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Full text of "Quarterly of the Colorado School of Mines"

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QUARTERLY 



OF THE 



COLORADO 
SCHOOL OF MINES 

Vol. XIII No. 1 
Catalogue Edition 



GOLDEN, COLORADO 
1918 



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TH 

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Oil') 



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X 



THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



(For complete index see page 143.) 

Page 

School Calendar 9 

Board of Trustees 10 

Faculty 11 

Special Lecturers 13 

Location and Description 15 

History 17 

Organization '17 

Financial Support 17 

Buildings 18 

Laboratories and Equipment 21 

Requirements for Ehitrance 31 

Departments of Instruction 37 

Tabular Views 38 

Chemistry 48 

Coal Mining 64 

Enectrical Engineering 69 

English 63 

Geology and Mineralogy 65 

Mathematics 71 

Mechanical Engineering 76 

Mechanics and Civil Engineering 82 

Metallurgy 87 

Metal Mining 93 

Mining Law 102 

Physics 104 

Safety and £}fflciency Engineering 109 

Spanish 112 

Inspection Trips 114 

United States Bureau of Mines 121 

Course for Prospectors 123 

Summer School 127 

Scholarships 128 

General Information ; 130 

Enrolment of Students ^ 187 

Index 143 



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CALENDAR 
1917 

November 29, Thursday 1 

November 30, Friday [ Thanksgiving ReceM 

December 1, Saturday J 

December 20, Thursday Christmas Recess begins 

1918 

January 2, Wednesday Christmas Recess ends 

January 26, Saturday First Semester ends 

January 28, Monday Second Semester begins 

February 4, Monday Course for Prospectors begins 

February 12, Tuesday Lincoln's Birthday (A Holiday) 

February 22. Friday { ""SWa";;) ^"^•'•"' 

March 2, Saturday Course for Prospectors ends 

TuiuTF «i livi^.v J Second Semester ends 

May 81. UTiaay | Commencement Exercises 

June 3. Monday. .^ Summer Field Work begins 

July 13, Saturday Summer Field Work ends 

July 16, Monday Summer School begins 

August 24, Saturday Summer School ends 

August 28, Wednesday f Examination for Entrance to the 

August 29, Thursday \ Class of 1922 and Re-examina- 

August 30, Monday [ tion of Matriculated Students 

September 2. Monday ) B*«i«tra*iAn 

September 3. Tuesday \ Refl'**"-**'©" 

September 4, Wednesday... 



November 28, Thursday. . . 

November 29, Friday 

December 80, Saturday.... 

December 23, Monday Christmas Recess begins 



Opening of the First Semester of 
the Academic Year 1918-19 



Thanksgiving Recess 



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10 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



FRANK G. WILLIS, B. M., Cripple Creek, Colo. 
President 

Term expires 1921 

JAMES T. SMITH, Denver, Colo. 
Secretary 

Term expires 1921 

ORVILLE R. WHITAKBR, E. M., Denver, Colo. 
Term expires 1919 

A. E. CARLTON, Colorado Springs, Colo. 
Term expires 1919 

HARRY M. RUBEY, Golden, Colo. 
Treasurer 

Term expires 1919 

The regular meetings of the Board of Trustees are held in 
Golden at the School of Mines on the second Thursday of each 
month. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINE)S 11 



FACULTY 



VICTOR CLIFTON ALDERSON, A. B., (Harvard); Sc. D., (Belolt 
College); Sc. D., (Armour Institute of Technology) 
President 

REGIS CHATJVBNBT, B. S., (Harvard) A. M., L. L. D., (Wash- 
ington University) 
President Emeritus 
Special Lecturer in Metallurgy and Chemistry 

PAUL MEYER, Ph. D., (Giessen) 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 

CHARLES ROLAND BURGER, A. B., (Harvard) 
Professor of Mathematics 

WILLIAM JONATHAN HAZARD, E. E., (Colorado School of 
Mines) 
Professor of Electrical Engineering 

HARRY JOHN WOLF, B. M., M. S., (Colorado School of Mines) 
Professor of Mining 

JAMES COLE ROBERTS, Ph. B., (University of North Carolina) 
Joseph A, Holmes, Memorial Professor of Safety and Effi- 
ciency Engineering ; 
Professor of Coal Mining. 

CLAUDE CORNELIUS VAN NUYS, B. S.. E. M., (South Dakota 
School of Mines); A. M., (Columbia University) 
Professor of Physics 

VICTOR ZIBGLER, A. M., (Columbia University) 
Professor of Geology and Mineralogy 

HARRY MUNSON SHOWMAN, E. M., (Colorado School of 
Mines) 
Professor of Mechanics and Civil Engineering 

IRVING ALLSTON PALMER, B. S., M. S., (Lafayette College) 
Professor of Metallurgy 

MELVILLE FULLER COOLBAUGH, B. S., (Colorado College) ; 
A. M., (Columbia University) 
Professor of Chemistry 

JAMBS LYMAN MORSE, B. S. in M. E., (Michigan Agricultural 
College) 
Professor of Mechanical Engineering 

JOSEPH S. JAFFA, LL.B., (Columbia). 
Professor of Mining Law. 



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12 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

GEORGE EULAS FOSTER SHERWOOD, A. M., (Harvard) 
Associate Professor of Mathematics 

CHARLES DARWIN TEST. B. M., B. A. C.r (Purdue University) 
Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

FRANCIS MAURICE VAN TUYL, A. B., M. S. (University of 
Iowa) ; Ph. D., (Columbia University) 
Assistant Professor of Geology and Mineralogy 

JOHN CHRISTIAN BAILAR, A. M., (University of Colorado) 
Assistant Professor of Extension Work 

JOHN CHARLES WILLIAMS. E. M.. (Colorado School of Mines) 
Assistant Director of the Experimental Ore Dressing and 
Metallurgical Plant 

LOUIS A. PACKARD, M. D.. (University of Iowa) 
Athletic Director 



THOMAS COURTLAND DOOLITTLE. 

Registrar and Business Manager 

PEARL GARRISON. M. Dl.. (Iowa State Normal School) 
Librarian 

AUCE B. LYLE. 

Secretary to the President 

FRIEDA M. WATKINS, 
Stenographer 

ARTHUR L. RAE, 

Superintendent of Grounds and Buildings 

HENRY J. GUTH. 

Pattern Maker 

F. H. EYER, 

Stock Clerk 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINOB 18 



SPECIAL LECTURERS 



HON. EDWARD T. TAYLOR, Glenwood Springs, Colo. 
The Panama Canal 

FRANK R SHEPARD, Denver, Colo. 

President Denver E2ngineering Works Company 
The Development of Modern Mill Systems 
Recent Advances In Coarse Crushing 

WALTER G. SWART, Duluth, Minn. 
Mining ESngineer 

Recent Developments In Dry Milling 
Modern Practice In Zinc Metallurgy 
Electrostatic Ore Separation 

THOMAS B. CROWE, Victor, Colo. 
Superintendent New Portland Mill 

The Metallurgy of Cripple Creek Ores 

JOHN A. TRAYLOR, New York, N. Y. 

President Traylor Engineering Works Co. 
Jigs 

L. S. PIERCER Denver, Colo. 

The Pierce Amalgamator 

W. H. TRASK, Jr., Denver, Colo. 
Central Colorado Power Co. 

Hoisting 

JOHN L. MALM, Denver, Colo. 
Metallurgical Ekigineer 

The Future of Chemical Engineering 

JAMES M. McCLAVE, Denver, Colo. 
Metallurgist 
Ore Concentration 

PHHIP ARGALL, Denver, Colo. 
Consulting Metallurgist 
The Flotation Process 

HON. WAYNE C. WILLIAMS, Denver, Colo. 
State Industrial Commission 

The Colorado Workmen's Compension Act 

M. G. HODNETTE), Denver, Colo. 

Union Central Life Insurance Co. 

Safety and Conservation In Life Insurance 



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14 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

NBWCOMB CLEVELAND, Denver, Colo. 
Ocean Accident and Guarantee Co. 

The insurance Angle of Our Workmen's Compensation 
Act 

FRANK H. STORMS, Wellesley Hills, Mass. 
Babson's Statistical Organization 

Interpretation and Use of Financial Reports 

H. S. SHELDON, Denver, Colo. 

Vindicator Consolidated Gold Mining Co. 
Gold Mining Camps In Colorado 

JAMES H. PLATT, Toluca, Mexico 
Mining ESngineer 

Mining Conditions In Mexico 

DR. HENRY M. PAYNE, New York, N. Y. 

Consulting Engineer, Goldfields Consolidated Co. 
Alaska Gold Placers 
Siberian Gold Placers 

FRED CARROLL, Denver, Colo. 
State Commissioner of Mines 
Oil Flotation of Ores 

M. J. SHIBLdS, M. D., Washington, D. C. 
American Red Cross Society 
First Aid to the Injured 

JOHN W. AMESSE, M. D., Denver, Colo. 
Diseases of Warm Climates 

CHAUNCBY B. TENNANT, M. D.. Denver. Colo. 
First Aid to the Injured 

DR. A. J. LANZA, Washington, D. C. 
United States Bureau of Mines 
Miner's Consumption 

R. M. SHUMWAY, Denver, Colo. 
Rocky Mountain Fuel Co. 

Coal Deposits and Coal Mining in Colorado 

CAPTAIN GODFREY L. CARDEN, U. S. A. 
Service in the U. S. Coast Guard 

REV. CHAS. L. MEAD, New York 
The Y. M. C. A. War Fund 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINE^ 15 



LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION, HISTORY, 

ORGANIZATION, AND FINANCIAL 

SUPPORT 



LOCATiON AND DESCRIPTION 

The Colorado School of Mines is in the south central part 
of the City of Golden, Jefferson County, Colorado. It occupies a 
plat of approximately twenty-three acres, picturesquely situated 
about 200 feet above the bed of Clear Creek, at the base of the 
scenic front range which lies about fifty miles to the east of 
the main range of the Rocky Mountains. Farther east, about 
thirteen miles, lies the city of Denver which can be reached by 
three railway lines: the Denver and Intermountain Railroad, 
Arapahoe Street Station; the Denver and Northwestern Railway, 
Arapahoe Street Station or Union Depot; or the Colorado & 
Southern Railway, Union Depot. 

. Golden has about three thousand inhabitants and is one 
of the oldest cities in Colorado. The altitude is five thousand 
seven hundred feet above sea level, or about four hundred fifty 
feet above Denver. The climate is invigorating and bracing, 
with open winters and a large proportion of clear days. 

The Colorado School of Mines is particularly fortunate In 
its natural surroundings and proximity to a rich, practical 
laboratory. The state of Colorado is famous for Its basic indus- 
tries, the mining of gold, silver, and the baser metals, all of 
which, together with their allied branches of industry, are 
highly developed within a relatively small area, of which every 
part is easily accessible from Golden. In addition, the vast 
vanadium, tungsten, uranium, and radium fields are better 
represented here than in any other part of the world. In view 
of its great number and variety of mining and metallurgical 
enterprises the state offers unexcelled opportunities for practical 
study. 

The school is fortunately situated for the geologist. The 
surrounding formations not only present the strikingly clear 
features so characteristic of the west, but also occur in great 
profusion and variety. In addition, certain features peculiar to 
this locality afford sufficiently complicated problems to be of 
great value to the student of geology. It is possible, therefore, 
without going more than a mile or two from the school to 
illustrate effectively most geological problems so that field 



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16 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

geology can be carried on at the same time with class 
instruction. 

In the immediate vicinity of Golden are numerous clay 
mines which produce pottery clay and fire clay; also lime and 
stone quarries. Within a* few miles are extensive coal mines 
well equipped with hoisting and power machinery; pyritic smelt- 
ing works; and the sites of dredging and placer operations. 

In Clear Creek Canon, a short distance west of Golden, are 
the historic mining Camps of Central City, Black Hawk, Idaho 
Springs, and Georgetown, where placer drift mining is carried 
on in the old river beds, and a great variety of lode mines and 
milling plants are in operation. The ores of this district vary 
from free-milling gold quartz to complex silver-lead-zinc ores. 

Farther west is the camp of Breckenridge, where placer 
mining is carried on, and the mining camps of Montezuma, 
Kokomo, and Robinson. To the southwest is the famous Lead- 
ville district, well known for its rich lead and zinc ores. West 
of Leadville is the once renowned silver mining camp of Aspen, 
and to the north of Leadville are the lead-zinc camps of Redcliff 
and Oilman. 

At the Globe plant of the American Smelting and Refining 
Company in Denver the treatment of lead ores and dry ores of 
gold and silver is illustrated. Here also the many mining and 
metallurgical machinery plants aflford an excellent opportunity 
for the study of recent improvements in metallurgical design. 

West of Colorado Springs are located the Portland, the 
Standard, and the Golden Cycle Mills, which treat ore from the 
Cripple Creek district. Farther west are the prominent camps 
of Victor and Cripple Creek, in which are located some of the 
famous gold mines of the world. Near Victor are the well 
known Independence, the Portland, and the Ajax Mills, where 
low-grade Cripple Creek ores are successfully treated. 

The plant of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, at Pueblo, 
possesses all the recently invented and approved devices for 
the production of iron and steel and for the working of these 
products into marketable forms. At Pueblo are located the 
Pueblo lead smeltery and the zinc smeltery of the Colorado 
Zinc Company. At Florence the Union Mill is located. At 
Canon City is the plant of the E^mpire Zinc Company. The Ohio 
and Colorado smeltery is located at Salida, and the Arkansas 
Valley smeltery at Leadville. 

In the southwestern part of Colorado is the famous San Juan 
mining district, which includes the well known camps of Ouray, 
Telluride, Sllverton, and Lake City, where many great mines 
are located and some of the most efficient milling plants in the 
world are to be found. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 17 

Coal mining is well represented In Colorado Dy the bitumi- 
nous mines of the northern coal fields, the anthracite fields ol 
Glenwood Springs/ the coal fields of Trinidad, and numerous 
smaller fields. Oil fields are being developed and operated at 
Florence and at Boulder. 

Many prominent mining camps in neighboring states are 
easily reached from Golden. Among these are the great copper 
districts of Montana, Utah, and Arizona, where the latest min- 
ing, milling, and smelting operations are in progress; the iron 
mines of Wyoming; and the- gold mining camps of South Dakota. 

No other mining school in the world has within easy access 
such a wide variety of mining properties, or such excellent oppor- 
tunities for observing the latest and best milling and smelting 
operations. 

HISTORY 

The Colorado School of Mines was established by an act of 
the Territorial Legislature, approved February 9, 1874. Since 
that time the School has enjoyed a strong and steady growth in 
buildings, in equipment, in students, in faculty, and in the 
strength and rigor of its courses. Additions were made to the 
original buildings of 1880, by the building of 1882, and by the 
building of 1890, all of which are, now united and called the 
Hall of Chemistry. The Hall of Physics was erected in 1894, 
the Assay Laboratory in 1900, and Stratton Hall in 1904. The 
Heating, Lighting, and Power Plant was completed in 1906. The 
Administration Building, named Simon Guggenheim Hall for the 
donor, was also erected in 1906. The Gymnasium was completed 
in 1908. The Experimental Ore Dressing and Metallurgical Build- 
ing was completed in 1912. 

ORGANIZATION 

The general management of the School is vested by statute 
in a Board of Trustees, which consists of five members appointed 
by the Governor of the state, with the advice and consent of the 
Senate. The members of the Board of Trustees are appointed 
in alternating sets of two and three, and hold their office for a 
period of four years and until their successors are appointed and 
qualified. The Constitution of Colorado recognizes the School 
of Mines as an Institution of the State. 

FINANCIAL SUPPORT 

The Colorado School of Mines is supported by the income 
derived from an annual mill tax of the state. This is known as 
the "School of Mines Tax." 



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18 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 



BUILDINGS 



SIMON GUGGENHEIM HALL— Administration Building 

This building, the gift of Senator Simon Guggenheim, was 
erected and furnished at a cost of $80,000. The comer-stone 
was laid by the A. F. and A. M. of Colorado, October 3, 1905. 
It is one hundred sixty-four feet long by fifty-seven feet wide 
and is surmounted by an ornate tower. The first fioor is de- 
voted entirely to the department of geology and mineralogy, and 
includes lecture room, laboratory, offices, two work rooms and a 
public museum; the second floor contains the library, the offices 
of the President and Registrar, the Faculty and Trustees' room; 
the third floor contains the Assembly Hall, two lecture rooms for 
mathematics, an office, and the Tau Beta Pi room. The building 
was dedicated October 17, 1906. 

HALL OF CHEMISTRY 

This is a continuous group of brick buildings which com- 
prise the buildings of 1880, 1882, and 1890. The combined build- 
ings of 1880 and 1882 contain the main chemical laboratories. 
In the building of 1890 are the office and laboratory of the pro- 
fessor of chemistry, the chemical lecture room, the physics labo- 
ratory, three recitation rooms, the laboratories for gas and water 
analysis, and the freshman and sophomore drawing room, the 
safety efficiency laboratories. 

ASSAY BUILDING 

This building, forty-six by ninety-two feet, was built In 1900 
with funds contributed by the late W. S. Stratton, and enlarged 
in 1905. The design and equipment of this building make it one 
of the best of its kind in the country. 

GYMNASIUM 

This building, costing |65,000, was completed in September, 
1908. The flrst floor contains a large swimming pool, shower 
bath, and locker room, finished in white marble and tiling. 
There is also a room for boxing and wrestling. The second 
floor contains the offices of the athletic director, athletic board, 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 19 

and secretary of the Y. M. C. A.; the Theta Tau room and the 
Integral Club room. The entire third floor Is occupied by the 
gymnasium room proper. This contains fifty-two hundred square 
feet of clear floor space and a balcony which provides accommo- 
dation for two hundred spectators. 

HEATING, LIGHTING, AND POWER HOUSE 

The power plant, erected at a cost of |40,000, Is designed 
to furnish light, heat, and power to the entire school. It is a 
simple but artistic brick building, eighty-three by one hundred 
twenty-two feet, with concrete floors and cement roof. The 
building is divided lengthwise into an engine room thirty-four 
feet wide, and a boiler room forty-five feet wide. A brick-lined 
steel stack one hundred twenty-five feet high carries all smoke 
to the upper air and away from the buildlugs. 

8TRATT0N HALL 

The corner-stone of this building was laid by the A. F. and 
A. M. of Colorado on November 20, 1902, and the building was 
completed in January, 1904. The first fioor contains two large 
lecture rooms, each with apparatus room and private office. One- 
half of the second fioor accommodates the surveying and me- 
chMilcs in one large lecture room, with apparatus room and 
private office, and the other half contains a class room. The 
third floor Is devoted entirely to a large drafting room for the 
Junior and senior classes. The structure was named in honor of 
the late W. S. Stratton, who contributed |25,000 toward its cost. 

THE EXPERIMENTAL ORE DRESSING AND METALLURG* 
ICAL BUILDING 

This building, 100 by 150 feet, erected In 1912, was made 
possible by an appropriation of $100,000 by the legislature of 
Colorado. It is situated a short distance from the campus, on 
the bank of Clear Creek. It Is intended to be not only a labor- 
atory for the use of the students in ore dressing and metal- 
lurgy, but also a testing plant for the benefit of the mining 
Industry. It Is the largest and most complete plant of its kind 
in the United States. 

RESIDENCE OF THE PRESIDENT 

This Is a brick building of two and one-half stories. It was 
built in 1888. 



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20 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

CARPENTER SHOP 

This is well equipped for the special demands which are 
continually arising in a technical school. The work varies from 
ordinary repair work to the careful construction of special 
apparatus needed in the various laboratories. 

MACHINE SHOP 

This contains the necessary machinery for the maintenance 
and repair of equipment and also for the construction of such 
apparatus as is required for carrying on any new or original 
work. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 21 



LABORATORIES AND EQUIPMENT 



THE EXPERIMENTAL ORE DRESSING AND 
METALLURGICAL PLANT 

The Building 

The experimental plant is situated on the bank of Clear 
Creek, a few blocks from the campus of the School. The build- 
ing is 98 by 141 feet 8 inches on the ground floor. The frame- 
work is of structural steel resting on concrete foundations which 
have been carried down to a substantial bed of gravel. The 
walls consist of two and one-half inches of cement mortar, rein- 
forced by "hy-rlb," and are of natural cement color. The roof 
is of elaterite resting on a two-inch sheathing of matched Oregon 
flr. The ground floor is concrete and Is divided into three 
benches. Above the ground floor, but covering only a part of 
the area, are two suspended floors of reinforced concrete, sup- 
ported by steel framework. The building is well lighted and 
is properly ventilated. 

Power 

All machinery and apparatus requiring power are operated 
by alternating current motors supplied with current from the 
power house. For the generation of the current required, a 
producer-gas-power generator unit of 100 kv-a capacity has been 
installed in the power house. This unit is of Westinghouse 
desi^ and consists of a bituminous suction gas producer, a 
vertical three-cylinder gas engine, and a direct-connected alter- 
nating current generator. 

The producer has a number of noteworthy features. The 
principal one, and the one which contributes so largely to its 
success, consists of the two distinct flre zones. This feature 
makes it possible to operate successfully on very low-grade fuel, 
and eliminates the difficulties usually arising from the tar and 
hydrocarbons given off and deposited during the process of gas 
making. Ordinary Colorado lignite coal is used. From this is 
produced a cool, clean gas with a heat value of from 115 to 130 
B. t. u. a cubic foot. To eliminate the loss of power on account 
of a reduced intake pressure, a motor-driven, positive-pressure 
type of exhauster is used. This draws the gas from the producer 
and delivers it to the engine at a pressure corresponding to 
about four inches of water. 



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22 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

The engine is of the standard Westinghouse vertical three- 
cylinder type, single acting, and using a four-stroke cycle. The 
cylinders are 15 in. diam. by 14-inch stroke. At a speed of 257 
revolutions per minute, the engine operating on the producer gas, 
delivers 118 b. h. p. Compressed air is used for starting, and 
both engine and producer can be started readily, even though 
they have stood idle for several days. 

Direct-connected to the engine through a spring coupling 
is a 100 kv-a, 2,300-volt three-phase, 60-cycle generator. The 
current is transmitted at this voltage to the experimental plant 
where it is stepped down to the working voltage of 440. The 
installation is such that the 100 kv-a machine can be operated 
in parallel with a steam turbine in the power house. In case 
of an emergency all power can be supplied from the turbine 
alone. 

Sections 

The plant contains four sections or units — sampling, con- 
centration, cyanidation, and a fourth devoted to roasting and 
special features such as magnetic and electrostatic separation 
and flotation. For general equipment the plant contains a Curtis 
air compressor, bucket elevator, two motor operated platform 
elevators which give control over all the floors, a Ruggles-Cole 
dryer, ore bins, track scales, turn tables, and ore cars. 

Sampling. This section contains the following equipment : 
One Vezin sampler, one Brunton sampler, one portable feed 
hopper, one set of 8 by 20 inch Traylor rolls, one dust collector, 
accessories for finishing the sample, such as laboratory crushers 
and pulverizers, bucking board, and sample riffles, one complete 
crude oil assay furnace outfit equipment for chemical analysis. 

Concentration. This section contains: One 7 by 10 inch 
Blake crusher, one 2 D Gates gyratory crusher, one set of 14 by 
30 inch P. and M. M. rolls, one set 12 by 24 inch P. and M. M. 
rolls, one 3% foot Huntington mill, one 3^ foot Akron Chilean 
mill for regrinding, one Richards pulsator jig, one Harz jig of 
one compartment, one Harz jig of four compartments, one No. 
^ Wilfley table, one Deister sand table, one Deister slime table, 
one Richards pulsator classifier, one Johnston vanner, one three 
compartment classifier, two Callow cones, five 850 lb. gravity 
stamps equipped with amalgamating plates, one 2 foot amalga- 
mating pan made by the Denver Engineering Works Co., Pierce 
amalgamator, and clean up pans, also grizzlies, impact and re- 
volving screens, sand pumps, elevators and concentrate driers. 

For preliminary concentration: One Callow minature ore 
testing plant, which includes one 24 inch Wilfiey table, one two 
compartment jig, one set hydraulic classifiers, one 6 in by 4 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 23 

ft. amalgamating plate, one-quarter size Wilfley table, one-quar- 
ter size Card table. 

Cyanidation. This section contains: one Z^^ by 10 foot 
Pachuca tank, one Paterson agitator, one Dorr classifier, one 
Dorr thickener, one Butters filter, one 2 by 3 foot Oliver filter, 
one Gould wet vacuum pump, one 2 by 2 foot Abbe pebble mill, 
one 4 by 10 foot Denver EIngineering Works tube mill, xme 
thickening cone, one six compartment zinc box, one lead lined 
acid tank, one filter press for zinc slime, solution storage tanks, 
also small scale apparatus in the shape of agitators and pre- 
cipitating devices. . 

Special Section. This section contains one Wetherill elec- 
tromagnetic separator, one Dings electromagnetic separator, one 
Huff electrostatic separator, two laboratory size Callow pneu- 
matic flotation cells, three laboratory size flotation machines, 
mineral separation type, one 6 cell Minerals Separation flotation 
machine, one Ruth 6-oell flotation machine. 

Provision is made in this section for the installation of spe- 
cial machinery whereby its efficiency may be tested and com- 
parison made with standard apparatus; for testing by roasting 
and magnetic or electrostatic separation, by dry tabling, and by 
such new processes and apparatus as may, from time to time, 
come before the metallurgical and mining public. 

Research Features 

Besides supplying the students of the school with a splendid 
laboratory and thereby increasing the efficiency of their studies, 
the plant can be used as a research laboratory by the faculty 
and the alumni of the school. 

COLLECTION OF COMMERCIAL ORES 

Most collections of ores are classified according to their 
mineral contents, but the department bf mining is pursuing 
the policy of gathering average ore samples from every mining 
district. These are arranged geographically so that the typical 
ores of each mining district are placed together. Such an 
arrangement is found to be of great educational value to the 
classes in mining. The collection now numbers about 1,250 
specimens. 

MINERALOGICAL AND GEOLOGICAL LABORATORY AND 

CABINET 

Under the name cabinet is embraced not only the display 
collections, which may perhaps be called the cabinet proper, 
but also the other collections that have been prepared mainly 



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24 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

for the purpose of class instruction. These collections are nec- 
essarily changing from year to year, as new material is con- 
stantly being added. This new material is obtained partly by 
purchase, but mainly by direct collecting, by gifts, and by means 
of exchange with other institutions. The display collections are 
not thoroughly classified, but are arranged in different cases 
with a view to displaying certain groups of minerals, or min- 
erals from certain localities. The various collections, which 
together contain sixty-six thousand specimens, consist of dis- 
play, type, and working or study collections of minerals, fossils, 
rocks, and ores. The rock collections include a general collec- 
tion from different countries, one devoted to Colorado localities, 
and still others that cover particular countries or localities. 

MINERALOQICAL LABORATORY 

Aside from the special advantages due to location, the de- 
partment of geology is admirably equipped for practical teach- 
ing. The entire first floor of Guggenheim Hall is occupied by 
this department. The south end of the building is occupied by 
a commodious lecture room, with a seating capacity at more 
than a hundred, and by a separate mineralogical laboratory 
with table space for between fifty and sixty students, also by 
two small recitation rooms. On the extreme north end of the 
building is the public museum, devoted to a display of fine min- 
erals. Additional space is provided for working rooms, office, 
packing, and storage rooms. 

METALLURGICAL COLLECTIONS 

The School has a fine collection of models from the works 
of Theodore Gersdorf, Freiberg, Saxony, which illustrate types 
of furnaces in this and other countries. Each model is made to 
scale and is complete in every detail. In addition to these models 
are the following to illustrate the best modem practice: Work- 
ing model of a twenty-stamp mill, on a scale of one and one-half 
inches to the foot; working model of crushing rolls; working 
model of a Dodge crusher; model of modern blast furnace for 
lead-silver ores, with water jackets, smaller models, such as the 
complete set used in the famous Keyes and Arents lead-well suit. 
There is also a large collection of ores, ore dressing and metal- 
lurgical samples and products. 

METALLURGICAL LABORATORY 

This laboratory Is equipped with apparatus for the study of 
the quantitative relations of the various agencies taking part in 
metallurgical changes. The Junker, the Mahler Bomb, and the 
Parr calorimeters, the Wanner optical, the Le Ghatelier, and 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 25 

Bristol electrical pyrometers, together with several electrical 
furnaces and a Hoskin gasoline furnace, are useS for obtaining 
the desired temperature for experimentation. Desks and appa- 
ratus are provided for small-scale work in concentration, amal- 
gamation, chlorinatlon, and cyanidation. Ten separate flotation 
cells of the Minerals Separation Company's type and a Callow 
pneumatic cell, all power driven, are provided for the experi- 
mental work in the flotation process. The necessary chemical 
equipment for analyses is also provided. For the physical ex- 
amination of ores and metallurgical products, flve small dissect- 
ing, two Leitz, and one Bausch and Lomb compound metallog- 
raphlc microscopes are provided. The necessary standard 
screens are available. Provision for large scale work is made in 
the experimental ore dressing and metallurgical plant. 

ASSAY LABORATORY 

This laboratory is divided into parting, balance, furnace, 
storeroom, and office. It is equipped with thirty-two coal-fired 
muffle furnaces, seven Case distillate furnaces, one gasoline 
furnace, two Braun cupel machines, two Iler cupel machines, 
and two bullion rolls, one of which is of the Braun type. In 
order to avoid" dust, change of temperature, and direct sun- 
light, the balance room has no outside walls, and is lighted by 
means of skylight. The equipment includes seven special pulp 
balances, five silver balances, three gold balances, one Thomp- 
son multiple rider balance, and one Mine & Smelter Supply 
Company button balance, Wilfred Heusser type. No. lOOQ, sensi- 
tive to 1-500 milligram. This variety is selected In order to 
acquaint the student with the various mechanisms and adjust- 
ments in assay balances. Each student has his own muffle, with 
his own coal bin, pulp balance, and desk, conveniently arranged 
with regard to his furnace; he has also access in the balance 
room to the best type of assay and pulp balances. 

SURVEYING EQUIPMENT 

The equipment of the department of surveying is well 
adapted to the practical course given. For transit work there 
are twenty-four light mountain transits, of which eleven are 
equipped for underground surveys. There are also three heavy 
transits, one of which is of English and one of German make. 
In addition to the transits there are three plane tables for taking 
topography. For leveling, seven wye levels and flve dumpy 
levels of standard manufacture are used. The department is 
well supplied with leveling rods of various makes and types, 
stadia rods, tapes, hand levels, pocket transits, range poles, and 
other accessories. The instruments are manufactured by such 



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26 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

well kBown firms as C. L. Berger & Sons, Buff & Buff, Heller & 
Brightly, Eugene Dietzgen & Co., Peter Herr & Co., W. and L. 
E. Gurley, Keuffel & Esser, William Ainsworth & Sons, Weiss 
& Heitzler, Toung & Sons, Negretti & Zambra (English), and 
Max Hildebrand (German). 

CHEMICAL LABORATORIES 

The freshman, sophomore, and junior laboratories accom- 
modate two hundred and fifty students, and are equipped with 
especially designed tile-topped oak desks, provided with low 
reagent shelves, gas, water, filter pumps, and large porcelain 
sinks. The balance rooms are equipped with Sartorius, Becker, 
and Spoerhase balances. Gas is supplied to the building from 
a 300-light Detroit gas machine, which is connected with buried 
supply tanks outside the buildings. Good ventilation is obtained 
by means of two Sturtevant fans. 

HYDRAULIC LABORATORY 

The hydraulic laboratory contains weirs and orifice tanks 
for the determination of coefficients of discharge, calibrated 
tanks for water measurements, a steel pressure tank for arti- 
ficial heads, pumps for water supply, and gages for pressure. 
A hydraulic ram is used to illustrate this class of apparatus 
and for testing. A long sheet-iron trough with a car over it 
Is used for calibrating current meters. Water wheels and cen- 
trifugal pumps are tested for efficiency under various condi- 
tions of head and load. A swinging tank is used to measure 
jet reactions. Friction losses in pipes and elbows are measured. 
Hook gages are used for the accurate determination of low 
heads. Streams and ditches in the vicinity of Golden are gaged 
by means of the current meter, by rod fioats, by slope, and by a 
Pitot tube. A two-inch Venturi meter and manometer set is used 
in measuring pipe fiow. 

PHYSICAL LABORATORIES 

The physical laboratory is in the basement of the Chemistry 
Building. Adjoining the main laboratory is a balance and in- 
strument room, and a dark room containing a complete Lummer- 
Brodhun photometer and an optical bench. The equipment is 
particularly adapted to the instruction of students of engineer- 
ing, and is designed to teach the principles of elasticity and 
efficiency of machines, composition and resolution of forces, 
various forms of motion, density, velocity and pitch of sound, 
focal length of lenses, magnifying power, and the principles 
of the construction of telescopes. The heat equipment is partic- 
ularly well adapted for calorimetry, heat expansion determina- 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINE5S 27 

Uons, and for the determining of the mechanical equivalent of 
heat. A complete line of galvanometers, standard resistances, 
condensers, ammeters, voltmeters, dynamometers, permeameters. 
Potentiometers, standard cells, and a Kelvin balance compose the 
electrical apparatus; in magnetism all the principles which un- 
derlie the construction of magnets for lifting purposes and for 
the separation of ores are demonstrated in the laboratory. 

TESTING LABORATORY 

The laboratory is provided with a motor-driven 100,000-pound 
Riehle testing machine arranged for experiments in tension, 
compression, shearing, and flexure of materials. £2xtensometers 
for measuring elongations and compressions are employed. 
Numerous steel sections provide useful problems in determining 
centers of gravity and moments of inertia. 

The equipment for cement testing includes a 2,000-pound 
Riehle testing machine, and a 2,000-pound Olsen automatic shot 
cement-testing machine for testing briquettes in tension. The 
speciflc gravity of cement is determined by means of the Le 
Chatelier apparatus. A nest of fineness sieves and a set of very 
sensitive scales equip the student for the fineness test. Setting 
is determined by means of the complete Vicat apparatus. 
Trowels, spatulas, large slate mixing boards, beakers, moulds, 
damp box, and immersing vats, provide apparatus for the mak- 
ing and setting of briquettes and for the soundness tests. 
Moulds are used for making cubes and cylinders of concrete for 
compression tests. The use of reinforced concrete is illustrated 
by complete models of forms for the manufacture of reinforced 
concrete columns and beams, and by numerous samples of 
various kinds of reinforcing bars. 

ELECTRICAL LABORATORY 

This laboratory is equipped with standard makes of volt- 
meters, ammeters, and wattmeters, inductive and non-inductive 
resistances for artificial loads, a Thomson apparatus for induc- 
tion experiments, a slip indicator for induction motors, an 
automatic speed recorder which can be used for finding the 
acceleration curves of motors, an Alden absorption dynamom- 
eter for motor testing, a contact apparatus for alternating cur- 
rent and voltage wave form, and a split phase rotary field ap- 
paratus. The generators available for laboratory work include a 
100 kv-a, 2,300 volt, 60 cycle, 3 phase Westinghouse alternator, 
driven by a Westinghouse producer gas engine, a 75 kw. 230 
volt, 3 wire, d. c. Westinghouse generator, driven by a 112 h. p. 
2,300 volt, 3 phase, synchronous motor, a 76 kw. Bullock twin 
unit continuous current generator set, driven by a 110 h. p. De 



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28 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 

Laval turbine, a 30 kw. 1,100 volt, 125 cycle, single phase Oeneral 
Enectric alternator, a 15 kw. 130 volt compound, continuous 
current generator designed and built at the school, an 8 kw. 
Crocker-Wheeler generator, a 6 kw. 130 volt Westinghouse gene- 
rator, a 7% kw. 125 volt compound machine, a 3 kw. 6 and 10 
volt electrolytic generator, a small single phase rotary converter, 
a 2 kw. 120 volt compound Brush machine, a series arc light 
machine, and a small Edison shunt generator. The Bullock 
generators can be connected at the switchboard to supply the 
120-240 volt 3 wire lighting and power circuits, or they can 
be put in parallel and thus supply more than 600 amperes for 
electrothermic work. The motors include a 10 h. p. 220 volt, 
60 cycle, 3 phase constant speed induction motor of Oeneral 
EHectric make, two 5 h. p. series motors with controllers, a 5 h. p. 

3 phase, two-speed induction motor, used for electric drilling, a 

4 h. p. single-phase Wagner motor, a 400-2,000 rev. per min. ad- 
justable speed experimental motor designed and built at the 
school, a 20 h. p. series motor, and a large number of 3 phase 
motors and shunt machines of standard makes in daily use about 
the shops and buildings. The storage batteries of 54 cells each 
are in daily use and are available for study. In addition to 
these generators and motors, a modem 5 panel d. c. switchboard 
and 7 panel a. c. and d. c. switchboard with the usual instru- 
ments, switches; and auxiliaries, aiford excellent opportunities 
for the study of electric plant equipment. The engine room is 
utilized as a part of the dsmamo laboratory, but the laboratory 
in stratton Hall, equipped with numerous- circuit outlets and 
portable instruments, is used chiefly for the study of motors 
and their auxiliaries. At present there are 78 generators and 
motors available for study. Transformers up to 80,000 volts are 
in use. 

MINING LABORATORY 

The laboratory work in mining is carried on principally at 
the tunnel belonging to the school. The equipment here con- 
sists of numerous drills which are taken apart, reassembled, 
and used by the student; forges, anvils and tools for blacksmith- 
ing; the air receiver, valves, gages, fuses and switches con- 
nected with the compressed air and electric power transmission 
from the power plant; two mining cars; materials for track lay- 
ing, and all other supplies usually found at a tunnel house. 
Among the makes of rock drills used by the students are Rand, 
Ingersoll, Sergeant, Leyner, McKieman, Wood, Hardsocg, Shaw, 
Ingersoll-Leyner, Dreadnaught, Waugh, and Temple-IngersoU. 
All of the mountings, such as bars, tripods, and arms, and a 
supply of drill steel, are also provided. For the measurement 
of air consumption in drilling operations, the Clark. DriUometer, 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 29 

and displacement meters are Installed. Batteries, galvanome- 
ters, and rheostats are provided In connection with electric shot 
firing. In the laboratory at the school are two working size 
models of the Blelchert system of aerial trams ; numerous models 
of mines; an explosive tester; a collection of rock cores taken 
by diamond drills; models of timbering methods; many mine 
maps; Instruments for measuring ventilation; lantern slides 
Illustrating mining operations; samples of wire ropes and drill 
steels; lamps of the open and safety patterns; a dry placerlng 
machine; and many photographs of mines and operations. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 

The heating, lighting, and power plant Is well equipped for 
mechanical engineering laboratory practice. The boiler room 
contains the following principal equipment: One 200 h. p. and 
one 100 h. p. Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers, each 
equipped with a chain grate; one 80 h. p. tubular boiler equipped 
with plain grate; Green Engineering Company fuel economiz- 
ers: Babcock & Wilcox Independently fired super-heater; Web- 
ster feed-water heater, boiler feed and vacuum pumps and 
injectors; one Wilcox water weigher; a 125 by 5-foot self-sup- 
porting steel stack supplemented by a steam-driven 42-lnch 
Sirocco fan for Induced draft; eight 25-ton steel bunkers for 
coal storage; and a 125 h. p. Westlnghouse double-fiow gas pro- 
ducer equipped with wet and dry scrubbers, mixing and gas 
storage tank, and motor-driven exhauster. 

The engine room contains the following principal apparatus: 
10 by 12-inch high speed Russell engine; 6 by 9-inch throttling 
Sturtevant engine; 75 kw. De Laval steam turbine geared to 
twin generators; 7 by 6-inch two-cylinder vertical Westlnghouse 
Jr. engine; 15 by 14-inch three-cylinder vertical Westlnghouse 
gas engine direct connected to alternator; 6% by 14-inch single 
Fairbanks, Morse & Company gas engine; 8% by 14-inch Priest- 
man oil engine; a Studebaker four-cylinder automobile motor; 
a J. George Leyner Engineering Works two-stage air compress- 
or, capacity 275 cubic feet of free air per minute; and a small 
Westlnghouse air-brake. 

The laboratory is well equipped with auxiliary apparatus 
such as indicators, prony brakes, Orsat apparatus, calorimeters 
and manometers, for conducting experimental work. 

SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING LABORATORY 

The equipment consists of six sets Draeger breathing appa- 
ratus, two-hour type; one set Draeger breathing apparatus, one- 
half-hour type; five sets Pleuss breathing apparatus, two-hour 
type; three sets Westfalia breathing apparatus, two-hour type; 



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30 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

one set Westfolia breathing apparatus, one-half -hour type; all 
equipped with extra oxygen cylinders, various accessories, and 
supplies; four large oxygen cylinders for storage; one refilling 
pump; one pulmotor; one lungmotor; E2dison, Manlite, and Wico 
electric lamps, with charging station; electric fiash lights; var- 
ious types of safety lamps; stretchers, splints, bandages, com- 
presses, and* all other necessary first aid material; fuse, squibs, 
electric detonators, and shot-flring batteries; mine telephones, 
mine signs, and other safety and efficiency appliances. 

DRAWING ROOMS 

Freshman and Sophomore. This occupies the upper floor of 
the Hall of Chemistry. The floor area is about four thousand 
square feet. It is lighted by. windows on the north, east, and 
west, and by eight large skylights in the roof. A suitable office 
for the instructors is in a central position, in which all drawings 
are filed and all records are kept Each student is provided 
with a drawing table, a drawer, a drawing board, and a stool. 
The present equipment accommodates about one hundred^ fifty 
students. There are many models to aid the students in their 
work. 

Junior and Senior. The entire third fioor of Stratto]\ Hall 
is used for the Junior and senior drawings. The room is 90 by 60 
feet, lighted by windows and a large skylight. Etech student Is 
provided with a drawing table, a drawer, a drawing board, and 
a stool. Most of the drawing tables are independent and ad- 
justable. The room has recently been equipped with especially 
constructed tables for the advanced work of the seniors. The 
present equipment accommodates about one hundred sixty 
students. There Is a blue-print room fully equipped with an 
adjustable printing frame and all other necessary appliances. 
In one corner of the room is the office of the instructors, where 
all drawings and records are filed. There are for the use of the 
students a complete set of trade catalogues and a large number 
of blue prints from industrial corporations. These are kept up 
to date. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 31 



REQUIREMENTS FOR ENTRANCE 



FRESHMAN CLASS 

Unit Course. A unit course of study is defined as a course 
covering a school year of not less than thirty-six weeks, with 
five weekly periods of at least forty-five minutes each. 

Fifteen units are required for entrance, of which twelve are 
specified and three may be chosen from a list of electives. 

Specified Units 

Essentials of Algebra *. . . . 1 unit 

Advanced Algebra ^ unit 

Plane Geometry 1 unit 

Solid Geometry % unit 

Languages, other than English 2 units 

English 3 units 

History 2 units 

Physics 1 unit 

Chemistry 1 unit 

Specified Units Ife (0 

lective Units \ f^ 

Total Units for Entrance 15 

Eiective Units 

The three elective units may be selected from the following 
list: Drawing, Shop Work, Mathematics, Latin, Greek, French, 
German, Spanish, History, English, Science, Psychology, Political 
Economy. In allowing credit for drawing and shop work two 
forty-five minute periods, will be regarded as equivalent to one 
forty-five minute period of classroom work. Half units are 
accepted in all studies except in physics and chemistry, provided 
that not less than one full unit shall be accepted in language. 

Entrance 

(a) By Certificate 

A graduate of an accredited high school in the State of 
Colorado will be admitted without examination upon the pre- 
sentation of proper credentials from the principal of his high 
school, provided that the studies he has successfully completed 




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32 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

cover the requirements for entrance. Blanks for this purpose 
will be sent, on application to the registrar. 

Graduates of accredited high schools in other states will be 
accepted in the same manner as graduates of accredited high 
schools in Colorado. 

(b) By Examination. 

All other candidates for admission will be required to pass 
entrance examination. These examinations are held in Oolden. 

For the benefit of any student who cannot take the exam- 
ination in Oolden, conveniently, on account of the distance, 
arrangements will be made so that he may take the examina- 
tion under the direction of some responsible person at his own 
home, or near it. 

E«ntrance examinations for the class of 1922 will be held in 
Golden on Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, August 28, 29, and 
30, 1918. 

It is the opinion of the Faculty of the Colorado School of 
Mines that every candidate for the freshman class should have 
taken a thorough course of at least four years in a good high 
school, or its equivalent, and during the last year of his prepara- 
tion should have had a thorough review of mathematics. Special 
attention should be given to the preparation in chemistry and 
physics. 

If a first year student is found to be deficient in any of the 
subjects required for entrance, the faculty reserves the right to 
require such student to remove his deficiency before proceeding 
with his regular work. 

REGISTRATION 

The first Monday and Tuesday of September are the regis- 
tration days for the first semester; and the first day of the sec- 
ond semester is the registration day for that semester. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE UNITS REQUIRED FOR ENTRANCE 

ENGLISH (3 Units) 

(a) Grammar The student should have a sufficient knowl- 
edge of English grammar to enable him to point out the S3ai- 
tactical structure of any sentence which he meets in the pre- 
scribed reading. He should also be able to state intelligently 
the leading grammatical principles when he is called upon to 
do so. 

(b) Reading The books prescribed by the Joint Commit- 
tee on Uniform E#ntranoe Requirements in English form the basis 
for this part of the work. 

The list is divided into two parts: the first consists of books 
to be read with attention to their contents rather than to their 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 88 

form, the second consists of books to be studied thoroughly and 
minutely. 

The lists thus divided are as follows: 

I Books prescribed for reading 

Group I (Two to be selected) 

Shakespeare's As You Like It, Henry V, Julius Caesar, The 
Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night 

Group II (One to be selected) 

Bacon's Essays; Inring's Life of Washington; The Bir Roger 
de Ooverly Papers in The Spectator; Franklin*s Autobiography 

Group III (One to be selected) 

enhancer's Prologue; Spencer's Faerie Queene (selections); 
Pope's The Rape of the Lock; (Goldsmith's The Deserted Tillage; 
Palgrave's Golden Treasury (First Series), Books 11 and III, 
with especial attention to Dryden, Collins, Gray, Cowper and 
Bums 

Group IV (Two to be selected) 

Ck>ldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield; Scott's Ivanhoe; Scott's 
Quentin Durward; Hawthorne's The House of the Seven Oables; 
Thackeray's Vanity Fair; Mrs. Gaskell's Oranford; Dickens' A 
Tale of Two Cities; George Eliot's Silas Mamer; Blackmore's 
LomaDoofie 

Group V (Two to be selected) 

Inring's Sketch Book; Lamb's Essays of Elia; De Quincey's 
Joan of Arc and The English Mail Coach; Carlyle's Heroes and 
Hero Worship; Emerson's Essays; Ruskin's Sesame and Lilies 

Group VI (Two to be selected) 

Coleridge's The Ancient Mariner; Scott's The Lady of the 
Lake; Byron's Mazeppa and The Prisoner of ChUlon; Palgrave's 
Golden Treasury (First Series), Book IV, with especial atten- 
tion to Wordsworth, Keats and Shelley; Macaulay's Lays of 
Ancient Rome; Poe's Poems; Lowell's The Vision of Sir Laun- 
fal; Arnold's SohraJ> and Rustum; Longfellow's Evangeline; 
Tennyson's Gareth and Lynette, Lancelot and Elaine, and The 
Passing of Arthur; Browning's Cavalier Tunes, The Lost Leader, 
How They Brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix, Evelyn 
Hope, Home Thoughts from Abroad, Home Thoughts from the 
Sea, Incident of the French Camp, The Boy and the Angel, One 
Word More, Herve Riel, Pheidippides 

II Books prescribed for study and practice 

Shakespeare's Macbeth, Milton's Lycidas, Comus, UAllegro, 
and II Penseroso; Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America 
or Washington's Farewell Address and Webster's First Bunker 



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34 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Hill Oration; Macaulay's Life of Johnson, or Carlyle's Essay on 
Bums. 

(c) Composition Regular and persistent training In both 
written and oral composition should be given throughout the 
entire school course. The topics should be so chosen as to give 
practice in the four leading types of prose discourse, namely, 
description, narration, exposition, and argument. 

(d) Rhetoric The instruction in this subject should include 
the following particulars: Choice of words, structure of sen- 
tences and paragraphs, the principles of narration, description, 
exposition and argument. 

The teacher should distinguish between those parts of 
rhetorical theory which are retained in text books merely 
through the influence of tradition and those which have a 
direct bearing upon the composition work. The former may be 
safely omitted. 

HISTORY (2 Units) 

Any two of the following periods may be offered: 

I Ancient History, with special reference to Greek and 
Roman History, with a short introductory study of the more 
ancient nations and the chief events of the early middle ages, 
down to the death of Charlemagne 

II Mediaeval and Modern European History, from the death 
of Charlemagne to the present time 

III English History 

IV American History, or American History and Civil Gov- 
ernment 

MATHEMATICS (3 Units) 

The courses offered by the school are so exacting that a 
thorough training in the following subjects is essential: 

I Essentials of Algebra (1 Unit) The four fundamental 
operations for rational algebraic expressions: factoring; complex 
fractions; the solution of equations of the first degree containing 
one or more unknown quantities; radicals; theory of indices; 
quadratic equations and equations containing one or more un* 
known quantities that can be solved by the methods of quadratic 
equations; problems dependent on such equations. 

II Advanced Algebra (^ Unit) This course should begin 
with a thorough review of the essentials. Later work should 
cover an introduction to the graphical representation of linear 
and simple quadratic expressions: ratio and proportion; varia- 
tion; binomial theorem; the progressions; and logarithms. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 35 

III Plane Geometry (1 Unit) Completed, with the solu- 
tion of original exercises and numerical problems. 

IV Solid Geometry (% unit) Properties of straight lines 
and planes; of dihedral and polyhedral angles; of projection: of 
polyhedrons, including prisms; of psrramids and the regular 
solids; of cylinders, cones and spheres; of spherical triangles, 
and the mensuration of surfaces and solids. 

CHEMISTRY (1 Unit) 

The equivalent of Brownlee's Elementary Chemistry, Brad- 
bury's Elementary Chemistry or Remsen's Briefer Course of 
inorganic Chemistry, with experiments. 

PHYSICS (1 Unit) 

The equivalent of Carhart and Chute's High School Physics, 
or Gage's Principles of Physics, together with systematic labora- 
tory practice such as is outlined in Crew and Tatnall's Labora- 
tory Manual In Physics. 

The two units required in languages other than English may 
be offered in Greek, Latin, French, German, or Spanish. 

ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING 

Applicants who are graduates of technical or scientific 
schools or colleges of good standing will be admitted without 
examination upon the presentation of proper credentials. They 
will be permitted to take any subject taught in connection with 
the regular courses, provided, in the opinion of the instructor, 
their previous experience and training will -enable them to pur- 
sue the subject with profit. Each case will be Judged on its 
own merits, but applicants will be advised to become candidates 
for a degree and to complete one of the regular courses of the 
school. 

Applicants who have partly completed the course in tech- 
nical or scientific schools or colleges of good standing will 
be admitted without examination upon the presentation of proper 
credentials. Diip credit will be allowed for the successful com- 
pletion of work which is equivalent to that given in the Colorado 
School of Mines. Plates of drawings, laboratory note books, and 
catalogues of the institution attended, should be submitted with 
applications for advanced standing. All credits given to ad- 
vanced standing students are given provisionally, with the under- 
standing that such credits may be withdrawn at any time in case 
a student fails to maintain a creditable standing. Application 
blanks will be furnished, on request to the Registrar. 



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36 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 

DEGREES 

The degree of B. M. (Engineer of Mines) will be conferred 
upon a candidate who fulfils the following conditions: 

(a) He must complete the prescribed work of the freshman 
and sophomore years. 

(b) He must complete the required work in one of the 
groups and enough additional elective work to make a total of 
one hundred credit hours. The presentation of a thesis is 
optional, but if presented six credit hours are allowed for it. 

No diploma will be delivered until the full requirements of 
the course of study are satisfied, and all accounts with the school 
are settled. 

The degree of M. S. (Master of Science) may be conferred 
upon a candidate who already holds a degree from this school 
or an equivalent degree from a similar institution of good stand- 
ing, and whose application for such degree shall have been ap- 
proved by the faculty; provided, that the candidate completes 
work equivalent to fifty credit hours, chosen with the approval 
of the faculty, and presents an acceptable thesis. Before being 
accepted as a candidate the applicant must file a record of his 
previous attainments. 



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DEPARTMENTS OF INSTRUCTION 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



TABULAR VIEW 
FRBSHBiAN TEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 



bfl 

A* 






2& 



SECOND SEMESTEHl 



82 



II 



Required 

Mathematics I 

Mathematics II 

Chemistry I 

Chemistry III 

Chemistry V 

Mechanical Engineering 

I 

Mechanical ESnglneering 

n 

English I 

Geology and Mineralogy 

I 

Physical Training 



71 
72 
48 
48 
49 

76 

76 



65 
135 



Elective 
Spanish I 



112 2 



Required 

Mathematics III 

Mathematics IV 

Chemistry II 

Chemistry IV 

Chemistry VI 

Mechanical Engineering 

III 

Mechanical Engineering 

IV 

English II 

Geology and Mineralogy 

II 

Physical Training 

Civil Engineering I 

Civil Engineering II... 
is given daring six 
weeks of the sum- 
mer following the 
close of the fresh- 
man year. 

Elective 
Spanish II 



72 
73 
48 
49 
49 

76 

77 
63 

65 
186 



2 
8 

1 t 



112 



2 1 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 



89 



TABULAR VIEW 
SOPHOMORB TEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 


! 




3& 


SECOND SEMESTER 




II 


5fi 


Required 




1 
1 


Required 








MathemaUcs V 


73 


3 


Mathematics VI ...... 


74 


3 




Physics I 


104 


5 1 


Physics ni 


105 


5 




Physics n 


104 


' 6 


Physics IV 


106 




6 


Chemistry vn 


50 


1 ^ 
1 , 


Chemistry VIII 


60 


1 




Chemistry IX 


50 


6 


Chemistry X 


60 




6 


Mechanical Engineering 




1 


Mechanical Engineering 








V 


77 


2 ! 


VII 


77 


2 




Mechanical Engineering 




j 


Mechanical Engineering 








VI 


77 


, 3 


VIII 


78 




3 


ESnglish in 


63 


2 


ESnglish IV 


64 


2 




Geology and Mineralogy 




^ 1 


Geology and Mineralogy 








m 


66 
93 


2 6 

1 


rv 


66 
94 


2 
2 


6 


MeUl Mining I 


Metal Mining II 




Physical Training 


136 


1 


Physical Training 

Metal Mining HI 

is given during the 
four weeks of the 
summer following 
the close of the 
sophomore year. 

Metal Mining XV 

is given for two 
weeks of the sum- 
mer following the 


136 
94 

100 














close of the sopho- 
















more year. 








Elective 






Elective 








Spanish III 


112 


2 


Snanish IV 


113 


2 




Mathematics vn 


74 


2 


Mathematics VIII 


74 


2 





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40 



THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINB8 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP i METAL MINING 

JUNIOR YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 






5S 



SECOND SE&f£STER 






3fi 



Required 
Civil Engineering III 
Mechanical Engineering 

IX 

Mechanical Engineering 

X 

Metallurgy I 

Metallurgy III 

Metal Mining IV 

Metal Mining V 

Metal Mining VI.... 
Metal Mining Vin... 
Metal Mining IX 



Elective 

Chemistry XV... 

Coal Mining I 

Geology and Mineralogy 

V 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VI 

Electrical Engineering 

I 

Electrical Engineering 

n 

Metallurgy V , 

Physics V , 

Safety Engineering I.. 
Safety Engineering II. 
Spanish V 



83 

78 

78 
87 
88 
95 
95 
95 
96 
96 



52 
54 

67 

67 

59 

59 
89 
105 
108 
109 
113 



Required 
Civil Engineering IV. . 
Geology and Mineralogy 

VII 

Mechanical Engineering 

XI 

Mechanical Engineering 

XII 

Metallurgy IV 

Metal Mining VII 

Metal Mining X 



Elective 

Chemistry XIII 

Chemistry XIV 

Chemistry XVI 

Civil Engineering V.., 

Coal Mining n 

EEectrical Engineering 

m 

EUectrical Engineering 

IV , 

Metallurgy VI 

Physics VII 

Safety Engineering III 
Safety Engineering IV 
Spanish VI 



68 

79 

79 
89 
96 
97 



51 
52 
52 
84 
54 

60 

60 
89 
106 
110 
111 
113 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 



41 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP I METAL MINING 

SENIOR TEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 



be 






SSXX>N1> SEMESTER 



I 



Sx 



Required 
Mechanical Engineering 

XIV 

Mechanical Engineering 

XV 

Metallurgy VII 

Metallurgy VIII 

Metal Mining XI 

Metal Mining Xin 

Elective 
CivU Engineering VIII 

Coal Mining IV 

Electrical Engineering 

V 

laectrical Engineering 

VI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

X 

Mechanical Engineering 

XVI 

Metallurgy XII 

Mining Law I 

Thesis — Credit three 

hours. 



80 

80 
90 
90 
97 
99 

86 
56 

61 

61 

69 

80 

91 

102 



Required 
Civil Engineering VI 
Civil Engineering vn 
Metal Mining xn... 
Metal Mining XIV. . . 
Metal Mining XVI... 



Elective 

Chemistry XVII 

Chemistry XVIII 

Civil Engineering IX. 

Coal Mining VI 

Coal Mining VII 

Coal Mining VHI 

Electrical Engineering 

VII 

Electrical Engineering 

vin 

Geology and Mineralogy 

XI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

xn 

Mechanical Engineering 
xvn 

Mechanical Engineering 
xvni 

Metallurgy X 

Metallurgy XI 

MeUUurgy XIH 

Metallurgy XTV 

Mining Law II 

Thesis — Credit three 
hours. 



84 
85 
98 
99 
100 



52 
58 

86 
57 
57 
58 



69 

69 

81 

81 
91 
91 
92 
92 
102 



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42 



THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINE» 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP n COALMNING 

JUNIOR YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 



« 



8C 



,0 n 



SECOND SEMESTER 



s 

ft* 



8 = 



^9 

»3» 



Required 
Civil Engineering HI.. 

Coal Mining I 

Metallurgy I 

Metallurgy IH 

Metal Mining IV 

Metal Mining V 

Metai Mining VI 

Safety Engineering I.. 
Safety Engineering II. 

Elective 
Electrical Engineering 

I 

Electrical Engineering 

II 

Geology and Mineralogy 

V 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VI 

Mechanical Engineering 

*IX 

Mechanical Engineering 

X 

Metal Mining VIII... 
Metal Mining IX.... 

Metallurgy V 

Spanish V 



83 
64 

87 
88 
95 
95 
95 
108 
109 



59 

59 

67 

67 

78 

78 
96 
96 
89 
113 



Required 
Civil Engineering IV. . . 

Coal Mining II 

Mechanical Engineering 

XI 

Mechanical Engineering 

XII 

Metallurgy IV 

Metal Mining VII 

Safety SSngineering III 
Safety Engineering IV 

Elective 
Civil Engineering V.. 
Geology and Mineralogy 

vn 

Mectrical Engineering 

ra 

Electrical ESngineering 

IV 

Metal Mining X 

Metallurgy VI 

Physics VII 

Spanish VI 



83 
54^ 

79 

79 

89 

96 

110 

111 



84 

68 

60 

60 

97 

89 

106 

113 



3 

2 I 
1 I 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



43 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP II COALMINING 

SENIOR TEAR 



FIRST SBMESTER 



bo 









SECOND SBMESTKR 



bo 






Required 

Coal Mining III 

Coal Mining IV 

Mechanical Engineering 

XIV 

Mechanical Engineering 

XV 



Elective 
Electrical Engineering 

V 

Electrical Engineering 

VI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

X 

Mechanical ESnglneering 

XVI 

Metallurgy VII 

Metallurgy Vin 

Metallurgy XII 

Metal Mining XI 

Mining Law I 

Thesis — Credit three 

hours 



55 ! 
56 

80 ! 

80 

I 

I 
61 ! 

61 ! 



I 3 



80 ; 

90 , 

90 ! 

91 : 
97 

102 



2 I 

1 
2 ; 
4 I 

1 
2 

1 : 



Required 

Chemistry XVII 

Coal Mining V 

Coal Mining VI 

Coal Mining VII 

Coal Mining VIII 

Elective 

Chemistry XVIII...."., 
Civil Engineering VI. . . 
Civil Engineering vn. . 
Civil Engineering IX. . . 
Electrical EZngineering 

VII 

Electrical Engineering 

VIII 

Geology and Mineralogy 

XI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

XII 

Mechanical Engineering 

XIII 

Mechanical Engineering 

XVII 

Mechanical Engineering 

XVIII 

Metallurgy X 

Metallurgy XI 

Metallurgy, XIII 

Metal Mining xn.... 
Metal Mining XIV. . . 
Metal Mining XVI... 

Mining Law I 

Thesis — Credit three 

hours 



I 



52 

56 I 2 

57 I 2 

57 I 1 

58 I 



53 

84 
85 
86 



62 
69 
69 
79 

81 
81 

91 
91 
92 
98 
99 
100 
102 



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44 



THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP III METALLURGY 

JUNIOR YEAR 



FIRST SBMBSTER 









SECONB SEMBSTISI 



Ml 



5iS 



Sx 



Required 

Chemistry XI 

Chemistry XII 

Civil Engineering III. . 

Metallurgy HI 

Metallurgy V 

MeUl Mining V 

Metal Mining VI 

Elective 

Chemistry XV 

Coal Mining I 

Electrical Engineering 

I 

Electrical Engineering 

n 

Geology and Mineralogy 

V 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VI 

Mechanical Engineering 

IX 

Mechanical Engineering 

X 

Metal Mining VIII... 

Metal Mining IX 

Physics V 

Physics VI 

Safety Engineering I 
Spanish V 



51 
51 
83 
88 
89 
95 
95 

52 
54 

59 

59 

67 

67 

78 

78 
96 
96 
105 
106 
108 
113 



Required 

Chemistry XIII 

Chemistry XTV 

Civil EZngineering IV. . 

Metallurgy II 

Metallurgy IV 

Metellurgy VI 

Metal Mining VII 

Elective 

Chemistry XVI 

Coal Mining II 

Electrical Engineering 

III 

Electrical Engineering 

IV 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VII 

Metal Mining X 

Physics Vn 

Safety Engineering III 
Spanish VI 



51 
52 
83 
87 
89 
89 
96 

52 
54 

60 

60 

68 

97 

106 

110 

113 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 



46 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP in METALLURGY 

SENIOR YEAR 



FIRST SESMEBTER 



SECOND SEMESTER 



1 


u 


91 


3 


91 




92 


2 


92 




52 




84 


2 


85 




56 


2 


57 


2 


57 


1 


62 


2 


62 




69 


2 


69 


3 


98 


2 


99 


1 


100 


1 


102 


1 



^i 



Required 

MetaUurgy vn 

Metallurgy Vin...... 

Metallurgy IX 

Metallurgy XII 

Elective 
ClYll Buglneerlxig VIII 

Coal Mining in 

Coal Mining IV 

EMectrical Engineering 

V 

Mectrical Engineering 

VI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

X 

Mechanical Engineering 

XVI 

Metel Mining XI.... 
Metal Mining XIII. . . 

Mining Law I 

Thesis — Credit three 

hours 



Required 

Metallurgy X 

Metallurgy XI 

Metallurgy Xm 

Metallurgy XIV 

Elective 

Chemistry XVU 

Civil Engineering VI. . . 
Civil Engineering vn. . 

Coal Mining V 

Coal Mining VI 

Coal Mining VII 

Electrical £Snglneering 

VII 

Electrical Engineering 

VIII 

Geology and Mineralogy 

XI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

XII 

Metal Mining xn.... 
Metal Mining XIV. . . 
Metal Mining XVI... 

Mining Law n 

Thesis — Credit three 

hours 



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46 



THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINDS 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP rv MINING GEOLOGY 

JUNIOR YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 



Required 
Ciyil Engineering III 
Geology and Bftineralogy 

V 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VI 

Metallurgy I 

Metallurgy III 

Metal Mining IV 

MeUl Mining V 

Metal Mining VI. . . . 



Elective 

Chemistry XI 

Chemistry XII 

Chemistry XV 

Coal Mining I 

Metal Mining VIII 

Metal Mining DC 

Metallurgy V 

Physics V 

Physics VI 

Safety Engineering I.. 
Safety Engineering 11. . 
Spanish V 



ax 



67 

67 
87 
88 
95 
95 
95 



1 
. 3 

1 
; 1 



51 


1 


51 




52 


2 


54 


2 


96 


2 


96 


1 


89 


2 


105 


2 


106 




108 


1 


109 




113 


1 






S£3COND SBMESTBR 



Required 

Civil BSngineering IV. 

Geology and Mineralogy 
vn 

Geology and Bftineralogy 
XIII 

Credit three hours. 
This course is giv- 
en for four weeks 
during the summer 
following the close 
of the junior year. 

Metallurgy IV 

Metal Mining VII 



Eiective 

Chemistry XIII 

Chemistry XIV 

Chemistry XVI 

Civil ESngineerlng V.. 

Coal Mining II 

Electrical Engineering 

III 

Electrical ESngineering 

IV 

Mechanical Engineering 

XI 

Mechanical Ehigineering 

XII 

Metal Mining X 

Metallurgy VI 

Physics VII 

Safety EInglneering III. 
Safety E:ngineering IV. 
Spanish VI 



M 

£ 



68 
70 






89 
96 



51 
52 
52 



3 
2 

1 
2 



s& 



84 
54 


2 


60 


3 


60 




79 


1 


79 




97 


3 


89 


2 


106 




110 


1 


111 




113 


1 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



47 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP IV MINING GEOLOGY 

SENIOR TEAR 



FIRST SE^iESTER 









SECOND SEMESTER 









Required 
Geology and Mineralogy 

Vin or IX 

Geology and Mineralogy 

X 

Elective 
Civil Engineering VIII 

Coal Mining III 

Coal Mining IV 

Electrical Engineering 

V : 

ISIectrical Engineering 

VI 

Mechanical Engineering 

XVI 

Metallurgy VII 

Metallurgy Vin 

MeUllurgy XII 

Metal Mining XI 

Metal Mining xni. . . 

Mining Law I 

Thesis— <Jredit three 

hours 



68 
69 



85 
55 
56 

61 

61 

80 I 

90 I 

90 I 

91 ! 
97 I 
99 I 

102 I 

I 



Required 
Geology and Mineralogy 

XI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

XII 

Elective 

Chemistry XVII 

Chemistry XVIII 

Coal Mining V 

Coal Mining VI 

Coal Mining VII 

Coal Mining VIII 

Civil Engineering VI. 
Civil Engineering VII. 
EUectrical ESngineering 

VII 

Electrical Engineering 

VIII 

Mechanical E*ngineering 

XIII 

Mechanical ETngineering 

XVII 

Mechanical ESngineering 

XVIII 

Metallurgy X 

Metallurgy XIII 

Metallurgy XIV 

Metal Mining XIV... 
Metal Mining XVI. . . 

Mining Law II 

Thesis — Credit three 

hours 



69 

52 
53 
56 
57 
57 
68 
84 
85 

62 



79 

81 

81 
91 
92 
92 
99 
100 
102 



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48 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINDS 



CHEMISTRY 



Melville Fuller Coolbaugh, Profeeeor 
Charles Darwin Test, Ateietant Professor 



The courses in Chemistry are arranged especially for the 
needs of the mining and metallurgical engineer. These branches 
of engineering demand a thorough understanding of the laws 
and theories of inorganic chemistry, and the ability to apply 
this knowledge to analytical and industrial problems. 

I. GENERAL CHEMISTRY Lectures 

The fundamental principles of Chemistry are taught in this 
course. E^mphasis is laid upon the nature of chemical reactions 
and the forces which influence them. The work also includes a 
study of the non-metallic elements and compounds, with special 
reference to their production and industrial uses. 

Prerequisites: ESntrance requirements. 

Text: Smith, General Chemistry for Colleges 

Lectures and recitations five hours a week during the first 
semester of the freshman year. 

Required of all students. (Coolbaugh, Test) 

XL GENERAL CHEMISTRY Lectures 

This course is a continuation of Course I and deals with the 
chemistry of the metallic elements and their compounds. The 
cement, glass, clay, and alkali Industries are considered, and 
elementary metallurgy is introduced in connection with the more 
important metals. 

Prerequisite: Course I 

Text: Smith, General Chemistry for Colleges 

Lectures and recitations five hours a week during the second 
semester of the freshman year. 

Required of all students. (Coolbaugh, Test) 

III. QUAUTATIVE ANALYSIS Lectures • 

The principles of qualitative analsrsis are emphasized in this 
course, and consideration is given to the relative solubility of 
substances, oxidation and reduction reactions, and the reactions 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 49 

involved in the Bystematlc analysis of the common inorganic 
substances. The aim of this course is to teach rapid, accurate 
qualitative analysis methods and to serve as an introduction to 
quantitative analysis. 

Prerequisite: Entrance requirements 

Texts: Prescott and Johnson, Qualtitatlve Analysis 
Treadwell-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 1 

One hour a week during the first semester of the freshman 
year 

Required of all students. (Coolbaugh) 

IV. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Lectures 

This is a continuation of Course HI and deals with the prob- 
lems involved in the solution of mixtures, minerals, and alloys; 
with special methods of analysis, and with the separation and 
detection of some of the rarer elements. 
Prerequisites: Courses I and HI 

Texts: Prescott and Johnson, Qualitative Analysis 
Treadwell-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 1 

One hour a week during the second semester of the freshman 
year. 

Required of all students. (Coolbaugh) 

V. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Laboratory 

This covers the separation and detection of the cations and 
anions involved in the analysis of solutions and dry mixtures. 
Prerequisite: £Sntrance requirements 

Texts: Prescott and Johnson, Qualtitatlve Analysis 
Treadwell-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 1 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the freshman 
year. 

Required of all students. (Coolbaugh, Test) 

VI. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Laboratory 

This is more advanced qualitative analysis than that given 
in Course V and includes the separation and detections involved 
in the analysis of ores, slags, and alloys 
Prerequisites: Courses I, HI, and V 

Texts: Prescott and Johnson, Qualitative Analysis 
TreadweU-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 1 
Six hours a week during the second semester of the freshman 
year. 

Required of all students. (Coolbaugh, Test) 



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50 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

VII. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Lectures 

The aim of this course is to study the general principles 
of gravimetric analysis as applied to simple precipitation 
methods, and the principles of volumetric analysis as applied to 
titration methods which involve the use of acids and alkalies, 
and also oxidizing and reducing reagents. 

Prerequisites: Courses IV and VI 

Texts: Treadwell-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. II 
Quantitative Notes 

One hour a week during the first semester of the sophomore 
year. 

Required of all students. (Test) 

VIII. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Lectures 

. This course involves a study of the application of the prin- 
ciples given in Course VII to the analysis of fuels, ores, slags 
and alloys. 

Prerequisite: Course VII 

Texto: Treadwell-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. II 
Quantitative Notes 
One hour a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Test) 

IX. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Laboratory 

Simple salts are analyzed gravimetrically; standard solu- 
tions are prepared and unknown substances are determined by 
titration methods. 

Prerequisites: Courses IV and VI. 

Texts: Treadwell-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. II 
Quantitative Notes 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the sophomore 
year. 

Required of all students. (Coolbaugh, Test) 

X. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Laboratory 

The course deals with mineral analysis including both gravi- 
metric and volumetric methods with their application to indus- 
trial and smelter practice. Coal, simple alloys, ores of the 
common metals, slags and mattes are analyzed. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and IX 

Texts: Treadwell-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. II 
Quantitative Notes 

Six hours a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Coolbaugh, Test) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 51 

XI. ADVANCED QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This work is an extension of the quantitative analysis of the 
sophomore year and includes more advanced ore analysis; the 
calorific determination of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, the 
examination of oils, gas analysis, and the analysis of waters and 
boiler scale. 

Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 
References: Low, Technicai Methods of Ore Analysis 
Gill, Gas and Fuel Analysis for Engineers 
Lbrd and Demorest, Metallurgical Analysis 
One hour a week during the first semester of the junior year. 
Required of Group III. (Coblbaugh) 

XII. ADVANCED QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Laboratory 
Credit two hours. 

Laboratory practice to cover subjects treated in Course XI. 
Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 
References: Low, Technical Methods of Ore Analysis 

Gill, Gas and Fuel Analysis for Engineers 
^ Lord and Demorest, Metallurgical Analysis 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required of Group III. (Cdolbaugh, Test) 

XIII. METALLURGICAL CHEMISTRY Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course is to familiarize the student with the analytical 
methods used in conjunction with metallurgical processes. The 
subjects taught are the technical methods connected with the 
metallurgy of iron and steel, zinc, lead, copper, bismuth, mercury, 
cadmium, tin, nickel, cobalt, and the rarer elements of com- 
mercial importance. 

Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 
References: Lord and Demorest, Metallurgical Analysis 
Johnson, Chemical Analysis of Special Steels, 

Steel-Making Alloys and Graphites 
Scott, Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis 
One hour a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. 

Required of Group III. (Coolbaugh) 



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52 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

XIV. MEJTALLURGICAL CHEMISTRY Laboratory 
Credit two hours. 

Laboratory practice to cover subjects treated in Course XIII 
Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 
References: Lord and Demorest, Metallurgical Analysis 
Johnson, Chemical Analysis of Special Steels, 

Steel-Making Alloys and Graphites 
Scott, Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis 
Six hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required of Group IIL (Coolbaugh, Test) 

XV. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Lectures (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

A study of the laws underlying chemical phenomena from 
the standpoint of their application to the problems of the metal- 
lurgical and geological student. Some of tlje subjects considered 
are: Modem theories of solution, the phase rule, colloids, and 
the law of mass action. 

Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 
References: Walker, Physical Chemistry 

Nemst, Theoretical Chemistry 
Washburn, Principles of Physical Chemistry 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. (Test) 

XVI. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Lectures (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

This is a continuation of Course XV and considers the 
subjects of surface tension, thermo chemistry, electrolysis, and 
electrolytes. 

Prerequisite: Course XV 
References: Walker, Physical Chemistry 

Nemst, Theoretical Chemistry 
Washburn, Principles of Physical Chemistry 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. (Test) 

XVIL FUEL AND GAS ANALYSIS Laboratory 

Credit one hour. 

The student determines the heating value of solid, liquid 
and gaseous fuels by means of the bomb and gas calorimeters. 
He also analyzes flue gas, illuminating gas, and smelter gases. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 53 

Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 

Reference: Gill, Gas and Fuel Analysis for Engineers 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
senior year. 

Required in Group II. (Coolbaugh, Test) 

XVin. OIL AND ROCK ANALYSIS Laboratory (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

A study of the refining methods for oils, the examination of 
oil shales, and of lubricating and other oils for yiscosity, flash 
and fire tests, and the analysis of rocks. 
Prerequisites: Courses VTII and X 
References: Hillebrand, The Analysis of Silicate and Car- 
bonate Rocks 
Washington, Manual of the Chemical Analysis 
of Rocks 
Six hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

(Coolbaugh, Test) 



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64 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



COAL MINING 



Jamet Colo Robortt, Professor 



I. PRINCIPLES OF COAL MINING Locturos 

Credit two hours. 

The subjects discussed in this course are: distribution and 
occurrence of coal; the world's production and available supply 
of coal and coke, with special reference to that of the difTerent 
states; the losses each year as compared with production; the 
origin of coal; classification; general geological features of coal- 
bearing areas, together with the geological and structural fea- 
tures bearing on the economical mining of coal; the prospecting 
of coal-bearing areas by surface examinations, prospect machines 
drifts, and drill holes; the different types of drilling machines 
with the rate and cost of boring in different strata; examination 
. and reporting on developed and undeveloped coal properties; 
preparation of coal by wet and dry processes; ultilization of 
fuels; manufacture, handling, and utilization of wood, charcoal, 
peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coals, coke, petroleum, 
natural and artificial gas. Students are required to visit and 
witness actual mining operations. 

References: Hughes, Textbook of Coai Mining 

Redmayne, Modern Practice in Mining 

Mayer, Mining Methods in Europe 

Beard, Mine Ventilation 

Beard, Mine Gases and Explosion 

Wilson, Mine Ventilation 

Wabner, Ventilation of Mines 

Somermeier, Coal, its Composition, Analysis, 

Utilization and Valuation 
Coal Miners' Pocketbook 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group II (Roberts) 

II. METHODS OF COAL MINING Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

Methods of development and operation of coal mines are 
taken up in this course. Drifts, slopes, and shafts are discussed 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 65 

and compared; the dip and thickness of coal seams; character 
of roof and floor or walls of vertical seams; driving and sinking 
through rock and coal; surface stripping and mining by steam 
shovels; longwall, room and pillar, panel, and other systems; 
advancing and retreating systems; the driving of entries, rooms, 
and crosscuts; width of rooms and pillars in thick and thin 
seams of coal: drawing of pillars; the proportion of coal that 
can be safely and economically taken in advance work; methods 
of working thick and thin seams, lying fiat, rolling, pitching, or 
vertical; methods of working overlying seams with special ref- 
erence to the recovery of the largest possible yield of coal per 
acre; shooting ott the solid; undercutting of coal by hand (pick 
mining) and by machines; the operation of the various types 
of coal cutters, punches, and shearers, with special reference 
to the economy of each type and the conditions under which 
each may be used to advantage; single, double, and multiple 
entry systems compared; surface subsidence; culm flushing as 
practiced in the . anthracite regions of Pennsylvania. 
* References: Hughes, Textbook of Coal Mining 

Redmayne, IModern Practice In Mining 

Mayer, Mining Methods in Europe 

Beard, Mine Ventilation 

Beard, Mine Gates and Explosion 

Wilson, Mine Ventilation 

Wabner, Ventilation of Mines 

Somermeier, Coal, Its Composition, Analysis 

Utilization and Valuation 
Coal Miners' Pocketbook 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group II (Roberts) 

III. PRACTICES OF COAL MINING Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

Timbering of shafts, slopes, drifts, entries, rooms and cross- 
cuts, by the use of wood, steel and concrete, with the relative 
merits and costs of each; haulage systems; hand tramming; 
mules or horses; rope; compressed air; electric and gasoline 
locomotives, hoisting; operation of various types of hoisting 
engines, using steam, compressed air, or electricity; cages; head- 
frames and tipples; drainage; sources of mine water, its control 
and ejectment. 



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66 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 

References: Hughes, Textbook of Coal Mining 
Kerr, Practical Coal Mining 
Redmayne, Modem Practice of Mining 
Duncan and Penman, Electrical Equipment of 

Collieries 
Shearer, Electricity In Coal Mining 
Pamely, Colliery Managers' Handbook 
Coal Miners' Pocketbook 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group H. (Roberts) 

IV. COAL MINING Laboratory 
Credit one hour. 

This course consists of field work in prospecting and examin- 
ing coal bearing lands, following outcrops with actual practice In 
operating prospecting drills, and visits to points where drilling 
operations are carried on; sampling of outcrops and coal la 
the mine: sampling of carload lots of coal in the yards, and on 
the tipple of operating mines; cutting down and preparing 
samples for analysis and analyzing samples for proximate, ulti- 
mate, and B. t. u. Each student is required to undercut, shoot, and 
load out a coal face by hand (pick mining) and by each type of 
machine, to familiarize himself with the difTerent types. 
References: Hughes, Textbook of Coal Mining 
Kerr, Practical Coal Mining 
Redmayne, Modern Practice In Mining 
Duncan and Penman, Electrical Equipment of 

Collieries 
Shearer, Electricity In Coal Mining 
Pamely, Colliery Managers' Handbook 
Coal Miners' Pocketbook 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
The Trade Catalogs 
Three hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (Roberts) 

y. PRACTICES OF COAL MINING Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

This course is a continuation of Course HI. 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group n. (Roberts) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 67 

VL COAL MINE EQUIPMENT Lectures 
Oredit two hours. 

This course includes a study of typical mine constructions, 
such as headframes, tipples, breaker machinery, rolls, screens 
and various types of coal cutting machines, mechanical devices 
for loading coal into pit cars; types of pit cars, with special 
emphasis on tight end cars and rotary dumps; various types 
of mine fans and their housing; automatic weighing devices; box 
car loaders. 

References: Hughes, Textbook of Coal Mining 
Kerr, Practical Coal Mining 
Redmayne, Modern Practice in Mining 
Duncan and Penman, Electrical Equipment of 

Collieries 
Shearer, Electricity In Coal Mining 
Pamely, Colliery Managers' Handbook 
Coal Miners' Pocketbook 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
The Trade Catalogs 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (Roberts) 

VIL ECONOMICS OP COAL MINING Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

The subjects taken up in this course are: The general con- 
ditions that should precede the opening of coal mines, such as 
topography, title, climatic conditions, transportation facilities, 
possible townsite and living quarters for workmen and their 
families, available water supply, administration and superin- 
tendence: contract system as opposed to day labor; costs of 
operation; maintenance, depreciation, and amortization; methods 
of acquiring coal lands from the government and individuals; 
leasing of coal lands; market and trade conditions; preparation 
of coal for different markets: selling price of coal as compared 
with cost at the mines; freight rates to various markets and cost 
of coal to the consumer; company charges for insurance, physi- 
cians and hospitals; disposal of unsalable products. 

One hqur a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (Roberts) 



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58 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

VIII. COALMINING Laboratory 

Credit one hour. 

This course is a continuation of Course IV and includes in 
addition a critical study of typical mine constructions, with 
preparation of working drawings of cages, cars, headframes, and 
tipples. 

References: Trade Catalogues 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (Roberts) 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 69 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 



William J. Hazard, ProfeMor 



It is the desire of the department to make the electrical 
courses as independent as possible, that the student may have 
considerable freedom in the choice of his work. Since there 
is a logical sequence of studies in principle, practice, and de- 
sign, it is highly desirable that the student elect his courses in 
groups. Though not required, it is strongly recommended that 
those who select Qroups I, II or IV should elect E.E. Courses 
I to VI, inclusive. 

I. DIRECT CURRENT MACHINERY Lectures (Elective) 
Credit three hours. 

This course includes a study of the operating principles of 
direct current generators, motors, meters, switchboards, and 
auxiliaries, field and usefulness of each type, methods of con- 
nection and control, use and care of storage batteries, and the 
calculation of circuits. 

Prerequisites: Physics III and IV 

Text: Gray, Principles and Practice of Electrical 
Engineering 
References: Morse, Storage Batteries 

Crocker and Arendt, Electric IMotors 
Lyndon, Storage Battery Engineering 
Jansky, Electrical Meters 
Langsdorf, Principles of Direct Current Ma- 
chines 
Franklin and Esty, Elements of Electrical En- 
gineering, Direct Currents 
Three hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. (Hazard) 

IL DIRECT CURRENT MACHINERY Laboratory (Elective) 

Credit one hour. 

In this work the common types of voltmeters, ammeters, and 
wattmeters are studied and calibrated; switchboards are drawn 
and used; and the common generators and motors, including the 



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60 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBB 

three wire and interpole machines, are studied. Series-parallel 
and standard mining locomotive controllers are wired up and 
used with two series motors. 

Prerequisites: Registration in Course E.E. I or an equivalent 
preparation 

References: Swenson and Frankenfield, Testing 6f Elec- 
tromagnetic Machinery, Vol. 1 
Karapetoff, Experimental Electrical Engineer- 
ing, Vol. 1 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. (Hazard) 

m. ALTERNATING CURRENT MACHINERY Lectures 
(Elective) 
Credit three hours. 

The plan of this course is similar to that of Course I, but 
treats of alternating current principles and apparatus, generators, 
and motors with their auxiliaries and characteristics, trans- 
formers, rectifiers, and converters, and the calculation of single 
and three phase circuits. 

Prerequisites-/ Physics III and IV 

Text: Gray, Principles and Practice of Electrical 
Engineering 

References: Miller, American Telephone Practice 
Van Deventer, Telephonology 
Lawrence, Principles of Alternating Current 

Machinery 
Bailey, The induction Motor 
Franklin and Esty, Elements of Electrical 

Engineering, Alternating Currents 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. (Hazard) 

IV. ALTERNATING CURRENT MACHINERY Laboratory 
(Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

A study is first made of the alternating current instruments 
which are subsequently used in the experimental work. This is 
followed by a variety of experiments on inductive circuits. 
Transformers are connected and used in many ways. The start- 
ing and running characteristics of induction motors are studied 
under normal conditions and under some abnormal conditions 
that are frequent causes of trouble. Synchronizing is done in 
several ways. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 61 

Prerequifiites: Registration in Course B.B. III or an equiya- 
lent preparation 
References: Swenson and Frankenfield, Testing of Elec- 
tromagnetic Machinery, Vol. 2 
Karapetofl, Experimental Electrical Engineer- 
ing, Vol. 2 
Three honrs a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. (Hazard) 

V. ELECTRICITY APPLIED TO MINING Lectures (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

The characteristics of electrical machines and auxiliaries 
which are adapted to the needs of the various operations of min- 
ing and milling are first discussed and then problems based upon 
these principles are given. The applications discussed, include 
surface plants, air compression, fans, drilling, coal cutting, shot 
firing, lighting, haulage, hoisting, pumping, dredging, and sig- 
naling. Foundations for electrical machines are designed and 
circuits discussed. In connection with electricity applied to 
metallurgical work, the discussion includes motor applications, 
control and protection, the production of current for electrolytic 
processes and furnaces, magnetic separation, electrostatic sepa- 
ration and precipitation. All of the above subjects are, of course, 
discussed in detail by the special departments concerned and 
only the electrical features are considered in this course. 
Prerequisites: E.E. I and II or III and IV 
References: Croft, American Electrician's IHandbook 

Davies, Foundations and Machinery Fixing 
Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers 
Koester, Hydroelectric Developments and 

Engineering 
TJnderhill, Solenoids, Electromagnets and 

Electromagnetic Windings 
Coombs, Pole and Tower Lines 
Rosenthal, Transmission Calculations 
Lundquist, Transmission Line Construction 
Shearer, Electricity In Coal Mining 
Duncan and Penman, Electric Equipment of 
Collieries 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. (Hazard) 

VI. APPLIED ELECTRICITY Uboratory (BlecUve) 

Oedit one hour. 

This is the laboratory course accompanying E.EI Y. It 
includes a study of the standard hand operated compensators 



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62 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MIKQS 

with "no Yoltage" and "overload" releases, resistance starters, 
automatic contactor starters, motor driven fans and various tests 
of generators and motors. 

Prerequisites: B.B. I and II or III and IV 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. (Hazard) 

VII. E5LECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lectures (Baectlve) 
Credit two hours. 

This Is primarily a design course In small Installations, 
though the work may be varied to suit the needs of the Individual 
student. Course VIII should be taken in conjunction with It. 
Prerequisite: ElB. V. 

Text: Brown, Electrical Equipment 
References: Electrical {Handbooks 
Trade Bulletins 
Catalogues 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Hazard) 

VIII. ESLBCTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Drawing (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

This is a drawing course to accompany ELEl VII. 
Prerequisite: Registration in E.B. VII 
References: Electrical Handbook 
Trade Bulletins 
Catalogues 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Hazard) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 63 



ENGLISH 



Victor Clifton Alderson, President 



I. ENGLISH COMPOSITION Lectures 

This course is designed to train the student in the essentials 
of English composition. Practical exercises will be given to 
develop orderly arrangement and clear expression of thought. 
Prerequisites: £«ntrance requirements 
References: Kittredge and Farley, Advanced English 
Grammar 
Canby and Others, English Composition In 

Theory and Practice 
Wooley, IHandbooic of Composition 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the freshman 
year. 

Required of all students. (Alderson) 

IL BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE Lectures 

This course is a continuation of Course I. It aims to give 
a practical grasp of business correspondence and to familiarize 
the student with the type of English composition requisite as a 
basis for professional report writing. 

References: Kittredge and Farley, Advanced English 
Grammar 
Canby ^nd Others, English Composition In 

Theory and Practice 
Wooley, Handbooi( of Composition 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Alderson) 

HI. REPORTS Lectures 

This course is designed as a preparation for technical writ- 
ing. The fundamentals of the subject will be studied and reports 
upon assigned topics will be required from the students. 



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64 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

References: Sypherd, Handbook of English for Engineers 
Earle, Theory and Practice of Technical 

Writing 
Rickard, A Guide to Technical Writing 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the sophomore 
year. 

Required of all students. (Alderson) 

IV. TECHNICAL WRITING Lectures 

This course is a continuation of Course III. The principal 
object of this course is to outline the best methods of presenting 
technical subjects for publication and for private reports. 

References: Sypherd, Handbook of English for Engineers 
Earle, Theory and Practice of Technical 

Writing 
Rlckard, A Guide to Technical Writing 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Alderson) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 65 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY 



Victor Zlegier, Profettor 

F. M. Van Tuyi, Atsittant Professor 



The college is very fortunately situated for the geologist. 
The surrounding formations present the strikingly clear fear 
tures so characteristic of the West. In addition certain fea- 
tures peculiar to this particular location afford sufficiently com- 
plicated problems to be of great value to the student of geology. 
It is possible, therefore, without going more than a mile or two 
from the school, to illustrate very effectively most geological 
problems so that field geology can be carried on at the, same 
time as class instruction. 

I. GBNE2RAL GEOLOGY Lectures 

The aim of this course is to present the fundamentals of 
geology by means of lectures supplemented by the study of the 
textbook, and by assigned readings. It comprises a brief survey 
of the rocks and minerals of the earth's crust and a compre- 
hensive study of the surface features of the earth with emphasis 
on the forces and agents which have produced these results and 
are still bringing about slow changes. Occasional field trips are 
required. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements 

Text: Pirsson and Schuchert, A Textbook of 
Geology, Part I 
Lectures three hours a week during the first semester of the 
freshman year. 

Required of all students. (Van Tuyl) 

II. GENERAL GEOLOGY Lectures 

This course is a continuation of Course I. It is a study of 
primary and secondary rock structures, with emphasis on the 
secondary features resulting from earth movements, such as 
faults and folds, and the value of their proper interpretation to 
the miniug engineer. 



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66 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Prerequisite: Course I 

Text: Pirsson and Schuchert» A Textbook of 
^ Geology, Part I 

References: Leith, Structural Geology 
Lahee, Field Geology 
Q.rabau, Principlee of Stratigraphy 
Lectures three hours a week during the second semester of 
the freshman year. 

Required of all students. (Van Tuyl) 

III. MINERALOGY Lectures and Laboratory 

This course in mineralogy is essentially an introduction to 
Descriptive Mineralogy of the second semester. It comprises 
a discussion of the principles of crystallography and of blowpipe 
analysis. Only such portions of crystallography are emphasized 
as are of practical value in the determination and proper under- 
standing of minerals. In the laboratory work a very thorough 
drill is given in the more practical portions of the subject. The 
work covers, in addition to work with the usual wooden crystal 
models, the determination by means of a pocket lens and con- 
tact goniometer of the forms on a large and representative series 
of natural crystals. The laboratory work in crystallography is 
followed by a thorough drill in the methods of blowpipe analysis, 
with practice in the determination of unknown minerals. The 
lecture time is devoted to a discussion of the fundamental prin- 
ciples of descriptive mineralogy. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry I and II 

Texts: Lewis, Determinative Mineralogy 

Patton, Lecture Notes on Crystallography 

Lectures two hours, laboratory six hours, a week during the 
first semester of the sophomore year. 

Required of all students. (Ziegler, Van Tuyl) 

IV. DESCRIPTIVE MINERALOGY Lectures and Laboratory 

About three hundred of the more important mineral species 
are presented by lectures, in which special emphasis is placed 
on the recognition of minerals by means of their physical, prop- 
erties. Every attempt is made to make the course thoroughly 
practical so as to enable the student to recognize at sight such 
minerals as are met in mining operations. With this object in 
view, as thorough a drill as the time will allow is given to 
the actual handling and determining of minerals in the labora- 
tory. In this work each student is expected to handle, to deter- 
mine, and to be questioned and examined on approximately two 
thousand five hundred individual specimens. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 67 

Prerequisite: Course III 

References: Fords, Dana's Manual of Mineralogy 
Dana, System of Mineralogy 
Lewis, Determinative Mineralogy 
Lectures two hours, laboratory six hours, a week during the 
second semester of the sophomore year. 

Required of all students. (Ziegler, Van Tuyl) 

V. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY Lectures 
Credit three hours. 

A study of earth history with emphasis on the North Amer- 
ican continent. The theories of the origin of the earth are dis- 
cussed and the succession of events in its known history as 
revealed by the rocks are traced. E«special attention is given 
to the changes In relation of land and sea, the character and 
distribution of the deposits, the erogenic movements, volcanic 
activity, economic products and dominant life forms of each 
geological period. 

Prerequisites: Courses I and II 
References: Pirsson and Schuchert, A Textbook of 
Geology, Part II 
Chamberlin and Salisbury, Geology, Vol. ii 

and III 
Rice, Adams and Others, Problems of Amer- 
ican Geology 
Lectures three hours a week during the first semester of the 
junior year. 

Required in Group IV (Van Tuyl) 

VI. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course covers practically Mining Geology. It includes 
a comprehensive study of rock structures with special emphasis 
on features important to the mining engineer. The graphic 
study of folds and faults and the interpretation of structure from 
maps receive special attention. 

Prerequisites: Courses I to V, inclusive. 
References: Leith, Structural Geology 

Geikie, Structural and Field Geology 
Hayes, Handbook for Field Geologists 
Gunther, The Examination of Prospects 
Tolman, Graphical Solution of Fault Prob- 
lems 
Lectures two hours a week during the first semester of the 
junior year. 

Required in Group IV. (Ziegler.) 



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68 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

VII. LITHOLOGT Lectures and Laboratory 
Credit two hours. 

The object of this course is to present all the more commonly 
occurring rocks in such a way as to render their identification 
at sight reasonably accurate. The methods pursued are purely 
those applicable to the hand specimen without the aid of micro- 
scopic sections. The collection of the school is especially rich 
in those rocks that are usually encountered in mining operations 
in Colorado and adjacent states. Special emphasis, therefore, is 
laid upon such rocks and upon their various alteration forms. 

Lectures one hour, laboratory three hours a week during 
the second semester of the junior year. 

Required in Groups I and IV. (Ziegler, Van Tuyl) 

VIII. MICROSCOPIC PETROGRAPHY 
Credit two hours. 

In this course the study of rocks and rock-forming minerals 
is carried on with the help of the petrographic microscope. 
It covers (a) the study of the optical properties of minerals 
with a view to their identification, and (b) systematic petrog- 
raphy or the identification of rock types by means of their 
structures and mineral components. 

Laboratory six hours a week during the first semester of 
the senior year. 

Required in Group IV. 

Course IX may be substituted. (Ziegler) 

IX. INDEX FOSSILS OF NORTH AMERICA Lectures and 

Laboratory 

Credit two hours. 

A course planned to meet the needs of students who desire 
to fit themselves for work in oil geology and all others to whom 
the ability to determine the age of sedimentary rocks by means 
of their fossils may be of value. Only the more important guide 
fossils of each system are studied. Special attention is given 
to the fossils characteristic of western formations of economic 
importance. 

Prerequisite: Course V 

References: Shimer, An Introduction to the Study of Fos- 
sils 
Grabau and Shimer, index Fossils of North 
America 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 69 

Six hours laboratory a week during the first semester of 
the senior year. 

Required in Group IV. 

Course VIII may he substituted. (Van Tuyl) 

X. ORE DEPOSITS Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course treats of the nature, origin, and occurrence 
of ore deposits. Among other subjects the criteria useful in the 
recognition of the various types of ore deposits, the changes in 
.the character of ores with depth, and mineral associations and 
alterations, are discussed. Those features likely to be of use 
in the examination of mining prospects receive special attention. 
Prerequisites: Courses I, II, III, IV, and VII 
References: Beyshlag, Vogt and Krusch, Deposits of Use- 
ful Minerals and Rocks 
Lindgren, Mineral Deposits 
Lectures two hours a week during the first semester of the 
senior year. 

Required in Group IV. (Ziegler) 

XI. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course includes a discussion of the more important 
mining districts of North America. In addition to ore deposits 
the more important non-metallic products and their distribu- 
tion are included. 

Prerequisite: Course X 
References: Lindgren, Mineral Deposits 

Beyshlag, Vogt and Krusch, Deposits of Use- 
ful Minerals and Rocks 
Lectures two hours a week during the second semester of 
the senior year. 

Required in Group IV. (Ziegler) 

XII. OIL AND GAS Lectures 

Three credit hours. 

The chemistry and physics of the natural hydrocarbons, 
their origin, type of occurrence and geologic setting will be 
discussed in detail. Emphasis will be placed on the principles 
and laws of oil accumulation applicable to all fields. An effort 
will be made to train the student in the interpretation of the 
structural and geological phenomena characteristic of oil and 
gas fields. 



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70 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINDS 

Prerequisites: Course I to VII, inclusive 
References: Johnson and Huntley, Oil and Gas Produc- 
tion 
Hager, Practical Oil Geology 
Engler and Hoefer, Das Erdol 
Bacon and Hamor, the American Petroleum 
Industry 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
senior year. 

Required in Group IV. (Ziegler) 

XIII. FIELD GEOLOGY 

Credit three hours. 

This course is intended to give field practice in geologic 
mapping and in the working out of structural details. The 
area selected is divided among individual squads and a com- 
plete map with structural sections is prepared through cooper- 
ation of the different squads. The work covers four weeks 
at the close of the Junior year. Camping equipment and in- 
struments are furnished by the school. The student is expected 
to furnish bedding. The expense of the course will vary some- 
what according to the location of the area worked. Ordinarily 
forty to forty-five dollars should cover all actual field expenses. 

Prerequisites: Courses V, VI, and VII 

Required in Group IV (Ziegler, Van Tuyl) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 71 



MATHEMATICS 



Charles Roland Burger, Professor 

George Eulas Foster Sherwood, Associate Professor 



The courses in this department have been arranged to meet 
the eztenslYe needs of students in the various branches of 
engineering. The subjects are treated so as to give the student 
both logical training and power of application. The principles 
which are of greatest value in engineering work are particularly 
emphasized. The courses offered serve as a sufficient prereq- 
uisite for the work in mathematical physics, physical chemistry, 
engineering and applied mechanics; and they mark the mini- 
mum of mathematical attainments that an engineer ought to' 
possess. A special feature of the work is the early introduc- 
tion of the calculus, the principles of which are introduced 
with those of analytic geometry and developed as needed, thus 
disregarding, to a certain extent, the traditional barrier that 
has existed between these subjects. By this means, the prin- 
ciples of the calculus are allowed to develop slowly, their sphere 
of usefulness is widened, the student gains a better grasp of 
mathematics as a whole, and is able, early in his course, to 
make direct application of his knowledge of mathematics to 
practical problems. 

I. COLLBOB ALGBBRA 

This course begins a rapid review of the fundamental oper- 
ations as far as quadratics. Graphical work is early introduced 
in the belief that the illumination which it aftord^ greatly en- 
livens the entire presentation of the subject and brings algebra 
into closer relationship with the other mathematical courses. 
Quadratics are given special emphasis. The progressions, in- 
equalities, mathematical induction, proportion, variation, theory 
of limits, series, the binominal theorem, logarithms, exponentials, 
and determinants are all amply treated. Methods of approxi- 
mating the roots of numerical equations are especially em- 
phasized. 

Much time is given to drill work in calculations involving 
formulas often met in engineering work. A special feature of the 
course is the persistent use of graphic methods in presenting 



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72 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

facts — a practice which is becoming an indispensable requisite in 
engineering. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements. 

Text: Rletz and Crathorne, College Algebra 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Burger, Sherwood) 

II. TRIGONOMETRY 

The general formulas of plane and spherical trigonometry 
are developed. Inverse functions, identities, and trigonometric 
equations are carefully considered. Much practice is given in 
the use of tables and the applications of trigonometry to mensu- 
ration in general. The astronomical triangle and such problems 
relating thereto as occur in surveying are dwelt upon particularly 
and graphical representation is given its needed emphasis. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements 

Texts: Crawley, Short Course In Trigonometry 
Hodgman, Surveyor's Tables 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Burger, Sherwood) 

in. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 

This course being with the Cartesian coordinates of a point. 
Graphs of algebraic^ and transcendental functions follow. Loci 
in general, the straight line, conic sections, and cycloids are 
taken up in detail. 

