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Full text of "The Quarterly journal of the University of North Dakota, Volume 1"

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The 
Quarterly Journal 

of the 
University of North Dakota 



VOLUME ONE 
1910-1911 



PUBLISHT BY THE UNIVERSITY 



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The 
Quarterly Journal 

of the 
University of North Dakota 



VOLUME ONE 
1910-1911 



PUBLISHT BY THE UNIVERSITY 



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tSoci/4 9r.>^6" 



BOUND MJV 4 1911 



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The Quarterly Journal 

OF 

The University of North Dakota 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE 

No. 1, OCTOBER, 1910 = 

1. The Office of the Appellate Judge 

Andrew Alexander Bruce 3 

2. Past and Present Sticking Points in Taxation 

Frank L. McVey 35 

3. Cooperation in North Dakota 

James Ernest Boyle 45 

4. City Trend of Population and Leadership (i) 

John Morris Gillette 54 

5. Book Reviews 77 

6. University Notes 99 

====== No. 2 JANUARY, 1911 ============= 

1. The Correlation of Literature and History 

O. G. Libby 99 

2. City Trend of Population and Leadership ( i i ) 

John Morris Gillette 117 

3. An Unwritten Chapter in the History of 

South Africa 

Andrew Alexander Bruce 125 

4. A Rational System of Taxing Natural Resources 

Frank L. McVey 146 

5. On the Origin of the Onolatria Legend 

Wallace Nelson Stearns 152 

6. Book Reviews 160 

7. University Notes 183 



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CONTENTS— Continued 



No. 3, APRIL, 1911 



1. The Economic Utilization of Lignite Coal 

Earle J. Babcock I93 

2. Aquatic Assets of North Dakota 

Melvin A. Brannon 214 

3. The Red River of the North 

Elwyn F. Chandler 227 

4. A Study of the Purity of Natural Ice From 

Polluted Waters 

Gustav F. Ruediger 256 

5. The Flight of the Modern Bullet and the 

Wound it Makes 

A. Hoyt Taylor 264 

6. Studies in the Self-purification of Streams 

Gustav F. Ruediger 272 

7. Book Reviews 278 

8. University Notes 292 

= No. 4, JULY, 1911 = 

1. Edmond Rostand and Italian Comedy 

Henry Lampart LeDaum 297 

2. The Question of the Theatre 

Frederick Henry Koch 308 

3. Fiction in the Sixteenth Century 

Martin B. Ruud 329 

4. Good and Evil; Right and Wrong 

Joseph Kennedy 352 

5. Theory of Knowledge and Science 

A. Hoyt Taylor 363 

6. Book Reviews 380 

7. University Notes 393 



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Quarterly Journal 

of the 
University of North Dakota 



OCTOBER, 1910 

Volume 1 Number 1 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY 



>Vp plication made for entrance at the Post Office at Uniftmity, North Dakota, 
as second-class mail matter 



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The Quarterly Journal 



FUBUSHED BY 



The University of North Dakota 



CONTENTS 

I, THE OFFICE OF THE APPELLATE JUDGE 

Andrew Alexander Bruce 3 

II. PAST AND PRESENT STICKING POINTS IN 

TAXATION 

Frank L, McVby 35 

in. CO-OPERATION IN NORTH DAKOTA (I) 

James Ernest Boylb 45 

IV. CITY TREND OF POPULATION AND LEAD- 

ERSHIP (I) 

John Morris Gillette 54 

V. BOOK REVIEWS: 

1. Labor and the Railroads: James O. Fagan. 

F. L. McVey 77 

2. An American Citizen: John Graham Brooks. 

F. L. McVcy 77 

3. Governmental Action for Social Welfare: 

Jeremiah W. Jenks: J. M. Gillette 79 

4. Social Insurance: Henry Rogers Seager. 

J. M. Gaiette 80 

5. The Future of Trade Unionism : Charles W. Eliot. 

L. E. Birdzell 82 

6. Vocational Education: John Morris Gillette. 

H. Z. Wilber 83 

7. Government of North Dakota: James Ernest Boyle. 

Webster Merrifield 86 

8. Introduction to Political Science: 

James Wilford Garner. C. E. Carpenter 87 

9. Introduction to Economics: Alvin S. Johnson. 

M. Jacobstein 89 

VI. UNIVERSITY NOTES 91 



BDITOIIAL GOHHITTBB 

A. J. LADD, Wallace N. Stearns, 

Managing EDrroR Meyer Jacobstein, 

ASSISTANTS 

Printed by Th* GrandPorks Bvtnliit Tinw* 



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Announcement. 



UPON recommendation of the Faculty of the University of North 
Dakota, the Trustees have established '*The Quarterly Journal", 
its editing has been entrusted to a representative committee of the 
Faculty. This, the first number, appears in September, 1910. The 
subsequent numbers of the year will bear the dates, January, April 
and July, 1911. 

The Quarterly Journal is to be both literary and scientific in 
character, and aims to represent the varied activities of the several 
colleges and departments of the University. But while designed 
primarily as the medium of exchange between the members of the 
University Faculties and the learned world, its columns are open to 
other writers. Communications and discussions will be welcomed 
and, when found suitable and available, gladly given space. 

The subscription price is $1 per year, or 30 cts. a single number. 
A limited amount of space will be available for high-grade advertisers, 
and advertising rates made known on application. 

All communications should be addressed to The Quarterly 
Journal, University, North Dakota. 

Editor's Bulletin Board. 



THE next number of the Quarterly Journal will be somewhat 
general in character. A fine list of articles is assured. Dean 
Bruce will again favor our readers, this time with an article entitled 
^An Unwritten Chapter in South African History". The data upon 
whicn the article is largely based are gathered from correspondence 
and diaries of men in the field, closely connected with Professor Bruce. 
The major portion of this material has not yet been given to the public 
in any form. Dr. Gillette's interesting article on "City Trend of 
Populadon and Leadership", begun in this number, will be completed. 
In addition to these, readers may look for an article from Dr. O. G. 
Libby, head of the Department of History in the University of North 
Dakota, on ^'The Correlation of History and Literature". Among 
other articles from which selections will be made are one on ^^Good 
and Evil" by Joseph Kennedy, Professor of Philosophy and Educa- 
tion, and one on "The Library in Relation to the University" by 
Charles H. Compton, former University Librarian. 



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The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 1 OCTOBER, 1910 Number 1 

The Office of The Appellate Judge 

Andrew Alexander Bruce, 
Dean of the College of Law, University of North Dakota, 

^ I '^HERE IS no more important public official in America than 
^ the American judge. Paradoxical tho it may seem there 
is no one who is closer to, and at the same time further removed 
from the great masses of the American people. Especially is this 
true of the elective judge of an American court of last resort. He 
is constantly criticised and misunderstood. Yet he has no adequate 
means of defense. His duties are so arduous that he must of neces- 
sity be a student and a recluse. His position is so pre-eminently a 
political one, however, that he must of necessity keep responsive to 
the political and social tides and pay heed to the politicians and to 
the powers behind the throne whether those powers be populistic, cor- 
porate, or democratic in the broader and higher sense of the word. 
Especially is this true where the system of primary elections pre- 
vail. He is the subject of frequent criticism. Yet he has no popular 
forum. He is both of the world and out of the world. He depends 
for election upon the public support and the popular suffrage. Yet 
his office is so surrounded by tradition and dignity, and so careful 
must he be not to express an opinion in advance on questions which 
may later come before him for judicial determination, that he can 
but rarely appear upon the public platform and but rarely defend 
himself or his decisions in the popular press. He has the law reports, 
it is true, in which he may write, but these the general public will 
never read. His position demands the highest wisdom and the fullest 
opportunity for ample thought and complete freedom from petty 
anno3rances. Yet he has no opportunity for this ample thought and no 
freedom from annoyances. The days of John Marshall have passed 
away. In he last year of the great Chief Justice's services to the 
nation the Supreme Court of the United States with its seven jus- 
tices was called upon to hand down but thirty-nine written opinions. 
The writing and decision of even these opinions was freed from the 
embarrassment and enormous labor of examining the thousands which 
had gone before. There were then indeed no thousands. Cases 



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4 The Quarterly Journal 

could be decided as they arose at first sight and in conformity with 
logic and sound judgment, and logic and sound judgment alone. 
There were then none of the embarrassments of precedent. There 
was then no serious conflict and embarrassment arising from the doc- 
trine of stare decisis, the fear of overruling former decisions, of being 
at variance with the decisions of other appellate tribunals, or of over- 
turning a complicated industrial and social system. Society and in- 
dustry were then in the making. Statesmanship, indeed, of a high 
order was required, but comparatively little laborious research. The 
situation to-day is entirely different. During the court year 1903-04 
the same court with its nine justices filed two hundred and twelve 
written opinions besides disposing of two hundred and eight cases 
without opinions. In 1908-09 four hundred and eleven opinions 
were filed, two hundred and seventeen cases were disposed of by 
memoranda merely and without written opinions, and a large num- 
ber of minor orders and rules were made and entered. Among these 
decisions were many which were of great import and which went to 
the very root of government. We must also remember that before 
the opinion can be written oral arguments must be heard, and often 
thousands of pages of printed and typewritten briefs and records 
must be read and studied. What is true of the federal courts is 
almost equally true of those of the several states. The office of the 
Appellate Judge, indeed, has everywhere in America had associated 
with it not only much of power and dignity and social prestige, but 
much of hard labor, unusual suffering, and voluntary servitude. The 
burdens which are imposed and assumed are greater than can be 
borne. No matter how industrious and conscientious the average 
appellate judge may be, he must perforce give to his opinions less 
time and investigation and calm judgment than they deserve. He 
can never do himself or the public full justice. One of the main 
reasons, indeed, why the modern American judge follows precedent 
so blindly, is that he is denied the time and the opportunity to investi- 
gate and to think for himself. ^ 

Yet in America our judges are our most important public offi- 
cials, and as a matter of last resort we are governed by our courts and 
not by our legislatures. Under our constitutions, both state and fed- 
eral, or rather, under the construction which our judges themselves 
have placed upon their provisions and in which the people have (until 
but recently) generally acquiesced, practically all of our social and 
domestic, as well as national policies, are under the control and direc- 
tion of our courts. It is they who formulate our public policies and 
our basic law. Unless a statute appears to them to be reasonable and 



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The Appellate Judge 5 

wise, It IS within their power to construe it as one which "deprives 
of life, liberty and property without due process of law," which inter- 
feres with interstate commerce or which is otherwise repugnant to 
our written constitutions. All of our statutes, indeed, must be pre- 
pared to pass the ordeal of the constitutions and it is the courts who 
apply the test. Even in the absence of the written constitution and 
under a governmental system such as prevails in France and in Eng- 
land where the courts do not assume to enforce any basic charter and 
to set aside legislative acts as being inconsistent therewith, the legis- 
lative power of the judge is very great. The laws of the civilized 
world, indeed, always have been and always will be, judge rather 
than legislature made. With the Hebrews the Torah of the Judges 
and of the Prophets were all controlling. Even a Code Napoleon 
needs interpretation and enforcement and must be made responsive 
to daily life and to changing social needs. The courts are in contin- 
uous session. The legislatures can only meet at intervals. Either 
there must be no government and no legal growth, or the courts must 
be allowed to lay down rules of practice and of conduct in matters 
concerning which the legislatures have not spoken. The province 
of the legislatures, indeed, both in England and in America, has 
always been to modify and to expand judge-made laws rather than 
to build up any comprehensive legal structures of their own. They 
have supplemented and changed rather than originated. They have 
always been compelled to call upon the courts to enforce their enact- 
ments, and the power which enforces must of necessity always inter- 
pret and construe. The power to construe may easily be used so as 
to neutralize and change the original intent. Often an act is ambig- 
uous even to its makers and is voted upon and passed under varying 
interpretations. Human language is at best so incomplete a vehicle 
of thought that perfect clarity is rarely attainable. However anxious 
the judge may be to give effect to the legislative intent it is unavoid- 
able that his own personal opinions and conception of public policy 
should be more or less reflected in his interpretations. Even in Eng- 
land, where Parliament is supreme, a legislative body^and a constitu- 
tional convention in one, and where the necessity of conforming to 
the requirements of a written constitution is not present, the legisla- 
tive power which these prerogatives confer was early and fully recog- 
nized. "And be it finally enacted," protested a parliament of Henry 
the VIII., "that the present act and every clause, article, and sentence 
comprised in the same, shall be taken and accepted according to the 
plain words and sentences therein contained, and shall not be inter- 
preted nor expounded by color of any pretense or cause or by any 



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6 The Quarterly Journal 

subtle argument or invention of reason to the hindrance, disturbance 
or derrogation of this act or any part thereof." ^ But strange tho it 
may seem, our judges are popularly expected to do this very thing 
against which the English Parliament so vigorously protested. "It 
is the duty of all courts of justice," said Lord Chief Justice Wilmot, 
''to keep their eye steadily upon the interests of the public, even in 
the administration of commutative justice." "I have used the ex- 
pression public policy," says a more recent American writer, "to 
denote a persistent tendency in the popular mind, and in the judicial 
mind, in other words, in the hiunan mind, to regard the judicial 
function as ancillary to the legislative and executive, working out 
any results desirable or greatly desired at the time. The feeling is 
older than our legal system — as old as hiunan nature. It is the per- 
ennial enemy of the pure law." ^ 

If these facts are so, then the American judge is of all public 
officials the most important, and of all public officials should be the 
most respected and revered. His position, too, should be well de- 
fined and understood and he should be freed from all unnecessary 
distractions and burdens. He, above all, should be allowed an ample 
opportunity and leisure for the exercise of the great and important 
duties which devolve upon him. The reverse, however, is the case. 
Not only is the average American appellate judge overburdened with 
work, not only is he compelled to enter the political maelstrom, but 
of late years the judicial office itself has been much criticised and 
condemned. There can be no doubt, indeed, that in America to-day 
the administration of the law is in popular disrepute and that the 
courts are in disfavor not merely with organized labor but with the 
great middle classes also. We are, indeed, in the midst of an era of a 
more or less unintelligent and iconoclastic criticism, but of a criticism 
in which there is too much of reason and of justice to be disregarded. 
Even the most conservative give evidence of a vague sense of dissatis- 
faction. They constantly protest against the laws* delays. They 
feel that the letter and the formalism of the law killeth and they 
are prone to believe that somehow or other the lawyer, and especially 
the lawyer judge, is responsible for that letter and for that formalism. 
The rash and incautious statements of men of note even have added 
to this feeling. When the chief executive of the nation openly criti- 
cizes a federal judge on account of a decision rendered by him on a 
disputed point of law, what confidence in the judiciary can be ex- 
pected of the great masses of the people? We need as a people to 

1. 28 Henry Vni.. Ch. 7. Sec. 28. 

2. W. Irvine Cross In The Docket, pg. 222. 



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The Appellate Judge 7 

take our bearings. We need in this era of readjustment and of a 
newer democraqr to definitely determine the status and the function 
of the judiciary in our body poh'tic and what we expect of them. 
Our criticism in the past has been destructive, and not constructive. 
It has torn down merely. It has not built up. We are in the danger 
of losing not only our respect for the administration of the law, but 
for the law itself. What we now need is a criticism which shall be 
helpful and hopeful and which shall be creative and constructive. 

Nowhere is this distrust more evident than in the ranks of or- 
ganized labor. There the judge, and particularly the federal judge, 
is generally looked upon as one who, tho not necessarily dishonest 
or corrupt, is narrow in his sympathies and prejudiced in his decisions 
and dealings between capital and labor, and between the employer 
and the employe. Organized labor does not perhaps always impute 
corruption, but it constantly argues prejudice- It constantly asserts 
that in the courts of law the laboring man and the union have no 
standing ; that no matter what the working man may do, the courts 
will decide against him; no matter what statutes may be passed in 
his favor, the courts will declare them invalid. It frequently de- 
clares that the Fourteenth Amendment to the federal Constitution, 
which was adopted for the purpose of guaranteeing freedom to the 
n^;ro, has been so construed by the courts as to enslave free labor; 
that the anti-pooling and anti-trust measures, which were passed to 
control capital, have been so construed as to control men. Salutary 
also and necessary as the injunctions which were issued and the pro- 
ceedings for contempt which were had during the so-called Debs 
Strike and which have followed in such great numbers since that time 
may have appeared to the general public, their justice has never been 
conceded by the laboring classes nor has the jurisdiction and right 
of intereference of the judiciary in the premises. And this lack of 
confidence in the judiciary is not confined to the laboring man. Even 
among the trading and professional classes, there is everywhere to be 
found the conviction that our lawyers and our judges are behind the 
age; that they fail to recognize the basic needs of a growing civiliza- 
tion, and that they are shrouded in formalism. The idea is also only 
too generally prevalent, that the vast accumulations of capital are 
unduly favored by the courts. When the author of a recent series 
of articles included in a list of precepts supposed by him to guide 
the conduct of the Standard Oil Company and of its employes, one, 
to "Never forget that our legal department is paid by the year, and 
our land is full of courts and judges," he voiced a sentiment which 
unfortunately is only too common. It is in fact more than a co- 



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8 The Quarterly Journal 

incidence that almost contemporaneously with the publication of the 
first of the articles referred to, Mr. Bryan began his agitation for 
an elective federal judiciary and the labor unions of Chicago entered 
the political arena for the avowed purpose of removing from the 
bench those judges whose decisions and actions appeared inimical to 
their interests. It was not long afterwards also that Mr. Samuel 
Gompers and the American Federation of Labor entered actively 
into the field of national politics and openly sought not merely to 
dictate legislation, but to control the appointment of the federal 
judiciary itself. 

Nor should this entrance into the political and judge-making 
arena, serious tho its results may be, have been imexpected by the 
thoughtful student of affairs. It was, indeed, but an answer to, and 
an acceptance of, the challenge made in 1893^ by the late Mr. Justice 
Brewer, when in an address before the New York Bar Association 
he publicly said, "There are to-day ten thousand millions of dollars 
invested in railroad property whose owners in this country number 
less than two million persons. Can it be that whether this immense 
sum shall earn a dollar or bring the slightest recompense to those 
who have invested perhaps their all in that business and are thus aid- 
ing the development of the country, depends wholly upon the whim 
and greed of the great majority of sixty millions who do not own a 
dollar? I say that so long as the constitutional guarantees lift on 
American soil their buttresses and bulwarks against wrong, and so 
long as the American judiciary breathes the free air of courage it 
cannot. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ What then is to be done? My reply is, 
strengthen the judiciary. How? Permanent tenure of office accom- 
plishes this. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Judges are but human. If one must 
soon go before the people for re-election, how loath to rule squarely 
against public sentiment. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Tq stay the wave of popu- 
lar feeling, to restrain the greedy hand of the many from filching 
from the few that which they have honestly acquired, and to protect 
in every man's possession and enjoyment, be he rich or poor, that 
which he has, demands a tribunal as strong as is consistent with the 
freedom of human action, and as free from all influences and sug- 
gestions, other than are compassed in the thought of justice, as can 
be created out of the infirmities of human nature. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The 
black flag of anarchism flaunting destruction to property, and there- 
fore relapse of society to barbarism; the red flag of socialism invit- 
ing a redistribution of property, which in order to secure the vaunted 
equality must be repeated again and again, at constantly decreasing 
intervals, and that colorless piece of baby cloth which suggests that 



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The Appellate Judge 9 

the state take the property and direct all the work and life of indivi- 
duals as if they were little children, may seem to fill the air with flutter. 
But as against these schemes or any other plot or vagary of fiend, 
fool, or fanatic, the eager and earnest cry of protest of the Anglo- 
Saxon is for individual freedom and the absolute protection of all 
his rights of person and property. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ And to help 
strengthen that good time we shall see in every state an independent 
judiciary, made as independent of all outside influences as possible and 
to that end given a permanent tenure of oflice and an unchangeable 
salary." 

It was, too,, perhaps but a natural result of our social and in- 
dustrial evolution and of the teaching too unqualifiedly, and to an 
eager and grasping democracy, the seductive and far reaching doc- 
trine that where universal suffrage exists there is a remedy at the 
polls for every social wrong. This doctrine, it is true, and in so far 
as organized labor was concerned, for a time meant nothing at all. 
It could be safely and unqualifiedly urged even by those who were 
at heart the most inimical to the interests of the workingman. It 
served the more or less useful purpose of a sedative. The reason lay 
in the fact that until quite recently we were a nation of business men 
and of landed proprietors, and that the great conservative farmer 
class everywhere controlled our elections. These small employers of 
labor whose interests have always lain in low wages and in long 
hours of toil, and whose habit it has always been to exaggerate the 
purchasing value of the wages paid in cities, have never as a class 
looked with favor on the demands of the city laboring man nor of 
the wage earner generally. Labor legislation, therefore, was until 
quite recently rarely the subject of consideration in the legislative 
bodies, and rarely came before the courts for review. With the 
growth of the American dty, however, and the centering of our in- 
dustrial life, a change came, and it was not long before the city dele- 
gations of many of the eastern and middle states came to possess a 
controlling influence in their respective legislatures. In these cities 
the laboring men came to be massed and the members of the legisla- 
tures soon found it necessary to consider the wishes of the labor vote. 
So, too, vast bodies of at least partially organized working men soon 
began to center in the mining districts and on the railroads and their 
votes to become more or less controlling. The appeal to the ballot 
could be made, and it was made. 

The first manifestation of this appeal was the enactment by a 
number of state legislatures of statutes which limited the hours of 
labor in factories and in mines,, forbade the payment of wages in 



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lO The Quarterly Journal 

commodities or in orders upon company stores or ''truck shops/' 
regulated the method of weighing and of screening coal, where the 
wages paid were dependent upon the coal mined, and which forbade 
the refusing of work to, or the discharge of men, because of their 
membership in labor unions. These statutes, in short, sought to de- 
termine by legislative enactment and in favor of labor the main 
questions in controversy between organized capital and organized 
labor. With but few exceptions, however, they met with judicial 
disapproval and were declared invalid, some on account of their basic 
unreasonableness, some on account of a latent individualism in the 
courts which seemed ever fearful that legislative interference would 
stagnate industry and which considered the protection of the business 
interests the paramount duty of the hour. So strong a position was 
indeed taken upon the subject in a number of the states, especially 
in Illinois and in Colorado, that it is now taken as an axiom by or- 
ganized labor in the country generally, that whatever law is advo- 
cated by it, that law will be declared unconstitutional and refused 
enforcement by the judiciary. Labor, however, has not on this ac- 
count ceased its efforts and the result of the decisions has merely been 
to prolong the class strug^e and to force the attack along different 
lines. At first there was a return to former methods and an attempt 
to secure by strikes, boycotts and by threatening demonstrations the 
relief which the legislatures were precluded by the courts from af- 
fording. The McCormick strike which preceded the Haymarket 
riot, was pre-eminently an eight hour labor day demonstration, and 
the more recent strikes in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania 
and in the Leiter mines at Zeigler, Illinois, have also been attempts 
to secure by strikes and by an indirect exhibition of force, privileges 
which at one time it was fondly believed the legislatures could and 
would concede. Here, however, the opposition of the courts was 
again encountered and the appeal to the injunction proved as effectual 
for the employer as had formerly been the appeal to the constitution. 
As a result, the pendulum is now slowly but naturally swinging once 
more in the direction of the ballot, and the "unfair judge" has be- 
come the object of electoral attack. Slowly indeed, but thoroly, has 
organized labor come to realize that we, as a nation, are governed by 
our judidary and not by our legislatures, and that it is the judge in 
America who dictates our social and industrial policies. The efforts 
of organized labor, therefore, are coming to be more and more 
directed towards obtaining a judiciary which shall be in touch with 
the labor movement and responsive to its demands. The industrial and 
political conflict of the future, indeed, is destined to be chiefly waged 



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The Appellate Judge ii 

in and around the American court. The political power of the judge 
is everywhere to-day becoming recognized and we find as never before 
a deep interest being taken not only in the decisions but in the per- 
sonnel of our judidary. There can be no question that President 
John Adams at the end of his term of office appointed John Marshall 
in order that the Supreme Court of the nation might, for a time at 
least, foster Federalism and lay the foundation by its construc- 
tion of the G)nstitution for a strongly centralized national govern- 
ment and a national ideal, and that the effects of the political victory 
of the Anti-Federalists might be neutralized. There can be no doubt 
that in the past and since that time the great financial interests of the 
coimtry have been behind our political campaigns and largely dictated 
the nomination of our presidents and that the result of this has been 
that men of a conservative tendency and of a laissez faire attitude of 
mind have generally been placed upon our Supreme benches. 
There can be no doubt, indeed, that the conservative note 
was dominant in the appointments of Cleveland, of Har- 
rison and of McKinley. But there also can be no doubt 
that ex-President Roosevelt with his disregard for constitu- 
tional restrictions, with his lay as opposed to legal mind, and with 
his keen, almost boisterous, desire to accomplish immediate results 
regardless of precedent or ultimate legal consequence, in 
turn chose for the bench those whom he thought would carry out his 
polides and adhere to his ideals. There can be no doubt that on the 
question of the judidary capital and labor have locked horns. And 
that to-day not merely the conservatives of our society but the radi- 
cals, the progressives, and the newer democracy are alike seeking to 
gain a control not only of our legislatures but of the making of our 
judges and of our judge-made law. There can be no doubt that the 
public generally, be it composed of liquor men or of prohibitionists, of 
business men or of laborers, of coUectivists or of individualists, is 
coming more and more to the condusion that those who sit upon the 
bench are political and legislative officers and are elective representa- 
tives rather than constitutional judges. As a people, we are becoming 
more and more impatient with constitutional restrictions and with 
the concept of what may be termed "the pure law." 

The situation is a serious one and must be fairly and squarely 
met. It is time for the American people to stop and ask themselves 
what they really expect of the courts and what they really want. 
One thing is dear, and that is, in a nation as large as ours and in 
states as large as ours usually are, government can only be represen- 
tative, tho the popular will will always ultimately control and be re- 



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12 The Quarterly Journal 

fleeted in our great and stable national politics. We must, in tempo- 
rary policies, at any rate, and in the gradual upbuilding of our law 
and of our dvilization, choose between a supreme court which will 
have the opportunity of sober second thought and the ability to reflect 
the sober second thought of the people themselves, or government 
by legislative committees who as a rule will reflect that which is 
transitory and who will always be more or less lobby influenced. 
We demand centralization more and more, and yet centralization 
must inevitably lead either to a bureaucracy or to court control. As 
the problem of existence grows more and more difficult, as our popu- 
lation increa^ips and centers, as the industrial conflict grows keener 
and keener, men will more and more rush to the legislatures for help. 
The more this is done the more and more will it .devolve upon the 
courts, or in their absence, upon legislative bureaus or committees, 
to decide how far government shall go and how far not. Some one 
or some body of men must set the limits and the boundaries of the 
ever present struggle between individualism and collectivism, between 
the right, or the supposed right of the individual to do as he pleases, 
and the right of the public to protect* itself. Some bureau or court 
or committee, must, as the occasion arises, draw the boundaries be- 
tween the doctrine of individualism and the doctrine that the public 
welfare is the highest law, and must determine in what the public 
welfare really consists. Already there are over fifty standing com- 
mittees of Congress. Already, to use the language of the late Mr. 
Justice Brewer, "Washington is the lobby camp of the world." ^ 
It is only indeed, when a bill is of large political import or peculiarly 
sensational that a full consideration of Congress is ever had. To 
question the wisdom and the report of a committee in other matters 
is a species of lese majeste. This must necessarily be so since any 
other method of procedure would demand a continuous session of 
Congress. Judicial supervision of our great governmental policies 
then was first advocated and adopted because Hamilton and Wash- 
ington and Adams and Marshall distrusted the people and their rep- 
resentatives and desired to establish a firm central government. It 
was for a long time acquiesced in and extended to social and intra as 
well as interstate and national matters because the powers behind 
the throne, the great commercial and conservative interests, saw in it 
a bulwark against collectivism. And it will, we believe, be main- 
tained in the future because no other bureau or committee will in the 
long run be found more responsive to the popular wishes and the 

3. Address to Law School of University of Wisconsin, 1900 Com- 
mencement Annual, pg. 18. 



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The Appellate Judge 13 

sober second thought of the American people, and because the magni- 
tude of the governmental work to be done will make some bureaus 
or committees or public policy determining courts absolutely neces- 
sary. In considering the value of the properly organized court we 
should not fail to consider the value of the written opinion. It cen- 
ters responsibility and centers it for all time. A man, after all, is 
most jealous of his intellectual reputation and of the inheritance 
which he will leave to those who come after him. The judicial 
opinion is the property of the lawyers and of the scholars and think- 
ers of the future. If it is illogical, unwise, or unjust, it and its author 
will be pilloried for all time. There are few men, no matter how 
corrupt, who will purposely hand down a dishonest or unwise or 
illogical opinion and thus subject themselves to the continued criti- 
dsm not merely of their contemporaries, but of those who will come 
after. The written opinion is a bulwark of popular liberty. If 
Judge Jeflfries had been compelled to announce his judgments to the 
world and to justify them in writing there would probably have been 
no "Bloody Assizes." 

It is a mistake, indeed, to presiune that our courts are altogether 
undemocratic. Even the Supreme Court of the United States, with 
its life membership, its enormous burden of work, and its necessary 
isolation, in social and political matters ultimately reflects the dom- 
inant thought of the nation. As a people we have been individualists 
and it is not a matter of surprise that our courts should have reflected 
the fact. Our controlling vote has been the business and the farmer 
vote, and except in the matter of the regulation of railroad rates, the 
farmer and the business man is, and always has been, a conservative 
and an individualist. We are a nation of property owners and 
therefore conservative. The courts have sustained labor laws as soon 
as the people as a whole were really behind them. We as a nation 
have clung persistently to a belief in, and to the ideal of, the actual 
existence of an equality of contractual ability and opportunity in the 
industrial world. We have therefore come but slowly to see the 
necessity for legislative interference. The labor laws, indeed, which 
the courts have held invalid have usually been log-rolled and have 
been usually passed before their time. They, as a rule, have had no 
real public sentiment behind them. The legislative leaders as a rule 
have only allowed them to pass and to be placed upon the statute books 
because they were morally certain that the courts would yield to the 
dominant public sentiment and would hold them invalid, and that by 
supporting them they could gain votes for themselves and for measures 
in which they themselves were interested. The extent to which this 



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14 The Quarterly Journal 

legislative juggling is carried on, and its consequent injustice to our 
judges is seldom recognized. The American courts, indeed, are 
constantly being made the cats' paws of the politicians. They are 
being constantly blamed for a lack of sympathy and democracy and 
for overruling the judgment of the legislatures when they are merely 
reflecting the popular conscience and the popular will and are doing 
the very thing which the legislatures themselves expected them to do. 
It is a noticeable fact, indeed, that in the history of English law the 
judge-made \xw has on the whole been much more democratic and 
humane than that which has been legislature or parliament made. 
We criticise the safeguards which the criminal law aflfords to the 
defendant and the fact that they were originally judge-made. We 
should remember, however, that they were merely the offset to a 
brutal and sanguinary penal code. When indeed, a class blinded 
parliament made one hundred and sixty oflfenses capital and the 
stealing of a sheep, the shooting of a hare, and the begging of an old 
soldier upon the street punishable by death, the humaner judge sought 
to give the accused fair play and every opportunity for defense, and 
to prevent if possible the execution of the innocent. It is well, too, 
to remember that so deeply was this class feeling and lack of human- 
ity and democracy implanted in the British squirearchy that the battle 
for reform had to be extended well into the last century and, as a 
matter of fact, is even now far from won. After a life time of effort, 
indeed, all that so great a reformer and advocate as Sir Samuel 
Romilly was able to point to in the way of actual and tangible re- 
sults, was the repeal of two of the statutes of the reign of Elizabeth. 
One of these was repealed in 1808, and the other in 181 2. One made 
pickpocketing a capital offense, and the other made the begging of an 
old soldier or mariner upon the public streets equally punishable by 
death. It is well to remember that practically all of the redress for 
personal injuries which the employe now has was given to him by the 
courts. The rules of law which make the master liable in damages 
for negligent injuries to his servants and which make it his duty to 
supply that servant with reasonably safe tools and appliances with 
which, and premises on which, to work and to warn him of sudden 
and unexpected dangers, were of judge and not of legislative origin. 
It is only recently, indeed, that the world's parliamentary and legisla- 
tive law has been in any sense of the word democratic. It falls far 
short of the ideal even to-day. In the past the members of these 
bodies have come almost exclusively from the aristocratic classes. 
Even to-day the legislator is generally a representative merely. 
He belongs to a class. He is a partisan. He is the advocate of and 



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The Appellate Judge 15 

is sent to the legislature to represent a locality or an interest or an 
industry and to bring about results. He is a special pleader and an 
advocate. His main duty often is to secure appropriations. If he 
fail in these respects he will make powerful and bitter enemies and 
will lose many votes. The legislator who seeks really to reform the 
law and to bring about an era of impartial justice, has but few active 
supporters. He comes back to his constituents with an accumulation 
of but little vote securing anununition. His supporters are not of 
the militant kind. They are not immediately interested in politics. 
There is no money in it for them. They are not vindictive and ag- 
gressive. The tradition of the bench, on the other hand, is impartial 
justice. The appellate courts are courts of equity as well as of law. 
The judge comes to look upon himself as the trustee of all. His very 
position brings with it an ethical stimulus. It is for him to do equity 
and justice and to administer justice without prejudice and with an 
impartial hand. The old chancellor was known as "the keeper of 
the king's conscience." It is seldom that a judge fails to be broadened 
and humanized by these ideals. The courts, indeed, have reflected 
the dominant sentiments of the majorities, while the individual leg- 
islator has generally thought only of his own constituents or of his 
immediate and personal interests. If the test of democracy is the 
carrying out the will of the majority, it is difficult to see how govern- 
ment by committee could be made more democratic than has been 
the government by the courts. It is a noticeable fact also that so far 
the Supreme Court of the United States has nullified only one labor 
law. * 

Even in the much mooted questions of the strike and of the boy- 
cott and the control of trade and labor combinations and conspirac- 
ies in restraint of trade, the courts have but reflected the public atti- 
tude of mind and the public thought. They have wavered and have 
been, in a measure inconsistent, because the public itself has wavered 
and been inconsistent. As a people we have never quite made up our 
minds as to whether or not we really desire to check the right of com- 
bination and of entering into contracts and agreements which shall 
regulate prices. We have not been quite sure that competition may not 
be carried too far and that there is not after all, an economic saving 
in combination. We have inveighed against the giant monopolies 
which are far from us or whose owners and proprietors are not our 
next door neighbors. Yet in every small town there are combina- 

4. Ijockner v. New York,. 198 U. S. 45. 

On the other hand and for sustaining decisiona see: Holden v. Hardy, 
169 U. S. 366; Knoxville Iron Co. v. Harbison, 183 U. S. 13; Muller v. Oregon, 
208 U. 8. 412, 28 Sup. at 324. 



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1 6 The Quarterly Journal 

tions among our business men which, tho technically unlawful, are 
allowed to exist without criticism. Trade meetings and conventions 
are everywhere held and are everywhere addressed by lawyers who 
are expected to tell their members, not how to serve the public or how 
to bring about an equal enforcement of the law, but how far they may 
organize and regulate prices and violate the spirit without actually 
coming within the penalties of the numerous anti-trust laws which the 
legislatures have passed but without any intention of uniformly en- 
forcing. The gentleman's agreement, in short, and codes of profes- 
sional courtesy are taking the place of the strictly formal agreement 
and the old conunon law conspiracy. Labor has inveighed against the 
combination of capital and the employers' trust. Yet on its own part it 
has strenuously insisted on the right to organize and to form a labor 
trust. It has also insisted that in all of the anti-trust and anti-con^- 
bination statutes exceptions shall be made in its favor and it has 
bitterly denounced the construction of the courts which has made the 
anti-pooling and anti-combination clauses of the Sherman Act apply 
to the combinations of laboring men as well as to those of capitalists. 
The farmers, too, have always insisted that the producers of farm 
products should be exempted from the provisions of these laws. In 
the state of Kentucky the tobacco raisers have inveighed against and 
fought against a manufacturers' trust. They have, however, and at 
the same time fought for and organized and induced their legisla- 
ture to legalize a producers' trust. While in the wheat producing 
industry no less an authority than Senator Porter J. McCumber of 
the state of North Dakota has openly advocated an enormous farm- 
ers' trust and pool which shall be bolstered and protected from out- 
side assaults by the tariflf wall. We cannot expect our courts to go 
ahead of the popular mind and of the popular conscience on these 
great social and political questions. We must also remember that 
the laws against labor unions and the strike and the boycott were 
in their inception legislative and not judge-made. 

In the majority of the so-called Labor Injunction and Com- 
bination Cases, the questions involved are social and political rather 
than legal. They involve the old and ever present question as to how 
far government shall go and how far not, and as to how far the 
governmental protection of property and of personal rights shall ex- 
tend. They involve the still larger question as to what our property 
and personal rights really are. These questions are much broader 
in their application and scope than the mere cases in which they 
arise. The question too, must be ever met and dealt with as to 
whether we are a democracy after all, and what a democratic form 



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The Appellate Judge 17 

of government really means. The theory of Washington and of 
Hamilton, and, perhaps, of John Marshall, seems to have been that 
there was such a thing after all as ''the pure law" and that ''the 
established rights" could be easily catalogued. "An established right 
in the individual," says a recent writer, ^ "is a limitation upon the 
power of the majority. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The curbing of this tend- 
ency to ignore the rights of the individual was a prime object of those 
who framed our Constitution." But the difficulty lies in detennining 
what these established rights really are, and the tendency of to-day 
is to emphasize more and more the public as opposed to the private 
right or interest. To further quote from the same author "people 
are willing to leave an individual his rights so long as they have no 
value. When they assume a value, the tendency is to appropriate 
diem. So far as the law has endeavored to curb this tendency it has 
a hard fight. That the individual should have any rights as against 
die public interest, as against the state or the government, is a modern 
conception. It would have been inconceivable to many of the best 
men of an earlier day. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Set up as a defense of the 
individual against the majority, the constitutional limitations have 
had a steady fight with the old tendency. The old bottles would not 
hold the new wine. That the omnipotent people, state, government, 
should not be able to do a good thing when they wanted to do it, be- 
cause of the rights of an individual, is as foreign to the idea of gov- 
ernment held by many of our public men, and some of our judges, 
as it would have been to Peter the Great. They could respect the 
limitations of our Constitution, if each had appended to it the words 
'except when the public interest is otherwise,' or 'except when public 
opinion is the other way,' in other words, if they were not limitations 
at all. It is a weak government that admits limitations upon its own 
power. It is dangerous to take away from the powers of the govern- 
ment in the interest of an individual." 

The author of these words, however, fails to realize that at the 
time of the adoption of the American Constitution government was 
looked upon very differently than it is to-day. The newly created 
government at Washington, and even the state governments them- 
selves, were mistrusted, and individual rights were asserted, because 
up to that time the governments of the world had been superimposed 
and were from above rather than from beneath. The federal Con- 
stitution was adopted in an age of protest against government with- 
out representation, by what might almost be considered a foreign 
power. It was adopted in an age of navigation acts, of unreasonable 

5. W. Irvine Cross in The Docket, pg. 223. 



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1 8 The Quarterly Journal 

searches and seizures and of crown monopolies. To-day» with its 
extended suffrage the situation is, theoretically at any rate, very dif- 
ferent. If tyranny there is, it is tyranny of the whole people and 
not the tyranny of a superimposed government, or of an hereditary 
aristocracy. But this, tho the broader and more philosophical concept 
of our modern democratic collectivism, is not by any means a general 
one. In fact we have no concept that is generally shared in and to 
which the courts can without criticism, adhere. It is hard for us to 
conceive of a really common interest and of a public welfare which 
is general and universal. We believe in the state and in its rights and 
in those of the people as a whole who make up the states, but only 
in so far as these rights do not interfere with our own desires and 
our own convenience. We are always willing that others should be 
regulated for the public good, but we are seldom willing that we 
ourselves should be treated in the same way. We are neither willing 
to submit to an aristocratic and to a learned and trained control, nor 
to a popular one. We are not willing to trust to a government by 
the judiciary alone. Our surging democracy demands that its wishes 
and that its governmental and social theories shall be respected by 
the courts no matter what their members may individually believe. 
Yet a part of that democracy is continuously in revolt because its 
wishes and desires are not shared in by the majority of the people 
and are not reflected in the opinions of the courts. What, we may 
ask, do we after all desire of our judges? Do we wish them to use 
their own individual judgment in social or political questions, or do 
we wish them to seek to reflect the popular will? Or on the other 
hand do we wish them to take a complete change of front and to 
yield in all matters to the legislative discretion? 

But a defense of the American Supreme Court and an argument 
for its continuance does not involve a defense of all of the jurisdic- 
tion which it has assumed. The assertion of its value as a piece of 
governmental machinery and as a public policy determining body 
does not involve a belief in or a defense of all our judicial methods 
and practises. It does not justify nor defend the confusion and the 
uncertainty of our judge-made law, nor the exorbitant expense and 
the unreasonable delays to which the litigant is subjected. Nor in 
complaining of the immense amount of labor which devolves upon 
the courts are we prepared to deny that much of it is superimposed 
and is the result not only of the stretching out, perhaps too eagerly, 
for power and jurisdiction, and of interfering, perhaps too often, 
with the legislative discretion, but of a confusion and lack of clarity 
in the law for which the courts themselves are responsible and of 



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The Appellate Judge 19 

ndiich the intelligent public is becoming day by day more impatient. 
If indeed every one is presumed to know the law, then certainly the 
law and especially constitutional law, should be more within the in- 
tellectual reach of the average citizen. He should at any rate have 
some means of ascertaining his legal rights. As it now is there is 
usually such a mass of conflicting decisions even in the same court, 
and the art of refinement and discrimination has been carried so far, 
that even the lawyers and judges themselves are in hopeless confusion. 
The conscientious lawyer, indeed, can seldom positively tell his client 
that he will either win or lose a case even were a jury trial is not in- 
volved. His usual reply is that a lawsuit is after all nothing but a 
gamble and "the Lord only knows what the Supreme Court will do." 
When sometime since. Judge Charles F. Amidon of the District 
Court of the United States for the District of North Dakota, in a 
memorable address before the American Bar Association, boldly took 
the position that the judge of to-day should not construe the federal 
Constitution in the light of the narrow national life of the past but in 
the light of the exigencies of the present, he voiced a popular idea, 
and an idea which was both popular and full of suggestion. Its 
premise was that sodety shoidd never, and will never, consent to be 
retarded in its growth by any procrustean bed of ill-considered pre- 
cedent. Too many of the decisions, he contends, have considered the 
Constitution from the viewpoint of the narrow national life of the 
time of its adoption. It is time, he says, for the judge of the future 
to do what has really been done by the great constructive judges of 
the past, and that is to interpret the Constitution as a great organ 
of government general in its character and to be read in the light 
of the growing national life. To this position few thoughtful men 
will demur. But necessary, however, and logical tho this sane and 
liberal construction may be it will only tend for a time to a further 
conflict of jurisdiction and to a further confusion in the law. A 
broader and saner construction is, no doubt, necessary, but it is 
equally as necessary that our appellate courts generally, and that the 
federal Supreme Court in particidar, should re-define their positions 
and should codify, as it were, much of their judge-made constitu- 
tional law. It is necessary, indeed, that they should return once 
more to, and begin to argue from, basic principles, and in a manner 
which the intelligent public can follow and understand. In this age 
of impatient democracy, indeed, we must be prepared to accept the 
premise once and for all that the public will never be satisfied with 
fine spun webs of legal refinement which draw distinctions where 
none really exist. The fear, indeed, of overruling previous dedsions. 



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20 The Quarterly Journal 

a fear in which the public by no means shares, has so paralyzed our 
courts as to render them at times almost ridiculous. The Supreme 
Court of Illinois in 1894, for instance, held invalid an eight hour 
labor law for women. ^ It declared it to be an unreasonable inter- 
ference with personal liberty and not necessary for the preservation 
of the health of those concerned or for the welfare oi the general 
public. It even characterized it as an attempt to put woman under a 
legislative tutelage, and as an insult both to the employer and to the 
employe. In 19 10 the court was called upon to review this decision 
and to set aside or sustain a new law which only differed from the 
former in that the limitation of the hours of labor was to ten in- 
stead of eight hours. This second statute the court sustained and 
held to be necessary for the public welfare and for the health of 
those immediately concerned. '^ But instead of fairly and squarely 
admitting that they had erred in the past, the judges, in their second 
opinion, seemed to forget all that they had before said about class 
legislation and legislative tutelage, and the insult to free labor, and 
largely justified their yielding to the legislative discretion by 
explaining that in this new act the hours were ten and not eight, and 
that anyway in this new act the preamble had stated that the purpose 
of its passage was the protection of the women and of the public 
health, which statement had been omitted in the former enactment. 
What difference, we may ask, and the intelligent public will always 
ask, did this statement or preamble make? For what other purpose 
could the first act have been passed? The courts, indeed, must pre- 
sume a purity of motive and some intelligence on the part of the 
legislature. The real fact of the case was that in the first case the 
court was not fully informed as to the necessity and therefore rea- 
sonableness of the legislative measure. It was impossible, indeed, 
that it should have been. Prior to the year 1904 there had been 
but little scientific or medical investigation of the subject of the eflEect 
of long hours of labor upon the health of women. During the 
fifteen years, however, which elapsed between the passage of the two 
acts a large amount of original investigation was undertaken and 
hundreds of valuable documents and books were published In the 
first place the court erred honestly and from a lack of scientific 
knowledge for which it was not responsible. In the second case the 
scientific information or evidence was forthcoming and it decided 
rightly. Why, we ask, did not the court say so instead of trying to 
draw a technical distinction where none existed ? Why was a broad- 

6. Ritchie V. People, 185 111. 98. 

7. Ritchie et al. v. Wayman, 91 N. B. Rep. (111.) 695. 



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The Appellate Judge 21 

minded and really courageous opinion weakened in this way and 
made to contain a purely technical distinction which could accom- 
plish no purpose but to weaken it as a precedent and to add to the 
further confusion of the law? Are we indeed to understand that 
the legislature must placard every statute and that without such a 
placard an act will be invalid? Must, indeed, the motive and pur- 
pose as well as the subject be clearly expressed in the title? There is 
nothing, indeed, which is sacred in the doctrine of stare decisis. 
There is nothing which is sacred in a theory of law or in a govern- 
mental policy which has outlived its usefulness or which was radi- 
cally wrong in the beginning. Respect for the courts, it is true, and 
for the law, may be won by a respect on their part for the precedents 
of the past and an obedience to the law and a reasonable consistency. 
Much of our business stability rests upon the basis of a wise con- 
servatism. But after all society must progress. It must grow 
wiser and more humane, and it will never consent to be restrained in 
Its advance by ill-considered precedent. After all, truth is truth 
and logic is logic. A complete change of front is not the less com- 
plete because justified by a process of reasoning which itself ignores 
logic and distorts premises* or by an attempted reconciliation with 
prior dedsions. 

The same criticism can be made to even a greater extent of 
many of the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States. 
The so-called Original Package Case of Leisy v. Hardin fairly and 
squarely overruled the so-called License Cases, * and yet did not say 
so. The cases of Delameter v. South Dakota * and In Re Rahrer ^® 
in fundamental principle overruled the cases of Leisy v. Hardin, ^^ 
Bowman v. Railway Co. ^^ and a long line of others and yet sought 
merely to draw impossible distinctions. ^^ The case of Lockner v. 
New York ^* overrules in prindplc the case of Holden v. Hardy 

8. Pierce v. New Hampshire, 5 Wall. 462. 

9. 205 U. S. 93. 

10. 140 U. S. 645. 

11. 135 U. S. 100. 

12. 125 U. S. 465. 

13. In the license cases the court held valid a state statute which reg- 
ulated the sale of liquor in the original package, and held that a law which 
was passed not for revenue nor for commercial purposes but to protect the 
morals and welfare of the people of a state, tho it might incidentally affect, 
was not an interference with interstate commerce. It held, in other words, 
that the commerce clause of the Constitution was never intended to deprive 
the individual states of the inherent right of self protection. In Leisy v. 
Hardin, and Bowman v. Railway Co. the court held to an opposite view 
and held that the power in Congress to regulate commerce was exclusive 
and applied to the original package. In the cases of In re Rahrer, and Dela- 
mater v. South Dakota the court upheld a statute of Congress which re- 
delegated this control to the states tho it still insisted that the control of 
Congress was exclusive and could not be re-delegated. See The Wilson 
Act and the Constitution, The Green Bag v. 21, pg. 211. 

14. 198 U. S. 45. 



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22 The Quarterly Journal 

and of Powell v. Pennsylvania^** and yet no confession of error is 
made. ^* What is true of these cases is true of scores of others. 
Time and again, indeed, we find opinions which in fundamental 
principle overrule long lines of prior decisions and announce a com- 
plete change of front, but are so lacking in candor that the fact is 
hardly apparent. Instead of confessing error they often seek to make 
distinctions where non exist, or none at any rate, which the ordinary 
mind will ever be able to see or to appreciate. The Supreme Court, 
indeed, seems to have taken the position that it would be utterly der- 
ogatory to its influence to admit that it ever erred, and that to fairly 
and squarely overrule a former decision would wreck the ship of 
state. And this practise has been followed by only too many of the 
state courts. The result has been a tangle of legal refinement and 
sophistry which is getting greater and greater every day. Each new 
distortion, each new surrender of basic principles and of irresistible 
logic paves the way for still further surrender, makes the law less 
and less certain, and encourages that class of lawyers now only too 
common, whose main business it seems to be to teach their clients to 
violate the basic principles of social and human kinship, and by the 
weapons of delay and obstruction to hinder, if not prevent, all prog- 
ress and all reform. Is there not a serious question whether, after 
all, the art of refinement and discrimination has not been carried too 
far by our courts and whether frankness is not now imperatively de- 
manded. There is nothing, indeed, which is sacred in the doctrine 
of stare decisis. There is nothing as we before said which is sacred 
in a theory of law or in a governmental policy which has outlived 
its usefulness or which was wrong in the beginning. After all, it is 
obedience to the letter and to the spirit of the Constitution that is 
required of the courts, and not to any particular construction which 
they or their predecessors may have put upon it. The question is, 
what is the law, and what is now the true public policy? Not 
what did Mr. Justice So and So say about it? What is the Con- 
stitution? Not how did So and So construe it? Many of the con- 
structions of the past were adopted under totally different social and 
industrial conditions than now prevail, and are unadapted to our 
modem life and commercial and national growth. Many, too, were 
adopted without sufficient deliberation or information. There is no 
ground for the fear so often evidenced of overruling prior decisions. 

15. 127 U. S. 678. 

16. The turning point of these decisions is the right of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, on a pure question of fact and of necessity, and 
in passing upon the validity of a state statute which is social, and not 
commercial, and protective and not spoliative, to oppose its wisdom and 
judgment to that of the state courts and of the state legislatures. 



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The Appellate Judge 23 

The public have lost their respect for the law, not because it has 
from time to time changed to meet new conditions or because long 
standing errors have been now and then corrected, but because of 
its growing refinement and incomprehensibility. 

We need to make the law, and especially constitutional law, in- 
telligible to the ordinarily intelligent citizen. This is the only sound 
and living basis for a democracy. Our courts must, indeed, sooner 
or later codify as it were and get once more at the original text. 
They must fairly and openly, and not merely by innuendo, reject 
much of the mass of the conflicting judge-made law that has centered 
around the constitutions, so that we may really know where we are 
and what the law is. We need, indeed, a fresh start. We need, 
indeed, a constitutional reformation which shall sweep aside much 
of the interpretation of the priests and scribes of the law* and shall 
begin anew. We need to return, in short, to the Constitution in the 
same way in which the Puritans of the Reformation returned to the 
text of the sacred Scriptures. We need a re-interpretation of that 
instrument not in the light of the mass of conflicting decisions and 
distinctions without a difference, which have grown up around it, 
but in the light of present day facts and knowledge and necessity. 
This, however, would change but little our basic law or the con- 
clusions arrived at in our most recent decisions. It would merely 
place the law and these decisions upon a logical foundation and sup- 
port it and them by a reasoning which could be followed and under- 
stood. 

It is a matter, too, which is well worthy of consideration as to 
whether much of the criticism of the courts would not be taken away 
if our legal proceedings were less expensive. This reform at any 
rate could easily be accomplished. The complaint is especially ap- 
plicable to the federal courts. There, in addition to other fees, the 
clerk of court has a monopoly of the copying of the records, and 
of the pleadings. The litigant himself could copy or get a private 
stenographer to copy, the records and proceedings for ten cents a 
page. He must, however, pay the federal derk fifteen cents a hun- 
dred words, or about fifty cents a page for so doing. In addition 
to this and other court fees there are the fees of the court stenog- 
rapher which the litigant must pay and the large cost of printing the 
briefs and abstracts, and often orders and pleadings. The average 
criminal appeal costs in the neighborhood of fifteen hundred dollars. 
In a recent civil case which took less than three days to try, the costs 
of appeal exclusive of attorney fees were in the neighborhood of six 
hundred dollars. What is true of the federal courts is true to a 



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24 The Quarterly Journal 

greater or lesser extent of those of the several states. In North 
Dakota the expenses of an appeal under the so-called Newman Act 
are very large. In states like Illinois, where the distinction between 
law and equity is preserved and the master in chancery with his 
justice of the peace fee prerogative flourishes, the costs of a proceed- 
ing in chancery, however simple, are prohibitive. Often the fees of 
the stenographers, who have their own trusts, and of the master in 
chancery are utterly disproportionate to those of the counsel in the 
case and to the amount of money involved. They are always 
absurdly disproportionate to the fees paid to the circuit court itself 
and to the salary of the circuit judge. In a recent foreclosure suit, 
for instance, in the city of Chicago, which involved some eighteen 
thousand dollars, the cost of the trial in the court below and the 
expenses of appeal to the appellate court were, exclusive of attorney's 
fees, $2,181.49. Of this amount $1,226 was paid to the master in 
chancery, $570.55 to the court stenographer, $257.55 to the printer, 
$30 to experts, only $13.44 to other witnesses, and only $83.95 
as the costs of the clerk and of the sheriff and of the 
circuit court itself. When we consider that the salary of the circuit 
judge in Chicago is $10,000 and that in this one small foreclosure 
case the fees of the master in chancery were $1,226, and that the 
master is appointed by the circuit judge so that each judge or chan- 
cellor is supposed to have his master, we can see how natural it 
should be that political henchmen should only too often be appointed 
as masters and in this way rewarded for bringing about the election 
of their superiors and supporting "the ticket." It is well too to 
remember that the profits and fees of litigation do not all go to the 
lawyers. 

These excessive costs close our courts to the average citizen 
and make even the business man forego many a right before he will 
go to law. After all, litigation is not the thing which is most to be 
feared in a free country. The ability and the willingness to assert 
one's rights in a large measure makes a free people. The necessity 
to forego the assertion of these rights and to continually compromise 
has the opposite effect. We have carried our prejudices against liti- 
gation too far and we have allowed the fee system too large a con- 
trol. The theory that all litigation must pay for itself and that those 
who dance must pay the fiddler is a dangerous social doctrine. When 
the early writers evolved the theory that the law abhorred litigation 
they were merely protesting against the use of the courts for the op- 
pression of the weak. They never intended that their theory should 
be used as a pretext by which the poor man could be excluded from 



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The Appellate Judge 25 

the courts and from the equal protection of the laws. The best 
antidote for anarchi^n is to implant in the minds of all the belief 
that at the great bar of the law all are equally favored and that 
poverty in America does not stand in the way of complete justice 
and of an equal opportunity. 

Many of the suggestions for the reform of the law and of its 
administration have been socially unintelligent and puerile. They 
have in the main been the suggestions of the theorist and of the well- 
to-do. They have been to cut off the right of appeal from justice 
courts in actions involving small amounts of money, when we all 
know that the fee system has made the term justice of the peace a 
synon)rm for incompetence and corruption, that the letters J. P. are 
popularly known to stand for "judgment for the plaintiff" and that 
the justice has catered for business like any tradesman and has been 
only too prone to favor the law or business firm that brought it to 
him. The same is true to a large extent of our feed masters in 
chancery. The remedy is salaried and competent masters in chan- 
cery, justices or municipal judges, and constables and sheriffs. If 
there were such there would be much less ground for, and much 
fewer arrests, lawsuits and appeals. Salaried sheriffs and marshals 
and constables and police magistrates would mean much fewer im- 
just and unreasonable and unnecessary arrests and consequent trials. 
We dwell much on the excellence of the English methods of dealing 
with crime. Yet the English policeman hardly ever arrests for petty 
offenses, for drunkenness or petty street brawls, nor does he make 
weekly raids on houses of prostitution and, after obtaining a fine and 
the payment of costs, allow the inmates to proceed as before until 
his and the police magistrate's exchequer again need replenishing. 
At any rate, the justice court is the poor man's only court. A hun- 
dred dollars is as important to him as five thousand dollars to the 
wealthier man, and he should feel that at the great bar of the law 
his mite is protected as well as another man's gold. We cannot afford 
to let the poor man lose his faith in the administration of the law. 
The decision of the judges should be well considered. We need 
more courts and judges, and a simplification of our practice, and 
lessened cost to the litigant, not more haste and a consequent lack 
of thoroness on the part of the judges we have. We do well to spend 
millions of dollars every year on education ; we do well to have parks, 
we do well to have asylums, and we should also do well in being 
lavish, in being extravagant, if necessary, in preserving intact the 
great sources which make democratic governments possible among 
men. 



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26 The Quarterly Journal 

Above all, we should remember that haste or the dispatch of 
business is not everything. The laws' delays are the source of much 
justifiable criticism, but in our protest against delay we should not 
expect the impossible. For many 3rears, for instance, the courts of 
Chicago and of New York were lamentably undermanned. In Chi- 
cago a judicial system and a quota of judges designed for a city of 
hundreds of thousands was expected to do the work of a city of two 
millions. Yet the only criterion the popular press seemed to have 
of an efficient judge was that of one who ''got thru his calendar." 
The consequence was, and still is that thousands of cases were hur- 
ried thru and were unfairly and arbitrarily tried, and that the miscar- 
riage of justice was appalling. The remedy was more judges, and 
not more haste. This remedy was for a long time, and still is, in 
a large measure, denied because it involved the expenditure of money. 
Yet money could be squandered recklessly for buildings and for leg- 
islative plunder boxes. There has indeed been manifested a total 
inability to understand the enormous social and political importance 
of the judiciary and the enormous burdens that it bears. 

The same considerations which apply to appeals from the jus- 
tice courts, apply to appeals from the circuit courts themselves and 
to the agitation to allow the appellate courts to only reverse judg- 
ments when it is plain to them on the face of the printed record that 
injustice has been done in the court below and that the error has 
really been prejudicial. The objection to this change in the old rule 
which presumed prejudice from error, is based upon the contention 
and assumption that it is often utterly impossible for the appellate 
courts, with the enormous amount of work which is imposed upon 
them and without the chance to confront the witnesses face to face, 
and from the perusal merely of the often thousands of pages of 
printed record, often confused and distorted by the false statements 
of counsel, to determine whether the error was prejudicial or not. 
How, for instance, it is asked, can the upper court tell how the wit- 
ness would have testified if he had been given the chance or what 
weight the jury would have given to his testimony? How can it tell 
the effect that a refused instruction would have had upon the jury, 
or whether the intonation of the voice in a reprehensible question was 
not more prejudicial than the question itself? The new rule, it is 
claimed, would leave litigants at the mercy of the trial courts and 
of the trial jury. This, it is claimed, would be well enough if the 
trial judges themselves were always competent and unbiased and 
were allowed due time for reflection and the aid of honest and com- 
petent counsel. These conditions, it is claimed, do not always exist. 



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The Appellate Judge 27 

It is a noticeable fact, indeed that altho the change suggested was 
recently recommended by the American Bar Association it has been 
generally repudiated by the lawyers and bar associations of the sev- 
eral states. Those in attendance at the American Bar Assodation 
are usually corporation lawyers and men whose practices lie largely 
in the federal courts. The resolution of the American Bar Associa- 
tion was adopted not because the Association believed that an upper 
court could tell, with infallibility and from a mere perusal of the 
printed record, whether really vital errors had been conunitted at the 
trial in the court below and whether these errors had influenced the 
jury, for many believed this impossible. It was adopted, rather, be- 
cause of a feeling of confidence in the ability and rectitude of the 
federal judges, and because there was a general feeling that in the 
great majority of the cases tried in the federal nisi prius courts jus- 
tice was done and appeals were unnecessary, and that considering the 
costs and delays of appeals, the public interest would be subserved 
by making the decisions of the district and circuit courts final in all 
but extreme cases. The belief was quite generally expressed that on 
account of his long training, his personal standing, his life tenure, 
and his freedom of thought and action the ordinary federal judge 
was both able to do, and as a rule, did do, intelligent and im- 
partial justice, and that appeals, or the threat of appeals to, and re- 
versals from, the courts above were not necessary. In the states 
generally, however, this does not seem to have been believed and 
the trial judge seems to have been mistrusted. It seems to have been 
generally believed that the frequency of our elections, the tendency 
of every lawyer to consider that he is made of judicial timber and 
to aspire to a seat on the bench, and the added impetus to personal 
ambition afforded by the primary election system which is now being 
so generally adopted and advocated, has had a tendency to make our 
state judges politidans rather than jurists and to tempt them to 
pander to popular and personal favor. These are not, it is true, the 
reasons which are openly given upon the floors of the meetings and 
of the conventions for the opposition to the proposed reform, but 
they are the chief reasons which are given in confidence in the hotel 
lobbies and on the street corners. They but express the thought of 
the late Mr. Justice Brewer of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, when in an address before the New York Bar Association in 
1899 on the subject of "The Life Term Judiciary," he said, "Judges 
are but human. If one must soon go before the people for re-election 
how loath to rule squarely against public sentiment." 

The importance, too, in both civil and criminal cases of honest 



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28 The Quarterly Journal 

and public spirited and thoroly educated counsel who will do their 
full duty no matter how small the amount of money involved or how 
much their individual reputation is at stake, cannot be too often em- 
phasized. We seldom realize, indeed, how the lack of such men 
embarrasses the judge. The province of the attorney, indeed, is not 
merely to aid his client, but to aid the court. He is an oflScer of the 
court. His province is not merely to advocate but to do the investi- 
gating for the much burdened judiciary. If an able and conscientious 
lawyer will honestly seek out and present all of the facts and all of 
the law on his side of the case, a fair measure of justice can be done 
by an impartial court. If this is not done, then the court must itself 
investigate from the beginning and justice will not be done. How 
much time may we ask, has the Supreme Court of the United States 
with Its hundreds of opinions to write every year, to give 
to original investigation. Too often, however, counsel are utterly 
ignorant of their cases and give to the courts no aid whatever. Not 
long since, for instance, a case was argued in the Supreme Court of 
Wisconsin in which the only point at issue was the legal consequence 
of the failure of the sheriff to attach his signature to a certain docu- 
ment or writ. The case was argued by counsel on both sides of the 
case on the theory that there was no such signature and much law 
was cited. The court met in banc, discussed the case, came to a ten- 
tative decision and one judge was assigned the duty of writing the 
opinion. He did so and in it held that the failure of the signature 
rendered the proceedings invalid. The judges as a whole then con- 
curred in the opinion and decision. Just before the court met, how- 
ever, and the decision was publicly announced, the judge thought 
that he himself would examine the original record and the original 
papers. He did so, and much to his surprise discovered that after 
all, the signature had been attached. All he had to do of course, 
was to call back his opinion and to merely re-affirm the holding of the 
court below, but after what an enormous waste of time and energy, 
all of which might have been saved if the lawyers had done but half 
of their duty. 

The real reason for the large number of reversals in the Ameri- 
can appellate courts is not to be found in an over-refined legal tech- 
nicality, not in a neglect of duty on the part of our judges, but 
rather in the incompetency, lack of training and too often, basic dis- 
honesty of the members of the bar themselves. In the latter the 
public and the clients are too often themselves to blame. It is seldom, 
indeed, that a lawyer can be found, no matter how dishonest and 
corrupt, who has not been urged to even greater shortcomings by 



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The Appellate Judge 29 

his importunate clients. Prosecuting attorneys too often seem to 
think that the province of the State's Attorney is to convict rather 
than to do justice, and to punish crime rather than to prevent its 
commission. They too often merely look upon a criminal prosecu- 
tion as an opportunity by which to make a personal reputation. 
Once entered upon the trial of a lawsuit they feel that they must win 
before the jury at any cost. The popular audience is in the trial court 
room and not in the Supreme Court. The newspapers give colimms 
to the occurrences at the trial before the jury. They give only lines 
to the proceedings in the appellate court. The consequence is that 
both in criminal and civil cases counsel only too often ask questions 
which they know they have no right to ask, argue propositions of 
law which they know are not well founded, and trick, rather than 
aid, the presiding judge. If there were more knowledge and hon- 
esty on the part of counsel there would be fewer grounds for appeal. 
There are fewer reversals in England than there are in America and 
fewer appeals, chiefly because in England the professional standards 
are higher and less commercial and the lawyers are better trained. 
This spirit of fair play, indeed, is there everywhere present in the ad- 
ministration of the criminal law and everywhere results in the saving 
of time and unnecessary delay. There is, for instance, but little time 
wasted in the English courts over the question of the admission in 
evidence of involuntary confessions. There, indeed, instead of being 
illegally "sweated," the accused, when arrested, is warned that any- 
thing that he may say will be used against him. Our American 
democracy too has been so impetuous in its desire to push forward the 
young and to offer an opportunity for the making of reputations and 
the earning of a livelihood that it has paid but little consideration to 
the real interests of the public. "In all of our state and national 
tribunals," says an eminent legal writer, ^"^ "criminal prosecutions 
are carried on by an oflScer chosen for the purpose. He has great 
power; he can ordinarily prevent the grand jury from finding an 
indictment; for he is their adviser, and he draws it. And after it is 
found he can refuse to prosecute it. He should, therefore, possess 
that element of a great lawyer, integrity, in the highest degree. In 
mental habit he should be exact, and his legal learning should be the 
amplest. One thus endowed need never permit an offender to es- 
cape from a defect in the indictment, tho the judges hold him strictly 
to the old rules. And if the people confer the office on an aspirant 
whose sole qualification is that he can bawl loud and long at the 
caucus, they ought not to complain when criminals escape thru his 
17. Bishop's New Criminal Procedure Vol. 1, Sec. 26. 



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30 The Quarterly Journal 

blunders or slothfulness. There is no just ground for removing by 
statute any bar which liberty has put up to protect her children." 

So, too, our democratic desire to give everyone a chance and an 
equal opportunity has made our state judiciary altogether too un- 
stable and has resulted too often, not only in the election of incom- 
petent and untrained judges, but in the denial to even those who are 
competent, of an opportunity to familiarize themselves with their 
duties, to acquire the judicial mind, and to really settle in the harness. 
A judge needs to be trained as well as a trial lawyer and the tenure 
of office is often too short to make this possible. A lawyer fresh 
from the active practise is at first rarely able to fill the judidal office 
with satisfaction and to adapt his method of thinking to his new 
position. In the past he has of necessity been an advocate and a 
partisan. Now he must be an arbiter and a judge. He has been in 
the past a specialist. Now he must interest himself in and familiar- 
ize himself with, the whole field of the law. In the past his duty 
was to talk. Now it is to listen. Formerly he was interested in the 
question of the legal possibility and the question as to whether a 
certain thing could be legally done. His interests were his client's 
and not society's. Now they are broader. Formerly he could get 
along and perhaps could succeed without any broad conception of 
social needs and aims. Now if he would really serve his state, if 
he would really do justice to litigants and to the public alike, he 
must be conversant not merely with technical law but with history 
and economics and sociology. Often he has come to the bench 
totally unprepared for its duties and must begin as it were his pro- 
fessional training anew. What, for instance, as a rule, does the 
personal injury specialist know of the rules of commercial law or the 
criminal lawyer of the law of real estate, yet the judge must know- 
all things. At his bar must be tried all classes of cases, yet in this 
age of specialization he alone is denied the right to specialize. 

We have elsewhere referred to the unfair tactics of lawyers, 
to the desire to trick rather than to aid the court, to get error into 
the record on which a reversal may be had in case of a defeat rather 
than to make the trial in the court below fair, complete, and im- 
partial. A prominent lawyer, indeed, once told the writer that he 
had hardly done znyxhxng for the past ten years but connive at error 
and afterwards complain of it. Perhaps it may be said that this 
practice is most often found in the case of damage suits against cor- 
porations and is made necessary as a sort of rough method of self 
defense on account of the prejudice of the juries. But this is no 
answer. The damage suit should not be allowed to taint the whole 



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The Appellate Judge 31 

body of the law and itself should seldom be. There shoiild be in its 
place a compiilsory insurance and an equitable emplojrers' liability 
rule. We should, in short, do as much to prevent pauperism as do 
our German competitors who in spite of the fact that they place on 
their industries a large share of the cost of accident insurance, and 
make it a part of the cost of manufacturing as we make fire insur- 
ance, some how or other manage to underbid us and the less scientific 
and humane Englishman in the markets of the world. One great 
cause, indeed, for German commerdal ascendency lies in the fact 
that the scientific German has learned to utilize all of his national 
resources, and has learned that the brain and muscle and health and 
morality of a nation are as much its capital and national assets as is 
accumulated wealth itself. 

The blame in these matters, however, does not lie with the law- 
yers or with the prosecuting oflScers alone. The fault is a social one, 
and is peculiar to our, and perhaps to every democracy. It is a result 
of the snobbishness of the noveau riche and has become widespread 
because in a democracy riches are only relative. It is the result of 
our laissez faire individualism. There has been in America alto- 
gether too much of the individualism and snobbishness and lack of 
tolerance of the self-made man. Ours in the main has been an in- 
dividualism which has consisted less in a solicitude for the welfare 
and the freedom of others than in a desire that our own freedom of 
action and of acquiring wealth should be unrestrained. We have 
subscribed to a sort of a "free fight," "a survival of the fittest" theory. 
We have had but little sympathy for the weaklings of society. We 
have clamored too loudly for convictions. We have sought too much 
to punish, and too little to prevent. We have, above all, lacked in 
sympathy for the vulgar criminal, for him who steals or robs, tho 
we have been very tolerant of the greater criminal who does unsocial 
things. We have thought nothing of his past environment nor of the 
conditions which make the criminal. We have taken a Pharasaical 
pleasure in passing him by and in gathering up our robes. We have 
manufactured and delighted in a sort of class consciousness of a 
higher order of virtue, and have been constantly thanking God that 
we are not as other men are. We have even at times been glad when 
men have fallen and have been found guilty. If, indeed, but one- 
tenth of the energy and money which has been used by society in 
the past for the punishment of crime had been used in its prevention 
and in removing its causes, society would not have been compelled 
to spend as it does to-day, more in the punishment of its criminals 
and the care of its defective classes than it spends for the support 



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32 The Quarterly Journal 

of its educational interests. The juvenile court, indeed, and the 
probation officer are of more value than many policemen. Medical 
inspection in our public schools has prevented many a wasted life and 
forestalled many a criminal career. State supervision of, and aid to» 
the unemployed, as now conducted in Germany, would, in saving the 
greatest of all moral assets, hope and self respect, do here as there 
much towards the abolition of the vagrant class and of the petty 
criminal. 

But be these things as they may there can be no question that 
we need more thoroly to understand the problem of the courts, the 
difficulties and the great responsibilities which are theirs and our 
own duty toward them. 

