the Indians fled, and were not seen again. At 
this time two of deponent's party each had five shots with their 
six-shooters, and one of the party only a single shot. That 
night the party went up the river and struck the main road with- 
in a mile of Algodones^ passing in the meantime several Indians' 
houses where they all were asleep, and could easily have been 
killed, but deponent's companions were unwilling to have it 
done, upon the ground of being without ammunition, though 
deponent desired it. Pursuing the main road, they reached the 
Mexican camp that was at the ferry when the Indian attack com- 
menced. They reached this camp at daylight of the 251h, not 
having eaten anything since dinner on the 23rd. Deponent 
alone had seen the dead body of Glanton at the house, which 




they had attempted to reach as first above slated; he did not 
see any of the others, but the particulars of the affair were ex- 
plained by the Mexicans. As usual, that day the Indians had 
been playing about the establishment, some on one side of the 
river, some on the other, though on that day they seemed to 
have collected in a verj^ large number; though, neither by their 
arms, or uther circumstance, excited any suspicion, Glanton 
and Dr. A* L, Lincoln were asleep at the time of the attack. 
A Mexican woman who was at the time sewing in Lincoln's tent 
told deponent that the chief of the Yumas came in and hit the 
doctor on the head with a stone, whereupon he sprang to his 
feet, but was immediately killed with a club. Another woman 
relates the death of Glanton as occurring in the same manner. 
The three others were killed, the manner not known, and none 
had an opportunity of killing any of the Indians. Three of the 
tribe were killed in the fight with deponent's party. Deponent 
is well convinced that the men who had crossed the river were 
all killed, and the Mexicans say that the bodies of five of them 
were brought over to this side and burned^ as also were the 
bodies of Dr. Lincoln, Glanton, and the others killed on shore. 
Dr. Lincoln's dog, and two other dogs, were tied to his body 
and that of Glanton and burnt alive with them. A large quan- 
tity of meat was thrown into the fire at the same time. The 
houses were also burnt down. The bodies of John A, Johnson, 
Wm. Prewett and John Dorsey were burnt up with the cook's 
house, which had been set fire to. One of the men in the boat 
was a negro; his name John Jackson; he made some resistance 
and in the scuffle was thrown overboard and drowned. It seems 
that the attack was made just as those who had crossed with the 
boat struck the shore, the Indians being in the habit of jumping 
in to help them. The Indians immediately dressed themselves 
in the clothes of the men, a circumstance that deceived depon- 
ent when he first reached the river as above stated, for he then 
supposed he saw the men on the other side and called to them 
to make haste over with the boat. The names of the five thus 
killed in the boat were Thomas Harlin, of Texas; Henderson 
Smith, of Missouri; John Gunn, of Missouri; Thomas Watson, 
of Philadelphia; James A. Miller, New Jersey; Dr. Lincoln was 
of St. Louis, Mo.; Jphn J. Glanton, of San Antonio, Texas; 
John Jackson, of New York; Prewitt^ of Texas^ and Dorsey, of 
Missouri. Deponent knows that there were in the hands of Dr. 
Lincoln $50*000 in silver — but knows not the amount of gold; 
supposes it to be between $20,000 and $30,000: all this is of 



the proceeds of the ferry during the time said company occupied 
it, to-wit, from about the first of March last. The company 
also owns $6000 now deposited with Judge Hays, of San 
Diego, California, and also 22 mules and two horses and pro- 
visions, all at San Diego. No other persons were interested in 
said company but the above named persons (except Jackson 
and Miller), and another now in San Diego^ to-wit., David 
Brown was also interested; the Mexicans say that the Indians 
declare that they are at war with the Americans, do not intend 
to suffer them at the ferry, and will kill all who come to their 
country; that they want to fight with the Americans. These 
Indians have since pursued two Americans who are now in Los 
Angeles, some thirty miles, and previously robbing them of 
everything they had. 

Deponent, since he has been in Los Angeles, has heard 
some reports in reference to Glanton, or others of said company, 
robbing or otherwise mistreating Americans and Sonoraians. 
He has been with said company from the beginning, and posi- 
tively and unequivocally denies the truth of such reports. As 
to the charges of ferriage, they were high, but the expenses of 
maintaining such a ferry, transportation of provisions from a 
great distance* etc., amply justify the charges. There was one 
man killed, an Irishman named Callahan, who had once been 
in the employ of said company, but discharged for incompe- 
tency, and had worked a while with the Indians at their ferry; 
he soon returned, informing us that the Indians had robbed 
him of money and a pistol, which deponent afterwards saw in 
the possession of an Indian. Some days afterwards he was 
found dead, lying in the river near our ferry premises. His 
death could not be accounted for, though he seemed to have 
been shot. Dr. Lincoln had furnished him with supper the night 
before his death; he left in good humor, and went away, saying 
he was going to California, Deponent believes that he was 
killed by the Indians, 

As to the Indians, they always professed great friendship for 
the company, were continually about the premises, ate habitually 
in the houses, and were always treated with kindness personally. 
The boat of the Indians was set adrift, being at our ferry in the 
night; it was a boat of hides, the only one they had to ferry 
people across. It belonged to a Mexican, who consented to its 
being set adrift. We gave them a skiff to ferry with at the 
lower ferry, and never destroyed any of their property. The 
Mexicans say that the Yumas still have the boat Gen. Ander- 


son gave them, and also the two boats belonging to said com- 

Deponent further states that he firmly believes that said 
Yumas intend to do harm to all Americans who may pass 
through their country; that many emigrants, including women 
and chikiren. are now on the point of reaching the junction of 
the Gila au<l Colorado rivers, who in all probability will arrive 
in small parties, unapprized of danger, and unprepared to meet 
it, unless some immediate steps be taken by the public authori- 
ties with this view. Deponent has made affidavit substantially of 
the massacre on the Gila, before the Alcalde at San Diego, and 
applied to the commanding officer of the U, S. troops at that 
place for assistance, but none has been sent. There are forty 
U. S* soldiers, infantry, at said town of San Diego. 


We, the imdersigued, two of the persons named in the fore- 
going statement of William Carr, have heard statement read, 
and fully concur in all the facts therein stated, believing the 
same to be true in all respects. 

Signed before me. 

I St Alcalde de Los Angeles. 

Be it remembered that on the ninth day of May» A, D. 1850^ 
before me, Abel Steams, first Alcalde of Los Angeles, personally 
appeared the aforesaid William Carr, Joseph A. Anderson and 
Marcus L. Webster, whose declarations are above written, and 
subscribed and made oath to the same in manner and form as 
appears above. Given under ray hand this 9th day of May. 
A. D, 1850. ABEL STEARNS. 



This 23rd day of May, A. D. 1850, before me, Abel Steams, 
first Alcalde af the disirki of Los Angeles, and State of Cali- 
fornia, and Judge of the first instance in the Criminal Law, 
personally appeared Jeremiah Hill, who being duly sworn, de- 
poseth and sailh, that he is one of a party of fourteen Ameri- 
can emigrants, who have crossed the Colorado since the mas- 
sacre of Jphn J. Glanton and his companions by the Yumas, 
About five days before reaching the mouth of the Gila, they 
met a Creek Indian by the name of John Lewis, who speaks 
the English, Spanish and Yuma languages, and had come from 
Tucson previously with Gen. Anderson of Tennessee, This 
Creek Indian showed them a certificate given to the Yumas by 
Gen. Anderson, to the efTect, that he left them the boat which 
he had built for the purpose of crossing his company, upon con- 
dition that they would cross all Americans at $1.00 for a horse, 
$1.00 for a man, and $1.00 for the cargo (pack), and that upon 
a violation of this contract, by any higher charge than this» said 
boat should be forfeited. As deponent understood, this boat 
was used at the lower crossing, commonly called "Algodones." 
Tlie Creek said he and three other men were then up the river, 
by orders of Glanton, hunting planks to make a raft for the 
purpose of going down to build another boat, that he (the 
Creek) was a partner with Glanton, and also owned half of the 
aforesaid In<lian l^oat. That Glanton had a ferry at the mouth 
of the Gila, and plenty of provisions. One of the men of de- 
ponent's party, by the name of Anderson, an old acquaintance 
of Glanton's, immediately started ahead to get provisions and 
anaimals from Glanton, but on the 23rd of April, about 9 o'clock 
in the niglu, he returned, saying that from the signs eiven by 
the Mexicans at the mouth of the Gila, not understanding their 
language, he believed that Glanton's party were all killed. He 
related that as he approached close to the ferry, signs were 
made to him, but which he did not understand, and went on, 
being on horseback, until finally the Mexican women pulled him 
off his horse, stripped him, gave him the hat and clothes of a 
Mexican, and hid him, which perhaps was all that saved his 



life. This was about 30 miles from the mouth of Ihe Gila. De- 
ponent's party went next day perhaps 20 miles, but saw no In- 
dians, though some Mexicans said that the Indians bad fol- 
lowed Anderson to within five miles of our camp of the previous 
day (23d). Next day the road led us to within 600 yards of 
Glanton's late ferry where there is a mound; here the road 
forks, one leading down to Glanton's ferry, the left hand leading 
about six miles further to the present ferry occupied by the In- 
dians. We stopped only to see that Glanton's ferry was en- 
tirely evacuated, and no sign of boat or habitation on either 
side; three Indians were there, but, as we rode towards them, 
they ran and hid in the bushes. We went on then towards the 
Indian ferry, the approach to which, for four miles, is through 
the thick brush of mesquite* young willow and cottonwood, by 
a very narrow path, barely sufficient for a single horse, the 
bushes dragging the packs on each side most of the way. We 
had stayed all day and night of the 25th, at our camp, about 
iO miles beyond Glanton's ferry; on this day, in the afternoon, 
about 4 o'clock, teii Yumas, unarmed, came up to our canip^ by 
one of whom we sent for the chiefj for the purpose, as we as- 
sured them» of having a talk with him and making him some 
presents. The chief came the same night about J o'clock; we 
gave him shirts, handkerchiefs, jewelry, pinole, etc., after which 
we asked him in reference to the massacre of Glanton. The 
chief said that Gen. Anderson had left him a boat on the con- 
tract as above stated, and that he would comply with it when* 
ever any Americans came to cross, but as yet none had come; 
since the departure of Gen. Anderson, many Mexicans had 
come to cross at the Indian ferry, which had made Glanton 
mad, and that he (the chief) knew of no other offense the In- 
dians had given said Glanton; that one day Glanton sent his 
men down, and had the Indian boat destroyed, and took an 
American whom they (the Indians) had with them, engaged in 
working their boat, up to his (Glanton's) carnp, wnth all said 
American's money, and that Glanton had shot said American 
and thrown him into the river. The chief said that he then 
went up to see Glanton, and made an ofifer that Glanton should 
cross all the men and baggage, while the chief should cross the 
animals of the emigrants, and thus they would get along quietly. 
Whereupon Glanton kicked him out of the house, and beat him 
over the head with a stick; the chief said he would have hit him 
back, but was afraid, as the Americans could shoot too straight. 
This was before Glanton went to San Diego* according to the 


Chief's statement, for the purpose of purchasing whisky and 
provisions. The chief said he immediately, on receiving this 
insult, went back and held a council of his people. The result 
was a determination to kill all the Americans at the ferry, and 
another chief was sent up to see the position of the Americans, 
who found that Glanton was gone to San Diego. They then 
deteimined to wait until he returned, as their main object, the 
chief said, was to kill Glanton. The chief who had been sent up 
as just stated, went up aftenvards from day to day, to the Ameri- 
can camp, and ftnally one day came back with the report that 
Glanton had returned. Then the chief who had been before 
insulted went up, and found Glanton and his men drinking; 
they gave him something to drink, and also his dinner. After 
dinner, five of the American^ laid down and went to sleep in a 
hut, leaving him sitting there; others were ferrying, and were 
on the opposite side; three had gone up on this side for some 
purpose. The chief said he watched till he thought the five 
were asleep, when he went out to his people on this side, who 
were all hid in the bushes just below the houses; a portion of 
them he sent up after the three Americans who were up cutting 
poles, instructing his men to get possession of their arms; he 
had previously posted 500 Indians on the other side, instructed 
to mix a-mong the Americans and Mexicans, and get into the 
boat without suspicion. He himself then went up on the little 
mound perhaps as high as his head, but commanding a view of 
all his Indians, and the whole scene; from this mound he was to 
give the signal. There he was to beckon to those hid in the 
bushes to come near the American tents, which they were im- 
mediately to enter and give a yell as they killed the Americans, 
whereupon he was to give the sign with a pole having a scarf on 
it to the Indians on the other side as well as those who were 
watching the three above. He gave the signal^ when those in 
the boat and at the houses were all killed, The Indians who had 
been sent after the three Americans ran, and these three suc- 
ceeded in getting into a Httle skiff and escaped by going down 
the river. His men pursued on the shore, on both sides, but 
several were killed by the Americans, and many wounded. He 
showed us two of the wounded, and when asked if "as many 
as ten" of the tribe were killed, he said, "More/* He said 
one of the Americans would row, while the others fired, and his 
people hesitated to pursue further When the chief went up to 
see Glanton, as above stated, about the ferry, Glanton said 
that he would kill one Indian for every Mexican they should 



cross. He showed us by sigiis the amount of money in bags 
which he took from the Americans* camp. It seemed from his 
description to 5e about three bags of silver, each about three 
feet high, and about two feet round, which must have contained 
at least $80,000, besides a bag of gold, about a foot high and a 
foot round. This, he said, he divided amongst his people, then 
burnt the houses over the bodies of the dead. Tlie six who 
were killed in the boat were thrown into the river as fast as they 
were killed, all killed with clubs. The five on shore were killed 
with clubSj except Glanton, who was killed with a hatchett which 
the chief showed to us; their clothes were burnt^ and perhaps 
their flesh somewhat burnt by the burning of the little shed of 
brush in which they had been killed; their bodies were then 
thrown into the river. After giving this account of the trans- 
action, the chief said that, upon the death of these Americans, 
another council was held as to whether they should kill all 
Americans who might come along, at which it was resolved by 
every Indian that they would. He said that in two days they 
could muster four thousand warriors; he said their arms were 
principally bows and arrows and clubs: and that they had a few 
guns, including all the arms they got from Glanton's party, but 
that they intended to collect all they could from every source. 
We sa wthem take guns away from the Sonorantians by force. 
The Sonoranians refused to sell or buy arms of them. They 
offered deponent two fine Colt's revolvers, one five-shooter, the 
other a six-shooter (the same, no doubt, worn by Glanton, as 
the chief satd^ and deponent had seen it in his belt), for his 
double-barreled shot gun, saying they knew the use of a gun, but 
not of the pistols. Deponent refused to trade with them, of 
course; and the Sonoranians or Mexicans there passed a resolu- 
tion not to trade any arms of any description wnth them. 

He told us finally that, if we would go to the river next day* 
he would be there, and keep the Indians from coming into our 
camp, and secure us an unmolested passage. We went, accord- 
ingly, on that day (26th), but he was not on the ground, nor 
did we ever see him again. On touching the bank, Senor 
MontenegTc, who was on a little island about 30 steps from the 
shore, called to us to come over, which we did immediately, the 
water being only belly deep for the mules, A great number of 
Indians were on the island, including a few women and chil- 
dren. The Indian men said very little to us, but the %vomen 
and children would come within three feet of us, pointing at 
us, and using very abusive language, sometimes in Spanish, 


and every now and then the boys used the plain English, in such 
expressions as "God d — m your souls, Americans!" They 
agreed to cross us that day; and all got over except two, who 
remained that night amongst the Indians. When they crossed 
seven of us they refused to take any more, unless they were paid 
over again for all; and we had to pay; they watched us all night, 
apparently with the view of getting into our camp, but we had 
a strong guard, and very few slept. They could be disintctly 
heard slipping through the bushes. Our animals were nearly 
all still on the other side. We had already paid them twice for 
crossing men, animals and baggage. 