The methods and notation of the calculus are introduced 
early and are employed in the study of tangents and normals. 
The parametric equations of the conies and cycloids are de- 
veloped and many applications to locus problems are introduced 
and discussed. The student is made familiar with the polar 
equations of the conies, spirals, ovals, and other plane curves. 
Emphasis is given to the graphical representation of the trigono- 
metric, logarithmic, exponential, and other transcendental func- 
tions. 

.The analytic geometry of space is deferred until the second 
year when It is needed in the development of the calculus. 

Prere(iuisites: Courses I and II 

Text: Woods and Bailey, Analytic Geometry and 
Calculus 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
freshman year. 

Required of all students. (Burger, Sherwood) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 73 

IV. CALCULUS 

This course introduces the student to the elements of the 
calculus. The language, the symbols, and the first processes of 
the infinitesimal analysis are explained and many illustrations 
in geometry, physics, engineering, and applied mechanics are 
introduced. The fundamental principles of continuity, limiting 
values, and the theory of infinitesimals are established. The 
differentiation of all the fundamental forms and the application 
of the differential calculus to problems involying maxima and 
minima, rates, and to the theorems of analytic geometry com- 
prise a large part of the course. Integration is introduced as the 
inverse operation of differentiation and is applied to numerous 
problems inyolvlng areas, yelocities, and geometry. 

Prerequisites: Courses I and II 

Text: Woods and Bailey, Analytic Geometry and 
Calculus 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Burger, Sherwood) 

V. CALCULUS 

This course is a continuation of Course IV, in which students 
are made familiar with the elementary processes and applica- 
tions of the differential calculus. A special feature of this course 
consists in carrying on the differential and integral calculus 
together. This method of instruction enables the student to 
grasp the more difficult notions of the subject in their inherent 
relations, and at the same time to apply this knowledge, early 
in the course, to the solution of engineering problems. The con- 
ception of the definite integral and its many applications are 
early introduced. The aim is to make clear the rationale of each 
process, and to arouse an early interest in the usefulness of 
the subject. The theory of single and multiple integration Is 
applied to the principal methods of rectification and quadrature, 
and to the calculation of surfaces and volumes of solids of 
revolution. 

Prerequisites: Courses I to IV, inclusive 

Text: Woods and Bailey, Analytic Geometry and 
Calculus 
Three hours a week during the first semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Burger, Sherwood) 



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74 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 

VI. CALCULUS 

This course is a continuation of Course V. The elements of 
solid analytic geometry are introduced to assist in the proper de- 
velopment of the calculus of functions of two or more variables. 
Simple differential equations are introduced in close connection 
with integration. Multiple integration in rectangular, polar, and 
cylindrical co-ordinates is taken up and many applications are 
made to problems in areas, volumes, moments of inertia, centers 
of gravity, and pressure. Solids of revolution, cylinders, space 
curves, ruled and quadric surfaces are all given their needed 
emphasis as applications ot the calculus. The last part of this 
course is pre-eminently a problem course. The aim is to review, 
in a practical way, the mathematics of the last two years and 
thereby encourage the student to look upon his mathematics as 
an instrument of power and usefulness rather than one of mental 
development and culture. 

Prerequisites: Courses I to V, inclusive 

Text: Woods and Bailey, Analytic Geometry and 
Calculus 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
sophomore year. 

Required of all students. (Burger, Sherwood) 

VII. HIGHER MATHEMATICS (Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

This course consists of a survey of the field of higher mathe- 
matics with special reference to the needs of engineering stu- 
dents mathematically inclined. The subjects will be treated in 
an elementary manner and will include: finite differences with 
application to interpolation and summation, vector analysis with 
problems in physics and mechanics, modern geometry pure and 
projective, advanced portions of the calculus not included in the 
regular courses, empirical formulas and calculations, and a brief 
history of mathematics. 

Prerequisites: Courses I to IV, inclusive 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the sopho- 
more year. (Burger) 

Vni. PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY AND LEAST SQUARES 
(Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

This course covers a study of the celestial sphere, includ- 
ing the sun, moon, earth, and planets; the constellations; the 
measurement of time; problems necessitating familiarity with. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MJNBS 75 

and use of, the Nautical Almanac; such problems of practical 
astronomy as may be solved by the surveyor* including: (1) 
latitude by the altitude of any heavenly body at culmination; 
(2) solar and stellar observations for meridian; (3) longitude 
by transit of the moon; (4) observations for determining the 
time; the development of the method of Least Squares; its 
application to problems in astronomy, surveying, physics, and 
chemistry. 

Prerequisites: Courses I to IV, CJBL I and II 

Text: Hosmer, Textbook on Practicai Astronomy. 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. (Sherwood) 



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76 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



James Lyman Morse, Professor 



I. DESCRIPTIVB GBOMBTRX Lectures 

This course Includes problems relating to the point, line, 
plane, surfaces, intersection of solids and the deyelopment of 
their surfaces, and numerous practical applications to mine sur- 
veying and machine design. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements 

Text: Smith, Descriptive Geometry 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Burger, Sherwood) 

II. DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY Drawing 

At the beginning of the course considerable time is given 
to the use of instruments, geometrical constructions, and letter- 
ing; then follows the direct application of the problems that are 
taken up In the lecture work. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements 

Text: Smith, Descriptive Geometry arid Piates 
Reinhardt, Lettering 

French, Mechanlcai Drawing and Elementary 
Machine Design 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 

III. ELEMENTARY MACHINE DESIGN Lectures 

This course includes a study of machine elements, the nature 
of materials entering into machine construction, and elementary 
calculations which involve the correct proportion, by empirical 
methods, of various machine parts. 

Prerequisites: Courses I and II 

Text: French, Mechanical Drawing and Elemen- 
tary Machine Design 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students (Morse) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 77 

IV. ELEMENTARY MACHINE DESIGN Drawing 

The object of this course is to give the studenjt the prin- 
ciples of orthographic projection when applied to machine draw- 
ings executed according to modern drafting and shop practice. 
Considerable time is devoted to correct methods of lettering and 
dimensioning of drawings and free-hand sketching. Working 
drawings are submitted of the following: anchor-bolts» shaft- 
couplings, hangers, pipe-Joints, yalyes, machine elements, and 
simple engine parts. 

Prerequisites: Courses I and II 

Text: French, Mechanical Drawing and Elemen- 
tary Machine Design 

Six hours a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 

y. MACHINE DESIGN Lectures 

This is a continuation of Course III. A brief outline of the 
various principles of mechanics, so necessary for the work, is 
here taken up. Special attention is given to problems which 
involve the transmission of power and the best solution of these 
from both the theoretical and practical point of view. 

Prerequisites: Courses III and IV 

Text: Marshall, Machine Design 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 

VI. MACHINE DESIGN Drawing 

This is a continuation of Course IV. The work is extended 
to include more complex problems. Complete working drawings 
of some of the following are submitted: shafting layouts; belt, 
fibrous, and wire rope drives; machine parts, conveyors, and 
conveyor systems. 

Prerequisites: Courses III and IV 

Text: Marshall, Machine Design 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 

VII. KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY Lectures 

This course begins with the theoretical analysis of mech- 
anism and extends to tiie practical application of these principles 



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78 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINSS 

to such problems as arise In practice. Special attention is given 
to the analysis of links, belting, cams, gears, and other contact 
mechanism. 

Prerequisites: Courses V and VI 

Text: Keown, Elements of Mechanism 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 

VIII. KINEMATICS OP MACHINERY Drawing 

This course supplements and is directly dependent upon 
the lecture work. This work is taken up from a practical point 
of view and applies such theory as is consistent with the most 
approved method of design. Designs and complete working 
drawings are made from machine parts, gears, cams and various 
systems and devices used for the transmission of power. 

Prerequisites: Courses V and VI 

Text: Keown, Elements of Mechanism 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 

IX. HEAT POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

The greater portion of the semester is devoted to steam 
boiler subjects. After a brief historical treatment of the sub- 
ject, the lectures cover the theory, principles of design, and 
construction of modem boilers. Numerous practical problems 
are assigned from time to time so that the student becomes 
thoroughly familiar with the. design and operation of the lead- 
ing types of boilers. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and VIII 

Text: Allen and Bursley, i-leat Engines 

One hour a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Morse) 

X. HEAT POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Design 

Credit two hours. 

The drafting room work is devoted principally to the design 
of power plant apparatus and to such other machinery as is 
usually to be found in a min^ plant. Boilers, steam engines, 
hoists, conveying systems, and mill installations are designed 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 79 

and complete sets of detailed working drawings are required in 
all cases. The value of time is impressed upon the student and 
all work is done in accordance with the most approved manu- 
facturing methods. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and VIII 

Text: F^mald and Orrock, Engineering of Power 
Plants 

Six hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Morse) 

XI. HEAT POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Lectures 

Credit one hour. 

The lectures of this course embrace principally the subject 
of steam engines. The development of the steam engine is first 
carefully traced out, after which attention is given to ther- 
modjmamics and the fundamental principles which underlie th^ 
steam engine. Practical problems are assigned the student and 
great stress is laid upon all matters pertaining to the economical 
side of the subject 

Prerequisites: Courses Vn and Vin 

Text: Allen .and. Bursley, Heat Engines 

One hour a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and n. (Morse) 

Xn. HEAT POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Design ' 

Credit two hours. 

This course is a continuation of Course X, and enables the 
student to undertake and complete some of the more advanced 
problems in the design of power plant machinery. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and Vni 

Text: Femald and Orrock, Engineering of Power 
Plants 

Six hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and II. (Morse) 

XIII. COMPRSSSBD AIR Lectures (Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

This course includes a study of the theory and practice of 
air compression. At the beginning considerable time is given 
to the study of such thermodynamics as is necessary to a suc- 
cessful pursuit of the course. After this the work comprises 



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80 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

a study of the following principal items: single and multiple 
stage compression; absorption of heat during compression; 
transmission of power by compressed air; draining of moisture 
from pipe lines; reheating; the use of compressed air in motors 
and the Tarlous valve-gears used. A systematic study is made 
in the class room of the catalogues of one or more of the lead- 
ing compressor builders. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and VIII 
Text: Peele, Compressed Air 
Trade Catalogues 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Morse) 

XIV. POWER PLANT DESIGN Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course includes a detailed study of the units and aux- 
iliaries necessary to a power plant and their various connecting 
links. After this, problems affecting the type and location of 
power plants are taken up and then the work is extended to 
problems involving the best selection and number of units, 
location and arrangement, connection with auxiliaries, and the 
necessary housing for equipment. The items of first cost, operat- 
ing cost, and depreciation ^£e carefully considered. 

Prerequisites: Courses XI and XII 

Text: Gebhardt, Power Plant Engineering 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and II. (Morse) 

XV. POWER PLANT DESIGN Drawing 
Credit two hours. 

The work in this course includes working drawings of some 
of the power plant equipment taken up and studied in detail in 
the lecture course. Such problems as the following are as- 
signed: detail of piping systems, including live and exhaust 
steam, for a certain size plant; foundations for units and aux- 
iliaries; flues and stacks; coal and ash handling machinery. 

Prerequisites: Courses XI and XII 

Six hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and II. (Morse) 

XVI. GAS ENGINES Lectures (Elective) 
Credit three hours. 

This course is intended to give the mining engineer a prac- 
tical working knowledge of the gas engine. The theory and 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 81 

thermodynamics of the gas engine are carefully considered, 
together with the conditions affecting efficiency and operation. 
The best types of modern engines together with auxiliary ap- 
paratus are taken up and discussed with regard to special fea- 
tures and advantages. Each student is assigned a seminar paper 
upon some special subject of investigation. At the conclusion 
of the course these papers are presented before the class. A 
portion of the course is devoted to practice in operating and 
running the engines found In the laboratories. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and VIII 

Text: Streeter, The Gas Engine 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. (Morse) 

XVII. PUMPING MACHINERY Lectures (Elective) 

Credit three hours. 

This course comprises a careful study of the principle, de- 
sign, and operation of all kinds of pumping machinery. Special 
attention is given . to the selection and installation of steam, 
electric, and compressed air pumps for mine service. Problems 
involving the calculations of capacity, slip, and duty of pumping 
engines are assigned to the students. Along with the study of 
pumping machinery considerable time is devoted to the study 
of air-lifts. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and VIII 

Text: Greene, Pumping Machinery 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. ' (Morse) 

XVni. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Laboratorv (Elective) 

Credit one hour. 

It is the purpose of this course to familiarize the student 
with the apparatus used in testing and engineering investiga- 
tion. The practice work includes indicator practice: study of 
reduction motions; dynamometers; determination of the quality 
of steam; calibration of gages; valve setting; efficiency tests of 
boilers; flue gas analysis; test of air compressors; tests of 
steam turbines. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and VIII 

Text: Moyer, Power Plant Testing 
Reference: Smallwood, Mechanical Laboratory Methods 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
senior year. (Morse) 



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82 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



MECHANICS AND CIVIL ENGINEERING 



Harry MuiMon Showmaiiy Professor 



The aim of this department is to train the student in 
such subjects of civil engineering as may be required of a mining 
engineer. This includes a knowledge of plane surveying, ana- 
lytical and applied mechanics, structural design, and hydraulics. 

I. THEORY OP PLANE SURVEYING Lectures 

The purpose of this course is to give preliminary instruction 
in the principles involved in surveying, and, by numerous prob- 
lems, to enable the student to acquire speed and accuracy in 
calculations. Units and general methods of measurement are 
taken up first and are followed by chaining and transit prob- 
lems; leveling, stadia surveying, plane-table mapping, and topo- 
graphic surveying are studied in order. City, land, and railroad 
surveying are covered briefly. Methods of computation are 
thoroughly studied. These include closing and adjustment of 
traverses; omitted measurements; areas; parting off land; earth- 
work; and the reduction of solar observations for a true meridian. 
PrerequiBites: Math. I and II 

Text: Breed and Hosmer, Plane Surveying, Vol. I 
References: Johnson and Smith, Theory and Practice of 
Plane Surveying 
Breed and Hosmer, Higher Surveying, Vol. 2 
Wilson, Topographic Surveying 
Tracy, Plane Surveying 
One hour a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Showman) 

n. PRACTICE OF PLANE SURVEYING Lectures and Field 
Work 
The field work in plane surveying is conducted in the vicin- 
ity of Golden and comprises chaining, differential and profile 
leveling, triangulation, traversing, and numerous exercises with 
the transit. A topographical map of an extended territory is 
made by each squad with the transit and stadia. In addition, 
several days are spent with the plane table in rapid mapping. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL. OF MINES 8S 

At all times the combination of accuracy with economy of time 
is emphasized. Lectures are held as often as necessary to give 
detailed instruction in the adjustment and manipulation of 
instruments. 

Prerequisite: Course I 
References: Searles, Field Engineering 

Pence and Ketchum, Surveying Manual 
Johnson and Smith, Theory and Practice of 

Plane Surveying 
Breed and Hosmer, Higher Surveying, Vol. 2 
Wilson, Topographic Surveying 
Six weeks in the summer following the close of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Showman) 

m. ANALYTICAL MECHANICS Lectures 
Credit three hours. 

This course consists of the study of the fundamental and 
derived laws of matter, force, and motion, with their application 
to engineering problems. The chief topics treated are compo- 
sition and resolution of forces; solution of framed structures; 
attraction and gravitation; center of gravity; moment of inertia; 
kinetics of a particle; projectiles; work; power; energy; fric- 
tion; kinetics of rigid bodies; and impact. The course is taught 
by text assignments, with lectures and recitations. Special 
emphasis is placed upon problem work. 

Prerequisites: Math. V and VI; Physics I and II 
Text: Poorman, Applied Mechanics 
References: Minchin, Treatise on Statics 
Routh, Dynamics 
Ziwet, Theoretical Mechanics 
Church, Mechanics of Engineering 
Maurer, Technical Mechanica 
Church, Notes and Examples in Mechanics 
Three hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV. (Showman) 

IV. APPLIED MECHANICS -Lectures 

Credit three hours. 

This is a continuation of Course III and consists of the 
study of elastic bodies; stresses and strains; tension; shear 
compression; torsion; flexure; combined stresses; elastic curves; 
safe loads; oblique forces; long columns; hooks; simple and 
continuous beams. 



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84 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Prerequisite: Course III 

Texts: Boyd, Strength of Materials 
Cambria Steel 
References: Merrlman, Meclianlcs of Materials 

Burr, Elasticity and Resistance of tlie Mate- 
rials of Engineering 
Lanza, Applied Mechanics 
Three hours a^week during the second semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV. (Showman) 

V. TESTING LABORATORY (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

In this course tests are made to determine the strength and 
stiffness of building materials, such as cast iron, wrought Iron, 
steel, plain and reinforced concrete, and wood in tension, com- 
pression, shearing, and flexure. Stone and brick are examined 
for strength, absorption, disintegration and other qualities which 
decide their economic values. Elxperlments to determine the 
strength of threaded bolts, riveted joints, welds, and nailed joints 
are included In the course. Tests of cement are made as speci- 
fied by the American Society for Testing Materials. 

Prerequisite: This course must be taken in conjunction with, 

or subsequent to. Course IV 
References: Merrlman, Mechanics of Materials 

Burr, Elasticity and Resistance of the Mate- 
rials of Engineering 
Lanza, Applied Mechanics 
Martens, Handbook of Testing Materials 
Hatt and Schofleld, Laboratory Manual of 
Testing Materials 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
junior year. (Showman) 

VL HYDRAULICS Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

This course opens with a brief treatment of hydrostatics, 
takes up the theory and practical application of the properties of 
fluids in motion, and includes steady flow of liquids through pipes 
and orifices and over weirs; fluid friction and losses of head; 
time of emptying vessels; uniform flow of water in open chan- 
nels; impulse and resistance of fluids; pumps and rams; the im- 
pulse water motor; overshot, breast, and undershot waterwheels; 
back water; theorem for flow in revolving pipe; turbine and 
reaction wheels. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 85 

Prerequisite: Course III 

Text: Daugherty, Hydraulics 
References: Merriman, Treatise on Hydrauiics 
Hughes and Safford, Hydraulics 
Russell, Textbook on Hydrauiics 
Church, Hydrauiics 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Showman) 

VII. HYDRAULICS Laboratory 
Credit one hour. 

Measurements are made of flow over weirs, through ori- 
fices, and through flumes and ditches. The determination of Che 
approximate law of flow in pipes also forms part of the course. 
Water-wheels and centrifugal pumps are tested and the efliciency 
of the hydraulic ram under various conditions Is determined. 
Prerequisite: This course can be taken only in conjunction 
with Course VI 
References: Church, Hydrauiics 

Merriman, Treatise on Hydrauiics 
Hughes and Safford, Hydrauiics 
Russell, Textbook on Hydraulics 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Showman) 

VIII. ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION Lectures and Drawing 

(Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

In this course instruction is given in graphical analysis of 
the stresses of framed structures of the simpler forms. Com- 
parison is made with the algebraic solutions of the same prob- 
lems as far as possible. The design of roof and bridge trusses 
in steel is then taken up from the theoretical and practical 
points of view. Steel mill buildings are thoroughly discussed, 
an analysis of all stresses involved is made, and a complete de- 
sign is required from each student. In connection therewith the 
forms, covering, lighting, ventilation, erection, and similar top- 
ics are carefully considered. The design and construction of 
steel head-frames and ore bins are taken up in detail. 



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86 THB COLORAtK) SCHOOL OF MINB38 

Prerequisite: This course may be taken only with the con- 
B.ent of the instructor 
Texts: Ketchum, Steel Mill Buildings 
Cambria Steel 
Lecture Notes 
References: Ketchum, Structural Engineer's Handbook 

Morris, Designing and Detailing Simple Steel 
Structures 
Lectures and drawing six hours a week during the first 
semester of the senior year. (Showman) 

IX. STRUCTURAL DETAILS Lectures and Drawing (Elect- 
ive) 
Credit two hours. 

This course Is a study of the methods of framing heavy tim- 
ber. The student Is first made familiar with the terms of fram- 
ing, such as housing, notching, mortise and tenon, dovetailing, 
lag-screws, dowels and lugs, and from accepted unit stresses, he 
is led to design Joints, splices, deepened beams, trussed beams, 
and head-frames from wood. A complete design of a combina- 
tion wood and steel truss is required from each student. A brief 
study is made of the ordinary timbers used in construction, and 
the best modem methods of protecting them from the action of 
the elements and wood-destroying Insects. 

Prerequisite: This course may be taken only with the con- 
sent of the Instructor 
Texts: Jacoby, Structural Details 
Cambria Steel 
Lecture Notes 
Reference: Kidder, Architect's and Builder's Pocketbook 
Lectures and drawing six hours a week during the second 
semester of the senior year. (Showman) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 87 



METALLURGY 



Irving Ali8ton Palmer, Professor 



I. ASSAYING Lectures and Laboratory 
Credit three hours. 

Special attention is directed toward making; this course 
as practical as possible. The work includes the usual assays 
called for in the laboratory of mine, mill, or smeltery, and the 
methods, besides those in use so satisfactorily for many years, 
include also such "short cuts" as have been Introduced by as- 
sayers who have many assays to make daily. The course covers 
the following: the fluxing of basic ores, silicious ores, and sul- 
phide ores for practice; the assays of sulphide and oxide ores of 
lead; the assay of gold and silver ores of different types by 
various methods, with a comparison of results; the assay of 
zinciferous and cupriferous gold and silver ores; of arsenical and 
antimonial ores; and the crucible and scoriflcation assay of 
mattes and concentrates. 

Prerequisites: Physics III and IV 

Geology and Mineralogy IV 
Chemistry VIII and X 
Text: Fulton's Manual of Fire Assaying 
References: Lodge, Notes on Assaying 
Brown, Manual of Assaying 
Furman-Pardoe, Manual of Practical Assaying 
Lectures one hour, laboratory six hours, a week during the 
first semester of the junior year. 

Required in Groups I, II and IV. (Palmer) 

n. ASSAYING Lectures and Laboratory 

Credit four hours. 

In addition to the work outlined in Course I all the products 
that the assayer may be called upon to handle are discussed. 
These include: blister, anode, and cathode copper; cyanide solu- 
tions, slime, and products; zinc retort residues; base, gold, and 
silver bullion. The latter is assayed by the fire and also by 
the Volhard and Gay-Lussac methods. 



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88 THE COLORADO SCHOOL, OP MINES 

Prerequisites: Physics HI and IV 

Geology and Mineralogy IV 
Chemistry VIII and X 
Text: Fulton Manual of Fire Assaying 
References: Lodge, Notes on Assaying 
Brown, Manual of Assaying 
Furman-Pardoe, Manual of Practical Assaying 

Lectures one hour, laboratory nine hours, a week during the 
second semester of the junior year. 

Required in Group III. (Palmer) 

III. METALLURGY Lectures 
Credit three hours. 

The subjects included in this course comprise an extension of 
the work on fuels, involving the calculation of air required for 
combustion, weight of the products of combustion, heat carried 
away by flue gases, the heat value of various solid, liquid, and 
gaseous fuels; pyrometry and the modem methods of high tem- 
perature measurements; calorimetry and the various means of 
determining the calorific power of fuels; the fundamental metal- 
lurgical principles; and a study of the different types of metal- 
lurgical furnaces and their applications. 

Iron and Steel. On account of the marked development in 
the metallurgy of iron, the general application of labor-saving 
devices, and the basal metallurgical principles involved in its 
production, this subject is considered first. Pig iron manu- 
facture, with a study of the blast furnace and its accessories; 
the chemistry of the blast furnace; the utilization of furnace 
gases; the calculation of charges; the puddling process for 
wrought iron; the manufacture of steel by the Bessemer, open 
hearth, cementation, and crucible processes, with a consideration 
of the reactions involved; and the various furnaces and appli- 
cations incident to a modern plant are taken up in logical order. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry VIII and X 
Physics III and IV 
Geology and Mineralogy IV 
Text: Hofman, General Metallurgy 
References: Fulton, Principles of Metallurgy 

Stoughton, Metallurgy of iron and Steel 
H. H. Campbell, The Manufacture and Prop- 
erties of Iron and Steel 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV. (Palmer) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 89 

IV. METALLURGY Lectures 
Credit three hours. 

Lead. The metallurgy of lead is considered in the following 
order: properties of lead and its compounds; ores of lead; 
sampling and purchasing of lead ores; fluxes and fuel; smelting 
in the ore hearth; roasting of ores, including the chemistry of 
the roasting process; blast furnace smelting, including construc- 
tion, chemistry of the blast furnace, calculation of furnace 
charges, treatment of products; softening, desilverization, and 
refining of base bullion; Pattinson process; Parkes process; 
German and English cupellation. 

Prerequisite: Course III 

Text: H. F. Collins, The Metallurgy of Lead 
Reference: Hofman, The Metallurgy of Lead 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
Junior year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV (Palmer) 

V. METALLURGY Lecture* 
Credit two hours. 

This is an extension of Course III, and involves additional 
work in the study of the heat balance, blast furnace design, and 
a closer consideration of the details in the various methods of 
steel manufacture. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry VIII and X; Physics III and IV; 
Geology and Mineralogy IV . 
Text: Stoughton, Metallurgy of iron and Steel 
Reference: H. H. Campbell, The Manufacture and Prop- 
erties of Iron and St6el 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group IIL (Palmer) 

VI. METALLURGY Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

Zinc. The following topics are considered: calcination; 

roasting and distillation by various methods, with a detailed 

study of furnace types, direct fired, and gas fired; manufacture 

of retorts; refining of spelter and general cost of production. 

Prerequisite: Course V 

Text: W. R. Ingalls, The Metallurgy of Zinc and 
Cadmium 
References: L. S. Austen, The Metallurgy of the Common 
Metals 
Hofman, General Metallurgy 



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90 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group III. (Palmer) 

Vn. ORE DRESSING Lectures 
Credit four hours. 

The following represent the main divisions under which this 
subject is studied: Jaw and gyratory breakers; rolls; stamps; 
special crushing and fine grinding apparatus; the various types 
of screens and classifiers; concentrating machines, including 
jigs, tables, vanners, and other slime devices; dry magnetic, 
electrostatic, and flotation concentration. 

Text: Richards, Textbook of Ore Dressing 
References: Wiard, Theory and Practice of Ore Dressing 
Ralston and Rlckard, Flotation 
Hoover, The Flotation Process 
Megraw, The Flotation Process 
Del Mar, Tube Milling 
Four hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and IH (Palmer) 

VIII. ORE DRESSING Laboratory 
Credit one hour. 

The work consists of sizing tests of the products of various 
crushers and operations; slime settling; determinations of free 
settling ratios; concentrating by panning and by various me- 
chanical devices; and comparative studies of the difterent forms 
of commercial sizing, classifying, and concentrating devices. 

This course must be taken in conjunction with, or subse- 
quent to. Course VII. 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and III. (Palmer) 

IX. METALLURGY Laboratory 
Credit one hour. 

This course is intended to supplement the lecture work of 
the junior year and Includes work with optical and electrical 
pyrometers; heat value of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels by the 
Junker, Parr, and Bomb calorimeters; heat treatment of steel; 
the thermit process and the desilverization of base bullion. 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group III. (Palmer) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 91 

X. METALLURGY Lectures 
Credit three hours. 

Gold and Sliver. This course covers the following: metal- 
lurgy of gold and silver with special attention to stamp mill- 
ing, amalgamation and cyanidation; the parting of gold and 
silver bullion by various commercial methods, with special at- 
tention to electrolysis and the sulphuric acid treatment. The 
yarious modifications of the cyanide process receive particular 
attention. 

Copper. A critical study of the principles of copper metal- 
lurgy as covered by the best modem practice, together with 
the roasting of ores, blast and reverberatory smelting, pyritic 
smelting, converting of matte, refining of copper, treatment of 
oxidized ores, and hydrometallurgical methods. 

Text: Hofman, The Metallurgy of Copper 
References: Peters, Principles of Copper Smelting 
Practice of Copper Smelting 
Rose, The Metallurgy of Gold 
Thompson, Stamp Milling and Cyanlding 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
senior year. 

Required in Group III. (Palmer) 

XI. MEITALLT7RGT Laboratory 
Credit one hour. 

This work includes the testing of gold and silver ores 
by amalgamation and cyanidation; experimental work upon com- 
plex ores; the leaching of oxidized copper ores; and the labora- 
tory study of such standard processes as lend themselves to 
small scale treatment. 

References: Clennell, The Cyanide Handbook 

Megraw, Details of Cyanide Practice 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group III. (Palmer) 

Xn. METALLOGRAPHY Lectures 

Credit one hour. 

This course comprises a study of the general methods of 
investigating metals and alloys; the experimental determination 
and plotting of cooling curves; the physical mixture, including 
a consideration of aqueous solutions, fused salts and alloys; a 
discussion of freezing point curves and diagrams; the prepara- 
tion of the sample and development of the structure by various 
etching media; the use of the microscope and methods of mak- 



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92 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

ing microphotographs. Following a study of the conBtltution and 
mlcrostructure of Iron and steel and the Industrial alloys as In- 
fluenced by heat treatment, considerable time is spent in the 
inyestigation of mattes, spelsses, bullions, and other metal- 
lurgical furnace products. 

References: Howe, The Metallography of Steel and Caat 
iron 
Sauyeur, The Metallography and Heat Treat- 
ment of Iron and Steel 

One hour a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group III. (Palmer) 

Xin. ELECTROMETALLURGY Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

This course is divided into two parts and covers the fol- 
lowing subjects: (a) the electrolytic smelting and refining of 
metals and the parting of gold and silver bullion; (b) the elec- 
tric furnace. 

This is a course of lectures and recitations on modem prac- 
tice in electric smelting and refining, in which the various types 
of furnaces and other equipment and their underlying prin- 
ciples are discussed and comparisons made with ordinary fire 
methods, followed by the direct application to the reduction and 
refining of metals. 

References: W. Borchers, Electric Smelting and Refining 
Stansfield, The Electric Furnace 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group III. (Palioer) 

XIV. ORE DRESSING Laboratory (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

During the second semester of the senior year a practical 
course in ore dressing is given at the experimental plant. This 
plant contains standard-sized machinery and ores can be run 
in carload lots as in commercial work. The students are thus 
made familiar with actual milling operations. Ores are concen- 
trated by various methods and the relative merits of different ma- 
chines and processes are determined. It is aimed to keep in 
touch with the most recent progress In ore dressing and the 
newer ideas are tried out under actual working conditions. 

Three hours per week during the second semester of the 
senior year. (Palmer) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 98 



METAL MINING 



Harry John Woif» Professor 



The courses given in this department are intended to in- 
struct the student in the theoretical as well as the practical sub- 
jects that are necessary to a thorough comprehension of the 
mining industry. The subjects range from the most elementary 
to those that teach the principles of mining, the various schemes 
or methods of developing and working mines, and the actual or 
practical operations involved in mining. Throughout these 
courses it is aimed to present the most approved ideas and to 
have the student feel that he is receiving instruction that is 
revised up to the time of presentation. 

I. MINERAL LAND SURVEYING Lectures 

This course covers instruction in the methods of acquiring 
title to mineral lands in the United States and in foreign coun- 
tries. Special attention is given to practice in the western 
United States. Determination of meridian and latitude by solar 
and stellar observation is explained. Methods of sub-dividing 
the public lands and the regulation of land offices and Surveyors 
General are discussed and explained. Instruction is given in the 
preparation and filing of the documents used in acquiring title 
to lode and placer claims; mill and tunnel sites; timber, coal, 
and stone lands; water rights; <lam and reservoir sites; and 
ditch, flume, and pipe lines. The duties of the United States 
Deputy Mineral Surveyors are explained and the student is 
familiarized with the fleld methods and office practice involved 
in obtaining United States patent to mineral lands. This course 
makes the student competent to pass the examination given by 
the Surveyor General to applicants for commissions as mineral 
surveyors. 

Prerequisites: C.E. I and II 
References: Underbill, Mineral Land Surveying 
Hodgman, Land Surveying 
General Land Office, Manual of instructions 
for the Survey of the Mineral Lands of 
the United States 

One hour a week during the first semester of the sophomore 
year. 

Required of all students. (Wolf) 



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94 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

II. MINE SURVEYING Lecture* 

This course includes the theoiy Involyed in mine surveying. 
Among the subjects discussed are the following: the adjust- 
ment and uses of top and side telescopes and other transit 
accessories used in underground work; surface and underground 
surveys and traverses; carrying the meridian underground; 
underground connections; plumbing vertical shafts; determina- 
tion of dip, strike, and thickness of mineral deposits from results 
of development, including drill-hole data; survey and measure- 
ment of stopes, rooms, and pits; methods of recording surveys 
in field books and oflice records; methods of mapping, including 
plans, elevations, and sections of underground workings, and 
the design and uses of mine models. 

Prerequisites: C.E. I and II 
References: Trumbull, Manual of Underground Surveying 
Durham, Mine Surveying 
Brough, Mine Surveying 
Shurick, Coal Mine Surveying 

One hour a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Wolf) 

HI. MINE SURVEYING Field Woric 

This course embraces practice in laying out mining claims 
on the ground and in surveying underground workings. The 
students are organized in suitable squads for efficient work in 
the field. Each squad is required to survey a lode claim, placer 
claim, mill site, and tunnel site; locate and mark all comers, 
as required by law in the case of an actual survey; tie the sur- 
veys to proper section corners, or other monuments, and obtain 
all field data required for the calculation of Intersections with 
conflicting claims. The practice in surface and underground 
work is given in one of the neighboring mining districts where 
typical mines are selected which provide a variety of problems 
common to mine surveying, such as shaft plumbing; adit and 
drift traversing; and making connections through shafts, tun- 
nels, drifts, raises, winzes, and stopes. The student receives 
practice and acquires skill in the use of instruments, the taking 
of measurements, and the securing of important data under the 
numerous disadvantages and disagreeable conditions common to 
underground work. The location of water rights and the sur- 
veying of ditches, flumes, pipelines, and aerial tramways are 
Included in this course. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINKS 95 

Prerequisites: Courses I and II 
References: Underhill, Mineral Land Surveying 

General Land Office, Manual of Instructions 
for the Survey of tlie Mineral Lands of 
the United SUtes 
Field Notes 
Piats and Mine Maps 
Four weeks in the summer following the close of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Wolf) 

IV. MINB MAPPING Drawing 
Credit one hour. 

This is a drafting room course wherein the student is re- 
quired to perform all office work necessary in connection with 
the surveys made in Course III, Mine Surveying Field Work, in- 
cluding the preparation of plats, field notes and reports required 
by Land Office Directors and Surveyors General, and the draw- 
ing of accurate maps of all mine surveys and water rights. 

Prerequisite: Course III 
References: Field Notes 
Mine Maps 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, and IV. (Wolf) 

V. PROSPECTING AND EXPLORATION Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course is introductory to all the following metal mining 
courses. Following a presentation of the elementary and funda- 
mental principles of mining, the great mining districts of the 
world, and famous individual mines and mineral discoveries, are 
described and discussed. The general principles of exploitation 
of mineral deposits are presented. Representative mining costs 
are reviewed and compared with reference to the conditions 
under which they obtain. 

One hour a week di^ring the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV. (Wolf) 

VI. MINING CLAIMS Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course involves a presentation of the regulations of 
the Land Office and Surveyors General, together with instruc- 
tion in the approved methods of acquiring title to mineral lands 
with a view to avoiding legal entanglements and gaining mazi- 



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96 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 

mum advantage to the locator. The course includes an ele- 
mentary discussion of mining laws and regulations of the United 
States and foreign countries. 

One hour a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV. (Wolf) 

VII. PRINCIPLES OF MINING Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course is designed to give the student a general view 
and conception of the mining industry from a business man's 
viewpoint. Many of the prominent features of other mining 
courses are presented, with suitable discussion, but a study of 
technical details is avoided. The chief object of the course is to 
supply the needs of the student who requires a general knowl- 
edge of mining, but does not intend to specialize in metal mining. 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, HI, and IV. (Wolf) 

VIII. MINE ACCOUNTING Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course begins with the fundamental principles of book- 
keeping. The student is taught how to use the various books, 
records, and blanks Involved in standard systems of accounting. 
The course is designed to impart a clear knowledge of double 
entry bookkeeping. Special attention is given to systems em- 
ployed in dealing with the accounts of mining corporations, 
classification of mine, mill, and smeltery accounts and the dis- 
tribution of mining expenditures. The student is taught how to 
analyze costs, compile an operating statement, take off a tr|al 
balance, and prepare a financial report. Each student is required 
to enter in a set of blank forms the transactions covering a 
month's operations of a mining company. 

References! Carlton, American Mine Accounting 

Lawn, Mine Accounts and Mine Bookkeeping 
Greendllnger, Accounting Tlieory and Practice 
Wallace, Simple Mine Accounting 
Wolf, Notes on Mine Accounting 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Wolf) 

IX. MINING CORPORATIONS Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course covers the essentials of corporation law involved 
in the organization and operation of industrial corporations, par- 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINBS 97 

ticularly those engaged in mining. The various steps In the life 
of a mining corporation are discussed and analyzed, and the 
ordinary vicissitudes and the usval methods of facing them are 
Illustrated by typical examples. Methods of recording a corpo- 
ration's activities in the general books of accounts are explained. 
References: Lough, Corporation Finance 
Bush, Uniform Business Law 
Wolf, Notes on Mining Corporations 
Corporation Laws 
One hour a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 
' Required in Group I. (Wolf) 

X. PLACER MINING Lectures 
Credit three hours. 

This course covers the theory and practice Involved in the 
recovery of precious metals from sand and gravel deposits. 
Among the subjects discussed are: panning, rocking, sluicing; 
methods of extracting gravel for sluicing; hydraullclng; drift 
mining; dry placerlng; dredges and their operation; thawing 
frozen ground. Typical operations are considered In detail, and 
special attention is paid to capacity of machinery and operating 
costs. 

References: Longrldge, Hydraulic Mining 

Longrldge, Gold and Tin Dredging 
Wilson, Hydraulic and Placer Mining 
Weatherbee, Dredging for Gold in California 
Anbury, Gold Dredging in California 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Wolf) 

XI. METAL MINING Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course begins with a discussion of surface prospecting 
in various countries, the methods employed and the equipment 
required; and prospecting for ore, oil, and water by means of 
churn drilling and core drilling. Next, the methods of opening 
and developing the different types of mineral deposits are con- 
sidered and compared. The various methods of excavating earth 
and rock are discussed and the different tools employed are de- 
scribed. Shaft sinking and tunnel driving are described, and 
the different systems of stoping are explained. The course 
includes the consideration of mine timbering; the kinds and 
properties of timber, and special methods of framing; methods 
of supiK>rtlng vein walls with ore and waste filling; hand and 



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98 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

machine drills and drilling methods; the different kinds of ex- 
plosives and their use In blasting; underground haulage; hoist- 
ing; surface transportation; wire rope tramways; pumping; 
ventilation; lighting; and sanitation. 

References: Hoover, Principles of IMining 
Young, Elements of IMinIng 
Storms, Timbering and Mining 
Brinsmade, Mining Without Timber 
Sanders, Mine Timbering 
Brunswig, Explosives 
Dana and Saunders, Rocic Drilling 
Brunton and Davis, Modern Tunneling 
Lauchli, Tunneling 
Crane, Ore Mining Methods 
Gillette, Handboolc of RocIc Excavation 
Ihlseng and Wilson, Manual of Mining 
Peele, Mining Engineer's Poclcetbook 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Wolf) 

Xn. METAL MINING Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course includes the discussion and solution of a variety 
of practical mining problems which the student is likely to 
encounter in practice. Knowledge gained in previous mining 
courses is applied to problems in haulage, hoisting, surface tram- 
ming, and pumping. The selection and arrangement of surface 
and underground equipment is discussed. The various forms of 
power used in mining operations are discussed and their appli- 
cations and relative advantages explained. Some of the lectures 
are Illustrated by lantern slides of various mine structures and 
machinery installations; the subjects so illustrated are dis- 
cussed and the engineering principles considered in their selec- 
tion and Involved in their operation are explained. 
References: Hoover, Principles of Mining 
Toung, Elements of Mining 
Walker, Electricity in Mining 
RedmayuQ Modern Practice in Mining 
Tinney, Gold Mining Machinery 
Ketchum, Design of Mine Structures 
Peele, Mining Engineer's Pocketbook 
Handbook of Mining Details 
Details of Practical Mining 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Wolf) 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 99 

Xin. BIINB VALUATION Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

ThlB course includes a detailed discussion of the methods 
of mine sampling. The sampling of fissure veins, placer de- 
posits, and coal seams is carefully explained. The measurement 
of ore bodies and the methods of estimating tonnage are de- 
scribed; the systems of classifying ore are discussed. The 
course includes an anal3^ical study of the following subjects: 
factors influencing payability of ore; relation between vein 
width and stoping width; underground wastes and losses; min- 
ing costs; influence of mineralogical composition; losses and 
deductions involved in metallurgical treatment; milling, trans- 
portation, and smelting costs; valuation of ore bodies; valuation 
of surface and underground equipment; appraisement of water 
rights and other privileges; investigation of geological features 
and the probabilities and possibilities of extension of ore bodies; 
calculation of maintenance and depreciation of equipment; and 
amortization of capital. Methods of recording assays, tabulating 
calculations, and compiling data in comprehensive form, are de- 
scribed. Suggestions are given for the arrangement and pre- 
sentation of the essential information required in mine reports. 
References: Rickard, Sampling and Estimation of Ore In a 
Mine 
Bumham, IModern Mine Valuation 
Gunther, Examination of Prospects 
Herzig, Mine Sampling and Valuing 
Somermeier, Coal, Its Composition, Analysis, 

Utilization and Valuation 
Spurr, Qeology Applied to Mining 
£k!kel. Iron Ores 
Hoover, Principles of Mining 
Denny, Diamond Drilling for Qold and Other 

Minerals 
Wolf, Notes on Mine Valuation 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Wolf) 

XIV. ECONOMICS OP MINING Lectures 

Credit one hour. 

This course begins with a brief review of the fundamental 
principles of political economy. Then follows an analytical 
discussion of the underlying factors which infiuence the opera- 
tion of the various types of industrial enterprises, with special 
attention to mining corporations. The different classes of cor- 
porate securities are described and the factors which infiuence 



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100 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

the value of mining securities are discussed. Mining costs are 
classified and analyzed. The application of business principles 
in mining is explained and emphasized. 

References: Babson, Business Barometers 

Rickard, Economics of Mining 

Finlay, Cost of IMinIng 

Skinner and Plate, i^inlng Costs of the World 

FMsh, Engineering Economics 

Conway, Investment and Speculation 

Walker, Political Economy 

Seager, Economics 

Meade, Economics 

BuUeck, Selected Readings in Economics 
One hour a week during the second sentester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Wolf) 

XV. MINING LABORATORY 
Credit two hours. 

The work in this course is performed in a mine located 
on Mt. Zion, about three-quarters, of a mile from the campus, 
where the school has built and equipped a mine shop and has 
driven a 7 by 8-foot adit. The shop is equipped with a forge 
and tools for blacksmithing, timbering, track-laying, piping and 
repair work; also drill steel, machine drills, mine cars, and 
other apparatus used in the underground work. ThQ students 
work in squads of three or four and perform all of the usual 
duties involved in the driving of a tunnel, such as track-laying, 
timbering, drilling by hand and with machine drills, blasting, 
mucking, and tramming. Under the instruction of a practical 
miner the students learn to temper and sharpen their own steel 
to suit the varying conditions of ground and for the different 
makes of drills. Opportunity is afTorded students to do extra 
work investigating the efficiency and power consumption of 
difTerent makes of drills and the relative advantages of various 
brands of high explosives. 

Two weeks in the summer following the close of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required in Group I. (Wolf) 

XVI. MINE MANAGEMENT Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course includes a discussion of the following topics: 
personal qualities involved in efficient management: value of 
versatile technical knowledge and experience; general and 
department organization of working forces; application of the 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBB 101 

principles of efficiency engineering; value of business ability 
and diplomacy; Influence of ideals, enthusiasm, loyalty and 
esprit de corps; systems of labor compensation; classification 
of labor and efficiency reward; contracts and specifications; 
leasing systems; marketing mine and mill products; analysis of 
smeltery contracts; analysis and distribution of mining cost; 
purchase of supplies; care and maintenance of surface and under- 
ground equipment; developing and operating policies; compila- 
tion of periodical operating reports. 

References: Bmerson, The Twelve Principles of Effioienoy 
Taylor, The Principles of Sclentlfle Manage- 
ment 
Parkhurst, Applied Methods of Scientific Man- 
agement 
Gilbreth, Motion Study 
Galloway, Business Organization 
Gestenberg and Hughes, Commercial Law 
Brinton, Graphic Methods of Representing 

Facts 
Wolf, Notes on Mine Management 
One hour a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group I. (Wolf) 



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102 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



MINING LAW 



Joseph 8. Jaffa, Profeasor 



L MINING LAW (BlecUve) 
Credit one hour. 

a. Status of the law previous to the discovery of gold in 

1848. 
Organization of mining districts in California and other 
states; Federal legislation; subsequent state legis- 
lation. 

b. Lode claims under the act of 1872. 

Valuable mineral deposits; surveyed and unsurveyed 
land; vein or lode; in place; apex; mining claims 
and location. 

c. Important requisites of a valid lode location. 
Discovery and location; sinking of shaft; posting of 

notice and recording; size of location; apex within 
the location; end lines; side lines; side-end lines; 
overlapping. 
One hour a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. (Jaffa) 

n. MINING LAW (EnecUve) 
Credit one hour. 

d. Extralateral rights under the act of 1872. 

Broad lodes; vein entering and leaving on same side 
line; vein crossing both parallel side lines; vein 
crossing end lines and side lines; miscellaneous 



e. Secondary veins. 

f. Discussion and interpretation of Federal and State 

Courts of Sec. 2336 U. S. Rev. Statutes as to "the 
Space of Intersection". 

g. Placer claims. 

What is locatable as placer; acts of location; known 
lodes within placers. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS lOS 

h. Tmmel sites. 

Location; location of blind veins in tunnel sites; rights 
of way through prior patented or unpatented claims, 
i. Mill sites. 

j. Annual labor or assessment work, 
k. Abandonment, forfeiture, and relocation. 
1. Patent 

One hour a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Jaffa) 



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104 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 



PHYSICS 



Claude Cornelius Van Nuys, Professor 



The courses in Physics are intended to give the student a 
broad, general knowledge of the whole subject as well as the 
knowledge most essential to his work as a mining or metal- 
lurgical engineer. Special attention is given to the general laws 
underlying the science and the history of the discovery, and de- 
velopment of the Important results is considered carefully. In 
the laboratory courses the purpose is to excite in the student an 
interest in experimentation and to develop the ability for careful 
observation and the testing and rifting of results. 

L MECHANICS OF SOLIDS AND FLUIDS, SOUND AND HEAT 
Lectures 

This course consists of lectures, illustrated by experiments 
and recitations with assigned problems. The subjects treated are 
mechanics, including the elements of kinematics, dynamics, and 
hydrostatics; the properties of matter; heat, including ther- 
mometry and expansion, calorimetry, change of state, conduc- 
tion, radiation, kinetic theory of gases, and the elements of 
thermodynamics; sound, including wave motion in general, pro- 
duction and propagation of sound waves. 

Only students who are registered in Math. V will be allowed 
to take this course. 

Prerequisites: Mathematics I to IV, inclusive 
Text: Duff, Textbook of Physics 
References: Preston, Theory of Heat 

Barton, Textboolc of Sound 

Three lectures and two recitations a week during the first 
semester of the sophomore year. 

Required of all students. (Van Nuys) 

n. PHYSICS Laboratory 

This course is arranged to accompany Course I. Its aim is 
to teach the student the necessity of careful work as well as to 
acquire skill in physical measurements so that the important 
physical laws' can be quantitatively verified. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINDS 105 

Prerequisite: Registration in Course I 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Van Nuys) 

m. GBNE2RAL PHYSICS Lectures 

This course is a continuation of Course I. The subjects 
treated are electricity and magnetism, including electrostatics, 
electrokinetics, thermo-electricity, magnetic induction, electro- 
magnetism^ electrolysis, the electro-magnetic theory, and electric 
oscillations; conduction of electricity through gases, and 
radioactivity; light, including propagation, reflection, refraction, 
dispersion, interference, emission, absorption, and polarization. 
Prerequisites: Mathematics V; Courses I and II 
Text: Duff, Textbook of Physics 
References: Wood, Physical Optics 

Starling, Electricity and Magnetism 
Pldduck, Electricity and Magnetism 
Three lectures and two recitations a week during the second 
semester of the sophomore year. 

Required of aU students. (Van Nuys) 

IV. PHYSICS Laboratory 

This course is a continuation of Course II. 
Prerequisite: Course II 

Course III must be taken in conjunction with this course. 
Six hours a week throughout the second semester of the 
sophomore year. 

Required of all students. (Van Nuys) 

V. ELECTRON THEORY AND RADIOACTIVITY Lectures 

(ElectiTe) 
Credit two hours. 

This course consists of lectures illustrated by experiments 
in the laboratory. The subjects considered are: conduction of 
electricity through gases; properties of Rontgen, Lenard, and 
Canal rays; study of X-ray spectrometry; methods used in the 
determination of the mass and charge of the electron; radioac- 
tive substances and their transformations, together with a study 
of the various laboratory methods of measuring the activity of 
radioactive minerals. 

Prerequisite: Course III 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. (Van Nuys) 



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106 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

VI. ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS Laboratory (ElecUve) 
Credit one hour. 

This course deals with the theory of the absolute and relative 
measurements of the various electrical and magnetic quantities 
and Includes the actual measurement of these quantities in the 
laboratory. 

Prerequisite: Course III 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. (Van Nuys) 

VII. ALTERNATING CURRENTS Laboratory (ElecUve) 
Credit three hours. 

The subjects considered are: B. m. f. and current curves; 
harmonic e. m. f.'s and current; circuits containing capacity; 
power in alternating circuits; graphical method of investigating 
harmonic e. m. f/s and currents; parallel circuits; polyphase 
e. m. f.'s and currents; the two-phase system; the three-phase 
system; delta and star connections; the alternating current 
transformer; general equations; solution of equations under 
various conditions; transformer theory as applied to a. c. motors. 

Prerequisite: Course HI 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. (Van Nuys) 



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DR. JOSEPH AUSTIN HOLMES 
Liate Director, United States Bureau of Mines 



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108 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING 



James Cole Roberts, Professor 



On August 12, 1915, the Board of Trustees passed the fol- 
lowing resolution: 

Whereas, the late Joseph A. Holmes, Director of the United 
States Bureau of Mines from the date of its creation, May 16, 
1910, until his death in Denver, July 13, 1915, devoted his life 
to the advancement of safety and efficiency in the mining and 
metallurgical industries of the entire country; and 

Whereas, it is meet and proper that a lasting memorial 
of him should be established and maintained; therefore 

Be It Resolved by the Board of Trustees of the Colorado 
School of Mines that there be and hereby is created a full chair 
in this institution to be known as the Joseph A. Holmes Pro- 
fessorship of Safety and Efficiency Engineering. 

I. SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING Lectures 

Credit one hour. 

The subjects in this course are taken up with respect to their 
bearing on safety and efficiency as applied to mining, milling, 
and smelting operations. 

Illumination: the importance of efficient lighting in mine, 
mill, and smelteries; use of oil, acetylene, gasoline, gas, arc, and 
incandescent lights; candles, carbide, safety, and portable elec- 
tric lamps; the importance of efficient lighting around shafts 
and tipples. 

Ventilation: deleterious and harmful gases found in coal and 
metal mines; approved methods of ventilation. 

Explosives: the various types of explosives are discussed 
from the standpoint of safety and efficiency; safety measures in- 
volved in the storage, handling, and use of explosives; approved 
types of magazines and thaw houses; blasting and shot-firing by 
squibs, fuse, and electric detonators; tamping and tamping ma- 
terials and the placing of holes. 

Mine fires: history of some of the important mine fires; 
storage of oil, oiling and greasing cars underground; explosions; 
gas and dust explosions, and incendiarism. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBB 109 

Methods of Are prevention: fire patrols; systematic examina- 
tion of all places where fires are likely to occur; doors; perma- 
nent stopings and bulkheads of non-combustible material; 
organization of fire fighting crews with fire drills. 

Fire-fighting equipment: ample water supply; air line con- 
vertible into water line; sprinkling device in shaft; water plugs; 
fire extinguishers; telephones; fire signals; fire pumps; fire 
doors; ventilating fans; water barrels and fire buckets. 

iMethods of extinguishing firet: use of fire extinguishers; 
fighting fire directly with water; sealing off the fire zone, and 
introducing gases and steam; bulkheading and fiooding; 
hydraulic fiushing; use of rescue apparatus and gas analysis. 

Qas and dust explosions: the excessive danger of gas and 
dust in coal mines; a brief history of some of the important ex- 
plosions; means of preventing explosions; use of inert stone or 
adobe dust; TafPnell and Rice stone dust barriers. 
References: Haldane, Investigation of IMine Air 
Beard, Mine Gases and Explosions 
Lamphrecht, Recovery Work After Pit Fires 
Garforth, Rules for Recovering Coal Mines 

After Explosions and Fires 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
United States Geological Survey, Bulletins 
Cowee, Practical Safety Methods and Devices 
One hour a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (Roberts) 

II. SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING Laboratory 

Credit one hour. 

In this course thorough instruction and training is given in 
the care, testing, and handling of all lights used in the mines, 
such as candle, carbide, safety and electric lamps. The students 
are required to make inspection trips to operating mines, mills, 
and smelteries and inspect and report on them as to safe and 
efilcient methods and practices. Instruction and training is also 
given in the various types of rescue apparatus — the lungmotor 
and pulmotor and other mechanical respiratory devices — and in 
the repair, upkeep, and maintenance of this equipment and 
accessory apparatus. The rescue training is conducted in the 
mine in irrespirable gases, and smoke, and under conditions 
which would exist in case of an actual mine fire or after an 
explosion. Students are required to build brattices and bulk- 
heads, saw and set timbers and props, put out fires with hose 
and fire extinguishers, and carry injured men from mine work- 



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110 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

ingB filled with smoke and gases. Special attention is paid to 
mine rescue and recovery practices of the govemment, states, 
and mining companies. Bach student is required to undergo 
a rigid physical and medical examination before he is permitted 
to take this training. 

Reference: United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
Three hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (Roberts) 

in. SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course is a continuation of Course I and takes up the 
following subjects: 

Laws of the various states relative to safety; policing and 
inspection of mines by federal and state officials and by company 
inspectors; industrial accident commissions and compensation 
laws of the different states; inspection and merit-rating systems 
as practiced by the Associated Insurance Companies; accidents, 
their causes, classification, and means of prevention; sanitation 
and health conditions; education and social welfare, night 
schools, mining institutes, moving pictures, and entertainments; 
trade agreements and relations between employers; unionism 
versus ol>en shop; miners' organizations; discipline; reporting of 
unsafe or inefficient practices or conditions; safeguarding all 
machinery; careful investigation of all accidents immediately 
after their occurrence; public meetings of employers and em- 
ployees in the interest of safety and efficiency; suggestion boxes 
and bulletin boards; bonus system; personal instruction to em- 
ployees; statistics with methods of obtaining and recording them 
and their value from the standpoint of safety and efficiency; 
purchasing, storing, checking, and issuing materials and sup- 
plies; careful Inspection of all tools and equipment; labor con- 
ditions; proper treatment of employees by employers; coopera- 
tion. 

References: Haldane, Investigation of Mine Air 
Beard, Mine Gases and Explosions 
Lamphrecht, Recovery Work After Pit Fires 
Garforth, Rules for Recovering Coal Mines 

After Explosions and Fires 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
United States Geological Survey, Bulletins 
Cowee, Practical Safety Metliods and Devices 
One hour a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group II.' (Roberts) 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 111 

IV. SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING Laboratory 
Credit one hour. 

This course inyolves a practical study of physiology, 
anatomy, and hygiene, and is followed by thorough instruction 
and training in the care and transportation of persons injured 
in and about mines, mills, and metallurgical plants. Students 
are required to become proficient in the use of compresses, 
tourniquets, bandages, splints, and stretchers. 
References: Lauffer, Electrical Injuries 

TJnited States Bureau of Mines, Pubilcations 
American Red Cross, Textbook on First Aid 
Johnson, First Aid Manual 
Manson, Tropical Diseases 
Kober and Hanson, Diseases of Occupation and 
Vocational Hygiene 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (Roberts) 



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112 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



SPANISH 



I. SPANISH Recitations and Conversation (Mective) 

Credit two hours. 

This course is designed primarily for those students who 
expect to do professional work in Spanish-American countries. 
Facility in conversation and business correspondence will be 
the chief aim. The course will be conducted in Spanish, for the 
most part. Sufficient reading of simple exercises and grammar 
will be given to enable the student to acquire a practical use of 
the language. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements 
References: Rosenthal, The Spanish Language 
Berlitz, M6todo Berlitz 
Cortina, Spanish In Twenty Lessons 
Graham and Oliver, Spanish Commercial Prao- 

tice 
Dolman, Spanish Lessons 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the freshman 
year. 

II. SPANISH Recitations and Conversation (ETlective) 
Credit two hours. 

This course is a continuation of Course I, and consists of 
similar exercises in conversation and composition, but more ad- 
vanced in character. This course will be conducted entirely in 
Spanish. 

Prerequisite: Course I 

References: Rosenthal, The Spanish Language 
Berlitz, M6todo Berlitz 
Cortina, Spanish in Twenty Lessons 
Graham and Oliver, Spanish Commercial Prac- 
tice 
Dolman, Spanish Lessons 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

III. SPANISH (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

This is a continuation of Course 11. 
Prerequisite: Course n 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the sopho- 
more year. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 118 

IV. SPANISH (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

This is a continuation of Course III. 
Prerequisite: Course III 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

V. SPANISH (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

This course is intended for irregular students who have 
only a brief time in which to get a start in the knowledge of the 
language. 

One hour a week during the first semester of the Junior year. 

VI. SPANISH (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

This is a continuation of Course V. 
Prerequisite: Course V. 

One hour a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. 



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114 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 



INSPECTION TRIPS 



The same importance is attached to the inspection trips as 
to class-room and laboratory work. Grades are given on reports 
submitted and satisfactory results are required for graduation. 

IVfETALLURQICAL TRIPS 

The study of various metallurgical processes and plants may 
be prosecuted with great benefit in Colorado. Beginning with 
the junior year and continuing throughout the senior year, in- 
spection trips are taken for the purpose of supplementing the 
laboratory work and for illustrating the lecture courses. Printed 
outlines of reports, carrying out all of the important features 
peculiar to the plant and to the practice, are given to the stu- 
dents. A written report on each trip is turned in for correction 
and criticism. 

During the junior year the following plants are visited: 

The Pueblo and Denver plants of the American Smelting and 
Refining Company, for a study of furnaces of various types and 
ore sampling. 

The Minnequa plant of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company 
at Pueblo, for a study of the manufacture of iron and steel and 
the working up of the product into commercial forms. 

The Globe plant of the American Smelting and Refining Com- 
pany, for a study of the metallurgy of lead. 

The zinc plants of the American Smelting and Refining Com- 
pany at Pueblo, and of the United States Smelting Company at 
Canon City, for a study of the metallurgy of zinc and the manu- 
facture of pigment. 

During the senior year the following plants are visited: 

The Jackson, Newton, Hudson, and other mills in Idaho 
Springs, for the study of ore dressing. 

The various stamp mills of Black Hawk and Central City, 
for the study of amalgamation. 

The Colorado Zinc Company and the Blake-Morscher works 
in Denver, for magnetic and electro-static separation. 

The cyanide mills of Colorado City and Cripple Creek for 
the cyanide process. 

MINING TRIPS 

During the junior and senior years, the students are taken 
to well known Colorado mining districts for the inspection of 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 115 

actual mining operations. These trips are arranged in such order 
as to introduce different interesting features and, at the same 
time, to emphasize definite portions of the classroom instruc- 
tion. Attention is paid to surface plants, underground equipment, 
mining systems, and to all the regular operations, both above and 
below ground. Lectures precede these trips to explain their 
objects, the particular properties to be visited, aiid the opera- 
tions to be witnessed. Printed outlines are furnished and each 
student is required to submit a report, illustrated by his own 
sketches. 

ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL POWER PLANT TRIPS 

In connection with the Junior mining trip to Breckenrldge, 
Colorado, a study is made of the application of electric power 
to dredging, milling, and mining. Near the end of the Junior year 
the class visits the plants and sub-stations of the Denver City 
Tramway Company and of the Denver Gas and Electric Company. 
Here they see in operation nearly all the electrical machinery 
and apparatus studied during the year. The seniors make a com- 
bined steam and electric plant trip to the station of the Northern 
Colorado Power Company at Lafayette, Colorado. 

AVAILABLE MINING, METALLURGY, ENGINEERING, AND 

GEOLOGICAL TRIPS 
COLORADO 

POBTLAND. 

Metallurgy, 

Colorado Portland Cement Company; crushing and 
fine grinding of raw material and clinker. 

Canon City. 
Metallurgy. 

Empire Zinc Company: wet and magnetic separation 
of zinc ores and magnetic treatment of Wilfley 
table middlings; experimental plant with mag- 
netizing roaster, magnetic separators, dry and 
electrostatic separators, and ESmore installa- 
tion. 

United States Smeltery: pigment smelting of com- 
plex zinc-lead ores, and the working of the prod- 
uct into a marketable form. 
Geology, 

A study of the mesozoic sedimentary formations 
that are upturned In fine hog-backs in a great 
semicircle around the Canon City basin. 



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116 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Leadvuxb. 

Metallurgy, 

Arkansas Valley Plant of the A. S. and R. Company: 
lead smelting; Ropp, Brown-Horseshoe, Godfrey, 
and H. and H. roasting; briquetting, and blast 
furnace treatment of silver-lead ores. 

Adams Mill: wet concentration of lead ores. 

Yak Mill: magnetic concentration with International 
separators and Cleveland-Knowles separators, 
after a magnetizing roast. 
Mining, 

The students are taken Into the Yak Tunnel, through 
the several mines connected therewith, and are 
finally hoisted to the surface of Breece Hill 
through the shaft of the Little Jonny mine. The 
Moyer, Tucson, and other mines are also visited. 
Excellent opportunity is afforded for studying 
the two distinctive kinds of ore bodies for*which 
this district is noted, and to learn, by observa- 
tion, how these dissimilar ore bodies are at- 
tacked and their contents successfully extracted. 
Interest attaches to the unusual complexity of 
the ores, which contain gold, silver, and most 
of the base metal sulphides, oxides, and car- 
bonates. 

Engineering, 

Arkansas Valley Plant, A. S.and R. Company: steam 
power plant; capacity 1,500 h. p.; condensing 
Corliss engines belted to Connersvllle blowers; 
return tubular boilers equipped with underfeed 
stokers. 

Colorado Power Company; steam power plant; Curtis 
turbines, direct connected to 3-phase, 6,600 volt, 
60 cycle alternators; current stepped up to 
100,000 volts for long distance transmission over 
steel tower line; small and moderate sized 
units; Alberger surface condensers with inde- 
pendent dry vacuum pump and centrifugal circu- 
lating punip; 400 h. p. B. and W. boilers, hand 
fired. 

Yak Tunnel: Silver Cord property; two^rum electric 
hoist; motor driven compressors; compressed 
air and electric driven pumps; continuous cur- 
rent haulage. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 117 

Geology, 

The Paleozoic series and fault systems are studied 
underground and the sharply defined moraines, 
and other glacial phenomena, on the surface. 
Shoshonk. 

Engineering. 

Central Colorado Power Company's Hydro-electric 
plant. Water from the Grand river is conducted 
through a tunnel cut inside of the mountain for 
approximately two and one-quarter miles, de- 
livered through penstocks to central discharge 
turbines under a head of 165 feet; ultimate ca- 
pacity of plant approximately 25,000 h. p.; ulti- 
mate transmission voltage 100,000. 

ShOSHORS AlTD GlEITWOOD. 

Geology. 

Archaean gneisses and schists, and uncomformable 
above these the paleozoic rocks exposed in the 
canyon of the Grand river; typical canon erosion 
and travertine deposits. At Glen wood the 
Mesozoic rocks. 

UTAH. 

Bingham. 
Mining. 

This district permits the study of three distinct sys- 
tems of mining, namely, the overhead stoping, 
the caving, and the open pit. The extensive 
properties of the Utah Consolidated Mining Com- 
pany and the Utah Copper Mining Company are 
open to the unrestricted inspection of the class. 
Further interest in this district comes from the 
opportunity to study aerial tram systems, diffi- 
cult railroad engineering, and the operations, of 
single companies under different systems. 
Geology. 

The carboniferous quartzite and limestone, with in- 
truded igneous masses that have marmorized 
the limestone at contact; the relationship of the 
ore bodies to these contact phenomena. 

BlITGHAM JUNCnOIT. 

Metallurgy. 

United States Smelting Company: special roasting 
devices for lead orea, with neutralization and 
bag-housing of fumes. 



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118 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Qabfucld. 

Metallurgy. 

Boston Consolidated Mining Company Mill: stamp 
milling of Bingham copper ores with Wilfley 
table and vanner concentration. 

Utah Copper Company: roll crushing of Bingham 
ores wtih Jigging, tabling, and vanning methods 
of concentration. 

Engineering. 

Utah Copper Company: steam power plant; capacity 
10,000 boiler h. p.; 500 h. p. Heine boilers 
equipped with underfeed stokers; forced draft; 
concrete stacks; large cross compound Allis and 
Nordberg engines direct connected to A. C. gen- 
erators; Wheeler surface condensers with inde- 
pendently driven Edwards air pumps. 

American Smelting and Refining Company; steam 
power plant; large horizontal blowing engines; 
single stage air compressors driven by cross 
compound Corliss engines; Worthington sur- 
face condensers with Blake air and circulating 
pump; 500 h. p. Stirling boilers equipped with 
plain grates. 

Salt Lake City. 

Metallurgy. 

General Engineering Company; special devices for 
screening, classifying, and concentration of ores. 

Geology. 

Excursion into the Wasatch range, showing the great 
synclinal fold and the Wasatch fault; very 
recent faults and glacial features; Lake Bon- 
neville terrace formations. 

MONTANA. 

BUTTB. 

Metallurgy. 

The Colusa-Parrot Smelting Company: crushing, wet 
concentration, roasting, and smelting of cop- 
per ores; Hancock and Woodbury jigs and spe- 
cial devices of local origin. 

The Precipitation plants: recovery of dissolved cop- 
per from mine waters; leaching and recovery of 
soluble values from dumps. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 119 

Mining, 

The mines of this district exhibit modem practices 
of lode mining in high grade copper ore. Among 
the noteworthy mining features studied are: 
deep mining with the inyolved difficulties of 
drainage, ventilation, and timbering; steel sur- 
face structures; automatic loading and dumping 
of ore; rapid hoisting; mechanical framing of 
timbers; handling of large volumes of acid 
water; square set stoping; the driving of work- 
ing levels in country rock; the naturally high 
temperatures of the working places; and the 
systematic recording of every operation. Mine 
and geological underground survejring are ex- 
emplified in the practices of the Amalgamated 
Copper Company. 

Oeology. 

Secondary enrichment of original sulphide ores; the 
relationship of th|Bse ore bodies to the remark- 
able fault systems of Butte; the study of granite, 
aplite, porphyry, and rhyolite rocks. 

Engineering, 

Anaconda Copper Company: mine plant at the New 
Leonard; 3,500 h. p. Nordberg hoist; 150 foot 
steel head frame; two stage Nordberg air com- 
pressors rope driven by induction motors; lo- 
comotive type of boilers. 

Anaconda Copper Company: mine plants at the 
Diamond and Bell mines; very large air com- 
pressing plant; two stage compressors equipped 
for either steam or motor drive; 3,000 h. p. 
Allis hoisting engine; marine type of boilers; 
high steel head frame with automatic dumping 
attachments. 

Missouri River Power Company: steam power plant; 
Westinghouse-Parsons turbines, connected to A. 
C. generators; surface condensers with inde- 
pendently driven air and circulating pumps; 
B. and W. boilers equipped with Roney stokers; 
high tension current station used as relay for 
the company's hydro-electric plants and operated 
in parallel with them. 



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120 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Anaconda. 

Metallurgy. 

New Reduction Works; track system for the delivery 
of ores and shipment of products; compressed 
air traction for yard haulage; concentrating mill 
of eight one>thousand ton units; bin systems; 
briquetting plant; largest furnaces in the world; 
reverberatory furnaces; converter plant; refin- 
ing furnaces and casting department; arsenic 
plant, and flue systems. So much is to be seen 
here that considerably more time is spent in this 
plant than at any other point, and, owing to 
the courtesy of the management, much valuable 
instruction is possible. 

The Anaconda Copper Mining Company: brick de- 
partment; the manufacture of clay and silica 
brick of the highest degree of refractoriness and 
of all shapes. 

Engineering, 

New Reduction Works; general power plants; large 
triple expansion condensing Corliss engines 
belted to line shaft; two and four stage air com- 
pressors driven by cross compound Corliss en- 
gines; rotary blowers of the Connersvllle and 
Root types, direct connected to Corliss engines; 
rotary blowers, rope driven from Induction 
motors; Stirling boilers equipped with plain 
grates; rotary converters and transformers for 
the high tension current brought in from the 
hydro-electric plants. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 121 



UNITED STATES BUREAU OF MINES EXPERI- 
MENTAL STATION STAFF 



Richard Bishop Moore, B.S., D.Sc. 
Samuel C. LInd, A.B., B.8., Ph.D. 
Herman Schlundt, B.8., M.S., Ph.D. 
Julius E. Underwood, A.B., A.M. 
John P. Bonardi, B.S. 
Charles Wesley Davis, B.S. 
Harry F. Yancey, A.B., A.M. 
John Conley, B.S. 



There are at the present time ten experimental stations be- 
longing to the United States Bureau of Mines. These are situated 
at the present time at Pittsburgh, Pa.; Golden, Colo.; Salt Lake 
City, Utah; Tucson, Arizona; Berkeley, Calif.; Seattle, Wash.; 
Fairbanks, Alaska; Minneapolis, Minn.; XJrbana, 111., and Colum- 
bus, Ohio. In the majority of cases the stations are doing direct 
cooperative work with the state institutions, with the object of 
promoting efficiency in the mining industry. Each station has 
assigned to it a specific field of work, to which, however, it is 
not absolutely confined. The work of the Colorado station is 
mainly in connection with the rare metals, and the work of this 
station covers the whole country in its particular field. During 
the last three years a great deal of attention has been given to 
the radium ores of Colorado and Utah. Under a cooperative 
agreement with the National Radium Institute a plant was built 
in Denver for the experimental treatment of camotite ore for 
the extraction of uranium, vanadium, and radium. During this 
period between eight and nine grams of radium element have 
been extracted and refined, valued at nearly a million dollars. 
Experimental work on the best methods of fractionation, and 
radium determinations, has been carried out and published. 

Work at the present time is under way in connection with 
molybdenum, vanadium, uranium, and tungsten. The Bureau is 
interested in any problems in connection with these metals which 
promise increased production, a higher efficiency of treatment, 
or greater usefulness. It is also expected that the work of the 
Colorado station will be extended to the complex zinc and lead 
ores of the state. In order to do this it will be necessary to have 



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122 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINIS 

a number of graduate fellowships, and these fellowships will 
give an opportunity to graduates of the School of Mines and 
others to get training in experimental work which it would be 
difficult for them to get elsewhere. 

THE LABORATORIES 

The laboratories and offices of the United States Bureau of 
Mines occupy the ESngtneerlng Building. These consist of two 
large general laboratories for analytical and research work on 
the second floor; a large laboratory for technologic experimental 
work in the basement; and in addition, a number of small private 
laboratories and rooms for special work. The equipment is 
adapted to investigations in connection with the rare metals, 
both on a small and semi-commercial scale. The technologic 
laboratory is equipped with leaching apparatus of various kinds, 
precipitating tanks, filter presses, steam-Jacketed kettles, roast- 
ing and fusing furnaces. 

"The equipment for work in radioactivity is excellent. Two 
rooms are especially reserved for this purpose. The Bureau 
possesses nearly two grams of radium which it has secured as 
its pro rata part of its cooperative work with the National 
Radium Institute. 500 milligrams of this radium is reserved 
at Golden for experimental work. In addition, during this year, 
the Bureau will undoubtedly, through its research work, accumu- 
late supplies of mesothorium, ionium, and actinium." 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 123 



COURSE FOR PROSPECTORS 



The Course for Prospectors, which was inaugurated by the 
Colorado School of Mines in January, 1915, proved so popular and 
profitable to those who attended, that the course has been re- 
peated each year since. . As a result of the success which at- 
tended this innovation, it has become an established part of the 
work of the School of Mines and will be offered annually as long 
as there is any apparent need or demand. The fourth annual 
course will be given at Golden during the four weeks beginning 
February 4 and ending March 2, 1918. It is planned to condense 
the work so as to keep the prospectors occupied throughout each 
day. This will be an advantage from the point of view of in- 
struction and will make the course less expensive to those who 
attend. 

All of the courses will be of the most practical nature and 
will comprise instruction in mineralogy, common minerals, ores 
and rocks; elementary chemistry; principles of ore dressing, as- 
sajring, and the more common metallurgical processes; methods 
of valuing, buying, and selling ore; placer and lode mining; 
location of mining claims; first aid to the injured and safety 
engineering. They are given entirely by regular . members of 
the faculty and consist of lectures, supplemented by practical 
laboratory demonstrations. 

Prospectors and others who expect to take advantage of this 
work are asked to notify the school authorities as soon as pos- 
sible, in order that ample preparation can be made for the 
work. Address all correspondence to The Registrar, Colorado 
School of Mines, Golden, Colorado. 

FEE 

A single fee of two dollars is charged for the entire course 
of four weeks and is payable on registration. 

Outline of Subjects 



COMMON ROCK8 AND MINERALS 
Professort Zlegler and Van Tuyl 
Three hours lecture and six hours practical laboratory work 
a week. 

This course is devoted to the study of common minerals, 
ores, and rocks. The instruction includes blowpipe reactions. 



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124 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

with apparatus and appliances. A few of the rarer ores in which 
prospectors are just now greatly interested, such as those of 
tungsten and molybdenum, will also be considered. 

GENERAL GEOLOGY; GAS AND OIL 
Profesaort Zlegler and Van Tuyl 

Three hours lecture work a week. 

This course is devoted to such geological features as throw 
light on the origin and manner of occurrence of ore deposits and 
on the structural features frequently met with in mining. These 
latter include faults and folds, strikes and dips, and the mutual 
relationship of rock masses^ Particular attention will be given 
to the kinds of rocks and geological conditions, which appear to 
affect ore deposition. An important part of prospecting is to 
know what may be sought for in the different formations. Gas 
and oil geology is a feature of this course. 

CHEMISTRY 
Professors Coolbaugh and Test 

Two hours lecture and six hours practical laboratory work a 
week. 

The object of the course is to make the prospector more 
familiar with the use of such apparatus and chemicals as may aid 
him in supplementing his field work, and to equip him with 
knowledge of the characteristic properties of the common metals. 
Some work on the commercially rare metals will also be given. 

METALLURGY, ORE DRESSING AND ASSAYING > 
Professor Palmer 

Three hours lecture and six hours practical laboratory work 
a week. 

The following subjects will be treated: 

Principles and methods of sampling as used in mines, mills, 
and smelteries; methods of assasring common ores; determination 
of the value of ores from assay or analysis; how ores are bought 
and sold; the value of an ore to the producer; simple tests for 
the prospector; nature of ores, crushing, sizing, and classifica- 
tion; course and fine concentration in water; methods of dry 
concentration; amalgamation; flotation; electrostatic and mag- 
netic separation; determining percentage extraction; the cyanide 
process; leaching copper and zinc ores; smelting lead and cop- 
per ores; simple treatment plant for prospectors. 

The laboratories and experimental plant afford exceptional 
opportunities for demonstration and the student is given every 
reasonable facility to study methods and mechanical iqipllances. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 126 

PLACER MINING 
ProfeMor Wolf 
Two hours a week. 

This course Includes a discussion of the theory and prac- 
tice InTolyed in the recovery of precious metals from sand and 
gravel deposits. Among the subjects considered are: panning, 
rocking, sluicing, hydraulicing, dredging, and dry placerlng. 
Typical operations are described for the purpose of illustration. 

MINING CLAIMS 
Professor Wolf 

Three hours a week. 

This course includes instruction in the methods of acquir- 
ing title to mineral lands in the United States. Practical methods 
of locating and surveying mineral lands are described and in- 
struction is given in the preparation and filing of documents 
used in acquiring title to lode and placer claims; mill and tun- 
nel sites; timber, stone, and coal lands; water rights. Mining 
laws which are important to the prospector are discussed and 
explained. 

LODE MINING 

Professor Wolf 

Two hours a week. • 

This course includes a discussion of surface prospecting, 

methods employed, and equipment required. The opening and 

development of prospects to the best advantage are discussed; 

also proper methods of sampling in the mine and on the dump. 

MINE SAFETY ENGINEERING 
Professor Roberts 
Two hours lecture and three hours practical work a week. 
The course in Mine Safety ESngineering includes the fol- 
lowing: 

1. General safety in mines. 

2. Bxplosives: Composition of explosives in general use 
in coal and metal mines and quarries^ composition of result- 
ant gases from explosives and the damage of going back too 
soon after shots are fired; the proper and improper methods 
of handling explosives. 

3. Mines gases; gases encountered in coal and metal mines, 
prospect holes, and shafts; their composition, methods of de- 



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126 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

tecting, and removal; precautions to be taken to prevent ac- 
cumulation; methods of recovering and removing men overcome. 

4. Mine lighting. 

6. Mine fires; their causes, methods of preventing and 
extinguishing . 1 1 

6. Mine rescue methods and appliances, with demonstra- 
tions of various tirpes of mine rescue apparatus in use, resusci- 
tating devices, pulmotor and lungmotor. 

7. First aid to the injured; a complete course in first aid 
will be given. This includes the following: the human body; 
wounds, with and without bleeding; bruises, sprains, and dis- 
locations; fractures, simple and compound; bandages and splints; 
shock, fainting, poisoning. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 127 



SUMMER SCHOOL 
1918 



For the benefit of matriculated students who desire either 
to make up deficiencies or to do advanced work, and for the 
benefit of prospective students, a Summer School will be held 
during the summer of 1918 to begin July 15 and to end August 24. 

Instruction will be given by regular members of the faculty.. 
The following courses are offered: 

Mathematics: Algebra, review; SoUd Geometry; Chemistry, 
entrance requirements; Physics, entrance requirements; Mathe- 
matics; I. Algebra; II. Trigonometry; III. Analytic Geometry; 
rv. Calculus; V. Calculus; VI. Calculus. The fee for these 
courses Is |2.00. 

Mechanical EIngineering; I. Descriptive Geometry, lectures; 
III. EHementary Machine Design, lectures; V. Kinematics of Ma- 
chinery, lectures; VII. Machine Design, lectures. The fee for 
each of these courses is |2.00. 

Chemistry: III. Qualitative Analysis, lectures; IV. Qualitative 
Analysis, lectures; Vn. Quantitative Analysis, lectures; VIII. 
Quantitative Analysis, lectures. The fee for each of these courses 
is 12.00. 

Mechanical EIngineering: II. Descriptive Geometry, drawing; 
rv. Elementary Machine Design, drawing; VI. Kinematics of 
Machinery, drawing; VIII. Machine Design, drawing. The fee 
for each of these courses is |2.00. 

Chemistry: V. Qualitative Analysis laboratory; VI. Qualita- 
tive Analysis, laboratory; IX. Quantitative Analysis, laboratory; 
X. Quantitative Analysis, laboratory. The fee for each of these 
courses is |7.00. 

Metallurgy: I. Assaying, lectures, fee |2.00; II. Assaying, 
laboratory, fee 110.00. 

A laboratory deposit, to cover the cost of material used, is 
required in each laboratory course. Any unused portion is re- 
turned at the end of the course. 



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128 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



SCHOLARSHIPS 



One COLORADO SCHOLARSHIP is given each year to each 
of the high schools of the State of Colorado that are on the 
accredited list of the Colorado School of Mines. This scholarship 
has an approximate value of $175.00 and exempts the holder from 
the payment of all laboratory fees during the four years of the 
course. The scholarship is awarded on the recommendation of 
the principal and the faculty of the high school. A candidate 
for one of these scholarships must have successfully completed 
a four year high school course of study and present satisfactory 
credentials. The candidate must file his acceptance, in writing, 
with the Registrar on or before July first following his gradua- 
tion. If a candidate fails to file his acceptance by July first, his 
scholarship will then become void and will be offered to a second 
candidate from the same high school who complies with the 
requirements. A scholarship will be honored only as long as 
the candidate maintains a regular and satisfactory record. 

A UNITED STATES SCHOLARSHIP is awarded to each 
state of the Union. It exempts the holder from the payment of 
all laboratory and tuition fees during the course of four years, 
and has an approximate value of $800.00 for the course. This 
scholarship is awarded on the recommendation of the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction of each state. 

The candidate shall have successfully completed a four- 
year course of study and be able to comply with the requirements 
for entrance. A scholarship will be granted only to a candidate 
who intends to enter the Colorado School of Mines at the be- 
ginning of the first school year following his graduation from 
high school. A candidate must file his acceptance with the 
Registrar in writing, on or before August first following his 
graduation. If a candidate fails to file his acceptance by that 
date, his scholarship becomes void and will be awarded to a 
second candidate nominated by the proper official making the 
award. A scholarship will be honored only as long as the can- 
didate receiving it maintains a regular and satisfactory record. 

A FOREIGN SCHOLARSHIP is awarded to each of the 
Latin-American Countries, to each of the Provinces of Canada 
and to the Philippine Islands. 

List of foreign countries with the title of the official who 
makes the award: 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 129 

CENTRAL AMERICA 

Costa Rica, San Jos^ Minister of Public Instruction 

Guatemala, Guatemala Minister of Public Instruction 

British Honduras, Belize . Inspector of Schools (A. Barrow Dillon) 
Honduras (Republic), Tagucigalpa. .Minister of Public Instruction 
Nicaragua, Managua 

Minister of Foreign Relations and Public Instruction 

Salvador, San Salvador Secretary of Public Instruction 

Panama, Panama 

Secretary of Public Instruction (GuiUermo Andreve) 

SOUTH AMERICA 

Argentina, Buenos Aires Minister of Public Instruction 

Bolivia, Sucre Minister of Justice and Public Instruction 

Brazil. Rio de Janeiro 

Minister of Justice, Interior and Public Instruction 

Chile, Santiago Minister of Public Instruction (J. H. McLean) 

Colombia, Bogota Minister of Public Instruction 

Ecuador, Quito Minister of Public Instruction 

Paraguay, Asuncion 

Minister of Justice, Worship and Public Instruction 

Peru, Lima Minister of Justice and Public Instruction 

Uruguay, Montevideo Minister of Public Instruction 

Venezuela, Caracas Minister of Public Instruction 

Mexico, D. P 

Director General de EMucacion Publica (Seftor Andres Osuna) 
Philippine Islands, Manila. .Superintendent of Public Instruction 

CANADA 

Alberta, Edmonton Chief Superintendent of Eklucation 

British Columbia, Victoria... Chief Superintendent of Education 

Manitoba, Winnipeg Minister of Education 

New Brunswick, Frederickton 

Chief Superintendent of EMucatibn 

Nova Scotia, Halifax Chief Superintendent of Education 

Ontario, Toronto Minister of Education 

Prince Edward Island, CharTottetown 

Chief Superintendent of Education and Council 

Quebec, Quebec. Council of Public Instruction 

Saskatchewan, Regina Minister of Education 

Yukon Territory, Dawson.. .Superintendent of Public Instruction 

This scholarship has an approximate value of $800.00 and 
exempts the holder from the payment of all laboratory and 
tuition fees during the entire course of four years. 



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130 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



TUITION 



The Statutes of Colorado provide as follows: 

"The said School of Mines shall be open and free 
for the instruction to all bona fide residents of this State, 
without regard to sex or color, and, with the consent of 
the Board, students from other states and territories 
may receive education thereat upon such terms and at 
such rates of tuition as the Board may prescribe." 
The tuition for non-residents is one hundred fifty dollars a 

year, payable in two installments, seventy-five dollars at the 

beginning of each semester. 

DEPOSITS 

Deposits are required to cover the cost of supplies consumed. 
Any unused balance is returned. 

For courses in Chemistry ' $10.00 

For Metallurgy I and II 10.00 

For drawing (paid only once) 2.50 

For locker (paid only once) 1.00 

FEES 

Fees are charged to cover not only the cost of materials and 
supplies furnished but also the wear on apparatus. No part of a 
fee is returnable. The athletic fee, although collected by the 
school, is turned over to the Treasurer of the Athletic Association 
and is expended only for athletic purposes. 

Matriculation fee $ 5.00 

Athletic fee (paid each semester) 5.00 

Graduation fee 6.00 

Thesis fee 5.00 

LABORATORY FEES 

Chemistry V, VI, IX, X, XII, XIV, and XVIli (each) $ 7.00 

Chemistry XVII 5.00 

Civil Eligineering II 6.00 

Civil Engineering V 2.00 

Civil Engineering VII 1.00 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 131 

Electrical Engineering 11, IV, VI, and VIII (each) $ 3.00 

Geology and Mineralogy III, IV, VIII, and Xin (each) .... 6.00 

ecology and Mineralogy Vn and DC 3.00 

Mechanical Engineering XVIII 6.00 

Metallurgy I and II (each) 10.00 

Metallurgy VIII and XVI (each) 5.00 

Metallurgy IX and XI (each) 3.00 

Mining III and XVI (each) 5.00 

Physics II, IV, VI, and VII (each) 4.00 

BOARD AND LODQINQ 

The school has no dormitory. Board can be obtained in 
private families for six to seven dollars a week. Students' clubs 
furnish board for about twenty-four dollars a month. Rooms can 
be obtained for eight dollars to twelve dollars a month. 

OTHER EXPENSES 

There are other expenses incidental to the mining, metal- 
lurgical, engineering, chemical, and geological trips, which vary 
so widely that they can not be estimated. 

Students leaving in mid-term, except on account of severe 
or protracted sickness, are not entitled to the return of fees or 
tuition. All charges of the school are payable strictly In advance 
at the beginning of each semester. No student is allowed to be 
graduated while indebted to the school. The Trustees reserve 
the right to make incidental changes in fees and deposits without 
printed notice, as new and unforeseen emergencies may arise. 

Students who desire to earn money to defray their school 
expenses are advised to limit their work to the summer vacation. 
The course of study is too exacting to allow must time during 
the college year for outside work. 

The total expenses of the college year, including room and 
board but exclusive of tuition, need not exceed five hundred 
dollars, and may be reduced considerably by strict economy. 

., THE QUARTERLY 

Four times a year, in January, April, July, and October, the 
school issues the Quarterly. The various numbers include the 
Catalog, the Book of Views, Commencement addresses, and arti- 
cles of a mining or of a metallurgical nature.. 



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132 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

METHOD OF GRADING 

The following system of grading is used: 
A — ^E^cellent 
B— Good 
C— Pair 
I>— Conditioned 

B — Failed or Subject Dropped 
A, B, and C are passing grades. 

D (Conditioned) means that the student is not passed. The 
deficiency may be removed by passing a re-examination or by 
otherwise completing the work. Unless a condition is removed 
before the beginning of the next school year the D becomes an E. 
E (Failed or Subject Dropped) means that the subject must 
be taken again, and that no subject depending upon this one 
may be taken until the E is removed. In removing an E the 
student must take the subject again either at a regular period 
or under conditions approved in writing and in advance by the 
head of the department. 

Three hours of laboratory or of drawing are regarded as 
the equivalent of one lecture or recitation hour. 

In case a student fails to complete his work in any subject 
the instructor may, at his discretion, report to the office not 
a D but an "Incomplete", which shall be designated by the 
letters "Inc." This is not regarded as a condition, but it becomes 
an E at the beginning of the next school year unless previously 
removed, or unless an extension of time is given in writing by 
the instructor in charge. 

In casQ a student leaves school with one or more conditions 
and returns after an absence of a year or more, the term "next 
school year" will be interpreted to mean the next school year of 
his attendance; but in case he leaves at the close of the first 
semester he may return at a similar period a year or more 
later, subject to the conditions under which he left, as though 
there had been no break in his attendance, except in case of a 
changed curriculum. 

THE LIBRARY 

The school library occupies one-half of the second floor of 
Guggenheim Hall. The room is well lighted and ventilated and 
has a seating capacity for one hundred twenty readers. The 
library contains about fifteen thousand volumes and several 
hundred pamphlets, principally of a technical nature, and is 
being increased in subjects corresponding to instruction given 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 133 

in the school. Direct access to the shelves is permitted to all 
students in order that they may obtain the benefit of examining 
the books themselves. Books which are not needed for special 
reference work are loaned for home use for a period of two 
weeks. The card catalogue includes entries under author, title, 
and subject, arranged on the dictionary plan. The classification 
is an adaptation of the Dewey decimal system to the needs of a 
technical library. 

The library subscribes to the publications of the leading 
scientific societies of the world and to the chief literary and 
scientific periodicals. It is especially rich in files of engineering 
journals, the material in which is available for ready reference 
through excellent periodical indexes received monthly. The 
library is a depository for the documents of the United States 
Geological Survey and has an unusually complete collection of 
the publications issued by state geological surveys and mining 
bureaus both in this country and abroad. A collection of mine 
reports has recently been indexed and made available for 
reference. 

During the academic year the library is open from 8 a. m. 
to 12:30 p. m.; from 1:30 p. m. to 5 p. m., and from 7 p. m. to 
10:00 p. m., except on Saturdays and holidays. On Saturdays 
the library is closed in the afternoon. 

Y. M. C. A. 

The Colorado School of Mines Toung Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation was one of 770 Student Associations in the colleges, 
universities, normal, professional, and preparatory schools of the 
United States and Canada, March 14, 1916. Five hundred and 
eighty-five of these institutions reported 204,182 young men 
enrolled as students on the above date, and of this number 
76,091 were members of the College Toung Men's Christian 
Associations. 

The T. M. C. A. of the Colorado School of Mines exists for 
the purpose of serving the men of the school in every possible 
way. When called upon to do so, the Association assists men 
in securing suitable boarding and rooming accommodations, and 
when possible, in securing employment to help them earn their 
expenses through school. Weekly Bible Study Classes and relig- 
ious meetings are conducted during the greater part of the year. 
An Advisory Board, consisting of one alumnus, one local minister, 
one local business man, and two faculty members supervises 
the work of the Association. 



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134 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 

SPEAKERS 

DR. H. P. HALL Denver, Colo. 

"What Mutt I Do" 
IRA B. LUTE Denver, Colo. 

"Y. M. C. A. Work" 
DEAN HART Denver, Colo. 

"The Way of Salvation" 
DR. C. L. MEIAD Denver, Colo. 

"The Danger of the Fractional" 
DR. UVINGSTON FARRAND Boulder, Colo. 

"The Other Man's Point of View" 
BISHOP F. P. McCONNELL Denver. Colo. 

"Keeping Oriented" 
DR. W. B. PHILLIPS Austin, Texas 

"Religious Life In the School of Mines" 
JUtKJB FREEMAN Denver, Colo. 

"A Business Man's Religion" 
HON. CLARENCE P. DODGE Colorado Springs, Colo. 

"Christianity and the Present Crisis" 
C. L. JOHNSON D^ver, Colo. 

"China and the Future" 
DAVID A. LATSHAW New York City 

"The Need of Christ" 
PROF. W. J. HAZARD Golden, Colo. 

"Early History of the Mines Y. M. 0. A." 
H. L. HEINZMAN Kankakee, HI. 

"Sidelights on the European War" 
DR. WINFIBLD SCOTT HALL Northwestern University 

"Sex Hygiene" 

THE INTEGRAL CLUB 

The Club Room is in the Gymnasium Building and is fur- 
nished in the ordinary style of a gentleman's club. The purpose 
of the Club is to foster good comradeship among the students. 
It is under the direct control and management of a student 
committee. 

PRIZES 

Each year, usually at commencement, prizes are awarded to 
certain students who have maintained an excellent scholastic 
record or who have submitted a meritorious thesis. These prizes 
may be in the form of cash, engineering instruments, or books. 
At the commencement exercises. May 26, 1916, the Brunton Tran- 
sit, presented by David W. Brunton, of Denver, Colorado, was 
awarded to Walter H. Ralph and William M. Traver, Jr., for 
their thesis entitled, "Driving a Tunnel Through Mt. Zion." 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 135 

At the commencement exercises. May 25, 1917, the Wolf 
Medal, presented by Harry J. Wolf, of the class of 1903, was 
awarded to Max T. Hoflus, for high scholastic attainment. 

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY 

The Scientific Society has for its object the presentation 
and discussion of technical and engineering subjects. From 
time to time, lectures are delivered before the Society by leading 
authorities on various topics of interest to its members and 
friends. The iselection of these speakers is placed in the hands 
of an executive committee chosen from the senior and junior 
classes. All lectures are held in Simon Guggenheim Hall, on 
such nights as are most convenient for the majority of the 
students. The proceedings of the Society are printed in "The 
Colorado School of Mines Magazine." The alumni, faculty, senior, 
and junior classes of the institution constitute the active mem- 
bers of the organization; the sophomores and freshmen are 
associates. 

LOAN FUNDS 

The following loan funds have been established to assist 
worthy and deserving students through school. 

The Natalie H. Hammond Loan Fund of $1,000.00 was do- 
nated to the school in July, i909, by Mr. John Hays Hammond. 

The Vinson Walsh Loan Fund of $1,000.00 was donated to 
the school in May, 1908, by Mr. Thomas F. Walsh, in memory 
of his son Vinson Walsh. 

The Walter Lowrie Hoyt Loan Fund of $2,000.00 was do- 
nated to the school in May, 1912, by Mrs. Mattie B. Hoyt, in 
memory of her husband, Walter L. Hoyt. 

Thirty-seven students have received financial assistance from 
these funds. 

DEPARTMENT OF ATHLETICS AND PHYSICAL TRAINING 

By virtue, of the athletic fee required, all students entering 
the School of Mines become members of the Athletic Association. 
The Association is supported by the student fees, gate re- 
ceipts, and by contributions from the alumni and otlier friends 
of the school. The affairs of the Association are managed by a 
Board of Control, which consist of: the Athletic Director, as 
Chairman; the captains of the football, baseball, basketball, and 
track teams; and the presidents of the junior and senior classes. 
The Athletic Association maintains an office in the gymnasium 
building, under the supervision of the athletic director. Training 
is required in regular gymnasium classes during the freshman 
and sophomore years. 



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136 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 

ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 

The aim of the Alumni Association is to promote acquaint- 
ance and friendship among the graduates, to encourage them 
to aid each other, and to make an organized effort to elevate 
and uphold the reputation and standard of their Alma Mater. 
To carry out these ideas, the Association, under the management 
of an Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, publishes monthly 
"The Colorado School of Mines Magazine" and conducts an 
employment bureau, or Capability Elxchange, for the benefit of 
the members. This employment bureau also assists under- 
graduate students in securing employment during summer yaea- 
tions and at other times, especially when such students are in 
need of funds to defray the cost of their education. 

All graduates are earnestly requested to Join the Association, 
and to keep the assistant secretary and treasurer advised of 
their addresses and occupations. 

The officers of the Association are: 

James H. Steele, '00 President 

John G. May, '01 Vice-President 

Henry P. Nagel, '04 Secretary 

Arthur H. Buck, '97 Treasurer 

BIzecutive Committee — ^Russell B. Paul, '02; 
Daniel Harrington, '00; Edwin H. Piatt, '00. 
Orville Harrington, '98..Asst. Sec'y. and Treas. 
Editor and Manager of the Colorado School 
of Mines Magazine. 
Manager of Capability Exchange. 
The association holds its annual meeting and banquet on 
the day following the commencement exercises, unless otherwise 
provided for by the Executive Committee. All graduates are 
eligible to membership and are invited to the annual meeting 
and to the banquet. 

MONTANA CHAPTER OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, 
BUTTE, MONTANA 

James W. Dudgeon, '13 President 

Harold H. Goe, '08 Vice-President 

Lester J. Hartzell, '95 Secretary-Treasurer 

UTAH CHAPTER OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 

James S. Thompson '99 President 

Blair S. Sackett, '09 Vice-President 

A. C. Watts, '02 Secretary-Treasurer 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 137 



ENROLLMENT OF STUDENTS 



SENIOR CLASS 



Lindley M. Reith, President 
Thos. H. Allan, Vice-President 
Norman R. Cope land, Secretary 
Robt. W. Gibson, Treasurer 
Roger F. White, Editor 



Albi, Charles Denver, Colo. 

Allan, Thos. H Denver, Colo. 

Chiang, L. C China 

Copeland, Norman R Denver, Colo. 

Gibson, Robert W Golden, Colo. 

Jones, Wm. P Rock Springs, Wyo. 

Reith, Lindley M Woodland, Calif. 

Riddle, Donald D Golden, Colo. 

Schneider, Henry G Denver, Cofo. 

Tsen, B. C China 

White, Roger P Golden, Colo. 

JUNIOR CLASS 



Rene J. Mechin, President 
Wm. A. Con ley, Vice-President 
Otto H. Metzger, Secretary 
Chester M. Pittser, Treasurer 
Claude Amidon, Editor 



Amidon, Claude Pueblo, Colo. 

Burwell, Blair, Jr Denver, Colo. 

Chao, Yuan ' China 

CharlSs, Wm. O Palisade, Colo. 

Conley, Wm. A Dauglas, Ariz. 

Coulter, Ronald S Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Dickinson, Earl J Denver, Colo. 

Mahoney, John P Rawlins, Wyo. 

Maxson, Harold F Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mechin, Rene J St. Louis, Mo. 

Metzger, Otto H Meeker, Colo. 

Miller, Guy E Canon City, Colo. 

Mulford, Loren D Golden, Colo. 

Parker, Russell L Denver, Colo. 

Poulln, John A Naturita, Colo. 

Prommel, Harold W. C Golden, Colo. 

Putnam, Webster F Denver, Colo. 

Romine, Thos. B Walla Walla, Wash. 

Schneider, Chas. M Colorado Springs, Colo. 



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138 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 



SOPHOMORE CLASS 



John K. Housseit, President 
Chas. P. Van Gilder, Vice-President 
Fred L. F. Serviss, Secretary 
Chas. L. Boelce, Treasurer 
Donald L. Bailey, Editor 



Abadilla, Quirico Abella Tayabas, P. I. 

Alvlr, Antonio Delgado : . . .Bulacan, P. I. 

Bailey, Donald L Denver, Colo. 

Baldwin, Harry L Denver, Colo. 

Bell, Francis M Palisades, Colo. 

Benbow, Jules C Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Berkovitz, Sam Pueblo, Colo. 

Bilisoly, J. M Golden, Colo. 

Boeke, Chas. L Lena, lU. 

Bilheimer, Earl L Bath, Pa. 

Bond, Frank C Bstes Park, Colo. 

Brown, Prentice F Denver, Colo. 

Bunte, Ernest Bk Denver, Colo. 

Case, Wm. B Golden, Colo. 

Chrlstison, Wilbum E Canon City, Colo. 

Clifford, Thos. J EMgewater, Colo. 

Clough, Richard H Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Davis, Ninetta Denver, Colo. 

Dunn, Geo. V Golden, Colo. 

Dutton, D. A Rifle, Colo. 

Fessenden, John H., Jr Tampa, Fla. 

Flint, Howard Denver, Colo. 

Gallucci, Nicholas Louisville, Colo. 

Gamett, Samuel A Pueblo, Colo. 

Gifford, Donald W Norwood, Colo. 

Graham, David J Mishawaka, Ind. 

Hardy. Barl B Watertown, N. T. 

Hill, Thos B Cripple Creek, Colo. 

Houssels, John K Long Beach, Calif. 

Huleatt, Wm. P Chicago, 111. 

Hunter, Carl A Hot Springs, So. Dakota 

Irland, Burrall H Webster Groves, Mo. 

Johnson, R, P Brighton, Colo. 

Johnston, David C Nashville, Tenn. 

Keating, Paul H Pueblo, Colo. 

Kirkwood, David F Antofagasta, Chile, So. Am. 