The frontier has now been absorbed and the era of collectivism 
is now upon us. In the middle of the last century De TocqueviUe 
suggested that the real test of American democracy would come 
when the public domain was exhausted. That time has already 
arrived. We are no longer a frontier people. Our states are them- 
selves becoming empires in population and in importance. Their 
interests are more or less conflicting. Controversies such as that 
which but recently arose between the states of Kansas and Colorado 
over the exhaustion for purposes of irrigation in the latter of the 
waters of the Arkansas River and which was peacefully settled by 
the Supreme Court of the United States, would in South America 
have resulted in war. Not only will the courts of the future be 
potent factors in the controversies of the states, but from now on the 
aid of the law will be more and more invoked within the states 
themselves, and individual conduct and freedom will come to be more 
and more regulated by law. One isolated in the wilderness may 
do largely as he pleases, as his conduct affects no one else, but he 
who lives in a crowded community and among his fellows, must ''so 
use his own as not to injure the rights of others" and of the commimity 
as a whole of which he and those others are units and parts. The 
whole history of the growth of the English and American law, 
indeed, has been the history of the struggle between the adverse 
prindples of individualism and collectivism, and all sane govern- 
ment would seem to consist in a wise compromise between these two 
extremes. We advocate individualism because it as a rule is the 
wiser sodal doctrine, because it produces courage, independence, 
thrift and the more manly virtues. But the time has now come when 
the rights of the individual must be more and more subordinated to 
the idea of a loyalty and a duty to a common country, a common hu- 
manity, and a common cause. As to where the compromise is to be 



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The Appellate Judge 33 

is for the courts or for some other tribunals or bureaus to determine. 
As the problem of existence grows more and more complex and the 
industrial struggle grows keener and keener, men will look more 
and more upon the government as a partner and as a protector and 
will rush to the legislature for help. As wealth concentrates in the 
hands of the few, as the discontented classes grow larger and larger 
(and where there is democracy there is always discontent) our courts, 
or some other persons or bodies, will always be called upon to pass 
upon the reasonableness of statutes, to define the boundaries of in* 
dividualism and of collectivism, to say how far government may go 
and how far not, to define personal as opposed to social rights. 
Someone in short must decide how far governmental control can and 
shall go, and that some one must be either a trained but aristocratic 
body like the English House of Lords, an autocratic and unrepub- 
lican, tho able and scientific body like the German Reichstag, an 
organized bureaucracy like that of France, an American congres- 
sional or legislative committee or an American court. 

We must face conditions as they are. We must protest less 
and construct more. We must, above all, seek to understand before 
we criticize. We must face our G)nstitutions and the constitutional 
constructions of our courts and either accept or change. We must 
make up our minds once and for all as to how far government by a 
judiciary shall go and how far not. We must remember that a 
large part of the jurisdiction of our courts is self assumed and is 
the result of judicial construction, and that even the power to set 
aside a statute as unconstitutional is not specifically granted in our 
Constitutions either state or national. We can change if we will, 
and our courts, if we really desire it, can do as do those of France 
and of England. But we should think long and seriously before 
we advocate the change. In the meantime, at any rate, or if we do 
not desire the change, we should not criticize our judges for the 
exercise of a jurisdiction in which we have for so long acquiesced. 
We must seek, at any rate, to respect the law more. Our courts, on 
the other hand, must make the law clearer and more easily under- 
stood. We must make our legal proceedings less costly, and we must 
lessen the laws delays. We must remember that the conviction of 
criminals of the vulgar type is not the only aim and purpose of the 
law and of government, and that the lawsuit and the criminal prose- 
cution are, after all, society's last resort. Infinitely more important, 
indeed, than many criminal prosecutions and convictions is a body 
of law to which men will readily yield obedience and which is so 
easily understood and so generally acquiesced in, that its en force- 



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34 T'Ar Quarterly Journal 

ment by the courts will seldom be necessary. Obedience to, and 
reverence for the law, indeed, does not come from many arrests nor 
from many drastic punishments. It comes from its ethical nature, 
from its reasonableness and democracy, from the unswerving justice 
and evenness of its enforcement, from a knowledge on the part of the 
people of its provisions, of its purpose and what it really means, and 
above all from a widespread belief in its social righteousness. 

Critidse, too, as we may and as a free people should, individual 
decisions of our courts, the costs and delays of judicial procedure 
and the frequent incoherency of the law, we cannot but do homage 
to the ability and lofty patriotism of the appellate judiciary. Every 
thoughtful man must bow before the social and intellectual monu- 
ment that is theirs. He cannot but be deeply impressed not only 
with the probity of the American judge but with his statesmanship 
and with his wisdom. It is no easy thing to steer the ship of state 
and to guide the sodal advance of a great nation. It is no easy thing 
to interpret the social ethics of a free people. We have in our cos- 
mopolitan America the representatives of every nation, of every class, 
of every religion and of every creed. Classes and nations and religions 
who in Europe were divided and often at war are here working out a 
common destiny and are building a great cosmopolitan civilization. The 
very fact that our heterogenous people has in the past yielded such an 
implicit obedience to the mandates of the American courts, is in itself 
the highest monument to the wisdom and to the probity of the 
American judge. The mandates of our courts have settled boundary 
lines, have determined great sodal and industrial polides, and have 
controlled sovereign states. Yet we have practically no standing 
army. The court stenographer and the court marshal have been 
army enough. The mandates of our courts have been obeyed because 
our people as a whole have learned the art of self government and of 
respect for the law, and because back of those mandates is the will, the 
strong right arms, and the bayonets if necessary, of millions of dtizen 
soldiers. We have obeyed these mandates because the American 
people have in the past trusted, and in the past have had reason 
to trust, in their judiciary, and have grasped the magnificent concept 
of the government of a free people by law and by law alone. 



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Past and Present Sticking Points 
in Taxation* 

Frank L. McVey 
President of the University of North Dakota 

IN the great area of the northern Mississippi Valley has been 
gathered from the four comers of the world a high type of 
democracy, composed of citizens firm in their adherence to the prin- 
ciples of representative government and well trained in habits of in- 
dustry. Everywhere are to be seen the evidences of enlightenment; 
on the hilltops stand the places of education, in the towns and vil- 
lages are located schools, libraries and newspapers. Over this demo- 
cracy hovers a spirit of sodal advancement. Every face is turned 
toward the future, while the ideal of co-operation, of wider govern- 
mental interest, gives forth evidence of further progress. 

Such a forward movement demands government of a high order, 
clear-sighted intelligence, and hopeful courage, thoro-going and mili- 
tant. Back of it all is the great problem of means to accomplish the 
ends desired. Out of it, as in the case of the sinews of war, appear 
the question and the principles of taxation. 

As citizens in this democracy, the thing which checks our prog- 
ress and keeps us as a great people from moving forward to new 
accomplishments in the field of social endeavor is a matter of vast 
importance. Hence in discussing, even briefly, the past and pres- 
ent sticking points in taxation we are dealing with a subject worthy 
of consideration and vital to the state. 

A glance at the industrial organization of the di£Ferent common- 
wealths in the Mississippi Valley, accompanied by some examination 
of their constitutions and statute books, reveals the fact that there 
is a close similarity and in some instances an actual identity of lan- 
guage and principle in the taxing systems in vogue. We are all 
hung, as it were, upon the same peg. We are all sticking at the same 
point. When it is kept in mind what the sources of the institutions, 
governmental and sodal, have been in this valley, it is little to be 
wondered that there has been such adherence to the same system 
and the same methods of raising revenue. The eflect upon the social 
organization is as marked as in the instance of tax laws; where a 
departure has been made from the old system from which the Missis- 
sippi Valley states, have derived their laws, there have been advances 

•An address delivered at the Iowa City Meeting of the Mississippi Val- 
ley Historical Association. 



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36 The Quarterly Journal 

made toward a more modern type of social enterprise. What fitted 
the states in the early days no longer suffices for the solution 
of the larger and more complicated problems of the present. Educa- 
tion demands larger facilities; charitable institutions have ceased to 
be penal and are now social ; mud roads, always inadequate, will no 
longer be tolerated. As a democracy we are face to face with the 
question of how to meet the new social demands of the day. What 
holds us back? The answer is, lack of revenue, and an inadequate 
system of taxation. My duty is done if I trace the source of our 
present difficulties and point out how we may go farther on toward 
better things. 

Three streams of immigration passed into the new territory 
opened to settlement after the Revolutionary war. ^ One came thru 
the Mohawk Valley into New York and later moved on into Ohio ; 
a second, passing by way of the mountains, entered finally into the 
valley of the Ohio thru the pass opened by the headwaters of the 
Alleghenny and Monongahela rivers ; and the third group made their 
way westward over the great pass which separates the Allegheny 
mountains from the Blue Ridge. The first group was composed 
largely of people from New England, the second from New Jersey, 
Delaware, New York and eastern Pennsylvania, and the third came 
from Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. The group 
that entered by the northern passage found their way into Ohio; 
the same was true of the second group, and the third passed into 
Kentucky and Tennessee. Ohio was the valley thru which the pop- 
ulation in its westward movement passed; east, north, south, west, 
whatever direction, the stream moved into this great valley, and 
much of it stopped for a time, absorbing thereby the customs, laws 
and ideas of a conunon people. Thus Ohio became a great territory 
of amalgamation, where the ideas brought from the more eastern 
settlements were mixed and molded into constitutions and statutes. ^ 

The constitution of Ohio confirms this view. On the subject 
of taxation it provides that all property, personal and real, shall be 
taxed equally and uniformly. ^ The Kelly act of 1846 set forth 
in more definite terms than the earlier laws the nature of the general 
property tax. Under its provisions, while some exceptions were 
made, the test of ability to pay taxes was the amount of property 
owned by the individual taxed. But, more than that, the law pro- 
vided that under the sanction of oaths the tax payer should tell about 

1. Qephart, W. P. Transportation and Industrial Deyelopment in the 
Middle West. Col. Un. Studies In History, Economics & Public Law, Vol. 
34, ch. 11. 

2. Ibid., Vol. 34. ch. XIV. 

3. Ohio ConstituUon. Art. XII, Sec. 11. 



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Sticking Points in Taxation 37 

his property and that all men should make returns according to the 
exact truth. The legislators believed that it would be possible to 
compel the rich people of the different communities to pay taxes on 
intangible wealth thru this plan of self-assessment. ^ 

What proved to be true, however, was that the law permitted 
avoidance of taxation rather than enforcement, and as society grew 
more complicated the law became less and less efficient. This 
general property tax, however, fitted in some measure the pioneer 
conditions of the day. The property which men held consisted of 
lands, buildings, tools and stock. All were to be 'seen and all were 
open to inspection, so that a rough sort of justice could be maintained 
under the provisions of the law. 

This system, however, instead of being modified to meet new 
conditions, and instead of new legislation enacted for the establish- 
ment of tax systems elsewhere, has been copied in the new states 
that have been formed to the westward. In Indiana, in Illinois, in 
Iowa, in Minnesota, in Wisconsin and in the Dakotas the same pro- 
visions are to be found, in almost the same language, as were for- 
mulated in the earlier laws of Ohio. The Ohio constitution states 
that "laws shall be passed, taxing ( i ) by a uniform rule, all moneys, 
credits, (2) investments in bonds, stocks, (3) joint stock companies, 
or otherwise; and also all (4) real and personal property (5) accord- 
ing to its true value in money; ♦♦♦♦." (Art. XII, Sec 2) 

The constitutional provisions of the other states mentioned are 
as follows: 

Minnesota (Art. IX, Sec. i) : "Taxes to be raised in this state 
shall be as nearly equal as may be, and all property on which taxes 
are to be levied shall have a cash valuation to be equalized and uni- 
form thruout the state; and laws shall be passed taxing property 
according to its true value in money." 

Illinois (Art. VIII, Sec. 20) : "The mode of levying a tax 
shall be by valuation, so that every person shall pay a tax in propor- 
tion to the value of the property he or she has in his or her posses- 
sion." 

Indiana (Art. X, Sec. i) : "The General Assembly shall pro- 
vide, by law, for a uniform and equal rate of assessment and taxa- 
tion; and shall prescribe such regulations as shall secure a just valua- 
tion for taxation of all property, both real and personal, excepting 
such only for municipal, educational, literary, scientific, religious or 
charitable purposes, as may be specially exempted by law." 

4. Adams. H. C. Public Finance, p. 368. 

Wells. D. A. Theory and Practice of Taxation, p. 450. 



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38 The Quarterly Journal 

Wisconsin (Art. VIII, Sec. i ) : "The rule of taxation shall 
be unifonn, and taxes shall be levied upon such property as the legis- 
lature shall prescribe." 

South Dakota (Art. XI, Sec 2) : "All taxes to be raised in 
this state shall be uniform on all real and personal property, accord- 
ing to its value in money, to be ascertained by such rules of appraise- 
ment and assessment as may be prescribed by general law, so that 
every person and corporation shall pay a tax in proportion to the 
value of his, her or its property." 

North Dakota (Art. 11, Sec. 176): "Laws shall be passed 
taxing by uniform rule all property, according to its true value in 
money." 

This is not to be wondered at when it is remembered that as 
new frontiers are established, the institutions and customs of the 
older communities are transferred to the newer and re-established 
there. An examination of the first legislatures of several of the 
states reveals the fact that the men who composed them were born 
and reared in the New England or Middle States, ^ and as they 
moved westward and took part in the creation of new states they 
turned naturally for guidance to the pages of the constitutions and 
statute books of the commonwealths from which they came. In con- 
sequence there has been built up in the states of the northern Missis- 
sippi Valley a body of law which reflects the point of view, together 
with the errors, of the early legislators of Ohio. In so far as this 
statement applies to the general property tax, the legislators had 
honorable examples in the transmittal of the idea from England to 
the soil of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and which they in turn 
revived and mixed in the Ohio crudble, to be later moulded into 
constitutions and laws of newer states. ^ 

Occasionally attempts have been made to depart from the long 
established general property tax and to create a system that would 
be more conformable to fundamental economic principles and the 
changing conditions of industrial life. In 1871 David A. Wells, 
fresh from his experience as commissioner of revenue for the depart- 
ment of the interior of the federal government, was called to the 
leadership of the tax commission of New York, which had been cre- 

6. In the case of Minnesota the figures are as follows: 

From New England, 9. 

From Middle State, 10. 

From Virginia, 1. 

From Missouri, 1. 

From Canada, 3. 

Not given, 3. 

McVey, The Government of Minnesota, Appendix, p. 174. 
6. Report of Mass. Com. on Taxation, 1908, p. 26. 



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Sticking Points in Taxation 39 

ated by the legislature for the purpose of securing an investigation 
of the tax situation in that state. "^ After a careful study of the sit- 
uation, the commission made a report, together with a number of 
recommendations. The discussion of the general tax situation was 
conducted with keenness and analytic power, but after its presenta- 
tion to the legislature no action was taken, and the commission, being 
a temporary body, passed out of existence, with only its admirable 
volume as its record. Ten years later the state of Maryland, con- 
fronted by many of the same questions that puzzled the members 
of the New York legislature, created a temporary commission which 
was to investigate and report to the legislature. The commission was 
under the direction and leadership of Richard T. Ely, and it in turn 
presented an excellent report, thoro-going and worthy of considera- 
tion. * The suggestions in it were pointed, but again, strange to say, 
the legislature of Maryland refused to adopt any of the suggestions 
made by the commission. 

In Massachusetts, in the year 1872, a temporary tax commis- 
sion made a report, and again in 1894 ^^^ 1908. ^ The last com- 
mission analyzed the personal property tax, showed the way in which 
it worked, the decline in assessments, and made some practical sug- 
gestions to the legislature, which, because of constitutional difficulties, 
was unable to adopt any of the essential parts of the report. 

A step forward is to be noted at this point. Just as the tem- 
porary commission was an advance, so the permanent commission was 
a step in the direction of a better system of taxation. Beginning 
with the year 1894, ^ departure is to be noted from the temporary 
conunissions of the earlier days to the establishment of permanent 
state tax commissions that should have power and authority over 
the making of assessments, with instructions to investigate and re- 
port to the legislature. In 1905 Wisconsin reorganized her tax com- 
mission law which had been established in 1899. ^^ The new com- 
mission began at once the important work of re-assessing the railway 
properties in the state and attempted to secure information concern- 
ing the actual value of the real estate in the commonwealth. A sys- 
tem of supervising taxation by a commission has now been in existence 
in Wisconsin for nearly fourteen years. In that time considerable 
progress has been made in the assessment and taxation of railroads, 
but great difficulty has been found in making any advance over the 
assessment of 1903 under the provisions of the general property tax. 

7. New York Tax Commission Report* 1871. 

8. Maryland Tax Commission Report, 1881. 

9. Report of Mass. Com. on Taxation, 1908. 

10. WisconsAn Laws, ch. 206 as amended by ch. 322, 1889. 



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40 The Quarterly Journal 

This assessment reached 70 or 80 per cent of the total value of the 
real estate. Since the establishment of the first Wisconsin commisr 
sion in 1898 a number of other states, notably New York, Indiana 
and Minnesota, have created permanent tax commissions. These 
bodies, after a history of from one to four years, have dropped back 
into assessing and valuation boards, without attempting to do very 
much in the way of reform. 

Some reference to the experience of the tax commission of Minne- 
sota will bring out more clearly the statement just made. This 
commission was created in the year 1907, taking oflSce in May of that 
year. It had an annual appropriation of $30,(xx>, and its first at- 
tempt was to gather information regarding the actual value of real 
estate in the commonwealth. Its second purpose was to secure some 
idea of the values existent in the iron properties in the northern part 
of the state. 

The first problem was met by what is called the sales system of 
valuing land. ^^ The method followed was to take the sales of land 
in a given community and compare them with the assessments made 
against this land. In this way the relationship between the two was 
established. Having secured the percentage of assessment to the 
value of the land, it was possible, by taking the total assessment, to 
ascertain the value of the real estate in a community. This was 
done both in Wisconsin and in Minnesota. In Minnesota the re- 
sults of the work revealed the fact that the assessments of real prop- 
erty in and about the state, including the cities, averaged about 42 
per cent of the actual value as disclosed by sales. But it was further 
discovered that, outside of the northern counties, property in the 
country was assessed at a lower figure than that of the cities. In St. 
Paul the assessment, on the average, was about 57 per cent, in Min- 
neapolis 50 to 51 per cent, in Duluth about 44 per cent, and in the 
city of Winona about 50 per cent. Here was a situation that was 
well worth ascertaining, showing great variation between the cities 
themselves and also between the city and the country. ^2 

The second problem mentioned above was the assessment of the 
iron properties in the northern part of the state: the diflFerent types 
of mines if classified on the basis of the value of their ore, the diflS- 
culty of getting at it, and the cost of mining. Out of this situation 
were created five different classes of mines and three diflFerent classes 

11. PoIIeys, T. A., Real Estate Valuations. Minn. Acad, of Social 
Sciences, Vol. 1907, pp. 68-78. 

Adams, T. S.. Valuation of Real Estate by Wise. Tax Com., Minn. 
Acad, of Social Sciences, Vol. 2909, pp. 79-104. 

12. Report of the Minnesota Tax Commission, 1908, ch. FV. 



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Sticking Points in Taxation 41 

of prospects. The various mines were given di£Ferent values in ac- 
cx>rdance with the class to which they belonged. On account of the 
thoroness with which the ground has been explored by the compa- 
nies it was possible to ascertain rather extendedly and somewhat 
scientifically the amount of iron ore and its value ^^ The result of 
this proceeding was that the commission placed an assessment of 
$194,000,000 on the iron properties in the state. The next year, 
because of the amount of ore that had been mined, this value was 
somewhat reduced, but last year it was increased, on account of new 
tonnage discovered thru new explorations, to $205,000,000. 

The two things, therefore, which the Minnesota commission 
accomplished in the two years of its history were, first the valuation 
of real estate and the determination of the percentage of the assess- 
ment to land values, and second, the valuation of the iron ore prop- 
erties in the northern part of the state. In 1909 a constitutional 
amendment was declared adopted, and under its provisions the legis- 
lature was enabled, because the constitution now declared that prop- 
erty might be classed and the tax fixed in accordance with the class, 
to create any kind or type of tax law. ^^ Under the old system all 
classes of property must be taxed in the same way; under the new 
provisions of the law it was possible to tax any class in any given 
way so long as the tax applied to the entire class. As a result of this 
amendment the legislature was flooded with a mass of bills on all 
phases of taxation, and as a consequence of the situation thereby pro- 
duced no legislation of any importance was effected that dealt with 
the tax problem. The tax conunission had recommended a number 
of things in its report to the legislature, and among these were the 
establishment of the county assessor system and the taxation of public 
utilities, but none of the legislation asked for was passed, and as a 
consequence the session closed with no seeming advance over the 
previous two years. The adjournment of the legislature, therefore, 
left the commission with a request to investigate the income tax and 
report to the next legislature, authorizing it to act as a board of ap- 
peal from the county commissioners in the case of appeal from local 



The history of the Minnesota Tax Commission, therefore, 
seems to follow that of similar conunissions in other states, except 
that in the time it was in existence it had actually accomplished more 
than most commissions. In its dealings with the legislature, however, 
it had failed to secure any more than the other state commissions. 

13. Ibid. Ch8. vin-ix. 

14. Ibid. Ch. XV. 



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42 The Quarterly Journal 

Here is the second sticking point in taxation. Some progress may 
therefore be noted in the movement away from the earlier forms 
of laws generally adopted. 

Recalling what has been said regarding the temporary com- 
missions of 1 87 1 in New York, of 1881 in Maryland, and of 1872, 
1894 and 1907 in Massachusetts, it will be noted that they failed to 
secure any results, and when the permanent commissions were estab- 
lished practically no advance legislation was secured as a consequence 
of their efforts to better the situation. The permanent tax commis- 
sion is unquestionably an advance over the older system, — it central- 
izes assessments; but we are again stalled at just the same point at 
which we were before. The legislatures refuse to change the system 
of taxation. 

There are two dangers which confront the permanent tax com- 
mission: one that in the transition from the temporary to the per- 
manent tax commission the initiative which created the latter will 
grow less and less in reform legislation, and the other that the com- 
missions will gradually become little more than assessing boards, 
with somewhat larger powers, with somewhat more initiative pos- 
sibly, and with perhaps a more scientific way of making assessments. 

It is the common opinion that our tax system should be re- 
formed, but for some reason we are not going forward as rapidly as 
we should. Out of the economic conditions which have existed in 
the Mississippi Valley, two things in particular have been made 
manifest; one is the creation of a marked individualism, seen in the 
attitude of men toward industry, toward government, and toward 
the modification of legislation; the other is what has been termed 
state rights. The states in their relation to the federal government 
have had the emphasis placed upon the local problem, with the result 
that our whole system of taxation has grown from a local to a state 
system, the state system having been modified to meet the previously 
existent local forms of taxation. These two things, — individualism 
and state rights, stand in the way of a modern system of taxation. 
Income and property can no longer be localized. The attempt to 
tax every man on all of his property must give way to the idea that 
property must be taxed in accordance with its earning capacity. This 
may mean direct or it may mean indifferent taxation. G)nsequently 
the whole philosophy of taxation as it has been developed in our 
history, particularly here in the Middle West, must be changed. We 
used to adhere to the doctrine, and it is still heard, that that state 
is the best governed that is the least governed, but the passage of 
many laws that have produced great social betterment has in a meas- 



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Sticking Points in Taxation 43 

ure placed this political theory in the background and we are begin- 
ning to recognize that the social phase of government is more im- 
portant, more essential, than the individualistic phase. In view of 
diesc considerations, it may be said with a good deal of emphasis that 
our failure to advance toward larger reform in matters of taxation 
may be due to some fundamental conceptions that have arisen out 
of our earlier history. The fiscal problems that are confronting us 
to-day have their origin within recent years, and our concern in 
meeting these has gradually brought us to a realization of the 
fact that some change in the attitude of legislatures and in admin- 
istrative methods must be secured in carrying on the work of taxa- 
tion. As in many other social problems, we have begun at the wrong 
end, and have attempted to reform from the top downward rather 
than following the reverse method. The first step toward better- 
ment must be in the field of administration, and this means that with 
greater care in the selection of officers and with some modifications 
of the law, the present system of taxation can be administered with 
greater eflSdency than in the past. This, coupled with the work of 
the permanent tax commissions, will slowly produce results in the 
increasing demand for greater income for sodal purposes, and in 
time these changes will require modification in the legislation itself. 
Before this can be done, however, it is necessary that a larger 
appredation shall exist as to the relation of the system of taxation 
to social welfare. Constant vigilance and insistent education will in 
time bring us to the problem of what real taxation is, but before we can 
get anywhere, even on that line, it is necessary to come to some 
agreement as to what taxation really is. If the single-taxers agree 
upon one form, and other tax authorities upon another, each group 
having its own strong body of adherents, we will never secure 
adequate or satisfactory legislation, except after a long period of time 
and when some common ground has been reached, from which de- 
mands may be made. If we could come to some definite condusions 
rdative to taxation, — for instance, that there ought to be separation 
between state and local taxation, that the state ought not, except on ex- 
traordinary occasions, levy a tax upon real estate, but upon securi- 
ties and other corporate business enterprises within the state, and 
that the local bodies should have the choice of raising their taxes from 
real estate, we should be in a position to give up some of the present 
forms of taxation and substitute in their place, not a uniform income 
tax, but some form of taxing securities, bonds, stocks and the like 
that would to all intents and purposes be a modified income tax. 



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44 The Quarterly Journal 

Such a program carehilly worked out and elaborated would 
in time carry us beyond the sticking points that have held us so fast 
during the last fifty years. A new crudble must be created in which 
these ideas on taxation can again be molded into a system. The ma- 
terials for the crucible must be created thru the medium of education 
and then carried from the state where the experiment is being tried 
to the newer and younger states farther west, repeating the history 
of the last century. In some measure two states appear to have 
lighted the fires under the crucible, in fact, to be engaged in placing 
materials in it; Wisconsin with her contribution of the tax com- 
mission, railroad assessment and better administration, and Minne- 
sota in her gross earnings tax, taxation of iron ore properties, and 
centralized assessment of property thruout the state. When these 
ideas are formulated into definite and clear-cut law, and other fea- 
tures added, the states will again be ready to copy the systems of the 
states where the experiments have been tried out. 



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Co-operation in North Dakota 

PAPER I. 

THE ALLIANCE HAIL ASSOCIATION OF NORTH 

DAKOTA 

James E. Boyle 

Professor of Economics and Political Science in the University of 

North Dakota 

HAIL. 

HAIL IS the farmer's peoiliar enemy. It usually comes when 
the crop is well matured and nearly ready for the harvest. 
It almost always devastates the narrow strip where it strikes. It 
always comes unexpectedly. Hail insurance that is at once cheap 
and reliable is one of the farmer's most urgent needs. This need 
is not yet met in a perfect manner, for hail insurance that is reliable 
is not cheap, and that which is cheap is not reliable. 

HAIL INSURANCE. 
At the present time there are two distinct kinds of hail insur- 
ance companies. They are the mutual companies and the non- 
mutuals or stock companies. Of the eight companies doing business 
in the state, two are mutuals and six are stock companies. The two 
mutuals in the year 1909 wrote risks equal to over two-thirds the 
amount of risks written by the six stock companies combined. To be 
exact, the risks of the mutuals were $6,700,607.71; of the non- 
mutuals, $9,270,059.53. The losses paid by the two mutuals were 
$284,664.11; by the six stock companies, $443,122.30. The pre- 
miums received by the mutuals were $365,859.33 ; by the stock com- 
panies, $591,328.42. Or, to sum up the total business done in the 
state in the form of percentages, we see that the two mutuals wrote 
42% of the total risks, collected 38% of the premiums, and paid 39% 
of the losses. This makes a showing in favor of the mutuals. The 
Alliance Hail Association, the subject of this article, is much the 
largest company in the state. It has almost twice the business of its 
nearest rival, which is one of the stock companies. In the year 1909 
it wrote 33% of all the risks in the state, collected 30% of all pre- 
miums, and paid 34% of all losses. The other mutual company is 
one of the smaller companies of the state. 

ALLIANCE HAIL ASSOCL\TION. 
The Alliance Hail Assodation of North Dakota is an example 
of a successful hail insurance company all of whose officers and 



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46 The Quarterly Journal 

directors are practical fanners. This company claims as its five car- 
dinal principles the following: Fair treatment; best protection at 
lowest cost; fair adjustment of losses; prompt payment; thoro au- 
diting of all accounts annually. It is incorporated under the Nordi 
Dakota laws, and is, of course, subject to the supervision of the State 
Insurance Department. 

I. — ^ITS GENESIS. 

This association had its beginning in 1887, in Dakota Ter- 
ritory. Its career was at first precarious, its success fitful. From 
the start it was purely mutual. Two years after the admission of 
North Dakota as a state, that is, in the year 1891, the association di- 
vided, the North Dakota branch incorporating under the laws of the 
state with the name, Alliance Hail Association of North Dakota. 
The twenty-five incorporators were substantial men, commanding 
respect and confidence. Likewise the nine directors were well-known 
and trustworthy men. The details of the organization and the suc- 
cess of its workings we are now ready to notice briefly. 

2. — BUSINESS ORGANIZATION. 

A small nine-page pamphlet contains the "By-Laws" under which 
the company is managed. The main provisions of these by-laws may 
be set forth as follows: The Home office of the company is at 
Jamestown, North Dakota. The object of the company is to insure 
against loss by hail only. The general management is entrusted to a 
board of eleven directors* chosen annually at the regular January 
meeting. These directors are elected by the policy holders, since each 
policy holder is a member of the association, and is entitled to one 
vote at all meetings. The chief duty of the directors is to elect the 
officers of the association which is done annually. The three officers 
are president, vice president, and secretary-treasurer. The actual 
administration of the company is in the hands of the officers. The 
salaries of the officers are not fixed by the by-laws but are left to the 
directors. The compensation of the directors is fixed by the by-laws 
at three dollars per day and necessary expenses while in attendance 
at meetings. The normal rate of premium is six per cent. There 
is a so-called "contingent liability" of six per cent, making the total 
limit of premium twelve per cent. The amount of premium col- 
lected — usually four or five per cent — depends of course on the 
losses for the year. If twelve per cent should prove inadequate, the 
losses are to be paid pro rata and this constitutes a full settlement of 
the insurance. No unpaid losses are to constitute a liability in the 
next year's accounting. Applicants for insurance may give their note, 
due October ist., after date, and secured by a first mortgage on the 



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Alliance Hail Association 47 

crop. Insurance is written solely on the mutual plan, and only one 
assessment can be made in any one year and that only for the cur- 
rent year's business. The amount of insurance is strictly limited, 
$100 being the minimum. The maximum is $800 on any one quar- 
ter section, $1,600 on any one section and $20,000 on any one con- 
gressional township. Insurance in no case shall exceed $8.00 an 
acre. Losses and adjustments are managed in this manner: Losses 
must be reported to the secretary by registered letter within five days. 
If the loss is less than five per cent of the crop, it is ignored. An 
adjuster is sent within a reasonable time, and his decision is binding, 
unless the loser objects. In case of an objection, notice of this fact 
must be sent by the loser at once by registered letter to the secretary, 
calling for a readjustment. Another adjuster is then sent. If ob- 
jection is still made, the matter is disposed of by arbitration. Each 
side chooses an arbitrator, and these two a third. The decision of 
the arbitrators is final. Losses are due and payable December ist. 

When the losses are all reported (which is in September) the 
directors meet to determine the rate of assessment. The secretary 
then mails to each policy holder a notice of the amount of his assess- 
ment. The collection of this assessment is made, so runs the by-laws, 
"either at the home office or by local banks or other collector as near 
the policy holder as practicable." The maximum compensation for 
losses is $8.00 an acre, and is that amount only in case of total loss. 
A loss of half a crop therefore entitles the loser to $4.00 an acre. 

The by-laws may be changed or amended by a two-thirds vote 
of members present at the annual meeting. 

3. — ^ITS WORKINGS. 

We have seen, very briefly, the rules under which this associa- 
tion works. It is now time to see how these rules work out when 
they are applied under actual conditions. The first essential for a 
mutual company of this kind is to have capable and honest men in 
charge. In this respect this association has been unusually success- 
ful. In its nineteen years of experience — not counting the five years 
of preliminary work in North and South Dakota — ^it has had no 
difficulty in finding efficient directors and officers, altho the compen- 
sation has been too small to be attractive. The average term of 
service of a director has been eight and one-half years. The present 
directorate have an average service of nine and a half years. This 
means a body of seasoned men always in charge. The present offi- 
cers are: J. M. Smith, president; H. M. Clark, vice president; 
Watson E. Boise, secretary-treasurer. The president has been a 
director for sixteen years; the other two officers have been directors 



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48 



The Quarterly Journal 



continuously for nineteen years. All officers and directors are prac- 
tical and successful fanners. The president, for instance, is the 
owner of twelve hundred acres of land. 

The amount of business done from year to year, and the salient 
facts concerning the financial management of the company can easily 
be gathered from the following interesting table: 

WORK OF ALLIANCE HAIL ASSOCIATION 



Year 


No. of 
PoU- 


Amount of 

Insuranc* 

Acres and 

DoUars 


Coat 
Per 

nooo 


Paid to 
Asents 


Salariea 

and 

Clerk Hire 


Tdtal 

AdnUnifl. 

trative 

ExDenae 


LoeeeePaid 
and Unpaid 


1891 


1812 


• 170,296 
11,362,360 


131.25 


13,503.22 


12,149.00 


1 8,419.27 


1 1 31,578.49 
t 7,383.22 


1892 


987 


• 96.116 
1 768,922 


33.76 


2.106.99 


2,674.00 


7,142.92 


1 11,269.42 
t 


1893 


999 


• 110,863 
1 886,824 


37.60 


2,266.23 


2.920.00 


7,626.36 


f 9.778.43 
t 


1894 


1140 


• 118.411 
1 947,288 


25.00 


2,606.36 


3.280.00 


8.468.97 


1 9.123.46 
t 


1895 


2141 


• 224,731 
11.797,848 


37.60 


4,796.31 


3,107.00 


12,169.34 


1 79.302.60 
t 


1896 


992 


• 96,880 
1 775,040 


37.60 


1.866.32 


2,449.60 


7,173.42 


1 20.688.03 
t 18.466.29 


1897 


726 


• 66,263 
1 460.024 


40.00 


1,323.66 


2,216.76 


5.624.29 


f 6,966.10 
t 


1898 


1126 


• 99.302 
1 792.416 


60.00 


2,675.36 


2,266.60 


7,587.20 


f 29,907.86 
t 


1899 


1686 


• 144.880 
11,198.640 


60.00 


4.686.79 


2.387.76 


10.914.69 


f 61,466.68 
t 36.112.69 


1900 


284 


• 13,738 
1 109.904 


60.00 


434.43 


2.200.00 


3.616.66 


f 2.631.90 
t 


1901 


624 


• 43.669 
1 349,272 


60.00 


1,347.13 


1.700.00 


4.691.31 


f 10.338.60 
t 


1902 


746 


• 62,623 
1 600.184 


60.00 


3,013.48 


2,141.60 


7.234.90 


f 21,366.32 
t 7,467.71 



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Alliance Hail Association 49 

WORK OF ALLIANCE HAIL ASSOCIATION-Continued 



w 


No. of 
Poli- 


Amount of 

Insimneo 

AerMand 

Dollars 


Cost 
Per 
8100 


Paid to 
Asents 


SalariM 

and 

aerk Hire 


total 
Adminis- 

tratire 
Exnenae 


LoMosPaid 
and Unpaid 


1903 


600 


• 46.299 
1 370.392 


48.76 


2.129.32 


1.768.00 


6.694.18 


I 6.747.08 
t 


1904 


1484 


• 178.817 
1 933.766 


46.00 


8.087.79 


2.041.90 


14.011.74 


I 17.676.69 
t 


1906 


2710 


• 268.488 
11.828.631 


40.00 


16,687.73 


2.389.26 


23.969.66 


f 34.267.67 
t 


1906 


4281 


• 382,911 
13.063.289 


86.00 


27.416.66 


3.031.66 


36.778.09 


f 38.121.24 
t 


1907 


6217 


• 496.669 
13.978.349 


80.00 


36.834.69 


3.982.60 


49.637.40 


I 312.086.72 
t 


1908 


4473 


• 894.299 
18.164.394 


66.00 


28.281.43 


4,270.76 


41,389.02 


f 101.619.68 
t 


1909 


8006 


• 669.661 
16.277.208 


66.00 


47.281.92 


6.641.30 


63.166.12 


f 244.646.32 
t 



• Acree f Paid t Unpaid 

Only four times have there been unpaid losses. These unpaid 
losses have amounted to $64,428.91, or less than one-fourth of one 
per cent of the risks carried. There is no "table of mortality" in 
the hail insurance business, and each company must be its own 
actuary. The cost per $i,cx)0 of insurance varies widely from year 
to year. For the total period of nineteen years, this company has 
made an average annual charge of $44.50 per $1,000. The actual 
cost (had all losses been met) would have been $46.82 per $1*000. 
The six per cent assessment mentioned in the by-laws is thus seen to 
be more than ample. 

Only twice have the administrative expenses exceeded the losses 
paid. These occasions were when the business was at a low ebb and 
the losses were unusually light. The chief item of expense is the 
commission paid to agents. The amount of business done depends 
almost solely upon the number of agents in the field. These work 
on the commission basis. After much .experimentation it has been 
learned as an unhappy fact that farmers will not voluntarily walk 
up and purchase hail insurance. Agents must be sent to them. And 
the farmers must pay the agent liberal commissions. In this way the 



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50 The Quarterly Journal 

farmer increases the cost of his insurance all the way from twelve to 
seventy-five per cent, for which he has only himself to thank. At first 
it was very difficiJt to secure good agents. Farmers were distrustful: 
they were afraid of being buncoed. Conditions are changing now. 
There are about two applications for agents for every position. In 
some cases local banks are acting as agents. All agents are appointed 
for one year at a time. 

The assessment up to the year 1904 was made at a certain 
number of cents on the acre, the acre being insured for $8.00. Prior 
to incorporation in North Dakota, the old company had made a 
charge of 25 cents an acre. In 1887, 1888, and 1889, 20 cents was 
enough, i. e., $25 per $1,000. For the years 1890 and 1891, 30 
cents was needed. Beginning with 1892, 30 cents was the rate for 
the "assessable note." The premium actually collected depends, of 
course, on the September assessment. In the year 1897, there having 
been unpaid losses in 1895 and 1896, the assessment limit was set at 
40 cents an acre. This was a year of crisis for the organization. 
The minutes of that year speak of "new management," "new plans," 
and "surer methods." Salaries — already small — ^were cut. A re- 
serve fund was provided for, only to be abandoned soon afterwards. 
The thing needed, evidently, was a larger assessment. It was actu- 
ally raised to 32 cents an acre, a sum which soon proved inadequate 
and brought about a second and almost fatal crisis, that of 1889 ^n<l 
1890. To increase the assessment was an unpopular thing, but a 
very necessary thing. In 1898 a 40 cent assessment was paid, the 
first time this figure had ever been reached. But the year 1899 was a 
bad one. The $5,000 reserve was wiped out. The 40 cent assess- 
ment paid only two-thirds of the losses. The losses were accordingly 
settled pro rata, and the unpaid balance was not carried on as a lia- 
bility. The year 1900 was the crucial year of the association, the 
year of its lowest ebb. The losses, fortunately, happened to be small, 
but even these were only paid in part, the balance going over to 1901. 
For the sake of a good record they were then paid in full. Only 70% 
of the 1900 premiums were collected. In the minutes of the meeting 
closing up the 1901 business we find a more hopeful tone. "We arc 
grateful," says the report, "not that we are able to report a large 
business, but because the *old reliable A. H. A.* has passed thru a 
crisis and come out whole and as sound as in the first years of its 
usefulness, and with no stain upon its record. It is true that there 
have been some years when the association could not pay losses in 
full, but it never deceived the farmers with false promises to pay 
more than was possible with the resources at its command. More- 



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Alliance Hail Association 51 

over, the association has lived thru many adverse circumstances, out- 
living half a dozen 'mushroom' companies, has withstood the on- 
slaughts of the stock companies, and the misrepresentations of the 
false so-called mutuals, and the malicious and unfair competition of 
the 'fake' concerns that have sought to get a foothold in the state." 

In 1903 action was taken limiting the risks to 80 acres in any 
160 acres, and raising the assessment limit to 45 cents an acre. This 
action meant a reduced liability and an increased ability to pay 
losses. Since that date all losses have been paid in full, altho in 1907, 
owing to the excessive losses, $30,355.16 went over unpaid till next 
year. 

In 1904 the assessment was changed to the per cent basis, being 
set nominally at six per cent. 

Salaries have been low thruout the history of the company, the 
farmers disbelieving in the theory of high priced officials. In 1896 
salaries were cut from $2,400 (for two officers) to $2,200. In the 
meeting of 1903 we find this action taken: "To further assist in 
die efforts to pay losses in full hereafter, it was decided to pay no 
salary to the president, his compensation being limited, as a director, 
to the time actually engaged in the service of the company." At the 
present time, however, the president receives a salary of $1,200 per 
year, and the secretary-treasurer, $1,500. Stock companies are pay- 
ing from two to ten times as much for the same class of men. 

The collection of premiums is slow. Farmers usually give 
their note for the full six per cent premium. The notes bear no 
interest till after due. The insurance is just as cheap on time as for 
cash. From seventy to ninety-five per cent of the premiums due is 
the most that can be collected, and much of this runs two and three 
years. This is prehaps one of the weak features of a mutual com- 
pany. Harsh measures of collection would alienate the good will of 
rural communities. 

Thoro auditing is one of the most commendable features of this 
association. Each year an audit is had, and it goes to the bottom. 
A committee of three (only one of whom is a director) and one ex- 
pert accountant employed for the occasion audit the accounts. The 
examination is a thoro one, and includes a scrutiny of every account, 
voucher, and every check issued by the association. Not one cent 
has ever been lost thru defalcation. 

Adjusting losses is, naturally, a very difficult and delicate task. 
For this work only men of much experience in farming are em- 
ployed. The president himself is the leading appraiser, and his of- 
fice is thus no sinecure. The present incumbent is peculiarly well 



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52 The Quarterly Journal 

qualified for his work. The aim is to give the losers a fair amount, 
and to help him feel that he is getting fair treatment. 

Distribution of losses is now secured by carrying insurance in 
every county in the state. The same rate is charged for the whole 
state, altho some other companies charge more for the western part. 
Litigation is avoided. However, some fractious individuals have 
refused to live up to their agreement with the association until suit 
was commenced in the justice of the peace courts. The assodation 
has never lost a suit, nor has it ever had to carry a suit into the 
district court. It feels that its position is legally sound at every 
step, and it is ready to carry any fight to the supreme court if neces- 
sary. The policy is, however, as just stated, to avoid litigation. 

The association does work among many different nationalities 
and with no marked differences in results. Agents are sent out who 
can use the language. The by-laws are issued in three languages. 
The principal nationalities now reached are the Germans, French, 
Russians, Norwegians, Bohemians Poles, Scotch-Irish, and Jews. 
Jewish farmers have started a farm colony in the northeast corner 
of Burleigh county. 

One lesson has been taught by this association, and that is the 
folly of making the assessment too low. The heavy loss is sure to 
come and it should be provided for. Under the present by-laws (for 
there is no established policy yet in the matter) there is no surplus 
or reserve fund provided for, each year's receipts being applied to 
the same year's expenditures only. The experience of the years 1904 
-1908 would seem to show the wisdom of a different course. In 
1904 an "expense fund** was provided for. This reserve — for such 
it was — ^grew to $46,106.46 in 1906, after all losses had been paid 
in that year. The 1906 losses were $38,121.24, while the losses one 
year later were $312,085.72, or over eight times as much. Q>nse- 
quently the reserve was wiped out, an eight per cent assessment used 
up, and still an unpaid balance of losses of over $30,000 was left 
over to the next year. Under the present by-laws the assessment 
may be twelve per cent, but no unpaid losses can be carried forward 
as a liability. A larger assessment in good years and a lower as- 
sessment in bad years would equalize the burden and promote the 
welfare of the association. 

If the total amount of business could be greatly increased — 
thus redudng the share of operating expense — and if a level pre- 
mium or at least some nearer approach to a level premium of say, 
four and a half or five per cent could be charged, it is likely that 
a small reserve could be built up against the bad years. A small 



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Alliance Hail Association 53 

reserve, well invested, would be ample. Future crises could then be 
safely met. As it is, a mutual company is always walking on the 
brink of dissolution. 

This association is now (1910) in the twentieth year of its 
existence, and feels that its past experience and its courageously won 
prestige among the farmers constitute an asset similar and in some 
ways superior to the '^reserves" of the stock companies. 



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City Trend of Population and 
Leadership 

John Morris Gillette 
Professor of Sociology, University of North Dakota 

ONE of the semi-pathological conditions of the present which 
has taken a hold on many minds arises out of the growth of 
cities. It is commonly assumed that our cities are being built up 
in population at the almost entire expense of the country districts, 
and it is also often assumed that our nation is worse off than other 
nations in this respect. Another phase of the city movement which 
has attracted recent attention is the drift of the graduates of our 
higher institutions of learning away from farm life. 

This paper seeks to determine how largely city growth owes 
itself to country sources. This can be determined only by a lengthy 
statistical study. The result will probably surprise the average 
citizen. It also tries to find how great the drift of graduates of our 
institutions of higher learning is away from country life. The 
matter depended upon to settle this point was obtained from re- 
sponses to a questionnaire addressed to these institutions, the as- 
sumption being that education represents leadership. 

It would be expected that some attention should be given to 
causes of the movements, and remedial agencies, if they were needed. 
Not as much space is left to these phases of the paper as they re- 
quired. This treatment is largely suggestive as a consequence. 

I— POPULATION. 
I — Facts Indicating The City Drift. 
The general fact of dty trend of population in the United 
States is established by the decennial censusses of urban and rural 
regions, 8,000 being taken as the basis of a city. The percentage, 
nimiber of places, and increase in number of places from 1790 to 
1900 are as follows: ^ 



Census 



Parcentsffeof 

urban to total 

population 


Ntunbar of 
plaoM 


InCTMC* in 

nomlMrof 

pfaMS« 


31.1 


545 


98 


29.2 
22.6 


447 
286 


161 
60 


20.9 
16.1 


226 
141 


85 

56 



1900 

1890 
1880 
1870 
i860 



1. United States census. 1900. Vol. 1. table xxiz. 



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City Trend of Population 



55 



CmmuB 



Peroentaffe of 

urban to total 

population 


Nnmbar of 
pboM 


Increace in 

numbarof 

places 


12.5 
8.5 
6.7 


85 

44 
26 


41 
18 

13 


4-9 


13 


2 


4.9 


II 


5 


4.0 


6 





3-3 


6 






1850 

1840 

1830 
1820 
I8IO 
1800 

1790 



The greatest increase of the urban clement was in the decade 
1 880- 1 890, the increase in number of places being 161, and in 
percent of places 56.3. The decade i860- 1870 also shows a re- 
markable growth of cities and city population. 

Relative to cities of at least 8,000 ihabitants the general tend- 
ency among the states is a steady increase in the population of the 
urban element. In a few cases the increase is remarkable. The 
industrial states have sustained the largest increase and these states 
arc in the North Atlantic and North Central divisions, the South 
Atlantic division, and the Western, with the exception of Cali- 
fornia, showing a small, a slower, or a very recent growth. 

Approximating the early per cents from a cartogram in the 
twelfth census representing the proportion of urban to total popu- 
lation at each census in states having records of city inhabitants 
for these decades and combining with the per cents given in the 
last census, the following growths are shown. The first date given 
in the cartogram for each state will be used. 

Increase of the population of urban to the total population by 
states: ^ 



state 



Early 


Percent 


Late 




census 


(approxi- 


census 


Percent 


date 


mate) 


date 




181O 


13 


1900 


81.2 


1790 


5 




76.0 


1790 


10 




68.5 


1830 


3 




61.2 


1830 


3 




53.2 


1850 


4 




4M 


1790 


4 




46.9 


1790 


9 




45.5 


i860 


18 




43.7 


1840 


12 




44.1 


1840 


3 




38.6 


1820 


2 




38.5 



Rhode Island . . . 
Massachusetts . . 

New York 

New Jersey .... 
Connecticut . . . . 

Illinois 

Maryland 

Pennsylvania . . . 

California 

Delaware 

New Hampshire 
Ohio 



2. United States census, 1900, Vol. 1, P. LXXXII. and plate IX. 



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56 



The Quarterly Journal 



state 



Early 


Pereant 


Late 




censua 


(approxi- 


eenana 


Percent 


data 


mate) 


date 




1880 


26 


a 


38.1 


1840 


4 


«( 


30.9 


1840 


5 


« 


30.8 


1850 


7 


« 


30.7 


i860 


7 


<< 


26.8 


i860 


20 


<« 


25.2 


1850 


2 


« 


24.2 


1870 


8 


« 


23.9 


1820 


3 


i< 


23-7 


181O 


23 


« 


22.8 


1830 


2 


i< 


16.9 


i860 


5 


II 


16.8 


1870 


13 


II 


15.8 


1880 


4 


II 


15.0 


181O 


2 


II 


14.7 


1870 


7 


II 


14.0 


1850 


2 


II 


13-4 


i860 


2 


II 


"•3 


1870 


7 


II 


1 1.2 


1840 


2 


i( 


1 1.0 


1850 


3 


II 


7-7 


1790 


7 




7.5 


1840 


2 


II 


7.3 


1870 


3 


II 


5-4 


i860 


2 


II 


5.1 


1870 


3 


II 


2.6 



Colorado 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Utah 

Indiana 

Oregon 

Maine 

Louisiana 

Kentucky 

Iowa 

Nebraska 

Florida 

Virginia 

Kansas 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Georgia 

West Virginia . 
South Carolina 

Alabama 

Arkansas 

North Carolina 
Mississippi 



Very seldom has the urban percentage declined or decreased 
tho a marked tendency to remain stationary is seen in the case of 
southern states. Louisiana in 1900 was approximately where it was 
in 1 8 10. Its decennial percentages tell the tale, beginning with 
1810: 22, 18, 21, 29, 25, 23, 26, 24, 23, 23. It is noted that 
relative to 1840, when its per cent of urban population was ap- 
proximately 29 it has steadily declined. Mississippi, North Caro- 
line, Arkansas, Alabama, South Carolina, West Virginia, Georgia, 
in the south, and Vermont in the north have sustained but slight 
changes in their population ratio. 

The general advance in urban numbers has kept up to as late 
^ I905) judging by the interdecennial censusses of the 13 states 
which take them. The per cents of gains between 1900 and 1905 
for these states are as follows: Florida, 1.5, Iowa, 3.5, Kansas, 
4.8, Massachusetts, (includes towns), 1.7, Michigan, (census of 
1904), 1.5, Minnesota, 3.6, New Jersey, 2.1, New York, 3.2, North 
Dakota, 2.1, Rhode Island, (includes towns), 2.4, South Dakota, 



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City Trend of Population 



57 



1.9, Wisconsin, 0.8, Wyoming, 10.7, (a decline). The total aver- 
age per cent of increase for these states is 2.8. * 

Kansas, which is largely an agricultural state, made the largest 
per cent of increase in urban population in the five years indicated., 
lowsi and Minnesota both ran ahead of New York, showing, evi- 
dendy, that industrialization is passing rapidly into the west. The 
decrease in the case of Wyoming is due to the decline of the chief 
city Laramie. 

The ratio and variation in ratio of urban to rural population, 
including a kind of periodicity, is shown by the following table : ^ 



P«re«iit of 
inereaae of 

of eitlM 



Pereont of 
incrouo of 
population 
of country 
distriets 



Ratio of per 
eontof m- 
erouoin 
citiMto 
that of 
country 
distriets 



1890 


to 


1900 


1880 


to 


1890 


1870 


to 


1880 


i860 


to 


1870 


1850 


to 


i860 


1840 


to 


1850 


1830 


to 


1840 


1820 


to 


1830 


I8I0 


to 


1820 


1800 


to 


I8IO 


1790 


to 


1800 



37.0 

60.2 

4I.I 

59-1 
75.1 
99.3 
68.2 
82.0 
23.1 
69.3 
60.4 



14.1 
14.5 
27.2 
15.6 

29.9 
30.0 
30.1 
31.0 
33.1 
35.0 
34-2 



2.6 
4.2 
1.5 
3.8 
2.5 
3.3 
2.3 
2.6 
I.O 

2.0 
1.8 



The maximum rate of growth is seen to have been reached be- 
tween 1840 and 1850. The growth rate of country districts has 
steadily declined. The ratio in favor of the cities has increased on 
the average. 

It is coming to be recognized that rural conditions in the sense 
of furnishing characteristics peculiar to farm and farm life are left 
behind long before a center of population reaches the 8,000 mark. 
Measured by this guage places of 2,500 are non-rural. Even much 
smaller places have become non-rural by the same test. It is worth 
while therefore to study the population movement with reference 
to the smaller centers. 

The census of 1900 recognizes three classes of population, 
namely, urban, semi-urban, and rural. On this point it says: 
"There were in 1900, besides the 1,158 incorporations and New 
England towns which have been taken to represent the urban ele- 
ment, 9,553 incorporations having less than 4,000 inhabitants, which 

8. United StatM Cenraa BoUotin 71. tablo ft. 
4. Census Bulletin No. 4, 1903, table 23. 



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58 



The Quarterly Journal 



may be said to comprise partly urban and partly rural population.*' 
The following table apportions the population according to the 
three classes : ^ 





1900 


1890 


CUwses of Population 


Number 


Percent 
of total 


Number 


Percent 
of total 


Urban 


28,411,698 

8,208,480 

39,528,398 


37.3 
10.8 

51.9 


20,768,881 

6,172,275 

36,096,548 


32.9 

9.8 

57.3 


Semi-urban 


Rural 




Total 


76,148,576 


100.0 


63,037,704 


1 00.0 







The rural has lost 5.4 per cent in population to the urban and 
semi-urban, the former absorbing 4.4 per cent of it. 

A more analytical treatment of the urban and rural population, 
reckoning places of 2,500 and upward as cities, shows what classes 
of cities are absorbing the large portions of the country's popula- 
tion. The census table partly reproduced represents this, as also 
the increase or decrease relative to country districts : ® 

Number and population of cities classified by si^, and popu- 
lation of country districts, 1900, 1890 and 1880. 





Number of dtiea 


Percent of total 
population 


Per cent of 
increase of 
population 




1900 


1890 


1880 


1900 


1890 


1880 


1890 to 
1900 


1880 to 
1890 


Ck>ntinental United States 


100 


100 


100 


20.7 


24.9 


All cities 


1.861 


1.490 


1.088 


40.2 


88.8 


29.3 


35.6 


53 8 






Cities having a 
population of: 

100,000 and over 

2M00 to 100.000 

8.000 to 25.000 

4.000 to 8.000 

2.500 to 4.000 


38 
122 
385 
612 
704 


28 

96 

321 

447 
598 


20 

57 

210 

328 

473 


18.7 
7.3 
6.9 
4.4 
2.9 


15.5 
6.8 
6.8 
3.9 
3.0 


12.4 
4.8 
5.5 
3.6 
3.0 


46.5 
28.4 
23.9 
38.0 
18.5 


55.4 
79.2 
54.6 
36.4 
25.5 


Country districts 








59.8 


664.2 


70.7 


12.4 


12.9 



Several things are apparent from this table: 

The percent of the total population living in each class of 
cities except the smallest increased. 

The largest cities made the largest gain in per cent of the 
total population. 

5. United States census. 1900. Vol. I. P. LXXXIX. 

6. United States census Bulletin No. 4. Qovernment printing office. 
1903. reproduction of the per cent portion of table 22. 



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City Trend of Population 



59 



In all classes of cities except the fourth, 4)(XX) to 8,(XX), the gain 
was less in the second decade. In the case of the class of largest 
ddes this is supposed to be due to die severe industrial depression, 
brought on by the panic of 1893 which lasted a number of years. 

Only the class of cities with population of from 4,cxx> to 8,000 
raised its per cent of increase of population. 

"There are 38 cities in 1900 in each of which the population 
exceeds 100,000, and these dties have a combined population of 
14,208,347, or practically one half of the entire urban element of 
the country, considered on the basis of places of 4,000 inhabitants 



or more, 



»>7 



The exclusion of the urban population of cities of 100,000 
and over reduces the proportion of urban to rural population in many 
of the states in the North Atlantic and North Central divisions in 
which four-fifths of the urban population of the country exists. 
The same would also be true in Colorado and California notably. 
Some of the noted reductions are as follows : ^ 



state 


Nvmberof 
iMsedtiM 


Number of 
■mmller cHiee 


Per cent of 
reduction 


Marvland 


I 
4 
4 
I 

3 
I 

I 
2 


7 
79 

65 

8 

7 
22 


48.2 to 9.4 
71.2 to 34.8 
51. 1 to 30.9 

51.0 to 24.4 
34.9 to 10.7 

25.1 to 5.5 

41.2 to 21.8 
48.9 to 27.1 


New York 


Pennsylvania 


Illinois 


Missouri 


Louisiana 


Colorado 


California 



It is important to know what regions and states are relatively 
or actually losing rural population. 

In the North Atlantic division, out of nine states, but three, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania, sustained no actual 
loss in rural population between 1890 and 1900, and the former 
saved itself by only 876. In the South Atlantic division with nine 
states Delaware alone lost rural population, over one-half of the total 
increase in population coming from the country. Of the twelve states 
of the North Central division Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Nebraska and 
Kansas show a loss of rural population, the other states generalUy 
making good gains. The South Central states, nine in all, and the 
Western eleven, reveal rural gains, Texas and Oklahoma making en- 
ormous advances. In the case of Kansas and Nebraska, the loss of 

7. United states census report, Part I. P. LXXXVI. 

8. Ibid, table XXXU. 



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6o 



The Quarterly Journal 



rural population is due to droughts in the western semi-arid regions 
which drove out the early settlers. 

The actual loss of rural population for the whole United States, 
summing up by divisions, is here seen: In the. North Atlantic, six 
states lost 325,808, and three states gained 86,943, leaving a net loss 
of 238,865. In the South Atlantic, one state, Delaware, lost 2,404 
rural population, the division losing 830,739 to the credit of its rural 
region. In the North Central, five states lost 138,315 rural popu- 
lation, but the whole division had 458,149 to its rural credit. The 
rural regions of the other two divisions gained. * 

The distribution of numbers by occupations in successive cen- 
susses indicates a city drift. A comparison of the per cents of workers 
in the chief classes of occupations as given in the year 1880, 1890, 
and 1900 demonstrates this: ^® 





1100 


1890 


1880 


Agricultural pursuits 

Professional service 


35.7 
4.3 
19.4 
16.3 
24.3 


37.7 
4.1 
18.6 
14.6 
25.0 


44.3 


Domestic and personal service 


197 


Trade and transportation 

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. . 


10.7 
21.8 



Carrying it back a decade further we find agriculturists constituted 
52 per cent of the working industrial population. 

2. — ^THE SOURCB OF URBAN GROWTH. 

The relative growth of our cities is demonstrably large. What 
is the source of the increase? 

There are four sources of city population noted by the census 
of 1900. Incorporation of suburbs, excess of births over deaths, move- 
ment from country to city, immigration. The first is regarded as of 
very slight influence. 

Little is known about the relative birth and death rate in the 
nation. Our census gives no facts regarding birth rates. Other 
sources are nil or meager. "The summary of vital statistics for die 
New England cities for 1902 shows that the natural increase, due 
to the excess of births over deaths, of towns of 10,000 and upwards 
is 8.67 per thousand; whereas in places below 10,000 the rate was 
only 1.28 per thousand." ^^ 

If these data are reliable, and if the same state prevails over the 
nation, we have a source of rapid increase of city population. But 

9. United states census, 1900, Vol. I, table XXXVI. 

10. United States census. Population, Part U, P. CXUn. 

11. David Kinly; Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, Vol. 4; P. 116. 



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City Trend of Population 



6i 



there is a necessity of exercising caution in the use of mortality statis- 
tics given out by many cities, it is well known, ^^ and probably the 
necessity exists in using these figures too literally. Facts relating to 
mortality are scanty and probably untrustworthy in many cases. In 
the few registration states country and cities are partly treated. Thus 
the average for the total registration areas are as follows based on 
deaths per i,ooo population : ^^ 



CitiM 


Bnrml 
Dto- 
trieta 


17-3 


14.1 


17.1 


13-7 


17.9 


14.4 


17.2 


14-3 


17.8 


I4.I 


18.0 


X4-5 



Annual average, 1 901 -1905. 

1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 



The averages for the whole area present relatively slight variations, 
9-ICX) for city and 8-100 for rural regions. But between given 
states of the area the variations are large. Thus the annual average, 
1 901-5, of the cities of Maine was 18.5, that of Michigan cities, 14.6; 
the rate for rural regions of Rhode Island was 17.6, that for Indiana, 
12.4 and of Michigan, 12.7. But the mortality rate is uniformly 
lower in country than in city. 

Immigration undoubtedly accounts for a very large per cent 
of the growth of cities of the United States, in numbers far exceed- 
ing those settling in the cities earlier, tho in per cent appearing 
smaller in most cases, due to the increased population of the cities. 
The following table of percentages indicates the si^ of the foreign 
bom element of our prindpal urban centers during the last four de- 
cades: ^* 



City 



1870 



1880 



1890 



1900 



New York, N. Y. . 
Brooklyn, N. Y. .. 

Chicago, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa. . . 

St. Louis, Mo 

Boston, Mass 

Baltimore, Md. . . . 

Cleveland, O 

Buffalo, N. Y 

San Francisco, Cal. 



44.5 
36.5 
48.4 
27.2 
36.1 

35.1 
21. 1 
41.8 
39.3 
49.3 



39.7 
31.3 
40.7 
24.1 
30.0 
31.6 
16.9 
37.1 
33.1 
44.6 



42.2 

32.5 
41.0 

25.7 
25.4 
35.3 
15.9 
37.2 
35.0 
42.4 



37.0 

34.6 
22.8 
19.4 
35.1 
13.5 
32.6 
29.6 
34.1 



12. Irving Fl8h«-; Report on NaUonal Vitality, P. 21. 

13. United States Mortality StatlsUcs, 1907. P. 29. 

14. United States StaUsUcal Abstract. 1908, P. 75. 



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62 



The Quarterly Journal 



City 

Pittsburg, Pa 

Cincinnati, O 

Detroit, Mich. 

Milwaukee, Wis. . . 
New Orleans, La. . 
Washington, D. C. . 

Newark, N. J 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
Jersey City, N. J. . . 

Louisville, Ky 

Indianapolis, Ind. . . 
Prrovidence, R. L . 
St. Paul, Minn. . . . 
Rochester, N. Y. . . 
Kansas City, Mo. . . 

Toledo, O 

Denver, Colo 

Allegheny, Pa 

Columbus, O 

Worcester, Mass. . . 
Los Angeles, Cal. . . 
Memphis, Tenn. . . . 

Omaha, Neb 

New Haven, Conn. 
Syracuse, N. Y. ... 

Scrannton, Pa. 

St. Joseph, Mo. . . . 

Paterson, N. J 

Fall River, Mass. . . 

Portland, Ore 

Atlanta, Ga 

Seattle, Wash 

Dayton, O 

Albany, N. Y. ..... 

Grand Rapids, Mich, 
Cambridge, Mass. . . 

Lowell, Mass. 

Hartford, Conn. . . . 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va. 

Nashville, Tenn. . . 

Trenton, N. J 

Wilmington, Del. . 

Camden, N. J 

Bridgeport, Conn. . . 

Lynn, Mass 

Troy, N. Y 

Des Moines, Iowa . 



1870 



32.3 
36.8 

44.5 
47.3 
25.3 
12.6 

34-2 

34.1 
38.6 

25.5 
22.1 

24.9 
43.4 
34.0 
23.8 
35.1 
23.9 
28.8 

24.3 
29.1 
35.0 
16.9 

39.3 
28.2 

32.5 
45.2 
26.7 
38.3 
42.9 
31.1 
5-1 

24.4 
32.2 

34.7 
30.4 
35.3 
29.1 
1 1.4 

7.4 
10.9 
21.9 
16.7 
12.9 
28.4 
17.5 
34-9 
20.6 



1880 



1890 



1900 



28.5 
28.1 
39.2 
39.9 
I9.I 
9.6 

29.5 
32.0 

32.5 
18.7 
16.8 
26.8 

36.4 
29.8 
16.7 
28.6 
24.4 
24.7 
17.6 
26.8 
28.7 
II.2 
32.5 
24.9 
25.2 
34.6 
17.4 
36.7 
48.2 

35.9 
3.8 

18.7 

26.2 

31.2 

29.8 

38.8 

25.2 

8.4 

5.3 

7.0 

I9.I 
13.4 
10.8 
26.9 
18.4 
29.9 
18.8 



30.7 
24.1 

39.7 

38.9 

14.2 

8.2 

30.5 
36.8 

32.7 
14.6 

13.7 
30.6 

39.9 
29.7 
15.7 
27.3 
23.9 
24.8 
14.2 
31.5 
25.3 
8.4 
25.0 

28.3 
25.4 
34.0 
13.5 
39.8 
50.7 
37.4 
2.9 
31.9 
15.7 
23.5 
32.2 

34.1 
44.5 
27.2 

8.1 

4.3 

5.0 

24.5 
14.8 

13.3 
29.0 
25.1 
28.8 
15.8 



26.4 
17.4 
33.8 
31.2 
10.6 

7.2 
29.0 
30.1 
28.3 
10.5 
10. 1 
31.8 
28.7 
25.1 
11.2 
21. 1 
18.9 
23.3 

9.8 
31.8 
19.5 

5.0 
23.0 
28.5 
21.9 
28.4 

8.2 

36.9 

47.7 

28.6 

2.8 

27.3 
11.8 
18.8 
27.3 
33.2 
43.1 
29.8 

7.5 

3.4 

3.8 

22.9 

13.7 
13.3 
31.4 
25.9 
23.7 
12.8 



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City Trend of Population 



63 



CltT 



1870 


1880 


1890 


17.2 


22.1 


35-4 


26.0 


22.6 


24-7 




31.9 


29.9 


44.0 


44.1 


46.0 


28.1 


22.8 


27.1 






14.9 


I3-0 


9.7 


7-9 


50.9 


41.9 


39.8 



1900 



New Bedford, Mass. 
Springfidd, Mass. . 

Oakland, Cal 

Lawrance, Mass. . . 
Somcrville, Mass. . . 
Kansas City, Kan. . 

Savannah, Ga 

Hoboken, N. J 



40.9 
23.2 
25.8 

45.7 
28.0 
12.4 

6.3 
36.0 



The per cents alone are somewhat deceiving. The per cent in 
New York has decreased in 30 years from 44.5 to 37.0. But the 
foreign bom in 1870 in that dty numbered 419,094, whereas in 
1900 it was 1,270,080. Kansas City, Missouri, seems to have lost 
heavily but its foreign born in 1900 was 18,410 as against 7,679 in 
1870. Los Angeles had 2,004 foreigners in 1870 and 19,964 in 
1900, tho its per cent shrank from 35 to 19.5. The actual situation 
has been that the foreigners have been steadily pouring into the cities. 

When it is remembered that the "foreign bom" are the fathers 
of the "native born" who are being produced year by year and who 
go to swell the population of cities, and that the birth rate is higher 
in the foreign element it will be seen that the immigration factor in 
the instance of the first and second generations of immigrants is a 
large and productive influence. 

This is demonstrable to a large degree of certainty. The dis- 
tribution of aliens has been to the northem half of the United States 
and to the industrial states in particular as we have seen. 

An examination into the percentage of the total persons of for- 
eign parentage in die cities of 25,000 population or over demon- 
strates that such states as Georgia have but from 7.9 per cent (At- 
lanta) to 17.7 per cent (Savannah) of such persons. Charlestown, 
South Carolina, has 14.2 per cent. Tennessee cities have an average 
of 1 1.9 of this class. So for other southern states. Compare this 
picture with that made by the percentages of the cities of the north, 
especially those of the industrial states. None of the five cities of 
Connecticut falling within this class has a percentage below 62.8 
of persons of foreign parentage, the highest being 74.2. The cities 
of Massachusetts vary from 48.9 per cent (Haverhill) to 86.1 per 
cent (Fall River), the average for its twenty cities of this class being 
between 65 and 70 per cent. The average for the Rhode Island cit- 
ies is 74.2 per cent. That for the twelve New York cities with their 
some four and a quarter million inhabitants is 59.5 per cent; for 
Pennsylvania's eighteen cities is 41.5 per cent, Scranton, with 72.7 



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64 The Quarterly Journal 

per cent, standing highest; the population of all the cities running 
up dose to 2,500,000. New Jersey cities, with their almost a mil- 
lion people averages 63.6 per cent. Ohio's city population is over 
1,000,000 and its avergae percentage of persons of foreign parentage 
is 50.9. Illinois with this class of city population of over 2,000,000 
has a percentage of 57*7) Chicago being 77.4. Minnesota and Mich- 
igan have large urban populations with percentages of 60 to 70. 
Iowa and Indiana represent a half million urbanites with a percentage 
running toward 50. California possesses over a half million city 
people and a percentage of over 60. Wisconsin has over 400,000 city 
population with an average of 76 per cent. Washington and Oregon 
represent over 200,000 urbanites and an average per cent of 54.2. 
Missouri has nearly a million in its cities of this class, having a per- 
centage of 30.6. Maryland has a 500,000 city and a percentage of 
38.2. So for several other states, whose city populations are relatively 
much smaller in comparison with their total population. In face of 
such an array of facts it does not seem strained to state that the im- 
migration element largely accounts for the growth of our cities. 

Recent immigrants dominantly settle in cities. There are living 
in cities of 25,000 inhabitants and over, about 75 per cent of Rus- 
sians; 63 per cent each of Poles, Italians and Irish; nearly 60 per 
cent of Bohemians, Austrians, and Hungarians. These, except the 
Irish, are the foreign races which now most come to America. ^^ A 
large part of those and some other races settle in smaller industrial 
communities. Germans and Scandinavians mostly congregate in the 
northwesterly states as agriculturists and will likely remain such. ^* 

Putting this set of facts with the immediately preceding set, I 
believe we are warranted in stating that 75 per cent or more of our 
urban growth arises out of the foreign born and children of foreign 
born residents. That is, immigration has populated our cities. 

To state in exact terms the part the farms have contributed to 
the upbuilding of city population is even more difficult than to meas- 
ure the part the preceding two sources have played. The study of 
interstate migration, tho baffling, at least throws some light on the 
matter. 

"The total native born population in 1900 was 65,767,451 
(including Alaska and Hawaii, but excluding 75,851 native born 
enumerated in military and naval stations abroad). Of this number 
5i»979»65i, or 79 per cent, were born in the state or territory in 
which they were found by the census enmerators. The remaining 

16. United states StatisUcal AUaa, 1903, plate 73. 
16. Ibid, plates 65 and 69. 



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City Trend of Population 65 

>3»787,8oo constituting 21 per cent of the entire native born cle- 
ment, had migrated from the state or territory in which they were 
bom and were found in other states and territories. The population 
living in the state or territory of birth was slightly larger in 1900 
than it was in 1890." ^'^ 

The exhaustion of available agricultural land in the west is like- 
ly to have a still more restrictive effect on that portion of interstate mi- 
gration which sought the west for farming opportunities. By a study 
of the census tables of the interstate migrations of Maine, New York, 
Iowa and North Dakota, something may be learned about the nature 
of the community the immigrants settle in, whether in country or in 
sity. ^8 

DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONS BORN IN MAINE. 

Number. Per Cent. 

Born In Maine, llyin^r In the United States 778.266 

Bom in Maine, living in Maine 660.506 80.7 

Born in Maine. Uvins outside Maine in the U. S.. 217.760 19.3 

Bom in Maine, living in N. Atlantic division 

outside of Maine 140.290 

Bom in Maine, living in South Atlantic division.. 3.769 
Bom in Maine, living in North Central division.. U 89.926 
Bom in Maine, living in South Central division.. 2.278 

Bom in Maine, living in Wefftem division 30,288 

Bom in Maine, living outside continental U. S.. 1,209 

Bom in Maine, living in Massachusetts 98,376 40.0 of exodus 

Bom in Maine, living in New Hampshire 16,650 7.7 of exodus 

Bom in Maine, living in California 14,732 6.8 of exodus 

Bom in Maine, living in Minnesota 10,000 4.9 of exodus 

Something like 7-1 1 of the total migration from Maine settled 
In adjoining states, particularly Massachusetts. It is evident they did 
not go into farming regions largely. The inference would be other- 
vinst for those that settled in the agricultural regions of the west and 
south. A very large proportion of the westbound migration of native 
bom stock has settled in rural regions. The proportion of those 
leaving Maine, whether from city or country, we have no means of 
determining. But since the city population of that state has been rel- 
atively small, less than 1-5 until about 1900, it would seem the vast 
majority eminated from farms. 

There is another side to Maine's population account. Its total 
population is 694,466. Of these those born in Maine are 560,506. 
Other native born are 40,630, or 5.9 of its population. Of foreign 
bom there are 93,330, or 13.4 per cent. Of the native born the 
North Atlantic states contribute 32,335 and the North Central, 
2,711, making 7-8 of the total. Where do these persons probably 
settle? 

Portland, Maine, had a population of 50,145 in 1900. Of these 

17. United States Statistical Atlas, 1900. P. 43. 

18. United States census, 1900. Vol. I. tables I^XH. UCVUI ft 

Lxxvni. 