Next morning (27th) the Indians came down to the river 
with bottles of whisky in their hands, and pretty well drunk* 
We had to pay them over $3.00 apiece for crossing the balance 
of the animals; they drowned one mule; we gave them a horse, 
blankets, shirts, jewelry, etc., besides about $80.00 in cash. The 
crossing was finally effected the evening of the 2jth, but Mr. 
Sled and Setlor Montenegro were told by the Indians that they 
had better get away from the island or they would kill them; 
and when asked if they intended to cross the animals the chief 
replied that he did not know whether he would or not, that he 
would keep them if he thought proper, but that they had better 
get away. Consequently these gentlemen crossed ahead of the 
animals. Another Mexican gentleman who still remained, had 
to give them a mule belonging to Seiior Montenegro, and other 
presents^ before they would cross the animals at all. after being 
paid three times. On the evening of the 27th, after we had 
crossed everything, and were preparing to start immediately, 
the Indians commenced coming over in great numbers, some in 
boats, and some swimming. After they had got across they 
went to Senor Montenegro, and told him to separate his men 
from the Americans, as they were going to fight us, and had 
come over expressly for that purpose. Seiior Montenegro, hav- 
ing no intention of doing so, arranged that our aniinals should 
be driven with his advance company of fifty men, that we should 
keep disengaged from the care of the animals to meet an Indian 
attack, while he brought up the rear with the rest of his animals 
and one hundred men. After we had got ont some distance from 
the river. Sefior Montenegro remaining behind to see his mules 
off, was taken prisoner by the Indians, and accused by them, of 
protecting the Americans, and threatened wtth death. We 
knew nothing of this. And they would doubtless have killed 
him, but one of his men with a pack mule happened to be a little 



behind. To him Senor Montenegro called, and he got off by 
giving the Indians a bag of pinole and one of panoche. opening 
at the same time trunks containing his and his son*s clothes, out 
of which the Indians helped themselves* He overtook us at 
dark and related these circumstances^ and the further promise 
he had to make the Indians* that when he returned from Cali- 
fornia, he would bring each of the chiefs a suit of red cloth. 

The next day, three of these Indians came through otir 
campf ten miles this side of the river, near the first well, and 
when questioned^ said they were going; to California; we saw two 
more of the Yumas at New river, who told the Mexicans that 
they were there looking out for the Americans who might be 
sent from San Diego, or other part of California, to fight them. 
Twenty times in our presence they stated that they were at war 
with all Americans, and the chief himself told us we were the 
last pajty that should ever cross there, and that he intended to 
keep "muchos" Indians scattered along the road, to kill the 
Americans as they came along and take their animals. Depo- 
nent thinks there are between 75 and 100 Americans, men, women 
and children, whom he supposes now to be about at the Gila, 
and who will be on the Colorado in less than a month, and are 
compelled, from the usual way of traveling in that quarter, to 
come there in very small parties, easily exposed to a successful 
Indian attack. And further deponent saith not, 


State of California, County of Los Angeles, ss: 

Be it remembered that on this 23rd day of May, A. D. 1850, 
before me, Abel Stearns, first Alcalde, and Judge of the First 
Instance, of the Criminal law, of said county, personally ap- 
peared Jeremiah Hill and subscribed and made oath to the above 
statement. Given under my hand. 





Los Ange. gs Countv B 


1^03-1904 ^M 


W. H. Workman, 
J. Frank Burns, 
H. D. Baerows, 
Louis Roedee, 

Chas. H. White, ^^^H 


J. M. GuiNN. ^^^1 

omcEKs. ^^^H 

J. Frank Burns 

.,,,..... , ,, .,.,,. .President H 

J. W. Gillette 

Chas. H.White 

Louts Roeder . ,.., 

, First Vice-President H 

Second Vice-President H 

Treasurer ^M 

J, M, Gum?r , . .... 

, , . ........ Secretary ^t 

utn^m^uiv .C0MMirn££. .^^^M 

C. N. Wilson, 
M. F. QuiNN^ 

Russell W. Ready, ^^^H 

yiNANCE committee: ^^^I 

W. H. Workman, 
H. A. Barclay^ 

Cbas. G. Keybs. ^^^I 


Louis Roeiier, Mrs. AserE Hilleb, ^^^| 
Dk. K. D. Wise, Mrs. Jennie S. Raad, ^^^^H 
Mrs. VmciiNiA W. Davis, N. C. Cakt^ ^^^^^M 
Mrs. Elinor Grosser, J. J. Gospeel ^^^^^H 
Dr. a. H. Wkhn, ^^^^I 



Ds. H. S. Obme, Jrrrv Newell. ^^H 
J. M. Riley, Mrs. Dora Bilderbeck, ^^^H 
E. J. Vawter, SmoN B. Smith, ^^H 
Oscar Macv, Alfred James. ^^H 
X L. Stair, ^^H 
couMrrnxoN entertainment. ^^^^ 

Mrs. Mary Franklin, 
, Mrs. Harriett S. Perri 
' Mrs. J. W. GnTriTE, 

Mrs. J. a Newell, 
1 Mrs. 5u5an C Hopcimb 


Chas. H. White, ^^H 

N. C. Carter, ^^H 
£. K. Green, ^^M 
N. Mercadante, ^^^B 
J. M. Stewart. ^^H 

Pioneers of Los Angeles County 



This society shall be known as The Pioneers of Los Angeles 
County. Its objects are to cultivate social intercourse and 
friendship among its members and *o collect and preserve the 
early liistory of Los Angeles county> and to perpetuate the 
meiTiiory of those who, by their honorable labors and heroism, 
helped to make that history. 


All persons of good moral character, thirty-five years of age 
or over, who, at the date of their application, shall have resided 
at least twenty-five years in Los Angeles county, shall be eligible 
to membership; and also all persons of good moral character 
fifty years of age or over, who have resided in the State forty 
years and in the county ten years previous to their application, 
shall be eligible to become members. Persons born in this 
State are not eligible to membership, but those admitted before 
the adoption of this amendment shall retain their membership. 
(Amended September 4, 1900.) 


The officers of this society shall consist of a board of seven 
directors, to be elected annually at the annual meetings by the 
members of the society* Said directors when elected shall 
choose a president, a first vice-president, a second vice-presi- 
dent, a secretary and a treasurer. The secretary and treasurer 
may be elected from the members outside the Board of Di- 


The annual meeting of this society shall be held on the first 
Tuesday of September. The anniversary of the founding oi 
the society shall be the fourth day of September, that being the 




anniversary of the first civic settlement in the southern portion 
of Alta California, to wit: the founding of the Pueblo of Los 
Angeles, September 4, 1781. 


Members g'uilty of misconduct may, upon conviction after 
proper investigation has been held, be expelled, suspended, fined 
or reprimanded by a vote of two-thirds of the members present 
at any stated meeting; provided, notice shall have been given to 
the society at least one month prior to such intended action. 
Any officer of this society may be removed by the Board of 
Directors for cause; provided, that stich removal shall not be- 
come permanent or final until approved by a majority oE mem- 
bers of the society present at a stated meeting and voting. 


Amendments to this constitution may be made by submit- 
ting the same in writing to the society at least one month prior 
to the annual meeting. At said annual meeting said proposed 
amendments shall be submitted to a vote of the society. And 
if two-thirds of all the members present and voting shall vote 
in favor of adopting said amendments, then they shall be de- 
clared adopted. (Amended September 4, 1900.) 


[Adopted September 4, 1897; amended June 4, 1901*] 

Section i. Applicants for membership in this society 
shall be recom-mended by at least two members in good stand- 
ing. The applicant shall give his or her full name. age. birth- 
place, present residence, occupation, date of his or her arrival 
in the State and in Los Angeles county. The application must 
be accompanied by the admission fee of one dollar, which shall 
also be payment in full for dues until next annual meeting. 

Section 2. Applications for admission to membership in 
the society shall be referred to the committee on membership, 
for investigation, and reported on at the next regular meeting 



of the society. If the report is favorable, a ballot shall be taken 
for the election of the candidate. Three negative votes shaU 
cause the rejection of the applicant. 

Section 3, Each person, on admission to membership, shall 
sign the Constitution and By-Laws. 

Section 4 Any person eligible to membership may be 
elected a life member of this society on the payment to the 
treasurer of $25. Life members shall enjoy all the privileges 
of active members, but shall not be required to pay annual dues. 

Section 5. A member may withdraw from the society by 
giving notice to the society of his desire to do so, and paying 
all dues charged against him up to the date of his withdrawaL 


Section 6. The annual dues of each member (except life 
members) shall be one dollar, payable in advance, at the annual 
mectiiig in September. 

Section 7. Any member delinquent one year in dues shall 
be notified by the secretary of said delinquency, and unless said 
dues are paid within one month after said notice is given, then 
said member shall stand suspended from the society. A mem- 
ber may be reinstated on payment of all dues owing at the date 
of his suspension. 


Section 8. The president shall preside, preserve order and 
decorum during the meetings and see that the Constitution and 
By-Laws and rules of the society are properly enforced; appoint 
all committers not otherwise provided for; and fill all vacancies 
temporarily for the meeting. The president shall have power to 
suspend any officer or member for cause, subject to the action 
of the society at the next meeting. 

Section 9. In the absence of the president, one of the vice- 
presidents shall preside, with the same power as the president, 
and if no president or vice-president be present^ the society shall 
elect a member to preside temporarily. 

Section 10, The secretary shall keep a true record of all 
the members of the society; and upon the death ofj 
(when he shall have notice ' 
in two daily papers of Los 
funeral; and, in conjunction 



cers and members of the society, shall make such arrangements 
with the approval of the relatives of the deceased as may be 
necessary for the funeral of the deceased member. The secre- 
tary shall collect all dues, giving- his receipt therefor; and he 
shall turn over to the treasurer all moneys collected, taking his 
receipt for the same. 

He shall make a full report at the annual meeting, setting 
forth the condition of the society, its jnembership, receipts, 
disbursements, etc. 

He shall receive for his services such compensation as the 
Board of Directors may allow. 

Section ii. The treasurer shall receive from the secretary 
all moneys paid to the society and give his receipt for the same, 
and shall pay out the money only upon the order of the society 
upon a warrant signed by tfie secretary and president, and at the 
end of his term shall pay over to his successor all moneys 
remaining in his hands, and render a true and itemized account 
to the society of all moneys received and paid out during his 
term, of office. 

Section 12. It shall be the duty of the finance committee 
to examine the books of the secretary and treasurer and any 
other accounts of the society that may be referred to them, and 
report the same to the society, 


Section 13, The president, vice-presidents, secretary and 
treasurer shall constitute a relief committee, whose duty it shall 
be to see that sick or destitute members are properly cared for. 
In case of emergency, the committee shall be empowered to ex- 
pend for immediate relief an amount from the funds of the so- 
ciety not to exceed $20, without a vote of the society. Such 
expenditure, with a statement of the case and the necessity for 
the expenditure shall be made to the society at its next regular 

Section 14. At the first meeting after the annual meeting 
each year, the president shall appoint the following standing 
committees: Three on membership; three on finance; five on 
program; five on music; five on general good of the society, and 
seven on entertainment. 



Whenever a vacancy in any office of this ao- 
shalJ be filled by election for the unexpired 

Section 15. 

cicty occurs, it 

Section 16. The stated meetings of this society shall be 
held on the first Tuesday of each month, and the annual meet- 
ing shall be held the first Tuesday of September. Special meet- 
ings may be called by the president or by a majority of the 
Board of Directors, but no business shall be transacted at such 
apecial meetings except that specified in the call. 

Section 17. These By-Laws and Rules may be temporarily 
suspended at any regular meeting of the society by unanimous 
vote of the members present. 

Section 18. Whenever the Board of Directors shall be 
satisfied that any worthy member of this society is unable, for 
the tune being, to pay the annual dues as hereinbefore pre- 
scribed, it shall have power to remit the same. 

Section 19, Changes and amendments of these By-Laws 
and Rules may be made by submitting the same in writing to 
the society at a stated meeting. Said amendment shall be read 
at two stated meetings before it is submitted to a vote of the 
society. If said amendment shall receive two-thirds of the 
voles of all the members present and voting, then it shall be 
declared adopted. 



Reading minutes of previous meeting. 


Reports of committee on membership. 

Election of new members, 

Reading of applications for membership. 


Reminiscences, lectures, addresses, etc. 

Music or recitations. 

Recess of 10 minutes for payment of dues. 

Unfinished business. 

New business. 

Reports of committees. 




Election of officers at the annual meeting or to fill vacancies. 


Is any member in need of assistance? 

Good of the society. 

Receipts of the evening. 



To the Pioneers of Los Angeles County: 

I beg leave to submit the following report of the finances 
of the Society of Pioneers of Los Angeles County for the year 
ending September i, 1903: 

Balance on hand Oct. ist, 1902 $1 19-36 

Collections to Sept. 1st, 1903 221 .50 

Total balance and receipts $340.86 

Disbursements to Sept. ist, 1903 248. &o 

Balance cash on hand $ 92 . 06 

Itemized receipted bills covering all disbursements are here- 
with submitted. Respectfully submitted, 




To the Society of Pioneers of Los Angeles County: 

Gentlemen and Ladies: In accordance with the require- 
ments of our By*Laws I herewith present my annual report for 
the year ending August 31, 1903: 

The Society of Pioneers of Los Angeles County completes 
this evening the sixth year of its existence. 

Since its organization 420 members have been enrolled. Of 
these 54 have died and 15 have been dropped for non-payment 
of dues, leaving at present a membership of 351. 

Forty-eight new members have been taken into membership 
since the last annual meeting. 



Balance on hand October ist, 1902 $119.36 

Collections to September ist, 1903 221 ,50 

Total balance and collections $340 < 86 

Total disbursements per receipted bills 248.80 

Balance on hand Sept. ist» 1903 $ 92.06 

The receipts and disbursements in this report cover a period 
oC eleven months, viz,, Oct. i, 1902, to Sept, i, 1903, The re- 
ceipts for the evening of Sept. 2, 1902, were included in the re- 
port of last year. Adding the receipts of that evening, $94, to 
$221,50 collected in the subsequent jnontbs makes the total col- 
lections for 12 months $315.50. 

Respectfully submitted, J, M. GUINN, 


"IN THE DAYS OF '49." 
By J, M. Guinn. 

In the life of a nation, as in that of the individual, accident 
more often than design shapes career. Scattered through the 
histories of nations are the records of unforseen events — acci- 
dents that have changed the whole future of empires. In the 
history of our own country the discovery of gold in California, 
which was purely accidental» marks the beginning of a new 
epoch. It marks the turning point in our career as a nation 
from agriculturisni to commercialism. 

Before that event agriculture had been the absorbing indus- 
try of the couotrj'. We were the bread growers of Europe — 
content to grow wheat for a foreign market, and cotton for the 
mills of England, Then seven-tenths of our population lived 
on farms and tilled the soil^there were no vast combinations 
of capital; no trusts; no great railroad systems i no multi-mil- 
lionaires; no Pierpont Morgans. 

Before 1850, John Jacob Astor^ the Indian fur trader and 
founder of the Astor family, was the only millionaire in the 
United States, He was a veritable curiosity to the people — a 
man worth a million dollars! Men craned their necks to see 
him as he passed, and women turned to gaze after him in the 

The gold mines of California in half a decade after their dis- 
covery became known abroad added to the wealth of the United 
States $300,000,000, equivalent to an increase of $15 per capita 
to every man, woman and chifd in the country at that time. No 
nation ever before grew rich so rapidly, Rome at the height 
of her power and in the palmiest days of her plundering, never, 
in so short a time, gathered from conquered peoples such heaps 
of gold. The golden ransom that Francisco Pizarro, the swine- 
herd of Truxillo, exacted from the Incas of Peru for the re^ 
lease of their captured chieftain, Atahua^pa^ amounted to a little 
over $6,000,000, an amount scarcely equal to the yield of the 
California placers for a single month. Such a sudden increase 
in wealth prompted great undertakings, stimulated every form 
of industry and encouraged immigration. It built up great in- 
land cities and hastened by at least two decades the settlement 
of the vast unpeopled expanse between the Missouri and the 



Sierra Nevadas. The admission of California into the Union 
as a free State, which was made possible by the discovery of 
goldj stmck the first note in the death knell of human slavery 
and was the precursor of the Civil War. 

Tlie exact date of Marshall's discovery of the golden nug- 
gets in the mill race at Coloma is still a matter of dispute. Mar- 
shall in his lifetime gave three different dates, the i8th, igth 
and 20th, and today, 55 years after the event, one society of 
Pioneers celebrates January the 19th as the true date and an- 
other the 24th. 

The discovery, at first, was not regarded of great impor- 
tance. It took six weeks for the news to reach San Fran- 
cisco, although that city was only 120 miles away. And it 
was nine months before the report of Marshall's find reached 
the Eastern States, When the news was confirmed — when there 
was no longer doubt or cavi! about the enormous wealth of the 
California placers — then there was an awakening of the nation 
hitherto unparalelled in its history. The spirit of adventure be- 
came epidemic and men who never before had ventured a day's 
journey from home cut loose from all the ties that bound tin 
and joined in a pilgrimage to the shrine of Mammon that was' 
fraught with dangers and beset with difBculties appalling to 
the stoutest hearts. 