^ Klamann, Albert A Denver, Colo. 

Lee, E. H. Norton Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Levings, Wm. S Leadville, Colo. 

Lichtenheld, Fred A Denver, Colo. 

Linderholm, Carl T Alamosa, Colo. 

Linn, Herbert K Denver, Colo. 

Lynch, Victor J Colorado Springs, Colo. 



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THS COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 139 

McKirahan, Samuel South Dakota 

Miller, Harold H Toungstown, Ohio 

Pittser, Chester M Gunnison, Colo. 

Serrano, Juan Enrique Santiago, Chile, S. A. 

Serviss, Fred L Golden, Colo. 

Sisson, Myron L Golden, Colo. 

Tanner, Horace A Golden, Colo. 

Tost, Jacob F Ridge, Colo. 

Van Gilder, Chas P Morrlstown, N. J. 

Wichmann, Lothar B. C Telluride, Colo. 



FRESHMAN CLASS 



Ernest E. Bowers, President 
Arthur K. Seeman, Vice-President 
Robert M. Edwards, Secretary 
Walter Hopkins, Treasurer 
Joseph E. Edgeworth, Editor 



Adamson, John N Bowen, Colo. 

Allan, Rex J Grand Island, Neb. 

Baldwin, James W Denver, Colo. 

Bengzon, Eimesto Camiling, Tarlac. P. L 

Betton, Chas. W Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Bevan, John G Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Bianchi, Alfred P Chicago, 111. 

Boatright, Byron B Denrer, Colo. 

Bondoc, Hilario G San Pedro, P. L 

Bowers, Ernest E Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Brinker, Fred A Denver, Colo. 

Burger, C. Roland, Jr Golden, Colo. 

Burleigh, Wm. P Chicago, 111. 

Coffey, Glen V La Fontaine, Ind. 

Cole, Fred H., Jr Yuma, Colo. 

Connors, Hugh M Denver, Colo. 

DeBardeleben, Chas. F., Jr Birmingham, Ala. 

DeFord, Ronald K National City; Calif. 

EMgeworth, Joseph E Denver, Colo. 

Edwards, Robert M Denver, Colo. 

Eynon, Clarence Durango, Colo. 

Farlow, Clarence A Pueblo, Colo. 

Fidel, Henry P Grand Junction, Colo. 

Flnley, Hugh P Williamsburg, Ky. 

Frenzell, E. Herbert Redlands, Calif. 

Isidro de la Garza, Morales '. . .N. Leon, Mexico 

Goodier, Benjamin D Denver, Colo. 

Hamilton, Percy L Craig, Colo. 

Harroun, Daniel S Malaga, N. Mexico 

Hartung, Kirk G Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Henderson, Jas. S Montrose, Colo. 

Heydrick, Harold F Muskogee, Okla. 

Hines, Fowler Arvada, Colo. 

Hopkins, Walter Denver, Colo. 

Ireland, Robert R Quincy, 111. 



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140 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Jenni, Alfred B Pueblo, Colo. 

Johanson, Nell B Seattle, Wash. 

K:ay, Fred D Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Kelly, Harry G ESast Las Vegas, N. Mexico 

Klntz, George M Denver, Colo. 

Lavery, Aloysius P Rexburg, Idaho 

Utheredge, Robert W Loveland, Colo. 

Littell, Horace V Denver, Colo. 

Malinarich, C Santiago, Cbile, S. A. 

Marvin, Theo Sheldon, Iowa 

Marx, Paul Denver, Colo. 

McKenna, W. J Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Miller, Howard H Golden, Colo. 

Moraes, Jos^ B. Albuquerque Pemambuco, Brazil, S. A. 

Moreno, Domingo Santiago, Chile 

Nelson, Fred M St Joe, Mo. 

Neumann, Gustave L Denver, Colo. 

Prentiss, Louis W Washington, D. C. 

Raiff, Ben L Columbus, Mont 

Robb, Andrew B New Britain, Conn. 

Rogers, Bryant K Montclair, N. J. 

Rooney, Lawrence P Denver, Colo. 

Ruth, Joseph, Jr Idaho Springs, Colo. 

Schneider, Geo. W Denver, Colo. 

Seeman, Arthur K Brookljm, N. Y. 

Sims, Harold R Watkins, Colo. 

Strock, Hale Denver, Colo. 

Stubbs, Paul Saguache, Colo. 

Surfluh, John S Los Angeles, Calif. 

Thomson, Waldemar P Omaha, Neb. 

Turner, Albert M Le Veta, Colo. 

Valdez, D. Carl Salida, Colo. 

Vogel, Gustave Harold Denver, Colo. 

Wise, Leonard B Monocacy, Pa. 

Wong, Yoong Yih Eagle Pass, Texas 

Zambrano, Jos6 Monterrey, N. L., Mexico 



CLASS OF PROSPECTORS 
1917 



Ashton, Charlotte V Denver, Colo. 

Bartlett, Sidney B Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Brooks, Bdw. J Denver, Colo. 

Coulter, Mrs. Mabel A. Golden, Colo. 

Cowan, Peter Denver, Colo. 

Fisher, EUdon J St Louis, Mo. 

Glasgow, R. Lee Rico, Colo. 

Gleason, M. J Harpers Ferry, Iowa 

GrafF, John Denver, Colo. 

Hare, Donald C Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Harper, Theodore S Golden, Colo. 

Hart, Harry P Denver, Colo. 

Hinman, Florence T Golden, C61o. 

Horlacher, Chas. W Denver, Colo. 

Horsfall, Harold L Colorado Springs, Colo. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 141 

Jackson, Louis DenYer, Colo. 

Mokler, T. R Boulder, Colo. 

Nelson, James B Golden, Colo. 

Nyqulrt, Alex. A Denver, Colo. 

Oilln, Aired Denver, Colo. 

Oliver, Jason D Breckenrldge, Colo. 

O'Neal, Claude 6 Andahisia, Ala. 

Palmer, Harry W Denver, Colo. 

Pedersen, Peter J Las Animas, Colo. 

Rader, Geo. A Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Rome, Robert C Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Savage, S Shawmokin, Pa. 

Seaholm, Geo. A Leadville, Colo. 

Sears, Warren P Denver, Colo. 

Sheehan, Henry P Denver, Colo. 

Simon, Donald L Denver, Colo. 

Thomson, Geo. B Kokomo, Colo. 

White, Mrs. B. B Golden, Colo. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL. OF MINES 143 



INDEX 



Page 

AdmlBBion to Advanced Standing 35 

Alternating Current Machinery 60 

Alternating Currents 106 

Alumni Association 136 

Analytic Geometry 72 

Analytical Mechanics 83 

Applied Electricity 61 

Applied Mechanics 83 

Assay Building 18 

Assaying 87 

Assay Laboratory 25 

Athletics and Physical Training 135 

Board of Trustees 10 

Buildings 18 

Calculus 73, 74 

Calendar 9 

Chemical Laboratories 26 

Class of 1918 137 

Class of 1919 137 

Class of 1920 .' 138 

Class of 1921 139 

Class of Prospectors 140 

Coal Mining , 54 

Coal Mine Equipment 57 

Collection of Commercial Ores 23 

College Algebra 71 

Commencement 9 

Compressed Air 79 

Contents, Table of 7 

Course for Prospectors 123 

Degrees 36 

Departments of Instruction 37 

Chemistry 48 

Coal Mining 54 

Civil Engineering 82 

Electrical Elngineering 59 

English 63 

Geology and Mineralogy 65 

Mathematics 71 

Mechanical Engineering 76 

Metallurgy 87 

Metal Mining 93 

Mining Law 102 

Physics 104 

Safety and Efficiency Engineering 108 

Spanish 112 

Deposits 130 

Descriptive Mineralogy 66 

Descriptive Geometry 76 

Direct Current Machinery 59 



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144 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Page 

Drawing Rooms 30 

Economic Geology 69 

ESconomlcs of Coal Mining 67 

Electrical Engineering 59 

Electrical Installations 62 

Electrical Laboratory 27 

Electrical Measurements 106 

Electrical Plant Trips 115 

EHectrlclty Applied to Mining 61 

Enectrometallnrgy 92 

Electron Theory and Radioactivity 105 

Elementary Machine Design 76, 77 

Engineering Construction 85 

English 63 

Entrance Requirements 31 

Examinations for Entrance 32 

Ehcpenses 130 

Board 131 

Deposits 130 

Fees 130 

Lodging 131 

Other Expenses 131 

Tuition 130 

Experimental Plant 19 

Fees : 180 

Field Geology 70 

Financial Support 17 

Freshman Class 139 

Fuel and Gas Analysis 52 

Gas ESnglnes 80 

General Chemistry 48 

General Geology 65 

General Information 130 

General Physics 106 

Geological Laboratory 23 

Geology and Mineralogy 66 

Gymnasium 18 

Heating 19 

Heat Power Plant Engineering 78, 79 

Higher Mathematics 74 

Historical Geology 67 

History of the School r 17 

Hydraulic Laboratory .26 

Hydraulics 84, 85 

Index Fossils of North America 68 

Inspection Trips 114 

Integral Club 134 

Junior Class 137 

Kinematics of Machinery 77, 78 

Laboratories and ESquipment 21 

Laboratory Fees i 130 

Lectures, Special 13 

Lighting 19 

Llthology 68 

Loan Funds .185 

Location and Description 16 

Machine Design ^ 77 



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THB COLORAIX) SCHOOL OF MINES 145 

Page 

Machine Shop 20 

Mathematics 71 

Mechanical E^ngineeiing 76 

Mechanical Engineering Laboratory 29 

Mechanics of Solids and Fluids 104 

Mechanics and Civil Engineering 82 

Metallography 91 

Metallurgical Chemistry 51 

Metallurgical Collections 24 

Metallurgical Laboratory 24 

Metallurgical Plant 21 

Metallurgical Trips 114 

Metallurgy 87 

Metal Mining 93 

Method of Grading 132 

Methods of Coal Mining 64 

Microscopic Petrography . .t 68 

Mine Accounting 96 

Mine Management 100 

Mineral Land Surveying 93 

Mineralogical Laboratory 23, 24 

Mineralogy 66 

Mine Mapping 96 

Mine Surveying f 94 

Mine Valuation 99 

Mining Claims 95 

Mining, Corporations 96 

Mining, Laboratory 28, 100 

Mining Law 102 

Mining, Principles of 96 

Mining Trips 114 

Montana Chapter of Alumni Association 136 

Ore Deposits 69 

Oil and Gas 69 

Oil and Rock Analysis 63 

Ore Dressing 90, 92 

Ore Dressing Plant 21 

Organization 17 

Physical Chemistry 62 

Physical Laboratories 26 

Physical Training 135 

Physics 104 

Placer Mining 97 

Power House 19 

Power Plant Design 80 

Practical Astronomy and Least Squares 74 

Practices of Coal Mining 55 

Principles of Coal Mining 54 

Prizes 134 

Prospecting and Exploration 95 

Prospectors Course 123 

Pumping Machinery ..." 81 

Qualitative Analysis 48 

Quantitative Analysis 50 

Quantitative Analysis, Advanced 51 

Quarterly 131 

Registration 32 



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146 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 

Page 

RequlFements for Entrance 31 

Research 23 

Residence of the President 19 

Safety E^nglneerlng 108 

School Calendar 9 

Scholarships 128 

Scientific Society- 136 

Senior Class 137 

Simon Guggenheim Hall 18 

Sophomore Class 138 

Spanish 112 

Special Lecturers 13 

Stratton HaU 19 

Structural Details 86 

Structural Geology 67 

Summer School 127 

Surveying Equipment 25 

Tabular Views 38 

Technical Writing 64 

Testing Laboratory 27, 84 

Theory of Plane Surveying 82 

Trigonometry 72 

Tuition 130 

Utah Chapter, Alumni Association 136 

United States Bureau of Mines 121 

Y. M. C. A ; 133 

Y. M. C. A. Speakers 134 



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Volume Thirteen Number Two 



Quarterly 



of the 



Colorado School of Mines 



APRIL, 1918 



Issued Quarterly by the Colorado School of Mines 
Golden, Colorado 



Entered as Second-Class Matter, July 10, 1906, at the Postofflce »t 
Golden, Ck>lorado, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 



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i 



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Quarterly 

of the 

Colorado School of Mines 

Vol. Thirteen April, 1918 Number Two 

The Oil Shale Industry 



BY VICTOR C. ALDEBSON, 
President, Colorado School of Mines. 

THE NATURE, OBIOIN, AND DISTRIBUTION OF OIL SHALE 

Oil shale vlrtuany contains no oil as such. It 
NATUBJS OF is a consolidated mud or clay deposit from 

OUi SHAIiE which petroleum is obtained by distillation. In 

appearance the shale is black, .or. brownish- 
black, but on weathered surfaces it is white or gray. ' It is usually fine- 
grained, with some lime and occasionally sand. It is tough but, in 
thin sections, friable. When broken. to a fresh surface it may give an 
odor like petroleum. Thin rich pieces may bum with a sooty flame. 

Oil shale is one of a long list of natural deposits 
ORIGIN OF which result from the deposition of organic 

OIIj SHALE matter from plants or animals of a former geo- 

logic era — like anthracite, bituminous, and 
brown coal, peat, petroleum, and .asphaltum. Beds of oil shale were 
laid down in lagoons, or wide expanses of quiet water. They contain a 
large amount of organic matter — ^low plant forms of life like algae; 
also pollen, fish scales, insects, and remains of animal and vegetable 
life sometimes changed beyond recognition. 

Besides the extensive deposit in Colorado, oil 
WORU>-Wa)E shale is found in Utah, Wyoming, Nevada, Mon- 

DISTKIBUTION tana, California, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, 

OF OUi SHALE Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. In Canada it is 

found in Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 
and Newfoundland. In Scotland, near Edinburgh and on the Isle of 
Skye. In France, at Autun and Buxiere les Mines. In South Africa, 
in the Transvaal, Mozambique, and Natal. Also in New South Wales, 
New Zealand, Tasmania, Brazil, Italy, Spain, Austria-Hungary, Serbia, 
and Turkey. 

The total stock of crude oil on hand in the 
THE NEED OF United States January 1, 1916, was 198,000.000 

MORE Olli barrels. On November 1, 1917, this supply had 

been reduced to 158,000,000 barrels. The con- 
sumption of crude oil by Pacific refineries has been exceeding the pro- 
duction at the rate of a million barrels a month for the past year. 
There is no hope that the oil wells will last permanently. The world's 
supply is being rapidly exhausted. The production in the United 
States is not expected to last more than twenty-five years. As a mat- 
ter of economic necessity the oil shales must be regarded as our great 
reserve of oil for the future. 



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QUARTERLY OF THE 



Exposure of Shale, De Beqae, Colo. (Courtesy of 
the D. & R. G. R. R.) 

THE on. SHALE INDUSTBT IN SCOTLAND 

The first production of oil from bituminous mate- 
HISTORY OF rial, on a commercial scale by slow distillation, 

THB INDUSTRY was made by Young and Weldrum in 1848, who 

IN SCOTLAND secured a patent for their process. In 1850 

they erected a plant at Bathgate. In 1851 a 
second, the Crofthead oil works, was in operation. In 1867, when 
Young's patent expired, 38 new works were established. In 1860 
there were 6; in 1870, 90; in 1880, 26; in 1890, 14; in 1900, 9. At 
the present time four companies are refining shale: Young's Paraflln 
Light & Mineral Co., Ltd.; the Oakbank Oil Co., Ltd.; the Broxburn 
Oil Co., Ltd., and the Pumpherston Oil Co., Ltd. ' There are three 
other companies which produce only oil and ammonium sulphate. 

The oil shale beds of Scotland occur within a 
THE OIL small area, twenty miles in diameter. In the 

SHALB OF counties of West Lothian, Mid Lothian, and 

SCOTLAND Lanarkshire. The center of the district is four- 

teen miles west of Edinburgh. The shale beds 
are simply veiy fine impalpable clay shale, brown to black in color, 
free from silica, easily cut with a sharp knife, and in form are plane or 
curly. The beds vary greatly in thickness; it is not uncommon to find 
a seam pinch out altogether, while another seam, above or below it, 
increases in thickness and richness as the first deteriorates. Faults, 
folds, and igneous intrusions are not uncommon. Mining is done en- 
tirely through shafts. "Kerogen" is the Scotch term given to the 
substance in the shale which produces petroleum. The richer shales 
3rield from 30 to 40 gallons of oil to the ton of shale. The lower grade 
shale that yields only from 15 to 18 gallons of oil gives from 60 to 70 
pounds of ammonium sulphate. That is, the shale that runs high in 
oil runs low in ammonium sulphate; the shale that is low in oil Is high 
in ammonium sulphate. 

In the earlier days of the industry the shales 

PRESENT VALUE that were worked produced more crude oil than 

OP THE the shales of today. Notably the Torbanehill 

SCOTCH SHALES material gave from 96 to 130 gallons of crude 

oil a ton. At the present time the production 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 6 

seldom exceeds 30 gaUpns a ton, and shale yielding only 15 gallons is 
successfully treated. The explanation for this lies in the fact that 
crude oil is not the only product of value that may be obtained. The 
ammonlutil sulphate is also valuable. If this is obtained in large 
quantity, as in the case of shales now being treated, the total result 
in crude oil, plus ammonium sulphate, may be economically profitable. 
The following series of products are secured from the Scotch shales: 

1. Permanent gases used for fuel under retorts. 

2. Naphtha, gasoline, and motor spirits. 

3. Burning or lamp oil. 

4. Intermediate oil used for gas-making. 

5. Lubricating oil. 

6. Solid paraffine. 

7. Still grease. 

8. Still coke, which contains some oil and is used for gas, smoke- 
less fuel, and carbon for electrical purposes. 

9. Liquid fuel used in the refineries. 

SCOTTISH The Scottish seams of oil shale that have been 

OHi-SHAIiE worked, at various times, have given approxi- 

SEAAfS mately the following results: 

Ammonium 
Gal. of Crude Sulphate Lb., 
Name Thickness Oil, Long Ton Long Ton 

Torbanehill 96-130 

Levenseat 11 in. 29 

Raeburn 3-6 ft. 40-55 14 

Addiewell 20 in. 28 13-18 

(Not much worked) 

Fells 3-5 ft. 26-40 20-35 

(The principal shale of the West Calder District. Extensively worked) 
Oakbank Shale — 

Wee lV6ft. 36 

Big 4 ft. 6 in. 22 

Wild 6 ft. 2dV6 34-41 

Curly 6 ft. 22 35 

Lower Wild 5 ft. 6 In. 19 



Pyramid Point, Parachute Creek, Grand Valley, Colorado 
(Courtesy of the D. & R. G. R. R.) 



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quarte!rj.y of the 



Close View of Oil-Shale Formation 
(Courtesy of the D. & R. G. R. R.) 

New 8 ft. 6 in. 21 

Dunnet 4-.12 ft. 24-33 14.34 

(Extensively worked) 

Barracks 8 ft. 18-22 

Broxburn Shale — 

Broxburn gray 6 ft. 20-33 34-41 

Broxburn curly 5 ft. 6 in. 19-33 11-38 

Broxburn seam 5-6 ft 10-51 7-40 

Pumpherston Seams — 

Jubilee 8 ft. 18 55 

Maybrick 5 ft. 16 60 

Curly 6 ft. 20 52-67 

Plain 7 ft. 20 60 

Wee 4 ft. 18 60 

Mungle 2 ft. 35 30 

(Not much worked) 

D. R. Steuart in Economic Geology. Vol. 3, 1908, 
DESCRIPTION p. 574, describes briefly the equipment as fol- 

OP THE SCOTCH lows: •'In a Scotch oil works there are the 
Olli WORKS great benches of shale retorts sometimes more 

than 60 feet high, with the great stacks of nu- 
merous series of 3-inch pipes, 30 or 40 feet high, for air con- 
densers. There is the three-story-high sulphate of ammonia house, 
with its . high column-stills, the acid saturators for the ammonia, 
vacuum or other evaporator for the sulphate from the recovered 
sulphuric acid of the refinery, centrifugal driers, storing bins and 
grinding mills. In the refining departments the stills are small and, 
on account of the repeated distillations, very numerous; the washers 
for vitriol and soda are many; there are coolers, refrigerators, filter 
and hydraulic plate presses for the separation of the heavy oil and 
solid paraffin; great sweating houses for the paraffin refining; candle 
works; sulphuric acid making plants; acid recovery plant; engineer's, 
joiner's and plumber's shops — a very large and varied collection of ap- 
paratus covering much ground, so that for a comparatively small pro- 
duction there is a very large and expensive plant. A conspicuous 
feature of oil works is the great hills of spent shale." 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 7 

In 1906 the production of shale was as follows: 

THE ECONOMICS Tons of 

OF THE SCOTCH Crude Shale 

OHi-SHAIiE West Lothian 1.791.896 

INDUSTRY Mid Lothian 732.635 

Lanarkshire 21.051 

Total 2.545.582 

In the same year (1906) the refined products were as follows: 

( Approximately ) 

Naphtha 2.500.000 imp. gal. 

Burning oils 17.000.000 imp. gal. 

Intermediate oils 38.000 tons 

Lubricating oils 40.000 tons 

Solid paraffin wax 22,500 tons . 

Sulphate of ammonia 50.000 tons 

Still coke 5,000 tons 

In 1906 there were seven paraffin oil works in Scotland. Of these, 
three produced only crude oil and ammonia; the other four were larger 
and had fully equipped refineries. The paid up capital of these four 
was $7,500,000. The pay roll of the combined companies averaged 
13.500.000.00 a year. There were employed 8.300 men, of whom 
3,380 were miners. 

The production of crude shale for various years was as follows: 

Tons of Shale 

1873 524,095 

1883 • 1.130.729 

1893 1,947.842 

1903 2.009.265 

1907 2.690,028 

1908 2,892,039 

1909 2,967,057 

1910 3,130,280 



Condensers, Pumpherston Works. Scotland. (Courtesy of the 
Canadian Boreaa of Mines 



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QUARTERLY OF THE 



Mount Logan, De Beque, Colorado. (Courtesy of 
the D. A R. G. R. R.) 

The present output of shale is approximately 3,500,000 tons an- 
nually, valued at $15,000,000.00. In the various parts of the industry 
12,500 men are now employed. 

The refineries are now producing from the oil shale approximately : 

Burning oils 20,000,000 gallons 

Naphtha 5,000,000 gallons 

Lubricating oils 22,000,000 gallons 

Paraffin wax 25,000 tons 

Sulphate of ammonia 54,000 tons 

Dividends paid by the three large Scotch oil- 

DIVIDENDS shale companies for a period of years are as f ol- 

AND COSTS lows: 

Broxburn, Oakbank Pumpherston. 

Capital, Capital, Capital, 

11,675,000. 11,500,000. $1,650,000. 

% % , % 

1895-1896 7% 5 "> < 

1896-1897 7% 

1897-1898 7% . 

1898-1899 8% 5 

1899-1900 15 7% . 20 

1900-1901 20 vl2% ->' 15 

1901-1902 15 ' 7% '' 7% 

1902-1903 15 7% 20 

1903-1904 15 12% 30 

1904-1905 15 15 30 

1905-1906 15 15 30 

1906-1907 15 15 50 

1912-1913 10 15 35 

1913-1914 10 15 25 

1914-1915 10 

1915-1916 7% 10 25 

In 1882 the net profit on each ton of shale treated in Scotland 
was, on the average, 89 cents. In 1897 the profit was 50 cents. In 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 9 

1909 the cost of mining and manufacturing was |2.06 a ton and the net 
profit 83 cents a ton. 

In 1913 oil shale was discovered on the Isle of 
ISIiE OF Skye. It is fjne grained, brown in color, fossil- 

8KYXi iferous, tough, and resists disintegration by 

weathering. At the outcrops it is from seven 
to ten feet in thickness. Two samples from the outcrops gave: 

Crude Oil, Ammonium 

Gallons Sulphate, Pounds 
a Ton a Ton 

1 12 6.2 

2 12.8 7.4 

THE OIL SHALES OF CANADA 

As far as our present knowledge extends it is evident that Canada 
is not so well supplied with oil fields as the United States. For this 
reason the oil-shale industry may make rapid advancement there, since 
large beds of shale, rich in oil, are known to exist within the Dominion. 
The Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines of the Dominion have 
already given considerable attention, in examinations and reports, to 
these deposits. 

The oil shales of New Brunswick are located in 
NEW BRUNSWICK three areas — the Taylorville, Albert mines, and 
SHAIiES Baltimore. Taylorville — In this locality are four 

beds of shale of good quality; one five feet, one 
three feet, and two, one foot ten inches thick. Albert Mines — In this 
locality are six beds of the following thickness (the most important in 
New Brunswick) : 6% feet; 3Vi feet; 5 feet; 4% feet; 6 feet; and one 
with thin beds of oil shale. Baltimore — In this locality are four beds, 
4 feet, 5 feet, 7 feet and 6 feet thick, respectively. 



A Mountain of Oil Shale, Conn Creek, De Beqae, Colo. 
(C'Onrtesy of the D. A R. G. R. R.) 



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10 QUARTERLY OF THE 

Five samples from the Albert mines, tested by the Canadian 
Bureau of Mines, gave the following results: 

Crude Oil, Ammonium 
Imp. Gallons, Sulphate, 

Thickness a Ton Pounds a Ton 

Bed No. 1 6% feet 48.5 82.8 

Bed No. 2 3^ feet 38.8 60.3 

Bed No. 3 5 feet 45.5 48.0 

Bed No. 4 4% feet 43.5 56.8 

Bed No. 5 6 feet 27.0 49.0 

Taylorville shales gave: 

Bed No. 1 43.0 93.0 

Bed No. 2 48.0 98.0 

Bed No. 3 37.0 110.0 

Baltimore shales gave: 

Bed No. 1 54.0 110.0 

Bed No. 2 49.0 67.0 

Bed No. 3 40.0 77.0 

Bed No. 4 56.8 30.5 

Thirty-six tons of New Brunswick shale tested at the Pumphers- 
ton Oil Co., Scotland, gave an average of 40.09 gallons of crude oil and 
76.94 pounds of ammonium sulphate a ton. 

The New Brunswick Shale Co., Ltd., capitalized at $5,000,000.00. 
has been organized to develop the New Brunswick shales. 

Oil shales were first discovered in Pictou County 
NOVA in 1859. They are also found in Antigonish 

SCOTIA County. Analysis of Pictou County shale gave 

two satisfactory results. 

Crude Oil, Ammonium Sul- 
Imperial Gal., phate. Pounds 
a Ton a Ton 

Bed No. 1 42.0 35 

Bed No. 2 14.5 41 

Analysis of Antigonish County shales gave: 

Bed No. 1 11.0 22.6 

Bed No. 2 ' 10.0 38.0 

Bed No. 3 23.0 34.0 

The oil bearing shales of Quebec are found in 
QUEBEC the Gasp6 Basin. The outcrops are from 12 to 

15 inches in thickness. Samples tested by the 
Canadian Bureau of Mines resulted as follows: 

Crude Oil Ammonium Sul- 
Imperial Gal., phate. Pounds 
a Ton a Ton 

Bed No. 1 30.0 42.20 

Bed No. 2 31.5 40.00 

Bed No. 3 36.0 59.50 

On account of the thinness of these beds their economic value is 
doubtful. 

The oil shales of Newfoundland cover an area of 
NEWFOUNDLAND about 750 square miles. The largest deposit 

lies between the head of White Bay and Deer 
and Grand Lakes, and varies from 50 to 100 feet in thickness. The 
dip of the strata is slight and the outcroppings are bold. An analysis 
of typical shale gave 50 gallons of crude oil and 80 pounds of am- 
monium sulphate a ton. The Newfoundland shales have great prospec- 
tive value. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 11 

OTHEB FOREIGN DEPOSITS OF OIL SHALE 

Second only to the oil shale Industry of Scot- 
FRANCE land ranks the French, which dates from 1830. 

After many years of successful operation it suf- 
fered from competition with oil wells until the French government in 
1890 offered a premium for the production of oil from shale. This 
bonus, together with the adoption of efficient Scottish methods of treat- 
ment, revived the Industry. The shales occur at depths from 150 to 
300 feet. Five companies are now in operation on the shales of Autun 
and Buxiere les mines, where the shales produce 50 gallons of oil a ton. 

Large outcrops of rich oil shales occur in the 
AUSTRALIA gorges of the Blue Mountains, New South Wales. 

The deposits are worked by the long-wall sys- 
tem. Fossils are found in the lower shale measures. These shales 
are reported to give 100 gallons of oil and 70 pounds of ammonium 
sulphate a ton. The government has established a system of bonuses, 
for the production of oil, which are expected to increase the present 
annual production from 3,000,000 to more than 20,000,000 gallons. 
There are two British-Australian companies in the field-r-the Common- 
wealth Oil Corporation, capital $6,000,000, operating at Newnes, and 
the British-Australian Oil Co., capital $1,460,000, operating at Temi in 
the Liverpool range. From 1865 to 1916, 1,751,367 tons of shale have 
been produced of a total value of $11,606,671. 

Oil shale is found in two districts — the Ermelo 
TRANSVAAL and the Wakkerstroom, fifty miles apart. Al- 

though these two deposits may prove to be one 
continuous bed, yet there is no evidence to that effect at the present 
time. In each case the shale is associated with a seam of coal. The 
Ermelo shales have produced from 30 to 34 gallons of crude oil a ton. 
The Wakkerstroom shale has yielded as much as 90 gallons a ton, but 
the shale is only 9 inches thick. 

Oil shales are exposed at many places on the 
RRAZIL coast of Brazil. They have been examined by 

Professor John C. Branner of Leland Stanford 
Jr. University, and their composition determined by Sir Boverton Red- 
wood of London. The richest yielded 44.73 gallons of crude oil and 
19.58 gallons of ammoniacal water to the ton. The deposits have not 
been worked commercially. 

THE OIL SHALES OF COLORADO 

The oil shales of Colorado belong in the Green 
GEOLOGICAL River (Eocene) formation. Elsewhere they are 

POSITION found in the Cretaceous, Devonian, and Carbon- 

iferous. In recent geologic time this oil-shale 
region of Colorado was an extensive plateau through which the Grand 
River and its tributaries, Kimball, Conn, and Parachute creeks have cut 
valleys to a depth of 3,000 or more feet. On either side of the streams 
are now exposed great beds of shale — even mountains of it. 

At the present time (March, 1918) no deep 
PEVEIX>P MENT development work has been done and no com- 

UTORK IN THE mercial extraction of the oil accomplished. As 

OIL SHALES a result we have no exact knowledge of the 

change or the persistency of oil values with 
depth, nor the underground difficulties to be met in mining. However, 
to draw inferences from mining shale in Scotland, we are fairly safe 
in assuming that neither dust nor gas will be found. Up to the pres- 
ent time sampling has been done on weathered outcrops or from shale 
close to the surface. There is reason to expect that as unaltered shale 
is reached it will be found to be richer than shale near the surface. 
Dean E. Winchester reports that one sample taken after the weathered 
surface was removed gave 32 gallons of oil a ton. A foot and a half 



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12 QUARTERLY OF THE 



Bench of Retorts, Pumpherston Company, Scotland. 
(Courtesy of the Canadian Bureau of BUnes) 

was then removed by blasting. A sample then g;^ye 55 gallons a ton. 
If this is typical we may reasonably expect that deep unchanged oil 
shale will prove to be much richer than shale near the outcrop, and as 
a result the total content of the oil-shale deposits may be much richer 
than at present estimated. 

The shale beds of Scotland are irregular and lie 
MINING OHi in synclinal troughs; they pinch out or expand; 

SHALE they have a dip of from 30 to 60 degrees; they 

are folded or faulted to a great extent and often 
altered by intrusive volcanic rocks. All mining is through shafts, 
some of which are very deep. In Colorado, however, the oil-shale beds 
are regular; they are virtually level; the greatest dip noticed is 10 
degrees; faults and folds have not been found, and there is little likeli- 
hood, to Judge from the outcrops and the formation, that they will be 
found; the level position of the oil shale enables it to be mined by the 
ordinary methods of coal mining, and, where the shale lies near the 
surface, the overburden may be removed and the shale merely quarried, 
as on Kimball Creek, thirty miles from De Beque. From the stand- 
point of cheap mining, if comparison is made with Scotland, the ad- 
vantage is certainly with Colorado. 

Inasmuch as the oil-shale industry has been in 

POSSronjITIES operation in Scotland since 1860 — sixty-eight 

OF THE SHALE years — and has met and overcome technical, 

INDUSTRY trade, and economic obstacles, it seems a mere 

matter of common sense for the pioneers of the 
industry in Colorado first to follow the well-known and successful 
methods of Scotland; to adapt these methods to Colorado conditions, 
and then to improve them as fast as possible by methods not now 
known. Besides the production of crude oil, gas, and ammonium sul- 
phate, other possibilities may open, e. g., the nitrogen may be re- 
claimed in a form for use in the manufacture of munitions of war; 
aniline dyes and flotation oils may be obtained; possibly producer gas, 
a substitute for rubber, and other products may become valuable. The 
nitrogen content is especially valuable, as each per cent of nitrogen will 
yield theoretically 93 pounds of ammonium sulphate now worth 7.3 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 13 

cents a pound. All in all, it should be realized that the oil-shale in- 
dustry presents a long series of interesting technical-chemical problems 
to be solved by scientifically trained men. So true is this that the 
industry can be classed as a combined mining-chemical-manufacturing 
project. 

In some quarters there exists two erroneous ideas, viz., that the 
distillation of oil from shale is a simple process and that a treatment 
once devised will apply to all oil shales. To be sure, in a laboratory 
retort a few pounds of shale can be heated and a small amount of oil 
produced. So can water be boiled in a tea kettle, but there is as much 
difference between this puny outfit and the great plants in Scotland as 
there is between the tea kettle and a great central power plant Also 
shales vary to such an extent that each deposit should be tested in a 
careful, scientific manner; Just as large bodies of low grade copper ore 
are tested and suitable treatment plants erected. As in handling low- 
STKde ores, the largo profits from oil shale will be made by handling a 
great tonnage at a low cost to the ton. 

In Bulletin 581-A of the U. S. G. S., E. G. Wood- 
STRATIORAPHICAIi ruft and David T. Day have reported in detail 
STATIONS on numerous exposures of the Green River for- 

mation in Colorado. The following extracts 
show the results of tests and the nature of the oil-shale seams: 

RESULTS OF FIELD DISTILLATION 

Amt. of 
Thickness Amt. Amt. Oil to the 
No. of Shale of Shale of Oil Short Ton 

of Sampled, Used, Obtained, of Shale, 

Test Locality Ft. In. Pounds Gallons Gallons 

1 Conn Creek 1 4 100 3.1 62.2 

2 Kimball Creek 6 150 2.4 31.6 

3 Kimball Creek (second test) 6 166 2 26.2 

4 Parachute Creek 5 10 , 150 1.5 20.0 

6 4A Ranch 5 10 150 .78 10.4 

EXPOSURE IN PARACHUTE CREEK 
Total exposure 110 ft. 7 in. 
Sec. M, T. 5 S., R. 95 W. 

Thickness of Seams. Estimate. 

31 feet 20 gal. a ton 

4 ft. 10 in. 20 gal. a ton 

5 ft. 10 in. 20 gal. by field test 

SECTION ALONG MOUNT LOGAN TRAIL 
Sec. 26, T. 7 S., R. 97 W. 
Total exposure 1,086 ft. 10 in. 
Thickness of Seams. Estimate. 

81 ft. 20 gal. 

1 ft. 1 in. 20 gal. 

8 in. 30 gal. 

2 ft. 6 in. 25 gal. 

9 in. 30 gal. 
5 ft. 6 in. " 20 gal. 

EXPOSURE AT 4A RANCH. 
Sec. 21, T. 6 S., R. 90 W. 
Total exposure, 19 ft. 9 in. 
Thickness of Seams. Estimate. 

5 ft. 3 Jn. 20 gal. 

1ft. 2 in. 25 gal. 

4 in. . 25 gal. 

EXPOSUHlE ON THE NORTH SIDE OF KIMBALL CREEK 
Sec. 5, T. 7 N., R. 100 W. 
Total exposure, 86 ft. 



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14 QUARTERLY OF THE 



Oil Shale, Grand Valley, Colorado. (Courtesy of 
the D. & R. O. R. R.) 

Two samples, each from a seam six feet thick, gave 31.6 and 26.2 
gallons of oil to the ton, respectively. 

Dean E. Winchester, in Bulletin 641-F, of the U. S. O. S., gives a 
number of stratigraphical sections from which the following are taken 
to illustrate the thickness of the shales. 

T. 1 N., R. 103 W. Total thickness, 929 ft. 1% in.: 

In this exposure are 14 seams of 7 in., 1 ft., 1 ft., 4 ft.. 1 ft.. 1 ft., 

2 in., \^ in., 2 in., 5 ft, 4 in., 2 ft., 10 in. and 3 ft. thickness, respec- 
tively, all of which are estimated to carry 15 gallons or more of oil to 
the ton. 

T. 1 N., R. 104 W. Total exposure, 765 ft 3 in.: 
In this exposure are 25 seams of 6 in., 1 ft., 6 in., 8 ft, 5 ft, 1 ft., 
6 in., 5 ft, 1 ft, 2 ft., 1ft, 2 ft. 1 ft. 1 ft. 6 in.. 1 ft. 1 in.. 1 ft. 2 
in., 3 ft., 2 ft. 2 in., 1 ft., 1 in., 4 ft and 1 ft. in thickness, respectively, 
all of which are estimated to carry 15 gallons or more of oil to the ton. 
T. 1 N., R. 100 W. Total exposure, 399 ft 4 in.: 
In this exposure are 3 seams of 6 in., 1 ft. and 3 ft. thickneas, 
respectively, which are estimated to carry 15 gallons or more of oil 
to the ton. 

T. 1 N., Rs. 99 and 100 W. Total exposure, 874 ft 9 in.: 

In this exposure are 31 seams of 8 in., 1 ft, 7 ft, 1 in., 2 ft, 2 ft., 

4 ft, 1 in., 6 in., 1 ft, 5 ft, 1 ft, 3 in., 6 in., 2 in., 1 ft, 2 in., 8 in., 8 
in., 6 in., 1 ft, 1 ft, 6 in., 1 ft, 1 ft 3 in., 2 ft. 6 In.. 3 ft. 5 ft, 4 in.. 

3 ft., 3 ft. and 1 ft. in thickness, respectively, all of which are esti- 
mated to carry 15 gallons or more of oil to the ton. 

T. 2 N., R. 98 W. Total exposure, 1,677 ft 1% in.: 

In this exposure are 9 seams of 5 ft, 5 ft, 4 ft, 11 in., 3 ft. 7 In.. 

5 ft., 6 in., 1 ft. and 1 ft in thickness, respectively, which are esti- 
mated to carry 15 gallons of more of oil to the ton. 

T. 2 N., R. 97 W. Total exposure, 1,605 ft 11% In.: 
In this exposure are 12 seams 3 ft., 3 ft, 5 ft., 2 ft, 2 ft, 2 ft., 
5 ft., 2 ft., 10 ft., 3 ft., 8 in. and 3 ft. In thickness, respectively, that 
are estimated to carry 15 gallons or more of oil to the ton. 
T. 1 N., R. 97 W. Total exposure, 2,496 ft 6% In.: 
In this exposure are 27 seams, 1 ft., 3 in., 3 ft, 1 In., 5 ft. 11 in., 
3 ft., 2 ft., 3 ft 4 in., 6 In., 5 ft 8% In., 2 ft., 6 In., 2 ft. 3 ft, 5 ft, 5 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 15 

ft.. 5 ft., 3 ft., 1 ft., 1ft., 1ft., 3 in., 2 ft., 4 In., 3 ft. 4 in., 5 ft. 8 in. 
and 4 ft. 4 in. in thickness, respectively, all of which are estimated to 
carry 15 gallons or more of oil to the ton. 

In Bulletin 641-P of the U. S. G. S., Dean E. 
SUMUfART OF Winchester summarizes all the field tests in oil 

TESTS shales made hy the survey as follows: 

1913 

Amount of Oil 
No. of Samples to the Ton 

1 10.4 gal. 

8 16-40 gal. 

(Average, 27.2 gal.) 

1 45.2 gal. 

1 61.2 gal. 

1914 

17 Less than 10 gal. 

22 10-20 gal. 

11 20-30 gal. 

3 30-40 gal. 

2 40.6 gal. 

1 65.3 gal. 

1 86.8 gaL 

1915 

6 Less than 10 gal. 

7 10-20 gal. 

7 20-30 gal. 

9 30-40 gal. 

5 More than 40 gal. 

(1-90 gal.) 
In a few samples only was the yield of ammonium sulphate deter- 
mined. This was found to range from 18.3 pounds hy dry distillation, 
or 34 pounds by steam distillation, to 0.4 pound to the ton of shale. 
The yield of inflammable gas varied from 500 to 4,549 cubic feet to 
the ton. 

In northwestern Colorado and northeastern 
DISTRIBUTION OF Utah the oil shale deposits underlie an area of 
OII> SHALE DEPOS- approximately 5,500 square miles. In Colorado 
ITS IN COLORADO they occur chiefly in Garfield, Rio Blanco, Mesa, 
and Moffat counties, and cover 2,500 square 
miles. The towns of Grand Valley and De Beque, on the lines of the 
Denver & Rio Grande and Colorado Midland railroads, are the points 
of entrance. 

The exposed shales of the De Beque district lie 

THE DE BEQUE northeast, north, and northwest of the town, on 

DISTRICT both banks of Roan Creek, its largest tribu- 

taries. Conn, Kimball, and Dry Fork creeks, and 
on all of its smaller tributaries. 

The Colorado Carbon Company has thirty-seven claims on Kim- 
ball Creek, twenty-seven miles from De Beque. Their main seam of 
heavy black shale is sixty feet thick and, according to the officials of 
the company, produces from 70 to 125 gallons of crude oil to the ton, 
with an average of 100 gallons. The company does not Intend to treat 
the shale on the ground, but to ship it raw to Kansas City, where it 
will be retorted. The company has a half-mile tram installed at the 
plant and owns a ten-ton retort in Kansas City. 

The Oil Shale Mining Company has 960 acres on Dry Creek, 
twenty miles northwest of De Beque. This company has erected the 
first distillation plant of the Henderson (Scottish) type in the United 
States. It has six retorts of six tons' daily capacity each. The first 
run for demonstration was made in July, 1917. The company has a 
2,000-foot tram and full equipment on the ground. Active operations 
are expected to begin early In March. Their seam of oil shale is from 



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16 QUARTERLY OF THE 



Broxburn Refinery, Scotland. (Courtesy of the 
Canadian Bureau of Bfines 

ten to twenty feet thick and, according to the claims of the company, 
giTes an average of seventy-fiye gallons of oil to the ton. 

The Mount Logan Oil Shale Mining and Refining Company has 
1,180 acres on Mount Logan, four miles from De Beque. They have 
on the ground three twenty-ton retort units with full equipment, ex- 
cept an aerial tram, for which provision is now being made.' Their 
seam is eleven feet thick and gives an average of 100 gallons of crude 
oil to the ton. Active work will begin as soon as the equipment can 
be installed. 

The American Shale Refining Company has 12,000 acres on both 
■ides of Conn Creek, twelve miles from De Beque. The company has 
erected a 150-ton retort in Denver which is now en route to the prop- 
erty. The cost of this retort was $40,000.00; succeeding retorts will 
probably cost $15,000.00 each. Each retort is 40 feet high and weighs 
75 tons. They will be placed 200 feet above the creek level to give 
ample dumping ground. The process of distillation and refining has 
been worked out by the company's chemist and has engaged his time 
for the past two years. The material for a 3,000-foot tram is now on 
the ground. The capacity of the tram is 900 tons a day — sufficient to 
supply shale to six 150-ton retorts. The shale cliffs at the camp rise 
to a height of 2,500 feet. In these cliffs are the outcroppings of five 
well defined oil strata, but only the two richest will now be worked. 
From the camp the outcroppings of the rich shale can be seen at seven 
different exposures. 

The first and richest is 200 feet below the summit of the cliff. 
This seam is sixty feet thick and is expected, from extensive tests made 
by the company, to yield a minimum of sixty gallons of crude oil to the 
ton. The second stratum is 200 feet below the first, is seventy-five 
feet thick and is expected to give an average of more than fifty gallons 
to the ton. Both strata are horizontal, lying in a great knob, or out- 
lier, so that their extent can easily be determined. 

The first stratum, as a whole, is estimated by the company to con- 
tain 9,000,000 barrels of crude oil and 9,000 tons of ammonium sul- 
phate; the second 10,000,000 barrels of crude oil and 10,000 tons 
of ammonium sulphate. The company has expended to March 1, 1918, 
$83,101.00 in the development and equipment of its property. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 17 

In the Parachute region of the Grand Valley 

THE GRAND VAL- district is a well defined rich oil shale stratum — 
TjESY district twelve to twenty feet thick — ^that is exposed on 

both banks of Parachute Creek and all its trib- 
utaries almost continuously for a total distance of sixty-nine miles. 
Many tests show that it will yield an average of at least fifty gallons 
of oil to the ton. Assuming that this stratum extends only a mile 
and a quarter back from the line of exposure— a conservative esti- 
mate — the area of this stratum is at least 55,000 acres. This estimate 
does not include the shale exposed on Battlement Mesa east and south- 
east of Grand Valley. Using the minimum thickness of twelve feet, 
allowing 25 per cent of the volume to be left as pillars, and counting 
only on forty-two gallons to the ton, this deposit would contain 
1»012,600,000 barrels of crude oil. 

A measure of the interest and activity in the oil-shale industry 
can be realized from the fact that since June, 1916, there have been 
niore than 1,500 filings on oil-shale land in Gslrfield County, and $500,- 
000 is expected to be spent on improvements in the district this sum- 
mer. On December 16, 1916, the United States Government withdrew 
45,440 acres of shale land in the Grand Valley district as a source of 
supply for the use of the United States Navy. 

TBSTS ON COLORADO OIL SHALE AT THE EXPERIMENTAL PLANT 
OF THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Amount of Crude 
Submitted by Oil a Ton 

D. L. Killen, Denver, Colo 70 gallons 

BenJ. F. Koperlik, Pueblo, Colo 45.5 gallons 

J. W. Hoke, Palisade, Colo.: 

No. 1 32 gallons 

No. 2 24 gallons 

F. A. Wadleigh, Denver, Colo.: 
No. 1. 

Oil 65.50 gal. a ton 

DISTRIBUTION 

Oil distilled at 150*' C, 8.00 gal. 
Oil distilled at 200« C, 3.50 gal. 
Oil distilled at 250'' C, 8.50 gal. 
Oil distilled at 300<' C, 9.00 gal. 
Oil distilled above 300<' C, 36.50 gal. 
Total, 65.50 gal. a ton. 
No. 2. 

Oil 77.60 gal. a ton 

DISTRIBUTION 

Oil distilled at 150° C, 12.00 gal. 
Oil distilled at 200*» C, 7.00 gal. 
Oil distilled at 250"* C, 6.00 gal. 
Oil distilled at 300*' C. 10.00 gal. 
Oil distilled above 300<' C, 42.60 gal. 
Total, 77.60 gal. a ton. 
No. 3. 

Oil 30.00 gal. a ton 

DISTRIBUTION 

oil distilled at 150* C, 5.6. 
Oil distilled at 200<> C, 3.2. 
Oil distilled at 250« C, 7.2. 
Total oil, 30.0 gal. a ton. 



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18 QUARTERLY OF THE 



Ledge of Paper Oil Shale, Dry Fork, De Beque, Colo. 

Joseph Bellis, Grand Valley, Colo.: 
No. 1. 

Oil 75.0 gal. a ton 

DISTRIBUTION 

Distilled at 150° C, 14.40 gal. 
Distilled at 200° C. 2.40 gal. 
Distilled at 250° C. 12.00 gal. 
Distilled at 300° C, 16.80 gal. 
Distilled above 300° C, 29.40. 
Total, 75.00 gal. a ton. 
Joseph Bellis, Grand Valley, Colo.: 
No. 2. 

Oil 60.0 gal. a ton 

DISTRIBUTION 

Distilled at 150° C, 14.00 gal. 

Distilled at 200° C, 6.00 gal. 

Distilled at 250° C, 3.40 gal. 

Distilled at 300° C, 7.80 gal. 

Distilled above 300° C, 28.80 gal. 

Total, 60.00 gal. a ton. 
Such analyses of Colorado oil shale are made at the Experimental 
Plant of the Colorado School of Mines, free of charge, as an aid to the 
upbuilding of the industry. 

The statute of 1897 says: "Any person author- 
LOCATION OF ized to enter lands under the mining laws of the 

OIL SHALE CLAIMS United States may enter and obtain patent to 

lands containing petroleum or other mineral oils, 
and chiefly valuable therefor, under the provisions of the laws relating 
to placer mineral claims." 

The location of oil lands as placers was general until 1896. when 
the Secretary of the Interior ruled adversely. Thereupon Congress, in 
1897, passed a law re-establishing the former practice. The higher 
courts as yet have had no opportunity to pass upon the validity of title 
to oil-shale land located under the placer law. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 19 

The well known case of Webb vs. the American Asphaltum Co. 
furnishes the nearest parallel case. In the Circuit Court of Appeals, 
Eighth District, it was held that asphaltum, when it is in solid form 
and is found as a vein or lode, should be located as a lode. At the 
preseiit time no court decision has been rendered which involves spe- 
cifically the point as to how oil shale lands shall be located; that is, 
whether as lode or as placer. It would seem, however, that from the 
peculiar formation of oil shale deposits they should be located as 
placers. As generally found in Colorado these deposits are virtually 
horizontal and cannot be said to have apexes within the sense that 
miners and the Mining Act of 1872 contemplate. Neither can horizon- 
tal oil shales, as found in Colorado, be said to be in plact in the sense 
that we find deposits of other valuable minerals in place when found 
in lode, vein, or ledge formation. The shale deposits cannot even be 
said to have a clearly defined hanging wall, such as is contemplated by 
the statute, since they are not covered by a non-mineral bearing coun- 
try rock such as the miner is accustomed to find as constituting his 
overhanging wall, but he finds merely an earthy deposit such as is gen- 
erally found in the ordinary gold placer. 

OPINIONS 

Referring to the first Government report on the 
MR. DAVID T. DAY, oil shales of Colorado and Utah, Mr. Day said: 
U. S. BITRBAV OF "It was shown that considering only shales con- 
MIN£S, PETRO- siderably richer than the Scotch, there is enough 

IjEUM AGE, available oil in that region to furnish four times 

OCTOBER, 1917 what we expect from all the oil fields in the 

United States. Years of investigation of this 
same field followed that report and extended the work into Utah and 
adjoining states, with the result that the estimate first made was amply 
verified. It was shown that the Uintah Basin in Colorado and Utah 
together can furnish eight times as much oil as all the oil fields in the 
United States put together." 

"In fact, these shales make our fields of oil look like pygmies and 
give us a very satisfying sense of security for a bountiful supply of oil, 
even for the distant future. 



Cyanide Section, Experimental Plant, Colorado School of Mines 



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20 



QUARTERLY OF THE 



Trommelfl and Bucket Elevator, Experimental 
Plant, Colorado School of Mines 



"The principal drawback to the development of oil from shales in 
the United States is the fact that a large investment is advisable 
(though perhaps not always necessary) in developing shale oil plants, 
and there is considerable inertia to embarking in a new line of indus- 
try with which no one is familiar. 

"Now the time has come when the stimulus of increased prices 
does not bring sufficient additional crude oil. Mr. A. C. Bedford has 
shown that we need 380,000,000 barrels of oil in the United States, 
and we are getting 300.000,000. Even now 30,000,000 must come 
from somewhere else. Further, we all know that we must have more 
production, and if we must have it, we will have it, and we will have 
it from shales — and very soon." 

"The development of the Scotch shale-oil indus- 
try has been carried out with skill and energy, 
and it is to be regretted that the industry has 
not met with the entire commercial success it 
well deserves. Ever since 1850 it has only been 
by skilful management and the constant and 
intelligent application of science to the improve- 
ment of processes and to the utilization of waste 
products that the oil manufacturers of Scotland 
have been able to hold their own. The success 
of the companies now in operation, however. 



PROFESSOR 
CHARLES BASKER- 
VILIiE, COLLEGE 
OF THE CITY OF 
NEW YORK, 
ENiGlNEERINO AND 
MINING JOURNAL, 
.rULY 24, 1900, 
P. 1(M) 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 21 



Chilean and Huntington Mills, Experimental Plant, Colorado 
School of Mines 

Is shown by the following list of diyldends paid annually: 1904-1907, 
Young's, 6 per cent; Oakbank, 15 per cent; Broxburn, 15 per cent; 
Pumpherston, 20, 30 and 50 per cent; Dalmeny, 10 and 25 per cent, 
and in 1906-1907, nil." 

Mr. Lane said, in reply to a Senate resolution 
FRANKON K. regarding gasoline, and referring to the shale 

LANE, SECRETARV beds of the country: "The development of this 
OF TBUB INTERIOR enormous reserve simply awaits the time when 

the price of gasoline or the demand for other 
distillation products warrants the utilization of this substitute source. 
This may happen in the future. At all events these shales are likely 
to be drawn upon long before the exhaustion of the petroleum fields." 

"The question is being asked daily what this 
VAN H. MANNING, country is going to do when our petroleum re- 
DIRECTOR, UNITED sources are exhausted. We have as yet un- 
STATES BUREAU touched our great reserves of shale that contain 
OF MINES, BUREAU oil. These shales are found in many parts of 
OF MINES TEAR- the United States, and tremendous reserves are 
BOOK, 1917 known in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Some 

of our shales are much richer than the Scotch shales, and are con- 
servatively estimated to contain many times the amount of oil that has 
been or will have been produced from all the porous formations in this 
country. 

"To obtain the oil from oil shale it is necessary to heat the shale 
in great retorts. The oil is the result of destructive distillation and is 
driven off in the form of vapor and is later condensed by cooling. As 
stated above, this process has never been used in this country because 
of' the lack of necessity, for our oil reserves are great, and it would not 
be jcommercially economical to invest money in retorts for distilling oil 
from shale that would have to compete with the crude oil obtained by 
other methods. But this condition will not last forever. In fact, it Is 
thought that it will be only a very short time until the oil-shale indus- 
try will be one of magnitude." 



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22 QUARTERLY OF THE 

"In Colorado alone there is sufficient shale. In 
DEAN E. WIN- beds that are three feet or more thick and capa- 

CHESTER, U. S. ble of yielding more oil than the average shale 

GEOIX>OICAIj SUR- now mined in Scotland, to yield about 20,000,- 
VBY, BUMiETIN 000,000 barrels of crude oil, from which 2,000,- 

641-F, P. 141. 000,000 barrels of gasoline may be extracted by 

ordinary methods of refining, and in Utah there 
is probably an equal amount of shale just as rich. The same shale in 
Colorado, in addition to the oil, should produce, with but little added 
cost, about 300,000,000 tons of ammonium sulphate, a compound espe^ 
cially valuable as a fertilizer. The industry requires a large equip- 
ment of retorts, condensers, and oil refineries, as well as of mining 
machinery, so that it cannot be profitably handled on a small scale." 

"As to the handling of that shale after you get 
MB. DAVID T. DAY, it out — the retorting of it — doesn't it seem sensi- 
ADDRESS BEFORE ble that as long as we have two well established 
THE AMERICAN industries, one in Scotland and one in France, 

MINING CONGRESS, that we should be content with the novelty of 
DENVER, JANUARY having richer shales and take their thoroughly 
28, 1918 reliable, well developed methods and transplant 

them over here, with the hearty good will and 
good wishes of our Scotch neighbors, and thus put the industry on a 
good basis with the known things, and then go into other processes. 
It seems to me that Just now we are suffering in this country from a 
fiood of chemists who find that the shale looks interesting and they 
hope they can develop something which they can make some money 
out of before it settles down and gets beyond them, so every chemist 
is making calculations and endeavoring to become an inventor. 

"We propose to help you in any legitimate way we can to develop 
this shale industry, so that when the next year rolls around there will 
be from 200,000 to 1,000,000 barrels of oil out of the ground and 
safely in the trade as your contribution to the oil industries of the 
United States. 



Grizzlies and Coarse Crushers. Experimental Plant 
Colorado School of Mines. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 23 



Sampling Section, Esqperimental Plant, 
Colorado School of Mines. 

"There are a whole lot of troubles in the starting of this great 
new industry — an industry which commands as Its raw material at least 
ten times as much oil in valuable shales as all the oil fields in the 
United States put together. You have a tremendous amount of raw 
material to draw upon. Therefore, you have the basis for a tremen- 
dous industry." 

*'The total number of wells completed in the 

WAI/TER GliARK United States in the first eleven months of this 
TEAOIiB, PRESI- year (1917) was 21,302. Of the completed wells 
DENT STANDAllD the total number that produced oil was 15,205. 
Olli COMPANY OF There was an increase in total production frpm 
NEW JERSEY all wells this year over last. The total produc- 

tion of petroleum in all parts of the country 
in the first ten months was about 272,000,000 barrels. The produc- 
tion for the eleven months is accordingly almost equal to the total 
yield for the twelve months of 1916, but that has not been sufficient! to 
meet the demands of the refineries, for about 16,000,000 barrels have 
been taken from stock so far this year, jto supply the refiners. The 
stock of crude, accordingly, has decreased both in 1916 and in t,^e 
present year. The total stock of crude on January 1, 1916, was 198,- 
000,000 barrels, including storage of crude held in private tank farms 
and leases. On November 1, 1917, it was approximately something 
over 158,000,000 barrels, or less than one-half a year's yield of crude. 



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24 QUARTERLY OF THE 

"California crude stock is the lowest in years. 
OHi CONSUMPTION Reduction of crude-oil stoclts in California to 
EXCEEDS PRODVC- slightly less than 34,000,000 barrels, the small- 
TION — ^PETROLEUM, est in more than six and one-half years, empha- 
JANVARY, 1918 sizes the strength of the oil situation on the 

Pacific Coast. Several million barrels are re- 
garded as unavailable for use, so actual surplus is smaller than ap- 
pears. Consumption of crude oil by Pacific Coast refineries has been 
exceeding production at rate of about 1,000,000 barrels a month the 
last year or so. In twenty-two months California stocks of oil in 
storage and above ground have been depleted by over 23,000,000 
barrels." 

"It Is true that the Government, and particu- 
GEORGE OTIS larly the Geological Survey, has spent consider- 

SAaTH, DIRECTOR, able time and money in the last few years in a 
U. S. GEOLOGICAIi study of the oil shale deposits. As a result of 
SURVEY, IN A the field examinations made from 1913 to 1916 

liETTER TO CON- it has been clearly demonstrated that the latent 
GRESSMAN E. T. potentiality of the oil shale of this region as a 
TAYLOR, SEP- source of petroleum is enormous. It is also 

TEMBER 8, 1917 known that there is locked up in these shales a 

vast amount of nitrogen which can be recovered 
as a by-product in the refining of the shale and used in the manufac- 
ture of fertilizers and explosives." 

[COPY] 
THE GRAND VALIiEY COMMERCIAIi CLUB 

DIRECTORS 
Elmer E. Wheatley, President F. A. Wadlelgh 

James Brennan, Vice President Chas. E. Cherrlngton 

J. J. Connell, Secretary-Treasurer James Doyle 
J. E. Slpprelle, Counselor Joseph Bellls 

Hon. Edward T. Taylor 

Grand Valley, Colorado, 

February 24, 1918. 
Dr. Victor C Alderson, Golden, Colorado: 

Dear Sir — Having been designated by the Grand Valley Commer- 
cial Club to accompany you in your investigation of the Parachute 



Wilfley Hearth Roaster, Experimental Plant, Colorado School of 

Bfines 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 25 



Small Gmshers, Experimental Plant, Colorado School of Mines 

Creek Oil Shale District, at their request, I herewith hand you as 
complete a synopsis of the acreage, tonnage, future probable produc- 
tion, costs, and returns as is possible to prepare at the present time. 

The statements herein contained are not made at random but are 
the results of careful surveys and years of research, and tests made in 
units of commercial size. The final figures on results are determined 
on the wholesale prices of mid-continent commodities. Denver, Salt 
LoLke and intermountain wholesale prices are higher. However, the 
freight rates by the Denver & Rio Grande and Colorado Midland rail- 
roads and their connecting lines have not been definitely determined, 
but the lowest possible rates have been assured. We have been prom- 
ised a rate of 30 cents a hundred on crude oil and 40 cents a hundred 
on gasoline or refined oil in tank cars, from De Beque or Grand Valley 
to Denver, Pueblo, or Salt Lake. 

We are indebted to the following gentlemen for much of the data 
now available: Congressman Edward T. Taylor, Dean E. Winchester, 
U. S. Geological Survey; State Geologist R. D. George, D. D. Potter of 
Denver, J. B. Jones and W. W. Strickier of Tulsa, Okla.; F. E. Wells 
of Columbus, Ohio; Dr. Otto Stalmann of Salt Lake, Frank A. Wad- 
leigh, general passenger agent, D. & R. G. R. R.; James Doyle of 
Denver, officials of the Garfield County State Bank of Grand Valley, 
and many others who have helped with the pioneer work and the 
many problems in connection with the oil shale industry. In referring 
to these gentlemen I do not intend in any way to make any one of 
them responsible for the following collective statement, but only to 
acknowledge their valuable assistance and cooperation in the develop- 
ment of the oil shale industry. 

The Parachute Mining District comprises about 55,000 acres. 
There are sixty-nine miles of perpendicular oil shale cliffs on Parachute 
Creek, its three forks and several tributaries, on all of which rich, 
massive shale is exposed. The acreage is estimated on an extension 
of the rtratp b«».r.k from the face of the cliffs a distance of only one anA 
^ quarter miles. Parachute Creek and its tributaries, offer an abund- 
ance of permanent water for reduction and refining plants. Showing 
on the face of these sixty-nine miles of perpendicular cliffs is a con- 
tinuous rich stratum of curly shale, from twelve to twenty feet in thick- 



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26 QUARTERLY OF THE 

ness, that will run better than fifty gallons of crude oil to the ton, and 
not less than fifteen pounds of ammonium sulphate. This same dis- 
trict has massive oil shale strata above and below this rich stratum, 
several hlhidred feet in thickness, that average about twenty-five gal- 
lons of oil to the ton of shale, independent of the rich stratum. Pres- 
ent day operations will probably be confined to the rich stratum, which 
occurs in a flat deposit at a distance above the valley adapted to eco- 
nomical mining operations. 

In making the estimate of tonnage in the 55,000 acres, the rich 
stratum is figured at its minimum thickness of twelve feet. This gives 
a net result of one billion twelve million five hundred thousand tons 
(1,012,500,000), after deducting 25 per cent for pillars or rock sup- 
ports. In estimating the amount- in barrels of crude oil that this ton- 
nage ;v^ill yield, I allow as a liberal estimate 15 per cent for loss in 
extraction and then, for easy figuring, I reduce it still further and make 
the estimate one barrel, or 42 gallons, to the ton of shale, and reach 
1,012,500,000 barrels of crude oil in the twelve-foot stratum for the 
55,000 acres. 

There are two processes for the extraction of oil from shales that 
seem to be a proved commercial success. Both are along the general 
lines of the well known Scotch methods in general principles, with 
improvements that have been made to adapt them to handle our much 
richer shales. One of these, known as the Pearse process for reduction 
of the oils, is under the control of the Pearse Engineering Company, 
New York. In connection with this process is to be used, so I am 
reliably informed, the Hall refining process, for refining the crude oil 
into marketable products, especially producing a very high percentage 
of gasoline. 

The other process for reducing crude oil from shales was devel- 
oped by Dr. Otto Stalmann of Salt Lake City, and in connection there- 
with is being installed the Wells refining process of Tulsa, Okla., pri- 
marily intended to develop high grade lubricating oils. 

There is considerable controversy among the oil shale operators as 
to whether lubricants or gasoline will give the better returns. The 
Stalmann-Wells process will yield from the crude oil 40 per cent of 



Stamp Battery and Amalgamating Plates, Experimental Plant, 
Colorado School of Mines 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 27 

lubricants that show a viscosity test of 225 at 70*" Fahr. This is a 
flue automobile oil, and oil refiners assert that it will always command 
at least 25 cents a gallon. As an example of what this combination of 
processes will do, I recite that the crude oils from Stalmann's retort 
are refined by the Wells process with the following results: First cut 
15 per cent straight-run gasoline, 460 end point; 26 per cent, called 
gas oil, yielding 13 per cent of gasoline by ''cracking" and 5 per cent 
fuel oil; next cut 45 per cent, being 40 per cent lubricants and 5 per 
cent paraflfin wax; and last, 10 per cent residue; probable loss 4 per 
cent. After these various cuts have been made, they can all be put 
together again without cracking up the 26 per cent cut, and we have 
the same crude oil that we started with, less about 4 per cent loss. 
As between a sample of crude that was separated and another sample 
Just as it comes from the Stalmann retort no difference can be detected. 
It is a demonstration that the moleculai* construction of the oil and its 
content has not been disturbed or harmed. This may become a very 
important feature independent of the value and benefit it is to the 
lubricant content, because it is my opinion that we can use all that is 
left after taking away the first two cuts and make therefrom a very 
fine substitute for rubber. 

However, returning to the estimates of costs of production for 
well known commercial commodities and the returns to be expected 
therefrom, I make the following estimates based on the Stalmann- 
Wells process: 

ESTIMATES 

Gross value of each ton of oil shale (es'timated 1 bar- 
rel, 42 gallons) 

Ammonium sulphate, 15 lbs. at 5 cents (present price, 

7.3 cents) .75 

Gasoline, 11 gal. at 18 cents (present price, 25 cents) . . 1.98 

Lubricants, 16 gal., at 20 cents (present price, 35 cents; 

testing 225 at 70 Fahrenheit) 3.20 

Paraffine wax, 16 lb., at 10 cents (present price, 14 

cents; melting point above 130 Fahrenheit) 1.60 



Gross return per ton $ 7.53 

Estimated tonnage (or barrels) 1,012,500.000 

Return per ton (or barrel) , $7 

Gross value of 55,000 acres $7,087,500,000 

Cost of mining, reduction, and refining — 14, a maximum 4,050,000,000 

Net profit of commodities at the plant 13,037,500,000 

These estimates are based upon a plant of not less than 500 tons 
daily capacity with a complete distilling process. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) JOSEPH BELLIS. 

SUMMABT 

1. The oil shale industry has reached its greatest development in 
Scotland, where it was established in 1850. Next in importance comes 
France and then New South Wales. 

2. In Scotland the technical and chemical problems of the indus- 
try have been carefully solved and, on the whole, the industry has been 
commercially profitable. ^ 

3. The Scotch shale beds are comparatively thin, irregular, steeply 
inclined, deep, and expensive to work. 

4. The oil content of the Scotch shales is now much less than 
formerly and the shale could not be worked profitably if it were not 
for the ammonium sulphate produced as a by-product. 

5. The production of crude oil alone from shale probably cannot 



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28 QUARTERLY OF THE 



Classifiers and Jigs, Experimental Plant, Colorado School of Mines 

now compete commercially with oil from wells. However, the in- 
creased demand for oil, the decreasing production, the steadily en- 
hanced price on the one hand will be met by an almost inexhaustible 
supply of oil shale, cheap mining, improved methods of distillation 
and valuable by-products, which will undoubtedly, in the very near 
future, make the oil shale industry a strong competitor of the oil well 
and in the by no means distant future its successor. 

6. The oil shale industry is not, in ordinary parlance, "a poor 
man's game." The technical and chemical problems are numerous 
and require a high grade of scientific ability for their solution. 

7. A plant of 500 tons daily capacity is as small as can be operated 
permanently and successfully, as the profits will depend chiefly on the 
large tonnage handled. In this respect the oil shale industry bears 
the same relation to oil that Utah Copper and the other copper por- 
phyries bear to copper. 

8. An investment of $150,000.00 is as small as can be safely 
counted upon to make a single project successful. 

9. Labor is cheaper in Scotland than in the United States; the 
Scotch shale produces more ammonium sulphate than the Colorado 
shale. These are the only factors favorable to the Scotch shale; all 
other elements that enter are distinctly in favor of Colorado shale. 

10. The favorable features in the oil shale industry in Colorado 
are: 

a. The enormous extent of the deposits. 

b. The great thickness both of the medium and high grade shale. 

c. The horizontal position of the strata and their height above the 
level of the creeks — a combination that affords cheap mining. 

d. Adequate water supply for the condensing and cooling systems 
of both the distilling and refining plants. 

e. Accessibility and nearness to railroads and markets. 

f. The great richness of the shale. 

These features combine to make the oil shale deposits of Colorado 
the most valuable deposit of their kind in the world. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 29 



Rolls and Backet Elevator, Experimental Plant, Colorado School 

of Mines 



REFERENCES 

The most important publications on the subject of oil shales, to 
which the reader is referred for more detailed information, are the 
following: 

Popular Oil Geology, Professor Victor Ziegler; pp. 125-137. 

A Treatise on Petroleum, Sir Boverton Redwood; Vol. II, Section 
VII, pp. 82-139. 

Paraffin, Thorpe, Dictionary of Applied Chemistry; Vol. IV, pp. 
89-100. 

The American Petroleum Industry, Bacon and Hamor; Vol. II, 
pp. 807-844. 

Oil Shale of Northwestern Colorado and Northeastern Utah, E. G. 
Woodruff and David T. Day; U. S. G. S. Bulletin 581-A. 

Oil Shale in Northwestern Colorado and Adjacent States, Dean E. 
Winchester; U. S. G. S. Bulletin 641-F. 

Oil Field Development, A. Beebe Thompson; pp. 205-209. 
Technical Methods of Chemical Analysis, G. Lunge and C A. 
Keane; Vol. III. pp. 51-53. 

The Shale Oil Industry of Scotland, D. R. Steuart. 
Economic Geology, Vol. 3, pp. 573-598. 

The Oil-Bearing Shales of the Coast of Brazil, Prof. John C. 
Branner. 

Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers; Vol. 
30, pp. 537-554. 

Economic Possibilities of American Oil Shales, Prof. Chas. Basker- 
ville. 

Engineering and Mining Journal; July 24, 1909, pp. 149-154; 
July 31, 1909, pp. 195-199. 



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30 QUARTERLY OF THE 

Oil Shale Deposits, Blue Mountain, N. S. W.. H. L. Jene. 
Engineering and Mining Journal; Vol. 90, pp. 407-8. 

On the Physical Conditions Existing in 6hale-Distilling Retorts, 
F. J. Rowan. 

Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, London; Vol. 10, pp. 
436-443. 

Thirty Years of Progress in the Shale Oil Industry, Geo. Beilby. 
Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, London; Vol. 16, pp. 
876-886. 

The Mineral Oil From the Torbanite of New South Wales, James 
M. Petrle. 

Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, London; Vol. 24, pp. 
996-1002. 

The Shale Oil Industry, D. R. Steuart. 

Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, London; Vol. 35, pp. 

774-776. 

The Oil Shale Fields of the Lothian. Henry M. Cadell. 
Institution of Mining Engineers, Newcastle-upon-Tyne; Vol. 22, 
pp. 314-371. 

The Working of Oil Shale at Pumpherston, Wm. Caldwell. 
Institution of Mining Engineers, Newcastle-upon-Tyne; Vol. 36, 
pp. 581-589. 

Fuel Oil From Shale, Dr. Arthur Selwyn-Brown. 
The Engineering Magazine; Vol. 50, pp. 913-920. 

Transvaal Oil Shale Deposits; The Mining World, Vol. 34, pp. 
74-75. 

Report on the Bituminous Oil Shales of New Brunswick, Nova 
Scotia, and on the Oil Shale Industry of Scotland, R. W. Ells. 

Canada Department of Mines; Part I, Publication 55, pp. 1-57; 
Part II, Publication 1107, pp. 1-71. 

Red Book of the Denver & Rio Grande R. R.; Sept., Oct., Dec., 
1917; Jan., Feb., 1918. 



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Volume Thirteen Number Three 



Quarterly 



OF THE 



Colorado 
School of Mines 



JULY, 1918 



Issued Quarterly by the Colorado School of Mines 
Golden, Colorado 



Entered as Second-Class Mail Matter, July 10, 1906, at the Postoffice at 
Golden, Colorado, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 



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QUARTERLY 

OF THE ^ 

COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

VoL Thirteen JULY, 1918 Number Three 

Common Methods of Determining Latitude and 
Azimuth Useful to Engineers and Surveyors 

COMPILED BY HARRY J. WOLF. 
Professor of Mining. 



I. LATITUDE. 



1. By Observing Altitude of the Sun at Noon. 

(a) Set up transit before Icical apparent noon. The standard time 
corresponding to local apparent noon at the point of observation may 
be found by adding or subtracting from 12 h the equation of time as 
directed in the Nautical Almanac or Solar Ephemeris. 

(b) Find the maximum altitude of the upper or lower limb of the 
sun by keeping the middle horizontal cross hair tangent to the limb 
as long as it continues to rise. When the observed limb begins to 
drop below the cross hair read the vertical angle. 

(c) Level the telescope and determine the index error. Apply 
this error to the observed vertical angle to obtain the true vertical angle. 

(d) Prom a table of refractions in altitude determine the refraction 
correction for the vertical angle obtained, and subtract this correction 
from the true vertical angle to obtain the altitude of the limb observed. 

(e) From a table of semi-diameters of the sun determine the semi- 
diametor for the date of observation, and add this correction if the 
lower limb was observed, or subtract it if the upper limb was observed, 
to obtain the altitude of the sun's center. 

(f) From a table of the sun's parallax determine the parallax for 
the observed altitude, and add this correction to obtain the true altitude 
of the sun's center. In view of the limits of accuracy of the surveyor's 
transit this correction is usually neglected. 

(S) From the Nautical Almanac or Solar ETphemeris determine the 
sun's declination at the instant the altitude was taken. If the longitude 
of the place is known, increase or decrease the declination for the instant 
of Greenwich apparent noon by the hourly change multiplied by the 
number of hours in longitude. If the longitude is not known, but stand- 
ard time is known, increase or decrease the declination for the instant 
of Greenwich mean noon by the hourly change multiplied by the num- 
ber of hours since Greenwich mean noon. 

(h) Latitude = 90*» — Altitude -fN. Declination, or 
Latitude = 90** — Altitude — S. Declination. 



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4 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

EXAMPLE: 

(a) Transit was set up before local apparent noon on June 26, 1918. 
From Solar Ephemeris the equfition of time is 2 m 27.73 s, and the differ- 
ence for 1 h is 0.525 s. Transit was set up about 11:50 A. M., which was 
12 m to 13 m before the sun's meridian transit. 

(b) Upper limb of the sun was observed. 

The vertical angle was= 73° 54' 30'' 

(c) Telescope was leveled. Index error = ' 30* 

True vertical angle = 

(d) The refraction correction was = 

Altitude of sun's upper limb := 

(e) Sun's semi-diameter was = 

Altitude of sun's center 

(f) Sun's parallax wa8 = 

True altitude of sun's center = 73*» 38' O'' 

(^) Sun's apparent declination 9.t Greenwich apparent 
noon on June 26, 1918 = N. 23'' 23' 14.2" 

The longitude of the place is 105** 32'■33^ which = 7.04 h 
(15** = 1 h) . Difference in declination = 7.04 x 4.38'^ = —30.8" 



73** 


54' 


0" 
17* 


73'' 


53' 


43" 




15' 


46* 


73° 


37' 


57* 
3* 



Sun's apparent declination at point of observation = N. 23° 22' 43.4* 
(h) Compute latitude by formula: Lat = 90°— Alt -h N.Dec. 

90* 0* 0" 
Subtract altitude = 73° 38' 0* 



16° 22' 0" 
Add N. Declination = 23° 22' 43* 



Latitude of place = N. 39° 44' 43* 



2. By Observing Altitude of Polaris at Culmination. 

(a) Set up transit before upper or lower culmination. The standard 
time of culmination may be found by interpolation from a table of time 
of culmination of Polaris in the Nautical Almanac. 

(b) Focus on the star and follow it with the horizontal cross hair as 
long as it continues to rise if upper culmination is observed, or as long 
as it continues to fall if lower culmination is observed. When the desired 
culmination is reached read the vertical angle. 

(c) Level the telescope and determine the index error. Apply this 
error to the observed vertical angle to obtain the true vertical angle. 

(d) From a table of refractions in. altitude determine the refraction 
correction for the vertical angle obtained, and subtract this correction 
from the true vertical angle to obtain the altitude of the star. 

(e) From the Nautical Almanac or Ephemeris determine the polar 
distance of Polaris, either from a table of polar distances or by subtract- 
ing the apparent declination from 90°. 

(f) Latitude = Altitude of the Pole. 

Latitude = Altitude of Polaris at upper culmination — polar 

distance. 
Latitude = Altitude of Polaris at lower culmination -f polar 

distance. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 5 

EXAMPLE: 

(a) Transit was set up before lower culmination on June 1, 1918. 
From a table of culminations of Polaris, the local mean time of lower 
culmination is 8 h 51.3 m P. M. for longitude 90° W. For longitude 105** 
32' 33" W. the time would be 8 h 51.1 m P. M. (0.16 m earlier for each 
15**). The transit was set up about 8:30 P. M. which is about 20 m be- 
fore lower culmination. 

(b) Observed vertical angle = 

(c) Index error = 

True vertical angle = 

(d) Subtract refraction correction = 

Altitude of Polaris = 

(e) Polar distance on June 1, 1918 

Latitude of place (altitude of N. Pole) = 



38° 


39' 


0" 




1' 


0" 


38** 


38' 


0" 




1' 


13^^ 


38* 


36' 


47/. 


1** 


8' 


0" 


r. 39° 


44' 


47" 



II. AZIMUTH. 



1. By Observing Altitude of the Sun. 

(a) Observe the sun at any time except when it is within 10° of the 
horizon (because the refraction is relatively large and uncertain) or when 
it is near the meridian (because small errors in observed altitude pro- 
duce relatively large errors in azimuth). Set up transit over one end of 
the line whose azimuth is desired. Sight along the line with the verniers 
set at 0°. With the lower clamp tightened and the upper clamp loosened 
sight on the sun with a colored shade glass on the eye piece or focus the 
sun's disc, and the cross hairs of the instrument, on a screen held behind 
the eye piece. 

If the observation is made in the forenoon place the sun's disc in the 
upper left-hand quadrant, and tangent to the vertical and middle horizon- 
tal cross hairs, and record the vertical and horizontal angles and the time. 
Then reverse the Instrument and make similar observations with the 
sun's disc in the lower right hand quadrant. If the observation is made 
in the afternoon, place the sun's disc first in the upper right-hand quad- 
rant and then, with the instrument reversed, in the lower left-hand 
quadrant. The mean of the vertical angles and the mean of the hori- 
zontal angles may be assumed to correspond to the position of the sun's 
center at the Instant indicated by the mean time reading. 

The direct and reversed observations should be made within a short 
period of time, say 2 or 3 minutes. If the ini^rument is in perfect ad:ust- 
ment, the observation may be simplified by centering the intersection of 
the vertical and middle horizontal cross hairs on the sun's disc, with the 
assistance of diagonal cross hairs, stadia hairs, or concentric circles 
placed on a screen upon which the sun's disc is focused. 

(b) From a table of refractions in altitude determine the refraction 
correction for the mean vertical angle of the sun's center, and subtract 
this correction from the vertical angle to obtain the altitude of the sun's 
center. 

(c) From a table of the sun's parallax determine the parallax for 
the observed altitude, and add this correction to obtain the true altitude 
of the sun's center. In view of the limits of accuracy of the surveyor's 
transit this correction is usually neglected. 

(d) From the Nautical Almanac or Solar Ephemerls determine the sun's 
declination at the instant the altitude was taken. If the longitude of the 
place is known, increase or decrease the declination for the instant of Green- 



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6 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

wich apparent noon by the hourly change multiplied by the number of 
hours in longitude. If the longitude is not known, but standard time is 
known, increase or decrease the declination for the instant of Greenwich 
mean noon by the hourly change multiplied* by the number of hours since 
Greenwich mean noon. 

(e) The azimuth of the sun from the NORTH may be computed from 
any one of the following formulse: 

Where A = sun's azimuth from north 

n 

S = % (codec -f colat + coalt) 



(1) sin % A = I sin ( 3 — colat) sin ( S — coalt) 
\ sin colat sin coalt 



(2) cos i/6 A^= / sin S sin (S — codec) 
\sin colat sin coalt 



(3) tan % A^= / sinCS — colat) sin(S — coalt) 

\ sin S sin (S — codec) 

Or from any one of the following formulae: 
where A„ = sun's azimuth from north 

n 

s = % (codec + lat + alt) 

(4) sin % A = / sin \^ (lat -f coalt — dec) cos % (lat -f coalt -fdec) 

\ cos lat sin coalt 



(5) sin % A^= / sin (s — alt) sin (s — lat) 
\ cos lat cos alt 

(6) cos % A^= /cos s cos (s — codec )" 
\ cos lat cos alt 



(7) tan Vi A^= / 8in(s — lat) sin(s — alt) 

\ cos s cos(s — codec) 

(8) vers A =:COB(lat-alt) -sin dec 

° cos lat cos alt 

The azimuth of the sun from the SOUTH may be computed from any 
one of the following formulae: 

where A := sun's azimuth from south 

B 

S = % (codec H- colat + coalt) 



(9) sin % A ^ / 8in(S — codec) 8in(8 — colat 
\ sin codec sin colat 



(10) cos % A.= / sin S sin(S — coalt) 
\sin codec sin colat 



(11) tan % A ^ / sln(S — codec) sin(S — colat) 

' \ sin S sin (S — coalt) 

(12) cos A =_i_5i5_i5^ -_tan lat tan alt 

' cos lat cos alt 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 7 

«» 

Note — If the observation is made north of the equator the declination 
is + when north and — when south. If the observation is made south 
of the equator the declination is + when south and — when north. If 
the sun is observed when north of the prime vertical in the northern hem- 
isphere, or south of the prime vertical in the southern hemisphere, the 
first term will be greater than the second term. Equation (13) is an- 
other form of €$quation (12). 

/io\ «x.- A — ± s*n <i®c — sin lat sin alt 

(13) cos A. =.— ; 

" COS lat cos alt 

(14) vers A ^ cos (lat + alt) + sin dec 

' cos lat cos alt 

The azimuth of the sun from the NORTH may be computed from 
the following formulae: 

where A„ = sun's azimuth from the north 

(15) cos A^=tan C^ tan lat = tan C, tan lat 

C, = %coalt-f %(C, — C) 

when latitude is less than declination and on the same 
side of the equator. 

C,= % coalt— %(C, — C) 

when latitude is greater than declination and on the 
same side of the equator, or when latitude and declina- 
tion are on opposite sides of the equator. 

tan %(Ci — C,)=cot % (lat + dec) tan % (lat — dec) cot % coalt 

EXAMPLE: 

(a) Transit is set up over B.M. on June 4, 1918. 
Sighted on Flagstaff with verniers at 0^. 

Telescope pointed at sun, and the following observations re- 
corded 

Quadrant Time Horizontal Angle Vertical Angle 

Upper right 2:52 P.M. 294'* 15' 50** 3' 

Lower left 2:54P.M. 295^ 34' 49° 6' 

Sun's center 2:53P.M. 294*^ 54' 30" 49** 34' 3^ 

(b) Refraction correction = 49" 
Altitude of sun's center = 49 ** 33' 41" 

(c) Parallax correction = 6" 
True altitude of sun's center = 49** 33' 47" ' 

(d) 1. If the Solar Ephemeris gives the sun's declination at Green- 
wich MEAN noon proceed as follows: 

Sun's apparent declination at Greenwich MEAN noon on June 4, 
1918 = N. 22' 22' 22.0". The difference in declination for 1 h = 18.03". 



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8 



COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 



The place of observation is west of longitude 105** W. and lOBth meridian 
time is used. 105**=: 7 h. The standard time of the observation was 
2 h 53 m P. M. = 2.883 h, which is 7 h + 2.883 h = 9.883 b after Greenwich 
Mean Noon. The difference in declination at the instant of observation 
is 18.03" X 9.883 = 178.2'' = 2' 58.2". The declination aj the instant of ob- 
servation is 22* 22' 22.0'' + 2' 58.2" = N. 22** 25' 20.2". The difference is 
added because the north declination is increasing. 

(d) 2. If the Solar Ephemeris gives the sun's declination at Green- 
wich APPARE:NT Noon, proceed as follows: 

Sun's apparent declination at Greenwich APPAREINT Noon on June 
4, 1918 = N. 22** 22' 21.4". The difference in declination for 1 h = 18.03". 
The equation of time is 2 m 1.51 s, and the difference in the equation of 
time for 1 h = 0.416 b. The place of observation is west of longitude 
105** W. and 105th meridian time is ujsed. 105** = 7 h. The standard time 
of the observation was 2h 53 m P. M.=:2.883 h, which ^s 7h + 2.883 h 
= 9.883" h after Greenwich Mean Noon. The equation of time at the 
instant of observation was 2 m 1.51s —(0.416 sx 9.883)= Im 57.4 8 = 
0.033 h, which must be applied to standard time to obtain apparent time. 
The difference in declination at the instant of observation is 18.03" x 
9.883 4- 0.033) = 178.8" = 2' 58.8". The declination at the instant of 
observation is 22** 22' 21.4" -f 2' 58.8" = N. 22** 25' 20.2". The difference 
^ is added because the north declination is- increasing. 

By previous observation, or from a map, the latitude of the place of 
observation has been determined = N. 39** 44' 45". 

(e) 1. Computation by formula (2) 



cos %. A^= / sin S sin (S — codec) 
\ sin colat sin coalt 

S = % (codec -f colat -f coalt) 

coddc= 67** 34' 40" 
colat = 50** 15' 15" 
coalt = 40** 26' 13" 



2S =158** 16' 8" 

S = 79** 8: 4" 

log Bin S =9.9921434 

log sin(S — codec) = 9.3017612 



colog sin colat 
colog sin coalt 



= 0.1141368 
= 0.1880158 





2)9.5960572 


log cos % Aj^ 


= 9.7980286 


%A„ 


= 51^ 5' 24" 


^n = 


102** 10' 48" 


ital angle = 


294** 54' 30" 




397** 5' 18" 




— 360** 



Bearing =N. 37** 5' 18" W. 



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COLORADO BCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 



(e) 2. Computation by formula (12) 



cos A 



-f sin dec 

' cos lat cos alt 

tog sin dec = 

colog cos lat = 
colog cos alt = 



log tan lat 
log tan alt 



2nd term 
1st term 

nat cos A^ 

log cos A^ 

A. 



— tan lat tan alt 

= 9.5814136 
= 0.1141368 
= 0.1880158 



log 1st term = 9.8835662 



9.9198979 
0.0694691 



log 2nd term = 9.9893670 



= — 0.975814 
= + 0.764^32 

= —0.210982 
= 9.3242454 
= 77* 49' 12" 



horizontal angle =294** 54' 30" 



217** 
— WO** 



5' 18'' 



Bearing 



= N. 37*' 5' 18" W. 



Note: It is customary to make a series of five observations, compute 
the azimuth Indicated by each, and take as the azimuth required the aver- 
age of not less than three computations that check within one minute of 
arc. For this purpose formula (12) is the most convenient. 

(e) 3. Computation by formula (15) 
cbsAj^ = tan C, tan lat 

C,= %coalt— %(C, — C) 
tan %(Cx — C,)=cot ^(lat + dec) tan % (lat — dec) cot % coalt 

alt= 49** 33' 47" 

coalt = 40^ 26' 13" 

dec = N.22*» 25' 20" 

lat = N.39*' 44' 45" 

(lat + dec)=62'» 10' 5" 

(lat — dec)=17*' 19' 25" 
%(lat + dec)=3r 5' 2.5" 

%(iat — dec)= 8** 39' 42.5" 

% coalt = 20° 13' 6.5" 

log cot >4 (lat + dec) = 0.2197847 
log tan % (lat — dec) = 9.1828120 
log cot % coalt = 0.4338048 



log tan %(a — C,) = 9.8364015 



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10 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

H(Ci — C) = 34° 27' 17.6'' 
% coalt = 20° 13' 6.5" 



C, = —14° 14' 11.1" 
log tan C, = 9.4043466 
log tan lat = 9.9198979 



log cos A^ = 9.3242445 

A^ = 102° 10' 48" 
horizontal angle = 294° 54' 30" 



397° 5' 18" 
-360° 



Bearing = N. 37° 5' 18"W. 



2. • By Equal A. M. and P. M. Altitudes of the Sun. 

(a) Set up transit over one end of line whose azimuth is desired. 
Sight along the line with the verniers at 0°. With the lower clamp tight- 
ened and the. upper clamp loosened sight on the sun. If the upper and 
left-hand limbs are sighted in the forenoon, then sight on the upper and 
right-hand limbs in the afternoon. Use the same vertical angle in both 
observations, and record the horizontal angle and the time in each case. 
The mean of the two horizontal angles, corrected for the effect of change 
in declination, is the desired azimuth from the south. 

(b) The angle between the meridian and the mean of the two hori- 
zontal angles is found by the formula: 

Half the change in declination between 

the two observations 

Correction— ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ between 

the two observations n 

EXAMPLE: 

Latitude = N. 39° 45' 36" Date = July 11. 1918. 

Observations: A.M. P.M. 

Angle on desired course = 0° 0° 

Vertical angle on upper limb = 63° 18' 63° 18' 

Horizontal angle = 240° 3' (left) 352° 18' (right) 
Time of observation = lOh 30m Ih 12m 

Half the time between observations, or hour angle = Ih 21m 

= 1.35h 



20° 15' 



Half the change in declination = 19.37" x 1.35h = 26.15" 
log 26.15" = 1.4174717 
colog cos lat = 0.1142261 
colog sin 20° 15' = 0.4607770 



Jog correction = 1.9924748 

correction = 98.282" = 1' 38" 

mean horizontal angle =63° 49' 30" 



corrected angle = 63° 47' 52" 
Bearing = S. 6^° 47' 52" W. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 11 

Note: It Is customary to take a series o^ observationa in the fore- 
noon at suitable intervals, and corresponding observations in the after- 
noon, in order to check th^r accuracy and increase precision. 

3. By Observing Polaris at Elongation. 

(a) Set up transit over one end of the line whose azimuth is desired, 
about half an hour before elongation, and sight along the line with the 
yemlers set at 0*'. The standard time of elongation may be» found by 
interpolation from a table of the time of elongation of Polaris. If such a 
table is not available, then the hour angle may be computed by the fol- 
lowing formula: 

tan latitude 
cos hour angle =^^^^u^^^j^^ 

This hour angle may be converted into sidereal time by the following 
formula: 

Sidereal time = hour angle + right ascension. 

This sidereal time may be converted into local mean time by the 
following formula: *. 

Local mean time = sidereal time — mean s^n's right ascension — in- 
crease in sun's right ascension. 

This local mean time may be converted into standard time by ex- 
pressing the longitude between the local meridian and the standard merid- 
ian in units of time (15'' = lh), and adding this correction if the local 
meridian is west of the standard meridian, or subtracting ihe correction 
if the local meridian is east of the standard meridian. 

The declination and right ascension of Polaris, and the mean sun's 
right ascension and the increase in sun's right ascension, may be found in 
the Nautical Almanac. 

(b) Focus on the star and follow it with the vertical cross hair as 
it moves towards its greatest elongation. Near the elongation the star 
appears to move vertically. When the desired elongation is reached read 
the horizontal angle. 

(c) From a table of azimuth of Polaris at elongation determine the 
azimuth corresponding to the latitude of the place of observation. If such 
a table is not available, then the azimuth may be computed by the fol- 
lowing formula: > 

sin polar distance 
3in arimuth = eos latitude ' 

sin codeclination 
or sin azimuths ^os latitude 

(d) Bearing = horizontal angle -^ azimuth at W. elongation, 
or Bearing== horizontal angle — azimuth at E. elongation. 

EXAMPLE: 

(a) Transit is set up over point A, July 16, 1918, in latitude N. 39'' 
44' Ab". fYom a table of elongations of Polaris the time of western elon- 
gation is found by computation to be llh 59.3m P. M. Point B is sighted 
with the verniers set at 0**. 

(b) With the lower clamp tightened and the upper clamp loosened 
the star is observed at western elongation, and the horizontal angle is 
86" 47' 30^ 



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12 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

(c) From a table of azimuth of Polaris at elongatioii the azimuth 
for latitude N. 39^ 44' 45'' 1b 1" 28' 27". Or the azimuth may be computed 
as follows: 

Polar distance = 1° 8' 2^ log sin polar distance = 8 . 2964195 
Latitude =39*» 44' 45". log cos latitude =9.8858632 

log sin azimuth =8.4105563 

azimuth = !*• 28' 27" 

(d) Horizontal angle = 86^ 47' 30*' 
Azimuth at W. elongation = 1** 28' 27" 



Bearing of line A-B= N. SS'' 15' 57^^ W. 



4. By Observing Polaris at Cuimination. 

(a) Compute the exact standard time of culmination, and provide a 
watch reading correct standard time. Set up transit, before upper or 
lower culmination, over one end of the line whose azimuth is desired. 
Sight along t^^ line with the verniers set at 0°. With the lower clamp 
tightened and the upper clamp loosened observe the star. 

(b) Focus on the star and follow it with the vertical cross hair until 
an assistant reading the watch calls the time of culmination. The hori- 
zontal angle is the desired azimuth from the north. 

EXAMPLE: 

(a) Transit is set up before lower culmination on June 1, 1918. Prom 
a table of culmination of Polaris, the local mean time of lower culmina- 
tion is 8h 51m 18s P. M. for longitude 90** W. For longitude 105*» 32' 33-^ W. 
the local mean time would be (0.16m earlier for each 15"*) 8h 51m Ss P. M. 
The longitude between the local meridian and the standard meridian 
(105**) is 32' 33". which expressed In units of time (15''=lh)=2m lOs. 
Standard time = 8h 51m 8s -f- 2m lOs = 8h 53m 18s. 

(b) The horizontal angle at 8h 53m 18s P. M. is 88° 16'. Hence the 
desired bearing is N. 88'' 16' W. 



5. By Observing Polaris at Any Hour Angle. 

(a) Set up transit, at any time when Polaris is visible, over one end 
of the line whose azimuth is desired. Sight along the line with the ver- 
niers set at O"*. With the lower clamp tightened and the upper clamp 
loosened observe the star. 

(b) Focus on the star and follow it with the intersection of the ver- 
tical and the middle horizontal cross hairs. Take a series of readings 
and record the time, horizontal angle, and vertical angle for each obser- 
vation. Determine the index error of the transit if necespary. ' If the 
instrument is not In perfect adjustment, make the observations In pairs, 
with telescope direct and inverted, and average the two sets of angles, 
and determine the mean time. 

(c) The azimuth may be computed by the following formulse: 
__ /sin % (coalt -f- lat — dec)sin % (coalt — lat -f dec) 



sin % hour angle = -% / - 
and tan azimuth = 



cos lat cos dec 
sin hour angle 



cos lat tan dec — sin lat cos hour angle 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINE8 QUARTERLY. 13 

EZXAMPLB: 

Transit is set up at 8:30 P. M., June 27, 1918. Observations are made 
from 8:40 P. M. to 9:20 P. M. At 9:00 P. M. standard time in longitude 
105** 32' SS*" W., the observed horizontal angle ^wtas 88** 56', and the ob- 
served vertical angle was 38'' 45'. The refraction correction is 1' 12". 
Hence tlie true altitude is 38° 45' — 1' 12" = 88° 43' 48". 

Coaltltude = 90°--38° 43' 48^^ = 51° 16' 12" 

Latitude =rN. 39° 44' 45" 

I>ecllnatlon = 90°--1° 8' 3" = 88° 51' 57" (Refer to table of polar 
distances or declinations of Polaris) 

Computation for hour angle: 

>^(coalt + lat — dec)= 1° 4' 30". log sin = 8.2732604 
% (coalt — lat + dec) = 50° 11' 42". log sin = 9 . 8854899 

colog cos lat = 0.1141368 
colog cos dec = 1.7034741 



2)9.9763612 



log sin %, hour angle = 9.9881806 

%. hour angle = 76° 41' 36" 
hour angle = 153° 23' 12" 



Computation for azimuth: 

log cos lat = 9.8858632 
log tan dec = 1.7002091 



log sin hour angle = 9 . 6512462 



1.5860723= log 38.55426 

log sin lat = 9.8057611 
log cos hr =9.9513618 



9.7571229= log .57164 



log 37.98262 =1.6795849 

log tan azimuth =8.0717613 

azimuth east of meridian = 0° 40' 33" 

horizontal angle to star =88° 56' 0" 



horizontal angle to pole =88° 15' 27" 
Bearing of line =N. 88° 15' 27" W. 



Note: Culminations of Polaris for latitude, or elongations of Polaris 
for azimuth, may be observed without knowledge of the time if advan- 
tage is taken of the fact that Zeta Ursa Majoris (the star at the bend in 
the dipper handle), the north pole, Polaris, and Delta Cassiopeise (the 
star at the bottom of the first stroke of the W) are nearly in a straight 
line, with Polaris between the pole and Delta CassiopeisB. When this 
line is horizontal Polaris is at elongation, and when the line is vertical 
Polaris is at culmination, the elongation or culmination being in the direc- 
tion towards Delta CassiopeisB. 



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: ri 

a2- 



Volume Thirteen Number Four 



Quarterly 

of the 

Colorado School 
of Mines 

OCTOBER, 1918 



^ 



Issued Quarterly by the Colorado 
School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 



Entered m second-class mail matter, July 10, 1906, at Golden, 
Colorado, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Volume Thirteen Number Four 



Quarterly 

of the 

Colorado School 
of Mines 

OCTOBER, 1918 



^ 



Issued Quarterly by the Colorado 
School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 

Entered as second'class mail matter, July 10, 1906, at Golden, Colo' 
rado, Onder the Adt of Congress of July 16, 1894 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



s 



- « i 



c a o * 

c «< 

O 0^ s 

C C 

= **=?*. 

5 c • e 
** c 

6b' - - 

«^? 

C*^ c 5 

Sir, -^ 

d jj © oj 

*^ d ^ 



» 5 



Is. 



to 



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^^.^tiw,^^C7 /^.^^--*^ 






Colorado's Future as an Oil Producer 

By victor ZIEQLER 
Pbofessob of Geology and Mineralogy, Colorado School op Mines 



The possibilities of oil production in Colorado have 
PURPOSE AND aroused a widespread and general interest among all 

SCOPE OF THE the people of the state during this past year. Be- 

PAPER cause of the intensive development of the Wyoming, 

Kansas, and Oklahoma fields, there has been a gen- 
eral feeling of over-exuberant optimism regarding the possibilities of produc- 
tion in Colorado. This has been fostered and encouraged by many unscrupu- 
lous "promoters" and "would-be geologists." "Colorado has greater 
possibilities of oil production than Wyoming or Kansas," "We have fifty 
structures in Colorado that are certain to carry more oil than any fifty in 
Wyoming," and "Colorado will be the great oil producer of the future," are 
newspaper headlines that have gained widespread credence in this state. 
Such propaganda undoubtedly serves a useful purpose in that it stimulates 
vigorous prospecting. Thus an active drilling campaign has begun in Colo- 
rado. About fifty prospect wells are being drilled at the present time in 
every part of the state, and many more are contemplated. By far the greater 
proportion of these wells are drilled in locations where the chances of suc- 
cess are negligible or are not clearly understood by those interested. In most 
cases failure is assured. The inevitable result of working in an atmosphere 
of over-enthusiasm and exaggerated and unfounded hopes is disgust on the 
part of the investor. He realizes that he has been misled, and he refuses to 
participate in further legitimate development work in this state. A clear 
understanding of conditions in Colorado, an unprejudiced and unbiased view 
of our chances of finding commercial oil pools, will put oil prospecting in 
this state on a safe basis. 

In the nature of things most oil work is highly speculative. The ulti- 
mate returns to be expected should, therefore, be proportionate to the risks 
involved. The possibility of getting a return of ten dollars for every dollar 
invested does not justify the taking of a one in one hundred chance. The 
writer will, therefore, attempt to answer in an unbiased way the questions: 
"What are the chances of making Colorado an important oil producer?", and, 
"What geological formations are the most likely to carry oil in commercial 
quantities, and in what parts of the state are the chances best of finding oil 
pools?" This article has been prepared for the people of the state and 
investors elsewhere who have no or only little training in the principles of 
geology. It is not intended for the specialist in this subject. Every attempt 
will, therefore, be made to present the subject matter as free from scientific 
terms as possible and in a manner intelligible to the layman. 