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66 The Quarterly Journal 

69.6 per cent were born in Maine, 9.6 were native born from outside 
the state, 20.8 were foreign born. Since the foreigners are just a 
little over twice as numerous as the immigrating native bom they 
seem to be settling in Portland, and presimiably in the other cities 
of the state in about equal proportions. Outside of this we have no 
data to form judgments of what portion settle in cities, save the gen- 
eral fact that agricultural Maine was declining in the decade of the 
twelfth census and naturally would absorb the smaller portion of in- 
coming population. 

The population born in New York state are distributed as fol- 
lows: Total population, 7,268,894. Born in New York but living 
in the United States, 6,134,552, or 66.5 per cent. Born in New York 
and living in the state, 4,833,941. New York born lost to the state 
1,300,611. Foreign bom living in the state, 1,900,425 or 26.1 per 
cent. Number of native persons born outside and gained by the 
state, 534,528 or 7.4 per cent. 

The divisions of the United States according to their absorp- 
tion ability as to New York's emigrants with their chief absorbent 
states were as follows: The North Atlantic division received 
5,317,254. The following states of this division received 25,000 or 
more: Massachusetts, 71,113; Connecticut, 63,465; New York, 
4i833»94i; New Jersey, 193,431; Pennsylvania, 114,440; the South 
Atlantic division received 40,659. The North Central division re- 
ceived 606,641. The following states of that division received 25,000 
or more; Ohio, 56,652; Illinois, 111,078; Michigan, 156,489; Wis- 
consin, 58,338; Minnesota, 44, 342; Iowa, 53,878; Missouri, 30,268; 
Nebraska, 28,548; Kansas, 28,897. The South Central division re- 
ceived 30,635; the Western, 128,618; Alaska, 1,117; Hawaii, 464, 
and all others, 9,164. 

. It is to be observed that the South Central and South Atlantic 
states received but a small proportion of New York born; that the 
industrial states of the North Atlantic division absorbed the most of 
that division's share, the cities evidently taking them ; that the North 
Central states which have been building up agriculturally during the 
nineteenth century and industrially during the last few decades took 
the largest exodus of any one division, the fair inference being that 
the migrants chiefly went onto farms, and that in the Western 
division agriculture and mining took up the larger portion of New 
York born. 

Regarding the 7.4 per cent and 26.1 per cent of the state's pop- 
ulation who were immigrants from other states and foreign nations 
die rural regions probably took the larger portions of the former 



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City Trend of Population 67 

in the earlier decades of the nineteenth century while the cities ab- 
sorbed the immigrants. The constituency of New York city and Buf- 
falo warrant the inference. As to the former city, 55 per cent of the 
population was bom in the state, 8 per cent in other states, while 37 
per cent were foreign bom. As to Buffalo, the per cents in the same 
order are 63.2, 7.2, and 29.6. 

Taking Iowa as a type of the state largely agricultural but with 
considerable industrial development, the following data as to distri- 
bution of the interstate migration is given: Total population, 
2,231,853; born and living in the state, 1,318,377, or 59.1 per cent; 
other native bom, 607,556, or 27.2 per cent; foreign born, 305,920, 
or 13.7 per ceiit; bom in Iowa and living outside in the United 
States, 556,565. 

The divisions which absorbed the Iowa bora to the extent of 
25,000 or more are as follows: North Central, outside of Iowa, 
387,052, of which Illinois received 48,096; Minnesota, 42,096; Mis- 
souri, 52,575; South Dakota, 31,047; Nebraska, 85,807; Kansas, 
88,153; South Central, 37,285, and Western, 115,092. Evidently 
the migrants went to swell the agricultural population of the nation 
to the greatest extent. 

With regard to the native born and the foreign born who settled 
in the state, a total of 913,476 persons, it is evident that they went 
into agriculture mostly, since the urban population of Iowa in 1900 
was 16.8 per cent, while these elements make 40.9 per cent of the 
state's population. Selecting Des Moines as a typical Iowa city the 
per cents of Iowa born, native born from outside Iowa, and foreign 
bom living in it are respectively 52.6, 34.6, and 12.8. 

North Dakota may be taken as a type of the almost purely agri- 
cultural state. We find that 34.1 of its population is North Dakota 
bom, 30.5 per cent is native born from outside the state, and 35.4 
per cent is foreign born. Living in cities its population is distributed 
as follows: 3.0 per cent in cities of 8,000 or more inhabitants, 2.4 per 
cent in cities of 4,000 to 8,000, 1.9 per cent in cities of 2,500 to 4,000, 
making a total urban and semi-urban population of 7.3 per cent. 
Only about 24,000 born in the state have moved outside, chiefly to 
Washington and other western states. In both directions, in the 
case of immigrants and emigrants, the migrants relative to North 
Dakota evidently settle in rural regions. 

II. — CITY DRIFT OF LBADERSHIP. 

In my estimation the drift to the city of ability and leadership 
creates a far graver problem than the mere shift of population in that 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



68 The Quarterly Journal 

direction. In handling this phase of the general subject the assump- 
tion is that the graduates and students of our higher institutions of 
learning represent leadership. It represents that portion of the 
ability of the country districts which has been trained and developed 
into a higher form of intelligence and skill than the portion remain- 
ing in the country without that training. It is stated that the editor 
of "Who's Who" in the United States reports that 90 to 95 per cent 
of persons noticed in that work are college bred. Other data of a 
somewhat similar nature exist. Roughly speaking, education may 
stand as a sign of leadership. 

I. — ^THE FACTS OF DRIFT OF LEADERSHIP. 

Pursuant to ascertaining facts relative to the drift of leadership 
to the city the following questions were sent to 82 state institutions 
of the country: 

I. What per cent of your undergraduate students are from the 
farms? 2. What per cent of your graduates are from the farms? 
3. What per cent of your (a) graduates, (b) students, take up 
farm life? 4. What per cent of your, (a) graduates, (b) students, 
who come from the farms return to farm life? 5. Do you make 
any systematic attempt to induce students or graduates to settle in 
rural communities? 6. Do you think such an attempt should be 
made? 

An explanatory letter accompanied the questions, one statement 
of which read as follows: "I am seeking to discover just how far 
our educational institutions of higher learning are sending their 
products, as leaders in the general community sense or in special 
technical ways, to the rural regions and on to the farms. I need 
hardly suggest that the "Rural Problem" is an important one, and 
that improvement of country life awaits exact facts. I am sure this 
question will commend itself.** 

The questions and letter were sent to 39 normal schools, one 
of which turned out to be a city institution, 18 agricultural colleges, 
and 25 state universities. Schools of each kind included representa- 
tives of each general region of the United States. Replies to date 
have been received from 21 normals, 13 state universities, and 13 
agricultural colleges. More or less exact data was received from 
each of 14 normals, 13 agricultural colleges, and 8 state universities. 
The essential data received in reply to the first four questions is 
presented for comparative purposes in the accompanying tables: 



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City Trend of Population 



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City Trend of Population 73 

In looking over these tables the impression is made that relative 
to the country youth a great many are called to go away from rural 
regions but few are chosen or choose to return. 

The normal schools report from 35% to 90% of their students 
as coming from the country, only Oswego, New York, reporting 
"very few," the average being near 75%. The per cent of graduates 
hailing from rural regions does not differ materially from that of 
students. The per cent of students returning to farm regions is re- 
ported as varying from 7 out of 252 grduated and certificated in the 
case of Cedar Falls, Iowa, and 2 or 3 in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, to 75% 
in West Virginia, and 86%, including graduates with students, in 
Georgia. Some evidently misunderstood the import of the ques- 
tionnaire as the statement is frequently made, "we train teachers," or 
"all are teachers," leaving out of sight the fact that teachers might 
serve in the country. The replies as to the number of graduates of 
normals who enter rural regions indicate from "not any," as in the 
case of Oswego, New York, and 1% as in the case of Oshkosh, Wis- 
consin, to 30% as in the case of Springfield, South Dakota. Ten 
per cent is the most usual report. 

Similar to question three was question four and the few separ- 
ate replies to this ran from 1% (Oshkosh) to 30% (Spring- 
field, South Dakota), for graduates, and from 2 or 3% (Osh- 
kosh) to 50% (Springfield), and 60% (Normal, Illinois), for 
students. These replies, as must be said of most of the replies, bear the 
marks of being estimates. Judging by the cases where exact records are 
kept the larger per cents seem much too high. Several normals gave 
statements for questions 3 and 4. Cedar Falls, Iowa, sent an Alumni 
Register and the data referred to above was obtained by taking the 
year 1908 and obtaining the data from the occupations given for the 
products of that year. The seven were reported as "rural teachers." 
Possibly a few others lived in the country. Mansfield, Pennsylvania, 
indicates that nearly all who came from the country return as teach- 
ers, probably 10% permanently, however. Few from towns go to 
rural schools. Mankato, Minnesota, states that about 10% of gradu- 
ates and a "large number" of non-graduates teach in the country, 
but they want to get to city schools. Plymouth, New Hampshire, 
reports that probably 20% on the average go into rural schools, and 
Krksville, Missouri, believes that 15% return to farm life perma- 
nently. The evidence contained in these replies indicates that the 
normal school products take up town and city teaching. 

Data gathered by Professor Arland D. Weeks of the Agricul- 
tural College of North Dakota supplements and corroborates the 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



74 The Quarterly Journal 

above facts. Information from 22 counties and 16 cities of the state 
afforded the following results: The percentage of teachers in the 
elementary schools of the 22 counties who do not have the equiva- 
lent of a high school training, none being college or normal gradu- 
ates, varies from 5 to 10% (Ward County) and 20% (Williams) 
to 85% (Stutsman) and 80% (Cavalier, Mercer). The average 
per cent for these counties is 53.5. The elementary teachers reported 
upon number 2815, out of a total of 5,000 or 6,000 teachers of the 
same grade in the entire state. The result is therefore representative. 

Of the 262 grade teachers of 16 of the larger cities of the state 
reported upon, 250 are either normal or college graduates, and 7 
more are high school graduates. ^ Altho data is not obtainable, ex- 
perience in a normal school and in summer schools of the state has 
impressed upon the writer the fact that normal trained teachers al- 
most invariably seek city schools and but few locate in rural schools. 
The state vmiversities from which replies were received bear evidence 
of possessing no or very meager records as to source or occupation 
of their students. The replies in general give the impression that 
those institutions take it for granted that their mission is not closely 
related to agricultural matters. This might seem a little surprising, 
particularly where those institutions have no agricultural colleges 
organically connected with them, yet are in states predominantly 
agricultural, and also are dependent on the funds voted by farmers 
for their support. The per cent of vmdergraduate students from 
farms is seen to vary from 7 2-5 to 48, or, reckoning on a semi-urban 
basis, 70 as with Texas. Could we regard these states as typical ap- 
proximately 25% of vmiversity students hail from the farms. The 
percentage of graduates who are of non-urban origin is still smaller, 
judging from a few replies made by the universities to question two. 

Questions three and four found little response from universities. 
Several answers indicated that no records or data exist on these 
points. The indications are that relatively few, either students or 
graduates, and much fewer of the former, either of those who came 
from rural regions or otherwise enter into country life. Semi-urban 
populations receive a quota of preachers, teachers, doctors and law- 
yers who are college trained. The college man on the farm is almost 
a curiosity, and usually provokes the speculation or remark that he 
must have failed in something he undertook or he would be else- 
where. 

Turning to the agricultural colleges we find somewhat more re- 
plies, facts, and estimates. These institutions are professedly farm- 
ers* institutions, they cater to the farming element and cultivate their 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



City Trend of Population 75 

support. Wc should expect farmers to send their sons to them, if to 
any institution, and that the sons would return to farming after 
education, if ever after college training. Nor is our expectation found 
to be entirely groundless The answers to question one shows in the 
southern and north central states from 65 to 99 per cent of students 
enrolled in agricultural colleges hail from the farms. Probably if 
short course people were eliminated, as should be the case in consid- 
ering the subject of education for leadership, the percentage would 
shrink to 75 or less as in the case of Wisconsin. New England and 
New York show a much smaller percentage, as also does Oregon. 
The replies to question two, while showing a slightly lower per- 
centage than those to question one do not differ essentially from them 
in that respect. The replies to question three indicate on the part of 
those answering who differentiated between graduates and students 
that a greater per cent of students than graduates take up farm life, 
save in the case of Massachusetts. The same remark holds true of 
the replies to question four in the case of those distinguishing be- 
tween graduates and students. Again it is probable that if short 
course students were not counted the proportion of graduates and 
students returning to farms in the case of both questions three and 
four would about balance each other. 

Modification of the results of these replies to questions three 
and four must be made in the direction of reducing the size of the 
percentages given in the cases of those institutions which give a great 
amount, often a preponderating amount of instruction which is non- 
agricultural. It is likely that those responsible for making replies 
gave the percentages for the students taking strictly agricultural 
courses in their institutions. That these percentages must be con- 
strued to hold good not for the entire graduate and student body re- 
lated to such institutions but only for those who pursued strictly agri- 
ailtural instruction is obvious when we compare Iowa or North 
Dakota with New York and Illinois. In Iowa and North Dakota 
the agricultural colleges stand as institutions separate from the uni- 
versities of those states and maintain courses in mechanical, electrical, 
mining, and civil engineering which are largely attended, besides the 
agricultural courses. Most of the students of those courses never 
intend to take up farm life nor do the courses articulate in any vital 
way with agricultural interests. In New York and Illinois the agri- 
cultural institutions are organized parts of universities and restrict 
their courses to strictly agricultural work. Therefore in these insti- 
tutions the bulk of the graduates and students enter upon some form 
of agricultural work. In the case of Iowa and North Dakota agri- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



76 The Quarterly Journal 

cultural colleges the bulk of students (exclusive of agricultural short 
course students) and graduates do not do so. Thus in Iowa in 1909 
out of 226 graduates but 56 took some course relating to agriculture ; 
and out of 1,160 graduates whose occupations were known, 275 were 
directly or indircetly connected with agriculture, 132 of the 275, di- 
rectly. Of the 776 students in the Agricultural College of North Da- 
kota in 1909-10, but 98 were pursuing long courses leading up to 
farming. 

Keeping these modifications in mind we are warranted in con- 
cluding that anywhere from 25 to 90 per cent of the long course 
students and graduates of the agricultural colleges, who have pur- 
sued bona-fide agricultural subjects, of the institutions making re- 
plies to questions three and four, enter agriculture as an occupation 
or some form of agricultural work of an educational or scienitific 
nature. Probably the average would be between 50 and 75 per cent. 

Accepting attendance upon a long course of instruction in, 
or graduation from, a normal school, an agricultural college, or a 
university as a sign of leadership we shall have to conclude that rel- 
atively little of the products of the normals, a majority of those of the 
real farming courses of agricultural colleges, and practically none of 
the products of the universities, whose origin was the farm, return 
to farm life, altho a small per cent of those from normab and univer- 
sities settle in semi-urban communities. 

( To Be Continued) 



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Book Reviews 



Labor and the Railroads : James O. Fagan. Houghton, Mif- 
flin & Company, Boston, 1909. pp. 164. Price, $1.00. 

An American Citizen: Life of William Henry Baldwin, Jr. 
John Graham Brooks. Houghton, Mifflin & Company, 
Boston, 1910. pp. 341. Price, $1.50. 

The review of two books of so seemingly different contents in the 
same article may appear at first glance incongruous and out of place. 
But both of them deal with the problems of the railway, one from 
the point of view of the man working in the signal tower, and the 
other as presented to an unusually efficient and capable railway man- 
ager and president. 

Three years ago Mr. Fagan published his "Confessions of a Rail- 
road Signalman." The appearance of the book was followed by so 
many comments on its saneness and sincerity that the author has been 
encouraged to place before the public a second volume made up of 
the articles which appeared last year in the Atlantic Monthly. 

The topic considered by Mr .Fagan is that of labor and the rail- 
roads, maintaining in general that the development of the labor union 
has widened the breach between manager and employe and decreased 
the safety of the public as a consequence. This is not due to lack of 
interest between the men and the management of the railroads as 
much as it is to the presence of leaders who find it necessary from 
every point of view to interfere in the relations between the men 
and the managers of the railroads. The consequence is, that with 
the growth of this policy the authority of the railroads has decreased 
and there has also been a marked development, according to the 
author, of accidents and carelessness. 

This situation demands, in the opinion of Mr. Fagan, a careful 
analysis and plain speaking. Especially in view of the fact that so 
many leaders of thought are rather in danger of losing their bearings 
because of the acceptance of almost the entire trade union point of 
view. It is impossible, according to Mr. Fagan, to safeguard the 
interests of the public, the corporations or the men when all the de- 
tails and arrangements of employment have been stipulated in the 
schedules of the trade union organizations. When a man has his 
work laid out by rule the tendency is for him to overlook any duty 
which is not set down in the printed statement. It is just here that 
the interests of the public arise. Since there are many elements in 
the government of a railroad which cannot be arranged beforehand, 
the only basis of safety as well as efficiency is thru a trustful relation- 
ship between manager and men. Numerous instances are given in 
this little book of the helplessness of railroad managers in dealing 
with employes when the trade union has determined to maintain the 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



78 The Quarterly Journal 

rights and liberties of the men. In fact, as he says, the member of a 
railroad labor organization now consults his schedule to discover how 
much liberty, how much variety, how much individuality it is lawful 
for him to exercise. The man is organized into a group and scheduled 
into items and when the mechanical process is complete, liberty, variety 
and individuality have disappeared. This is the point upon which 
the railway as a corporation and the public as a traveler fall, and only 
when it is possible to give to the men individuality and incentive, and 
to the managers authority, will the disorganization now so clearly 
seen in many of our railways be actually prevented and avoided. 

The second book which appears here in review was prepared as a 
loving testimony to the upright life of William Henry Baldwin, Jr., 
by his friend, John Graham Brooks. In the short period of forty-two 
years this man passed into the highest positions possible in the rail- 
road industry. At twenty-six he was a railroad manager and before 
he was forty he was president of the Long Island Railway. His 
life was a protest against the doctrine so widely accepted, that ethical 
standards have no place in business. For the period of twenty-five 
years William Henry Baldwin, Jr. made it his aim to maintain 
ethical standards and never to depart from the true and the right in 
the conduct of business. After the finishing of his education he 
entered the employ of the Union Pacific and rose rapidly to positions 
of responsibility. In many respects Baldwin stands out as an unusual 
example. In the office of railway manager his attitude is typified 
in the query which he makes: "What fires have the railroads started 
to choke the air with all this smoke?" And his answer is that in their 
haste for quick speculative returns the railroads have ridden rough- 
shod over recognized public privileges. He came to a clear under- 
standing also of the fact that the interests of management and labor 
are identical only when both sides honestly try to make them the 
same. His whole idea of a railroad was to develop it in the interests 
of everybody along the route, while its prosperity was to be the 
common prosperity. With views like this, his relationship with the 
men upon the systems over which he had authority was always char- 
acterized by justice and kindness. He felt that the labor organiza- 
tion had a distinct place in the conduct of a railroad business, that 
thru cooperation with them the manager could accomplish more than 
in any other way. Yet he maintained, on the other hand, that the 
railroad should always be the determining factor when it came to a 
question of safety and of right doing on the part of the employe. 
Perhaps his whole attitude toward the railroad problem was typi- 
fied by the statement that the public has rights, and that the very 
foundation upon which the railroad rests is the gift of the public. 
The essence of the railroad problem, therefore, is that the common 
welfare demands its existence. 

In addition to the problems which arise in the conduct of a rail- 
road, William Henry Baldwin, Jr. touched many other difficulties 
of a public character in the field of philanthropic and social endeavor, 
as instanced by the fact that he was director of the Tuskegee School 
and chairman of the Committee of Fifteen in the city of New York. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Book Reviews 79 

All of his work was vested with clearness of thought and energy. 
The same principle that he had insisted upon in all of his financial 
and administrative work was applied to the different activities in 
which he took part outside of his business career. 

This volume is a real inspiration. It is written with clearness 
and force and should conunend itself to every young man who is 
seeking for an example of a man who has maintained his standards 
and fought the battle to the finish. One only regrets that a 
bibliography of the writings, the books and articles, of Mr. Baldwin 
has not been added to the very complete volume that has been put 
out by Dr. Brooks. 

Frank L. McVey 

University of North Dakota 



Governmental Action for Social Welfare: Jeremiah W. 
Jenks, Professor of Economics and Politics, Cornell Univer- 
sity. The Macmillan Q)., New York. pp. 212. Price, $1.00. 

This little work, comprising eight chapters, consists of lectures de- 
livered by the author as the Kennedy Lectures in the School of Phil- 
anthropy of New York for 1907-8. It is written in a simple and 
popular style which makes it very available for the use of the general 
public. It is not burdened with citations of authorities, foot-notes, or 
biblographies designed for specialists and lazy people, and is so little 
technical that the social worker whose educational advantages may 
be limited can get much exceedingly valuable help for his social un- 
dertakings. 

Chapter i, "Introduction; Meaning of Social Welfare," considers 
the difficulties in the investigation of social problems, the advantages 
of social study, discusses the question of investigation of social ques- 
tions by government or by private assodations with conclusions fav- 
orable to the cooperation of the two, and expounds the meaning of 
"Social Welfare." As to the latter, he says, "We shall consider it 
the welfare of sodety in the sense of the satisfaction of himian needs, 
physical, mental, moral, in the light of the highest civilization." He 
recognizes that various persons may differ as to what they consider 
the highest civilization to be ; also that various societies have differing 
ideals. The worker must be guided by the ideal of the civilization 
whose interest he seeks to advance. 

Chapter 2 deals in a large way with "Governmental Organization 
and Its Relation to Society." It discusses the various means of im- 
proving society, the relation of state to government, the character- 
istics of officers in their bearing on reforms, and the conception of 
government of various classes in society. 

Chapter 3, "Principles of Legislation for the Promotion of Sodal 
Welfare," seeks to show "that legislatures may often promote the 
welfare of society by active measures, either in the way of restricting 
acts that in themselves would be injurious to society, or in the way 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



8o The Quarterly Journal 

of promoting directly or indirectly acts that will tend to make men 
better citizens or to further the good of society." 

"Limitations on Legislative Activity," Chapter 4, is a wise dis- 
cussion of the various factors which condition reform work as de- 
pendent on legislators, public opinion, the unchangeability of human 
nature by legislation, the desirability and necessity of compromises in 
legislation. The author points out that the indircet method is the 
best way to attack deep seated vices. As to compromises he writes, 
"In promoting legislation one should always be sure that his aim 
and his principles are right. Then as a compromise he may choose 
the time and the place and within reason the means and the methods 
for bringing about immediate results, and he should be cautious 
not to attempt to go too fast." 

The remaining chapters deal with the character of the executive, 
his power, his duty and practice, and his relation to civil service in 
promoting social welfare; the work of the judiciary, noting fully the 
new and scientific view of the function of criminal law in particular ; 
and the work of the citizen in the promotion of social welfare. In 
this last chapter the statement is made that the private citizen of in- 
itiative and personality is quite as responsible for realizing reform 
movements as the officers of government, and calls attention of those 
intending to train for social work that an affective personality is one 
of the best pieces of equipment to be secured thru training and culti- 
vation. 

John M. Gillette 

Department of Sociology, 
University of North Dakota 



Social Insurance: A Program of Social Reform: Henry 
Seager, Professor of Political Economy in G)lumbia Univer- 
sity. The Macmillan Co., New York. pp. 175. Price, $1.00. 

The chapters of this volume comprise lectures delivered by the 
author as Kennedy lectures for 19 10 in the School of Philanthropy, 
New York. Professor Seager faces the problem which confronts 
charity workers, "What shall we do about enduring and augmenting 
hosts of poverty?" and offers a way out. It is not the way of pal- 
liatives which has been tried so long and so ineffectually as to lessen- 
ing the number or ratio of the poor in our population. Nor is it the 
way of the individualist whose ideal and program is so clearly out- 
lined on pages 6 and 7. This consists in continuing and perfecting 
the competitive system, of inducing the laborers to regulate their 
scale of wages by limiting the size of their families, and of reducing 
the distinction between capitalists and wage earners by developing 
the form of corporate industry so as to include all laborers in cor- 
porations who shall also be stockholders in the same thru investing 
their savings. 



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Book Reviews 8i 

"As a picture of the future, this millennium compares favorably 
with other forecasts. The fault that I have to find with it is not 
that it presents an impossible ideal, but that it ignores certain ten- 
dencies which, unless corrected, render its realization impossible." 
These tendencies are first, the workers are becoming no more provi- 
dent in their habits. "Second, their failure to make provision for 
the future is a cause serving constantly to recruit the mass of organ- 
ized, unskilled workers whose lack of standards and unregulated 
competition oppose the progress of wage earners all along the line." 
P. 8. In the light of the facts he marshals to prove these tendencies 
he refers to the program of individualism as "a program of despair." 

In these words he announces his own program, which, by the way, 
is rapidly and extensively being adopted by social workers and 
students of poverty; — 

"I, for one, am unwilling to accept either alternative. I believe 
that we shall devise means for exterminating poverty as we have 
devised means for exterminating other evils. The failure of wage 
earners to provide, each for himself, against the contingencies that I 
have specified — accidents, illness, premature death, vmemployment, 
and old age — k to my mind merely proof that collective remedies 
must be found and applied to these evils. The program of social re- 
form, which is explained in detail in the chapters which follow, deals 
mainly with these collective remedies. In brief outline, it consists 
in protecting wage-earning families which have developed standards 
of living from losing them, and in helping wage-earning families 
without standards to gain them. The first end is to be accomplished 
by making obligatory for wage earners exposed to industrial acci- 
dents, illness, premature death, unemployment, and old age, adequate 
plans of insurance against these evils. The second, by withdrawing 
from competitive industries the lowest grade of workers, the tramps 
and casuals, and giving them the benefit of industrial training in 
graded farm and industrial colonies, from which they shall be gradu- 
ated only as they prove their ability to be independent and self-sup- 
porting." P. 20. 

It is impossible to review briefly the arguments of the several 
chapters in favor of this program. In generaJ, it is advised that the 
sodal consciousness be developed which will make action on the 
part of the state, thru governmental undertaking in the way of insur- 
ance, compensation, and pensions, possible. With our present limita- 
tions of legal traditions and public opinion it would appear better to 
develop voluntary employing and co-operative agencies already or- 
ganized. But every means, whether private or governmental, is to be 
used as fast as they can be adapted to the work. 

The volume offers a large, trenchent, and frank discussion of a 
most important topic and is a valuable contribution to the literature 
of the subject. 

' John M. Gillette 

Department of Sociology, 
University of North Dakota 



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82 The Quarterly Journal 

The Future of Tradb-Unionism and Capital in a Democ- 
racy: Charles W. Eliot, ex-President of Harvard Univer- 
sity. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1910. pp. 128. Price, 
$1.00. 

The two lectures comprising this volume make a valuable contri- 
bution to the rapidly growing mass of literature devoted to the im- 
provement of the condition of industrial society. The book would 
be valuable if it did nothing more than impart to the reader a spirit 
of optimism, giving him a wholesome viewpoint as he deak with the 
problems that society faces as industrial advancement goes on. Few 
readers would fail to catch the note of optimism, for it is founded on 
faith in the democracy itself. 

The existence of the great combinations of laborers and capitalists 
is accounted for by the individual freedom of action which pertains 
to the greatest extent under the most democratic governments. It is 
shown how, in the selfish pursuit of their objects, these organizations 
have lost sight of the public welfare, and the means employed, as well 
as the results attained, are often found to be at variance with the 
stable ideals of the democracy. Having analyzed the industrial or- 
ganization to the point where social responsibility for abuses is fixed, 
the duty of the democracy to stop prevailing ill-practices is made 
plain. That public opinion has in the past exerted a large influence 
is shown by the discontinuance of some of the crude tactics of in- 
dustrial warfare. That public opinion is destined to play a still 
larger part in the future is inferred from the constant appeals to it by 
the industrial forces on both sides. 

It is not to be expected that labor unionists and capitalists will 
accept without protest the author's incisive category of abuses; but 
if patriotic, they must be content to give unmitigated scope to the 
powers that work for the ultimate good of all. These are admirably 
stated by the author to be "the intelligence of the mass of the people 
increased thru universal education, the efficiency of the people at 
work thru the exercise of individual liberty and co-operative good- 
will, and the maintenance thruout the life of each individual of the 
hope and expectation of improving his own, or his family's lot." 
With these powers at work the author assures us that the realization 
of the democratic ideals and tendencies concerning capital and labor 
needs time and patience. He inspires confidence in their ultimate 
fulfillment | 

L. E. Birdzbll 

College of Law, 

University of North Dakota 



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Book Reviews 83 

Vocational Education: John Morris Gillette, Professor of 
Sociology in the University of North Dakota. American Book 
Company, Chicago, 1910. pp. viii + 303. Price, $1.00. 

This book represents an attempt on the part of its author to indi- 
cate the purpose of education in a country such as ours, and the gen- 
eral means by which such a purpose is to be accomplished. The line 
of approach is entirely modern. The author is a close student of his- 
tory and sociology and it is from these points of view that the general 
subject is treated. However, it is the social idea that is dominant 
thruout, and in this respect the author voices the sentiment of a con- 
stantly increasing class of educators who believe that subject matter 
and methods have tended to over-emphasize the individual aspect 
of education at the expense of the social. 

The individual is **a, social animal, pre-eminently; and a mere 
individualistic pedagogy, and a system of education which seeks to 
train the child as if he were 'going it. alone' thru life without regard 
to his fellows and to the organized social world of which he has to 
make use, are found to be inadequate." It is worthy of consideration 
that "The psychology taught in our colleges and normal schools is 
almost wholly emasculated of the needed and legitimate social content 
and social context. One of the most needed reforms in the profes- 
sional training of teachers is the adoption of certain phases of the 
social sciences, especially social psychology and sociology, into the 
training courses." The great purpose of education is the socializing 
of the individual, and this can be accomplished only by "bringing the 
schools of a given society into essential accord with its fundamental 
spirit, interests, and organization." 

Much is heard to-day of "industrial education." To many this 
term is considered as being synonymous with "vocational education." 
Care is taken in this book to discriminate between these two terms. 
"Industrial education" is the less comprehensive of the two, having 
to do primarily with training in the technique of some particular ac- 
tivity. "Vocational education," on the contrary, is concerned with 
the whole social structure and, while seeking to determine the par- 
ticular line of activity to which the individual is adapted, it demands 
that his training shall have regard for other interests as well. It 
"insists that he shall be essentially cultured and fundamentally mor- 
alized." The first of these demands that he shall "have the informa- 
tion about himself, nature, and society, which is most immediate to 
his wants and safety" ; the second requires that he "have instilled the 
habits, reactions, and outlook of good citizenship," which "consists 
in viewing conduct as related to social welfare and as measured by it." 
Moreover, since vocation is fundamental to society, and the in- 
dividual is a social product, there is no other aspect of life to which 
one responds so readily as to the vocational. Hence, by no other 
agency can the interest of the learner be so readily secured nor he be 
led to appreciate the close relationship which all human activities 
bear to his own life. Consequently the author believes that "All 



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84 "^he Quarterly Journal 

the phases or elements of education must be organized about vocation 
as the central thought and with a view to a particular kind of life." 
This would give a principle which would serve "as a test and criterion 
of what to put into the course of study, and a measure of how much." 
After outlining what he considers necessary if education is to serve 
the highest good, the author proceeds to show how the ideas he ad- 
vances have been worked out in foreign nations, and also in particular 
sections of our own country. He adduces testimony to show the re- 
sults that have been attained, and indicates clearly the advantages of 
such training over the traditional forms and methods. The effects 
of this recognition of larger needs upon education itself and upon 
those engaged in the work of education are shown, and emphasis is 
placed upon the value of such recogntion in influencing the attend- 
ance and reducing the elimination of pupils from school. 

If it be granted that education is strictly a social matter, the 
question arises as to what demands are placed upon it by present 
social conditions. This question is considered as a distinct part of 
the book. After reviewing the importance of the environment in de- 
termining both the individual and his material welfare, attention 
is given to the tendency of society to become constantly more spec- 
ialized. The development in all lines of activity, which arises from 
the application of the principle of the division of labor, is noted, and 
mention is made of the effect which such development should have 
upon the work of the school. Since the state-supported school is the 
true American type, there is reason to expect that education with us 
will show the influence of our national ideals. That such is true in 
any large sense the author clearly shows. Democracy is not static 
in its character, but must be regarded as a progressive principle. 
That this fact has not been recognized, but that our schools are very 
largely influenced by tradition in subject matter, method, and organi- 
zation, is pointed out. The specific requirements whidi democracy 
makes with regard to a knowledge of our physical and social environ- 
ments, of ethical relations and governmental ideals, are dwelt upon, 
and the relation of vocational training to all these is made plain. 
An aspect of modern life to which the author gives well merited 
consideration is that of the economic interest in society. Under this 
heading several matters of more than passing importance are dis- 
cussed. Emphasis is placed upon the basal character of economic 
changes, the importance and intensification of production, and the 
needs for conservation and economy of resources in order that the 
greatest good may be realized. As closely connected with these, the 
matter of social pathology, of such social ills as pauperism and crim- 
inality, is examined with a view of determining the relation these 
ills bear to our present educational scheme. Further, the objections 
that are commonly urged against any departure from traditional 
means and methods in education on the ground that certain desired 
results, such as culture and discipline, cannot be thus secured, are 
met by showing that these interests are best fostered thru associating 
them with matters that touch closely our every-day life. The place 
of religion and morality as elements in our social life, and as matters 



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Book Reviews 85 

related to the work of the school, receives attention, while the prac- 
tical difficulties which stand in the way of making these subjects for 
formal instruction are pointed out. 

Having indicated the demands which our civilization makes upon 
education regarded as a social function, the author proceeds to show 
what things are necessary in order that our schools may meet these 
requirements. The problem presents two aspects: (a) "the develop- 
ment of a regulative principle which shall serve as the criterion in all 
educational phases and grades for the selection of the content or sub- 
ject matter of training," and (b) "the application of the principle 
or criterion to every program and to every subject in each of its suc- 
cessive stages of development thruout the grades." The first of 
these, the regulating principle, is determined by the fact that "the 
end of life is social competency and the end of education is prepara- 
tion for that qualification." Moreover, the social criterion of value 
is a matter of particular communities, the community becoming also 
"die key to the vocational element which should be placed in any 
given school, and to the determination of what informational areas 
or phases of the various subjects shall be taught." 

In the application of the criterion to the various programs and 
subjects, the principal difficulty arises. This can be met only by a 
consideration of the subordinate ends of education, and of the par- 
ticular methods by which the various school subjects must be pre- 
sented if their full social values are to be realized. These subordinate 
ends are designated as "information, moralization, utilization, and 
appreciation." The importance of each of these ends, as well as its 
relation to the whole process of education, is clearly indicated. The 
methods by which particular subjects, as arithmetic, history, language, 
and geography may be utilized as socializing agencies are carefully 
worked out and fully illustrated. The discussion constitutes one of 
the most interesting sections of the whole book, and one that is preg- 
nant with suggestiveness to any who may read it. The closing 
chapter is devoted to outlines of courses of study, constructed with a 
view to the interests of particular communities and illustrative of 
principles for which the whole work contends. 

The book as a whole is extremely suggestive. One may not agree 
with all for which the author contends, and may feel that certain 
portions of the work could be better organized, but these are only 
minor matters that in no way detract from the value of the book. 
As a discussion of present day problems in the field of educational 
organization and method, it is entitled to a most careful consideration. 
The author's attitude is entirely consistent, his treatment of the sub- 
ject is convincing, and in his contention that the social element must 
be made basic in educational plans and procedure he is voicing a 
principle which must receive constantly increasing recognition. The 
book is a contribution to our educational literature and as such is 
worthy of a most careful reading. 

H. Z. WiLBBR 

Department of Education, 

Michigan State Normal G)llege 



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86 The Quarterly Journal 

Thb Government of North Dakota: James E. Boyle, Pro- 
fessor of Economics and Political Science in the University of 
North Dakota. The American Book Company, Chicago, 1910. 
pp. xcv ^ 320. Price, $1.00. 

The first impression one receives from this book is that its title 
is a misnomer; for, of the three hundred and twenty pages of read- 
ing matter, one hundred and seventy are devoted to the National 
Government. It is the purpose of the publishers, doubtless, to use 
Boyle's Government of the Nation as a stock upon which to graft 
the study of the government of various commonwealths. Certainly, 
it would be a pity to limit to use in a single state like North Dakota 
so comprehensive and scholarly a study of our federal government as 
Dr. Boyle has here made. 

In a text-book upon so hackneyed a subject as the civil government 
of State and Nation there is not to be expected, of course, much 
originality in subject matter. Even in our newest conunonwealths, 
where one might anticipate, if anywhere, a disposition to break away 
from the well established routine of the older commonwealths and 
to make trial of some of the fads of ultra democracy, the general 
framework of government, both conunonwealth and local, is very 
largely stereotyped. 

The superiority of one text-book on civil government over another 
will, therefore, consist, in the main, in its more orderly arrangement 
of topics, due regard being had to their relative importance; its 
more skillful marshaling of facts and their more philosophical inter- 
pretation; its general attractiveness of style and greater concreteness 
of illustration; and the greater ingenuity of device displayed by its 
author for attracting and fixing the attention of the pupil upon the 
more important facts and principles to be studied. 

Dr. Boyle has brought to his task a mind of rare orderliness, a 
keen sense of comparative values, an eye for the picturesque in the 
selection and treatment of material, and an unusually simple, direct 
and graceful descriptive and narrative style. The result is a book on 
civil government in State and Nation which is fresh and unique in 
spite of the hackneyed character of its general theme. 

The volume under review is so compact with interesting and per- 
tinent information as to be really erudite and is characterized by such 
scholarly accuracy as one expects to find only in learned and some- 
what dry-as-dust treatises; and yet it is written in such an easy, 
idiomatic and luminous style, — ^the ideal text-book style, indeed, — 
as to make it attractive reading for the average adult, with no special 
interest in the subject, and at the same time a suitable text-book for 
even elementary pupils in the schools. In short, the author has here 
given an interesting life history of an organism instead, — as is too 
often the case in books on this subject, — of dissecting a cadaver. 

Instead of attempting an analysis of the book in the brief space 
at command, we may cite the following as especially noteworthy 
features: — 



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Book Reviews 87 

1. The constant comparison, often in parallel columns and in 
frequent cross references, of the State and National Constitutions; 

2. The long list of searching questions, (a) based on the text and 
(b) suggested by the text, at the close of each chapter, together with 
an excellent bibliography for the chapter; 

3. The always stimulating and often inspiring quotations from 
acknowledged authorities, prefacing each chapter, and the frequent 
inclusion of such quotations, always pertinent and to the point, within 
die chapter; 

4. The relegation of the piece-meal study of the several articles 
and amendments of the State and National Constitutions to special 
and segregated "lessons," thus leaving the body of the text free for 
a continuous and spirited description of the governments. State and 
National, at work; 

5. The description of government "as she is run" — not as "she" 
is embalmed in learned treatises — including the party boss, the party 
machine, the ring — often bi-partisan — senatorial courtesy, even 
"Cannonism" — not as abuses to be denounced, but as phenomena to 
be accounted for (in some measure, even, countenanced as a necessary 
evil) but, in any event, to be reckoned with and, so far as possible, 
remedied ; 

6. The pointing out, often thru quotations from the world's 
greatest publicists, of the leading defects and weaknesses of our sys- 
tem of federal, commonwealth and local government. 

7. The introduction and discussion, always in a spirit of eminent 
fairness, of controverted economic and sociological questions, inti- 
mately related to our political life. 

8. The great ingenuity displayed in redudng to tabular and 
visually effective form the more important comparisons and statistics 
introduced in the text. 

9. Numerous and meaty appendices, containing in a nutshell a 
great amount of useful and interesting information germane to the 
general subject, together with an unusually complete and discriminat- 
ing index; and 

10. Last, but not least, the handsome binding, paper, print and 
illustrations, all suitable to their purpose and all models of the 
binder's and printer's art. 

Webstbr Mbrrifield 
Pasadena, California 



Introduction to Political Scibncb: James Wilford Garner, 
Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois. American 
Book Company, Chicago, 1910. pp. 616. Price, $2.50. 

The aim of the author is stated to be the preparation of an ele- 
mentary text book for students which shall cover a wider range of 
topics than is usually dealt with in such treatises. The author has 
never lost sight of this aim. He has brought together in the brief 



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88 The Quarterly Journal 

scope of 6i6 pages all the more important topics relating to the 
study of politics including chapters "on the nature, scope, and meth- 
ods of political science; on the essential constituent elements of the 
state; on citizenship and nationality; on constitutions — their nature, 
sources, and kinds; on the distribution of governmental powers; and 
on the electorate." The discussion of each topic tho brief is com- 
prhensive. He has entered into no philosophical discussion or pro- 
longed statement of his own opinion. He propounds no new theories 
of his own but sets forth the more important theories concerning the 
origin, function and organization of the state. He states the argu- 
ments for and against these theories and usually gives his conclusion 
as to which is the better. In this he is fair and judicious and his 
statement is simple and straightforward. 

The author has not taken too seriously the burden of demonstrat- 
ing that the subject is a science. Instead of the long and tiresome 
rehash on this topic common to books on social sciences he has de- 
voted but a small part of his short first chapter. He has given no 
abstruse and extended statement of the abstract rights of individuals, 
or useless speculation as to whether there is a natural old age of 
states, and has entered into no digressions to discuss whether there can 
be pure morals without religion. He dwelb more fully on questions 
of live interest and those which have a practical bearing than he does 
upon those which have an interest solely historical and academic. For 
instance the treatment of the functions and sphere of the state, of the 
separation of the powers of the state, of the bicameral legislature, of 
the methods of choice of representatives and of proportional and 
minority representation, is full and suggestive. On the other hand 
the treatment of the theories as to the origin of the state is short. He 
traces the development of the theory of divine origin of the state 
briefly while the compact theory is shown to be unhistorical and un- 
philosophical in a few pages and both theories are dismissed with the 
observation that they were fictions invented by man, the first, to 
bolster up the claims of certain arbitrary rulers and the second to 
support the resistance of subjects to such claims. 

The book is scholarly. A niunber of authorities are cited in foot- 
notes, the text is full of the discussions of the views of writers on 
political subjects and quotations are numerous. In spite of this 
method of treatment the book is interesting and chiefly because the 
author is a master of the literature on the subject and of the facts 
of the present structure and organization of existing states. 

Perhaps some topics have suffered from too brief treatment and 
we cannot help feeling disappointed that the author's scheme did not 
allow the introduction of a chapter on that vital and interesting topic, 
city government. But on the whole, considering the brevity of treat- 
ment and the amount of interesting matter necessarily omitted in order 
to cover the important topics included in the book, the author has 
shown excellent judgment. The author has not produced a great 
original work, that was not his aim nor is it to be expected of a 
general treatise under the present status of the literature upon the 



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Book Reviews 89 

subject. But the author has produced, perhaps, the best text-book for 
college students beginning the study of politics. 

Charles E. Carpenter 
College of Law, 

University of North Dakota 



Introduction to Economics: Alvin S. Johnson, Professor of 
Economics in the University of Texas. D. C. Heath & Co., 
Boston, 1909. pp. 416. Price, $1.50. 

There are no new doctrines in this book. Our author has given 
us, however, an exceedingly lucid presentation of generally accepted 
laws and principles. Its style is concise and clear. It reads easily 
and interestingly. The arguments move rapidly and logically. 

In his point of view as well as in method, the author reveals the 
impress of his former teacher. Professor J. B. Clark. The text is 
essentially theoretical. Professor Johnson's starting point is wealth, 
from which he passes logically to a discussion of utility, value and 
price. The process of evaluation is used in explanation of the distri- 
bution of wealth as between classes of producers. The author sets 
forth with exceptional clearness the doctrine of effective marginal 
utility. The reviewer, however, can see in this concept only a de- 
scription of a psychological process in the mind of the individual con- 
sumer, a description which does not throw any light on the problem 
of social values or price. 

The laws of wages, interest and rent are all developed and for- 
mulated on the basis of the marginal productivity theory. Despite 
the author's effective exposition of this theory, die reviewer is re- 
minded of Professor H. L. Moore's pointed criticism, that by this 
theory you can prove that a laborer produces all he gets but you can 
not prove that he gets all he produces. 

Several chapters deserve spedal mention. In chapter IX the 
author has given us a very direct and sane presentation of the facts 
and principles underlying business organization. In the reviewer's 
opinion, however, the author has minimized the effect of the Trust 
in raising prices. There is a very lucid treatment of the wage prob- 
lem in chapter X under the title of "Competitive Wages," followed 
logically by a discussion, in chapter XI, on "Wages as Affected by 
Labor Organizations." Chapter XIII on "Rent, Interest and Capi- 
talization" is effective. The author treats land atf part of the general 
concept capital, but the former is called "natural capital" as distin- 
guished from "artificial capital." This classification only multiplies 
distinctions without serving any real purpose. Chapter XIX, on 
"The Regulation of Foreign Trade," is splendid; in this chapter 
the author riddles cleverly some of the popular fallacies in regard 
to Protection. His treatment of International Trade and Foreign 
Exchange is interesting and comprehensive. 



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90 The Quarterly Journal 

As a statement of current economic doctrine the book is a success, 
but the reviewer doubts seriously the advisability of excluding de- 
scriptive economics from an introduction to economics. In this text, 
designed for beginners, the reviewer believes there is too much 
hypothetical matter and too little concrete information. The author, 
in his preface, justifies his position by stating that "an efficient 
teacher can base a highly practical course upon a text book which is 
fundamentally theoretical." More concrete illustrations might have 
been introduced without submerging the principles. If, however. 
Professor Johnson's position is correct, that an introduction to 
economics ought to be confined exclusively to laws and principles, 
then we need a supplementary text devoted exclusively to descriptive 
economics for those students who do not specialize. 

Meyer Jacobstbin 
Department of Economics and Political Science, 
University of North Dakota 



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University Notes 



The 1910 The Commencement season of 1910 was an 

GommeBcemeiit event much anticipated and auspicious in its out- 
come. It marked the conclusion of the first year of President Mc- 
Vey's administration. The year had been marked by satisfactory 
development of colleges and departments, readjustment attended 
upon increased room and facilities, and by harmony among those 
concerned in the work. The solicitude felt when President Merri- 
field announced his intention to resign after a quarter century of 
service was relieved by the wise, progressive, tactful way in which 
the new president took up the responsibility of office and discharged 
its many duties. Old graduates were much in evidence and the 
visiting crowds in numbers and sentiment brought cheer to the Uni- 
versity. The baccalaureate sermon by the Rev. Martin D. 
Hardin, D. D., of the Third Presbyterian Church of Chicago, was a 
stirring message from one of the leaders in the Christian work of the 
country. A new feature was the University Address, given this year 
by Professor Gottfried Hult of the University faculty. Tho of a 
purely academic character, the address was nevertheless apprecia- 
tively received. The Commencement season of 19 10 was also 
marked by the introduction of the Senior Pilgrimage. Each college 
building was visited by the graduating classes in procession, the 
visit being marked by exercises befitting the history and traditions of 
the several buildings. Mention should also be made of the open air 
play — Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night*' — given on the University 
campus on Monday evening of Conunencement week. A clear, 
bright evening gave added effect to the carefully arranged settings 
and the work of the players. Great credit is due to Professor Koch 
and to the Sock and Buskin Dramatic Club for what has proved 
a valuable addition to Commencement week. 



iBaatforatloii of The approaching inaugural exercises incident 
Fresldent McVey ^p^j, ^^ formal induction into office of President 
Frank L. McVey, Ph. D., LL. D., mark more than a passing incident 
or an occasion for academic display. The committee in charge has 
sought to accomplish several purposes: The first quarter century has 
been marked by all the vicissitudes of the pioneer institution. The 
problems of President Webster Merrifield's administration were 



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92 The Quarterly Journal 

those of an institution rooting itself into the life of the common- 
wealth. With the feeling of assurance consequent upon the success 
of that period, thought now centers upon the coming administration 
as a period of expansion, not only in point of material resources but 
in point of public confidence and larger usefulness. The committee 
has had in mind the bringing the people of the state into a closer 
relation and acquaintance with their University, bringing the Uni- 
versity into closer touch with sister institutions, a£Fording opportu- 
nity for mutual consideration of some of the problems now before 
the schoob, and to a£Ford opportimity for the new chief to bring be- 
fore the patrons of the institution the aims and policies of the new 
regime. Responses to invitations to attend have been gratif3ang, thus 
assuring the presence of representatives from many institutions of 
higher learning thruout the coimtry, and many other leaders in edu- 
cation, commerce, industry and other lines of activity. 



Teachers College Of much more than passing interest to the Uni- 
Bnildin^ versity and to the educational world at large, as 

well, will be the dedication of the new Teachers College build- 
ing during inauguration week. Of more than passing interest because 
it helps to crystalize a very important movement, a movement still 
in its infancy but yet one destined to become greatly extended and 
eventually to exert great influence in educational matters — ^the pro- 
fessional education of teachers for secondary and higher schools. 
For approximately half a century the need of professional prepara- 
tion for teachers of the elementary grades has been a leading article 
in our educational creed, and normal schools are numerous. But 
until very recent years the only preparation thought necessary for 
other teachers was thoro knowledge of the subject matter. But that 
thought is rapidly passing away. Departments of education in col- 
leges and universities, thru the teachers they have been sending out 
during the last fifteen or twenty years, have demonstrated the falsity 
of the old contention, and also shown that the Department of Edu- 
cation, valuable as it has been, is not sufficient. The next stage in 
the development is transformation into a college proper, with a high- 
school department for observation and practice. In the University 
of North Dakota this transformation was begun in 1905, and since 
that time considerable progress has been made. Indeed, in the con- 
struction of this building is to be seen the most advanced step yet 
taken in the direction by a State University, North Dakota having 
the distinction of being the first state thus to put its seal upon this 



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University Notes 93 

great movement. The new building, housing both Teachers College 
and the Model High School, will give the local work added impetus. 
It is a commodious structure, 52x122 ft., and three stories above the 
basement. In architecture it illustrates the academic Jacobean style 
and is the handsomest building on the campus. 



The University For many years the University has maintained a 
Gontmona boarding department. This designation expressed 

the whole relation of the department to the University and the 
students. It had for its one purpose the supplying of table board. 
The wider recognition of the importance of the daily life of students 
in their contact with each other and of the influence of the meal 
hour upon their thought and point of view have brought about an 
increasing attention to the problem in different institutions. It is 
now felt that a distinctly uplifting influence can be brought to bear 
thru the medium of a properly conducted University Commons. 
The building that is now being erected is well adapted to this 
wider life. It is expected that more leisure for meals will be se- 
cured, that there will be less crowding, that the surroundings will 
be more attractive, and that opportunity will therefore exist to ex- 
change views, to enter into discussion, and to consider with one's 
neighbor,during meal hours, the work that each is doing at the Uni- 
versity. It is, therefore, with anticipation that the students and fac- 
ulty look forward to the completion of the University Commons, 
hoping that the new name will mean all that is expected. 



The Coarse So far as the colleges are concerned, the one pro- 

for Nurses vision for the larger activity of women has been 

the education of teachers. It has been found, however, that all 
women do not have the same inclination toward the profession of 
teaching, and that while this work has been raised to a distinctly 
higher level thru the organization of teachers colleges, there is need, 
at the same time, for other opportunities for women. With this in 
view, the new course for the education of nurses, offered in co-opera- 
tion with the College of Medicine, has been established and placed 
under' the direction of a competent, thoroly trained and experienced 
nurse. It is not expected that the University will attempt to com- 
plete the education of nurses, but that it will provide a preliminary 
year in which the best instruction will be given in the fields of an- 
atomy, chemistry, physiology, dietetics and the principles of nursing 



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94 I'he Quarterly Journal 

to those who take up the work of the course. The practical hospital 
experience necessary to the education of a well trained nurse will 
be secured by two additional years of training in the hospitals that 
may be selected from a number co-operating with the University 
in the nurses' course. The success of this new course is bespoken 
by the appointment of Miss Bertha Erdman as the director of the 
work. 



The New Mechan* One of the problems of the science departments 
Iclan Department ^f ^j^^ University has been the repair of old and 
the construction of new apparatus for use in the regular laboratories. 
Research work by advanced students and instructors has been se- 
verely handicapped in the past by lack of facilities to carry out new 
ideas in scientific instruments. To meet this need the University 
has established the mechanician's department under the direction of 
Dr. A. H. Taylor, and has been fortimate in securing the services 
of Mr. Frank E. Halik, formerly in the mechanician department of 
the University of Wisconsin, as the imiversity mechanician or instru- 
ment-maker. 

The shop, located in the basement of Science Hall, will be 
equipped with a precision lathe, drill-press, grinder and buffer, metal 
saw, speed lathe, and shaper, besides numerous bench tools and glass 
blowing apparatus. It is expected that in a short time the new de- 
partment will be self-supporting, besides giving very convenient and 
substantial aid to scientific research at the University. 

It is worthy of note that nearly all institutions doing investi- 
gative work along scientific lines have the services of one or more 
skilled mechanicians and an adequately equipped shop. The organi- 
zation of the new department, therefore, places the University of 
North Dakota in a new attitude toward such work. 



The Biological Owing to the peculiar geological formations and 
Station interesting geological history of portions of the 

great Northwest, North Dakota is in possession of large resources 
of animal and vegetable life, both in well-preserved remains and in 
living forms. This fact has long been known to the scientists, but 
until recently there has been no opportunity of making extensive 
scientific research along these lines, which would place this knowledge 
at the service of man. At the 1908-9 session of the State Legislature, 
however, provision was made for the establishment and maintenance 



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University Notes 95 

of a Biological Station on the shores of Devils Lake, a region rich in 
both forms of life. The Station was placed under the control of the 
University to be directed by its Biological Department. Among other 
ends to be sought thru the work of the Station, a very specific and 
practical one was mentioned in the bill itself: 

"It shall be the duty of the staff of the said station, as directors 
thereof, to study the plants and animals in Devils Lake and other 
portions of North Dakota with reference to the problems of restock- 
ing and cidtivating fish in Devils Lake and in any other waters of 
the state, especially those of an alkaline character ; to study and make 
collections of any animals and plants in North Dakota that have 
commercial and scientific value." 

The station is well equipped with a commodious and well- 
appointed building having laboratory, library, museum and lecture- 
room conveniences, also with all needed apparatus for the successful 
prosecution of such work as contemplated. The biological work of 
the Summer Session of the University is now regularly done at the 
Station. While the work is too young to forecast ultimate results with 
accuracy, it has proceeded sufficiently far to promise much. 



The Mining North Dakota has large and valuable mineral 

Sub-Station deposits, particularly of coal and clay. Owing to 

lack of knowledge as to the best means of mining, handling, and pre- 
paring these deposits for the market, they have not as yet become of 
great commercial value. It has long been felt that the University, 
thru its School of Mines, could here do a work of great value to the 
state. The difficulties have been remoteness from the mining regions 
and lack of equipment. These difficulties the I>egislature, in the ses- 
sion of 1908-09, removed by establishing at Hebron, in the very 
heart of the mining regions of the state, a mining Sub-Station 
with all needed equipment, and placing it under the direction of the 
University School of Mines. The citizens of Hebron added to the 
equipment provided by the state a considerable tract of land rich in 
representative minerals. The plan of management of the Sub-Station 
contemplates the development of, among other things, a model 
coal mine, a plant for the briquetting of lignite coal, one for the 
manufacture of gas, and kilns and other machinery for practical work 
in the valuable cla}^ found in many parts of the state. It is also 
planned to have the students in the School of Mines receive some 
portion of their instruction and practice at the Sub-Station. While 
not yet in full operation, the Sub-Station has already done enough to 



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96 The Quarterly Journal 

demonstrate the wisdom and the practical usefulness of its establish- 
ment. 



Fellowships and Desiring to stimulate original research and gen- 
Scholarahips ^j^^ scholarship in the University of North 

Dakota, the Board of Trustees last year provided for several gradu- 
are fellowships and scholarships. Appointments are made by the 
Board, upon recommendation of the University Council, and are for 
one year. The fellowships are of two classes: i. Two industrial 
fellowships yielding an income of $400 each, available in the School 
of Mines. 2. Three fellowships yielding an income of $300 each, 
available in any of the colleges of the University. 

There are also three graduate scholarships shielding an income of 
$150 each, offered for work to be done in any of the colleges of the 
University. In addition to the income of the fellowships and schol- 
arships ,the holders are exempt from the payment of the regular 
university fees. Many applications were received from graduates 
of our own and other institutions, and the following appointments 
made: 

Alfred N. Budd, B. A. (University of Wisconsin, 19 10.) In- 
dustrial Fellow in Mining Engineering. 

Allen V. Ritchie, B. A., M. E. (University of North Dakota, 
1909, 1910.) Industrial Fellow in Mining Engineering. 

Iver A. Acker, B. A. (University of North Dakota, 19 10.) 
Fellow in Political Science. 

Marsden H. Kishpaugh, B. A. (University of North Dakota, 
1910.) Fellow in Philosophy and Education. 

Howard C. Christie, M. E. (University of North Dakota, 
1 9 10.) Fellow in Physics. 

E. T. Tufte, B. S. (St. Olaf's College, 1909.) Scholar in 
Botany. 

Leif H. Aas, B. A. (Augsburg Seminary, 1910.) Scholar in 
English. 

William L. Gilroy, B. A. (University of North Dakota, 1910.) 
Scholar in Electrical Engineering. 

In addition to these fellowships and scholarships offered by or 
thru the University itself, there are a large number of scholarships 
and prizes of varying amounts provided by private parties for ex- 
cellence in different lines of work. 



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University Notes 97 

The University The University of North Dakota is located at 
CemiNia Grand Forks, the campus being a short distance 

west of the city limits. The original campus of twenty acres has 
grown, thru gift and purchase, to one hundred and twenty. This 
tract is separated into two approximately equal parts by a small 
stream called the English Coulee. The eastern half, the campus 
proper, contains the university buildings and on it is being done the 
work of the institution. A considerable portion of the western part 
was a few years ago thickly set with trees thru whose growth it is 
already assuming park-like appearance. In the early days very little 
attention was paid to the campus. It was seemingly looked upon 
merely as a place on which to erect buildings, and these were located 
almost at random. Some trees were set but thru neglect many of 
them died. In 1898, however, interest in campus improvement 
was revived and has not since flagged. Trees and shrubbery were 
set in large numbers and cared for, and drives were developed, tho 
all with but little thought as to a permanent plan. In very recent 
years, however, with the future of the institution assured and with 
larger funds at command, it was felt that comprehensive plans, in- 
cluding the setting of trees, the arrangement of drives, and the loca- 
tion of buildings, should be adopted. Landscape gardeners and archi- 
tects were employed and the larger campus for the larger future 
definitely planned. The new plans are just now being put into effect. 
They utilize the major portion of existing drives and clumps of shrub- 
bery, yet call for a few changes and many additions. The most 
marked rearrangement is seen in the formation of what now becomes 
the Central Court. This will extend from a dignified entrance on 
University Avenue straight south to the library — a broad, beautiful 
stretch of unbroken lawn, nearly a quarter of a mile in length with 
walks and shade trees on either side. Only two buildings are now 
on the east side of this Central Court, that of the School of Mines 
and the new Teachers College building, but as others are needed for 
university purposes they will be placed on this side and made to 
correspond in a general way with those already on the west. Here 
is also being developed the new Athletic Field. The campus as 
planned will be both convenient and attractive. Already many of our 
trees are reaching stately proportions and the scattered clumps of 
shrubbery give the effect of half revealing and half concealing the 
various vistas which is the charm of the so-called English style of 
landscape gardening. 



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98 The Quarterly Journal * 

Faonlty €liaiiic« Among the ways by which one can estimate, the 
and AddlttoBs growth and development of an educational in- 

stitution is by taking note from time to time of the number of people 
on its instructional and administrative forces. Judged by that stand- 
ard as well as by others the University of North Dakota is making 
progress. Never before at any one time have so many additions been 
made, there being twenty new names on the list at the present time 
with some places yet to fill. And of these twenty, only four take 
places made vacant by resignation. That this is not a spurt, but 
rather a healthy, tho rapid, development, is seen when it is known 
that only one year ago eighteen additions were made, and only 
six of these were appointed to fill vacancies. This is also seen by 
the fact that these additions do not show a marked increase in the 
number of departments, only two having been created — ^the Steno- 
graphic Bureau and the Mechanician Department. 

In the selection of new members of the faculty the utmost care 
has been taken, and all have come particularly well prepared for the 
work they were chosen to do. They represent some fifteen different 
institutions of higher learning, none, however, being chosen from 
the University of North Dakota. Noting the broad and varied 
field from which the instructional force has been recruited and also 
the high grade of men and women selected, one is reminded of the 
celebrated statement about God sifting the nations of the world to 
find suitable material for the building of New England. 

The largest number of new people in any one department or 
branch of the work is found in the Model High School of Teachers 
College, there being seven, the two took places made vacant by 
transfer to the University proper. Heretofore this work has not 
been so carefully differentiated as will now be possible. With a 
separate faculty, made up of strongly equipped men and women 
(men predominating) and with a new, well-appointed building, it 
is expected that the Model High School will occupy an increasingly 
important position among the educational forces of the state. 

All in all, the faculty changes and additions are significant both 
from the standpoint of number and of individual equipment. The 
spirit of scholarship is in the ranks and working mightily. No one, 
from the President down, no matter what his age, his attainments, 
or his accomplishments, is fully satisfied. Such a spirit, strongly 
manifest in the teaching force of any institution, must be contagious. 
The student body can not fail to catch the infection. 



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The Grand Forks 
Evening Times 

TO-DAY'S NEWS TO-DAY 



g DITED for the scholar, the 
student, and the investi- 
gator — clean, conservative and 
reliable. Prepared for reading 
in the home, classroom or study 

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE. POUR DOLLARS PER YEAR 
SPECIAL RATE OP TWO DOLLARS POR THE SCHOOL 
YEAR, DELIVERED AT THE UNIVERSITY 



The Job Department 



A LL classes of periodical, 
commercial and blank 
book printing promptly exe- 
cuted. Special facilities for the 
service of universities, colleges 
and schools. An well-equipped 
book-bindery specializing the 
better classes of binding 

ARTISTIC TYPOGRAPHY WITH NEW. MODERN-PACED 
TYPES: SUPERIOR PRESSWORK WITH A UNIPORM 
PRODUCT; CAREPUL WORKMANSHIP; PAINSTAKING 
SUPERVISION AND INTELUGENT ADMINISTRATION 



GRAND FORKS NORTH DAKOTA 



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WmU^ OIoU^B^ 



Affiliated with the 
State University 



Wesley College is located on its own campus, di- 
rectly north of the University. 

The College provides instruction in the department 
of religious education, as supplemental to the depart- 
ments of the University. Courses are offered in English 
Bible, Hebrew History, New Testament Greek, He- 
brew, Church History, Christian Ethics, Theistic Phil- 
osophy and Theology. College credits to the measure 
of one year are accepted by the University for its bach- 
elor's degree in arts. Students may take courses in the 
University and the College at the same time. The plan 
of affiliation implies cooperation, not competition. 

(EattHnniatorg of Uluair 

Wesley College conducts a Conservatory of Music. 
The usual conservatory departments are provided, and 
teachers of superior training employed. 

The offices, studios and recital auditorium are in 
Corwin Hall. The Junior Department is conducted 
in the city studio, at Grand Forks. 

Say re Hall-for men-accomodates fifty three. Lari- 
more Hall-for women -accomodates fifty one. These 
residence halls are fire proof, and thoroughly modern 
in arrangement and equipment. 

Address inquiries to 

EDWARD P. ROBERTSON, President, 
Post Office, University, N. Dak. 



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Jll^ H-(^9^'7^ 



The 



116 lo .\vr 



v j_ 






Quarterly Journal a 

of the ,^ 



of the 
University of North Dakota 



JANUARY, 1911 

Volume 1 Number 2 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY 



Application made for entrance at the Post Office at University, North DakoU, 
as second-class mail matter 



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The Quarterly Journal 

PUBLISHED BY 

The University of North Dakota 
contents 

I. THE CORRELATION OF LITERATURE AND 

HISTORY O. G. LiBBY 99 

II. CITY TREND OF POPULATION AND LEAD- 

ERSHIP (II) John Morris Gillette 177 

III. AN UNWRITTEN CHAPTER IN THE HIS- 

TORY OF SOUTH AFRICA 

Andrew Alexander Bruce 125 

IV. A RATIONAL SYSTEM OF TAXING NAT- 

URAL RESOURCES Frank L. McVey 146 

V. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE ONOLATRIA 

LEGEND Wallace Nelson Stearns 152 

VL BOOK REVIEWS: 

1. First Biennial Report of the Minnesota Tax 
Commission : 

Frank L. McVey, et al 160 

2. Railroad Transportation: Frank L. McVey. 

E. V. Robertson 163 

3. Great Cities in America: Delos F. Wilcox. 

J. E. Boyle 165 

4. The American Commonwealth: James Bryce. 

J. E. Boyle 168 

5. Sociology: James Quayle Dealey. 

J. M. Gillette 171 

6. Life in the Roman World of Nero and St. 
Paul: T. G. Tucker. 

G. St. John Perrott 173 

7. The Influence of Wealth in Imperial Rome: 
William Stearns Davis. 

O. G. Libby 174 

8. Light from the Ancient East: Adolf Deismann. 

W. N. Stearns 176 

9. A Primer of Hebrew History: Wallace 
Nelson Stearns. 

J. M. Gillette 179 

10. A Manual on Hebrew Private Life: Wallace 
Nelson Stearns, 

J. M. Gillette 179 

11. Great American Universities: Edwin E. Slosson. 

F. L. McVcy 181 

VIL UNIVERSITY NOTES 183 

EDITORIAL COHHITTEE 

A. J. LADD, Wallace N. Stearns, 

Managing EorroR Meyer Jacobstein, 

ASSISTANTS 

Printed br The GraodPorks Evening Timet 



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Announcement 



THE Quarterly Journal was established, and is maintained, by 
the Trustees of the University of North Dakota primarily as 
a channel thru which the instructional force of the institution may 
communicate with the scholarly world, giving the results of their 
research, their discoveries and their matured thought. Its pages, 
however, are open to other writers, especially of the Northwest; 
correspondence and communications are solidted. 

While representing the varied activities and the several depart- 
ments and colleges of a university, it is planned to make each issue 
relatively homogeneous. The bulletin board of each number will 
give at least the general character of the next, thus enabling con- 
tributors, advertisers and publishers of books to act intelligently in 
regard to their special interests. 

The subscription price is $i per year, or 30 cents a single num- 
ber. A limited amount of space will usually be available for high- 
grade advertisers, and advertising rates made known on applica- 
tion. 

All communications should be addressed to The Quarterly 
Journal, University, North Dakota. 

Editor's Bulletin BoarS 



THE second number of the Quarterly Journal, as the first, 
deals mainly with the political and sodal sciences. It will be 
noticed that the books selected for review handle the same lines of 
thought. This is in accord with the plan of the publication, noted 
above, to make each number relatively homogeneous. The next 
issue, to appear in April, 191 1, will be scientific in character. A 
very valuable number is assured. Selections for the same will be 
made from the following list of articles: 

Professor Chandler, of the department of Mathematics, and 
in charge of the work in Civil Engineering, discusses the Red River 
of the North. He looks at it from the geographical, geological, and 
engineering points of view, touching, also, upon its floods and its 
uses for navigation. "The Economic Utilization of North Dakota 
Lignite" is treated by Professor Babcock, Dean of the College of 
Mining Engineering. The writer has been studying this problem 
for years and now, thru the use of the Mining Sub-Station, men- 



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i 



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in every season" 

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LYONS& CO. 



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LOWEST PRICES - BEST VALUES 

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tioned in the University Notes of the Quarterly Journal of Oc- 
tober, 1 910, page 95, has something very definite and very hopeful 
to say. "The Modern Bullet and the Wound it Makes" is the title 
of an article by Professor Taylor, of the department of Physics. 

Two articles are at hand from Dr. Ruediger, of the Public 
Health Laboratories mentioned in the University Notes of this 
number of the Quarterly Journal: "Studies in the Self-purification 
of Streams" and "A Study of the Purity of Natural Ice from Pol- 
luted Waters." North Dakota is a long distance from the sea, yet 
Professor Brannon, of the department of Biology, thinks she has 
aquatic assets of large value. In discussing this subject Professor 
Brannon will make use of information and material secured at the 
Biological Station at Devils Lake, mentioned in the University 
Notes of the Quarterly Journal of October, 19 10, page 94. Dr. 
Young, also of the department of Biology, is gathering material for 
an article on "Biological Stations of the United States." He is 
likewise engaged in preparing an article on "Recent Advances in 
Biological Study." 



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The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 1 JANUARY, 1911 Number 2 

The Correlation of Literature 
and History 

O. G. LiBBY 

Professor of History, University of North Dakota 

IF wc define literature as an artistic expression of the life of a 
people and history, as a systematic effort to restore this life from 
all available records, we may conclude that the correlation of these 
two great fields of thought and expression must of necessity be ex- 
ceedingly close and intimate. For illustration, take the greatest epic 
or epics the world has ever seen, the Homeric poems, how marvelously 
do these poems record the life of the childhood of the Greeks. Here 
are the naive, unconscious, precocious children of the first European 
state, hating, warring, loving, contending in their games, sailing the 
unknown seas like immortal youths or like their own Olympian dei- 
ties. Without these poems, what a weltering chaos is this early period, 
anarchy unspeakable, mythological anarchy, religion, political and 
literary anarchy. But when the immortal bard sounded his one clear 
note of harmony, there was order and unity and beauty in every part 
of Greek life. So, while Greek history does not precisely begin with 
Homer, every historian recognizes the transformation wrought by the 
Homeric poems, a change not less far-reaching in later times than in 
the century nearest their time of production. What is true for Homer, 
is true for later and lesser Greek classics, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Aris- 
tophanes, Plato and Demosthenes. The chronology of the time, to be 
sure, we must seek elsewhere, but the life of the Greeks is in its 
great literature and no where else is it so clarly stated. Here, too, 
we have a most perfect example of the union of literature and history. 
In Thucydides, there is a union of the two in absolute balance, his 
history of the Peloponnesian War is a literary classic and it is recog- 
nized, also, by those most competent to judge, as the most perfect his- 
tory ever written. Unfortunately, none of our modern historical 
manuals or treatises have followed this excellent example, and it re- 
mains a solitary illustration of what is possible in these two great 
realms of thought, as yet an unattained and an unattainable ideal. 
The second great creative period in world literature is that of 



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lOO The Quarterly Journal 

the Renaissance. The greatest name here stands, as does Homer's, 
on the very verge of the new epoch. Dante's Divine Comedy gives 
its author a place in the triad of world authors. This poem is an 
historical monument as well as a literary masterpiece. It represents 
a man in the grip of the narrow, inexorable theology of the Middle 
Ages, yet consdous at the same time of the saner view and broader 
outlook of the coming Renaissance. For, while on the one hand, he 
dooms Homer to the Inferno, he yet pictures him as the center of a 
hemisphere of light amid the awful gloom. In his passage from the 
Inferno up thru the Purgatory to Paradise, Dante describes the 
scenes not merely as a spectator, but as a participator and sufferer. 
His stern philosophy compelled him to doom to the Inferno all not 
of his faith or who were unworthy while on earth. So much was 
mediaeval. But, on the other hand, he puts into his poem that grand 
old pagan ideal of man's perfectibility and of the necessity laid upon 
everyone as his life work, to develop his own powers as the highest 
expression of beauty in the world and therefore, of divinity. Mediae- 
val philosophy and theology had completely subordinated man to an 
artificial and inflexible system. Dante had a far nobler conception of 
life, and with his eyes fixed on the first faint dawn light of the Re- 
naissance, he sang of man's self-emancipation by his own God-given 
powers. As an historical figure, therefore, he has first place in this 
period of European history, for he expresses the greatest problems 
of life in a finer and more transcendent manner than does Petrarch, 
Savonarola, Machiavelli or Michael Angelo. 