In the year 1849, one hundred thousand people found their 
way to California, They came by ever>^ known route and many 
by routes hitherto unknown. They came by every means of 
conveyance known to travel by land or sea. They came from 
every civilized land on the globe. All castes and conditions of 
men came — the good and the bad, the industrious and the in- 
dolent, the virtuous and the vicious. This rapid influx of popu- 
lation wrought magical changes in the land of gold. It trans- 
formed it from a land of matlana — n land of tomorrow — to one 
of today. It changed it from a lotus land of ease where hfe was 
a sensuous dream to the arena oJ the most resistless energy and 
the fiercest struggle for existence. 

WHieii ^old was discovered, San Francisco was a little hamlet 
of a few houses clustering close to tlie shores of Verba Buena 
cove. In a little more than two years after, it had grown to be 
a dty of 25,000 souls. It had climbed the sand hills and built 
out over the bay, Tlie commerce of the world sought its harbor 
and. it might be added, much of it remained there. Five hun- 
dred ships deserted by their officers and crews, lay rotting on 
the Mission fiats. Repeatedly swept out of existence by great 



fires, phoenix like it arose from its ashes and grew better and 
bigger after each conflagration. 

In the beginning it was a make-shift city, built on an emer- 
gency. No one expected to remain in it longer than to make 
his fortune* Its first inhabitants had no municipal pride in its 
appearance. The strip of level land that skirted the cove was 
soon built over, then the cJty had either to climb the hills like 
Rome, or wade out into the bay like Venice, It did both, but 
first it tilted the tops of the hills into the bay and sat down on 
dr^' land. Its principal streets are successions of cuts and fills. 
Market street, its grandest avenue, is in places 60 feet below its 
old level and in others 30 above. Rome was built on seven 
hills, but the city of Saint Francis has climbed over seventy. 
Its municipal infancy was beset with many discouragements. 
Flood as well as fire conspired against it. 

Eighteen hundred and forty-ntne was one of the great flood 
years of California. As in Noah's days, the windows of the 
heavens were opened, the rains descended and the floods came. 
Fifty inches of rain are said to have fallen in San Francisco^ 
and the Pluvial downpour was even greater in the mining re- 
gions. The newly arrived Argonauts had been told before their 
departure from the States that California was a hot, dry coun- 
try where little rain fell. As a consequence they made but 
scanty provision against winter storms . 

The rainy season of 1849 began early in November and was 
heralded in the mountains by a downpour of nine inches in a 
single night. The miners were driven from their camps by the 
floods, and as they shivered in the pitiless storm they ironically 
discussed the question whether it was pleasanter to die of thirst 
on a waterless desert or be drowned by inches in a country where 
it seldom rains. 

In San Francisco the wash from the hills flooded the un- 
paved streets. The continued rains and traffic soon reduced the 
detritus into the consistency of pea soup. Men and animals 
floundered through the liquid mud. Drunken loafers roister- 
ing around the streets at night fell into the Serbonian bogs mis- 
name<l streets* and if no friendly hand was near to extricate 
them they sank deeper and deeper into ready-made graves, un- 
coiHned, unwept, and unsung. A story is told that one day a 
hat was seen floating down the muddy tide of Montgomery 
street. A spectator lassoed it and as it was lifted a man's head 
appeared. He was rescued and brought ashore, when he begged 
the spectators to save his horse, which was still below. The 



Story, however, does not rest on any more substantial founda- 
tion than did the submerged rider and his mythical steed. 

It was during this winter that the famous sidewalk of flour 
bags, cooking stoves, tobacco boxes and pianos was con- 
structed. The only sidewalks then were made of pieces of 
boards, dry goods boxes, crockery crates and other refuse of the 
stores. These were continually disappearing in the ooze. Lum- 
ber was $600 per thousand and retailed at a dollar a square foot. 
A sidewalk of plank would have bankrupted the municipality. 
The walks, such as they were^ were built by the merchants to 
help their trade. 

Tliis famous sidewalk was on the west side of Montgomery 
street, between Clay and Jackson. It extended from the Sim- 
monSj Henderson & Co. building to the Adams Express Com- 
pany's office. It began with 1 00-pound sacks of Chilean flour. 
Then followed a long row of cooking stoves^ over which it was 
necessary to carefully pick your way, as some of the covers were 
gone. A damaged piano bridged a chasm and beyond this a 
double row of large tobacco boxes completed the walk. This 
sidewalk has been held up as an example of the extravagance of 
the days of '49. And yet the material in it was the cheapest 
sidewalking in the market. A few months before flour was sell- 
ing at $400 a barrel Everybody in trade ordered f^our. The 
nearest place to secure it was Chile, and ship load after ship 
load was thrown on the San Francisco market until it was not 
worth the storage. 

Some merchants in New York, witnessing the great rush to 
California, conceived the idea of shipping consignments of cook- 
ing stoves to California. The miners would need them in their 
housekeeping and it would be a fine stroke of business to fore- 
stall the demand. The shippers did not know that the miners' 
kitchen outfit consisted of a frying pan and a coffee pot. The 
freight on a cooking stove up into the mountain mining camps 
would have bankrupted a miner's claim. So the consignment 
of cooking stoves was left to rust and rot until utilized for side- 
walks. As to pianos, nobody had time to play on them, and 
the scarcity of houses made their room more valuable than their 

In the East, ignorance of the needs of the miners and the 
customs of the country were responsible for some ludicrous 
mistakes. A merchant of New York bound for California, who 
had dealt in millinery goods, conceived the idea that it would be 
a fine stroke of business to ship a consignment of ladies' bon- 

IN tHE DAYS O? '49. 

nets to San Francisco. The Leghorn bonnet of '49 was a ca- 
pacious affair — model ed a f ter th e p rairie schooner, r the 
schooner was modeled after the bonnet, I am not certain which. 
The bonnet had a dtp in the middle and sharp peaks fore and 
aft; so had the schooner 

The merchant sent his consignment around Cape Horn and 
came to California himself via the Isthmus. Arriving here he 
found to his dismay that the Spanish women did not wear bon- 
nets, but covered their heads with rebosas, and the Spanish 
ladies were about all the women in California then. The poor 
fellow was in despair; all his money was invested in bonnets. 
The bonnets were down at Cape Horn or thereabouts, and there 
was no way of intercepting" the shipment and returning it before 
it completed its voyage of 18,000 miles. 

In due time the vessel arrived . In those days there were no 
warehouses and ship*s cargoes were auctioned off on their ar- 
rival Almost in despair, the merchant put up his bonnets at 
auction. The city happened to be full of miners well supplied 
with gold dust. The sight of a woman's bonnet recalled memo- 
ries of home, of mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts. In a 
spirit of freakishness they bid off the bonnets at an ounce ($16) 
apiece. Red shirted miners paraded the streets with heads en- 
sconced in fashionable bonnets of the vintage of '49 — and were 
happy. So was the merchant, whose venture paid him well. 

Merchandising in the fall of *49 and spring of '50 was a make- 
or- break business. If a consignment of goods reached San 
Francisco when the market was bare of needed articles which 
the consignment contained the merchant's fortune was made 
who secured it. If it reached there when the market was over- 
stocked he was in danger of bankruptcy. 

At one time 5-cent papers of carpet tacks sold at $5 each. 
A pound of salaratus retailed at $16, and a drop of laudanum 
at a dollar* A hogshead of New England rum arrived when 
the market was empty of that beverage. The rum retailed at 
$20 a quart, and one man offered $10 for the privilege of suck- 
ing a straw through the bung hole. His offer was refused, as 
his capacity was known to exceed a pint* 

The yield of the mines in early days was enormous, and 
rich strikes numerous. No occupation is more exciting than 
placer mining. The stroke of a pick may open one of nature's 
treasure vaults and make you independently rich. Hope buoys 
you up to brave hardships and fatigues that would crush you in 
other occupations. Think of taking out ten thousand dollars in 
a day or picking up a nugget that was worth a princess ran- 

Of bOs 



of tbeoK 

K>ridi that dicremigfal 

m the 6aj% o£ '49. The 

d dsy 00 the iiuiiof liuii * 
$100 & day. When the 


beyond- Sai 


fiist spread abroad 



the states ol the vraodcrfnl gold dauw ecae s in Califor 
cnidest ideas prerailed in regard to the v^ gold wai 


gokL aiid 

then in 50,000 had 1 
one in loaooo had 




r seen a gold mime. The 
only gold mines in the United States beiore the acqttisitkHi of 
Cahionna were in the mountains of North Carohna and Geor^gia, 
and theK were so situated that many intdtigcnt persons had 

heard of dieir existence It 

that gold 

foitiid in the sand and grayel and to separate it &om diese 
Yankee ingennity set to work to invent labor-sa>Hng machines. 
Patented machines with cranks and treadles to be propelled by 
hand or foot power; overshot wbcds to work inventions l^ 
water power; and powerful ez^ines oonstmcted so as to be 
placed oo scows and driven by steam were destiEfned to dredge 
the bottoms of rivers, which were believed to be covered with 
gold. Then there were buckets with augm- and vahre attach- 
CDent at the bottom, and long iron handles — these were intended 
to bore down into the subaqoeons deposits and bring up the 
gold, that the augur loosened* and deposited in the buckets. 
Even diving bells were constructed for deeper water, and the 
dtver was expected to pick the golden nuggets off the bottom 
of the river. 

Haskins in bis *' Argonauts of '49" describes one of these 
jnacfaines, which was on board the ship he came on. **Oi>e ma- 
chine," says he, "requires special mentiotL It was in the shape 
of a huge fanning mill with selves properly arranged for assort- 
ing the gold ready for bottling. All chunks too large for the 
bottles would be consigned to the pork barrels. This immense 
machine, which during our passage exdted the envy of all who 
had not the means and opportunity of securing a similar one, 
required the services of a hired man to turn the crank whilst 
the proprietor would be busily engaged in shoveling in pay dirt 
and pumping water, the greater portion of his time, however, 
being required, as was firmly believed, in corking of bottles and 
fitting the heads to the pork barrels as they were 611ed with 
gold. This machine was owned by Mr. Allen of Cambridge, 
Mass.. who had brought with him a colored servant 10 turn 
the crank of this invaluable invention. Upon landing we found 



lying upon the sands and half buried in the mud hundreds of sim- 
ilar machines bearing silent witness at once to the value of our 
gold-saving machinery without the necessity of a trial." 

Nor was it those who came by sea alone that brought these 
curious but worthless inventions. Men hauled gold machines 
across the plains, over waterless deserts, over precipitous moun- 
tains, often sacrificing the necessaries of life to save the prized 
instruments that were to make their fortunes; and when they 
reached the mines haggard, half starved, but bringing in 
triumph their labor-saving machines — only to find ihemse.ves 
the butt of ridicule and their machines the laughing stock of 
the mining camp, Haskins says : "Animated and often acri- 
monious discussions were carried on while on the voyage to 
California in regard to the better means of getting their gold 
down from the mines* Some were in favor of bottles, others 
favored pork barrels. The pork barrel advocates won by show- 
ing that the barrels could be rolled down to the Coast, thus 
saving freight." John S. Hittell says when he and some others 
discovered a wonderfully rich pocket of gold at the foot of 
Mount Shasta in the fall of '49, supposing- the whole galch un- 
derlaid with gold, they seriously discussed the question whether 
they should send for a train of pack mules or a number of ox 
teams to bring out the gold. They were relieved of the neces- 
sity of sending for either 

The rush and greed for gold and the ways of getting it is 
not all there is to the story of the Argonauts. There were deeds 
of charity the most noble and acts of self-sacrifice the most un- 
selfish. There were friendships formed stronger than that of 
Damon and Pythias. There were romances in their lives most 
thrilling and adventures most daring. There was enough in 
their search for the golden fleece to have formed material for 
an epic grander than the Illiad and more fascinating than the 
Odessy. The California immigrants of the early fifties who 
came from the older states were a superior class. They were 
drawn from the most intelligent, the most progressive and the 
most venturesome of the population of the different localities 
from whence they came. All honor to the noble men and 
women who braved perils by sea and land to lay strong ind 
deep the foundations of a new commonwealth. They did their 
work well. They left the impress of their characters on the 
State they founded. To them it owes much of its renown for 
progress, intelligence and enterprise. All honor to the Pioneers 
living and respect for the memory of those who have passed over 
the divide that separates time from eternity. 



The picturesque mountain valley known as Santiago can- 
yon, in Orange county, is located within tlie rang^e of moun- 
tains between the Santa Ana and San Juan valleys on the south 
and El Chino ranch and Jurupa on the north. It is several miles 
wide and perhaps twenty miles long, and is drained by Santiago 
creek, which finds its outlet in the Santa Ana river, not very 
far from the old Yorba homestead. The Yorba and Peralta 
families, whose forebears originally came from Spain, were the 
former owners of both the Santiago and Santa Ana ranches. 

Teodosio Yorba was the ancient owner of the Santiago 
ranch, who sold it to William Wolfskill, and he sold. I believe, 
to Flint, Bixby & Co. It is now owned by the James Irvine es- 
tate. Of course the Yorba grant includes only a limited portion 
of the extensive Santiago canyon. Years ago, mining was car- 
ried on^ in what is known as the ^'Silverado" branch of Santiago 
Not very far above the mouth of the canyon there is one of the 
most beautiful natural parks to be found anywhere. It is as 
level as a house floor, and is densely shaded by evergreen live- 
oaks that must be five hundred years old, more or less, with 
plenty of living springs of pure mountain water near by. It is 
an ideal place for picnicking parties, and was resorted to by 
them extensively in former years when it was widely known as 
the "Picnic Grounds" of the Santiago. J. E. Pleasants was one 
of the first settlers of the valley* and he still resides there. He 
and others had bee ranches ten or twelve miles above the Pic- 
nic Grounds in the ^705 and *8os. He named his place "Refu- 
gio" (Refuge, or place of rest) after his deceased wife. Later, 
this place became the home of Mme. Modjeska and her husband. 
Count Charles Bozenta Clapowski, who have enlarged, im- 
proved and beautified it, creating a lake for irrigation, thus es- 
tablishing for themselves a romantic and luxurious mountain re- 
treat, which they have felicitously named "Arden," and which, 
in fact, is no unworthy nor unlike counterpart of that "Arden" 
of Shak^peare's idyllic masterpiece. 

Away back in the early '60s a very exciting episode occurred 
at a point about three miles above the picnic grounds, in which 
Mr. Pleasants, who had charge of a stock ranch at the time, was 



name appears in the list^ died in 1S58, leaving sons and a daug'h- 
ter in this city. His German name was such a jaw-breaker to 
the natives that they turned it into Juan Domingo, in English, 
John Sunday, 


Age Native of 

Luis Vignea 60 

Morris Carver *....*......) 31 

John J* Warner 

John Temple 

Carlos Baric 

Jean D. Mayen 

Nathaniel Pryor , 

James McPhcrson * . 

Charles Hall .....*■*. 

Mjjnuel D. Olivers. 

Luis Batichett ........ ... 

Juan Domingo 

Isaac Williams ....... 

John Marsh 

Richard Laughlin 

Samuel Preatice 

Alexander Sales ............. 

William Wolfskin 

Daniel Ferguson ...» - ■ . 

Victor Prudon 

Daniel Rice , 

John Davis . * 

Je§us Ferguson 

Juan L, Braun ................ 

Pierre Romero .... 

Albert Fernando , , * , 

Jose Fevirn ,....,.. 

Tames Dobe 

Luis A. Tolmayes 

Pedro Cornelero .......... 

Frank Hiyarez 

William Gwinn 

Tames Johnson 

William Chard ,,,.,....,, 

Jonas Bailey 

Lemuel Carpenter ............ 

Alexander Dunn ............. 

Thomas Luse 

William Bailey .,,, 

John Ray , , , 

Joseph Gibson 

Thomas Tole ..,,**...,*..,.., 

Bernabcl Costo , 

Jordan Pacheco 

Juan B, Laudry... 


United States 
United States 
United States 


France ...,,.. 
United States 
Scotland . . . . . 
TTnited Sutea 


France ....... 


United States 
United States 
United States 
United States 
United States 
United States 

Ireland * 

France . . . 

United States 


United States 


France . . , 

Great Britain . 
France .,,..., 
London ...... 


Italy ........ 

Ireland .. 