QENEBAL THEORETICAL CONSIDEBATIONS 

In discussing the possibility of oil production in Colorado, it is necessary 
to call attention to a number of general features regarding the occurrence 
and origin of oil. A clear understanding of scientific considerations of this 
nature is an indispensable aid in any correct conclusions as to the probabil- 
ities of finding oil pools of commercial importance in our state. 

The Bocks That Carry Oil 

Not all rocks carry oil. The so-called "crystalline rocks," i. e., the 
igneous rocks and the metamorphic rocks, such as granite, nowhere produce 
commercial quantities of either oil or gas. These rocks can be recognized by 
their crystalline texture, by their superior hardness, and by their massive 
structure. The accompanying map of Colorado shows in black the areas 
underlain by crystalline rocks. To prospect these areas for either oil or gas 
would be an absolute waste of time and money. There is no probability of 
ever obtaining production of oil or gas except from the sedimentary rocks. 



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4 QUARTERLY OF THE 

The sedimentary rocks represent materials deposited In layers which we 
call beds or strata. They are usually formed under water, more rarely are 
they accumulated by the wind, or by ice, or precipitated from solutions In 
lakes. The more important sedimentary rocks are shales, sandstones, con- 
glomerates, and limestones. The shales represent consolidated muds; the 
sandstones, consolidated sands; the conglomerates were originally gravels 
which are now consolidated; while the limestones represent chiefly the accu- 
mulated and more or less broken shells and skeletons of marine animals, such 
as molluscs, corals, and stone lilies. 

As indicated above, not all sedimentary rocks have 
MARINE the same origin. Those that are the result of ac- 

SEDIMENTS cumulation in comparatively shallow ocean water 

have so far proved to be the most favorable for the 
occurrence of oil and gas. These rocks are included among the class of 
"marine sediments." They are usually characterized by dull colors — gray, 
black, brown, or dark green. The bright-colored sedimentary rocks, espe- 
cially the brilliant red ones, are distinctly unfavorable to oil production. 
Marine strata above or below red colored sediments may be productive, as 
are the Embar and Tensleep formations below the "Red Beds" of Wyoming. 

The intimate and virtually invariable association of 
THE ORIGIN marine sediments with oil and gas is simply a result 

OF OIL of the origin of the oil. The most generally accepted 

theory of oil origin postulates a derivation from the 
dead remains of animals and plants which become buried in the sediments at 
the time they are deposited in the form of mud or sand on the ocean floor. 
Because of this burial, and in part by the salinity of the ocean water, or 
perhaps by excessive coldness, they are protected from rapid decomposition. 
Subsequently there is a sort of selective putrefaction followed and accom- 
panied by deeper and deeper burial under the accumulating sediments. As 
a result, perhaps of increasing pressure and temperature, the partially putre- 
fied animal and plant remains are distilled into oil and gas. It is of interest 
to note that a number of different chemists have succeeded in making oils 
from mixture of plant and animal remains which were virtually identical 
with natural oils. Other explanations of the origin of oil have been advanced, 
for a discussion of which the reader is referred to special treatises on oil 
geology. It is certain, however, that the organic origin of oil, as above out- 
lined, is best supported by the facts of geology and chemistry. Every evi- 
dence goes to show that the oil and gas of all commercially important fields 
Is derived from organic matter. 

Beservoirs of Oil and Oas 

Oil is not present under the earth's surface in -lakes or streams, but Is 
contained in minute crevices and cracks and, in greater extent, in the pore 
spaces between the grains of a rock. It is well to realize that marine sedi- 
ments can be considered favorable as oil producers only when they carry 
rocks suitable as oil reservoirs that are at the same time surrounded by 
suitable enclosing beds. Any rock that is capable of containing oil and gas 
in commercial quantities is known as a "reservoir." The most common types 
of reservoir rocks are: first, sandstones; second, limestones; and third, 
shales. These will be discussed briefly. 

Sandstones are the most common type of reservoir 
SANDSTONES rocks. The amount of oil that any sandstone may 

carry is determined by the number and size of open- 
ings it contains, or. In other words, its porosity. Cement is quite important 
in determining porosity because It clogs up the interstices between the grains 
to a greater or less degree. A well-cemented sandstone is hard; a loosely 
cemented one, soft and friable; that is, it may be crumbled in the hands. 

In color oil sands vary decidedly. Usually they are darker in color than 
the barren sands. Asphalt oils leave yellow to brown stains on the rock and 
impart to it the odor of petroleum. The paraffin base oils are so light and 
evaporate so readily that frequently no trace is visible in the outcropping 
oil sands. 



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COLORADO SCHOOLi OF MINES 5 

Certain sandstones occur In well-defined strata tliat 
SHAPE OF are more or less constant in thickness, and that ex- 

RESERVOIR tend over very large areas. An example of such is 

the Dakota sandstone which Is known to extend 
oyer an area of two thousand by one thousand miles. More frequently sand- 
stones are lenticular in structure. They are limited in areal distribution and 
thin out, or "pinch out" laterally. The entire sandstone bed must not be 
thought of as being a reservoir. There are certain portions that may be In- 
capable of holding either oil or water because of the fact that they are tightly 
cemented, or perhaps made up of excessively fine grains. The reservoir is 
confined to the porous part of the sandstone where the grains are coarser, 
and consequently the interstitial cavities are larger, or where the cement is 
poorer and does not completely fill the room between the grains. 

Liimestones are essentially calcium carbonate. When 
LIMESTONES pure they are ordinarily unfavorable as oil reser- 

voirs. Certain limestones, known as dolomitic lime- 
stones, or dolomites, carry varying amounts of magnesium. These are usually 
porous and contain oil or gas in a number of prominent fields, such as the 
Lima field of Ohio and Indiana, Spindle Top and other fields in Texas, and 
Maiden-i-Napthun in Persia. 

Pure limestones are quite easily soluble. Consequently circulating water 
will dissolve out caves and channels which may occasionally act as reservoirs. 
This is true in certain of the Mexican fields. Limestones are not likely to 
become important as reservoir rocks in Colorado. 

The older geologists emphasized the importance of 
SHALES rock fractures and fissures as oil containers, and be^ 

lieved these to be far more important than the in- 
terstitial cavities between sand grains. At the present time this idea is ap- 
plied to but a few pools. For example, at Florence, Colorado, oil is found 
in open fissures and fractures in a thick bed of shale. Several other local- 
ities, such as West Salt Creek, in Wyoming, and a few areas in Pennsylvania, 
show a similar type of accumulation. Generally, however, it may be said that 
such occurrence is unimportant and unreliable. 

Reservoir rocks must be retained between rocks Im- 
THE ENCLOSING pervious to the circulation of oil, as, without these, 

BEDS OF we could expect no commercial accumulation. The 

RESERVOIRS most common type of enclosing beds are water-wet, 

fine-grained rocks, such as clays and shales. Oc- 
casionally, the enclosing rocks are similar to the reservoirs, but either so 
tightly cemented or so excessively fine-grained as to make the movement of 
oil through them impossible. 

THE BnOBATION OF OIL AND QAS 

In the preceding discussion we concluded that oil and gas are formed by 
distillation of plant and animal remains which ^re buried in the rocks by 
natural causes at the time of their deposition. Of all sediments, muds are 
most prolific in organic remains. It seems highly probable, therefore, that 
by far the greater part of oil and gas was originally formed in shales. Since 
neither oil nor gas occur in any great quantity in this rock, we are driven 
to the conclusion that they have migrated from shale and have been concen- 
trated in rocks more suitable as reservoirs. 

CAITSFS OF ^ number of different causes have probably been 

ibirr^D A^TOM active in forcing such migration, chief among which 

MiUKAiiun ^g jjj^y mention the following: 

1. Differences in specific gravity of gas, oil, and water. 

2. Head of ground water. 

3. Gas pressure. 

4. Rock pressure. 

5. Earth movement. 
0. Heat gradient. 

7. Capillary attraction. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



6 QUARTERLY OF THE 

Within the limits of this paper it is Impossible to discuss these fully. 
For such a discussion the reader is referred to the more elaborate treatises 
or special articles listed in the appended bibliography. 

It is a well-known fact that gas is lighter than oil, 
DIFFERENCES IN and oil lighter than water. Oil and water are not 
SPECIFIC GRAVITIES mlsclble. Oil floats, therefore, on the surface of the 

water. Consequently, wherever oil and water are 
mixed in rocks under the earth's surface oil should be on the top, and wher- 
ever water moves through rocks, oil must be driven ahead of it. 

The water in the rocks of earth's crust is known 
HEAD OF as ground water, or underground water. The head 

GROUND WATER is the pressure determining the height to which 

water will rise. Head, therefore, causes water to 
flow, and for the reasons already mentioned, oU and gas are driven ahead of 
the water through the rocks. 

The gas associated with oil is frequently under very 
GAS PRESSURE great pressure. This pressure is of necessity exerted 

in all directions and may to some extent force oil 
to move through rocks. Gas pressure is of great importance in certain oil 
fields because it may be sufficiently great to force the oil through the well up 
to the surface of the earth and so produce flowing wells or gushers. Gas 
migrates in all directions far more easily than oil. Gas fields, therefore, are 
of larger extent than oil fields, and may be entirely distinct from them. 

Rocks underneath the earth's surface are under 
ROCK PRESSURE pressure equivalent to the weight of the column of 

rocks above them. With Increasing depth this pres- 
sure may be so great that no openings can exist, and that the rocks will flow 
like wax. 

The effect of rocks whose pores and openings are saturated with oil or 
water will be similar to that of a sponge saturated with water and subject 
to pressure. The liquid and lighter material will be gradually squeezed out 
and forced towards the surface. Below four thousand feet, rock pressure Is 
probably the most Important cause of movement. 

Earth movements, such as folding and faulting and 
EARTH tidal deformations, set up stresses and strains In the 

MOVEMENTS interior of the earth which have some stimulating 

effect on oil migration. Their Importance Is prob- 
ably very slight. 

As we descend from the earth's surface, we find that 
HEAT the temperature Increases at a more or less regular 

GRADIENT rate of 1° C for every fifty to one hundred feet. This 

regularly Increasing temperature may have a slight 
stimulating effect on circulation. The general tendency will be to drive the 
liquids upward. Its Importance Is probably very slight, because of the great 
depth required for an effective temperature Increase. Thus a burial of one 
mile Is only equivalent to a temperature Increase of bO° to 100<^ C. 

The tendency of liquids to ascend minute openings 
CAPILLARY and pores, such as those In sponges. Is a result of 

ATTRACTION capillary attraction. The effective pressure that 

forces liquids to ascend such tubes Is capillary 
pressure. Water exerts a capillary pressure three times as great as that of 
crude oil. 

Considering the fact that a mixture of oil and water Is disseminated 
through the rocks of the earth's crust, It will be evident that the differences 
In surface tension will cause a selective segregation of oil and water. The 
water, because of Its superior surface tension, occupies the pores of smaller 
diameter; the oil Is driven Into the openings of larger size. Capillary pres- 
sure is virtually negligible in rocks at a depth of several miles. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



COLORADO SCHOOLt OF MINES 7 

Sxmmiary 

When the muds are originally deposited they carry occluded fragments 
of plants and animals which are subsequently altered and changed into oil. 
Due to the original compacting of the muds by "rock pressure" and the se- 
lective action exerted by capillary pressure, the oil produced is concentrated 
into the more porous and more resistant reservoir rocks, especially sand- 
stones. In these reservoir rocks we have a mixture or emulsion of both oil 
and water. This becomes separated due to a circulation of underground 
water, the immiscibility of oil and water, and the fact that oil being the 
lighter, rises to the top of the water surface. The structural conditions nec- 
essary to cause a commercial accumulation will be described in the following 
paragraph. 

The primary concentration of oil and gas is effected 
GENERAL by rock pressure and by capillary pressure. The re- 

DIRECTION OF suit of these two causes will be to promote the move- 

MIGRATION ment of oil and gas especially in an upward direc- 

tion. This may have a decided effect in determining 
the relative productive capacity of reservoir rocks. Thus we may consider as 
an example the case of two oil sands lithologlcally alike and equally favor- 
ably located from the structural standpoint: One of these sandstones is 
below the series of shales in which the oil has been formed and the other 
sandstone is directly above the shale. Because of the more active move- 
ments upward there will be a -greater concentration of oil into the upper sand- 
stone which will, therefore, be the more promising from the standpoint of 
future production, all other conditions remaining the same. 

The Structure of Bocks 

The arrangement and attitude of rocks in the earth's surface is called 
structure. This is of the utmost importance in oil work. Special structural 
conditions or arrangements of rocks are needed to insure a commercial accu- 
mulation of oil. 

As a rule we do not find the sedimentary rocks flat and undisturbed as 
they were originally deposited, but we find the rocks folded and wrinkled 
much like the quilt on our bed after a night's sleep. The upfolds or arches 
are anticlines; the down folds or troughs are syncllnes. The higher parts 
of the folds, which experience has shown to be the more likely to carry oil, 
are then known as "anticlines." This rule of association of oil pools and 
anticlines is called the "anticlinal theory." It is the most important prin- 
ciple of oil geology, and should govern all prospecting and examination of 
oil lands. The accumulation of oil in the higher parts of the folds — or in the 
anticlines — ^is explained as follows: The sandstones which act as oil and gas 
reservoirs are, in most cases, saturated with water. They are overlaid and 
underlaid by shale or some other rock which forms a practically Impervious 
cover. Oil and water, even if vigorously stirred up and shaken in a bottle, 
will not mix, but will separate in two layers according to their weight — ^the 
oil on top, the water below. Similarly, in the oil sand such a separation will 
take place. If the sand be completely saturated or filled with water, the oil 
will rise to the highest part of the reservoir — ^which is the very top or crest 
of the anticline. If the sands are only partially saturated, the oil will accu- 
mulate on top of the water level along the sides of the folds. If the sands 
are dry, the oil of necessity will be found in the bottom of the troughs — or, 
to use the geologic term, the syncllne. In by far the great majority of cases 
we have the oil sands completely saturated and, therefore, find the oil in the 
crest of the anticlines. These are the conditions met with in most sands of 
Wyoming, California, and the Appalachians. Whether or not a sand is sat- 
urated can only be determined with certainty by drilling. Common experi- 
ence in a field is the only reliable guide. The geologist is of value because 
he can pick out that part of the structure which holds out the greatest chance 
for success under the conditions prevalent in that field. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



QUARTERLY OF THE 




Flgr. 2. A vertical section through an anticline lllus- 
tratlngr the occurrence of gas. oil and water In the same reser- 
voir sand. A Is a gras well; B an oil well; and C a water well. 

In many fields noticeable quantities of gas accompany the oil. This being 
the lightest constituent present, rises to the top of tjtie oil. Hence, the occur- 
rence of gas wells and water wells on the same structure is explained by the 
fact that the oil sands are struck at different elevations; the gas well at the 
highest; the oil well at an intermediate, and the water well at a lower eleva- 
tion. The diagrams make this clear. 

There are other arrangements of rocks besides the anticline that afford 
a chance for the formation of oil pools. Thus, the ideal structure is the 
"doi^e," which is a fold shaped like an inverted bowl. Domes may be circu- 
lar in ground plan, highly elongated, oval, or eccentric. Most of the pro- 
ducing Wyoming oil fields are domes. 

Horizontal rocks are usually unfavorable. There are rare exceptions, as 
in Mexico, where as a result of the intrusion of a dyke, or plug of lava, or 
igneous rock, the sediments are sufficiently disturbed and tilted to form a 
reservoir. 

Rocks dipping or inclined in one direction only, are usually unfavorable. 
The oil rising upward seeps out on the surface and is lost. This is the case 
in the light oil fields of Wyoming and Ck)lorado. Certain oils are so heavy 
and viscous that upon rising towards the surface they harden and clog up 
the pores of the sandstone. In this way the bituminous and asphalt bearing 
rocks like those of California and Oklahoma are formed. These frequently 
form the cover or seal of an oil pool. Again, slight warping may affect the 
slope of the rocks and form a trap in which oil and gas collect Of such 
nature are the "structural terraces" of the Ohio, Indiana, and Kansas- 
Oklahoma fields. 

There are many other structural conditions favorable to oil accumula- 
tion. Faults — that is, fractures along which movement of the rocks has taken 
place — often localize oil accumulation. This is apparently true in West Salt 
Creek, Wyoming. At other places faults destroy commercial possibilities. No 
matter what the structure may be, we must have porous rock, usually a 
sandstone, capable of acting as a reservoir, and inclosed in relatively im- 
pervious rock, usually shale. The arrangement of rocks must be such that 
there exists an opportunity for the accumulation of commercial quantities 
of oil and gas. The most important single factor in the locating of an oil 
well is, therefore, the geologic structure. The chief value of the geologist is 
his ability to determine the structure from the distribution and arrange- 
ment of rocks at the surface, and to locate the favorable areas for testing. 

"Favorable Indications" 

A great many popular misconceptions center about the so-called "favorable 
Indications." Among these we may Include the following: 

1. Oil and gas seeps at the surface. 

2. The presence of oil residue in rocks at the surface. 

3. Traces of gas and oil in wells. 

4. The presence of salt water. 

5. The presence of "oil shale." 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



V 

COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 



\V 



Fig. 3. A vertical section throuffh Fig". 4. A section through ai 

a fault showing an oil pool (black) conformity, showing an oil 

sealed in by the fault plane. below. ^ 

The first three "indications" are only of value in proving the fact tJ 
certain formation carries oil. They do not indicate commercial accumul 
imder the surface. Drilling should be undertaken only on a favorable g€ 
ical structure in rocks proved petroliferous. The frequent association of t 
with oil has led to the popular belief that salt water invariably indicate^ 
presence of oil. This is by no means true. Brines may or may not be ac 
panied by oil. The presence of salt water is, therefore, of no parti^ 
diagnostic value. 

Oil shales are clay rocks rich in bituminous^ 
-OIL SHALES"* terial which, on destructive distillation, yield oil 

gas. Considerable heat is necessary to obtain 
oil. Probably by far the greater part is not present as oil but as an org 
residue which breaks up Into oil when heated. This is corroborated by 
fact that shales which carry as much as eighty gallons of oil to the tor 
not in the least greasy and do not show visible oil. The oil shale oli 
Green River formation covers large areas in northwestern Colorado, s^ 
western Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The shales are at the ea' 
surface exposed to erosion, and have probably no significance whatev^ 
far as possible oil fields are concerned. 

Summary ^ 

Attacking the subject under discussion from the theoretical standp 
we have arrived at the following conclusions: 

1. That only marine sediments can be considered favorable source 
oil and gas, because they originally contained the raw materials from w' 
oil and gas have been formed by distillation. 

2. That to deserve exploitation such marine sedimentary rocks i, 
contain suitable "reservoir rocks" which are capable of carrying and y' 
ing commercial quantities of oil and gas. Such reservoir rocks are ch 
"open" sandstones, but may be porous limestones, or very rarely 
shales. 

3. That commercially valuable accumulation of oil and gas need i 
be expected where the attitude or structure of the rocks is such as to ■ 
them. Such structural conditions are afforded by domes, and to a le 
extent by anticlines, terraces, and faults. 

Carrying in mind these fundamental principles, we can now deal X 
their application to Colorado conditions. ^ 

OEOLOOT OF COLOBADO ' 

As stated before, all the geological formations are deposited accorc 
to age, with the oldest at the bottom. The included table shows the geo) 
cal formation of Colorado arranged according to geological age. 
: 

•For a full discussion of oil shales In Colorado see Colorado School of Mi 
Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 2, April, 1918, entitled "The Oil Shale Industry," 
Victor C. Alderson. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



I un- 
pool 



bat a 
ation 

JOlOg- 

brlne 
3 the 
;com- 
3ular 



ma- 
l and 
. the 
ranlc 
r the 
1 are 
! the 
Duth- 
rth's 
T as 



)oint 

!S of 
hich 

nust 
leld- 
iefly 
ured 

only 
trap 
isser 

«rlth 



ling 
logi- 



ines 
Dr. 



PleiatocvM 

PUoemt 

MioecM 

OUgOCMM 



TABLE OF GEOLOGICAL FORM« 

TIm foUewinc ijrnbola art tiacd: 



FORT COLLINS 



Allmluiii— 
Alone StrMiM 



(AlMCnt) 



Orar 1. %. aM nndjr 
•hdca with 0*1 



Fex Hills — SOO-l too 

fML 

Friable i . 
Bimimd. with foaaila. 
Plcrrv— 4000 It (T). 
Dark gnjr to black 
■ hale ^ '" 
pr tan tah k 
Mded Hyolen» a. a. 
100 to SOO f««t 
thick. O. ft O, 



Fox Hilla — 800-1 SOO F( 
col. 



NIobnra— 400-600 ft. 
Thin bloekjr lioW' 
atoiM bods and hani 
calcarcooa 
Minor hogbacks, U- 
tuminoas L a. O. 
*0. 

Bonton— 400 feet. 
Dark grajr to black 
shalo. Pish scales 
near base. TUa bl- 
tuminoas L s. O. 



Dakoto— f feet 
Hard bloeky a. a., 
icray. w ' 



Oakoto— 40fe«t 

pre ce d jp g col- 
Aaphdl 



Fusoiw— 75 feet 
Saadr shsles. shaly 
s. a., ud thin clijrs. 



Hard, qusrtxltic s. 



back.' 



fai«h hof- 



MerrrMi) — 20» feet. 
Variccated clay* 
and marls, a. a. at 



Lyfcens— «00 feet. 
Bright red shales, 
thfa shaly a. a. and 
gnMnm beds, thin L 
s, near base. 



Lyons — 60 feet. 
Exact ace (?) 
Hard qunrtxitic 
croeabcdded s s n d - 
stoie, pale grajr to 
bnH in color. 



Fountain— 1200 feet. 
Exact age (?) 

Bright red s. s. with 
minor shale and 
cong. Arkooe. 



Schists and granites. 



congL and 



Uramio— 1200 feet. 
Bee preceding col 



Plorr»— 4000 feet. 
See preceding eol- 
umn. a. a. !« 
prominent and civ 
wajr to sandy shale. 
Him 1. a. lenses near 
Preduotien at 



Niobrara — 400-000 ft. 
See preceding col- 



Benlon— 400 feet 
See preceding col- 



Fuson — 100 feet 
See preceding col- 
umn. 

Lakela— TSfoet 
See preceding col< 



thaft ano 



MerriSMi— tSO-SOO ft 



LykoiiB — 400-«00 feet 
(Upper Wyoming). 
See prtccdiag col- 



Lyons— 200 feet 
Bxaetage(f) 
See preceding col- 



O. (Ooldcn 
Canyon). 



COLORADO SPRIN . 



Dawson— 1000 feet 
White and gray 
koae an d clays. 



Uramlo— tfO-300 t 
White to light r 
s. a. with ahale n 



Oarfc gray to bre*' 
iah gray s. s. 



Plorra 2t00 feet 
Dark gray to dr 



Niobrara— 400-500 ft 
Qny dmlc near top, 



CaHIl 

Black shale, a. a. 10- 
to ft thkfc at top. 
O. 



gray L 
and cale. shale. 
Qraneroe— SOO fact 



Gray and 
O.lO. 



Orar am 

grabod 

phaHsasi 



'uraalolra- 
Glenoaira ^ 
60-150 ft 

Lytit meni!__ 

feet Ooane pebbly 



clays, light L a. i 
a. s. near base. 



Lyfcona— ISO feet 
Bed sandy shi 

with gypsum b 
and thin 1. s. n 



Lyons— «00-«50 feet 
White to pink uni 
form s. s.. brick red 
a. a. near base. 



and congL with mi- 



Cnrlil» 
Oraji 



Gray 

■nnn 
Cray 



Gray 



Varfc 
aba« 

Oila 



Red 

feldi 
rvdi 



Milloop 
Gray 

and( 



Ke<l«ray 
imvl. a. 



feet 
White fine -grained 



Chid^ granites 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



MOUa DISTRICTS OF COLORADO 



fL 



I--S10 fmt. 
> ilwlc. tO-foo« 
v.tt top. O. AG. 



.< L a. aad ■kal 
^a— Z«OftcC 




Chi«fl)r a. 1. 



Laraml* — 1500-S200 
feci. 
Altcniatinir ■• •• >*>d 
rittle. good coal 
near DM*. 



Trinidad— 160-170 ft 
MaaaiTc a. •.. O. is 
wclL 



-1800-1700 ft. 
UKht irajr, yellow, 
to daifc shale. Shows 
oil and «aa in wail. 



Apiahapa— «00 feet 

Saadjr shalaa. O. 

*0. 
Tlmpaa— 190 feet. 

Cak. lihale and thin 

La. 

Cartlla— 170 feet. 
Gray shale eappad 
by SL a. O. ft 5. 



^—100-650 feet. I 

1 sad white a. a. 

i«b«te ct ahala. 

I G. ilMw in 

I 



r-M— 70>I0« feet. 
c«a«Bd d^ys ami 
,i«, thia L a.. 



D«koU— tSO feet 
white s. 



(NoCeipoaed) 



^•^^IIM le«C 
,j. teelMie Lyona 



sd wMtc 

r.thic B. a. aod 



IT to psnri* I. a. 
.. *ak. Siiflit ail 



Laramia— 500<«00 ft 
ChiaQy a. a., white 
or gray. 



Gray to bladK shales 
and thin Impora L a 
Sandy near top. O. 
* O. 



NIebrva— 100 feet 
Dense fray-blue 1. a. 
and shaly L a. 



feat 
ale. sha] 
1. B. O. 



NIabrara— 100-200 ft 
Gray cak. ahak and 
L a. at base . 



Benlan— 150-SOO fsct 



a. O. 4 a shew in 
walia. 



Dakota— 40400 feet 
White quaitaite. 
conf L and loeal Ire 
clays. 



Gunnison— too feet 
Variegated clays, 
to yellow a. a. 



H^' 



Triassle— tOOO feet 
Probably Inehidinc 
souM CarbontfenMB. 
Bright red s. 
chklly. 

I 



Cik. a. s., grits and 
shaly L s. IhiU red- 
dish " 



Wabar— 1000 feet 
Daric grsy to black 



Laadvllla— t00-4B0 ft. 
~loe 1. a., 



Parting Ouartiila— 40- 
90 feet 
s. s., quartalte and 



Lima e towa Yula— S50-460 



While 

tSO-400 feet 
Light gr«y dokmitk 
L s. 



8awatoh^S0O-400 ft 
CoogL, 



Weel Cik— 4000 fe«u 
Breccias and tuifa. 

Ruby— 2500 feet 
Exact age (7) 
Probably Eocene 
CongL and s. •. 

Ofcla_200 feet. 
Exact sgc (7) 
Probably Eocene 
a. a. 

Laramia— tOOO feet 
s. s. and shak as 
good ooals. 



Mantana— 2800 feet 
SOO ft yellow a. s. 
at top, rest leaden 
gray shak with thii 
L s. beds. O. k G. 



iwls— »00 feet 
Gray to drab shale 

and impure L s. 

thin Meaavarda— 1000 feet 

Gray-buff %. a. and 

shale and coals. O. 

Manooe— itOO feet 

Gray to bkck shales 

* Imiiurc 1. s. O. 

. shows. 



Dakota— 100-SOO fsct 



Qunaiaofl — UO-AOO ft 
Variegated clays and 

s. s. 



feet 

Oongl. and a. a., yel- 
lowiah gray, red to 
cokr 



Wabar— 100450 feet 
Dark gray to black 
shak and thin 1. s. 



Laadvllla — 400 - 526 
Gray to brown to 
blue L s. Masstve 
near top. 



(Absent) 



feet 
yellow 



(Absent) 



8M»alob— 60-S60 feet 
CXiiafly qoartiite. 



raiUte. 



&G. 



MoElme — 100-500 ft 
s. s. and variegated 

LaPlata— SOO-400 ft. 
Veiy maaaive white 
a. s. 

Dolores— tOOO feet 
Bed a. s., grits and 
congL 






Dakot 
Coi 



Qiinnii 
Var 



12 



from 
with 
ities. 
duce 

Posf 



TheR 



< 
Mori 
Gate 
also 
Occu 
thee 
alenl 
not ( 
in in 
largt 
men' 
plant 
fort 
line 
unex 
the 
indli 
cond 
actus 
plant 
cate 
a cai 
able 
out T 
form 

The 



with 

the c 

tains 

into 

are 

repn 

In a 

the } 

calce 

dant 

bear: 

tomt 

porti 

dant 

Creti 

They 

impo 

stone 

in tl 

Sout 

of fc 

lusce 

roun 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



QUARTERLY OP THE 

It will be noted that the names of the formatians change to some extent | 

L place to place. This is due to the fact that we are unable to determine 
certainty the equivalency of some formations in widely separated local* 
In this table there are also indicated the formations that have pro- 
d oil or gas, or from which seeps or "shows" are known. 

lible Oil Horizons in Colorado 

Rocks of three different ages hold out some possibilities of production. 
ie are In order of importance: 

1. The Cretaceous. 

2. The Tertiary. 

3. The Carboniferous. 

Oil and gas seeps also occur in several other horizons, as for example, the 
•Ison formation on Oil Creek near Canon City, the Archean In Golden 
Canyon near Golden, the Jurassic in the northwest part of the state and 
I near Delta, and the Morrison formation near the town of Morrison, 
jrrences such as these are somewhat puzzling to the geologist because of 
J.haracter of the rocks in which they occur. The Morrison and the equiv- 
': Jurassic formations are chiefly variegated clays, marls, and sandstones 
'}t marine origin. These rocks are chiefly sediments that were deposited 
rterior basins under arid or semi-arid conditions such as prevail over the 
»r part of the '*Great Basin" region of the United States today. Sedi- 
ts accumulating under such conditions are virtually devoid of animal or 
|t remains and consequently do not contain the raw materials necessary 
he production of oil and gas. The Archean is made up entirely of crystal- 
j rocks,- both Igneous and metamorphlc, in which an oil seep is entirely 
jpected. The writer has had the opportunity to study several seeps in 
formations mentioned above and has found proof that the oil is not 
^enous to these formations, but is present because of special structural 
^itions at the locality of the seep. In the cases studied, the oil was 
ally derived from the overlying Cretaceous, and transported along fault 
as into the rock where observed. These seeps do, therefore, not indi- 
that these formations are petroliferous in general. As a matter of fact, 
-eful study of their outcrops will convince anyone that they are unfavor- 
from the standpoint of petroleum production. This has also been borne 
oy drilling, as several unsuccessful wells have been put down in these 
lations. 

. Cretaceous 

The rocks of Cretaceous age comprise a thick series of marine sediments 
continental deposits near the top, that are prominently developed over 
jntire Great Plains region and over much of the area of the Rocky Moun- 
i clear to the Pacific Coast. North and south they extend from Mexico 
iAlaska. The various formations Included in the Cretaceous of Colorado 
jshown in the accompanying table. The rocks are chiefly shale which 
3sent muds originally deposited in comparatively shallow ocean water. 
Dior the shales are dull gray, drab to almost black. The greater part of 
ehale is pure clay shale, but much is quite sandy, and some is highly 
ireous. The fossils of marine animals, chiefly molluscs, are quite abun- 
!, while certain layers, especially near the base, abound in fish scales, all 
Ing mute evidence of the large amount of dead animals originally en- i 

jed in these rocks. Interbedded with these shales, but of very minor Im- ^ 

mce, occur a few poorly cemented sandstones. These become more abun- t 

near the top, until they make up nearly all of the iipper part of the i 

iceous series. These sandstones are yellowish white to buft In color. t] 

•- carry many casts of plant remains, and also contain a majority of the a 

»rtant coal seams of the Rocky Mountain region. A few impure lime- ti 

^8 occur interbedded in the shales. These are of very minor Importance Is 

tie North but increase much in thickness and purity to the South and Aj 

hwest (Texas and Mexico). Frequently these limestones are a solid mass So 

vssil oyster shells, or of large coiled or straight shelled cephalopod mol- 
\ which resemble snails. These are usually found in the center of large, :i\i 

d, boulder-like masses which we call concretions. Because of superior of 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



13 



hardness these concretions weather more slowly than the surrounding shales 
and hence form little, nearly circular mounds and pinnacles called "Tepee 
Buttes" in many parts of the foothills region of Colorado. In many districts 
these fossils weather out readily from the shales and still show on fresh sur- 
faces the original luster of mother of pearl. Carloads of such can be seen 
along the Cheyenne and White Rivers in South Dakota, along the Powder 
River and North Platte in Wyoming, along Ralston Creek near Golden, and 
many other localities in Colorado. 

The following Cretaceous formations have excited interest as possible 
oil horizons: 

1. Dakota sandstone. 

2. Several sandstones in the Benton. 

3. Limestones in the Niobrara. 

4. Several lenticular sandstones in the Pierre shale. 

5. Several sandstones near the top of the Cretaceous 

(in the Laramie and Mesaverde). 
These will be discussed briefly in the order given. 

This is one of the most uniform and widely distrib- 
uted sandstones in western North America. It rep- 
resents the basal sandstone of the Cretaceous, that 
is, the first sands deposited by the Cretaceous sea 
when it advanced over the site of the present Great Plains and the Rockies, 
which are of much later geologic age. The practical oil men frequently use 
the term Dakota loosely for all the sandstones at the base of the Cretaceous 
shales. Used in this sense it includes a thin shale and a heavy massive, fre- 
quently highly cemented and quartzitic sandstone of Lower Cretaceous or 
Commanchean age. This usage is shown in the following table: 



DAKOTA 
SANDSTONE 





Black Hills 


Colorado Springs 


Wyoming 


Oklahoma 


Dakota 
Group 


Dakota sandstone 
Fuson shale 
Dakota sandstone 


Dakota sandstone 
Purgatolre sandstone 


Cleverly 


Trinity 

V 



On the whole, the Dakota is a fairly well cemented to very hard sand- 
stone, especially on the east side of the Rockies of Colorado. The porosity is, 
therefore, not very large, and it is, hence, a reservoir of very limited capacity. 
Occasionally small, well-rounded pebbles become so abundant as to make it 
a conglomerate. 

Oil seeps occur in a number of localities along the foothills of the entire 
Rocky Mountains, from Canada into Texas. The most extensive seeps known 
occur along the Athabasca River in Canada. Prominent seeps of oil occur In 
a number of localities in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota along the ^lack 
Hills, and Nebraska. Seeps and impregnations with residual oil are known 
near Morrison, on Ralston Creek near Golden, near Pueblcf, and near Canon 
City. These seeps in every case carry a heavy black oil or an inspissated 
asphaltic residue. A number of wells have been drilled through the Dakota. 
A small production is obtained from this sand near GreybuU in the Bighorn 
Basin of Wyoming. It is also reported that a well good for about eight hun- 
dred barrels has been brought in within the last few days on the Dakota on 
Buck Creek near Lusk, Wyoming. A very small production is maintained 
from the Trinity sand, which occupies a roughly similar stratigraphic posi- 
tion at Madill, Oklahoma. There are a great many other localities where 
this sandstone has been drilled in structures but failed to yield wells. It is 
also worth noting that this sandstone is the one from which the majority of 
the artesian wells of the Great Plains region derive their water. The total 
daily production of oil derived from this sand in all the fields of North 
America amounts to much less than one thousand barrels. The average initial 
flow of producing wells has been between five and ten barrels. 

In passing it is perhaps well to call attention to the fact that in Wyo- 
ming the Dakota is underlain by about seven hundred feet of Jurassic strata 
of m£u*ine origin which are full of fossil remains. These marine strata may 



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14 QUARTERLY OP THE 

well be the source of the oil which after formation travels upward through 
the more or less porous Morrison formation into the Dakota where It is re- 
tained because of the thick clay shales of the Benton which overlie the 
Dakota sands. The marine Jurassic (the Sundance) is dominantly sand- 
stones. This accounts for the small quantities of oil in the Dakota, as the 
greater proportion of the oil was probably lost at the time of its formation 
in the porous Sundance. In the Madill field in Oklahoma, the Trinity rests 
unconformably on the truncated edges of the oil-bearing formations of Penn- 
sylvanian age. The oil produced from the Trinity is derived by seepage 
from the Pennsylvanian sands. 

In Colorado, the Dakota rests on a very thick series of continental de- 
posits, the Morrison and the Red Beds, which in places attain a combined 
thickness of more than three thousand feet. These beds are nearly all sand- 
stones and carry no or very few fossils, and cannot, therefore, be considered 
probable sources of oil and gas. Below the Red Beds, we have Palezoic lime- 
stones which may have originally contained oil and gas. The greater part 
of this, however, must have been wasted during the deposition of the over- 
lying Red Beds, and the rest dissipated in traveling through the thick sand- 
stones above. 

Structures are known to exist in the Dakota near 
DAKOTA Pueblo in southeastern Colorado, near Eads, in sev- 

STRUCTURES eral localities on the western slope. The Dakota 

has been drilled on structures in all of these local- 
ities with disappointing results. 

1. The Dakota is fairly hard and well cemented in 
SUMMARY Colorado, therefore, only a poor reservoir. 

2. There are no rocks directly below the Dakota 
formation in Colorado that would serve as sources of oil and gas, as is true 
in several producing localities in Wyoming, and at Madill, Oklahoma. 

3. Several oil seeps occur, but those examined show oil conducted into 
the Dakota by faults from the overlying Cretaceous. 

4. Results obtained in drilling, not only in Colorado but elsewhere in 
the Rocky Mountain region, have been highly disappointing both from the 
number of producing wells obtained as well as from the standpoint of initial 
production. This has been true in the case of exceptionally large promising 
structures. For the above reasons we can safely conclude that the chances 
of getting large production from the Dakota formation in Colorado are very 
small. The best we can hope for is small production with the chances of 
getting this against us. 

The Benton Formation 

This formation rests directly upon the Dakota sandstone. East of the 
Froi^t ranges it can usually be divided into three members, the Graneros 
shale at the base, the Greenhorn limestone in the center, and the Carlile shale 
near the top. Such a threefold division can readily be made from Denver 
south to the New Mexico line. The division is less marked from Denver north 
to the Wyoming line. 

The Graneros is a gray to dark colored shale, sometimes almost black, 
averaging about two hundred feet in thickness. This frequently shows a 
paperlike cleavage. Locally thin and usually bituminous limestones occur 
near the top. An oily, fetid odor becomes prominent when these limestones 
are freshly broken or struck with a hammer. The shale weathers into al- 
most structureless masses of clay which are used in a number of localities 
for brick, as for example at Colorado Springs and at Boulder. 

The Greenhorn consists of a series of thin dove-colored to gray Jointed 
and blocky limestones separated by darker shale partings. It varies from 
about twenty-five to sixty feet in thickness. The limestones are quite char- 
acteristic everywhere south of Denver, but decrease in prominence north of 
this city. The limestones are frequently bituminous. 

The Carlile consists essentially of gray to black shale from eighty to 
two hundred feet thick, frequently carrying concretions and septarla, and 
usually capped by sandy shales or a thin yellow to buff friable sandstone. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 15 

This is most prominently developed in the region from Colorado SpringB 
southward. Here it varies from four to twenty feet in thickness. Locally it is 
absent and represented only by a sandy shale zone. The sandstone is fairly 
uniform in grain, bright yellow to buft in color, and very porous, conse- 
quently is ideally suited for an oil and gas reservoir. In a few localities it 
is overlain by a thin, strongly bituminous limestone. This sandstone is the 
only member of the Benton group east of the Front ranges that deserves 
careful consideration as a possible oil sand. Samples of this sandstone col- 
lected near Colorado Springs, and west and also south of Pueblo, when tested 
with ether gave strong reactions for oil residues. In stratigraphic position 
this sandstone is roughly equivalent to the Wall Creek sandstone which fur- 
nishes the major part of the production in Wyoming. It cannot be consid- 
ered to be as favorable as the Wall Creek from the geological standpoint for 
the following reasons: 

1. The Wall Creek sandstone is from four to twenty times as thick. 

2. The Benton in Wyoming is generally much thicker and more bitumin- 
ous than in Colorado. 

3. The Wall Creek sandstone is much more persistent and more widely 
distributed. 

4. Folding and structural disturbances are much more pronounced in 
Wyoming, while in Colorado the Benton, with the exception of a very nar- 
row belt paralleling the Front range, is usually nearly horizontal. 

The last feature is one especially noteworthy, because in our western oil 
fields we find that decided flexures seem to be necessary in order to cause 
concentration of oil and gas. Very broad and gentle folds such as character- 
ize the Kansas and Oklahoma fields have proved unproductive wherever 
drilled in the Rockies. 

The Benton has been drilled through in a number of places and, in sev- 
eral, very promising shows of oil have been developed in the sandstone men- 
tioned. There are a number of structures in southeastern Colorado that 
affect the Carllle. In most cases, however, the Carlile has been eroded oft 
the top and the older underlying formations have been exposed. Oil seeps 
and small "shows" in wells have been encountered down dip, that is, on 
sides of these structures. The chances of getting commercial production in 
these cases is very slight. There is, however, good reason for the belief that 
favorable structures with the Carlile below the surface, exist in this part 
of Colorado. They are dlfllcult to locate because of the overlying rocks which 
are so readily eroded that they yield few outcrops. The Benton formation 
is also present on the Western Slope and in the San Juan region. Here it 
consists essentially of dark gray to black shales which can hardly be sep- 
arated from the overlying Niobrara. In the White River country there are 
a few very thin and usually rusty weathering sandstone streaks present in 
the Benton. Usually these are absent and the shales are remarkably uni- 
form. Thin bituminous limestone streaks occur rarely. 

The only probable oil reservoir known in the Benton 
SUMMARY is a thin sandstone at the top of the Carlile. This 

must be considered a much more promising horizon 
than the Dakota. This sandstone attains a maximum of about twenty feet 
in thickness. It is prominently developed in southeastern Colorado from 
Colorado Springs, Pueblo and Trinidad east, about to the Kansas line. 
Within this territory a structure which carries the Carlile at sufficient depth 
holds out good chances of obtaining a small production of high grade oil. 

The Niobrara Formation 

Resting directly upon the Benton we have, east of the Front ranges, a 
series of calcareous shales and thin limestones usually light gray in color, 
which are included under the term Niobrara. Frequently both the Benton 
and the Niobrara are included under the term Colorado formation. Occa- 
sional bituminous shale or sand streaks occur. The limestones occur in beds 
up to fifty feet in thickness, and are more abundant in the lower part to 



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16 QUARTERLY OP THE 

which the name Timpas formation is applied in the region south and east of 
Colorado Springs. The upper part which is dominantly shale is known as 
the Apishapa formation. On the Western Slope and in the San Juan region 
the Niobrara is essentially dark shale occasionally calcareous and not clearly 
divisible on lithological grounds from the Benton below and the Pierre 
above. It is usually included with both under the term Mancos shale. 

While there are oil and gas seeps in the Niobrara, and while bituminous 
limestones are characteristic, the Niobrara may be considered unfavorable 
as a possible oil producer because it carries no rock capable of acting as 
a reservoir. 

The Pierre Shale 

The Pierre shale comprises, as the name implies, a thick series of gray 
to dark gray to almost black shales which carry a few sandy streaks, occa- 
sional layers of concretions, and a few impure limestone lenses near the 
top. The upper part weathers into a greenish yellow porous and spongy soil. 
Bast of the Front Range the thickness varies from 1,200 to well above 3,500 
feet. From the vicinity of Denver northward there* is a well-deflned sandy 
zone from 1,000 to 1,700 feet above the base. This consists of a series of 
highly lenticular sandstones rather than a continuous persistent bed. These 
sandstone lenses are usually brownish buft where weathered, are fairly uni- 
form in grain and quite friable. The name Hygiene sandstone has been 
applied to such a sandstone near Boulder, and the term is frequently used 
for all the lenticular sandstones at about this general horizon. Such sand- 
stones have furnished much of the production of the old Boulder field and 
must be considered possible future producers. These sandstones are roughly 
in the same horizon as the Shannon sandstone of Wyoming, which furnishes 
most of the shallow production at the Big Muddy Field and at Lost Soldier, 
Wyoming. The chief difficulty in Colorado is the generally unfavorable 
attitude of the Pierre shale which, except for a very narrow strip in the 
foothills, lies usually horizontal or at an inclination so low that the oil is 
not concentrated. Again, the shale overlying the sandstone lenses is so 
readily eroded as to leave no outcrops, and so mask more or less completely 
any structures that might be present. 

On the Western Slope and in southwestern Colorado the Pierre is essen- 
tially shale and no sandstone capable of acting as a reservoir is known. 
Here, all the Cretaceous shale are usually not subdivided but included under 
the term Mancos. 

Much of the production of the old Florence oil field is obtained from 
the Pierre shale. This has been fissured to some extent and the fissures have 
become filled with oil. This accumulation is so erratic and unusual that only 
an accident can lead to the discovery of similar conditions elsewhere. 

The Hygiene sandstones of the Pierre may be con- 
SUMMARY sidered possible reservoirs of oil and gas. They are 

of prominence only in the area north and east of 
Denver. Here, however, the structure is generally unfavorable, and no large 
production need be expected, unless a large, well-defined structure can be 
found, which is unlikely. 

The Upper Cretaceous Sandstones 

The Pierre shale is followed by a thick series of sandstones alternating 
with minor layers of shale. East of the Front Range we find the Fox Hills 
sandstones, a fine-grained yellow sandstone carrying marine fossils. This is 
frequently included with the Pierre shale under the term Montana group. 
South of Pueblo, this sandstone is known as the Trinidad formation. The 
Fox Hills varies from 150 to 600 feet in thickness. The Laramie formation 
rests upon the Fox Hills. It consists of a series of alternating massive gray 
sandstones, shaly sandstones and shales with interbedded coal beds. Vir- 
tually all important coal beds of Colorado are in the Laramie. The thickness 
varies from 250 to over 2,000 feet. Shows of gas are of common occurrence. 

In Gunnison County the Fox Hills is a fine-grained yellow sandstone 
about 300 feet thick, the Laramie is about 2,000 feet thick and is followed by 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 17 

more sandstone and conglomerate series known as the Ohio and Ruby for- 
mations, totaling about 2,800 feet. Over much of the Western Slope and in 
the San Juan region, thick sandstone series appear, about equivalent in age 
to the top of the Pierre shale east of the Front Range. These are included 
under the term Mesaverde. They vary locally from 1,000 to 4,000 feet. They 
are usually an alternation of yellow, buft, or gray sandstone and shale which 
are frequently variegated red and purplish, and which are characterized by 
coal seams in the middle portion. The Mesaverde carries gas and shows of 
oil in many widely separated localities. ^ 

Locally shale beds become abundant enough to seal in certain sands, 
especially those near the top of the Mesaverde. Fair shows of oil up to a 
production of ten barrels per day has been obtained from these sands near 
DeBeque. 

Much of the gas encountered in the Laramie and in 
SUMMARY the Mesaverde is derived from the associated coals, 

and does not, therefore, indicate the presence of oil. 
On the whole, these sandstones are unfavorable to oil accumulation because 
they lack the necessary impervious enclosing beds. Any oil and gas contained 
in them is not concentrated but is disseminated through the entire formation. 
The chances of obtaining commercial production are, therefore, slight, and 
only wells of small capacity and probably very high grade oil need be 
expected. 

The Tertiaxy Formation 

Large areas of the northeastern part of the state are covered by Tertiary 
formations. These are chiefly unconsolidated or loosely cemented sandstones 
and shales. In Logan, Washington, Yuma, Sedgwick and Phillips counties, 
they are present and cover the underlying Cretaceous so as to mask any 
structure and make improbable any discovery of oil pools except through 
pure accident In the vicinity of Denver we have similarly the so-called 
Arapahoe and' Denver formations, south near Castle Rock and Colorado 
Springs, the Dawson, and from Pueblo south to the New Mexico line, the 
Nussbaum. All of these are loosely cemented sandstones and conglomerates 
equally unfavorable to oil and gas. In the San Juan region, the Tertiary 
consists chiefly of a thick series of volcanic flows, tuft and breccias often 
resting directly on the Mancos or underlying rocks. These offer no chance 
of finding oil and gas. Farther north on the Western Slope we find locally 
the Fort Union, Wasatch, and the Green River formations. The first two 
carry coal seams. The Green River carries the important oil shale beds. 
The Wasatch is the more important from the oil standpoint. Oil shows and 
gas seeps often furnishing enough gas for domestic purposes for a ranch or 
two are known along the White River near Meeker, on Turkey Creek, and 
Beaver Creek, near DeBeque, at Rangeley and elsewhere. The Wasaich 
consists of an alternation of sandstones, shaly sandstones and sandy shales. 
The shales are more abundant and more argillaceous in the upper portion and 
appear to be sufllcient to form a seal on the underlying sands. A good struc- 
ture in the upper part of the Wasatch should, therefore, be considered prom- 
ising as a possible producer. Small wells only need be expected. 

The Green River formation is a series of shales much of which is so 
carbonaceous as to afford possibilities of commercial treatment for the ex- 
traction of oil. Many shale beds are capable of yielding from fifty to eighty 
gallons per ton. The oil is not present as such, but rather as partially 
altered organic remains which, upon destructive distillation, are broken up 
into oil. The chances of finding commercial oil pools in this shale are very 
slight Locally oil seeps occur and near Dragon, Utah, a very small produc- 
tion is obtained from tunnels driven into the shale. 

The Wasatch is the most promising of the Tertiary 
SUMMARY formations for the occurrence of oil pools. The 

widespread occurrence of oil seeps and the strong 
gas shows, coupled with the results of past drilling, all seem to indicate that 
a good structure would be likely to yield commercial wells of small capacity. 
Of aU the formations mentioned, it ranks next to the Benton and Hygiene 
as a possible producer. 



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18 QUARTERLY OP THE 

The Carbonif^oufl 

By far the greater part of the oil production of Kansas, Oklahoma, Illi- 
nois, and the north of Texas is derived from the rocks of Carboniferous age. 
There is also a small production of heavy black oil from the Carboniferous 
of Wyoming at Thermopolis and in the Lander oil fields. It is natural, there- 
fore, that the Carboniferous formations of Colorado should attract attention. 
Much interest has been aroused in the southeastern part of the state which 
undoubtedly deser/es careful investigation. In this part of the state, also, 
the Cretaceous formations are the most promising. The Carboniferous, how- 
ever, have attracted the most attention, and the nearness to the Oklahoma 
line is frequently cited as a proof of the likelihood and even the certainty 
of the existence of oil pools. As a matter of fact, northwestern Oklahoma 
does not contain any important oil and gas fields. A number of wells have 
been drilled there without success. We may safely conclude that the chances 
of getting commercial production in the Carboniferous in southeastern Colo- 
rado are no better than in northwestern Oklahoma. An additional element 
of uncertainty is the lack of knowledge of the character of the Carboniferous 
rocks. The possible oil-bearing horizons are not exposed nearer than the 
foothills of the Front Range to the west and the central part of Oklahoma 
to the east. There has been a great change In the lithological character of 
these formations between these two points. The marine series of shales and 
sandstones at the top of the Carboniferous in Oklahoma and Kansas have 
given place to the series of "Red Beds" of Colorado deposited under conditions 
of aridity and, therefore, distinctly unfavorable to oil. The lower part of 
the Carboniferous in both localities consists essentially of marine lime- 
stones. No production of any consequence has been encountered In these. 
The existence of oil reservoirs in the Carboniferous in southeastern Colorado 
is, therefore, problematical. Any attempt to drill to this horizon should only 
be undertaken by those abundantly able to bear the financial burden, with the 
full knowledge that the chances for success are less promising than could be 
desired, and probably not commensurate with the risks Involved, because 
of great depth of drilling and the excessive cost 

The Carboniferous is also attracting interest at present in the vicinity of 
Pueblo, where several wells are being drilled to a depth of about three thou- 
sand five hundred feet. Several are located on well-defined structures, and 
should result in a thorough test of this formation, although the writer 
believes that here also the chances for success are slight, because of forma- 
tional characteristics. 

CONCLUSION 

Colorado lacks persistent sands capable of acting 
NATURE OF as reservoirs. Those present are either very thin 

RESERVOIR SANDS or very much restricted laterally. The most prom- 
ising sands for oil production are in order: 

1. Sandstone at the top of the Carlile. 

2. Hygiene sands in the Pierre. 

3. Sands In the Wasatch. 

4. Carboniferous. 

Actual production or very promising shows are or have been obtained 
from the Pierre at Florence, near Boulder, and near Rangeley; from the 
Wasatch near DeBeque and White River; from the Mesaverde near DeBeque; 
and from the Carlile near Eads. 

The structure of the most important potential oil 
STRUCTURES IN producer — the Cretaceous rocks — is relatively simple 

THE STATE in the localities where suitable sands are present, 

as southeastern Colorado, east of Pueblo, or north- 
em Colorado from Denver north to the Wyoming line. Consequently, the 
possibilities of structural arrangement favorable to oil accumulation are 
small. 

While there are a number of large and well-defined structures In the 
state, it is unfortunately true that the more promising horizons of the Ore- 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 19 

taceous are eroded off the surface, or are abBent, or are so deeply buried 
as to be out of reach of the drill. Large fields need, therefore, not be expected 
in Colorado. The chances are bright of finding a few widely scattered fields 
with wells of small capacity, srielding a high-grade oil. 

BEFEBENOES 

This list includes a few of the more important publications on the 
subject to which the reader is referred for detailed information. 

Oeaeral TreatiseB 

Ziegler: Popular Oil Geology. 

Johnson and Huntley: Oil and Oas Production. 

Thompson: Oil Field Development. 

Special Articles 

Ziegler: The Movements of Oil and Gas Through Rocks; Economic 
Geology, vol. XIII, pp. 335-348, 1918. 

Washburn: The Capillary Concentration of Gas and Oil; Transactions 
American Institute Mining Engineers, vol. 50, pp. 829-842, 1914. 

Munn: The Anticlinal and the Hydraulic Theories of Oil and Gas Accu- 
mulation; Economic Geology, vol. 4, pp. 509-529, 1909. 

Campbell: Historical Review of Theories Advanced by American Geolo- 
gists to Account for the Origin and Accumulation of Oil; Economic 
Geology, vol. 6, pp. 363-395, 1911. 

Begional Beports 

United States Geological Survey: Geologic Folios No. 9 (Anthracite- 
Crested Butte), No. 36 (Pueblo), No. 48 (Ten Mile), No. 57 (Tel- 
luride). No. 58 (Elmoro), No. 60 (La Plata), No. 68 (Walsenburg), 
No. 71 (Spanish Peaks), No. 120 (Silverton), No. 130 (Rico), No. 135 
(NepesU), No. 186 (Apishapa), No. 198 (Castle Rock), No. 203 
(Colorado Springs). 

United States Geological Survey: Bulletins No. 265 (Boulder), No. 260 
(pp. 436-400, Florence), No. 381 (pp. 518-544, Florence), No. 531-C 
(DeBeque), No. 350 (Rangeley). 

United States Geological Survey: Professional Papers No. 52 (Arkansas 
Valley). 

United States (Geological Survey: Monograph No. 26 (Denver Basin). 

Oil Shales 

Alderson: The Oil Shale Industry; Colorado School of Mines Quarterly, 
April, 1918. 



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QUARTERLY 

Vol. XIV No. J 



CATALOGUE 
EDITION 



EfHefcd as iccond-dan null iDAttcr July I0» 1906» at the Pott Office 
at Golden* Colofadoy ondef the Act erf Gmgieis of Jtily lit S894 



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Pi 

a 

Eh 



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QUARTERLY 



OF THE 



COLORADO 
SCHOOL OF MINES 

« 

Vol. XIV No. 1 
Catalogue Edition 



GOLDEN, COLORADO 
1919 



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THE COLpORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



(For complete index see page 145.) 

Page 

School Calendar 7 

Board of Trustees 8 

Honorary Degrees 8 

Faculty 9 

Special lecturers 11 

Location and Description 13 

History 15 

Organization 15 

Financial Support 15 

Buildings 16 

Laboratories and EJquipment 18 

Requirements for Eintrance 28 

Departments of Instruction 34 

Tabular Views 34 

Chemistry 14 

Civil Etigineerlng 50 

Coal Mining 56 

ESectrlcal Engineering 61 

EJnglish 65 

Finance 67 

Geology and Mineralogy 68 

Hygiene 73 

Mathematics 74 

Mechanical ESngineering 78 

Metallurgy 85 

Metal Mining 92 

Military Art 101 

Mining Law 102 

Physics 103 

Safety and Efficiency Engineering 109 

Spanish 113 

Inspection Trips ." 115 

United States Bureau of Mines 122 

Course for Prospectors 124 

Students' Army Training Corps 101 

Summer School 127 

Scholarships 129 

Graduate Research Fellowships 131 

General Information 132 

Enrolment of Students 139 

Index 145 



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CALENDAR 

1919 

January 4, Saturday Christmas Recess ends 

January 18, Saturday First Semester ends 

January 20, Monday Second Semester begins 

February 12, Wednesday Lincoln's Birthday (a holiday) 

February 22, Saturday \ Washington's Birthday (a holl- 

( day) 

May 23, Friday J Second Semester ends 

} Commencement Exercises 

May 26, Monday Summer Field Woric begins 

July 5, Saturday Summer Field Worlc ends 

July 14, Monday Summer School begins 

August 23, Saturday Summer School ends 

August 27, Wednesday f ^^"^'"f*'®"^ /5L «n*'-«nce to 

August 28, Thursday J *^® ?*«•• ^^ ^^^ «"«* re-exam. 

August 29. Friday I »n«t»on of matriculated stu- 

[ dents. 

September 1, Monday ) „ , . ^, 

September 2, Tuesday j Registration 

September 8, Wednesday. . . 5 OP^nlnfl f the First Senrieirter 

} of the Academic Year 1919-20 

November 27, Thursday j 

November 28, Friday L Thanlcsgivlng Recess 

November 29, Saturday J 

December 22, Monday Christmas Recess begins 

1920 

January 3, Saturday Christmas Recess ends 

January 17, Saturday First Semester ends 

January 19, Monday Second Semester begins 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



FRANK G. WILLIS, E. M., Cripple Creek, Colo. 
President 

Term expires 1921 

JAMES T. SMITH, Denver, Colo. 
Secretary 

Term expires 1921 

ORVIL R. WHITAKER, E. M., Denver, Colo. 
Term expires 1919 

A. E. CARLTON, Colorado Springs, Colo. 
Term expires 1919 

HARRY M. RUBEY, Golden, Colo. 
Treasurer 

Term expires 1919 

The regular meetings of the Board of Trustees are held in 
Golden at the School of Mines on the second Thursday of each 
month. 

HONORARY DEGREES 



The honorary degree of E.M. (Engineer of Mines) has been 
conferred as follows: 

CAPTAIN E. L. BERTHOUD, 1890 
Golden, Colo. 
Deceased. 

GENERAL IRVING HALE, 1895 
Denver, Colo. 

A. A. BLOW, 1897 

Ware Neck, Va. 
Deceased. 

FRANK BULKLEY, 1898 
Denver, Colo. 

JOHN HAYS HAMMOND, 1909 
New York, N. Y. 

WALTER G. SWART, 1917 
Duluth, Minn. 

H. G. HARDINGE, 1917 
New York, N. Y. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



FACULTY 



VICTOR CLIFTON ALDERSON, A. B., (Harvard) ; Sc. D., (Beloit 
College); Sc. D., (Armour Institute of Technology) 
President 

REGIS CHATJVBNBT, B. S., (Harvard) A. M., L. L. D., (Wash- 
ington University) 
President Emeritus 
Special Lecturer in Metallurgy and Chemistry 

PAUL MEYER, Ph. D., (Giessen) 

Professor E^meritus of Mathematics 

WILLIAM JONATHAN HAZARD, E. E., (Colorado School of 
Mines) 

Professor of Electrical Engineering 
(On leave of absence, 1918-19) 

HARRY JOHN WOLF, B. M., M. S., (Colorado School of Mines) 
Professor of Mining 

JAMBS COLE ROBERTS, Ph. B., (University of North Carolina) 
Joseph A. HolmeSf Memorial Professor of Safety and Effi- 
ciency Engrlneering; 
Professor of Coal Mining. 

CLAUDE CORNELIUS VAN NUYS, B. S., E. M., (South Dakota 
School of Mines); A. M., (Columbia University) 
Professor of Physics 
(On leave of absence, 1918-19) 

VICTOR ZIBGLER, A. M., (Columbia University) . 
Professor of Geology and Mineralogy 

HARRY MUNSON SHOWMAN, E. M., (Colorado School of 
Mines) 

Professor of Mechanics and Civil Engineering , 
(On leave of absence, 1918-19) 

IRVING ALLSTON PALMER, B. S., M. S., (Lafayette College) 
Professor of Metallurgy 

MELVILLE FULLER COOLBAUGH, B. S., (Colorado College); 
A. M., (Columbia University) 
Professor of Chemistry 
(On leave of absence, 1918-19) 

JAMBS LYMAN MQRSE, B. S. in M. E., (Michigan Agricultural 
College); B. S., M. E., (Highland Park College) 
Professor of Mechanical Engineering 

JOSEPH S. JAFFA, L. L. B., (Columbia) 
Professor of Mining Law 

THOMAS ORR WALTON, A. B., (Kalamazoo College) 
Professor of Mathematics 



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10 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

FRANK BRHART EMMANUEL GBRMANN, A. B.. (Indiana Uni- 
versity); Dr. e. 8. Sc. (University of (Geneva, Switzer- 
land) 
Professor of Physics and Electrical Engineering 

FRANCIS MAURICE VAN TVYU A. B., M. S., (University of 
Iowa) ; Ph. D., (Columbia University) 
Associate Professor of Geology and Mineralogy 

CLAYTON WINFIELD BOTKIN. A. B.. (Indiana University); 
A. M., (University of Wisconsin) 
Associate Professor of Chemistry 

HERBERT J. SHEPHERD, 2nd Ueut. U. S. A. 

Commanding Officer, Students' Army Training Corps 

LEWIS DILLON ROBERTS, A. B., (University of Colorado) 
Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

JAMES FERRIS SEILER, B. S., (University of Michigan) 

Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering and Mathe- 
matics. 

JOSEPH WILLIAM GRAY, B. S. in E. E., (Purdue University) 
Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering 

CHARLES LESLIE FAIRBANKS PAULL, Ph. B., M. A., (Brown 
University) 
Assistant Professor of Modem Languages 

JOHN CHARLES WILLIAMS, E. M., (Colorado School of Mines) 
Assistant Director of the Experimental Ore Dressing 
and Metallurgical Plant 

LOUIS A. PACKARD, M. D., (University of Iowa) 

Medical Director and Director of Physical Training 

SAMX7EL ZETTER KRUMM, E. M. (Colorado School of Mines) 
Instructor in Mining and Metallurgy 

HENRY GEORGE SCHNEIDER. E. M. (Colorado School of 
Mines) 
Instructor in Geology and Mineralogy 

HARRY MOFFAT CRONIN, E. M. (Colorado School of Mines) 

Chemist, E^xperimental Ore Dressing and Metallurgical 
Plant 

THOMAS COURTLAND DOOLITTLE, 

Registrar and Business Manager 

PEIARL GARRISON, M. Di., (Iowa State Normal School) 
Librarian 

AUCE B. LYLE, 

Secretary to the President 

FRIEDA M. WATKINS, 
Stenographer 

ARTHUR L. RAE, 

Superintendent of Grounds and Buildings 

HENRY J. GUTH. 

Pattern Maker 

F. H. EYER, 

Stock Clerk 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 11 



SPECIAL LECTURERS 



FRANK E. SHEPARD, Denver, Colo. 

President Denver E2nsineerlng Works Company 
The Development of Modern Mill Systems 
Recent Advances In Coarse Crushing 

WALTER G. SW^RT, Duluth, Minn. 
Mining Engineer 

Recent Developments In Dry Milling 
Modern Practice In Zinc Metallurgy 
Electrostatic Ore Separation 

THOMAS B. CROWE, Victor. Colo. 
Superintendent New Portland Mill 

The Metallurgy of Cripple Creek Ores 

JOHN A. TRAYLOR, New York, N. Y. 

President Traylor Engineering Works Co. 
Jigs 

L. S. PIERCER Denver, Colo. 

The Pierce Amalgamator 

W. H. TRASK, Jr., Denver, Colo. 
Central Colorado Power Co. 
Hoisting 

JOHN L. MALM, Denver, Colo. 
Metallurgical Engineer 

The Future of Chemical Engineering 

JAMEIS M. McCLAVE, Denver, Colo. 
Metallurgist 
Ore Concentration 

PHILIP ARGALL, Denver, Colo. 
Consulting Metallurgist 
The Flotation Process 

WAYNE C. WILLIAMS, Denver, Colo. 
State Industrial Commission 

The Colorado Workmen's Compenslon Act 

NBIWCOMB CLEJVELAND, Denver, Colo. 
Ocean Accident and Guarantee Co. 

The Insurance Angle of Our Workmen's Compensation 
Act 

H. S. SHELDON, Denver, Colo. 

Vindicator Consolidated Gold Mining Co. 
Gold Mining Camps In Colorado 



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12 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

JAMES H. PLATT, Toluca, Mexico 
Mining ESngineer 

Mining Conditions In Mexico 

DR. HENRY M. PAYNE, New York, N. Y. 

Consulting Engineer, Goldflelds Consolidated Co. 
Alaska Gold Placers 
Siberian Gold Placers 

FRED CARROLL, Denver, Colo. 
State Commissioner of Mines 
Oil Flotation^ of Ores 
The Technical Man In the National Organization 

M. J. SHIELDS, M. D., Washington, D. C. 
American Red Cross Society 
First Aid to the Injured 

JOHN W. AMESSE, M. D., Denver, Colo. 
Diseases of Warm Climates • 

CHAUNCBY B. TENNANT, M. D.. Denver. Colo. 
First Aid to the Injured 

DR. A. J. LANZA, Washington, D. C. 
United States Bureau of Mines 
Miner's Consumption 

R. M. SHUMWAY, Denver, Colo. 
Rocky Mountain Fuel Co. 

Coal Deposits and Coal Mining in Colorado 

CAPTAIN GODFREY L. CARDEN, U. S. A. 
Service in the U. 8. Coast Guard 

REV. CHAS. L. MEAD, Denver, Colo. 

The Y. M. C. A. Work in France 

BENEDICT SHUBART, Denver, Colo. 
Lindrooth, Shubart & Co. 
Coal Cutting Machinery 

RICHARD A. PARKER. Driver, Colo. 

Suggestions to Young Mining Engineers 

A. J. R. CURTIS, Chicago, 111. 
Portland Cement Association 
Concrete Ships 

M. G. HODNETTE, Denver, Colo. 
German Propaganda 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 13 



LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION, HISTORY, 
ORGANIZATION, AND FINANCIAL 
SUPPORT 



LOCATION AND The Colorado School of Mines is in the 
DESCRIPTION south central part of the City of Golden, 

Jefferson County, Colorado. It occupies a 
plat of approximately twenty-three acres, picturesquely situated 
about 200 feet above the bed of Clear Creek, at the base of the 
scenic front range which lies about fifty miles to the east of 
the main range of the Rocky Mountains. Farther east, about 
thirteen miles, lies the city of Denver which can be reached by 
three railway lines: the Denver and Intermountain Railroad, 
Arapahoe Street Station; the Denver and Northwestern Railway, 
Arapahoe Street Station, or Union Depot; or the Colorado & 
Southern Railway, Union Depot. 

Golden has about three thousand inhabitants and is one 
of the oldest cities in Colorado. The altitude is five thousand 
seven hundred feet above sea level, or about four hundred fifty 
feet above Denver. The climate is invigorating and bracing, 
with open winters and a large proportion of clear days. 

The Colorado School of Mines is particularly fortunate in 
its natural surroundings and proximity to a rich, practical 
laboratory. The state of Colorado is famous for its basic indus- 
tries, the mining of gold, silver, and the baser metals, all of 
which, together with their allied branches of industry, are 
highly developed within a relatively small area, of which 
every part is easily accessible from Golden. In addition, the 
vanadium, tungsten, uranium, and radium fields are better 
represented here than in any other part of the world. In view 
of its great number and variety of mining and metallurgical 
enterprises, the state offers unexcelled opportunities for practi- 
cal study. 

The school is fortunately situated for the geologist. The 
surrounding formations not only present the strikingly clear 
features so characteristic of the west, but also occur in great 
profusion and variety. In addition, certain features peculi)ar to 
this locality afford suflBlciently complicated problems to be of 
great value to the student of geology. It is possible, therefore, 
without going more than a mile or two from the school, to 
illustrate effectively most geological problems so that field 



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14 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

geology can be carried on at the same time with class 
instruction. 

In the immediate vicinity of Golden are numerous clay 
mines which produce pottery clay and fire clay; also lime and 
stone quarries. Within a few miles are extensive coal mines 
well equipped with hoisting and power machinery; and the sites 
of dredging and placer operations. 

In Clear Creek Canon, a short distance west of Golden, are 
the historic mining Camps of Central City» Black Hawk, Idaho 
Springs, and Georgetown, where placer drift mining is carried 
on in the old river beds, and a great variety of lode mines and 
milling plants are in operation. The ores of this district vary 
from free-milling gold quartz to complex silver-lead-zinc ores. 

Farther west is the camp of Breckenridge, where placer 
mining is carried on, and the mining camps of Montezuma, 
Kokomo, and Robinson. To the southwest is the famous Lead- 
ville district, well known for its rich lead and zinc ores. West 
of Leadville is the once renowned silver mining camp of Aspen, 
and to the north of Leadville are the lead-zinc camps of RedclifF 
and Oilman. 

At the Globe plant of the American Smelting and Refining 
Company in Denver the treatment of lead ores and dry ores of 
gold and silver is illustrated. Here, also, the many mining and 
metallurgical machinery plants afPord an excellent opportunity 
for the study of recent improvements in metallurgical design. 

West of Colorado Springs are located the Portland, the 
Standard, and the Golden Cycle Mills, which treat ore from the 
Cripple Creek district. Farther west are the prominent camps 
of Victor and Cripple Creek, in which are located some of the 
famous gold mines of the world. Near Victor are the well 
known Independence, the Portland, and the Ajax Mills, where 
low-grade Cripple Creek ores are successfully treated. 

The plant of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, at Pueblo, 
possesses many approved devices for the production of iron and 
steel and for the working of these products into marketable 
forms. At Pueblo are located the Pueblo lead smeltery and the 
zinc smeltery of the United States Zinc Company. At Canon 
City is the plant of the Empire Zinc Company. The Ohio and 
Colorado smeltery is located at Salida, and the Arkansas Valley 
smeltery at Leadville. 

In the southwestern part of Colorado Is the famous San Juan 
mining district, which includes the well known camps of Ouray, 
Tellurlde, Silverton, and Lake City, where many great mines 
are located and some of the most efficient milling plants in the 
world are to be found. 

Coal mining is well represented in Colorado by the bltiiml* 
nous mines of the northern coal fields, the anthracite fields of 



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THE COLpORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 15 

Glenwood Springs, the coal fields of Trinidad, and numerous 
smaller fields. Oil fields are being developed and operated at 
Florence and at Boulder. 

Many prominent mining camps in neighboring states are 
easily reached from Golden. Among these are the great copper 
districts of Montana, Utah, and Arizona, .where the latest min- 
ing, milling, and smelting operations are in progress; the iron 
mines of Wyoming; and the gold mining camps of South Dakota. 

No other mining school In the world has within easy access 
such a wide variety of mining properties, or such excellent oppor- 
tunities for observing the latest and best milling and smelting 
operations. 

HISTORY The Colorado School of Mines was established by an 
act of the Territorial Legislature, approved Febru- 
ary 9, 1974. Since that time the School has enjoyed a strong 
and steady growth in buildings, in equipment, in students, in fac- 
ulty, and in the strength and rigor of its courses. Additions were 
made to the original buildings in 1880, by the building of 1882, and 
by the building of 1890, all of which are now united and called the 
Hall of Chemistry. The Hall of Physics was erected in 1894, 
the Assay Laboratory in 1900, and Stratton Hall in 1904. The 
Heating, Lighting, and Power Plant was completed in 1906. The 
Administration Building, named Simon Guggenheim Hall for the 
donor, was also erected in 1906. The Gsrmnasium was completed 
in 1908. The Experimental Ore Dressing and Metallurgical Build- 
ing was completed in 1912. 

ORGANIZATION The general management of the School is 
vested by statute in a Board of Trustees, 
which consists of five members appointed by the Governor of 
the state, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The mem- 
bers of the Board of Trustees are appointed in alternating sets 
of two' and three, and hold their office for a period of four years 
and until theli' successors are appointed and qualified. The Con- 
stitution of Colorado recognizes the School of Mines as an Insti- 
tution of the State. 

FINANCIAL The Colorado School of Mines is supported by 
SUPPORT the income derived from an annual mill tax of 
the state. This is known as the "School of 
Mines Tax:" 



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16 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



BUILDINGS 



SIMON GUGGENHEIM HALL This building, the gift of Senator 
— Administration Building Simon Guggenheim, was erected 

and furnished at a cost of $80,000. 
The corner-stone was laid by the A. F. and A. M. of Colorado, 
October 3, 1905. It is 164 feet long by 57 feet wide and 
is surmounted by an ornate tower. The first floor is devoted 
entirely to the department of geology and mineralogy, and 
includes lecture room, laboratory, oflBlces, two work rooms, and a 
public museum; the second floor contains the library, the oflBlces 
of the President and Registrar, the Faculty and Trustees' room; 
the third floor contains the Assembly Hall, two lecture rooms for 
mathematics, an ofllce, and the Tau Beta Pi room. The building 
was dedicated October 17, 1906. 

HALL OF CHEMISTRY This is a continuous group of brick 

buildings which comprise the build- 
ings of 1880, 1882, and 1890. The combined buildings of 1880 
and 1882 contain the main chemical laboratories. In the build- 
ing of 1890 are the ofl^ce and laboratory of the professor of chem- 
istry, the chemical lecture room, the chemical store room, the 
physics laboratory, three recitation rooms, the laboratories for 
gas, fuel and spectroscopic analysis, the freshman and sophomore 
drawing room, and the safety efl^clency laboratories. 

ASSAY BUILDING This building, forty-six by ninety-two feet, 
was built in 1900 with funds contributed 
by the late W. S. Stratton, and enlarged in 1905. The design 
and equipment of this building make it one of the best of its kind 
in the country. 

GYMNASIUM This building, costing $65,000, was completed in 
September, 1908. The first fioor contains a large 
swimming pool, shower bath, and locker room, finished in white 
marble and tiling. The second fioor contains the ofl&ces of the 
athletic director, athletic board and secretary of the Y. M. C. A.; 
the Theta Tau room and the Integral Club room. The entire 
third floor is occupied by the gymnasium room proper. This con- 
tains flfty-two hundred square feet of clear floor space and a 
balcony which provides accommodations for two hundred spec- 
tators. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 17 

HEATING, LIGHTING, The power plant, erected at a cost of 
AND POWER HOUSE $40,000, is designed to furnish light, 
heat, and power to the entire school. 
It is a simple but artistic brick building, eighty-three by one hun- 
dred twenty-two feet, with concrete floors and tile roof. The 
building is divided lengthwise into an engine room thirty-four 
feet wide, and a boiler room forty-five feet wide. A brick-lined 
steel stack one hundred twenty-five feet high carries all smoke 
to the upper air and away from the buildings. 

STRATTON HALL The corner-stone of this building was laid 
by the A. F. and A. M. of Colorado, on 
November 20, 1902, and the building was completed in January, 
1904. The first fioor contains two large lecture rooms, each with 
apparatus room and private office. One-half of the second floor 
accommodates the surveying and mechanics in one large lecture 
room, with apparatus room and private office, and the other half 
contains a class room. The third floor is devoted entirely to a 
large drafting room for the junior and senior classes. The struc- 
ture was named in honor of the late W. S. Stratton, who contrib- 
uted $25,000 toward its cost. 

THE EXPERIMENTAL This building, 100 by 150 feet, erected 
ORE DRESSING AND in 1912, was made possible by an ap- 
METALLURGICAL propriation of $100,000 by the legisla* 

BUILDING ture of Colorado. It is situated a 

short distance from the campus, on 
the bank of Clear Creek. It is intended to be not only a labor- 
atory for the use of the students in ore dressing and metal- 
lurgy, but also a testing plant for the beneflt of the mining 
industry. It is the largest and most complete plant of its kind 
in the United States. 

RESIDENCE OF This is a brick building of two and one- 

THE PRESIDENT half stories. It was built in 1888. 

CARPENTER SHOP This is well equipped for the special de- 
mands which are continually arising in 
a technical school. The work varies from ordinary repair work 
to the careful construction of special apparatus needed in the 
various laboratories. 

MACHINE SHOP This contains the necessary machinery for 
the maintenance and repair of equipment, 
and also for the construction of such apparatus as is required 
for carrying on any new or original work. 



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18 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



LABORATORIES AND EQUIPMENT 



THE EXPERIMENTAL ORE DRESSING AND 
METALLURGICAL PLANT 

The Building The experimental plant Is situated on the bank 
of Clear Creek, a few blocks from the campus 
of the school. The building is ninety-eight by one hundred 
forty-one feet eight inches on the ground floor. The frame- 
work is of structural steel resting on concrete foundations which 
have been carried down to a substantial bed of gravel. The 
walls consist of two and one-half inches of cement mortar, rein- 
forced by "hy-rlb," and are of natural cement color. The roof 
is of elaterite resting on a two-inch sheathing of matched Oregon 
flr. The ground floor is concrete and is divided into three 
benches. Above the ground floor, but covering only a part of 
the area, are two suspended floors of reinforced concrete, sup- 
ported by steel framework. The building is well lighted and 
is properly ventilated. 

Power All machinery and apparatus requiring power are oper- 
ated by alternating current motors supplied with cur- 
rent frpm the power house. For the generation of the current 
required, a producer gas-power generator unit of 100 kv-a. capac- 
ity has been installed in the power house. This unit is of West- 
inghouse design and consists of a bituminous suction gas pro- 
ducer, a vertical three-cylinder gas engine, and a direct-con- 
nected alternating current generator. 

The producer has a number of noteworthy features. The 
principal one, and the one which contributes so largely to its 
success, consists of the two distinct fire zones. This feature 
makes it possible to operate successfully on very low-grade fuel, 
and eliminates the difficulties usually arising from the tar and 
hydrocarbons given o'fC and deposited during the process of gas 
making. Ordinary Colorado lignite coal is used. From this is 
produced a cool, clean gas with a heat value of frpm 115 to 130 
B.t.u. a cubic foot. To eliminate the loss of power on account 
of a reduced intake pressure, a motor-driven, positive-pressure 
type of exhauster is used. This draws the gas from the producer 
and delivers it to the engine at a pressure corresponding to 
about four inches of water. 

The engine is of the standard Westinghouse vertical three- 
cylinder type, single acting, and using a four-stroke cycle. The 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 19 

cylinders are 15-lnch diameter by 14-inch stroke. At a speed of 
257 revolutions a minute, the engine operating on the producer 
gas, delivers 118 b.h.p. Compressed air is used for starting, and 
both engine and producer can be started readily, even though 
they have stood idle for several days. 

Direct-connected to the engine through a spring coupling 
is a 100 kv-a, 2,300-volt three-phase, 60-cycle generator. The 
current is transmitted at this voltage to the experimental plant 
where it is stepped down to the working voltage of 440. The 
installation is such that the 100 kv-a. machine can be operated 
in parallel with a steam turbine in the power house. In case 
of an emergency all power can be supplied from the turbine 
alone. 

Sections The plant contains four sections or units — sampling, 
concentration, cyanidation, and a fourth devoted to 
roasting and special features such as magnetic and electrostatic 
separation and flotation. For general equipment the plant con- 
tains a Curtis air compressor, bucket elevator, two motor oper- 
ated platform elevators which give control over all the floors, a 
Ruggles-Cole's dryer, ore bins, track scales, turn tables, and ore 
cars. 

Sampling. This section contains the following equipment: 
one Vezin sampler, one Brunton sampler, one portable feed 
hopper, one set of 8 by 20 inch Traylor rolls, one dust collector, 
accessories for finishing the sample, such as laboratory crushers 
and pulverizers, bucking board, and sample riffles, one complete 
crude oil assay furnace outfit, and equipment for chemical 
analysis. ^ 

Concentration. This section contains: one 7 by 10 inch 
Blake crusher, one 2 D Gates gymtory crusher, one set of 14 by 
30 inch P. and M. M. rolls, one set 12 by 24 inch P. and M. M. 
rolls, one 3.5-foot Huntington mill, one 3.5-foot Akron Chilean 
mill for regrlnding, one Richards pulsator Jig, one Harz Jig of 
one compartment, one Harz Jig of four compartments, one No. 
6 Wilfiey table, one Deister sand table, one Deister slime table, 
one Richards pulsator classifier, one Johnston vanner, one three 
compartment classifier, two Callow cones, five 850 lb. gravity 
stamps equipped with amalgamating plates, jone 2 foot amalga- 
mating pan made by the Denver Engineering Works Co.. Pierce 
amalgamator, and clean up pans, also grizzlies, impact and re- 
volving screens, sand pumps, elevators, and concentrate driers. 

For preliminary concentration: one Callow miniature ore 
testing plant, which includes one 24 inch Wilfiey table, one two 
compartment jig, one set hydraulic classifiers, one 6 in. by 4 
ft. amalgamating plate, one quarter-size Butchart table, one- 
quarter size Wilfiey table, and one-quarter size Card table. 



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20 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Cyanidatlon. This section contains: one 3.5 by 10 foot 
Pachuca tank, one Paterson agitator, one Dorr classifier, one 
Dorr thickener, one Butters filter, one 2 by 3 foot Oliver filter, 
one Gould wet vacuum pump, one 4 by 10 foot Denver Engineer- 
ing Works tube mill, one thickening cone, one six compartment 
zinc box, one lead lined acid tank, one filter press for zinc slime, 
solution storage tanks; also small scale apparatus in the shape 
of agitators and precipitating devices. 

Special Section. This section contains one Wetherill elec- 
tromagnetic separator, one Dings electromagnetic separator, one 
Huff electrostatic separator, two laboratory size Callow pneu- 
matic flotation cells, three laboratory size flotation machines, 
mineral separation type, one 6-cell Minerals Separation flotation 
machine, one Jones-Belmont laboratory size flotation machine. 

Provision ts made in this section for the installation of spe- 
cial machinery whereby its efficiency may be tested and com- 
parison made with standard apparatus; for testing by roasting 
and magnetic or electrostatic separation, by dry tabling, and by 
such new processes and apparatus as may, from time to time, 
come before the metallurgical and mining public. 

Research Features Besides supplying the students of the school 
with a splendid laboratory and thereby in- 
creasing the efficiency of their studies, the plant can be used as 
a research laboratory by the faculty and the alumni of the school. 

COLLECTION OF Most collections of ores are classifled 

COMMERCIAL ORES according to their mineral contents, but 
the department of mining is pursuing 
the policy of gathering average ore samples from every mining 
district. These are arranged geographically so that the typical 
ores of each mining district are placed together. Such an 
arrangement is found to be of great educational value to the 
classes in mining. The collection now numbers about 1,250 
specimens. 

MINERALOGICAL AND Under the name cabinet is em- 

GEOLOGICAL LABORATORY braced not only the display col- 
AND CABINET lections, which may perhaps be 

called the cabinet proper, but 
also the other collections that have been prepared mainly for 
the purpose of class instruction. These collections are nec- 
essarily changing from year to year, as new material is con- 
stantly being added. This new material is obtained partly by 
purchase, but mainly by direct collecting, by gifts, and by means 
of exchange with other institutions. The display collections are 
not thoroughly classified, but are arranged in different cases 
with a view to displaying certain groups of minerals, or min- 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 21 

erals from certain localities. The various collections, which 
together contain sixty-six thousand specimens, consist of dis- 
play, type, and working or study collections of minerals, fossils, 
rocks, and ores. * The rock collections Include a general collec- 
tion from different countries, one devoted to Colorado localities, 
and still others that cover particular countries or localities. 

MINER ALOGICAL Aside from the special advantages due to 
LABORATORY location, the department of geology is 

well equipped for practical teaching. The 
entire first floor of Guggenheim Hall is occupied by this depart- 
ment. The south end of the building is occupied by a commodious 
lecture room, with a seating capacity of more than a hundred, 
and by a separate mineralogical laboratory with table space for 
between fifty and sixty students, also by two small recitation 
rooms. On the extreme north end of the building is the public 
museum, devoted to a display of fine minerals. Additional space 
is provided for working rooms, office, packing, and storage 
rooms. 

METALLURGICAL The School has a fine collection of mod- 
COL LECTIONS els from the works of Theodore Oersdorf, 

Freiberg, Saxony, which illustrate types 
of furnaces in this and other countries. Each model is made to 
scale and is complete in every detail. In addition to these models 
are the following to illustrate the best modern practice: work- 
ing model of a twenty-stamp mill, on a scale of one and one-half 
inches to the foot; working model of crushing rolls; working 
model of a Dodge crusher; model of modem blast furnace for 
lead-silver ores, with water Jackets, smaller models, such as the 
complete set used in the famous Keyes and Arents lead-well suit. 
There is also a large collection of ores, ore dressing and metal- 
lurgical samples and products. 

METALLURGICAL This laboratory is equipped with appa- 
LABORATORY ratus for the study of the quantitative re- 

lations of the various agencies taking 
part in metallurgical changes. The Junker, the Mahler Bomb, and 
the Parr calorimeters, the Wanner optical, the Le Chatelier, and 
Bristol electrical pyrometers, together with several electrical 
furnaces and a Hoskin gasoline furnace, are useH for obtaining 
the desired temperature for experimentation. Desks and appa- 
ratus are provided for small-scale work in concentration, amal- 
gamation, chlorination, and cyanidation. Ten separate fiotation 
cells of the Minerals Separation Company's type and a Callow 
pneumatic cell, all power driven, are provided for the experi- 
mental work in the fiotation process. The necessary chemical 
equipment for analyses is also provided. For the physical ex- 



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22 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

amination of ores and metallurgical products, five small dissect- 
ing, two Leitz, and one Bausch and Lomb compound metallog- 
raphic microscopes are provided. The necessary standard 
screens are available. Provision for large scale' work is made in 
the experimental ore dressing and metallurgical plant. 

ASSAY This laboratory is divided into parting, bal- 

LABORATORY ance, furnace, storeroom, and office. It is 
equipped with thirty-two coal-fired muffle 
furnaces, seven Case distillate furnaces, one gasoline fur- 
nace, two Braun cupel machines, two Her cupel machines, 
and two bullion rolls, one of which is of the Braun type. In 
order to avoid dust, change of temperature, and direct sun- 
light, the balance room has no outside walls, and is lighted by 
means of skylight. The equipment includes seven special pulp 
balances, five silver balances, three gold balances, one Thomp- 
son multiple rider balance, and one Mine & Smelter Supply 
Company button balance, Wilfred Heusser type, No. 1000, sensi- 
tive to .002 milligram. This variety is selected in order to 
acquaint the student with the various mechanisms and adjust- 
ments in assay balances. Each student has his own muffle, with 
his own coal bin, pulp balance, and desk, conveniently arranged 
with regard to his furnace; he has also access in the balance 
room to the best type of assay and pulp balances. 

SURVEYING The equipment of the department for surveying 
EQUIPMENT is well adapted to the practical course given. 
For transit work there are twenty-four light 
mountain transits, of which eleven are equipped for under- 
ground surveys. There are also three heavy transits, one 
of which is of English and one of German make. In addi- 
tion to the transits there are three plane tables for taking 
topography. For leveling, seven wye levels and five dumpy 
levels of standard manufacture are used. The department is 
well supplied with leveling rods of various makes and types, 
stadia rods, tapes, hand levels, pocket transits, range poles, and 
other accessories. The instruments are manufactured by such 
well known firms as C. L. Berger & Sons, Buff & BufP, Heller A 
Brightly, Eugene Dietzgen & Co., Peter Herr & Co., W. and L, 
E. Ourley, Keuffel & Esser, William Ainsworth & Sons, Weiss 
& Heitzler, Toung & Sons, Negretti & Zambra (English), and 
Max Hildebrand (German). 

CHEMICAL The freshman, sophomore, and :unior labora- 

LABORATORIES tories accommodate two hundred and fifty 
students, and are equipped with especially 
designed tile-topped oak desks, provided with low reagent shelves, 
gas, water, filter pumps, and large porcelain sinks. The bal- 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 23 

ance'roomq are equipped with Sartorius, Becker, Ainsworth, 
and Spoerhave balances. Oas is supplied to the building from 
a 300-light Detroit gas machine, which is connected with buried 
supply tanlos outside the buildings. Good ventilation is obtained 
by means of two Sturtevant fans. 

HYDRAULIC The hydraulic laboratory contains weirs and 
LABORATORY orifice tanks for the determination of coeffi- 
cients of discharge, calibrated tanks for water 
measurements, a steel pressure tank for artificial, heads, pumps 
for water supply, and gages for pressure. A hydraulic ram 
is used to illustrate this class of apparatus and for 
testing. A long, sheet-iron trough with a car over it 
is used for calibrating current meters. Water wheels and cen- 
trifugal pumps are tested for efficiency under various condi- 
tions of head and load. A swinging tank is used to measure 
jet reactions. £Yiction losses in pipes and elbows are measured. 
Hook gages are used for the accurate determination of low 
heads. Streams and ditches in the vicinity of Golden are gaged 
by means of the current meter, by rod fioats, by slope, and by a 
Pltot tube. A two-inch Venturi meter and manometer set is used 
in measuring pipe flow. 

PHYSICAL The physical laboratory is in the basement 

LABORATORIES of the Chemistry Building. Adjoining the 
main laboratory is a balance and instru- 
ment room, and a dark rooip containing a complete Lummer- 
Brodhun photometer and an optical bench. The equipment is 
particularly adapted to the instruction of students of engineer- 
ing, and is designed to teach the principles of elasticity and 
efficiency of machines, composition and resolution of forces, 
various forms of motion, density, velocity and pitch of sound, 
focal length of lenses, magnifying power, and the principles 
of the construction of telescopes. The heat equipment is partic- 
ularly well adapted for calorimetry, heat expansion determina- 
tions, and for the determining of the mechanical equivalent of 
heat. A complete line of galvanometers, standard resistances, 
condensers, ammeters, voltmeters, dynamometers, permeameters, 
potentiometers, standard cells, and a Kelvin balance compose the 
electrical apparatus; in magnetism all the principles which un- 
derlie the construction of magnets for lifting purposes and for 
the separation of ores are demonstrated in the laboratory. 

TESTING The laboratory is provided with a motor-driven 

LABORATORY 100,000-pound Rlehle testing machine arranged 
for experiments in tension, compression, shear- 
ing, and flexure of materials. Extensometers for measuring elon- 
gations and compressions are employed. Numerous steel sec- 



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24 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

tions provide useful problems in determining centers of gravity 
and moments of inertia. 

The equipment for cement testing includes e^ 2,000-pound 
Rlehle testing machine, and a 2,000-pound Olsen automatic shot 
cement-testing machine for testing briquettes in tension. The 
specific gravity of cement is determined by means of the Le 
Chatelier apparatus. A nest of fineness sieves and a set of very 
sensitive scales equip the student for the fineness test. Setting 
is determined by means of the complete Vicat apparatus. 
Trowels, spatulas, large slate mixing boards, beakers, moulds, 
damp box, and immersing vats, .provide apparatus for the mak- 
ing and setting of briquettes and for the soundness tests. 
Moulds are used for making cubes and cylinders of concrete for 
•compression tests. The use of reinforced concrete is illustrated 
by complete models of forms for the manufacture of reinforced 
concrete columns and beams, and by numerous samples of 
various kinds of reinforcing bars. 

ELECTRICAL This laboratory is equipped with standard 
LABORATORY makes of volt-meters, ammeters, and watt- 
meters, inductive and non-inductive resist- 
ances for artificial loads, a Thomson apparatus for induc- 
tion experiments, a slip indicator for induction motors, an 
automatic speed recorder which can be used for finding the 
acceleration curves of motors, an Alden absorption dynamom- 
eter for motor testing, a contact apparatus, for alternating cur- 
rent and voltage wave form, and a split phase rotary field ap- 
paratus. The generators available for laboratory work include a 
100 kv-a, 2,300 volt, 60 cycle, 3 phase Westinghouse alternator, 
driven by a Westinghouse producer gas engine, a 75 kw. 230 
volt, 3 wire, d.c. Westinghouse generator, driven by a 112 h.p. 
2,300 volt, 3 phase, synchronous motor, a 75 kw. Bullock twin 
unit continuous current generator set, driven by a 110 h.p. De 
Laval turbine, a 30 kw. 1,100 volt, 125 cycle, single phase General 
EHectric alternator, a 15 kw. 130 volt compound, continuous 
current generator designed and built at the school, an 8 kw. 
Crocker-Wheeler generator, a 6 kw. 130 volt Westinghouse gene- 
rator, a 7.5 kw. 125 volt compound machine, a 3 kw. 5 and 10 
volt electrolytic generator, a small single phase rotary converter, 
a 2 kw. 120 volt compound Brush machine, a series arc light 
machine, and a small Edison shunt generator. The Bullock 
generators can be connected at the switchboard to supply the 
120-240 volt 3 wire lighting and power circuits, or they can 
be put in parallel and thus supply more than 600 amperes for 
■electrothermic work. The motors include a 10 h.p. 220 volt, 
60 cycle, 3 phase constant speed induction motor of General 
lElectric make, two 5 h.p* series motors with controllers, a 5 h.p. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 25 

3 phase, two-speed induction motor, used for electric drilling, a 

4 h.p. single-phase Wagner motor, a 400-2,000 rev. per min. ad- 
justable speed experimental motor designed and built at the 
school, a 20 h.p. series motor, and a large number of 3 phase 
motors and shunt machines of standard makes In daily use about 
the shops and buildings. The storage batteries of 54 cells each 
are In dally use and are available for study. In addition to 
these generators and motors, a modern 5 panel d.c. switchboard 
and 7 panel a.c. and d.c. switchboard with the usual Instru- 
ments, switches, and auxiliaries, afford excellent opportunities 
for the study of electric plant equipment. The engine room is 
utilized as a part of the dynamo laboratory, but the laboratory 
In Stratton Hall, equipped with numerous circuit outlets and 
portable instruments, is used chiefly for the study of motors 
and their auxiliaries. At present there are 78 generators and 
motors available for study. Transformers up to 80,000 volts are 
in use. 

MINING The laboratory work In mining Is carried on 

LABORATORY principally at the tunnel belonging to the 
school. The equipment here consists of 
numerous drills which are taken apart, reassembled, and used 
by the student; forges, anvils and tools for blacksmith- 
ing; the air receiver, valves, gages; fuses and switches con- 
nected with the compressed air and electric power transmission 
from the power plant; two mining cars; materials for track lay- 
ing, and all other supplies usually foun^ at a tunnel house. 
Among the makes of rock drills used by the students are Rand^ 
Ingersoll, Sergeant, Leyner, McKieman, Wood, Hardsocg, Shaw, 
IngersoU-Leyner, Dreadnaught, Waugh, and Temple-Ingersoll. 
All of the mountings, such as bars, tripods, and arms, and a 
supply of drill steel, are also provided. For the measurement 
of air consumption In drilling operations, the Clark, Drlllometer^ 
and displacement meters are Installed. Batteries, galvanome- 
ters, and rheostats are provided In connection with electric shot 
firing. In the laboratory at the school are two working size 
models of the Blelchert system of aerial trams; numerous models 
of mines; an explosive tester; a collection of rock cores taken 
by diamond drills; models of timbering methods; many mine 
maps; Instruments for measuring ventilation; lantern slides 
illustrating mining operations; samples of wire ropes and drill 
steels; lamps of the open and safety patterns; a dry placerlng 
machine; and many photographs of mines and operations. 



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26 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

MECHANICAL The heating, lighting, and power plant is well 
ENGINEERING equipped for mechanical engineering labora- 
LABORATORY tory practice. The boiler room contains the 
following principal equipment. One 200 h.p. 
and one 100 h.p. Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers, each 
equipped with a chain grate; one 80 h.p. tubular boiler equipped 
with plain grate; Oreen Engineering Company fuel economiz- 
ers; Babcock ft Wilcox independently fired super-heater; Web- 
ster feed-water heater, boiler feed and vacuum pumps and 
injectors; one Wilcox water weigher; a 125 by 6-foot self-sup- 
porting steel stack supplemented by a steam-driven 42-lnch 
Sirocco fan for induced draft; eight 25-ton steel bunkers for 
coal storage; and a 125 h.p. Westinghouse double-flow gas pro- 
ducer equipped with wet and dry scrubbers, mixing and gas 
storage tank, and motor-driven exhauster. 

The engine room contains the following principal apparatus: 
10 by 12-inch high speed Russell engine; 6 by 9-inch throttling 
Sturtevant engine; 75 kw. De Laval steam turbine geared to 
twin generators; 7 by 6-inch two-cylinder vertical Westinghouse 
Jr. engine; 15 by 14-inch three-cylinder vertical Westinghouse 
gas engine direct connected to alternator; 6.75 by 14-inch single 
Fairbanks, Morse ft Company gas engine; 8.75 by 14-inch Priest- 
man oil engine; a Studebaker four-cylinder automobile motor; 
a J. George Leyner E3ngineering Works two-stage air compress- 
or, capacity 275 cubic feet of free air per minute; and a small 
Westinghouse air-brake. 

The laboratory is well equipped with auxiliary apparatus 
such as indicators, prony brakes, Orsat apparatus, calorimeters 
and manometers, for conducting experimental work. 

SAFETY ENGINEERING The equipment consists of six sets 
LABORATORY Draeger breathing apparatus, two- 

hour type; one set Draeger breath- 
ing apparatus, one-half hour type; five sets Muess breathing 
apparatus, two-hour type; three sets Westfalia breathing 
apparatus, two-hoiir type; one set Westfalia breathing appa- 
ratus, one-half -hour type; all equipped with extra oxygen cylin- 
ders, various accessories, and supplies; four large oxygen cylin- 
ders for storage; one refilling pump; one pulmotor; one lung- 
motor; Edison, Manlite, and Wico electric lamps, with charging 
station; electric flash lights; various types of safety lamps; 
stretchers, splints, bandages, compresses, and all other necessary 
flrst aid material; fuse, squibs, electric detonators, and shot- 
firing batteries; mine telephones, mine signs, and other safety 
and efiiclency appliances. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 27 



DRAWING ROOMS 

Freshman and This occupies the upper floor of the Hall of 
Sophomore Chemistry. The floor area is about four thou- 

sand square feet. It is lighted by windows on 
the north, east, and west, and by eight large skylights in the 
roof. A suitable office for the instructors is in a central position^ 
in which all drawings are flled and all records are kept. Each 
student is provided with a drawing table, a drawer, a drawing 
board, and a stool. The present equipment accommodates about 
one hundred fifty students. There are many models to aid the 
students in their work. 

Junior and Senior The entire third floor of Stratton Hall is 
used for the junior and senior drawings. 
The room is 90 by 60 feet, lighted by windows and a large sky- 
light. Each student is provided with a drawing table, a drawer, 
a drawing board, and a stool. Most of the drawing tables are 
independent and adjustable. The room has recently been 
equipped with especially constructed tables for the advanced 
work of the seniors. The present equipment accommodates about 
160 students. There is a blue-print room fully equipped with an 
adjustable printing frame and all other necessary appliances. 
In one corner of the room is the office of the instructors, where 
all drawings and records are flled. There are for the use of the 
students a complete set of trade catalogues and a large number 
of blue prints from industrial corporations. These are kept up 
to date. 



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28 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



REQUIREMENTS FOR ENTRANCE 



FRESHMAN CLASS 

Unit Course. A unit course of study is defined as a course 
covering a school year of not less than thlrty-slx weeks, with 
five weekly periods of at least forty-five minutes each. 

Fifteen units are required for entrance, of which ten are 
specified and five may be chosen from a list of electives. 