To complete this triad of world authors, we need only to men- 
tion Shakespeare. Historically, he stands as the greatest figure in an 
age of great leaders in all lines. With the true insight of genius, he 
poured his whole energy into those forms of expression, which were 
for that time as necessary as breathing. In that age of intense action 
coupled with free thought for a people newly ushered into the re- 
sponsibility of championing the Protestant cause in Europe, of defying 
the mighty power of Spain on land and sea, of seizing the commercial 
supremacy in the Old World and of founding the future common- 
wealths in the New World ; for such a time and such a people, what 
but the drama could adequately express their aspirations, their achieve- 
ments, and the kaleidoscopic variety and change in their daily lives? 
What makes Shakespeare the most important man of his time is that 
he held up to his age a perfect mirror, wherein men could see them- 
selves truly reflected, and because he is, still, for us, the universal 
artist. This opinion of Shakespeare is in no wise changed if we test 
his genius in detail and study him at close range in some one of his 



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' Literature and History loi 

plays, where he expresses some of the characteristic things in the life 
about him. Take, for instance, the play of Merchant of Venice ; how 
artfully he manages to describe the enterprising British merchant with 
ventures in far off lands, in his portrait of the admirable Antonio or 
the equally characteristic Bassanio. The nearly universal detestation 
in which the Jews are held, tho it appears in this play, is used by 
the artist in such a sympathetic and original way that we get from it 
one of his greatest creations, the Jew, Shylock. And what a subtle, 
insinuating criticism does he suggest as to the quality of the mercy 
shown by the gentle Christian lady, Portia, who, when the law has 
laid Shylock helpless at her feet, snatches from him all he holds dear, 
daughter, riches, — even the faith of his fathers. Nor must we forget the 
inimitable casket scene, where Portia's suitors appear one after the 
other, — ^an exceedingly artistic rendering of the long courtship of 
Queen Elizabeth herself, before whom passed that long procession of 
German, Scandinavian, French and Spanish princes, each of whom 
came in for his turn of raillery and dismissal from court favor, with- 
out, in the least understanding it all from first to last. In the Temp- 
est, we are told there was incorporated an unusually vivid contem- 
poraneous account of a storm encountered by some voyagers from 
England to America. There is here, too, the new character, the 
monster, Caliban, half-man and half-beast, of whom we recall, among 
other things, his brutal delight at his first taste of intoxicating liquor. 
Have we not here an echo of some experiences of Englishmen and 
others with the savages of America and their first taste of the won- 
derful firewater of the white men ? How well do Shakespeare's lines 
foreshadow the ultimate fate of these tutored savages; he writes like 
an eye witness, when he pens this complaint of Caliban to his master, 
Prospero : — 

"When thou camest first 

Thou strokedst me and madest much of me, 

and then I loved thee 

And showed thee all the qualities o' the isle. 
The fresh springs, brine pits. 

Barren place and fertile 

And here you sty me 

In this hard rock whiles you do keep from me 

The rest o' the island." 

In Mid-summer Night's Dream is one of the best every-day ac- 
counts of contemporary England among the rustics, as well as among 
the nobles. And everywhere in this comedy are the traces of that 



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I02 The Quarterly Journal 

pagan Renaissance, of which Shakespeare was so perfect a representa- 
tive. But it is not chiefly in such ways that he stands for his age and 
his country. The Renaissance acted upon the Teutonic mind, not to 
paganize it as in Italy, but to rouse a new moral earnestness and a 
desire to return to the purer days of primitive Christianity. When 
the Renaissance reached England, the Reformation followed hard 
after it and, in the end, was fused with it. Now it so happens that 
Shakespeare's tragedies express in an exalted degree that consequent 
spiritual independence that had by this time become the heritage of 
every Englishman. In Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear, 
the interest centers in the progressive unfolding of the moral conse- 
quences of an immoral act. In these plays, we see that the Mediaeval 
sanctions of church and priest have been supplanted by that higher 
and more terrible sanction of one's own spiritual nature. As in 
Dante, so more clearly in Shakespeare, we see emerging the stem but 
beneficent conception of moral habit, moral law, which leaves a man's 
punishment and regeneration to himself, to his own aroused con- 
science and his newly awakened, newly cleansed moral nature. 

But all literature is not produced by world geniuses, if it were, 
fewer of us would read. The bulk of what we call the literature of 
a country is the work of writers who are national rather than inter- 
national. A writer may be national by his point of view, his limita- 
tions, his prejudices, or he may be national by his rare faculty of pre- 
senting these national characteristics in his fiction, his verse or his 
drama, without necessarily possessing any or all of them himself. 

In French literature, one of the great periods for production was 
the last half of the i8th century, when the French revolution became 
the dominating feature of European history. Two men contributed 
most largely to bring on this revolution, so far as it was the product 
of writing, Voltaire, by his destructive criticism, and Rousseau, by his 
more or less vague speculation in the field of the so-called "state of 
nature." 

Voltaire greatly resembles Erasmus in his manner of attacking 
all traditional authority, whether of the state or of the church. Both 
were essentially religious, but the German reformer was more devout 
while the Frenchman was violently anti-clerical. Just as the Refor- 
mation in Germany was in no small measure the work of Erasmus, 
with his fierce attacks upon existing conditions in the church and 
against the abuses of power among the ruling princes ot his time, so 
was the way prepared for the French revolution by Voltaire's defence 
of the liberty of the subject against the oppression of the government 



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Literature and History 103 

and by his earnest appeals for freedom of conscience and universal 
toleration. Like Erasmus, too, Voltaire was the petted favorite of 
the very rulers he attacked and, while his wit made him the popular 
court favorite in whatever land he visited, his words were finding 
their way among the middle classes and stirring them to revolt. 

Rousseau's work supplements that of Voltaire: he had some- 
thing to replace the structure destroyed by the latter. From him pro- 
ceeds the most telling statement of that formidable idea of the "com- 
pact theory" of society. In other words, Rousseau wrote and taught 
that all government and all human society are the result of an agree- 
ment or compact among the people of every organized state. This 
was a very old idea but in the seductive dress in which Rousseau 
clothed it, the theory was just the one to give the common men of all 
Europe something tangible to demand and to fight and die for. How 
well they fought, the revolutions of 1789, 1830 and 1848 speak for 
themselves. Rousseau's doctrines reached America, too, in Paine's 
Crisis and his Rights of Man; they reappear in the states' 
rights views and nullification theories of the South, — our great Civil 
war itself was in a measure the result of differences of opinion on 
these same much-debated questions. Curiously enough, Rousseau's 
doctrines were favored by the aristocracy of France, the most arti- 
ficial society since the days of imperial Rome. These dainty and 
heartless court ladies and gentlemen, who formed the brilliant circle 
about the king and queen, were strangely fascinated by these theories 
of Rousseau. Luckily for us in America, engaged as we were in our 
war for independence, these courtly lords and ladies found in the 
Americans, represented at their capital by Franklin, the very type 
of the natural man of Rousseau. It was not the part of the astute 
Franklin to dispel an illusion so profitable to his country and so, 
contrary to his own better judgment, in opposition to his own interests 
and in spite of the obvious danger of such a course the French King 
championed the cause of American liberty at the very moment his 
own subjects were on the verge of open rebellion. 

If we turn from such authors to Victor Hugo, whose career 
made quite as much noise and whose life was quite as long as either 
of them, we find a striking contrast, Hugo stands for little truly 
national, but, in most of his work, he is quite purely personal, like 
Byron. He has little or none of the wit of his nation, his style is 
turbid, difFuse and grandiloquent, rather than clear and concise. In 
his fiction, he piles detail upon detail to mountain height without 
truth, order or apparent purpose. His much praised Lcs Miserables 



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contains some of the worst examples of his peculiar faults as a writer. 
More than one-fourth of the whole of this work, for instance, con- 
sists of digressions, among them a much quoted description of the 
battle of Waterloo, one of the most palpable and inexcusable frauds 
ever perpetrated by a writer of national reputation. Hugo was, be- 
sides this, a political weathercock, veering with every breath of 
popular opinion ; his religious views show the same uncertainty for he 
vibrated from the most fanatic orthdoxy to the most outrageous 
atheism. His voluminous works, therefore, yield nothing which a 
careful historian can trust or an impartial one can possibly care for. 
It is true that he is as frankly obscene as the lowest Parisian scribbler, 
but one does not need Hugo for this phase of French life. 

A recent series of novels written by two authors in collaboration, 
Emil Erckmann and Louis Chatrian, give in charming sketches the 
life of the French peasant and artisan during the period of the Rev- 
olution, the Napoleonic wars and the later Empire. There are in 
these stories none of the objectionable features of the older writers, 
while the absolute fidelity and clearness with which the point of view 
is set forth make them unique in French literature. 

I can not forbear a single reference to a work so characteris- 
tically French in the best sense of the word that it belongs to that 
group of works both literary and historical, I refer to Rostand's 
Cyrano de Bergerac. In this admirable drama, which delighted a 
Parisian audience every night for more than a year after its first ap- 
pearance, there is an exquisite blending of those characteristics, which 
we assign by common consent to the French people, — ^polished wit, 
high bred courtesy, a delicate sense of honor according to established 
rules. And in this particular case there is added to make the chief 
character more than French, a tender sentiment transforming his life, 
and an invincible pride that carries him thru every defeat to a 
triumphant death. 

One of the striking resemblances between France and imperial 
Italy, her prototype, is the prevailing pessimism among the upper 
classes. This result of an over-intellectual life is a real bond of union 
between the hopeless Pagans of old Rome and the despairing agnos- 
tics of modern Paris. The best literary expression of this phase of 
French life is perhaps to be found in the prose of Maupassant and 
the verse of Leconte de Lisle. 

In the German literature, we reach an entirely new field and 
view-point. Here the basis is pagan, it is true, but not Roman, and 
the Nibelungenlied stands as the great monument of the mythology. 



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Literature and History' lOS 

tradition and history of the past. This poem records the descent of 
the Teutonic peoples upon the Roman empire, but it does more than 
this. It has like the Illiad served as a nation'd source of inspiration 
for many generations later. One striking illustration of this will 
suffice, the rise of the new Germany in the 19th century is contem- 
poraneous with the revival of the Nibelungenlied as a national epic. 
We may, therefore, very properly begin our survey of this portion of 
German history with a study of the Nibelungenlied, for it was this 
great epic, sounding forth from every part of Germany, that roused 
the national spirit like the blowing of a trumpet. The historical dif- 
ference between the Celts and the Germans is well illustrated in 
one of the stories of their mythological heroes, King Arthur and 
Roland for the Celts and Siegfried for the Teutonic people. Each 
one of these three heroes possessed a marvelous sword with which 
he won renown. The two Celtic heroes received their swords 
thru supernatural agencies: King Arthur's sword was given to him 
by a mysterious hand, clothed in white samite, that rose from the 
middle of the lake where the King's boat lay; Roland's sword was 
the gift of an angel. But the Teutonic Siegfried forged his own 
sword with wonderful strokes upon the anvil of his dwarf teacher, 
using for material the long unused pieces of the broken sword of his 
father. It is a well known fact that the old Druids, the religious 
leaders of the Celts, had considerable knowledge of the arts, but 
they always tried to heighten the effect of their work by ascrib- 
ing to it a supernatural origin. So the first weapons forged by 
these Druidic craftsmen from the newly discovered metal, iron, 
were naturally bestowed upon the kings as heroes of their nation, 
and these gifts were made more valuable by an ingenious pretense 
of a superhuman giver, whose representatives on earth were the 
Druids themselves. Now it is well known that the Germans ob- 
tained their iron from the Celts in the course of trade from the 
southwest. So there was but little if any trace of the supernatural 
in this German use of iron thus obtained, but, naturally enough, 
these Tuctonic heroes and kings made their own swords, as they 
commonly did many other things they used for the first time. 

There is such a wealth of names in German literature that 
one need not go far astray with any. Such a name as Goethe's, 
however, stands for itself. In him German literary and artistic 
progress is embodied. His well known work. Apprenticeship of 
Wilhelm Meister, better than anything else in this literature, per- 
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periods. Compare this work with Rousseau's Emile and the strik- 
ing national pecuh'arities in each stand out in perfect relief. Emile 
is the impressionist picture of a dreamer, and of an idealist. Wil- 
helm Meister is an elaborate manual, laboriously correct in every 
detail, for the training of a youth. The German philosopher and 
the German pedagogue are both here and their work is good, but 
still better is the work of the artist, for he has drawn for us a 
minutely accurate picture of the German society of his time. 

In 1889, there appeared in Europe a remarkable book written 
by Baroness von Suttner, (daughter of an Austrian general) and 
entitled Die Waffen Nieder (Ground Arms), a review of the 
Austro-Prussian war. It is a spirited and bitter arraignment of the 
policy of war as a means of settling international complications, 
and a powerful presentation of the rights of the family and of the 
individual as against the state. The efFect produced on all classes 
by such a work, especially in Germany and Austria, was profound. 
Nor was the impression at all weakened when it became generally 
known who the writer was and that she had the boldness, 
as Vice President of the International Peace Congress at Rome, to 
address the assembly there on her favorite theme. While it is too 
much to say that this book has had a permanent effect on the pol- 
icy of any government, yet such an unexpected attack, from within 
the ranks of the aristocracy itself, has served to shake the confi- 
dence of its followers in the infallibility of things as they are. As 
a book of the hour it is often classed with Uncle Tom's Cabin, 
perhaps with some considerable show of plausibility. 

In the Eddas (prose and verse) are to be found the earliest 
forms of Scandinavian mj^thology of the Viking Age. They record 
their oldest ideas as to religion, society and government. These 
poems have much in common with the later Nibelungenlied and 
were largely drawn upon by Wagner for his great operas of the 
Nibelungen Ring. They are, then, an original record of the high- 
est literary and historical value and from them we can more eas- 
ily understand the terror inspired by the Norsemen, those sea-wolves 
as they were called, who traversed every sea, ravaged the whole 
coast of Europe and harried the subjects of good King Alfred, in 
the Saxon days of England. These pirates and sea kings, we are 
told, loved their sharp swords and bright shields, and went into 
battle rejoicing as to a feast, singing the old sagas of Odin, Thor, 
Sigurd and Brunhilda. The works of Bjornson are doubly useful 
to the student of Scandinavian conditions. Bjornson represents 



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Literature and History 1 07 

all classes in his dramas, and his novels, and he was, besides, one of 
the leaders in politics and noted for his statesman-like qualities. 
He was, perhaps, one of the best examples of that class of authors 
who can depict their own people exceedingly well, and who can at 
the same time make use of this power to become a real national 
force at critical moments. Bjornson has been a power in Norway 
on the reform or liberal side. In politics, in education and in 
religious reform he has always been in the van of progress and, 
in spite of all opposition, made himself felt everywhere. No other 
Scandinavian writer has become so identified with his native land 
as to stand for it abroad among thinking and reading men. In 
this respect, he is far superior to Ibsen, who, moreover, is by descent 
and residence more of an outsider and cosmopolite than a true son 
of Norway. While, however, this comparison is all in favor of 
Bjornson, we must not overlook the power of Ibsen*s dramatic 
genius in portraying his own people and the skill with which he 
has handled modern sodal problems. 

The Russian people have had two notable interpreters, con- 
temporaries in Russian literature, TurgeneflF and Tolstoi. Tur- 
gene£F*s first book, A Sportsman's Sketches, had the good fortune to 
so affect his readers that the emancipation of the serfs in 1861 has 
been directly charged to him. His novels have a reality and a 
clear cut incisive tone that does not leave the reader in doubt as to 
what is meant. His stories take hold of one like reality and leave 
their impress whether you will or not. 

Tolstoi has in addition to his artistic genius, equal to that 
possessed by TurgeneflF, the ethical quality, the note of reform. 
Both writers have an European vogue, each for a diflFerent reason. 
Tolstoi was better born but renounced his place in society to labor 
with his peasants. Modern Russia finds completest expression in 
his works; warlike, aggressive Russia, official and noble Russia, 
peasant and middle class Russia, and, last of all, revolutionary 
Russia are all equally explicable from some one or more of his 
books. The two great novels of his artistic period, Anna Karenina, 
1875-8, and War and Peace, 1865-8, present powerful pictures of 
Russian society, especially of the upper classes. As a reformer, we 
remember him best for his What to Do, Kreutzer Sonata and Res- 
urrection. His terrible drama of peasant life. Powers of Darkness, 
has scenes that vividly recall portions of Macbeth. In these latter 
works, Tolstoi exposes to stern reprobation the decadent life of all 
classes, and in doing so has given us some marvelous revelations 



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of the degeneracy of his times, and what to him is the remedy. In 
these studies of Russian society, Tolstoi has attempted, like Ibsen, 
the solution of life problems, and he has thus become a world re- 
former as well as a world artist. 

In English literature, from our greater acquaintance with the 
authors, it is possible to show in more detail this connection be- 
tween history and literature. The great awakening in England, 
whether we call it the Reformation or the Renaissance, produced 
a group of famous writers. In Sir Thomas More's Utopia is an 
excellent record of how England was stirred. This Utopia, the 
Englishman's dream of an ideal state, foreshadowed many of Eng- 
land's notable reforms and is so far in advance of what modern 
England has yet reached, that it still remains an unattained social 
and political goal. In his historical plays, such as Henry V, Henry 
VI, Henry VIII, and Richard III, Shakespeare has told us, as no 
one else has, what Englishmen of that time thought of themselves, 
of their queen, and of England itself. Moreover, he has created 
here two great English characters, one in comedy, Falstaff, and one 
in tragedy, Richard III. We must not overlook several very ex- 
cellent efforts to restore the Elizabethan period by later writers. 
Scott's Kenilworth easily stands first, not only for his portrait of 
Elizabeth, but for the story of Raleigh's meteoric rise to royal 
favor. Scott gives us here, also, an unsurpassed description of one 
of Elizabeth's "progresses" thru England, whereby, with shows, 
plays, processions, feastings and the like accompanying festivities, 
the English people might have their minds diverted from the 
troublesome religious problems to something more worldly and 
human. In Blackmore's Lorna Doone, we have described for us 
English peasant life of Shakespeare's time, unchanged for so many 
generations and the author adds what Scott was never able to com- 
pass a well told romance to liven the whole picture. Kingsley's 
Westward Ho is much inferior to this, but it contains some dis- 
tinctive features, such as the traditional hatred of the English for 
the Spanish, the contest of these two powers for supremacy on the 
sea and the strange adventures of the men of Devon as explorers in 
the wilds of the New World. 

The period of the Stuart kings saw the appearance of the 
poetic genius of Milton. From the point of view of the historian, 
his works fall into three groups. He is, in his first period, the last 
representative of the English Renaissance; his Comus is reminis- 
cent of Shakespeare, while his Lycidas, L' Allegro and II Penseroso 



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Literature and History 109 

were written before the Puritan Revolution had driven all else from 
men's minds, especially whatever was pagan in tone. During the 
second period, his Pegasus was harnessed to the Puritan plough for 
utility's safe. But the noble prose of his Areopagitaca, Defence 
of the Free Press, and Defence of the English People, console us 
for this interregnum. These great pieces of prose are among the 
most notable and characteristic expressions of literature of Puritan 
political ideals. In the third period of his career, when Paradise 
Lost and Paradise Regained were produced, we become aware of 
what he had lost artistically during his prose period. These poems, 
especially the latter, are Puritan in treatment and in subject mat- 
ter, tho it is some compensation that thru the stiflE, formal, fanatic 
Puritanism of his general plan and structure, the hot lava of the 
real creative Milton is continually bursting forth with irresistible 
power. It is somewhat remarkable that not until after the Restor- 
ation, did the contemporary of Milton, John Bunyan, immortalize 
Puritan religious phraseology and modes of thought. Pilgrim's 
Progress has been, next to the Bible, perhaps, the most universally 
popular piece of English ever penned. As an exposition and hand- 
book of Puritanism, therefore, this allegory has great historic in- 
terest. 

Following the remarkably dull and unproductive period of 
the first two reigns of the House of Hanover, we come upon a 
period in English history when the activity was intense and uni- 
versal. In this era of the Seven Years' War, and the War in 
America, and the French Revolution, the greatest interest was in 
things chiefly political. The literature, therefore, reflected the dom- 
inant ideas of the time. Burns sang of liberty, equality and frater- 
nity; Burke spoke in the name of justice and freedom, at home and 
abroad, while, like a well directed scourge, there descended upon the 
ruling classes the terrible invective and stinging sarcasm of the 
Junius Letters. Across the water, in America, the same activity 
is to be noticed and the same results follow. The generation after 
1 81 5 saw reform carry the day in England. For this period of 
rapid change and transformation, a literature, venturing into new 
and untried fields, was the natural outcome. Thus, there appears 
the Lake School of poets, singing of nature, and of man in a new 
guise. Carlyle and Kingsley gave us their new message of revolt, 
and the discoverers in the field of science, like Darwin, Herschel 
startled us by their theories and arguments. But rich as is the field 
of contemporary literature and history, equally rich are the works 



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dealing with a generation earlier than the one in which the author 
wrote. English fiction furnishes a good illustration of this. Ex- 
cellent sketches of the Middle Ages are to be found in Stevenson's 
Black Arrow and Scott's Ivanhoe and the Talisman, which last is 
an English abridgement of the Arabian Nights. Robert Browning's 
poems, Paracelsus and Grammarian's Funeral, arc almost perfect 
in their rendering of those classic days of the Renaissance. A good 
description of the Scotch Highlanders, who were such strong eigh- 
teenth century partisans of the Stuart or Jacobite party, is to be 
found in Scott's Rob Roy, Stevenson's David Balfour and Mac- 
Donald's Malcolm and Marquis of Lossie. In Thackery's Henry 
Esmond is given an excellent account of the Jacobite side of the 
establishment of the House of Hanover in England. Colonial 
America, as seen from England, is described in Thackeray's Virgin- 
ians, provincial America is given in Dickens' Martin Chuzzlewit 
and the caricature is still recognizable. Prison reform in England 
is strongly urged in Reade's Never Too Late to Mend, and Dickens' 
Pickwick Papers. The danger of English labor unions is discussed 
in Dickens' Hard Times and Reade's Put Yourself in His Place. 
Dickens always defended the weak and oppressed, and in his Nicho- 
las Nickleby, Hard Times and David Copperfield, he pleads, not 
unsuccessfully, for a more rational system of education. Thackeray's 
Vanity Fair pictures the England of Napoleonic Era while Dickens, 
in his Tale of Two Cities, gives a typical Englishman's version of 
the French Revolution. George Eliot's novels arc the most consist- 
ently accurate for English life and can be relied upon for the periods 
they deal with ; for instance, Adam Bcdc for the rise of Methodism, 
Silas Marner for the use of hand loom as against the use of the 
power loom, and Felix Holt for the suffrage agitation of 1852. 
Perhaps George Eliot has left no successors, but George Gissing 
and Mrs. Humphrey Ward have given us English society true to 
life and have drawn the modern Englishman with great skill. If 
we leave England for the British Empire, we have Kipling for our 
guide and artist, especially in India. All the phases of war, com- 
merce, administration he treats with unsurpassed skill. Kipling's 
favorites, among general readers, are, no doubt, his soldier sketches. 
But those who love action, heroism and self-sacrifice and who have 
not yet grown cold toward the concrete application of practical 
Christianity and English common sense to the problems of govern- 
ing the half-civilized millions of the subject population of the Brit- 
ish Empire, can find in the pages of Kipling as nowhere 



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Literature and History III 

else, the exemplification of those Anglo-Saxon virtues that 
have made the race the dominant one in the world today. In 
South Africa Olive Schreincr, in The African Farm, has given us 
some vivid sketches of the people last conquered by England and in 
her Trooper, Peter Halkett, she gives a scathing rebuke to the un- 
scrupulous greed of certain men who have disgraced the English 
name in South Africa. 

In selecting examples to illustrate our subject in the field of 
American literature, there is some embarrassment, not of riches but 
of poverty. We have not had time enough to write; we expelled 
our cultured class before 1783 as the price of independence from 
England; we have had a continent to subdue and a vast foreign 
population to assimilate, and our literature has suffered correspond- 
ingly. The Puritan stock has had more than its share of attention 
in our history as well as in our literature but we are getting over 
this mistake by degrees. For the New England section, the works 
of Jonathan Edwards are perhaps best representative of its intel- 
lectual power and its theological belief, while Cotton Mather rep- 
resents the Puritan parson in his dotage; and we have all read with 
delight Hawthorne's powerful picture of Puritan society, the Scar- 
let Letter. Without stopping to dwell upon the political master- 
pieces of our Revolutionary epoch, since they are a part only of the 
literature of the English speaking people of that time, having a 
common subject, on both sides of the water, we may consider some 
of the fiction which illustrates certain periods of our history and 
some phases of our national life. It has been a matter of peculiar 
pride to us that in our two wars with England, we were able to 
demonstrate our naval superiority over the mistress of the seas, not 
in armament or in tonnage, but in construction and seamanship. 
In Cooper's novels we find much of the detailed description of this 
life on the sea but in Herman Melville's stories, especially in Molly 
Dick, we have a still better account, coupled with a most spirited 
narrative of whale fishing, as a science and as an art. 

Pioneer life on New York and western frontiers during our 
early history, is found best in Cooper's inimitable woodsmen 
sketches and in his Spy, while, in a less degree, the novels of Wm. 
Gilmore Simms cover the Revolutionary period for the Carolinas. 
Both these writers fail as utterly in their romance as they excel in 
their pictures of frontier life and the guerilla fighting during the 
Revolutionary War. Simms has the distinction, however, of having 
plagiarized in one of his novels a consideragle portion of the famous 



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112 ' The Quarterly Journal 

tournament scene in Scott's Ivanhoe. The population of the Ap- 
palachian mountain area, consisting of the hardiest of the English, 
German, Scotch-Irish, and other nationalities, pressing westward 
from the Atlantic coast region, have left in these remote and inac- 
cessible uplands the mountain whites of today. The United States 
revenue officers know them as the inhagitants of the "moonshine 
district." No small part of the leaders in the great middle west, 
from Daniel Boone to Abraham Lincoln, have descended from this 
magnificent stock. They are described in the novels of Mary Mur- 
free and the stories of Miss Dromgoole, Maurice Thompson and 
Malcolm Johnston. It is the fault of our over-much Puritanism 
that this part of our people are not as well known as the Pilgrim 
Fathers. Mark Twain described in many of his sketches the steam- 
boat life on the Mississippi, Bret Harte has done us a great service 
in preserving in his own peculiar fashion the record of the evanes- 
cent life of the gold camps and raw mining towns in the early days 
of California. The settlement of the Blue Grass region of Ken- 
tucky by the best blood of Virginia and the development of an 
aristocracy in that favored region has been the chief reason for the 
leading place taken by Kentucky in our early history. The best 
literature of this literary part of the Kentucky population must be 
found in the works of that artist of the Blue Grass region, James 
Lane Allen. There is little to choose among them all, for in each 
one is to be found more or less clearly portrayed that cultured, re- 
fined, beautiful life, unlike anything else in America. The Old 
South and its change since the war have been the subject of many 
stories and sketches, some of them of a very high literary quality, 
and tell better than any history the real life of slave and master, 
or of freedman and white as it actually went on and is still going 
on in the South. In this field, Thomas Nelson Page for Virginia, 
George W. Cable for Louisiana, and Joel Chandler Har^s for 
Georgia undoubtedly rank first, and it is hard to choose between 
them, each has his own peculiar charm. They have done the nation 
a great service in thus depicting with absolute fidelity the real life 
of this section and of their own particular part of it. It is not too 
much to say that if the information and the message which is con- 
veyed in their works for every reader could have been brought home 
to the minds of the northern leaders after the war, the horrible 
blunders of Reconstruction might have been avoided. 

The struggle over slavery brought out a whole literature on 
each side during the period 1836-60. I shall mention but two of 



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Literature and History 113 

the writers in the long list that at once occur to all of us, Walt 
Whitman and Harriet Beecher Stowe. It is now no longer neces- 
sary to enter into an elaborate defense of Whitman's writings. He 
has his front rank place whether we will or no. He is the most 
representative poet of this storm and stress period in his advocacy 
of democratic ideals, in his complete revolt from the old standards 
and accepted conventions, and in his being the best and almost 
the only exponent in verse of that middle west which furnished both 
the president and the armies needed to suppress the rebellion. He 
was not an abolitionist, nor was Lincoln, but in such poems as he 
published in i8ss> he sounded a new note. The old issues and old 
compromises were past, his songs were those of self-emancipation, 
of a newly-born democracy for north and south, of new tasks and 
responsibilities awaiting us when we should shake off the fetters of 
the past. In his three poems. Song of the Open Road, Pioneers, O 
Pioneers, and By Blue Ontario's Shore, he telb the whole story of 
the great new nation that is just awakening; these are poems pecu- 
liarly western and Whitman was well fitted, by his western travels 
and his natural tastes and aptitudes, to express the ideas and senti- 
ments of this hitherto voiceless multitude. More than this, his 
poem. When Lilacs last in the Dooryard Bloomed, and his Captain, 
O My Captain, are the best accounts in literature of the deep im- 
pression made by the death of Lincoln on the whole nation. When 
some man who understands and sympathizes with Whitman shall 
have the courage to edit him as we edit Shakespeare, and leave out 
the unnecessary crudities, his poems will take the place they de- 
serve. 

Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin is one of 
the world's great books, perhaps because it describes conditions uni- 
versal, whether of slavery or of serfdom. The work has been trans- 
lated into twenty different languages, and there are, besides, thirty- 
five editions in English. For us, historically, the work has the high- 
est interest, it has outlived a score of rivals and imitators, because 
it contains the largest element of truth and the smallest fraction of 
popular error and prejudice. The Planter's Northern Bride, a 
southern book written to counteract the fallacies of Uncle Tom's 
Cabin, has perished, and doubtless few American readers ever heard 
of it. Albion Tourgee's novels like his Fool's Errand and Bricks 
without Straw are examples of this same transitory literature, being 
able to convey only a very small fraction of the truth and so 
fast being forgotten; we no longer read them since we have discov- 



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114 ' ^A^ Quarterly Journal 

ercd their fallacies but, unfortunately, their place is being filled by 
much cheap stuff like The Leopard's Spots and Sheaves Unbound. 
The merits of Uncle Tom's Cabin as an historical study are, as far 
as the authoress is concerned, mostly unconscious. The opening 
scene of the work describes dramatically the sale of a slave to free 
a plantation from heavy debt. This was a proceeding very com- 
mon in the border states and accounts in large measure for the early 
dislike of slavery which was so prevalent in Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, and especially in Virginia. The worn out tobacco fields of 
these states were yielding up their slaves under the irresistible de- 
mand from the rich and paying cotton plantations and rice fields 
farther south and southwest; slavery was on its westward march, 
and the old states had to supply the deficiency caused by the abolition 
of the slave trade in 1808. This meant, for many an old plantation, 
a breaking up of negro families that had served on the estate for many 
generations and it set men thinking as nothing else could. In trac- 
ing Uncle Tom, a typical slave of this section, thru the book to the 
end, the author is making a powerful and effective plea against 
slavery to every such humane master on the old plantations. The 
Underground Railway is described in Uncle Tom's Cabin in such 
detail and so vividly that it must always remain as the best account 
we have of this remarkable, organized system of law breaking. In 
this case, it includes among its supporters an ex-slave owner, a 
southern gentleman, an Ohio senator and a Quaker settlement en- 
tire, a heterogeneous combination very characteristic of the time, 
and this enumeration omits the part played by those slaves who did 
not try to escape, but who aided in the escape of others. There is an 
admirable picture, too, of that worthy senator from Ohio who voted 
in the legislature for a law making it a penal offence to aid run-a- 
way slaves and then on his visit home, found himself, he hardly 
knew how, aiding the run-a-way slave, Eliza, and her boy, to escape 
from their pursuers. And everyone on the border had to face this 
question sooner or later, and most of them broke the law they could 
not find the heart to enforce. This is the means Mrs. Stowe uses 
to illustrate the working of the higher law which Seward and Lin- 
coln said so much about and which in the end was the means of 
destroying slavery. The book has much to say, of course, about the 
waste and cruelty of slavery, neither does it spare that good Puritan 
lady. Miss Ophelia, for her first attitude toward Topsy is just 
the feeling of the average northerner still for the negro, — ^they are 
brothers so long as they stay south, but as to touching one or asso- 



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Literature and History 115 

dating intimately with one, that is a wholly difiEerent matter. 
Best of all, there is described in this book, that feeling of respect and 
love felt by the slave for a kind master and the master's trust in a 
faithful slave, that made slavery possible in the south and kept it 
standing intact long after the Emancipation Proclamation. And, 
lastly, there is worked out a most subtle and irresistible argument 
against slavery, the jeopardized families of the slaves, and still worse, 
the double parentage of the mulatto child, that horrible mingling in 
one life of both freedom and slavery, sure to degrade the former 
and rarely, indeed, elevating the latter. The paiiicuiar problems 
that called for the production of Uncle Tom's Cabin have ceased 
to vex our nation, but the authoress in her plea for the child of 
mixed parentage has struck upon one of the greatest social prob- 
lems of the civilized world today, the problem of the mestizo or 
mixed blood. Wherever United States, England, France, Germany, 
Russia, Spain, or Italy have colonies, whether in Asia, Africa, North 
America, or South America, or in the islands of the Pacific, there is 
the mestizo in greater or less numbers, not a diminishing factor, but 
an increasing one in the world population as the years go on. The 
mestizo usually is the product of the union of a man of the superior 
race with a woman of an inferior race, a union not necessarily 
recognized by law of the superior or dominant race, but often 
merely a native marriage. This problem is stated for our century 
in the India stories of Kipling, for Alaska by Jack London and for 
Canada by Gilbert Stewart White. Our new Philippine posses- 
sions make this as much a living problem for us abroad, as it has 
hitherto been recognized to be in our own South. But we seem no 
nearer a rational solution than when the question was so forcefxilly 
stated for us in the pages of Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

From this brief presentation of some few phases of the intimate 
connection between real history and genuine national literature, it 
must be clear that there is here a very large unused increment of 
power, which it is possible to utilize to more effective teaching in 
many lines. The useless separation of literature from history, in 
the presentation of these subjects, results in a loss of vitality for 
each which is fatal. Now that the demand for vocational education 
has subjected every detail of the curriculum to new and searching 
tests, will not the teachers of history and of English in our schools 
need to bestir themselves anew and discover still better reasons for 
the retention of their subjects in the remodeled course of study? 
But, in this new point of view for our teaching in the future, will 



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Ii6 The Quarterly Journal 

there not be broader and better requirements for the teachers of 
these two great subjects of literature and history? Can the mere 
modicum of information regarding one subject alone any longer 
suffice when reading and thinking citizens come to realize the op- 
portunities for culture which are being denied to their children from 
the sheer neglect of unprepared teachers? The progressive teacher 
must anticipate the demand and prepare for it in advance. The 
old ideals that once sufficed are no longer in good standing, the pro- 
gressive enrichment of the whole public school curriculum, which 
has so recently taken place, is the result of an aroused public 
opinion. Practical business men are asking for results commen- 
surate with expenditure. How to economize time and e£Eort and 
still cover the requirements of the crowded curriculum is more and 
more the problem of the superintendent and principal. In the brief 
suggestions offered as to the correlation of literature and history, 
will there not be found a partial solution as to how time may be 
saved and better results secured? To enlist a student's attention 
and hold his interest after school hours, to send him to the library 
as an eager and enthusiastic reader, this is certainly to save time, 
and multiply results. But it is idle to expect such effects without 
adequate cause, the teacher must exemplify the correlation of litera- 
ture and history in his own reading and previous preparation, he 
is then ready to become the instructor, the guide and companion of 
such as care to explore the great fields of thought that lie open on 
every hand. 

But the problem involved here has a wider application than 
has been indicated. The correlation of two subjects does not by any 
means exhaust the possibilities along this line. Other connections 
and correlations suggest themselves, when once our attention is 
directed toward this phase of educational work. This is certainly 
a step toward broader and more intelligent scholarship as well as 
its practical application to real problems. And, what is quite as 
desirable, it commends itself to all citizens who are equally inter- 
ested with the teacher in realizing the best in our educational 
system. 



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City Trend of Population and 
Leadership II. 

John Morris Gillette 
Professor of Sociology, University of North Dakota 

2. — OPINIONS AS TO WHAT INSTITUTIONS SHOULD DO. 

Questions five and six of the questionaire which was sent to 
State institutions elicited replies, some of which may be valuable, and 
all of which are indicative of the attitude of institutional managers. 

To question five two normals reply **no** and two "y^s", three 
imiversities, "no", and five agricultural colleges, "no" without re- 
marks. To question six five normals answer "yes" and one, "per- 
haps," four universities, "yes" with little or no comment, and two 
agricultural colleges, "no", two, "yes", and one, "no opinion" with- 
out comment. Twelve normals expand replies to questions five and 
six, some writing extensive opinions. In Alabama they "encourage" 
going to rural regions. Illinois (Normal) reports it "just began to 
train teachers specifically for country life." Minnesota (Mankato) 
says, "Demands and supply too strong to enable us to do much. They 
(i. e. the teachers) prefer town schools where they save nothing to 
country schools where they can save $35 a month." Montana writes 
that a systematic attempt would be beneficial where rural com- 
munitities exist but that it is almost wholly towns and isolated ranches 
in Montana. Missouri (Kirksville) reports at length and interest- 
ingly. The gist of the letter is this: "A systematic attempt is not 
worth while. There is no abnormal drift away from the farm. 
Farmers in Missouri are prosperous, more so than town and village 
people. Kirksville has a well equipped rural school building over 
which one of their best normal teachers presides with a salary of from 
$1,200 to $1,500 per year. The children attending are transported 
by the school from rural regions, no city children being allowed to 
attend. Nobody can tell what per cent of farm children will move 
into town and what per cent of town children will move into the 
country." The "howl about *back to the farm* ♦ ♦ ♦ Js mere 
political rubbish." The substance of the reply from New Hamp- 
^ire (Plymouth) Is that some effort is made toward inducing gradu- 
ates to locate in rural schools. The state rebates towns that employ 
graduates $2 per week taught. Also a federation of women's clubs 
aids students who agree to go to rural schools. "We feel as you do 
that the rural problem is a vital one, also that the rural school is a 
powerful influence, for good or not according as it is a good school 



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Il8 The Quarterly Journal 

or not." North Dakota (Valley City) calls special attention of its 
students in the direction of rural schook. New York (Oswego) 
finds "no necessity" there. Pennsylvania (Mansfield) points out 
"opportunities" to be found in them. South Dakota (Springfield) 
makes some attempt but believes that a state school should exercise 
no systematic attempt to so influence students. West Virginia 
reaches the case thru an agricultural teacher. Wisconsin (Oshkosh) 
has established a course for rural teachers and "urges" those gradu- 
ating to take up rural school work. No state school should system- 
atically attempt to direct the future of students "except in so far as 
different types of life are certain for young people." Improvement 
of farm life does not await "exact facts", as the letter accompanying 
the questionnaire suggests. "A higher ideal is the only thing that 
produces a higher type of life." 

I will report briefly the essence of the replies combining ques- 
tions five and six which were received from agricultural colleges. 
Connecticut says there is possibly no advantage in making an at- 
tempt to turn students toward the country. The question is an 
economic one. Illinois thinks it is sufficient that the agricultural 
courses point to country life. Indiana believes that industrial and 
commercial conditions of the community determine the judgments of 
students. There is a drift toward the farm in Indiana because farm- 
ers are prosperous. Massachusetts does not make a systematic at- 
tempt but gives much encouragement thru informal suggestions to- 
ward leadership in rural life. President Butterfield gives a course 
in Rural Sociology, revealing the aims and needs of such leadership. 
New York states that Dean Bailey meets students each Monday and 
presents a problem of farm life. The spirit of his remarks is to de- 
velop a spirit of service in farm life and this undoubtedly has had 
much to do with the present strong tendency among students to settle 
on farms. Outside of this no systematic attempt is made and it is 
thought it is not needed with from 70 to 75 per cent of the students 
going into some form of agricultural work. North Dakota believes 
the "rural influence" of the school is sufficient. Texas thinks the 
decision should be left to students. Wisconsin holds that the institu- 
tion accomplishes it in the nature of its work. The sjrstematic at- 
tempt should be made by "other schools than spedal schoob of agri- 
culture. This branch should be taught in all our schools, city and 
country alike." 

Opinions were expressed by universities relative to making a sys- 
tematic attempt to turn students toward the farm. Indiana is "re- 
joiced to see many of them, and an increasing number, return to farm 



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City Trend of Population 119 

life." Kansas says "yes, and we arc planning to do so." Maine "en- 
courages" the agricultural students. It believes in a systematic at- 
tempt in view of influences away from the farm. "Practically the 
whole elementary and secondary school system of this section educates 
away from the farm." It seeks, to an extent, to place rural opportuni- 
ties before high school students. Minnesota responds, "Certainly, a 
wise and sane attempt." It depends upon its agricultural college to 
make the effort. Oregon does not believe in it, holding that the question 
"involves a natural bent and desire, preparation and economic oppor- 
tunities." Texas believes "such matters exceed our powers." But it has 
appointed a "lecturer to rural schools," and is doing all it can to 
make country life attractive. Washington thinks economic chances 
settle where students will go and satisfies itself by pointing "out ad- 
vantages and disadvantages of all lines of occupation." West Vir- 
ginia believes in it and attempts to call attention to rural betterment 
and to the possibilities of farm life. 

The replies from the three groups of institutions reveal that a 
majority of them believe some sort of an attempt should be made to 
create a leadership and to locate it in rural regions, that encourage- 
ment is often given, and that a more or less systematic attempt is made 
in that direction. We also see that the agricultural colleges generally 
trust to the nature of their instruction to do the work, that normals 
are providing rural schools and agricultural teachers besides making 
other attempts, and that universities recognize the desirability of the 
attempt generally, that those having agricultural departments repose 
the trust in them, and that a few are looking to special agencies and 
efforts. 

m. — CAUCBS OF THE CITY TRBND OF POPULATION AND LEADERSHIP. 

The United States has been fortunate in the matter of the 
growth of cities. This is shown by comparing its record with that 
of other nations. The percentage of urban population in cities of 
10,000 or more persons for some of the most urbanized countries 
in their regressive order runs as follows : England and Wales, 62% ; 
Scotland, 50% ; Australia, 42% ; Belgium, 34% ; Saxony, 
34%; Netherlands, 33%; Turkey in Europe, 28%; China, 
25%; Uraguay, 30%; Prussia, 30%; Germany, 27%; Argentina, 
28%; United States, 28%; France, 26%. ^ 

It is probable that if a reduction were made for the existence of 
large cities in certain of the South American states, Australia and 

19. Stronff, JosUh: The Challenffe of the City. P. SO. (AppKudmated from the 
curtoffnun. 



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I20 The Quarterly Journal 

Turkey, the percentage of the rural element would assume large 
proportions, as was the case in certain of our states where such a re- 
duction was made. In spite of any results which might ensue from 
such a reduction it is apparent that the United States has fared bet- 
ter than most of the countries in escaping the tidal wave setting to- 
ward cities. Our cities have not become the predominant part of our 
population that they have in certain European countries, nor have 
they been built up in population so largely by draining rural regions 
of their inhabitants as has occurred abroad. This is apparent when 
we remember that Epropean states do not increase their population 
from foreign immigration. Hence their dty growth rests upon an 
actual drift of population from their rural regions. 

No doubt our own urban elemenl .rould have increased much 
more relative to our country population had it not been for the lib- 
eral land policy adopted early in our national history which kept in- 
ducing ambitious individuals to take up and live on farms. But 
since our public domain to be given away is reaching its point of ex- 
haustion we must cease to look for an outlet for our increasing pop- 
ulation in that direction and consequently must expect a relatively 
faster growth of our urban communities. Instead of expecting any 
large movement of persons out of cities toward the country for pur- 
poses of agriculture this large comparative aspect of the situation 
would encourage us not in the least but rather induce a belief that 
the city tendency is a part of a world-movement, that it is in some 
way fundamental to the onward march of civilization and social 
evolution, and that therefore there is likely to be more of it rather 
than less. 

Penetrating the inwardness of the movement a consideration of 
the forces of the more fundamental sort which account for the move- 
ment of both population and trained ability to the cities deepens the 
conviction formed. Here we go back to the mainsprings of our pres- 
ent, modern, in the recent sense, civilization. We get back to the 
economic conditions, yes, back of them to the scientific and technical 
knowledge which give form and wings to the economic We have 
had other city ages in the history of mankind, but none on such a 
universal scale, nor any in which in any state the cities were so nu- 
merous, 90 large, nor so essentially a vital part of the social mechan- 
ism as is now the case. And the reason was that the scientific knowl- 
edge and technical appliances which now create and propel human 
progress and currents were absent. 

Our city age is in birth and growth coexistent with the machine 
age with its factories demanding the grouping of workers, its engines 



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City Trend of Population lai 

and power transmitters propelling their machinery, its railroads and 
steamships to transport people and material to and from the centers 
of production and body of consumers, the telegraph to permit the 
gathering and transmission of market conditions and business con- 
tracts, and the modern press, to herald market reports along with 
other information to dty throngs, the multiplication of manufacuring 
machines and scientific discoveries thru which consumptive goods 
have been increased by thousands of per cent and the resulting de- 
mands on market and factories. And back of all this as its pre- 
condition lay the growing body of exact knowledge in phs^ics, diem- 
istry and other sciences which was absolutely necessary to the mechani- 
cal and economic evolution and which created it. 

Our modem populations are thus caught up in the whirl of a 
civilization which rests on scientific and technological principles. 
These principles logically and inevitably work out along industrial 
and commercial lines multiplying and refining the goods of the former, 
and demanding the latter on a huge complex scale for their ex- 
change. Thus the number of dty dwellers demanded to carry on 
these enlarged and rapidly expanding lines of human endeavor con- 
stantly increases and since the expansion of the former is somewhat in 
geometrical ratio to the growth of population at large the dty popula- 
tion forges ahead of the rural. 

The agricultural regions also are affected directly by the scien- 
tific and technical prindples and appliances, but here the results on 
population are entirely opposite to those in the case of cities. For 
the fanners are producing raw material, chiefly food, and as the pro- 
ductive power of labor is increased on the farm more food is pro- 
duced. People can eat only about so much. The increase in the 
farmer's productive power enables the more people to live in dties 
to take part in diversifying the farms of raw materials, enhancing 
their prices and in exchange and other work. It may even enable 
the farms to reduce their population, tho this is not likely to be the 
actual case. "The saving in time and cost of labor achieved by ma- 
chinery has been as great for agriculture as for the textile indus- 
tries. The production of twenty bushels of wheat from an acre of 
land required in 1830 six days' work. With the aid of machinery 
the up-to-date farmer can accomplish the same result in three hours 
and nineteen minutes. The labor cost involved in the production 
of a bushel of wheat, in spite of the advance in wages, is to-day one- 
fifdi what it was in 1830." *> "A spedal agent of the government 

20. ConMm: Indiutrial History of the United Statei, P. 244. 



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122 ' The Quarterly Journal 

reports that four men with improved agricultural implements now 
do the work formerly done by fourteen." "To produce our agri- 
cultural staples in 1870 one man was employed to every 17 acres 
cultivated; in 1890 there was only one to every 26 acres." Persons 
engaged in agriculture in 1840, in the United States, represented 
21.79 per cent of the population while in igcx) it was but 13.64 per 
cent. On the other hand those in manufacturing and mechanical 
pursuits increased from 4.12 per cent in 1850 to 9.28 per cent in 
i9<X).2i These changes occurred in spite of the fact that our govern- 
ment gave away an empire in farms during that time. It becomes 
evident that the scientific and technological principles in their appli- 
cation fundamentally tend to lessen the relative number of agricul- 
turists and to multiply that in industrial and commercial lines. Be- 
ing a constituent and intrinsic part of the social process we may not 
expect the tendency to cease. Rather we must expect the continued 
growth of science in its principles and applications and that of in- 
ventions of machines operating in all ranges of life, the multiplication 
of the forms of goods to be manufactured, the increased specialization 
in vocations, the development of scientific and intensive agriculture. 
Other causes of a social, cultural, recreational, vocational na- 
ture enter, besides the ones mentioned. Some of them are important. 
None are fundamental in the sense developed, and some of them are 
rather the unconscious outcomes of the more basic forces previously 
treated. Thus in a study of Q)mell Q)llege students Professor 
Bailey found that the business and the occupational phase of agricul- 
ture received by far the greatest attention from those who were from 
farms in their response to his questionnaire, altho the same intellec- 
tual and personal reasons for leaving the farm for the city were 
prominent. ^^ Professor M. A. Brannon, from a similar questionnaire 
to the students of the University of North Dakota obtained similar 
results.® That the opportunities offered outside the farm are the 
determining factors in the decision of students from the country is 
recognized by several presidents of institutions in their replies to 
questions five and six of my questionaire treated in this paper. 

IV. — ^REMEDIAL. 

If the causes of the movement of population toward cities have 
been treated correctly we have little reason to hope for any effective 
remedies or checks. Where the casual conditions are so fundamental 

2L Stronir: lOe. cit. pp. 21-86. 

22. Bailey. Liberty H.: The Traininff of the Farmer, pp. 89-114. 

28. Brannon, M. A.: Proceedings of the North Dakota Educational Asaoeiation, 1906. 
P.lWff. 



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City Trend of Population 123 

their removal must be viewed as impossible. They are equally oper- 
ative against effective prevention of people moving to cities from the 
country and away from cities to the country. All the so-called rem- 
edies for congested cities in the shape of "back-to-the-farm" move- 
ments are fated to die still-born as commensurate checks to urban 
growth. Were a million persons diverted, and nothing now in sight 
promises to reach one one-hundredth of that number per year, the 
tendency would not be greatly affected. Population flows will not be 
greatly influenced. Ambitious individuals in country schools may 
be expected to seek a higher education for other spheres. They are 
needed in those spheres. 

Still the country needs leadership. It must have a developed 
ability for the solution of its distinctive problems. It may obtain 
this by developing the schools in the rural regions on lines which 
will equip them to meet the needs of all-round farm life. It is the 
rural school which now educates away from rural life. They have 
remained so traditional that they stand aloof from the interest and 
life which surrounds them. In subject matter and in ideals given 
thru subject matter, both fundamental and incidental to the subjects 
as pursued, the influence and stimulus are away from farm life. 
How much of the farm, farming, country life, hero farmers get into 
reading lessons, histories, geographies, etc? Ideals are formed out of 
what the mind feeds upon, and if both facts and persons read and 
studied are forever imported from other world outside, why should 
not the aims and ambitions of country youth center in that world 
that is important enough to be put into their books, their schools, 
libraries, their "education?" Q)ntrol the ideals by supplying the 
appropriate kind of information. G)ntrol the interest in life by con- 
necting it with the valuable secrets of nature in the plants and ani- 
mals and soil of the farm. Make the school buildings so that they 
will be lessons in conveniences and refinements of life instead of un- 
sanitary boxes. Make tliem for social centers. Let some of the 
thought of the school be directed toward the improvement of rural 
home and neighborhood conditions. Put in more play and athletics. 
These and other things. The population flow may not be greatly 
checked, ambitious youth and those with natural bents may still seek 
the cities. But the resident ability will be built up into a real virile 
leadership, one which is interested in the welfare of the country, 
which understands the life and problems of the country, and which 
is wise in how to lead. 

"The old farmer was a pioneer, and he had all the courage, 
enterprise, and resourcefidness of the pioneer. He was virile above 



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124 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

all things else. He owned and controlled everjrthing in sig^t. He 
was a state^builder. Half a century ago in the Middle West, the 
strong man and the influential families were largely fanners. Even 
professional men owned and managed farms, frequently living upon 
them. The smell of the farm sweetened musty law books, deodorized 
the doctor's den, and floated as incense above the church altars."*^ 
Other agendes besides the rural school are requisite in order to de- 
velop such a leadership as President Butterfield depicts. Agriculture 
needs such leaders to-day. It is not the fimction of this paper to 
consider all the means for creating them. But it is a certainty in 
the mind of the writer that the rural school is the natural, logical, 
and indispensible point of beginning. 



24. BtttterfUld: Chapters on Ruxml ProsMU. P. 64. 



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An Unwritten Chapter in the History 
of South Africa 

Andrew Alexander Bruce 
Dean of the College of Law, University of North Dakota 

THERE IS an unwritten South African history which has ulti- 
mately and intimately concerned the Boers, but which has in 
the main been independent of them. It is the history not so much of 
the Transvaal or of the Orange Free State, not so much of the Boer 
or of the Britoii, as of Matabeleland, Basutoland, Zululand, Bechuan- 
aland, Mashonaland and Rhodesia, which are territories of a much 
larger extent and future importance than are those which are now 
occupied by the descendants of the Huguenots. It is the history of a 
far reaching scheme of personal ambition and of territorial aggran- 
dizement. It is the history, however, not so much of Great Britain 
herself as of the leading spirits of the South African colonies which 
fly her flag, and of a trading company which she herself has cre- 
ated. It is the story of a scheme of imperialism, but of an imperial- 
ism which has been utterly antagonistic to the imperialism and to the 
interests of the mother country herself. There have for a long time 
been two kinds of imperialists in South Africa, the national and the 
local. Paradoxical tho it may seem, the national has of the two been 
the more altruistic and the more humane. 

For many years a gigantic game of commercial-political chess has 
been played in South Africa. The prize contended for has been an 
empire. The pawns have been the natives and the Kaffirs. The 
players have been the leading spirits of the British South African 
Chartered G)mpany, and the Portuguese and German and Boer com- 
merdalists. The seemingly helpless onlookers and protestants have 
been the real intelligence and patriotism of the Orange Free State 
and of the Transvaal and the enlightened conscience and patriotism 
of Great Britain herself. It has been a struggle between the more 
sordid interests of the older South African self-governing colonies 
of Natal and the Cape and the conscience of the mother country, 
between the interests of the South African capitalists, who control 
the governments of Cape Colony and of Natal and the affairs of the 
Chartered Company (for the Chartered Company itself has been only 
a means to an end), and the sense of justice alwaj^ to be found among 
the rank and file of every self-governing people. Among those who 
have possessed this conscience and this sense of justice have generally 
been found the soldier and the military leader. His trade has been 



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126 The Quarterly Journal 

war, but it has been a manly one. He, it is true, has often been an 
instrument in the wrong that has been done, but his duty and his 
training has been to obey orders. To him has been given no business 
management and no political control, and it is not on the field of 
battle but in the private office that schemes of conquest and aggran- 
dizement are usually directed and planned. When in South Africa 
the army officer has been in a position to protest. He has usually 
protested. 

The aim of the British Imperialist and of the thoughtful army 
officer, has been to give a measure of independence to the native states 
and to secure their inhabitants in the tenure of their lands and prop- 
erty. His plan has been a residential system of government, such as 
that now generally adopted in India, and under which the native 
rulers are left undisturbed so long as they govern justly and with a 
due regard for life, property and morals. By this plan exploita- 
tion by foreign capital is largely prevented, and the usages and cus- 
toms of the original populations are respected. The desire of the 
G)lonial and of the South African Imperialist, on the other hand, 
has been the absorption of the native states and the building up of a 
white federation which shall be independent of the British govern- 
ment and free from "the bothersome intermeddlings of its noncon- 
formist conscience.'' In this latter desire, in so far at least as the 
native races were concerned, both the Boer and the British colonists at 
first shared. The religion of the Boer is the religion of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries and of the Old rather than of the New Tes- 
tament. He believes that to him has been given the land of the Ca- 
naanite to go into it and to possess it, and in his eyes the black man 
finds but little favor. The schemes for the first South African Bunde, 
indeed, included the Boer as well as the Briton. After the Boer War 
of 1 90 1, however, the ideas of the British colonist, or of the Cecil 
Rhodes party, materially changed, and it is a noticeable fact that in the 
reconstruction consequent upon the successful termination of that war, 
the home government and the British people generally have been 
inclined to be much more liberal and friendly to the conquered races 
than have the governments or the people of the self governing South 
African colonies. It was the colonial and not the home press which 
insisted upon the suspension of the constitution of Cape Colony and 
the disenfranchisement of the Boer sympathizers. In the controversy 
as to whether or not the Transvaal should be annexed to the older 
colonies and the voting strength of the Dutch inhabitants thus min- 
imized, or be governed as a separate province with a large measure 
of home rule, the colonial and especially what is termed "the Rhodes 



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History of South Africa 



127 




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128 The Quarterly Journal 

party," was strongly in favor of the annexation idea. There can, 
indeed, be no doubt that much of the power and popularity of Mr. 
Cecil Rhodes in South Africa was due to the fact that his own 
schemes of empire and the course of his own personal ambition were 
generally in accord with the popular impulses and desires of the 
British South African colonists. It is a deplorable fact, that, how- 
ever firmly the love for fair play and sympathy for the weak 
may generally be implanted among the British people, and however 
determined as a nation England may have been to suppress slavery 
and to do justice to the colored man, the G>lonial — ^thc Afrikander — 
whether British or Boer born, has as a class had no real sympathy 
vrith the Negro and no regard for his liberty or for his life. Miss 
Olive Schreiner, in her "Tooper Peter Hackett" and her other stories, 
has, indeed, only too truthfully portrayed the course of South African 
events and the state of the South African mind. The remorseless 
slaughter of the natives which so sullied the earlier histories of the 
colonization of Australia and of New Zealand, and which has not 
been found wanting even on the American plains, has found its 
counterpart in the Dark G>ntinent. 

So far, indeed, the history of South Africa has well illustrated 
the lesson long since taught by the story of the occupation of India. 
It has once more been shown that a system of colonization or of em- 
pire building which is carried on directly by a popular government, 
such as that of England or of the United States, and which is too far 
from the scene of action for the majority of its people to have any 
personal pecuniary interest in the subject territory, is liable to be, and 
has generally been, humane and approximately just, but that the 
methods of trading companies or of independent colonies which have 
been allowed to extend their territories and influence unchecked by the 
veto of the popular conscience of the parent nation, and which have 
been impelled by the desire for gain and for gain alone, have been, 
and will probably always be, sordid, cruel and corrupt. Both the 
East India Company and the British South African Company grew 
and flourished in the dark. If the methods of either 
had been generally known in the mother country, they 
would probably never have been tolerated. It is fair to assume 
that, like its predecessor in India, the Chartered Company of South 
Africa will before long be stripped of its powers. The histories of 
these two companies are not, however, anomalies, nor is governmental 
t3rranny by means of a trading company the product of English 
history and of the English mind alone. The histories of the trading 
companies of Portugal, of Spain and of Holland can no more bear 
the light of scrutiny than can those of England. 



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History of South Africa 129 

The real history of the development of the South African Em- 
pire began with the annexation of the Transvaal by the British in 
1877. However inevitable this annexation may at the time have ap- 
peared to many to have been, no one conversant with the facts will 
contend for a moment that it was accomplished either with the author- 
ity of the British government or with the consent of the majority of 
the Boers themselves. At the most there was merely a ratification of 
the act by the home government after the same had been accomplished 
under the falsest of pretenses. There was no submission of the ques- 
tion of annexation by the Boer government to the Boer electorate 
and there was no subsequent ratification by the nation. It was, 
indeed, nothing more nor less than the adoption towards the Boers 
of the tactics which both before and since that time have so generally 
been used by the British and the Portuguese, and even by the Boers 
themselves, towards the native races. It was the policy and plan of se- 
curing a basis of title by obtaining concessions of land from the chiefs 
and an acknowledgement by such chiefs of British, Portuguese or 
Boer sovereignty, as the case might be, and then of going in and 
occupying. By these means hundreds and even thousands of square 
miles of territory have been obtained at the cost of a few rifles and of 
a few yards of cloth. In such negotiations the right of the native 
ruler to part with the land in question, which, if he owned at all, he 
owned merely as a trustee for his people, or his right to acknowledge 
on behalf of his subjects a foreign sovereignty, was never inquired 
into. 

The annexation of the Transvaal brought with it the Zulu War 
of 1878, which in turn resulted in making Zululand a subject British 
state and in largely extending the influence of the British in South 
Africa. There followed, in 1881, a war with the Basutos, a fine war- 
like race of the Zulu stock who in the migration of the Zulu tribes 
southwards had separated from the main body of the invading horde 
and had settled in the mountainous districts which lie to the southeast 
of the Orange Free State. The Basutos are the only South African peo- 
ples who make use of the horse for military purposes, and on many oc- 
casions their fine army of some thirty thousand mounted men proved 
more than a match for the British. The result of the war was a com- 
promise and the giving to Basuto-Iand almost complete home rule 
under the residential system of government to which we have before 
referred. To use the language of an officer of the Cape Mounted 
Rifles, "They gave us as good as we gave them. Altho the war was 
fought on account of our fear of their growing military power and 
to enforce our demands for their disarmament, we were glad enough 



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I30 The Quarterly Journal 

to compromise upon their merely agreeing to register their arms." 
It is to be remembered that it was this same tribe, which, in con- 
junction with the Boers who had emigrated into the Orange Free 
State and beyond the River Vaal, had some years before taken up 
arms against the British and had been largely instrumental in com- 
pelling the latter to retire from the newly settled territories and to 
agree to what is now known as the Sand River Convention. 

The Basuto War was followed in 1884 by "the Bechuanaland 
Expedition," which was nothing more nor less than an occupa- 
tion by the military forces or mounted police of Cape Colony 
of the territory of Bechuanaland. It was the result of the 
desire of the British colonists to forestall the Boers who were already 
beginning to encroach upon the disputed area. Its real objective, 
however, was not so much the acquisition of Bechuanaland 
itself, which was deemed to be of but little value, as the 
prevention of the Dutch Republics from expanding towards, and ob- 
taining an outlet on, the Indian Ocean, and especially from acquiring 
a foothold in the territories of Matabeleland, Mashonaland and Man- 
icaland, or in what is now known as Rhodesia. Altho, therefore, what- 
ever Boers were found in the disputed territory were unceremoniously 
banished therefrom, the energies of the invaders were chiefly directed 
towards conciliating the natives, discovering watercourses, digging 
wells, building a telegraph line and in otherwise laying the founda- 
tions for a farther advance towards the El Dorado of Manica. For 
it was in Manica that gold was supposed to abound and the historic 
land of Ophir to have been located. There was, too, between Manica 
and the seaport of Beira but a comparatively small strip of Portu- 
guese territory. With Manica once occupied and a seaport within 
easy grasp, the possibilities of an independent South African Empire 
were great and inviting. 

'*The Bechuanaland Expedition," indeed, tho ostensibly fath- 
ered by the home government, was really colonial and conunercial in 
its purpose and in its origin. Behind it were Mr. Cecil Rhodes, Doc- 
tor Jameson, Messrs. Johnson, Heany and Barrow, Governor Loch, 
Mr. Alfred Beit, Mr. Barney Barnato and many of the other South 
African politicians and capitalists who were afterwards so influential 
in the affairs of the British South African Company and in the ex- 
ploitation of the mineral wealth of the country. It was predatory 
rather than scientific, and commercial rather than humane. 

Next, and in 1888, followed the obtaining of the notorious Rudd- 
Rhodes concession and with it the open advent of private commercial- 
ism into the field of politics, conquest and exploration. The grantor. 



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History of South Africa 131 

or the party of the first part, was Lo Bengula the king, or alleged 
king, of what was then known as Matabeleland and Mashonaland and 
"of the territories contiguous thereto," or what is now known as 
Southern Rhodesia, a territory which is much larger in extent than that 
of France and Germany combined. The grantees or parties of the 
second part were Mr. Cecil Rhodes and Mr. Rudd. Under and by 
means of this agreement and in consideration of one thousand Mar- 
tini-Henry rifles, one thousand rounds of cartridges, a pension of one 
hundred pounds sterling a month and a stern-wheel steamboat on the 
Zambesi River, there was granted to Mr. Rhodes and his intimates 
"the complete and exclusive charge over all metals and minerals sit- 
uated and contained in his (Lo Bqngula's) kingdoms, pricipalities and 
dominions, together with full power to do all things which they ( Mr. 
Rhodes et al.) may deem necessary to win and procure the same." 
The agreement ostensibly conferred mineral rights. It was in fact 
the gift of an empire, for the right to "win" was all-embracing and 
was liberally construed. The steamer was, fortunately for the mon- 
arch, never delivered, nor were all of the rifles, nor was all of the 
pension paid. It is, indeed, unnecessary to suggest that steam is a 
dangerous plaything for a naked savage, and it was perhaps this 
humane consideration, added to the mercenary one, which prevented 
the delivery of the vessel. The land, however, was occupied. 

It was at this point, and in 1889, that the history of the British 
South African Company really begins, altho its principal stockholders 
had for many years been directing the politics of the South African 
colonies. Now, for financial and other reasons, the policy of the 
home government began to be strongly opposed to any further terri- 
torial extension in South Africa. Up to this time, indeed, all of its 
activity had been instigated from Cape Colony itself, and now that 
the Boers were deemed to have been sufficiently excluded from the 
outside world and from the sea coast, there seemed to be no object in 
acquiring further stretches of territory which must prove costly and 
whose acquisition might possibly lead to further native wars and 
complications. It was not, it is to be remembered, until some years later 
that the existence of the vast mineral deposits which were so eagerly 
sought after by the Chartered Company was known to the average 
Englishman in the mother country, and it was from the purses of the 
stay-at-home British tax-payers that the expenses of long campaigns 
would ultimately have to be drawn. Added to this natural inertia 
was the weight of a severe financial depression, and with it the desire 
of both the British and the Cape governments to foist upon other 
shoulders the expenses of developing and protecting the northern ter- 



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132 The Quarterly Journal 

ritorics. The result was the incorporation in October, 1889, oi the 
British South African Company and the granting to it vast military, 
commercial and territorial powers. But for the influence of this 
short-sighted mania for economy, indeed, it is difficult to conceive how 
any such charter as that granted to the British South African Q)m- 
pany could ever have been given. The history of the East India 
Q)mpany and of the reasons which led to the cancellation of its 
franchise were matters of comparatively recent date, and should, it 
would seem, have had a deterrent eflFect. No further proof would 
seem to have been necessary to demonstrate the viciousness of a policy 
which allowed government and commercialism to go hand in hand 
and which endowed a trading company with the power of maintaining 
an army of conquest. The charter, indeed, was almost criminal in its 
liberality and reflected as much discredit upon the British Colonial 
office as it did upon Mr. Rhodes and his associates. It 
recognized and sanctioned the Rudd-Rhodes and other similar grants 
(for the Rudd-Rhodes grant was but one of many). It granted to the 
new company full power "to carry into eflFect divers concessions and 
agreements which have been made by certain of the chiefs and tribes 
inhabiting the said region, or elsewhere in Africa, with a view to pro- 
moting trade, commerce, civilization, and good government in the 
territories which are or may be comprised or referred to in such con- 
cessions." It conferred the power not merely to work mining claims, 
but to establish a government. It granted the power even to maintain 
an army of conquest and of occupation. Lo Bengula had conceded 
to Mr. Rhodes and to his associates "the power to carry into eflFect" 
and "the full power to do all things which they might deem necess- 
ary." The charter reaffirmed the grant, and placed no restrictions 
on what might be "deemed necessary." 

Immediately north of Cape Colony and northwest of Natal and 
of the Orange Free State, and northwest of the Transvaal lies the ter- 
ritory of Bechuanaland. North and northeast of Bechuanaland lies the 
territory of Matabeleland and northeast of Matabeleland that of 
Mashonaland. East of Mashonaland is the territory of Manica or Ma 
nicaland and east of Manicaland is Portuguese East Africa. It was 
in Matabeleland, Mashonaland, Manicaland and the adjoining terri- 
tory that the Rudd-Rhodes mineral grants lay, and to this territory 
not merely the Chartered Company, but the Boers and the Portuguese 
laid claim. 

The first step of the newly organized corporation, therefore, was 
the occupation of Mashonaland with a small but finely equipped and 
disciplined army. The pretext was the extension of a protectorate 



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History of South Africa 133 

over the country to safeguard the natives from the invasions of the 
Matabeles, whose territory adjoins Mashonaland on the southwest, 
and who, tho nominally ruled by the same paramount chief, Lo Ben- 
gula, were their hereditary and implacable foes. There can be no 
question that the inhabitants of Mashonaland were in need of protec- 
tion of some sort, as they were entirely disorganized, were constantly 
at war among themselves, and for many years had proved an easy 
prey to the slave-raiding Matabeles. What the army of occupation 
really wanted, however, was to prospect for gold and to acquire 
further concessions of territory from the native chiefs on which the 
officers of the Chartered Company could base a title in future years. 
A war with the Matabeles was the last thing they desired. Lo Ben- 
gula, the king of Matableland and of Mashonaland, was therefore 
informed that the company had some small grievance against 
the Mashones and the few Boers who had attempted to anticipate 
the British in the settlement of the country, and permission was 
merely asked to march a small force thru Matabeleland and into 
the territory in question. Lo Bengula granted the request, on con- 
dition that the expedition should pass by his own kraal, and evidently 
intended to prepare an ambuscade for its coming and to annihilate it. 
The conditions offered were accepted, but the forces of the company 
took an entirely different route and were well into the disputed ter- 
ritory before the African monarch became aware of the deception 
played upon him. It was then too late for action and hostilities were 
for the time averted. This was no doubt well for the Chartered Com- 
pany, as Lo Bengula was by no means a savage as far as military 
affairs were concerned, and at that time commanded a well disciplined 
army of many thousands which was thoroly drilled and organized 
into regiments. 

In Mashonaland, little, if any, resistance was met with. Its 
people were perhaps the least organized of all the native tribes and, 
as a protection both as against their own people and the Matabeles, 
lived in strongly fortified kraab upon the kopjes or hill-tops which 
abound everywhere in the country. In each of the kraals there was 
generally to be found but one family or clan. This fact, added to the 
one that in Mashonaland (as formerly in the Scottish highlands), a 
personal feud is a clan feud, led to continual neighborhood quarrels 
and petty wars, and in time of general danger there was no basis for 
organization or for a united stand against the common enemy. It 
was not long, therefore, before the country was completely subjugated 
and not only was a valuable basis for further expeditions into the in- 
terior of Africa and to the East obtained, but valuable concessions of 



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134 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

territory and of mining rights also. The Portuguese advance into 
the disputed territory from the East was also checked and thwarted, 
for the Portuguese, as well as the British, had sighted the glint of gold 
and for many years had been as active in attempting to spread their 
influence into Mashonaland and to obtain concessions of land as had 
been their Saxon neighbors. How this Portuguese advance was 
checked may be well illustrated by one example. A certain native 
chief of some little importance, had, for some time, been wavering 
in his allegiance between the British and the Portuguese. Like the 
majority of his people, who by this time had been taught the useless- 
ness of attempting to resist the white man, his only anxiety had been 
to discover which of the two contending factions was the stronger and 
to side with it. When the British advanced into his territory, the chief 
became convinced of the superiority of their arms, and accordingly, 
and in exchange for some rifles and a few yards of cloth, hoisted the 
British flag over his kraal and abjectly acknowledged the Queen of 
England, or perhaps it would be more accurate to say Mr. Cecil 
Rhodes, as his paramount chieftain and overlord. A short time after- 
ward, however, the British column left the district, and much to the 
embarrassment of the native monarch a Portuguese expedition ap- 
peared upon the scenes. The result was that the British flag was 
lowered and the Portuguese emblem was hoisted in its place. On 
these facts being made known to the officials of the Chartered Com- 
pany, an imperative order was given to a young officer to obtain a 
restoration of affairs to their former condition and, if possible, a con- 
cession of land from the chieftain. For diplomatic reasons an open rup- 
ture was not desired with either the natives or the Portuguese, and this 
an advance in force was sure to provoke. The lieutenant, therefore, 
set out on his mission with an escort of but a handful of men, and 
after traveling some hundred miles came in sight of the king's kraal, 
near which he concealed himself and his party until night set in. Then, 
in the dead of night, while the savages were all asleep, he broke sud- 
denly into the native's hut and, revolver in hand, informed the king 
of his mission. He stated that the British and not the Portuguese 
were the monarch's real friends and that the white chief was greatly 
angered with him on account of his conduct, and demanded the instant 
removal of the Portuguese flag and the substitution of the Union 
Jack in its place. He at the same time, also demanded the signature 
or mark of the monarch to a deed which ceded a supposedly valuable 
tract of land to the Chartered Company, and for which he had been 
authorized to promise the payment of some fifty pounds and some 
clothing and other stores. The Savage was so taken aback by this 



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History of South Africa 135 

sudden visitation, so impressed with the seeming omnipresence and 
omniscience of the Briton, so absolutely deceived by the effrontery 
of the whole deed, (for he had no means of knowing whether there 
were ten thousand British lying concealed in the forest outside his 
hut or none at all) that, surrounded by hundreds of black warriors 
as he was, he immediately granted all the requests of the British 
officer and abjectly apologized for his past backslidings. While tell- 
ing this story to the writer its hero said that his conscience rebelled at 
the time and has often since, and that in his heart he pitied the chief. 
He, however, excused himself by saying that he was under military 
orders and had no option in the matter, and that the savage had 
played falsely with the British and was merely paid back in his own 
coin. He also spoke somewhat incoherently about "the manifest des- 
tiny of the Anglo-Saxon race," and contended that the British were 
none other than the descendants of the ten lost tribes of Israel con- 
cerning whom it had been prophesied that they should "go northwest 
of Palestine" and become "the people of the Isles" and "a nation of 
nations." 