St* Domingo . 

England . 

United States 
United States 
United States 
Uniteu States 
United States 


United States 
United States 



Portugal ..,., 


1 831 

183 1 




BY J. M. Gunnr. 

(Read before the Pioneers.) 

The history of the early California "gold rushes** has never 
been written. In the flush days of California gold mining, life 
was too strenuous to waste time in writing the current Tilstoi-jr 
of events that seemed unimportant then. If the rumor that 
started the rush proved a fake, the disgusted miners pocket«l 
their disappointment and kept silent If it resulted in the dis- 
covery of rich diggings, it was their policy to conceal the fact 
lest too many came to share their good fortune 

The gold rush — that is, a rush to unknown and unexplored 
regions on a rumor that rich deposits of the precious metals 
abounded there — did not originate with the early California 
miners. It is as old as civilization. Ulysses and his Argo- 
nauts were off on a gold rush when they set out to find the 
golden fieece of Phryxus* ram. The myth of Quivira and its 
king, Tartarax, who adored a golden cross, sent Coronado 
and his four hundred gold hunters on a weary tramp across 
deserts, mountains and plains. 

The fabled island of California, peopled with Amazons 
whose arms and the trappings of the wild beasts they rode were 
of pure gold, lured Cortes and his followers into a gold rush 
that ended like many a one since has — in death and disaster. 
Myth and mystery have always been potent factors in incit- 
ing a gold rush. Credulity is one of the strongest motive pow- 
ers in moving humanity, whether it be exerted in promoting 
a gold rush or successfully launching a get-rich-quick scheme. 

One of the first of the famous California gold rushes was 
the quest for Gold Lake. The myth of a Lake of Gold ts al- 
most as old as our knowledge of America. Away back in the 
days of Cortes and Pizarro there was a wide-spread legend of 
El Dorado and a Lake of Gold, On the table lands of New 
Granada, in South America, lived a people known as Chibchas. 
Th^were more advanced in civilization than the Incas of 
Peru, They possessed populous cities, paved roads and pur- 
.':piacd- varied industries. They made golden ornaments and itn- 
ageSf and "used gold for a circulating medium in trade. Among 

TH£ M¥TH O^ QOW lAKt. 



these people existed a strange custom. Once a year the ruler 
or cacique was annointed with an adhesive ointment and gold 
dust thickly scattered over his nude body until he literally be- 
came a gilded man. Then he was rowed on a raft to the mid- 
dle of Lake Gautivita, into the waters of which he plunged un- 
til freed from his glittering robe. In the center of the lake 
was supposed to dwell an enormous serpent. The glittering 
dust was a propitiary offering to appease the avarice of the 
demon w^ho dwelt far down in the depths of the lake. 

The legend of El Dorado, which is a Spanish phrase* lit- 
erally meaning "The Gilded/' and contracted from "el hom- 
bre dorado/* spread far and wide throughout Spanish America, 
and even reached Europe, It inflamed the avarice of the 
Spaniards and expedition after expedition was fitted out to 
search for the land of El Dorado and its Lake of Gold. Im- 
mense sums were spent in the search, and countless lives sac- 
rificed. Even the English became imbued with enthusiasm 
and joined in the quest. Sir Walter Raleigh made four unsuc- 
cessful attempts to enter the valley of the Orinoco, where he 
supposed the kingdom of the Gilded Man was located. At 
length Gonzalo Ximinez de Quesada» with a force of seven 
hundred men, marching: up the valley of Rio Magdalena, pene 
trated the land of El Dorado and conquered its inhabitants. 
Of the seven hundred men with whom he began his marcli. 
only 180 were alive when the conquest was completed, and the 
brave Chibchas were almost annihilated. To foil the Spaniards 
they sank their golden images and ornaments in the waters 
of the sacred lake. 

During the reign of Philip II an attempt was made to drain 
the Golden Lake Gautivita, but the undertaking w^s not suc- 
cessful. A few golden images and ornaments were his reward 
for an immense outlay. The glittering dust washed from the 
gilded bodies of numberless caciques tn long ages past lay 
deep down in the lair of the demon of the lake. Such is the 
legend of El Dorado. How many who use the phrase know 
its origin? 

The Indians dwelling around at the time of Mar- 
shairs discovery had a similar legend of a Lake of Gold inhab- 
ited by an aquatic monster. Far up among the fastness of 
the Sierra Nevadas, according to this myth^ was a lake whose 
sides were lined with gold, and the cliffs that lifted above it 
glittered in the sunlight, but in its waters dwelt a horrible mon- 
ster who devoured all that came near his abode. No Indian 


ever bathed in the waters of Gold Lake. Some rornanciiig miner, 
catching fragments of the Indian myth aiid conveniently leav- 
ing out the demon of the lake, told as a fact the story of the 
discovery by the Indians of a L>ake of Gold. The story passca 
from one to another and grew in size and more elaborate in 
details as it traveled. Then the story of the discovery got into 
the papers, and with that reverence for whatever appears in 
print that possesses us, people said the story must be true; the 
papers say so; and then the rush was on. The center of the 
excitement was at Marysville, but it spread ali over the north- 
ern mines. 1 quote from an editorial in the Placer Times of 
June 17, 1850. Under the heading, '*Gold Lake/' the editor 
said: "We were incUned to give only an average degree of 
credit to stones that have reached its during the past few days 
of the unprecedented richness which that locality (Gold Lake) 
has developed. A few moments passed in Marysville last Sat- 
urday convinced us that there is much more reality in this last 
Eureka report than usually attaches to such. In a year's ex- 
perience of local excitement from the same cause we have seen 
none equal to that which prevails in that town, 

**The specimens brought into Marysville are of a value from 
$1500 down. Ten ounces is reported as no unusual yield to 
the panfull, and the first party of 60, which started out under 
the guidance of one who had returned successful, were assured 
that they would not get less than $500 each per day- We were 
told that 200 had left town with a full supply of provisions 
and 400 mules. Mules and horses have doubled in value and 
400 were considered no more than enough for a start, 

*'The distance to Gold Lake was first reported 200 miles. 
It lies at a very considerable elevation among the m^^untains 
that divide the waters of the south fork of Feather river from 
the north branch of the Yuba, The direction from Marysville 
is a little north of east," 

In the Placer Times of the 18th the editor, under the head 
line of "Further From the Infected District," says: "On the 
arrival of the Lawrence (steamboat) yesterday from Marysville, 
we received more news of the Gold Lake excitement. It prom- 
ises to spare no one. It is reported that up to last Tiiursday 
2000 persons had taken up their journey. Many who were 
working good claims deserted them for the new discovery. 
Mules and horses were almost impossible to obtain. Although 
the truth of the report rests on the authority of but two or three 
who have returned from Gold Lake, y^t few are found who 



doubt the marvelotis revelations. The first man who came 
into Marysville took out a party of forty, as guide, on condi- 
tion they paid him $100 each if his story was verified, even of- 
fering his life as a forfeit for any deception. "A second guide 
has left with a much larger party, who are to give him $200 
each, and the same forfeit — his life^ — if there is any deception. 

**The spot is described as very difhciilt of access, and it is 
feared many will lose their way* A party of Kanakas are re- 
ported to have wintered at Gold Lake, subsisting chiefly on the 
flesh of their animals. They are said to have taken out $75,000 
the first week. 

'*When a conviction takes such complete possession of a 
whole community, who are fully conversant of all the exaggera- 
tions that have had their day, it is scarcely prudent to utter a 
qualified dissent from that which is universally unquestioned 
and believed," 

The Sacramento Daily Transcript of June 19th says: 
"Places of business in Marysville are closed. The diggings 
at Gold Lake are probably the richest ever discovered. A story 
is current that a man at Gold Lake saw a large piece floating 
on the lake which he succeeded in getting ashore. So clear 
are the waters that another rnan saw a rock of gold on the bot- 
tom. After many efforts he succeeded in lassoing it. Three 
days afterward he was seen standing holding on to his rope 
and vainly trying to land his prize." 

The Placer Times of Jfuly ist gives the denouement of the 
rush: 'The Gold Lake excitement, so much talked of and 
acted upon of late, has almost subsided. A crazy man comes 
in for a share of the responsibility. Another report is that 
they have found one of the pretended discoverers and are about 
lynching him at Marysville* Indeed, we are told that a demon- 
stration against that town is feared by many. People who have 
returned after traveling some 150 to 200 miles say that they 
left vast numbers of parties roaming between the sources of 
the Yuba and Feather rivers." 

After all the definiteness of its location and the minuteness 
of details in regard to it; the Kanakas living on the flesh of 
their steeds and piling up $75,000 a wxek on its shores; the 
man who rescued float gold from its bosom, and the other man 
who lassoed the massive nugget far down in its crystaline wat- 
ers; the guides who had been there and who placed their lives 
as a forfeit against falsehood — after all these and more, Gold 
Lake was a phantom, a fake, a figment of an Indian myth. 


tWVtSMS or IjOS ANG£L£S covkty. 

It is a good illustration of the marvelous capacity that peo- 
pie have for beUe^Tng what they wish and hope may be true 

We laugh at the phantom chasing ol early days, the wild 
rush for Gold Lake, the mad scr^nble to Gold Bluffs, the search 
for the Lost Cabin» the weary qu^t for the Padre's mine and the 
pursuit of other igne^ fatui that have deluded honest miners 
and sent them chasing over mountains and across deserts af- 
tcr illusions; and yet it is not strange that such things occurred. 
The interior of California in the days of '49 was a tora incog- 
nita — ^an unknown land. 

There was a common belief among the early miners that 
the gold in the streams came from mother lodes far up in the 
mountains. For ages the attrition of the elements had disin- 
tegrated these quartz lodes and the floods had floated down 
the streams gold dust and nuggets. Could the mother lode 
or lead be found, the fortunate finder would chip off a few tons 
of gold-bearing quartz* pulverize it, extract the gold, and re- 
turn to the States to the girl he had left behind him — a multi- 




George Huntington Peck, A* B., A. M.^ class of '37, Uni- 
versity of Vermont, and son of Ainiira Keyes and John Peck, 
was bom in Burlington, Vermont, March 4, 1819. 

He entered the University of Vermont in August, 1833, 
being a Httle over 14, not any too well prepared, and at an age 
much too early for his own good, or to cope with one of the 
severest curricula of any college in the United States. The 
aggravation of the position was increased from the fact that 
college hfe in those days was all study and comparatively no 
play; i. e,, there were no athletic amusements so necessary for 
the development mentally as well as physically, for young stu- 
dents. As a consequence of these deficiencies, organic paina 
and weaknesses, now readily understood, but which seemed 
beyond the ken and control of the physicians of nearly seventy 
years ago, found the subject of this notice at his graduation not 
strong, as he should have been> but instead a chronic invalid 
and a martyr to pains. To obtain relief through change of air 
and scenes, he, in the summer of 1838, made a cod-fishing voy- 
age north through the Straits of Belle Isle, and as far as the 
Esquimaux Moravian missionary settlements of Okak and Naim 
on the Labrador coast. The winter of 1839-40 was spent in 
the Island of Santa Cruz, Danish West Indies, and in touring 
through the West Indian Islands of St Thomas, Porto Rico, 
Hayti, Jamaica and Cuba, In 1841 Mr. Peck was admitted 
to the bar and began practicing in Burlington. But the re- 
sult of the unfortunate college experience forced him from a 
growing and profitable law business to active sea life. From 
December, 1842, to 18461 he followed the sea as a sailor before 
the mast, visiting in this capacity southern ports of the United 
States, several of the West Indian Islands, Rio Janeiro and 
England. Returning to Vermont, he spent the three follow- 
ing years in the mercantile business and in water cures. On 
the first of December, 1849, he landed in San Francisco, Cal. 
In the same month, with partners^ he began farming near Al- 
viso, about fifty miles south of San Francisco. They were the 
first California farmers of the pioneers of '49. In May, 1850, 
he was the first person established in San Francisco as a pro- 
duce merchant, hay being $200 a ton, cabbages $1.50 for a 

pionei;rs of los angeles county. 

bunch of leaves called a head, peas 25 cents a pounl in the 
pod, and potatoes $25 a cental Everything in California in 
its earliest days was wild, rough, unsettled and constantly 
changing. In 1851 and 1852 Mr. Peck was a successful miner 
on the middle fork of the Amen can Riven Then, for about 
two years, he was a pioneer farmer in Yolo county (where he 
owned several thousand acres), and until sickness and the exi- 
gencies of a new country forced him to Sacramento, where, on 
the 14th of February, 1854, he opened the first public school 
in the State outside of San Francisco. In 1857-8 he was prac- 
ticing law at Dutch Flat, a mining settlement in Nevada county. 
In 1858, on his return to California from a visit to Vermont, 
he opened a commercial class and was a pioneer teacher of dou- 
ble entry bookkeeping in San Francisco, In May, i860, he 
opened the San Francisco Industrial SchooK and from 1861 to 
1863 was Grammar Master (then the highest educational position 
in California) and a principal in the San Francisco schools until 
1863, when he entered into and continued in successful mer- 
cantile pursuits until 1869, when misfortunes caused his re- 
moval to a farm of about 500 acres at El Monte, Los Angeles 
county. In 1869 the city and county of Los Angeles had 
about 20,000 inhabitants, and the latter was just emerg- 
ing from a pastoral state. Markets were limited, and every- 
thing was very primitive. Mr, Peck had the privilege of ad- 
miring his land, paying taxes and waiting for the future. Tcach- 
ing, fortunately, in such a new country, was always for him an 
available crutch. He began instructing and became School 
Superintendent of Los Angeles county from January, 1874. to 
1876. Always enterprising, he was ever ready to promote use- 
ful and improved methods among the farmers. As a member 
of the Episcopal church, he has for many years been senior war- 
den of the Church of Our Savior at San Gabriel, an ancient 
mission of Southern California. Mr. Peck is an ardent Ver- 
monter, and has no doubt that Providence for over sixty years 
has permitted his native State the high privilege of sending 
out its popular increase, and with it, its advanced civilization and 
strong patriotic government system, into the western and other 
new States, to the most remarkable degree. 

Mr. Peck, whilst painfully and fully realizing that the mis- 
take of overstudy and excessive confinement, with too little 
exercise whilst in college, worked him an irreparable injury 
in destroying his health, and consequently compelling an aban- 
donment of his profession and making his future subject to 


1 umerous changfes, new adaptations, adverse conditions and 
risks^ is happy in the beHef that under the present system of 
education, college students can receive the highest education 
and have a lifetime of health in which to use it to the best ad- 

On the 30th of April, 1864, he was anarried to Miss Mary 
Wanostrocht Chater, an English lady. The union has been 
most happy. Their present home is at Pasadena, Los Angeles 
county. They are the happy heads of five families and numer- 
ous descendants. Although he entered college the youngest 
and weakes-t of a class of .8, he was for many years its sole 

Mr George H. Peck died at Pasadena, April 12, 1903* aged 
84 years, one month and eight days. He leaves a widow and 
four children — two sons and two daughters, viz. ; John H. F. 
Peck of Los Angeles, George H, Peck of San Pedro, Mrs, 
Albert Gibbs of South Pasadena, and Mrs* John E. Jardme. 


Edmund Cermy Glidden was born at Tustinbough, N. H.» 
October 4, 1839. He was educated in the common schools of 
his native place. He came to California via Panama, arriving 
in San Francisco in February, 1868. He engaged in business 
there until February, 1870. when he removed to Los Angeles. 
He engaged in the sewing machine business. He bought an 
orange orcharad near San Gabriel and for several years was 
employed in orange culture, but the venture was not a success. 
He returned to the city and for a time was a member of the 
police force. In 1883 he was married to Mrs. Josephine Blan- 
chette, H'C was a charter member of Southern California 
Lodge No. 191, Ancient Order of United Workmen. He wa5 
also a member of University Lodge of Independent Order of 
Foresters, and of the Pioneers of Los Angeles County, His 
last occupation was that of district manager of the Chicago 
Crayon Company. He died at Visalia, March 2, 1903. Be- 
sides his widow, he leaves a son, Edmund, a sister and two 
brothers. He was a quiet, unassuming man who did his duty 
faithfully in every station of life which he filled. 