Specified Units 

Eissentials of Algebra 1 unit 

Advanced Algebra % unit 

Plane Geometry 1 unit 

Solid Geometry l^ unit 

English 3 units 

History 2 units 

Physics 1 unit 

Chemistry 1 unit 

Specified Units 10 

Elective Units 5 

Total Units for Entrance 15 

Elective Units 
The five elective units may be selected from the following 
list: Drawing, Shop Work, Mathematics, Latin, Greek, French, 
Spanish, History, English, Science, Psychology, Political 
Economy. In allowing credit for drawing and shop work two 
forty-five minute periods will be regarded as equivalent to one 
forty-five minute period of classroom work. Half units are 
accepted in all studies except in physics and chemistry, provided 
that not less than one full unit shall be accepted in language. 

Entrance 

(a) By Certificate. 

A graduate of an accredited high school in the State of 
Colorado will be admitted ' without examination upon the pre- 
sentation of proper credentials from the principal of his high 
school, provided that the studies he has successfully completed 
cover the requirements for entrance. Blanks for this purpose 
will be sent, on application to the Registrar. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 29 

Graduates of accredited high schools In other states will be 
accepted in the same manner as graduates of accredited high 
schools in Colorado. 

(b) By Examination. 

All other candidates for admission will be required to pass 
entrance examination. These examinations are held in Golden. 

For the benefit of any student who cannot take the exam- 
ination in Golden, conveniently, on account of the distance, 
arrangements will be made so that he may take the examina- 
tion under the direction of some responsible person at his own 
home, or i^ear it. 

Entrance examinations for the class of 1923 will be held in 
Golden on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, August 27, 28 and 
29, 1919. 

It is the opinion of the Faculty of the Colorado School of 
Mines that every candidate for the freshman class should have 
taken a thorough course of at least four years in a good high 
school, or its equivalent, and during the last year of his prepara- 
tion should have had a thorough review of mathematics. Special 
attention should be given to the preparation in chemistry and 
pbysics. 

If a first year student is found to be deficient in any of the 
subjects required for entrance, the faculty reserves the right to 
require such student to remove his deficiency before proceeding 
with his regular work. 

REGISTRATION 
The first Monday and Tuesday of September are the regis- 
tration days for the first semester; and the first day of the sec- 
ond semester is the registration day for that semester. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE UNITS REQUIRED FOR ENTRANCE 

ENGLISH (3 Units) 

(a) Grammar The student should have a sufficient knowl- 
edge of English grammar to enable him to point out the syn- 
tactical structure of any sentence which he meets in the pre- 
scribed reading. He should also be able to state intelligently 
the leading grammatical principles when he is called upon to 
do so. 

(b) Reading The books prescribed by «the Joint Commit- 
tee on Uniform Entrance Requirements in English form the basis 
for this part of the work. 

The list is divided into twp parts: the first consists of books 
to be read with attention to their contents rather than to their 
form; the second consists of books to be studied thoroughly and 
minutely. 



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30 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

The lists thus divided are as follows: 

I Books prescribed for reading 

Group I (Two to be selected) 

Shakespeare's As Tou Like It, Henry V, Julius Caesar, The 
Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night 

Group II (One to be selected) 

Bacon's Essays; Irving's Life of Washington; The Sir Roger 
de Coverly Papers in The Spectator; Franklin* s Autobiography 

Group III (One to be selected) 

Chaucer's Prologue; Spencer's Faerie Queene (selections); 
Pope's The Rape of the Lock; (Goldsmith's The Deserted Village; 
Palgrave's Oolden Treasury (First Series), Books II and III, 
with especial attention to Dryden, Collins, Gray, Cowper and 
Burns 

Group IV (Two to be selected) 

Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield; Scott's Ivanhoe; Scott's 
Quentin Durward; Hawthorne's The House of the Seven Oables; 
Thackeray's Vanity Fair; Mrs. Gaskell's Cranford; Dickens' A 
Tale of TtfX) Cities; George Eliot's Silas Mamer; Blackmore^s 
Loma Doone 

Group V (Two to be selected) 

Irving's Sketch Book; Lamb's Essays of Elia; De Quincey's 
Joan of Arc and The English Mail Coach; Carlyle's Heroes and 
Hero Worship; Emerson's Essays; Ruskin's Sesame and Lilies 

Group VI (Two to be selected) 

Coleridge's The Ancient Mariner; Scott's The Lady of the 
Lake; Byron's Mazeppa and The Prisoner of Chilian; Palgrave's 
Oolden Treasury (First Series), Book IV, with especial atten- 
tion to Wordsworth, Keats, and Shelley; Macaulay's Lays of 
Ancient Rome; Poe's Poems; Lowell's The Vision of Sir Laun- 
fal; Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum; Longfellow's Evangeline; 
Tennyson's Oareth and Lynette, Lancelot and Elaine, and The 
Passing of Arthur; Browning's Cavalier Tunes, The Lost Leader^ 
How They Brought the Qood News from Ghent to Aix, Evelyn 
Hope, Home Thoughts from Abroad, Home Thoughts from the 
Sea, Incident of the French Camp, The Boy and the Angel, One 
Word More, Herve Riel, Pheidippides 

II Books prescribed for study and practice 

Shakespeare's Macbeth, Milton's Lycidas, Oomus, L* Allegro, 
and II Penseroso; Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America,. 
or Washington's Farewell Address and Webster's First Bunker 
Hill Oration; Macaulay's Life of Johnson, or Carlyle's Essay on 
Bums. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 81 

(c) Composition Regular and persistent training in both 
written and oral composition should be given throughout the 
entire school course. The topics should be so chosen as to give 
practice in the four leading types of prose discourse, namely, 
description, narration, exposition, and argument 

(d) Rhetoric The instruction in this subject should include 
the following particulars: Choice of words, structure of sen- 
tences and paragraphs, the principles of narration, description, 
exposition, and argument. 

The teacher should distinguish between those parts of 
rhetorical theory which are retained in text books merely 
through the influence of tradition and those which have a 
direct bearing upon the composition work. The former may be 
safely omitted. 

HISTORY (2 Units) 

Any two of the following periods may be offered: 

I .Ancient History, with special reference to Greek and 
Roman History, with a short introductory study of the more 
ancient nations and the chief events of the early middle ages, 
down to the death of Charlemagne 

n Mediaeval and Modem European History, from the death 
of Charlemagne to the present time 

ni English History 

IV American History, or American History and Civil Gov- 
ernment 

MATHEMATICS (3 Units) 

The courses offered by the school are so exacting that a 
thorough training in the following subjects is essential: 

I Essentials of Algebra (1 Unit) The four fundamental 
operations for rational algebraic expressions; factoring; complex 
fractions; the solution of equations of the first degree containing 
one or more unknown quantities; radicals; theory of Indices; 
quadratic equations and equations containing one or more un- 
known quantities that can be solyed by the methods of quadratic 
equations; problems dependent on such equations. 

II Advanced Algebra (% Unit) This course should begin 
with a thorough review of the essentials. Later work should 
cover an introduction to the graphical representation of linear 
and simple quadratic expressions; ratio and proportion; varia- 
tion; binomial theorem; the progressions; and logarithms. 

III Plane Geometry (1 Unit) Completed, with the solu- 
tion of original exercises and numerical problems. 



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32 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

IV Solid Geometry (% Unit) Properties of straight lines 
and planes; of dihedral and polyhedral angles; of projection; of 
polyhedrons, including prisms; of pyramids and the regular 
solids; of cylinders, cones, and spheres; of spherical triangles, 
and the mensuration of surfaces and solids. 

CHEMISTRY (1 Unit) 

The equivalent of Brownlee's Elementary Chemistry, Brad- 
bury's Elementary Chemistry, or McPherson and Henderson's 
First Course in Chemistry, with experiments. 

PHYSICS (1 Unit) 

The equivalent of Carhart and Chute's High School Physics, 
or Gage's Principles of Physics, together with systematic labora- 
tory practice such as is outlined in Crew and Tatnall's Labora- 
tory Manual in Physics. 

The two units required in languages other than English may 
be offered in Greek, Latin, French, or Spanish. 

ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING 

Applicants who are graduates of technical or scientific 
schools or colleges of good standing will be admitted without 
examination upon the presentation of proper credentials. They 
will be permitted to take any subject taught in connection with 
the regular courses, provided, in the opinion of the instructor, 
their previous experience and training will enable them to pur- 
sue the subject with profit. Each case will be Judged on its 
own merits, but applicants will be advised to become candidates 
for a degree and to compl«%te one of the regular courses of the 
school. 

Applicants who have partly completed the course in tech- 
nical or scientific schools or colleges of good standing will 
be admitted without examination upon the presentation of proper 
credentials. T>\w. credit will be allowed for the successful com- 
pletion of work which is equivalent to that given in the Colorado 
School of Mines. Plates of drawings, laboratory note books, and 
catalogues of the institution attended, should be submitted with 
applications for advanced standing. All credits given to ad- 
vanced standing students are given provisionally, with the under- 
standing that such credits may be withdrawn at any time in case 
a student fails to maintain a creditable standing. Application 
blanks will be furnished, on request to the Registrar. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 33 

DEGREES 

The degree of E. M. (Engineer of Mines) will be conferred 
upon a candidate who fulfils the following conditions: 

(a) He must complete the prescribed work of the freshman 
and sophomore years. 

(b) He must complete the required work in oAe of the 
groups: Metal Mining, Coal Mining, Metallurgy, or Mining Geol- 
ogy, and enough additional elective work to make a total of 
one hundred credit hours. The presentation of a thesis is 
optional, but if presented six credit hours are allowed for it. 

No diploma will be delivered until the full requirements of 
the course of study are satisfied, and all accounts with the school 
are settled. 

The degree of M. S. (Master of Science) may be conferred 
upon a candidate who already holds a degree from this school 
or an equivalent degree from a similar institution of good stand- 
ing, and whose application for such degree shall have been ap- 
proved by the faculty; provided, that the candidate completes 
work equivalent to fifty credit hours, chosen with the approval 
of the faculty, and presents an acceptable thesis. Before being 
accepted as a candidate the applicant must file a record of his 
previous attainments. 



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34 



THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 



DEPARTMENTS OF INSTRUCTION 



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 



TABULAR VIEW 
FRESHMAN YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 







s& 


74 


3 




75 


2 




44 


5 




44 


1 




45 




6 


78 


2 




78 




6 


68 


3 




113 


2 





SECOND SEMESTER 






ijffi 



H^M 



Required 

Mathematics I 

Mathematics II 

Chemistry I 

Chemistry HI 

Chemistry V 

Mechanical Engineering 

I 

Mechanical Engineering 

II 

Geology and Mineralogy 

I 

Physical Training. . 
Military Art 

Elective 
Spanish I 



Required 

Mathematics III 

Mathematics IV 

Chemistry II 

Chemistry IV 

Chemistry VI 

Mechanical Engineering 

III 

Mechanical Engineering 

IV 

Geology and Mineralogy 

II 

Civil Engineering I.. 
Physical Training . . . 
Military Art 

Elective 
Spanish n 



75 
76 
44 
45 
45 

78 

79 

68 
50 



113 



Civil Engineering II (page 51) is given during six weeks of 
the summer following the close of the freshman year. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



35 



TABULAR VIEW 
SOPHOMORE YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 



OS ►j 



SEKIOND SBMESTER 



60 
OS 



M 



3ffi 



Required 

Mathematics V 

Physics I 

Physics II 

Chemistry VII^ 

Chemistry IX 

Mechanical Elngineerlng 

V 

Mechanical Engineering 

VI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

in 

Metal Mining I .... 
Physical Training ... 
Military Art 

Elective 

Spanish III 

Mathematics VH 



76 

103 

104 

46 

46 

79 

79 

69 
92 



114 

77 



6 
6 

I 3 

6 



Required 

Mathematics VI 

Physics III 

Physics IV 

Chemistry VIII 

Chemistry X 

Mechanical Engineering 

VII 

Mechanical Engineering 

VIII 

Geology and Mineralogy 

IV 

Metal Mining II 

Physical Training 

Military Art 

Elective 

Spanish IV 

Mathematics VIII 



77 1 3 
104 I 5 
104 

46 

46 



80 
80 



69 
93 



114 
77 



^i 



Metal Mining III (page 93) is given during the four weeks 
of the summer following the close of the sophomore year. 

Metal Mining IV (page 94) is given for two weeks of the 
summer following the close of the sophomore year. 



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36 



THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP I METAL MINING 

JUNIOR YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 



& 




k 


65 


1 

1 


80 


1 
1 




81 




6 


85 


1 




85 




9 


86 


5 




94 




3 


95 


2 I 


96 


2 


96 


1 


105 


3 

! 


48 


2 


56 


2 


70 


3 


70 


2 


61 


3 


61 


3 


105 


2 


109 


1 


110 


1 3 


114 


1 


1 
1 

1 



SECOND SEMESTE^R 



04 






3& 



Required 

English I 

Mechanical Engineering 

IX :.... 

Mechanical Engineering 

X 

Metallurgy I 

Metallurgy II 

Metallurgy III 

Metal Mining V ... 
Metal Mining VI . . 
Metal Mining VIII. 
Metal Mining IX... 
Physics V 

Elective 

Chemistry XV 

Coal Mining I 

Geology and Mineralogy 

V 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VI 

Electrical Engineering I 
Electrical Engineering 

II 

Physics VI 

Military Art 

Safety Engineering I 
Safety Engineering II 
Spanish V. . . , 



Required 
Civil Engineering III. 

English II 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VII 

Mechanical Engineering 

XI 

Mechanical Engineering 

XII 

Metallurgy IV 

Metal Mining VII 

Metal Mining X 



Elective 



Chemistry XIII 

Chemistry XIV 

Civil Engineering IV. 

Coal Mining II 

Electrical Engineering 

III 

Electrical Engineering 

IV 

Metallurgy VI 

Military Art 

Physics VIII ;. . 

Safety Engineering III 
Safety Engineering IV. 
Spanish VI 



51 3 
65 1 



71 
81 



81 

86 3 

95 2 

96 ' 3 



47 I 1 

48 ' 
52 

56 I 2 

62 i 3 

62 

87 

106 
111 1 
112 
114 1 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



37 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP I METAL MINING 

SENIOR TEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 









3» 



BECOITD SBUESTEDEt 



& 




66 


1 


98 


2 


99 


1 


100 


1 


49 




52 


2 


53 




54 




54 




58 


2 


69 


2 


59 


1 


60 




60 




64 


2 


64 




72 


2 


72 


3 


83 


2 


84 




88 


3 


89 




90 




102 


1 


106 


1 


107 


2 


107 





a^ 



Required 

English III 

Mechanical Engineering 

XIV 

Mechanical Engineering 

XV 

Metallurgy VII 

Metallurgy VHI 

Metal Mining XI 

Metal Mining XIII 

Elective 

Chemistry XVI 

Civil Engineering VII.. 
Electrical Engineering 

V 

Electrical Engineering 

VI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

X 

Hygiene and Camp San 

itation I 

Mechanical Engineering 

XIII 

Mechanical Engineering 

XVI 

Metallurgy XIV 

Metallurgy XVII... 

Military Art 

Mining Law I 

Physics IX 

Thesis. Credit three 

hours. 



66 


1 




82 


2 




83 




6 


.87 


4 




87 




6 


97 


2 




98 


2 




48 




3 


53 




6 


63 


2 




63 




6 


72 


2 




73 


1 




82 


2 




83 


2 




90 


2 




91 


1 




102 


1 




106 


1 





Required 

English IV 

Metal Mining XII. 
Metal Mining XIV 
Metal Mining XV. 



Elective 

Chemistry XVII 

Civil Engineering V... 
Civil Elnglneering VI. . . 
Civil Engineering VIII. 
Civil Engineering IX... 

Coal Mining V 

Coal Mining VI 

Coal Mining VII 

Coal Mining VIU 

Coal Mining IX 

Elec. Engineering VII. 
Elec. Engineering VIII. 
Geology and Mineralogy 

XI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

xn 

Mech. Eng. XVII.. 
Mech. Eng. XVIII. . 

Metallurgy X 

Metallurgy XI 

Metallurgy XVI.... 

Military Art 

Mining Law II 

Physics X 

Physics XI 

Physics XII 

Thesis. Credit three 

hours. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP n COALMINING 

JUNIOR YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 












SECOND SEMESTER 



bo 






3ffi 



Required 

Coal Mining I 

E«ngUsh I 

Metallurgy I 

Metallurgy n 

Metallurgy in 

Metal Mining V 

Metal Mining VI 

Physics V 

Safety Engineering I.. 
Safety Engineering II. 



Elective 
Electrical Engineering 

I 

Electrical Ekigineering 

n 

Geology and Mineralogy 

V 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VI 

Mechanical E^ngineerlng 

DC 

Mechanical Engineering 

X 

Metal Mining VIII. . . 
Metal Mining DC.... 

Military Art 

Physics VII 

Spanish V 



66 

65 

85 

85 

86 

94 

96 

105 

109 

110 



61 

61 

70 

70 

80 

81 
96 
96 

105 
114 



3 
2 

1 

2 

I 1 



Required 
Civil Engineering III 

Coal Mining II 

English n 

Mechanical Engineering 

XI 

Mechanical ESngineering 

XII 

Metallurgy IV 

Metal Mining VII 

Safety Elngineering III. 
Safety Engineering IV. 

Elective 
Civil Engineering IV. . . 
Geology and Mineralogy 

VII 

Electrical Engineering 

III 

Electrical ESngineering 

IV 

Metal Mining X 

Metallurgy VI 

Military Art 

Physics VIII 

Spanish VI 



51 


3 1 


56 


2 


65 


1 


81 


1 


81 




86 


3 



96 
111 
112 



52 
71 
62 

62 

96 
87 

106 
114 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 



39 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP 11 COALMINING 

SENIOR TEAR 



FIRST SEMESTBR 



9 


«i 




I 


U 


3£ 


65 


1 




57 


2 




68 




3 


82 


2 




83 




6 


48 




3 


63 




6 


68 


2 




63 




6 


72 


2 

1 




82 


2 




83 


2 




87 


4 




87 




3 


90 


2 




91 


1 




97 


2 




102 


1 




106 


1 





SECOND SEMESTER 



I 


h 


66 


1 


58 


2 


69 


2 


59 


1 


60 




60 




49 




52 


2 


53 




54 




64 




64 


2 


64 




-72 


2 


72 


3 


83 


2 


84 




88 


3 


89 




98 


2 


99 


1 


100 


1 


102 


1 


106 


1 


107 


2 


107 





!^ 



Required 

English m 

Coal Mining ni. . . . 
Coal Mining IV. . . . 
Mechanical Engineering 

XIV 

Mechanical Engineering 

•XV 

Elective 

Chemistry XVI 

CiTil Engineering VII. . 
ESectrical ESngineering 

V 

EHectrical Engineering 

VI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

X 

Hygiene and Camp San- 

itation I 

Mechanical Engineering 

xin 

Mechanical Engineering 

XVI 

Metallurgy VII 

Metallurgy VIII.... 

Metallurgy XIV 

Metallurgy XVII. . . 
Metal Mining XI... 

Military Art 

Mining Law I..... 

Physics IX 

Thesis. Credit three 

hours. 



Required 

English IV 

Coal Mining V 

Coal Mining VI 

Coal Mining VII 

Coal Mining Vni 

Coal Mining IX 

Elective 

Chemistry XVII 

Civil Engineering V 

Civil Engineering VI. . . 
Civil Engineering VHI. 
Civil ESngineerlng IX. . . 
EHec. ETnglneering VII. . 
Enec. Engineering VIII. 
Geology and Mineralogy 

XI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

XII 

Mechanical Engineering 

xvn 

Mechanical Engineering 

xvin 

Metallurgy X 

Metallurgy XI 

Metol Mining XII.. 
Metal Mining XIV. 
Metal Mining XV. . 

Militory Art 

Mining Law II 

Physics X 

Physics XI 

Physics XII 

Thesis. Credit three 

hours. 



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40 



THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP III METALLURGY 

JUNIOR YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 



s 


k 


i& 


47 


1 




47 




6 


65 


1 




85 


.1 




85 


! 9 II 


86 


5 




95 


2 




105 


3 




48 


2 




56 


2 




61 


3 




61 




3 


70 


3 




70 


2 




80 


1 




81 




6 


96 


2 




105 


2 




105 




3 


109 


1 




114 


1 





SECONB SEMESTER 



2» 



S& 



Required 

Chemistry XI 

Chemistry XII... 

English I 

Metallurgy I 

Metallurgy II — 
Metallurgy III . . . 
Metal Mining VI 
Physics V 



Elective 

Chemistry XV 

Coal Mining I 

Electrical Engineering I 
Electrical Engineering 

II 

Geology and Mineralogy 

V 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VI 

Mechanical ESngineering 

IX 

Mechanical Engineering 

X 

Metal Mining VIII... 

Military Art 

Physics VI 

Physics VII 

Safety Engineering I. 
Spanish V 



Required 

Chemistry XIII 

Chemistry XIV 

Civil Engineering III. . 

English II 

Metallurgy IV 

Metallurgy VI 

Metallurgy IX 

Metallurgy XII 

Metallurgy XIII 

Metal Mining VII 

Elective 
Civil Engineering IV. . 

Coal Mining II 

Electrical Engineering 

in 

Electrical Engineering 

IV 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VII 

Metal Mining X 

Military Art 

Physics Vin 

Safety Engineering III 
Spanish VI 



47 
48 
51 
65 
86 
87 
88 
89 
89 
95 



52 
56 

62 

62 

71 
96 

105 
111 
114 



2 
3 

3 
1 3 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 



41 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP III METALLURGY 

SENIOR YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 






'J 






SECOND SEMBSTim 



? 


h 


66 


1 


88 


3 


89 




49 




52 


2 


63 




54 




54 




58 


2 


59 


2 


59 


1 


60 




60 




64 


2 


64 




72 


2 


72 


3 


83 


2 


84 




90 




98 


2 


99 


1 


100 


1 


102 


1 


106 


1 


107 


2 


107 





!fi 



Required 

English III 

Metallurgy VII..'. 
Metallurgy VIII. 
Metallurgy XIV.. 
Metallurgy XV... 



Elective 



Chemistry XVI 

Civil ESngineering VII. 

Coal Mining III 

Electrical Engineering 

V 

Electrical Engineering 

VI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

X 

Hygiene and Camp San- 
itation I '.. 

Mechanical Engineering 

XIII 

Mechanical Engineering 

XVI 

Metallurgy XVII 

Metal Mining XI.... \ 
Metal Mining xm.... 

Military Art 

Mining Law I 

Physics IX 

Thesis. Credit three 

hours. 



65 
87 
87 
90 
90 



48 

53 \ 
57 

63 

63 

72 

73 

82 

83 
91 
97 
98 

102 
106 



Required 

English IV 

Metallurgy X... 
Metallurgy XI. . 



Elective 

Chemistry XVII 

Civil Engineering V 

Civil ESngineering VI. . . 
Civil Engineering VIII. 
Civil Engineering DC. . . 

Coal Mining V 

Coal Mining VI 

Coal Mining VII 

Coal Mining VIII 

Coal Mining IX 

ESlec. Engineering VII.. 
EJlec. £<ngineering VIII. 
Geology and Mineralogy 

XI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

XII 

Mech. Eiig. XVII 

Mech. Eng. XVIII 

Metallurgy XVI 

Metal Mining XII 

Metal Mining XIV 

Metal Mining XV 

Military Art 

Mining Law II 

Physics X 

Physics XI 

Physics XII 

Thesis. Credit three 

hours. 



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42 



THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP IV MINING GEOLOGY 

JUNIOR YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 



Required 

English I 

Geology and Mineralogy 

V 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VI 

Metallurgy I 

Metallurgy II....... 

Metallurgy III 

Metal Mining V... 
Metal Mining VI.. 
Physics V 

Elective 

Chemistry XI 

Chemistry XII 

Chemistry XV 

Coal Mining I 

Mechanical Engineering 

DC 

Mechanical Engineering 

X 

Metal Mining VIII... 

Metal Mining IX 

Military Art 

Physics VI 

Physics VII 

Safety Engineering I 
Safety Engineering II 
Spanish V 



& 


M 


is 


65 


1 




70 


3 




70 


2 




85 


1 




85 




9 


86 


5 




94 




3 


95 


2 




105 


3 




47 


1 




47 




6 


48 


2 




56 


2 




80 


1 




81 




6 


96 


2 




96 


1 




105 


2 




105 




3 


109 


1 




110 




3 1 


114 


1 


1 



SECOND SEMESTER 



Required 
Civil Engineering III. . . 

English n 

Geology and Mineralogy 

VII ..! 

Metallurgy IV 

Metal Mining VII 

Eiectlvtt 

Chemistry XIH 

Chemistry XIV 

Civil Engineering IV. . 

Coal Mining II 

Electrical Engineering 

III 

Electrical Engineering 

IV 

Mechanical Engineering 

XI 

Mechanical Engineering 

XII 

Metallurgy VI 

Metallurgy IX 

Metallurgy XII 

Metallurgy XIII 

Metal Mining X 

Military Art ^ . . 

Physics VIII ^. 

Safety Engineering III. 
Safety Engineering IV. 
Spanish VI 



51 
65 

71 
86 
95 



47 
48 
62 
66 

62 

62 

81 

81 
87 
88 
89 
89 
96 

106 
111 
112 
114 



9*- 



^X 



Geology and Mineralogy XIII (page 73). Credit three hours. 
This course is required and is given for four weeks during the 
summer following the close of the junior year. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



43 



TABULAR VIEW 

GROUP IV MINING GEOLOGY 

SENIOR YEAR 



FIRST SEMESTER 



i 



M 



s& 



SECOND SEMESTER 



^ 
Su 

M 



s& 



Required 

English m 

Geology and Mineralogy 

vm or IX 

Geology and Mineralogy 

X 



Elective 

Chemistry XVI 

Civil Engineering VII . . 

Coal Mining in 

Coal Mining IV 

Electrical Engineering 
V 

Electrical Engineering 
VI 

Hygiene and Camp San- 
itation I 

Mechanical Engineering 
xra 

Mechanical Engineering 
XVI 

Metallurgy VIl...... 

Metallurgy VIII 

Metallurgy XIV 

Metallurgy XVn 

Metal Mining XI.... 

•Metal Mining XIII. . . 

Military Art 

Mining Law I 

Physics DC 

Thesis. Credit three 
hours. 



65 
71 
72 



48 
53 
67 
58 



63 
73 

82 

83 
87 
87 
9o 
91 
97 
98 

102 
106 



Required 

English IV 

Geology and Mineralogy 

XI 

Geology and Mineralogy 

xn 

Elective 

Chemistry XVII 

Civil Engineering V 

Civil Engineering VI. . . 
Civil Engineering Vin. 
Civil Engineering IX. . . 

Coal Mining V 

Coal Mining VI 

Coal Mining VII 

Coal Mining VIII. 

Coal Mining IX 

Elec. EUiglneering VII.. 
EHec. Engineering VIII . 

Mech. Eng. XVIII 

Metallurgy X 

Metallurgy XI 

Metallurgy XVI. 

Metal Mining XII...... 

Metal Mining XIV 

Metal Mining XV 

Military Art 

Mining Law n 

Physics X • 

Physics XI 

Physics XII 

Thesis. Credit three 
hofkrs. 



66 
72 
72 



49 
52 
53 
54 
54 
58 
59 
59 
60 
60 
64 
64 
84 
88 
89 
90 
98 
99 
100 

102 
106 
107 
107 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



44 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 



CHEMISTRY 



Cfayton Winfleid Botkin, Associate Professor 
Lewis Dillon Roberts, Assistant Professor 



The courses in Chemistry are arranged especially for the 
needs of the mining and metallurgical engineer. These branches 
of engineering demand a thorough understanding of the laws 
and theories of inorganic chemistry, and the ability to apply 
this knowledge to analytical and industrial problems. 

I GENERAL CHEMISTRY Lectures 

The fundamental principles of Chemistry are taught in this 
course. Emphasis is laid upon the nature of chemical reactions 
and the forces which influence them. The work also includes a 
study of the non-metallic elements and compounds, with special 
reference to their production and industrial uses. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements. 

Text: Smith, General Chemistry for Colleges 

Lectured and recitations five hours a week during the first 
semester of the freshman year. 

Required of all students. (L. D. Roberts.) 

II GENERAL CHEMISTRY Lectures 

This course is a continuation of Course I and deals with the 
chemistry of the metallic elements and their compounds. The 
cement, glass, clay, and alkali industries are considered, and 
elementary metallurgy is introduced in connection with the more 
important metals. 

Prerequisite: Course I 

Text: Smith, General Chemistry for Colleges 

Lectures apd recitations five hours a week daring the second 
semester of the freshman year. 

Required of all students. (L. D. Roberts.) 

III QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Lectures 

The principles of qualitative analysis are emphasized in this 
course, and consideration is given to the relative solubility of 
substances, oxidation and reduction reactions, and the reactions 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 45 

involved in the systematic analysis of the common inorganic 
substances. The aim of this course is to teach rapid, accurate 
analytical analysis methods and to serve as an introduction to 
Quantitative analysis. 

Prerequisite: Entrance requirements 

Texts: A. A. Noyes, Qualitative Analysis 

Treadwell-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 1 
One hour a week during the first semester of the freshman 
year 

^ Required of all students. (L. D. Roberts.) 

IV QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Lectures 

This is a continuation of Course III and deals with the prob- 
lems involved in the solution of mineraJs, alloys, industrial and 
commercial products and with their special methods of analysis. 
Prerequisites: Courses I and III 

Texts: A. A. Noyes, Qualitative Analysis 

TreadwellHall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 1 
One hour a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (L. D. Roberts) 

V QUAUTATIVE ANALYSIS Laboratory 

This covers the separation and detection of the cations and 
anions involved in the analysis of solutions and dry substances. 
Prerequisite: Entrance requirements 

Texts: A. A. Noyes, Qualitative Analysis 

Treadwell-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 1 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the freshman 
year. 

Required of all students. (L. D. Roberts, Botkin) 

VI QUAUTATIVE ANALYSIS Laboratory 

This is a more advanced qualitative analysis and includes 
the separations and detections involved in the analysis of ores, 
slags, alloys, industrial and commercial products, and some of 
the rarer elements. 

Prerequisites: Courses I, III, and V 

Texts: A. A. Noyes, Qualitative Analysis 

Treadwell-Hall, Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 1 

Six hours a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (L. D. Roberts. Botkin) 



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46 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

VII QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Lectures 

The aim of this course Is to study the general principles of 
gravimetric analysis as applied to simple precipitation methods, 
and the principles of volumetric analysis as applied to titration 
methods which involve the use of acids and alkalies. 

Prerequisites: Courses IV and VI 

Texts: Olsen, Quantitative Analysis 

Botkin, Quantitative Determinations 

One hour a week during the first semester of the sophomore 
year. , 

Required of all students. (Botkin) 

VIII QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Lectures 

This course involves a study of oxidation, reduction, electro- 
lytic methods and the application of the methods most frequently 
used in the analysis of ores, slags, alloys, and industrial products. 
Prerequisite: Course VII 

Texts: Olsen, Quantitative Analysis 

Botkin, Quantitative Determinations 
One hour a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Botkin) 

IX QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Laboratory. 

Simple salts are analyzed gravimetrially; standard solutions 
are prepared and unknown substances are determined by titra- 
tion metho.ds. 

Prerequisites: Courses IV and VI 

Tests: Olsen, Quantitative Analysis 

Botkin, Quantitative Determinations 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the sophomore 
year. 

Required of all students. (L. D. Roberts, Botkin) 

X QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Laboratory 

The course deals with mineral analysis, including mainly 
volumetric methods and their application to industrial and 
smelter practice. Simple alloys, ores of the common metals, 
slags, and mattes are analyzed. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and IX 

Texts: Olsen, Quantitative Analysis 

Botkin, Quantitative Determinations 

Six hours a week during the second semester of the soph- 
omore year. 

Required of all students. (L. D. Roberts, Botkin) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 47 

XI ADVANCED QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Lectures 
Credit one hour 

This work is an extension of the quantitative analysis of the 
'sophomore year and includes determinations of sulphur, silica, 
phosphorus, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, tita- 
nium, and uranium in ores, and the analysis of waters and boiler 
scale. 

Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 

Text: Low, Technical Methods of Ore Analysis 
References: Lord and Demorest, Metallurgical Analysis 
One hour a week during the first semester of the Junior year. 
Required in Group III. (Botkin) 

XII ADVANCED QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Laboratory 
Credit two hours. 

Laboratory practice to cover subjects treated in Course XI. 
Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 

Text: Low, Technical Methods of Ore Analysis 
Reference: Lord and Demorest, MetaHurgical Analysis 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the junior year. 
Required in Group III. (Botkin) 

XIII METALLURGICAL ANALYSIS Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course is to familiarize the student with the analytical 
methods used in conjunction with metallurgical processes. The 
subjects taught are the technical methods connected with the 
metallurgy of iron and steel, zinc, lead, copper, bismuth, mercury, 
cadmium, tin, nickel, cobalt, and the rarer elements of com- 
mercial importance. 

Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 

Text: Lord and Demorest, Metallurgical Analysis 
References: Johnson, Chemical Analysis of Special Sleels, 
Steel-Making Alloys and Graphites 
Scott, Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis 

One hour a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required of Group III. (Botkin) 



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48 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES . 

XIV METALLURGICAL ANALYSIS Laboratory 
Credit two hours. 

Laboratory practice to cover subjects treated in Course XIII 
Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 

Text: Lord and Demorest, Metallurgical Analysis 
References: Johnson, Chemical Analysis of Special Steels, 
Steel-Making Alloys and Graphites 
Scott, Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis 

Six hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required of Group III. (Botkin) 

XV PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Lectures (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

A study of the laws and theories underlying chemical phe- 
nomena from the standpoint of their application to the problems 
of the chemist and the metallurgist. Some of the subjects con- 
sidered are: theories of atomic structure and properties; the 
periodic law; solutions; electrolytes; colloids; chemical equilib- 
rium; velocity of chemical action; catalysis and thermo-chem- 
Istry. 

Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 

Text: Walker, Introduction to Physical Chemistry 
References: Senter, Outlines of Physical Chemistry 

Washburn, Principles of Physical Chemistry 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. (Botkin) 

XVI OIL AND OIL SHALE ANALYSIS Laboratory (Elective) 

Credit one hour. 

This course includes a study of the distillation of oil shale 
and of the refining methods for shale oil and petroleum. In the 
laboratory oil shales are analyzed for yield of oil and ammonium 
sulphate. Tests are made on crude petroleum and shale oil to 
determine the specific gravity, fiash point, viscosity, solidifying 
point, per cent of water and sulphur, yield of gasoline, kerosene, 
lubricating oil, paraffin, coke, asphalt, and aromatic hydrocar- 
. bons. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 49 

Prerequisites: Chem. VIII and X 
References: Bulletin 641F, U. 8. Q. 8. 
Bulletin 581A, U. 8. Q. 8. 
Lunge, Vol. Ill, Part I 
Bacon and Hamor, Vol. I and II 

Three hours a week during first semester of the senior year. 

(Botkin) 

XVII ROCK ANALYSIS Laboratory (Elective) 

Credit one hour. 

Analysis of rocks, clays and the materials used in the potash 
industry. 

Prerequisites: Courses VIII and X 

References: Hillebrand, The Analysis of 8lllcate and Car- 
bonate Rocks 
Washington, Manual of the Chemical Analy- 
sis of Rocks 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (L. D. Roberts) 



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50 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



CIVIL ENGINEERING 



James Ferris Seiler, Assistant Professor 



The aim of this department is to train the student in 
such subjects of civil engineering as may be required of a mining 
engineer. This includes a knowledge of plane surveying, ana- 
lytical and applied mechanics, structural design, and hydraulics. 

I THEORY OF PLANE SURVEYING Lectures 

In this course the student is first made familiar with the 
various kinds of surveying instruments and their uses. Careful 
instruction in the elementary principles of surveying, supple- 
mented witli numerous examples covering every phase of the 
work is designed to make the student both rapid and accurate 
in the calculations of the various kinds of problems likely to be 
met with in this work. The course is systematically arranged, 
taking up first general methods of measurement by means of the 
steel tape or chain, comparison to a standard unit at a given 
temperature, followed by examples in the making and reduction 
of transit and level notes, together with a brief study of stadia 
and plane table methods. City, land, and railroad surveying are 
taken up in turn, together with parting of land, traverses, and 
the more simple cases of triangulation; also the reduction of 
solar observations for a true meridian. The student is especially 
impressed with the importance of minute observation and the 
keeping of clear and concise notes. 
Prerequisites: Math. I and II 

Text: Breed and Hosmer, Plane Surveying, Vol. I 
References: Johnson and Smith, Theory and Practice of 
Plane Surveying 
Breed and Hosmer, Higher Surveying, Vol. 2 
Wilson, Topographic Surveying 
Tracy, Plane Surveying 
One hour a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Seller) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 61 

II PRACTICE OF PLANE SURVEYING Lectures and Field 

Work 

The field work in plane surveying is conducted in the vlein- 
ity of Golden and takes up the actual work of chaining, the run- 
ning of peg and profile levels, triangulation, traversing, and 
numerous exercises with the transit. A topographical map of 
an extended territory is made by each squad with the transit 
and stadia. In addition, several days are spent with the plane 
table in rapid mapping. At all times the combination of accuracy 
with economy of time is emphasized. Lectures are held as often 
as necessary to give detailed instruction in the adjustment and 
manipulation of instruments. 

Prerequisite: Course I 

References: Searles, Field Engineering 

Pence and Ketchum, Surveying Manual 
Johnson and Smith, Theory and Practice of 

Plane Surveying 
Breed and Hosmer, Higher Surveying, Vol. 2 
Wilson, Topographic Surveying 

Six weeks in the spmmer following the close of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Seller) 

III MECHANICS OF ENGINEERING Lectures 

Credit three hours. 

This course comprises a study of elastic bodies; stresses 
and strains; compression, shear; torsion and flexure; 
combined stresses; safe loads; oblique forces; long columns; 
hooks; simple and continuous beams. The course also includes 
a brief study of the graphical method of determining the elastic 
curve and deflection of beams under load, and long columns un- 
der eccentric loading. 

Prerequisite: Physics V 

Texts: Boyd, Strength of Materials 
Greene, Structural Mechanics 
References: Merriman, Mechanics of Materials 

Burr, Elasticity and Resistance of the Mate- 
rials of Engineering 
Lanza, Applied Mechanics 
Cambria and Carnegie Handbooks 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV (Seller) 



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52 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

IV TESTING LABORATORY (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

In this course tests are made to determine the strength and 
resistance of building materials, such as cast iron, wrought iron, 
steel, plain and reinforced concrete, and wood in tension, com- 
pression, and shearing. Stone and brick are examined for abra- 
sion, absorption, disintegration, and other qualities which deter- 
mine their economic values. Morever, a wide range of experi- 
ments are made on statically indeterminate structures to find the 
reactions, for which empirical formulae are deduced. ESarth 
pressures on retaining walls are experimented with and methods 
for proper designs are developed. Tests of cement are made as 
specified by the American Society for Testing Materials. 

Prerequisite: This course must be taken in conjunction with, 

or subsequent to. Course III 
References: Merriman, Mechanics of Materials 

Burr, Elasticity and Resistance of the Mate- 
rials of Engineering 
Lanza, Applied Meciianics 
Martens, Handbook of Testing Materials 
Hatt and Schofield, Laboratory Manual of 
Testing Materials 

Six hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. (Seller) 

V HYDRAULICS Lectures (Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

This course opens with a brief treatment of hydrostatics, 
taking up the properties of fluids in motion, and includes the 
flow of liquids through pipes and oriflces and over weirs; fluid 
friction and consequent losses of head. Special emphasis is 
placed on Bernoulli's Theorem or the theorem of conservation 
of energy, as the basis for the solution of all problems relating 
to the flow of water in pipes and channels. The student is made 
familiar with empirical formulae which have been deduced 
through experiment by recognized authorities on hydraulics and 
numerous and varied problems involving the flow of water 
through pipes, are solved, and graphical methods for solving 
resultant equations which cannot be evaluated analytically are 
illustrated. The Impulse and resistance of fluids is studied; the 
action of pumps and rams; the impulse water motor; overshot, 
breast, and undershot water wheels; back watier; theorem for 
flow in revolving pipe; turbine and reaction wheels. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 53 

Prerequisite: Physics V 

Text: Daugherty, Hydraulics 
References: Merrlman, Treatise on Hydraulics 
Hughes and Safford, Hydraulics 
Russell, Textbook on Hydraulics 
Church, Hydraulics 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Seller) 

VI HYDRAUUCS Laboratory (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

Measurements are made of flow over weirs, through ori- 
fices, and through flumes and ditches. The determination of the 
experimental law of flow In pipes also forms part of the course. 
Water-wheels and centrifugal pumps are tested and their effi- 
ciency under various conditions is determined. 

Prerequisite: This course can be taken only In conjunction 

with Course V 
References: Church, Hydraulics 

Merrlman, Treatise on Hydraulics 
Williams and Hazen, Hydraulic Tables 
King, Handbook of Hydraulics 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Seller) 

Vn ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION Lectures and Drawing 
(Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

In this course instruction is given in graphical analysis of 
the stresses of framed structures of the simpler forms. Com- 
parison is made with the algebraic solutions of the same prob- 
lems as far as possible. The design of roof and bridge trusses 
in steel Is then taken up from the theoretical and practical 
points of view. Steel mill buildings are thoroughly discussed, 
an analysis of all stresses Involved is made, and a complete de- 
sign is required from each student. In connection therewith the 
forms, covering, lighting, ventilation, erection, and similar top- 
ics are carefully considered. The design and construction of 
steel head-frames and ore bins are taken up in detail. 

Prerequisite: This course may be taken only with the con- 
sent of the instructor 
Texts: Ketchum, Steel Mill Buildings 
Lecture Notes 



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64 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

References: Ketchum, Structural Englneer'a Handbook 

Morris, Designing and Detailing Simple Steel 

Structures 
Cambria Steei 
Lectures and drawing six hours a week during the first 
semester of the senior year. (Seiler) 

VIII STRUCTURAL DETAILS Lectures and Drawing (Elect- 

ive) 
Credit two hours. 
^ This course is a study of the methods of framing heavy tim- 
ber. The student is first made familiar with the terms of fram- 
ing, such as housing, notching, mortise and tenon, dovetailing, 
lag-screws, dowels and lugs, and from accepted unit stresses, he 
is led to design Joints, splices, deepened beams, trussed beams, 
and head-frames from wood. A complete design of a combina- 
tion wood and steel truss is required from each student. A brief 
study is made of the ordinary timbers used in construction, and 
the best modem methods of protecting them from the action of 
the elements and wood-destroying insects. 

Prerequisite: This course may be taken only with the con- 
sent of the instructor 
Texts: Jacoby, Structural Details 
Lecture Notes 
Reference: Kidder, Architect's and Builder's Pocketbook 

Lectures and drawing six hours a week during the second 
semester of the senior year. (Seiler) 

IX HYDRAUUC INVESTIGATIONS Lectures, Laboratory, 

and Field Work (Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

This is an advanced course in hydraulics, in which the stu- 
dent is led into the more practical field of making investigations 
of water power and various other hydraulic installations. Practi- 
cal problems omitted in previous courses because of their greater 
difficulty are here dealt with in a practical way and according 
to latest and best engineering practice. Water pipe problems 
met with in various engineering installations are taken up and 
solved. Several streams and water power sites within a radius 
of 100 miles are examined and reports as to power available and 
feasibility of development, are submitted, while the student is 
made familiar, in the lecture room and in discussions, with the 
great variety of conditions which may affect any installation and 
its construction. Various kinds of water wheels are examined 
and the student made to understand why certain types are 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 55 

adapted to certain conditions, and what are the main features 
which enter into their design. Finally the student is required 
to make a survey of a water power site, execute a map or draw- 
ing showing a contplete general design and layout of installa- 
tion, accompanied with a full report covering all details of de- 
sign, power available, income of plant, initial and operative costs, 
and thus 'arrive at the charge to be made for power developed. 
Prerequisite: This course may be taken only with the con- 
sent of the instructor. 
References: King, Handbook on Hydraulics 
Mead, Water Power Engineering 
Marks, Mechanical Engineer's Handbook 
Williams and Hazen, Hydraulic Tables 
American Civil Engineers' Pocketbook 
Vol. 12, Transactions, American Society of 
Civil Engineers 
Laboratory and field work six hours a week during the sec- 
ond semester of the senior year. (Seller) 



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66 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



COAL MINING 



James Cole Roberts, Professor 



I PRINCIPLES OF COAL MINING Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

The subjects discussed in this course are: distribution and 
occurrence of coal; the world's production and available supply 
of coal and* coke, with special reference to that of the different 
states; the losses each year as compared with production; the 
origin of coal; classification; general geological features of coal- 
bearing areas» together with the geological and structural fea- 
tures bearing on the economical mining of coal; the prospecting 
of .coal-bearing areas by surface examinations, prospect machines, 
drifts, and drill holes; the different types of drilling machines 
with the rate and cost of boring in different strata; examination 
And reporting on developed and undeveloped coal properties; 
preparation of coal by wet and dry processes; ultilization of 
fuels; manufacture, handling, and utilization of wood, charcoal, 
peat, lignite, bituminous and anth^racite coals, coke, petroleum, 
natural and artificial gas. Students are required to visit and 
witness actual mining operations. 

References: Hughes, Textbook of Coal Mining 

Redmayne, Modern Practice in Mining 

Mayer, Mining Metiiods in Europe 

Beard, Mine Ventliation 

Beard, Mine Gases and Explosion 

Wilson, Mine Ventilation 

Wabner, Ventilation of Mines 

Somermeier, Coal, its Composition, Analysis, 

Utilization, and Valuation 
Coal Miners' Pocketbook 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (J. C. Roberts) 

II METHODS OF COAL. MINING Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

Methods of development and operation of coal mines are 
taken up in this course. Drifts, slopes, and shafts are discussed 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 57 

and compared; the dip and thickness of coal seams; character 
of roof and floor or walls of vertical seams: driving and sinking 
through rock and coal; surface stripping and mining by steam 
shovels; longwall, room and pillar, panel, and other systems; 
advancing and retreating systems; the driving of entries, rooms,, 
and crosscuts; width of rooms and pillars in thick and thin 
seams of coal; drawing of pillars; the proportion of coal that 
can be safely and economically taken in advance work; methods 
of working thick and thin seams, lying flat, rolling, pitching, or 
vertical; methods of working overlying seams with special ref- 
erence to the recovery of the largest possible yield of coal to the 
acre; shooting off the solid; undercutting of coal by hand (pick 
mining) and by machines; the operation of the various types 
of coal cutters, punches, and shearers, with special reference 
to the economy of each type and the conditions under which 
each may be used to advantage; single, double, and multiple 
entry systems compared; surface subsidence; culm flushing as 
practiced in the anthracite regions of Pennsylvania. 

References: Hughes, Textbook of Coal Mining 

Redmayne, IModern Practice in IMining 

Mayer, Mining Methods in Europe 

Beard, Mine Ventilation 

Beard, Mine Gases and Exploaion 

Wilson, Mine Ventilation 

Wabner, Ventilation of Mines 

Somermeier, Coal, Its Composition, AnalyslSr 

Utilization, and Valuation 
Coal Miners' Pocketbook 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (J. C. Roberts) 

ni PRACTICES OF COAL MINING Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

Timbering of ehafts, slopes, drifts, entries, rooms, and cross- 
cuts, by the use of wood, steel, and concrete, with the relative 
merits and costs of each; haulage systems; hand tramming; 
mules or horses; rope; compressed air; electric and gasoline 
locomotives, hoisting; operation of various types of hoisting 
engines, using steam, compressed air, or electricity; cages; head- 
frames and tipples; drainage; sources of mine water, its control 
and ejectment. 



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68 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

References: Hughes, Textbook of Coal Mining 
Kerr, Practical Coal Mining 
Redmajme, Modem Practice of Mining 
Duncan and Penman, Electrical Equipment of 

Collieries 
Shearer, Electricity In Coal Mining 
Pamely, Coiiiery Managers' Handbook 
Coal Miners' Pocketbook 
United States Bureau of Mines, P^iications 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group 11. (J. C. Roberts) 

IV COAL MINING Laboratory 
Credit one hour. 

This course consists of field work in prospecting and examin- 
ing coal-bearing lands, following outcrops with actual practice In 
operating prospecting drills, and visits to points where drilling 
operations are carried on; sampling of outcrops and coal In 
the mine; sampling of carload lots of coal in the yards, and <»i 
the tipple of operating mines; cutting down and preparing 
samples for analysis, the analysis of the samples is taken up 
under C. M. IX. Each student is required to undercut, shoot, and 
load out a coal face by hand (pick mining) and by each type of 
machine, to familiarize himself with the different types. 
References: Hughes, Textbook of Coal Mining 
Kerr, Practical Coal Mining 
Redmayne, Modern Practice In Mining 
Duncan and Penman, Electrical Equipment of 

Collieries 
Shearer, Electricity In Coal Mining 
Pamely, Coiiiery Managers' {Handbook 
Coal Miners' Pocketbook 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
The Trade Catalogues 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (J. C. Roberts) 

V PRACTICES OF COAL MINING Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course is a continuation of Course III. 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (J. C. Roberts) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 59 

VI COAL MINE EQUIPMENT Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

This course includes a study of typical mine constructions, 
such as headframes, tipples, breaker machinery, rolls, screens, 
and various types of coal cutting machines, mechanical devices 
for loading coal into pit cars; types of pit cars, with special 
emphasis on tight end cars and rotary dumps; various types 
of mine fans and their housing; automatic weighing devices; box 
car loaders. 

References: Hughes, Textbook of Coal Mining 
Kerr, Practical Coal Mining 
Redmayne, Modem Practice In Mining 
Duncan and Penman, Electrical Equipment of 

Collieries 
Shearer, Electricity In Coal Mining 
Pamely, Colliery Managers' Handbook 
Coal Miners' Pocketbook 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
The Trade Catalogues 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (J. C. Roberts) 

VI J ECONOMICS OF COAL MINING Lectures 

Credit one hour. 

The subjects taken up in this course are: general con- 
ditions that should precede the opening of coal mines, such as 
topography, title, climatic conditions, transportation facilities, 
possible townsite and living quarters for workmen and their 
families, available water supply, administration and superin- 
tendence; contract system as opposed to day labor; costs of 
operation; maintenance, depreciation, and amortization; methods 
of acquiring coal lands from the government and individuals; 
leasing of coal lands; market and trade conditions; preparation 
of coal for different markets; selling price, of coal as compared 
with cost at the mines; freight rates to various markets and cost 
of coal to the consumer; company charges for insurance, physi- 
cians, and hospitals; disposal of unsalable products. 

One hour a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (J. C. Roberts) 



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60 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Vni COALMINING Laboratory 

Credit one hour. 

This course is a continuation of Course lY and includes In 
addition a critical study of typical mine constructions, with 
preparation of working drawings of cages, cars, headframes, and 
tipples. 

References: Trade Catalogues 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (J. C. Roberts ) 

IX FUEL AND GAS ANALYSIS Laboratory 

Credit one hour. 

This course consists of the proximate and ultimate analysis 
of coal; the calorific value of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels; 
the analysis of natural and artificial gas, flue gas, mine, and 
furnace gases. 

References: Gill, Gas and Fuel Analysis for Engineers. 
U. 8. Bureau of Mines Publications 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (J. C. Roberts) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 61 



ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 



Frank E. E. Germann, Professor of Physics and 

Electrical Engineering 
Joseph William Gray, Assistant Professor of 

Electrical Engineering 



It is the desire of the department to make the electrical 
courses as independent as possible, that the student may have 
oonsiderable freedom in the choice of his work. Since there 
is a logical sequence of studies in principle, practice, and de- 
sign, it is highly desirable that the student elect his courses in 
groups. Though not required, it is strongly recommended that 
those who select Groups I, II or IV should elect E.E. Courses 
I to VI, inclusive. 

I DIRECT CURRENT MACHINERY Lectures (BlecUve) 

Credit three hours. 

This course includes a study of the operating principles of 
direct current generators, motors, meters, switchboards, and 
auxiliaries, field and usefulness of each type, methods of con- 
nection and control, use and care of storage batteries, and the 
calculation of circuits. 

Prerequisites: Physics III and IV 

Text: Gray, Principles and Practice of Electrical 
Engineering 
References: Morse, Storage Batteries 

Crocker and Arendt, Electric Motors 
Lyndon, Storage Battery Engineering 
Langsdorf, Principles of Direct Current Ma- 
chines 
Franklin and Esty, Elements of Electrical En- 
gineering, Direct Currents 
Three hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. (Gray) 

II DIRECT CURRENT MACHINERY Laboratory (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

In this work the common types of voltmeters, ammeters, and 
wattmeters are studied and calibrated; and the common genera- 



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62 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINE? 

tors and motors, including the three wire and interpole machines, 
are studied. Series-parallel and standard mining locomotive con- 
trollers are wired up and used with two series motors. 

Prerequisites: Registration in Course E.E. I or an equivalent 
preparation 
References: Swenson and Frankenfleld, Testing of Eiec> 
tromagnetic Machinery, Vol. 1 
KarapetofF, Experimental Electrical Engineer- 
ing, Vol. 1 
Three hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. (Gray) 

III ALTERNATING CURRENT MACHINERY Lectures 

(Elective) 
Cre4it three hours. 

The plan of this course is similar to that of Course I, but 
treats of alternating current principles and apparatus, generators, 
and motors with their auxiliaries and characteristics, trans- 
formers, rectifiers, and converters, and the calculation of single 
and three phase circuits. 

Prerequisites: Physics III and IV 

Text: Gray, Principles and Practice of Electrical 
. Engineering 
References: Miller, American Telephone Practice 
Van Deventer, Telephonology 
Lawrence, Principles of Alternating Current 

Machinery 
Bailey, The induction Motor 
Franklin and Esty, Elements of Electrical 

Engineering, Alternating Currents 
Jansky, Electrical Meters 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. (Gray) 

IV ALTERNATING CURRENT MACHINERY Laboratory 

(Elective) 

Credit one hour. 

A study is first made of the alternating current instruments 
which are subsequently used in the experimental work. This is 
followed by a variety of experiments on inductive circuits. 
Transformers are connected and used in many ways. The start- 
ing and running characteristics of induction motors are studied 
under normal conditions and under some abnormal conditions 
that are frequent causes of trouble. Synchronizing is done in 
several ways. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 63 

Prerequisites: Registration in Course E.R III or an equiva- 
lent preparation 
References: Swenson and Frankenfield, Testing of Elec- 
tromagnetic IMachinery, Vol. 2 
Karapetoff, Experimental Electrical Engineer- 
ing, Vol. 2 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. (Gray) 

V ELECTRICITY APPLIED TO MINING Lectures (Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

The characteristics of electrical machines and auxiliaries 
which are adapted to the needs of the various operations of min- 
ing and milling are first discussed and then problems based upon 
these principles are given. The applications discussed, include 
surface plants, air compression, fans, drilling, coal cutting, shot 
firing, lighting, haulage, hoisting, pumping, dredging, and sig- 
naling. Foundations for electrical machines are designed and 
circuits discussed. In connection with electricity applied to 
metallurgical work, the discussion includes motor applications, 
control and protection, the production of current for electrolytic 
processes and furnaces, magnetic separation, electrostatic sepa- 
ration and precipitation. All of the above subjects are, of course, 
discussed in detail by the special departments concerned and 
only the electrical features are considered in this course. 
Prerequisites: B.E. I and II, or III and IV 
References: Croft, American Electrician's IHandboolc 

Davies, Foundations and IMachinery Fixing 
Standard IHandbooic for Electrical Engineers 
Koester, IHydroeiectric Developments and 

Engineering 
Underbill, Solenoids, Electromagnets, and 

Electromagnetic Windings 
Coombs, Pole and Tower Lines 
Rosenthal, Transmission Calculations 
Lundquist, Transmission Line Construction 
Shearer, Electricity In Coal IMinIng 
Duncan and Penman, Electric Equipment of 
Collieries 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. (Gray) 

VI APPUED ELECTRICITY Laboratory (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

This is the laboratory course accompanying E.BL V. It 
includes a study of the standard hand operated compensators 



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64 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

with "no voltage" and "overload" releases, resistance starters, 
automatic contactor starters, motor driven fens, and various tests 
of generators and motors. 

Prerequisites : B.E. I and II, or III and IV 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. (Gray) 

VII ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lectures (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

This is primarily a design course in small installations, 
though the work may he varied to suit the needs of the Individual 
student. • Course VIII should be taken in conjunction with it. 
Prerequisite: B.E. V 

Text: Brown, Electrical Equipment 
References: Electrical Handbooks 
Trade Bulletins 
Catalogues 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Gray) 

Vin ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Drawing (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

This is a drawing course to accompany E.E. VII 
Prerequisite: Registration in E.E. VII 
References: Electrical Handbook 
Trade Bulletins 
Catalogues 
Six hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Gray) 



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THE COLORAX)0 SCHOOL OF MINES 65 



ENGLISH 



Leslie Fairbanks Pauli, Assistant Professor of Modern Languages 



I ENGLISH COMPOSITION Leqtures 

Credit one hour. 

This course is designed to train the student in the essen- 
tials of English composition. Practical exercises are given to 
develop orderly arrangement and clear expression , of thought. 
A study is made of the relation of the general to the particular 
and its practical application in writing paragraphs and subject 
outlines. 

Texts: Alderson, Miscellaneous Faulty Expressions 
Wooley, Handbooic of Composition 

One hour a week during the first semester of the junior year. 
Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV. (Paull) 

II BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course is a continuation of Course I. It aims to give a 
practical grasp of business correspondence and to familiarize the 
student with the type of English composition requisite as a basis 
for professional report writing. 

References: Lewis, Business English 

Gallagher and Moulton, Practical Business 

English 
Wooley, IHandboolc of Composition 
One hour a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV. (Paull) 

III REPORTS Lectures 

Credit one hour. 

This course is designed as a preparation for technical writ- 
ing. The fundamentals of the subject are studied and reports 
upon assigned topics are required from the students. 



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66 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

References: Sypherd, Handbook of English for Engineers 
' Earle, Theory and Practice of Technical 

Writing 
Rickard, A. Guide to Technical Writing 
Watt, Compoeitlon of Technical Papers 
One hour a week during the first semester of the senior year. 
Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV. (Paul!) 

IV TECHNICAL WRITING Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course is a contlnu&tion of Course III. The principal 
object is to outline the best methods of presenting technical sub- 
jects for publication and for private reports. 

References: Sypherd, IHandbooic of English for Engineers 
Earle, Theory and Practice of Technical 

Writing 
Rickard, A Guide to Technical Writing 
Watt, Composition of Technical Papers 
One hour a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and FV. (Paull) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 67 



FINANCE 



Victor C. Alderson, President 



I FINANCE Seminar (Elective) 

Credit one hour. 

It is a well-known fact that engineers frequently fall to ap- 
preciate the financial aspect of their work. To obviate the defect 
the President offers this course in the form of a seminar. At- 
tention is called to the great world movements that cause vari- 
ations in the market value of securities, the minor market move- 
ments, and the general trend of the prices of commodities. 

Members of the class follow closely the market value of a 
group of selected securities on the New York Exchange. At each 
meeting one member analyzes a security and endeavors to de- 
cide whether the quoted price is above, below, or at its real value. 
The Wall Street Journal, the Magazine of Wall Street, John 
Moody's Investment Service, besides many works on finance are 
available in the Library. A strong effort is made to get the stu- 
dent interested in financial matters, to induce him to^ read finan- 
cial literature, and to form his own opinion of the results of the 
forces at work to determine the market value of securities. 

One hour a week during the first semester of the senior year. 

This course may be taken only with the consent of the in- 
structor. (Alderson) 

II FINANCE Seminar (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

This is a continuation of Course I. 

One hour a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. This course may be taken only with the consent of the 
Instructor. (Alderson) 



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68 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY 



victor Ziegter, Professor 

F. M. Van Tuyl, ^^MttSMSTprofessor 

H. Q. Schneider, Instructor 



The college is very fortunately situated for the geologist 
The surrounding formations present the strikingly clear fear 
tures sb characteristic of the West. In addition certain fea- 
tures peculiar to this particular location afford sufficiently com- 
plicated problems to be of great value to the student of geology. 
It is possible, therefore, without going more thati a mile or two 
from the school, to illustrate very effectively most geological 
problems so that field geology can be carried on at the same 
time as class instruction. 

I GENERAL GEOLOGY Lectures 

The aim of this course is to present the fundamentals of 
geology by means of lectures supplemented by the study of the 
textbook, and by assigned readings. It comprises a brief survey 
of the rocks and minerals of the earth's crust and a compre- 
hensive study of the surface features of the earth, with emphasis 
on the forces and agents which have produced these results and 
are still bringing about slow changes. Occasional field trips are 
required. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements 

Text; Pirsson and Schuchert, A Textbook of 
Geology, Part I 

Lectures three hours a week during the first semester of the 
freshman year. 

Required of all students. (Van Tuyl) ' 

II GENERAL GEOLOGY Lectures 

This course is a continuation of Course I. It is a study of 
primary and secondary rock structures, with emphasis on the 
secondary features resulting from earth movements, such as 
faults and folds, and the value of their proper interpretation to 
the mining engineer. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 69 

Prerequisite: Course I 

Text: Pirsson and Schuchert, A Textbook of 
Geology, Part I 

References: Leith, Structural Geology 
Lahee, Field Geology 
Grabau, Principles of Stratigraphy 
Lectures three hours a week during the second semester of 
the freshman year. 

Required of all students. (Van Tuyl) 

III MINERALOGY Lectures and Laboratory 

This course in mineralogy is essentially an introduction to 
Descriptive Mineralogy of the second semester. It comprises 
a discussion of the principles of crystallography JEind of blowpipe ^ 
sLnalysis. Only such portions of crystallography are emphasized j 
as are of practical value in the determination and proper under- 
standing of minerals. In the laboratory work a very thorough 
drill is given in the more practical portions of the subject. The 
course includes work with wooden crystal models, and the 
determination of the forms on a large and representative series 
of natural crystals. The laboratory work in crystallography is ) 7 
followed by a thorough drill in the metliods of blowpipe analysis, ^ 
with practice in the determination of unknown minerals. The \ 
lecture time is devoted to a discussion of the fundamental prin-^ 
ciples of descriptive mineralogy. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry I and II 

Xezts: Lewis, Determinative IMIneralogy 

Patton, Lecture Notes on Crystallography 

Lectures two hours, laboratory six hours, a week during the 
first semester of the sophomore year. 

Required of all students. 

, (Ziegler, Van Tuyl, Schneider) 

IV DBSCRIPTIVB MINERALOGY Lectures and Laboratory 
About three hundred of the more important mineral species 

are presented by lectures, in which special emphasis is placed 
on the recognition of minerals by means of their physical prop- 
erties. Every attempt is made to make the course thoroughly/ / 
practical so as to enable the student to recognize at sight such \ 
minerals as are met in mining operations. With this object in-^ 
view, as thorough a drill as the time will allow is given to 
the actual handling and determining of minerals in the labora- 
tory. In this work each student is expected to handle, to deter- 
mine, and to be questioned and examined on approximately two 
thousand five hundred individual specimens. 



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70 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Prerequisite: Course III 

References: Fords, Dana's Manual of Mineralogy 
Dana, Sy^em of Mineralogy 
Lewis, Determinative Mineralogy 
Lectures two hours, laboratory six hours, a week during the 
second semester of the sophomore year. 
Required of all students. 

(Ziegler, Van Tuyl, Schneider) 

V HISTORICAL OEOLOGT Lectures 
Credit three hours. 

A study of earth history with emphasis on the North Amer- 
ican continent. The theories of the origin of the earth are dis- 
cussed and the succession of events in its known history as 
revealed by the rocks are traced. Special attention is given 
to the changes in relation of land and sea, the character and 
distribution of the deposits, the erogenic movements, volcanic 
activity, economic products, and dominant life forms of each 
geological period. 

Prerequisites: Courses I and II 
References: Pirsson and Schuchert, A Textbook of 
Geology, Part II 
Chamberlln and Salisbury, Geology, Vol. 11 

and III 
Rice, Adams, and Others, Problems of Amer- 
ican Geology 
Lectures three hours a week during the first semester of the 
Junior year. 

Required in Group IV (Van Tuyl) 

^ VI STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course covers practically Mining Geology. It includes 

' a comprehensive study of rock structures with special emphasis 

-^ on features important to the mining engineer. The graphic 

; study of folds and faults and the interpretation of structure from 

maps receive special attention. 

Prerequisites: Courses I to V inclusive. 
References: Leith, Structural Geology 

Geikie, Structural and Field Geology 
Hayes, Handbook for Field Geologists 
Gunther, The Examination of Prospects 
Tolman, Graphical Solution of Fault Prob- 
lems 
Lectures two hours a week during the first semester of the 
junior year. 

Required in Group IV (Ziegler, Schneider) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINBS 71 

VII LITHOLOGT Lectures and Laboratory 

Credit two hours. 

The object of this course is to present all the more commonly 
occurring rocks In such a way as to render their identification 
at sight reasonably accurate. The methods pursued are purely 
those applicable to the hand specimen without the aid of micro- 
scopic sections. The collection of the school Is especially rich 
in those rocks that are usually encountered in mining operations 
in Colorado and adjacent states. Special emphasis, therefore, is 
laid upon such rocks and upon their various alteration forms . Fj,.* 

Prerequisite: G. and M. IV «v « 

Lectures one hour, laboratory three hours, a week during 
the second semester of the junior year. 

Required in Groups I and IV ' (Zlegler, Schneider) 

'/^ VIII MICROSCOPIC PETROGRAPHY 

Credit two hours. 

In this course the study of rocks and rock-forming minerals 
is carried on with the help of the petrographlc microscope. 
It covers (a) the study of the optical properties of minerals .- 
with a view to their identification, and (b) systematic petrog- . 
raphy or the Identification of rock types by means of their < /' 
structures and mineral components. ; * 

Laboratory six houss a week during the first semester of ' 
the senior year. 

Required in Group IV 

Course IX may be substituted. (Ziegler) 

IX INDEX FOSSILS OF NORTH AMERICA Lectures and 
Laboratory 
Credit two hours. 

A course planned to meet the needs of students who desire . m/ 
to fit themselves for work In oil geology and stratigraphy. Only • 
the more important guide fossils of each system are studied. 
Special attention Is given to the fossils characteristic of western 
formations of economic importance. 
Prerequisite: Course V 

References: Shlmer, An Introduction to the Study of Fos- 
sils 
Grabau and Shlmer, Index Fossils of North 
America 
Six hours laboratory a week during the first semester of 
the senior year. 

Required in Group IV 

Course VIII may be substituted. (Van Tuyl) 



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72 THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

; X ORB DEPOSITS Leeturos 

Credit two hours. 

This course treats of the nature, origin, and occurrence 
of ore deposits. Among other subjects the criteria useful in tbe 
recognition of the Tarious types of ore deposits, the changes in 
the character of ores with depth, and mineral associations and 
alterations, are discussed. Those features likely to be of use 
in the examination of mining prospects receiTe special attention. 

Prerequisites: Courses I, II, m, IV, and VII 

References: Beyshlag, Vogt, and Krusqh, Deposits of Use- 
ful Minerals and Rocks 
Lindgren, Mineral Deposits 

Lectures two hours a week during the first semester of the 
senior year. 

Required in Group IV (Ziegler) 

]/Xl ECONOMIC GBOLOQT Lectyres 

Credit two houts. 

This course includes a discussioiv of the more important 
mining districts of North America. .In addition to ore deposits, 
the more important non-metallic products and , their distribu- 
tion are included. ^ 

Prerequisite: Course X 
References: Lindgren, Mineral Deposits 

Beyshlag, Vogt, and Knisch, Deposits of Use- 
ful Minerals and Rocks 

Lectures two hours a week during the -second semester of 
the senior year. 

Required in Group IV (Ziegler) 

' XII OIL AND GAS Lectures 

Three credit hours. 

The chemistry and physics of the natural hydrocarbons, 
their origin, type of occurrence, and geolos^c setting are dis- 
cussed in detail. Emphasis is placed on the principles and laws 
of oil accumulation applicable to all fields. An effort is made 
to train the student in the Interpretation of the structural and 
geological phenomena characteristic of oil and gas fields. 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 73 

Prereaulsites: Course I to Vn indusiye 
Referetfces: Johnson and Huntley, Oil and Gas Produo* 
tion 
Hager, Practical Oil Geology 
' Engler and Hoefer^ Das Erdol 
Bacon and Hamor, the American Petroleum 
Industry 

Three hours a- week during the second semester of the 
senior year. 

Required In Group IV (Zlegler) 

XIII FIBLD GEOLOGY U' 

Credit three hours. 

This course is Intended to give field practice In geologic 
mapping and in the working out of structural details. The 
area selected is divided among individual squads and a com- 
plete map with structural sections Is prepared through cdoper- 
atlon of. the dlfTerent squads. The work covers four weeks- 
at the close of the junior year. Camping equipment and in- . 
stxuments are furnished by the school. The student is expected > 
to furnish bedding. The expense of the course varies some- 
wha^t according to the location of the area worked. Ordinarily j 
forty to forty-five dollars should cover all actual field expenses. -'^ 

Prerequisites: Courses V, VI, and VII 

Four weeks of the summer at the close of the junior year. . 

Required in Group IV (Zlegler, Van Tuyl, Schneidier) i^ 



HYGIENE AND CAMP SANITATION 



Dr. Louis A. Packard, Medical Director and DIt'ector 
of Physical Training 



I HYGIENE AND CAMP SANITATION • Lectures (Elective) ' 

Credit one hour. 

General principles of personal and public hygiene; prevent- 
ive measures and prophylaxis; industrial hygiene with special 
regard to mining camps and mills; camp sanitation, sewage, and 
garbage disposal, water supply, and general health measures. 

One hour a week during the first semester of the senior year. 

(Packard) 



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74 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



MATHEMATICS 



Thomas Orr Walton, Professor 
James Ferris Seller, Assistant Professor of Civil 
Engineering and Mathematlos 

/ 

The courses In this department have been arranged to meet 
the eztensiYe needs of students in the various branches of 
engineering. The subjects are treated so as to give the student 
both logical training and power of application. The principles 
which are of greatest value in engineering work are particularly 
emphasized. The courses offered serve as a sufficient prerea- 
uisite for the work in mathematical physics, physical chemistry* 
engineering and applied mechanics; and they mark the mini- 
mum of mathematical attainments that an engineer ought to 
possess. A special feature of the work is the early introduc- 
tion of the calculus, the principles of which are introduced 
with those of analytic geometry and developed as needed, thus 
disregarding, to a certain extent, the traditional barrier that 
has existed between these subjects. By this means, the prin- 
ciples of the calculus are allowed to develop slowly, their sphere 
of usefulness is widened, the student gains a better grasp of 
mathematics as a whole, and is able, early in his course, to 
make direct application of his knowledge of mathematics to 
practical problems. 

I COLLEGE ALGEBRA 

This course begins with a rapid review of the fundamental 
operations as far as quadratics. Graphical work is early intro- 
duced in the belief that the illumination which it affords greatly 
enlivens the entire presentation of the subject and brings algebra 
into closer relationship with the other mathematical courses. 
Quadratics are given special emphasis. The progressions, in- 
equalities, mathematical induction, proportion, variation, theory 
of limits, series, the binomial theorem, logarithms, expon^itials, 
and determinants are all amply treated. Methods of approxi- 
mating the roots of numerical equations are especially em- 
phasized. 

Much time is given to drill work in calculations involving 
formulas often met in engineering work. A special feature of the 
course is the persistent use of graphic methods in presenting 



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THB COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 76 

facta — a practice which is becoming an indispensable requisite in 
engineering. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements. 

Text: Rietz and Crathome, Coiiege Algebra 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Walton, Seller) 

n TRIGONOMETRY 

The general formulas of plane and spherical trigonometry 
are developed. Inverse functions, identities, and trigonometric 
equations are carefully considered. Much practice is given In 
the use of tables and the applications of trigonometry to mensu- 
ration in general. The astronomical triangle and such problems 
relating thereto as occur in surveying are dwelt upon particularly 
and graphical representation is given its needed emphasis. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements 

Texts: Crawley, Short Course in Trigonometry 
Hodgman, Surveyor's Tabies 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Walton, Seller) 

III ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 

This course begins with the Cartesian coordinates of a point. 
Graphs of algebraic and transcendental functions follow. Loci 
in general, the straight line, conic sections, and cycloids are 
taken up in detail. 

The methods and notation of the calculus are introduced 
early and are employed in the study of tangents and normals. 
The parametric equations of the conies and cycloids are de- 
veloped and many applications to locus problems are introduced 
and discussed/ The student is made familiar with the polar 
equations of the conies, spirals, ovals, and other plane curves. 
Emphasis is given to the graphical representation of the trigono- 
metric, logarithmic, exponential, and other transcendental func- 
tions. 

The analytic geometry of space is deferred until the second 
year when it is needed in the development of the calculus. 

Prerequisites: Courses I and II 

Text: Smith and Gale, New Analytic Geometry 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
freshman year. 

Required of all students. (Walton, Seller) 



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76 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

IV CALCULUS 

This course introduces the student to the elemental of the 
calculus. The language, the symbols, and the first prdcesses of 
the infinitesimal analysis are explained and many illustrations 
in geometry, physics, engineering, and applied mechanics are 
introduced. The fundamental principles of continuity, limiting 
values, and the theory of infinitesimals are established. The 
differentiation of all the fundamental forms and the application 
of the differential calculus to problems inTolving maxima and 
minima, rates, and to the theorems of analytic geometry com- 
prise a large part of the course. Integration is introduced as the 
inverse operation of differentiation an'd is applied to numerous 
problems involving areas, velocities, and geometry. 

Prerequisites: Course^) I and n 

Text: Granville, DifFerentiai and Integral Calculus 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Walton, Seller) 

V CALCULUS 

This course is a continuation of Course IV, in which students 
are made familiar with the elementary processes and applica- 
tions of the differential calculus. A special feature of this course 
consists in carrying on the differential and integral calculus 
togethef. This method of instruction enables the student to 
grasp the more difficult notions of the subject in their inherent 
relations, and at the same time to. apply this knowledge, early 
in the course, to the solution of engipeering problems. The con- 
ception of the definite integral and its many applications ai:e 
early introduced. The aim is to make clear the rationale of each 
process, and to arouse an early interest in the usefulness of 
the subject. The theory of single and multiple ^integration is 
applied to the principal methods of rectification and quadrature, 
and to the calculation of surfaces and volumes of solids of 
revolution. 

Prerequisites: Courses I to IV, inclusive 

Text: Granville, Differential apd Integral Calculus 

Thr^Q hours a week during the first semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Walton) 



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THD COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 77 

VI CALCULUS 

This course is a continuation of Course V. The elements of 
solid analytic geometry are Introduced to assist In the proper de- 
velopment of the calculus of functions of two or more variables. 
Simple differential equations are Introduced in close connection 
with integration. Multiple integration in rectangular, polar, and 
cylindrical co-ordinates is taken up and many applications are 
made to problems in areas) volumes, moments of inertia, centers 
of gravity, and pressure. Solids of revolution, cylinders, space 
curves, ruled and quadrio surfaces are all given their needed 
emphasis as applications of the calculus. The last part of this 
course is preeminently a problem course. The aim is to review, 
in a practical way, the mathematics of the last two years and 
thereby encourage the student to look upon his mathematics as 
an instrument of power and usefulness, rather than one merely 
of mental development and culture. 

Prerequisites: Courses I to V, inclusive 

Text: Granville, Differential and integral Calculus 

Three hours * a week during the second semester of the 
sophomore year. 

Required of all students. (Walton) 

VII PROBABILITY AND LEAST SQUARES (Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

This course includes the development of the method of Least 
Squares and its application to practical problems in Physics, 
Astronomy, and Surveying. 

Prerequisite: Course IV 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the sophomore 
year. (Walton) 

• VIII ADVANCED CALCULUS (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

This course consists of subjects in calculus which are not 
included in the regular course or whose further development 
may be useful to the engineer, such as, Taylor's Theorem, Anite 
dlfterences, ordinary differential equations, definite and elliptic 
integrals. 

Prerequisite: Registration in Course VI 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the soph- 
omore year. (Walton) 



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78 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 



James L. Morse, Professor of Mechanical Engineering 

James Ferris Seller, Assistant Professor of Civil 

Engineering and Mathematics 



I DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY Lectures 

This course includeB problems relating to the point, line» 
plane, surfaces, Interflection of solids and the development of 
their surfaces, and numerous practical applications to mine sur- 
veying and machine design. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements 

Text: Church and Bartlett, Descriptive Geometry 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Seller) 

II DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY Drawing 

At the beginning of the course considerable time is given 
to the use of instruments, geometrical constructions, and letter- 
ing; then follows the direct application of the problems that are 
taken up in the lecture work. 

Prerequisites: Entrance requirements 

Text: Church and Bartlett, Descriptive Geometry 
and Plates 
BYench, Mechanical Drawing and Elementary 
Machine Design 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. - (Seller) 

in ELEMENTARY MACHINE DESIGN Lectures 

This course includes a study of machine elements, the nature 
of materials entering into machine construction, and elementary 
calculations which involve the correct proportion, by empirical 
methods, of various machine parts and their application to min- 
ing and manufacturing. 

Prerequisites: Courses I and II 

Text: French, Mechanical Drawing and Elemen- 
tary Machine Design 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students (Morse) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 79 

IV GENERAL ELEMENTARY DRAWING AND DESIGN 

Drawing 

The object of this course is to give the student the prin- 
ciples of orthographic projection when applied to machine draw- 
ings executed according to modem drafting and shop practice. 
Considerable time is deyoted to correct methods of lettering and 
dimensioning of drawings and free-hand sketching. Working 
drawings are submitted from the following list: anchor-bolts, 
shaft-couplings, hangers, pipe-Joints, yalves, machine elements, 
hoisting machinery, mine timbering, and simple engine parts. A 
portion of the semester is devoted to drawing land, city, and 
topographical maps. 

Prerequisites: Courses I and II 

Text: French, Mechanical Drawing and Elemen- 
tary Machine Design 

Six hours a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 

V MACHINE DESIGN Lectures 

This is a continuation of Course III. A brief outline of the 
yarious principles of mechanics, so necessary for the work, is 
here taken up. Special attention is given to problems which 
involve the transmission of power and the best solution of these 
from both the theoretical and practical point of view. All prob- 
lems are of a practical nature and are based upon first-class com- 
mercial practice, with special reference to mining and transpor- 
tation. 

Prerequisites: Coi^rses III and IV 

Text: Nachman, Elements of Machine Design 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 

VI MACHINE DESIGN Drawing 

This is a continuation of Course IV. The work is extended 
to include more complex problems. Complete working drawings 
of some of the following are submitted: shafting layouts; belt, 
fibrous, and wire rope drives; machine parts, shop and hoisting 
machinery, conveyors, and conveyor systems. 

Prerequisites: Courses III and IV 

Text: Nachman, Elements of Machine Design 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 



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80 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

VII KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY Lectures 

This Gounie begins with the theoretical analysis of mech- 
anism and extends to the practical application of these principles 
to such problems as arise in practice. Special attention is giyen 
to the analysis of linkages, belting: shop, mining and mill ma- 
chinery: cams, gears, and other contact mecjianisms. 

Prerequisites: Courses V and VI 

Text: Schwamb and Merrill, Elements of Mechanism 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 

Vni KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY Drawing 

This course supplements and is directly dependent upon 
the lecture work. This work is taken up from a practical point 
of view and applies such theory as is consistent with the most 
approved method of design. Designs and complete working 
drawings are made of machine parts, gears, cams, and various 
systems and devices used for the transmission of power, with 
special emphasis upon the correct velocities and co-ordination 
of the relative motion and balance of parts. 

Prerequisites: Courses V and VI 

Text: Schwamb and Merrill, Elements of Mechanism 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Morse) 

IX HEAT POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Lectures 

Credit one hour. 

The greater portion of the semester is devoted to steam 
boiler subjects. After a brief historical treatment of the sub- 
ject, the lectures cover the theory, principles of design, and 
construction of modern boilers. Numerous . practical problems 
are assigned from time to time so that the student becomes 
thoroughly familiar with the design and operation of the lead- 
ing types of boilers. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and Vin 

Text: Allen and Bursley, Heat Engines 

One hour a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group I (Morse) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 81 

X HEAT POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Design 

Credit two hours. 

The drafting room work is devoted principally to the design 
of power plant apparatus and to such other machinery as is 
usually t^ be found in a mine plant. Boilers, steam engines, 
hoists, conveying systems, and mill Installations are designed 
and complete sets of detailed working drawings are required in 
all cases. The value of time is impressed upon the student and 
all work is done in accordance with the most approved manu- 
facturing methods. 

Prerequisites: Courses vn and VIII 

Text: Allen and Bursley, Heat Engines 

Nachman, Elements of Machine Design 
References: Marks, Mechanical Engineering Handbook 

Catalogues and Mechanical Engineering Jour- 
nals. 
Six hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group I (Morse) 

XI HEAT POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

The lectures of this course embrace principally the subject 
of steam engines. The development of the steam engine is first 
carefully traced out, after which attention is given to ther- 
modynamics and the fundamental principles which underlie the 
steam engine. Practical problems ar^ assigned the student and 
great stress is laid upon all matters pertaining to the economical 
side of the subject. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and Vin 

Text: Allen and Bursley, Heat Engines 

One hour a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and II (Morse) 

XII HEAT POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Design 
Credit two hours. 

This course is a continuation of Course X, and enables the 
student to undertake and complete some of the more advanced 
problems in the design of power plant, and other machinery. 
Prerequisites: Courses VII and VIII 

Text: Allen and Bursley, Heat Engines 

Nachman, Elements of Machine Design 



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82 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Referencee: Marks, Mechanical Engineering Handbook 

Catalogues and Mechanical Engineering Joui^ 
nala. 

Six hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and II (Blbrse) 

XIII COMPRESSED AIR Lecturee (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

This course includes a study of the theory and practice of 
air compression. At the beginning considerable time is given 
to the study of such thermodynamics as is necessary to a suc- 
cessful pursuit of the course. After this the work comprises 
a study of the following principal items: single and multiple 
stage compression; absorption of heat during compression; 
transmission of power by compressed air; draining of moisture 
from pipe lines; reheating; the use of compressed air in motors 
and the various valve-gears used. The application of compressed 
air to pumping, hoisting, drilling, and conveying. Compressor 
catalogues and trade Journals form a part of the subject matter 
of the course. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and Vin 
Texts: Peele, Compressed Air 
Trade Catalogues 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. (Morse) 

XIV POWER PLANT DESIGN Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course includes a detailed study of the units and aux- 
iliaries necessary to a power plant and their various connecting 
links. After this, problems affecting the type and location of 
power plants are taken up and then the work is extended to 
problems involving the best selection and number of units, 
location and arrangement, connection with auxiliaries, and the 
necessary housing for equipment. The items of first cost, operate 
ing cost, and depreciation are carefully considered. 

Prerequisites: Courses XI and xn 

Text: Gebhardt, Power Plant Engineering 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and II.. (Morse) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 83 

XV POWER PLANT DESIGN Drawing 
Credit two hours. 

The work in this course includes working drawings of some 
of the power plant equipment taken up and studied in detail in 
the lecture course. Such problems as the following are as- 
signed: detail of piping systems, including liye and exhaust 
steam, for a certain size plant; foundations for units and aux- 
iliaries; flues and stacks; coal and ash handling machinery, and 
complete power plants. 

Prerequisites: Courses XI and XII 

Six hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and II. (Morse) 

XVI GAS ENGINES Lectures (Elective) 
Credit three hours. 

This course is intended to give the mining engineer both a 
theoretical and practical knowledge of the gas engine. The theory 
and thermodynamics of the gas engine are carefully considered, 
together with the conditions affecting efficiency and operation. 
The best types of modem engines together with auxiliary ap- 
paratus are taken up and discussed with regard to special fea- 
tures and advantages. Each student is assigned a seminar paper 
upon some special subject of investigation. At the conclusion 
of the course these papers are presented before the class. A 
portion of the course is devoted to practice iii operating and 
running the engines found in the laboratories. 

Prerequisites: Courses vn and VIII 

Text: Streeter, The Gas Engine 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. (Morse) 

XVII PUMPING MACHINERY Lectures (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

This course includes the principles, design, and operation 
of all kinds of pumping machinery. Special attention is given to 
thd selection and installation of steam, electric, and compressed 
air pumps for mine service. Problems involving the calculations 
of capacity, slip, and duty of pumping engines are assigned to the 
students. Along with the study of pumping machinery consider- 
able time is devoted to the study of air-lifts. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII and VIII 

Text: Greene, Pimiplng Machinery 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Morse) 



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84 the: COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

XVIII MECHANICAL ENQINBERING Laboratory (ElecUye) 

Credit two hours. 

It is the purpose of this course to familiarize the student 
with the apparatus used in testing and engineering inyestiga- 
tion. The practice work includes indicator practice; study of 
reducing motions; dynamometers; determination of the quality 
of steam; flue gas analysis; calibration of gages; valve setting; 
testing of boilers, engines, turbines, and air compressors. A com- 
plete written report of each test or experiment is required of all 
students taking this work. 

Prerequisites: Courses VII, VIII, IX and XI, and XIII 
Text: Moyer, Power Plant Testing 
Reference: Smallwood, Mechanical Laboratory Methods 

Five hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Morse) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 85 



METALLURGY 



Irvfng Alltton Palmer, Professor 
Samuel Zettler Krumm, Instructor 



I ASSAYING Lectures 

Credit one hour 

This course includes a discussion of the underlying princi- 
ples of fire assaying, its relation to chemistry and metallurgy, 
the reasons for its use, and its application to the determination 
of metals in ores and metallurgical products. The methods, rea- 
gents, furnaces, 'and apparatus used in commercial work are de- 
scribed. It is aimed to make the course as practical as possible. 
Prerequisites: Physics III and IV 

Qeology and Mineralogy IV 
Chemistry VIII and X 
Text: Fulton, Manual of Fire Assaying 
References: Brown, Manual of Assaying 

Furman-Pardoe, Manual of Practical Assaying 
Lectures one hour a week during the first semester of the 
junior year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV (Palmer) 

II ASSAYING Laboratory 
Credit three hours. 

In this course the student is required to put into practice 
what he has learned in the lectures. The stock room of the 
laboratory has a large supply of assayed and analyzed pulp and 
bullion samples from various mining, milling, and smelting com- 
panies, and a given number of these samples are submitted to 
the students for assay. The work is continued until results 
are obtained closely checking those reported by the companies 
donating the samples. Special attention is paid to minor points 
in manipulation and to the attainment of sp^ed as well as accu- 
racy. This course may be taken only in conjunction with 
Course I. 

Laboratory nine hours a week during the first semester of 
th6 junior year. 

Required in Groups I, II, HI, and FV 

(Palmer, Krumm) 



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S6 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

III GENERAL METALLURGY AND THE BfETALLURGY OP 

IRON AND STEEL 

Credit flye hours. 

In this course there are taken up for consideration the gen- 
eral principles of metallurgy; the producticMi, properties, and 
uses of the more important metals; alloys and metallic com- 
pounds; ores of the common metals; fuels, refractories, furnaces, 
and apparatus; metallurgical processes; and a detailed study of 
the metallurgy of iron and steel. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry VIII and X 

Physics III and IV, G. and M. IV 

Text: Hofman, General Metallurgy 

References: Fulton, Principles of Metallurgy 

Stoughton, Metallurgy of Iron and Steel 
H. H. Campbell, The Manufacture and Prop- 
erties of iron and Steel f 
J. E. Johnson Jr., Blast Furnace Construction 

in America 
Principles, Operation and Products of the 
Blast Furnace 

Five hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV (Palmer) 

IV METALLURGY OF LEAD Lectures 

Credit three hours. 

The metallurgy of lead is considered in the following order: 
properties of lead and its alloys and compounds; ores of lead; 
sampling and purchasing of lead ores; fluxes and fuel; smelting 
in the ore hearth; roasting of ores, including the chemistry of 
the roasting process; blast furnace smelting, including construc- 
tion, chemistry of the blast furnace, calculation of furnace 
charges, treatment of products; softening, desilverlzation, and 
refining of base bullion; Pattinson process; Parkes process; 
Betts process; German and English cupellation. 

Prerequisite: Course III 

Text: H. O. Hofman, The Metallurgy of Lead 

Reference: H. F. Collins, The Metallurgy of Lead 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
Junior year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV (Palmer) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 87 

VI METALLURGY OP ZINC Lecturet 
Credit two hours. 

The subject is treated in the following order: production 
and uses of zinc; chemical and physical properties; alloys and 
compounds; ores; calcination; roasting; smelting; the manufac- 
ture cl retorts and condensers; retort and furnace fuels; types 
of roasting and retort furnaces; refining; and electrolytic recov-. 
ery of zinc. 

Prerequisite: Course III « 

Text: W. R. Ingails, The Metallurgy of Zinc and 
Cadmium 
References: L. S. Austen, The Metallurgy of the Common 
Metals 
H. C. Hofman, General Metallurgy 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group III (Palmer) 

VII ORE DRESSING Lectures 
Credit four hours. 

This course is designed to give the student a good general 
idea of the modern theory and practice of ore dressing. The 
underlying principles are discussed, and the application of these 
principles to the concentration of ores is illustrated by references 
to laboratory experiments and to commercial work. Emphasis 
l8 placed upon the economic side of the subject. On account 
of the rapid changes in ore dressing practice only the more mod- 
ern milling plants are taken up for detailed examination and 
study. 

Text: Richards, Textbook of Ore Dressing 
References: Wiard, Theory and Practice of Ore Dressing 
Rickard and Ralston, Flotation 
Hoover, The Flotation Process 
A. W. Fahrenwald, Testing for the Flotation 
Process 

Four hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and III (Palmer) 

VIII ORE DRESSING Laboratory 
Credit two hours. 

This course is designed to supplement the lectures on the 
subject by giving the student practice in the handling of ore 
dressing equipment. The first part of the course is devoted to 



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88 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINBS 

laboratory experiments, illustrating general principles, and to 
the study of the construction, cai>acity, efficiency, and power 
consumption of such machines and other apparatus as are avail- 
able. This work is followed by the testing of ores. Visits are 
made to commercial milling plants and the information thus 
gained incorporated in reports prepared by the student. 

Six hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Groups I and III (Palmer, Krumm) 

IX METALLURGY Laboratory 
Credit one hour. 

This course is intended to supplement the lecture work of 
the Junior year and Includes high temperature measurements 
with optical radiation, base metal couples and rare metal couple 
pyrometers; soger cones; melting points of common metals; heat 
treatment of steel; the thermit process, and the desilverization 
of base bullion. 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the 
junior year. 

Required in Group III . (Krumm) 

X METALLURGY Lectures 
Credit three hours. 

Gold and Silver. This course covers the following: metal-' 
lurgy of gold and silver, with special attention to stamp mill- 
ing, amalgamation and cyanidation; the parting of gold and 
silver bullion by various commercial methods, with special at- 
tention to electrolysis and the sulphuric acid treatment. Tlie 
various modifications of the cyanide process receive particular 
attention. 

Copper. A study of the principles of copper metallurgy as 
exemplified by the best modern practice, including the roasting 
of ores, blast and reverberatory smelting, pyritic smelting, con- 
verting of matte, refining of copper, treatment of oxidized ores, 
and hydrometallurgical methods. 

Text: Hofman, The Metallurgy of Copper 

References: Peters, Principles of Copper Smelting 
Practice of Copper Smelting 
Clennell, The Cyanide Handbooks 
Rose, The Metallurgy of Gold 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group III (Palmer) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 89 

XI METALLURGY Laboratory 
Credit one hour. 

Tbia work includes the testing of gold and silver ores by 
amalgamation and cyanidation; experimental roasting and leach- 
ing of zinc ores; the leaching of oxidized copper ores; and the 
laboratory study of such standard processes as lend themselves 
to small scale treatment. 

References: Clennell, The Cyanide Handbook 

Megraw, Details of Cyanide Practice 
Current Pubiicatlont 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group III (Krumm) 

Xn. METALLOGRAPHY Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course comprises a study of the general methods of 
investigating metals and alloys; the experimental determination 
and plotting of cooling curves; the physical mixture, including 
a consideration of aqueous solutions, fused salts and alloys; a 
discussion of freezing point curves and diagrams; the prepara- 
tion of the sample and development of the structure by various 
etching media; the use of the microscope and methods of mak- 
ing microphotographs. 

References: Howe, The Metailography of Steel and Cast 
iron 
Sauveur, The Metallography and Heat Treat- 
ment of Iron and Steel 
BuUens, Steel and Its Heat Treatment 
One hour a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group III (Krumm) 

XIII METALLOGRAPHY Laboratory 

Credit one hour. 

This course is intended to supplement the lectures, and 
includes the application of principles in every day commercial 
practice from the initial heating of the steel for forging to 
the cooling in the final heat treatment process; the examination 
of heat-treated steels and the photomicrographing of the speci- 
mens. 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group III (Krumm) 



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90 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

XIV ELECTROMETALLURGY Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course is divided into three parts and covers the fol- 
lowing subjects: (a) the electrolytic winning and refining of 
metals and the parting of gold and silver bullion; (b) the elec- 
tric furnace; (c) the electrometallurgy of iron and steel. 

This is a course of lectures and recitations on modem prac- 
tice in electric smelting and refining, in which the various types 
of furnaces and other equipment and their underlying principles 
are discussed and comparisons made with ordinary fire methods, 
followed by the direct application to the reduction and refining 
of metals. 

References:' Stansfield, The Electric Furnace 

Rodenhauser and Shoenawa, The Electric 
Furnace in the iron and Steel Industry 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group III (Krumm) 

XV ELECTROMETALLURGY Laboratory 

Credit one hour. 

This course is intended to supplement the lectures and 
includes the electrolytic winning of zinc, parting of gold and 
silver bullion, construction and operation of laboratory size elec- 
tric furnaces. 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group III (Krumm) 

XVI ORE DRESSING Laboratory (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

During the second semester of the senior year a practical 
course in ore dressing is given at the experimental plant. This 
plant contains standard-sized machinery and ores can be run in 
lots of several tons each. The students are thus made familiar 
with actual milling operations. Ores are concentrated by various 
methods, and the relative merits of different machines and pro- 
cesses are determined. It is aimed to keep in touch with the 
most recent progress in ore dressing, and the newer ideas are 
tried out as nearly as possible under actual working conditions. 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Palmer, Krumm) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 91 

XVn METALLURGICAL PROBLEMS Lectures (Elective) 

Credit one hour. 

This course is designed to include not only a discussion of 
the more important technical metallurgical problems in connec- 
tion with the extraction and refining of metals, but in the larger 
sense the economic problems, so as to include a consideration of 
such questions as labor, transportation, fuel supplies, location of 
plants, relation of metallurgy to civilization, importance of metal- 
lurgy in the waging of war, technical education, and the organi- 
zation and management of metallurgical companies. 

One hour a week during the first semester of the senior year. 

(Palmer) 



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92 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 



METAL MINING 



Harry John Wolf, ProfeMor 



The courses given in this department are intended to in- 
struct the student in the theoretical as well as the practical sub- 
jects that are necessary to a thorough comprehension of the 
mining industry. The subjects range from the most elementary 
to those that teach the principles of mining, the various schemes 
or methods of developing and working mines, and the actual or 
practical operations involved in mining. Throughout these 
courses it is aimed to present the most approved ideas and to 
have the student feel that he is receiving instruction that is 
revised up to the time of presentation. 

I MINERAL LAND SURVEYING Lectures 

This course covers instruction in the methods of acquiring 
title to mineral lands in the United States and in foreign coun- 
tries. Special attention is given to practice in the western 
United States. Determination of meridian and latitude by solar 
and stellar observation is explained. Methods of sub-dividing 
the public lands and the regulation of land offices and Surveyors 
General are discussed and explained. Instruction is given in the 
, preparation and filing of the documents used in acquiring title 
to lode and placer claims; mill and tunnel sites; timber/ coal, 
and stone lands; water rights; dam and reservoir sites; and 
ditch, flume, and pipe lines. The duties of the United States 
Deputy Mineral Surveyors are explained and the student is 
familiarized with the field methods and office practice involved 
in obtaining United States patent to mineral lands. This course 
makes the student competent to pass the examination given by 
the Surveyor General to applicants for commissions as mineral 
surveyors. 

Prerequisites: C.E. I and II 
References: Underbill, Mineral Land Surveying 
Hodgman, Land Surveying 
General Land Office, Manual of instructions 
for the Survey of the Mineral Lands of 
the United States 

One hour a week during the first semester of ^the sophomore 
year. 

Required of all students. (Wolf) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 93 

II MINE SURVETING Lectures 

This course includes the theory involyed in mine surveying. 
Among the subjects discussed are the following: the adjust- 
ment and uses, of .top and side telescopes and other transit 
accessories used in underground work; surface and underground 
surveys and traverses; carrying the meridian underground; 
underground connections;' plumbing vertical shafts; determina- 
tion of dip, strike, and thickness of mineral deposits from results 
of development, including drill-hole data; survey and measure- 
ment of stopes, rooms, and pits; methods of recording surveys 
in field books and office records; methods of mapping, including 
plans, elevations, and sections of underground workings, and 
the design and uses of mine models. 
Prerequisites: C.E. I and II 
References: Trumbull, Manual of Underground Surveying 
Durham, Mine Surveying 
Brough, Mine Surveying 
Shurick, Coal Mine Surveying 

One hour a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Wolf) 

III MINE SURVEYING Field Work 

This course embraces practice in lairing out mining claims 
on the ground and in survejring underground workings. The 
students are organized in suitable squads for efficient work in 
the field. Bach squad is required to survey a lode claim, placer 
claim, mill site, and tunnel site; locate and mark all comers, 
as required by law in the case of an actual survey; tie the sur- 
veys to proper section comers, or other monuments, and obtain 
all field data required for the calculation of intersections with 
conflicting claims. The practice in surface and underground 
work is given in one of the neighboring mining districts where 
typical mines are selected which provide a variety of problems 
common to mine surveying, such as shaft plumbing, adit and 
drift traversing, and making connections through shafts, tun- 
nels, drifts, raises, winzes, and stopes. The student receives 
practice and acquires skill in the use of instruments, the taking 
of measurements, and the securing of important data under the 
numerous disadvantages and disagreeable conditions common to 
underground work. The location of water rights and the sur- 
veying of ditches, flumes, pipelines, and aerial tramways are 
included in this course. 



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94 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

Prereqaisites: Courses I and II 

References: UnderhlU, Mineral Land Surveying 

General Land Office, Manual of Instructions 

for the Survey of the Mineral Lands of 

the United States 
Field Notes 
Plats and Mine Maps 

Four weeks in the summer following the close of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Wolf) - 



IV MINING LABORATORY 

Credit two hours. 

The work in this course is performed in a mine located 
on Mt. Zion, about three-quarters of a mile from the campus, 
where the school has built and equipped a mine shop and has 
driven a 7 by 8-foot adit. The shop is equipped with a forge 
and tools for blacksmlthing, timbering, track-laying, piping, and 
repair work; also' drill steel, machine drills, mine cars, and 
other apparatus used in the underground work. The students 
work in squads of three or four and perform all of the usual 
duties involved in the driving of a tunnel, such as track-laying, 
timbering, drilling by hand and with machine drills, blasting, 
mucking, and tramming. Under the instruction of a practical 
miner the students learn to temper and sharpen their own steel 
to suit the varying conditions of ground and for the different 
makes of drills. Opportunity is afforded students to do extra 
work investigating the efficiency and power consumption of 
different makes of drills and the relative advantages of various 
brands of high explosives. 

Two weeks in the summer following the close of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Wolf) 



V MINE MAPPING Drawing 

Credit one hour. 

This is a drafting room course wherein the student is re- 
quired to perform all office work necessary in connection with 
the surveys made in Course III, Mine Surveying Field Work, in- 
cluding the preparation of plats, field notes and reports required 
by Land Office Directors and Surveyors General, and the draw- 
ing of accurate maps of all mine surveys and water rights. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 95 

Prerequisite: Course III 
References: Field Notes 
Mine Maps 
Three hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, and IV (Wolf) 

VI PROSPECTING ANI> THE LOCATION AND EXPLORA- 

TION OF MINING CLAIMS Lectures 

i 

Credit two hours. 