It was not long, however, before even more hazardous business 
was to be undertaken. Rumors came to the ears of the officials of 
the British South African Company not only of further Portuguese 
encroachments into the disputed area but of the discovery of gold to 
the east and north within the Portuguese zone itself and in what was 
commonly known as the District of Zimbabia. A plan was accord- 
ingly hurriedly formed and as hurriedly put into operation to push 
rapidly towards the northeast, to seize the Portuguese fortresses of 
Umtalli and Massi Kessi which commanded the portion of Manica 
in which the district of Zimbabia and the supposed gold fields lay, 
to obtain the submission of the natives by overawing their paramount 
chiefs among whom were Umtassi and the "She" of Ryder Haggard, 
the queen mother, Germani, and to then push rapidly towards the sea 
and obtain an outlet on the Indian Ocean by capturing the Portuguese 
seaport of Beira. An unforeseen obstacle was at first, however, found 
in the person of Captain Heyman, who commanded the forces in the 
field, and who, after a hurried consultation with his officers, peremp- 
torily refused to advance unless he was given positive assurances that a 
state of war with Portugal actually existed and that war had been de- 
clared in London. These assurances were, however, soon given by 
Dr. Jameson, altho they afterwards proved to have been false in 
every particular. They were later on justified by the doughty doctor to 
an officer of the expedition in the following words: "You know, my 
dear sir, you arc too cantakerous, too squeamish. There are, you 



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136 The Quarterly Journal 

know, such things as political exigencies. When such exist, there is 
no such thing as a political lie." Whatever may be said, indeed, in 
general, concerning the conduct of affairs in South Africa, and its 
many wars, but little just criticism can be directed against the sol- 
diers who were actually in the field. The military man, be he officer 
or private, knows as a rule, nothing of the diplomacy or of the 
causes which lie behind any given campaign. To him is to obey and "not 
to reason why." To him is said "come and he cometh, go and he 
goeth." In this particular instance the officers in question had been 
campaigning in the midst of the African jungle for more than two 
years, they were over a thousand miles from the Cape of Good Hope 
and several hundreds of miles from any railroad. Their only means 
of communication with the outside world was by means of a postal 
and telegraph system which was owned and controlled by the British 
South African Company itself. It was the uniform practice of the 
Chartered Company to exercise a system of censorship over the letters 
and correspondence even of its own officers, while newspaper corre- 
spondents were not allowed in the newly acquired districts nor to 
travel with the troops. To use the language of an officer concerned, 
"then indeed had come the time truly upon earth when might was 
right, and there was no law but that of the strong in the African 
forests." 

The positive assurance asked for being thus furnished, there 
was nothing for the soldier to do but to advance, and a campaign 
was accordingly entered upon which for reckless daring has had but 
few equals in history. Separated by over a thousand miles from the 
British colonies and from their base of supplies, in a fever-infected 
district, thru trackless forests and over vast prairies of buffalo grass 
which grew so high as to conceal the herds of wild elephants which 
abounded everywhere, surrounded by lions and wild beasts of every 
kind and by tens of thousands of even more savage natives, the column 
of but a little more than fifty men marched to the attack of the Portu- 
guese fortresses. The greater part of the country thru which they 
marched had never been explored by a white man before. So far was 
it from, and for so long had it been separated from, the countries of 
civilization, that the use of wheels as mechanisms of locomotion were 
utterly unknown to the natives, while a horse was an object that 
created an excess of terror. The natives looked upon this, to us, 
peaceful animal, as a new wild beast which had been tamed by the 
white man for his purposes. They dreaded it because it was new to 
them. They did not know how it fought and therefore did not know 
how to cope with it. The humor of the expedition was furnished by 



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History of South Africa 137 

a jackass of the pack train, whose brays terrified the natives even 
more than the roars of the lions which abounded everywhere. 

Fortunately for the British column the fortress of UmtalH was 
found to be but poorly garrisoned and was easily taken. From 
Umtalli a long march to the north was again made and the fortress 
of Massi Kessi was as easily captured. The British had now not only 
advanced into the Portuguese territory and driven the Portuguese 
from what is now known as Eastern Rhodesia, but were in command 
of the upper portion of the Pungwe River down which an advance 
could easily be made to the coast, while the projected railroad from 
Cape Town, and which was to connect the fortresses of Umtalli and 
Massi Kessi with the seaport of Beira, could now easily be pushed to 
completion and be utilized. Hardly, however, had the victory been 
won, and were the troops well on their march to the sea, than word 
was received that the Portuguese had been unexpectedly and strongly 
reinforced and had recaptured the fort of Massi Kessi from the hand- 
ful of troops and the supposedly friendly natives who had been left to 
guard it. This catastrophe made a return march absolutely necessary, 
as the retreat of the British was cut off as well as any chance of suc- 
cor from the British colonies. There was also imminent danger that 
the native chiefs, who had been awed into submission by the successes 
of the British, might now come to consider the Portuguese the 
stronger party and to side with them. It was, therefore, decided 
that Massi Kessi must be retaken at any cost, and the return march 
was begun. Words cannot describe the hardships and deprivations 
of that journey. The troops had hardly any supplies. Their shoes 
were worn out. Their clothing was in rags. Nearly all of their 
horses had died. They had practically nothing but their arms to rely 
on and the resources of a country which was fortunately swarming 
vnth game of all kinds. Fever decimated their ranks and made long 
halts frequently necessary. At times they had hardly strong men 
enough left to bury their dead. But they had "that stubborn valor 
which knows not defeat," that peculiar and characteristic instinct of 
the Scot and of the Briton which insists on looking upon war and 
its privations as an exciting sport which becomes more and more 
interesting and enjoyable as the hardships and dangers associated with 
it increase. 

The neighborhood of Massi Kessi was at last reached, but in 
what condition for an assault or a siege was the advancing force? 
Worn, fever-stricken, with no base of supplies, with no way of re- 
treat, over a thousand miles from the British colonies, its condition 
was pitiable indeed. The British were certainly in no condition to 



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138 The Quarterly Journal 

conduct a siege, much less to make an assault. A strange stroke of 
fortune, however, favored them. For some unknown reason, the 
Portuguese leader, Colonel Andrada, instead of waiting for the at- 
tack upon his strongly intrenched position, which the starving condi- 
tion of the British and their lack of water must have compelled them 
sooner or later to make, marched in force out into the open to meet 
them. In the contest that ensued the Portuguese troops, altho out- 
numbering the British by ten to one, were no match for their an- 
tagonists. They were poorly trained and disciplined and were but in- 
different marksmen, while the splendid fellows before them had the 
best blood of England in their veins, were the veterans of several cam- 
paigns and had spent many years amidst the big game hunting of 
Africa. In other words, what the Boers in after years were to the 
city recruited regiments of England, so were the Chartered Company's 
forces to those of the Portuguese. The fire from the colonists as they 
lay concealed in the long grass Avas certain and rapid, and the Port- 
uguese, who had begun to advance in open order, soon commenced to 
waver, then to break and then in their panic to mass together. Their 
closely packed ranks then presented a fine target for the one cannon 
of the British and the slaughter was terrible. A hopeless panic en- 
sued which the Portuguese officers were utterly unable to control. 
Then occurred one of those chivalric deeds of war which add so much 
to the glamor of the battlefield and which often make even the drama 
of war luminous and fascinating. Three Portuguese officers were 
deserted by their soldiers and left alone upon the open plain exposed 
to the whole fire of the British lines. They refused, however, to 
run for shelter and with stately dignity and as one man, stepped stead- 
ily but slowly backwards, with their faces to their foes and with no 
more haste than if the field had been a parade ground. In a moment 
the British from sheer admiration and amazement ceased firing and 
to a man anticipated the order which was scon shouted by every 
officer. The Portuguese officers halted and saluted splendidly, and 
then continued their stately retreat while ringing cheers took the place 
of the rattle of the musketry. 

The fortress, however, was yet to be taken and it seemed very 
doubtful if the British would even now be equal to the task. A 
clever ruse, however, on the part of the besiegers and 
an equally foolish mistake on the part of their antagonists 
soon brought about the desired result. As nightfall set 
in several small detachments of the British were sent out in differ- 
ent directions and ordered to build fires which should be as con- 
spicuous as possible, and to send up signal rockets. The fires and sig- 



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History of South Africa 139 

nals, as was desired, were seen by the garrison of the fort and were 
mistaken for the campfires and the signals of reinforcements who 
were supposed to have come to the support of the besiegers. So 
completely deceived were the Portuguese that they evacuated their 
position in the night time and retreated to the rear which the colonists 
had been careful to leave open. "Signor," said the Portuguese Gen- 
eral, Andrada, a year or so afterwards while speaking of the siege 
to a British officer, ''I was too vide avake. You think you me had 
surround vid reinforcements. You think you catch ze fox in ze 
hole. But I was avake. I you disappoint." It was fortunate indeed 
for the victors that such a mistake had been made for in the captured 
fortress they found eleven gatling guns. Their lack of supplies would 
have compelled them to endeavor to take the position by storm. That 
they could have withstood the fire of the guns is incredible. 

There were in Massi Kessi large supplies of clothing and pro- 
visions as well as the guns in question, and it was not long before 
the troops were sufficiently recuperated to complete the task which 
had been so fortimately begun. The wavering allegiance of the 
native chiefs was once more strengthened and the prestige of the 
British was soon firmly established. Chief among the converts was 
the paramount chief, Umtassi and the queen mother, Germani, who, 
no doubt, is the original of the "She" of South African fiction. This 
remarkable woman seems to have been at this time the only woman 
ruler among the African tribes. The Germani do not marry but per- 
petuate their line by choosing their successors from among the un- 
married women of their courts and it is accordingly said by the natives 
that "the race of Germani never dies." It is undoubtedly from this 
fact that Mr. Haggard derived the idea of his inunortal princess. 

It was in this manner that the eastern portion of the territory 
of Rhodesia was acquired, for altho the fortress of Massi Kessi was 
afterwards restored to the Portuguese and the scheme for the occupa- 
tion of the seaport of Beira and the intervening country was for the 
time abandoned, the western and northern portions of Manicaland 
have since remained in the possession of the British South African 
G)mpany, and in this portion is the fortress of Umtalli and the dis- 
trict which bears its name. 

The fate of one man, Joseph Gouveia by name, is perhaps here 
worth relating, as it serves to illustrate the condition of the country 
under Portuguese rule and the attitude of the natives towards the 
European invaders. Gouveia was part African and part Portuguese 
by descent. He was the owner of a large number of slaves. He was 
a man of great wealth and, among the natives, was reputed to be the 



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I40 The Quarterly Journal 

''husband of a thousand wives." He had been granted by the Portu- 
guese authorities what practically amounted to the right to tax-farm 
Manicaland. That is, in return for a certain annual payment to the 
Portuguese government, to make what profit he could out of the taxes 
of the country. He in fact seems to have occupied in a large degree 
in Manicaland the position which the South African Chartered Com- 
pany occupied in the bordering districts and now occupies in Manica- 
land itself. Any sort of supervision by the home government over his 
atcions was entirely lacking. His policy was to side with and to bribe 
the more prominent South African chiefs. They in return gave him 
carte blanche with the natives, since they cared little how these un- 
fortunates were treated so long as their own positions were secure. 
The consequence was a system of tax farming which would have put 
the most unscrupulous Roman provincial tax-gatherer to shame. 

After the defeat of the Portuguese, however, the power ol 
Gouveia began to wane, and thinking it necessary to make terms with 
the British he asked for an interview with the officer who was then 
in command of the forces of the Chartered Company. The request 
was granted and with a large following the former despot started 
from the north for the fortress of Massi Kessi. The condition of 
afiFairs, however, had now changed. Gouveia was no longer considered 
the master spirit. The natives, whose only policy was to side with 
the strongest, had begun to recognize that the English power was 
superior to that of the former tax-gatherer and of the Portuguese. The 
march southward, therefore, had hardly been begun before the half- 
breed despot was attacked, and being deserted by his followers, was 
captured and killed. On hearing of this afiFair, the British officer 
said that his greatest anxiety was for the widowed members of the 
large harem of the deceased African potentate. To use his own words, 
"To know what on earth to do with them, leaving to the future to 
decide whose wives they should be at the Resurrection." He, how- 
ever, said that his anxiety was uncalled for, and that the harem melted 
away in a day. Its members evidently took the first opportunity to 
make their escape and to return to the families and tribes from which 
they had been seduced, kidnapped or bought. 

Of this petty Portuguese war little or nothing was known or 
heard by the outside world, altho a vast stretch of territory was added 
by it to the sphere of the British influence in Africa. It, indeed, 
hardly created a ripple on the diplomatic sea. The chief reason for 
this lay in the fact that the Chartered Company was in possession 
of all the means of communication with Europe, the messengers, the 
troops, the postal and telegraph services. It was in a position to 



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History of South Africa 141 

exercise, and did exercise, a rigid censorship over the correspondence 
and telegrams even of its own oflScials, civil and military. The 
mouths of the Portuguese were closed, on the other hand, by the re- 
cession of a portion of the eastern section of the conquered territory 
and by the pressure which was quietly brought to bear by the holders 
of Portuguese securities in London. The recession of the territory 
in question and the acknowledgement of the British, or rather by the 
British South African Company, of the title of the Portuguese thereto, 
was in itself no small consideration for silence, since the original title 
of the Portuguese was no better than that of the Chartered Company 
itself. The claims of both parties, indeed, were based upon might 
and upon might alone. Both of the contestants had imposed their 
sovereignty by force and fraud upon the subject native races, and 
neither had any valid claim which it would have cared to submit to 
the scrutiny or arbitration of the world's family of nations. Another, 
and perhaps the most important, element in the maintenance of 
silence concerning what was little more or less than piracy upon the 
dry land, was the fact that the son of no less a person than the Port- 
uguese Minister of War was implicated with the Chartered Com- 
pany in the high handed proceedings which led to the occupation of 
Manica. The young man in question, had several years before fled 
from Portugal to escape prosecution for having killed an opponent 
in a duel, and had taken service with the Chartered Company. For 
many years he had been left in total obscurity and had been but little 
noticed or favored, but at the beginning of the difficulty with the 
Portuguese, an entire change of front had taken place, rapid prefer- 
ment had been ofiFered to him and opportunities for sharing in the 
growing wealth of the officers of the Company. There can be no 
question that the desire of the father not to interfere with the rapid 
progress of his son was an important factor in causing the Portuguese 
Minister of War to so completely ignore the occurrences in South 
Africa. 

If the occupation of Matabeleland, Mashonaland, and Manica- 
land was high-handed, the conduct of the country after its occupa- 
tion was no less so. The main object of the occupation had been the 
gold supposed to be concealed within the territory, and the officers 
of the Chartered Company had no intention of allowing the treasure 
to slip thru their fingers or to come into the possession of others. 
Few, if any, settlers or prospectors were accordingly allowed in the 
country, but the forces of the Chartered Company were disbanded 
and induced to begin prospecting for the coveted metal. The analogy 
of the old English law, which treats minerals as the property of the 



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142 The Quarterly Journal 

crown, was followed and a royalty of fifty per cent was imposed by 
the Company upon all metals mined. This strange anomaly of a com- 
pany annexing an empire and then representing the sovereign, could 
hardly have existed if the British public had had any knowledge of 
what was going on in South Africa. It is very questionable indeed, 
if the Charter of the Company conferred any such power in territory 
over which the corporation had unquestioned control, much less so 
over a country which it had wrested by force from the natives and 
from the Portuguese. Much, however, as this conduct was resented 
by the miners, the hardships created by it were but trifling as com- 
pared to those which were occasioned by the manipulation of the 
commercial and business interests of the territory. Time was allowed 
for the country to be quite thoroly prospected, at least that part of 
it where minerals were supposed to be likely to be found, and during 
this period outside capitalists, explorers and especially newspaper cor- 
respondents were rigidly excluded from the territory, while the news 
of its resources was carefully guarded from the outside world. To 
do this, as we have before seen, was comparatively easy, since all of 
the means of communication were in the hands of the Chartered 
Company. When a sufficient length of time had elapsed and when 
the resources of the prospectors were generally exhausted, 
the banking firm of Johnson, Heany and Borrow, appeared 
upon the scene, and, on behalf of some undisclosed principals, who 
afterwards turned out to be none others than Mr. Cecil Rhodes, Mr. 
Alfred Beit and his circle of associates, offered to buy the claims of 
the prospectors. This the firm was readily able to do at trifling 
figures, for even those miners who had found ore in paying quantities 
had no money with which to develop their claims and were ccwn- 
pelled to sell out for what they could get. In most cases they had 
no capital of their own and, as we have before seen, outside capitalists, 
other than the banking firm in question, were rigidly excluded from 
the country. These, however, were not the only means of acquiring 
wealth offered to the manipulators of the Chartered Company by the 
occupation of Rhodesia. After the best of the mineral deposits had 
been secured in the manner that we have before indicated, a railroad 
was prospected into the newly acquired territory from the South and 
partially constructed. No sooner was this railroad begun than the 
wonders of Manicaland, or Eastern Rhodesia as we may now term 
the country, were published to the world. The rediscovery of the 
"Mines of King Solomon," the marvelous agricultural resources of 
the country, and "its ivory, its apes and its gold" were everywhere 
advertised and exploited. The result was a rapid rise in the value 



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History of South Africa 143 

of the stock of the British South African G)mpany which was fol- 
lowed by a heavy selling on the part of the initiated few. Then came 
the time for depression in values. The railroad which, according to 
the advertisements, was to tap the country and bring its resources to 
Capetown was delayed in its construction. The difficulties of a suc- 
cessful operation were exaggerated and the marvelous stories, here- 
tofore spread abroad, concerning the wealth of Manicaland were 
discounted. The stock of the Chartered Company then fell rapidly 
in value, only to be snapped up by Mr. Rhodes and his friends, who 
had now turned from sellers to heavy buyers. Then followed another 
period of activity and of promotion, and the extension of the railroad 
and its successful operation. This later history is now known to all 
and need not here be further dwelt upon. 

Great as these commercial achievements may have been and cun- 
ningly wrought the lace-work of intrigue which lay behind them, 
there were political plans and ambitions even more audacious and far 
reaching. There can be no question that the dream of Cecil Rhodes 
was a federated South African Republic, or rather empire, with him- 
self at its head. He was not an imperialist as the term is generally 
accepted. He was rather a South African Imperialist, and the views 
of what might be called the British Imperialist in South Africa were 
totally opposed to and repugnant to his. When once he had suffi- 
ciently used those who adhered to the idea of a British rather than of 
a South African Empire, he got rid of them as soon as an opportunity 
offered. It is a noticeable fact that as, soon as Manica was thoroly 
occupied, all of the officers and servants of the Chartered Company 
and even the officers of the regular army who had had any controll- 
ing part in the numerous military occupations and expeditions, which 
resulted in the occupation and conquest of Bechuanaland, Matabeland, 
Mashonaland and Manica, were either sxmimarily removed or were 
transferred to distant posts. The power of the Chartered Company 
with the High Commissioners of Cape Colony, Sir Hercules Robin- 
son and Mr. Locke, was very great, and it was on the recommendation 
of these officials that the home government acted. It is a noticeable 
fact, indeed that at the opening of and even during the Boer War, 
when it would seem that the services of officers and men who were 
thoroly conversant with the country, both as regards its geography 
and its peoples, were imperatively demanded, Lord Methuen and 
General Buller seem to have been practically the only officers of long 
African experience who were engaged by the government. 

The officers whose removal was obtained, were imperialists in the 
strict sense of the term. They did not believe in a South African, 



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144 Th^ Quarterly Journal 

but in a British Empire. They believed that the former would be 
detrimental to the interests of the natives, and they were also too 
loyal to the British crown to favor any scheme which would result 
in the breaking away of South Africa from the mother country. 
They, therefore, stood for and advocated a system of government 
which had already been adopted in Basutoland, and which should 
make of Basutoland, Matabeleland, Mashonaland and Rhodesia crown 
colonies or residential dependencies. Mr. Rhodes, on the other hand, 
had for many years been planning for a South African Nation or 
State and for the merging into it of all of the native dependencies, 
caring nothing for, but rather advocating the absolute annihilation of 
the native tribes and races which must be the result of such a course 
and of exposing the Negro to the competition of the white man. In 
other words, Mr. Rhodes was an Afrikander and an advocate of the 
South African Bund. The steps already taken in the furtherance of 
his plans were already many and important. With the exception of 
Basutoland, the Transvaal Republic, the Orange Free State, the small 
strips of Portuguese territory on the east and west coasts and the 
German district on the west, the entire control of South Africa was 
in the hands of the political leaders of Cape Colony and of Natal, 
who were all closely identified with the British South African Com- 
pany. For many years care had been taken to prevent the Imperial 
Government from taking too much interest in or assuming too much 
responsibility for the occurrences in South Africa and from acquiring 
a too intimate knowledge concerning them. If, for instance, the 
reader may desire to look into the "London Daily Graphic" or the 
other London papers which were published at the beginning and dur- 
ing the progress of the Matabele war, he will find numerous inspired 
articles, usually written by "A Pioneer," which urged the home gov- 
ernment to keep its hands off South Africa and the Matabele trouble. 
These articles vigorously asserted the ability of the local authorities 
in South Africa (The Chartered Company) to deal with the ques- 
tion without the aid of the mother country and insisted upon the 
advisability of allowing them to do so. So far, therefore, the Im- 
perial Government had had but little to do with South Africa and 
the public of both England and Africa had been educated to look 
upon Mr. Rhodes and his circle of associates as the real empire 
builders of the dark continent. A serious obstacle, however, was now 
found in the Transvaal Republic. Unlike Matabeleland, Basuto- 
land, Mashonaland and Rhodesia, where there were but few white 
settlers, there was in the Transvaal Republic a Uitlander population 
of nearly a quarter of a million persons and these were mostly men. 



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History of South Africa 145 

Many of these Uitlanders had vested interests in the 
country and the majority were loyal to the British throne 
and to the idea of a British Empire. In the Transvaal, there- 
fore, there was, naturally enough, experienced some difficulty 
in perfecting the Bund, or at any rate a bund which should look upon 
Mr. Cecil Rhodes as its creator, its saviour and its head. The grow- 
ing discontent among the Uitlanders which for many years preceded 
the invasion of Doctor Jameson at last furnished the opportunity to 
Mr. Rhodes. Perhaps it might be more accurate to say that the dis- 
content grew so acute and took such a course in its manifestations 
that Mr. Rhodes was compelled to take active measures or to re- 
nounce once and for all his dreams of personal political power and of 
a federated South African Empire. For nearly four years preceding 
the Jameson raid the Uitlanders in the Transvaal had been planning 
an uprising and at the time of the raid were fully armed. They had 
even gone so far as to bribe a number of Boer officials and to procure 
the promise of the surrender of large stores of ammunition and of 
other supplies. Mr Rhodes knew this. If the insurrenction were 
once allowed to assume form under other leadership than his own 
or to become successful without his aid or assistance, his chances of 
winning the loyalty and support of the Uitlanders would be forever 
lost, and with it his ambition of becoming the head of the African 
Federation. The Uitlanders would have some other leaders, some 
other Washingtons, around whose standards they would rally and 
who would be their candidates for the office of president or dictator 
of the South African Federation. The Jameson raid was therefore 
undertaken. It failed lamentably merely because the Uitlanders mis- 
trusted Mr. Rhodes and the Chartered Company and were not willing 
to trust to their leadership. 



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A Rational System of Taxing 
Natural Resources* 

Frank L. McVey, 
President of the University of North Dakota 

IN order to clear away any misapprehension regarding the ade- 
quacy of the general property tax as a fiscal policy it may be said 
in the beginning that the diffiuculties involved in the taxing of nat- 
ural resources exist to a still greater degree in the case of other 
property. Generally speaking, a rational system of taxation has not 
been attained in any field: nor are the efforts now being made likely 
to produce the results hoped for since revamping the old system 
with changes brought about by adding to or taking from it seems 
to be the method of tax law makers. Economic conditions in 
America have changed materially in a quarter of a century, and 
these changes have forced upon the whole country a reorganization 
of methods, not only of manufacture and of transportation, but also 
of administration, government and social organization. Such a 
condition of affairs is seen to-day in nearly every state, and attempts 
are being made to meet it in the specific instance of the fiscal 
problem by adding to the old system of taxation thru the special 
taxation of corporations, inheritances, royalties and incomes. The 
consequence is that so far as natural resources are concerned we 
have no principle existent in the general scheme of taxation that 
can be used to meet the new conditions that have arisen in our 
efforts to conserve our resources. Just as the problems of indus- 
trial organization have come upon the states, so now has come the 
problem of our natural resources. 

Sometimes in discussing this question of the taxation of nat- 
ural resources a great deal of emphasis is placed upon the state- 
ment that it is the cause of the depletion of timber and mineral 
lands especially. I think it may be said at the outset that the tax- 
ation of natural resources is only one of many factors in the de- 
pletion of them. The extent to which this takes place is impos- 
sible to say, but the fact remains that the taxation of natural re- 
sources may or may not hasten the destruction of forest lands, the 
exploitation of minerals and the cultivation of the soil. Where 
lands bearing timber are owned, interest charges with each year 
of ownership are piled up, and the same is true of the taxes. 

* An address delivered at the second Annual Confrence of the National Conservation Concress. in 
St. Paol, Minnesota, September 6-9, 1910 



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Taxing Natural Resources 147 

Where, on the other hand, lands are held thru a royalty contract, 
the lessee is in a position to carry the lands without special cost to 
himself except that of the taxes. The consequence is that it is im- 
possible to apply the same principle of taxation to agricultural 
lands, timber lands, minerals and water powers. There must be 
a differentiation between them, and a differentiation that will clearly 
meet the various uses to which they are put. Without question, 
the general property tax, as it now stands upon the statute books 
of the different states, does not meet in any true sense of the term 
the general economic conditions and the special needs of mining 
and lumbering in particular. The principle of taxing the product 
when it is placed upon the market applies particularly to mineral 
and timber lands, but the same principle in the case of agricultural 
lands would probably deter their use and fail to meet the needs of 
revenue as well as working to the discouragement of the agricul- 
tural industry. 

The single-taxers have insisted that the taxation of land 
hastens its use, that it forces the owner to develop it, and this is 
just the thing that is needed in the special instances of agricultural 
lands and of town lots, but the same principle could not be applied 
to the other resources of the nation. It is possible for the owners 
of timber lands by following the principles of forestry to modify 
the product and to keep the land in producing condition indefin- 
itely. Taxation of such land, therefore, should have in view the 
maintenance of this condition. It must be clearly understood, how- 
ever, that the fear of fire, interest charges on investment, and the 
cost of management will act quite as surely toward the rapid de- 
struction of forests as will taxation. These conditions must also 
be recognized by the state in the establishment of a fire warden 
system and the encouragement of forestration thru some plan of 
bonuses. Where forestration is not practiced, the taxation of tim- 
ber products under present conditions, whether on stumpage or in 
transit to the sawmills, is a serious problem. Serious to the local 
governments, because under existing laws logs in transit are tax- 
able where they are owned, and serious to the owners of the timber 
lands, because the fixed charges on their property increase each 
day without any income from them. As near as can be ascertained 
the annual taxes on timber vary from one cent per thousand feet 
to fifty cents per thousand feet, with an average tax of somewhere 
in the neighborhood of fifteen cents per thousand feet. Interest 
charges are probably about twenty-three cents, making a total an- 
nual cost of something like thirty-eight cents per thousand feet. 



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148 The Quarterly Journal 

In ten years time the tax on each thousand feet of standing timber 
will amount to $1.50, which compounded with interest makes a 
total of $2.37. When added to the other charges it is probably 
true that the owner of timber under modem conditions must have 
at least $13.02 per thousand feet on his logs delivered at the mill 
if he is to come out even at the end of ten years with a profit of 
six per cent. 

The suggestions which have been made from time to time 
regarding the taxation of timber have as their fimdamental prin- 
ciple the separation of the value of the land from the value of the 
timber. This plan meets the criticism of the local assessing officers 
by providing a basis of taxing annually a part of the valuation and 
of producing some income for the local government. If it is un- 
derstood then that the land may be taxed annually and the timber 
product when it is cut, we have under this plan a simple scheme 
of taxation which will unquestionably meet the difficulty that is 
now urged against the general property assessment of timber lands. 
Under the old plan of valuing annually the property, it was diffi- 
cult to secure an appraisement that was satisfactory to anybody, 
and what was more, as the years went by the local governments 
foimd their assessed values decreasing and the burden of govern- 
ment materially increasing with the decline in amount of standing 
timber. The annual taxation of the land upon which the timber 
stands meets this difficulty, while the taxation of the product at 
the time of harvesting provides a plan that is fair both to the local 
government and to the owner of timber. 

On the other hand, the taxation of mineral properties differs 
from the taxation of timber lands in that it is not possible for 
the owner to increase by any plan of conservation the amount of 
tonnage that he has in his possession. The conservation which he 
might practice is the simple conservation of saving for a future 
time. From the point of view of the state the problem is largely 
one of getting a share of the value of the minerals in the ground. 
The method that has been generally followed is that of making an 
appraisement of the mineral lands, which might be very far from 
or very near the truth. The same principle which is applied in the 
case of timber lands, namely, the taxation of the product, should 
be applied to the taxation of mineral properties. There is no ques- 
tion that the easiest way, and the most satisfactory and acceptable 
way to all concerned, is a tonnage tax, varying possibly with the 
character of the ore and the cost of mining, but always depending 
for the rate and the amount upon the ore that has been mined. It 



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Taxing Natural Resources 149 

will probably be argued, as it has in other instances, that the local 
governments are compelled to rely largely for their support upon 
the taxes paid by the owners of mineral properties, and conse- 
quently a tonnage tax would deprive them of the regularity 
of their income. There is much to be considered in this point ; but 
the taxation of the surface on some such basis as that seen in the 
case of the timber tax will provide a regular income supplemented by 
the amount of the tonage taxes. 

The rate of tonnage tax is not likely, as in the case of the ap- 
praisement under a general property tax, to hasten the utilization 
of the ore. That would be determined entirely by the demand for 
it in the fields of manufacture. The real essence of the tonnage tax 
lies in the fact that value found in the ground is distinctly a prod- 
uct of nature, which an ad valorem tax cannot recognize, and in 
consequence the state's right to a share of the value of the earth's 
products, together with the diminishing value element involved, is 
overlooked. The protection of the local government, and often of 
the mineral owner, demands a combination of the tonnage tax and 
of the local land tax. 

When we come to the taxation of water power we are face 
to face with a problem that involves even more difficulties than are 
foimd in the case of the timber and mineral lands. The thing here 
involved is so illusive, so difficult of measurement, and requires such 
expensive administration that it is quite conceivable that many years 
must elapse before an adequate plan for such taxation can be devel- 
oped. A water power, however, is perpetual, and in this particular 
it differs from timber and mineral properties and is more likened 
to farm lands. It differs from the latter, however, in this particu- 
lar, that the work once done in harnessing it, is done once for all 
and the annual labor expended upon it is not exhausted, as seen in 
the case of the farm. Nature, having been harnessed, is able to 
accomplish the work for which she is called upon. 

The first step in any adequate system of taxing water powers 
must be their survey. This means listing, locating and measur- 
ing. It means too that the legislature should assume at the begin- 
ning that all water powers belong to the state and that the acquire- 
ment of them must be thru lease, as in the case of mineral lands 
in the state of Minnesota, for example. Several plans have been 
suggested for the taxation of water power. One is the measure- 
ment of the water flowing over a dam, and another is the taxation 
of the actual horse-power developed. The latter plan is subject 
to many criticisms. The development of horse-power depends so 



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I50 The Quarterly Journal 

largely upon the skill of the engineer, the capital invested, and the 
way the water is handled, that it would be far better to measure 
the capacity of the dam under proper engineering authority and 
determine a fair rate for the amoimt of power produced by the 
water passing over the dam. Of necessity many refinements of this 
plan would be required: such as the determination of the movement 
of the stream, the height of the water, the difficidties of harnessing 
the power; but it is possible, by taking into consideration the gen- 
eral expense of operating a water power plant, to work out a rate 
which would be fair to the users as well as to the state. In no in- 
stance of conservation does a greater need of proper taxation appear 
than in the case of water power. Nature provides a perpetual force 
with but little expense after the necessary fimdamentals have been 
arranged, and for the state to receive no compensation of any kind 
for the utilization of such a great wealth-producer is to bring into 
existence the greatest possible factor of injustice in the matter of 
taxation. 

It will therefore be seen that a rational taxation of natural 
resources does not depend upon any very great and intricate prin- 
ciple, but that, on the other hand, the principles involved are com- 
paratively simple. It must be clearly understood as well that the 
taxation of land for agricultural purposes, for minerals, for timber, 
or for water power, must differ in many respects, and that a 
principle of taxation applied in one case may not work out in the 
other. But if we keep clearly in mind the purposes for which land 
can be utilized, and that the fundamental taxation of land as such 
can be made annually and that of the product at the time of its 
harvesting, we have in the three instances of agricultural, mineral 
and timber lands a principle that may prove satisfactory when put 
in the form of legislation. The same idea can be applied to the 
water power site: taxation of the land at a nominal assessment and 
of the water power on the basis of the amount of water passing 
over the dam gives us again a principle upon which can be based 
satisfactory legislation. 

It must be remembered, however, that aU legislation is com- 
promise in character and that the recognition of these principles 
has usually been set aside when it came to the question of legisla- 
tion. The states have reached a point in the raising of revenue 
where not only more revenue is needed for the purposes of general 
social advancement, but where better administration is as essential 
and necessary as the other. An administration bureau must be pro- 
vided in all of the states to furnish the necessary data, if we arc to 



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Taxing Natural Resources 151 

reach some practical basis of conserving our resources thru taxa- 
tion. And tax commissions must be given plenty of authority and 
in addition must have plenty of expert advice and assistance which 
will give it the necessary endorsement. To my mind, a rational 
system of taxing natural resources depends largely upon adminis- 
tration based upon a few fundamental principles of legislation. It 
is comparatively not a difficult matter, it is largely a question of 
willingness to meet the problem; but if the experience of the past 
has any light to throw upon this subject, it is very clear indeed 
that legislation will be slow, that the different interests involved, 
thru fear of some possible advantage likely to be gained over them, 
will cling to the old system until it is almost too late to produce 
any results thru adequate taxation. 

It is my hope that a congress like this may have some power 
and some influence in setting aside this attitude, but I fear that an 
adequate system of taxation will move very slowly when it comes 
to its formulation in legislation. This is not encouraging but it 
is truth and that, after all, is what we are really trying to get at 
without confusing the issue by arguments favoring present attitudes 
either of the state or owners of natural resources. Big views will 
help solve the problems, little and narrow ones never. 



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On the Origin of the Onolatria 
Legend 

Wallace Nelson Stearns 
Assistant Professor of History, University of North Dakota 

Tertullian, ApoL, i6 fin. (cd. Oehler, Leip. '53-4) : "Sed 
nova jam Dei nostri in ista civitate proxime editio publicata est, ex 

quo quidam picturam proposuit cum eiusmodi inscrip- 

tione, Deus Christianorum ONOXOIHTHS ^. Is erat auribus as- 
ininis, altero pede ungulatus, librum gestans et togatus." ^ 

Ad Nationes, i., 11:14: Nuper quidam perditissimus in ista 
civitate, etiam suae religionis deserter, solo detrimento cutis Ju- 

daeus picturam in nos praeposuit sub ista proscrip- 

tione ONOXOIHTHS. Is erat auribus canteriorium et in toga, 
cimi libro, altero pede ungulato." 

This story is repeated by Minucius Felix : "I hear that they adore 
the head of an ass, that basest of creatures, consecrated by I know not 
whsit silly persuasion, — a worthy and appropriate religion for such 
manners." ^ Again he says: * "This is the business of demons, for 
by them false rumors are both sown and cherished. Thence arises 
what you say that you hear, that an ass*s head is esteemed among 
us a divine thing." 

But literary references show that the story antedates the Chris- 
tian era, having been previously urged against the Jews. ^ Thus 



1. In his note Oehler says: "Ego nomen rescribo ONOX- 
OIHTHS vel ONOXOHTHS? et hoc verum esse persuasum 
habeo." On the numerous conjectures here see Oehler*s text- 
ual note. 

2. The Graffito discovered in 1856, dating from the time of Ter- 

tullian, A. D. CI 60-230, suggests how widely current the story 
had become. 

3. Octavius 9. 

4. lb. 28. . 

5. Ophite origin (Onoel, 6v(k - 7{<) can hardly be claimed on the 

statement of Origen, Ag. Celsus, vi, 30, for that is too late. 
Further, it is hardly probable that two stories so similar would 
spring up concerning peoples so closely akin. Nor does the ap- 
peal to the vision of Zechariah in the Gnostic book, Fci^va Maputo 
(Epiphanius, Ag. Heresies, xxvi, 12) satisfy. Tertullian, who 
was contemporary with the sect, after quoting from Tacitus goes 
on to say, ApoL 16: "As Christianity is nearly allied to Judaism, 
from this, I suppose, it was taken for granted that we too are de- 
voted to the worship of the same image." 



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The Onolatria Legend 153 

Mnaseas of Patara in Lyda, B. C. 3rd cent., a pupil of Eratos- 
thenes, states that one Zabidus entered the Temple and carried away 
the ass's head of gold. ^ It seems unlikely that, as some claim, the 
occurrence of kof^wv here for ovos suggests any reference to the 
Egyptian scarab (icavtfapos) or to the sacred bull Apis. Tacitus 
declares that Moses established rites that were new and contrary to 
those of other mortals. "They (i. c. the Jews) regard as forbidden 
things that among us are held sacred, and, further, things are per- 
mitted among them that we regard immoral." '^ He further states 
that the Jews in the wilderness by following a herd of wild asses 
were led to a spring of water. Hence the domestic ass as the near- 
est approach to the wild ass was made an object of worship. * Da- 
mocritus, a predecessor of Josephus and the author of a work on the 
Jews, also states that the Jews worshipped an ass's head of gold. * 
Julius Florus in his Epitome records that Pompey when he entered 
the Jerusalem temple found there the figure of an ass beneath a vine 
of gold. i<> 

The purport of the story is evident from the low esteem in 
which the ass was held in antiquity. In Israel the ass was associated 
with humble life and mean circumstances, ^^ and was held — in spite of 
his usefulness — in small regard and even contempt. With Greek and 



6. Jos., Ag. Apion, ii, 9 : tov 8i ZajSiSov— €19 tov vaov iraptkBtlv ksu 
T^v xpvariv diroorpot tov Kav0<i>vos kc^oAi/v. 

7. Histt., V, 4. 

8. lb. V, 3. Cf. Plutarch, Quaestt. Conv., iv, 5 : ais t^v ovov dva<^- 
vci'Ta irqyr^v avroi9 V&1T09 Ti/AO><riv. Again, - tov itkv XayoKW dirc^ovrat 
8ta rd irpos ro rifna/JLfvoy vtt' avrtov fAuXurra Brfpiov ifi<f>€p€(rraToy 
(cTvcu). 6 y^ Aaycix (irX^v) ftcyc^ovs loucc koX raxovs (dvoeiSis) 
crvou. 

9. rcucruca iv jSijSAiots jS irtpi 'lovSouW Iv a> <f>rfaiv Sri XP^^^ kc^oA^v 
vpotreKwow , 

10. Sub aurea vite cillum ( ?) i, 40. 

11. Ge. 49:14: "Issacher is a large limbed ass. 

Stretching himself between the sheep-folds: 
For he saw a resting-place that it was good. 
And the land that it was pleasant." 
Hos. 8:8 "Israel is swallowed up; already are 
they among the nations. 
For they have gone up to Assyria, 
A wild ass taking his way by himself." 
Nu. 16:15: "And Moses was very wroth, and he said 
unto Yahwe, Respect not thou their offering: I have 
not taken one ass from them." 
2K. 6:25: "And there was a great famine in Samaria: 



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154 The Quarterly Journal 

Latin writers he fared still worse. ^^ 

The comparison implied in the ass-legend cannot be otherwise 
than odious. This is not offset by the fact that on one of the 
graffiiti discovered in Rome is inscribed the word "Fidelis." In the 
light of so much evidence the term must be regarded as ribaldry. 

Whence came the story?? Two points are clear: i) We have 
not two but one original story, and 2) the an ti- Jewish story is the 
older. Persecuted from without, the Jews beheld in the rising Chris- 
tian community a menace to the Jewish church from within. They 
would naturally consent to the turning off on the Christians any 
troublesome charge preferred against themselves. To the outside 
world the distinction between Jew and Christian was lost: Jew and 
Christian proved a common butt of ridicule, and both alike shared 
in the odium that rested on all Oriental religions . The story of the 
Asinarii came about by a transferal of the older legend. 



and behold they besieged it, imtil an ass's head sold 
for fourscore pieces of silver, and the fourth part of a 
kab of dove's dung, for five pieces of silver." 

Je. 22:19: "He shall be buried with the burial of an ass, 
drawn and cast forth beyond the gates of Jerusalem." 

Job 11:12: But vain man is void of understanding. 
Yea man is born as a wild ass's colt. 

Job. 24:3 They drive away the ass of the fatherless: 
They take the widow's ox for a pledge." 

Pr. 26 :3 : A whip for the horse, a bridle for the ass. 
And a rod for the back of fools." 

Josephus is even more explicit: "As for us Jews, we 
ascribe no honor or power to asses, as do the Egyp- 
tians to crocodiles and asps. Asses are the same with 
us as with other wise men, viz: creatures that bear 
burdens that we lay upon them; but if they come to 
our threshing-floors, and eat our corn, or do not per- 
form what we impose upon them, we beat them with 
a great many stripes, because it is their business to 
minister to us in our husbandry affairs." Ag. Apion, 

This feeling is also expressed in current sayings, as, 

"Where our forefathers were angels, we are but men ; 

where they were men, we are but asses." "The ass 

freezes in July." "If a man say unto thee, thou hast 

ass's ears, pay no heed to him; but if two say it to 

thee, go and get thee a saddle right away." 

12. Thus Ajax is described as he leaves the Trojans: "As when a 

lazy ass going past a field hath the better of the boys with him, 

an ass that hath had many a cudgel broken about his sides, and 



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The Onolatria Legend 155 

Morinus ^3 urged that the origin is to be traced to the confound- 
ing of *1Dn ^*sed of the pot in which the manna was preserved, 
with *llDn ^^ ^^ss. This explanation would seem to be helped out 
by the use of the unpointed texts. But it is not certain that this 
vessel was called ^^DH indeed in Ge. 16:33 it is called nJ^Jy 
and the word *1DJJ(*1Drl) signifies rather a unit of measure. In 
the Old Testament the word homer is a unit of measure, not merely 
a receptacle. ^* It would not be easy to confoimd *1^Dn with the 
manna pot even tho, as urged, the latter were of amphora shape with 
large ears or handles. 

Nor IS it satisfactory, as Hasaeus, ^^ to regard the word "as- 
inus'' as a corruption of the word "ashima'* ^^ (the name) used in- 
stead of the divine name Yahwe. But the Hebrew QE^H could 
hardly be corrupted to read "asinus," altho some of the later Jew- 
ish scholars did confound the "ashima" of 2K 17:30 with the Samar- 
itan divine name "ashima.** Again, it is hardly probable, despite 
occasional mention in the Old Testament, that the Jewish cidtus 
could be here confounded with the worship of the heavens as men- 
tioned by Juvenal: 

"nil praeter nubes et coeli nomen adorant." 
The views of the satirist, doubtless, were based on the absence of 
images in Jewish worship, and not on such stray allusions as 2K. 



he fareth into the deep crop, and wasteth it, while the boys 
smite him with cudgels, and feeble is the force of them, but yet 
with might and main they drive him forth, when he hath had 
his fill of fodder," etc. II., xi, 558. 

This is further illustrated by a series of proverbs, as, 
^v<p ris IXcyc fivBov* 6 Sk rk ^ra Iklvu, ^vo9 XvpiK ^kovctc iccu <ra\- 
iriTTos vs. irtpl ovov o-Kias, etc. cf . also Aristophanes, Clouds, 
1273; Wasps, II. 191-2. See Cicero, Ag. Piso, ch. 30; Plau- 
tus, Ps., i, 2:4-6; Terence, Heaut., v, 1:3-5, Eun., iii, 5:5of, 
and And., v, 8:12. Cf. also the usese to which the ass was put' 
as described by Cato, De Agricult., 10:1, 11 :i. Varro, De Re 
Rutsica, 2:1, 14, states the price set as the value; "asinus 
venierit sestertiis milibus sexaginta." 

13. De capite asinario deo Christiano? Dordrecht, 1620. 

14. E. g. Ex. 16:33: Take pot (nj^jy, Sept. oto/avos) and put 
an omeriful (^IDi^rij Sept. yofj^p) of manna therein. The 
same distinction holds in He. 9:4 ^ ^ oto/avos xpv<r^ ^X^^vou t^ 
fjLwva KoX 'Sf j^pSo9 'ff pXatm^avLon^ kt\. 

It may also denote a heap or pile as in Ex. 8:10; Hb. 3 :i5. 

15. De onolataria olim Judaeis et Christianis impacta. Erfurt 17 16. 

16. Held by some to be originally an Aramaic deity; connected in 
name with the Ashmaya river in Satt. xiv, 27. 



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156 The Quarterly Journal 

17:16, 21:3, and 2 Chr. 33:3. To shorten o(vpa)vo9 to ^vo9 is no 
accident of speech, and to change the "coelum** of Juvenal to oupavo? 
or ovoi is arbitrary. 

Still another explanation connects the story with the Egyptian 
god Typhon. Plutarch ^'^ states that the ass because of its resem- 
blance to the Egyptian god Set came to be credited with demoniacal 
powers. Set came to be regarded as in the incarnation of evil, the 
Satan among the gods of Egypt. On the strength of this the Greeks 
identified Set with T)rphon the adversary of Zeus. Osiris, whom 
Set slew, introduced agriculture, gave the people laws, and taught 
them to honor the gods. Accordingly Osiris was identified with 
Dionysus. ^^ As Sutekh, Set wandered to Syria, returning with the 
invading Hyksos. In the restoration under the twenty-sixth dynasty 
the worship of Set was exterminated. 

The identification of this legend with that of Dionysus seems 
futile for the reason that Osiris was human-headed and his rein- 
carnation was in the form of the black bull Apis. Likewise in the 
Greek legend the ass is not a form or appearance of Dionysus him- 
self but of the beast whereon he rode, and no more sanctity would 
be attached to it than to any other bit of impedimenta in the Diony- 
siac procession. 

Equally fanciful are the attempts to connect the story with 
the square foundation stone in the second temple or with the upper 
stone of the grinding mill. Neither object was, so far as known, 
regarded as an object of worship. 

A plausible story is furnished by Tacitus and Plutarch, asso- 
ciated most likely with the narrative in Ge. 36:24. Anah while 
feeding the asses came upon some hot springs. Tadtus may have 
confounded this story with that of the waters of Marah, Ex. 15:23, 
that of the springs of Elim, Ex. 15:27, or with the story of the smit- 
,ten rock which played such a large role in Rabbinic tradition. Two 
difficulties here confront us, — the lack of antiquity and the express 
statement of Josephus. 

Josephus furnishes another clue. "However, I cannot but ad- 
mire those other authors who furnished this man (Apion) with such 
materials ; I mean Posidonius and Apollonius Molo, ^* who while they 
accuse us for not worshipping the same gods that others worship, 

17. De Iside et Osiride, xxxf. 

18. SteindorflF, Rel. of the Anc. Egyptians, pp. 32, 73. 

19. On identifying Apollonius and Molo see Schuerer, GJV ^, iii, p. 

401 ; and cf. Croiset, Abridged History of Greek Literature, 
p. 474- 



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The Onolatria Legend 157 

think themselves not guilty of impiety when they tell lies of us, and 

frame absurd and reproachful stories about our temple ; 

for Apion had the the impudence to pretend, — ^that the Jews placed 
an ass's head in their holy place; and he affirms, — ^that this was dis- 
covered when Antiochus Epiphanes spoiled our temple, and foimd 
there that ass's head made of gold and worth a great deal of 
money." 20 

Apollonius and Posidonius were Rhodian scholars, the former 
a rhetorician, the latter a philosopher of the Stoic school Caesar and 
Cicero were pupils of the former and Cicero attended the lectures of 
Posidonius. ApoUonius's supplement was one of Plutarch's sources 
and may easily have furnished Plutarch's reference to the ass 
legend, ^i 

What, now, suggested to these two writers, — following the clue 
of Josephus, the story that the Jews worshipped an ass-headed image 
or divinity? The two most promising sources are the story of Anah 
considered above, and, preferably, as suggested by Faber, 22 the story 
of Onias and the Jewish temple at Leontopolis. About B. C. 164 
Onias IV. obtained permission to establish worship in an old temple 
in Leontopolis. In support of this temple its friends quoted the 
words OS Isa. I9:i8f.: "In that day there shall be five cities in the 
land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to 
Yahwe of hosts; one shall be called the city of destruction (D*inn)« 
It has been suggested that enemies of the movement found occasion 
in the similarity of sound between wos and 'Ovias to heap ridicule 
on Jews and temple alike. The attitude of the Palestinian Jews is 
evident from the title D^ID ^^« The Greek name was Heliopolis, 
"city of the Sun," which would suggest the reading D^IH ^f» indeed 
the city had a Hebrew name or if the passage from Isaiah contains 
more than a mere translation. 

We know that the rapid dispersion of the Jews thruout the 
Empire, 2* the fact of their Oriental origin, and their fanatical zeal 

20. Ag. Apion, ii, 7. 

21. Polybius's history treats of the extension of Roman authority, 
B. C. 220168, and of the maintenance of that power, B. C. 
168-146. As only the first five books and fragments of the re- 
maining are extant out of the entire forty, it is impossible to 
state whether Polybius himself recorded the story. 

22. Epp. i, 6. 

23. In the LXX the city is called iroXts do-cScx. It is not likely that 

the Egyptian Jews would have called the city D^IH- 

24. Schuerer, GJV^, iii, pp. 28fl. 

Cf. Schuerer, GJV^, iii, pp. 25cf. 



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158 The Quarterly Journal 

in gathering converts, together with their exclusive religious ideas 
aroused wide-spread hatred and contempt, especially among the cul- 
tured classes. As early as the time of Antiochus the Great, B. C. 
223-187, Jewish colonists were settled as far west as Ph)rrygia and 
Lydia, and according to the writer of I. Maccabees ^6 the Jews had 
made their way to Rhodes as early as the time of Simon, B. C. 
I43-I35' Of the contempt and scorn, if not hatred, of the cultured 
classes the Roman satirists give abundant evidence. 2« The unfair- 
ness of the writers of that period is shown by many of the references 
to the numerous but, to the literary world at least, obscure and des- 
pised people, and rumors and legends were gathered up without 
the discrimination that justice would require at the hand of the his- 
torian. 2*^ 

It seems certain that at the time in question Rhodes was a port 
of call between Alexandria and Puteoli or Ostia. ^8 The exactions 
of the two Cassii, B. C. 43-2, deprived Rhodes of political and mar- 
itime prominence, and the city settled down to the life of an old 
academic town. Strabo mentions its splendid harbors, streets, and 
walls. The centre of the learned world was Alexandria, and the 
attitude of the public mind in that city was easily reflected in the 
practically dependent city of Rhodes. From abundant records wc 



25. 15:23. 

26. Cf. Juvenal, Satt., iii, 11-16: 

"Stopped at a moment at the conduit-gate (P. Capena). 
Numa erst his nightly visits paid. 

And held high converse with the Aegean maid: 
Now the once hallowed fountain, grove, and fane 
Are left to Jews, a wretched, wandering train. 
Whose furniture*s a basket filled with hay — 
For every tree is forced a tax to pay; 
And while the heaven born nine in exile rove. 
The beggar rents their consecrated grove." 

27. Cf. Tacitus's account for Jewish abstinence from swine's flesh: 

Bos quoque immolatur, quia Aegypti Apin colunt. Sue absti- 
nent merito cladis qua ipsos scabies quondam turpaverat cui id 
animal obnoxium." Histt., v, 4: So also Plutarch, Symp., IV, 
V, 2. So Valerius Maximus relates of the Jews in Rome: 
"Idem (i. e. the Praetor Hispalus) Judaeos, qui Sabazi Jovis 
cultu Romanos inficere mores conati erant, repetere domos suas 
coegit. I, iii, 2. 

28. Ac. 21 :i ; Jos., Antt., XVI, ii, 2, B. J. VII, ii, i. See Ramsay 

in Hastings, B. D., articles "Myra" and "Rhodes." 



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The Onolatria Legend 159 

know that thruout this entire period the Jews suffered persecution. ** 
Whither could we more naturally turn for the origin of these re- 
ports than to Alexandria? Faber's suggestion affords a possible clue, 
— z, play on the word *Ovm (3vos). The High-priest standing before 
the assembled people, and the absence of images or other visible ob- 
jects of worship would give occasion for the rumor that the High- 
priest himself was the object of worship. ^^ This occurring a half 
century prior to the time of Posidonius and Apollonius, sufficient 
time would have elapsed for such a report to have gained some cur- 
rency. ^^ 

We have seen how difficult, if not impracticable, are the sev- 
eral explanations offered except that of Faber, whose suggestion fol- 
lows in the line of facts, rests on a possible philological basis, and 
provides a natural procedure. The legend rests on a corruption of 
the name, Onias, at first in ribaldry and by persons hostile to Jewish 
interests. The parlance of the day passed into legend and legend 
became the material for scholars of whom the Rhodians, Posidonius 
and Apollonius, were regarded by Josephus as especially worthy of 
mention. 



Note: Professor C. J. Ball (S. Bibl. Arch, xxxii, 1910, pp. 
64-72 — after the above was completed) holds the ass to have been a 
sacred animal among the primitive Semites. He sees traces of this 
sanctity in the names Anah and Anath. He holds that it may not 
have been impossible that the Jews really had an ass's head in their 
sanctuary at Jerusalem. 



29. Cf. Philo, Ag. Flaccus, 5f. 

30. Cf. Oehler on Minucius Felix, Octavius, 9. 

31. Similar instances might be cited — as Epiphanes, Bar-QKhba. 



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Book Reviews 



First Biennial Report of the Minnesota Tax Commission: 
Frank L. McVey, Samuel Lord, O. M. Hall, Commission- 
ers; Rukard Hurd, Secretary, St. Paul, 1908. pp. x+279. 

The Minnesota Tax Commission belongs to the second phase 
in the movement for reform in taxation — the establishment of per- 
manent tax commissions. Unlike the earlier commissions, which were 
merely temporary, and investigating bodies, this commission is per- 
manent and has administrative duties in addition to the task of study- 
ing ways and means for tax reform. The work of the commission 
is noteworthy as another example in the application of scientific 
methods to the problems of administration. The commission itself 
marks one more step in the trend toward centralization in the ma- 
chinery of assessment and taxation — 3, necessary step for efficiency 
and progress. 

The two practical achievements of the commission are connected 
with the property tax, primarily with the assessment of real estate. 
The Commission has ascertained the actual value of real estate as com- 
pared with its value for taxation and has made a revaluation of the 
mineral properties in the state. 

The problem of valuation and equalization is more important 
in Minnesota than in some other commonwealths where independent 
sources of revenues have been more largely assigned to the state. In 
Minnesota the state levy on property is the source of more than two- 
fifths of the revenues derived from taxes. Moreover, the state levy 
is equal to more than ten per-cent of the total tax revenues of both 
state and local bodies. In meeting the problem of valuation, the 
commission resorted to the sales method. It ascertained the consid- 
eration paid for real estate in a large number of sales for a period 
of years all over the state, and determined the ratio of the assess- 
ments on the same property to the real value. On the basis of these 
ratios the valuation for all real estate was computed. Here is a basis 
for a check on the work of local assessors and data for state equaliza- 
tion. 

In keeping with experience elsewhere, the greatest inequalities 
were found. Thus the percentage in some counties was as low as 
24, in others it reached 57. As was to be expected a higher valuation 
was found in the large towns. For the state as a whole the assessors' 
figures were 42% of the market values. As a remedy for this chaotic 



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Book Reviews i6i 

condition, the Commission recommends the elimination of the local 
assessor, the substitution of a smaller number of county assessors of 
a higher type, working under the supervision of the tax commission. 
This will tend to reduce inequalities within the coimty, and render 
coimty equalization unnecessary. 

The revaluation of the mineral lands was called for by the com- 
plaint that these had been much under-assessed — a complaint borne 
out by the fact that the 1907 valuation as equalized was over two and 
a half times that of 1906. The commission made extensive investiga- 
tion of the ore lands, and the peculiar conditions surrounding them. 
It divided mines and prospects into classes based on the character of 
the ore and the difficulties of mining. For each class of mines it de- 
termined the difference between the cost of mining and the price of 
ore for a period of three years. The average difference or net income 
was capitalized and the valuation thus ascertained reduced to the 
ratio obtaining in the assessment of other property. The majority 
of the Commission would favor a tonnage tax instead of advalorem 
tax, resorting to the former in order reach the value that is "distinctly 
a product of nature." This is a progressive doctrine, but there is 
ground for doubting with the minority member the efficacy of a simple 
tonnage tax for this purpose. The suggestion is moreover open to 
criticism on other ground. 

The experience of Minnesota with the general property tax, as 
it applies to real estate, has thus a familiar sound. The same is true 
of the personal property tax. This constitutes less than one-fifth 
of the total assessment. Three-fourths of the personal property 
reached is tangible — farm capital, household goods, stock in trade, 
machinery and the like. Of intangible property bank shares, a class 
everywhere reached, forms the largest part, more than one-third of 
the total. As applied to personal property the general tax has been 
a failure. 

A feature of the Commission's report is the attention given to 
substitutes for the personal property tax. Recognizing the failure 
of the present system, the Commission seeks to replace it with a num- 
ber of taxes, adjusted to the character of the business and the type of 
property involved. Thus it would favor a tax on money securities 
of foreign corporations and credits at a low rate of three or four 
mills. Such a tax, together with the existing mortgage registry tax, 
would go far to solve the problem of taxing a class of property now 
seldom reached and excessively burdened in the exceptional instances. 
Manufacturing and business corporations it would similarly tax at a 
low rate on their entire capitalization — three or four mills on both 



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1 62 The Quarterly Journal 

stocks and bonds. This would be fairer than the present tax on "cor- 
porate excess," which favors corporations financed thru bond issues 
rather than the sale of stock, and which seems to be very largely 
evaded. For mercantile corporations, the conunission favors a tax 
on the volume of business, distinguishing in the rate between whole- 
sale and retail enterprise. Local utility corporations now under the 
general property tax, it would subject to percentage taxes on gross 
earnings in the same way as railroad and telephone companies are 
now dealt with. The courts have declared the "wide-open" tax 
amendment adopted. Under it the state would be free to classify 
property for taxation and vary the rates. This opens the way for 
reform in the direction of a resolution of the general property tax 
into a variety of imposts adapted to the circumstances of the business 
or property taxed. Unfortunately legislatures are slow to depart 
from the old routine, and it is doubtful whether so radical change 
will soon be adopted. 

Having regard to simplicity and "ease of administration," the 
conunissions's report is characteri2sed by a strong preference for per- 
centage taxes on gross earnings. Thus it would favor a tonnage tax 
for mining companies and a tax on the volume of business for mer- 
cantile firms and corporations. It would extend the present system 
of taxing railroads and telephone companies on gross earnings by 
applying percentage taxes to sleeping car and telegraph companies, 
and to local utility corporations. These still come under the property 
tax. With the general plan of taxing corporations on their gross 
earnings which is old in Minnesota, the Commission seems satisfied 
and advocates a more uniform application of the system. In this 
connection attention may be called to an interesting table prepared 
by the Commission showing the present taxes paid by the railroads, 
and what they would have paid ad valorem, assessed on the same 
basis as other property in the state. On such a valuation their taxes 
would have been considerably higher. Examination of the table indi- 
cates, moreover, decided variations among the companies in the ratio 
of their present taxes to the taxes they would have paid on the basis 
of property. Gross earnings taxes are those not proportional to prop- 
erty, and probably not to the net earnings. A flat percentage tax on 
gross earnings, in spite of obvious advantages, can therefore hardly 
be regarded as the last word in the taxation of corporations. 

The commission deals also with other important points: — 
reform of the Minnesota inheritance tax, to make it more productive ; 
the taxation of forest lands; savings banks and insurance companies. 
It also contains a good discussion of the pros and cons in the mooted 



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Book Reviews 163 

point of the separation of the sources of local and state revenue. In 
view of practical difficulties, the Commission wisely maintains a 
conservative position, seeking to remedy some of the present evils in 
the state use of the property tax by a more centralized and efficient 
^tem of assessment. 

While containing little that is novel except in the treatment of 
mineral lands, the report is abreast with the latest discussions in 
taxation, and in advance of most commissions in its readiness to utilize 
the experiences of other states and to venture upon progressive pro- 
posals. Were the recommendations adopted, Minnesota would find 
itself far ahead on the road to a better system of taxation. 

H. G. Fribdman 

New York City 



Railroad Transportation : Some Phases of its History, Oper- 
ation, AND Regulation: Frank L. MgVey, President of 
the University of North Dakota. The Cree Publishing Com- 
pany, Minneapolis, Chicago, Seattle, 19 10. pp. 408, 

This work is one of the series on "Business, Commerce and 
Finance," issued by the Cree Publishing Co., for use in a Corre- 
spondence Course. The heavy paper and large size of the volume 
(9yi X byi 2 inches), characteristic of the series, unfortunately give it 
a rather formidable appearance . In point 'of content, however, it is 
notably simple and clear, being intended as "a guide to the study of 
some of the problems of railroads." 

The introduction discusses briefly but very suggestively the rela- 
tion of transportation to the westward migration of the American 
people; the economic effects of modern transportation facilities, es- 
pecially the railroad; the location of the great primary industries 
forming the basis of railroad development in America; the location 
and extent of our railroad net ; and the peculiar characteristics of the 
railroad industry. 

Part I. considers the growth of railroads in the United States 
since 1825. This is divided into three periods, which are treated in 
as many chapters. In the first, extending to 1850, attention is called 
to the early importance of turnpikes and canals, and the construction 
of many short lines of railway, radiating from important cities or 
connecting waterways. A number of diagrams illustrate the ad- 
vances in technical construction, especially as to the form and fasten- 
ing of the rail. The second period extended from 1850 to 1890— or 
more exactly, to the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



164 The Quarterly Journal 

During this period, the dominant idea came to be the connection of 
great city markets by thru lines, which were largely aided by land 
grants and bonuses. The result was the linear consolidation of short 
roads into trunk lines, fierce competition, rate wars, gross discrimina- 
tion, railroad pools, and attempts at state regulation of railroads thru 
the Granger laws. The third period, from 1887 till the present, has 
been characterized by territorial consolidation, hastened by the pro- 
hibition of pools, judicial decisions against the fixing of rates by traf- 
fic associations, and the application of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act 
to Railways. Such consolidation has given rise to a few great owner- 
ship groups. On the public side, the period has witnessed the emas- 
culation of the original Interstate Commerce Act thru judicial inter- 
pretation, and its reenforcement by recent grants of fresh powers in 
1903, 1906 and 1910. 

Part II. deals with the organization and financing of railroads, 
discussing the corporation charter; the promoter, speculator, under- 
writer and investor; the basis, forms and agencies of capitalization; 
also the various methods of railway consolidation, especially by lease, 
stockownership, community of interest and the holding company. 
These various methods of consolidation are clearly illustrated by 
means of diagrams. 

Part III. treats at considerable length (7 chapters, 172 pp) the 
operation of railways, including ( i ) official organization and admin- 
istration; (2) the mechanical phases, that is, maintenance of way, 
motive power and rolling stock; (3) traffic problems, inclusive of the 
freight, passenger, express and mail services; (4) accounting and 
statistics; (5) publicity. The chapter on general administration is 
illustrated by charts showing the derivation of authority and direc- 
tion of responsibility in various railway organizations. The chapters 
on the mechanics of railroading are likewise illustrated with cross- 
sections of road bed and diagrams showing different types of locom- 
tives. 

Part IV. is devoted to the relations of railways to the public, 
covering the rate question, public regulation and public ownership in 
various countries. 

Part V. contains reading references, quiz questions and the 
index. 

A few inaccuracies were noted, none of them, however, of 
serious importance. Thus on page 55, it is stated that the Canadian 
Northern has reached the Coast, while the Canadian Pacific is evi- 
dently the road meant. On the same page, the Frisco system is said 
to be extending to the Pacific, whereas the Western Pacific is prob- 



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Book Reviews 165 

ably intended. One line belonging on page 190 has been misplaced, 
appearing on page 191. On page 22, the statement that the United 
States has more than five times the length of railroads in Europe is 
ambiguous, as it seems to refer both to the population and the area 
tests, while in point of fact it is true only as to the population basis. 
Again on page 78, the statement that a corporation is not a citizen 
of the United States is so brief as to be misleading. Certainly the 
Fourteenth Amendment has been held by the courts to apply to rail- 
roads and constitutes one of their chief bulwarks. 

As shown by the foregoing outline, the work covers, as fully as 
space permits, all the different aspects of railroading as an industry, 
that is to say, its history, mechanics, administrative technics, and 
economics. 

The author has moreover aimed to portray only actual facts and 
conditions, either stopping short of controversial matters or giving 
impartially the arguments pro and con. Taken as a whole the book 
forms a compact and notably impartial treatment of the railroad in- 
dustry, and constitutes a valuable addition to the literature of the 
subject. 

Edward Van Dyke Robinson 
Department of Political Economy 
University of Minnesota 



Great Cities in America, Their Problems and Their Govern- 
ment: Delos F. Wilcox, Chief of the Bureau of Franchises 
of the Public Service Commission of New York City. The 
Macmillan Company, New York, 19 10. pp. xi-|-4i6. Price, 
$1.25. 

Wilcox needs no introduction to that increasing share of the 
American public that is studying city government. His writings on 
that subject have already established his reputation. And now his 
position as chief of the bureau of franchises of the public service com- 
mission of the city of New York affords him a peculiar opportunity 
to give another book that is both scholarly and popular in the best 
sense of the term. From such a man we expect a book that is worth 
while, a book that is full of fresh, concrete information, and that has 
a goodly portion of comment, observation, and interpretation. And 
such a book he has given us in the one now under review. 

This book is a description and a criticism of municipal govern- 
ment in six American cities, Washington, New York, Chicago, Phila- 
delphia, Saint Louis and Boston. There have been some fifty fairly 



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1 66 The Quarterly Journal 

good books on city government published in this country since 1897 
and 1898, when Shaw put out his two model works, ''Municipal 
Government in Great Britain," and '^Municipal Government in Con- 
tinental Europe." Very few of these new books are as good as Shaw's, 
or even approach his. They usually discuss, in a more or less "scien- 
tific" fashion, the structure and functions of city government. But 
too many of these discussions of "The Mayor" and "The Council" 
as abstract propositions are disappointingly barren. They remind us 
of that dismal ^nd discredited concept of the classical economists, the 
"economic man," or that later product of pseudo-scientific pedagogy, 
"the child." Wilcox in this book returns to the concrete method of 
Shaw and reaches the same high standard of excellence. 

The plan of this book is simple and commendable. It is this: 
Chapter i. Introduction (15 pages); chapter 8, Conclusions (15 
pages) ; the intervening six chapters (386 pages) are devoted to a 
discussion, one chapter each, to the six great cities named above. 

The author's method of treatment may be best set forth in his 
own words, quoted from the preface. "The present volume," he says, 
"is offered to the public with considerable diffidence, for two reasons. 
In the first place, the method of treatment is experimetnal. Instead 
of discussing the government of America's great cities by topics, the 
author has taken each city up separately, devoting a chapter to a gen- 
eral description of its government and problems. In view of the wide 
variations in organization, functions, accounts and relations to other 
political subdivisions, no comparative chart or statistical tables are 
presented in this volume. In the second place, the author is conscious 
that the pictures drawn by him are full of shadows. Indeed, the 
study of the great cities, one by one, in the preparation of this book 
has often given a shock of surprise and dismay to one already long 
inured by study and associations to a contemplation of the shortcom- 
ings of American cities. He is particularly imeasy about Philadelphia. 
As a native-born American and a fundamental democrat, he is loath 
to drag this national skeleton out of its closet, but there is some hope 
that this additional publicity will strengthen the arm of those brave 
men who are fighting to redeem the *city of Brotherly Love* from 
its political degradation. With the recent Denver election in mind, 
we have reason to believe that no American city is so far 'gone' as 
to be immune from the shock of shame when the searchlight is turned 
on. 

The truth would make us free, the author believes, and that is 
his excuse and his justification for painting so dark a picture. Yet 
nevertheless, a vein of healthy optimism runs thru the whole book. 



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Book Reviews 167 

In no case docs he picture a failure without giving causes and sug- 
gesting remedies. He offers, to be sure, no patent panacea, for the 
evils, no cure-all for the sickness of American cities. Yet his care- 
ful diagnosis and his masterful interpretation of conditions suggest a 
constructive program of effort which would prevent rather than cure 
the ills of city government. 

Actual problems in actual dties are discussed, covering subjects 
ranging all the way from accounting and assessments to tuberculosis 
and typhoid, including gambling, gas and garbage. What is a proper 
franchise policy for a city ? How much Home Rule for a dty ? How 
much state legislative and administrative control? What about mu- 
nicipal ownership? How shall prostitution be controlled? How 
shall the city use the Single Tax? What is the economic limit of a 
city's growth? How does civil service work in practice? How reg- 
ulate rates of public service corporations? How secure a pure water 
supply? What are the proper functions of a city? These are all, 
confessedly, fundamental questions in city government, and in every 
one of these questions the reader can get substantial help from this 
book. 

The unique feature of Wilcox's book is his individualizing of 
the city as a man does his own college. "When we come to look 
upon cities as individuals," he says, "leading figures in the pomp and 
pageantry of modern civilization, wasting their resources by prodi- 
gality, or overcoming natural obstacles by indomitable energy ; giving 
themselves over to the stolid enjoyment of material prosperity, or 
striving like men in whom a great purpose has been conceived to at- 
tain to the glory of intellectual and moral leadership, the dullness and 
lack of interest that so generally attach in the popular mind to prob- 
lems of municipal finance and municipal administration, disappear 
like the dew before the morning sun. Cities, like men, have careers, 
which to a great extent are determined by environment and to a great 
extent by the innate energy and the habitual ethical standards of their 
inhabitants. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The city as a municipality may be weak 
or it may be strong. It may be wise or it may be foolish." Wilcox 
announces a truth here which we have just seen manifested in the 
recent "Do it for Rochester" movement. "The city is an end in 
itself, not a means to an end," asserts the author. "Every citizen 
should love his city instead of trying to get away from it as soon as 
he has made money in it. The gods may laugh, but nevertheless, in 
the careers of the great cities of America are the elements of tragedies 
as profound as those personal tragedies which have held the ear of the 
world since the first great bard began to sing." 



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i68 The Quarterly Journal 

Wilcox has vitalized his subject. He has written a book whidi 
is good to put into the hands of the University student, the city offi- 
cer and the general reader. It informs. It stimulates. It energizes. 
We expected a great book of Wilcox, and he has satisfied our sense 
of fulfillment. 

James E. Boylb 
Department of Economics and Political Science, 
University of North Dakota 



The American Commonwealth: James Brycb. New Edition 
completely revised thruout with additional chapters. The Mac- 
millan O)., New York, 1910. Two Volumes, pp. 1704. Price, 
$4.00. 

In the first edition of Bryce's American Commonwealth, pub- 
lished in 1886, the author expresses his attitude towards American 
institutions in these fine words: 

"They [the institutions of the United States] represent an ex- 
periment in the rule of the multitude, tried on a scale unprecedentedly 
vast, and the results of which every one is concerned to watch. And 
yet they are something more than an experiment, for they are be- 
lieved to disclose and display the type of institutions towards which, 
as by a law of fate, the rest of civilized mankind are forced to move, 
some with swifter, others with slower, but all with unresting feet." 

This statement is left unchanged in the new edition. "It was 
with some anxiety," says Bryce, in the preface to the new edition, 
"that I entered on this revision, fearing lest the hopeful spirit with 
which my observation of American institutions from 1870 to 1894 
had inspired me might be damped by a close examination of their 
more recent phases. But all I have seen and heard during the last 
few years makes me more hopeful for the future of popular govern- 
ment. The forces working for good seem stronger to-day than they 
have been for the last three generations." In other words, Bryce 
has remained the same optimistic critic that he was thirty years ago. 