To the Society of Koneers of Los Angeles County: 

The undersigned committer, by you appointed to submit 
a memorial of our late member, Samuel Meyer, respectfully 
submit the following: 

Samuel Meyer was by birth a Prussian, native of Strass- 
burg. He came to New York in 1849. Resided during the 
four years following in the South, at Macon, Ga,» Louisville, 
Ky., and Vicksburg. In 1853 he came (via Nicaragua) to Los 
Angeles and immediately entered commercial life, in which he 
was prominent for half a century, and was founder of a sue* 
cessful and large crockery and g^Iassware establishment, which 
he conducted til! shortly before his death, He was also prom- 
inent in Masonry, being treasurer of Lodge No. 42 for some 
50 year^. 

In 1861 Mr. Meyer married Miss Davis^ and now, besides 
the widow five daughters and two sons survive him. His re- 
mains lie in the Jewish Cemetery on Boyle Heights. 

Samuel Meyer was like Nathaniel of old, an Israelite without 
guile. He was always bright faced and amiable. His life dur- 
ing the trying formulative period in Los Angeles was worthy 
of the true Pioneer, and later generations will fare well, if they 
but have such in business and social life. 

Benevolent, too, he was; an all-around good citizen* whose 
memory we will cherish till earthly faculties fail us likewise; but 
the Book of Life wilK already does, for him attest he did his 
best below, and what better record can any transmit to his de- 
scendants? He died March 25, 1903. 

We respectfully commend the entry on our record, and trans- 
mission of a copy hereof to his widow. 





This worthy member of the Society of the Pioneers of Los 
Angeles County was born in the year 1841 in Wallmerod, in 
Nassau, Germanvi and died in Los Angeles City on April 29, 
1903, after an illness of only a few weeks, and was buried in the 
Rosedale cemetery on the first day of May, 1903, 



C F. Heinzeman received his education in his fatherland 

in pharmacy and chemistry, and as a practical druggist. In 
1868 he emigrated to the United States, After a short stay in 
New York and in San Francisco he came to Los Angeles. Soon 
after he arrived in this city he estabhshed his well-known phar- 
macy on North Main street which he maintained throughout the 
remainder of his life. 

Shortly before coming to Los Angeles he married Miss An- 
tonie Preuss, daughter of Dr Preuss, formerly of New Orleans 
and later of Los Angeles. The issue of this marriage was three 
sons and five daughters^ all of whom survive him. Four of 
his daughters are married and are now Mrs. J. O. Cashin, Mrs. 
W. Murray, Mrs. E. Clark and Mrs, J. Munro. The two oldest 
sons, Carl and Edward, are now conducting their father's phar- 
macy, while the two younger children still attend school. 

He was a very active business man and was deeply interested 
in the welfare and progress of this community and had high 
ideals for the advancement of humanity and for the elevation of 
the poor. Every day of his many years of active business, from 
morning until late at night, he could be found in his drug store, 
not allowing himself a much-needed vacation, and it was not al- 
ways for money making. To the poor, who were unable to pay, 
he often gave medicine free. His great experience and thorough 
knowledge of drugs enabled him to give poor persons who were 
unable to employ a physician beneficial advice and treatment. 
He was ever ready to aid the deserving poor with money or in 
any other way he could help them. He was a man of unfailing 
perseverance. It was through his friendly manner, his 
kindness and generosity, that he gained the love and' respect 
of his fellow men. He was more widely and better known 
than almost any other citizen of Los Angeles, and every- 
body who knew him had a word of praise for him. He was be- 
loved by the rich as well as the poor, by his own countrymen, 
by Americans, and by men of all nationalities. Therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the members of the Society of Los Angeles 
Pioneers do deeply regret the loss of our esteemed brother and 
friend, C. F. Heinzeman. and do herewith extend our sincerest 
sympathies to his family and relatives in their hour of sorrow 
over their bereavement of a loving father and husband, and a 
true friend to all who knew him. 

Respectfully, your committee. AUGUST SCHMIDT. 





Mr. Jean Sentous came to Los Angeles in 1856, 47 years 
ago. He was a native of France, bom January i, 1836. He 
was engaged in dairying and cattle raising for many years. He 
was a man of the highest probity and worth, and was respected 
by all who knew him, and most highly by vhose who knew him 
best. He was of a quiet, retiring disposition, strongly at- 
tached to his family, which at the time of his death consisted of 
his widow, Mrs. Teodora Sentous (born Casanova) and six 
children — three sons and three daughters — all grown. He be- 
longed to no societies other than the Pioneers and the French 
Benevolent Society, of which latter he was one of the founders, 
and for many years the president. The estimation in which 
Mr. Sentous was held by his countrymen was evidenced by the 
fact that the French colony turned out en masse in attendance 
at his funeral, in token of their respect for their compatriot. 
The procession of carriages that followed his remains to Cal- 
vary cemetery was one of the longest funeral corteges ever seen 
in Los Angeles. Eloquent and appreciative orations in French 
were pronounced at the grave by Messrs. Fuesenot, the French 
Consul, and editor of L'Union Novelle, and others. 


At the California Hospital last Saturday died one of the 
old guard of Los Angeles citizens, who witnessed the growth 
of the city from a small beginning and contributed in large 
measure to its prosperity. 

Micajah D. Johnson was born of Quaker stock in the town 
of Waynesvilie, C, in March, 1844* He held to the faith of 
his people through life, retaining his membership in the old 
church to the end. His education was completed at Pardue 
Institute, Battleground, Ind., and, at the age of 21, he went 
westward to seek his fortune, settling in Virginia City, Mont. 
His first position of responsibility was in the banking house of 
Nolan & Wearie, of which institution he soon became cashier. 
Afterwards he severed his connection with the bank to engage 
in the mining supply business. 

In 1874 he married Miss Susie Avery of Virginia City, and 
two years later, witht his young wife, removed to Los Angeles. 

Mr. Johnson's first business venture here was the conduct 



of the first hotd built at Santa Monica — a rather pretentious 
affair for that day, which was long ago destroyed by fire. Sub- 
seqtjently Mr. Johnson removed to Los Ang;e]es, becoming a 
partner in the old Grange Store of happy memory. 

In later years he went into public life and served two terms 
consecutively as City Treasurer. In more recent years he has 
been engaged in real estate and mining- operations. 

Mr. Johnson was always a man of right standards and pro- 
^essive impulses. His word was "yea^ yea, and nay, nay,*' 
and everybody placed implicit confidence in him. He waA 
one of the principal workers in securing- the location of the 
Soldiers' Home near this city. He was also one of the found- 
ers of Whittier, and gave that place its name after the Quaker 
jK>et* He was vice-president of the Equitable Loan Associa- 
tion from the beginning of that organization. He was a mem- 
ber of the Masonic order and of the Pioneer Society, 

Mr. Jphnson had suffered for nearly two years from a 
chronic stomach trouble, which was only recently diagnosed as 
cancen The disease assuming a violent form, he was taken 
to the California Hospital, May 25th, where an operation was 
performed by Dr. Lasher, assisted by Drs. Visscher and Yost, 
The patient passed the operation successfully, and at first it 
was thought that his life could be saved, but complications en- 
sued which resulted in death at 11 a. m., Saturday, June 6th. 

Mr Johnson leaves a widow, a son, Bailey Johnson, just 
grown to man's estate, and an adopted daughter, Mrs. Ben- 
jamin McLouth of Hartford, Ct. He also leaves a brother, 
who resides in Los Angeles. 


Ivar A- Weid, for forty years a resident of Southern Cali- 
fornia, died of heart failure at Copenhagen the latter part of 
August* Mr. Weid had gone back to his native land for a 
short stay ,acco.mpanied by his wife and youngest son, 'Axel, 
and by H. J. Whitley of Hollywood. News of the sudden death 
was received yesterday by the relatives from Mr. Whitley. 

The dead pioneer came to California about i860, seeking 
his fortune, and through careful investment amassed wealth and 
placed himself in an enviable position socially- Shortly after 
the boom of 1887 he went back to Denmark on a short visit. 
Returning to California he interested himself in real estate to 
quite an extent, obtaining large holdings in Hollywood and the 


. V 

VaDcT m mck properties wliidi have iiiice been 
iSvided and sold at a big profit It was largdj tliroagfa his 
nntmng cxicrgy and liberalitj that the tittle dnoiiBy hne was 
boilt to Hollywood, aiid later he associated himself with H. j. 
NVhitlcj and CoL GtilEth J. Griffith in the coostmction of the 
Hollywood branch of the dcctric Kae oot Prospect Botslevard 
which later was sold to the Lot Angeles & Pacific Electric 

As a public man, Wetd was always to the fore in the np- 
bailding of this, the city of his adoption, as well as Hollywood. 
He was a generous tnan, of temperate habits and mild dispo- 
sition, a man of few enemies and many friends. He was a 
strong beliocr in good roads and the assistance of railroads, 
and always stood ready to aid the interests of an3rthing along 
these linca. He was one of the promoters oi the Simsct Boule- 

He built the Wetd block on the comer of Eighth and Spring 
streets, and at$o owned, in addition to much other property at 
the lime of his death, a large store on Los Angeles street be- 
tween First and Requena. He leaves a snur fortune. 

Mr. Weid was about 65 years of age and leaves a widow, 
two daughters and three sons to mourn his loss. His eldest 
son, Otto, is connected with the Union Hardware & Metal 
Company of this city and resides in Hollywood. Mr. Weid 
was holding the office of gauger for the United States Internal 
Revenue Office and had been living for some time at 138 North 
Bunker Hil! avenue. 

Resolutions of respect to the memory of Bro, Ivar A, Weid, 
October 31, 1903: 

Again we have to announce the death of one of our honor- 
able members, Captain Ivar A. Weid. a native of Denmark, 
bom in 1837. He died suddenly while on a pleasure trip in 
Copenhagen^ on the 25th of last August. 

The deceased was a member of the G. A. R.; also of the 
Masonic fraternity. He came to Los Angeles in 1871; had the 
hotior of holding the position as U. S. Gauger both under the 
Republican and Democratic administrations. Although he had 
a commercial education, he started fanning when he first came 
here. Later on he was one of the lessees of the old United 
States Hotel 

Resolved* That we, the Pioneers of Los Angeles, have lost 
in the late Captain Ivar A. Weid a good and active member, 
and the people of I^os Angeles an energetic citizen; his wife. 



a loving' husband; his children^ a self-sacrificing father; and be 
it further 

Resolved. That we proflfer his bereaved family in this their 
hour of sadne&s and affliction, our tenderest and kindest sym- 
pathies for their irreparable loss; and be it further 

Resolved, That these resolutions he spread on the minutes 
of this meeting- and that a copy oE them be presented to the 
family of our deceased member, as a token of our joint sorrow 
and the high esteem in which he was held by the Pioneer* So- 
ciety of Los Angeles. 

Respectfully submitted, 



On October 15th, after a brief illness, Julius Brousseau, well 
known lawyer and Democratic politician, died of Bright's dis- 
ease at the apartments of his daughter, Miss Mabel Brousseau, 
at the corner of Pico and Figueroa streets. Since the death 
of his wife, two years ago, Mr. Brousseau has gradually been 
failing, and he retired from active practice a year and a half 
ago, since which time he had been devoting his attention to his 
ranch at Redlands, During the last three weeks he was con- 
fined to his bed. He was a Scottish rite Mason and the funeral 
was conducted by that order. 

Julius Brousseau was bom December 17, 1854^ at Malone, 
Franklin county, N. Y., and while he was an infant his parents 
removed to Monroe county in that State, where he was educated 
in the public school^ and in Lima Seminary, and where he lived 
until he reached the age of 25 years. After teaching school 
eight or nine years he went to Flint, Mich., and from there to 
Saginaw, where he practiced law seven years, serving the city 
as attorney two terms. In 1870 he moved to Kankakee, IIU, 
where he was again elected to the position of City Attorney, 
serving two term^, 

He came to Los Angeles in 1877 and soon thereafter formed 
a partnership with Volney E. Howard and the latter's son, 
Frank Howard, the firm being known as Howard ^ Brousseau 
& Howard. Later he was also in the law firm of Brousseati 
& Hatch. This partnership was not dissolved until 1882, and 









^|B pioneers of LOS 





AC m 

jr ucc 



AlUT. IMCfr 



Andrnaii, U kL 



July 4. '7t 

Lof Angeka 


1 Aadcrson, Mn. Drnvid 



JM- 1. '5 J 

641 S. Grand «T, 


AuitJEii Henrr C 



Aog. j*. *H 

3! 18 Figucrw 


AJTirci, F«rdtauul 



M*y I, Va 

647 S. Sicfae] 


Adiou. Julii A. T. 



July 14. •« 

7*3 E. Eighteenth 


BarclAT, Jolin E. 



Adfr. 'yi 



BirrowB, H«U7 D. 



Dk. «*, 'M 

734 Beai^on 


Birrowt, Jamet A- 



May. '68 

ai6 W, JefftTKKi 


Badcrb«ck, Mr^ Dor» 



Jaa, 14, '*i 

too9 E. Eigtith 


BUby, JonatluD 



juae, '66 

I«ong Beach 


Btcknel], John D. 



M*y, '?* 

tli5 W* Serenth 


Bouton, £dw&rd 

N. Y, 

Heal SfUCc 

Aug., '68 

1314 Bond 


BroumAr^ Siy. 



Ko*. aS. '68 

t*9 Wilmiogtoa 


Biuib. Cbbrltt H. 



Mmrch, '^0 

318 K. Main 


Buni«, Jftma F. 

K. V, 


N0T> t&. '53 

IS? W. Sev&nteenth 


Butterfidd, S- H, 



Aus., '6fl 

Loa Angelea 


Bdl, Uonce 



OcL, 'S' 

1337 Figuerod 


Bilu. Mn. ^Uzibttli S. 



July* '73 

Mt N. OliTe 


Bil», Albert 



Julj. >3 

141 N, OliTe 


Brad«haw, T. T. 




634 S, Spring 


P Br«er. Loub 




Mts San Pedro 


Broumer, Ifn, & 



Mty i6, '68 

tyia Brooklyn 


BrowDr GiBorffc T, 

T. y. 

Fruit Grower 

Feb, a6, -Ss 



BLanchArd, James H. 



April. '7* 

919 W^ Second 


Baldwin. Jeremiah 



April. '74 

7*1 Dirwia 


B«rcUr. HtBTf A, 



Aug. I. V4 

133 1 S, Main 


Binford, Jcneph B> 


Baok Teller 

JuJy i6. '74 

Mi03 E. Firrt 


BArrowi, CamdU & 



M*y. *6a 

jjfi W. JeSerHM 


Brmiv^ Ad«i U. 



Nov.. *73' 

i6d R«V)tt 


Eriffbt, Ton«i 



Sept., '74 

aiB Requena 


■^Biiffum, Wm. IL 



Jaly 4r 'S9 

144 W. Twelfth 

BtrbBin, RkhArd U> 


U. S. Gaugcr 

Feb. J3, '74 

Ii43 W. ScTCath 


Bralr. Tohn A. 



Feb., '91 

Van Kuya 


BU«s, I^eotiidu 




J 49 J I^ambie 


£]uiov«, J. A. 

N. J. 


Dec s8. '75 

aiei Hootcf 


Buffum. Etbect* E> 



Sept 19, '64 

144 W, Tweiftii 


Bell, Ahjcmnder T. 



Dec, M, '68 

1059 S. Hill 


B»k«. Bdwmrd U 

W. Y. 


Dec. '66 

loi S. Flower 


Baxter, WiUiftm O. 



May, -47 

Santa Uoaiea 


Burke, JOKi^h H. 



April *J. ^53 



BoDtb, Edward 




740 W. Seventeenth 


Cuw«tl, Wm. K. 



Ani. *p '67 

1093 % Waibingbn 


CerclU, Scbutiu 



Not, «4» V4 

Si I San Femudo 






*M. IH 

1 HAUt, 



Aaarv. iv co. 



1 CoBkelmin, BenaH 



Jaa. J, '6? 

3 to S. Loi Angeles 


1 Cohn, KAtptre 



Dec. 's^ 

March, % 

3601 S. Grand 


1 Crimmiiu. Jdin 


Mast. Pluniber 

13? W. Twenty-fifth 


Crawford, J. S. 

N. Y. 



Downey Block 


Currier, A. T. 



July r '69 


186 1 

Gwk, Frank B, 



Feb. »t, '«« 

Hyde Park 


CMrtcr. N. C 



KtJT., >I 

Sierra Madrc 


Conner, Mn. Kate 



June JA, *ji 

1054 S- Grand 

Cbaptnan^ A. B. 



April, 'J7 

Sao Gabriel 


CnnninBhuD, RobL C 



Nffr. .5r '73 

1 301 W. Second 


Clarke^ N. J, 

N. H. 



317 S. Hill 


Com^an, Geo. D> 



MlT, '67 

SsS W. Jeffenoii 

Cowan, D. W, C 



June It '^ 

B24 W. Tsidi 


Cart«r» Julius M. 