This course is introductory to all the following metal mining 
courses. Following a presentation of the elementary and funda- 
mental |)rinciples of mining, the great mining districts of the 
world, and famous individual mines and mineral discoveries, are 
described and discussed. The general principles of exploitation 
of mineral deposits are presented. Representative mining costs 
are reviewed and compared with reference to the conditions 
under which they obtain. 

The course also involves a presentation of the regulations of 
the Land Office and Surveyors General, together with instruc- 
tion in the approved methods of acquiring title to mineral lands 
with a view to avoiding legal entanglements and gaining maxi- 
mum advantage to the locator. The course includes an ele- 
mentary discussion of mining laws and regulations of the United 
States and^ foreign countries. 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III and IV (Wolf) 

VII PRINCIPLES OF MINING Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

This course is designed to give the student a general view 
and conception of the mining industry from a business man's 
viewpoint. Many of the prominent features of other mt^ing 
courses are presented, with suitable discussion, but a study of 
technical details is avoided. The chief object of the course is to 
supply the needs of the student who requires a general knowl- 
edge of mining, but does not intend to specialize in metal mining. 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, H, III, and IV (Wolf) 



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96 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINKS 

Vin MINE ACCOUNTINO Lecture* 
Credit two hours. 

This course begins with the fundamental principles of book- 
keeping. The student is taught how to use the various books, 
records, and blanks involved in standard systems of accounting. 
The course is designed to impart a clear knowledge of double 
entry bookkeeping. Special attention is given to systems em- 
ployed in dealing with the accounts of mining corporations, 
classification of mine, mill, and smeltery accounts, and the dis- 
tribution of mining expenditures. The student is taught how to 
analyze costs, compile an operating statement, take off a trial 
balance, and prepare a financial report. Each student Is required 
to enter in a set of blank forms the transactions covering a 
month's operations of a mining company. 

References: Carlton, American Mine Accounting 

Lawn, Mine Accounts and Mine Bookkeeping 
Oreendlinger, Accounting Theory and Practice 
Wallace, Simple Mine Accounting 
Wolf, Notes on Mine Accounting 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group I (Wolf) 

IX MINING CORPORATIONS Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course covers the essentials of corporation law involved 
in the organization and operation of industrial corporations, par- 
ticularly those engaged in mining. The various steps in the life 
of a mining corporation are discussed and analyzed, and the 
ordinary vicissitudes and the usual methods of facing them are 
illustrated by typical examples. Methods of recording a corpo- 
ration's activities in the general books of accounts are explained. 
References: Lough, Corporation Finance 
Bush, Uniform Business Law 
Wolf, Notes on Mining Corporations 
Corporation Laws 
One hour a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year^ 

Required in Group I (Wolf) . 

X PLACER MINING Lectures 
Credit three hours. 

This course covers the theory and practice involved in the 
recovery of precious metals from sand and gravel deposits. 
Among the subjects discussed are: panning, rocking, sluicing; 
methods of extracting gravel for sluicing; hydraulicing; drift 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 97 

mining; dry placering; dredges and their operation; thawing 
frozen ground. Typical operations are considered in detail, and 
special attention is paid to capacity of machinery and operating 
costs. 

References: Longridge, Hydraulic Mining 

Longridge, Gold and Tin Dredging 
Wilson, Hydraulic and Placer Mining 
Weatherbee, Dredging for Gold in California 
Anbury, Gold Dredging in California 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group I (Wolf) 

XI METAL MINING Lectures 
Credit two hours. 

This course begins with a discussion of surface prospecting 
In various countries, the methods employed and the equipment 
required; and prospecting for ore, oil, and water by means of 
churn drilling and core drilling. Next, the methods of opening 
and developing thQ different types of mineral deposits are con- 
sidered and compared. The various methods of excavating earth 
and rock are discussed uid the different tools employed are de- 
scribed. Shaft sinking and tunnel driving are described, and 
the difTerent systems of stoping are explained. The course 
includes the consideration of mine timbering; the kinds and 
properties of timber, and special methods of framing; methods 
of supporting vein walls with ore and* waste filling; hand and 
machine drills and drilling methods; the different kinds of ex- 
plosives and their use in blasting; underground haulage; hoist- 
ing; surface transportation; wire rope tramways; pumping; 
ventilation; lighting; and sanitation. 

References: Hoover, Principles of Mining 
Young, Elements of Mining 
Storms, Timbering and Mining 
Brinsmade, Mining Without Timber 
Sanders, Mine Timbering 
Brunswig, Explosives 
Dana and Saunders, Rock Drilling 
Brunton and Davis, Modern Tunneling 
Lauchli, Tunneling 
Crane, Ore Mining Methods 
Gillette, Handbook of Rock Excavation 
Ihlseng and Wilson, Manual of Mining 
Peele, Mining Engineer's Pocketbook 
Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group I (Wolf) 



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98 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

XII METAL MINING Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

This course includes the discussion and solution of a variety 
of practical mining problems which the student is likely to 
encounter in practice. Knowledge gained in previous mining 
courses is applied to problems in haulage, hoisting, surface tram- 
ming, and pumping. The selection and arrangement of surface 
and underground equipment is discussed. The various forms of 
power used in mining operations are discussed and their appli- 
cations and relative advantages explained. Some of the lectures 
are illustrated by lantern slides of various mine structures and 
machinery installations; the subjects so illustrated are dis- 
cussed and the engineering principles considered in their selec- 
tion and involved in their operation are explained. 

References: Hoover, Principles of Mining 
Toung, Elements of Mining 
Walker, Electricity in Mining 
Redmayne, Modern Practice in Mining 
Tinney, Gold Mining Machinery 
Ketchum, Design of Mine Structures 
Peele, Mining Englneer*s Pocketbook 
Handbook of Mining fetalis 
Details of Practical Mining 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group I (Wolf) 

XIII MINE VALUATION Lectures 

Credit two hours. 

This course includes a detailed discussion of the methods 
of mine sampling. The sampling of fissure veins, placer de- 
posits, and coal seams is carefully explained. The measurement 
of ore bodies and the methods of estimating tonnage are de- 
scribed; the systems of classifying ore are discussed. The 
course includes an analytical study of the following subjects: 
factors influencing payability of ore; relation between vein 
width and sloping width; underground wastes and losses; min- 
ing costs; influence of mineralogical composition; losses and 
deductions involved in metallurgical treatment; milling, trans- 
portation, and smelting costs; valuation of ore bodies; valuation 
of surface and underground equipment; appraisement of water 
rights and other privileges; investigation of geological features 
and the probabilities and possibilities of extension of ore bodies; 
calculation of maintenance and depreciation of equipment; and 
amortization of capital. Methods of recording assays, tabulating 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 99 

calculations, and compiling data in comprehensive form, are de- 
scribed. Suggestions are given for the arrangement and pre- 
sentation of the essential information required in mine reports. 
References: Rlckard, Sampling and Estimation of Ore in a 
M\ne 
Bumham, Modern Mine Valuation 
Gunther, Examination of Prospects 
Herzig, Mine Sampling and Valuing 
Somermeier, Coal, Its Composition, Analysis, 

Utilization, and Valuation 
Spurr, Geology Applied to Mining 
Eckel, Iron Ores 
Hoover, Principles of Mining 
Denny, Diamond Drilling for Gold and Other 

Minerals 
Wolt Notes on Mine Valuation 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. 

• Required in Group I (Wolf) 

XIV ECONOMICS OF MINING Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course begins with a brief review of the fundamental 
principles of political economy. Then follows an analytical 
discussion of the underlying factors which influence the opera- 
tion of the various types of industrial enterprises, with special 
attention to mining corporations. • The difTerent classes of cor- 
porate securities are described and the factors which influence 
the value of mining securities are discussed. Mining costs are 
classified and analyzed. The application of business principles 
to mining is explained and emphasized. 

References: Babson, Business Barometers 

Rickard, Economics of Mining 

Finlay, Cost of Mining 

Skinner and Plate, Mining Costs of the World 

Fish, Engineering Economics 

Conway, investment and Speculation 

Walker, Political Economy 

Seager, Economics 

Meade, Economics 

Bullock, Selected Readings In Economics 

One hour a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required In Group I (Wolf) 



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100 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

XV MINE MANAGEMENT Lectures 
Credit one hour. 

This course includes a discussion of the following topics: 
personal qualities involved in el&cient management: value of 
versatile technical knowledge and experience; general and 
department organization of working forces; application of the 
principles of el&ciency engineering; value of business ability 
and diplomacy; influence of ideals, enthusiasm, loyalty and 
esprit de corps; systems of labor compensation; classification 
of labor and efficiency reward; contracts and specifications; 
leasing systems; marketing mine and mill products; analysis of 
smeltery contracts; analysis and distribution of mining cost; 
purchase of supplies; care and maintenance of surface and under- 
ground equipment; developing and operating policies; and com- 
pilation of periodical operating reports. 

References: Emerson, The Twelve Principles of EfTlclency 
Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Manage- 
ment 
Parkhurst, Applied Methods of Scientific Man- 
agement 
Gilbreth, Motion Study 
Galloway, Business Organization 
Gestenberg and Hughes, Commercial Law 
Brinton, . Graphic Methods of Representing 

Facts 
Wolf, Notes on Mine Management 
One hour a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. 

Required in Group I (Wolf) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 101 



MILITARY ART 



students' Army Training Corps 



On September 12, 1918. the Board of Trustees passed the 
following resolution making military drill compulsory: 

"That on and after September 1, 1918, military drill and 
instruction be required of all students in the school not physi- 
cally disqualified, or excused by the president of the faculty with 
the concurrence of the commanding officer assigned by the War 
Department." 

The War Department accepted the school as a unit of 
the Students' Army Training Corps and military instruction is 
given under the direction of the following corps of officers of 
the United States Army: 

HERBERT J. SHEPHERD, Ist Lieut. U. S. A. 
Commanding Officer 

GLENN B. UTTON, 2nd Lieut. U. S. A. 
Adjutant 

CARL B. JOHNSON, 2nd Lieut. U. S. A. 
Personal Adjutant 

ALBERT P. CORFMAN, 2nd Lieut. U. S. A. 
Supply Officer 

FLOYD M. BILYEU, 2nd Lieut. U. S. A. 
Assistant Supply Officer 

ARTHUR R. FISH. 2nd Lieut. U. S. A. 
Detachment Commander 



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102 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



MINING LAW 



Joseph 8. Jaffa, Professor 



I MINING LAW (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

a. Status of the law previous to the discovery of gold in 

California in 1848. 
Organization of mining districts in California and other 
states; Federal legislation; subsequent state legisla- 
• Uon. 

b. Lode claims under the act of 1872. 

Valuable mineral deposits; surveyed and unsurveyed land; 
vein or lode; in place; apex; mining claims and loca- 
tion. 

c. Important requisites of a valid lode location. 
Discovery and location; sinking of shaft; posting of no- 
tice and recording; size of location; apex within the 
location; end lines; side lines; side-end lines; over- 
lapping. 

One hour a week during the first semester of the senior year. 

(Jaffa) 

n MINING LAW (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

d. Bbctralateral rights under the act of 1872. 

Broad lodes; vein entering and leaving on same side line; 
vein crossing both parallel side lines; vein crossing 
end lines and side lines; miscellaneous cases. 

e. Secondary veins. 

f. Discussion and interpretation of Federal and State 

Courts of Sec. 2336 U. S. Rev. Statutes as to "the 
Space of Intersection". 

g. Placer claims: 

What is locatable as placer; acts of location; known lodes 
within placers, 
h. Tunnel sites. 

Location; location of blind veins in tunnel sites; rights 
of way through prior patented or unpatented claims, 
i. Mill sites. 

j. Annual labor or assessment work, 
k. Abandonment, forfeiture, and relocation. 
1. Patent. 

One hour a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Jaffa) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 103 



PHYSICS 



Frank E. E. Germann, Professor of Physics and 
Electrical Engineering. 

Joseph William Gray, Assistant Professor of 
Electrical Engineering. 



The courses in Physics are intended to give the student a 
broad, general knowledge of the whole subject, as well as the 
knowledge most essential to his work as a mining or metallurgi- 
cal engineer. Special attention is given to the general laws un- 
derlying the science, and the history of the development of the 
more important discoveries is carefully studied. In the labora- 
tory courses, the purpose is to excite In the student an interest 
in experimentation and to develop the ability for careful obser- 
vation. Special attention- is given to report writing and the 
graphical interpretation of results. 

I GENERAL PHYSICS Lectures 

Mechanics of solids and fluids; sound; heat. 

A course of lectures, illustrated by experiments, and recita- 
tions with assigned problems. The subjects treated are mechan- 
ics, including the elements of kinematics, dynamics, and hydro- 
statics; the properties of matter; heat, including thermometry 
and expansion, calorimetry, change of state, conduction, radia- 
tion, kinetic theory of gases, and the elements of thermody- 
namics; sound, including wave motion in general, production 
and propagation of sound waves. 

Prerequisites: Mathematics I to IV, inclusive, and regis- 
tration in Mathematics V. 

Text: Kimball, Textbook of Physics 

References: Preston, Theory of Heat 
Edser, Heat for Students 
Barton, Textbook of Sound 

Three lectures and two recitations a week during the flrst 
semester of the sophomore year. 

Required of all students. (Oermann) 



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104 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

II ELEMENTARY PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS Laboratory 

This course is arranged to accompany Course I. A selected 
group of experiments in mechanics, sound, and heat are per- 
formed, and a complete report on each experiment is presented. 
It is the aim to train the student to write clear, concise rep<M*ts 
on the work performed, and to give a complete analysis and dis- 
cussion of results. Whenever possible curves are plotted and 
interpreted. The aim of the course is to teach the student the 
necessity of careful work &b well as to have him acquire skill in 
physical mea.surements. 

Prerequisite: Registration in Course I 

Laboratory Manual: Nichols and Blaker 

Six hours a week during the first semester of the sophomore 
year. 

Required of all students. (Germann, Gray) 

III GENERAL PHYSICS Lectures 
Electricity, magnetism, and light. 

This course is a continuation of Course I. The subjects 
treated are electricity and magnetism, including electrostatics, 
electrokinetics, thermo-electricity, magnetic induction, electro- 
magnetism, electrolysis, the electro-magnetic theory, and electric 
oscillations; conduction of electricity through gases, and radio- 
activity; light, including propagation reflection, refraction, dis- 
Prerequisites: Mathematics V 
Physics I and II 
Text: Kimball, Textbook of Physics 
References: Wood, Physical Optics 

Starling, Electricity and Magnetism 

Three lectures and two recitations a week during the second 
semester of the sophomore year. 

Required of all students. (Germann) 

IV ELEMENTARY PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS Laboratory 
A continuation of Course II 

Prerequisites: Course II and registration in Course III 

Laboratory Manual: Nichols and Blaker 

Six hours a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. 

Required of all students. (Germann, Gray) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 105 

V ANALYTICAL MECHANICS Lectures 

Credit three hours. 

This course consists of the study of the fundamental and 
derived laws of matter, force, and motion, with their application 
to engineering problems. The chief topics treated are compo- 
sition and resolution of forces; solution of framed structures; 
center of gravity; moment of inertia; kinetics of a particle; pro- 
jectiles; work; power; energy; friction; kinetics of rigid bodies; 
and impact. The course is taught by text assignments, with lec- 
tures and recitations. Special emphasis is placed upon problem 
work. 

Prerequisites: Math. V and VI; Physics I and II 

Text: Fuller and Johnston, Applied Mechanics 
References: Minchin, Treatise on Statics 
Routh, Dynamics 
Ziwet, Theoretical Mechanics 
Church, Mechanics of Engineering 
Maurer, Technical Mechanics 
Church, Notes and Examples in Mechanics 
Three hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Groups I, II, III, and IV (Oermann) 

VI ELECTRON THEORY AND RADIOCTIVITY Lectures 

(Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

This course consists of lectures illustrated by experiments 
in the laboratory. The subjects considered are: conduction of 
electricity through gases; properties of Rdntgen, Lenard, and 
Canal rays; study of X-ray spectrometry; methods used in the 
determination of the mass and charge of the electron; radioac- 
tive substances and their transformations, together with a study 
of the various laboratory methods of measuring the activity of 
radioactive minerals. 

Prerequisite: Course III 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. (Oermann) 

Vn ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS Laboratory (Elective) 
Credit one hour. , 

This course deals with the theory of the absolute and relative 

measurements of the various electrical and magnetic quantities 



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106 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MEMES 

and includes the actual measurement of these quantities in the 
laboratory. 

Prerequisite: Course III 

Three hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. (Oermann) 

VIII ALTERNATING CURRENTS Laboratory (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

The subjects considered are: e.m.f. and current curves; the 
harmonic e.m.f. and current; circuits containing capacity; 
power in alternating circuits; graphical method of investigating 
harmonic e.m.f. and currents; parallel circuits; polyphase 
e.m.f. and currents; the two-phase system; the three-phaae 
system; delta and star connections; the alternating current 
transformer; general equations; solution of equations under 
various conditions; transformer theory as applied to a. c. motors. 

Prerequisite: Course III 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. (Germann) 

IX ELECTROLYTES AND ELECTROLYSIS Lectures 

(Elective) 

Credit one hour. 

A detailed study of the mechanics of electrolysis, the theory 
of electrolytic dissociation, polarization, diffusion of electrolytes, 
and contact difference of potential between liquids. The analysis 
of simple and complex mixtures of chemical compounds by elec- 
trolytic conductivity and single potential method is also studied 
at length. The course serves as an introduction to Course X, 
and is a prerequisite to it. 

Prerequisites: Courses I, It, in, and IV 

One hour a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. (Oermann) 

X PRIMARY AND REVERSIBLE BATTERIES Lectures 

(Elective) 

Credit one hour. 

A continuation of Course IX. The theory and practice of 
batteries is taken up iii the light of the work covered in Course 
DC. The lectures cover depolarizers, positive and negative tem- 
perature coefficients, calculation of electro motive forces from 
thermo-chemical data; standard cells; and the care of batteries. 

Prerequisite: Course IX 

One hour a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Gtormann) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 107 

XI CHEMICAL PHYSICS Lectures (ElecUye) 

Credit two hours. 

This course is given to prepare the student for a clear under- 
standing of the underlying physico-chemical principles of crystal- 
lography, metallography, and metallurgy. The influence of tem- 
perature and pressure on chemical composition, crystal form; and 
allotropic modifications of the elements is studied in connection 
with their bearing on the geological and mi^eraloglcal formation 
of the earth's crust The solution of gases in metals, adhesion, 
absorption, and occlusion, together with the phenomenon of "spit- 
ting" is also considered. Fusion and solidification, vaporization 
and condensation, solid and colloidal solutions, are all given spe- , 
clal attention. In connection with colloidal solutions, questions 
of flotation are taken up. 

Prerequisites: Physics I, II, III, and IV and Chemistry I 
and II 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the senior 
year. (Germann) 

xn CHEMICAL PHYSICS Laboratory (Elective) 

Credit one hour. 

A group of selected experiments closely paralleling the 
work of Course XI and illustrating some of the simpler chemico- 
physlcal phenomena are performed. 

Prerequisite: Registration in Course XI. 

Three hours a week during the second semester of the senior 
year. (Germann) 



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DR. JOSEPH AUSTIN HOLMES 
Late Director, United States Bureau of Mines 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 109 



SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING 



James Cole Roberte, Profeseor 



On August 12, 1915, the Board of Trustees passed the fol- 
lowing resolution: 

Whereas, the late Joseph A. Holmes, Director of the United 
States Bureau of Mines from the date of Its creation, May 16, 
1910, until his death In Denver, July 13, 1915, devoted his life 
to the advancement of safety and efficiency In the mining and 
metallurgical Industries of the entire country; and 

Whereas, It Is meet and proper that a lasting memorial 
of him should be established and maintained; therefore 

Be It Resolved by the Board of Trustees of the Colorado 
School of Mines that there be and hereby Is created a full chair 
In this Institution to be known as the Joseph A. Holmes Pro- 
fessorship of Safety and Eifflclency Engineering. 

I SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING Lectures 

Credit one hour. 

The subjects In this course are taken up with respect to their 
bearing on safety and efficiency as applied to mining, milling, 
and smelting operations. 

Illumination: the Importance of efficient lighting In mine, 
mill, and smelteries; use of oil, acetylene, gasoline, gas, arc, and 
Incandescent lights; candles, carbide, safety, and portable elec- 
tric lamps; the Importance of efficient lighting around shafts 
and tipples. 

Ventilation: deleterious and harmful gases found in coal and 
metal mines; approved methods of ventilation. 

Explosives: the various types of explosives are discussed 
from the standpoint of safety and efficiency; safety measures In- 
volved in the storage, handling, and use of explosives; approved 
types of magazines and thaw houses; blasting and shot-flrlng by 
squibs, fuse, and electric detonators; tamping and tamping ma- 
terials, and the placing of holes. 

Mine fires: history of some of the Important mine fires; 
storage of oil, oiling and greasing cars underground; explosions; 
gas and dust explosions, and incendiarism. 



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110 THE COLORADO. SCHOOL OP MINES 

Methods of fire prevention: fire patrols; systematic examina- 
tion of all places where fires are likely to occur; doors; perma- 
nent stopings and bulkheads of non-combustible material; 
organization of fire fighting crews with fire drills. 

Fire-fighting equipment: ample water supply; air line con- 
vertible into water line; sprinkling device in shaft; water plugs; 
fire extinguishers; telephones; fire signals; fire pumps; fire 
doors; ventilating fans; water barrels and fire buckets. 

Methods of extinguishing fires: use of fire extinguishers; 
fighting fire directly with water; sealing off the fire zone, and 
introducing gases and steam; bulkheading and fiooding; 
hydraulic flushing; use of rescue apparatus and gas analysis, as 
an aid in fighting fires. 

Gas and dust explosions: the excessive danger of gas and 
dust in coal mines; a brief history of some of the important ex- 
plosions; means of preventing explosions; use of inert stone or 
adobe dust; TafCnell and Rice stone dust barriers. 
References: Haldane, Investigation of Mine Air 
Beard, Mine Gases and Explosions 
Lamphrecht, Recovery Work After Pit Fires 
Garforth, Rules for Re90verlng Coal Mines 

After Explosions and Firee 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
United States Geological Survey, Bulletins 
Cowee, Practical Safety Methods and Devices 

One hour a week during the first semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group IL (Roberts) 

II SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING Laboratory 

Credit one hour. 

In this course thorough instruction and training is given in 
the care, testing, and handling of all lights used in the mines, 
such as candle, carbide, safety, and electric lamps. The students 
are required to make inspection trips to operating mines, mills, 
and smelteries and inspect and report on them as to safe and 
efficient methods and practices. Instruction and training is also 
given in the various ^t3n;>es of rescue apparatus — ^the lungmotor 
and pulmotor and other mechanical respiratory devices — and in 
the repair, upkeep, and maintenance of this equipment and 
accessory apparatus. The rescue training is conducted in the 
mine in irrespirable gases, and smoke, and under conditions 
which would exist in case of an actual mine fire or after an 
explosion. Students are required to build brattices and bulk- 
heads, saw and set timbers and props, put out fires with hose 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINKS 111 

and Are extinguishers, and carry injured men from mine work- 
Inss filled with smoke and gases. Special attention is paid to 
mine rescue and recovery practices of the government, states, 
and mining companies. Bach student is required to undergo 
a rigid physical and medical examination before he is permitted 
to take this training. 

Reference: United States Bureau of Mines, Publlcatlona 
Three hours a week during the first semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group II. (Roberts) 

III SAFETY AND EFFICIBNCY ENGINEERING Lectures 

Credit one hour. 

This course is a continuation of Course I and takes up the 
following subjects: laws of the various states relative to safety; 
policing and inspection of mines by federal and state olficlals and 
by company inspectors; industrial accident commissions and com- 
pensation laws of the different states; inspection and merit-rating 
systems as practiced by the Associated Insurance Companies; ac- 
cidents, their causes, classification, and means of prevention; san- 
itation and health conditions; education and social welfare, night 
schools, mining institutes, moving pictures, and entertainments; 
trade agreements and relations between employers; unionism 
versus open shop; miners' organizations; discipline; reporting of 
unsafe or inefficient practices or conditions; safeguarding all 
machinery; careful investigation of all accidents immediately 
after their occurrence; public meetings of employers and em- 
ployees in the interest of safety and efficiency; suggestion boxes 
and bulletin boards; bonus system; personal instruction to em- 
ployees; statistics with methods of obtaining and recording them 
and their value from the standpoint of safety and efficiency; 
purchasing, storing, checking, and issuing materials and sup- 
plies; careful inspection of all tools and equipment; labor con- 
ditions; proper treatment of employees by employers; coopera- 
tion. 

References: Haldane, Investigation of Mine Air 
. Beard, Mine Gases and Expiosiona 

Lamphrecht, Recovery Work After Pit Fires 
Garforth, Rules for Recovering Coal Mines 

After Explosions and Fires 
United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
United States Geological Survey, Bulletins 
Cowee, Practical Safety Methods and Devices 
One hour a week during the second semester of the Junior 
year. 

Required in Group II (Roberts) 



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112 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

IV SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING Laboratory 
Credit one hour. 

This course Involves a practical study of physiology, 
anatomy, and hygiene, and Is followed by thorough Instruction 
and training In the care and transportation of persons Injured 
in and about mines, mills, and metallurgical plants. Students 
are required to become proficient in the use of compresses, 
tourniquets, bandages, splints, and stretchers. 
References: Lauffer, Electrical Injuries 

United States Bureau of Mines, Publications 
American Red Cross, Textbook on First Aid 
Johnson, First Aid Manual 
Manson, Tropical Diseases 
Kober and Hanson, Diseases of Occupation and 
Vocational Hygiene 
Three hours a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. 

Required in Group II (Roberts) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 113 



SPANISH 



Leslie Fairbanks Paull, Aeeiatant Professor of 
Modern Languages 



The purpose of these courses is to familiarize students who 
expect to do professional work in Spanish-American countries 
with the fundamental principles of the grammar; with the sound 
of the spoken language; and with the forms of business corre- 
spondence and of technical writing in current use in those coun- 
tries. 

I SPANISH (Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

This consists of a study of elementary grammar, accompa- 
nied by copious written exercises outside the class, and by prac- 
tice in pronunciation and simple translation in the class. Span- 
ish conversation will be introduced gradually, with constantly 
increasing use of the language in conducting the class. 
Text: Hills and Ford, First Spanish Course 

Two hours a week during the first semester of the freshman 
year. (Paull) 

• 

II SPANISH (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 

This course is a continuation of Course I. It consists of ad- 
vanced study of Spanish grammar and Its application to Spanish 
composition. Classes are conducted as completely as possible in 
Spanish. 

Prerequisite: Course I 

Texts: Hills and Ford, First Spanish Course 
Crawford, Spanish Composition 
. Reference: '*La Revlsta del Mundo." (Current issues) 
Two hours a week during the second semester of the fresh- 
man year. (Paull) 



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114 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

in SPANISH (Elective) 

Credit two hours. 

Prerequisite: Course II 

This course is conducted as completely as possible in Span- 
ish. It consists of three parts: 

1. Advanced composition. 

2. Commercial correspondence. 

3. Practice, written and oral, in the use of technical words, 
phrases, and idioms relating to mining and engineering, and 
reading and reports based upon Hispano-American journals. 

Texts: Harrison, Spanish Correspondence 

Espinosa, Advanced Spanish Composition and 
Conversation 
References: Graham and Oliver, Spanish Commerdai 
Practice 
Halse, Dictionary of Spanish-English Mining 
and Metallurgical Terms 
Two hours a week during the first semester c^ the sopho- 
more year. (Paull) 

IV SPANISH (Elective) 
Credit two hours. 
Continuation of Course III 
Prerequisite: Course III 

Two hours a week during the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. (Paull) 

V SPANISH (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

This course is intended for irregular students who have 
only a brief time in which to get a start in the knowledge of the 
language. 

Text: Hall, All Spanish Method 
One hour a week during the first semester of the Junior year. 

(Paull) 

VI SPANISH (Elective) 
Credit one hour. 

This is a continuation of Course V 
Prerequisite: Course V. 

Text: Hall, All Spanish Method 
One hour a week during the second semester of the junior 
year. (Paull) 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 115 



INSPECTION TRIPS 



The same Importance is attached to the inspection trips as 
to class-room and laboratory work. Grades are given on reports 
submitted and satisfactory results are required for graduation. 

METALLURGICAL The study of various metallurgical pro- 
TRIPS cesses and plants may be prosecuted with 

great benefit in Colorado. Beginning with 
the Junior year and continuing throughout the senior year, in- 
spection trips are taken for the purpose of supplementing the 
laboratory work and for illustrating the lecture courses. Printed 
outlines of reports which carry out all of the important features 
peculiar to the plant and to the practice, are given to the stu- 
dents. A written report on each trip is turned in for correction 
and criticism. 

Duiing the Junior year the following plants are visited: 

The Pueblo plant of the An\erican Smelting and Refining 
Company, for a study of the metallurgy of lead. 

The Minnequa plant of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company 
at Pueblo, for a study of the manufacture of iron and steel and 
for the working up of the product into commercial forms. 

The Globe plant of the American Smelting and Refining Com- 
pany at Denver, for a study of the metallurgy of lead. 

The zinc plant of the American Smelting and Refining Com- 
pany at Pueblo, for a study of the metallurgy of zinc. 

During the senior year the following plants are visited: 

The Jackson and other mills in Idaho Springs, for the study 
of Ore dressing. 

The various stamp mills of Black Hawk and Central City, 
for the study of amalgamation. 

The plants of the Ferro-Alloy Co. and the Iron Mountain 
Alloy Co. at Denver. 

The Portland and Vindicator Mills at Victor. 

The Golden Cycle Mining and Reduction Co. Plant at Colo- 
rado Springs. 

MINING TRIPS During the Junior and senior years, the stu- 
dents are taken to well known Colorado min- 
ing districts for the inspection of actual mining operations. 
These trips are arranged in such order as to introduce different 



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116 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES • 

Interesting features and» at the same time, to emphasize definite 
portions of the classroom instruction. Attention is paid to sur- 
face plants, underground equipment, mining systems, and to all 
the regular operations, both above and below ground. Lectures 
precede these trips to explain their objects, the particular proper- 
ties to be visited, and the operations to be witnessed. Printed 
outlines are furnished and each student is required to submit a 
report, illustrated by his own sketches. 

ELECTRICAL In connection with the junior mining trip to 
AND Breckenridge, Colorado, a study is made of 

MECHANICAL the application of electric power to dredging, 
POWER PLANT milling and mining. Near the end of the 
TRIPS junior year the class visits the plants and 

sub-stations of the Denver City Tramway Com- 
pany and of the Denver Gas and Electric Company. Here 
they see in operation nearly all the electrical machinery and ap- 
paratus studied during the year. The seniors make a combined 
steam and electric plant trip to the station of the Northern 
Colorado Power Company at Lafayette, Colorado. 

AVAILABLE MINING, METALLURGY, ENGINEERING, AND 

GEOLOGICAL TRIPS 
COLORADO 
Portland. 

Metallurgy. 

Colorado Portland Cement Company: crushing and 
fine grinding of raw material and clinker. 

Canon City. 
Metallurgy. 

Empire Zinc Company: wet and magnetic separation 
of zinc ores and magnetic treatment of WUfley 
table middlings; experimental plant with mag- 
netizing roaster, magnetic separators, dry and 
electrostatic separators, and fiotatlon installa- 
tion. 

Geology. 

A study of the Mesozoic sedimentary formations 
that are upturned in fine hog-backs in a great 
semicircle around the Canon City basin. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 117 

LaBADVILLB. 

Metallurgy, 

Arkansas Valley Plant of the A. S. and R. Company: 
lead smelting; Benight-Lloyd and H. and H. 
roasting; and blast furnace treatment of silver- 
lead ores. 

Adams Mill: wet concentration of lead ores. 

Tak Mill: magnetic concentration with International 

separators and Cleveland-Knowles separators, 

after a magnetizing roast. 

Mining, 

The students are taken into the Yak Tunnel, through 
the several mines connected therewith, and are 
finally hoisted to the surface of Breece Hill 
through the shaft of the Little Jonny mine. The 
Moyer, Tucson, and other mines are also visited. 
Excellent opportunity is afforded for studying 
the two distinctive kinds of ore bodies for which 
this district is noted, and to lecum, by observa- 
tion, how these dissimilar ore bodies are at- 
tacked and their contents successfully extracted. 
Interest attaches to the unusual complexity of 
the ores, which contain gold, silver, and most 
of the base metal sulphides, oxides, and car- 
bonates. 

Engineering, 

Arkansas Valley Plant, A. S. and R. Company: steam 
power plant; capacity 1,500 h.p.; condensing 
Corliss engines belted to Connersville blowers; 
return tubular boilers equipped with underfeed 
stokers. 

Colorado Power Company: steam power plant; Curtis 
turbines, direct connected to 3-phase, 6,600 volt, 
60 cycle alternators; current stepped up to 
100,000 volts for long distance transmission over 
steel tower line; small and moderate sized 
units; Alberger surface condensers with inde- 
pendent dry vacuum pump and centrifugal circu- 
lating pump; 400 h.p. B. and W. boilers, hand 
fired. 

Yak Tunnel: Silver Cord property; two-drum electric 
hoist; motor driven compressors; compressed 
air and electric driven pumps; continuous cur- 
rent haulage. 



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118 THE COLORAIX) SCHOOL OF MINES 

Geology, 

The Paleozoic series and fault systems are studied 
underground and the sharply defined moraines, 
and other glacial phenomena, on the surface. 

Sauda. , 

Metallurgy. 

The plant of the Ohio and Colorado Smelting Co. 

Shoshoitb. 

Engineering, 

Central Colorado Power Company's hydro-electric 
plant Water from the Grand river is conducted 
through a tunnel cut inside of the mountain for 
approximately two and one-quarter miles, de- 
livered through penstocks to central discharge 
turbines under a head of 165 feet; ultimate ca- 
pacity of plant approximately 25,000 h.p.; ulti- 
mate transmission voltage 100,000. 

Shoshone and Gixnwood. 
Oeology. 

Archaean gneiss and schist, uncomformable above 
these are the Paleozoic rocks exposed in the 
canyon of the Grand river; typical canon erosion 
and travertine deposits. At Glenwood the 
Mesozoic rocks. 

UTAH. 

BiNOHAH. 

Mining, 

This district permits the study of three distinct sys- 
tems of mining, namely, the overhead stoping, 
the caving, and the open pit. The extensive 
properties of the Utah Consolidated Mining Com- 
pany and the Utah Copper Mining Company are 
open to the unrestricted inspection of the class. 
Further interest in this district comes from the 
opportunity to study aerial tram systems, . diffi- 
cult railroad engineering, and the operations of 
single companies under different systems. 

ecology. 

The Carboniferous quartzite and limestone, with in- 
truded igneous masses that have marmorized 
the limestone at contact; the relationship of the 
ore bodies to these contact phenomena. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 119 

Bingham JxmonoN. 
Metallurgy. 

United States Smelting Company: special roasting 
devices for lead ores, with neutralization and 
bag-housing of fumes. 

Gaiuield. 

Metallurgy. 

Utah Copper Company: coarse crushing and roll 
crushing of Bingham ores with tabling, vanning 
and flotation methods of concentration. 
Engineering. ^ 

Utah Copper Company: steam power plant; capacity 
10,000 boiler h.p.; 500 h.p. Heine boilers 
equipped with underfeed stokers; forced draft; 
concrete stacks; large cross compound Allis and 
Nordberg engines direct connected to a.c. gen- 
erators; Wheeler surface condensers with Inde-' 
pendently driven Edwards air pumps. 

American Smelting and Refining Company; steam 
power plant; large horizontal blowing engines; 
single stage air compressors driven by cross 
compound Corliss engines; Worthington sur- 
face condensers with Blake air and circulating 
pump; 600 h.p. Stirling boilers equipped with 
plain grates. 

Salt Lake City. 

Metallurgy. •* 

General Engineering Company: special devices for 
screening, classifying, and concentration of ores. 
Oeology. 

E#xcursion into the Waaatch range, to see the great 
synclinal fold and the Wasatch fault; very 
recent faults and glacial features; Lake Bon- 
neville terrace formations. 

MONTANA. 
Butte. 

Metallurgy. 

The Precipitation plants: recovery of dissolved cop- 
per from mine waters; leaching and recovery of 
soluble values from dumps. 
The Butte and Superior Mill; Timber Butte Mill. 



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120 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Mining. 

The mines of this district exhibit modern practices 
of lode mining in high grade copper ore. Among 
the noteworthy mining features studied are: 
deep mining with the involyed difficulties of 
drainage, ventilation, and timbering; steel sur- 
face structures; automatic loading and dumping 
of ore; rapid hoisting; mechanical framing of 
timbers; handling of large volumes of acid 
water; square set stoping; the driving of work- 
ing levels in country rock; the naturally high 
temperatures of the working places; and the 
systematic recording of every operation. Mine 
and geological underground surveying are ex- 
emplified in the practices of the Amalgamated 
Copper Company. 

Geology. 

Secondary enrichment of original sulphide ores; the 
relationship of these ore bodies to the remark- 
able fault systems of Butte; the study of granite, 
aplite, porphyry, and rhyolite rocks. 

Engineering, 

Anaconda Copper Company: mine plant at the New 
Leonard, 3,500 h.p. Nordberg hoist; 150 foot 
steel head frame; two stage Nordberg air com- 
pressors rope driven by Induction motors; lo- 
comotive type of boilers. 

Anaconda Copper Company: mine plants at the 
Diamond and Bell mines; very large air com- 
pressing plant; two stage compressors equipped 
for either steam or motor drive; 3,000 h.p. 
Aiiis hoisting engine; marine type of boilers; 
high steel head frame with automatic dumping 
attachments. 

Missouri Kiver Power Company: steam power plant; 
Westinghouse - Parsons turbines, connected to 
a.c. generators; surface condensers with inde- 
pendently driven air and circulating pumps; 
B. and W. boilers equipped with Roney stokers; 
high tension current station used as relay for 
the company's hydro-electric plants and operated 
in parallel with them. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 121 

AlfACONDA. 

Metallurgy. 

New Reduction Works: track system for the delivery 
of ores and shipment of products; compressed 
air traction for yard haulage; concentrating mill 
of eight one-thousand ton units; bin systems; 
briquetting plant; largest furnaces in the world; 
reverberatory furnaces; converter plant; refin- 
ing furnaces and casting department; arsenic 
plant, and flue systems. So much is to be seen 
here that considerably more time is spent In this 
plant than at any other point, and, owing to 
the courtesy of the management, much valuable 
instruction is possible. 

The Anaconda Copper Mining Company: brick de- 
partment; the manufacture of clay and silica 
brick of the highest degree of refractoriness and 
of all shapes. 

Engineering, 

New Reduction Works: general power plants; large 
triple expansion condensing Corliss engines 
belted to line shaft; two and four stage air com- 
pressors driven by cross compound Corliss en- 
gines; rotary blowers of the Connersville and 
Root types, direct connected to Corliss engines; 
rotary blowers, rope driven from Induction 
motors; Stirling boilers equipped with plain 
grates; rotary converters and traneformers for 
the high tension current brought in from the 
hydro-electric plants. 



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122 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 



UNITED STATES BUREAU OF MINES 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN EXPERIMENT STATION 



STAFF 

Richard B. Moore, B. S., D. So. 

Samuel C. Lind, A. B., B. 8., Ph. D. 

Daniel Harrington, E. M. 

John W. Marden, B. S., M. S., D. So. 

John P. BonardI, B. S. 
* Malcolm N. Rich, 2nd Lieut. C. W. S. 

Charles W. Davis, B. S. 

John E. Con ley, B. S. 
There are at the present time ten experimental stations be- 
longing to the United States Bureau of Mines. These are situated 
at Pittsburgh, Pa.; Golden, Colo.; Salt Lake City, Utah; Tucson, 
Ariz.; Berkeley, Calif.; Seattle, Wash.; Fairbanks, Alaska; Min- 
neapolis, Minn.; Urbana, 111., and Columbus, Ohio. In the ma- 
jority of cases the stations are doing direct cooperative work 
with the state institutions, with the object of promoting efficiency 
in the mining industry. Each statioA has assigned to it a specific 
field of work, to which, however, it is not absolutely confined. 
The work of the Rocky Mountain station covers the whole coun- 
try in its particular field. 

At the present time the work is confined almost exclusively 
to problems in connection with the production and use of various 
rare metals for war purposes. Special attention is being paid 
to the metals zirconium, vanadium, uranium, tungsten, and molyb- 
denum. The Bureau is interested in any problems in connection 
with these metals, the solution of which promises increased pro- 
duction, a higher efficiency of treatment, or greater usefulness. 

In order to extend the work of the Bureau, more particularly 
to problems of Colorado ores and their products, and also to 
assist in a closer cooperation with the School of Mines, three 
cooperative fellowships have been established by the School of 
Mines for the prosecution of research in mining, metallurgy, and 
industrial chemistry. 

The Mines Safety work for the Rocky Mountain region is 
under the direction of Daniel Harrington, and also the general 
supervision of two Mines Safety cars. Car No. 2 has headquar- 
ters at Raton, New Mexico, and covers the territory of Arizona, 
New Mexico, and Colorado, and last year traveled about 10,000 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 123 

miles. Car No. 5 has headquarters at Butte, Montana, serves 
Idaho, Montana, South Dakota and Wyoming, and traveled over 
the entire territory last year. On Janucury 1, 1919, it is expected 
to have a new car, No. 11, with headquarters at Rock Springs, 
Wyoming, and will probably have as its territory Southern Wyo- 
ming, Utah and Northern Colorado. 

The laboratories and offices of the United States Bureau of 
Mines occupy the Engineering Building. These consist of two 
large general laboratories on the second floor for analytical and 
research work; a large laboratory for technologic experimental 
work in the basement; and, in addition, a number of small pri- 
vate laboratories and rooms for special work. The equipment is 
adapted to investigations in connection with the rare metals, 
both on a small and semi-commercial scale. The technologic 
laboratory is equipped with leaching apparatus of various kinds, 
precipitating tanks, filter presses, steam-jacketed kettles, roast- 
ing, and fusing furnaces. 

The equipment for work in radioactivity is excellent. Two 
rooms are especially reserved for this purpose. The Bureau pos- 
sesses nearly two grams of radium which it has secured as Its 
pro rata part of its cooperative work with the National Radium 
Institute. Five hundred milligrams of this radium is reserved 
at Golden for experimental work. In. addition, during the past 
year, the Bureau has, through its research work and coopera- 
tion with the^ Welsbach Company, received a supply of mesotho- 
rium which will be used for further research work at the Rocky 
Mountain section. 



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124 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 



COURSE FOR PROSPECTORS AND PRACTICAL 
MINING MEN 



The Course for Prospectors and Practical Mining Men, which 
was inaugurated by the Colorado School of Mines in January, 
1915, proved so popular and profitable to those who attended, 
that the course has been repeated each year since. As a result 
of the success which attended this innovation, it has become an 
established part of the work of the School of Mines and will be 
offered annually as long as there is any apparent need or de- 
mand. The work is planned so as to keep the men occupied 
throughout each day. This will be an advantage from the point 
of view of instruction and makes the course less expensive to 
those who attend. 

All of the courses are of the most practical nature and 
comprise instruction in mineralogy, common minerals, ores, 
and rocks; elementary chemistry; principles of ore dressing, as- 
saying, and the more common metallurgical processes; methods 
of valuing, buying, and selling ore; placer and lode mining; 
location of mining claims; first aid to the injured and safety 
engineering. They are given entirely by regular members of 
the faculty and consist of lectures, supplemented by practical 
laboratory demonstrations. 

Those who expect to take advantage of this work are asked 
to notify the school authorities as soon as possible, in order that 
ample preparation can be made for the work. Address all cor- 
respondence to The Registrar, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, 
Colorado. 

FEE 

A single fee of two dollars is charged for the entire course 
of four weeks and is payable on registration. 

Outline of Subjects 



COMMON ROCKS AND MINERALS 
Professors Ziegler and Van Tuyl 
Three hours lecture and six hours practical laboratory work 
a week. 

This course is devoted to the study of common minerals, 
ores, and rocks. The instruction includes blowpipe reactions, 
with apparatus and appliances. A few of the rarer ores in which 
prospectors are just now greatly interested, such as those of 
chromite, tungsten, and molybdenum, will also be considered. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 125 

GENERAL GEOLOGY; GAS AND OIL 
Professors Ziegler and Van Tuyi 

Three hours lecture work a week. 

This course is devoted to such geological features as throw 
light on the origin and manner of occurrence of ore deposits and 
on the structural features frequently met ^ mining. These 
latter include faults and folds, strikes and dips, and the mutual 
relationship of rock masses. Particular attention is given 
to the kinds of rocks and geological conditions which appear to 
affect ore deposition. An important part of prospecting is to 
know what may be sought for in the different formations. Qas 
and oil geology is a feature of this course. 

CHEMISTRY 
Professors Botkin and L. D. Roberts 
Two hours lecture and six hours practical laboratory work a 
week. 

The object of the course is to make the prospector more 
familiar with the use of such apparatus and chemicals as may aid 
him in supplementing his field work, and to equip him with 
knowledge of the characteristic properties of the common metals. 
Some work on the commercially rare metals is also given. 

METALLURGY, ORE DRESSING, AND ASSAYING 
Professor Palmer 
.Three hours lecture and six hours practical laboratory work 
a week. 

The following subjects are treated: principles and meth- 
ods of sampling as used in mines, mills, and smelteries; 
methods of assaying common ores; determination of the 
value of ores from assay or analysis; how ores are bought 
and sold; the value of an ore to the producer; simple tests for 
the prospector; nature of ores, crushing, sizing, and classiflca- 
tion; course and fine concentration in water; methods of dry 
concentration; amalgamation; fiotation; electrostatic and mag- 
netic separation; determining percentage extraction; the cyanide 
process; leaching copper and zinc ores; smelting lead and cop- 
per ores; simple tfeatment plant for prospectors. 

The laboratories and experimental plant afford exceptional 
opportunities for demonstration and the student is given every 
reasonable facility to study methods and mechanical appliances. 

PLACER MINING 
Professor Wolf 
Two hours a week. 

This course includes a discussion of the theory and prac- 
tice involved in the recovery of precious metals from sand and 
gravel deposits. Among the subjects considered are: panning, 



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126 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 

rocking, sluicing, hydraullclng, dredging, and dry placerinK- 
Typical operations are described for the purpose of illustration. 

INNING CLAIMS 
Professor Wolf 
Three hours a week. 

This course includes instruction in the methods of acquir- 
ing title to mineral lands in the United States. Practical methods 
of locating and surveying mineral lands are described and In- 
struction is given in the preparation and filing of documents 
used in acquiring title to lode and placer claims; mill and tun- 
nel sites; timber, stone, and coal lands; water rights. Minincr 
laws which are important to the prospector are discussed and 
explained. 

LODE MINING 
Professor Wolf 
Two hours a week. 

This course Includes a discussion of surface prospecting, 
methods employed, and equipment required. The opening and 
development of prospects to the best advantage are discussed; 
also proper methods of sampling in the mine and on the dump. 

MINE SAFETY ENGINEERING 
Professor J. C. Roberts 
Two hours lecture and three hours practical work a week. 
The course in Mine Safety E^ngineering includes the fol- 
lowing: 

1. General safety in mines. 

2. Explosives: composition of explosives in general use in 
coal and metal mines and in quarries; composition of result- 
ant gases from explosives and the danger of going back too 
soon after shots are fired; the proper and improper methods 
of handling explosives. 

3. Mines gases: gases encountered in coal and metal mines, 
prospect holes, and shafts; their composition, methods of de- 
tecting, and removal; precautions to be taken to prevent ac- 
cumulation; methods of recovering and removing men overcome. 

4. Mine lighting. 

5. Mine fires: their causes, methods of preventing and 
extinguishing. 

6. Mine rescue methods and appliances, with demonstra- 
tions of various types of mine rescue apparatus in use, resusci- 
tating devices, pulmotor and lungmotor. 

7. First aid to the injured; a complete course in first aid 
will be given. This includes the following: the human body; 
wounds, with and without bleeding; bruises, sprains, and dis- 
locations; fractures, simple and compound; bandages and splints; 
shock, fainting, and poisoning. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 127 



SUMMER SCHOOL 



For the benefit of matriculated students who desire either 
to make up deficiencies or to do advanced work, and for the 
benefit of prospective students who have not completed the re- 
quirements for entrance, a Summer School is held annually from 
the middle of July to the last of August. 

The following courses are usually given: 
Requirements for entrance. 

Review Algebra Fee $2.00 

Solid Geometry Fee 2.00 

Chemistry ! Fee 7.00 

Physics Fee 4.00 

College Courses: 
Mathematics. 

Mathematics I College Algebra 

" n Plane and Spherical Trigonometry 

" III Analytic Geometry 

" rv Elementary Calculus 

" V Calculus 

" VI Calculus 

The fee for each of these courses is $2.00. 

Chemistry: 

Lecture Courses. 

Chemistry III Qualitative Analysis 

IV Qualitative Analysis 

" VII Quantitative Analysis 

VIII Quantitative Analysis 

The fee for each of these courses is $2.00. 

Laboratory Courses: 

Chemistry V Qualitative Analysis 
" VI Qualitative Analysis 
" IX Quantitative Analysis 
" X Quantitative Analysis 

The fee for each of these courses is $7.00. 



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128 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Mechanical Engineering: 
Lecture Courses. 

Mech. Eng. I Descriptive Geometry 

" " in Elementary Machine Design 
" " V Machine Design 

" Vn Kinematics of Machinery 

Drawing Courses: 

Mech. Eng. II Descriptive Geometry 

" " IV ESlementary Machine Design 

" " VI Machine Design 

" VIII Kinematics of Machinery 

The fee for each of these courses is $2.00. 

Metallurgy: 
Lectures. 

Metallurgy I Assaying Fee $2.00 

Laboratory. 

Metallurgy II Assaying Fee $10.00 

Instruction is given by regular members of the faculty. 

A laboratory deposit, to cover the cost of material used, is 
required in each laboratory course. Any unused portion is re- 
turned at the end of the course. 

The numbered courses are described in the catalog. The 
schedule of hours will be arranged on the opening day. 

For further particulars address The Registrar, Colorado 
School of Mines, Golden, Colorado. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 129 



SCHOLARSHIPS 



Scholarships are awarded to applicants for admission who 
show proficiency in their studies and are recommended by the 
proper school officials. A candidate must satisfy the require- 
ments for entrance and file his application, with recommenda- 
tions, on or before July 1 following his g^raduation. A scholar- 
ship relieves the holder of all tuition and laboratory fees for a 
period of four ye^rs, but will be terminated if the holder does 
not maintain a satisfactory standing in his studies, or does not 
comply with the requirements of the faculty or the trustees. 

UNITED STATES These scholarships are available to offi- 
APMY AND NAVY cers and men who are honorably dis- 
SC HO LARS Hi PS charged from the Army or Navy or the 

Marine Corps of the United States, and 
may be awarded by the President of the school to candidates 
who are recommended by the proper Army or Naval official. 
They are intended to benefit men who gave up their college 
career to enter the service and who, after the war, wish to com- 
plete their college course. To non-residents of Colorado these 
scholarships have an annual value of approximately $200.00. • 

UNITED STATES A scholarship is awarded each year to each 
SCHOLARSHIPS State in the Union on the recommendation 
of the State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction. It has an annual value of approximately $200.00. 

COLORADO A scholarship is given each year to each 

SCHOLARSHIPS of the accredited high schools of the State 
of Colorado. It is awarded on the recom- 
mendation of the principal, and has an annual value of approxi- 
mately $50.00. 

COLORADO LABOR Five scholarships are awarded annually 

EDUCATION on the recommendation of the Colorado 

ASSOCIATION Labor Education Association. They have 

SCHOLARSHIPS an annual value of approximately $50.00. 

FOREIGN Scholarships are awarded to each of the 

SCHOLARSHIPS Latin- American countries, to each of the 
provinces of Canada, to Cuba, Porto Rico, 
and to the Philippine Islands. They have an annual value of 
approximately $200.00. These scholarships are awarded on the 
recommendation of the following officials: 



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130 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

CENTRAL AMERICA 

Costa Rica, San Josd Minister of Public Instruction 

Guatemala, Guatemala Minister of Public Instruction 

British Honduras, Belize , Inspector of Schools 

Honduras (Republic), Tagucigalpa. .Minister of Public Instruction 

Nicaragua, Managua 

Minister of Foreign Relations and Public Instruction 

Salvador, San Salvador Secretary of Public Instruction 

Panama, Panama Secretary of Public Instruction 

Porto Rico Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Cuba Superintendent of Public Instruction 

SOUTH AMERICA 

Argentina, Buenos Aires Minister of Public Instruction 

Bolivia, Sucre Minister of Justice and Public Instruction 

Brazil, Rio de Janeiro 

Minister of Justice, Interior and Public Instruction 

Chile, Santiago Minister of Public Instruction 

Colombia, Bogota Minister of Public Instruction 

Ecuador, Quito Minister of Public Instruction 

Paraguay, Asuncion 

Minister of Justice, Worship and Public Instruction 

Peru, Lima Minister of Justice and Public Instruction 

Uruguay, Montevideo Minister of Public Instruction 

Venezuela, Caracas Minister of Public Instruction 

CANADA 

Alberta, Edmonton Chief Superintendent of Eklucation 

British Columbia, Victoria.. .Chief Superintendent of Education 

Manitoba, Winnipeg Minister of Education 

New Brunswick, Frederickton 

Chief Superintendent of Education 

Nova Scotia, Halifax Chief Superintendent of Education 

Ontario, Toronto Minister of Education 

Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown 

Chief Superintendent of Education and Council 

Quebec, Quebec Council of Public Instruction 

Saskatchewan, Regina Minister of Education 

Yukon Territory, Dawson. .. Superintendent of Public Instruction 



Philippine Islands, Manila. .Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Mexico, D. F Director General de Educacion Publica 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 131 



GRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS 



The Colorado School of Mines offers fellowships in Mining, 
Metallurgical, and Chemical Research in cooperation with the 
U. S. Bureau of Mines. These fellowships are open to graduates 
of universities and technical schools wno are qualified to under- 
take research. The value of each fellowship is $900.00, payable 
in' twelve monthly installments of $75.00 each. Fellowship hold- 
ers must be graduates of colleges, universities, or technical 
schools of good standing. During the college year they will be 
required to devote fifteen hours a week to the school as labora- 
tory assistants. The remainder of the time they may pursue 
advjuiced studies and become candidates for higher degrees or 
may engage in research work. 

The purpose of these fellowships is to undertake the solu- 
tion of problems in mining, metallurgy, and metallurgical chem- 
istry which are of special importance to the State of Colorado, 
and also problems in connection with the production of the rare 
metals of general interest. Subjects for research may be se- 
lected from the following general fields: 

1. Pyrometallurgy, electrometallurgy, and other methods of 
metal extraction. 

2. Metallography and the heat treatment of metals. 

3. Ore dressing, including concentration by wet and dry 
methods, fiotation, electromagnetic and electrostatic sep- 
aration. 

4. Utilization of the rare metal resources of Colorado. 

5. Problems involved in the development of the Oil Shale 
industry. 

6. Radioactivity, radioactive transformations, and the study 
of radioactive minerals. 

Facilities of the Colorado School of Mines experimental mill 
and of the various chemical, metallurgical, and mechanical lab- 
oratories of the Colorado School of Mines and also of the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines will be available for the use of holders of the 
graduate research fellowships. 

Applicants should send a copy of their collegiate records 
from the Registrar's office of the college where they have been, 
or will be, graduated. They should also state their professional 
experience and give the names and addresses of at least three 
persons who are familiar with the character, training, and abil- 
ity of the applicant. Applications should be addressed to the 
President of the Colorado School of Mines, Gk>lden, Colorado. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OP MINES 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



TUITION 
The Statutes of Colorado provide as follows: 

"The said School of Mines shall be open and free 
for the instruction to all bona fide residents of this State, 
without regard to sex or color, and, with the consent of 
the Board, students from other states and territories 
may receive education thereat upon such terms and at 
such rates of tuition as the Board may prescribe." 
The tuition for non-residents is one hundred fifty dollars a 

year, payable in two installments, seventy-flve dollars at the 

beginning of each semester. 

DEPOSITS. 

Deposits are required to cover the cost of supplies con- 
sumed. Any unused balance is returned. 

For courses in Chemistry $10.00 . 

BV)r Metallurgy 11 25.00 

For drawing (paid only once) 2.60 

For locker (paid only once) 1.00 

FEES. 

Fees are charged to cover not only the cost of materials 
and supplies furnished, but also the wear on apparatus. No 
part of a fee is returnable. The athletic fee, although collected 
by the school, is turned over to the Treasurer of the Athletic 
Association and is expended only for athletic purposes. 

Matriculation fee $5.00 

Athletic fee (paid each semester) 5.00 

Graduation fee 5.00 

Thesis fee 5.00 

LABORATORY FEES 

Chemistry V, VI, DC, X, XII, and XIV (each) $ 7.00 

Chemistry XVI and XVII (each) 5.00 

Civil Engineering II 5.00 

Civil Engineering IV 2.00 

Civil Engineering VI 1.00 

Coal Mining IX 5.00 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 133 

Electrical Engineering H, IV, VI, and VIII (each) 3.00 

Geology and Mineralogy III, IV, VIII, and XIII (each) 5.00 

Geology and Mineralogy VII and DC 3.00 

Mechanical Engineering XVIII 5.00 

Metallurgy II 10.00 

Metallurgy VIII and XVI (each) 5.00 

Metallurgy IX, XI, XIII, and XV (each) 3.00 

Metal Mining III and IV (each) 5.00 

Physics 11. IV, VII, VIII and XII (each) 4.00 

Safety Engineering II and IV (each) 5.00 



BOARD AND LODGING 

The school has no dormitory. Board can be obtained in 
private families for six to seven dollars a week. Students' clubs 
furnish board for about twenty-four dollars a month. Rooms can 
be obtained for eight dollars to twelve dollars a month. 

OTHER EXPENSES 

There are other expenses incidental to the mining, metal- 
lurgical, engineering, chemical, and geological trips, which vary 
so widely that they can not be estimated. 

Students leaving in mid-term, except on account of severe 
or protracted sickness, are not entitled to the return of fees or 
tuition. All charges of the school are payable strictly In advance 
at the beginning of each semester. No student is allowed to be 
graduated while indebted to the school. The Trustees reserve 
the right to make incidental changes in fees and deposits without 
printed notice, as new and unforeseen emergencies may arise. 

Students who desire to earn money to defray their school 
expenses are advised to limit their work to the summer vacation. 
The course of study is too exacting to allow much time during 
the college year for outside work. 

The total expenses of the college year, including room and 
board but exclusive of tuition, need not exceed five hundred 
dollars, and may be reduced considerably by strict economy. 

THE QUARTERLY 

Four times a year, in January, April, July, and October, the 
school issues the Quarterly. The various numbers include the 
Catalog, the Book of Views, Commencement addresses, and art!-, 
eles of a mining or of a metallurgical nature. 



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134 THE COLORADO SCHOOI- OF MINES 

METHOD OF GRADING 

The following system of grading is used: 
A — Excellent 
B— Good 
C— Fair 
D— Conditioned 
E — Failed or Subject Dropped 

A, B, and C are passing grades. 

D (Conditioned) means that the student is not passed. The 
deficiency may be removed by passing a re-examination or by 
otherwise completing the work. Unless a condition is removed 
before the beginning of the next school year the D becomes an E. 

E (Failed or Subject Dropped) means that the subject must 
be taken again, and that no subject depending upon this one 
may be taken until the E is removed. In removing an E the 
student must take the subject again either at a regular period 
or under conditions approved by the head of the department. 

Three hours of laboratory or of drawing are regarded as 
the equivalent of one lecture or recitation hour. 

In case a student fails to complete his work in any subject 
the instructor may, at his discretion, report to the office not 
a D but an "Incomplete", which shall be designated by the 
letters "Inc." This is not regarded as a condition, but it becomes 
an E at the beginning of the next school year unless previously 
removed, or unless an extension of time is given by the instruc- 
tor in charge. 

In case a student leaves school with one or more conditions 
and returns after an absence of a year or more, the term "next 
school year" will be interpreted to mean the next school year of 
his attendance; but in case he leaves at the close of the first 
semester he may return at a similar period a year or more 
later, subject to the conditions under which he left, as though 
there had been no break in his attendance, except in case of a 
changed curriculum. 



THE LIBRARY 

The school library occupies one-iialf of the second floor of 
Guggenheim Hall. The room is well lighted and ventilated and 
has a seating capacity for one hundred twenty readers. The 
library contains about fifteen thousand volumes and several 
hundred pamphlets, principally of a technical nature, and is 
being increased in subjects corresponding to instruction given 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 135 

in the school. Direct access to the shelves is permitted to all 
students in order that they may obtain the benefit of examining 
the books themselves. Books which are not needed for special 
reference work are loaned for home use for a period of two 
weeks. The card catalogue includes entries under author, title, 
and subject, arranged on the dictionary plan. The classification 
is an adaptation of the Dewey decimal system to the needs of a 
technical library. 

The library subscribes to the publications of the leading 
scientific societies of the world and to the chief literary and 
scientific periodicals. It is especially rich In files of engineering 
Journals, the material in which is available for ready reference 
through excellent periodical indexes received monthly. The 
library Is a depository for the documents of the United States 
Geological Survey and has an unusually complete collection of 
the publications issued by state geological surveys and mining 
bureaus both in this country and abroad. A collection of mine 
reports has recently been indexed and made available for 
reference. 

During the academic year the library is open from 8 a. m. 
to 12:30 p. m.; from 1:30 p. m. to 5 p. m., and from 7 p. m.to 
10:00 p. m., except on Saturdays and holidays. The library is 
closed Saturday afternoons. 

Y. M. C. A. 

The T. M. C. A. of the Colorado School of Mines exists for 
the purpose of serving the men of the school in every possible 
way. When called upon to do so, the Association assists men 
in securing suitable boarding and rooming accommodations, and 
when possible, in securing employment to help them earn their 
expenses through school. Weekly Bible Study Classes and relig- 
ious meetings are conducted during tne greater part of the year. 
An Advisory Board, consisting of one alumnus, one local minister, 
one local business man, and two faculty members supervises 
the work of the Association. 

THE INTEGRAL CLUB 

The Club Room is in the Gymnasium Building and is fur- 
nished in the ordinary style of a gentleman's club. The purpose 
of the Club is to foster good comradeship among the students. 
It la under the direct control and management of a student 
committee. 



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136 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

PRIZES 

Each year, usually at commencement, prizes are awarded to 
certain students who have maintained an excellent scholastic 
record pr who have submitted a meritorious thesis. These prizes 
may be in the form of cash, engineering instruments, books, or 
other suitable mementos. 

At the commencement exercises. May 31, 1918, the Wolf 
Medal, presented by Harry J. Wolf, of the class of 1903, was 
awarded to Henry George Schneider, for high scholastic attain- 
ment. 

Professor Victor Ziegler offers a silver loving cup to the 
member of the graduating class who, in the opinion of the fac- 
ulty, is most worthy of special distinction because of pre-emi- 
nence in athletics, leadership in student activities, and profi- 
ciency in scholarship. 

LOAN FUNDS 

The following loan funds have been established to assist 
worthy and deserving students through school. 

The Natalie H. Hammond Loan Fund of $1,000.00 was do- 
nated to the school in July, 1909, by Mr. John Hays Hammond. 

Tke Vinson Walsh Loan Fund of $1,000.00 was donated to 
the school in May, 1908, by Mr. Thomas F. Walsh, in memory 
of his son Vinson Walsh. 

The Walter Lowrie Hoyt Loan Fund of $2,000.00 was do- 
nated to the school in May, 1912, by Mrs. Mattie B. Hoyt, in 
memory of her husband, Walter L. Hoyt. 

Thirty-nine students have received financial assistance from 
these funds. 

ATHLETICS AND PHYSICAL TRAINING 

By virtue of the athletic fee required, all students entering 
the School of Mines become members of the Athletic Association. 
The Association is supported by the student fees, gate re- 
ceipts, and by contributions from the alumni and other friends 
of the school. The affairs of the Association are managed by a 
Board of Control, which consist of the Athletic Director, as 
Chairman; the captains of the football, baseball, basketball, and 
track teams; and the presidents of the Junior and senior classes. 
The Athletic Association maintains an ofilce in the gymnasium 
building, under the supervision of the athletic director. Training^ 
is required in regular gymnasium classes during the freshman 
and sophomore years. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOIi OF MINES 137 

ALUMNI AB80CIATI0N 

The aim of the Alumni Association is to promote acquaint- 
ance and friendship among the graduates, to encourage them 
to aid each other, and to make an organized efTort to elevate 
and uphold the reputation and standard of their Alma Mater. 
To carry out these ideas, the Association, under the management 
of an Assistant Secretary and Treasurer, publishes monthly 
"The Colorado School of Mines Magazine" and conducts an 
employment bureau, or Capability E«xchange, for the benefit of 
the members. This employment bureau also assists under- 
graduate students in securing employment during summer vaca- 
tions and at other times, especially when such students are in 
need of funds to defray the cost of their education. 

All graduates are earnestly requested to Join the Association, 
and to keep the assistant secretary and treasurer advised of 
their addresses and occupations. 

The officers of the Association are: 

Alexander K. McDaniel, '01 President 

E. P. Arthur Jr., '95 Vice-President 

Paul Gow, '07 Secretary 

A. C. Watts, '02 Treasurer 

Executive Committee — 

Daniel Harrington, '00 
Edwin H. Piatt, '00 
Thomas B. Crowe, '00 

The association holds its annual meeting and banquet bn 
the day following the commencement exercises, unless otherwise 
provided for by the Executive Committee. All graduates are 
eligible to membership and are invited to the annual meeting 
and to the banquet. 

MONTANA CHAPTER OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, 
BUTTE, MONTANA 

James W. Dudgeon, '13 President 

Harold H. Goe, '08. ' Vice-President 

Lester J. Hartzell, '95 Secretary-Treasurer 

UTAH CHAPTER OF THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, 
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 

James S. Thompson '99 President 

Blair S. Sackett, '09 Vice-President 

A. C. Watts. '02 Secretary-Treasurer 



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138 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY 

This has heen a local society, confined to students of the 
school, for many years, but now is merged with the American 
Society of Mining Engineers as a Junior Affiliated Society. Act- 
ive membership in the Society is limited to Junior Associate 
members of the Institute. Students of the school who do not 
Join the Institute may become Associate members of the Society. 

The Society has for its object the presentation and discus- 
sion of technical and engineering papers. Meetings are held 
monthly, and papers on various topics of Interest are presented 
and discussed by the members. From time to time lectures are 
delivered before the Society by Jeading engineers and scientific 
men. 

The officers for the ensuing year ere as follows: 

William A. Conley President 

George V. Dunn Vice-President 

R. R. Ireland Secretary and Treasurer 

The faculty members of the A. I. M. E. are as follows: 
President Victor C. Alderson 
Professor I. A. Palmer 
Professor J. C. Roberts 
Professor H. J. Wolf 
Professor Victor Ziegler 
J. C. Williams 
H. G. Schneider 
S. Z. Krumm 
All students in the list of students marked (*) are Junior 
Associates of the A. I. M. E., and consequently active members 
of the Scientific Society. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 139 



ENROLLMENT OF STUDENTS 



POSTGRADUATES 

Mulliken, Clarence K Golden, Colo. 

B. S., Maryland Agricultural College 

♦Ornelas, Ernesto Mexico City, Mexico 

M. E., Cornell University 

SENIORS 



♦Burwell, Blair Denver, Colo. 

Denver University 
Chao, Y. C Chen-Ning, Kansu, China 

University of Peking 
♦Conley, Wm. A Golden, Colo. 

University of Arizona 

Coulter, Ronald S Denver, Colo. 

♦Mechin, Rene J St. Louis, Mo. 

University of Illinois 

Metzger, Otto H Meeker, Colo. 

Miller, Guy B Canon City, Colo. 

•Mulford. L. D Golden, Colo, 

•Parker, R. J Denver, Colo. 

Denver University 
♦Romine, T. B Walla Walla, Wash. 



JUNIOR CLASS 



Abadilla, Q. A Catananan, Foyabas, P. I. 

Letran College, Manila 

Alvir, Antonio D Bulacan, Bulacan, P. I. 

University of the Philippines 

•Bailey, Donald L Denver, Colo. 

Benbow, Jules C Colorado Springs, Colo. 

•Berkowitz, Sam Pueblo, Colo. 

♦Brown, Prentice F Denver, Colo. 

Bunte, Ernest B Denver, Colo. 

♦Case, Wm. B Golden, Colo. 

Chow, T. Y Shanghai, China 

University of California 

Davis, Ninetta A.' Golden, Colo. 

Dunn, George V Golden, Colo. 

♦Dutton, Dewey A Grand Junction, Colo. 

Flint, Howard T Denver, Colo. 

♦Gallucci, Nicholas Louisville, Colo. 

Gamett, Samuel A Pueblo, Colo. 

Kiesel, Albert H Ouray, Colo. 

Klamann, Albert A Denver, Colo. 



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140 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

♦Levings, Wm. S Denver, Colo. 

Llchtenheld, Fred A Denver, Colo. 

♦Linn, Herbert K Denver. Colo. 

♦Pittser, Chester M Gunnison, Colo. 

Serrano, Juan E Santiago, Chile, S. A. 

Miami University 

♦Serviss. Fred L. F Golden. Colo. 

♦Sisson, Myron L Golden, Colo. 

Urtiaga, Santiago Candela, Coah., Mexico 

St. Louis College, San Antonio, Texas 

Wichman, L. E Telluride, Colo. 

Willett, R. R Golden. Colo. 

SOPHOMORES 



♦Adamson, John N Morley, Colo. 

Baldwin, James W Denver, Colo. 

Bengzon, Ernesto Camilino, Tarlac, P. I. 

Betton, Chaa. W Colorado Springs, Colo. 

♦Bevan, John G. Jr Colorado Springs, Colo. 

♦Bianchi, Alfred P Chicago, 111. 

Bilisoly, Joseph M Golden, Colo. 

Brinker, Fred A Denver, Colo. 

Casey, James W. Jr Denver, Colo. 

Chang, C. L Nanyang, Honan, China 

Government University, Peking 

Connors, Hugh M Denver, Colo. 

De Ford, Ronald It National City. Calif. 

Bdgeworth, Joseph E Denver, Colo. 

♦Fidel, Henry P Grand Junction, Colo. 

Frenzell, E. Herbert Redlands, Calif. 

Goodwin, George G Denver, Colo. 

♦Graham, Daniel J Mishawaka, Ind. 

Hartung, Kirk G Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Hopkins, Walter Pueblo, Colo. 

Horcasitas, Javier Los Angeles, Calif. 

♦Ireland, Robert R Quincy, 111. 

Jen, T. Y Nanyang, Honan, China 

Government University, Peking 

Jenni, Alfred E Pueblo, Colo. 

Johnson, R. P Brighton, Colo. 

Kay, Fred D Schenectady, N. Y. 

♦Kintz, George M Denver, Colo. 

University of Colorado 

Kirkwood, David F Antofagasta, Chile, S. A. 

Lawrence, H. W West Stockbridge, Mass. 

Lee, Y. C Hiangcheng, Honan, China 

Government University, Peking 

Likes, Myrton D Briggsdale, Colo. 

Litheredge, Robert W Loveland, Colo. 

Marvin, Theodore Sheldon, Iowa 

McKenna, Wm. J Tooele, Utah 

State Agricultural College 

Moreas, Jos6 E. A Pernambuco, Brazil, S. A. 

Bailor University and German College 

♦Nelson, Fred M St. Joseph, Mo. 

Neumann, Gustave L Denver, Colo. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 141 

♦Prentiss, Louis W Washington, D. C. 

Robb, Andrew B New Britain, Conn. 

Rodriguez, Juan A .Oruro, Bolivia, S. A. 

American Institute, La Paz, Bolivia 

♦Rogers, Bryant K Montclalr, N. J. 

Schneider, George W Denver, Colo. 

♦Seemann, Arthur K • Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Strock. Hale McC Denver, Colo. 

♦Surfluh, John S Los Angeles, Calif. 

Thomas, George D Lafayette, Colo. 

Thomson, Waldemar P Golden, Colo. 

Turner, Albert M La Veta, Colo. 

Valdez, Don C Salida, Colo. 

West, H. R Rocky Ford. Colo. 

Wong, Y. Y Eagle Pass, Texas 

St. John's University, Shanghai, China 

♦Woo, Y. D Shanghai, China 

Fuh-Tau College 
2ambrano, Jos6 Monterrey, N. L., Mexico 

FRESHMAN CLASS 



Aaron, Eugene R Denver, Colo. 

Babcock, Lloyd Rocky Ford, Colo. 

Bacca, Joseph P Trinidad, Colo. 

Bartholomew, J. A Toronto, Canada 

Beall, Chas. B Golden, Colo. 

Bergh, Stephen T .Hendrum, Minn. 

University of Wisconsin 

Bond, Frederick C Wheatridge, Colo. 

Bond, George F Estes Park, Colo. 

Boone, John H. H Hutchinson, Kansas 

Bragg, Conrad R Augusta, Me. 

Bransford, James C Denver, Colo. 

Brenner, I. Edward Chicago, 111. 

Bruhn, Frederick B ^ San Antonio, Texas 

Bryan, Lewis Jay .* Golden, Colo. 

Bunte, Arthur H Denver, Colo. 

Chang, J. K Koa Shan. Shien, Honan, China 

Government University, Peking 

Chang, M. S Yunan, Honan, China 

Chang, K. Y Kungsien, Honan, China 

Church, Harold A Rocky Ford, Colo. 

Clark, William I Idaho Springs, Colo. 

Clopton, John H San Antonio, Texas 

Cochran, Harry B Hutchinson, Kan. 

Crawford, Joseph Lincoln, 111. 

Crawford, Wm. P Charleston*, W. Va. 

Cronin, M. Bernard Denver, Colo. 

Culbertson, Augustus Maud, Okla. 

Curzon, Eugene C Los Angeles, Calif. 

Davis, Donald J Tacoma, Wash. 

Denny, John H Washington, D. C. 

Deringer, De Witt C. Jr La Junta, Colo. 

Derry berry, Chas. W Grand Junction, Colo. 

Derryberry. Ward W Grand Junction, Colo. 

Dohoney, Edward N Merrill, Wis. 



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142 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Dorrance, James R Bishop, Calif. 

Drake, Cecil Lyons. Kan. 

Eckenrode, Chas. A Saltsburg, Pa. 

Epeneter, Gus Wl Denver, Colo. 

Fahey, Thos. P Leaaville, Colo. 

Pairbairn, Frank Berthoud, Colo. 

Ferbrache, Irving T Grand Junction. Colo. 

Fishell, Marion F St. Louis, Mo. 

Flynn, Thos. G Walsenburg. Colo. 

Fopeano, Louis C Kannarock. Va. 

Fong, K. L Piyuan, Honan, China 

Government University, Peking 

Fryberger, Elbert L Loveland, Colo. 

Ferree, Chas. W Rushville, Ind. 

Gibbons, Edward T. Jr Denver, Colo. 

Gilland, Elrnest P Ephrata, Wash. 

Ginn, Wm. F Alamosa, Colo. 

Gochenour, Paul Delphi, Ind. 

Gould, J. C Pine Bluff, Ark. 

Gow, Neil W Golden, Colo. 

Graeber, Calvert Arlington. Colo. 

Graham, Wallace A Golden, Colo. 

Gray, Cecil T Gunnison, Colo. 

Gray, Thomas E Chicago, 111. 

Gregg, Donald C Denver, Colo. 

Griffith, Wm. E Denver, Colo. 

Guth, Clarence W Golden, Colo. 

Haines, Harold F Tacoma, Wash. 

Hakola, Samuel H Fairport Harbor, Ohio 

Handy, Deane S Denver, Colo. 

Haskln, Joseph A Chattanooga, Okla. 

St. Mary's College 

Henderson, J. S Montrose, Colo. 

♦Heydrick, Harold F Muskogee, Okla. 

♦Hicks, Eugene H St Paul, Minn. 

MacAlester College 

Hurley, Keith P Denver, Colo. 

Hyland, Norbert W Denver, Colo. 

Jackson, Merle Eaton, Colo. 

Jensen, Bert P Gary, Ind. 

Johnson, Frank Denver, Colo. 

Johnston, D. C Golden, Colo. 

Klein, Henry G La Junta, Colo. 

Knight, D. A Rawlins, Wyo. 

Krantz, Percy R Dunton, Colo. 

Krause, Hilmar P La Grange. Texas 

La Follette, Bruce B Greeley, Colo. 

Lailhacar, Albert Santiago, Chile, S. A. 

Lascowitz, Samuel Denver, Colo. 

Leaver, Ralph H Aspen, Colo. 

Lee, P. H Chiynan, Honan, China 

♦Leech, Thomas B Muskogee, Okla. 

Llndsey, Hugh R. Jr Flat Rock, N. C. 

Lipman, Chas. H Chicago, 111. 

Litheredge, Roland T Loveland, Colo. 

Lloyd, Ernest P Denver, Colo. 

Ma, H. Y Anyang, Honan, China 

Malinarich, Carlos Santiago. Chile, S. A. 

Mayall, Henry H Boulder, Colo. 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 143 

Mcbermott, Wm. G Denver, Colo. 

McGowan, Harold W Denver, Colo. 

McKenna, Hugh L Breckenridge, Colo. 

McKenzie, George R Denver, Colo. 

McMenemy, James Denver, Colo. 

Merry, Albert B RockvlUe Center, N. Y. 

Mln, Edward H. S Seoul, Korea 

Moreno, Domingo Santiago, Chile, S. A. 

Morton, S. Sidney Golden, Colo. 

Packwood, Samuel F St. Joseph, Mo. 

Pierce, Albert Le Roy Denver, Colo. 

Quiroga, Manuel F Huepac, Sonora, Mexico 

Raifl, Ben L Columbus, Mont. 

Reed, Ethbert F Golden, Colo. 

Reynolds, William La Veta, Colo. 

Rhodes, Louis C Gary, Ind. 

Rice, Neil A Denver, Colo. 

Roller, Wilfred L Denver, Colo. 

Rooney, Lawrence P Denver, Colo. 

Ruth, Joseph P Denver, Colo. 

Rydlund, Alfred C Georgetown, Colo. 

Santee, Leslie C Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Savage, Bros M San Diego, Calif. 

Schoder, Wm. P Denver, Colo. 

Seborg, Raymond M Rocky B\)rd, Colo. 

Seraflni, Theodore J Denver, Colo. 

Shaw, Harold F Grand Junction, Colo. 

Sheam, Justin Roselle Park, N. J. 

♦Shepard, George M Denver, Colo. 

Shih, H. P Chiyuan, Honan, China 

Pei-Yang University, Tientsen, China 

Smith, Howard B Bellevue, Pa. 

Smith, Warren B Denver, Colo. 

Son, Dorsey G Golden, Colo. 

Sonnebom, Robert H Pueblo, Colo. 

Steward, La Vere Thermopolis, Wyo. 

Steward, Roscoe G La Junta, Colo. 

Stovall, Preston W Denver^ Colo. 

Stong, F. Verne Grand Junction, Colo. 

Sun, Y. C Kuei-Teh, Honan, China 

Swanson, Oscar B Canon City, Colo. 

Tanner, Horace A Golden, Colo. 

Tenney, Lealon Leadville, Colo. 

Terrazas, Abel J El Paso, Texas 

Terry, Joseph W Denver, Colo. 

Treadwell, Wilbur A Pueblo, Colo. 

Wager, Maurice R Chicago. 111. 

Walker, Carl H Gunnison, Colo. 

Wang, C. F Hwangchwan, Honan, China 

Government School, Kifeng, Honan, China 

Webber, Benramin San Diego, Calif. 

Weber, Claude A Denver, Colo. 

Welch, Leland B Walsenburg, Colo. 

Williamson, Raymond M Golden, Colo. 

Woeber, Lorenz S Denver, Colo. 

Worden, John C Denver, Colo. 

Wright, Paul W Gunnison, Colo. 

Zee, Z. S Nanking Road, Shanghai, China 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 145 



INDEX 



Page 

Admission to Adyanced Standing 32 

Alternating Current Machinery 62 

Alternating Currents 106 

Alumni Association 137 

American Institute of Mining Engineers 138 

Analytical Geometry . . .* ; 75 

Analytical Mechanics 105. 

Applied Electricity 63 

Assay Building 16 

Assaying 85 

Assay Laboratory 22 

Athletic and Physical Training 136 

Board of Trustees 8 

Buildings 16 

Business Correspondence 65 

Calculus 76, 77 

Calendar 7 

Carpenter Shop 17 

Chemical Laboratories 22 

Chemical Physics 107 

Chemistry 44 

Civil Eiigineerlng 50 

Class of 1919 139 

Class of 1920 139 

Class of 1921 140 

Class of 1922 141 

Coal Mining 56 

Coal Mine Equipment 59 

Collection of Commercial Ores 20 

College Algebra 74 

Commencement 7 

Compressed Air 82 

Contents, Table of 5 

Course for Prospectors and Practical Mining Men 124 

Degrees • 33 



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146 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Page 

Departments of Instruction / 34 

Chemistry 44 

Civil Engineering 50 

Coal Mining 56 

Electrical Engineering 61 

English 65 

Finance 67 

Geology and Mineralogy 68 

Hygiene 73 

Mathematics \ 74 

Mechanical Engineering 78 

Metallurgy 85 

Metal Mining 92 

Military Drill 101 

Mining Law 102 

Physics 103 

Safety and Efficiency Engineering 109 

Spanish 113 

Deposits 132 

Descriptive Mineralogy 69 

Descriptive Geometry 78 

Direct Current Machinery 61 

Drawing Rooms 27 

Economic Geology 72 

E}conomics of Coal Mining 59 

Economics of Metal Mining 99 

Electrical Engineering : 61 

Electrical Installations 64 

Electrical Laboratory 24 

Electrical Measurements 105 

Electrical Plant Trips 116 

Electrolytes and Electrolysis 106 

Electrometallurgy 90 

Electron Theory and Radioactivity 105 

Elementary Machine Design 78 

Engineering Construction 53 

English 65 

Entrance Requirements 28 

l^Sxamlnations for Entrance 29 

Expenses 132 

Board 133 

Deposits ^ 132 

Fees 132 

Lodgin;? 133 

Other Elxpenses 133 

Tuition 132 

Experimental Plant 18, 20 

Faculty . . 9 

Fees 132 

Field Geology 73 

PMnance 67 

Financial Support 15 

Freshman Class 141 

Fuel and Gas Analysis 60 

Gas Engines 83 

General Chemistry 44 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 147 

Page 

General Geology 68 

General Information 132 

General Metallurgy 86 

General Physics 103, 104 

Geological Laboratory 20 

Geology and Mineralogy 68 

Graduate Research Fellowships 131 

Gymnasium 16 

Hall of Chemistry 16 

Heating • 17 

Heat Power Plant Engineering 80, 81 

Higher Mathematics 74 

Historical Geology 70 

History of the School 15 

Honorary Degrees 8 

Hydraulic Laboratory 23 

Hydraulic Investigations 54 

Hydraulics 52, 53 

Hygiene and Camp Sanitation 73 

Index Fossils of North America 71 

Inspection Trips 115 

Integral Club 135 

Iron and Steel 86 

Junior Class 139 

Kinematics of Machinery 80 

Laboratories and Equipment 18 

Laboratory Fees 132 

Lead 86 

Lecturers, Special 11 

Library 134 

Lighting .^ 17 

Lithology 71 

Loan Fund3 136 

Location and Description ..13 

Location of Mining Claims 95 

Machine Design 79 

Machine Shop 17 

Mathematics 74 

Mechanical Engineering 78, 84 

Mechanical Engineering Laboratory 26 

Mechanics of EIngineering 51 

Metallography 89 

Metallurgical Analysis 47 

Metallurgical Collections 21 

Metallurgical Laboratory 21 

Metallurgical Plant 18 

Metallurgical Problems ; 91 

Metallurgical Trips 115 

Metallurgy 85, 88 

Metallurgy of Lead 86 

Metallurgy of Zinc 87 

Metal Mining 92, 97 

Method of Grading 134 

Methods of Coal Mining 56 

Microscopic Petrography 71 

Military Drill 101 

Mine Accounting 96 



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148 THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Page 

Mine Management 100 

Mineral Land Surveying 92 

Mineralogical Laboratory 20. 21 

Mineralogy 69 

Mine Mapping 94 

Mine Surveying 93 

Mine Valuation 98 

Mining Claims 95 

Mining Corporations 96 

Mining Laboratory 25, 94 

Mining Law 102 

Mining. Principles of 95 

Mining Trips 115 

Montana Chapter of Alumni Association 137 

Oil and Gas 72 

Oil and Shale Analysis 48 

Ore Deposits 72 

Ore Dressing 87 

Ore Dressing Plant 18 

Organization 15 

Physical Chemistry 48 

Physical Laboratories 23 

Physical Measurements 104, 107 

Physical Training 136 

Physics 103 

Placer Mining 96 

Plane Surveying 50 

Postgraduates 139 

Power House 18. 83 

Power Plant Design 82 

Practices of Coal Mining 57, 58 

Primary and Reversible Batteries 106 

Principles of Coal Mining 56 

Principles of Metal Mining 95 

Frizes 136 

Probability and Least Squares 77 

Prospecting and Exploration 95 

Prospectors Course 124 

Pumping Machinery 83 

Qualitative Analysis 44 

Quantitative Analysis 46 

Quantitative Analysis. Advanced 47 

Quarterly 133 

Registration 29 

Reports 65 

Requirements for Entrance 28 

Research 20 

Residence of the President 17 

Rock Analysis " 49 

Safety and Efficiency EInglneering 109. 112 

Safety EJngineering Laboratory 26 

School Calendar 7 

Scholarships 129 

Scientific Society : 138 

Senior Class 139 

Simon Guggenheim Hall 16 

Sophomore Class 140 



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THE COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 149 

Page 

Spanish 113 

Special Lecturers 11 

Stratton Hall 17 

Structural Details 54 

Structural Geology 70 

Student Army Training Corps 101 

Summer School 127 

Surveying 93 

Surveying Equipment 22 

Tabular Views 34-43 

Technical Writing 66 

Testing Laboratory 23, 52 

Theory of Plane Surveying 50 

Trigonometry 75 

Trustees 8 

Tuition 132 

Utah Chapter, Alumni Association 137 

United States Bureau of Mines 122 

Y. M, C. A 135 

Zinc 87 



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Volume Fourteen Number Three 



Quarterly 



OF THE 



Colorado 
School of Mines 



JULY, 1919 



Issued Quarterly by the Colorado School of Mines 
Golden, Colorado 



Entered as Second-Class Mail Matter, July 10, 1906, at the Postoffice at 
Golden, Colorado, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



%4.^ 



QUARTERLY 



^^/- i3r 



OF THE 

COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Vol. Fourteen JULY, 1919 Number Three 

The Cripple Creek District of Colorado 

A Resurvey 

Colorado School of Mines 

COLLABORATORS 

VICTOR C. ALDBRSON, CAPT. JAMBS T. SMITH, 

President. Sec'y of the Board of Trustees. 

I. A. PALMER, F, M. VAN TUYU 

Professor of Metallurgy. Prof, of Geology and Mineralogy. 

HARRY J. WOLF, 
Professor of Mining. 



Introduction 

CAPTAIN JAMES T. SMITH. 

LEGEND \ The Mount Pisgah (promised land) territory near 

the southwestern slope of Pike's Peak was known 
to the Argonauts of 1859 as a potential placer camp. From that pioneer 
period until 1891, when Cripple Creek was accorded geographical dis- 
tinction, prospectors drifted in and gold specimens filtered out from an 
area some ten miles by eight in superficial extent, very largely devoted 
to the feeding of range cattle and owned in part by the Denver real 
estate firm of Bennett and Myers. With thia period of evasive dawn the 
names of Winfield Scott Stratton, R M. DeLaVergne, Robert Womack, 
James F. Burns, and James Doyle are intimately connected. Cattle bog- ' 
ging in the small stream, which courses through the district from north 
to south and along which gold values may be traced from its source to 
Florence on the Arkansas river, gave rise to the name Cripple Creek — 
impeded in progress but never stopped. That the mines were neither 
true fissures, as in the pioneer and San Juan mining districts, nor fiat 
veins in the Leadvllle sense, but of breccia (broken rock) formation, was 
a geological drawback to the early day miners, who reasoned from what 
they knew to what they did not know, forgetting that Nature is loaded 
with fresh revelations. 

METALLURGICAL Then comes the metallurgical experiments, involv- 
PROCESSES ing the expenditure of millions of dollars and the 

gains, disappointments, and failures incident thereto, 
since gold was recovered for the temple of Solomon from the now aban- 
doned mines of the "dark continent," and the Aztecs of Mexico and the 
Incas of Peru developed their arts in the precious metals, fine in the 
sense of intrinsic value. Smelting, lixiviation, chlorination, cyanide, 
straight cyanide, the Clancey process, fireless ore treatment, and other 
methods within and outside the legitimate, together with up-to-date fiota- 
tion, have all had their day in court with the usual verdict — the fittest 



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4 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

have survived, as will be seen by the report of Professor Palmer, which 
covers the scope of present-day success, showing a high extraction of 
values at small cost to the ton of ore handled. In this useful application 
of science the names of Philip Argall and Thomas B. Crowe have won 
eminent distinction. 

THE When the mines commenced to reach depth in 1908 

ROOSEVELT the Roosevelt deep drainage tunnel was projected, 

TUNNEL with the completion of which — strictly on time and 

without accident — ^the names of A. R Carlton and 
T. R. Countryman are creditably connected, the first providing the needed 
capital and his colleague the engineering skill. May 11, 1907, work on 
the tunnel was commenced with an appropriate celebration, the address 
of the day being delivered by President Victor C. Alderson of the Colo- 
rado School of Mines. The tunnel reached its objective point at the Port- 
land mine in the last week of December, 1918, and has since blazed the 
trail to rich high-grade ore strikes in the Cresson and the Portland prop- 
erties. The tunnel is 2i,255 feet in length, has cost $817,000, and shows 
a gain of over $3,000,000 in the item of draining the active mines as com- 
pared with the cost of pumping. Up to the end of 1918 the tunnel had 
drained 40,000,000 gallons of water, the flow at the portal ranging from 
17,000 at the peak down to 2,500 gallons per minute. Where it hits the 
Portland No. 2 shaft it is 2,133 feet below grass roots. It is properly 
hailed as an enterprise conceived in scientific vision and pinnacled with 
success. 

PRODUCTION The ebb and flow of the world's standard of value 

from America's leading gold camp is easily gleaned 
from the following summary, which shows by years the bullion extracted 
from the ores in smelter and mill. The figures are those of the United 
States geological survey: 
Tear Bullion Value 

1891 Stamp mills and smelters $ 200,000 

1892 687,310 

1893 Cyanide— Panic year 2,750,000 

1894 Chlorination 3.250,000 

1895 Colorado City mills 6,100.000 

1896 Florence mills 8.750,000 

1897 12.000,000 

1898 16.000.000 

1899 Bromination mills 21.000,000 

1900 Mill trust plants 22.500,000 

1901 24.986,990 

1902 24,608,511 

1903 17,630.107 

1904 21.414.080 

1905 22.307.952 

1906 16.268,291 

1907 Straight cyanide mUls 13,148.152 

1908 Flreless metallurgy 16,230,625 

1909 15.850.000 

1910 New Portland mill 11.031.555 

1911 10,593,278 

1912 11.049,024 

1913 10.948.098 

1914 World war - 12.026,364 

1915 Labor scarcity 13,727.992 

1916 Labor scarcity 12.177,231 

1917 Labor scarcity 10.400.200 

1918 Spanish influenza 8.346,000 

Grand total .$367,780,650 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 5 

In the past four years of turmoil the gold supply of the world has 
been rapidly falling ofT, while the paper credits placed upon gold have 
increased beyond the bounds of safety as measured In financial circles 
prior to 1914. As commodity prices — founded on the circulating medium — 
moved up, the relative value of gold descended, while the cost of produc- 
ing the gold was increased in propertion. Under these circumstances the 
Cripple Creek and other gold districts were confronted with a crisis. 
With the triumph of American arms on land and sea this condition has 
happily passed, and the sun of renewed prosperity heralds the arrival of a 
better day. Our Liberty Bonds being a promise to redeem in gold every 
ton of ore recovered from the Cripple Greek mines is concrete evidence 
that the contract of the nation will be paid in full. 



Geology and Ore Deposits 

PROF. F. M. VAN TUYL. 

INTRODUCTION The geology and ore deposits of the Cripple Creek 
district have been described in detail by Lindgren 
and Ransome* in their report entitled "Geology and Gold Deposits of the 
Cripple Creek District, Colorado" issued by the United States Geological 
Survey in 1906. Though thirteen years have now elapsed since the report 
appeared, it is still of inestimable value. However, the development 
work in later years has furnished valuable data, regarding the character 
and persistence of the ores at depth, which were not available at the 
time this report was prepared. A part of this later development work and 
its results were described by Patton and Wolf in 1915.t The present 
paper is an attempt to point out the bearing of the recent development 
work in the district on its future history rather than to bring our knowl- 
edge of the developments in recent years up to date. Before discussing 
the effect of the newer developments, however, a^ brief summary of the 
geology of the district, based largely upon the report of Lindgren and 
Ransom e, is presented. 

LOCATION The Cripple Creek district is situated about ten 

miles southwest of Pike's Peak, in the south central 
part of Teller county, Colorado. "All the important mines lie within a 
circle having a radius of about three miles" and at elevations varying 
from 9,400 to 10,800 feet above sea level. 

RESUME OF The rocks of the district consist, (1) of a series of 

THE GEOLOGY pre-Cambrian gneisses and schists intruded by three 
OF THE varieties of granite and an olivene syenite, and (2) 

DISTRICT the products of a Tertiary volcano consisting of tufTs 

and breccias of latite-phonolite, cut by dikes and in- 
trusive masses of phonolite and syenite. These are again traversed by 
younger basic dikes. The mineralization in the district is supposed to 
have followed closely the intrusion of the latter rocks. These Tertiary 
volcanics and intrusives apparenty fill the throat of an old volcano which 
has been planed off by erosion. 

ORE DEPOSITS The ore deposits are nearly all related to fissures 
and are of two main types: (1) lodes or veins and 
(2)* irregular replacement bodies, usually in granite. The fissure veins 
are by far the most important. These occur mainly within the volcanic 
neck and have a roughly radial plan. Usually they are nearly vertical 
and rarely exceed one half mile in length. Many of the veins in the upper 
levels are very short; some of them are less than three hundred feet in 



• U. S. Geological Survey, Prof. Paper 54, 1906. 

t Preliminary Report on the Creason Gold Strike at Cripple Creek, Colo- 
rado. Quarterly, Colorado School of Mines, VoL IX, pp. 3-16. January, 1916. 



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6 COLORADO 80H00L OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

length, though they may contain rich ore. The veins occur in all rocks, 
but favor the breccia and the granite, although many follow phcmolltic 
and basic dikes. Most of the lodes are narrow and show a sheeted struc- 
ture, but the fissures seldom show indications of faulting. It is believed 
that they were formed about the same time as the intrusion of the basic 
dikes, by compressive stresses which resulted from a slight sinking of 
the solidified breccia and small intrusions in the throat of the volcano. 
The persistence of a vein with depth is roughly proportional to its length. 
In general, the fissures seem to be smaller and less abundant in depth 
than near the surface. Within the narrow veins are occasional ore shoots 
of variable size. These are not 'Confined to any particular type of rock. 
The shoots are generally tabular, elongated bodies varying in width from 
a few Inches to fifty feet, with four to five feet a common size. The 
stope length in an ordinary shoot varies from fifty to three hundred feet. 
In rare cases, it may be as much as two thousand feet. The pitch varies 
from 45* to 90** and is generally northward. The average pitch length is 
'five hundred feet, but it occasionally may be as much as fifteen hundred 
feet. When one shoot ceases with depth another may be found below it 
upon the same or an adjoining fissure. The largest shoots are independ- 
ent of intersections, but some small ones appear to be related to crossings. 

The most important ore mineral is calaverite, Au(Te)„ some of which 
carries a small amount of silver. Small amounts of sylvanite, (Au, Ag)Tex 
and of Krennerite, (Au, Ag)Te2 have also been recognized in the ores of 
the district. Native gold, with a few minor exceptions, is present only 
in the oxidized ore in the form of a brown spongy variety. Galena, sphal- 
erite, tetrahedrite, stibnite, and molybdenite occur sparingly. The gangue 
in the fissure veins consists typically of quartz and fiuorlte. Occasionally 
dolomite also is present. In some of the veins the fiuorlte, quartz, and 
calaverite are intimately intergrown and form a fine grained purple rock. 
Drusy structure is commonly shown in the veins. The replacement ore 
occurs in red granite which often shows a drusy structure and is partly 
replaced by adularia, fiuorlte, and calaverite. 

The country adjacent to the veins shows only a slight alteration 
as a result of the passage of the mineralizing solutions. In the tuffs an^ 
■breccias, the dark silicates are transformed to carbonates, pyrite, and 
fiuorlte while the feldspars aiid feldspaltholds are changed to serlcite and 
adularia. As a result of oxidation, the veins are usually considerably 
changed above the ground water level and in exceptional cases even to 
a depth of two or three hundred feet below the water level. Descending 
surface waters, bearing oxygen and carrying sulphuric acid, formed by 
the oxidation of the pyrite, disseminated through the ore and the country 
rock decompose the gold tellurldes, forming brown spongy gold and tellu- 
rites, and change the silicates and other minerals to kaolin, quartz, man- 
ganese dioxide, and limonite. "Oxidation tends to destroy the original 
structure of the vein and changes the ore to a brown, soft, and homogene- 
ous mass." In spite of the extensive oxidation elfects, no evidence of sec- 
ondary enrichment of the ore deposits has been found in the district 

Lindgren and Ransome favor the view that the ores were deposited 
by hot ascending alkaline solutions, of magmatlc origin. "The waters 
ascended in the deeper part of the volcano with comparatively great ve- 
locity on the fewer fissures here available. Nearlng the surface they 
spread through a larger space in a more complicated fissure system. The 
speed became checked and conditions for precipitation improved. Depo- 
sition and the chemical action of the country rock changed the composi- 
tion of the solutions and a mingling with fresh ascending waters, possibly 
also with atmospheric waters, induced further precipitation. In this man* 
ner, is explained the smaller amount of ore deposited in depth and the 
richness and abundance of ore nearer the old surface. The portion of 
the volcano removed by erosion may have contained still richer deposits." 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 7 

NEWER Among the newer developments of interest in the 

DEVELOPMENTS past few months are: (1) The results of deep ex- 
IN THE ploration work in the Vindicator, Portland, and Cres- 

D I STRICT son properties, stimulated largely by the completion 

of the Roosevelt tunnel. (2) The new discoveries in 
the Trail, Cresson, and Index mines. (3) The opening of the Rose Nicols 
mine. (4) The discovery and exploration of the manganese deposit on 
Ironclad Hill. At the present time, interest centers largely in the deeper 
development in the Vindicator, Portland, and Cresson mines. 