This revised edition of the American Commonwealth, with its 
many changes and its two himdred and sixteen pages of new matter 
is a substantial improvement over the two earlier editions. There 
are three distinct kinds of changes introduced, as follows: (i) New 
Chapters. There are eight new chapters. (2) Supplementary notes, 
varying in length from one to five pages, at the end of chapters, to 
bring the subject matter down to date. This is the method used 
in dealing with the chapters on the Machine, the Party System, the 



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Book Reviews 169 

Federal system, the Workings of State Governments, and State Poli- 
tics. It is here we find discussed Primary Elections and the Initiative 
and Referendum. ( 3 ) Revisions within the chapter. Statistical data 
of all kinds are thus brought down to date. The subject of Taxa- 
tion, for instance, in the chapter on State Finance, shows a very thoro 
and complete revision. Likewise does the subject of the Conunission 
plan of city government in the chapter on cities. 

The most important changes are doubtless those introduced in 
the eight new chapters. These deal with four topics, namely, (i) 
Colonies, (2) Inunigration, (3) The Negro, and (4) Universities, 

( 1 ) The colonies Bryce discusses under the non-committal title 
of "the new transmarine dominions." Our "peculiar relation" to 
Cuba he describes in a remarkably lucid manner. He does not think 
that our experience in the Philippines foreshadows the growth of 
imperialism. 

"One new fact," he says, "which was expected to exalt the 
majesty and strengthen the power of the National Government has 
so far made little if any difference — I mean the acquisition of trans- 
marine possessions and particularly the Philippine Islands, which 
are immediately dependent upon the Government, and bring it into 
relation with new foreign problems. These conquests are too rela- 
tively small and too distant to occupy the thoughts of the people. 
The lustre of the National Government has not been visibly en- 
hanced by its control of the new possessions, and still less has its 
character as a constitutional government suffered from the fact that 
it exercises a larger sway than is permitted to it at home." 

It is probable, thinks Bryce, that for some time to come, Ameri- 
can policy will aim at avoiding annexations or interventions likely 
to lead to annexations. As to the more distant future, he ventures 
no prophecy. 

(2) His discussion of the latest phases of immigration — the 
increasing number and the changing character of immigrants — is a 
distinct contribution to the literature of that subject. A blending 
of the new races, he thinks, will produce patriotic Americans, intel- 
lectually alert and able, with increased creative powers in music 
and art. The effect on the ethical quality of the nation he finds 
more difficult to conjecture. "The inmiigrant is cut loose from his 
old ties and from the influences that restrained him. He is far 
from his parents and from his priest. He has no longer the public 
opinion of his neighborhood to regard, no longer any disapproval 
of the local magnate to fear." 

The probable efFect of inunigration on the American Type is 



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I70 The Quarterly Journal 

analyzed. Will there be a decline? While there is a danger and 
some real ground for anxiety, Bryce is on the whole very hopeful. 
"Great is the stimulative and educative power of the American en- 
vironment." 

(3) On the Negro question Bryce is still optimistic, altho he 
presents both the dark and the light side of the picture. The white 
population increases faster than the negro in the South. Therefore 
the negro is not a political danger . The negro's labor is more and 
more useful to the whites as the negro advances. Therefore it is 
to the interests of the white race to treat the negro fairly and help 
him advance. 

"The question whether the races can live peacebly together is 
at bottom a moral question, a question of good feeling, of humanity, 
of the application of the principles of the Gospel. ♦ ♦ ♦ When 
the sentiment of a common humanity has so grown and improved 
within a century as to destroy slavery everywhere, may it not be 
that a like sentiment will soften the bitterness of race friction also? 
It is at any rate in that direction that the stream of change is run- 
ning." 

(4) After surveying the history of universities in America and 
pointing out their numerous defects, the author concludes that dur- 
ing the last twenty years, "the Universities seem to have grown not 
only in their resources and number of their students, but also in 
dignity and influence. They hold a higher place in the eyes of the 
Nation. They have almost entirely escaped any deleterious contact 
either with politics or with those capitalistic groups whose power 
is felt in so many other directions. Thru the always widening circle 
of their alumni they are more closely in touch than ever before with 
all classes in the community. The European observer can express 
now with even more conviction than he could twenty years ago the 
opinion that they constitute one of the most pervasive forces work- 
ing for good in the coimtry." 

Enough has been said to indicate the nature of the changes 
made and of the new matter introduced. The two most striking 
omissions, in the reviewer's judgment, are the subject of the grow- 
ing centralization of State administrative control, and that of the 
issues between organized labor and organized capital. 

It is noteworthy that notwithstanding the thoro and searching 
revision of the three chapters dealing with city government, yet 
this grim dictum stands unchanged : "There is no denying that the 
government of cities is the one conspicuous failure of the United 
States." 



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Book Reviews 171 

The publishers have undoubtedly done wisely to bring out this 
revised and enlarged edition of a great work. Bryce has here inter- 
preted to us our institutions better than we can do it for ourselves. 
The person who would know and love his country better — and 
every citizen should do that — needs to read this book. And to read 
it is to find enjoyment on every page, as well as information and 
inspiration. 

Among our thousands of foreign critics, there have been but 
three really great critics of American institutions, — de Tocqueville, 
the over-enthusiastic French traveler; Von Hoist, the bilious Ger- 
man professor; and Bryce, the British statesman. To his task 
Bryce has brought the most open mind, the most comprehensive 
grasp of the world's political institutions, past and present, and a 
literary style easily surpassing that of the others in force, clearness, 
and beauty. 

James E. Boylb 
Department of Econonucs and Political Science, 
University of North Dakota 



Sociology: Jambs Quaylb Dealey, Professor of Social and Po- 
litical Science, Brown University. Silver Burdette and Co., 
1909. pp. 405. 

This volume is the result of an avowed attempt on the part 
of the author to simplify the teachings of sociology. ''If science can 
tunnel mountains, erect great cathedrak, multiply inventions, and 
banish disease, there is no inherent reason why society, thru science, 
should not be able to free itself gradually from the hardships of 
social evils, and to accelerate its rate of progress." It is this con- 
viction that makes it worth while to attempt the task of simplifica- 
tion. Not only is the text written for college students but for phil- 
anthropic associations, women's clubs, and educational and religious 
associations, in all of which there is manifest a deep interest in the 
regeneration of society. It would be a great good fortune if those 
various associations could adopt and absorb as frank and sensible 
a work on sociological principles as is this sociology of Dealey's. 
Sociology would then have a chance of escape from being confounded 
with "reforming," muck-raking," and socialism, all of which are 
good in their place but they are not identical with sociology. 

The text consists of two parts. Part one deals with the 
^'simpler teachings of sociology" covering chapters on sociology as a 
science, early social development, achievement and civilization, social 



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172 The Quarterly Journal 

psychology, and the development of social institutions, namely, eco- 
nomic, family, state, religious, moral, and cultural. Part two con- 
sists of the "appilcation of sociological teachings to some social prob- 
lems." Six chapters are devoted to social progress as follows: social 
progress, radal factors in progress, economic factors in progress, re- 
lation of cultural to material civilization, education as a factor in 
social progress, application of social psychology to social progress. 
Chapters 15-19 are devoted to sodal evils: — their elimination, evils 
of ignorance, exploitation, pauperism, crime, sex-immorality, and 
intemperance, progress of individuals, and the social ideal. The 
contents reflect the scope and nature of the work. It is evidently 
fitted to be an introduction to the field of sociology in a university 
where several courses in sociology are given, or a general text-book 
of sociology in colleges where but one course is offered. 

In form, the work is the production of Dr. Dealey. In sub- 
ject-matter and point of view the work is largely tributary to Pro- 
fessor Ward. Indeed the author recognizes his obligation to the 
latter. It is not a mere reproduction but an independent produc- 
tion. As in Ward's works the psychic nature of society, sociology 
built upon the idea of the control of natur by psychic forces, and 
the telle element, or the ultimate control of itself on the part of 
society, are the dominant thoughts. Of course he believes in the 
elimination of sodal evils ultimately. His utterance on crime be- 
tokens this. "It hardly seems Utopian to hope that society might 
largely free itself from crime if it would systematically segregate 
the hardened criminal, supervise degenerate stock, give spedal train- 
ing to youthful and first offenders, and make steady improvement 
in the conditions of life, raising economic standards, and simplifying 
criminal law and proceedure. A generation of the next century 
may perhaps look at the ruins of our Sing Sing, with much the same 
feeling that a modem visitor gazes at the medieval dungeons of 
Europe." 

This is a fresh vigorous work and gives the beginner in sodology 
a preparation to understand the nature of society and to interpret its 
phenomena for practical purposes or to advance to higher studies. 
' John M. Gillbttb 

Department of Sociology, 

University of North Dakota 



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Book Reviews 173 

Life in thb Roman World of Nero and St. Paul: T. G. 
Tucker, Professor of Classical Philology, University of Mel- 
bourne. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1910. pp. 
xix+453. Price, $2.50. 

The above work with its dominant note of the superb, and on 
the whole, beneficent might of the Roman Empire, strikes one as 
being at once a scholarly and an interesting production. 

While the author's grasp of his subject is broad and accurate, 
his style is singularly free from any pedantic display of erudition. 
In his preface. Professor Tucker strikes his keynote in quoting Mr. 
Warde Fowler's statement: "I firmly believe that the one great 
hope for classical learning and education lies in the interest which 
the unlearned public may be brought to feel in ancient life and 
thought." 

In his easy, idiomatic, and luminous style, the author emphasizes 
the fact of the prevalence of the pax Romana thruout the empire, 
and the consequent wide-spread enjoyment of social and indsutrial 
prosperity. When there were no pirates on the sea, and no robbers 
on the roads, when all irresponsible and local tyrannies were abol- 
ished, there was a general, and, for the most part, willing accept- 
ance of the Roman rule. 

The impressive fact of the comparatively small army and navy 
needed to control this great empire is well brought out, as also the 
point that the vast powers of the empire had come into the hands 
of one man simply because the republic had become incompetent to 
handle its empire, whether from a military or a financial point of 
view. 

It is, also, dearly shown how the emperor, in virtue of being 
commander in chief, titular protector of the commons, with initiative 
and veto power, and official head of the state religion, became the 
Colossus who bestrode the Roman world. 

Slavery at Rome is well handled, and the point made that the 
later Romans were, in no small degree, descended from Rome's 
emancipated slaves. The chapters on administration and taxation, 
streets, houses and social life, while appearing (perhaps from the 
inherent dryness of such subjects) more conventional in treatment, 
and not so striking as the earlier chapters, are, however, well worth 
perusal. 

The concluding chapters on RcMnan religion, science, and phil- 
osophy, are, in the opinion of the reviewer, very fine indeed — per- 
haps the strongest in the book. 



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174 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

Great stress is laid on the Roman religious tolerance, and on 
the undoubted fact that, while Christianity was regarded as a variety 
of Judaism, it was actually protected by Rome, and owes no little 
of its original progress to that fact. To quote: — ^**The early Chris- 
tians were treated as they were not because they held non-Roman 
views, but because they held and-Roman views; not because they 
did not believe in Jupiter and Venus, but because they refused to let 
anyone else believe in them ; not because they weakened Roman faith, 
but because they threatened to weaken, and even to wreck the whole 
fabric of Roman society ; not because they were known to be heretics, 
but because they were supposed to be disloyal ; not because they con- 
verted men, but because they appeared to convert them into danger- 
ous characters." And again: "The Roman attitude towards early 
Christians was partly that of a modern government towards 
Nihilists, and partly that of a generation or two ago to a blend of 
extreme radical with extreme atheist." 

The philosophy prevalent at Rome in the time of Nero is 
handled in a very brief, but clear and interesting mannre. So co- 
gently does the author put the case for the Stoics, that one is 
tempted to parody Herod Agrippa's words to St. Paul and say, 
"Almost thou persuadest me to be a Stoic." 

And to the possible criticism that St. Paul is kept rather in the 
back-ground, or, at all events, not obtruded on our notice, it may 
be said that the book is not intended to give a life-history of either 
Nero or St. Paul, but only to attempt to reproduce the sodal and 
political atmosphere of Rome, about 64 A. D., and this Professor 
Tucker has certainly done in a most excellent, entertaining and 
scholarly manner. 

' G. St. John Perrott 
Department of Latin, 

University of North Dakota 



The Influence of Wealth in Imperial Rome: William 
Stearns Davis, Professor of Ancient History in The Univer- 
sity of Minnesota. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1910. pp. 
xi-l-340. Price, $2.00. 

An examination of the chapter headings of this recent work 
on early and later Rome reveals to us the point of view of its author. 
The brief opening chapter on the business panic of *33 A. D. is a fit 
prelude for the style of treatment which the author continues thru- 
out his discussion. The facts he relates are not new; there is not, 



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Book Reviews 175 

indeed, any set efiFort to cover chronologically or otherwise these 
large fields for historical research which have always offered rich 
returns to the scholar. The author has attempted a running com- 
mentary on the social and economic life of the time, in the vernacular, 
so to speak, of nineteenth century speech. There is no attempt here 
at classical treatment or conventional phraseology, but there is given 
a plain, business-like account of what the Romans actually did with 
the wealth, which they could not spend wisely, and the political and 
social degradation that surely followed, as it has since, in such centers 
as Paris, London and New York. To younger students, who have 
never known thie earlier point of view, this seems the most natural 
and logical method of procedure in dealing with such world prob- 
lems; but with others, who have come up thru Gibbon and his 
school, it is most refreshing to find that the time has come when the 
old-fashioned historian must extend his area of investigation to in- 
clude such hitherto alien fields as economics and sociology, and that 
the newer interpretation of history makes greater demand upon the 
writer to-day than ever before. 

Especially excellent is the summary in the closing chapter on 
the causes of the destruction of the Empire. The author seems to 
lack a proper appreciation of the reasons for the perpetuation of the 
Byzantine Empire and the relatively earlier disappearance of the 
western portion of the Empire. The strategic location of Constanti- 
nople and the pressure of Slav and Hun on the eastern Germans 
seem to be overlooked as is also the temptation of the undefended 
wealth of Italy, Spain, Gaul and Britain to the land-hungry western 
Germans, with their somewhat better organized society and their 
warlike population. 

The author also evidently underrates the social and industrial 
value of primitive Christianity for the Empire. That the early 
Church, by example and precept, encouraged labor, strove to mitigate 
the worst abuses of slavery, and sought to give each of its followers 
a high ideal of service in brotherly love, is admittedly true. But, 
when to this is added the other important fact that the Germans 
were Christianized, the regenerative influence of the church, even 
during the early Empire, must be reckoned with as a powerful tho 
often unseen force, preserving Roman institutions from complete 
overthrow or later modifying and softening the results of barbarian 
conquest. 

O. G. LiBBY 

Department of History, 
University of North Dakota 



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176 The Quarterly Journal 

Light From thb Ancient East: The New Testament Il- 
lustrated BY Recently Discovered Texts of the Graeco- 
RoMAN World: Adolf Deissmann, Professor of New Tes- 
tament Exegesis, University of Berlin. Translated by Lionel 
R. M. Strachan, English Lecturer in the University of Heidel- 
berg. Hodder and Stoughton, New York and London, 1910. 
pp. X+514. Price, $4.00. 

In no field has progress been more marked of late years than 
in that of the New Testament. And now the discovery of a new 
sort of material has revealed a world and a folk hitherto lost to the 
historian. To quote Professor Deissmann, these new materials 
"help us to correct the picture of the ancient world, which we have 
formed by viewing it hitherto exclusively from above. They place 
us in the midst of that class in which we have to think of the Apostle 
Paul and the early Christians gathering recruits.'' In. this great mass 
there are, of course, many documents that represent the upper or the 
richer classes as well. 

Among the recently published volumes, not to mention a wealth 
of journals, that take note of these late finds, mention may be made 
here of Preuschen, Gricchisch-Deutscher Handwoerterbuch, 19 10; 
Moulton, Grammar of New Testament Greek, 1906; Schmiedel, 
Grammatik des Neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms ; Schuerer, Ges- 
chichte des Jucdischen Volkes, u. s. w., 3d and 4th edn. 1898-1902; 
the volumes edited by Grenfell and Hunt; Deissmann, Bibelstudien, 
1895, and Neue Bibelstudien, 1897, New Light on the New Testa- 
ment, and Licht vom Osten, 2d and 3d edn. 1909. Of this last 
epoch marking volume the book here passed in review is the trans- 
lation. Deissmann has placed scholars under lasting obligation by 
thus collecting and summarizing sources previously widely scattered 
in various volumes of memoirs and reports, corpora inscriptionum, 
and technical journals. 

Almost at the outset the author sets forth his purpose ''to show 
the importance of the non-literary written memorials of the Roman 
Empire in the period which led up to and witnessed the rise and 
early development of Christianity, the period, let us say, from Alex- 
ander to Diocletian. They consist of innumerable texts on stone, 
metal, wax, papyrus, wood, or earthenware, now made accessible 
to us by archaeological discovery and research." This last named 
work largely comes within the century just passed. 

The texts under discussion come under three groups, inscrip- 
tions, papyri, and ostraca. The bulk of the inscriptions are on stone, 



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Book Reviews 177 

but bronze, lead, wax-tablets, graffiti on walls, coins, and medals 
are included. These inscriptions, numbering hundreds of thousands, 
cover the entire area of the Graeco-Roman Empire from the Rhine 
to the upper Nile and from Mesopotamia to Britain. Among the 
great collectors may be mentioned here Boeckh, Mommsen, and Det- 
tinger, Schuerer, Schmiedel, Nageli, Blass, Moulton, and Deissmann 
himself. As exploration extends over areas once occupied by Chris- 
tianity and as scholars come to realize the right of Christinaity to 
material witnesses, these finds from Ephesus, Magnesia, Miletus, 
Corinth, and similar places will constitute a large factor in deter- 
mining the historical background of the book of Acts and of prim- 
itive Christianity. 

The mass of papyri bulks up, seemingly, equally large, its use 
in antiquity extending over about 3,500 years. These papyri, well- 
nigh innumerable, represent every form and phase of hiunan life 
from legal contracts to school-boy exercise sheets, and cover a range 
from the third century B. C. down to the Byzantine period. The 
dry climate and sandy soil of Egypt combine to render that country 
one of the great storehouses for this sort of material. These docu- 
ments are written in Greek, Demotic, Coptic, Arabic, Latin, He- 
brew, and Persian. 

The study of the Ostraca is a modem science. Ignored for so 
long a time, these pieces of broken pottery have by virtue of the 
writing on them become a leading factor in our study. According 
to Wilcken, the use of ostraca for writing, dates in Athens back so 
far as the sixth century, B. C, at least. As these ostraca were es- 
pecially in use among the poorer classes as writing material, avail- 
able as they were in nearly every rubbish heap, they are of espedal 
value as bringing us at once to the inner life of the humble poor. 

The long list of words formerly classed as Biblical or New 
Testament, a net list of about 500, has been greatly reduced by 
finding occurrences in these new records. Deissmann conjectures 
that not more than fifty can now really be so classed. New shades 
of meaning are certified. Thus, for example, the scrip mentioned 
in Mt. 10:8 proves to mean the begging purse carried by pagan 
mendicant priests. The warning then is against soliciting alms by 
the way, thus identifying themselves with these spiritual vagrants. 

A distinction brought out by Professor Deissmann, one all 
but lost to our eras English, is that between the terms letter and 
epistle. In his preface, the translator remarks, '*The fact is that the 
words letter and epistle have . been so long used synonomously in 
English (at first seriously, and now half-humorously) that it re- 



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178 The Quarterly Journal 

quires a little effort to adapt oneself to Deissmann's technical use 
of these terms. The English parallel I seek will be found in some 
nineteenth century writer, I think, if it is discovered at all, for 
epistle is used as the exact equivalent of letter from the time of James 
Howell (author of the Epistolae Ho-Elianae, 1645) down to Robert 
Burns." 

These non-literary finds help us to understand better the real 
character of the literature of the New Testament, to determine when 
primitive Christianity became literary, and to estimate the separate 
stages in its literary development. Accepting here Deissmann's de- 
finition of literature as "Something written for the public (or at least 
for a public) and cast in a definite artistic form," we find in the 
New Testament three forms tho not three chronological stages of 
literature : 

1. Non-literary epistles, as the letters of Paul. 

2. Popular, inter nos, records and circular letters intended 
for a larger circle but not for the outside world, as the Gospels, 
Book of Acts, and Catholic letters. 

3. Possibly the beginnings of artistic epistolary literature, as 
the Epistle to the Hebrews. 

4. What really marks the second stage of Christian literature, 
the era of artistic forms, begins with the Apologists, in the second 
century. 

The first stage, sections 1-3, is abundantly illustrated from 
these new discoveries, which include letters from Alexander the 
Great to near the time of Islam. 

Further, the social and religious history of the New Testament 
finds illustration. The story of the denarius, the altar inscribed to an 
unknown god, the incident recorded in Lk. 22 :25, and others similar 
find historic setting. Thus the last named is paralleled by fragmen- 
tary inscription from Cos, 

m m m m ^f ff^g benefactor, 

G, Stertinius Xenophon 
* * * * consecrated to the city. 
The "advent" or "parusia" coins of the Imperial period, as, 
e. g., the coins cast by Corinth and Patras in honor of the visit of 
Nero, shed a flood of light on iTh 4:15, 5:23, Mt 24:3, and similar 
passages. The metaphor of our redemption from the bondage of 
sin and the law now has ample illustration from the temple of 
Apollo at Delphi, and this temple with its manimiission inscriptions 
is not a unique phenomenon in Greece. 

Wallace N. Stearns 
Department of History, 

University of North Dakota 



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Book Reviews 179 

A Primer of Hebrew History: Wallace N. Stearns, As8l8^ 
ant Professor of History, University of North Dakota. Eaton 
and Mains, New York, 1909. pp. 90. Price, $ .40. 

A Manual on Hebrew Private Life for Popular Use: Wal- 
lace N. Stearns, Assistant Professor of History, University 
of North Dakota. Eaton and Mains, New York, 1910. pp. 55. 
Price, $ .25. 

The motive of the author in placing the first of these two 
books before the world is indicated in the words printed under the 
title of the work, "A manual for popular use." In the preface the 
author announces that ''This little book is designed for the busy lay 
reader" and "to arouse a more intelligent interest in the story of the 
divine tutelage of Israel." The writer of the introduction to the 
Primer truly remarks: "The author assumes that the reader has 
his Bible in hand. The writer has aimed at critical accuracy, but 
nowhere loses the reader in a maze of critical discussion." 

In the initial chapter entitled "The Land," is given a brief 
sketch of the extent, the physical features and the resources of Pal- 
estine. In the next chapter is given an historical outline and 
suggestive perspective of the nine periods ol Hebrew history, with 
their dates so far as possible, and their essential charcateristics. The 
succeeding nine chapters oflFer a remarkably terse yet graphic account 
of the birth of the Hebrews out of the Semitic peoples, their develop- 
ment into a nation, their national division, decline and exile, their 
long subordination under Persians, Greeks, and Romans, with their 
final destruction as a localized and integrated race stock under 
Hadrian. 

The author has succeeded in a wonderful manner in catching 
the fundamental movements and episodes in each stage of the life 
of this remarkable people and compressing their narrative into the 
briefest possible space. Tho covering a great field and range of dates, 
the book is more than a bare outline. It has meat and meaning. 
Between the Persian and Greek periods is a chapter devoted to the 
development in religion. Tho extending over but three pages it 
contains a very suggestive and fruitful statement of that great evo- 
lution from polytheism to monotheism which was accompanied by 
teachings "that the Ruler of the universe is on the side of purity and 
righteousness: he is too pure and too high to be represented by any 
material S)rmbols." 

The mechanical features of the volume are excellent. There 



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i8o The Quarterly Journal 

are plenty of maps, helpful diagrams and chronological tables, and 
an appendix containing suggestions for study, bibliography for a 
working library, and an outline of the life of Jesus. 

Dr. Steams has happily succeeded in the task he undertook and 
has placed busy Bible students under great obligation to him for 
this fresh, scholarly help. 

In the second work. Dr. Steams has again invaded the field of 
providing convenient manuals of Bible study for busy people. And 
he has succeeded in an admirable way in this particular instance . I 
have not seen so rich a mine of information relative to the various 
phases of the life of the Hebrew people compressed within equal 
space. The author has shown himself to be a master of the art of 
assembling valuable facts and stating them in short, succinct, vivid 
sentences. The short introduction is worth quoting in toto as an 
illustration of the felicity in expression as well as showing the pur- 
pose of the production. 

"The Hebrews were not always marching to war or engaged 
in gay triiunphs and solemn sacrifices. They, too, lived the conunon 
life, performed the little tasks, and in a measure they conformed to 
a daily routine. 

"The multitude of references in the Old and New Testaments 
to the daily life and fenvironment are meaningless to the general 
reader but shine out in all their significance when the life whence 
they are drawn is fully understood. 

"The object of this simple presentation is to call attention to 
the significance of these facts, to stimulate interest in more formal 
treatises, and thus to prepare the mind for the interpretation of these 
manifold references whose right understanding cannot fail to shed 
light on the social pages." 

The first chapter contains a treatment of the climate of Pales- 
tine. The succeeding chapters deal with agriculture, trades and 
professions, the family and the home, education and the synagogue, 
social life, amusements and recreations, food, clothing, furniture, 
weights, measures and money, travel and transportation, the calen- 
dar. The method of the writer has been the same in each chapter, 
namely to develop his material in its genetic aspect, thus indicating 
the evolution in the life of the Hebrews. 

The Biblical origin of the data is indicated by an elaborate 
citation of scripture passages at the foot of the pages. Besides this 
other sources, such as Josephus, the Talmud, &c, are drawn upon. 
A helpful bibliography is appended with an appraisal of the value 
to students of the various works mentioned. The Bible teacher and 



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Book Reviews i8i 

student will find this manual a really splendid guide and ency- 
clopedia. 

John M. Gillbttb 
Department of Sociology, 
University of North Dakota 

Great American llNiVERsrnES : Edwin E. Slosson, Literary 
Editor, The Independent. The Macmillan Company, New 
York, 1910. pp. xx+528. Price, $2.50. 

It was a unique and rather hazardous enterprise to undertake 
to present within the covers of even a considerable book the charac- 
teristics of fourteen universities separated from each other by thou- 
sands of miles of territory and a vast sea of traditions, standards and 
points of view. Yet this is what Dr. Slosson was able to do in the 
articles published in The Independent of last year and now gathered 
into book form under the Macmillan imprint. The contents are a 
series of impressions secured in the course of a week's visit at each 
of the universities and presented in a candid and well-told way, 
not always fully authoritative and sometimes even superficial, but 
always dominated by fairness of view and entire freedom from envy 
or malice. It is not too much to say that the book has a distinct 
value to the student of education as a survey, as well as in the 
philosophy of education so admirably expressed here and there in 
the course of the narrative. 

It is a far cry from Yale to the State University, the one with 
its traditions and honorable history, the other with its newness and 
constant attempts at adaptation; the first placing emphasis upon 
standards as essential, the other holding to standards for the sake of 
prestige, while striving to render service to the commonwealth. 
Despite these differences, however, the author finds a tendency to- 
ward a type of institution distinctly American in character. The 
Carnegie Foundation, the Association of American Universities, and 
the National Association of State Universities have established stand- 
ards already well developed in the universities under discussion. 
These conditions, taken with the general provisions for admission, 
have stamped even the younger institutions with the spirit of con- 
formity. Just how much danger there is in adherence to form re- 
mains to be seen, but adaptation to environment is a fundamental 
in educational development as in everything else, altho it can un- 
doubtedly be said that differences now arising are more from history 
and environment than from aims. In the long run successful meet- 



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1 82 The Quarterly Journal 

ing of the problems confronting the university depends upon its 
freedom from trammels. 

Thru these interesting chapters runs a vein of protest against 
the hardening of higher education into conventional forms and the 
loiSB of interest and real leadership in the problems of democracy. 
The author protests against the indifference of instruction, the 
machine methods of teaching, and the lack of real vital tests in the 
work of students. Why shouldn't a candidate for the Doctor of 
Philosophy degree be required to write an acceptable article or pub- 
lish a book before the granting of the degree? It is a fair question, 
and might remove some of the reasons for criticism which the some- 
times cynical newspaper man pokes at the holder of professional 
honors when he calls attention to the class of theses known as "the 
whichness of the what." 

Ten years from now we shall need another survey of the work 
of American universities, and it would be worth the while to know 
what are the ideals and ambitions of the newer institutions that are 
now making their appearance in the recently formed commonwealths, 
and, what is more to the point, their course might be dearly 
marked and less likely to slavish adherence to what has gone before, 
if the book were written before time has laid too heavy a hand upon 
them and their ideals. 

It is, therefore, with no hesitation .that the reviewer can call 
attention to this book of interesting chapters, recommending it to 
the careful reading of every college professor and administrator who 
wishes to see himself and his institution presented "as ithers see us." 

Frank L. McVby 
University of North Dakota 



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University Notes 



The The inauguration of President McVey proved 

nangnra on to be all that was expected. The committees in 

charge accomplished their work thoroly and well, so that when 
the days of the inaugural program came all the plans fitted into 
one another and the whole event passed off without accident. The 
ceremonies were very impressive both to visitors and to members of the 
University. They encouraged all to look at the problems of educa- 
tion, and the special ones of the University, in a larger and higher 
way. It gave to the University a name beyond the borders of the 
state, and brought to the attention of educators the fact that here 
a young institution is struggling for academic place and prestige. 
The experience and high conception of the work of a University 
as presented in the address of President James of the University 
of Illinois, in particular, and the wisdom and fine sentiment ex- 
pressed in the other addresses of the occasion were inspiring. With- 
out doubt the entire state received thru this event a genuinely intellec- 
tual and spiritual uplift. The proceedings will be published in a 
special nvunber of the Quarterly Journal, soon to be issued. (See ad- 
vertising pages.) 



The Ualverslty The relation between the University and the 
Edncetlonal public schools of the state is very close and very 

Association cordial. This is well shown by the programs of 

the annual meetings of the State Educational Association. The 
meeting for the current year was held at Bismarck, October 18-21, 
1910. 

Professor Brannon, Dean of the College of Medicine, was 
president of the department of Higher and Professional Education, 
and as such had arranged the program. Returning from the ex- 
treme of vocational education as emphasized in former programs, 
both vocational and cultural subjects were treated. Professor Bran- 
non took for his own subject, "The New and the Old Education.'' 
The old education, seeking discipline thru mathematics and the 
languages, had developed sturdy adherence to Truth, Virtue and 
Beauty. The new education has supplied the element of interest 
thru a practical study of the natural sciences. The speaker desires 
both, and to get them urges the utilization of the best of the old 
education in judiciously and diligently developing the new, so that 



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184 The Quarterly Journal 

their educated products will fit the age in which we live, — "Minister- 
ing to others rather than being ministered unto." 

Before the same department, Professor Gillette, of the depart- 
ment of Sociology in the University, discussed a paper on "How 
can the Subject Matter of Higher Education be Better Adapted 
to Practical Life," presented by President Kern of the State Nor- 
mal and Industrial School at EUendale. The speaker held that 
universities are vocational in material because specialized in col- 
leges giving special training. G)llege studies should be so grouped 
that those fundamental to the future calling of the individual may 
be placed in the center of his training course. Technical and 
professional schools were criticised for throwing too much em- 
phasis on the merely technical at the expense of the vocational. 
Training for citizenship requires the social as well as the political 
sciences. 

Professor Squires of the English department in the University, 
also spoke before this department. His subject was "Some Cur- 
rent College Problems." The problem most emphasized was that 
of the College of Arts. Not having, as do the other colleges, a 
definite aim, it wavers and is uncertain. He urged that this college 
should put aside all vocational aims and take for its one subject 
the inculcation of culture, that is, an appreciative acquaintance 
with the best that has been said and done in the world. 

Before one of the general sessions. Professor Ruediger, of the 
Public Health Laboratories, discussed "Medical Inspection of 
School Children." The need was shown by calling attention to 
the high percentage of children having physical defects, and the 
beneficial results of- systematic inspection traced. 

Before the elementary section Professor Gillette read a paper 
on "The Socialization of History." The study of history, he held, 
should give such information on social affairs, and such under- 
standing of political problems as are needed to equip for citizenship. 
Poor teaching and poor texts are responsible for unsatisfactory re- 
sults. Clear and definite suggestions were given for strengthening 
the weak points of both. 

Professor Schmidt, Principal of the Model High School of 
Teachers College, addressed the same department on "Moral Edu- 
cation in the Public Schools." Professor Schmidt critidscd the 
too prevalent attitude of holding the school responsible for aU the 
moral shortcomings of the nation. The other agencies, the home, 
the church and the community, should share. He pointed out that 
the principal factors of moral instruction are the indirect e£Eect8 



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University Notes 185 

of the regular school studies, the general discipline and the in- 
fluence of the teacher. 

Professor Kennedy, Dean of Teachers College, addressed the 
department of superintendents on the work of the School Law 
Compilation Commission of which he is chairman. The address 
touched only those matters pertaining to the common schools. The 
county superintendents were unanimous in favor of the recommen- 
dations made, and look forward to better things when they shall 
have become operative. 

Professor Chandler, of the department of Mathematics in the 
University, presided, as vice president,, over the department of 
Science and Mathematics, and was elected president for the ensu- 
ing year. This throws upon him the responsibility of arranging 
the program. Before this department. Professor Taylor, of the 
department of Physics in the University, gave a discussion of the 
teaching of physics in the high school. This course should be made 
more interesting tho not less difficult, he held. The mathematical 
aspect should not be eliminated, rather, the difficulty should be re- 
moved thru the use of experiments and skillful teaching. 

The University was represented on the programs of the sec- 
tion of History, Civics and Social Sciences by Professor Libby, of 
its department of History. He spoke on "The Food of the Mandan 
Indians.'' The Mandans were one of the most highly civilized 
tribes in the United States. In their changing food habits are re- 
corded interesting transformations made in the course of their long 
migration from the Atlantic coast to the upper Missouri valley. 
These changes were so vital as to have been recorded in their 
m3rthology, their religious festivals, their dances and in the phara- 
phemalia of war, chase and household economy. 



Special Ualver- During the first week of November, Dr. Will- 
mity Lectures • .^ gjj.^^^ q^-^j^^ ^^ j^j^^^^ j^^ y delivered 

a series of six lectures at the University. The lectures, given as 
they were in the auditorium of the Teachers College building, 
proved to be a fitting inauguration of the new hall. The general 
subject of the course was "Japan and the Far East." On Monday 
Dr. Griffis discussed "China, what the Race Owes to her Civiliza- 
tion." This was followed by lectures on "The Chinese People 
and Their Modern History," "Corea and its Place in the World," 
"The Japanese People and Early Institutional History," "Mikado- 
ism, Feudalism, and Constitutional Development," and "The 



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1 86 The Quarterly Journal 

Ethics, Religion, Philosophy, Art, Economics of Japan, the World 
Power.'* The discussion was broad and scholarly, bringing out 
the fundamental principles underlying the history and development 
of the Chinese and Japanese peoples. The audiences listening to 
the lectures increased steadily thru the week. 

Later in the year this series of lectures will be followed by dis- 
cussions of the different phases of modern art. 

The Griffis lectiu-es, succeeding the Kent lectures of last year, 
give new evidence of the University's policy of calling some distin- 
guished man in science or letters once a year to spend a week at 
the University in discussing some questions of educational interest 
upon which he is most fitted to speak. 



Graham Taylor** Educated people like any other class need to be 
aroused. Nurtured in a balmy University at- 
mosphere and cut ofiE from the active outside world, the student 
and instructor too often consider their little cloister a world com- 
plete in itself. In consequence the educated man goes out into life 
without any adequate appreciation of his responsibilities to his fel- 
lowmen. He feels that education has justified itself if his inflated 
ego has been gratified. Those of us who in our narrowness en- 
joyed this egotistical philosophy had our illusions shattered by a 
stimulating lecture delivered at the University a few weeks ago 
by Professor Graham Taylor of Chicago. He came to us fresh 
from the battle-field where for seventeen years he has been warring 
incessantly against the elements that make for political, industrial 
and moral chaos. 

The title of Professor Taylor's formal address was in itself 
significant: "The Social Obligation of An Educated Man." His 
message was a vital one: the man or woman who receives knowl- 
edge and training has incurred thereby a debt which, if they be 
honest, they must pay back to those who made their 'education pos- 
sible. The great army of workers who do not themselves enjoy the 
privilege of a higher education are our creditors. There are many 
ways of paying this debt, but Dr. Taylor made it plain that the 
least we lawyers, doctors, engineers, ministers of the gospel, college 
professors, can do is to see that the uneducated classes are protected 
by law and otherwise against those who are depriving them of life, 
liberty and happiness. A keener esnse of sodal responsibility on 
the part of the engineers and mine owners would have prevented 
that horrible Cherry Mine disaster. By our sins of omission, we 



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University Notes 187 

educated people are to blame for our rotten dty government and 
our social and industrial degradation such as the Pittsburg Survey 
exposed. We educated people above all others ought to be more 
imbued with the idea that we are our brother's keeper. 

It was a stirring moral message. The speaker's straightfor- 
ward rebuke made us feel ashamed of ourselves for not doing more 
for those who, by the sweat of their brow, built our universities 
and are helping to maintain them for us. Others have said the 
same thing before, but Dr. Taylor brought with his message a 
vitalizing personality. Without any display of oratory his address, 
filled with humor and pathos, held the audience spell-boimd for an 
hour and a half. It was the speaker's sincerity and living embodi- 
ment of his philosophy that made his words so e£Fective. Truth is 
contagious; many of his hearers fully resolved then and there "to 
be up and doing" as he has done. 

Immediately following the above talk, a conference was held 
at which Dr. Taylor told of the many opportunities open to women 
desiring to engage in social-service work. There was also an in- 
formal gathering at President McVcy's home, where a few of the 
members of the faculty were invited to meet Dr. Taylor. In his 
characteristically quiet and sincere manner, he entertained and edi- 
fied his company with reminiscences drawn from his life work. 
He emphasized in his stories and episodes, the dramatic and intense 
human aspect of social-service activity. It is a thrilling game that 
calls for virile as well as noble-spirited men. 

Dr. Taylor's presence at the University meant a great deal, 
for his influence is more than momentary. We hope the Univer- 
sity will succeed in bringing him here again soon. We need to be 
aroused. 



PnbUc Health The Public Health Laboratory of North Da- 

kota was established at the State Universtiy 
nearly four years ago. The laboratory makes sanitary analyses of 
drinking water, ice, and milk, but the last only under special ar- 
rangements. It is generally recognized that pure drinking water 
is absolutely essential for the maintenance of health and that it is 
one of the necessities without which no community can possibly get 
along. The only way to determine the purity and safety of a 
drinking water is by making bacteriological and chemical analyses, 
and the state has, therefore, provided for the making of these 
analyses. 



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1 88 The Quarterly Journal 

The laboratory also makes microscopic diagnosis of diphtheria, 
consumption, typhoid fever, rabies, and pathological tissues, free of 
charge for any health officer or regularly licensed physician of the 
state. It is recognized by every physician that there are cases of 
diphtheria and typhoid fever that cannot be positively diagnosed 
from the clinical findings alone without a bacteriological examina- 
tion or a laboratory test. These laboratory tests cannot usually be 
properly made in the average physician's office, and hence these ma- 
terials must be sent to a laboratory in charge of a specially trained 
bacteriologist. These examinations are made at the expense of the 
state, in order that the health of the community may be safeguarded 
by instituting proper preventive measures as soon as the disease is 
positively recognized. The patient, also, is benefited by these labor- 
atory diagnoses, because it enables his physician to have a positive 
diagnosis at an early date, and thus to prescribe the correct treat- 
ment. When a diphtheria patient is recovering from an attack of 
this disease the throat may appear to be perfectly normal, altho a 
bacteriological examination reveals the presence there of large num- 
bers of diphtheria bacilli, which proves that the patient is still 
capable of transmitting the disease to others. A release culture 
should, therefore, be taken from every convalescent from this dis- 
ease, in order that it may be known just when the patient may be 
released without being a further danger to others, and without keep- 
ing him in quarantine unnecessarily long. 

The work of this laboratory has had a very rapid growth dur- 
ing the last three years. During the first year of its existence there 
were received and examined 1,828 bacteriological and pathological 
specimens of various kinds. During the second year the number 
of examinations increased to 3,293, and for the third year the total 
nimiber of examinations went up to 4,700. 

The University has recognized that the efficiency of this work 
depends very largely upon the promptness with which reports from 
the laboratory are received by the attending physician. The Uni- 
versity has, therefore, established branch laboratories at Minot and 
at Bismarck, thus bringing these laboratories close to the people 
of the state, in order that the people may get the best possible 
service. The University bears only about one-half of the expense 
of these branch laboratories, because it has an agreement with these 
two cities whereby the latter pay part of the necessary expenses. 
The city, however, gets full value for its money, because a large 
part of the work done belongs strictly to the municipality and is not 
usually taken care of by the state. The men in charge of the branch 



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University Notes 189 

laboratories are serving their respective cities in the capacity of 
dairy and milk inspectors, and make frequent bacteriological an- 
alyses of the city's water supply. The laboratory at the University 
also serves the dty of Grand Forks directly, in that it acts as milk 
inspector for the health department of Grand Forks and makes 
bacteriological analyses of the water supply of that dty at least 
twice a week. 

These laboratories are entirely under the control of the State 
University, and the professor of Bacteriology is director of them 
all. The work is outlined at the University laboratory, and the 
assistants in the branch laboratories make monthly reports to the 
head laboratory at the University, altho they are placed largely 
upon their own responsibilities in their individual communities. 

So far as we know, no other institution in this coimtry has 
brought its laboratories so dose to the people of the state as has 
the University of North Dakota. The expense to the state, of 
carrying out this work in the branch laboratories, is not much greater 
than it would be if all the work were done in one laboratory, be- 
cause each dty pays for the work that belongs directly to the 
munidpality. The system enables the physidans in the di£Ferent 
sections of the state to get very prompt reports on the spedmens 
submitted for diagnosis. It also enables the difiFerent dties to have 
a milk and dairy inspector and to get frequent bacteriological an- 
alyses of their water supply, which would, in most instances, be im- 
possible if the city had to pay for the full time of the trained bac- 
teriologist. 



University The department of University Extension, for- 

X ens on mally established one year ago, has proved its 

right to a distinct place among the University's activities. The new 
edition of the drcular recently issued marks a dedded advance 
over its predecessor. The work of the department covers Lecture 
Courses, Correspondence Study, the High School Debating League, 
and the High School Declamation Contest. Two hundred and 
seventy-nine lectures are oflEcred, by thirty-eight lecturers. The 
list indudes eighteen illustrated lectures, with the possibility of 
others. The subects covered are grouped as follows: 

Education 24 

History and Archaeology 46 

Literature 53 

Economics and Political Science 19 



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I90 The Quarterly Journal 

Sociology 23 

Natural and Applied Sciences 63 

Philosophy 1 1 

Engineering 16 

Law 20 

General 4 

Altho the year's canvass has not fairly begun, the calls for lec- 
tures, single and in series, are coming in, and many courses have been 
scheduled. 

The correspondence study courses cover instruction by members 
of the University faculty in the sciences, economics, English litera- 
ture, education, modem languages, history, mathematics, philosophy, 
physiology, sociology, law, and engineering, besides college preparatory 
courses in a few subjects. Some students have registered for this 
work, and the interested inquiries from various parts of the state in- 
dicate that a real need is being met. 



The Stenographic In the Fall of 1910, a stenogn^hic bureau was 
"'**" added to the administrative force of the Univer- 

sity. This is a departure in University administration in as much 
as the Bureau is as distinct and independent as any other department 
of the University. It is not, however, an untried experiment, for 
the University of Nabraska has operated this plan for several years. 

The Stenographic Bureau serves a dual purpose: it meets the 
demand for stenographic work arising in the course of instruction, 
such as the typewriting of syllabi, questions for examinations, etc; 
secondly, it typewrites the official correspondence of the members 
of the faculty. Altho the Bureau has been in operation but a few 
months, several distinct advantages have been made manifest; by 
concentrating the work under one management, the stenographic 
output of the University has acquired a uniformity which is main- 
tained at a high standard; it has made possible the use of syllabi 
for class-room purposes; it represents an economy not only for the 
University but for the members of the faculty desiring private 
stenographic work, for the rates are very reasonable, lower in fact 
than the rates prevailing at the University hitherto, or in Grand 
Forks. 

The Bureau is well equipped. The work is in charge of Miss 
Jessica Louise Marcley, A. B. (Boston University) and for one 
year, a graduate student at Simmons College, where she received 
special secretarial training and from which institution she will re- 



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University Notes 191 

ccive the degree of B. S. in June, 191 1. Miss Marclcy, by the 
way, is a sister of Dr. Walter J. Mardey, who was the first male 
student to enter the University of North Dakota. To meet the 
growing demands imposed on the Bureau, Miss Marcley has been 
employing student help. In the near future, permanent assistants 
will undoubtedly be engaged. Besides typewriters, the Bureau is 
fitted with neostyle and multigraph for manifolding. 

We feel confident that experience will demonstrate that the 
Bureau is founded on a soimd business principle. As the Univer- 
sity expands and new administrative duties are added, the Bureau's 
effidency will be even more apparent than now. The management 
of extension courses, for instance, will be greatly facilitated. Since 
the University cannot afford to establish separate stenographic bu- 
reaus for all the colleges, the present organization is the best pos- 
sible arrangement, representing not only an economy but making 
possible a high-grade, uniform stenographic output in the Univer- 
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The University 
of North Dakota 

ESTABLISHED IN EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY THREE 

FRANK L. McVEY, Ph. P., LL. P., President 

Grand Forks Bismarck Hebron 

University Devils Lake Minot 

I. The College of Liberal Arts ofiFers to men and women pro- 
grams of study leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts which 
may be begun in September or February. 

n. Teachers College prepares for the profession of teaching in 
secondary and higher schools, and grants the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts and the Bachelor's Piploma in Education at the end of 
a four years course. The Model High School is maintained in 
connection with the College as a school of observation and 
practice. 

in. The College of Law offers a three years course and grants 
the degree of Bachelor of Laws. 

IV. Courses of Study leading to degrees of Mining Engineer, Elec- 

trical Engineer, Mechanical Engineer and Civil Engineer are 
offered in the School of Mines and the College of Mechanical 
and Electrical Engineering. 

V. The Medical College provides instruction of high order for 
two years in medicine based upon two years of college work. 
A certificate in medicine is granted with rfie A. B. degree. The 
course for nurses is aflRliated with leading hospitals. 

VI. The Graduate Pepartment presents advanced courses of 
study leading to the degree of Master of Arts and Poctor of 
Philosophy. 

VII. The Summer Session provides college and elementary courses 
for students and teachers. 

vin. Extension Lectures and Courses of Study are offered by 
the University for j>ersons otherwise unable to receive academic 
training. 

IX. Laboratories and Stations are maintained at University, 
Pevils Lake, Bismarck, Minot and Hebron, North Pakota. 

Information regarding colleges and departments may be obtained by ad- 
dressing the Registrar of the University, University, North Dakota. 



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\ >: 









y njL. 



The 
Quarterly Journal 

of the 
University of North Dakota 



APRIL, 1911 

Volume 1 Number 3 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY 



Entered as second-class matter September 16, 1910, at the Post Office at University, 
North Dakou, under the Act of July 16, 1894 



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The Quarterly Journal 

PUBLISHED BY 

The University of North Dakota 



CONTENTS 

I. THE ECONOMIC UTILIZATION OF LIGNITE 

COAL 

Earle J. Babcock 193 

II. AQUATIC ASSETS OF NORTH DAKOTA 

Melvin a. Brannon 214 

III. THE RED RIVER OF THE NORTH 

Elwyn F. Chandler 227 

IV. A STUDY OF THE PURITY OF NATURAL ICE 

FROM POLLUTED WATERS 

GUSTAV F. RUEDIGER 256 

V. THE FLIGHT OF THE MODERN BULLET AND 

THE WOUND IT MAKES 

A. HoYT Taylor 264 

VI. STUDIES IN THE SELF-PURIFICATION OF 

STREAMS 

GuSTAV F. RUEDIOER 272 

VII. BOOK REVIEWS: 

1. Light and the Behavior of Organisms: Samuel 
Ottmar Mast. 

R. T. Young 278 

2. A Textbook of Botany: Professors Coulter, 
Barnes, and Cowles. 

M. A. Brannon 280 

3. The Age of Mammals : Henry Fairfield Osborn. 

A. G. Leonard 281 

4. A Textbook of General Bacteriology : William 
Dodge Frost and Eugene Franklin Campbell. 

G. F. Ruediger 283 

5. The Human Body: Ernest G. Martin. 

A. L. McDonald 285 

6. Elements of Geology : Eliot Blackwelder and 
Harlan H. Barrows. 

C. C. O'Harra 288 

7. Mechanical Drawing for High Schools: 

Berth E. Spink, et al. m 

A. J. Becker 290 

VIII. UNIVERSITY NOTES 292 



EDITOIIAL COHHITTEB 

A. J. LADD, Wallace N. Stearns, 

Managing Editor Meyer Jacobstein, 

ASSISTANTS 

Ptiatfd by The GrandPorkt Evtnlng Timet 



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Announcement 



THE Quarterly Journal is a publication established and main- 
tained by the University of North Dakota. Its primary fimc- 
tion is to represent the varied activities of the several colleges and 
departments of the University — ^to serve as the mediimi of exchange 
between the members of its instructional force and the learned world 
outside. Still, it is not limited to that. Its columns are open to 
other writers, particularly of the Northwest, in the discussion of 
topics germane to the work of higher education, especially to such 
as bring the fruitage of scientific research, literary investigation or 
other forms of constructive thought. Contributions will be welcomed 
and, when found suitable and available, readily given space. Cor- 
respondence is solicited. 

The subscription price is one dollar a year, postpaid, single num- 
bers, thirty cents. 

All communications should be addressed to The Quarterly 
Journal, University, North Dakota. 



Editor's Bulletin Board 



THE last number of the year will bear the date of July, 191 1. 
It will be devoted to philosophy and literature. Some very 
interesting articles are at hand and others are planned. A valuable 
number is assured. 

The philosophical field will be represented by two articles: 
Joseph Kennedy, Professor of Philosophy and Education, writes on 
"Good and Evil," and A. Hoyt Taylor, Professor of Physics, offers 
a translation of a recent lecture by Professor Kulpe of the University 
of Bonn, on "Theory of Knowledge and Science." 

From the field of literature will be found several studies. Pro- 
fessor LeDaum, of the department of Romance Languages, writes on 
"Edmond Rostand and Italian Comedy." Professor Squires, of the 
department of English, is to give a study of Matthew Arnold. Profes- 
sor Koch, of the department of Dramatic Literature and Oratory, has 
in mind one on the modern theatre. And Mr. Martin B. Ruud, a 
doctorate student in Chicago University, contributes an extended 
study of "Fiction in the Sixteenth Century." 



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The University of North Dakota 

SUMMER SESSION, 1911, JUNE 19 TO JULY 29 

THE COLLEGE SECTION oflEers instruction in fourteen college de- 
partments, including the sciences, literature, economics, history, 
ancient and modern languages, mathematics, sociology, educa- 
tion, and law. The University credits work done during the 
Summer Session the same as during the regular University 
year, 

THE ELEMENTARY SECTION is conducted under the supervision 
of Dean Joseph Kennedy of Teachers College and a Board 
of County Superintendents. It offers work of special interest 
to teachers in the rural schools, and also to those expecting to 
occupy grade positions in village and city systems. County 
Superintendents accept creditable work in lieu of examination 
in certificate subjects. 

THE ENTIRE FACILITIES of the University are at the service 
of students during the six weeks of the Summer Session. 
Residence halls for men and women. A cool climate and a 
pleasant campus. Expenses reduced to the minimum. 
For further information, address 

The Registrar, University, N. D. 



The University of North Dakota 



BIOLOGICAL STATION 



LAKESIDE LABORATORY FOR THE STUDY OF BOTANY, ZOOLOGY. AND PHYSIOLOGY 



THE BIOLOGICAL STATION, located at Devils Lake, is admirably situated 
for the study of plants and animals and their natural surroundings. 
Courses are offered in the study of both plant and animal hydro-biology. 
The instruction is in charge of specialists, and rare opportunities for 
laboratory and field work will be afforded general and special students 
desiring to prosecute summer studies in any or all of the three depart- 
ments represented at the Devils Lake sution. 

UNIVERSITY CREDIT will be given for the work completed at the biological 
station precisely as if the courses had been taken at the University. 

OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUMMER STUDY at Devils Lake are unexelled be- 
cause of the nch illustrations of general and special problems; and also 
because of the splendid opportunity for salt water bathing and boating, 
which are particularly attractive during the summer season. 

THE SESSION OF 1911 will begin June 19 and continue six weeks. Those who 
desire will have an opportunity of collecting material which will be 
helpful in teaching high school biology and physiography. 

FEES AND EXPENSES are very moderate. A fee of $10.00 will be charged 
each person enrolled for the six weeks course in any of the subiSiU 
offered. Living expenses may be made very light. auojec« 

For further information, address 

Dean M. A. Brannon, University, N. D. 



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The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 1 APRIL, 1911 Number 3 

The Economic Utilization of 
Lignite Coal 

Earlb J. Babcock, 

Dean of the College of Mining Engineering, University of 
North Dakota 

THE permanent prosperity of a state depends very largely upon 
the diversity and development of its industries. But indus- 
trial growth depends in a large degree upon the ease with which 
cheap and abundant power and fuel can be secured and utilized. 

When a state relies upon a few kinds of agricultural products 
its growth and prosperity are liable to great fluctuations dependent 
upon climatic, crop and market conditions. But in a state aboimding 
in diversified industries there is a much more uniform and sub- 
stantial development, for if conditions are unfavorable any year to a 
particular industry there are other industries which will be but 
slightly if not entirely unafiFected. Thus diversity of industries serves 
as a great balance wheel preventing serious economic fluctuations. 
Therefore there can be no question as to the desirability of as great 
a diversity as possible. Those states in which these conditions pre- 
vail will have the most permanent growth and the strongest financial 
standing. 

In establishing industries, among the most important factors to be 
considered are the abundance and quality of raw material and the 
cost of power and fuel. 

North Dakota has a great abundance and great variety of raw 
materials which could be utilized for manufacturing industries. 
Many of these are of the highest quality to be found and can be se- 
cured at a minimum price. Among them may be mentioned our 
grains to be manufactured into flour and food stufiFs, our dairy prod- 
ucts into starch, our flax into doth, paper, etc., our wool into woolen 
goods, and last, but far from least, our vast deposits of coal and 
closely associated fine grade clays to be made into a great variety of 
valuable products. 

But the possibilities of developing these industries is largely de- 



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194 The Quarterly Journal 

termined by the cost of power and fuel. Water power has made 
of the New England states a great manufacturing district. They 
have scanty agricultural or mineral resources but they have abimdant 
and cheap water power. This has been utilized widely in developing 
a vast variety of industries which in turn have built up prosperous 
communities. When any cheap power can be secured there is a very 
great incentive to the establishment of manufacturing industries. 

Power, however, is derived from fuel as well as from water 
and in addition this same fuel supplies domestic needs. As a result 
there is great industrial development in those states possessing de- 
posits of coal, oil or gas. Pennsylvania gives us an example of in- 
dustrial development due to mineral deposits of fuel within the state. 
Other states may be mentioned whose development is largely de- 
pendent upon supplies of fuel. With cheap fuel and modem im- 
proved machinery it is a very easy matter to obtain almost any de- 
sired amount of power so cheap as to compete successfully with 
water power. 

North Dakota is fortunate in possessing an enormous supply 
of fuel in the form of lignite coal, and this is going to prove one of 
the greatest inducements the state has to offer for the establishing 
of industries. And so it is well that our attention be called to the 
benefits to be derived from the proper utilization of our great lignite 
deposits . I believe that these coal and clay resources are to form the 
basis for a development which will gradually convert North Dakota 
into a rich mining and manufacturing as well as an agricultural 
state. 

The extent and economic importance of the lignite coal deposits 
of North Dakota are seldom recognized. There is a very large area 
in the western part of the state which is underlain with quite thick 
deposits of lignite. Indeed North Dakota is one of the largest coal 
states of the Union. It is estimated that she has a coal area of 
32,000 square miles, capable of producing 500,000,000,000 tons. 



RELATIVE COAL AREAS. 
PE3NNSYLVANIA 



14,600 sq. miles 



■■■■■■■■IHH^iHlHHHHHHHHHI north Dakota 

32,000 sq. miles 



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Economic Utilization of Lignite Coal 195 

INCREASING RATE OF COAL CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 
■ 1846 to 1856—83,417,825 tons 

^B 18S6 to 1866—178.795,014 tons 

1866 to 1876 — 419,426,104 tons 

■■■■■■ 1876 to 1886 — 847,760.819 tons 

■■^■^^IHHHHHHBBai 1886 to 1896 — 1,686.098.641 tons 



1896 to 1906 — 2,832,699,462 tons 

When we stop to consider what these figures mean as to the 
immensity of the deposits, we naturally ask why we are not deriving 
larger benefits from this great resource and why we are annually 
sending out of our state hundreds of thousands of dollars which might 
be retained at home in the development of this and other resources. 

To the people of the state the economic utilization of our lignite, 
in what ever form it may be, is a matter of very great importance, 
and the new fields which promise to open up for the use of lignite 
in the production of briquets and gas are well worth careful con- 
sideration. 

For this reason there has been begun at the College of Mining 
Engineering of the University of North Dakota and Mining Sub- 
Station some extended work on the practical tests of a variety of 
methods of manufacturing briquets and producing gas from lignite, 
with a view to showing the utility and economy of these products 
for heating, for power and for lighting purposes. In addition to this 
considerable work has already been done with reference to other 
improved methods of burning and utilizing lignite coal. 

The brief statements which are here given will serve only as a 
summary of the work which has been done, the results thus far se- 
cured, and the promises which these results hold out for future de- 
velopment of our lignite fields. But what has been accomplished 
in our experimental work at the School of Mines and Sub-Station 
leads me to believe that great improvements can be made in methods 
of burning and utilizing lignite coal and that the manufacture of gas 
can soon be put on a successful commercial basis. 

This will not only make our lignite coal much more serviceable 
and more generally used and of high enough value to be shipped 
for considerable distances in competition with other coal, but it will 
also save an immense amoimt of slack coal which would otherwise 
be wasteil. In order to understand better why our lignite deposits 



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196 The Quarterly Journal 

have not been developed more rapidly and to see what changes are 
needed in lignite to increase its value and usefulness, we may well 
consider briefly the character of lignite. 

From the many hundreds of analyses of lignite coal made in 
our laboratories, the average composition of the dried coal would 
be about as follows: 

Dried Coal Approximate average 

Fixed Carbon 52 per cent 

Volatile Matter 40 " 

Ash 8 " 

Moisture from coal fresh from the mine runs {rom 25 to 35 per 
cent. 

It is evident from the investigations which have been carried 
on at the School of Mines that the heat value or calorific power 
of the average lignite of North Dakota, when entirely dry, is about 
65 per cent that of the Hocking Valley coal, and about 60 per cent 
of that of the Pocahontas coal. The analyses which have been made 
show that the fixed carbon in the samples of North Dakota coal 
(dried) usually runs from 48 to 52 per cent; that of West Virginia 
bituminous coals about 67 per cent ; that of the better grades of semi- 
bituminous dry coals of Maryland 75 per cent; and that of the fine, 
dry, close burning bituminous coals of Pennsylvania 70 per cent 
In a general way it may be said that the heating power of one ton 
of North Dakota lignite, if it does not contain too much moisture, 
will equal about 65 per cent of a ton ( 1300 tbs.) of bituminous coal. 

In general appearance this coal is between a cannel coal and 
the brown lignite of Germany. It breaks up very easily when ex- 
posed to the air. This is no doubt due in large part to the rapid 
evaporation of water, there being usually from 25 to 35 per cent of 
moisture in the lignite as taken from the mines. The larger portion 
of this moisture escapes rapidly and causes, thereby, checking and 
splitting of the lumps into lignite slack. This is one of the greatest 
difficulties to be overcome in the commercial handling and utilizing 
of lignite. 

In shipping coal containing so much moisture there is a heavy 
loss in freight and a corresponding reduction in the efficiency of the 
fuel. It is therefore important that the moisture be removed before 
shipment. But when this is done the fact that the coal still tends 
to become slack presents another di$cult problem. As a result the 
utilization of lignite has been confined within comparatively narrow 
regions near the deposits. It would be an enormous stimulus to the 



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Economic Utilization of Lignite Coal 197' 

utilization of lignite could it be satisfactorily and economically con- 
verted or concentrated into fuel free from moisture and of a size 
adapted to general commercial uses. These facts have directed our 
attention to the importance of some economical means of briquetting 
lignite. 

At the present time lignite coal is chiefly used in lumps in heat- 
ing and cooking stoves and in engines for power. It is generally 
used in the most simple manner and very few special methods have 
been adopted for burning or utilizing this coal or for preparing it for 
the market. But there can be little doubt that for general stove and 
furnace use briquetted lignite would prove a most economic and 
profitable fuel. Lignite, however, has presented more serious diffi- 
culties to the process of briquetting than has bituminous coal. For 
this and other reasons the commercial briquetting of lignite has not, 
up to this time, been made a success in this country. There is little 
doubt, however, that a successful and sufficiently inexpensive method 
for the commercial briquetting of lignite is now being developed at 
the School of Mines and the Mining Sub-Station. The process 
which we are now working out, and which will be briefly explained 
in the following pages is made commercially possible and profitable 
by operating the briquetting in conjunction with a gas-produdng 
plant in which a variety of by-products are saved and utilized, and 
by which process the residue after the gas has been driven off can 
be successfully briquetted into a concentrated and valuable fuel. 

A large amount of work has been done by the writer on the 
problems of briquetting lignite, its use in the production of gas and 
other means of its utilization. During the progress of this work it 
has become clearly evident, by repeated experiments, that lignite coal 
contains two very widely different fuel constituents, namely, first, a 
large proportion of light gases, which pass off at a comparatively low 
temperature leaving, second, a residue, in character between coke 
and charcoal, which requires a very much higher heat for combus- 
tion and bums more slowly. This residue does not coke but remains 
as powder or slack which checks the draft and is slow in oxidation. 
The gases however, are very light and are easily driven off from 
the coal at a comparatively low temperature. As a result they are 
distilled off quickly, in the ordinary methods of burning, and are 
either burned with a flashy flame or frequently lost, in a large degree 
unconsumed, with the flue gases. Thus there is a very uneven com- 
bustion of lignite coal and it is impossible with the ordinary type of 
furnace and fire-box to secure a high degree of efficiency in its con- 
sumption. Following out the investigation suggested by these ob- 



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198 The Quarterly Journal 

servations the writer has been led to inaugurate a systematic research 
on the production of gas from lignite coal and the utilization of the 
by-products. The first work along this line was of a preliminary 
nature and was carried on in a small way with laboratory apparatus 
in testing out a large number of both lignite and ordinary gas coals 
for the purpose of obtaining a general idea of the comparative qual- 
ity and character of the gas, tar and residue, of the temperature re- 
quired for most efficient work with the various coals and an estimate 
of the amount of ordinary by-products obtained from each coal under 
the conditions employed. 

One of the first problems to be studied was as to the uniformity 
of lignite relative to the gas contents, the character of the coke resi- 
due, the amount of moisture present, the tar, ammonia and other 
by-products. To cover these points a large number of lignite coals 
were collected from different areas and these were subjected to a 
great variety of preliminary tests. This work required much time 
and labor, but gave most valuable data which was utilized in plan- 
ning the later and more systematic attacks on lignite gas problems. 
The results proved conclusively that the gas from the lignites of dif- 
ferent deposits is very similar, that it may be removed at nearly the 
same temperature and that it leaves a residue and by-products of a 
general similarity altho the quantity of each varies considerably. The 
main products and by-products thus obtained were compared and 
those. obtained from ordinary gas coals tested by the same processes. 
All of this preliminary work was very suggestive as to the possi- 
bility of the profitable production of lignite gas. 

The small plant just described located at the School of Mines 
was the forerunner of the large specially designed Briquetting and 
Gas Plant located at the Sub-Station at Hebron where both the 
briquetting and gas problems are being worked out on a scale so large 
as to ensure commercial results. The briquetting press is capable 
of turning out two tons of briquets per hour while the gas plant is a 
full size unit complete and of the standard type of construction. 

The equipment of the large Experimental Gas Plant at the 
Mining Sub-Station consists of a bench of one retort, one condenser, 
one exhauster, two scrubbers, one purifier, one meter, all of the full 
size used in commercial plants, one gas-holder and miscellaneous ap- 
paratus necessary for the proper operation of the plant. 

Iil^olt« Omm The principles of construction permitted of its 

being operated in a general way very similar 

to that employed in many commercial types of gas plants. Every 

step of the operation was carefully watched and made to ap- 



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cr 

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5* 
en 

CQ 
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200 The Quarterly Journal 

proach as nearly as possible for so small a plant the methods which 
might ordinarily be expected to be required for economic production. 
The quality of gas produced by this plant is probably inferior to that 
which could be secured in a large commercial plant, owing to the 
fact that in stopping and starting and carrying on the experimental 
work there is frequently introduced into the retorts, apparatus, and 
pipes varying amounts of air, a condition which it is impossible to 
eliminate in an experimental plant. This is of course detrimental to 
the gas since it gives a larger proportion of carbon dioxide and of 
residual air. Nevertheless this experimental plant has given excel- 
lent results and indicates much wider possibilities as to the amount 
and quality of gas from lignite coal than was expected. There was 
generally used for each charge of the retort 300 to 400 pounds of air- 
dried coal, the moisture content of which was definitely known. The 
coal was crushed to an average size which would about pass thru 
a two inch ring. The lid of the retort was well clamped and sealed 
and the temperature increased gradually to the required degree. A 
series of experiments were conducted to determine the temperature 
giving the largest quantity and the best quality of gas. It was found 
that the gas distilled freely at QCX) to 1000 degrees F., while the 
proper temperatures to give the maximum quantity and quality of gas 
seemed to be between 1200 and 1400 degrees F. High temperature 
readings were made by the pyrometer along with simultaneous rec- 
ords of the rate of gas production. At frequent intervals gas 
samples were obtained for analyses. The desired heat was carefully 
maintained until the evolution of gas ceased, after which the valves 
were closed, the non-coking residue drawn, cooled down 
and carefully weighed. The gas was passed successively thru 
the tar extractor, the condenser, the scrubber, the purifier and finally 
to the gas-holder, where the quantity was accurately read off from 
the holder after having been carefully corrected to normal tempera- 
ture and barometric pressure. 

After the gas was measured, analyzed and tested by the calori- 
meter to determine its heat value, it was used with different types of 
burners and in various practical ways to demonstrate its efficiency 
as a fuel gas. In the case of the by-products the tar was separated 
from the water and weighed and the ammonia separated and deter- 
mined. The resulting proportion of non-coking retort residue re- 
maining was also determined and an analysis made indicating the 
fixed carbon, volatile matter and ash. From this data the composi- 
tion of the residue could be compared with that of the original lignite 
and also with that of bituminous and anthracite coal. 



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Economic Utilization of Lignite Coal 



20I 



The calorimeter determinations were made with the Sargent 
Gas Calorimeter properly standarized. 

LIGNITE GAS ANALYSIS. 

(Considered average standard results of unpurified gas.) 



S 



|] 



^i 



A .. 
B .. 
C .. 



3.11 
2.35 
2.10 



17.24 
18.70 
19.24 



45.16 

45.45 
41.26 



0.14 
1.02 
0.39 



15.59 
14.42 
16.31 



5.49 
5.34 
4.30 



1.76 
1.21 
1. 00 



11.51 
11.51 

15.40 



GAS YIELDS AND HEATING VALUES. 





Unpurified 


Purified from Cftrbon 
Dloxid. uid Air 


Yield cu. ft. 
Celorifle 


VfthieinaT.U. 


TMdea.ft 


Clorifle 
T»LB.T.tr. 


A 


10,663 
11,306 
11,801 


400.07 
406.60 
399.8 


8,523 
9.347 
9.416 


500. 
491.8 
501. 1 


B 


C 




Average 


11,257 


402.2 


9.095 


497.6 





Retort Residue Yields 



Sani>I.Sa1« 


Hi 


A 

B 

C 


1208 

"33 
1266 


Ave 


1236 



Comparative Calorific Values 



Lignite as mined 

Lignite retort residue. 

Lignite briquets 

Anthracite coal 



7500- 7800B.T.U. 
10500-11500B.T. U. 
12000-12500 B. T. U. 
12500-13500 B.T.U. 



TAR AND AMMONIA. 



Tar per ton dried coal 20 to solbs. 

Ammonia sulphate per ton dried coal 14.5 to I5lbs. 



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202 The Quarterly Journal 



COMPARATIVB COAL ANALYSES 

Moistiire Vol. Matter Fixed Gurbon Ash 



Lignite as mined. . . 


35.01% 


25.11% 


34-67% 


5.21% 


Lignite briquets .... 


to 6% 


2 to 8% 


75 to 85% 


10 to 14% 


Anthradtc Coal 











(a market sample) 3.68% 5.26% 80.51% 10.55% 

The gas made from the lignite has not only been subjected to a 
great number of chenucal and calorific tests, but has also been put 
to a variety of practical tests. It has been burned in the ordinary 
manner for lighting purposes, and gives a most satisfactory and bril- 
liant light with the ordinary mantle burner. It produces a dear 
smokeless flame and is easily regulated, with proper adjustment, so 
that the light is equal to that produced from any city gas. It is al- 
most free from sulphur without purification. In fact it seems en- 
tirely unnecessary to purify the lignite gas. This saves materially in 
the cost of manufacture. All that seems necessary is the usual scrub- 
bing with water which is of course a very simple and inexpensive 
method. 

We have found from a large number of tests that the expensive 
lime or iron purification required in most city coal gas is unnecessary 
with lignite gas. This, however, could be done by the same methods 
usually employed and if the gas were purified in this manner to cor- 
respond with the treatment given the ordinary coal gas the composi- 
tion and heating value would be considerably modified. The heat 
units developed would probably be increased to between 450 and 
500 B. T. U. as compared with standard gas of 600 B. T. U. 

By this purification and complete removal of air a value of 500 
B. T. U. could be obtained but as already stated the character of the 
gas and the freedom from objectionable impurities make unnecessary 
the additional expense of purification usually required of coal gas. 
The gas is dry and free from tar and other matter which would 
cause condensation or clogging. This is a material aid in the prac- 
tical distribution and use of gas especially in cold climates. The 
most severe and continued tests have been given to determine the 
condensation produced in carrying the gas in slightly protected or 
unprotected pipes during the cold weather. In this case no trouble 
was experienced from condensation. 

The gas was used successfully not only for lighting but it gave 
perfect satisfaction and exceptionally high efficiency. The power 
tests have not been completed and have only been carried sufficiently 
far to prove that the gas can be used with entire satisfaction for 



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Economic Utilization of Lignite Coal 203 

power in gas engines. Several tests have been run with modified 
gasoline and gas engines at the Sub-Station and at the University. 
At the latter place the tests were made in comparison with standard 
city gas. It was found that the lignite gas is satisfactory and will 
develop a relatively high efficiency. It is almost certain that this 
gas will produce a very cheap power for general purposes and for 
the production of electricity. 

It is expected that much more extended* tests along these lines 
for the utiliasation of this gas for power and the production of elec- 
tricity will be carried on during the coming year. There is little 
doubt that the use of lignite gas for power purposes can be success- 
fully employed and power produced at so low a figure as to exert a 
marked influence in the development of a variety of industries de- 
pendent upon cheap and abundant power thus available in the west- 
ern part of the state. 

By reference to the tables it will be seen that air-dried lignite 
produces in the experimental plant 11,000 cubic feet of gas per ton 
of lignite. This is an excellent gas production from lignite coal. 
Moreover it will be seen from the analyses that the gas is of fairly 
good quality, yielding about 400 B. T. U. unpurified and nearly 475 
B. T. U. when purified and free from carbon dioxide. The retorting 
is done at comparatively low temperatures thereby reducing con- 
siderably the cost of production. The gas is rather high in carbon 
dioxide and hydrogen, as will be seen by the analyses, but as has 
already been stated this fact is undoubtedly due in a large degree 
to the moisture and air which are absorbed on account of the porous 
character of the lignite. Part of this air, however, is derived from 
the retort and pipes, a condition unavoidable in stopping and start- 
ing an experimental plant, but which would be much less proportion- 
ally if the gas were manufactured continuously in a large plant. In 
retorting, the oxygen from the air, present from the sources just 
mentioned, combines naturally with the carbon forming a larger pro- 
portion of carbon dioxide and carbon nonoxide, thus leaving a rel- 
atively large amount of nitrogen. These conditions might be im- 
proved in a large plant in continuous operation. 