March 4. '76 



CUrke, Jamu A. 

N. Y. 



113 W. Second 


CMpbdl. J. M. 




716 Bonnie Brae 


Cable, Jonithmn T, 

N, Y, 


Apri] 10. '61 

I lis Wilhardt 


Culver, Francil F, 



Not.. '76 



Cnne, W. H. 

N. Y. 



738 W. Sered^ 


Cook, AloDxo G. 




Long Beach 


Coalter, Framk M.. 



Sept '77 

lois S. Figueroa 


Daltpn, W. T. 



1900 Cmtnl vTcnue 


D»Ti.. A_ B, 

N. Y* 

Fniil Grower 

N(XT,. *6s 



1 Doonen P. W. 



liiy I, '7* 

648 S. Broadvuy 


^H I>oht, Fred 



Sept. »69 

*i4 E. Firat 


^H Pcnztond. C C 



Sept. '7n 

7»4 CoTonado 


^^ Duaktlberser, I. R. 



JfcTL. '66 

ijiB W. Ninth 


Duiitap, J. ID. 

K, H. 


Not., 'so 



Dryden, Wm 

N* y* 


Maj, -68 

L,ot Aogetet 


DuH«, Jaa. D. 



Sept IS, 's8 

El Monte 


t>iri9. Emily W, 






tHrii, John W. 



Dec, 10, V* 

518 San Julian 


BaWi, VirginU W. 



Sept,, -5, 

£i8 San Julian 


Delano, Tbot. A. 

N. K, 


April, *5o 



Davtfl, Phoebe 

N, Y. 


Dec. 15. 'S3 

797 E. Seventeenth 


Davw, John 

N. Y, 


ApHl, •?* 



Dou«bcrtr> Oscar R. 



March jl, '77 

South Pasadena 


U« Turk. Jm G> 



April U. '?S 

A<i8 Edwin ttrtel 


Dillej', Louli 



Dee., '7S 

1055 S, Figueroa 


UoT. Victor 



Oct li, '7* 

Si 3 S. Broidwiy 


Elton, Ben/. S, 


ajOi- EnciiMtf 


45S Shermui 


Eberlc. Cha*. H. 



March, •80 



EbinEer, Louii 



Oct 9* *7t 

75S Miple 


Hdgerton, Salvln 




Loi Angele* 


EUintt, J. U. 

8. C. 


Not., '70 

9x4 W. TwcntT-ei^th 


EvArta, Hyron E. 

K. Y. 


Oct j6, '5S 

IvOi Angele* 

Edehoan, A. W. 



Jane, *6j 

1343 Flower 


Edgar. Mrt. W, F. 

N. Y. 


April 18, '6s 

S14 W. Waihingtoo 


EtUw4rtb» Daald 

N. Y. 

Oil Producer 

Sept. '7 J 

629 S. Flower 


^^^ SiKOj Tlicodan A. 



Mareb, *&7 

»6ae S. Figuere* 


^VnrweJl Wm. 



Attff. 15, '67 

540 S. Figueroa 


r Foitcr, Geo, S. 



Mar, IS. *7S 

73S S. Oliv« 


1 FurfUHO, WoL 



AprU, *«^ 

301 S. Hill 


1 FoRcrt Wn. C. 

N. V. 


A«i., -r* 

iial IngnULtn 







aa. t> 




anv'n Co. 



Fttncb« Lorinf W. 





837 Aivarado 


Pruklin, Mrs. Mftry 



Jan. I* 


iSj Avenue 3a 


Pickett. Charles R, 



July s. 


EX MoRte 


TuhcT, t. T. 



Mar. 34. 


I,oa AjLgelei 


For. Mfa, Lucinda IL 



Dec a4. 


651 S. FJsucToa 


FrcDcb. Cliu. E* 





r4tH N, Broadway 


Flood, Edward 

N. Y. 

Cement worker 



1515 Palmet avenue 


^^H Fotfle, t«wrcfice 





433 Avenue aa 


^^H F«u1kft. Irving 



Oct. iS. 


404 Bcaudry avenue 


^ Franc: k* Adolph 





4^8 Colyton 


PraQkei, Sunnd 




SiB S. Hope 


Felu. t. DtBBli 





116 S. Grand arcntie 


GiltDOfc, Fred J 



Oct s. 


loo E. Twenty-fifth 


G4fey. Thoma* A. 



Oct 14. 


38t3 Mapte aventic 

.il$a 1 

Gftrve/p Ricbwd 





Sas Oabriet 


Gage, Henry T, 

N. Y. 




1146 W, Twcnty^eighth 


CiUetle. J. W. 

N« Y. 




iMx Temple 


GUlctti!, Mn. E* & 





J a* Temple 


Could. Will D. 



Feb. 3S, 


Bcaudry avenue 


Griffith, Jaa. R< 







QrHD, Morrii M. 

N. Y, 




JO 17 Kingaley 


GoUmer. Charles 




1530 Flower 


Griffith, 3. M. 





L«a Angelca 


GrecD, £. K. 

N. Y, 




W- Ninth 


Green. Floyd E- 





W. Ninlh 


Guiniit J^mci U, 



Oct iS, 


115 S- Gr«.Dd at^entt* 


Goldiworthi^, JehD 



Mar. ad. 


107 K. Main 


Gilbert, Harlow 

N. Y. 

Fruit Growcr 

Nor, 1, 


Beli Station 


Gerkiiu, Jacob F^ 







Gwettf Roocit I«a 



Nov, s, 


;oj N. Grand avenue 

I Ada 

Grebe* CbrinJan 



Jan. a, 


flu San Fernando 


Gird, Gcorse B^ 


D'etre tive ajvicj 


4a;S San Joaquin 


■ Grccnbamn, ^phraini 




1817 Cherry 


GDwer» GeorKt T. 

H. L 






Grosaer, Elctaore 





663 S. Spring 


Colding, Tbomm* 




Loa. Angela 


Gla*?, Benry 



Jnne aa. 


W. Fourth atrecl 

Cordon, Joha T. 

B. C 





Crow, G. T. 




71S S. Rampart 


Gicse, Henry 




1944 Evtrelta 


Gosper. John J. 


Mminir Broker 


to3 E- Second 


Haines, Rufui R. 





aiB W. Twenty-icvefitli 


HurU» Emil 



April 9> 


tai6 W. Eighth 


Harper, C F, 

N, C. 





Haiard, Geft W. 



Dec as. 


IJ07 S- Aivarado 


Haiard, Henry T. 



Dec aj« 


MB36 S, Hope 


Hellman. Herman W. 



May 14* 


954 Hill 


HuDtef. Jane ^ 

N. Y. 



337 S. Broaaway 

Huber, C. E. 





Sj6 S- Broadway 


Hamilton, A. N, 



Jan. a4. 


*tl Temple 


Holbrook. J, F. 



May aft, 


155 Vine 


HcimatJiip Guttftve 





737 California 


Button, Aurdiui W. 



Aug. S* 


Lot Angelct 


HiUer, Ura. Abbk 

N. Y, 




147 W. Tweoty-tbird 


Henriff, Henry J. 



Dec 15* 







101 ^M 



1 HAVt. 


occur ATI Olt. 


MtaT& ^H 

^ Hufabel), St«j>hen C. 

N. Y. 



MIS Pieuam aveoH 

Tft«* ■ 

HudscFD. J. W. 

N. Y. 




1868 ^1 

Holi, Martha A- 


House arifc 


San Gabriel 

iBs& ^ 

Hays. Wftd« 







Hus, SerepCa S. 

N. Y. 


April [?, 


151* W. Eighth 


HsmJltoD, Eiri U. 



Sept. 20. 


31D Avenue ij 


Hewitt. Rmcoc E. 



Feb. 37, 


3i7 S. Oliire 


Hough too r Sberman O. 

K. Y. 


July I. 


Bullard Block 


Hpughtpra, ElUi P. 



July i. 


Los Angela 


Hukcll. John C. 






Hcrwig, Emma E. 







Hunter, Jesse 






H>iicb, laaic 



April 14. 


534 Temj»Ie 


Halt. Thomaa W. 

N. Y. 




La Cafiada 


Eopkini, Saun Cliftby 





LonK Beach 


Hewitt, Leslie R. 



March xt, 


laia S. Olive 

i«7tf _. 

Hartniclci August 





748 Gladys avcntie 

187J M 

Hcrrickt John 



Feb. 27 > 


631 Main 

ifiso ■ 

jHobr. NMhui 





735 Hope 

I86I ^1 

jAcoby, MDrrii 




Loa Angeles 

i8*S " 

Junes. Alfred 





101 N. Bunker Hill ave 


Jenkins. Cbarlcs M. 



Mar. ig, 


1 158 Santce 

1851 ^ 

Jobnson, Chmrles R. 




Loa Angeles 

IB47 ■ 

Jadson, A. H. 

N, Y. 




Pasadena avenue 

f87D ^ 

Jordon, Jgiepb 





Lob Angetea 


Johanacn, Mri. Cecilia 




Los Angeles 

1S74 ^ 

Jenldna, Wm. W. 



Utr. 10. 



iBsi ■ 

Jones, John J. 





1B75 ■ 

JohnHQi), Edw»rd P, 


prca, L. A. Fura. 

C&. June, 


947 S, Hope 

..e m 

K«res, Ctiarles G- 


County Clerk 

Nov. 35, 


J09 N. Workman 

iSSA ^ 

KretQ*f, M. 


Ins. agent 



952 Lake street 


Kreiner^ Mrs. Matilda 

N. Y. 



95* Lake street 


Kuhrti, Jacob 



May TO, 


107 W. Fi"t 


Kiirti, Jojepb 



Feb. ?, 


361 Btiena Vista 


KysoT, E. F. 

N. Y. 




S3S Bonnie Brae 


Kutx, Sainuet 


Dept. Co. Cterk 

Oct. 30, 


3t7 S. Soto 

IB74 J 

Kuhrtt, SflUM 





107 W. First 

iWt ^ 

King, Latin E. 



Not, ?7* 


41* N. Breed 

tB49 V 

Klockcnbrink. Wm. 






i87« ^ 

Knighten. Will A. 





150 W. Thirty-firrt 


Kiefer, Peter ?. 



Jan. IS. 


240 N. Hope 


KcarT3ey« Jobn 



Sept. 18, 


7^8 H, Eighth 


Kurrlc, Frederick 



May t£, 


133 Carr 

i«77 ^ 

Lynch, jDiepb D. 


Editor and Pub. 



^11 New High 

187a " 

Lamb, Cha^. C< 


Real Estate agent 




Latabourn, Fred 





840 Judson 


LAnkerabiin, J, 6 




Stjo S. Olive 


Laxard, Soloman 




te? Seventh 


Loeb, LcDD 





isai Wcstlake iTenw 


Leek, Henry Vander 



Dee. 14. 


3309 Flower 


Lembecfcp. Chitlei M. 


Pickle work! 

Mar. 20, 


S?7 Lofl Angela 


Levy. Michael 





i&i3 Kip 


Lyon, Lewit H. 







LKhler. G«rge W. 

















AMVV. in C&. 



N. Y. 


July J. 


5?7 VVaU 


Loaamore. Iiabellik F. 



Jan. I, 


iia CypTcai areniu 


Lockwood, Georce H- 


Dffi. Sheriff 



763 MeccbAot 

i&€S J 

Lcu» Ediatifld 



JttM 17, 


a9«y S. E4^ 


Une. Rohftn A. 





iioi Dovney avenue 


Lwkhnrt. TbottiM }. 


Real Eitete 

May I. 


[$29 LoreUce avenue 


Loclihin, Levi J. 


Coal merchant 

May i. 


1B14 S. Grand avenue 


Lockwood. Jama W, 

N. Y. 


Apnl 1. 


Water atreet 


L«hlcr, Abbi« J. 





Rich atreet 


Loo«iDon, Jamcm 



Jaru t6, 


ttit Lafarette 

Loyhed. MoUk A. 






leaning, Samud W. 

N. J. 

Stair builder 



750 S* OUtc 


Lewift. Wu. Robert 





L» Angdea 


UkT' 0*aT 





itso 1 

Mappa, AdRffl C 

N. Y. 

Searr:!!. Rec 



Loi Angelea 

.«fi4 ' 

^^H Hercadante, N. 



April 1 6, 


4^0 San Pedro 


^^B IteuDcr. Jiiupb 





troti Manjtou aveoue 

I as* 

^^B Ifcsscr, E- 





336 Jackion 


^^^1 MejcT, Samuel 





U3? S. Hope 


V Uelier, Louii 



April 1, 


^0 Figueroa 


Mttcb«n. KeweU H. 


Hotel keeper 

Sei>t. a<. 




Moore. Isaac N. 





C*l. Truck Co. 


MutlaUr. Joseph 



March s, 


itj Collefe 

iBjo ' 

McLrtO. Wm. 




3«i S. Hope 


UcMuWm. W, C. 





Station D 


McComas, Jol. E. 







Moeu Tbomu D. 

N. V. 



64 s £' Main 

tS49 , 

Mtller. WiUlaiD 

N, Y. 


No«. ti. 


Saeta Moaica 


MarxaoUt Dora 



Not. 14, 


aj3 E, Seventeenth 


Ucadc. John 



Sept 6, 


303 W. Eighteenth 


Uoran. Samuel 

D. C 


May 15. 




Mai«r, Simon 




137 S, Grand 


MtlvilU J. H., 


See. Fid, Ab. Gh 



46s N* Beaudfy avenue 


Montapie, Nfrurd] S. 



Oct 2. 


133 E. Tweftty-eghth 


BfcFjrtand, Silak R. 



Jvi. aS. 


1334 W. Twelfth 


Ueri, Htnry 





106 Jewett 


Uood^, Alexander C 

N. S. 


Jan. B( 


135 Avenue a J 

Moore, Hsir E. 

N. Y. 


14*7 E. Twentieth 

Morgan, OcUTiui 





i£i9 WeaUafce avenue 


Moore, Alfred 



July »i. 


703 S. Workffiin 


Monon, A. J. 




JJ5 New High 

Morton, John Jay 







Mulrein, David 




419 Beaudry 


McArthur, Jobq 




Ijio^ S- Figueroa 

McArthur. Catherltw 

N. Y. 



190P S. Figuen* 

McGarrin, Kobert 


Real Eatate aoent 

April s. 


»jeM S. Spring 


UcDotiald^ Jamei 





fjofl E- Twentieth 


McCretry^ Mary B. 

N. Y. 


Nor. a 


01 1 S. Hope 

McCreery. Rufua K. 



Not, 3 


on S. Hope 

McTloioit, Joha 

N, V. 

Capital ift 

May 30 




McCoye, Prank 

N. y. 




is8 S. Broadway 


McMahon. P. J* 





3619 Hanitou 


McDoniJd, Un, J, C 



JM. Jt 


Loi Angeica 


NortoB, Ivuc 


Sec. Load Aaa. 



IS64 FigdCfH 


Newmarb;, Harrii 



Oct «a 

. 'SJ 

iDji Grand aTennv 
















103 1 


iif ^1 




AJtalV. IK Co. 



Kewnmrk, U. J. 

N. Y. 




1047 Grand avenue 

•SSI ■ 

Newell, J. C, 



Jtilr 14. 


1417 W. Ninth 

i«50 ■ 

Ncwtrjfi, J. C 

N. Y. 


Jan. 29. 


South Pafladena 

lS7< ^ 

Nicbols, TbonuB E. 


Comity Auditor 


aaj W. Thirty.firit 

.esft ^ 

IfeweU, Mn. J. G. 





3417 W. Ninth 


Nadan. Geo. A. 





Newmmrk, Mrs, H, 

N, Y- 

Sept i«. 


105 1 S, Grud 

I«W 1 

Nittcn^r^ Edward 


Real Ettate broker 



Fifth atreet 

1874 ^ 

Orroc, Henrr S, 



July 4. 


Douglas Bloclc 

]S6S H 

Oabornc, John 



Not. m. 


322 W. Thirtieth 

1S54 ■ 

Osborn. Wtn. M, 

N. Y. 




973 W. TwcUth 

»85S ~ 

O'Melvenr, Henry W. 





Baker Block 

tm ^ 

Owen* Edward H. 


Clerk U. S. Cottrt 




1S70 ^ 

Orr, Beniamia F. 





iBif Buih 

tajB ■ 

Pirkcfi Koocrt 



April 10. 