The results of deep exploration in the Vindicator, located on Bull Hill, 
have been summarized in the annual report of the company for 1918, as 
follows : 

"Early in 1918 development was discontinued on the twentieth level, 
the bottom of the Golden Cycle shaft. On this level a total of 4,240 feet 
of work has been done, and no ore of commercial grade exposed. This 
work has systematically explored the known ore zones which, at this level, 
should possibly produce ore. The vein systems were found in place and 
the fracturing was strong and well defined, and with a general physical 
appearance favorable to ore deposition. However, the value necessary 
to make commercial ore was lacking. This level is at a depth of 2,150 
feet from the collar of the shaft and at an elevation of 7,920 feet above 
sea level. The productive areas in the property maintained well with 
depth to an elevation of about 8,300 feet. In sinking below this, there was 
a gradual but marked decrease in the production of the areas, the ore- 
shoots being more broken up, and showing a decided decrease in the 
average grade of the ore produced. Extensive work has been done on 
the twentieth level with the view of developing ore below a possible barren 
zone existing at the elevation of the nineteenth level, but with negative 
results. There are possibly existing ore bodies at a greater depth, but it 
is the opinion of the operating staff, from a thorough study of the habits 
of the existing ore bodies, that there will not in this property be sufficient 
ore opened at a greater depth than that to which exploration work has 
been carried to warrant the expense of sinking and exploring. However, 
this does not mean that exploration should stop, as there is considerable 
area on the upper levels of the property that has not been thoroughly 
prospected, and it is the intention of the management to explore this 
ground during 1919. Due to the Intense labor shortage during the year 
1918, this work was impossible." * 

The Portland Gold Mining Company, operating on Battle Mountain, 
has been much more successful in its deep exploratory work. On the 
twenty-one hundred foot, or drainage tunnel, level, a rich ore body was 
recently discovered in Portland vein No. 1 near shaft No. 2. The tenor 
of the ore is said to average from $30.00 to $40.00 a ton and the shoot is 
regarded as one of the richest yet found in this vein. The vein which is 
nearly vertical and trends N. 35** W., on this level, parallels a phonolite 
dike which follows the contact between granite and Cripple Creek breccia. 
This ore body Is not important on the nineteenth level, but is somewhat 
richer on the twentieth, where its width varies from five to twelve feet. 
On the twenty-first, where the best values are found, the width varies 
from four and one half feet to a maximum of more than twenty-eight feet 
at a point where the vein "splits" into east and west branches. The ore 
mineral is calaverlte and the gangue minerals are quartz and chalcedony 
with a little fluorlte. There is also considerable disseminated pyrite in 
the ore and the wall rock. The mineralization has affected the granite, 
the phonolite. and the breccia Indiscriminately giving rise to rich ore in 
all three varieties of rock. 

The Lee No. 5 promises to yield considerable commercial ore on the 
twenty-first level also. It is reported that the ore shoot opened in this 
vein on this level is richer than on the level above. The relation of the 
Lee No. 5 to Portland No. 1 vein is shown in the accompanying sketch. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 






PMOftaJTC 



1 nnmi 




4^2 



PLAAfOr moo, OR OffA/MASC WNHO, 
LOCL or POinUHD MINE, N*Z SHATX 
FROM OKTA FURNISHED BY Mr. R JONES 

S€9h Im m Mfk 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLt, 9 

The deep deyelopment work in the Gresson mine on Raven Hill is 
Just beginning. Several well defined veins were cut recently on this prop- 
erty in the cross cut connecting the Roosevelt tunnel with the nineteenth 
level. Some of these show considerable promise, but have not bee)i suffi.- 
ciently developed to give an idea of their extent and value. However, 
considerable optimism is felt concerning the persistence of the ores at« 
depth in this mine. 

The higher-level strikes in recent months on the Trail and Gresson 
properties have also stimulated interest. On the Trail, owned by the 
United Gold Mines Company, a rich ore shoot has been opened in the 
Dexter vein on the tenth and eleventh levels. Another atrike on the 
fourteenth level of this mine has been reported. 

In the Gresson mine, important discoveries have been made recently 
on the eighth, eleventh, and fourteenth levels. It has been demonstrated 
that the important ore shoots in this property are related to a more 
or less chimney-like area of shattering, roughly elliptical in plan, with a 
length of about a thousand, and a width of five hundred feet. The richer 
ore bodies tend to occur within this area or near its borders. Eiarly in 
1919 a rich shoot was found on the fourteenth level (No. 1417) in a 
sheeted zone in volcanic breccia just outside the area of shattering. The 
vein strikes N. 60*'E., is five to twenty feet wide, and dips steeply to the 
southeast. The same shoot is said to carry commercial ore on the twelfth 
and fifteenth levels. During the month of March of this year a shoot was 
discovered Just within the shattered area on the eighth level. The ore 
body is nearly vertical, has a general north-south trend, and is approxi- 
mately sixty feet long and thirty feet wide. It is known to extend at 
least one hundred feet both above and below this level. The average tenor 
of the ore is $20.00 a ton, the higher values being found near the middle of 
the ore body. 

Three important discoveries in the Index mine, operated by the El Paso * 
Extension Gorporation, on the southwestern slope of Gold Hill have been 
reported recently. One of these was made by the company on the eighth 
level, at a depth of approximately 1,160 feet, at the intersection of the 
Index vein with a cross vein. The remaining two were made by lessees 
on the fourth level, one to the north and one to the south of the shaft. 

The Rose Nicols mine, situated on the northwestern slope of Battle 
Mountain, was reopened more than two years ago by the Reva Gold Min- 
ing Gompany and exploratory work has been carried on steadily since, 
chiefiy upon the Lost Anne and Dexter veins. The Lost Anne vein has 
been explored by a drift extending from the eighth level of this mine 
directly to the Portland. Also the intersections of this vein with the Dex- 
ter and Hidden Treasure veins, where rich ore bodies were expected to 
occur, have been prospected on the seventh and eighth levels. Up to the 
present time no large ore bodies of conslderabble richness have been dis- 
covered, but several small shoots of some importance have been located 
on the Dexter and Lost Anne. It is possible that future development will 
result in one or more rich discoveries on this property, since the vein 
systems are exceptionally well defined. 

The discovery of a manganese deposit on Ironclad Hill and the pres- 
ent attempt to develop this by the Lincoln Mines and Reduction company 
is worthy of notice. The ore occurs in the form of psilomelane which is 
essentially a hydrated oxide of manganese with small amounts of barium 
and potassium oxides. This mineral is one of the chief sources of man- 
ganese the world over. Its occurrence at Ironclad Hill, however, is unique 
in that it occurs in phonolitlc breccia. The productive area of the brec* 
cia appears to be confined to a belt fifty to seventy-five yards wide and 
about one hundred fifty yards long and trends approximately north- 
westrsoutheast The depth to which the mineral extends apparently ex- 
ceeds one hundred feet, since samples of it have been reported at the base 
of an Inclined shaft which extends below this depth. The psilomelane 



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10 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

does not form a continuous deposit, but occurs rather as streaks and 
small pockets which have an erratic distribution in the breccia. All of 
the local deposits contain fragments of the country rock or kaolin, derived 
from it by decay, and in some of them there is considerable limonite — ^the 
hydrated oxide of iron. It is believed that the richer and larger bodies 
#of the mineral will be found relatively near the surface, but the spotted 
character of the deposit and the presence of considerable impurities in 
much of the material will render its future uncertain. 

FUTURE OF The greatest problem, from a geological standpoint, 

THE DISTRICT which confronts the mining interests of the Cripple 
Creek District is the question of the persistence of 
the ore deposits with depth. The problem is the more acute at the pres- 
ent time, because many of the rich ore bodies, which have so far been 
discovered on the higher levels^, are now either greatly depleted or have 
been completely removed, and in many cases the operators hesitate to 
carry on deep exploratory work unless they have some assurance that 
the chances for success on the deeper levels are proportionate to the 
financial risks involved. Fortunately, however, the aggressiveness of 
some of the larger companies in deep exploration in recent months, 
especially since the completion of the Roosevelt tunnel, has thrown con- 
siderable additional light upon the behavior of the veins with depth. 

The apparent decrease in the number of ore bodies found on the 
lower levels does not warrant predictions of a brilliant future for the 
district. However, the discovery of well defined vein systems at the 
greatest depths yet penetrated in three of the largest mines, located in 
comparatively widely separated points in the district, suggest that the 
deposition of ore bodies at considerable depth has not been hampered 
by the lack of numerous passage ways for the ascending mineralizing 
• solutions. But it must be considered probable that conditions did not 
favor the deposition of the ores to the same extent and to the samo 
degree at the greater depths, as they did nearer the surface where more 
extensive mineralization must have been favored by (1) the greater de- 
crease in temperature and pressure of the rising solutions, (2) by the 
checking of the velocity of their ascent due to the greater number of 
fissures and other openings near the surface, and (3) by their greater 
mingling with descending solutions of meteoric origin. But the history 
of the development in the district during the past few years indicates 
clearly that ore shoots of great richness have been formed, under certain 
favorable conditions, at depths surprising to many geologists and mining 
engineers. It is believed, therefore, that the recent strikes on the deeper 
levels, such as those on the twenty-first level of the Portland, should lend 
considerable encouragement to deep prospecting on the part of the 
larger companies which are in a position to undertake such work. 



Mining 

PROF. HARRY J. WOLF. 

WAR The public is not generally aware of the creditable 

CONDITIONS record made by the mines of the Cripple Creek dis- 

trict during the war. A list of the properties that re- 
mained in active operation in spite of high wages, scarcity of labor and 
high cost of supplies, offers a genuine surprise to those who have ac- 
cepted too hastily as truth the utterances of certain pessimistic persons. 
These utterances have served to convey the general impression that 
Cripple Creek, one of the great gold mining districts of the world, is a 
thing of the past. A casual investigation of the true conditions dis- 
closes the fact that more than twenty prominent .mines of the district 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 11 

maintained regular production during the war. Among these mines were 
the Portland, Granite, Vindicator, Cresson, Jerry Johnson, Forest Queen, 
Index, Dante, Isabelle, Modoc, Dexter, Howard Shaft of the Mary Mc- 
Kinney, Rose Nicol, part of the Stratton Estate, El Paso, Gold Sovereign, 
Blue Flag, EUkton, Gold Bond, Queen Bess, Phoenix, Jo Dandy, and 
Block 8 of School Section 16. It is generally accepted as good practice 
to maintain ore reserves by pushing development work during periods 
of normal production. However, in the case of a gold mining district 
where all mining costs increased nearly one hundred per cent while the 
price of the product remained fixed it became expedient to curtail ex- 
penditures for development work, and direct attention to the production 
of such ore as could be hoisted with the minimum expenditure for all 
operations which were not immediately productive. The following of 
this practice in the Cripple Creek district has depleted reserves, and 
has naturally left some properties in a condition which suggests approach- 
ing exhaustion, while as a matter of fact the situation is not as bad as 
it looks, for recent resumption of systematic development work has re- 
sulted already, in many cases, In the discovery of numerous promising 
ore bodies. Among the properties which suspended operations, in whole 
or in part, during the war, are the following: Ac'ax, EUkton, Strong, 
Jo Dandy, Acacia, Blue Bird, Gold Sovereign, New Gold Dollar, Queen, 
Petrel, Bunker, Prince Albert, Ocean Wave, Tornado, Sheriff, Master- 
piece, Anchoria, Leland, Victor,, Pride of Cripple Creek, Millasier, Erie, 
Bertha B., W. P. H., White Horse, Jack Pot and Blue Bell. Several of 
these properties have resumed operations recently, and the Blue Bird, 
Maggie, Elkton, Deadwood, Free Coinage, Acacia, W. H. P. and Strong 
properties are preparing to operate as soon as conditions improve. 

DEVELOPMENT At this time there is a growing tendency on the part 
of both large, and small oji^erators to undertake devel- 
opment work of a purely exploratory nature. Engineers familiar with 
the Cripple Creek geology recognize the desirability of prospecting at 
lower levels throughout the vein system extending from Stratton's Inde- 
pendence to the Forest Queen, a distance of about three miles. Prospect- 
ing below the 1,000-foot level has been limited, but the efforts of several 
of the larger operators at deep levels have been richly rewarded. It is 
of interest to refer to the successes of some of the larger producers 
which have been the mainstays of the camp for many years. The most 
noteworthy examples of development of high grade ore at deep levels 
are to be found in the Portland and Cresson properties. 

THE On the Roosevelt Tunnel level, or 2,133-ft. level, of 

PORTLAND the Portland mine, one of the most spectacular dis- 

coveries of the past few years has been made. On 
this bottom level a shoot of rich ore over thirty feet wide has been 
opened. The same ore shoot was about ten feet wide at an elevation 
one hundred feet above. The average value of this ore body, and the 
possibility of its continuance downward, make it a discovery of first 
importance. It is of interest to note that the company performed 8,071 
feet of development work during the year 1918. The total underground 
development to January 1, 1919, amounts to a little less than 63 miles 
in the Portland mine, and nearly 17 miles in the company's Independence 
mine, making a total of nearly 80 miles of underground workings. The 
company's grand total ore production to the end of 1918. is 3,949,248 tons, 
having a gross value of $48,773,377. To January 1, 1919, the company 
has paid $11,257,080 in dividends, of which amount $300,000 was distrib- 
uted during the year 1918. 

THE CRESSON The Cresson property has completed its connection 

with the Roosevelt tunnel at a depth of 1,915 feet, 
and has cut a shaft station on this level. Exploratory work on this bot- 
tom level is under way, and a body of high grrade ore has been opened, 



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12 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

the extent of which has not been determined. During the past few 
months a large body of high grade ore has been found on the eighth level. 
This ore body is 50 by 150 feet in horizontal extent, and is comparable 
in size and average value with another important ore body on the same 
level discovered some two years ago. These two new ore bodies are now 
being opened by drifts and crosscuts, and chutes are being made prepara- 
tory to stoplng. During the past two years the company's underground 
development work has opened new ore bodies on the third, fourth, and 
fifth levels on the vein systems of the Funeral and Silver dykes; new ore 
bodies of substantial size and value on the seventh, eighth, ninth, and 
tenth levels, located in the center of the volcanic crater; and new ore 
bodies on the Roosevelt tunnel level, exceeding in both size and value 
the ore bodies heretofore disclosed on the sixteenth level, 175 feet above 
the tunnel. During the year ended August 31, 1918, the company per- 
formed development work consisting of 4,540 feet of diamond drilling, 
6^472 feet of drifts and crosscuts, and 1,769 feet of raises and winzes. In 
addition, drifts and winzes aggregating 886 feet were driven to connect 
both the main shaft and the 1,600 level ore bodies with the Roosevelt 
Drainage tunnel. Under date of August 31, 1918, the net ore reserves 
were estimated at nearly $3,000,000. In the year ending August 31, 1918, 
there were shipped 89,730 tons of ore of the net value of $1,628,187, after 
deducting freight and treatment charges. It is interesting to note that 
the company's production for the twelve months aggregated 9,028 pounds 
of pure gold. 

THE Another Important producer of the Cripple Creek 

VINDICATOR district is the Vindicator. This property has not 

been as fortunate as the Portland and Cresson mines 
in the development of rich ore bodies in its lower levels, but has operated 
at a profit of $544,000. The total development during the year ended 
December 31, 1918, amounted to 5,112.5 feet, of which 2,899 feet were 
driven by lessees. The total development work to date in the company's 
Vindicator and Qolden Cycle properties amounts to nearly fifty miles. 
E^rly in 1918, development work was discontinued on the 20th level of 
the Golden Cycle shaft, the bottom level. On this level a total of 4.240 
feet of work has been done, and no ore of a commercial grade exposed. 
Recently, exploration work has been resumed in the upper levels, and 
the results of this work have been ei^couraging. During 1918 the labor 
shortage made it impossible to accomplish much development work, and 
as a result the ore reserves of the company have been greatly depleted. 
On January 1,, 1919, the ore reserves were estimated at 104,230 tons of 
average grade ore. The value of the crude ore mined on company ac- 
count has been $6.15 a ton, and the average value of ore mined by les- 
sees has been $9.60 a ton. The property is of special interest on account 
of its low mining cost of $1.60 a ton, exclusive of cost of development; 
the operation of its flotation plant at a cost of fifty cents a ton; and the 
development of interesting methods of ore sorting and the Muncaster 
system of inclined shrinkage stoplng. 

THE The Muncaster method of stoplng has definite ad van- 

MUNCASTER tages over the ordinary methods of shrinkage stop- 

METHOD OF ing where the attempt is made to draw the ore out 

STORING of a stope uniformly from end to end and maintain 

an approximately level muck line. In the inclined 
shrinkage system the ore Is drawn ofT through two adjacent chutes at a 
time, beginning at one end of a stope and proceeding gradually toward 
the other end. Above the two active chutes, the material that is being 
drawn ofT is maintained at an inclination as steep as, or a little steeper 
than, its normal angle of repose. This condition causes the larger bould- 
ers to roll down the incline past the active chutes and into the portion 
of the stope from which the smaller sized and better ore has been drawn. 



i 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINEB QUARTERLY, 13 

This action reduces the tendency of the larger rocks to clog the chutes, 
and the rolling of the larger rocks serves to separate them from the finer 
material which finds its way readily toward the chutes. At the same 
time the larger rocks, which are frequently not payable ore, may be 
retained in the stopes. Further, the operation of the stope may be in- 
spected safely from the quiet surface of the filling above the inactive 
chutes. 

THE The Roosevelt drainage tunnel has been an import- 

ROOSEVELT ant factor in deep-level development of the district, 

TUNNEL for many properties could not have been operated 

at their present depths without its assistance. The 
only mines of importance which could have been operated without the 
tunnel are the Portland, Cresson, Strong, and Granite. The tunnel has 
saved millions of dollars which would have been expended In pumping. 
The total length of the tunnel, from portal to breast, is 24,355 feet. It 
taps the El Paso mine at a depth of 1,289 feet, the Elkton at 1,640 feet, 
the Cresscn at 1,915 feet, and the Portland at 2,133 feet. The Portland 
and Cresson mines are connected with the tunnel by means of crosscuts. 
The Portland connection is 2,000 feet long from the tunnel to Portland 
No. 2 Shaft. The Cresson crosscut is 1,715 feet long. 

LESSEES Many important mines of the district are operated 

by lessees. Among these properties are the Ameri- 
can Eagle, Six Points, Longfellow, Index, Midget, Jo Dandy, and Hia- 
watha. Almost all the mining companies find it advantageous to lease 
certain blocks of ground which would be difficult to operate on com- 
pany account A leasing arrangement which has gained considerable 
popularity in the district is the "split check system," in which the com- 
pany supplies the equipment, the lessee contributes the labor, and the 
net proceeds are divided between the two parties. 

LABOR American labor is employed almost exclusively in 

CONDITIONS the Cripple Creek district, and no encouragement is 

given to proposals which involve the introduc- 
tion of foreign labor. The district is In great need of skilled miners and 
other labor. Living conditions are good and high wages are paid. 



Metallurgy 

PROF. IRVING A. PALMER. 

INTRODUCTION The proper metallurgical treatment for Cripple 
Creek ores is a problem that for years has absorbed 
the attention of some of the best engineers In the country. Many pro- 
cesses have been tried and a large number of reduction plants have been 
erected. Owing to the peculiar nature of the ores in this district, the 
extraction methods that have proved to be the most efilclent show a con- 
siderable variation from the standard practice in other gold mining camps. 
In the early days of the Cripple Creek district the greater part of the ore 
was sent to i^melting plants for treatment. The mines were fortunate in be- 
ing located comparatively close to several large lead and copper smelters 
at Denver, Pueblo, and Leadville. The ores were mostly high grade and 
needed no roasting for the smelting process. They were in demand, there- 
fore, by the smelting companies. But the treatment charges were heavy, as 
the high percentage of silica and alumina in the ores necessitated the use 
of a large amount of iron and lime fiux in the smelting mixtures. As the 
camp developed, a considerable tonnage of lower grade ore was produced 
and the necessity of a cheaper reduction method was recognized. The first 
attempt In this direction was the installation in the district of a number 



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14 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

of small mills using stamp batteries and plate amalgamation. During 
1892 and 1893 ten of these mills, containing a total of 270 stamps, were 
erected. These mills were later equipped with concentrating tables and 
blankets. Although the surface ores carried a considerable amount of 
free gold, it was found that the gold did not amalgamate well because of 
its rusty nature. As the mines increased in depth and the free gold was 
replaced by the unoxidized sulpho-tellurides the amalgamation process 
became less and less effective and the mills were soon entirely abandoned. 

In 1893 the first chlorination plant in the district was built by Edward 
Holden. In 1895 another chlorination plant was built at Gillette, under 
the supervision of J. D. Hawkins. In 1897 the first cyanide mill was built 
at Mound City, under the direction ot Philip Argall. In the next few 
years a number of large mills were erected at Florence and Colorado 
City, some using chlorination and others the cyanide method. The two 
processes vied with each other for some time, but the chlorination proc- 
ess finally gave way to cyanidation. The last plant to use chlorination 
was that of the Portland Gold Mining Company, at Colorado Springs, which 
converted its mill into a cyanide plant in 1912. The two developments 
that contributed most to the victory of the cyanide process were fine 
grinding and better methods for the treatment of slime. In addition to 
the chlorination and cyanide mills a number of smaller plants were 
erected from time to time, using a variety of processes. Practically all 
of these proved to be failures. 

In recent years the tonnage and grade of the ores mined at Cripple 
Creek have fallen off very materially. The first result of this has been 
the closing of several of the large mills at Florence and Colorado Springs. 
The second effect has been the building of mills at Victor for the treat- 
ment of the low grade ores not rich enough to stand shipment out of the 
district. Still later, the conditions produced by the war have resulted 
in a further contraction in the mining and milling of the Cripple Creek 
district ores and there now remain in operation but three of the many 
mills erected to handle them. Two of these plants are at Victor, treating 
low grade ores exclusively, and the third is at Colorado Springs, treating 
the better grade ores, together with the concentrates, slimes, and precipi- 
tates from one of the other two mills. 

The ores mined at Cripple Creek belong to the class known as sulpho- 
tellurides. There are practically no base metals, such as copper, lead or 
zinc, and the amount of silver is so small as to be of little commercial im- 
portance. The ores are mined and treated almost exclusively for their con- 
tents in gold. The gangue consists mainly of brecclated phonolite and gran- 
ite. As the gangue is usually quite hard the problem of crushing the ore in 
the most effective way has been given a great deal of attention. At or 
near the surface considerable free gold is found, but on the lower levels 
the gold occurs largely as a telluride, usually associated with pyrlte. The 
predominating gold mineral is sylvanite. The almost invariable presence 
of a greater or lesser amount of pyrite in the ore has made the problem 
of the proper metallurgical treatment a difilcult' one. Very early in the 
history of the district it was found that a thorough roasting of the high 
grade ore was necessary In order to get a satisfactory extraction of the 
gold, no matter what milling process might be used. 

Another very important feature of the Cripple Creek ores is the 
occurrence of the gold minerals with relation to the gangue^ For many 
years it has been known that the finely divided ore or screenings carried 
more gold than the coarser rock. The dust in sampling mills and the 
slimes at the bottoms of sumps were always found to be richer than the 
average of the ore from which the finer material came. Hand sorting 
has been practiced since the mines were first opened, and the reject has 
consisted of coarse pieces known to be low In gold. The reason for this 
segregation of values in the finer material is to be found in the fact that 
in this district not only does the gold ore usually occur in narrow veins 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINE8 QUARTERLY, 15 

and seams in the barren rock, but the ore Itself in turn contains the gold 
largely in minute cracks and cleavage planes. The more of these crevices 
and cleavage planes in the ore, the higher the grade; the greater ease 
also with which it can be crushed, and consequently the greater the tend- 
ency to occur in small pieces after being mined. The large pieces that 
survive the blasting opefttions of the mine or the coarse crushing of the 
mill owe their size to the fact that they have fewer seams and cleavage 
planes. They are, therefore, lower in grade than the finer pieces. The 
segregation of gold in the ores is often quite apparent to the eye and en- 
ables the miner by hand sorting to discard a considerable tonnage of rock 
that would not pay for treatment.' This feature of Cripple Creek ores is 
more marked in some parts of the district than in others. It is particularly 
characteristic of the ores of the Vindicator mine and forms the basis of a 
large part of the milling practice of that company. On the other hand, 
in the Cresson mine there is a more uniform distribution of the gold 
throughout the entire mass of the ore. E^ven here, however, there is a 
tendency towards segregation of gold in the fines. 

Another characteristic of some of the ores of the district is the in- 
creasing percentage of carbonate of lime. This has become so marked 
in some cases as to necessitate a modification of the milling practice. 
In the roasting of these ores much of the lime carbonate is converted 
into sulphate which deposits in the pipes, launders, and filter leaves of 
the cyanide mill and adds to the mechanical difficulties of the process. 
This will be referred to later in connection with the Golden Cycle Mill, 
at Colorado Springs. 

The outstanding feature of the metallurgical methods now in use at 
the two mills operating in Victor is the extent to which the underlying 
principles of ore dressing are applied; that is, the elimination by me- 
chanical means of as much as possible of the unprofitable gangue, and 
the separation by mechanical means of higher grade product or concen- 
trates from other material requiring a different metallurgical treatment. 
It is now recognized that in the past a considerable amount of ore has 
been shipped out of the district that did not pay its way. It was mixed 
with higher grade material, and the profit on the latter absorbed the defi- 
cit on the former. In recent years the falling off in the average grade 
of the ore mined and the constant increase in the cost of labor and sup- 
plies have impelled the mining companies to look into this matter very 
closely. A great many tests have been conducted for the purpose of 
ascertaining to what extent the above mentioned principles of ore dress- 
ing could be applied. These tests have resulted in a material modification 
of the practice at both mills, and in a gratifying increase in the financial 
returns. The newer methods also enable the mills to handle ore that a 
few years ago would have been regarded as unprofitable waste. 

THE The larger of the two metallurgical plants at Victor 

INDEPENDENCE is the Independence mill of the Portland Gold Mining 
MILL Company.. This mill was formerly the property of 

the Stratton's Independence Mining Company. The 
Victor mill of the Portland Company was closed on July 30, 1918, and 
much of the machinery was moved to the Independence plant. All of the 
ore reduction operations of the company are, therefore, consolidated in 
one mill, the Colorado Springs plant having been closed on March 31, 
1918, so far as ore treatment was concerned. 

The metallurgical treatment at the Independence mill is a combina- 
tion of mechanical sorting, water concentration, and slime cyanidation. 
Two products are shipped, concentrates and gold precipitate. Probably 
the most striking feature in connection with the operations is the low 
grade of ore treated, the mill feed for several months past having aver- 
aged in value but a little more than two dollars per ton. On this ore 
the average extraction of the gold is about 80 per cent, and the company 



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16 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

makes a small profit. The successful treattnent of such low grade ma- 
terial is certainly a tribute to the technical skill of the metallurgists 
in charge. 

^ At the present time most of the ore handled comes from the dumps 
of the Portland and Independence mines. It la reclaimed by means of 
homemade drags drawn by cables which deliver the ore into glory holes 
leading down to shutes Installed in the upper tunnel levels. From there it 
is trammed to the mill. The total cost of delivering the dump ore into the 
shutes is only ten cents a ton. On arriving at the mill the ore is subjected 
to the first application of the ore dressing principle by being dumped over 
grizzlies with 8-inch openings. The oversize of plus 8 inch material is 
sent to the dump. Assays of the coarse reject show it to contain about 
50 to 60 cents in gold. As the total cost of milling in the district is about 
$1.00 per ton and the tailing rarely runs less than 40 cents per ton the 
wisdom of discarding the coarse rock is evident. In February, 1919, the 
Independence mill was receiving about 1,525 tons of low grade dump and 
mine ore daily. Of this about 225 tons was taken out by the grizzlies and 
rejected. This left 1,300 tons daily to be treated in the mill proper. 

Immediately under the grizzlies are the storage bins from which the 
ore can be sent either to the sampling department and thence to the crush- 
ing plant, or it can be sent to the crushing plant direct. As the mill expects 
to handle a considerable ton4age of custom ore, there is a fully equipped 
sampling plant, supplied with Vezin automatic sample cutters. The com- 
pany also uses the equipment at intervals for the sampling of its own ores. 

The ore is delivered from the bins to the crushing department by 
means of conveyor belts. The coarse crushing equipment consists of two 
No. 7^ gyratory crushers and two sets of 72 by 20 inch Garfield rolls, 
each gyratory crusher and set of rolls constituting one unit. As the ca- 
pacity of the crusher and rolls is about 100 tons per hour the operation 
of one unit for two shifts daily is sufficient to take care of all the ore that 
the rest of the plant can handle. The gj'ratory crushers deliver a product 
of a maximum size of 4 inches, which is further reduced by the rolls to 
a maximum size of 2 inches to 2.75 inches. The practice with the Garfield 
rolls is interesting because of the low speed at which they are operated. 
At some mills rolls of this size are run at from 75 to 100 revolutions per 
minute. At the Independence plant this speed has been reduced to be- 
tween 30 and 35 revolutions with an increase in efficiency. The greater 
effectiveness at the lower speed is probably due to the lack of brittleness 
in the ore and to better gripping of the coarser particles of the feed by 
the surfaces of the rolls. The product of the rolls goes to storage bins 
whence it is delivered by an automatic tripper conveyor to the feed hop- 
pers of 6-6 foot Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Chilian mills. The ore is fed into 
the mills by means of plunger feeders supplied with revolution counters. 
From the number of the plunger strokes registered by these counters the 
approximate tonnage of ore delivered can be calculated. Along with the 
ore there is fed mill solution containing about 0.20 per cent sodium cy- 
anide, in the proportion of about three of solution to one of ore. Prom 
this point onward the ore is in continual contact with sodium cyanide. 
Five of the Chilian mills operate at a speed of 37 to 38 R.P.M. and the 
other one at 29 R.P.M. The power consumption on the high speed mills 
Is about 110 h. p. each. Two of the mills are supplied with 20 mesh 
screens and the other four with 6 mesh screens. Each Chilian mill dis- 
charges directly into an Akins classifier, where the ground ore is sep- 
arated into two products, sand and slime. The sand is sent to ball mills 
for further grinding, while the slime overfiow is passed into primary 
thickeners and thence to the concentrating and cyaniding departments. 

The use of Chilian mills at this point is worthy of comment because 
of the fact that in the opinion of many engineers they do not constitute 
the most effective grinding machinery. In a number of the newer milling 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 17 

plants there are employed for fine grinding either a combination of disc 
crushers and ball mills, or ball mills alone. In spite of these facts the 
metallurgists in charge of the Independence plant are strong in the belief 
that for their particular ore crushing problem the Chilian mill is the most 
satisfactory machine that could be installed. It must be remembered 
that the feed for these mills consists of a hard, tough ore, of a maximum 
size of 2 to 2.75 inches, and that the final crushing of the sand produced 
is performed in ball mills. The Portland engineers have made many tests 
to determine the relative efficiency of various types of grinding machin- 
ery, so that their present practice is not the result of prejudice or in- 
difference. 

The question as to what type of classifier should be used between 
the Chilian mills and the ball mills was also subjected to considerable 
experimenting. The Aklns machine was installed because it is simple in 
construction, occupies small space, and delivers sand comparatively free 
from slime. Any coarse material that may escape in the overflow is 
caught on the tables and either goes into the concentrates or is returned 
as a middling product for further grinding in one of the ball mills. 

In the fine grinding department there are six 6 by 6 foot Colorado 
Iron Works ball mills, having chilled iron liners and using two inch 
chilled iron balls. Five of these mills receive the sand discharge from 
the Akins classifiers previously mentioned and the other is used for re- 
grinding the middlings from the concentrating department. About 60 per 
cent of the total amount of ore crushed goes to the ball mills. The first 
five mills operate in closed circuit with Akins classifiers and the sixth 
in closed circuit with a Dorr drag classifier. The overfiow from all of 
these classifiers goes to thlckneners and thence to the concentrating and 
cyaniding departments. The use of the Dorr classifier in connection with 
the ball mill grinding the middlings finds its justification in the very small 
percentage of sand passing over with the slime. As this is the final 
classifying machine in the mill the point is of some importance. 

In the next step of the milling operations there Is another example 
of the application of the ore dressing principle. As a large percentage 
of the gold in the ore occ irs as telluride in close association with pyrite. 
It would be necessary to roast the ore in order to get a good extraction 
by the cyanide process. The roasting at Victor of a low grade ore, such 
as that treated in this mill, would be out of the question because of the 
additional expense Involved. The greater part of the gold bearing pyrite 
is, therefore, removed from the slime by means of concentrating tables, 
only the tailings from these tables being subjected to complete cyanida- 
tion. Some of the gold is, of course, removed from the pyrite because the 
concentrating operations are conducted in mill solution containing so- 
dium cyanide. * 

The slime overfiow from the first series of Akins classifiers, after 
passing through the primary thickeners, where the excess water Is re- 
moved, is conducted to the concentrating department at 5 per cent on 
40 mesh, where the separation is effected on tables equipped with Card 
mechanisms and Wilfley tops. This combination has been found to be 
very satisfactory for this character of work. Two products are made, 
rougher concentrates, which go to finishing tables, and tailings, which go 
to thickeners in the cyanide department. On the finishing tables three 
products are made; concentrates, which go to the bins, preparatory to 
drying and shipping; middlings, which are elevated and delivered again 
to the finisher tables, and hence are In closed circuit; and tailings, which, 
as referred to above, are returned to one of the ball mills for further 
grinding. This reground portion or middling is thickened, given a pre- 
liminary agitation in two 30-foot Dorr agitators, and then passed to the 
regular slime agitation system with the bulk of the ore. 

The slime overfiow from the Akins classifiers in closed circuit with 
the ball mills, after partial thickening, is sent to another series of tables 



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18 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

and separated into concentrates, and tailings, as in the case of the first 
set of Akins classifiers. 

If the grade and type of ore at this point does not warrant further 
treatment of the granular or sand portion, classification and washing is 
practiced with 6 Akins cl943sifiers and the sands discarded. Otherwise, as 
at present, they are sent to thickeners and agitators with the pure slimes. 
The use of Akins classifiers as washing devices is deserving of notice. 
It is a cheap and effective way of eliminating sand not rich enough to 
warrant further handling, and at the same time reducing the soluble gold 
losses to a minimum. 

The finished concentrates from the various tables are collected in 
drying tanks, where the water is eliminated by means of canvas filter 
leaves under vacuum suction at the bottoms of the tanks. This method 
has been found to be extremely effective. The concentrates carry from 
$35.00 to $40.00 in gold and are shipped to the lead smelters for treat- 
ment. As the product contains a large excess of iron there is a corre- 
sponding deduction from the smelting charge. The weight of the concen- 
trates is about one per cent of that of the original ore, while in value 
the gold contained amounts to 20 per cent of the total. All of the profit 
that the company makes is covered by the gold in these concentrates. 

The cyanldation method used is the familiar all-sliming process, the 
available values in the sand not being sufficient to call for separate treat- 
ment. Dewatering is effected in ten 25-foot Dorr thickeners, of which six * 
are constructed of wood and four of steel. The spigot discharge from these 
thickeners contains water and ore in the proportion of 1.3 to 1 and is sent 
to six 40 by 25 foot Dorr agitators. Here 120 pounds of sodium cyanide is 
added to each tank and sufficient lime to maintain an excess of about 
1.7 pound CaO per ton of solution. The cyanide added is a little less 
than 0.25 pound per ton of solution. The ore contains only a small pro- 
portion of cyanicides, such as ferrous sulphate and sulphuric acid, and 
the amount of protective alkalinity required is small, but for extraction 
and settling purposes the demands are high. The agitation is continued 
for from 48 to 50 hours. The gold tellurides go into solution rather 
slowly and it is very important that sufficient time be allowed for the 
operation. FYom the agitators the pulp and solution go to four Merrill 
filter presses, each containing ninety 4 by 6 foot by 2y^ In. frames. Here 
the pulp is filtered from the solution, washed first with barren mill solu- 
tion, and finally with fresh water, and then sluiced out of the frames into 
the tailings launder. The entire operation is almost automatic, requiring 
the attention of but one man per shift, and is deserving of a more de- 
tained description than can be given here. 

From the Merrill presses the clear solution, except the lower grade 
washings, which are returned to the mill circuit, is sent to the precipita- 
tion department, first passing through the Crowe vacuum system for the 
removal of the dissolved air. In this process the solution is run into a 
closed steel tank from which the air is continually exhausted by means of 
a vacuum pump. The release of pressure over the solution causes most 
of the dissolved air to escape. The solution is now ready for precipita- 
tion. This is effected by zinc dust in Merrill zinc presses. The zinc dust 
is fed into the solution as it comes from the vacuum tank by means of 
an automatic cylindrical feeder. At this stage of the process the solution 
carries 60 cents in gold per ton. and the amount of zinc dust required is 
about 0.09 pound per ton. The use of the vacuum system has enabled the 
Portland company to reduce the consumption of zinc and sodium cyanide 
at this mill very materially in each case. The gold precipitates very 
quickly, and almost as rapidly in the first compartment of the press as in 
the last. Before the use of this system the dissolved oxygen retarded the 
precipitation by oxidizing some of the zinc. This necessitated the use of 
a larger amount of zinc dust for complete precipitation. Moreover, the 
zinc oxide produced formed an insoluble compound with the lime in the 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 19 

solution and thus clogged the pores of the filter leaves. This could be 
overcome only by the use of more cyanide. The vacuum system is the 
Invention of Thomas B. Crowe, superintendent of the Independence mill, 
and is now in use by many cyanide plants in all parts of the world. After 
washing, the gold precipitate Is removed from the filter leaves, dewatered, 
and then sent to the old Portland mill at Colorado Springs, for refining. 
The amount of solution reaching the zinc presses is two tons for each 
ton of ore milled. The cyanide consumption is 0.25 pound per ton of ore, 
the zinc consumption is .18 pound, and the total cost of milling is about 
$1.00 per ton. The net recovery is about 80 per cent on $2.00 ore. 

The use of pressure filters following the agitators is open to question 
and has been the subject of consideration by the Portland engineers. On 
the grade of ore treated it would seem that a filter of the Oliver type 
would be justified because of its cheapness and simplicity. The Portland 
company, however, is contemplating the milling of higher grade ore later 
on and thinlts that the better separation of solution and pulp effected -by 
the pressure filter justifies its continued use. Two factors that would de- 
crease the efilciency of vacuum t3rpe filters at this plant are the con- 
siderable amount of granular matter in the slime and the high altitude. 

The use of flotation in the milling of Cripple Creek ores has for some 
time been the subject of considerable experimenting by the Portland met; 
allurgists. The occurrence of the gold largely as sulpho-tellurides, and 
the fact that the very fine slime not amenable to gravity concentration 
carries so much of the values, have suggested the possibility of replacing 
both table concentration and cvanidation by fiotation. To this end a great 
many tests were made, and finally a 400-ton installation put into opera- 
tion, and 100,000 tons treated before abandoning the process. The net 
result of these tests has been the decision of the company not to change 
its metallurgical practice, at least for the present, although some fiota- 
tion experiments are being continued. 

The presence of so much of the gold in the finely ground slime, 
which has been referred to above as having been one of the chief factors 
in suggesting fiotation, is closely associated with the chief difiiculty in 
the process. The colloidal material, which of course is mainly gangue, 
tends to go into the flotation concentrates and thus lower the grade. In 
the Independence mill tests it was found that in order to make a clean 
concentrate it was necessary to sacrifice gold in the tailings. A high re* 
covery meant a low grade concentrate. As the concentrates must be sent 
to a smelter for reduction, any decrease in the grade means an increase 
in the freight and treatment charges. The fiotation tests at the Inde- 
pendence plant were made largely with machines of the pneumatic type. 
In the opinion of a number of engineers who have studied the problem 
better results can be obtained by the use of agitation machines. The 
Vindicator Mining company is in fact using Minerals Separation equip- 
ment and is getting a good extraction of the gold. The fiotation problem 
at Victor is an interesting one and is worthy of all the attention that is 
being given to it. 

THE The Vindicator Mill is an interesting example of an 

VINDICATOR ore dressing plant pure and simple. There is no 

MILL cyanidation and all the products shipped are the 

results of screening, sorting, washing, and flotation 
concentration. Here again the ore treated Is of very low grade. The 
present practice at the mill was introduced something more than a year 
ago, and is the result of a great deal of experimentation on the part of 
the metallurgical staff. Thousands of screen tests were made with the 
object of determining the amount of gold in the various products of the 
crushing and washing operations. The tests showed conclusively that a 
large proportion of unprofitable rock that formerly had been shipped to 



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20 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

Colorado Springs could be eliminated by mechanical means, learing a 
comparatively small tonnage of enriched product. This, of course, would 
mean a corresponding decrease in the freight and treatment charges at 
the reduction plant. That the change in milling practice was Justified 
is ^hown by the fact that in 1918 the company saved in marketing costs 
of the products shipped more than $125,000, as compared with the costs 
of the year before. In addition, there was a decrease in operating costs 
of more than $8,000, because of the simplified mechanical treatment. 
There was a further increase of revenue due to the installation of a flota- 
tion plant to treat a portion of the reject from the screening and washing 
operations. 

The ore as it comes from the mine^ which averaged in 1918 $6.15 
per ton in value, is dumped over a series of grizzlies and fiat screens, 
placed one above another, and three sizes of screenings, 1.5 in. to .75 in., 
.75 in. to .25 in., and minus .25 in., are thus separated from the bulk of 
the ore. These screenings average about $20.00 per ton in gold and are 
sent to the Golden Cycle mill at Colorado Springs for treatment by cyan- 
Ida tlon. The coarse reject falls into bins from where it is drawn off 
upon a belt conveyor and sent to the washing plant. As the ore is drawn 
from the bins it is hand sorted, the high grade material being saved 
for shipment to the Golden Cycle mill. The washing practice is very 
simple and effective. The conveyor delivers the coarse rock into a re- 
volving trommel constructed of manganese steel and having 0.375 in. per- 
forations. Inside the trommel Jets of water at rather high pressure play 
upon the moving ore and wash off the fine, loosely adhering gold bearing 
particles and dust, being aided by the attrition of the pieces of ore grind- 
ing upon each other. The slimes thus produced and the fine ore .up to 
0.375 in. in diameter are washed through the trommel and pass to Bunker 
Hill 40-mesh screens, where there is a separation into two products, 
slimes or washings, which go to settling tanks, and oversize up to 0.375 in. 
which goes to the Golden Cycle mill direct. The settling tankd are four 
in number and as each is filled the excess water is drained off and the 
slimes dried by means of steam pipes. The material is then shoveled out 
and shipped to the Golden Cycle mill for treatment. The average value 
of these .slimes is about $120.00 per ton, a very striking illustration of 
the tendency of Cripple Creek gold to occur in the fines. In 1918 the 
shipping products made by the Vindicator company in the screening, sort- 
ing, and washing departments amounted to but 6.67 per cent of the crude 
tonnage of ore hoisted. Including the flotation product the total ship- 
ments amounted to 9.29 per cent of the tonnage hoisted. These flgures 
indicate the extent to which the company has beneflted in reduced 
freight and treatment charges. 

The coarse reject from the washing trommel, which now carries 
about $2.50 in gold, is conveyed to storage bins and thence trammed to 
the flotation plant. There it is mixed with some low grade ore from the 
Golden Cycle shaft, and the combined product subjected to a second 
washing process, this time in a trommel having larger perforations, about 
.75 in. at present. This, however, may be changed as the character of the 
ore changes. 

The coarse reject is hand sorted, the sortings being crushed for flota- 
tion treatment, and the remainder carried to the dump by means of a 
belt conveyor. At present about 78 per cent of the total amount of ore 
received at the flotation plant is discarded in this way. The assay 
value of this waste material is about $1.10 per ton. The flne ore and 
slimes passing through the perforations of the washing trommel are pre- 
pared for flotation treatment by crushing in Garfleld rolls and flne grind- 
ing in two 6 by 6 foot Stearns-Roger ball mills. The ball mills operate 
in series and in closed circuit with a Dorr classifler. One of the mills 
takes the entire feed, while the other takes the sand from the classifler. 
The overflow from the classifler goes to the flotation machines. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTEfiLT. 21 

Flotation is effected in Minerals Separation machines, there being 
twelve 24 by 24 in. rougher cells, and five 24 by 24 in. cleaner cells. The 
tailings from the cleaner cells are passed over a Wllfiey pilot table. The 
oil used per ton of ore consists of a mixture of .5 gallon Floremce fuel 
oil and .11 gallon General Naval Stores Co. No. 8. In this mill, as at 
the Independence plant, considerable difficulty was experienced in the 
flotation treatment because of the large amount of colloidal material. 
To counteract the influence of this to some extent the impellers of the 
machines are run at high speed. At the Vindicator mill the impellers 
have a peripheral speed of 2,00^ feet per minute. From the flotation ma- 
chines the concentrates go to a Dorr thickener^ where the amount of 
water is reduced to 50 per cent The thickened pulp goes to a 12 by 12 
foot Portland filter which reduces the water to 30 per cent. The low 
efficiency of the filter is accounted for by the large amount of finely 
divided clayey material in the pulp. The final drying is performed on a 
6 by 40 foot Lowden dryer, which delivers a product carrying about 17 
per cent of moisture. The difficulty of dewatering these concentrates by 
means of the equipment now in use is so great that the company is 
considering the use of steam drying tanks, such as are used for the 
washer slimes. The dried concentrates assay from $36.00 to $40.00 in 
gold and are sent to the Golden Cycle mill for treatment. 

The Vindicator engineers have done a great deal of experimental 
work on flotation, and, while the process is a commercial success as at 
present operated by them, they feel that there is still room for improve- 
ment. The great difficulty is to produce a high grade concentrate, while 
at the same time maintaining a high percentage of recovery. The small 
size of plant necessary for the tonnage handled and the simplicity of the 
flow sheet are certainly strong arguments in favor of the process, and 
offer great inducements to those who are working it out. 

During the year 1918 the Vindicator flotation plant received from all 
sources 222,626 tons of ore, of an average assay value of $2.13 per ton. 
Of this, 176,623 tons, averaging $1.42 per ton, was rejected by screening, 
and 46,003 tons, of an average assay value of $4.18 per ton, was sent to 
the flotation crushing department. The flotation plant produced 6,028 
tons of concentrates having a gross value of $206,254.81 and a net value, 
after marketing charges of $171,037.92. There was a net profit of 
$27,955.40. 

THE GOLDEN The Golden Cycle mill is the only remaining plant 

CYCLE MILL of the many erected outside of the Cripple Creek 

district for the purpose of treating the ores from 
that camp. It was built originally as a bromination plant, but was con- 
verted into a cyanide mill about four years later. It is now the largest 
mill in the world treating gold ores by a combination of roasting and 
cyanldation. Only the high grade ores from the mines at Cripple Creek 
and the concentrated products from the Vindicator mill are sent 
to the Golden Cycle plant. The greater richness of the material, treated 
permits of a more elaborate extraction scheme than that of the Inde- 
pendence mill, but the fiow sheet is a comparatively simple one. The 
efficiency is so high that there is practically no limit to the grade of ore 
received, although it is customary for the mining companies to "grade 
down" by mixing the very rich ore with that of lower grade before ship- 
ping. The lead smelters now receive but an insignificant tonnage of 
Cripple Creek ore. The Golden Cycle mill is a custom plant only, and is 
equipped with a very complete sampling department. Blake crushers 
are used, followed by coarse rolls and sample cutters of the Vezin type. 
The reject goes to the storage bins. All of the ore received is roasted 
before being cyanided, so that the next step is to crush it to the size most 
suitable for desulphurization. At this point it is necessary to divide the 
ore into two classes, according to the percentage of lime contained. The 
Increasing amount of carbonate of lime in some of the Cripple Creek ores 



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22 



COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 



has been referred to above. In recent years this tendency has been so 
pronounced as to require a modification of the metallurgical practice at 
the Golden Cycle mill, because of the conversion of a part of the lime 
carbonate into sulphate in the roasting furnaces. Some of the ore re- 
cently mined in the Cripple Creek district has carried as much as 9 per 
cent CaO. At the Golden Cycle mill all ore containing not more than 2 
per cent CaO. is rated as class A ore, and all over 2 per cent, as class B. 
Class A comprises about 66 per cent of the total ore treated and class B, 
34 per cent. Typical analyses of both classes are as follows: 



Class A 



Class B 



Insol I 86.70 ! 75.90 

Al.O, I 2.30 I 3.40 

Fe , 3.26 I 3.48 

CaO I 1.57 ' 5.12 

S 1.79 1.80 

MgO I 0.21 I 1.08 

Ignition loss 3.20 I 6.50 



99.03 



97.28 



These two classes of ore are bedded separately so as to give each 
class its most efficient treatment. The beds are large, about 5,000 tons 
each, thus avoiding frequent changes in the character of the ore going 
to the roasters. 

The crushing for the roasting department is done in Schmidt "komi- 
nuters'*, a type of ball mill adapted to moderately fine, dry crushing:. 
The discharge is put through diagonal slotted screens 9-64 by 1-2 inch, 
giving a product which analyzes as shown in the following table: 

SCREEN ANALYSIS OF BALL-MILL PRODUCT. 





Old Screens 


New Screens 


Size 


Per Cent 


Cum. 
Per Cent 


1 
Per Cent , 


Cum. 
Per Cent 


Over 5-32 in 


6.1 


6.1 


1.1 


1.1 


5-32 to 1-8 in 


5.1 


11.2 


2.4 


3.5 


1-8 in. to 10 mesh 


24.0 


35.2 


16.6 


20.1 


10 to 20 mesh 


22.2 


57.4 


26.2 


46.3 


20 to 30 mesh 


8.0 


65.4 


10.2 


56.5 


30 to 40 mesh 


5.2 


70.6 


7.6 


64.1 


40 to 60 mesh 


6.4 


77.0 


9.8 


73.9 


60 to 80 mesh 


1.2 


78.2 


1.2 


75.1 


80 to 100 mesh 


2.5 


80.7 


3.0 


78.1 


100 to 150 mesh 


2.2 


82.9 


3.9 


82.0 


150 to 200 mesh 


4.2 


87.1 


4.4 


86.4 


Below 200 mesh 


12.9 


100.0 


13.6 


100.0 




100.0 


.... 


100.0 


.... 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 23 

The use of these "kominuters" ^as been criticised and it would seem 
that machines of the disc crusher type would be more suitable for the 
work. The repairs on the "kominuters" are quite heavy, and as the 
screens wear there is a considerable variation in the fineness of the 
crushed product. In the dry grinding of Cripple Creek ores it is desirable 
to keep the percentage of very fine material as low as possible in order 
to decrease the dust loss in the roasters. The fines carry more gold than 
the coarser material, and, in addition, show a tendency to flow through 
the roasters without being properly overturned by the rabbles. On the 
other hand, too much coarse material in the product will result in faulty 
elimination of the sulphur. 

Ttie two classes of ore are handled separately in the roasters. Each 
roaster handles about 50 per cent more of class A ore than of class B, 
showing the importance of the amount of lime as affecting the roasting 
practice. The roasting is performed in 9 furnaces of the Edwards duplex 
54 rabble type, supplied by the Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. The roasting 
hearths are 115 by 13 feet, and the cooling hearths 44 by 13 feet. There 
are 27 pairs of rabbles in the roasting hearths and 11 pairs in the coolers. 
The rabbles inside the furnaces are water-cooled. There are three fire 
boxes, of the semi-gas producer type, to each roaster. The regulation of 
the temperature is very important and Brown indicating pyrometers are 
used for this purpose. Frequent chemical determinations are also made 
upon the roasted product. The maximum temperature attained in roast- 
ing class A ore is about STO^'C and in class B about SOO^'C. The tempera- 
ture at the discharge point of the roasters is about 485'' C, and at the dis- 
charge point of the coolers about 278°C. The high lime ore requires the 
higher temperature because the calcium sulphate produced is thereby ren- 
dered less soluble in the mill solutions. The capacity of the roasters, for 
class A ores, is from 125 to 150 tons per 24 hours, and for class B ores, 
from 80 to 100 tons per 24 hours. The avoidance of dust losses in the 
roasting is very important, and the ore is subjected to the minimum 
amount of agitation throughout the entire operation. The slope of the 
hearths toward the discharge end is 0.5 in. to the foot. From the cooling 
hearths the roasted ore falls through a choke feeder upon a reciprocating 
drag conveyor at the far end of which Jets of water are sprayed over the 
ore. The drag conveyor discharges the product now at a temperature of 
about 90 °C, upon a rubber belt conveyor which carries the ore to the Chil- 
ian mills in the cyanide department. The total dust loss is about 0.4 per 
cent by weight, and the dust contains 20 per cent more gold than the ore. 

In the cyanide department both sulphates and soluble sulphides are 
hindrances to good work. The soluble sulphides consume cyanide and 
attack zinc. They are active reducifig agents and remove oxygen from 
the solutions. Acid sulphates are also cyanicides if not neutralized 
quickly. Calcium sulphate is a decided nuisance because of its tendency 
to separate out as crystals upon the pipes, launders, thickeners, filter 
mats, clarifying mats, filter frames and cloths, upon the zinc and in the 
zinc boxes. Most of the soluble calcium sulphate at the Gtolden Cycle 
mill is produced in the roasters by the sulphatizing of the carbonate of 
lime in the original ore. It is found, however, that if the ore is roasted 
at a temperature somewhat above 870 °C, the calcium sulphate produced 
becomes practically insoluble i» the mill solutions. This result is attrib- 
uted to the more perfect dehydration of the sulphate at the higher tem- 
perature. Naturally, greater care must be observed in roasting the class 
B ore than when working upon class A ore. The low limits of insoluble 
sulphur and soluble sulphides in the roasted products are as follows: 
Class A ore — 0.10 per cent each; class B ore — 0.15 per cent each. At 
these percentages there is the maximum extraction of values. It is found 
that if the roasting be carried beyond these limits the residues become 
richer, although the cyanide treatment is simplified. In addition, the 
cost of roasting is greater. The following table shows in a striking man- 



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24 



COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 



ner the effect of over-roasting of class B ore, as compared with the resulu 
obtained on an average roast of the same ore: 

VALUE OF SAND RESIDUES FROM CLASS B ORE. 





Over-roasted Ore 


Average Residue 


Screen Mesh 

i 


Weight 
Per Cent 


Gold, 
Ounce 


Weight 
Per Cent 


Gold, 
Ounce 


'Over 20 .*. . 

20 to 30 


4 


0.03 
0.04 
0.0.^ 


1 

6 

15 

35 


0.01 
0.01 


30 to 40 


14 
23 


0.01 


40 to 60 


0.02 


80 to 100 


16 1 ons 


1 1^ 0-02 


60 to 80 


14 


0.04 
0.06 
0.09 
0.12 


100 to 150 

150 to 200 


11 

10 

8 


' 12 

13 

3 


0.02 
0.02 


Below 200 


0.04 








100 


0.0571 


100 


0.0185 



The roasting of the ores at the Golden Cycle mill is interesting and 
Important and is closely associated with the success of the plant as a 
whole. It would seem that it might be possible to replace the Eldwards 
roasters with a less expensive installation, but it must be remembered 
that the present equipment delivers a product low in sulphides and in 
soluble calcium sulphate, and that it entails a very small dust loss. These 
are strong points and would weigh heavily in any discussion regarding 
a possible change. 

The roasting practice at the Golden Cycle mill is the subject of an 
interesting and instructive paper written by A. L. Blomfield and M. J. 
Trott, manager and assistant superintendent, respectively, of the plant. 
This paper was read at the Colorado meeting of the A. I. M. E3. In Sep- 
tember, 1918, and was published in the A. I. M. E. Bulletin for August, 
1918. The writer of the present article^ is indebted to the above paper 
for much of the data given. 

FYom the roasting department the ore goes to 7 ESvans-Waddel Chilian 
mills for fine grinding. Here again there may be some discussion as to 
why ball mills are not used. One \)f the reasons for the present equip- 
ment is that the roasted ore does not require finer grindiilg than 20 mesh 
for satisfactory extraction, and for this maximum size of product the 
Chilian mill is very elflcient. However, the feed is too fine for the max- 
imum elflciency. The grinding is performed in cyanide solution, as at 
the Independence mill. The Chilian mills are followed by apron plates 
upon which are stretched cotton blankets for the purpose of catching 
the coarse gold in the pulp. This coarse gold is not readily amenable 
.to ordinary amalgamation, because of the thin films of impurities upon 
the particles. In addition, it dissolves rather slowly in cyanide 
solution. The blankets are removed at frequent intervals and the gold 
washed off and treated with mercury in small arrastras and grinding 
pans. The abrasive action of the arrastras and pans polishes the gold 
particles and they are absorbed in the mercury. In this way a large 
percentage of the total gold in the ore is recovered quickly and cheaply. 
The tailings from the grinding pans go to the cyanide department. The 
; amalgam is retorted in the usual manner. 

From the blanket tables the pulp and solution pass to Dorr bowl 
.classifiers where separation into sand and slime is effected. The question 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 2S 

as to whether an all-sliming process should be used at this plant has re- 
ceived careful consideration, but has been decided in the negative. While 
there would be some simplification of the flow sheet by the adoption of 
a system involving slime treatment only the cost of grinding would be 
much greater, and ther^ would be no corresponding increase in the metal 
extraction. It has already been stated that very fine grinding is not nec- 
essary on the roasted ore in order to get effective cyanidation. But for the- 
combination process there ihust be a very complete separation into sand and 
slime. For this purpose the Gtolden Cycle company has recently installed 
a Dorr classifier with a 12 foot bowl and capable of handling the entire, 
tonnage of the mill. This machine is intended to replace 5 smaller classi- 
fiers of the same type. So eflElcient' is the classification that the slimes 
contain but 0.5 per cent of sands and the sands but 4 per cent of slimes. 
Good classification is so important at this plant because of the necessity 
of rapid leaching in the percolation tanks and of very thorough agitation 
and aeration in the slime treatment tanks. The reducing action of the 
'soluble sulphides and the tendency of the calcium sulphate to crystallize 
are both minimized by performing the operations as rapidly as possible. 

There are eleven 50 by 6 foot leaching tanks, having filter bottoms of 
cocoa matting. The filling of these tanks is done mechanically, and from 
the periphery toward the center, so as to avoid segregation of coarse and 
fine material. It is important also to have the sands dewatered before 
reaching the tanks, for the same reason. When the tanks are filled mill 
solution containing the proper amount of sodium cyanide is run in. As 
rapidly as is consistent with good extraction of the values the enriched 
solution is drawn off and sent to the gold storage tanks in the precipita- 
tion department. The weaker solutions are sent to the zinc presses by 
way of the Crowe vacuum system, and the washings into the mill circuit. 
After leaching the sands are flushed out by means of flre hose. Seventy 
per cent of the total tonnage of ore consists of sands and 30 per cent of 
slimes. 

The slime treatment is characterized by very thorough agita- 
tion and aeration in order to oxidize soluble sulphides. The over- 
flow from the classifiers goes to a 50 by 9 foot Dorr tray thick- 
ener. The spigot product goes to a 30 by 10 foot continuous mechan- 
ical-air agitator, and the overflow back to the Chilian mills as 
battery solutions. From the agitator the pulp and solution go to 
three 30 by 10 foot secondary Dorr thickeners. The overflow from these 
secondary thickeners goes to a clarifler and thence to the cold stor- 
age tanks. The spigot product is again subjected to agitation in a 37 by 
23 foot Dorr continuous agitator, followed by three 30 by 10 foot intermit- 
tent mechanical agitators. From the latter the pulp and solution go to 
two Moore stationary 86 leaf vacuum filters. The filtered rich solution 
goes to the gold storage tanks and the weaker solutions to the zinc dust 
presses, or to the mill circuit. There is thus a rather complicated alter- 
nation of thickeners and agitators, but it is necessary in order to get the 
best results. In both the sand tanks and the slime treatment tanks quick 
change of solution is essential. All of the operations must go forward 
as rapidly as possible. This, of course, means that at no point in the 
flow sheet can there be a falling oft in efficiency without seriously inter- 
fering with the work of the plant as a whole. Insufficient roasting is a 
fruitful source of trouble, even when it involves but a small proportion 
of the total tonnage of ore. It means a lower recovery of gold, increased 
cyanide consumption, and a greater deposition of calcium sulphate. Lime 
is added to the solutions to maintain the proper amount of alkalinity, al- 
though this sometimes can be omitted in the case of the high lime class 
B ores. Precipitation of the gold from the richer solutions from both 
the sand and slime treatment tanks is performed in zinc boxes by means 
of zinc shavings. The weaker solutions are precipitated by means of 
zinc dust in presses. The Crowe system is used to deoxidize all solutions 



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26 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

before precipitation. In the melting room the gold precipitate is treated 
with sulphuric acid to remove the greater part of the zinc, zinc oxide and 
lime, and the residue then melted down in graphite crucibles heated by 
Case oil-fired furnaces. The resulting bullion is shipped to the U. S. Mint 
at Denver. 

The Golden Cycle mill is a good example of a plant in which results 
are achieved by close attention to details that are sometimes overlooked. 
In 1917 the plant treated 361,000 tons of ore, of a gross value of $7,332,000^ 
or $20.31 a ton. In 1918 the amount treated was 326,000 tons of about 
the same average assay. 



. Resume 

PRESIDENT VICTOR C. ALDER80N. 

When the Cripple Creek district is viewed from every angle — senti- 
mental, financial, mining, ore dressing, metallurgical, geological, and scien- 
tific — it can properly be ranked as the most interesting gold camp in the 
world. The ijnaginative writer could take the bare facts in succession 
from its condition as a cattle range to its place as a producer of millions 
of dollars annually and weave a fairy story as entrancing as ever kindled 
a child's imagination. Its story never gets dull. Since the visit of the 
authors of this Quarterly to the District, in order to secure the latest in- 
formation, reports have come that lessees on the Mary McKinney have 
made a shipment of ore running $2,367.50 a ton; that lessees on the Index 
mine have uncovered a three foot vein that gives assays up to $800.00 a 
ton; and that the Vindicator has discovered rich ore on its lowest levels; 
all this in addition to the ''underground Jewelry shop" discovered on the 
Cresson which recently made such a sensation. 

The problems of the district have been serious. Where water in the 
mines was in danger of stopping all work a solution was demanded. By 
the combined efforts of a great engineer — David W. Brunton — and a great 
executive — A. E. Carlton — backed by the financial resources of the dis- 
trict, the Roosevelt Drainage Tunnel was built, the district unwatered. 
costs of mining reduced, and the camp given a new term of life. 

In the guidance of exploratory work, in understanding of the ore de- 
posits, and in the geological survey of the district the problems were 
worthy of the careful study of a great geologist — Waldemar Lindgren. In 
the treatment of the low grade ores the problems have been complex but 
have been solved by great metallurgists — ^Thomas B. Crowe and Ll A. 
Blomfield. All in all. Cripple Creek is a great district; it has had great 
problems, solved by great men. It has, also, been a great producer of 
millionaires. 

To the pessimist who sees only ihe past the camp will not retain its 
position. However, to the intelligent optimist, who Judges the future by 
the past, the camp will not only regain its former prestige but surpass it 
The great needs of the camp are many but the following are of the great- 
est importance: 

1. Lower cost of supplies and of operation. 

2. More skilled miners who will take leases and open new ground. 

3. Development work at the low levels by the larger mining com- 

• panies. 
The first of these depends upon general business conditions. The 
second and third depend upon local interest and faith. To the impartial, 
conservative observer, it appears that, during the present world-wide 
period of readjustment, Cripple Creek will not only maintain its command- 
ing position but advance to a position of still greater importance and 
interest. 



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QUARTERLY 

OF THE 

COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 

Vol. Fourteen OCTOBER, 1919 Number Four 

The Oil Shale Industry 



BY VICTOR C. ALDERSON, 
President, Colorado School of MInee. 

I THE DAWN Recent years have been filled with stirring and far- 



OF A reaching events, world wide In their effect, not the 

NEW INDUSTRY least of which has been the birth of a new Industry, 
with a potential supply of raw material that almost 
defies mathematical computation and staggers the imagination. Can oil 
wells produce enough petroleum to meet the enormous demand now ex- 
isting for oil and its products? The answer is doubtful. Will new oil 
fields be discovered to meet the increased demand in the future? The 
answer is extremely doubtful. Tet this is the age of oil. Oil we must 
have. The supply must come from our great deposits of oil shale. If oil 
is the "king" then oil shale is the "heir apparent." 

THE PRESENT From 1857 the total of the world production of petro- 
CONDITION leum was 6,996,674,563 barrels; of this, the United 

OF THE States produced 4,252,644,003 barrels. There are now 

PETROLEUM approximately 250,000 producing oil wells in the 

INDUSTRY United States. The average yield is only four and 

a half barrels a day. Among the great producers is 
the Burkbumett pool in Texas that has produced 7,000,000 barrels of oil 
and the Ranger pool that has produced 12.000,000 barrels. The average 
output in Wyoming is 40 barrels a day. The low average for the whole 
country of only four and a half barrels a day is caused by thousands of 
wells in the older fields that produce less than a auarter of a barrel a day. 
Of the total number of wells in the United States four fifths do not yield 
more than a barrel of oil dally. 

The United States Bureau of Mines recently made a report to the 
Secretary of the Treasury on the subject in which it said : 

"The United States Geological Survey makes the pessimistic report 
that our underground reserves are forty per cent exhausted and that we 
probably are near the peak of domestic production,'' says the Bureau of 
Mines report. "The consumption of petroleum is increasing far more 
rapidly than domestic production. During 1918, 39,000.000 barrels of oil 
were imported from foreign countries and 27,000,000 barrels were with- 
drawn from stocks. 

"Our future supply of petroleum must be conserved, and it is there- 
fore imperative that the United States make every possible effort to fur- 
ther more efficient conservation of our underground reserves of oil and 
the more efficient utilization of petroleum and its products, because: 

"First — Petroleum has become the fundamental basis of the Indus- 
trial and military life of the nation in that gasoline has become the 



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4 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

motive power for some six million automobiles and trucks, for airplanes, 
farm tractors, motor boats, etc. Fuel oil has become necessary for our 
navy, our merchant marine and larger industrial plants. Lubricating 
oil is essential for machinery of all kinds, and without it not a wheel 
would turn. 

"Second — The potential supplies of crude oil outside of the United 
States are passing almost entirely into the political and economic control 
of foreign governments, and the United States is likely to pass the posi- 
tion of dominance into a position of dependence. 

"Third — Investigations of the Bureau of Mines, of the Fuel Adminis- 
tration and of other bodies have disclosed that the known oil reserves of 
the United States are not receiving adequate protection and are being 
wasted through inefficient methods in -production, refining and utilization 
of the oil." 

The report says the Fuel Administration faas made an investigation 
which shows that in 1917 in the exploitation of petroleum and natural gas 
in the United States the total waste in oil and gas amounted to 
$2,000,000,000, and continues: 

"The need for petroleum reaches every citizen in the United States. 
There are in service today some 6,000,000 automobiles and trucks using 
gasoline. The number of automobiles is increasing at the rate of 1,000.000 
to 2,000,000 a year. Through pleasure cars, trucks, farm tractors, etc., 
every family in the United States is virtually interested in gasoline. 

"Through lubrica^ng oils every person in the United States has a 
direct interest. Lubricating oils are one of the three essentials of modem 
civilization and in equal importance to steel and (oal, for without lubri> 
eating oils no machinery would be possible. 

"The supply of fuel oil is, in the opinion of marine engineers, the 
strategic point for our merchant marine and in the development of any 
modern navy. 

"For the above reasons it is imperative that the United States take 
every step possible toward conserving our known reserves of oil. Petro- 
leum and natural gas are not being replaced by nature, and once gone 
cannot be replaced except from sources involving greater costs." 

Many other significant figures could be given but a few will sufilce. 
Total number of 

registered auto- Production 

mobiles in the of 

United States Gasoline 

1914 1,700,000 1,460,037,200 gallons 

1918 6,146,000 3,570,312.963 gallons 

Statistics furnished by the United States Geological Survey give the 
following interesting comparison: 









Amount of Crude 




Amount of Crude 








Oil in Storage 




Oil Marketed 


Dec. 


31, 


1915... 


. 194,185,000 bbl. 


During 1915.. 


. . 281,104,104 bbL 


Dec. 


31, 


1916... 


. 179,371,000 bbl. 


During 1916.. 


. . 800,767.158 bbL 


Dec. 


31. 


1917... 


. 156,168,000 bbl. 


During 1917. . 


. . 335,315.600 bbl. 


Dec. 


31, 


1918... 


. 132,800,000 bbl. 


During 1918.. 


. . 845.896.000 bbl. 



Thus, during these four years the amount marketed increased from 
281 to 345 million barrels; the reserve supply — ^that held in storage — de- 
creased from 194 to 132 million barrels. This gives the key to the oil 
situation. Oil pools are merely reservoirs certain to become exhausted 
in the course of a few years. 

Bxamining the refining oil we find that from January to September, 
1918, the refineries consumed 182,000,000 bbl. During the same period 
the production was only 170,000.000 bbl. To meet this loss 12,000,000 bbl, 
had to be drawn from storage, or more than a million barrels a month. 

In passing Judgment upon the condition of the oil industry ais a 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTSRLT. 6 

whole, one must not be blinded by the enormous production of "gushers" 
nor be made unduly pessimistic over the low average yield of the quarter 
of a million wells in the United States. A common-sense view seems to 
be that first, our supply of petroleum from wells is not meeting the 
country-wide demand and that the limit of production is approaching; 
second, the supply from wells can be maintained only by the discovery of 
new extensive pools; thirdly, there is little likelihood that new pools like 
the Mid-Continental, or California will be discovered because the entire 
country has already been thoroughly explored; fourthly, that the only 
great national reservoir that can be absolutely depended upon to supply 
oil is our deposit of shale. This will be the source of our oil supply for 
the future. The total world production of oil to date stands at 7 billion 
barrels of oil with only 6,740,000,000 barrels estimated left in the ground. 

NATURE OF Oil shale virtually contains no oil as such. It is a 

OIL SHALE consolidated mud or clay deposit from which petro- 

leum is obtained by distillation. In appearance the 
shale is black, or brownish-black, but on weathered surfaces it is white 
or gray. It is usually fine-grained, with some lime and occasionally sand. 
It is tough but, in thin sections, friable. When broken to a fresh surface 
it may give an odor like petroleum. Thin rich pieces may bum with a 
sooty fiame. E2. H. Cunningham-Cralg defines it as follows: Oil shale is 
an argillaceous or shaly deposit from which petroleum may be obtained 
by distillation but not by trituration or treatment by solvents. 

Oil shale must be carefully distinguished from oil sand. In the oil 
sand the oil is contained in the sand as oil. When the sand is penetrated 
by a well the oil gushes out or Is pumped out. In the oil shale there is 
no oil as such, but only the uncooked ingredients of oil. When the shale 
is subjected to destructive distillation, i. e., heated in a closed vessel, or 
"cooked", shale oil results as a manufactured product. 

ORIGIN OF Oil shale is one of a long list of natural deposits 

OIL SHALE which result from the deposition of organic matter 

from plants or animals of a former geologic era — 
like anthracite, bituminous, and brown coal, peat, petroleum, and as- 
phaltum. Beds of oil shale were laid down in lagoons, or wide expanses 
of quiet water. They contain a large amount of organic matter — low 
plant forms of life like algae; also pollen, fish scales, insects, and re- 
mains of animal and vegetable life sometimes changed beyond recogpol- 
tion, although 277 species of insects have been recognized. 

WORLD-WIDE Besides the extensive deposit in Colorado, oil shale 

DISTRIBUTION • is found in Utah, Wyoming, Nevada, Montana and 
OFOILSHALE California. In Canada it is found in Quebec, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. In 
Scotland, near Edinburgh and on the Isle of Skye. In France, at Autun 
and Buxiere les Mines. In South Africa, in the Transvaal, Mozambique, 
and Natal. Also in New South Wales, New Zealand, Tasmania, Brazil, 
Italy, Spain, Austria-Hungary, Serbia, and Turkey. 

THE OIL The oil shale beds of Scotland occur within a small 

SHALE OF area, twenty miles in diameter, in the counties of 

SCOTLAND West Lothian, Mid Lothian, and Lanarkshire. The 

center of the district is fourteen miles west of Edin- 
burgh. The shale beds are simply very fine impalpable clay shale, brown 
to black in color, free from silica, easily cut with a sharp knife, and in 
form are plane or curly. The beds vary greatly in thickness; it is not 
uncommon to find a seam pinch out altogether, but another seam, above 
or below it, increases in thickness and richness as the first deteriorates. 
Faults, folds, and igneous intrusions are not uncommon. Mining is done 



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6 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

entirely through shafts. ''Kerogen" is the Scotch term given to the com- 
plex organic compounds in the shale which produce petroleum. The 
richer shales yield from 30 to 40 gallons of oil to the ton of shale. The 
lower grade shale that yields only from 15 to 18 gallons of oils gives from 
60 to 70 pounds of ammonium sulphate. That is, the shale that runs high 
in oil runs low in ammonium sulphate; the shale that is low in oil is high 
in ammonium sulphate. 

PRESENT VALUE In the earlier days of the industry the shales that 
OF THE were worked produced more crude oil than the 

SCOTCH SHALES shales of today. Notably the Torbanehill materia] 
gave from 96 to 130 gallons of crude oil a ton. At 
the present time the production seldom exceeds 30 gallons a ton» find 
shale yielding only 15 gallons is successfully treated. The explanation 
for this lies in the fact that crude oil is not the only product of value 
that may be obtained. The ammonium sulphate is also valuable. If this 
is obtained in large quantity, as in the case of shales now being treated, 
the total result in crude oil, plus ammonium sulphate, may be econom- 
ically profitable. The following series of products are secured from the 
Scotch shales: 

1. Permanent g^ses used for fuel under the retorts. 

2. Naphtha, gasoline, and motor spirits. 

3. Burning or lamp oil. 

4. Intermediate oil used for gas-making. 
6. Lubricating oil. 

6. Solid paraffin. 

7. Still grease. 

8. Still coke, which contains some oil and is used for gas, smoke- 
less fuel, and carbon for electrical purposes. 

9. Liquid fuel used in the refineries. 

DESCRIPTION D. R. Steuart in Economic Geology, Vol. 3, 1908, p. 

OF THE SCOTCH 574, describes briefly the equipment as follows: "In 
OIL WORKS a Scotch oil works there are the great benches of 

shale retorts sometimes more than 60 feet high, with 
the great stacks of numerous series of 3-inch pipes, 30 or 40 feet high, 
for air condensers. There is the three-story-high sulphate of ammonia 
house, with its high column-stills, the acid saturators for the ammonia, 
vacuum or other evaporator for the sulphate from the recovered sulphuric 
acid of the reflnery, centrifugal driers, storage bins and grinding mills. 
In the refining departments the stills are small and, on account of the 
repeated distillations, very numerous; the washers for vitriol and soda 
are many; there are coolers, refrigerators, filter and hydraulic plate 
presses for the separation of the heavy oil and solid paraffin; great sweat- 
ing houses for the paraffin refining; candle works; sulphuric acid plants; 
acid recovery plant; engineer's. Joiner's and plumber's shops — a very 
large and varied collection of apparatus covering much ground, so that 
for a comparatively small production there is a very large and expensive 
plant. A conspicuous feature of oil works is the great hills of spent 
shale." 

As far as our present knowledge extends it is evident that Canada 
is not so well supplied with oil fields as the United States. For this 
reason the oil shale industry may make rapid advancement there, since 
large beds of shale, rich in oil, are known to exist within the Dominion. 
The Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines of the Dominion have 
already given considerable attention, in examinations and reports, to 
these deposits. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 7 

NEW The oil shales of New Brunswick are located in three 

BRUNSWICK areas-r-the Taylorville, Albert mines, and Baltimore. 

SHALES In Taylorville are four beds of shale of good quality; 

one five feet, one three feet, and two, one foot ten 
inches thick. In Albert Mines are six beds of the following thickness 
(the most important in New Brunswick): 6.5 feet; 3.5 feet; 5 feet; 4.5 
feet; 6 feet; and one with thin beds of oil shale. In Baltimore are four 
beds, 4 feet, 5 feet, 7 feet and 6 feet thick, respectively. 

NEWFOUNDLAND The oil shales of Newfoundland cover an area of 
about 750 square miles. The largest deposit lies be- 
tween the head of White Bay and Deer and Grand Lakes, and varies from 
50 to 100 feet in thickness. The dip of the strata is slight and the out- 
croppings are bold. An analysis of typical shale gave 50 gallons of crude 
oil and 80 pounds of ammonium sulphate a ton. The Newfoundland shales 
have great prospective value. 

FRANCE Second only to the oil shale industry of Scotland 

ranks the French, which dates from 1830. After 
many years of successful operation it suffered from competition with oil 
wells until the French government in 1890 offered a premium for the pro^ 
duction of oil from shale. This bonus, together with the adoption of effi- 
cient Scottish methods of treatment, revived the industry. The shales 
occur at depths from 150 to 300 feet. Five companies are now in opera- 
tion on the shales of Autun and Buxiere les Mines, where the shales pro- 
duce 50 gallons of oil a ton. 

AUSTRALIA Large outcrops of rich oil shales occur in the gorges 

of the Blue Mountains, New South Wales. Fossils 
are found in the lower shale measures. These shales are reported to give 
100 gallons of oil and 70 pounds of ammonium sulphate a ton. The gov- 
ernment has established a system of bonuses, for the production of oil. 
which are expected to increase the present annual production from 
3,000,000 to more than 20,000,000 gallons. There are two British- Austral- 
ian companies in the field — ^the Commonwealth Oil Corporation, capital 
$6,000,000, operating at Newnes, and the British-Australian Oil Co., capital 
$1,460,000, operating at Temi in the Liverpool range. From 1865 to 1916, 
1,751,367 tons of oil shale have been produced of a total value of 
$11,606,671. 

TRANSVAAL Oil shale is found in two districts— the Ermelo and 

the Wakkerstroom, fifty miles apart. Although these 
two deposits may prove to be one continuous bed, yet there Is no evidence 
to that effect at the present time. In each case the shale is associated 
with a seam of coal. The Ermelo shales have produced from 30 to 34 
gallons of crude oil a ton. The Wakkerstroom shale has yielded as much 
as 90 gallons a ton, but the shale is only 9 inches thick. 

BRAZIL Oil shales are exposed at many places on the coast 

of Brazil. They have been examined by Professor 
John C. Branner, of Leland Stanford Jr. University, and their composition 
determined by Sir Boverton Redwood, of London. The richest yielded 
44.73 gallons of crude oil and 19.58 gallons of ammoniacal water to the 
ton. The deposits have not been worked commercially. 



The Oil Shales of Colorado 

GEOLOQICAL The oil shales of Colorado belong in the Green River 

POSITION (Eiocene) formation. Elsewhere they are found in 

the Cretaceous, Devonian, and Carboniferous. In 

reoent geologic time this oil shale region of Colorado was an extensive 



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8 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

plateau tlirough which the Grand River and its tributaries, Kimball, Conn, 
and Parachute creeks have cut valleys to a depth of 3,000 or more feet. 
On either side of the streams are now exposed great beds of shale — 
even mountains of it. 

DEVELOPMENT At the present time (October, 1919) we have no 
WORK IN THE exact knowledge of the change or the persistency 
OIL SHALES of oil values with depth, nor the underground diffi- 

culties to be met in mining. Up to the present time 
sampling has been done on weathered outcrops or from shale close to the 
surface. There is reason to expect that as unaltered shale is reached it 
will be found to be richer than shale near the surface. Dean E. Win- 
chester reports that one sample taken after the weathered surface was 
removed gave 32 gallons of oil a ton. A foot and a half was then re- 
moved by blasting. A sample then gave 55 gallons a ton. At Elko, Ne- 
vada, the shale has been mined for a distance of 200 feet from the out- 
crop and no decrease has been noticed in the richness of the shale. If 
these cases are typical we may reasonably expect that deep unchanged 
oil shale will prove to be richer than shale near the outcrop, and as 
a result the total content of the oil shale deposits may be much richer 
than ^t present estimated. 

MINING OIL The shale beds of Scotland are irregular and lie in 

SHALE synclinal troughs; they pinch out or expand; they 

have a dip of from 30 to 60 degrees; they are folded 
or faulted to a great extent and often altered by intrusive volcanic rocks. 
All mining is through shafts, some of which are very deep. In Colorado, 
however, the oil shale beds are regular; they are virtually level; the 
greatest dip noticed is only 10 degrees; only one fault has thus far b^en 
noted, and there is little likelihood, to judge from the outcrops and the 
formation, that many will be found; the level position of the oil shale en- 
ables it to be mined by the ordinary methods of room and pillar coal min- 
ing. From the standpoint of cheap mining, if comparison is made with 
Scotland, the advantage is certainly with Colorado. 

POSSIBILITIES .Inasmuch as the oil shale industry has been in oper- 
OFTHE SHALE ation in Scotland since 1850 — sixty-nine years — and 
INDUSTRY has met and overcome technical, trade, and eco- 

nomic obstacles, it seems a mere matter of common 
sense for the pioneers of the industry in Colorado first to follow the well 
known and successful methods of Scotland; to adapt these methods to 
Colorado' conditions, and then to improve them as fast as possible by 
methods not now known. Besides, the production of crude oil, gas, and 
ammonium sulphate, other possibilities may open, e. g., the nitrogen may 
be reclaimed in a form for use in the manufacture of munitions of war; 
aniline dyes and flotation oils may be obtained; possibly producer gas, 
a substitute for rubber, and other products may become valuable. The 
nitrogen content is especially valuable, as each percentage of nitrogen will 
yield theoretically 93 pounds of ammonium sulphate now worth 7.3 cents 
a pound. All in all, it should be realized that the oil shale Industry pre- 
sents a long series of interesting technical-chemical problems to be 
solved by scientifically-trained men. So true Is this that the Industry can 
be classed as a combined inining-chemical-manufacturing project. 

In some quarters there exists two erroneous ideas, viz., that the dis- 
tillation of oil from shale is a simple process and that a treatment once 
devised will apply to all oil shales. To be sure, in a laboratory retort a 
few pounds of shale can be heated and a small amount of oil produced. 
So can water be boiled in a tea kettle, but there is as much difTerence 
between this puny outfit and the great plants of Scotland as there la be- 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 9 

tween the tea kettle and a great central power plant. Also shales vary 
to such an extent that each deposit should be tested In a careful, scien- 
tific manner, Just as large bodies of low grade copper ore are tested and 
suitable treatment plants erected. As in handling low grade ores, the 
large profits from oil shale will be made by handling a great tonnage at 
a low cost to the ton. 

DISTRIBUTION In northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah 
OF OIL SHALE the oil shale deposits underlie an area of approxi- 
DE POSITS IN mately 6,500 square miles. In Colorado they occur 

COLORADO chiefly in Garfield, Rio Blanco, Mesa, and Moffat 

counties, and cover 2,600 square miles. The towns 
of Grand Valley and De Beque, on the line of the Denver & Rio Grande 
railroad, are the points of entrance. 

THE DE BEQUE The exposed shales of the De Beque district lie 
DISTRICT northeast, north and northwest of the town, on both 

banks of Roan Creek, its largest tributaries, Conn, 
Kimball, and Dry Fork creeks, and on all of its smaller tributaries. 

THE GRAND In the Parachute region of the Grand Valley district 

VALLEY is a well defined rich oil shale stratum — twelve to 

DISTRICT ' twenty feet thick — that is exposed on both banks of 

Parachute Creek and all its tributaries almost con- 
tinuously for a total distance of sixty-nine miles. Many tests show that it 
will yield an average of at least forty-two gallons of oil to the ton. Assum- 
ing that this stratum extends only a mile and a quarter back from the 
line of exposure — a conservative estimate — the area of this stratum is at 
least 65,000 acres. This estimate does not include the shale exposed on 
Battlement Mesa east and southeast of Grand Valley. Using the mini- 
mum thickness of twelve feet, allowing 25 per cent of the volume to be 
ileft as pillars, and counting only on forty-two gallons to the ton, this de- 
posit would contain 1,012,600,000 barrels of crude oil. A measure of the 
interest and activity in the oil shale industry can be realized from the 
fact that since June, 1916, there have been more than 1,500 filings on oil 
shale land in Garfield County. On December 16, 1916, the United States 
Government withdrew 45,440 acres of shale land in the Grand Valley dis- 
trict as a source of supply for the use of the United States navy. 

LOCATION OF The statute of 1897 says: ''Any person authorized 
OIL SHALE to enter lands under the mining laws of the United 

CLAIMS States may enter and obtain patent to lands con- 

taining petroleum or other mineral oils, and chiefly 
valuable therefor, under the provisions of the laws (relating to placer min- 
eral claims." 

The location of oil lands as placers was general until 1896, when the 
Secretary of the Interior ruled adversely. Thereupon Congress, in 1897, 
passed a law re-establishing the former practice. The higher courts as 
yet have had no opportunity to pass upon the validity of title to oil shale 
land located under the placer law. 

The well known case of Webb vs. The American Asphaltum Co. fur- 
nishes the nearest parallel case. In the Circuit Court of Appeals. Mghth 
District, it was held that asphaltum, when it is in solid form and is found 
as a vein or lode, should be located as a lode. At the present time no 
court decision has been rendered which involves speciflcally the point 
as to how oil shale lands shall be located; that is, whether as lode or as 
placer. It would seem, however, that from the peculiar formation of oil 
shale deposits they should be located as placers. As generally found in 
Colorado these deposits are virtually horizontal aiid cannot be said to 
have apexes within the sense that miners and the Mining Act of 1872 con- 



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10 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

template. Neither can horizontal oil shales, as found in Colorado, be said 
to be in place in the sense that we find deposits of other valuable miner- 
als in place when found in lode, vein, or ledge formation. The shale de- 
posits cannot even be said to have a clearly defined hanging wall, such 
as is contemplated by the statute, since they are not covered by a non- 
mineral bearing country rock such as the miner is accustomed to find as 
constituting his overhanging wall, but he finds merely an earthy deposit 
suqh as is generally found in the ordinary gold placer. ' 

LEASING OIL An oil leasing bill of the last congress was killed in 

SHALE LAND the final hours of the session. Another bill is ex- 

pected to pass the present congress. The general 
features are likely to be these: the Secreary of the Interior will be given 
authority to lease an oil shale deposit belonging to the Government and 
as much of the surface as is needed for operation; leases shall be limited 
to 5,120 acres and may be indefinite as to length; a royalty of 50 cents an 
acre must be paid ; the Secretary of the Interior may waive the pasrment of 
royalty for the first five years; an exchange of land taken under a placer 
location may be made for leased land to an equal amount; claims valid 
at time of passage of act may be patented under laws then existent, as 
an efficient leasing bill will be an encouragement to the industry. 

HISTORY OF The shale oil. industry is not new. It has been suc- 

OIL SHALE cessfully developed and operated in Scotland for the 

past fifty years. The first material to be subjected 
to dry distillation, which furnished the earliest known distillation tar, 
was described by Boyle in 1661. About this time tar was recovered from 
the dry distillation of pine in Norway and Sweden. In 1681 a patent was 
taken out by Becker in England for the recovery of tar and pitch from 
coal. Becker was also the first to produce coke. The one outstanding 
achievement in the shale oil indutry Is due to James Young. The possi- 
bility of extracting oil from bituminous shale had long been known in 
Scotland, but the small plants which had been erected ^rere of brief ex- 
istence of little Importance. At the suggestion of Lyon Playfair, Young 
built a refinery for treating petroleum obtained from a spring at Alfreton, 
in Derbyshire. He produced two kinds of oil. one for lubricating and the 
other for burning in lamps. Paraffin was also obtained but not utilized 
to any extent. Within two years the supply began to fail and in 1S51 the 
business ceased. Meanwhile, it had occurred to Young that the oil had 
been produced by the action of heat upon coal so he attempted to pro- 
duce an artificial oil by this means. As a result of a long-continued in- 
vestigation with many varieties of coal he secured a patent in October, 
1850, which became the basis of a new industry. "The coals," the paten- 
tee says, "which I deem to be best fitted for the purpose are such as are 
usually called parrot coal, cannel coal, and gas coal, and which are much 
used in the manufacture of gas for the purpose of Illumination." Early 
in 1850, a material called Boghead coal from Torbane hill was brought 
to his attention. This he found to be the most promising of any material 
he had investigated. In 1850, a plant was erected at Bathgate. The sali- 
ent feature of Young's invention was the distillation of bituminous sub- 
stances at the lowest possible temperature for the production of volatile 
compounds. In practice it was found that the best results were obtained 
at about 800*» F. 

In the early days of the industry in Scotland, Boghead coal or Tor- 
banehill mineral, as it is sometimes called, was the only material dis- 
tilled. As the same material was used for the production of illuminating 
gas, it rose rapidly in price and in 1866 disappeared from the market. 
Between 1850 and 1860, a number of distilleries and refineries were 
erected in American towns on the Atlantic coast to treat imported Bog- 
head coal by Young's process. Plants were ailso erected in Canada to 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 11 

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12 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

use the Albertite oil shales obtained there. However, the discovery from 
1859 onward of abundant supplies of petroleum from wells in the United 
States forced the dry distillation plants to close. These plants were 
easily remodeled for the refining of petroleum and were of untold assist- 
ance in putting the new American industry on a firm basis. D. R. Steu- 
art says in Shale Oil Industry in Scotland, "James Toung may claim to 
be the father, not only of the Scottish shale oil industry, but also of the 
great American petroleum industry." When the supply of Boghead coal 
ceased another material, well adapted for distillation, was found in the 
bituminous shales found in the Scottish carboniferous formation. In 
1859, a seam was experimentally opened at Broxburn and by 1864 several 
plants were in operation. But although the Boghead coal produced 120 
to 130 gallons of oil a ton, the shales yielded only about 35 gallons and 
at the present time produce even less. In 1850, a plant was erected at 
Bathgate. In 1861, a second, the Crofthead Oil Works, was in operation. 
In 1857, when Young's patent expired, thirty-eight new works were 
established. In 1860 there were six; in 1870, ninety; in 1880, twenty- 
six; in 1890, fourteen; in 1900, nine. At the present time four companies 
are refining shale: Young's Paraffin, Light and Mineral Co., Ltd; The 
Oakbank Oil Co., Ltd; The Broxburn Oil Co., Ltd; and The Pumpherston 
Oil Co., Ltd. There are three other companies which produce only oil 
and ammonium sulphate. 

GENERAL In mining oil shale, steam shovel methods may be 

PRINCIPLES OF eliminated for the present. Beds of shale amen- 
MINING SHALE able to such treatment are far removed from 
railroads or are on the top of high cliffs. To reach 
these beds expensive roads would have to be constructed and the first 
cost of installation would be excessive. In the next place the longwall 
system of coal mining c^n be eliminated because under that method the 
roof is allowed to cave in after mining and this would destroy any beds 
of shale lying above the one being mined. The room-and-pillar method 
of coal mining will probably be adopted. In this method of mining, adits 
are cut into the beds of coal; at intervals cross cuts are made at right 
angles to the adits, and from these so-called rooms are turned off. Pil- 
lars of a size necessary to support the roof are left along the adits, the 
cross cuts, and the rooms. A large percentage of shale must be left, but 
this is inconsequential on account of the great extent of the deposits. It 
goes without saying that to open an oil shale deposit properly, a definite 
plan of development must be outlined, mechanical ventilation supplied, 
provision made for rapid and economical haulage, and the numerous ap- 
pliances provided for handling a very large tonnage in an efficient and 
economical way. The open cut method may be used in some favorable 
localities. 

VALUE OF OIL At the present time virtually all available shale de- 
SHALE LAND posits on Government land have been filed upon as 

"placer". They are generally taken up in "associa- 
tion" claims, i. e., in eight twenty-acre contiguous tracts by eight locators. 
Each locator has a one-eighth undivided interest in the 160 acres. An- 
nual assessment work to the extent of $100 must be done on the tract 
to hold the title. The intrinsic value of a particular tract may be much 
or little. If it is situated far from a railroad, beyond even a wagon road, 
and without water, it is virtually without present market value. If it is 
accessible, near to transportation, with an available water supply, with 
natural benches for retorts and ample dumping ground, and the rich shale 
beds are thick and easy to get at, then the land may have a present value 
of from 125.00 to $50.00 an acre and a prospective value in the hundreds 
of dollars an acre. 



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COLORADO 80H00L OF MJNE8 QUARTERLY, 13 

THE HEAT One ton of shale will produce on the average of 2,500 

VALUE OF GAS cubic feet of gas of a calorific value of 507 B. t. u. 
PRODUCISD Five hundred and seven by 2,500 gives 1,267,500 B. 

t. u. as the calorific value of the gas produced from 
one ton of shale. Colorado coals give an average of about 10,800 B. t u.; 
2,000 by 10,800 gives 21,600,000 B. t. u. to the ton of coal, or approximately 
17 times that of the B. t. u. in a ton of shale. In practice coal is only about 
60 per cent efficient, but gas is 80 per cent efficient; hence the heat value 
of the coal is reduced to 13 times the heat value of the gas from a ton of 
shale. In other words, for each 13 tons of shale mined sufficient gas would 
be produced to do the work of a ton of coal. Thus, in a 400-ton plant 
enough gas would be produced daily to be equivalent to more than 30 
tons of coal. 

AMOUNT OF To one fond of figuring the following will prove in- 

SHALE teresting. An acre contains 43,560 square feet. A 

AVAILABLE seam of oil shale 10 feet thick would contain 435,600 

IN COLORADO cubic feet of shale. Eighteen cubic feet of shale 
weigh one ton. Hence there are 24,200 tons of shale 
in one acre of a seam 10 feet thick. In a square mile there are 6^0 acres 
and therefore 15,488,000 tons of shale. There are '2,500 square miles of 
shale in Colorado or 38,720,000,000 tons. Assume that only one-half is 
available and there remains 19,360,000,000 tons of available shale. This is 
figured for one ten-foot seam only. A conservative estimate is 30 feet of 
workable shale or a total of 58,080,000,000 tons of available shale. A 
fair average production is a barrel of oil to the ton of shale or 
58,080,000,000 barrels of oil available. If 100 plants were in operation, 
each treating 2,000 tons daily, they would have a daily production of 
200,000 barrels. To treat this amount of shale would require 290,400 days 
or 800 years, approximately. These figures apply only to Colorado; they 
omit shale deposits elsewhere, and are given only to make vivid and 
emphatic the statement that there are mountains of shale in Colorado. 

OIL SHALE In five states there is activity in the development of 

ACTIVITY AND the industry; in California, where rich beds are 
DEVELOPMENT found; at Dillon, Montana, a retorting plant is being 
constructed. At Elko, Nevada, two plants have been 
erected ; one financed by the Southern Pacific Company and erected under 
the guidance of the United States Bureau of IMries, similar to the Pum- 
pherston Plant in Scotland; the other, using the Catlin Process, has com- 
pleted a successful run and has produced five thousand gallons of shale 
oil; at Watson, Utah, a plant is under construction to use the Wallace 
Process. 

COLORADO The Grand Valley Oil and Shale Company, in con- 

Junction with the Consumers Oil and Shale Com- 
pany, of Chicago and Kansas City, has begun the erection of a 100-ton 
distillation plant at its property in Sharkey Gulch, six miles from the 
city of Grand Valley. The property of this company is particularly well 
placed for" successful operation. The allied Interests in the Grand Valley 
district are contemplating the erection of a community refining plant to 
serve the interests of the shale oil producers, The Colorado Carbon 
Company has 2,260 acres on Kimball Creek, twenty-seven miles from 
De Beque. The company work has been mostly of a development 
nature by means of a 175-foot cut with eleven benches. The com- 
pany expects to sell their product to the chemical, paint, varnish, and 
roofing trade. The Oil Shale Mining Company has 960 acres in Dry Creek, 
twenty miles northwest from De Beque. This company erected the first 
distillation plant of the Henderson (Scotch) type in the United States. 
The first demonstration run was made in July, 1917. The company has a 



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14 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

>• 
2,00(V-foot tram and equipment for mining on the ground. The Mount 
LfOgan Oil Shale Mining and Refining Company has 1,180 acres on Mount 
Logan, four miles from De Beque. They have on the ground three twenty- 
ton retort units with full equipment. The American Shale Refining Com- 
pany has 12,000 acres on both sides of Conn Creek, twelve miles from De 
Beque. The company is erecting a 150-ton retort. The cost of this retort 
was $40,000.00; succeeding retorts will probably cost $15,000.00 each. 
They will be placed 200 feet above the creek level to give ample dumping 
ground. The process of distillation and refining has been worked out by 
the company's chemist and has engaged his time for the past two years. 
The material for a 3,000-foot tram is now on the ground. The capacity 
of the tram is 900 tons a day— sufficient to supply shale to six 150-ton re- 
torts. The shale clifFs at the camp rise to a height of 2,500 feet. In these 
clifFs are the outcropping of five well defined oil strata, but only the two 
richest will be worked at present. From the camp the outcroppings of 
the rich shale can be seen at seven different exposures. The first and 
richest is 200 feet below the summit of the cliff. This seam is sixty 
feet thick and is expected, from extensive tests made by the company, 
to yield a minimum of sixty gallons of crude oil to the ton. Both strata 
are horizontal, lying in a great knob, or outlier, so that their extent can 
easily be determined. The first stratum, as a whole, is estimated by the 
company to contain 9,000,000 barrels of crude oil and 9,000 tons of am- 
monium sulphate; the second has 10,000,000 barrels of crude oil and 
10,000 tons of ammonium sulphate. The company has expended to March 
1, 1918, $83,101.00 in the development and equipment of its property. The 
Imperial Oil and Shale Refining Company has 1,200 acres on Brush Creek, 
22 miles from De Beque. -The company is erecting a 100-ton plant on the 
property, designed according to plans worked out in a 50-ton en>erimental 
plant at York, Pennsylvania. The Colorado Oil Shale and Refining Com- 
pany is erecting a plant of the Scotch type on its property on Kimball 
Creek. The Overland Oil and Refining Company is erecting a 50-ton 
plant on its ground. 

Governor Oliver H. Shoup appointed a commission consisting of Com- 
missioner of Mines, Horace F. Lunt; Coal Mine Inspector, James Dal- 
rymple; and Oil Inspector, James Duce, to report on the oil shale industry 
in Colorado. In their report, they make the following observations on the 
mining of oil shale: 

MINING The attention of all shale mine owners in Colorado is 

REGULATIONS called to the fact that, under the existing laws a shale 
mine, like all mines and quarries, except coal mines, 
comes under the Jurisdiction of the Bureau of Mines. Also a shale retorting 
plant is a metallurgical plant and is under the same Jurisdiction. It is the 
duty of the Commissioner of Mines to make such rules and regulations as 
are necessary, in addition to the statutes, to reduce the hazards of mining 
and metallurgical operations as far as circumstances permit and to safe- 
guard in every possible way the lives and health of the miners and other 
workers. The mine inspectors are to see that the laws, rules, and regu- 
lations are observed and to make such recommendations as mky be nec- 
essary to carry out the spirit of the law. Any person or corporation 
starting operations is required by law to notify the Bureau of Mines so 
that the inspectors may not overlook any operating properties. At this 
time it appears probable that the first shale mining on a commercial 
scale will be underground, using the same methods as in mining coal. 
Consequently the same hazards will be encountered and the same pre- 
cautions must be observed as in coal mining. Open-cut mining, or quar- 
rying, must be conducted under the same regulations as are observed in 
other quarries. In underground shale mines there is a possibility that 
inflammable gas will be encountered. There does not appear to be 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINEB QUARTERLY. 15 

enough gas to be dangerous^ in the shale Itself. There is, however, a con- 
siderable amount of inflammable gas in the underlying strata as shown 
by numerous gas wells at De Beque and elsewhere. It is quite possible 
that this gas will flnd its way Into the shale through cracks or minute 
fissures in the underlying rocks. If, in the course of mining, one of these 
fissures is tapped, the gas, being under pressure, will escape into the 
mine, form an explosive mixture with the air, and, if it comes in contact 
with an open fiame or spark, an explosion will result. To guard against 
this it will be necessary, after shots are fired, to have the mine inspected 
by a qualified fire boss before the other employees are allowed to enter it. 

Another source of danger, and one that is certain to be present, is the 
dust. Mining operations of any sort are conducive to the formation of 
large quantities of fine dust which collects on the fioors and irregularities 
of the walls of the workings. Shale dust is highly inflammable and like 
coal dust, flour dust, or the dust 6t any other combustible substances, will, 
under certain conditions, form a dangerously explosive mixture with air. 
The inflammability of shale dust may be shown by letting a hand full of 
it trickle through a hot flame. The particles will ignite and give the 
efTect of a miniature Roman candle. This explosive mixture may be ig- 
nited by the open flame of a miner's lamp or by the blasts of the explos- 
ives used to break down the shale. Coal dust is rendered innocuous by 
humidity which renders it plastic and prevents its being held in suspen- 
sion in the mine atmosphere. The necessary moisture is supplied either 
by the direct use of water, applied with a sprinkler, or by steam. In the 
latter case, in cold weather, the steam is used to raise the cold air enter- 
ing the mine to mine temperature by means of radiators, and is then 
turned into the air to give it the desired humidity. Where it is not prac- 
ticable to use steam or water, coal dust is mixed with stone or adobe 
dust so that there is at least 65 per cent of the letter present in the mine 
dust, under which cohditlons it will not form explosive mixtures with the 
air. It seems probable that the latter method will have to be used in 
shale mining as indications are that shale dust does not easily combine 
with water. It will require larger quantities of explosive to break the 
shale than are used in coal mining and the blasting will raise its tem- 
perature materially. It is very probable tbat the heat generated in blast- 
ing will be sufficient to cause a slight distillation of the lighter and more 
dangerous inflammable gases from the hydrocarbons in the shale. To re- 
move such gases, as t^ell as the smoke and gases from the blasting, will 
require an adequate and reliable supply of air, properly conducted to the 
working faces. With the above described conditions to be met, it will be 
necessary in order to secure reasonable safety, to have all blasting done 
by a properly qualifled shot flrer after the other employees have left the 
mine, to use only permissible explosives, to use only electric lamps under- 
ground, and to have a mine foreman who holds a flrst class certiflcate 
from the Coal Mining Department. Many of the other coal mining laws 
are applicable to shale mining and must be observed by the operators of 
oil shale mines, as well as the general laws relating to all classes of min- 
ing. Copies of the Federal and State Mining Laws and of the Colorado 
Coal Mining Laws may be obtained from the State Bureau of Mines, Den- 
ver, for 50 cents and 10 cents respectively. All of the laws and regula- 
tions are intended to help the operators in making their properties safe 
and the Bureau of Mines is always ready and willing to assist operators 
in any possible way. 