The 3deld of ammonia is seen to be quite good, a condition to be 
expected from lignite coal. This ammonium sulphate is of very good 
commercial value and is extensively used as a fertilizer. 

By reference to the tables the yield of tar is seen to be approxi- 
mately I to 2 per cent. The exact determination however of the 
quantity and character of this tar has not been worked out yet. It 
seems to be rather high in paraffin ingredients of value. By special 



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204 The Quarterly Journal 

methods of treatment it may be quite possible to utilize a large pro- 
portion of the tar, in connection with other material, as a partial 
binder for briquetting the non-coking residue and thus reduce to 
a considerable extent the cost of lignite briquets. 

This lignite tar is not adapted in itself, and without modifica- 
tion* to briquetting purposes. We have succeeded in using it very 
satisfactorily in small quantities by special methods of treatment 
which the investigations thus far carried on indicate as a possible 
method of utilization on a commercial basis. 

Considering the ease with which the gas is produced, the low 
cost of the original lignite and the value of the residue, this gas 
should have a large commercial value for heating, lighting and power 
purposes, because of the low price for which it could be sold if manu- 
factured in a plant used also to produce briquets from the residue. 

It has been found that this concentrated residue has a high heat- 
ing value when briquetted, producing a most excellent fuel, for all 
practical purposes equal to anthracite coal, as seen by calorimeter and 
stove tests. One ton of dry lignite will produce between one-half 
and two-thirds of a ton of these briquets in addition to iO,ooo to 
I2,cxx) cubic feet of good gas and other valuable by-products. Briquets 
of such excellent quality and high fuel value (at least ^ the actual 
heating value of hard coal), can be sold at a good profit at the price 
of soft coal in the western part of North Dakota and materially 
lower than hard coal in the eastern portion of the state. Having such 
high heating value and being so strong these briquets can be shipped 
for considerable distances and prove an excellent and economic fucl- 

Briciiiets The briquets present many advantages over the 

original lignite or even over the other varieties 
of coal. They have nearly double the heating value of the original 
lignite, as usually placed upon the market, they do not disintegrate 
on standing or burning, can be stored without being affected by at- 
mospheric conditions, and are uniform in size and convenient to 
handle. 

As has already been seen the process which we have developed 
for the successful manufacture of briquets from lignite coal is inti- 
mately associated with the production of gas; and according to this 
system a complete briquetting plant would also include a simple gas 
plant or at least the carbonizing portion. For these reasons the dis- 
cussion of the manufacture of gas from lignite and an explanation 
of the gas plant have preceded that of briquetting. 

The principles underlying the process of lignite briquetting 



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Economic Utilization of Lignite Coal ' 205 

which we have worked out at the School of Mines and the Mining 
Sub-Station depend upon the concentration of the raw lignite into a 
fuel of relatively high heating value, of permanent character and of 
sufficient value to be shipped in competition with anthracite coal. 

This concentration depends upon, first, the removal of the mois- 
ture, second the expulsion and saving of the volatile gas; and third, 
the binding together of the concentrated residue into a strong, dur- 
able and satisfactory briquetted product. As the coal is removed 
from the mine it contains a very high per cent of moisture, usually 
more than 30 per cent, i. e., about one-third of every ton of raw lig- 
nite as mined is water. This fact is largely responsible for the diflS- 
culty in the successful introduction of lignite except in the immediate 
vicinity of the mines. 

The cost of shipping fuel containing so much water is prohibi- 
tive for long distances. In addition to this the heating value of the 
coal is reduced by the amount of water present. On standing a por- 
tion of the water evaporates from the coal but in so doing tends to 
reduce the lumps to slack, causing thereby a large amount of waste. 
In converting the raw lignite into the condensed briquets, the first 
step is therefore the removal of this water. The lignite is run thru 
a rotary drier which removes from 75 to 90 per cent of the moisture. 

After the coal has been sufficiently dried it is conveyed to the 
retort and the gas driven off as already explained. This process is 
usually completed in about four hou^s. At the end of this time the 
retort is discharged and the remaining coal residue quenched and 
crushed ready for the mixing with the binder. The coal and the 
binder are then warmed to the proper temperature and conveyed to 
the mixer where a very thoro blending of coal residue and binder 
takes place. 

At this stage lack of uniformity and proper mixing produces a 
briquet which is uneven and of inferior quality. The temperature 
and the proportions of material must also be carefully watched. This 
is one of the most particular phases of the briquetting process. When 
the mixing has been carried on for a sufficient length of time the ma- 
terial is discharged and conveyed directly to the briquet machine. 

Besides the conditions which have already been mentioned there 
are niunerous details of mixing, tempering, etc, which can be prop- 
erly understood and controlled only by experience. Conditions vary 
greatly with the kind and character of the binding material used. 

The press used at the experimental plant is of the rotary type 
and is capable of producing two tons of the briquets per hour. It was 
built to order, especially for the Mining Sub-Station. 



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2o6 The Quarterly Journal ' 

This machine is extremely simple in its design and operation. 
The material to be briquetted is fed between two rolls, the surfaces 
of which are covered with pillow shaped pockets, half of a pocket 
being on the under and half on the upper roll. The rolls are so 
geared that the upper and lower portions of the pockets exactly cor- 
respond as the cylinder rotates. The coal mixture is fed between 
the two rolls and pressed into the pockets, by which process firm 
dense briquets are made and as the rolls revolve the briquets are dis- 
charged to a belt conveyor by which they are carried to the storage 
bins and the briquetting process thus completed. The briquets are 
of convenient shape and size weighing about 2j4 ounces each. 

Briquetted fuels have been extensively used in Germany and 
other parts of Europe where a variety of methods of manufacturing 
have been employed with varying degrees of success. With certain 
European coals briquet blocks have been produced without a binder 
while in other cases lime, sugar wastes, starch, pitch and other bind- 
ing materials have been employed. Numerous attempts have been 
made in this country to briquet coal without a binder by merely ex- 
cessive pressure but this has proved unsatisfactory. By such a process 
the expense for power and operation nearly equals the additional cost 
of the binder. For these and other reasons no satisfactory briquets 
of American lignites have been produced on a commercial scale with- 
out a binder. 

In most of the briquetting work of the School of Mines and the 
Sub-Station, we have used some form or combination of pitch bind- 
ers but we have also used many other binders such as flour, starch, 
gypsum and various combination bindersv About two hundred tests 
have been run with different proportions and other varying condi- 
tions. Up to the present time our best results have been secured, 
however, in the use of a small amount of pitch as a binder base mixed 
with a small per cent of other materiab mentioned. 

In the process of gas manufacture we have found that between 
20 and 30 lbs. of pitch is obtained from carbonizing one ton of dry 
lignite. By a simple process which the writer is now at work on, 
this pitch can probably be utilized for a considerable portion of the 
binder material thus redudng to a minimum the use of other pitch, 
requiring probably not more than 4 per cent of pitch in addition to 
that derived from the lignite. Or if this lignite tar is more valuable 
than ordinary pitch, as now seems probable on account of its peculiar 
composition, it may be sold at sufiiciently high price to go a consid- 
erable way in reducing the cost of the other binders required in 
briquetting. 



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Economic Utilization of Lignite Coal 207 

Attention has already been called to the use of the gas in con- 
nection with the briquetting and to the revenue which may be de- 
rived for the plant by a combination of gas and briquetting plants, 
but in addition to this, as already has been pointed out, there is a 
considerable amount of ammonium sulphate formed (nearly 15 lbs. 
per ton of dry lignite) and this by-product has a ready market. Thus 
we see that by saving the various by-products and applying the rev- 
enue derived from them to the manufacture of the briquets the cost 
may be very materially reduced. In a large commercial plant the 
saving of a few cents per ton will be sufficient to net a good profit. 

As has already been stated a great variety of tests have been 
made at our Sub-Station but still other tests will be run as fast as 
opportimity and funds permit. Some further improvement and re- 
duction of costs can no doubt be made, but even now the results have 
proved very satisfactory. 

The briquets which we are now able to run out regularly and 
in considerable quantities are first class in every respect. They are 
strong, hard, durable and will stand weathering excellently and burn 
with entire satisfacrion in most any type of stove or furnace. They 
have been tested in a very great variety of ways and have always 
made the best showing. 

The chief advantages to be gained in the briquetting of lignite 
are the large gain in .heat value, the prevention of slack so character- 
istic of this coal, the holding together of the mass during combustion, 
the prevention of matting in the fire-box, free burning, imiformity 
in size, cleanliness in handling, and decrease in the loss, caused by 
the dusting. In addition to these points briquets can be used to bet- 
ter advantage in a variety of stoves, and may be kept under more per- 
fect control than the ordinary form of lignite. But the greatest ad- 
vantages are the increased heating power and the fact that the lignite 
is put into a satisfactory form which will stand weathering, handling 
and burning without disintegration. 

There is comparatively little loss thru the grate bars, the 
briquets burn to a perfect ash in which practically all of the fuel has 
been consumed. Anthracite coal leaves a considerable amount of 
clinkers containing a greater or less amount of black imperfectiy 
burned fuel or carbonaceous matter. The complete combustion se- 
cured in lignite briquets is greatiy in their favor from the point of 
economy. 

The calorific determinations were made with the latest im- 
proved standard Bomb Calorimeter. These determinations show 
the following: 



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2o8 The Quarterly Journal 

Lignite as mined 7i500 B. T. U. 

Lignite briquets ii)5CK> to I2,cxx) 

Anthracite coal I2,cxx) to I3,cxx) 

It will be seen that lignite briquets have raised the heating 
power of the lignite about 70 per cent and give a calorimeter value 
of approximately twelve-thirteenths the heating value of anthracite 
coal. The chemical analyses of the briquets as compared with a raw 
coal are shown by the following table: 

CHEMICAL ANALYSES 

Moisture Vol. Matter Fixed Carbon . Ash 

Lignite as mined 35.01% 25.11% 34.67% 5.21% 

Lignite briquets o to 6% 2 to 8% 75 to 85% 10 to 14% 

Anthracite Coal 

(a market sample)... 3.68% 5.26% 80.51% 10.55% 

Many practical burning tests have been made using the lignite 
in comparison with anthracite coal and the best grades of Youghio- 
gheny soft coal. They have been used under boilers and have proved 
a very excellent and economical steaming fuel. They have been 
used in hot air and hot water heating plants with excellent results, 
in every way equal to anthracite in the heat produced and the length 
of time they lasted. They make -a very pleasing grate fire, much 
easier to control than either hard or soft coal. In the kitchen they 
have proved particularly satisfactory; they are easily kindled, pro- 
duce a high heat with a slight flame which is free from soot, leaving 
the stove and lids clean and producing an excellent fire for cooking 
and baking. They hold the heat well, last easily over night and can 
be controlled readily by operating the grates and drafts. They have 
burned with excellent results in the direct draft heating stove and 
self-feeder base burner hard coal stove. In order to determine the 
practical value of lignite briquets as compared with anthradte coal 
and as compared with raw lignite a number of very carefully con- 
ducted stove tests were made. 

After running a number of tests with a special direct draft stove 
giving evaporative as well as heating tests and in the hard coal self- 
feed and base burner, an average of the tests was made with the fol- 
lowing relative results: 



Of 



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A Run of Briquets at the Mining Sub-Station. 



tev: 

itt ^ 
lyc: 

ftstr 

the- 



Curves showing rise and duration of available room temperatures ob- 
tained from burning lignite briquets as compared with anthracite 
coal. Burned in self-feed, base burner, hard coal stove, showing 
that the briquets produced an available heat V4 greater than that 
of anthracite coal. 



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2IO The Quarterly Journal 

BVAPORATIVE AND HEATING TESTS 

Per cent of evaporation of anthracite coal considered icx>% 

Per cent of evaporation of lignite briquets 121% 

Per cent of heating value of anthracite coal considered icx>% 

Per cent of heating value of lignite briquets 126% 

The manner in which the briquets and the anthracite bum in 
each case and the total heat produced and the duration of the fire 
my be readily seen by the curves which are platted on the preceding 
page. From this it will be seen that burned in a regular hard 
coal stove the briquets made of lignite residue gave about yi more 
available heat than did anthracite coal. 

In the regidar process used for the manufacture of illuminating 
gas from coal there is left a residue, generally known as coke, which 
has considerable market value. Heretofore the difficulty in the use 
of lignite for the production of gas has been that the carbon remain- 
ing behind did not form into lumps like coke but broke up into 
small particles which were of no commercial value. Thus while the 
amount of gas produced from lignite was large, the waste of non- 
coking residue was so great as to render the manufacture of gas from 
this coal unprofitable in most parts of the state. The method of 
combining briquetting and gas production just described and which 
has proved so satisfactory in our investigations has overcome this 
difficulty. 

But this method of gas production must not be confused with a 
new system known as the producer-gas method for the production of 
gas from anthracite and other coal waste and well adapted for gen- 
erating power in specially designed gas engines and for certain other 
purposes. 

Prodocer-tfas Producer-gas is derived from incomplete com- 

bustion of the fuel held in a specially devised 
combustion and gas producing chamber. Unlike the production of 
ordinary coal gas, there is no residue of coke left in the producer 
but the coal is in part converted into gas by the combustion of the 
remaining portion. To bring about this transformation to the best 
advantage and to supply a larger amount of hydrogen and carbon 
nonoxide, steam is introduced into the chamber during the burning 
of the coal. 

The development of producer-gas for power has been quite 
rapid altho the details of the problem with reference to lignite coal 
have not been settled by any means, still the results which have been 



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Economic Utilization of Lignite Coal 21 1 

achieved are such as to promise much in the use of h'gnite by this 
method. Many fuels of comparatively little value, as used under 
boilers in the old direct burning method, have been made to yield 
very excellent results when utilized in the producer gas plant. 

The more perfect utilization and saving of our coal and the 
cheaper production of power thus brought about are items of great 
interest to every citizen. Whatever method will bring a cheapening 
of power will result in great saving and benefit to all classes. 

Until four or five years ago only very slight attempts had been 
made to utilize lignite as a gas producer. During the time of the 
World's Fair at St. Louis a model producer gas plant was put in 
operation by the United States Government. Surprisingly successful 
results were obtained in the use of different coals for the production 
of gas for power. The laboratory work which had already been car- 
ried on at the School of Mines indicat(fd at once the possibility of 
successfully using lignite coal in this producer-gas plant. 

The writer therefore arranged for the testing of two or three 
carloads of North Dakota lignite at the government testing plant at 
St. Louis. The results secured were very satisfactory, for it was 
foimd that North Dakota lignite used in the producer-gas plant gave 
more power than many of the eastern bituminous coals burned by the 
old method. The gas can be used also for kiln and special types of 
furnaces. 

The composition of producer-gas varies greatly with the diflEer- 
ent fuels from which it is derived. The following table based upon 
the U. S. Government reports gives the analysis and relative heating 
and power producing quality and the comparative consumption of coal 
per unit of power produced by the steam engine and the producer- 
gas from these di£Ferent grades of coal, including North Dakota 
lignite : 

Virginia Ohio N. Dak. 

Anthracite Bituminous Lignite 

Carbon Dioxide 10.2 9.0 8.69 

Carbon Monoxide 19.1 20.2 20.90 

Hydrogen 20.5 15.3 14.33 

Methane (CH*) 1.9 2.7 4.85 

Nitrogen 48.2 52.3 51.02 

Ethylene (C^H*) o.i 0.5 

B. T. U. per cu. ft. gas 160.7 165.2 164.1 

Dry coal gas consumed by pro- 
ducer plant, per H. P. 

switchboard per hour 1.29 lbs. 1.44 lbs. 2.29 lbs. 

Dry coal consumed in steam 
engine per H. P. switch- 
board, per hour 4.46 lbs. 3.97 lbs. ...» 



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212 The Quarterly Journal 

Nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases are not considered directly 
serviceable in the production of power, therefore the aim is to secure 
as small quantities of these gases as possible but to increase the pro- 
portion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. 

While this is true that, per cubic foot, the heat value of pro- 
ducer-gas is much below natural or coal gas, yet this fact is more than 
compensated for by the large quantity of gas produced per 
pound of coal. The heat units of producer-gas amount to about 1-5 
to 1-6 that of the ordinary city gas, but the volume of producer-gas 
gotten from a ton of coal is so large as to more than compensate for 
the difference in value. Because of the relatively large amount of gas 
produced, and the ease and cheapness of the process, the final cost per 
thousand feet of producer-gas is very low. 

The power developed and the results secured from North Da- 
kota lignites are remarkable in comparison with other fuels, es- 
pecially when compared with the usual method of using the lignite 
as a steam producer. There seem to be excellent possibilities in the 
utilization of this method in connection with our lignite coal and 
wastes. 

Conclaslons From the tests so far made in the briquetting 

and gas plant, it would seem that at least in the 
western part of the state of North Dakota, a heating and lighting 
gas can be produced economically having a calorific power of about 
400 B. T. U. per cubic foot. 

For lighting purposes the gas produced from lignite by several 
methods used here in the University laboratories and at the Sub- 
Station has proved very satisfactory when burned with a mantle of 
the Welsbach type. The gas burns freely with a strong light and 
a clean flame. 

Considering the ease with which the gas is produced, the low 
price of the original lignite and the value of the residue, this gas 
should have a large commercial value for heating, lighting, and power 
purposes, because of the low price for which it could be sold if manu- 
factured in a plant used to produce briquets from the residue. It has 
been found that briquets made from this concentrated residue pro- 
duce a most excellent fuel, for all practical purposes equal to anthra- 
cite. One ton of the lignite will produce about half a ton of these 
briquets in addition to 10,000 or 12,000 cubic feet of gas. These 
briquets have about ^ the actual heating value of average anthradte 
and can be sold with a good profit at about the price of soft coal in the 



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Economic Utilization of Lignite Coal 213 

western p^rt of North Dakota and lower than hard coal even in the 
eastern portion of the state. 

These briquets give a product of such high fuel value that they 
can readily be shipped for considerable distances and still prove prof- 
itable. The briquets present many advantages especially over the 
original lignite as usually placed upon the market. The heat- 
ing value is nearly doubled, the briquets do not disintegrate on 
standing or burning, they can be stored without being affected by 
atmospheric conditions, they are uniform in size and convenient to 
handle. 

No detailed statements of the cost of operating a large commer« 
cial plant are given here, for the reason that the cost per ton of 
briquets and per thousand feet of gas and other by-products will de- 
pend upon a large number of factors any one of which may materially 
affect the cost. 

All of the data which we have secured from our investigations 
and the operation of our experimental plant indicate that in a plant 
of fair capacity so constructed as to economize in the original cost, 
the cost of operation and the eflRcicncy, if under careful man- 
agement should turn out excellent commercial products at a sell- 
ing price which would admit of a good profit when the products are 
sold far under ordinary market price. As already stated, gas can be 
sold at a very moderate price and the briquets could be furnished 
with profit to the manufacturer much below the price of soft coal in 
the western part of the state or hard coal in the eastern portion. 

From the results obtained by the methods being worked out at 
the School of Mines and the Sub-Station of the University there 
seems little doubt but that the briquetting and the production of gas 
from lignite will in the future be put on a commercially satisfactory 
basis in this state. While this will prove of great value to all parts 
of our state, it will be especially important to those communities near- 
est the great lignite deposits in the western portion of the state, for 
in some of these the wastes can be converted into electricity which 
in turn can be sent to surrounding towns and villages, thus distribut- 
ing power and light from numerous central power plants. 

All of this will, of course, mean in the aggregate the saving of 
large sums of money for the citizens of the state and the introduction 
and development of a variety of manufacturing industries in an oth- 
erwise purely agricultural region. 



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Aquatic Assets of North Dakota 

Mblvin a. Brannon, 

Professor of Biology, Dean of the College of Medicine and Director 

of the Biological Station at Devils Lake, University of 

North Dakota 

WATER is universally recognized as the most important chemi- 
cal compound required by living organisms. According to 
fasting and famine records plants and animals are able to survive for 
long periods without solid food if sufficient water is available. They 
perish within a very short time if water is denied, even tho an abund- 
ance of other nutritious food is consumed. Next to oxygen, therefore, 
water ranks as the greatest necessity for life. Fortunately, water is 
so imiversally present upon most portions of the globe that its value 
is rarely appreciated. Perhaps the most definite realization of its 
function in Nature is gained during long continued drouth, when 
the success of all agricultural crops is threatened. Total crop fail- 
ure testifies to the importance of water as a factor in promoting and 
preserving normal life activities in both plants and animals. 

It is not the fimction of this paper to discuss the deeper physio- 
logical significance of water in its relation to life activities. It is the 
intention, on the contrary, to deal with the values of the free water 
collected in lakes or running in the streams of North Dakota. Never- 
theless, it will appear in every phase of the discussion that free water 
has a direct and intimate physiological relationship to life activities. 

North Dakota lies largely within the territory included between 
the 97th and 104th meridians and the 46th and 49th parallels. For- 
merly all the territory west of the 99th meridian was classified as the 
semi-arid or arid portion of the great northwest. By reason of this 
fictitious classification the state has come to be regarded as water 
poor by very many people without and within its boundaries. This 
opinion is not borne out by facts. According to United States sur- 
veys. North Dakota contains 44»736,477 acres of land and 416,803 
acres of water. This water surface includes the water in the bed of 
the Great Missouri and other rivers as well as the water in the thou- 
sands of lakes distributed thruout the great flood plain, which is 
bounded on the west by the Missouri valley and on the east by the 
glacial lake Agassiz. According to United States survey, the ratio 
of water to land surface is about i to 107. 

The material progress of North Dakoto has been intimately 



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3 

S 



Undoubtedly the portion of the state which offers greatest opportunity 



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ial progress of North Dakota has been fntinutdy 



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Aquatic Assets of North Dakota 215 

associated with the exploitation of its rich land area. There have 
been countless pioneer problems to solve and it is little wonder that 
the consideration of the water assets was largely ignored. Compar- 
atively little has been done even in developing the water resources 
in conjunction with the problems of transportation. It is true that a 
line of steamers plying on the Missouri has given liberal returns to the 
owners. It is likewise known that a more limited service on the Red 
river has yielded good profits to the companies carr5ang on a very 
feebly developed system of water transportation. No water powers 
have been developed within the state and no material enterprises, aside 
from the limited transportation mentioned, have been associated with 
the stored or running free water in this commonwealth. Gwise- 
qucntly, with characteristic American tendency to imder-rate and be- 
little everything which does not present alluring promises of marked 
material returns, the free water supply of the state, as a distinct asset, 
has been neglected or considered undesirable because it was felt that 
the state would be richer if the one acre of water to every 107 acres 
of land were drained and the lake or river bed converted into farm 
land. Fortunately for the material, cultural, and scientific value of 
the state, organized e£Forts are being made to develop some of the 
latent resources represented by the free water supply of North Da- 
kota. These latent values of our aquatic assets may be referred to 
under the three heads of recreation, production of food, and the in- 
vestigation of life activities evinced more clearly by water animals 
f and plants than by any other forms of life. 

PARTI. 

RECREATION. 

The fact that man is worth more than money, that money is a 
means and not an end, and that human life is worth conserving are 
becoming more keenly appreciated by the American people. This 
truth is attested by the American millions which are spent in foreign 
travel each year, by the growing custom of summer sojourns on lake 
shores and by running streams, and by the unquestioned evidence 
that out-of-door life during the summer is essential for the repair and 
restoration of vigor of people who dwell in cities during the major 
portion of their lives. North Dakotans have contributed their por- 
tion to this kind of testimony, but have rarely witnessed to this truth 
by patronizing their own possessions. The accompanying map and 
pictures give positive proof that there is considerable, if not ample 
VI opportunity for developing recreation centers within our own borders. 
Undoubtedly the portion of the state which offers greatest opportunity 



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2l6 The Quarterly Journal 

for summer lakeside residence is the region comprised within the 
Turtle Mountain zone. There are literally hundreds of beautiful 
lakes within an area of three hundred square miles in the Turtle 
Mountains. They are easily accessible from St. John, Dunseith, and 
Bottineau, and it is a question of only a few years when this region 
will be developed into one great summer resort. Many of the lakes 
are surrounded by high hills thickly covered with second growth 
Birch, Poplar, Balm of Gilead, Oak, Elm, Wild Cherry, and many 
varieties of shrubs. This gives the isolation and setting so essential 
to all summer lakeside resorts. This territory has splendid drainage, 
the purest of spring water, and the delightful, cool nights character- 
istic of a mountain climate, all uniting to insure a certain and suc- 
cessful development of the great latent resources of North Dakota 
waters for recreation purposes. 

What is true of the lakes in the Bottineau region is equally true 
of many other bodies of water in the state. The largest of these is 
Devils Lake, which has already been utilized by the military depart- 
ment of the state and by the Chautauqua Association. The military 
park comprises an area of several thousand acres and the Chautauqua 
organization controls some hundreds of acres on the shores of Creel 
Bay. There is little question but that the accessibility of Devils Lake 
and its size will give it pre-eminence as the one largest expression of 
the recreation idea in North Dakota. It o£Fers admirable facilities 
for large companies of summer campers who wish for opportunities 
to boat, sail and bathe in salt water. 

The accompanying pictures, representing canoeing, boating, and 
fishing, are simple expressions of how the development of the latent 
value of North Dakota waters is expressing itself here and there 
thruout the state. It is true that the sport of bass and trout fishing 
has not had the encouragement thus far in North Dakota that is de- 
sirable. This is likely to be remedied thru the work of the recently 
established biological station at Devils Lake and the fish hatchery 
at St. John. It is the function of these two institutions to co-operate 
in developing the recreation values and food values of North Dakota 
waters. 

PART II. 

PRODUCTION OF FOOD. 

It has been declared by some writers that every acre of water 
suitable for plant and animal life will produce as much food as can 
be grown on every acre of our tilled arable land. This is a proposition 
which seems difficult to maintain, but when one considers the enor- 



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STRAIGHT LAKE 



GRAVEL LAKE 



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21 8 The Quarterly Journal 

mous number of water animals and water plants and thinks upon 
the magnitude of the fishery business, the oyster output and the edible 
water plants, he is not so ready to deny this possible productivity of 
each acre of water. To cite a specific example in North Dakota^ in 
the winters of 1884 and 1885 there were thousands of pounds of 
pickerel captured from Devils Lake and shipped in carloads to dif- 
ferent portions of the state. The fish were present in such quantities 
that they seemed to rival the buffalo that had shortly before roamed 
the prairies or the wild pigeons that were then beginning to disappear. 
There seemed little reason for the disappearance of this food supply 
had not the waterway connecting Devils Lake with the spawning and 
feeding grounds in the freshwater lakes to the north disappeared 
during the later eighties. There are numerous lakes abundantly 
stocked with fish which should yield a large supply of food if 
judiciously controlled. The waters contain abundant plant life upon 
which feed swarming hordes of lowly organized animals. These, 
in turn, furnish unlimited food supply for fishes. 

An illuminating illustration of this asset of North Dakota waters 
might be presented thru a study of the reports of the Wisconsin com- 
missioner of fisheries. It is stated that a dealer at Bay City was 
brought before a committee of the Legislature at Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, and asked to testify relative to the extent of the fish business 
in his portion of Wisconsin. He said that he was one of four large 
buyers of fish which were gathered from the long stretches of the 
Mississippi river bordering on the state of Wisconsin. He afGrmed 
that he had purchased 114 carloads of fish himself and had paid 
$127,000, or a little over $1,000 per car. It is believed that this man's 
profit on the single season's business was not less than $25,000. If 
each of his three competitors did as well, it will appear that half a 
million dollars was paid for river fish at a single point in Wisconsin 
during one season. 

It seems that seining is permissable along the Wisconsin border, 
and it is recorded that one Bay City firm in December, 1907, used 
a 700 foot seine and took 55,000 pounds of carp at one haul. They 
sold this carp for 43^ c per pound and received a total of $2,475. 
Another Wisconsin party by the name of L. F. May caught 90,000 
pounds of fish, principally carp, in a single haul of the seine in the 
fall of 1907. He received over $3,000. His entire sales during the 
year 1907 amounted to over 200,000 pounds and he received a net 
income of over $10,000. In view of these statements, it would seem 
that one might consent to this comment, which was made con- 
cerning them: **The amount of capital necessary to enable one to 



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FISH LAKE 



CARPENTER LAKE 



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220 The Quarterly Journal 

embark in the fish business is small; the demand for fresh fish in- 
satiable. There could be no greater encouragement than is afforded 
by such figures as the foregoing, on the one hand, for liberal legisla- 
tive fish propagation; on the other, for the embarkation of capital 
and enterprise in the work of catching and distribution." 

Not only should our lakes be made to contribute largely to the 
food assets of North Dakota, but the rivers, particularly the Mis- 
souri and the Red, afford an undeveloped resource which will repay 
a thousand times every cent that is used in exploiting them as the 
producers of food. 

Not only do the lakes and rivers call for recognition because 
of possible contributions to food thru fish, clams, and water cress, 
but they afford homes and feeding grounds for an enormous number 
of water fowl. The present value of food derived from this soura 
should be very small compared with that which may be gotten in the 
future if wise conservation methods are employed. The present bio- 
logical survey carried on by the biological staff of the University has 
shown beyond the shadow of a doubt that there is plenty of vegetable 
food annually wasting in the lakes and rivers of the state to support 
hundreds of thousands of edible water fowl, either wild or domestic 
The recognition of this fact by the public in general is sure to be 
utilized within the near future. 

PART III. 

INVESTIGATION OF LIFE ACnVITIBS. 

The third and the greatest asset of North Dakota waters is rep- 
resented by the opportunities for studying the physiological processes 
in animal and plant organisms. The public has little appreciation 
of the significance of this fact. The American tendency is to magnify 
material returns secured by the falsely so-called "practical agencies." 
In the same proportion that these practical affairs are magnified, 
deeper-lying and far more important scientific studies are under-rated 
and minimized. The psychology of this situation is difficult to ex- 
plain. Contributing causes are undoubtedly found in the heroic en- 
deavors required to overcome pioneer conditions, and also in the 
tremendously glorified values placed upon money rather than upon 
men. These statements are not made as captious criticisms but as 
suggested explanations of the total lack of appreciation evinced by in- 
telligent people of such institutions as the University biological station 
at Devils Lake and kindred equipment for scientific research. An 
interesting parallel is found in the popular appreciation of appliances 
for securing germ-free water. Every intelligent person who has re- 



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222 The Quarterly Journal 

sided in a region depending upon streams and lakes for water supply 
has learned thru the prosecution and publication of scientific studies, 
that typhoid germs, causing typhoid fever, are frequently received 
thru the water supply, consequently they are interested in filtration 
plants and chemicals which will give immunity from such dangers. 
Many of these persons have no appreciation and consequently no in- 
terest in the refined studies carried on in chemical, physical, and bac- 
teriological laboratories. Nevertheless the material gains, which arc 
publicly praised, would not have been attained but for the refined 
experiments carried on by the unassuming workers in the laboratories 
named. Within very recent times it has been discovered that the 
ultra-violet rays exercise a most deleterious influence upon bacteria. 
Inquiry for apparatus by which experiments of this sort might be 
conducted revealed the fact that it was produced abroad, and in the 
language of the manufacturer, this apparatus is not produced in 
America because Americans do not foster and properly provide for re- 
fined scientific studies as do the Germans and French. On the con- 
trary, our people are ready to spend fabulous sums on experiments 
and affairs which are frequently grotesque and crude in the extreme 
simply because they appreciate only the superficial and gross results 
which are never dependable unless they are first tested and found 
reliable by refined and searching analyses of exacting laboratory 
workers. 

North Dakota is one of the very few states in the union that 
has shown enough foresight to make at least small provision for car- 
rying on scientific research relative to the living processes of aquatic 
plants and animals while they are in their native habitat. The bio- 
logical station at Devils Lake is an advertisement of the fact that this 
state has some appreciation of the worth of pure, biological research. 
The value of this fact advertised to the rest of the country and to 
the world can hardly be estimated. Commendation has been re- 
ceived from many of the most distinguished American and foreign 
scientists, and not a few states in the union are proceeding to copy 
North Dakota in making provision for biological surveys w^hich arc 
based upon the study of water organisms which have the most uni- 
form environment and are the most dependable in answering experi- 
mental questions concerning living matter and its processes 

The researches of both botanists and zoologists show clearly that 
experiments carried on with simple organisms, such as those growing 
in the water, can be conducted with far greater rapidity than is pos- 
sible with experiments performed with more complex organisms which 
are found on land. Many of the aquatic organisms may be investi- 



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5 

o 
o* 



o 



o 



CO 



z 



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224 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

gated thru a long series of generations during the time that would 
be consumed in studying a single generation of the more complex ter- 
restrial forms. Parallel cultures of the individuals investigated are 
far easier made and controlled than is possible when working with 
the higher animals and plants which inhabit land environments. By 
way of illustration, one may cite studies carried on with one-celled 
plants such as the yeast. This organism reproduces by budding and 
many generations are developed within a few hours. By refined 
methods it is possible to test this plant with reference to the efifca 
of heat, light, electricity, chemical agents and the biological influence 
of one organism upon another, all reviewed within a short time and 
testified to by many individuals which are in an active and re^x>nsive 
state. From a large number of control experiments, informadoa 
may be gained which is applicable, within certain limitations, to 
higher forms that could not possibly be secured without a study of 
many years if the more complex organisms alone were employed. 

What is said with reference to this plant may be said more ex- 
plicitly and confidently with regard to many other one-celled plants 
which contain chlorophyll and can manufacture their own food ; and 
similar testimony relating to the value of studies upon the simpler 
water organisms may be secured by examining the evidences contained 
within the published r^earches of students of animal biology, notably 
the work of Calkins and Jennings. 

An interesting exemplification of the dependance of the so-called 
practical upon the more refined and difficult scientific work is af- 
forded by one of our major problems at the biological station at 
Devils Lake. It is known that hundreds of thousands of tons of food 
material are annually lost in the waters of Devils Lake. At least 
it is not utilized by food-producing fishes as it was in former times. 
The United States fisheries and private individuals have spent many 
hundreds of dollars endeavoring to restock Devils Lake with fish, 
but apparently their efforts have been fruitless. Manifestly, the 
"practical" methods are unavailing. It remains for the scientific in- 
vestigator, by the use of many refined physical and chemical analyses, 
to determine in the first place whether game fish will survive in a 
water which has reached an alkalinity of something over i%, espec- 
ially when the elements, such as magnesium and sodium constitute a 
considerable factor in the saline composition of the water. The 
chemist must be drafted into service, and his analysis will show 
definitely what is involved from the chemical side of the physiological 
experiment. Mr. H. W. Daudt of the University has made the fol- 



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Aquatic Assets of North Dakota 225 

lowing analysis of water taken from Creel's Bay, an arm of Devils 
Lake. 

TONIC COMPOSITION. 

Calcium 0.4 

Magnesium 603.9 

Sodium 2908.8 

Bicarbonate ion 708.0 

Carbonic Acid ion 126.0 

Sulphuric Acid ion 6098.4 

Chlorine 1 177.0 

1 1622.7 

HYPOTHBTICAL COMBINATION. 

Calcium Bicarbonate 2.4 

Magnesium Bicarbonate 846.9 

Magnesium Carbonate I77«i 

Magnesium Sulphate 2029.9 

Sodium Sulphate 6625.9 

Sodium Chloride 1940.5 

1 1 622.7 

Total Residue 12429.0 

Silica 12.2 

Iron Oxide plus Aluminum Oxide 4.0 

The foregoing analysis, supplemented by a very large number of 
analyses of water taken from this portion of the lake and at difiFerent 
depths, and these again supported by a large number of analyses of 
the gas contents of the water, will place a chemical picture before the 
investigator of the problem of restocking Devils Lake with fish. 
Knowing the action of difiFerent elements and difiFerent chemical com- 
pounds upon living matter represented by the simpler animals, it 
will be possible for him to deduce conclusions of primary value in 
conducting the experiments with the more complex animals — the fish. 

This asset of scientific investigation of North Dakota waters has 
a notable physical aspect also. It is necessary for every living cell 
to maintain considerable water within itself in order to carry on suc- 
cessfully its life processes. If this water supply, which causes the cell 
to be turgid, is withdrawn, the living matter contracts from the cell 
wall and the cell is said to be plasmolized. To what extent this 
plasmolitic action may be induced by such saline waters as those of 
Devils Lake must be carefully determined by a large number of ob- 
servations, all of which will be conducted according to the careful 
methods employed in osmotic studies. In other words, it is essential 



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226 The Quarterly Journal 

then that the chemical and physical analyses be multiplied and re- 
peated, under control, many times before we can hope for any suc- 
cess in attaining the practical results of this general problem of re- 
stocking waters once occupied by fish, but now barren of this im- 
portant source of food. 

It is not at all certain that this problem will be successfully 
solved, however, when the chemical and physical data referred to 
have been secured. The biological studies conducted in the same de- 
tailed and refined manner as is demanded in the chemical and physical 
research, must give information relative to the adaptive power of dif- 
ferent food fishes. It will be necessary to learn also whether there 
are disease germs or types of higher fungi which so disturb the balance 
of environment of the animal forms studied that it is impossible for 
them to exist. The foregoing statements would seem to indicate that 
there is a necessary precedence of scientific work in order that prac- 
tical results may be obtained in this as in all biological and all scien- 
tific achievements. It does not require any great knowledge of the 
intricate relations existing between living and non-living matter, to 
realize that the chemical, physical, and biological information gleaned 
in the single series of studies referred to as well as in countless other 
series that might be mentioned, are of fundamental value in prose- 
cuting a successful search for an answer to the questions: What is 
life and what is death? How may life be safe-guarded from disease? 
How may all physiological processes be controlled ? Can old age be 
prevented? and a million other queries about this ever mysterious 
thing called living matter. Manifestly the third asset of the North 
Dakota waters, if properly developed, leads both the others, because 
it is fundamental to each and limits each. 



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The Red River of the North 

Elwyn F. Chandler, 

Professor of Mathematics in Charge of Civil Engineering, University 
of North Dakota 

THE stream from which the Red River Valley takes its name 
is deserving of more careful study than some larger streams 
in other regions on account of its unusual characteristics. Its pe- 
culiarities have great importance to the residents of the valley, and 
in one feature on which its behaviour essentially depends it is unique ; 
it is the only considerable stream .within the limits of the United 
States whose whole course is northward. 

The Red River of the North rises in Minnesota, its most re- 
mote source being a small lake near the southwest corner of Clear- 
water County, twelve miles west of Lake Itasca, at an elevation of 
about 1,550 feet above sea-level. It flows south 60 miles (measured 
in a direct line) thru a succession of small lakes to Ottertail Lake 
(elevation about 1,320 feet), and thence westward to Breckenridge, 
Minn., and Wahpeton, N. D., (elevation 943 feet). From this 
point it runs northward to Lake Winnipeg, 285 miles measured in 
a direct line; it passes the Canadian boundary at Pembina at a dis- 
tance of 190 miles from Breckenridge, and the city of Winnipeg at 
about 250 miles. As may be seen by the accompanying map, the 
general course below Wahpeton is notably direct; the river is no- 
where in the United States more than five miles distant from a 
straight line, and it is almost as direct in Canada ; but on account of 
its meanderings the actual length of the channel is very slightly more 
than double the length of the direct line. The upper portion of the 
Red river is called the Ottertail river, that name being variously ap- 
plied down as far as Ottertail Lake, to Fergus Falls, or to Brecken- 
ridge and Wahpeton as a lower limit ; the portion flowing northward 
from Wahpeton to Lake Winnipeg is universally called the Red river. 

From Wahpeton to Lake Winnipeg the fall of the river is small, 
only 233 feet; all except 75 feet of this is between Wahpeton and 
Grand Forks; the low-water elevation at Pembina is 750 feet, and 
the elevation of Lake Winnipeg is 710 feet. From Wahpeton to 
Pembina the river forms the boundary between the states of Minne- 
sota and North Dakota, and occupies the middle of a broad smooth 
plain forty to fifty miles wide; the plain has no slope perceptible to 
the eye, for its descent to the north is only about one foot in the 



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228 The Quarterly Journal 

mile, and the rise away from the river usually only two to six feet in 
the mile. 

Lak« Aiasaii During the glacial epoch, the outlet to the north 

was filled completely by the ice sheet; this dam- 
med the river and caused a wide lake (known to geologists as Lake 
Agassiz) to spread over the valley and to rise until its outflow 
passed thru Lake Traverse and Bigstone Lake into the head of the 
Minnesota River, 65 miles south of Breckenridge. The whole dis- 
trict is now covered deeply with glacial drift or in the lake bottom 
with a smooth layer of clay and silt, and no bed-rock or rock in place 
is anywhere to be found except by deep borings. 

The principal tributaries of the Red river from the east side 
are the Pelican, Buffalo, Wild Rice, Red Lake, and Snake rivers, 
Two Rivers, and the Roseau river; from the west side, the Bois des 
Sioux, Wild Rice, Sheyenne, Goose, Park, and Pembina rivers. The 
Bois des Sioux forms the Minnesota-Dakota boundary from the south- 
east comer of North Dakota to Wahpeton, but is of little impor- 
tance otherwise as it is merely a prairie stream with very small flow 
except during a few weeks in the spring. These tributaries drain a 
district boimded on the south by the Minnesota river drainage area; 
on the east by the areas of the upper Mississippi river and the Rainy 
river (which flows into the Lake of the Woods, thence by the Win- 
nipeg river into Lake Winnipeg) ; on the west by the area of the 
James river (which flows into the Missouri), by the Dcvib Lake 
area (an inland basin), and by the area of the Mouse river, which 
might properly have been included with the Red river, for the As- 
siniboine (of which the Mouse is a tributary) enters the Red river 
at Winnipeg. 

At the margins of this drainage area elevations range between 
1,200 and 1,600 feet. The boimdaries arc not easily defined pre- 
cisely. Along much of the eastern side the country is so level that 
the numerous swamps and marshes drain with equal facility to either 
side. Along the western side there are wide belts whose drainage 
systems were destroyed by the accumulation of morainic drift left at 
the close of the glacial epoch and have not been re-established; in 
these belts the surface water collects in innumerable hollows, kettle 
holes, and sloughs, and stands till it evaporates; if the rainfall were 
greater these many sinkholes and lakelets would overflow, and natural 
erosion would perfect the drainage system and make it again appar- 
ent to the eye. East of a north-and-south line drawn about fifty 
miles east of the Red river, the country is as a whole heavily tim- 



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VALLEY OP iHB RED RIVER of ihe NORTH 




■•«^>TC. 



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230 The Quarterly Journal 

bcrcd ; west of that line it is open prairic, treeless except along the 
margins of the streams or except where small groves have been 
planted by the settlers. 

Ar«a off tk« From the best existing maps, the drainage area 

V«ll«y above the point where the river crosses the Can- 

adian boundary at Pembina comprises about 34,500 square miles, of 
which 16,400 are in Minnesota, 500 in South Dakota, 15,600 in 
North Dakota, and 2,000- in Manitoba (in the Pembina river drain- 
age area). Before reaching its mouth at Lake Winnipeg the Red 
river acquires small tributaries that drain about 5,000 square miles 
and its greatest tributary, the Assiniboine, which brings the flow 
from a vast area in Manitoba and southeastern Saskatchewan esti- 
mated at more than 50,000 square miles. On account of the smaller 
rainfall in its territory the Assiniboine is a much smaller river than 
the Red despite the greater area that it drains. The following tabic 
itemizes the areas included in the drainage of various tributaries of 
the Red: 

DRAINAGB AREAS. 

River. Square miles 

Ottertail, above outlet of Ottertail Lake 1,160 

Ottertail, above Fergus Falls i»350 

Pelican, above mouth 450 

Buffalo, above mouth i)400 

Wild Rice (Minn.), above mouth 1,440 

Sand Hill, above mouth 535 

Red Lake, above mouth 5,760 

Red Lake, above outlet of Red Lake i,950 

Clearwater, above mouth 1,310 

Thief, " " 1,030 

Snake, " " 1,040 

Tamarac, " " 578 

Two Rivers " " 1,020 

Roseau, above Canadian boimdary line i,350 

Bois des Sioux, above outlet of Lake Traverse 1,400 

Wild Rice (N. D.), above mouth 1,400 

Sheyenne, " " 7,000 

Elm, " " 610 

Goose " " 1,450 

Forest, " " 890 

Park, " " 1,010 

Pembina, " " 3,440 

Red, above Wahpeton 4,340 

Red, above Fargo 6,020 

Red, above Grand Forks 25,000 

Red, above Canadian boundary line 34,000 

Red, above Lake Winnipeg, about 90,000 



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Red River of the North 231 

Navigation In the earliest days of settlement, navigation on 

the Red river was an important question. Until 
the arrivaT of the railroads the Red River and the Red River Trail 
were the only routes by which the lower valley could be reached 
without extreme hardship, and river transportation by flatboat or 
steamer was far easier than freighting by cart or sledge. Small boats 
for the lower valley were loaded as far up the river as Breckenridge, 
or sometimes even from a point about six miles southeast of Fergus 
Falls. The arrival each spring of the first steamer from the south 
marked a red-letter day at the lower settlements. 

It is evident that the river was the controlling factor in the 
original location of many of the present towns and cities, altho the 
selection of routes by the railroads subsequently decided which of the 
original settlements should grow and prosper. The city of Winnipeg 
is at the junction of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, where old Fort 
Garry was built almost ninety years ago. Fort Pembina marked the 
crossing of the international boundary line. Grand Forks is at the 
most important branching of the river above Winnipeg. Brecken- 
ridge and Wahpeton are at the angle of the river where it turns from 
its first southwesterly course into the northward direction. Fergus 
Falls, Crookston, Red Lake Falls, and Thief River Falls were lo- 
cated on the tributaries either on account of the available water- 
powers or to take care of the logs driven down the stream. 

In 1872 the railroad reached Fargo; at the close of that decade 
lower points in the Valley heard the whistle of the locomotive, and 
in a few years following nearly all the present railroad lines were 
built. Thereafter, in competition with this more speedy means of 
transit which was in service the entire year and was not forced to tie 
up when the river froze, river traffic fell into a decline ; for years no 
new boats were built nor new facilities provided. During the last 
few years, the river business has been increasing again. In 1907, the 
Red River Transportation G)mpany, which operates above and below 
Grand Forks thirty or forty miles in each direction, carried 225,000 
bushels of grain; in 1909, 800,000 bushels. 

Improvamant off Since the end of the seventies, as authorized 
tka Eed Elver under the successive River and Harbor Acts, the 

War Department thru its G)rps of Engineers has been doing each 
year more or less work for the improvement of navigation on the 
Red river and the Red Lake river, by dredging and by removing 
snags and boulders. The original aim was to provide a clear water- 
way according to the following specifications. First, from Brecken- 



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232 The Quarterly Journal 

ridge to Moorhead, a channel sufficient for navigation during hi^ 
and medium stages of water; this has really been abandoned, and 
many permanent pile bridges have been built, unauthorized by law 
but effectual barriers to navigation. Second, from Moorhead to 
Grand Forks, a channel fifty feet wide and three feet deep at low 
water; considerable work has been done on this, but meanwhile nu- 
merous fixed bridges have been built on the upper part of the stretch. 
Third, from Grand Forks to the Canadian boundary, a channel sixty 
feet wide and four feet deep at low water; this is more nearly an 
accomplished fact. Fourth, on the Red Lake river, a three foot 
open channel ; little work has been done on this. In the prosecution 
of the work thus specified, and in maintaining the channel in proper 
condition, there has been spent in the three decades a total of about 
$35Q,ocx). 

The methods adopted for improving the navigability of a river 
depend upon the size of the river, its rate of fall, the character of its 
channel, and the depth of waterway desired. 

Some streams, as the Niagara river, have such rapid descent and 
violent current that no plan would secure navigability, and it is nec- 
essary to build a lock-canal entirely separate from the river. Others, 
as the Lower G)lumbia river, are navigable along most of the length 
but have some falls or rapids that can be passed by a short canal 
with locks. In these cases, the difficulty arises from the too great 
descent of the river and consequent rapidity. 

On other streams, such as the Ohio river, the speed of the cur- 
rent is not too great for navigation, but the descent is enough so 
that, when the supply is small, the water flows away too soon and its 
depth is insufficient. In such case, if the expenditure is justifiable, a 
system of dams to give slack-water navigation can be installed ; these 
dams are removable or collapsible, so as to leave a clear channel for 
floods to pass, but at low-water seasons are replaced making the river 
a series of pools, from one to another of which there is passage thru 
permanent locks at the ends of the dams. 

Velocity • Chan- The rate of descent of the Red river is small, so 
n%\ Conditions that even at highest stage the velocity is not 
great enough to cause serious difficulty. Ordinarily the velocity is 
from one to two miles an hour, and anything exceeding three miles 
per hour is exceptional; if the descent were less, on account of the 
slower velocity the depth would be greater and thus navigation would 
be better during low-water seasons. It would of course be possible 
to construct a series of dams such as those on the Ohio river, but 



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Red River of the North 233 

the conditions are such along most portions of the stream that the 
benefits derived therefrom would not be great enough to justify the 
expense. 

The bed of the Red river lies thru material so nearly uniform 
(the deposits and sediments in the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz) 
that, to speak in general terms, its velocity is almost precisely the 
same along the whole length, tho the slope is less along the lower 
portion where more water is flowing. This is the normal effect of 
erosion, by which, if the material thru which the channel passes is 
uniform, the bed at every point is scoured out until it has a capacity 
or cross-section approximately the same as at every adjoining portion 
of the channel, thus the velocity becomes uniform; at any point of 
greater velocity, material is eroded until the normal cross-section is 
obtained; at any point of less velocity, silt and mud are depqsited 
until the channel is reduced to the normal. 

At two points, local conditions cause difficulties which could be 
overcome by a dam with locks; one point is near Belmont, about 
twenty-five miles south of Grand Forks, where the river flows rapidly 
over a bed of boulders; the other is at St. Andrews Rapids, twenty 
miles north of Winnipeg. 

One other class of rivers, such as the Missouri, have abundant 
water but do not always furnish a satisfactory and sufficient water- 
way. A stream which spreads out in a wide channel at some points 
may have there an insufficient depth of water for navigation; if it 
could be restricted to a narrow channel, the depth would be suffi- 
cient. But on a river like the Missouri, the maintenance of a chan- 
nel by dredging would be a discouraging task, for the scouring and 
silting action on that stream is so quick that depths in different por- 
tions of the channel change rapidly from day to day, and at any 
point the channel is often found to cut out and then fill in again a 
depth of more than ten feet of material in a few weeks. 

On the other hand, the channel of the Red river is comparatively 
permanent, altho of course there are the slight changes from year to 
year as mentioned above which have nearly equalized its velocity 
along its whole length. There are some shoals or sandbars, especially 
where material is brought in by tributary streams, that would require 
attention not infrequently, where the whole river bank moves bodily 
toward the river a few inches or feet in a year by a slipping of the 
clay with a glacier-like motion. But as a rule the channel is thru 
a heavy clay of a fairly stable character, on which a current as slug- 
gish as that of the Red can scarcely produce any effect, so that a cut- 
ting when made remains for years without considerable change. 



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234 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

The Canadians also have been making improvements in the 
river, of which the chief is St. Andrews Locks, twenty miles below 
Winnipeg, completed in 1 910. By this dam the river is raised twenty 
feet at the rapids, which effects a six foot rise at Winnipeg, and gives 
a good channel at all stages of the river from Lake Winnipeg to the 
wharves of the city of Winnipeg. 

Laktt Wlnnlp^tf The river is now navigable by steamers of shallow 
draft, without difficulty except at low stage, from 
above Grand Forks to Lake Winnipeg. This lake, the length of 
which is 250 miles, has a surface of 9,460 square miles, or almost 
the same as that of Lake Erie ; tributary to it is a vast tract of country 
which settlers are now beginning to enter. The lake empties into 
Nelson river, thence into Hudson Bay, but it is doubtful whether 
the talk of navigation from the Red river to the ocean can ever come 
to accomplishment, for in the distance of only 350 miles along its 
general course from the lake to Hudson Bay the Nelson river de- 
scends 710 feet; to pass its many tumultuous rapids with assured 
safety would require the construction of canals and locks the cost 
of which seems (especially when the short length of the season dur- 
ing which Hudson Bay is open is taken into consideration) to be out 
of proportion to any possible financial returns in the near future. 

On the Red River, the obstacles are not great. By some atten- 
tion to the formation and maintenance of an improved channel by 
dredging at the shoals and bars, a good waterway can be secured 
thru a long stretch of the river, in ordinary years. But there must 
always be foreseen the difficulty of insufficient depth along the whole 
course in occasional unusually dry years. 

Omi% Height The amount of the variation between different 

Eecords seasons, and between the wet years and the dry 

years, is known from the gage height records that have been main- 
tained at various points by the United States G)rps of Engineers 
(who are in charge of river and harbor improvements), and by other 
federal and state deparments. Some of these have already been pub- 
lished ; by the courtesy of the U. S. Engineers, copies of other records 
have been furnished for use in the preparation of this paper. The 
longest gage height record is at Grand Forks, which is practically 
complete thru the entire open season of each year from 1882 to 1896 
and thru the entire year from 1897 ^o the present. The accompany- 
ing diagrams show this record, and enable one to gain easily a cor- 
rect idea of the relative height of the different floods, of the ordinary 



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I 

30 



O 



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236 The Quarterly Journal 

stage of the river, and of the portions of the year in which die river 
may be expected to be at high or low stage respectively. With such 
further information as was available, estimates which it may be as- 
sumed are approximately correct have been made as indicated on the 
diagrams to fill the intervab when the records were incomplete. 

The diagrams show for each day of the year the recorded height 
in feet of the surface of the river at Grand Forks above zero of the 
U. S. Geological Survey gage at that place. This gage zero is ap- 
proximately at the level of the average bottom of the channel; in 
deep portions the bottom is several feet below the gage zero, but if 
the river should "nm dry" so as merely to stand in pools the surface 
of the pools would be likely to be a few inches above the gage zero. 
The zero of the U. S. Engineers gage is exactly 5.0 feet higher, being 
placed at the low water mark of the year 1881. The danger line, 
at which the river begins to go out of its banks, is 40 feet above the 
gage zero. The pavement of the main business street of Grand 
Forks (Third Street) is about 51 feet above the gage zero. 

Spring Floods It is seen at a glance that the height of die spring 

flood ordinarily very much exceeds that of any 
flood later in the year. The river's northward flowing direction thru 
a country of intense winter cold and occasional deep snows causes 
this in double fashion. First, the water held as ice or snow is re- 
leased by the spring thaws in the warmer southern pordon of the 
valley several days or weeks before the spring warmth reaches the 
northern portion of the valley. Thus the snow-water from the 
far-away southern boundaries and from the near-by districts reaches 
the lower river almost on the same day, and the flow surpasses the 
capacity of the channel. If the same amount of water were released 
over the whole valley in a single day (as is die case if there is a heavy 
and widespread storm in summer) the water from the nearest por- 
tions of the valley would reach the mouth of the river many Azy^ 
before that from the upper valley, and the rise would be less in height 
because extended thru a longer time. Second, the spring flood usually 
arrives at each section of the river channel before the ice has entirely 
thawed there. It is partially dammed by the heavy ice still remain- 
ing from the February thickness of two to three feet, and is forced 
to rise higher than would be the result if the same quantity of water 
should enter the river in late spring or summer when the channel is 
entirely clear. 

It can also be noted that the rise of each flood, at any season, 
is commonly more rapid than its fall in height ; this is a usual char- 
acteristic of other rivers. 



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Red River of the North 237 

The flood of April, 1897, is the highest on record, altho it is 
said by legendary report that in 1850 the flood rose to a height cor- 
responding to the 60 foot point on Ac gage or thereabouts; the au- 
tumn of 19 10 is the lowest season ever recorded. The highest and 
the lowest readings of each year have been selected from th com- 
plete daily record from which the diagrams were compiled, and have 
been summarized below ; also, when known, the dates of the opening 
of the river in the spring and its closing by ice in the fall have also 
been noted. The corresponding summary for the river at Fargo is 
also given, to show the earlier rise of the river there and the smaller 
range in height between maximum and minimum. (As the gage at 
Fargo happens to have been set, the reading if the river should "run 
dry" would probably be a little less than 5.0 feet.) At other points 
in the valley the precise dates and the total rise and fall would be 
different, but these two, where the longest complete records have 
been kept, are typical of all. 

GAGE HEIGHT RECORD OF THE RED RIVER AT GRAND FORKS, N. D. 

Date of Maximum Reading, Minimum Reading, Date of 

Year opening Date Height Date Height closing 

1881 5*o 

1882 Apr. 18... 48.0 Oct. 1 7.5 Nov. II 

1883 Apr. 25 . . .42.2 Oct. 1 6.1 Nov. 12 

1884 Apr. 16. . .31.1 Aug. 21 6.1 Nov. 19 

1885 Apr. 17. ..23.1 Oct. 21 7.1 Dec 5 

1886 Apr. 13... 20.0 Oct. 5 3.8 Nov. 10 

1887 Apr. 16. . . 16.1 Nov. 20 4.2 

1888 Apr. 19... 29.5 Nov. 12 4.8 Nov. 14 

1889 Apr. I, ...12.0 Sept. 1 3.4 

1890 Apr. 14 Apr. 15. . . 10.6 Sept. 8 3.9 Nov. 29 

1891 Apr. 16 Apr. 13... 17.7 Sept. 21 4.9 Nov. 15 

1892 Apr. 17... 33.4 July 31 7.6 

1893 Apr. 24. . . 45.5 Nov. 1 4.7 Nov. 15 

1894 Apr. 13 Apr. 24. . .26.9 Sept. 21 3.9 

1895 Apr. 15 Apr. 6... 9.9 Nov. 8 3.7 Nov. 21 

1896 Apr. 18 May 30... 32.0 Oct. 8 5.6 Nov. 13 

1897 Apr. 10 Apr. 10... 50.2 Nov. 13 6.9 Nov. 15 

1898 Apr. 15 Apr. 14... 15.0 Nov. 12 5.4 Nov. 10 

1899 Apr. 19 Apr. 17... 20.9 Nov. 12 5.7 Dec. 3 

1900 Apr. 14 Oct. 13 . . . 16.5 July i 3.4 Nov. 15 

1901 Apr. 9 Apr. 7... 26.3 Sept. 24 6.2 Nov. 6 

1902 Apr. 7 Mar. 31 . . .26.0 Oct. 23 5.9 Nov. 12 

1903 Apr. 13 Apr. 11... 28.0 Aug. 24 5.0 Nov. 14 

1904 Apr. 18 Apr. 27... 40.6 Aug. 30 6.0 Nov. 28 

1905 Apr. 7 May 16. . .26.0 May i 7.4 Nov. 28 

1906 Apr. 9 Apr. 18... 36.0 Oct. 26 7.2 Nov. 18 

1907 Apr. 8 Apr. 7... 40.0 Nov. 15 6.1 Nov. 11 

1908 Apr. 12 Apr. 11... 32.8 Nov. 15 5.5 Nov. 11 

1909 Apr. 20 Apr. 8... 21.5 Nov. 20 6.4 Nov. 14 

1910 Mar. 22 Mar 22... 30.7 Nov. 7 2.6 Nov. 5 



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238 The Quarterly Journal 

GAGE HEIGHT RECORD OF THE RED RIVER AT FARGO, N. D. 

Date of Maximum Reading, Minimum Reading, Date of 

Year opening Date Height Date Height closing 

1901 Nov. 6 6.8 

1902 Mar. 18. . . 10.3 Nov. 13 6.7 

1903 Apr. 6. . . 13.9 Aug. 28 7.0 Nov. 16 

1904 Apr. 12 Apr. 20. . .21.3 Sept. i 7.7 Nov. 29 

1905 Apr. I May 17 . . . 18.4 May i 7.8 Nov. 29 

1906 Apr. 6 Apr. 9. . . 15.5 Nov. 25 8.8 Nov. 21 

1907 Mar. 30 Mar. 31 . . .29.8 Nov. 14 7.0 Dec. i 

1908 Mar. 29 June 13... 14.7 Aug. 27 8.4 Nov. 13 

1909 Apr. 16 Mar. 30. . . 13.0 July 3 8.0 Nov. 15 

1910 Mar. 21 Mar. 19. ..23.2 Oct. 29 5.6 Nov. 9 

Rainfall Eacorda The records of rainfall at two typical stations 
of the Weather Bureau in the Red River Valley 
(Moorhead, Minn., and University, N. D.) are shown here by dia- 
grams in order to facilitate the comparison between rainfall and 
stream-flow. It is noticeable that seasons of unusually heavy rain- 
fall are likely to be followed after several months by high stages of 
the river. The unprecedentedly low stage of the river in 1910 is 
understood immediately when it is noted that the rainfall of 19 10 
was also the least recorded, being a fraction less than ten inches at 
each of these stations, whereas the normal rainfall is more than 
twenty inches at each. 

Eaaarvoira It would be very advantageous if the flow of the 

river could be equalized even to the slightest ex- 
tent by storage in reservoirs near the headwaters in early spring. This 
would diminish the height of the spring flood, therefore the dam- 
ages from overflow, and would add to the flow in the low-water 
season of late summer and therefore to the navigability of the river; 
a third benefit, the increase in value of water-powers, will be dis- 
cussed later. 

There arc many possible sites for reservoirs, some of them very 
good. First among these is Red Lake, the largest freshwater lake 
except Lake Michigan that is contained within the boundaries of the 
United States. Its area is 441 square miles, and the total drainage 
area above its outlet 1,950 square njiles, or more than one-third of 
the entire drainage area of the Red Lake river. It is said that it 
could not be raised more than a few inches without causing it to over- 
flow northward thru the swamps toward the Lake of the Woods; 
but a dam could be built at the outlet to prevent too rapid escape 
of water from the lake, and the river below then dredged about two 



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Th r n tii tl tmtk year 



ThaMdfwMb 



rfitf «»M>vi>4*«pa«a. 



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240 The Quarterly Journal 

feet, so as to give the lake a storage capacity of more than 500,000 
acre-feet. The total cost of such a project would be $200,000 ; it is 
roughly estimated that by the operation of such a reservoir the larg- 
est floods ever occurring might have been lessened about one foot in 
height at Grand Forks, and proportionate amounts at other points. 

Another economical location is at Ottertail Lake, on the Otter- 
tail river 38 miles above Fergus Falls, or fifteen miles in a direct 
line. The area drained is 940 square miles, and the reservoir sur- 
face would be 23 miles; but such a reservoir would have smaller 
value than almost any other possible location as a means of lessening 
the spring floods, for on account of the innumerable lakes in its 
valley the Ottertail has already a more nearly uniform flow than any 
other tributary of the Red ; and for the same reason the spring floods 
on this stream are retarded, so that the highest stage normally does 
not occur until June, months after the flood flow from the other 
streams has passed. 

On the Wild Rice river, in Minnesota, there are said to be sev- 
eral good reservoir sites. Lake Traverse, at the upper end of the 
Bois des Sioux river, could be made a reservoir to receive the drain- 
age from about 1,450 square miles of the prairie area such as is es- 
pecially the source of extreme spring floods ; it is however likely that 
at this place the land damages from flowage would be excessive. On 
the upper portions of the Sheyenne river there are said to be good 
reservoir locations. On the Pembina river there are excellent loca- 
tions. On various of the lesser tributaries fairly good locations are 
reported, but the influence of these on the flow in the main stream 
is relatively small. 

Ettcords of For the determination of the actual effect of the 

Discharge operation of any reservoir upon floods, and upon 

the navigability of the stream, it is not sufficient to measure merely 
the capacity of the reservoir and the gage-height of the river at dif- 
ferent seasons. In order that we may know how many hours or days 
it will probably take the stream to fill a reservoir of known capacity 
and in what proportion the flood will be thereby lessened at lower 
points, or in order that we may know how much the release of the 
water will raise the river when at low stage, we need a knowledge 
of the exact quantity of flowing water necessary to raise the water 
to any height in the channel and also records of the total amount 
that has been discharged into the main river by each tributary and 
carried away in the main stream each week in the past thru a period 
of as many years as possible. The future cannot be predicted except 
in the light of past experience. 



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Red River of the North 241 

Formerly no information of this kind was available, and argu- 
ments for and against any suggested project for the use of the 
streams in the Red River Valley were founded largely upon guess- 
work or hypothesis. As will be discussed later, hypotheses deduced 
from the records of rivers in the eastern United States may be mis- 
leading and worse than useless if applied to Dakota streams. 

During the past few years some basis of information has been 
established; for recently the United States Geological Survey, with 
the cooperation of states concerned (in this case Minnesota and 
North Dakota) has been securing records of quantity of stream-flow 
thru the whole country to such an extent as funds have permitted. 
These depend upon observations of gage-height daily or several times 
daily, and upon such soundings of depth, accurate instrumental meas- 
urements of surface velocity, bottom velocity, marginal velocity, etc, 
made from time to time thru the season, as enable the records finally 
to be simimarized in such a way as to show not only the height of 
the river surface but also the actual quantity in gallons per day or in 
cubic feet per second that flowed by the gage at each season of the 
year. All of this work is done for public use and the summarized 
results are printed from time to time in the regular reports with only 
such delays as attach to the issue of any government document. The 
work in the Red river valley thru the past eight years has been under 
the immediate supervision of the writer, hence the results were avail- 
able for this paper up to the present date in advance of their regular 
official distribution, and the writer can furnish on request any details 
desired. 

The most convenient unit of measurement is the second foot. 
One second-foot is the amount of water carried by a stream that dis- 
charges one cubic foot each second ; for example, water flowing with 
a velocity of one foot per second in a rectangular flume one foot wide 
and one foot deep, or flowing three feet per second in a trough one 
foot wide and four inches deep. It has this relation to other units 
sometimes used. 

One second-foot equals 86,400 cubic feet per day. 

One second-foot equals 646,272 gallons per day. 

One second-foot equals 1.983 acre-feet per day. (An acre-foot 
is the quantity of water that when stored will cover one acre a foot 
deep.) 

By the brief summaries presented in the following tables there 
is shown in second-feet the mean, maximum, and minimum flow at 
certain points for each month of the year. The "mean daily" flow 
is the average for that month thru the entire period of years during 



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242 



The Quarterly Journal 



which records have been maintained. The '^maximum daily" is the 
greatest flow for a single day, and the ^'maximum monthly" is the 
average flow for the month having a greater average flow than that 
same month in any other year of the total recorded period. The 
^'minimimi monthly" is the average flow for that month in that year 
of the whole period when the flow of that month is least. *' Inches 
from area" expresses the average total flow for that month (the 
"mean daily" flow continuing thru the whole month) as a total run- 
ofiF in inches or fractions thereof from the entire drainage area above 
the point of measurement. 

DISCHARGE OF RED RIVER AT GRAND FORKS, N. D. 

Drainage area (including Red Lake River) 25,000 square miles. 
Period included, January, 1901, to December, 1910. 





Mean 


Max. 


Max. 


Min. 


Inches 


Month 


daily 


daily 


monthly 


monthly 


from area 


January 


1,280 




1,750 


703 


0.06 


February 


1,150 




1,590 


564 


0.05 


March 


2,840 


19,800 


8,740 


925 


0.13 


April 


11,280 


32,900 


22,200 


3,890 


0.50 


May 


6,680 


30,200 


13,700 


3,090 


0.31 


, une 


4,880 


10,600 


7,140 


1,950 


0.22 


^ uly 


3,740 


12,300 


7»230 


862 


0.17 


August 


2,720 


10,900 


6,560 


487 


0.13 


September 


2,120 


5,090 


4»5io 


420 


O.IO 


October 


2,020 


4,100 


3,340 


413 


0.09 


November 


1,800 


3,240 


2,710 


395 


0.08 


December 


1,530 




2,530 


316 


0.07 


Year 


3,507 


32,900 


22,200 


316 


I.9I 




DISCHARGE OF RED RIVER AT FARGO, N. D. 




Drainage 


area, 6,020 


square miles. 






Period included, June, 1901, to 


December, 


1910. 






Mean 


Max. 


Max. 


Min. 


Inches 


Month 


daily 


daily 


monthly 


monthly 


from area 


January 


340 




500 


220 


0.06 


February 


280 




400 


2QO 


0.05 


March 


794 


5,820 


2,120 


400 


0.15 


April 


1,464 


6,090 


3,220 


469 


0.27 


May 


1,060 


4,250 


1,640 


566 


0.20 


June 


1,120 


4»420 


2,200 


460 


0.21 


July 


832 


2,350 


1,550 


211 


0.16 


August 


616 


1,520 


1,290 


85 


0.12 


September 


516 


1,330 


1,070 


48 


O.I I 


October 


500 


1,160 


940 


59 


0.09 


November 


447 


1,150 


910 


45 


0.08 


December 


352 




600 


40 


0.07 


Year 


696 


6,090 


3,220 


40 


1.57 



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Red River of the North 243 

DISCHARGE OF RED LAKE RIVER AT CROOKSTON, MINN. 

Drainage area, 5,520 square miles. 

Period included, June, 1901, to December, 1910. 

Mean Max. Max. Min. Inches 

Month daily daily monthly monthly from area 

January 750 1,500 467 0.15 

February 620 1,020 460 0.12 

March 1,570 7,830 3,630 620 0.33 

April 4,360 14,200 8,090 1,990 0.88 

May 3»230 8,390 5,450 1,520 0.67 

June 2,386 5,270 3»900 977 0.48 

July 1,806 5,970 3,790 546 0.38 

August 1,378 4,900 3,040 352 0.29 

September 1,290 3,820 3,012 333 0.26 

October 1,261 3,ioo 2,260 293 0.26 

November 997 2,360 1,680 200 0.20 

December 872 1,400 180 0.18 

Year 1,710 14,200 8,090 180 4.20 

If space permitted, similar tables to show the seasonal variation 
in quantity of flow at many other points on the Red river and its 
various tributaries could be inserted here. The Ottertail river at 
Fergus Falls, from a drainage area of 13 10 square miles gives a 
mean daily flow of 425 second-feet and a maximum of 1,020, for the 
period from May, 1904, to December, 1910. The Pembina river 
at Neche, area 2,940, mean 240, maximum 3,870, from May, 1903, 
to December 1910. The Sheyenne river six miles west of Fargo, area 
5,400, mean 172, maximum 1,950, for the years 1903 to 1906. The 
Mouse river at Minot, with an area of 8,400 square miles, had a mean 
of 232 and a maximum of 12,000 second-feet for the period from 
May, 1903, to December, 1910. 

From the many pages of daily records now accumulated any 
desired form of summary or average can be compiled. The simplest 
of these is a mere table of the annual run-ofiF in inches from the drain- 
age area of each station each year, as given below. This does not 
show the seasonal variation, but shows the long-period irregularities, 
and shows that in this region very great percentage variations in the 
stream-flow are to be expected. 



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244 



The Quarterly Journal 



Total Annual Run-ofiE, in Inches From the Drainage Area 



Year 



|1900|1901|1902 



1903 



1904 



Red river at Grand Forks, 

I 1.21 1.91 1.9 1.6 2.6 2.1 2.5 2.0 1.7 

I I I 1.0 0.9 1.8 1.7 2.5 2.2 1.5 
Red Lake river at Crookston 

I I I 4.4| 4.3 5.2 4.9 5.2 3.4 3.9 
Clearwater river at Red Lake Falls, 

I I I I (beginning June 15» 1909; 
Thief rtver at Thief River Falls. | | I | 

I I I I (beginning July 1, 1909; 
Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, I I I I 

I I I I (bef^inning July 1, 1909; 
Ottertail river at Fergus Falls. 



1905 



1906 



1807 



1908 



I 2.2| 2.6| 3.2 2.9 
Pembina river at Neche, 

I I I 
Sheyenne river west of Fargo, 



Mouse river at Minot, 



0.4 
0.33 



4.1 

3.1 

0.6 

1.54 



5.4 

1.0 

0.4 

0.09 



6.6 

0.7 

0.4 

0.19 



4.9 
1.1 

0.43 



3.9 
0.6 

0.14 



1909 


1910 


1.4 
1.5 


1.3 
1.2 


3.2 


2.2 


2.7) 


2.6 


2.2) 


2.7 


5.0) 


2.5 


3.9 


2.1 


... 