330 S» Bcaudrjr 

.. 1 

Parker. Joel B. 

N. Y. 


April ao. 


Sta E. Twelfth 

tS/o ^ 

Ftichkt. William 



April tj. 


S38 Macy 


Pik*. Ceo. H. 




Los Angetea 


Ponet* Victor 







Pddham, Wa. 

N. V. 

supL w. r. Cft 

An?. >S, 


Baker Block 

1854 ^ 

Prai^er, Samuel 





Los Aneelea 

18!!4 fl 

Proctor* A. A. 

N. Y. 


Dec- a*. 


i^Pi Maple BTcnae 

iS7a V 

PilScrngtoD. W. M. 




atB N. Cummtngs 


Proffil. Green L. 





151= W* Twelfth 


Perry, Harriet S, 



Kit is. 


1723 rowi 


PsBchlce, Erail 



Not. 30. 


940 SuHunJt ■Tcnue 

Vye;, Thomaa 






Preston, John E» 



July 7. 




QuEnn, Ricfaard 





El Monte 


Quina, Micba«t F. 

N* V. 


Mareb i, 


El Monte 

1859 H 

fiaynea, Frank 






.. ■ 

Riley, JamM M. 





1105 S, Olire 


Richardson, H- W, 







RJcUrdaon, W. C B, 

N. B. 





RocdcT* Louis 



Not* »i 


319 Boyd 


Rohitiaon, W. W* 

K* S. 




T17 S. Olive 


Roberta, Henry C. 


Frnit Grower 




Rinaldi, Carl A, R, 







Rtndall, Stephen A* 


Real Estate 



9^05 Alvarado 


Reavia, Walter S. 



June S. 


1407 Sunset Boulevmrd 


R Off en, Alex H, 





itss Wall 


Ready, RimmH W. 



Dee- ifl, 


San Pedro street 


Ros5, HrsWne M. 


U. S. Jndffe 

June 10* 


Los Angeles 


Russell* Wm. H. 

K. Y. 

Fruit Grower 

April 9, 


Whittle r 


Rtixton, Albert St. G. 





ijS N* Mftio 


TitvAs. Wm. E. 



April 33, 


1405 Scott 


Kolrton, Wm 




El Monte 

Read, Jennie Sanderaoi 

1 K. Y, 

Vocal aoloist 

June ao, 


rifj Lerdo 


Ttoquea, A. C 



Ant. r«, 

. '70 

City Hall 

Raphael. C 



May g. 


Lo» Anffclea 

taufl J 

1 104 



A*. Til 




Aamiw. r* co. 



H Sctinitll. Qgnfried 





Loi Atigclcs 


^M Scfamtdl, Augiul 





710 S. Olive 


^^ StufTer, Jobn 





l.oftg Beacli 


^^m Shi»rb, A. S. 





6$i Adlms 


^^B Stall. Simon 





Soa S. BfOidway 


^^B Sttwmit. J. bi. 

N. H. 


May 14, 


5Ja W. Thirtieth 


V Stcphcni. Daniel G- 

N. J 




Si^h and Olive 


H Stepfaeni. Mrs. £, T. 



Sivlh and Olive 


H Snitti, fiuc S. 

N. Y. 

Sec, Oil Co. 



jio N. Olive 


■ Smith. W- 1- A. 



April 12, 


ft JO Linden 


H Scutoui, Jean 





54 S S. Grand avenue 


■ 5h«irer, Mrs, TJLlie 





IIJ4 El Molino 


^^H Stronir, Robert 

N, Y. 






^^P S«r<3«r, Z, T. 







^" Sliuahwr, John L. 



Jan. 10, 


«i4 N. Bunker Hill 


Scott, Mrs. Amanda 

W. Ohio 


I>ec. ai, 


$8g Mission Road 


Stall, H. W. 



Oct. 1, 


844 s. Hia 


Sumner. C. A. 



May &. 


£joi Orange 


Snitb, Mn, Sanli J, 





Temple street 


Starr* jOTcph L. 




Los An^lei 


Schmidt. Frederick 




L-Qi jVngclci 


Spence. Mrs. Annie 




445 S, Olive 


Smith, Simoa B, 



May 17. 


i^a K. Avenue ai 


Sharp* Robert h> 


Funeral Director 



Loi Angeled 


ShafiFer, Cornelia R. 





Lung Beach 

IBs J 

SUuEbter. Frank R, 

N. Y. 




Loi Angeles 


SUub, C«or«e 

N. Y. 



Lo* Angele* 


Short* Cornelius R. 



Aug. a. 


1417 Mission Boulevard 


Staples, John P. 





St. Ebna Hotel 


Stewart, MetJBu A. 

N. Y. 




513 W. Thirtieth 


Sleere, Rot>en 

N. Y. 




360 5. Olive 


SclirQcdpT, Hu£o 


Sign Painter 



Tjio S. Figueroa 


Schrotder. Adelmo 


Siev. Painter 



[357 Hoover 


Taberraan, J. R. 





615 S. Ftgueroa 


Teed, MAth«ff 





513 California 


Thotn, Caoitraci ^ 





J18 E. Third 


Taft. Mr*. Mary H. 



Dec. J5, 




Tbomas, John M. 



Dec. ?. 




Truman, Ben C- 

H. L 


Feb. i, 


1001 Twenty^Chird 


Turner, Wm. F- 





60a N. Griflfin 


Thayer, John S. 

N. Y, 


Oct. iS* 


147 W. Twenty-fifth 


Tuhba. Geo, W. 





1641 Central 


Vifaola, Ambrocia 



ScDt. t6. 


535 S. Main 


Veoabk. Joseph W. 







VoBt, Henry 



Jad. 4. 




Vawter, 5, J* 



April I J, 


Ocean Park 


Vawler. W. S- 



July 10. 


Sanu Monica 


Workman, Wm, H. 


City Treanrer 


J75 Boyle avenue 


Worltman, E. H. 


Real Eitate 


130 Boyle avenue 


Wise. Kenneth D. 





i3St S, Grand avenue 


Wright. Charici M. 







Widney. Kobtrt M 


Fruit Grower 



Los Angeles 


WeCiel. Martin 



Aug, 3?. 


4114 Puadena avenue 


Weston, Ben S. 
White. Chirlet H, 
Wilion, C. N. 
Ward, JamcA F. 
Workmui, Alfred 
Woodhcad. Cbas, B. 

Wern^ Auguflt W. 
Wriffat, Hdward T. 
Wolilfartb. Auciut 
Wbite, h P^ 
Wyjtt,^ Mirf ThompMti 
Wyatt, J. Blackburn 
Wotf. C«arffe W, 
Wolfildll. Ji^bD 

YaracElt Jflae 
Youag, Joha D. 
Virnell, Mrs. S. C 
Yeuaf , Robert A. 







S, P. Co, 



N. Y. 







Com. TrpT. 





























How.t ■?" 

Jan. 9^ *jt 

Jan., *7a 

Not, iS. '63 

Feb. 31^ '74 

Not., *sa 

Aug:., *£j 

Harcb, >$ 
Stpt.. '?4 

Sept, *sa 

Oct S. *73 
Dec. I a, '34 


IIJ7 Ingraham 
iiai S. Grand 
ai3 Boyle avenue 
S53 Bucna Vista 
1057 S. Grand aTcnue 
S3S San Pedro street 
722 Valencia 
ix6 S. Sprm; 
(€^4 Pleasant iTcauc 
gS? E, Fifty-fiftfa 

433ta Vermont avenue 
1419 S' Grand avenue 




lis J 


April, *£? lAoS W. First 

Oct, ';j 3607 Figucro* 

Apri], '6? iBoB W. Firat 

*66 Lo» Anflclei 



1 1 



! It 


( ' 


t i 




Officers of the Historical Society, 1904-1905 108 

Portrait of Marcus Baker no 

In Memory of Marcus Baker Dn Robt. E. C. Stearns. . 11 1 

E>o\VTi In Panama J. M, Guinn. . 115 

Sequoyah Dr. J D. Moody. , 122 

A Notable Manifesto , . . , H. D. Barrows . , 126 

Pinacate Laura Evertsen King. , 132 


Oflficers of the Pioneers of Los Ar^;^les County, 1904-1905. 135 

Constitution and By-Laws 1 36 

Order of Business *..,..,., 140 

Reports of the Secretary and Treasurer. .,..,.... 141 

Report of the Finance Committee 142 

Los Angeles — The Old and the New L. T, Fisher. . 143 

Some Historic Fads and Fakes. J, M. Guinn. , 148 

Som« of My Indian Experi-ences J. W. Gillette. . 158 

Portrait of Wm. H. Workman 165 

Pioneers Crossing the Plains .Cut. . 165 

Banquet Given to the Pioneers by Wm. H. Workman 165 

Rain and Rainmakers , J, M. Guinn, . r/l 


Mathew Teed , Compiled . . 177 

Nathaniel Cobum Carter Committee Report. . 178 

Oinri J. BuHis , * .Committee Report. . 179 

George Edwin Gard .Committee Re]X)rt. . iSo 

Jonathan Dickey Dunlap Committee Report . . 181 

Mrs. Cornelia R. Shaffer .Committee Report. . 182 

Thomas D. Mott L. A. Times . . 184 

Kilian Messer .,.._.., , Committee Report . . 186 

Col. Isaac RothermeT DunkelUerg^er. . . .Committee Re|>Drt, . 186 

Pascal Ballade .Committee Report. , 187 

John Crimmins Committee Report . . 188 

In Memoriam 189 

Roll of Members loi 


Officers of the Historical Society 



Walter R. Bacon President 

Mrs. M. Burtok Williamson First Vice-President 

Dr. J. E. CowLES Second Vice-President 

Edwin Baxter Treasurer 

J. M. GuiNN Secretary and Curator 

board op directors. 

Walter R. Bacon, 
H. D. Barrows, 
Dr. J. E. CowLES, 
Edwin Baxter* 
A. C. Vrouan, 
J. M. Guinn, 
Mrs. M. Burton Williamson. 



Walter R. Bacon President 

Mrs. M. Burton Wiluamson First Vice-President 

Hon. Henry E. Carter Second Vice-President 

Edwin Baxter Treasurer 

J. M. GuiNN Secretary and Curator 

BOARD OF directors. 

Walter R. Bacon, 
Hon. Henry E. Carter, 
J, M. GuiNN, 
A. C Vroman, 
H. D. Barrows, 
Edwin Baxterp 
Mrs. M. Burton Williamson. 

Historical Society 


Southern California 

19 4 

By Robert E* C. Stearns. 

Emerson tells us that "all virtue lies in minorities*" This 
dictum of the great philosopher appears to be essentially true 
when we investigate the genesis of public institutions, and find 
as we do, that the initiative which led to their establishment and 
subsequent development into an organized force, was made by 
a few enlightened and public-spirited persons. 

If we inquire into the birth and progress of such organiza- 
tions as are universally admitted to be beneficial to mankind, 
we find here on the West Coast as well as elsewhere, the sub- 
stantial truth of the axiom above quoted, We can point to a 
few conspicuous examples like the California Academy of 
Sciences founded fifty years ago, in the very height of the "gold 
fever," by a "a little coterie" of eight men^ of whom none are 
left lo see the tree that has grown from the seed they planted. 
The "College of California," developed logically into the pres- 
ent "University of California," with its staff of 175 professors 
and instructors,* and we are not without proof of the per- 
tinency of Emerson's words when we consider the beginning 
of the "Historical Society of Southern California." 

The worthy and honored secretary of our society has pub* 

*Th*s« figures apply to the number at Bcrkekyj to these we may add 
the 150 professors and teachers connected with affiliated colleges in San 
FranciEco, exclustve of demonstrators and other assistants. The number of 
students at Berkeley, March, 1904, is given in the official slatemeiit as 3700; 
in San Francisco, 575. 



lished the story of its birth. He has told us how some twenty 
years ago when Los Angeles was a city more in name than in 
fact, with a scattered population of 14,000, "a Jittle coterie of 
representative men" gathered "to organize a historical society,"' 
"Some of these were comparatively new comers, others were 
pioneers, whose residence in the city covered periods of thirty, 
forty and fifty years. They had watched its growth from a 
Mexican pueblo to an American city, had witnessed its transi- 
tion from the inchoate and revolutionary domination of Mexico 
to the stabte rule of the United States." 

Of the fifteen men who assembled on that occasion, a truly 
small minority of the population of that day, nine have passed 
into the realm of silence; the membership of four, terminated 
in various ways; two, only two* remain, to whom be all honor 
and praise for having kept the lamp burning, which they and 
their companions lighted two decades ago. 

Of that little band of fifteen, it has been my privilege to know 
the late General Jphn Mansfield, soldier of the Civil War, Lieu- 
tenant Governor (1880-1883) ex-officio president of the State 
Senate and regent of the University of California, "a gentle- 
man of the old school," with wham I have passed many pleasant 
hour, also our mutual friend, Marcus Baker, It is of the latter 
more particularly, whose recent death is a most painful be- 
reavement to all who had the good fortune of his acquaintance, 
that these remarks especially apply. 

Some men are born of the spirit or with the spirit, under a 
lucky star whose serene influence generates that greatness of 
heart which finds expression in good will and generous service^ 
flowing naturally as a summer stream, the same yesterday, to- 
day and tomorrow, inspiring confidence and inviting intimacy, 
while free from those changing moods that cloud the sky o£ 
friendship or chill with doubt* Such a man was Marcus Baker, 
as known to me during an acquaintance and friendship of thirty 
years. After this tribute of personal feeling his public career and 
the various activities of his too short life may be briefly stated. 

Mr. Baker was born in Kalamazoo, Michigan, September 28, 
1849. He was the son of John Baker, a farmer well-known in 
the region wehre he lived as is seen by the fact that he was twice 

♦Annual Publication of Historical Society of Southern California, VoL 
VI, Fart I, for 1903* (1904). Two £>ecades of Local Hi&tory, by J. M- 
Guinn» no, 41-47- 

•H. D. Barrows and J. M. Guinn. 



elected sheriff of his county, Marcus^ one of nine children, had 
first such a common school education as the neighborhood of- 
fered and afterwards entered the preparatory department of 
Kalamazoo Colkge. While in the sophomore class he entered 
the University of Michigan, graduating A.B. in 1S70. He was 
one of the speakers at the Commencement exercises. 

During the summer vacation of that year, he worked with 
the eminent astronomer. Professor James C. Watson, in com- 
puting data for reconstructing lunar tables. In September he 
applied for the position and was appointed professor of mathe- 
matics in Albion College, Michigan, where he remained one 
year. In 1871, he was offered and accepted a tutorship in the 
University of Michigan* In January, 18-73, Pfof- J- E. Hilgard, 
superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey, wrote to Professor Watson, requesting him to recom- 
mend same one in the University of Michigan, qualified for 
astronomical field work, in an Alaskan expedition party, and 
Mr Baker, then 24 years of age, was named for the position. 
In March, 1873, he went to Washington and entered, as he said, 
"upon what proved to be his life \vork." 

In the same year he came to California when his career as 
a geographer commenced through his connection with the geo- 
graphical reconnoissance of the Aleutian region of Alaska, for 
the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey in charge of Dr. 
W, H. DalL Of the various difficulties and impediments en- 
countered in the pursuance of this work, and the importance of 
Mr, Baker's services, the leader has given his testimony in a 
recent address before the National Geographic Society in 

The Alaska work, "being interrupted, Mr. Baker was placed 
in charge of one of the Coast Survey primary magnetic stations^ 
* * * (that) at Los Angeles, * * * a work the re- 
sults of which experts in magnetism pronounced admirable." 
It was while Mr Baker was in charge of this station that he be- 
came one of the fifteen founders of our Historical Society, 

Soon after his return to Washington his connection with 
the Coast Survey terminated, and he was appointed to a posi- 
tion in the United States Geological Survey, where his labors 
were chiefly geographic and related to the topographic and 
other charts issued by the Survey, He was secretary and one 

*See the National Geographic Magazine, Vol. XV, No. t, Wa*-"- 
D. C, January, 1904^ 



of the most efficient members of the Board of Geographic Names 
formed by President Harrison to regulate the nomenclature of 
official publications. He was cartographer of the Venezuela 
Boundary Commission and compiled the fine Historical Atlas 
that was used during the deliberations in Paris. This Atlas and 
the volumes he saw through the press while in the service of 
the Commission would alone, it has been publicly stated^ form 
a worthy monument to any geographer. Upon the conclusion 
of the above he returned to his work in the Survey, his labors 
being given to the preparation of a work on the Synonymy and 
History of the Geographic Names of Alaska,* "The immense 
labor involved in preparation, and its usefulness to the cartog- 
rapher and geographer make it of exceptional importance/' 
Aside from his scientific pursuits he had studied law and was 
a gradute (LL.B) of the Law School of Columbian University 
(1896), though he never followed the profession, as a business, 
Mr, Baker was perhaps more widely known in the scientific 
circles in the City of Washington than any other man, being 
actively identified with the management of several of the scientific 
societies; the Historical Society of the District of Columbia, 
the Philosophical Society^ the Washington Academy of Sciences 
and the National Geographic Society, Of the latter he was one of 
fifteen original signers of the Certificate of Incorporation, Jan- 
uary 27, 1888. He was also a Fellow of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, and was at the time of 
his deathp December 12, 1903, assistant secretary of the Carne- 
gie Institution. He was a man of great industry with extraor- 
dinary capacity for accomplishment in many ways, and doing 
whatever he undertook thoroughly and well. He kept steadily 
at work practically to the end, attending to his duties with char- 
acteristic spirit. So closed his honorable and useful career, be- 
loved by many and highly esteemed by all, 

*'*A Geographic Dictionary of Alaska," U. S, Geol. Survey, Bulletin No. 
1S7, 1903. 