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16 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINE8 QUARTERLY, 

The Composition of Oil Shale and Shale Oil 

C. W. BOTKIN, 
Associate Professor of Chemistry, Colorado School of Mines. 

EXPLANATORY The object of this review is to give a general knowl- 
edge of the composition of oil shale and Its products, 
and to show the variation in the composition of the oil shales of Colorado. 
Utah, Wyoming, and Nevada, in order that It may serve as a basis for 
comparison in rating the value of any individual sample. Data from all 
available sources have been investigated and although they show the 
composition of the oil shale in only about fifty localities in each state, 
yet they are of considerable value in estimating the composition of the 
same strata in other localities where the shale has not yet been reached, 
because the oil in the shale seems fixed and not migratory like petroleum. 
Differences in laboratory methods of distillation and in the form of appar- 
atus used cause the analyses of oil shales to vary more than any other 
substance analyzed by the chemist. Until some standard method and 
type of apparatus is generally adopted by analysts, the results of their 
analyses must not be interpreted too ri^dly. Allowance must also be 
made for the fact that the plant distillation must necessarily vary from 
that done with small retorts in the laboratory. 

OIL SHALE The following figures are based on the results of one 

hundred and thirty-two analyses published by the 
United States Geological Survey, forty-two analyses made in the labora- 
tories of the Colorado School of Mines, and thirty-one analyses from other 
sources. Fifty-four of the analyses are on Colorado shales, fifty-two on 
Utah shales, forty-five on Wyoming shales, and fifty-four on Nevada 
shales. 

No. of Aver- 

Analyses Constituent Unit Minimum age Maximum 

205 Shale Oil Gal. per ton . . .3 38.0 ' 90.0 

205 Shale Oil Spec, gravity. .832 .890 .950 

163 Ammonium Sulphate.. lb. per ton... .4 9.4 20.0 

64 Gas Cu. ft. per ton. 400. 3800. 5600. 

26 Water Gal. per ton.. 2. 4.8 8.5 

26 Spent Shale lb. per ton. . . . 900. 1200. 1800. 

26 Sulphur Per cent 25 .80 5.20 

16 Heating Value B. t. u 1000. 4500. 8000. 

6 Carbon Per cent 83 22.5 37.2 

Shale distillations with steam yield a few more gallons of oil a ton 
than dry distillations and the specific gravity of the oil is between .03 and 
.04 greater. Steam distillations also increase the quantity of ammonium 
sulphate between two and three times the value obtained by the dry dis- 
tillation. The values given in the table above were obtained by dry dis- 
tillation. In the laboratory distillations the yield of gas is almost doubled 
if the retort is surrounded by magnesia insulation and the final tempera- 
ture is thus Increased a few hundred degrees. 

SHALE OIL Shale oils vary considerably in color, specific gravity, 

and viscosity, and in their content of sulphur, as- 
phalt, and paraffin. They Invariably contain a larger percentage of un- 
saturated hydrocarbons than petroleum. This is quite a disadvantage in 
their utilization for gasoline, but Improvement in motors and methods of 
refining may largely overcome this handicap. ESxperlments in cracking the 
heavier distillates from shale oil show that it is possible in this way to 
Increase the yield of gasoline. The following summary is made from data 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 17 

obtained by analysis and distillation of twenty-two different samples of 
crude shale oil. 

Specific Aver- 

Gravity Minimum age Maximum 

Initial boiling point 50*» C 65*» C 80* C 

Gasoline, to 150' C 750- .850 5% 11.7% 18% 

Kerosene, to SOO^'C 820- .900 25% 38% 52% 

Heavy oil, residue / 900-1.02 30% 45% 63% 

Unsaturated hydrocarbons in kerosene 50% 63% 75% 

Unsaturated hydrocarbons in crude shale oil 70% 80% 90% 

Asphalt in crude shale oil..... .35% 2.5% 4.5% 

Paraffin in crude shale oil 1.00% 5.0% 9.5% 

Sulphur in crude shale oil .3% .75% 1.5% 

Nitrogen in crude shale oil .75% 1.2% 2.2% 



The Production of Shale Oil 

JOHN C. WILLIAMS, 
Assistant Director, Department of Metallurgical Research, Colorado 

School of Mines. 

DISTILLATION To obtain an Insight into the nature and properties 
of shale oil, the manner of its production should 
first be studied. At the outset, it must be remembered that oil shale, the 
raw material, contains no oil as such, but that the oil is obtained through 
the dry distillation of the bitumen in the shale. There are here intro- 
duced two words that require definition — distillation and bitumen. It is 
unfortunate that a word like bitumen, used so often, has no precise defi- 
nition. It is defined in Webster as follows: "Orig., mineral pitch, or 
asphalt. By extension, any of a number of inflammable mineral sub- 
stances consisting mainly of hydrocarbons, and including the hard, solid, 
brittle varieties called asphalt, the semi-solid maltha and mineral tars, 
the oily petroleum, and even light volatile naphthas." Scheithauer statea 
that the most comprehensive definition of bitumen is, "The substances 
which furnish tar when subjected to dry distillation." Distillation is a 
generic term for a class of chemical operations, which are similar In 
that the substance operated upon is heated in a closed vessel, usually 
known as the "retort" or "still", and thereby wholly or partially con- 
verted into vapor. This vapor is then condensed by the application of 
cold in another apparatus — condenser — connected with the vessel, and 
allowed to collect in a third portion of the apparatus, called the "re- 
ceiver". Distillations may be divided into two classes: first, those which 
are, and those which are not accompanied by chemical changes. The 
word "distillation" in a narrower sense, is generally understood to apply 
to the second class only. The first might be called destructive distilla- 
tion" if it were not customary to reserve this term for the particular case 
in which the substance operated on consists of vegetable or animal mat- 
ter which is being decomposed by the application of heat alone, 1. e., with- 
out the aid of reagents. An infinite variety of products is invariably 
formed, which, however, always readily divide into three: first, a non- 
volatile residue consisting of mineral matter and elementary carbon; sec- 
ond, a part condenslble at ordinary temperatures which always readily 
separates into two distinct layers, viz., (a) an aqueous portion (ammonia 
liquor) and (b) a semi-fiuld, tarry or resinous portion (oil); and (c) a 
gaseous portion. The ammonia liquor product is the one of all the four 
products, of which the qualitative composition is most directly dependent 
upon the nature of the material distilled. In the case of wood it has an 
acid reaction, from the presence in it of acetic acid. In the case of coal. 



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18 



COLORADO SCHOOL OF MJNE8 QUARTERLY. 




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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 19 

it is alkaline, from ammonia present as a carbonate, sulphide, sulphocy- 
anide, and in other forms. The oil or tar is a complex mixture of carbon 
compounds, all combustible, but, although all directly derived frotn a 
vapor, not by any means all of them volatile. The quantity and quality 
of the oil naturally depend on the kind of material used, but more on the 
mode in which the distillation is conducted. Thus, for instance, a coal 
tar produced at a low temperature contains a considerable percentage 
of paraffins. If, oh the other hand, the distillationxis conducted at a high 
temperature, the paraffins are almost entirely absent, but the proportion 
of benzols increases considerably. 

In the course of his classical investigation on the tar produced in 
the dry distillation of wood, Reichenbach, in 1830, discovered in it, 
among other things, a -colorless, wax-like solid which he called i^araffin 
because he found it to be endowed with an extraordinary indiCFerence to- 
wards all reagents. A few years later he isolated from the same mate- 
rial a liquid oil chemically similar to paraffiii, which he called eupion 
(very fat). For many years both these bodies were known only as chemi- 
cal curiosities. This was natural enough as far as paraffin was concerned, 
but it is rather singular that it took so long before it was realized that 
eupion, or something very much- like it, forms the body of petroleum 
which had been known, ever since the time of Herodotus at least, to well 
up abundantly from the earth in certain places. Though extensively 
known it was used only as an external medicinal agent, until James 
Young conceived the idea of working a comparatively scanty oil spring in 
Derbyshire, and subsequently found that an oil similar to petroleum is 
obtained by the dry distillation of cannel coal and similar materials at 
low temperatures. Generally speaking, 'a hydrocarbon is the more vola- 
tile the less the number of carbon atoms and the greater the number of 
hydrogen atoms in the molecule. All hydrocarbons are similar in this — 
they are practically insoluble, in general, in alcohol and ether. They 
are all combustible and the more readily volatile ones are inflammable. 

RETORTS In obtaining oil from bituminous materials, the main 

object Is to prevent the decomposition from proceed- 
ing further than is necessary to furnish oil as the principal product and 
to prevent the oil so formed from decomposition. The most important 
point is the heating of the retorts. The proper temperature for any given 
form of retort should be determined. If the temperature be too high, the 
oil vapors will be decomposed, a greater yield of gas will be obtained, 
and some of the solid hydrocarbons will be converted into volatile sub- 
stances rich in aromatic compounds like benzol and its homologues, naph- 
thalene and others. The gases will contain free hydrogen and light hydro- 
carbons. On the other hand, if the temperature be too low, the bitumen 
is not decomposed but is carried over with the vapors. In this case, the 
liquid and solid products are free from aromatic hydrocarbons and con- 
sist of hydrocarbons of the fatty series — the higher Jiomologues of me- 
thane and ethane — while the gases consist of heavy hydrocarbons, like 
ethylene and acetylene. The residue is richer in carbon. Next in im- 
portance is the manner in which the heat is applied. It is imperative 
that all of the raw material be exposed to a heat which is uniform or 
constant at the different stages of the operation. Retorts should be so 
constructed that the material is heated gently at first and the temperature 
raised gradually until finally all the bitumen has been decomposed and 
converted into oil. At the beginning of the industry in Scotland, hori- 
zontal retorts were used, but were soon supplanted by the vertical type. 
In form the horizontal retorts were of oval, or rectangular shape made 
of cast iron; at one end was a door and at the other a pipe for the re- 
moval of vapor to the condenser plant. The material was charged and 
discharged through the door, so that the operation of the retort was inter- 
mittent. To secure a continuously working retort, the vertical type was 



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20 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

introduced. These were narrow, oval, or circular cast iron pipes, sur- 
rounded by brickwork. They were charged from a- hopper at the top and 
discharged at the bottom through a trough filled with water which acted 
as a seal. The vapors escaped through the pipe on the side of the retort 
near the top. These retorts had the advantage over the horizontal re- 
torts of continuous working and a greater yield of oil. Coal fires were 
used for heating. Their life was, however, short — six to nine months— 
on account of corrosion. In these early retorts, decomposition was 
effected at the expense of the paraffin content with the result of an oil 
low in that substance. To produce an oil which would be rich in paraffin. 
Young conducted exhaustive experiments which resulted, in the late six- 
ties, in a retort of increased diameter. In this type the retort was jack- 
eted and the vapors were taken off at the bottom. To effect a more eco- 
nomical working and to obtain a lower distillation temperature, Young 
later began to use the spent shale instead of coal as a source of heat. 
A retort was devised by which he proved that the spent shale could fur- 
nish enough heat for distillation, but it was too delicate for operation by 
workmen with hundreds of retorts to look after. In 1873, a retort was 
constructed by N. M. Henderson. A set of these retorts was installed in 
the Oakbank works in 1874 and did good work for twelve years, when 
they were replaced by an improved type. They were also used at Brox- 
burn and contributed greatly to the success of the Broxburn Oil Co. The 
retorts of Young and Henderson, in which shale was burnt, were able to 
work at a lower distillation temperature and the oil produced was of 
better quality and richer in paraffin. The working costs were also re- 
duced considerably. Until 1880, the yield of oil was thought to b€^ the 
most important feature in the process of distillation, and the recovery of 
ammonia a side issue. At this time Young and Bellby began to investi- 
gate the possibility of increasing the yield of ammonia. A retort was con- 
structed with an upper section of cast iron in which the shale was acted 
upon by a gentle heat for the production of oil, and a lower section of 
fire brick where the temperature was higher and where steam was intro- 
duced. From this retort an excellent oil was produced and the yield of 
ammonia and gas was increased. The disadvantages were that it required 
very close attention and its liability to choke if the temperatures became 
so high as to fuse the charge in the lower portion. To avoid these diffi- 
culties. Young constructed a retort known as the Pentland, or Young and 
Beilby type. Like the earlier Beilby retort this ^as one of fire brick. 
There were still occasional interruptions on account of the choking of the 
discharge passage. This was corrected in an improved retort known as 
th4 Henderson. The shape was copied from the Pentland; the diameter 
was increased; the upper constructed of iron, and the lower of fire brick. 
The joint between the two was very carefully made. The retort was 27.5 
feet high. The temperature in the upper zone was maintained at about 
750'* F (400** C) and in the lower zone, 1300^ F (700* C). The shale was 
kept in contjnuoi^s motion by a toothed roller at the bottom of the retort. 
This prevented oaking and the obstruction of the retort. The roller also 
discharged the spent shale into an iron box from which it was run into 
cars. The retort was easy to operate and required very little attention. 
Fresh shale entered the retort in proportion as spent shale was dis- 
charged. The yield of ammonia was greater than that from other retorts 
and the oil was of a good grade. 

CONDENSERS The dimensions of the condenser and rate of water 

flow depend on the temperature of the vapor, on the 
speed at which ther vapor is driven over, on the latent heat of the vapor, 
and on the specific heat .of the distillate. Obviously a condenser under 
all circumstances is the more efficient the greater its surface and the 
thinner its body. It is also obvious that the most suitable material for 
a condenser tube is that which conducts heat best. The vapors are 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 21 

firawn out of the retorts by exhaust fans and led to the condensing plant. 
The condenser consists of a system of cast iron tubes. In the large plants 
the diameter of the tubes Is two feet to start with and decreases to 
smaller sizes. In other plants, smaller diameters, usually about four 
inches, are used. The size depends upon the number of retorts. Air is 
used as a cooling medium. 

8HALE OIL According to Scheithauer, distillation oils consist of 

liquid and solid hydrocarbons of the fatty series 
associated with small quantities of aromatic, acid, and basic (nitrogen- 
ous) substances. Oxygen compounds (alcohols and esters), sulphur com- 
pounds, and aldehydes have also been detected in the oils. The hydro- 
carbons are both saturated and unsaturated. Small amounts of napthenes 
are also present. The oil produced by distillation. at a low temperature 
will not contain many of the aromatic compounds. On the other hand, 
if the temperature be too high, decomposition of the hydrocarbons is in- 
duced and results in the formation of the aromatic compounds, notably 
benzol. Naphthalene, phenol, and cresols are usually present together 
with pyrldin and quinolin bases. Sulphur compounds, which sometimes 
give a garlic-like odor to shale oil. are also present. The shale oil pro- 
duced in Scotland is brownish-red in color, with a dark green fluores- 
cence. Its specific gravity is from 0.860 to 0.900, and in some cases 
slightly more than the latter figure. The melting point lies between 20"* 
and 30° C. The constituents boil at 80° to 400° C. 

AMMONIA Ammonia liquor, which was formerly regarded as a 

LIQUOR nuisance"^ has meant, in many cases, the difference 

between success and failure in the Scottish treat- 
ment plants. Until 1865, the ammonia liquor which forms a large 
portion of the total distillate, was thrown away. Robert Bell, of 
Broxburn, Is given credit for being the first to treat the water for 
the production of ammonium sulphate. Of the Scottish shales, those 
which produced small amounts of oil were generally those which 
produced the largest yield of ammonium sulphate. From prelimi- 
nary examination of the shales of Colorado and other western states, 
the yield of ammonium sulphate from these sources is independent 
of the yield of oil. In producing ammonium sulphate from the liquor, 
the procedure Is similar to that followed in gas works. The meth- 
ods and apparatus devised by Beilby and Henderson are the most satis- 
factory. In the tower still of Beilby, the ammonia is expelled by raising 
the liquor to the boiling point by means of direct steam. The Henderson 
still effects the same purpose, but with a smaller amount of steam. The 
amnionical vapors are then conducted into what is known as the cracker 
box, which is a vessel containing sulphuric acid. As the absorption is 
usually not complete in the first box, the vapors are passed over into a 
second. The acid used in the first box is usually waste, recovered from 
different steps In the refining of the oil. The second box contains acid 
of 1.4 specific gravity, which insures complete conversion. The first crys- 
tals of ammonium sulphate are large and may be dried by spreading in a 
suitable room; the smaller crystals are dried by means of centrifugal 
machines. The salt obtained is pure enough to be used as a fertilizer. 

QA8 Gas results from the uncondensed portions of the 

vapors. Its composition varies with the nature of 
the material retorted, the design of the retort, the temperature of distil- 
lation, and the efficiency and nature of condensers. An idea of its na- 



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22 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

ture may be had from the following analysis, as given in the "Journ. See 
Ind.," 1897, p. 983: 

Carbon dioxide 22.08 per cent 

Oxygen 1.18 per cent 

Heaivy Hydrocarbons 1.38 per cent 

Carbon Monoxide 9.7.7 per cent 

Methane 3.70 per cent 

Hydrogen 55.56 per cent 

Nitrogen 6.33 per cent 

^ 100.00 per cent 

The high proportion of hydrogen must be attributed to the action of 
steam upon the carbon of the spent shale. A large proportion of nitrogen 
indicates leaks of air admitted into the system. To obtain a maximum 
of heating value, the air admitted should be kept as iittle as possible. 
The greater the amount of nitrogen the lower will be the heating value. 
As the gas produced is used for the partial heating of the retorts, it Is 
necessary to keep its heating value at the maximum point. The hydro- 
carbon vapors may be largely recovered -from the gas by either of two 
methods: a. Absorption by scrubbing with oils; b. Compression accom- 
panied by cooling. 

ECONOMIC For the past three years, J. B. Jones, of the Petrole- 

CONSIDERA- um Engineering Company, Kansas City, Mo. and 

TIONS Tulsa, Oklahoma, has been investigating the deposits 

of oil shale throughout the United States, to deter- 
mine if possible the actual conditions of mining and producing oils from 
shales and whether the industry could be self-supporting and profitable, 
and could at the present time successfully compete with petroleum oils 
produced from wells. By request, he contributes the following: To get 
at the actual facts and to determine as closely as possible the costs of 
mining, reducing the shales, or producing crude oils, and then into what 
quantity and quality of manufactured products they can be converted and 
at what costs, and the value of the resulting products, have been the ob- 
jects sought in the present tests and investigations. In determining these 
facts, many elements must be considered, the same as the many different 
conditions existing in oil fields. The cost of producing crude oil from 
wells varies in nearly every well and positively so in each individual 
field, according to its location, transportation facilities, water supply, 
fuel supply, machine shops, the depth, thickness of sands, saturation or 
porosity of sands, and many other points which must be considered to 
determine the cost per barrel of crude oil. It is well, therefore, to con- 
sider at the outset, that the location and workability of the shale deposit 
is of first and vital importance; its accessibility and nearness to trans- 
portation and whether it is a proper distance from an open market for 
oils. The water supply is vital, also the thickness and trend of the shale 
beds, whether open and exposed for cheap mining or quarrying, or if 
covered with deep over-burden or dipping steeply beneath the surface so 
as to increase the cost of operations as mining progresses. Therefore 
shale oil production becomes primarily a mining industry and a manufac- 
turing one. The most accessible claims are fast increasing in market 
value, and while some remote claims can still be had as low as five dol- 
lars an acre, yet very few desirable locations have sold at less than $25 
to $100 an acre, while many choice groups are firmly held at $500 and up- 
wards an acre. When we consider the enormous oil content of these 
lands and that engineers can sample, measure, and prove up the tonnage, 
and estimate to a certainty that each acre of the choice lands contains 
50,000 barrels and upwards of oil that can be recovered certainly and 
cheaply, and that each ton of oil shale is of much more value and profit 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

than a ton of coal, and as coal in place in the ground sells at from t 
to ten cents a ton. then oil shales are certainly worth as much or i 
per ton and at a valuation of but one cent per ton or one cent per ht 
of oil, they are worth S500 an acre, while a fair valuation of but 
cents a barrel for "oil si place" would make the lands worth $5,00' 
acre. } 

THE The shales in Colorado, Utah and Wyomlng- 

GREEN RIVER found in the middle member of the Green River 
FORMATION mation along the Green River, in Wyoming 

south into Utah and along the White and Gi. 
Rivers and their tributaries in Colorado, and Are available along the • 
ver & Rio Grande Railroad through the Grand River valley. Tl 
streams have cut through from the Book cliffs and eroded deep va\ 
and have left the shales exposed in great open faces lying from 20i 
1,000 feet above the valley floors, giving the easiest means of mining 
shales and using gravity to deliver them to the retorts below the mi 
thus making cheap mining costs. In many places thousands of tons :' 
be blasted from the cliff sides or quarried from open cuts, using st>. 
shovels and tramways to deliver them to the storage bin or direct to 
reduction works. 

GRAND VALLEY These two points and the valleys tributary the: 
AND offer the best possible opening for the industr^ 

DE BEQUE Colorado and owing to the immense and rich \ 

at these points it is doubtful if any other points 
rival them for years. Here are uniform, rich strata from ten up to 1 
feet thick of massive, brown curly shale that produce from 40 up U 
gallons of oil to the ton and hundreds of tests show an average of 5( 
60 gallons to the ton, while there are from 300 to 1,000 feet^ of shales g 
for 20 to 35 gallons to the ton. There are also strata 20 to 40 thic? 
paper shales that mine easier than the massive shales and have an' 
content of 40 to 50 gallons to the^ton. This oil is high in gasoline , 
lubricating oils and averages from 15 to 30 per cent gasoline and tl 
30 to 60 per cent of lubricating oils according to the method of refln? 
and by cracking processes may produce up to 60 per cent gasoline.* 
contains from 1.5 to 2 per cent of high melting point paraflln wax, wl 
the asphaltic residue left from refining the oils, of from four to ei* 
gallons to the ton, is similar to the elaterite and gilsonite that is jnil 
in the Uintah basin and is of more value than ordinary asphalt and b[ 
at $40 to $60 a ton. It contains much valuable dye stuff and rare che 
cals. It is used for paints, varnishes, waterproofing, roofings, flooriif 
and as a substitute for rubber in auto tires, belting, and matting, 
test this district we took many field tests and checked these by tak 
seven samples as cross cuts on the principal vein of the valley, of ab) 
1,000 pounds in each sample from which four hundred pounds aver^ 
sample was run through the retorts. These samples were taken fr 
half a mile to three miles apart and safely represent an average of i 
brown, massive shale of Parachute Creek. The average of these se^ 
samples showed a recovery of 67 gallons of oil to the ton. The lowi 
sample gave 52 gallons and the highest gave 93 gallons, as a result i 
have estimated to be safe that this district will average 56 gallons to t 
ton for the massive or curly brown shales and about 30 gallons for % 
lean or lig%t gray shales, and 45 gallons for the paper shales. The : 
fining record on the Grand Valley oils was exceedingly good and the pn 
ucts all of very high quality. The paraffin wax has a melting point 
135 degrees. The average wax from petroleums has a melting point, 
from 114 to 124 degrees. The higher the melting point the more sale val 
it has. The Grand Valley lubricating oils are especially fine quali 
and were 50 per cent of the crude, of 396 fiash — 475 fire — and with a vi 
cosity of 410 at 100 degrees. 



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23 

;hree 
more 
anrel 
ten 
an 



are 
f Gr- 
and 
rand 
Den- 
hese 
leys 
to 
the 
nes, 
may 
earn 
the 



reto 
^ In 
)ed8 
can 
flfty 
) 90 
) to 
ood 
c of 

oil 
and 
•om 
(ng, gt spring, after we had produced and refined suffl- 

It nt shale oil to have a quantity available for com- 

tiile rcial work, one of our engineers then stationed at 

ght ; a sample of shale motor oil to the lubricating oil 

tied tates government, or purchasing agent of oils for 

Blls he request that the shale oil be subjected to rigid 

mi- lubricating and wearing qualities. This official 

igs, nent departments were too crowded to accept any 

To sted our engineer to submit the oils to the Depart- 

ing ngineering. Experimental Engineering Laboratory, 

out stating that it was fully equipped for such tests. 

*S® a submitted to the Ohio State University labora- 

9^ tests a shale oil lubricating distillate just as it 

''°® Ithout any treatment or finishing and representing 

'®^ le shale oil and showing a low viscosity, being 133 

®^^ . This was tested by the University in competition 

^® lo.'s gas engine cvlinder oil, made from petroleum 

•J® Bity of 374 at 70 degrees. Record as follows: 

:he 

re- 6 make of gas engine cylinder oil u€ed in test 

ad- 

of :y, Baume 24.4 

of 405. 

ue 485. 

Ity Sity at 70 374. 

Is- No. 6 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINE 8 Ql 



26 



oil 
po> 

S\J 
LL1 

thr 

rei 

pre 

pri. 

pre 

as 

8h'< 

ag« 



Gravity, Baume 

Flash 

Fire 

Viscosity at 70. 
Color 



This oil was used on a 12-hour continuous n 
shows the following salient features: 

1. The engine ran for one hour using the petroleu 
12 hours using the shale oil, in each case the 
were 275 and the explosions per minute were 

2» The engine ran coofer using shale oil. 

It required 50 pounds less jacket water per ho 
using shale oil. 
400 pounds of Jacket water, using shale oil, k< 
jacket water from vaporizer at 185, while it to^ 
to keep it at 211 using petroleum (Standard Oi 

3. Engine carried a heavier load using shale oil. 
Net brake load using shale oil was 40 lbs. 
Net brake load using petroleum oil was 38.2 lb 

4. Developed more horse power. 
Brake horse power using shale oil, 6.28. 
Brake horse power using t>etroleum oil, 6. 

6. Mean effective pressure on piston. 

Was less using shale oil, showing less friction 
Mean effective pressure shale oil, 37.80. 
Mean effective pressure petroleum oil, 49. 

6. Mechanical efficiency was better. 
Mechanical efficiency shale oil, 54.5. 
Mechanical efficiency petroleum oil, 52.4. 

7. Engine friction was less. 
Engine friction using shale oil, 4.87. 
Engine friction using petroleum oil, 5.45. 

8. Fuel used (to perform better service) was redu 
using shale oil. 

Fuel used was kerosene; per indicated horse 
sumed 0.5 pounds using the shale oil, while it co 
using petroleum. 



LL 
OI 

Th 
SL 

loi 

th 

an 

pr' 
ga 

Wf 

in 
toi 
an 

m." 

IK 
Vi 
IN 

cr 
le 
bi 
er 
la 
cc 
ti 
si 
hs 

a( 
m 
ai 

Ti 

fc 
r< 
f( 
^ e 
h 
ft 
ii 
a 
n 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

; Per brake horse power, per hour, consumed but 0.9 pounds using shale < 

fand required 1.25 pounds of fuel oil using petroleum, per brake horse , I 

^er, per hour. , ' i 

IMMARY ON The results of these tests prove the superior lubri- 

IBRICATION eating qualities of shale oils, when properly pro- i i 

duced and finished. We have found from many tests < 

it improper temperatures in the retorts and high temperatures in the i 
Ining will ruin the wonderful natural excellence of the shale oils, so 

>per methods and process in reduction and refining are an absolute < 

(me requisite of success and for the successful production of superior ( 

!>ducts. American oil refiners lead the world in results and efficiency : < 

^do American mining engineers and there are no problems in the oil , ^ 

•lie industry that cannot be successfully answered when under the man- § 

ament of trained and competent men. ' £ 



JBRICATING Motor oils or lubricating oils are worth in carload I . 

4.8 lots all the way from 25 up to 60 cents a gallon. The i . 

4e key to average Wholesale price for motor oil in the United ' ! 

JCCESS States is from 30 to 45 cents a gallon. One barrel, j I 

42 gallons, of Colorado shale oil can produce 21 gal- I 

IS of motor oil, and if the shale makes but one barrel of oil to the ton, j 
3 motor oil is worth at 35 cents a gallon, $7.35 from each ton, and as 

■ costs from the mine to the consumer will not exceed $4.00 a ton, a I j 
Dfit of $3.35 a ton would result from the motor oil alone, leaving the 

.soline worth $1.89, ammonium sulphate 80 cents and other products | 

!>rth 99 cents, a total of $7.03 a ton net profit. Many of the good shales { 

: Colorado and Nevada will exceed one barrel of oil to the ton. A 500- ' . 
ji plant should make net profits of $3,500 a day, or $100,000 a month, 
^d this is a very safe and conservative estimate, which under proper 

anagement and process should surely be accomplished. ! 

, i 

J VESTMENT If a company were going into production of crude ' 

|\LUE AND petroleum in the Mid-Continent fields and were to [5 

ICO ME purchase outright their oil production today, it would 

J require, to secure a production of 500 barrels of 

.ude oil daily, with reasonable territory in reserve, an investment of not 

^s than ONE MILLION DOLLARS to secure this production. After 

{lying this production it will constantly settle or grow less and at the 

id of one year be considerably less than now unless you re-invest a 

irge amount in constant and new drilling — at least fifty per cent of in- 

>me must be set aside for operating, drilling and maintaining produc- 

pn, leaving but fifty per cent of income for dividends or surplus. Be- 

,des, in this case the company will not own or operate a refinery and 

^s to take the price paid by the pipe lines for crude olL 

i If you invest a like amount in the shale oil industry, you may now 
bquire your lands with sufficient supply for 100 years or more of raw 
laterial for the production of 500 barrels and upwards daily of crude oil 
nd also build, equip, operate and own a complete reduction works and 
^finery and thereby obtain the wholesale market value of refined oils 
>T an almost permanent industry, with a capacity and output of 500 bar- 
:dls or more daily. The value of the refined products is from three to 
:>ur times the value of crude oil. The complete cost for building and 
iquipping a shale plant will run from $1,000 to $2,000 per ton of shale 
andled accordingly as it is equipped and the complete or Incomplete 6. 

nishing work done on the oils and by-products. A skimming or crack- 
tig plant can be built to make good returns, but it is advisable to build 
{ complete works, equipped for paraffin wax, lubricating oils and ammo- 
ium sulphate, for this will more than double the profits. ' 7. 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 27 

OIL CONTENT The Bureau of Mines of the XI. S. Geological Survey 
PER ACRE — has estimated, and the best history proves that the 

OIL SANDS oil sands of the petroleum producing areas of the 

SHALE LANDS United States have a record of producing an average 
of 3,000 to 5,000 barrels to the acre, while the same 
authorities and the Colorado state authorities estimate the Colorado 
shales will produce upwards of fifty thousand barrels of crude oils to the 
acre. 

An oil shale stratum of twenty feet thick will contain about 43,000 
tons to the acre, thus if only one barrel is produced to the ton it will pro- 
duce eight times as much as an acre of oil sand; but the Colorado beds 
contain parallel strata one above the other, of five to seven veins of 
workable thickness of from seven to fifty* feet thick that will run forty 
sallons and more and from 300 to 500 feet of solid lean shales (richer than 
Scotch shales), that will run thirty gallons to the ton, making a possi- 
bility of recovering several times forty thousand barrels to the acre. 

A COMPLETE Works would consist of: 

SHALE OIL 1. Mining camp, site, and equipment. Bunk houses, 

REDUCTION cook house, blacksmith and machine shop. 

PLANT 2. Shale cutting machines, steam, electric or com- 

pressed air driven drills. Powder house. Tram- 
way for conveying ore to plants. Tools and complete mining equip- 
ment. In some cases, steam shovels. 

3. Rock crushers, to roughly break the shale in chunks one to twelve 
Inches. Fines are eliminated and left as waste in Scotch mines. Ore 
or storage bins located above the retorts and to supply the crushed 
shale by gravity to retorts. 

4. Ovens and retorts, built in benches, usually four ovens to a bench, 
called a unit. Plant site should be selected to provide room for build- 
ing additional units as business expands. Retorts connected to proper 
condensing system to condense the vapors and oils. Also with a com- 
pression or absorption plant to recover gasoline from the gases. 
Scrubbers to remove by-products from gas. 

5. Refining: 

(a) Stills for straight run refining; stills for re-running and finishing; 
stills for cracking gas oil Into synthetic gasoline or motor spirit. 

(b) Storage tanks for crude; run down tanks for various fractions 
and products; storage for refined products. 

(c) Pipe lines from retorts to refinery and from refinery to railroad. 

(d) Agitators and agitator house for acid and soda treatment of oils, 
and washers to remove same from oil. 

(e) Clay burning house, for purifying and renewing the "Kleselguhr" 
or diatomaceous earth used In the stills and filters. 

(f ) Pumping plant for pipe lines, and water supply for retorts and 
refinery, using a large amount of water for condensing and cool- 
ing. 

(g) Wax plant,, coolers, refrigerators, hydraulic and filter presses to 
separate the paraffin wax from the heavy distillate; sweating 
houses for paraffin wax refining. 

(h) Loading racks at railroads, barreling, packing and shipping house, 

carpenters, tool, and repair shop. 
(1) Blectrlc light plant for mines, retorts and refinery; also power 

plant for mining and pumping. 

6. Ammonium sulphate plant. In Scotland, "A three-story high ammo- 
nium sulphate house, with column-stills, acid saturators for the am- 
monia, vacuum evaporator, centrifugal driers, storing bins and grind- 
ing mills, sulphuric acid making plant; acid recovery plant." 

7. Conveyor belts to carry off spent shales to dump below reduction 
works. 



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/ 
28 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

The following contribution to the subject is made, by request, by Otto 
Stalmann, a consulting engineer, of Salt Lake City. Mr. Stalma^n was the 
consulting engineer for a well known prominent firm of Glasgow, Scotland, 
for many years, during which time he directed their mining and oil shale 
interests in all parts of the world. His experience has given him a first 
hand and intimate knowledge of the oil shale industry In Scotland. In 
Salt Lake City he has made extensive tests on shale from Colorado, Utah, 
Nevada, Wyoming, California, and Montana, in lots from five to six hun- 
dred pounds each. 

INTRODUCTION It is a well known fact that for many years the ex- 
ploitation of the oil shale beds in Scotland has fur- 
nished most successful and profitable results. But on that account it is 
not to be assumed that the apparatus used in Scotland and the method of 
treatment in use there must result equally satisfactorily when treating oil 
shale originating in the western states of the United States, as the char- 
acter of these shales, as far as they have come under the writer's obser- 
vation, is different from that exhibited by the Scotch shales. As the met- 
allurgist cannot employ one general method of treatment for all copper 
ores for instance, but must find out and adopt the most suitable method 
of treatment to the particular physical and chemical character of the 
ore, so must the treatment of oil shale be adapted to its particular physi- 
cal and chemical character. The difference in the character of the 
Scotch shales, as compared with that of American shales is to be found 
in the fact that, whereas in the Scotch shales the silica contents are very 
low, if present at all, and the alumina contents correspondingly high, in 
the Western shales silica predominates and the alumina contents are 
correspondingly low, to judge from the results of tests made on a con- 
siderable variety of Western oil shale. It has also been found that, gen- 
erally, the Scotch shales contain considerably more nitrogen than the 
large variety of Western American shales, which have been tested by the 
writer. Whereas in the American shales the quantity of oil that may be 
produced from them is generally large enough to be depended upon for 
satisfactory commercial results, considering the sulphate of ammonium 
product, a welcome by-product only, in most oil shale plants in Scotland 
the latter product is of paramount importance, to make, together with 
the oil product, the operations of the plants remunerative. Some oil 
shale plants in Scotland would even be unremunerative, if they had to 
depend on the yield of oil from the shale alone, the sulphate of ammo- 
nium product being their main dependence for commercial success. It is 
obvious, therefore, that the Scotch plants are designed, having the pro- 
duction of sulphate of ammonium in view as much as, and in some cases 
more than, oil. As these products are formed under different conditions 
of temperature, the apparatus and the method of treatment required must 
be adapted to these different conditions in order to obtain the best possi- 
ble economical results. In Scotch plants, therefore, the construction of 
the distillation apparatus, having a different object in view and working 
under different conditions, is different from the retort that is best suited 
to the character of American shales. But even for the various Western 
American shales modifications in the construction of the retort are re- 
quired for the different characters of shales, their behavior not being 
always the same when subjected to heat and superheated steam, although 
a preliminary examination in the laboratory may not always suggest this. 

RETORTS It has been the object of the Petroleum Engineering 

Company, whose engineers have thoroughly studied 
apparatus and methods of treatment as employed abroad, and who have 
for a long time experimented with many varieties of oil shale in a retort 
of nearly commercial size, holding a charge of about 500 pounds, to con- 
struct a retort which is easily adapted by simple modifications to the 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 29 

Buccesaful and profitable treatment of all the Western oil shales which 
have oome under their observation and the results obtained have fully 
justified their expectation^. The retort, as now constructed, is cast of a 
particular mixture of iron, which has been found to be least affected by 
the consequences of changing temperatures in the retort oven and which 
secures the absence of blow holes and other deleterious defects as much 
as this is possible. The retort has the shape of a frustrum of a cone, 
1 foot 6 inches inside measurement at the top or charging end and 2 feet 
3 inches at the bottom or discharge end, and 18 feet long. The casting 
is 1.6 inches thick. A tuyere box encircles the lower part of the conical 
cylinder to provide for the admission of super heated steam to the 
charges in the retort. The top of the retort connects with a charging hop- 
per, where the charge is stored and at the same time preheated. At the 
bottom of the retort an automatic discharging arrangement is installed, 
consisting essentially of a revolving disk, whereby a regulated continu- 
ous discharge of the spent shale and a continuous movement downward 
of the charge In the retort Is secured. Connected with and operated by 
this automatic discharge apparatus is an arrangement,whereby the charge 
in the retort may be loosened, if it should "clinker" occasionally, and, if 
necessary, it may be operated continuously to agitate the charge, prevent- 
ing it from sintering. The arrangement is such that the top of the charge 
in the retort is always automatically maintained at the same level at 
some distance below the gas exit pipe near the top or charging end of 
the retort to avoid the possibility of carrying over any fine solid material 
with the gas and steam. Charging hopper, retort, and automatic dis- 
charge are so connected that they are hermetically closed and an arrange- 
ment of air tight gates is provided, whereby charging and discharging 
of the retorts takes place without any interruption of the operation and 
without the possibility of air entering the retort or steam or gas escaping 
from it, except through the discharge provided for the latter near the 
top of the retort, whence they are conducted to the condenser. Four of 
these retorts are assembled in one oven and as many ovens as necessary 
to satisfy the desired capacity of a plant are built Into one bench. The 
number of retorts required for a certain daily capacity, depends on the 
time required for the complete distillation of a given oil shale. This may 
vary, according to the writer's experience, from four to eight hours, but 
some shales have been treated In the above mentioned plant, which re- 
quire a much longer time. Shales from Parachute Valley, Colorado, and 
some from Utah and Nevada, require about four hours for their complete 
distillation. A plant of four ovens, or sixteen retorts, would, therefore, 
treat about 150 tons a day. For practical purposes, however, it would be 
safe to depend with such a plant on a dally capacity of 100 tons. The 
retorts are charged by a conveyor which transports the oil shale from the 
storage bin to the charging hopper. The shale, before it reaches the 
storage bins, is broken by a set of "spike rolls", similar to those em- 
ployed for breaking coal. Experience in Scotch plants, confirmed by ex- 
tensive experiments in the small plant mentioned above, has shown that 
more satisfactory results are obtained in the distillation of oil shale, if 
the fine material, say less than 0.25 inch in size, be screened from the 
bulk of the broken shale and the two screened products be treated sepa- 
rately. 

In Scotland the fine material is not sent to the distillation plants for 
treatment as a rule, but is used in the mines for "filling" purposes. The 
separate treatment of the screened products Is aimed at in the plants 
designed by the engineers of the Petroleum E2ngineering Company. The 
shale is broken by the spike rolls to pass a 6-inch screen, hence compara- 
tively small amounts of material less than 0.25 inch in size are obtained 
from the crushing of most shales. The spent shale, discharged by the 
above mentioned automatic discharge arrangement, drops into a storage 
bin situated below the retorts and is thence transported by conveyors 



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30 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

to the waste dump. The steam entering the retorts through the tuyeres 
near their discharge end is taken at low pressure from the boilers, in 
the above mentioned plant, at a pressure of 1.5 pounds per square inch, 
and is super heated during its passage through a series of coiled pipes 
built in the Interior of each oven, before entering the retorts at a temper- 
ature of from 600'' to lOOO"* F., the most suitable temperature depending 
on the character of the shale to be treated. The heat required for the 
operation is supplied by firing the retorts with the gas produced from the 
distillation of the shales. Suitable baffles, built in the interior of the 
ovens, conduct the products of combustion gradually from the bottom of 
the retorts to the top of the oven, where they escape into the chimney, 
llie products of the retorts are hydrocarbon gas, steam with ammonia, 
and spent shale. The latter is free- from oil-producing matter, if the oper- 
ation has been properly conducted, and goes to the waste dump. The 
former products leave the retort together by a branch pipe near their 
top, through which they enter the main gas conduit, common to the gase- 
ous products of all the retorts in the unit, and are conducted to the con- 
denser. 

CONDENSING The usual method in Scotland of the condensation 

PLANT of the gaseous products issuing from the retorts is 

accomplished by passing them through a long and 
extensive series of pipes exposed to the atmosphere, whose temperature 
is depended upon to cool and consequently condense the vapors. The 
quality and uniformity of the condensed product, the distillate, depending 
on a uniformly maintained temperature, it is evident that, on account of 
the constantly changing temperature of the atmosphere, it is impossible 
to maintain the uniform temperature required for the production of dis- 
tillates of good and uniform quality. It is a well known fact that the 
speed of the condensation is not only dependent on the degree of tempera- 
ture, but on contact of the vapors with a cooling surface. In a steady 
flow of the vapors through the series of pipes as ordinarily employed, the 
circumferential part of the vapor column only will be in contact with the 
cooling surface of the pipes, a thorough mixing of the vapors during their 
passage through the pipes, to bring each portion of the vapors in contact 
with the cooling surface of the pipes, being incidental and partial, if it 
takes place at all. Again, a well known fact is that the forceful impinging 
of the vapors against the cooling surfaces facilitates and expedites the 
process of condensation to a considerable degree. In the condensation 
plants as now ordinarily employed, neither the thorough mixing of the 
particles of vapor, nor the great advantage obtained by forceful friction 
and impinging of the vapors against the cooling surfaces, has been made 
use of. To obviate the disadvantages of the condensing apparatus as now 
ordinarily employed for the condensation of the vapors issuing from the 
shale retorts, the writer has constructed a simple and comparatively in- 
expensive condensing arrangement, which, in a modified form has been 
successfully used by him on a commercial scale in the condensation of 
metal fumes. This apparatus secures in an effective, simple, and economi- 
cal manner the three cardinal principles of effective condensation and 
consequently of hydrocarbon vapor condensation, i. e.: 

1. Uniform temperature of the cooling surfaces. 

2. Thorough mixing of the particles of vapor. 

3. Forceful friction caused by the impinging of the vapors to be 
condensed against the cooling surfaces. (U. S. Patent No. 225058.) 

This condensing apparatus consists of an exterior tank, constructed 
of steel plate, ten feet in diameter and. ten feet high for a plant having 
a capacity of 100 tons of shale per 24 hours. Concentrically arranged in 
this tank and resting at Its bottom. Is a series of five circular, so-called, 
water jackets at a radial distance of three inches from each other. In 
this manner these water jackets form six circular spaces, three inches 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 31 

wide and ten feet high each, their respective circular lengths increasing 
as their distance from the center of the tank increases. The water jack- 
ets are provided with suitable openings for the passage of the gas from 
one space to the next, these openings being alternately at the top or at 
the bottom of the jackets. Baffles extending vertically along the whole 
height of the tank are inserted Into each space between the jackets near 
the proper side of the opening to force the passage of the gas continuously 
In one certaih direction. The main gas conduit, carrying the gases from 
the bench of retorts to the condenser, enters the latter through the bot- 
tom of the tank and extends to some distance from the interior top of 
the tank, which is formed of concrete. The gas flows over the top of the 
.main gas conduit and travels, assisted by a fan mentioned below, spirally 
around the open circular space formed by the outside of the vertical main 
gas conduit and the inner wall of the water jacket nearest the center of 
the tank, until it passes through the above mentioned opening at the top 
of the water jacket into the next circular space formed by the outside 
wall of the above mentioned jacket and the inside wall of the next jacket, 
the second from the center of the tank. A baffle, placed vertically near 
the proper side of the opening on top of the first jacket forces the gas 
to travel in the same spiral circular direction as it cfid in the first space, 
until It reaches an opening in the second jacket provided near Its bottom. 
The gas passing through this opening enters the third space formed by 
the outer wall of the second jacket and the inner wall of the third jacket, 
being guided In the same direction as before by a baffle placed vertically 
near the opening in the second jacket. The third jacket has an opening 
at the top, the fourth at the bottom and the fifth again at the top, baffles 
being properly placed in each case to force the passage of the gases in 
a spirally circular manner until the permanent gases finally leave the 
tank near its bottom. The cooling medium, air or water, enters the water 
jacket nearest to the circumference of the tank at the point where the 
permanent gas leaves the tank and is forced to travel in a direction oppo- 
site to that taken by the gas by baffles or a suitable position of the inlet 
and outlet pipes. The cooling medium leaving the first water jacket, 
enters the second jacket at the point where the gas enters the space be- 
tween the two jackets nearest the circumference of the tank, and contin- 
ues to travel In a similar spirally circular manner towards the center 
of the tank through all the water jackets. In this manner, gas and cool- 
ing medium traveling In opposite directions, it Is evident that proportioh- 
ately, as the velocity and the temperature of the gas decreases, the speed 
and temperature of the cooling medium increases and hence the hydro- 
carbons of highest boiling point will be condensed in the space between 
the jackets nearest the center of the tank, where the temperatures of the 
cooling medium is highest and successively gases of lower boiling point 
are condensed as they reach on their way towards the circumference of 
the tank, the spaces between the jackets which contain a cooling medium 
of gradually decreasing temperature. It is obvious that this apparatus 
can be, and in some cases should be, so arranged that the cooling medium 
is either air or some liquid, or partially air and partially liquid. The prod- 
ucts of the condenser are gas, crude oil, and ammonia water, the latter 
two leaving the condenser together from spouts at the bottom of the tank 
leading into the spaces between the water jackets. In this manner six 
classes of oil will issue from the condenser, the classes being distinguished 
by their different boiling points and specific gravity. Each of these classes 
of oil, together with the ammonia water, is transported by short pipe 
lines to individual separators where the ammonia water is separated from 
the cru^e oil. The separators are circular tanks, each four feet in diame- 
ter and six feet high. A vertical partition, reaching from the top of the 
tank to within about six inches from the bottom, separates the tank into 
two unequal compartments, the smaller compartment representing about 
one-tenth of the larger one. Crude oil and ammonia water from the con- 



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32 COLORADO BOHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

denser enter together through the cover on top of the larger compartment 
of the separator, where they segregate according to their specific gravity, 
the water passing under the bottom of the vertical partition Into the 
smaller compartment of the separator. The oil, collecting on top of the 
water leaves the separator through a spout near its upfper rim leading 
into a pipe line, whereby it is conducted to its respective storage tanks 
supplying the refinery. Six storage tanks for crude oil are, therefore, 
required for the crude oil product of the condenser. The ammonia water 
issues through a spout near the top of the tank from the smaller com- 
partment of the separator, to be transported by a pipe line to the storage 
tank for ammonia water for treatment in the sulphate of ammonium 
plant. The permanent gas is withdrawn from the condenser by an ex- 
haust fan, which, being in immediate connection with the closed circuit 
formed by it, condenser, and retorts, facilitates the passage of the gases 
from the retorts through the jnaln gas conduit to the condenser and forces 
them to a scrubber, where any ammonia, still retained in the gas, is ex- 
tracted. 

AMMONIA The scrubber consists of a vertical pipe 24 Inches in 

SCRUBBER diameter and 30 feet high. With exception of the 

PLANT upper and lower parts, four feet long each, the ptpe 

is filled with diamond-shaped wooden baffies, placed 
in alternate layers at a small distance apart from each other, in such a 
manner, that each baffle in a layer covers a corresponding opening in the 
succeeding upper and lower layers of baffies. The permanent gas from 
the condenser enters the pipe column near its bottom and, ascending 
through the layers of baffies, meets a descending spray of water, which 
absorbs any ammonia that may be still left in the permanent gas. The 
resulting ammonia water, which may be re-used for this purpose, leaves 
the pipe column near its bottom by a pipe line, which transports It to 
the storage tank for ammonia water for treatment in the sulphate of 
ammonium precipitating plant. The gas, after ascending over the baffies 
in the pipe column, leaves the latter at its top by a pipe line which con- 
ducts it to the bottom of a similar pipe column, also filled with baffies as 
described. 

GASOLINE The gas, in its ascent over the baffies, meets a spray 

ABSORPTION of oil entering at the top of the pipe column and 

PLANT descending over the baffies towards the bottom of 

the column pipe. The oil used for this purpose is 
specifically heavier than gasoline and absorbs any of the latter that may 
be present in the gas. It has been found that from two to four gallons 
of gasoline may thus be extracted frem the gas per thousand cubic feet 
of the latter, or from four to eight gallons per ton of such western oil 
shales as have come under the writer's observation. The final perma- 
nent gas, deprived of its gasoline, leaves the pipe column at its top and 
is conducted to the gas reservoir, to be eventually made use of as fuel. 
It may be stated here that most western oil shales tested furnish an ex- 
cess of gas over that required for treating them in the retorts. The oil 
charged with the gasolihe absorbed from the gas is then treated in a 
plant the modus operandi of which /has been adopted from a plant de- 
scribed in a bulletin of the U. S. Geological Survey, who have made large 
tests with this plant on a commercial scale for the extraction of gasoline 
from natural gas. This plant, according to the statement of the Geologi- 
cal Survey, has given very satisfactory results and, since it is simple and 
economical as far as installation and operation are concerned, it has been 
adopted here. This plant, adapted to the needs of an oil shale plant of 
one hundred tons daily capacity, operates as follows: The oil, charged 
with the gasoline absorbed from the gas, is first conducted to a horizontal 
so-called weathering tank — an ordinary plate steel cylinder, one foot six 



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COLORADO BCHOOL OF MINEB QUARTERLY. 33 

inches in diameter and twelve feet long. This tank has a relief valve at 
its upper circumference, through which the lighter parts of the gasoline 
escape as vapors, which may be conducted to the gas reservoir. From 
this tank the oil is conducted to a heat exchanger, where it is preheated 
by the hot oil returning from the still, mentioned below, to the absorbing 
tower for re-use. From this heat exchanger the preheated oil, charged 
with the gasoline absorbed from the gas, is conducted to a still operated 
by live steam. Here the gasoline is expelled from the oil, the vapors be- 
ing conducted to a cooler box, where the water is separated from the 
gasoline, the latter going to a condenser, the condensate being ready for 
the market after teatment, eventually, if the quality of the condenser 
product requires it. The hot oil remaining in the still, after having been 
freed from the gasoline, is conducted through the above mentioned heat 
exchanger, where it travels through pipes in the opposite direction to the 
cold oil charged with gasoline, passing to the still, preheating the latter 
liquid. After having transferred the greater part of its heat to the oil 
passing to the still, it is conducted through water-cooled coils to the ab- 
sorption tower for re-use. 

SULPHATE OF The ammonia water coming from the separators, 
AMMONIUM which segregated it from the oil, together eventually 

PLANT with the ammonia water coming from the scrubber, 

is conducted to a column apparatus, where the am- 
monia gas is evaporated. This column apparatus is constructed of ten 
sections of cast iron, twenty-four inches in diameter, twenty-eight feet 
high. The sections are provided with flanges at their ends and bolted 
together to form a vertical column of the size stated. Within this column 
there are seventeen shelves, at equal distances apart, cast in one piece 
with the sections. Three nozzles tapering from 2.5 inch in diameter to 
1.5 inch and 4 inches long, are cast with the shelves. Extending upwards 
and over the shelves a hood or bell is fastened at a distance of about one- 
half inch above the orifice of the nozzles. The bottom of this bell is cut 
out zig-zag shape to a height of two inches in such a manner that the 
lower part of the mantle of the bell represents about one half metal and 
one half opening. A two-ii^ch nipple extends from a point three inches 
above each shelf to a point about three inches below the shelf. At the 
seventh section from the top connections are made with a tank containing 
milk of lime. The ammonia water, after passing through >a heat ex- 
changer, enters the column at the top and remains on the uppermost 
shelf to a depth of three inches, when it overflows into the two-inch 
nipple, which drops It onto the second shelf on which it also remains to 
a depth of three inches, when it passes to the third shelf by overflowing 
into the two-inch nipple which transports it to the fourth shelf and so forth 
over all seventeen shelves, until it passes to the bottom of the column, 
where it issues as waste, after having been deprived of Its ammonia. At the 
seventh shelf from the top a connection is made with the milk of lime 
storage tank, from which such an amount of milk of lime flows into the 
seventh section from the top as has been previously determined by an 
analysis as necessary. Steam enters the column at the bottom and 
ascends through the tapering nozzles, being diverted by the top of the 
bell towards the bottom, where it enters the ammonia water, through the 
zig-zag shaped openings at the bottom of the bell, heating the water and 
driving off the ammonia gas. From the lower section the steam ascends 
to the next upper section through the tapering nozzle, operating in the 
same manner as described from shelf to shelf, until the remainder flnally 
issues, together with the volatilized ammonia, from the top of the column 
into a standard steam separator, where it is separated from the ammonia 
gas, which, by means of a pipe line, is conducted directly to the pecipitat- 
ing tank.* 



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34 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

NOTE: The free ammonia is volatilized only in the upper six sec- 
tions, while from the combined ammonia (ammonium chloride, ammonium 
carbonate, etc.), which is practically always present in the ammonia 
water, the ammonia must be set free by combining its impurities with 
lime. Ammonium chloride for instance, treated with milk of lime, fur- 
nishes calcium chloride, water and ammonia, according to the equation: 
2 (NHJ CI -f CaO =CaCU -f H,0 + 2 NH, 

In a similar manner ammonium carbonate furnishes, in combination 
with lime, calcium carbonate, water, and ammonia, according to the equa- 
tion: 

(NHJ,CO, + CaO = CaCO, + (NHJ, + H,0 

The precipitating tank contains dilute sulphuric acid into which the 
ammonia gas is conducted, combining with the sulphuric acid to form 
sulphate of ammonium, according to the equation: 

H,SO, -f 2(NH^HO) = (NHJ^SO^ -f 2H,0 

The precipitating tank is built of wood and lined with lead. It has 
one sloping side, along which the crystals of sulphate of ammonium are 
removed to a draining floor or they are freed from moisture by a centrifu- 
gal machine. The sulphate of ammonium product is then dried and ready 
for the market. The reaction between the ammonia vapors and the sul- 
phuric acid generates a large amount of heat, which generates steam, 
carrying some ammonia and fine particles of sulphate of ammonium along. 
For this reason, and also for the protection of the workmen, the reaction 
takes place under a bell, the top of which ends in a pipe which is con- 
nected with a trap, separating the particles of sulphate of ammonium 
from the steam, which then enters the heat exchanger, mentioned above, 
to preheat the original ammonia water before it enters the column appa- 
ratus. The economic products of the distillation plant are therefore: 
crude oil, gas, gasoline, and sulphate 6t ammonium. 'The latter two are 
ready for the market, the gas is made use of in the plant as fuel, while 
the crude oil is stored for treatment in the refinery. 

The cost of a plant as outlined above is from $65,000 to $100,000, 
according to local conditions. 

The cost of a 300 tons daily capacity plant for distillation and a 
Wells system refining plant for 400 barrels of crude oil is from $450,000 
to $500,000, according to local conditions. 

Inasmuch as the Wells Oil Refining Process Company has done much 
experimental work in refining crude shale oil, Willet C. Wells, president 
of the company, has, by request, contributed the following: 

MINERAL OILS Mineral oils being tenaceously blended substances 
of wide range of volatility and density, and so sensi- 
tive to the action of heat required to evaporate them, that their e vapori- 
zation, aided by the lavish use of steam, produces gas, that is not condens- 
able at normal temperatures, and carbon (coke) residue. This gas and 
carbon is separated smoke of the overheated material, resulting in greatly 
diminished quantity and quality of valuable products, and necessitating 
wasteful and expensive means to prepare them for use. 

THE WELLS The Wells Process passes a neutral permanent gas 

PROCESS in myriad fine streams through^ a body of heated 

volatile liquid; the gas, previously heated, or heated 
in contact with the liquid, seeks to saturate itself with vapors with avidity 
proportionate with its temperature; the surface of each bubble of gas 
being free surface at which vapors can form within the body of the liquid 
below its boiling point, and where the absorptive properties of the heated 
gas, and the vapor tension of the heated oil, coact to rapidly evolve all of 
the volatile portion of the liquid in vapor at temperatures insufficient to 
change the constitution of any portion thereof; in fact, the sold bltumi- 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 35 

nous residue of evaporated petroJeum or shale oil can be completely dis- 
solved in the distillates therefrom and reproduce the original oil Without 
the loss of one-fourth of one per cent. By passing the thus vapor-loaded 
gas tlirough a largo body of filtering material in the dome of the still, 
globules of unvaporized spray, carried by the steam of bubbling liquids, are 
eliminated. The filtering material, being heated by the vapor-laden gas 
passing through, is of lower temperature than the temperature of the 
vapors that heat it. consequently some of the less volatile portions of 
the vapors are condensed in the filtering material and absorbed and re- 
tained therein until re-evapoated therefrom by the progressively rising 
temperature of the filtering material, thus securing much closer separa- 



CroM Section of a Single Unit — Stalmann Oii Shale Reduction Plant. 

tion of the more volatile from the less volatile portions thereof, resulting 
in greatly increased quantity of gasoline of a given gravity and end point, 
more homogeneous commercial products in general, much better forma- 
tion of wax crystals, and complete separation of the bituminous residue 
from the distillates. The gas, after its load of vapor is condensed there- 
from, repeats its performance in continuous cycle. Thus, by the appli- 
cation of the simplest laws of nature, oils are divided into commercial 
fractions, so perfect in their inherent constitution, that they will repro- 
duce their original state by blending. A large portion of the distillates of 
petroleum or shale oils produced by the Wells Process have, as measured 
by a viscosimeter, greater viscosity than castor oil. By our improve- 
ment in wax presses, the wax is readily expressed from these viscid oils. 

SHALE OIL The writer has twice visited the shale oil refineries 

PRODUCTS in Scotlaud. We have had several barrels of crude 

Scotch siiaJe oil shipped to Columbus, and have in- 
vestigated other foreign shaios, such as New Brunswick, Cuban, and 



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36 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

others. We obtain from one Bample of Grand Valley, Ck>lorado, cmde 
shale oil of 23.3 Be. gravity: 

19% Qasollno, 460 End Point. 

12% Gas Oil. 

60% Lubricating Oil. 395— Flash. 475— Fire. 410 Vis. at 100. 
5% Asphaltlc residue. 
2% Wax. 
2% Loss. 
The lubricating oil produced by the Wells process from these shale 
oils require no chemical treatment to fit them for the market. They are 
superior to petroleum lubricants in adhesiveness and endurance; in im- 
munity to the action of acids, &nd freedom from oxidization in heated con- 
tact with air; and the paraffin wax thus produced is harder and of much 
higher melting point than the paraffin wax from petroleum. The residue 
of petroleum or shale oils, produced by other processes, is carbon (coke). 
The residue of the same oils produced by the Wells Process, of whatever 
dryness, is pitch, wholly soluble in the distillates therefrom. The residue 
of shale oil is superior to asphalt or coal tar pitch in toughness and has 
a greater range of temperature between its melting point and brittle- 
ness. We also have a highly efficient automatically controlled continuous 
process of converting the maximum percentage of the low priced oils, 
between gasoline and lubricating oils, into gasoline, without pressure 
or possibility of burning to the still bottom. 

The following information is contributed, by request, by Joseph Bel- 
lis of Grand Valley, on the oil shales of Parachute Creek. Mr. Bellls has 
given close attention to the matter for several years and is unusually 
well informed on the general and practical phases of the oil shale in- 
dustry: 

PRESENT During the past year many new methods and inven- 

CONDITION OF tlons have been presented for the proper treatment 
THE INDUSTRY of our mammoth bodies of oil shale, but the results 
IN PARACHUTE show that the methods used in the Scotch oil shale 
CREEK, GRAND industry are the most efficient, practical, and reli- 
V ALLEY able when slightly modified to suit conditions of 

our shales. This young industry is afflicted with 
many n^w and varied "processes" presented and vouched for by half-baked 
scientists and promoters. Two plants are planned and probably will be 
installed in Parachute Creek-Grand Valley field before next summer 
(1920). These plants will prove that there is an inexhaustible supply of 
very high-grade oil in our western Colorado oil shales; that it can be 
economically and uniformly distilled into crude oil; that this crude oil 
is superior in quality to any crude oil produced from oil wells; that, 
after being fractionated, more than fifty per cent in volume of this crude 
oil will produce a high-grade lubricating oil, and that without further 
refining this large volume of lubricant, which refiners refer to as "lubri- 
cant stock," will uniformly show a viscosity test of better than 400 at 
100 *" Fahr. This lubricant stock will excel all other known lubricants 
for internal combustion engines, because of its^ tenacious adhesion to 
heated moving polished metal surfaces, its high fire test, its freedom 
from oxidation, in contact with heated air, and its consequent long last- 
ing and superior endurance. The gasoline will also be a high-grade 
product. The paraffin wax is more resistant to heat, to the extent of 
about fifteen degrees, than the best paraffin wax produced from well 
petroleum. The asphaltic residue at the tall end of the refinery, or frac- 
tionation plant, makes an ideal rubber filler, since it is a very unusual 
and exceptional quality of asphalt susceptible to being blended and affili- 
ated in large percentages with vegetable rubber' in the manufacture of 
long life automobile tires and other high-grade rubber goods. Crude 
shale oil sold in the open market is likely to command a price of $5.00 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 87 

a barrel just as soon as Its many superior qualities and products are com- 
mercially established— a condition which is not far distant. It can be 
produced for less than $2.00 a barrel with a 200 ton per day retort plant. 
Such a plant, including an ammonium sulphate and gasoline absorption 
equipment complete, can be installed for one hundred thousand dollars, 
at the present high prices. All estimates are made on shale of a mini- 
mum richness of one barrel (42 gallons) of crude oil per ton of 2,000 
pounds of shale. These retorts, or reduction plants, can be advan- 
tageously installed In units of a capacity of 100 tons per 24 hours. A 
complete Wells refinery will be installed, including the cold storage wax 
plant, which, when complete, will not exceed $350,000 in cost, with a 
capacity for handling 400 barrels of crude shale oil in 24 hours, as soon as 
the two projected retort plants are erected. By "complete refinery" is 
meant a plant that makes the products from crude oil in approximately 
the following percentages: 

Gasoline 25 per cent 

Lubricating oil 60 per cent 

Paraffin Wax 2 per cent 

- , ,, o «^- «««* I Not including the products 

Kerosene or fuel oil 3 per cent \ ^ ^^^ J^^ absorption 

Asphaltlc residue 7 per cent ( j^^^^ 

Loss 3 per cent 

In addition to these products, there will be the ammonium sulphate 
ranging from 20 to 30 pounds to the ton of shale., and about 2,500 cubic 
feet of gas, from which can be extracted from two to three gallons of 
gasoline per 1,000 cubic feet of gas, with sufficient high-grade hydrogen 
gas left over for all fuel requirements in operating the retort and refinery 
plants. These products and average percentages in gallons and pounds 
per barrel and probable wholesale prices are as follows: 

Main Products: 

Gasoline, 25%— 10 gallons at 18c $1.80 

5 gallons reclaimed from gas at 18c 90 



$10.20 



Lubricating oil, 60% — 25 gallons at 30c 

Other Products: 

Paraffin wax (145 M.P.), 6 pounds at 15c $ .90 

Asphaltlc residue — (rubber filler), 20 lb. at 5c 1.00 

Ammonium sulphate — 20 lbs. at 4c 80 

$ 2.70 

$12 90 

Crude shale oil can be fractionated or refined into these products at 
$1.00 a barrel or less, in a plant of a minimum capacity of 400 barrels per 
24 hours. These are the commercial products that will be produced from 
the shales. At some time in the future, many by-products, such as ana- 
line dyes and other commercial commodities may develop, but they have 
not as yet arrived on the scene of action except in laboratory tetsts. 
Under certain conditions, without refining, a very fine fiotation oil can 
be obtained from the shale, but the possible market demand for it in 
volume is too limited and restricted to be regarded as of great commer- 
cial importance at this time. There are no gold, silver, tin, or platinum 
values in any of our shales in paying quantities. This has been checked 
and rechecked. There is no warrant or justification for this claim being 
made, and no excuse for anyone being misled or imposed upon. In re- 
torting or distilling these shales,, there are a few well-known and estab- 
lished facts that should be kept in mind, to-wit: the shale should not be 
crushed, but fed into the retorts as "run-of-mine", except that pieces 



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38 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

larger than about flve-inch cubes must be broken to about this maximum 
size and with the further exception that the '.'fines" less than quarter 
inch mesh in size, will \fe screened off. These "fines" will be a negligible 
quantity — about a half of one per cent. Besides the added expense for 
fine crushing, it would necessitate agitation mechanism in some form. 
It is doubtful if agitation machinery can be devised for durable work in 
varying temperatures of from 400 to 1,000 degrees of heat. A very good 
mining machine was presented for mining the shales, but it cut them 
up into average cubes of half inch and smaller, hence It could not be 
adopted. After many very careful tests and substantiatiop by Scottish 
practice for half a century, it seems to be an established fact that the 
material must be loaded Into the retort "run-of-mine". Also, that wet 
steam must be supplied near the bottom of a vertical retort, imder about 
two pounds pressure, and continuously let off at the top of the retort 
under proper pressure gauge, as the vapors and gases form In the retort 
from the Indirect action of a maximum of 1,000 degrees F^hr. of heat 
upon the shale. These vapors are condensed into crude oil and ammonia 
water and the gas treated in the absorption plant. If desired to carry 
the crude oil by pipe line any great distance, the hot oil and ammonia 
water together can be run probably 15 miles in a buried pipe with proper 
fall and the separation between the oil and water made at the point of 
delivery. The average Parachute shales can be retorted by this method 
in less than five hours with an extraction of 98 per cent or more of 
volatile matter. The consumption of water needed in distillation, is about 
40 gallons to the ton of shale, but a large percentage of this can be re- 
claimed If the crude oil and ammonia water separation is made at the 
retort. The owner of any oil shale property can use, for domestic or man- 
ufacturing purposes, water that is developed by sinking a well on the 
property. A stream may have been adjudicated for Irrigation, but a well 
can be sunk at any point beyond its banks and water pumped from it 
for domestic or manufacturing purposes. The shale oils must be refined 
at low heats, not to exceed 1,000 degrees Fahr., so as to preserve the 
high qualities and consequent large quantity of the lubricating olL 
High-grade lubricants are in demand, and, with the truck and tractor age 
just being ushered in, this demand will increase. Hence the best money- 
making element In our shale will be the large lubricating content that 
win probably bring not lees than 40 cents a gallon f. o. b. cars railroad, 
without further refining, but can be sold at a handsome profit by the shale 
oil refinery for as low a price as fifteen cents per gallon, if such an unu- 
sual and improbable market conditions develop. 

The successful distillation of crude oil from Colorado shales and the 
refining thereof into commercial marketable products is now a proven 
fact. Approximately 200 samples, weighing between 500 and 600 pounds 
each, have been run in a small commercial retorting plant. The crude 
oil produced therefrom was collected and fractionated and then the lubri- 
cant cut of 60 per cent subjected to severe tests under actual working 
conditions. I am fully convinced that the industry has passed the experi- 
mental stage and this present year will see the beginning of the most 
permanent, extensive, and lucrative manufacturing industry that has ever 
been developed in this state. The great money-making element in Colo- 
rado shales is the large percentage of high-grade lubricating oil that can 
be cheaply produced. More than fifty per cent in quantity of the crude 
shale oil can be fractionated into first class lubricants for internal com- 
bustion engines. 

PROCESSES Although at the present time no plants are produc- 

ing shale oil on a regular commercial basis, yet a 
number of different types of retorts have been designed for the produc- 
tion of shale oil. Several of these retorts have been built of the same 
size as the proposed commercial units; others have been made of a size 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 39 

which is not designed as commercial retort but only for the purpose of 
demonstration. Sq^e of these retorts appear to have merit; but others 
seem to be doomed to failure because they fail in correct mechanical 
design and do not follow the fundamental principles of destructive distilla- 
tion. The majority are designed for- the purpose of producing a crude oil 
from shale to be sent to a refinery, but others have been designed with 
the purpose of effecting distillation and refining in one operation. To 
one not personally interested in any particular method of retorting, it 
would appear that the retort with the best chance for success would be 
one patterned after the Scottish retorts, modified to suit our local condi- 
tions. It is not to be understood that the present Scotch retort is perfect, 
but it is one of known capabilities under the conditions existing in the 
Scotch shale industry. Before any retort is adopted, it should be thor- 
oughly tried out. A shale plant, to be successful, involves & large expend- 
iture, and any mistake made in the design of its most important part, the 
retort, may be disastrous. 

Some of the processes which have been advanced and the companies 
interested in them are given in the following list: 

1. Crane Process — Crane Shale Corporation, Elko, Nevada. 

2. Erickson Process— Rainbow Petroleum Products Co., Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 

3. J. B. Jenson Eduction Process — C. B. Stewart, 806 Mclntyre Bldg., 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

4. Pearse Process — ^Arthur L. Pearse and Co., 50 East 42nd St., New 
York City, N. Y. 

5. Pumpherston or "Scotch" Process — Glasgow, Scotland. 

6. Scott Process — Detroit Testing Laboratory, 674 Woodward Ave., 
Detroit, Mich. 

7. Stalmann Process — Otto Stalmann, 521 Atlas Block, Salt XAke 
City, Utah; or Petroleum Etagineering Co., 420 Dwight Bldg., Kan- 
sas City, Mo. 

8. Wallace Process — George W. Wallace, Consulting Engineer, East 
St. Louis, Mo. 

9. Wingett Process — ^American Shale Refining Co., First National 
Bank Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

10. Chew Process— National Shale Oil Co., 1530 Welton St., Denver, 
Colo. 

11. Galloupe Process — J. H. Galloupe, 1101 19th St., Denver, Colo. 

12. Simpson Process — Louis Simpson, 172 O'Connor St., Ottawa, Can. 

13. Prichard Process— Dr. Thomas W. Prichard, 52 East 41st St., New 
York, N. Y. 

14. Bishop Process — James A. Bishop, 1526 N. LaSalle St., Chicago, 
111. 

15. Brouder Process — Clark, Long & Co., 50 E. 42nd St, New York, 
N. Y. 

16. Catlin Process — R. M. Catlin, Franklin Furnace, New Jersey. 

17. Del Monte Process — C. A. Prevost, 814 Southern Bldg., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

ESTIMATED The cost of a distillation plant with all accessories 

COST OF of a capacity of 100 tons of shale a day is estimated 

DISTILLATION at from $65,000 to $100,000, according to local condi- 
AND REFINING tions. If proper plans were made in advance for 
PLANTS enlargement additional units oould be erected at 

about one-half the cost of the original unit. The cost 
of a Wells Refining plant with a daily capacity of 400 barrels, to include 
^ sulphate of ammonium and gasoline absorption plant, would cost from 
1300,000 to $350,000, according to local conditions. 



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40 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY, 

ESTIMATED The following estimate of the cost of producing 

COST OF crude shale oil without refining (s hased on a plant 

MINING AND of 400 tons daily capacity. Cost per ton: 

RETORTING Mining $1.25 

Breaking or coarse crushing 10 

Retorting 35 

Ix)adlng and shipping 05 

Amortization, Interest, and overhead expenses 10 

$1.85 

These costs for mining and retorting are estimated on the basis of 42 
gallons to the ton of shale, but there are several available, workable 
strata in the I^rachute Valley that will produce from 50 to 100 per cent 
more. Consequently, in practice, these costs per barrel of crude oil pro- 
duced may be considerably reduced. 

ESTIMATED The following estimate of the mining, retorting, 

COST OF MINING, and refining is also based upon oil shale producing 

RETORTING a barrel of shale oil (42 gallons) to the ton of shale 

AND REFINING in a plant treating 400 tons a day. 

Cost per ton: 

Mining .$1.25 

Breaking or coarse crushing 10 

Retorting 35 

Refining by the Wells Process 42 

Piping, loading, and shipping 10 

Amortization of plant equipment. 05 

Interest on investment 05 

Overhead expenses 25 

$2.57 



Opinions 

Van H. Manning, Director "The question Is being asked dally what this 
United States Bureau of country is going to do when our petroleum re- 
Mines, Bureau of Mines sources are exhausted. We have as yet un- 
Yearboolc, 1917. touched our great reserves of shale that con- 

tain oil. These shales are found in many parts 
of the United States, and tremendous reserves are known in Colorado. 
Utah, and Wyoming. Some of our shales are much richer than the Scotch 
shales, and are conservatively estimated to contain many times the 
amount of oil that has been or will have been produced from all the por- 
ous formations In this country. 

"To obtain the oil from oil shale it is necessary to heat the shale 
in great retorts. The oil is the result of destructive distillation and is 
driven off in the form of vapor and is later condensed by cooling. As 
stated above, this process has never been used in this country because 
of the lack of necessity, for our oil reserves are great, and it would not 
be commercially economical to invest money In retorts for distilling oil 
from shale that would have to compete with the crude oil obtained by 
other methods. But this condition will not last forever. In fact, it is 
thought that it will be only a very short time until the oil shale induBtxy 
will be one of magnitude." 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 41 

"Investigation of O i i "During the year the Bureau of Mines has been 
Shaies/' Seventh Annuai particularly Interested in the vast deposits of 
Report of the Bureau of oil shales in Colorado and Utah that have been 
Mines, Van l-l. Manning, disclosed by the field investigations of the Geo- 
Director, to the Secre- logical Survey. Because of the threatened 
tary of the Interior, for shortage of petroleum from oil fields in the 
the Fiscal Year Ended future, these shales are considered to be the 
June 30, 1917. principal reserve in this country for the future 

supply of gasoline and other petroleum prod- 
ucts. Consequently, much attention has been given to preliminary in- 
vestigations of the richness of the shales, and a detailed study is being 
made of the best methods of obtaining oil from the shales, the character 
of the shale oils and the proportions of the various oil products and by- 
products obtainable by different methods of distillation. The investiga- 
tions made lead to the belief that it is now commercially feasible to 
work selected deposits of shale in competition with oil from oil wells, and 
that these oil shale reserves can be considered of immediate importance 
to the oil industry. Several commercial plants for mining and treating 
the shale have been planned and the Bureau of Mines will closely follow 
the developments. It is believed these investigations have already dem- 
onstrated a reserve of oil adequate for all future needs of the Navy." 

Frani<lin K. Lane, Secre- Mr. Lane said, in reply to a Senate resolution 
tary of the Interior. regarding gasoline, and referring to the shale' 

beds of the country: "The development of this 
enormous reserve simply awaits the time when the price of gasoline or 
the demand for other distillation products warrants the utilization of this 
substitute source. This may happen in the future. At all events these 
shales are likely to be drawn upon long before the exhaustion of the 
petroleum fields." 

Waiter Ciark Teagle, "The total number of wells completed in the 
President Standard Oli United States in the first eleven months of this 
Company of New Jersey, year (1917) was 21,302. Of the completed 

wells the total number that produced oil was 
15,205. There was an increase in total production from all wells this 
year over last. The total production of petroleum in all parts of the 
country in the first ten months was about 272,000,000 barrels. The pro- 
duction for the eleven months is accordingly almost equal to the total 
yield for the twelve months of 1916, but that has not been sufilcient to 
meet the demands of the refineries, for about 16,000,000 barrels have 
been taken from stock so far this year to supply the refiners. The stock 
of crude, accordingly, has decreased both in 1916 and in the present year. 
The total stock of crude on January 1, 1916, was 198,000,000 barrels, in- 
cluding storage of crude held in private tank farms and leases. On No- 
vember 1, 1917, it was approximately something over 158,000,000 barrels, 
or less than one-half a year's yield of crude. 

George Otis Smith, Di- ''It is true that the Government, and particu- 
rector, U. 8. Qeoiogicai larly the Geological Survey, has spent consid- 
Survey, In a Letter to erable time and money in the last few years 
Congressman E. T. Tay- in a study of the oil shale deposits. As a re- 
lor, September 8, 1917. suit of the field examinations made from 1913 
to 1916, it has been clearly demonstrated that 
the latent potentiality of the oil shale of this region as a source of petro- 
leum is enormous. It, is also known that there is locked up in these 
shales a vast amount of nitrogen which can be recovered as a by-product 
in the refining of the shale and used in the manufacture of fertilizers 
and explosives." 



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42 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

Extract from Letter "The day that some company undertaking the 
from George Otis Smith, production of oil through the distillation of oil 
Director, United States shales in this country proves, through actual 
Geological Survey, De- practice, that oil may be produced successfully 
cember 19, 1918. and continuously on a commercial scale at its 

plant, a new page will be turned in the indus- 
trial history of the United States. The significance of the first genuine 
production at a profit is hardly likely to be over-estimated. Such a dem- 
onstration will tend to limit maximum petroleum prices In competing 
areas and to reassure the American Republic as to its oil supplies. 

"These circumstances justify the Interest displayed by the public as 
well as by the companies that are honestly undertaking the task of de- 
signing and constructing plants while the industry is yet in its experi- 
mental and, therefore, uncertain stages. As soon as the oil is produced 
successfully on a cemmercial scale, the industry is destined to expand 
rapidly, unless interfered with by the discovery of an important oil field 
between the Rockies and the Sierra-Nevada-Cascade Range barrier. Its 
normal expansion, however, will probably not be so rapid as to affect pe- 
troleum prices especially. 

"Although the conditions of shale mining in northwestern Colorado 
and northeastern Utah are in general widely different from those in Scot- 
land and France and to a certain exent from those in Australia, and 
though the composition of the Green River oil shales undoubtedly differs 
'somewhat from the Old World deposits, much should be gained by the 
utilization of the experience and methods of those who have long been 
engaged in the industry with financial success. In the attack on the 
technological questions of oil extraction, the United States Bureau of 
Mines is extending constructive cooperation as well as cordial interest. 

"Notwithstanding the work done over sixty years ago in the distilla- 
tion of shales and coal, the proposition of producing oil on a lar?e scale 
by shale distillation is in fact essentiallv new in this country. The nrob- 
lem is bound to attract more attention as the demand for petroleum con- 
tinues to gain on the supply from wells in the United States. 

"The generously encovraeing attitude of the federal Government and 
of the states toward the establishment of new industries, and esnecially 
toward the development of mineral deposits, n^akes possible the pernetra- 
tion of numerous frauds under guise of oil shale promotion. It is the 
duty of officers like yourself, who are on the ground and who are In a 
position to gather knowled&:e enabling you to discriminate betwpen the 
fraudulent promoter, on the one hand, and the honest experimenter and 
developer, on the other, to expose the frauds and put in motion the ma- 
chinery which, under state and Federal laws is, in many cases at least, 
sufficient to put an end to srch business. On the other hav^d. it is as 
important that honest, well-organized companies, with promisin? plans 
and methods, should be helped by all wise and legitimate means." 

"The investigation with 'The investigation, with maipping, of the oil 
Mapping of tlie Deposits shale in the West, begun by the Geological 
of Oil Sliale In the Survey in 1913, lareely as a measure of pre- 
Wcst," Thirty-Ninth An- paredness, has yielded a volume of information 
nuai Report of the Di- as to the distribution, richness, character, com- 
rector of the United position, and possibilities of these shales which 
States Qeoiogicai Sur- is now proving invaluable in the foundation of 
vey, George Otis Smith, a new industrv that is sooner or la*er ♦o >>e of 
Director, to the Secretary very great econoiric importance to the countrv. 
of the Interior, for the The many experimental Plants now «n onera- 
Fiscai Year Ended June tion or under constP'cMon ^or prod"c'"*? oil 
30, 1918. from these shades for commercial '-s** «ho"ld 

soon demonstrate whether, as was ^^▼'-pcted, 
the moment has alreadv arrived when the prod* ctlon o^ p>^pV o'' •^ill 
not only regulate the price of gasoline, but will assure an ain^o^* -mim- 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINEB QUARTERLY, 48 

ited supply of that essential fuel. Conservative estimates of the quantity 
of crude oil that may be recovered from beds of shale three feet or more 
in thickness and capable of yielding twenty^flve gallons or more of oil 
to the ton of shale (some beds wiH yield as high as seventy gallons) in- 
dicate that the shales of northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah 
alone can produce over ten times as much oil as has been recovered from 
oil wells in the United States since the first commercial oil well was 
drilled in Pennsylvania in 1859. What the full possibilities of these 
shales may be in the way of by-products other than gasoline remains to 
be seen. It is not impossible that new products or preparations yet to be 
discovered in the experimental laboratory may be of signal importance 
to the country and may radically affect the commercial success of the 
industry. The tests already made indicate that the shales will furnish 
material for dyes, fertilizers, rubber substitutes, paving materials, drugs 
and lubricants." 

''Development of Oil "Granted the utmost in the development and 
Shales" — "Petroleum, a use of the remaining supply of petroleum, eco- 
Resource Interpreta- nomic pressure from oil shortage will still b^ 
tlon/' by Chester Q. Oil- not far distant. Attention turns, therefore, to 
bert and Joseph E. sources of supply other than the porous rocks 
Pogue, Smithsonian In- of oil fields thus far exclusively exploited in 
stitution, Unlt^ed States this country. It is of great significance, there- 
National Museum, Bulle- fore, that within the past five years geological 
tin 102, Part 6, 1918. explorations on the part of the United States 

Geological Survey have definitely established 
the existence of vast areas of black shale in Utah, Colorado and Wyoming, 
much of it capable of yielding upon distillation around fifty gallons of oil, 
3,000 cubic feet of gas, and seventeen pounds of ammonium sulphate — 
the whole constituting an oil reserve aggregating many times the orig- 
inal supply of petroleum." 

'The Oil Shale Areas," "These shale areas will be developed in time 
D o r 8 e y Hager, "The on as safe and sane a basis as our coal mines 
Search for New Oil of today. When that time arrives, the remains 
fields In the United of oil prospecting will have fied and the whole 
States," Engineering and complexion of oil production will change. It 
IMinIng Journal, New will, literally, be oil mining with steam shovels 
York City, January 5, in open pits and glory holes; and, later, tunnels 
1919. and adits. There will be no lack of oil prod- 

ucts for several generations to come, but the 
true oil fields of today will probably disappear within another generation 
and be replaced by oil mines." 

"Billions of Barrels of "Ts the United States facing a gasoline famine? 
Oil Locked up In Rocks," Shall we be required to forego automobiling 
by Guy Elliott Mitchell^ except to meet the stem necessities of war 
of the United States and of utilitarian traffic? Are our petroleum 
Geological Survey, ip the fields showing signs of exhaustion? 
National Geooraphlo "The output of petroleum has not yet be- 

Mn'^azlne for February, gun to diminish; statistics show that it is still 
1918. increasing; yet the downward trend of produc- 

tion from the present oil fields is plainly in sight. 

"The war has made a sudden and enormously increasing demand on 
the oil fields of America, and though the industry has never been so 
feverishly active as it is now and the output never so large, the truth 
is that the demand has not been entirely met. And during the next year 
and as long as the war lasts the demand will be ever increasing, ever 
more pressing. 

"Many of the host of larger vessels that we are now building will be 
equipped with oil-burning furnaces, and the vast swarm of airplanes that 



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44 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

we are building, as well as the thousands of war automobiles and trucks 
that we are turning out, will consume an enormous quantity of gasoline. 
Tet no great new oil regions comparable with the mid-continent or Cali- 
fornia fields are being discovered, and it is questionable whether any will 
be, for our oil geologists have pretty thoroughly ccMnbed the accessible 
oil areas. What then, is the answer? 

"It is Just at this juncture that we have made a discovery that has 
disclosed what Is undoubtedly one of our greatest mineral resources- 
one that should supply the needs of the war, and that for generations to 
come will enable the United States to maintain its supremacy over the 
rest of the world as a producer of crude oil and gasoline and Incidentally 
of ammonia as a highly valuable by-product. We have discovered that 
we possess mountain ranges of rock that will yield billions of barrels 
of oil. 

"For many years travelers going west through the Grand River 
Valley of Colorado and into the great Uintah Basin of eastern Utah have 
looked from the windows of their Pullman cars on the far-stretching miles 
and miles of the Book Cliff Mountains, little realizing that in these and 
adjoining mountains, plainly exposed to view, lay the greatest oil reser- 
voir in the country — ^the oil shales of Colorado, Utah, Wyoming and Ne- 
vada. 

"These shales, it is true, were known to yield oil. Campers and 
hunters In building fires against pieces of the rock had been surprised to 
find that they ignited and burned, and Investigation showed that they 
contained oil. This fact was looked upon, however, as only another of 
the natural curiosities of the great West and little or no attention was 
paid to it because of the seemingly Inexhaustible pools of crude petro- 
leum found elsewhere under great areas. 

"In connection with Its Investigations of the undeveloped mineral 
resources of the country the United States Geological Survey has re- 
cently made special studies and tests of these oil rocks and has brought 
to light two important facts: First, that our Western shales are phenom- 
enally rich in oil, and, second, that In foreign countries, particularly Scot- 
land, much inferior shales are today successfully mined and worked as a 
source of oil and other commercial products. The industry In Scotland 
is seventy years old and is still in a highly flourishing condition." 

"A Vast Reserve of Ofl/' "Moses performed a miracle, in the eyes of the 
by Robert Q. Skerrett, children of Israel, when he tapped the rocks 
\n "Munsey," February, of Kadesh for water. But our scientists, to the 
1919. automotive world, have achieved a far greater 

wonder, for they have discovered where we 
can draw an almost boundless measure of oil from stone. 

"Strange as it may seem, this hitherto untouched source of supply 
is not hidden far beneath our feet, but rises high above our heads In tow- 
ering mountain formations. In the past, we have drilled into the bowels 
of the earth to tap rich subterranean stores of petroleum. These hidden 
reservoirs are not inexhaustible; indeed, many authorities declare that 
our great and steadily increasing rate of consumption threatens to ex- 
ceed the available supply within a comparatively few years. When that 
happens, kerosene and gasoline may become dearer but we shall not have 
to do without them. We can push confidently into the hillsides, knowing 
that we shall strike oil — not in the form of an oleaginous gusher or flood, 
but in the shape of a solid substance, susceptible, when suitably treated, 
of giving an abundance of liquid fuel, motor spirit, and a variety of valu- 
able by-products. The United States is fortunate in possessing far-flung 
strata of oil shales which bulk all the way from outcropping ledges to the 
dignity of veritable mountains." 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 46 

Oil Consumption "California crude stock is the lowest in years. 
Exceeds Production — Reduction of crude-oil stocks in California to 
Petroleum, January, 1918 slightly less than 34,000,000 barrels, the small- 
est in more than six and one-fialf years, empha- 
sizes the strength of the oil situation on the Pacific Coast. Several mil- 
lion barrels are regarded- as unavailable for use, so actual surplus is 
smaller than appears.. Consumption of crude oil by Pacific Coast refin- 
eries has been exceeding production at rate of about 1,000,000 barrels a 
month the last year or so. In twenty-two months California stocks of oil 
in storage and above ground have been depleted by over 23,000,000 
barrels." 

Dean E. Winchester, "In Colorado alone there is sufficient shale, in 
U. 8. Qeologlcal Survey, beds that are three feet or more thick and ca- 
Bulletin 641-F, Page 141. pable of yielding more oil than the average 

shale now mined in Scotland, to yield about 
20,000,000,000 barrels of crude oil; from which 2,000,000,000 barrels of gas- 
oline may be extracted by ordinary methods of refining, and in Utah 
there is probably an equal amount of shale Just as rich. The same shale 
in Colorado, in addition to the oil, should produce, with but little added 
cost; about 300,000,000 tons of ammonium sulphate, a compound espe- 
cially valuable as a fertilizer. The industry requires a large equipment 
of retorts, condensers, and oil refineries, as well as of mining machinery, 
so that it cannot be profitably handled on a small scale." 

Professor Charles Bask- "The development of the Scotch shale oil In- 
ervllle, College of the dustry has been carried out with skill and en- 
City of New York, EngK ergy, and it is to be regretted that the industry 
neering and Mining Jour- has not met with the entire commercial suc- 
nal, July 24, 1909, P. ISO. cess it well deserves. Elver since 1850, it has 
only been by skilful management and the con- 
stant and intelligent application of science to the improvement of pro- 
cesses and to the utilization of waste products that the oil manufacturers 
of Scotland have been able to hold ^heir own. The success of the com- 
panies now in operation, however, is shown by the following list of divi- 
dends paid annually: 1904-1907, Young's, 6 per cent; Oakbank, 15 per 
cent; Broxburn, 15 per cent; Pumpherston, 20, 30 and 50 per cent; Dal- 
meny, 10 and 25 per cent, and in 1906-1907, nil." 

SIGNIFICANT Oil shale land is primarily acquired from the govern- 

FEATURES ment under the Federal mining laws governing placer 

mining claims. At the present time, however, all 
shale land advantageously situated has been filed on and is owned by 
individuals or corporations. 

Oil shale itself varies greatly in different localities and in different 
strata in the same locality. 

The oil shale industry is a comprehensive one and embraces features 
of mining, shale reduction, mechanical engineering, oil refining, applied 
chemistry, and the business involved in marketing the products. 

Little manual labor is required as aui.omatic machinery does the 
bulk of the work. 

Variation in the estimated cost of producing crude shale oil is caused 
by the exclusion or inclusion, in the estimate, of the by-products in the 
retorting, like ammonium sulphate. Another cause of difference is the 
high or low estimate of the amount of shale oil that can be extracted 
from each ton of shale. Inasmuch as there is known to exist in the 
De Beque-Parachute district a large commercial supply of shale that will 
produce a barrel of crude oil — 42 gallons — ^to the ton of shale and such 
shale deposits have the economic advantages of altitude, nearness to 
water, accessibility, and proximity to transportation, one is on a safe. 



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46 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 

conservative basis to estimate a barrel of oil to a ton of shale. The 
amount of shale of this grade now available will last for many years. 

The early success of the industry will depend upon the cost of pro- 
duction and marketability of its main products — not upon its by-products 
— no matter how fascinating these by-products may now appear. 

Black powder is more efficient in mining shale than dynamite. 

Some shales contain sulphur and hence produce an inferior grade 
of oil, but the Colorado shales are free from sulphur and produce a high 
grade of crude oil easily amenable to refining. 

Gasoline from Colorado oil shale does not become dark, off color, or 
otherwise deteriorated by standing. Samples refined l\y the Wells process 
are known to have kept their color for more than a year. 

Crude shale oil is a manufactured oil and consequently can be kept 
virtually free from impurities. Tests thus far made indicate that the 
great majority of shale oils produced, and all those made from Colorado 
shale, when made under proper conditions^ are of a quality greatly 
superior to the oil produced from wells. The quality of oils produced 
from wells varies considerably. Impurities that prove injurious to the 
quality of the oil are present, to a greater or less extent, in almost all 
well oils. The majority of shales do not contain impurities to such a 
degree as to affect the quality of the oil produced. Kerogen, the oil 
producing matter, and hydrogen (present in the natural state of the 
shale and added in the process of distillation), are, as a rule, the only 
constituents which form the oil. These constituents make a virtually 
perfect oil. 

The oil produced from 4.44 tons of ^hale (42 gallons to the ton) is 
equivalent to the heat effect of one ton of coal of 11,000 calorific value. 

The heat value of 2.41 tons of oil shale (42 gallons of oil to the ton) 
is equivalent to the heat value of one ton of coal of 11,000 calorific value. 

Colorado massive shale will average 18 cubic feet to the ton; when 
broken, 30 cubic feet in volume to the ton. 

A ton of shale (42 gallons) will produce 2,500 cubic feet of gas. A 
400-ton plant would therefore produce daily 800,000 cubic feet of gas. 
Ninety-four pounds of coal are equivalent to 1,000 cubic feet of gas. 
Consequently the 800,000 cubic feet of gas produced dally by a 400-ton 
distillation plant would be equivalent to 75,200 pounds of coal, or 37.6 
tons. 

The minimum capacity of a distillation or retorting plant to include 
crushing, retorting, gasoline absorption, and ammonium sulphate units, 
should be 100 tons daily, provided the distillation required not more than 
six hours, or at least four charges made daily. The cost of such a plant 
would be approximately $100,000. Additional 100-ton units could be 
installed for $50,000 each. These estimates are made lor retorts which 
have a capacity of 1.5 tons to the charge. ■ From five to six charges can 
be made daily, resulting in a daily capacity of from 7.5 to 9 tons a day. 
A bank of 16 retorts would have a theoretical capacity of from 120 to 144 
tons a day. However, in order to allow for accidents and delays a bank 
of 16 retorts is roughly assumed to be of 100 tons daily capacity. A 100- 
ton plant should be regarded as only a starter. Four hundred tons 
should be regarded as a minimum size for continuous commercial opera- 
tion. 

The minimum size for a refinery, to include a paraffin wax plant, 
should be 400 barrels daily, and would cost approximately $350,000. This 
also should be regarded as only a starter. A refinery of 1,000 barrels 
daily capacity should be regarded as the minimum daily capacity for 
continuous commercial operations. One refinery in the De Beque-Para- 
chute district would fill the needs of several distillation plants. 

At Tulsa, Oklahoma, the cost of refining is 38 cents a barrel in the 
Cosden & Company plant of 40,000 barrels daily capacity. In a two 



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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 47 

months' test run by the Wells process at this plant the cost was 27 cents 
a barrel. 

A plot of ground 200 by 300 feet is sufficient for a distillation plant 
of 400 tons daily capacity. 

Only about 60 per cent of the gas produced would be needed to sup- 
ply power for the distillation and refinery plants. The remainder, 40 per 
cent, would be available for other purposes. 

Kerogen — the oil producing ingredient in oil shale — contains plenty 
of carbon but little hydrogen. The introduction of steam in the distilla- 
tion process supplies the hydrogen necessary. On most shales, tests 
with and without steam have shown a greater production of oil with the 
use of steam than without it, and a greatly superior quality of crude oil. 

Ore is crushed, but shale should be broken. This is accomplished in 
Scotland by the use of spiked rolls. Spikes 2.5 inches at the base and 
3 inches long are arranged spirally in rolls und are removable. In Scot- 
land all shale smaller than one inch is left in the mine. Colorado shale 
breaks well. 

Sticking of shale in the retort, in some cases, causes serious trouble. 
Tests show that if the temperature is kept below 850** sticking does not 
occur in Colorado shales, but they do stick if the temperature goes above 
that point. Samples of Nevada and Utah shales have been tried that do 
not stick up to 1,200®. Mixtures of Nevada and Colorado shale seemingly 
do not stick. In Parachute Creek the black, rich streak sticks at 850®, 
but if mixed with poorer shale (35 to 40 gallons to the ton) in the pro- 
portion of 100 pounds of the poorer to 400 pounds of the richer the 
product does not stick below 1,000®. However, sticking is prevented by 
the introduction of steam, provided the steam is Injected early enough 
in the process. 

Crude petroleum from wells varies widely in different fields. Crude 
shale oil is virtually a manufactured article. It may oe spoiled, in the 
manufacture, for refining into valuable products. Alpo, good shale oil 
may be subjected to an inefficient method of refining and become com- 
mercially unprofitable. 

In Scotland two men working together produce 8 tons (2,240 lbs.) a 
day at a cost of 5 shillings, or $1.25 a ton. Reduced to a ton of 2,000 lbs. 
this would be $1.11 a ton. The Scotch miner works on a seam only, 6 or 
7 feet thick, hundreds of feet below the surface under unfavorable condi- 
tions. If the Scotch miner, under unfavorable conditions, can mine four 
tons of shale, certainly the American miner in our shale beds so easily 
worked can produce twice that amount. It is certain, then, that our esti- 
mate of $1.25 a ton for mining is large enough and in practice will surely 
be reduced. 

The quantity and quality of oil that can be produced is variable, 
according to the skill and intelligence of the operator, the method used, 
the type of retort, the rate of heating, the amount of heat applied, the 
introduction of steam and many other details. In short, oil produced from 
shale may or may not show good results, from no fault of the shale. 
Good shale, subjected to poor methods, may give oil that fails to yield to 
refining. Hence follows confiicting opinions as to the character of the 
shale oil produced and the results from refining. Retorting shale and 
refining oil are not "fool proof" processes. 

A frequent distinction is made between American and Scottish shale, 
as if there were only two varieties— one American and one Scotch. It 
should be clearly understood that there is a great variety of American 
shales — as great a difference between them as between any one and the 
Scotch shale. Hence even varieties of American shale may require dif- 
ferent forms of treatment. 

In Colorado alone the available oil from shale is conservatively esti- 
mated at 58,080,000,000 barrels. To produce this would require the work 
of 100 plants each producing 2,000 barrels daily for 800 years. 



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48 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES QUARTERLY. 



Summary 



1. The oil shale industry has reached its greatest development in 
Scotland, where it was established in 185Q. Next in importance comes 
France and then New South Wales. 

2. In Scotland the technical and chemical problems of the industry 
have been carefully solved and, on the whole, the industry has been com- 
mercially profitable. 

3. The Scotch shale beds are comparatively thin, irregular, steeply 
inclined, deep, and expensive to work. 

4. The oil content of the Scotch shales is now much less than 
formerly and the shale could not be worked profitably if it were not for 
the ammonium sulphate produced as a by-product. 

5. The increased demand for petroleum, the exhaustion of produc- 
ing wells in the near future, and the enhanced price will result in com- 
petitive shale oil, produced from an inexhaustible supply of shale by cheap 
mining, efficient retorting and distillation. 

6. The oil shale industry is not, in ordinary parlance, "a poor man's 
game". The technical and chemical problems are numerous and require 
a high grade of scientific ability for their solution. 

7. A plant of 400 tons daily capacity is as small as can be operated 
permanently and successfully, as the profits will depend chiefiy on the 
large tonnage handled. In this respect the oil shale industry bears the 
same relation to oil that Utah Copper and the other copper porphyries 
bear to copper. 

8. An investment of $500,000 is as small as can be safely counted 
upon to make a single project successful. 

9. Labor is cheaper in Scotland than in the United States; the 
Scotch shale produces more ammonium sulphate than the Colorado shale. 
These are the only factors favorable to the Scotch shale; all other ele- 
ments that enter are distinctly in favor of Colorado shale^ 

10. The favorable features in the oil shale industry in Colorado are: 
.a. The enormous extent of the deposits. 

b. The great thickness both of the medium and high grade shale. 

c. The horizontal position of the strata and their height above the 
level of the creeks — a combination that affords cheap mining. 

d. Adequate water supply for the condensing and cooling systems 
of both the distilling and refining plants. 

e. Accessibility and nearness to railroads and markets. 

f. The great richness of the shale. 

These features combine to make the oil shale deposits of Colorado 
the most valuable deposit of their kind in the world. 

In the minds of those men who are best informed on the technical and 
business phases of the oil shale industry, it has passed the experimental 
stage and "has arrived". 



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