"Like driftwood spars which meet and pass 

Upon the boundless ocean plain, 
So on the sea of hit, alas I 

Man meets man—meets and parts again.'* 

By J. M. Guinn. 

The isthmus of Panama, or Darien, as it was formerly called, 
13 a tie that binds together two continents and a barrier that 
separates two oceans. To break the barrier and unite two 
oceans is a problem that has engaged the attention of commer- 
cial nations for centuries. Whether the United States, the 
youngest among the great maritime countries will successfully 
solve that problem remains to be seen. 

It is not of the Panama canal, which is a thing of the future 
with a history unmade, that I write, but of the Panama Rail- 
road, which, in event of the canal being dug, will become a 
thing of the past» and of Panama itself as the old-time Califor- 
nians saw it. 

For nearly four hundred years, Panama has figured in the 
world's history. In but little more than a decade after the dis- 
covery of the main land of America, Balboa had scaled the 
mountain rampart of the isthmus which divides two mighty 
oceans and discovered the placid waters of the broad Pacific. 

A century before the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock 
the Spaniards had founded the old city of Panama on the shores 
of the Pacific Ocean. From the old City of Panama, Pizzaro 
and Almargo fitted out their expeditions for the conquest of 
Peru. For a century and a half that city was the entrepot for 
the treasure wrung from the land of the Incas. Convoys car- 
ried it over the isthmus to Porto Bella and great, lumbering gal- 
leons bore it across the Atlantic to enrich the kings and nobles 
of Spain. The old City of Panama prospered and grew rich 
from the mines of Peru and the commerce of the south seas. 
Its chivalrous dons and protid dames reveled in luxury nor 
dreamed of the doom impending over their city. The buc- 
caneers of the Spanish Main had long coveted the riches and 
wealth garnered within it, but the tropical jungles of the isthmus 
presented an almost insurmountable barrier to these robbers of the 
high seas. 

In 1670, Henry Morgan, the bravest and most brutal of the 
buccaneers, with a force of one thousand men, 3^ 



almost incredible hardships, crossed the isthmus, captured the 
proud old city, plundered it and burned it. It \vas never re- 
built. Tropical verdure covers its ruins and its tragic fate is 
forgotten. The present City of Panama is located some five 
or six miles south of the site of the old city. 

The Panama Railroad was not an outgrowth of the dis- 
covery of gold in Caiifornia. Its inception antedated the re- 
port of the discovery in the east, but not the actual date of the 
event itself. It took nine months for the report of the discov- 
ery of gold in California to reach the eastern states. 

The acquisition of California and the settlement of the 
northwest boundary question which gave us undisputed pos- 
session of Oregon, turned the attention of our government to 
the necessity of some shorter route to our western possessions 
than via Cape Horn. Congress in the winter of 1847-48 author- 
ized the subsidizing of two mail steamship lines — one from New 
York and New Orleans to Chagres and the other from Panama 
to California and Oregon. William H, Asptnwall secured the 
contract for the line on the Pacific side and George Law that 
on the Atlantic side. The establishment of the steamship lines 
necessitated the building of a railroad across the isthmus. Wil- 
liam H. Aspinwall, Henry Chauncy and John L. Stephens were 
the principal promoters of the enterprise. The New Granadian 
Government granted these men the exclusive right to build a 
railroad across the isthmus. The contract was to continue in 
force 49 years and the road was to be completed in eight years. 
The discovery of gold in California and the wild rush to the new 
El Dorado hastened the completion of the road several years 
and made it from the beginning a profitable enterprise. In 
1849 a contract was let to build the road and early in 1850 work 
was begun on it at Gautum, on the Chagres River. 

The Atlantic terminus was located on the island of Man- 
zanilla, near old Navy Bay. The site of the prospective sea- 
port town was one of the most inhospitable spots on God's foot- 
stool. No white man had ever set foot on it. Nor had the 
Indians ever disturbed the red monkeys and reptiles that held 
possession of it. 

In the month of May, 1850, the work of clearing a space 
to land supplies was begun. The site was a mangrove swamp. 
The fantastic roots of that queer shrub were interlaced with 
vines and thorny bushes, so as to form an almost solid mass of 
jungle. In the black and slimy mud of its surface alligators 
and other reptiles abounded, while the air was laden with pesti- 



lential vapors and swanning with sand fives and mosquitoes. It 
was at first attempted to build the road by native labor, but 
the natives found it more profitable to pole the gold seekers up 
the Chagres River m their bungoes^ or to pack the immigrants' 
baggage over the Cruces Road. So they would not work on a 
road that, it built, would deprive them of a job. 

Then the contractors tried to procure laborers froan the 
United States, Placards were posted up in the cities oflfering 
a free passage to California for one hundred days labor on the 
road. The bait took and thousands availed themselves of the 
chance to obtain a cheap passage to the land of gold. Most 
of them remained in Panama. The hot sun, the malarious cli- 
mate, bad supplies, cholera, Chagres fevers and home-sickness 
killed them off before their hundred days were up. A ship 
would land a force of laborers and turn back for another supply; 
by the time of her return the first were dead or in the hos- 
pitals. When the reports of the state of affairs on the road 
became known in the States no more laborers could be obtained. 

Then European laborers were induced to come to the isth- 
mus. English, Irish, French, German and Austrian; and beside* 
these coolies from Hindostan and Chinamen from China were 
imported to build this highway of the nations* At one time 
there were 7,000 men of all colors, creeds and races employed. 
The Chinamen became melancholic. An epidemic of suicide 
broke out among them and fevers carried them off until there 
was scarce 200 of the 1000 left* Nor did the Caucasians fare 
much better than the Mongolians. The remnant of these were 
shipped back to their homes. 

The white man, the brown man and the yellow man had 
failed and the only recourse left was the black man and he 
proved a success. Jamaican and Cartagenan negroes were em- 
ployed. They could stand the climate — grow fat on malaria 
and bask in the tropical sunshine without fear of being sun-^ 
struck. They were a mutinous lot, and it was diflBcult for the 
few white bosses to control them. Then some genius hit upon 
the idea of utilizing the feud that has existed from time imme- 
morial between the Jamaicans and Cartagenans* These antag- 
onistic elements were employed in about equal numbers. When 
the Cartagenans rebeled the Jamaicans wei^e turned loose upon 
them and vice versa. Those who survived the fight were willing 
to go to work and obey orders. Such was the story they told 
me at Colon forty years ago. 

The road was pushed out from the Pacific side and at mid- 



night on January 27, 1855, amid darkness and rain the last rail 
was laid and next day a locomotive passed over the road from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific. No ceremony had been observed 
when ground was first broken and no golden spike was driven 
when the mighty enterprise was completed. 

There is a saying in Panama, and it has been published over 
and over again as a fact by the people who have heard it in 
crossing the isthmus, that the building of the road cost a human 
life for every tie in its 49 niiles. If this were true then about 
130,000 lives were sacrified. But it is not true, A great 
many of the people down in Panan^a seem to be descendants 
of Ananias, although they are not engaged in the real estate 
business as that worthy was. 

The fare over the road from Aspinwall (or Colon, as it 
is now called) to Panama was $25, or 50 cents a mile, including 
switches. I believe it is less now, To many an old Califomian 
who came to the Coast via Panama in the early 50s, his ex- 
perience on the isthmus rises up before him like a horrible 
nightmare. When the wild excitement that followed the re- 
ports of the wonderful gold discoveries in California spread 
throughout the eastern states prospective gold seekers studied 
lines of travel to ascertain which would land them quickest in 
the new El Dorado* The Panama route appeared to be the 
shortest and the fact the Pacific Mail Steamship Company 
bad been established on that route induced thousands to take it. 

It was easy enough* by sailing vessels or steamship to reach 
the isthmus from New York or any other Atlantic seaport, but 
after landing there — then came the rub. The passengers were 
put ashore on the mud fiats at the mouth of the Chagres River. 
The next stages of the journey were up the river to Gorgona 
or Cruces in canoes, bungoes or sampans. Then from these 
river points by mules, donkeys^ on foot or on the backs of the 
natives to Panama. In perils from a treacherous river and still 
more treacherous native boatmen; in perils from false brethren; 
in perils from Chagres fever, cholera, yellow jack, mud, mules and 
miasma: if the prospective Argonaut escaped all these and 
landed safely in Panama he congratulated himself that the worst 
was overcome, but frequently he found that his miseries were 
only begun. 

At the beginning of the gold excitement there were but few 
ship on the Pacific side. Men who had bought through tick- 
ets to California found on their arrival at Panama that the con- 
neicting vessel on the Pacific side had to make a voyage around 




Cape Horn before it was due at Panama; and that they must 
wait three months before its arrival. 

Provisions were high, accommodations poor, the climate 
vile, all manner of diseases prevalent, thieves^ thugs and gam- 
blers abundant, the natives deceitful and to the extent of their 
ability desperately wicked. In the long wait the money of 
many of the voyagers gave out, sickness overtook them and 
death ended their miseries. In 1856, occurred what are known 
as the Panama riots. While the passengers who had been landed 
from the railroad were awaiting the arrival of the Californian 
steamer an altercation occurred between a native orange vendor 
and a blustering drunken American. In the melee that fol- 
lowed blows were struck, a pistol discharged and a native killed. 
The sight of blood aroused the wolf in the natures of the natives 
who had congregated in great numbers, and they massacred 
some forty or fifty of the California passengers, men, women 
and children. The fellow who provoked the riot unfortunately 
escaped unharmed. After that, the steamship company required 
the west-bound passenger to remain at Aspinwall and the east- 
bound on the steamer until everything was ready to take them 
directly across the isthmus. Thus the old city was deprived of 
the California trade (its chief resource) and it deserved to be. 

Panama is a land of revolutions. Most of them farcical* but 
some of them sanguinary enough. It was my fortune, or good 
luck, to witness one of the former. It was on a return voyage 
to the States over thirty-six years ago* The Bay of Panama 
is so shallow that the California steamers anchor about four 
miles out. The freight and passengers are taken ashore on 
lighters, Learning that it would take nine or ten hours to 
land the freight and baggage, the passengers in the meantime re- 
maining on the steamer, four of us decided to do the old city, 
Chartering a native and his boat we were rowed to within two 
or three rods of the shore. Here we found our boat connected 
with a transportation company, said company consisting of 
half-a-dozen half-naked natives who offered to carry us ashore 
for *'doB reales" each. The natives were short and I am long, 
so I selected the tallest member of the company and -mounting 
his shoulders was safely landed outside the city wall. Passing 
through a hole in the wail probably made by the buccaneers 
two hundred years ago and not closed up since, we found our- 
selves in the old city. Proceeding up street we saw that the 
natives were greatly excited about something. The bells were 
ringing out merry peals. We were not quite conceited cnoueh 



to think it was all on account of our arrival. We made the 
acquaintance of a French merchant, an old resident* and from 
hrni we learned that there was a revolution going on, or rather 
it had gone on^ and we were just in time for the ringing out of 
the old and the ringing in of a new government. And that 
was what the bells were doing. It seems that the governor of 
the sovereign state of Panama had insulted a chivalrous hidalgo, 
who had a string of titles as long as a ship's cable and a pedigree 
that ran back to one of PiEzaro's freebooters. The hidalgo fired 
off at the governor a pronunciamiento a yard long. The gov- 
ernor gave him back two yards of vituperation* Then followed 
volleys of Castillian billingsgate. The military induced by the 
offer of a square meal and a bottle of wine each rallied to the 
support of the hidalgo and the governor and his stafT rallied to 
a fish boat and rowed out to meet the incoming California 
steamer. The new government was in the process of incubation. 
The military were much in evidence. The wasp-waistcd of- 
ficers in their tight-fitting coats, their brass and tinsel trap- 
pings, were quite pretty, but the common soldiers were a sight 
to behold. In complexion they ran the gamut of colors from 
semi-bleached white to ebony black. The only thing uniform 
about them was their uniform poverty of clothing. They were 
all barefooted. Some had a pair of pants each, others but a 
vulgar fraction of a pair to the man. In the matter of shirts the 
individuality of the individual cropped out. If the rainbow 
could have seen the colors there displayed it would have gone 
out of business. As to the remainder of their uniforms there 
was nothing to speak of. 

In the matter of arms there was a pleasing variety. Some 
were armed with old flint-lock muskets that had done duty 
against Morgan's buccaneers and had probably not been fired 
off since. Others had more modern and if possible more use- 
less arms. We were informed that these soldiers were not 
the regulars, but raw levies. The government evidntly had 
not had time to cook and dress them into veterans, 

Some of our statesmen at Washington are anxious to an- 
nex the new republic to our family of states. My advice to 
these statesmen is, go slow — very slow, so slow that the annexa- 
tion buisness wuU come off sometime in the next ceutnry — the 
later along the better. 

We have two or three race problems on our hands now that 
will keep us busy the greater part of the present century 
The race problem in Panama would be a question in complex 



fractions. The roots of the genealogical trees of most of the 
natives are more twisted and contorted than roots of a man- 
grove shrub and that product of Panama can perform more fan- 
tastic tricks with its roots than any other member of the vege- 
table kingdom. It is these racial nondescripts — the fellows of 
undefined lineage — that give government the most trouble. 
There are educated and refined ladies and gentlemen in Panama, 
both natives and foreigners, but the majority of the natives and 
some of the imports are ignorant, indolent, superstitious and 
bigoted. They hate foreigners. My advice to our annexing 
statesmen, if it were asked, would be — Let the new republic of 
Panama work out its own salvation) — or the opposite — and it 
will be the opposite if it does any working. 


Honor to Whom Honor is Doc 

By Dr. J. D. Moody. 

In the eariy part <^ the ei^teenth ceotttry there was quite 
an imigration of Gennan peofde from Bavaria to that part of 
our country which is now included in the state of Georgia. 
Like the Mayflower emigration from Holland this one wm> 
also a religious movemenL An effort was otadc to cxdnde un- 
worthy people from these companies. 

However, in one such company, in 1739. a family managM 
to be included who belonged to this latter class. Instead of be- 
ing religious in profession, as were the others, they were in- 
dolent. ignorant and superstitious. Their name, which is va- 
riotiily given as Gist, Guest, Guess or Gisb, was destined to be 
perpetuated by a singular combination of circumstances. 

Soon after their arrival there was born to them a son to 
whom the name of George was given. He grew up the black 
sheep of the community. 

Their bonic was within the limits of the great Cherokee 
nation. Trading privileges with the Indians was closely guarded 
by the whites- George Guest, as he was called, sought such 3 
peddler's license, but being held in low repute, he was refused. 
This did not seem to worry him in the least and he became a 
contraband trader. 

In 1768 he started on a trading trip through the Cherokee 
nation. While on this trip, he married an Indian maiden, 
after the loose manner of the times. They lived together for a 
number of months, but tiring of his bargain, the German ped- 
dler quietly stole away one night and was never afterguards 
heard from. 

In 1770 there was bom to this deserted wife a boy baby* 
In the soft language of the Cherokee people she named him Se- 
quo-yah, which means "he guessed it/' 

This Indian woman was possessed of more than ordinary in- 
telligence and energy. Her family were among the leading spir- 
its of the nation. The love which would have been given to the