0.3 


0.22 


0.07 



Mean 



1.84 
1.57 

4.13 



3.80 
1.11 
0.44 
0.38 



The total amount of water flowing into the streams is thus seen 
to be but a small fraction of the annual rainfall ; at the eastern side 
of the valley, it is from three to six inches out of a rainfall in differ- 
ent years between eighteen and thirty inches; at the western side, it 
is from one-tenth inch to two inches out of a rainfall between thir- 
teen and twenty-four inches. In some other regions the proportions 
are very dissimilar from this; in the Connecticut valley, from a total 
annual rainfall of forty-three inches, twenty-four enters the run-off; 
in the valley of the upper Hudson river and the Adirondacks, there 
is twenty-four inches run-off from a forty-five inch rainfall. 



Percentage 
Relations 



In New York and other eastern states thru 
many years in the development of water-power, 
the operation of canals, and other similar work, the relation between 
rainfall and stream-flow has been carefully observed for many years, 
searchingly investigated, and the percentage relations carefully deter- 
mined; but any attempt to employ in Dakota percentage relations 
drawn from New York records would lead to absurd results. In 
fact, observations in this region afford grounds for the most vigorous 
protest against a method frequently employed by engineers in water- 
supply investigations. Objection must be made to the custom of 
collecting rainfall records and then (without securing comprehensive 
stream-flow records) assuming that the stream-flow will be some ar- 
bitrary percentage of the rainfall; this method is radically and es- 
sentially wrong in principle, tho in regions where the rainfall is large 
it perhaps gives sufficiently close results to be permissible there in 



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Red River of the North 245 

practice. In justification of this assertion a brief statement of the 
elementary facts related to the sources of stream-flow is proper. 

Soarces of The water that falls, in the form of rain or 

Stream-now snow, in a day or longer period on any section 

of the country ultimately leaves that section again by one of the fol- 
lowing routes: 

First: it may run off immediately from the surface into the 
water-courses and be carried away. 

Second: it may remain standing in drops and puddles where it 
falls, or in pools and sloughs in the immediate vicinity, and finally 
be evaporated by the wind and sun and disappear. 

Third: it may soak into the ground but before reaching a great 
depth be brought again to the surface by the capillarity of the soil 
and be evaporated at the surface as the soil dries. 

Fourth: it may be brought up from the soil by the roots of 
vegetation and transpired into the atmosphere from the foliage. 

Fifth: the water may sink into the ground until it reaches the 
ground-water level, below which the soil is completely saturated with 
water, the level at which the water stands in ordinary wells; since 
this reservoir cannot receive additions indefinitely without change, if 
there are percolations from above its level is gradually raised until 
the water is slowly forced horizontally thru the strata on whichever 
side there is the easiest exit, and in the low ground or valleys and 
ravines escapes as seepage or springs into the streams and flows away. 

It is thus evident that (with certain exceptions that in central 
North America are unimportant) if a period of several years be con- 
sidered so that the effect of temporary accumulation or storage is 
eliminated, every drop of the rainfall ultimately goes away either in 
the first or fifth manner as a part of the "run-off," or else in the sec- 
ond, third, or fourth manner as a part of the evaporation. The rain- 
fall is divided into these two portions, the evaporation and the run- 
off, but it is improper to express the relation between them as a ratio 
or percentage; for altho if the rainfall increases the run-off also nor- 
mally increases, the increments are not in proportion. 

Evaporation This is shown by a simple case. In some regions 

a large part of the measured run-off that arrives 
at the point of proposed beneficial use has come from or passed thru 
lakes, reservoirs, or permanent pools; from every such water surface 
there is continual loss by evaporation. (In eastern North Dakota 
the measured evaporation is from 26 to 33 inches in the seven months 



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246 The Quarterly Journal 

of open season, and may be roughly estimated as 8 inches, more or 
less, for the remaining five months.) The greater the rainfall of a 
year, the greater the average humidity of the atmosphere may be ex- 
pected to be, and hence the less the evaporation from water surfaces. 
The records are found to bear out these expectations. 

On land surfaces, conditions may be different, but are not neces- 
sarily so ; with greater rainfall, more moisture has been given to the 
soil and thus, the supply being greater, greater evaporation is possible ; 
but on the other hand the atmosphere is probably more humid. It 
depends therefore on local conditions whether from any particular 
small area the evaporation will be greater in a dry or in a humid 
season; there will be no uniform rule of widespread application to 
govern the amount. 

The evaporation from land areas, if the water supply is abund- 
ant, depends on many meteorologic, geologic, and cultural condi- 
tions, such as humidity, temperature, wind, the ease with which 
water sinks in deep below the surface, and the character of the vege- 
tation; in the summer, vegetation rapidly draws water 
from the soil, so that the production of each pound 
of the dry vegetable tissue has necessitated the evaportion of 
between 300 and 3,000 pounds of water. The amount that 
runs off inunediately from the surface after rain also depends on 
many conditions, such as the slope of the surface (steep or level), 
its character (hard-packed, or loose and cultivated), and the length 
and intensity of the rainfall. In this region it sometimes happens 
that in the early spring the ground is closed fast by frost so that 
nearly the whole of the melting snow passes directly to the streams 
and leaves the ground beneath almost dry except a few inches at the 
top, altho in the summer the whole amount could have been readily 
absorbed. 

Ran-off a The conditions of the complete problem are thus 

Residaal very complicated. But, if due recognition is 

given to the many exceptions, it may be said that the water reaching 
the streams is the residual remaining from the total precipitation 
after the demands of evaporation and plant-growth have been sup- 
plied, and that it is merely such residual. In any particular region 
or drainage area, if sufficient records are at hand, a figure may be 
deduced to represent the normal average evaporation of each year 
from the whole area consisting of field, forest, and water-surface, and 
any excess above this figure found in the rainfall will also be found 
ultimately added to the run-off. 



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Red River of the North 247 

Upon this hypothesis, from the records of stream-flow such as 
tabulated here the conclusion may be drawn that in this region, North 
Dakota and northern Minnesota, the normal annual evaporation from 
the entire surface, (including field, forest, lake, and stream), is 
slightly more than twenty inches whenever the rainfall is sufficient 
to supply so much as that. If this conclusion be accepted, it follows 
that in the western half of the Red river valley the rainfall of the 
average year does not bring as much water as could be dissipated by 
evaporation during the year if there were a sufficient supply; and 
that except in years of much more than the average rainfall there is 
properly no surplus or excess over evaporation to flow into the 
rivers. It is from violent storms and from the rapid melting of the 
snow while the ground is still frozen imperviously, that in ordinary 
years the streams here receive their chief supplies; if none of the 
precipitation should come during the winter, and if all the rain 
should come in frequent gentle showers, with no year greatly ex- 
ceeding the average rainfall, almost every drop would evaporate and 
the rivers would disappear. In other words, the cause of the con- 
tinued existence of rivers rising in North Dakota is the irregular 
distribution thru the season of the total annual rainfall. 

On the other hand, on the Minnesota side of the Red river, the 
normal rainfall is enough greater than evaporation so that it would 
scarcely be possible that by any change in its seasonal distribution 
(without change in total amount) the supply of the streams could 
be entirely cut ofiE by evaporation. 

Careful note should be made of the fact that when the normal 
rainfall is so small that the run-off is a comparatively small remain- 
der from it, great irregularities in the stream-flow easily arise. An 
inch added to or subtracted from a rainfall of twenty inches seems 
unimportant; but a half-inch added to or subtracted from a run-off 
of only one inch is relatively very important. Furthermore, in this 
case the run-off shows comparatively greater effects from small dif- 
ferences in time or intensity of the precipitation than would appear 
in case the normal run-off were greater. 

Rainfall not The statement is made by good authorities that, 

Ghan^ini if records thru a long period of years be ex- 

amined, it is nowhere discoverable that settlement and cultivation 
have had any effect on rainfall, or at least that, whatever theoretical 
arguments may be brought forward to the contrary, there has never 
been any effect that is perceptible as compared with the accidental 
variations in rainfall from year to year. But cultivation opens the 



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248 The Quarterly Journal 

soil so that more of the rainfall can be received and evaporated in- 
stead of flowing quickly off over the surface, and it is an interesting 
question whether the run-off in this region is not diminishing on ac- 
count of the cultivation of the prairies. In this region of little rivers, 
even so slight a diminution in the run-off as a quarter-inch per year 
would be a very noticeable portion of the total stream-flow. 

The records are not long enough or complete enou^ to give 
convincing evidence either that the average stream-flow is gradually 
diminishing or that it is as great as in the olden days. Any sup- 
posed systematic increase or decrease in the stream-flow is concealed 
by the great accidental variations from year to year, unless averages 
for very long periods of years can be taken. A priori, it seems that 
the cultivation of the prairies must tend to decrease the run-off; but 
the development of drainage systems should have the opposite effect 
by bringing the water to the streams from the low ground and 
swamps where otherwise it would evaporate, and this effect may 
perhaps be as great as or greater than that of cultivation. 

Devils Lake Our knowledge of the conditions at Devils Lake 

gives plausible ground for a belief in the con- 
siderable diminution of the stream-flow in some parts of the valley. 
Devils Lake has no outlet. Its surface elevation depends entirely 
upon the ratio between the evaporation from its surface and the 
rainfall upon it and the inflow from the surrounding country, unless 
it be assumed that there is leakage from the bed of the lake into the 
artesian basin; there is no visible reason for adopting this assump- 
tion, and even if it were true, the seepage could not have increased 
in recent years and hence the recent shrinking of the lake could 
not be chargeable to it. 

On the south the lake is bordered by hills of one hundred to 
two hundred feet in height, and it is not far to the divide between 
the Devils Lake drainage area and the valley of the Sheyenne river, 
which flows nearly parallel to the lake on the south at a distance 
of six to twelve miles. On the north the land is a gently rolling 
prairie, rising but slowly; on the northwest no other drainage area 
is reached for a distance of more than fifty miles. The total Devils 
Lake drainage area is theoretically about 3,500 square miles. 

This area is all included within the region covered by glacial 
drift, and is thickly scattered with small lakes, hollows, and pools. 
The fall is slight, nearly the whole area being included between the 
elevations of 1,430 and 1,600 feet above sea-level. The rainfall being 
but little more than the possible evaporation, the run-off is small. 



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Red River of the North 249 

and, with the small fall, the drainage channels are therefore incom- 
pletely developed as yet. Much water that runs into the small lakes 
or coulees is held there until it evaporates, and there are large por- 
tions of the total drainage area from which no water ever reaches 
Devils Lake unless in years of exceptionally great or sudden rainfall. 
The area which actually drains into Devils Lake in ordinary years 
is probably not more than half or a quarter of the theoretical 3,500 
square miles mentioned above. 

When the settlement of that region took place, in the early 
eighties, the surveys showed the total length of Devils Lake to be 
thirty-five miles, with a width of from one to fifteen miles and an 
area approximately 120 square miles; on account of its many bays 
and slender arms, the total shore line was more than 200 miles. With 
settlement and the conversion into farms of the prairies formerly 
tenanted by vast herds of buffalo, the sod was broken, the soil culti- 
vated, and the flow of rainfall from its surface retarded. The lake 
must thus have lost a large portion of its annual supply and the level 
was continuously lowered by evaporation until the reduction in sur- 
face area had reduced the total amount of evaporation to equality 
with the inflow. The present area of the lake, though not precisely 
known, is estimated as not more than half of the original 120 square 
miles; the lake seems now to have reached nearly a condition of 
equilibrium, which ought to continue unless some change in the ex- 
tent or methods of agriculture shall use still more fully the water 
that otherwise would run into the lake from the surrounding country. 

In 1867 the level of Devils Lake was 1,443 feet above sea-level, 
which is about 18 feet above its elevation in the year 19 10; in 1879, 
about 14 feet, the fall of four feet being said to have followed several 
unusually dry years. The surrounding country was rapidly settled 
after that time, the lake fell rapidly, and in 1896 was only about 
four feet above its present elevation. After 1896 the level remained 
nearly constant, merely making small oscillations up and down 
within a total range of three feet, until during the past four years 
another gradual fall has been seen. 

Drainage Drainage development and the reclamation of 

swamp-lands depend fundamentally upon the 
location and character of the drainage channels provided by nature, 
the streams. It may be candidly confessed that nature has not yet 
provided sufficient drainage for the lands of the Red river valley, 
and that the assistance of man is needed to bring the land to the con- 
dition of greatest utility. 



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250 The Quarterly Journal 

During the time that the prairie was covered by the glacial Lake 
Agassiz, its surface was most thoroly leveled and smoothed by sedi- 
mentation, so that on the recession of the lake its bed was left with 
few natural depressions to serve as watercourses. This was but a 
few thousand years ago; the drainage system developed in the com- 
paratively brief time since elapsed is incomplete, first because the 
surplus remaining from the rainfall to enter the run-ofiF is so small 
that nature has few tools with which to perform the work of erosion, 
and second because she can use them only with a gentle hand for the 
slopes of the valley are so small that velocities gut slow. Therefore, 
unless we are willing to wait a few score centuries more for nature 
to complete the work of erosion, we must set in motion the dredge 
and ditching machine to form sufficient outlets for the surplus water 
from every township and quarter-section. 

The principal streams have cut down thru the prairies in chan- 
nels that usually are amply deep to serve as outlets for the drainage 
from the lands on each side. But the small water-courses are not 
yet suffidently developed ; our map is nearly a blank sheet of white 
paper in comparison with maps of other regions showing complicated 
systems of watercourses. In recent years many miles of large and 
small drainage ditches have been dug, both on the Dakota and the 
Minnesota sides of the river, and this artificial drainage system is 
growing toward completion. 

Water Power The facts are gradually accumulating upon 

which will be based the plans for comprehensive 
and well-considered development of the water-powers on the various 
streams of the Red river valley. There are many valuable water- 
powers still open for development; many of the schemes brought to 
public attention from time to time are entirely impracticable. 

Along the Red river itself, power development is scarcely feasi- 
ble ; even if the navigability of the stream were forfeited so as to avoid 
the large expenses attaching to the construction of a lock in every 
dam, there would still be these several objections. First, on accoimt 
of the narrow and deep channel that the river has cut thru the 
prairies, it has a great rise at flood stage; so that a dam as high as 
thirty, or at some points even forty, feet would be "drowned out" oc- 
casionally, and any dam of less height quite often for weeks or 
months, so that service would be interrupted. Second, there is no- 
where to be found solid rock upon which to rest the foundations; 
a low dam could be so built as to stand, but no reasonable expendi- 
ture would make a high dam secure against destruction from the 



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Red River of the North 251 

great pressure behind it, or from the overfall and scour of the floods. 
Third, the slope is so small (six inches to the mile of channel) that 
even a low dam would back the water more or less for many miles ; 
roughly estimated, every foot additional height of dam would cause 
some rise of water for nearly four additional miles up the river, 
which would result in innumerable claims for damages; yet on ac- 
count of the narrow width of the valley or channel below the prairie 
level, no proportionately large storage would be created. Fourth, 
the flow of the low-water season is small; the power output would 
be small thru six months of the normal year. If a large power could 
be developed for use thru the entire year, the large expenditure nec- 
essary would be justifiable; but to incur the same great expense and 
receive only small returns is not profitable. Hence it may be pre- 
dicted in general terms that there will never be power development 
on the main river. 

Along some of the tributary streams the conditions are very 
different. There are not the waterfalls and the rapids of a rock- 
ribbed country, nor the great descents that among the mountains 
make possible the profitable use of small streams at enormous heads; 
but the margins of the Red river valley are from 300 to 700 feet 
above the river, and are only 60 to icx> miles distant from it, so 
that every tributary stream has abundant fall and offers frequent 
opportunity for economical construction of dams without too large 
flowage damages. 

In the streams on the western side, the natural flow is so small 
during a large portion of the year that only a few small power 
plants have ever been installed. In some years the flow is small thru 
the entire year; in the normal year there would be fairly good 
power from early in April till midsummer, but after that the flow 
of even the largest streams is apt to diminish very nearly to zero. 
Thus no considerable use of power for more than a minor portion 
of the year is possible unless storage reservoirs can be built of suffi- 
ciently large capacity to equalize the flow thru successive years. To 
serve their purpose perfectly, such reservoirs would need to be at 
least large enough to contain three-fourths of the entire normal an- 
nual flow of the stream ; even at the most favorable natural location, 
the cost of such vast reservoirs would be heavy, but by no other 
means can any considerable power development in the west side of 
the valley be obtained. By equalizing the flow from month to month, 
such reservoirs would also serve these other desirable objects, the 
amelioration of spring flood damages and the improvement of navi- 
gation. If the flow could thus be equalized on the western tributar- 



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252 The Quarterly Journal 

ies, an estimated development totalling 25,000 horse-power might 
become feasible; without storage, thru the low-stage six months of 
the average year from all the streams together an aggregate of 1,000 
horse-power could scarcely be obtained. 

On the eastern side of the Red river, conditions are in two re- 
spects vastly more favorable. The total annual nm-off is from 
four to twelve times as great as on the western side and it is dis- 
tributed much more uniformly thru the year. This comparatively 
more uniform distribution would be expected in view of the greater 
total annual flow, for the stream feeders and tributary imderflo^r 
have not the opportunity to become so completely drained off and 
dried out during the dry season as those on the western side; it also 
results from the vast number and acreage of the many lakes among 
which these streams rise and by which their flow is partially equalized 
from month to month. The necessity for storage is therefore not so 
great as on the streams on the western side of the valley, and there 
are more opportunities for large, relatively inexpensive storage reser- 
voirs. Streams on which development has already begun are these. 

The Ottertail river between Ottertail Lake and the margin 
of the flat country ten miles southwest of Fergus Falls has a total 
descent of 283 feet, most of which can be utilized. In the vicinity 
of Fergus Falls no feet has already been utilized at six plants (only 
four being now in operation) for which the conditions are very 
favorable by reason of the uniformity of flow. There are no floods 
to cause trouble, the recorded maximum being only 1020 second- 
feet, and until the exceptionally dry season of 19 10 it was supposed 
that the minimum figure for open season flow was not less than 150 
second feet, and the minimum winter flow 100 second-feet. 

The Pelican, which enters the Ottertail below Fergus Falls, is 
similar but only one-third as large; a mill is operated at Elizabeth 
and others above. The Wild Rice drives a plant at Heiberg, and is 
said to have other good power-sites higher up; without considerable 
reservoir storage, the winter flow is likely to be small, but it is sup- 
posed that there are reservoir sites that could be used. On the Buf- 
falo, the Sand Hill, and the Clearwater rivers there are small plants. 

The Red Lake river has 390 feet fall in the 200 miles of its 
length below Red Lake, only 46 feet of which is used by a dam at 
Thief River Falls, two at Red Lake Falls, and one at Crookston. 
The natural storage afforded by Red Lake keeps the ordinary winter 
minimum up to 500 second-feet; if the lake were improved for 
operation as a reservoir, the flow in the lower river could probably 
be kept above 800 second-feet, perhaps above 1000 second-feet, thru 
the whole year. 



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Red River of the North 253 

If all favorable opportunities were utilized on each stream on 
the Minnesota side of the valley, it is roughly estimated that there 
ivould be obtained thru the whole of every year (except such 
phenomenally dry years as 19 10) a total of 55,000 horse-power. If 
storage reservoirs were established at all suitable points in the head- 
waters, a total of 100,000 to 200,000 horse-power might be devel- 
oped thru the whole year; or the same amount would be available 
thru half the year without storage. Space limitations forbid the in- 
sertion here of detailed statement of the opportunities, but this will 
suffice to indicate that the 3,000 horse-power already developed in 
this district is only the beginning of ultimate complete develop- 
ment. 

Winnipeg River Altho outside the Red river valley proper, the 
magnificent development on the Winnipeg river, 
75 miles northeast of the city of Winnipeg, deserves mention. On 
account of the equalizing effect of the Lake of the Woods (area, 
1,200 square miles) and many other lakes this river is unusually 
well suited for power development; its drainage area or watershed 
is more than 50,000 square miles, its minimum flow is supposed to 
be 16,000 second-feet, and its maximum 90,000. The city of Win- 
nipeg is building a hydro-electric plant at Point du Bois Falls, 
where 35 feet head is afforded by the falls and rapids which is in- 
creased to 45 feet by a dam at the crest. If there is no error in the 
estimates of minimum flow, there will thus be available a continuous 
power amounting to 60,000 horse-power. That portion of the entire 
plant to be finished during the summer of 191 1 will furnish 30,000 
horse-power, and will cost $3,200,000; the construction has been 
planned in such a way that the unit-cost of further extensions to de- 
velop the entire power when needed will be small. On the same 
river, at Lac du Bonnet Falls, a few miles further down, the Win- 
nipeg Street Railway Company has a 30,000 horse-power plant 
which has been in operation for about four years. 

Oaallty for Last but not least, for it directly concerns 

Domestic Us« thousands of people every day, is the topic of the 

potability of the water from the various streams. Many of the 
tributaries are clear and sparkling as they come down the hills into 
the valley, but after reaching the clay of the prairies they soon 
acquire the color which the name of the river indicates. A more 
dangerous defect in quality is the bacteriological contamination re- 
ceived from the sewers of each town upon the banks. The extent of 



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254 ^*^ Quarterly Journal 

this contamination, or rather the amount of dilution, depends upon 
the quantity of water flowing in the stream, and this must be taken 
into consideration in selecting the least unsafe source of supply for 
towns, if drinking water is to be taken from the river. But the 
engineering, chemical, bacteriological, and sanitary questions involved 
in this subject are so many as to demand the space of an entire 
article, and must not be introduced here. 

Recapltnlatloii In recapitulation, the chief conclusions drawn 

in this paper may be briefly stated thus. 

1. On account of its northward flowing direction and its deep 
narrow channel, the early spring floods of the Red river are almost 
unique in their character. 

2. The possible value of the river as a route for navigation 
is such that it deserves reasonable improvement. 

3. No development of power from the Red river itself is 
feasible. 

4. The natural flow of the tributaries from the west side of 
the valley is not such as to give any continuous water-power ; on the 
east side it is. 

5. The construction and operation of reservoirs would lessen 
flood damages, improve navigation, and add greatly to the value of 
the water-powers, 

6. No intelligent decision as to the financial profit or loss likely 
to result from any such project can be made except by the assistance 
of long-extended records of the flow of the river and of its trib- 
utaries. 

7. The various streams of the Red river valley furnish ex- 
cellent illustrations of the division of rainfall into evaporation and 
run-off. The possible evaporation in this region is at least twenty 
inches ; hence if the rainfall were evenly distributed in small amounts 
thru the entire year (except less in the winter), on the Dakota side 
of the valley it would approximately all pass into the evaporation, 
and the run-off would be practically nothing. 

8. As a matter of fact, the annual run-off on the Dakota side 
of the valley is between o.i and 2 inches; on the Minnesota side, 
between 2 and 7 inches. 

9. The annual run-off varies greatly from year to year, and it 
should be expected that in extreme wet years the total annual run-off 
will be from two to four times the mean annual run-off, and in 
extreme dry years, from one-half to one-fourth of the mean; the 
comparative variations are greater on the west side than on the east. 



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Red River of the North 255 

10. Under normal conditions, nearly half of the total annual 
stream-flow passes during the three months of April, May, and 
June. 

11. It is possible that the efiFect of cultivation may ultimately 
be perceptible in the decrease of the run-off. 

Blbllo^aphy and Complete copies of portions of the river-records 
Acknowledgments on which much of the foregoing discussion is 
based have been issued annually with other related information by 
the'U. S. Geological Survey in the Water-Supply and Irrigation 
Papers bearing these numbers: 

For the year 1901, numbers 66 and 75. 
" 1902, number 85. 
" 1903, " icx>. 
" 1904, " 130. 

" 1905, " 171. 
" 1906, " 207. 
years 1907 and 1908, number 245. 

The same records for the Minnesota side of the valley, from 
1901 to 1910, are included in the Report of the Water Resources 
Investigation of Minnesota issued by the State Drainage Commis- 
sion in 1910. 

Summaries of all the records for 1903 and 1904 were published 
in the Third Biennial Report of the State Geologist of North Da- 
kota; for 1905 and 1906, in the Second Biennial Report of the 
State Engineer of North Dakota; for 1907 and 1908, in the Third 
Report, and for 1909 and 19 10 in the Fourth Report of the State 
Engineer. 

Acknowledgement is due to the persons who have from time to 
time furnished information for this use or rendered other assistance, 
especially to Capt. John F. Hayes of Grand Forks, and also to Mr. 
Geo. Ebner, a university student, who has compiled many of the 
tables and prepared the diagrams here presented. 



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A Study of the Purity of Natural Ice 
from Polluted Water 

GUSTAV F. RUEDIGBR 

Professor of Bacteriology and Pathology, and Director of the State 
Public Health Laboratory, University of North Dakota 

T7VERYBODY who has given the matter any thought is fully 
-*-' aware that nearly all streams in America arc so heavily pol- 
luted with sewage and other excretal wastes that their waters are 
entirely unfit for drinking purposes unless they are subjected to some 
process of purification. Nearly every city having a system of sewers 
and being located within a mile or two of a river or lake is discharg- 
ing its untreated sewage into that body of water. A great many of 
our western farmers, who live close to a river, throw their stable 
manure on its banks and let the high water during the spring months 
carry it away. In many cities in this section of the country most of 
the livery stables are built close to the river bank and all manure 
is thrown out of the back door into the river. In addition to these 
excretal wastes practically all factory wastes, creamery and brewery 
wastes find their way into the rivers, and not infrequently we find 
floating there the carcass of some dead animal. 

It is evident from these considerations that nearly all of our 
streams will sooner or later become a public nuisance unless this 
wholesale pollution of these waters is stopped. Some of our streams 
have already become so foul that they are entirely unsuited for out- 
door sports and recreation, and their waters are so bad that it is al- 
most impossible to bring about a sufficient degree of purification to 
render them safe and suitable for drinking and cooking purposes. Raw 
sewage, factory and creamery wastes, and stable manure should not 
be deposited in any body of water that is to be used for drinking 
purposes by another community. These wastes should either be dis- 
charged on land, where they can serve as fertilizer, or they should be 
purified by means of one of the many processes that have been per- 
fected. 

Our ice supplies also are derived from these heavily polluted 
rivers and lakes, and in the case of ice we cannot tesort to a process 
of purification but are obliged to use it in the condition we find it 
when harvested. It behooves us, therefore, to inquire carefully into 
the purity of this commodity before we place it in our drinking water 



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Purity of Natural Ice from Polluted Waters 257 

or allow it to come in contact with foods which are to be eaten un- 
cooked. 

An inquiry of this kind was made by the Massachusetts State 
Board of Health ^ twenty years ago but practically no health officers, 
phjTsicians or laymen are familiar with this investigation. It was 
shown in this investigation that the organic impurities found in the 
average natural ice represent only about 12% of these impurities 
found in the water from which the ice was derived. The bacterial 
content of the average ice was found to be only 10% of that of the 
water, and in perfectly clear ice the bacterial content was as low as 
2% of that found in the water from which the ice had formed. 

A review of the literature bearing on the subject shows that 
outbreaks of typhoid fever can but seldom be attributed to the use 
of polluted ice. A very small number of epidemics of this nature 
have, however, been observed in this country and in Europe. 

During the last two years the Public Health Laboratory of 
North Dakota made a comparative study of the purity of ice and 
water collected at the same location in the following rivers and lakes 
in North Dakota and Minnesota: Des Lacs Lake, Kenmare; Goose 
River, Hillsboro; Forest River, Gilby; Forest River, Minto; Maple 
Lake, Minnesota; Milton Lake, Milton; Missouri River, Bismarck; 
Mouse River, Minot; Ottertail River, Breckenridge, Minn.; Park 
River, Grafton; Red River above Fargo; Red River above Grand 
Forks; Red River below Grand Forks; Red River, Drayton; Red 
Lake River, East Grand Forks, Minn.; Rush Lake, Wales; Sweet 
Water Lake, north of Devils Lake; a stagnant Slough, Langdon; 
Sykeston Lake, Sykeston; Turtle River, Larimore. 

Many of these samples of ice were perfectly satisfactory, both 
from the bacteriological and chemical points of view, altho the water 
from which the ice had formed was found to be heavily polluted with 
sewage. In some cases, however, as in the case of Des Lacs Lake, 
Park River and the Red River below the Grand Forks sewers, the 
ice was found to contain a large amount of organic impurities and 
was by no means free from sewage bacteria. The results of the 
analyses are set forth in the following table: 



1. 21st Annual Report. Mass. state Boord of Heiatli.l889L p. 148 



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26o The Quarterly Journal 

A comprison of the results shows that natural ice, as found in 
this section of the country, contains only a small portion (somedmcs 
less than i%) of the impurities found in the water from whidi the ice 
is derived. This is due to the fact that the water in freezing ex- 
cludes nearly all of the foreign matter and the ice represents almost 
absolutely pure water. In other words, the formation of ice is a 
process of crystallization and we know that crystallization is a 
process of purification. If, however, a small amount of polluted 
water flows upon the surface of freezing ice the impurities in it can- 
not be excluded when this water freezes, because the entire mass 
of this small amount of water freezes solid and the bacteria and fildi 
must remain in it. This emphasizes the fact that ice must not be 
harvested from a place that is subject to surface pollution with sew- 
age and other filth. Furthermore the investigations of Clark ^ have 
shown that samples of ice collected from a body of shallow water 
contain relatively more bacteria and organic impurities than ice col- 
lected from deep water. His investigations also showed that ice 
which has formed in disturbed water contains relatively more bac- 
teria than ice formed in perfectly quiet water. This point has also 
been brought out very clearly by our analyses. In some instances 
the ice on a river forms under conditions which cause the formation 
of dark streaks in the ice. Such ice may contain an abundance of 
both organic and inorganic impurities, and bacteria. A sample of 
this kind was collected at Fargo and subjected to analysis, which 
showed that this part of the block contained about 34% of the num- 
ber of bacteria found in the river water from this location. It is 
clear, therefore, that blocks of ice which are marked with dark, or 
dirty, streaks should not be stored in the ice house for future use but 
should be discarded at the time when the ice is harvested. 

The results of our analyses show further that ice taken from 
very heavily polluted water, as that of the Red River one-half mile 
below the outlet of the Grand Forks sewers, or that of Park River, 
is by no means free from organic impurities, nor from sewage bac- 
teria. The ice from Des Lac Lake and that from the Red River be- 
low Grand Forks contain many sewage bacteria and much organic 
impurity and is therefore objectionable and unsafe even for cooling 
purposes in the home. 

Three samples of ice which had been in storage for about four 
months were examined bacteriologically in May, 1909. One of 
these was very porous when it was taken from the delivery wagon, 

2. JoiinuUofMMS.AM'nof Boudsof H«atli,1901.11.p.lS« 



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Purity of Natural Ice from Polluted Waters a6i 

and the examination of this sample showed that it contained iioo 
bacteria per cc. The other two samples contained 62 and 128 bac- 
teria per cc. respectively. At the time when this ice was put into 
storage samples were examined bacteriologically and were found to 
be nearly free from bacteria. Our analyses show therefore that ice 
may become contaminated with bacteria at the time when it is deliv- 
ered to the consumer. This is not at all surprising when we consider 
the fact that ice is always delivered in a very dirty wagon and that 
the delivery man does not hesitate at any time to walk over the 
blocks of ice with his dirty boots. It would seem that an article like 
ice that is to be used for cooling our drinks and vegetables in the 
homes should be handled by the delivery man with as much care as 
our meats. When we consider the fact that meats are always cooked 
before they are eaten (which process is sure to kill all the bacteria 
that it may contain) it would seem that ice which is used for cooling 
our food and drink should be handled even more carefully than meats, 
because ice cannot be sterilized before it is used. 

Our analyses show that nearly all samples of natural ice that 
have formed under favorable conditions are entirely free from colon 
bacilli. This is largely due to the fact that at least 98% of the bac- 
teria in the water are excluded in the process of freezing. Another 
fact, however, must be taken into consideration. When samples of 
water that have been contaminated with colon bacilli are frozen so 
that the bacteria are included in the ice it is found that these bacteria 
die ofi rapidly in the ice. Experiments carried out at the Public 
Health Laboratory last winter showed that colon bacilli in ice which 
was kept in a shed were all dead at the end of eight weeks. Typhoid 
bacilli which were kept in ice under the same conditions were found 
to be all dead at the end of thirty-one days. The outdoor tempera- 
ture during this period of time varied from 32 degrees Fahrenheit to 
— 24 degrees. ^ 



8. Tlieteehnie of the ezp«riiii«nt was as follows: 100 oe. of riT«r water was plaead in 
each of 16 wide-mouth bottles of 200 cc capacity, and sterilized in the antoclaye. To eiffht 
of these bottles was now added one-half cubic centimeter of a culture of typhoid bacilli oon- 
taininff 214,000,000 bacilli, and to each of the remaining bottles was added ^ cc of culture 
of colon bacilli containinuBr 209,000,000 bacillL The contents were now allowed to freese and 
the bottles kept in an open seed. At intenrals of about one week one bottle of each lot was 
brought to the laboratory, the ice was allowed to melt at room temperature and the number 
of bacilli remaining alive in 1 cc of each was determined by means of plates. Further de- 
tails of the results of the experiment are shown in Table 2. 



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262 



The Quarterly Journal 



TABLE 2. Showing: Duration of Life of Typhoid Bacalli and Colon 
Bacilli in Ice Kept in a Shed in Winter Weather 





TYPHOID BACILU 


COLON BACILLI 




Number of 


Percentaffo 


Number of 


Percentace 




typhoid iMMsiUi 


of typhoid 
bMllUliTinir 


eokmbMiUi 


of eokmfaae- 




Iniee 


in ice 


iUiUvinff 


Before freezing 


214,000,000 


100 


269,000,000 


100 


Frozen 8 days 


145,000 


.067 


7,000,000 


3.0 


" 14 " 


54,000 


.025 


5,000,000 


1.85 


" 22 " 


220 


.0001 


1,020,000 


.38 


" 31 " 












" 36 " 






10,700 


.0039 


" 45 " 






1,950 


.00072 


" 46 " 













Altho the experiment shows that some of the typhoid bacilli sur- 
vive freezing for twenty-two days, under the conditions of the experi- 
ment, it must be noticed that more than 99.9% of them died during 
the first eight days. Similar results were obtained by Park in 1907- ^ 
In his experiment some of the typhoid bacilli survived as long as 1 12 
days, which is probably due to the fact that he did not subject them 
to a temperature below 28 degrees Fahrenheit. The minimum tem- 
perature on each day of my experiment is shown in the accompansring 
chart. 

CONCLUSIONS 

We may conclude from this investigation and previous investi- 
gations by the Massachusetts State Board of Health that ice taken 
from a source like the Red River above Grand Forks sewers, the Red 
Lake River above East Grand Forks and the Missouri River above 
the outlet of the Bismarck sewers is as free from sewage bacteria, and 
therefore as safe for drinking purposes, as the average filtered water. 
In fact, there arc very few sand filters in this section of the country 
that bring about as high a degree of bacterial purification at all times 
as is brought about by nature in the process of freezing. The 
process of freezing removes also the inorganic constituents of the 
water which are not removed by any of the sand filters. We must 
remember, however, that ice that has been polluted on the surface 
after it has formed, and ice that has been harvested from a very 
heavily polluted stream, may contain enough sewage bacteria to ren- 
der it unsafe for use in drinking water. Ice that has been formed 
in disturbed water, and is marked with dirty, gray streaks running 
thru the blocks, may contain a large amount of organic matter and 
enough sewage bacteria to render it unsafe for use in drinking water. 
This is particulraly true of ice that has just been harvested, since the 
danger decreases as the time of storage increases. 

i. Jour. A. M. A.. 1907. XUX 781 



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The Flight of the Modern Bullet 
and the Wound it Makes 

A. HoYT Taylor 
Professor of Physics, University of North Dakota 

THE history and science of the development of the various weap- 
ons which have made man the supreme animal form an in- 
tensely interesting study for the anthropologist, the phsrsidst, the 
physidan, the military man, and last but not least, for the out-of-doors 
man, whether he use his weapons for the chase, or is a shooter because 
practice in that art appeals to him as should any other clean sport. 

It is not my purpose to enter into a mathematical treatment of 
the motion of projectiles, nor am I able to use with fluency the line of 
jaw-breaking names by means of which the learned surgeon explains 
what is the matter with a man who has gotten in the way of a can- 
non-ball. 

Owing to the widely differing concepts, preconceived ideas, and 
erroneous impressions prevalent among most people who have given 
the matter any thought, it will be necessary for me to carefully 
define certain expressions which would otherwise seem very technical 
to the uninitiated. Moreover, owing to the wide scope of the field, 
I shall limit my remarks to small caliber projectiles, and more es- 
pecially to rifle and pistol bullets. 

In the first place, every projectile has two motions, each of which 
produces its own effect independently of the other. This b demon- 
strated by a very simple experiment. If a marble is shot horizontally 
off the end of a table at the same time that another marble is dropped 
straight down from the end of the table, they will both reach the 
floor at the same time. 

This means that the fall of the marble occurs in exactly the same 
way whether it has a horizontal velocity or not. It means that if you 
stand on the shore of a lake and fire your rifle in a horizontal position 
that the bullet will strike the water in exactly the same time that it 
will if dropped freely from the same level as the end of the rifle. 
There is a very slight deviation from this law for an elongated pro- 
jectile, this being due to certain peculiar motions caused by the spin- 
ning of the bullet about its axis. This deviation is so small that no 
ordinary experiment would detect it. In other words, the bullet con- 
tinually falls as it flies, causing the path to be curved, or parabolic. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



The Modern Bullet and the Wound it Makes 265 

The motion of a falling body is not a uniform one, but one of 
rapidly increasing velocity, so that a bullet drops much more rapidly 
at the end of its flight than at the beginning. Then, too, the effect 
of the air resistance is to make the time required for a given flight 
longer, which also gives more opportunity for the bullet to drop. 
The net result is that the latter part of a long flight is very much 
more curved than the beginning. Contrary to the current impression, 
there b no part of the flight, not even the beginning, which is flat, or 
straight. The faster the initial velocity of the bullet, the less time does 
it have to drop, and the flatter the gun shoots. 

A second point about which there is much wrangling, due to 
loose definitions of the terms used by the disputants, is the question 
of the ''knocking down" eflfect, or shocking power, of a bullet. This 
quantity may be easily measured by shooting the ball into a heavy 
pendulum, and noting the amount of swing caused by the impact. 
There is, however, a simple way of calculating the shocking power 
when the weight and velocity of the ball are known. 

For instance, the old Springfield musket of the Civil War days 
had a 500 grain ball moving at the rate of about iocx> feet per second, 
and a shocking power measured by the product of these quantities, that 
is, by 500x1000 = 500,000 units (71.2 pd. ft.). The modern Spring- 
field, the new rifle of our army, shoots a 150 grain ball at the rate of 
2700 feet per second, giving a shocking power of 150x2700= 405,000 
units (57.7 pd. ft.). The Krag-Jorgcnson has a 220 grain ball mov- 
ing at the rate of 1900 feet per second, and hence a shocking power 
of 418,000 units (59.5 pd. ft.). The tendency is towards somewhat 
less shocking power than in the older model guns. From this it is 
evident that the shocking power is not the only factor that enters into 
the rifle question. The other important factor is the energy of the 
ball just after it leaves the muzzle. This is a quantity that is not easy 
to define except in the technical language of the physicist and engi- 
neer, but I believe that I am not far wrong in explaining that the 
energy of a bullet is the measure of its destructive power, but not of 
its penetrating power. Suppose that two bullets, one .22 inch or 
about yi inch, and the other .44 inch, or nearly ^ inch, penetrate into 
a pine log to the same depth. Obviously the .22 has not destroyed 
or smashed as much material as the .44, which bores a hole twice as 
wide, and four times as big in cross-section. Therefore the penetra- 
tion cannot alone measure the energy. 

If the resistance of a block of wood were the same for all vel- 
ocities of the bullet, which is not exactly true, the energy mig^t be 
represented by the product of the depth of penetration by the size of 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



266 The Quarterly Journal 

the hole, thus giving the amount of material crushed. This might 
be considered as a rough definition of the energy, but for finer com{NU'- 
ison it will be best to use the exact expression E = J^MV^, which 
gives the energy in terms of the velocity and the weight of die balL 

Turning for a moment to our former illustration, the old Spring- 
field would have an energy of 250 million units, whidi expressed in 
the engineer's units would be 11 16 foot pounds. The Krag has 1880 
foot pounds, and the new army Springfield 2430 foot pounds. Thus 
it is seen that the old rifle of the Civil War had somewhat more shodk- 
ing power than the new Springfield, but far less energy, and less dian 
half the velocity. In comparing the two types, however, it must be 
remembered that the ball of the older rifle generally stopped in the 
body of the wounded man, expending upon him the whole of its 
shocking power and energy, while the new Springfield and other rifles 
of this type will shoot thru many men in line, giving only part of the 
shocking power and energy to each. It will kill more men and at 
longer range than its predecessor, but except at very close range where 
the explosive effect of the ball is of importance, it will not stop a man 
or beast, as efiEectively as a heavier ball, with less velocity and less 
energy, with small penetration but more shock. The British discov- 
ered this in the Soudan, where the mad charging dervishes could be 
shot full of .303 caliber holes without stopping them, altho they 
died later, of course. In order to cause more of the shock and energy 
to be expended in the first object struck, the dum-dum or mushroom- 
ing bullet, oftener called the soft point, has been introduced, and is 
now used in practically all high power big game rifles, but is outlawed 
in warfare on account of the fearfully ragged wound it makes. 

The modern military rifle shoots a bullet with a steel or cupro- 
nickel jacket, which enables the ball to follow the rifling in the barrel 
without stripping and thus fouling the barrel. This ball has enor- 
mous penetration, in some cases six feet of soft pine, and at long 
ranges, where its velocity has been reduced by air resistance to less 
than 1200 foot seconds, it makes a small clean wound. If, however, 
the tip of the steel jacket be left off, so that the soft lead point of die 
bullet is exposed, the effect is very different, as the lead rolls back in 
the shape of a mushroom, as soon as the bullet strikes a substance of 
even very slight resistance, causing a ragged wound, and having such 
reduced penetration that all of the shock and energy of the bullet is 
expended in the object or animal struck. This expanding, or mush- 
rooming effect may be shown by shoodng two bullets with the same 
velocity into a block of wood. If one is a full metal patched or 
jacketed ball, and the other is a soft point, there will be a great difier- 



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The Modern Bullet and the Wound it Makes 267 

ence in the size of the holes, and in the penetrations in the two cases, 
and if the two bullets be recovered, the one will be found only slightly 
deformed, while the other is an unrecognizable liunp of lead, with 
jagged pieces of the metal jacket embedded in it. The wound made 
by a sporting rifle using soft point bullets will evidently be a bad one 
for the physician to treat, if indeed, as is often the case, the patient 
does not bleed to death before he can be gotten out of the woods. 

One of the fundamental principles of physics, susceptible of easy 
verification in the laboratory, is the one which shows us that when the 
powder explodes in the gun, the momentum of the gun and the shooter 
is equal to the momentum, or shocking power of the bullet. Fortu- 
nately the re^>ective energies are not equal, or no man would fire 
a gun more than once. It is less injurious to receive upon the 
shoulder, or nose, as the case may be, the recoil of a heavy gun, which 
kicks back slowly, than the recoil of a light gun which kicks back 
rapidly under the same load. The shock is in each case the same, as 
can be shown by actual measurement, but the destructive power, or 
energy, is more for the lighter weapon. On this basis it is seen that 
die old style ball with its large shocking power requires a heavy 
weapon from which to be discharged, in order that the recoil or kick 
be not too energetic. 

Some of the older military and hunting rifles weighed from 1 1 
to 14 pounds and the ammunition was so heavy that a man could carry 
only thirty rounds where he now carries 150. Then too, the slow 
velocity of the ball, its consequent rapid drop, and short range made 
good shooting very diflicult. 

There are some who say that in those days they could shoot so 
well that they did not need all of these "new fangled contraptions," 
but let me remark in passing that the American people are shooting 
more and better than they ever did, and that the records of the recent 
rifle meets where the new Springfield was used show scores that have 
never been equalled anywhere or at any time. 

The question of caliber is a complex one, and I shall only point 
out that the large diameter ball experiences more air resistance than 
the small one, thus losing its velocity more rapidly when other condi- 
tions are the same. The modern military rifles of France, Germany, 
England, Italy, and the United States, all are between .30 and .32 
inch caliber, and have very long, completely jacketed, ball which 
leaves the muzzle with a velocity of over 2000 foot seconds, and with 
a rapid spinning motion which is imparted by the twisted grooves, or 
rifling of the barrel. This spinning motion keeps them head on in 
their flight. The high initial velocity, sharp shape, and small air re- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



268 The Quarterly Journal 

sistance insure very little drop within the ranges where an ordinary 
marksman can hit anything. The flight is exceedin^y flat up to 300 
yards, after which their velocity is suffidently reduced so that the 
drop from then on is considerable. 

The modem rifle has then the advantages of light weight (the 
new Springfield weighing about 8 pounds) light ammunition, less 
recoil, more energy, longer range, and increased accuracy. It has the 
disadvantage of less shocking power unless the range be very short, 
or soft point bullets are used, which under unusual or peculiar cir- 
cumstances may not mushroom. These changes in the favorite weapon 
of man have introduced some new and interesting phases in the study 
and treatment of wounds. The modem rifle, aside from the expand- 
ing bullet effect, shows another even more remarkable phenomenon at 
dose range, while the velocity is still very high. This is what I shall 
call the explosive efiEect, and accoimts for many of the so called 
"freak woimds" made by the newer rifles. 

The following experiment illustrates this effect. Two exactly 
similar tin pails full of water and open at the top, are shot straight 
thm the middle with two exactly similar bullets, one moving at 
the rate of iocx> foot seconds and the other at the rate of 2000 foot 
seconds. 

In the case of the slower ball the water is violently ejected from 
the pail, but aside from a small hole at entry, and an only slightly 
larger one at exit ,the pail is uninjured. The hig^ velocity ball makes 
an equally small hole on entry, but the whole pail is simply blown 
apart, or exploded as if by a charge of dynamite placed inside of die 
pail. The explanation is not diflicult. Water is an ideal medium for 
transmitting pressure, and the velocity of the ball is so high that the 
water has no time to rise out of the top of the pail and get out of the 
way. Hence the enormous pressure of impact of the bullet is deliv- 
ered in all directions, laterally, up and down, as well as straight for- 
ward ahead of the bullet. 

This effect has nothing to do with the nature of the point of the 
bullet ; it is the same whether the point is soft or steel jacketed. A 
low velocity ball, even if a large one, seldom produces this effect, and 
a very light ball, if moving rapidly, will always do so. 

The importance of this effect in producing wounds at close range 
can hardly be overestimated. If the bullet strikes some watery part 
of the body, such as the brain, or the stomach when full of liquid, the 
wound may be terrible. Even in the case of penetration of solid flesh 
and bone only, the lateral pressure produced may cause disturbances 
of nerves and organs far distant from the wound itself, and far more 



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The Modern Bullet and the Wound it Makes 269 

serious to the patient in consequence. This same bullet after 
a longer flight, and consequently reduced velocity, generally 
produces a clean, small wound, which according to the reports from 
the Spanish-American War (House Documents, Vol. 112, No. 729) 
are strangely enough generally asceptic, even when made by a 
ricocheted ball, altho in the latter case the wound is more ragged, and 
the ball has less penetration. 

The expanding or mushrooming effect of the big game bullet is 
also worse at close ranges, for the soft nose of this bullet will not roll 
back into a good mushroom unless the velocity be rather high, probably 
at least over iocx> foot seconds. Hence it frequently happens that at 
very long ranges the hunter bores a neat little hole in the game, and 
there is not enough blood to follow the trail. It is often said by old 
himters that for every deer brought in, two are killed, the one dying 
as surely as the other, but out of the reach of the pursuer. For this 
reason there is to be noted a tendency in modern sporting rifles back 
towards the larger calibers, retaining however the high velocity and 
great energy which nitro or smokeless powders and nickel steel bar- 
rels have made possible. All of these developments, in a lesser degree, 
have been repeated in the history of the revolver and of the automatic 
pistol. I may say in passing that it seems to me that the velocities 
reached in the case of the Mauser, Luger, and Colt pistols, high as 
they are, do not reach the point where the expansion of a soft nose 
bullet is certain, so that for stopping big game they are not as effec- 
tive as the old .45 Colt and others. Moreover, the soft point bullet is 
outlawed in civilized warfare, so that for military purposes the small 
caliber, high velocity bullets having the advantages of long range, 
great penetration and accuracy, are open to serious objections. The 
tendency in the U. S. A. is back towards the larger caliber in the case 
of the pistol, altho the automatic feature will probably be improved 
and introduced later. 

As a weapon of defense, the small caliber automatic pistol is 
again open to the objection that while it may shoot the burglar full 
of many holes in a surprisingly short fraction of a second, so that he is 
of small consolation to his friends later, it may nevertheless not stop 
him before he has a chance to shoot back. The great penetration and 
range of these bullets put the innocent by-stander in as much danger as 
the fleeing criminal when the city policeman is obliged to draw his 
weapon. 

The wounds made by the modern pistols, using steel jacketed 
bullets, are usually clean cut, and the bullet seldom stays in the body. 
The explosive effect is nearly absent except perhaps in the case of the 



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270 



The Quarterly Journal 



Mauser and of the Luger at very dose range. These bullets do not 
accumulate dirt with age as do the plain lead bullets, which may par- 
tially account for the fact that their wounds are so often asccptic. 
Another feature is the fact that nowadays the surgeon's first effort 
is not necessarily to remove the bullet, but rather to heal the wound. 
It was strikingly demonstrated in the Spanish War report already 
referred to that the ball itself seldom does harm if the wound be 
clean and kept asceptic, unless the bullet is lodged near some nerve 
center, or in a joint. 

The X-Ray photographs in this report show clearly the facts 
brought out by my previous discussion of the wounds made by mili- 
tary bullets at long and at short range. For instance, after penetrat- 
ing bony parts, the amount of comminution of bone was, at long range, 
seldom great. Unfortunately very little of the data refers to short 
range wounds, as the conditions of modern warfare prohibit this hap- 
pening, except in rare instances, in which cases the weapon is not al- 
ways the rifle. The following table compares the ballistics and wound 
effects of the older with the modern rifle bullet: 





Modern Bullet 


Old Style Bullet 


Weight of Ball 


Light 


Heavy. 


Shape of Ball 


Pointed 


Snub-nosed. 


Shocking Power 


Medium 


Great. 


Penetration 


Qreat 


Small. 


Energy 


Very high 


Not very great 


Trajectory 


Very flat 


Much curved. 






great drop 


Expansive effect 


Great, especially at 




(sporting rifles only) 


at short range) 


Not very great 


Deformation, (military 




Irregular and fre- 


rifles) 


Very little 


Quentlv laree 


Free recoil 


Small 


Great. 


Range 


Great 


Very limited. 


Wounds (military) ... 


Asceptic in many 
cases except at 






close range 


Septic as a rule. 


Wounds, long range... 
Wounds, med. range. . 


Clean cut 




Cleancut no lodged 


Irregular, generally 




ball 


lodged ball. 


Wounds, med. range.. 


Very ragged, with 




large torn exit 






(sporting rifle only 




Wounds, shortr ange.. 


Explosive effect 


Very little of the ex- 
plosive effect 


Comminution of bone: 






Military, short range 
Military, long range 


May be great 


Great 


Very little 




Sporting, short or 






medium 


Very great 




Danger zone 


Oreat 


Relatively small. 
Roar 


Report 


Sharp crack 









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The Modern Bullet and the Wound it Makes 



271 



Most modern of all rifles is the automatic, whose recoil is 
largely absorbed by a spring, and is utilized in ejecting the 
old cartridge and putting in a new one. The ammunition 
used is of the modern high velocity type, and of rather 
large caliber, especially in the case of the new .401 Winchester. In 
concluding, let me express my obligations to the Ideal Manufacturing 
Company's Hand Book, to the tables published by the Winchester 
Firearms Company, and to many articles by fellow gun cranks in 
the current literature of the day. Many of my conclusions are the 
result of my own experiment in the field and in the laboratory, and 
the figures on shocking power are computed very largely from my 
own data. The following table gives the ballistics of some of the 
best known modern rifles: 



Rifl« 



W«iffht 
of baU 



Velocity 



Shock 



P«n«trmtioii 
Boards 



•45 — 90 W 

.45—90 WHV . 
.30 — 40 Krag . . 
•30 — 30 W or M 
8mm. Mannl. . . 
8mm. Mauser . . 
.30 U.S.A. new. 
.303 Savage . . . 

.405 W 

.25 — 35 W or M 
.401 W 



300 
300 
220 
170 
236 
227 
150 
190 
300 
117 
250 



1480 
1925 
i960 
1950 
2080 
2200 
2700 
1925 
2150 
1925 
1875 



62.5 
82.5 
56.7 
47.1 
70. 

71.5 

57.7 

52.3 

92. 

32.1 

66.8 



1457 
2466 
1880 
1449 
2270 
2440 
2430 
1564 
3077 
985 
1952 



19" 
26" 
58" 
42" 
62" 
66" 

42" 
48" 
36" 



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Studies on the Self-purification 
of Streams* 

GUSTAV F. RUEDIGER 

Professor of Bacteriology and Pathology, and Director of the State 
Public Health Laboratory, University of North Dakota 

WHILE making routine bacteriological examinations of the 
water supply of Grand Forks I was impressed by the fact 
that both the raw and the filtered water contains many more colon 
bacilli during the winter months, when the river is covered with a 
thick layer of ice, than during the summer months, when the river 
is open. 

The water supply of Grand Forks is taken from Red Lake 
River in Minnesota, which is polluted with the raw sewage of Crook- 
ston, Minn., a city of about 7000 inhabitants. Crookston is twenty- 
eight miles above Grand Forks by rail, but the distance along the 
river is estimated to be from eighty to ninety miles. It takes about 
forty-eight hours for the water to flow from Crookston to Grand 
Forks. 

As the amount of excretal waste in the sewage, and hence the 
number of colon bacilli in it, at the point where the sewage enters 
the river, is presumably as large in the siunmer as in the winter, it 
has seemed that there must be a much more rapid destruction of these 
bacteria in the river during the summer months than during the 
winter months. The experiments and analyses to be presented here 
were undertaken for the purpose of proving or disproving this as- 
sumption. 

We know from the exhaustive studies of Russell, Jordan and 
Zeit, and others, that typhoid bacilli and colon bacilli do not survive 
many days in the waters of a heavily polluted river. In all of these 
studies, however, not much attention was paid to the seasonal varia- 
tion in the self-purification of the streams studied. This paper deals 
particularly with that phase of the problem. 

We know that the amoimt of sewage entering a river from a 
small city varies greatly during a 24-hour period. That is shown in 
the following set of analyses of samples collected at intervals of six 
hours at a point in the middle of the river, about ^ of a mile below 
the outlet of the sewer at Crookston. 

1. BMdbefonth* American Public H«AlthAMoei«tion.liUwmiikM. Sept. 7, 1910. 



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The Self 'Purification of Streams 273 

10 A. M. sample contained 28 B. coli per cc; 4 P. M. sample 
contained 27 B. coli per cc; 9 P. M. sample contained 25 and 4 A. 
M. sample contained 8 B. coli per cc. If, therefore, we wish to as- 
certain just how many B. coli there are in that river at any given 
point below, it is essential that at least three or four samples be col- 
lected and analyzed during a 24-hour period. 

Table i shows the results of eight analyses, each of which rep- 
resents the average of four analyses of samples collected above Grand 
Forks, at intervals of six hours. The first six were made in summer 
and the other two in winter, when the river was covered with ice 
averaging about thirty inches in thickness. The water collected at 
this point was polluted at Crookston, Minn., something like eighty 
to ninety miles farther up the river, and the time consumed in the 
flow from the point of pollution to the point of collection and an- 
alysis was approximately forty-eight hours. 

TABLE 1. Showing Variation in Number of B. Coli per cc. in Red 
Lake River Water at Different Times of Year. Samples Col- 
lected Above Grand Forks; Pollution at Crookston, Minn. 

RIVER NOT COVERED WITH ICE 

Calculated 
Volama of nombar B. ooH 
water in riyer; per cc if toI^ 
Date B. ooliperec Cable feet per mneof water 

Mcond always • 760 en. 

feet 

June 18, 1909 2}i 1120 3. 

July 12, 1909 3j^ 782 3.5 

Sept. II, 1909 6% 1000 7.3 

June 4, 1910 2 1180 3.3 

June 28, 1910 5j/$ 750 5.5 

Aug. 15, 1910 6 300 2. 

RIVER COVERED WITH ICE 

Jan. 18, 1910 15J43 y^Q ,55 

March i, 1910 17 1-3 610 14. 

The Table shows that the water in Red Lake river contains 
from three to five times as many B. coli per cubic centimeter during 
the winter months as it does during the early part of the simmier. 
The amount of pollution at Crookston, Minn., is approximately the 
same the year round and hence this difference in the number of B. 

8. The flffuree repr e s en t the aTerase of four analyses of samples eollected dvrinff a 
t4-hour period, at intenrals of six hours. The individual ezaminatlens va^ greatly as is 
shown by the following example: 8 A. M.— 14 B. Coli per cc; 2 P. M.~24 B. CoU per cc; 9 P. 
M.-14B.Coliperee.and8A.M.-10B.Colipercc: averaffe. 16.6. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



274 The Quarterly Journal 

coll eighty miles below this point must be due to a more rapid de- 
struction of these organisms during the summer months. 

The volume of water in the river varies greatly at different 
times of the year, but the U. S. Geological Survey takes daily read- 
ings to estimate the average daily flow. I am indebted to Prof. E. F. 
Chandler of the University of North Dakota for the readings, giving 
the number of cubic feet of flow per second. If from these figures 
we calculate the number of B. coli per cubic centimeter that would 
be found if there were no variation in the dilution we find that these 
figures correspond very closely to those actually foimd in the analyses. 
These calculations are made on the basis of 750 cubic feet of water 
per second which is about the average flow for the entire year. 

Altho the amount of sewage entering the river at Crookston, 
Minn., is no greater in the winter than it is in the summer, it must 
be admitted that we have no means of determining how many B. coli 
get into the river from fields and barn yards. It is certain, however, 
that more of these bacteria would get into the water from the latter 
sources during the summer months than during the winter months 
when everything is frozen, and hence this factor does not in any way 
weaken the conclusions to be drawn from these analyses. ^ 

EXPERIMENTS WITH DIALYSERS 

Dialyser experiments were now carried out with the idea of 
either corroborating or contradicting the above results. Both parch- 
ment paper and celloidin sacs were used. According to Todd results 
obtained from dialyser experiments are untrustworthy and must be 
gone over again before they are accepted. Todd found that typhoid 
bacilli grow thru these dialysing membranes in a comparatively short 
time. I have repeated his experiments and in some instances got 
similar results but I must dissent from his general conclusions. It 
was found that typhoid bacilli do not readily pass thru a properly 
made heavy celloidin sac, and scarcely ever during the first forty- 
eight hours. I am satisfied that experiments with heavy celloidin 
dialysers give very trustworthy results. All dialysers must be tested 
with egg albumen and by blowing into them when submerged in 

4. The technie employed in these analyMe was the Tery eimplest, Litmue laetoee 
mgta plates were made, usinff lee. of the sample when there were many B. ooli and two or 
three cc. when there were not so many. Melted asrar tubes were inoculated eitlMr with H or 
H ec. of the sample, poured into elay covered Petri dishes and incubated at 89 C for 86 boors. 
A oount was then made of all colonies that looked like B. coli and these were subcnltured fay 
?*^^.!*®tS^ *i?*' f*^^ cultures. When there were more than twelve cokmiee per cc that 
looked like B. coU only half of them were subeultured and the final result multiplied by two. 
All cultoros that did not produce ffas in the lactose avar stab in 48 houia were diseaided. 
^***J^*Pr4"®*4»»"'^** ?*"*** *n Dunham's solutkm and gelatin. The morphokcy 
was studied in hraffinff drops from tne growths in Dunham's solution. Only those cultures 
accepted as B. coll whii^prpduoed gas in lactose scar, did not liquify selatin in five to six 
days, produced indd in Dunham's solution and were found to be bacilli. 



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The Self-Purification of Streams 275 

water. Parchment paper was found to be unreliable as t)rphoid 
bacilli grow thru it quite readily. 

The celloidin dialysers consist of small celloidin sacs about % 
inch in diameter and five to six inches long. A piece of glass tubing 
of proper size is sealed in the opening of the sac in order that the sac 
may be tightly closed with a cork. The sacs were made after the 
recommendations given by Frost, ^ with slight modification. 

The first set of experiments along this line was to float dialysers 
down the river from Crookston, Minn., to Grand Forks, N. D. The 
dialysers were charged with 25 cubic centimeters of polluted river 
water, to which was added J4 cc. of a twenty-four hour bouillon 
culture of t)rphoid bacilli, containing approximately 166,000,000 
bacilli. At the end of the journey, which took 54 hours, there were 
left alive o.ii of one per cent of the bacilli in one dialyser and only 
0.013 of one per cent in the other. It is needless to say that this was 
a summer experiment and that the river was not covered with ice. 

As it is impossible to float the dialysers down the river when it 
is covered with ice they were suspended in the river thru a hole in the 
ice, so as to get winter experiments. Parallel experiments had to be 
made during the summer months when the river was open, by sus- 
pending the charged dialyser in the open river, protected by a crate. 
The results of several of these experiments are shown in Table 2. 

TABLE 2. Showing the Difference in Rate of Destruaion of Ty- 
phoid Bacilli in Dialysers Hung in Open River 
and in River G)vered with Ice. 

All dialvsers contained 25 cc. of sewage polluted river water 
to which were added typhoid bacilli as shown in the table 

DIALYSERS HUNG IN OPEN RIVER 



Typhoid Bacilli Introduced 


Found Alive 


After 


62,000,000 


2,200,000 or 3.5% 


48hrs 


62,000,000 


1,274,000 " 2.5% 


48" 


65,600,000 


340,000 " 0.51% 


72" 


65,000,000 


585,000 " 0.89% 


72" 


7,200,000 


161,500 " 2.2% 


72" 


7,200,000 


232,900 " 3.2% 


72" 



i. Labor a tory Bacteriology, p. gW. 



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Book Reviews 



Light and the Behavior of Organisms: Samuel Ottmar 
Mast, Associate Professor of Biology, Gouchcr G)llegc. John 
Wiley and Sons, New York; Chapman and Hall, London. 191 1. 
pp. XI+410. Price, $2.50. 

With the multiplicity of publications in this, as in all scientific 
lines, there is abimdant work for the collaborator, and his services are 
needed by the specialist in his own as well as by those in other fields 
of study. 

This to the reviewer appears to be the chief raison d'etre of the 
present volume ; and in this respect, as well as in the presentation of 
many new and valuable results from his own investigation, the author 
has done a pariseworthy piece of work. 

The work consists of four parts, the first two of which con- 
stituted an essay for which the Cartwright Prize was awarded by 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University in 
1909. Following the general introduction in Part I is a historical 
review of the subject from the days of Galen to the present, with es- 
pecial reference to the work of some of the more recent writers ( Loeb, 
Jennings). Part II deals especially with the method of orientation 
to light, and the manner of response to changes in light intensity in 
a few higher plants, many unicellular forms, a few colonial organisms 
and numerous higher animals including coelenterates, worms, echino- 
derms, insects, molluses, arthropods, and vertebrates. 

Part III is a general consideration of light reactions including 
the questions of adaptation and variability and modifiability in be- 
havior, and proposing a new classification of reactions to light, while 
Part IV deals with responses to light of difiEerent colors and closes 
the book with a general summary and a theoretical discussion of 
results. 

The author handles his subject in an experienced manner as is 
evidenced by the account of his own experiments. Especially com- 
mendable is his ingenious device for producing a field of graded light 
intensity, as described on pp. 60-63. 

His attitude is impartial thniout; he is supporting no theory, 
but rather endeavoring to glean the truth from every source. As an 
illustration of this attitude, the closing sentences in his work may be 
cited. "Entelechy * * * * is the name for certain phenomena 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Book Reviews 279 

just as is electricity. Whether or not there are any such phenomena is 
the question at issue, and our only hope of agreement in an answer 
lies in the further investigations. But imtil this question is settled, 
it must be said that those who maintain that there are no factors func- 
tional, no phenomena, in living matter that are not also found in in- 
organic matter, that there are no entelechies, are certainly no more 
scientific than those who maintain the opposite, for the fundamental 
phenomena, the distinguishing characteristics of living matter, have 
not as yet been accounted for mechanically. To say that they can be 
is prejudging the future quite as much as to say that they cannot be. 
Convictions are valuable, but dogmatic statements as to what can or 
cannot be done in the future have no place in science, as has been 
repeatedly demonstrated." 

The work is unfortunately marred by occasional repetition. Thus 
the problems to be considered are stated on pages i and 2, and again 
in more detail on pages 57 and 58. Could not these two statements 
have been advantageously combined? Again, on pages 179-180, 240, 
254-5, etc., one finds repetitions of quotations made eleswhere. Part 
I might have been made much shorter since many of the views there 
treated in detail are discussed in later chapters. Sections 5, 6, and 7 
in chapter XII should have been placed in a separate chapter, since 
they refer not alone to the reactions discussed in chapter XII but to 
reactions in general. 

Some carelessness of expression also detracts from the book. 
Thus, on page 142, "they increase the effect of^ the backward stroke 
of the flagella," page 150, "without the temperature's being changed," 
page 208, "What is the cause of the orienting stimulus? Is it a 
change of intensity or constant intensity?" Page 216, "the orienting 
stimulus is not necessarily and exclusively due to a decrease of inten- 
sity." A change of light intensity does however undoubtedly produce 
a stimulus," etc. 2 It is at least doubtful to what extent all "animals 
with image-forming eyes" can feel an "interest" in surrounding ob- 
jects as implied on p. 233. 

All these, however, are minor criticisms ; the work as a whole is 
well worth while. 

Robert T. Young 

Department of Biology, 

University of North Dakota 



1. All itaUci ar« th« reviewer*!. 

2. Compare the author's deflniticm of a itfanuhu on page 866. 



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28o The Quarterly Journal 

A TBXtBOOK OF Botany for Colleges and Universities: Pro- 
fessors Coulter, Barnes, and Cowles of the University of 
Chicago. The American Book Company, New York, Cincin- 
nati, Chicago. Volume i. Morphology and Physiology. 8vo. 
pp. vin +484, figs. 699. 1910. Price, $2.00. 

A worthy textbook in science should set forth the well-accredited 
findings of the science treated. The subject matter should be pre- 
sented in an attractive, modem, and lucid manner. The irrelevant 
and immaterial has no place in a good text. In this day of specializa- 
tion and the interdependence of sciences, it is impossible to prepare 
an up-to-date presentation of the general principles of any science 
unless the author is an actual contributor to the material discussed 
within the text. Applying the foregoing texts to the textbook on 
Botany, prepared by the heads of the departments of plant mor- 
phology, plant physiology, and plant ecology in the University of Chi- 
cago, one finds that a distinguished contribution has been made to 
the equipment of the teachers of Botany in the high schools and 
colleges of America. 

The morphological discussion, comprising 294 pages, was writ- 
ten by Professor John M. Coulter. Under his direction numerous 
notable morphological ''Studies" have issued from the Hull Botan- 
nical Laboratory for many years. These "Studies" have furnished 
the basis for much of the original material and many of the illustra- 
tions in this part of the text. 

The author's presentation of plant groups is markedly different 
in Pteridophytes from that used in former treatises on plants. He 
has chosen the arrangement proposed by Professor F. O. Bower of 
the University of Glasgow. This theory accounts for the origin of 
the food manufacturing portions of higher plants by the theory of 
progressive sterilization. The direct and attractive incorporation of 
Bower's theory will be greatly appreciated by teachers of morphology 
who endeavor to explain the origin of leaves, and who try to account 
for the spore producing organs of higher plants. 

The feature that especially commends itself is the ommission of 
teleological phraseology. This is so common in German, English, 
and some American texts that it is refreshing and encouraging to 
study the triple text of Coulter, Barnes, and Cowles, which treats 
plant structure from the view point of function rather than that of 
purpose. 

Moreover, the morphological discussions are influenced by physio- 
logical and ecological interpretations. This means that the study 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Book Reviews 281 

of plant forms and relations assumes larger expressions and more 
logical arrangement. ' 

The physiological portion of the text (190 pages) is presented 
in the attractive manner characteristic of the able teacher, the late 
Professor Barnes. The botannical world was fortimate in its mis- 
fortimes, for Professor Barnes had just finished the proof of the 
physiological part of the text a few days before the fatal accident 
which terminated his life. The benefits of reciprocal studies noted 
in the morphological portion of the book are again evinced in the 
chapters on plant physiology. The treatment of the functions of ab- 
sorption, respiration, excretion, and reproduction has a freshness and 
content which will commend it to teachers of plant studies. Profes- 
sor Barnes' discussion of transpiration is distinctly different from that 
of most works on physiological Botany. He holds that it is a func- 
tion which is frequently exceedingly detrimental and even fatal to the 
plant organism. While this may be true in some cases, one finds it 
difficult to accept it in general. 

The ecological part of the text has not yet been taken from the 
press. Those acquainted with Professor Cowles and his niunerous 
writings on ecological subjects confidently expect that the third por- 
tion of the book will adequately present the principles of plant 
ecology. 

The large number of original illustrations and the gratifying 
typographical work add to the merits of this new book which it is 
proposed to christen "The Chicago Textbook of Botany." Possibly 
the strongest statement that could be made with reference to the 
Chicago text would be to affirm that in so far as a text can mirror 
the personality of great teachers, it is accomplished by this contribu- 
tion of Professors Coulter, Barnes, and Cowles. 

M. A. Brannon 

Department of Biology, 

University of North Dakota 



The Age of Mammals in Europe, Asia and North America: 
Henry Fairfield Osborn, Vertebrate Palaeontologist of the 
United States Geological Survey; Dacosta Professor of Zoology, 
Columbia University; Curator of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 
American Museum of Natural History. Illustrated. The Mac- 
millan Company, New York. 1910. pp. xvn + 635. Price, $4.50. 

In this volume there is gathered together and made available 
information which was contained in a vast literature comprising him- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



282 The Quarterly fburnal 

dreds of articles in various languages and scattered thru numerous 
scientific publications. Much of this literature was available only 
to the specialist and it was well-nigh impossible even for the student 
of mammalian paleontology to keep abreast of the discoveries con- 
stantly being made in this field. The author has therefore per- 
formed a real service to science by bringing together what is known 
today regarding the mammals of the past. Probably no man living 
is better fitted for the preparation of a work on this subject than Pro- 
fessor Osbom, both by reason of his many years of study and investi- 
gation of extinct forms, and also from his connection with the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History with its extensive collections. 

The author states in the preface that "time and place are the 
main theme of this work rather than descent, which has been the 
main theme of all previous general treatises on the Cenozoic mam- 
mals ; it is a study of the sources or birthplaces of the several kinds 
of mammals, of their competitions, migrations and extinctions, and 
of the times and places of the occurrence of these great events in the 
world's history." The introductory chapter prepares the reader for 
the pages which follow by a discussion of such subjects as the philos- 
ophy of structure, environment, correlation, geographic distribution, 
the laws of evolution with special reference to the development of 
manunals, migration, the geography of the past, and the duration of 
the age of mammals. It deals in a comprehensive and interesting way 
with the history and principles of paleontology. 

The mammals of each epoch of the Cenozoic age are considered 
in turn, beginning with those of the Eocene ; every known horizon in 
North America which has yielded vertebrate fossib is described, its 
location shown on maps, and its exact stratigraphic position dearly 
indicated by means of numerous sections and photographs, while so 
far as possible the horizons of this coimtry are correlated with those 
of Europe, Africa, and other regions. The mammalian fauna of the 
Eocene is perhaps the most interesting, since it contains representa- 
tives of many of the earlier forms from which the higher types of 
today have developed, and they therefore throw light on the probable 
origin of manunals. Considerably more space is devoted to the most 
recent of the Cenozoic epochs, the Pleistocene, than to any of the 
others, and the migrations of its various faunas, resulting from the ice 
invasions of the Glacial Period, are described. Of particular interest 
in this chapter is the accoimt of the first appearance of man on the 
earth and his relation to the extinct mammals, including the mam- 
moth, mastodon, musk-ox, saber-toothed tiger, etc. The evidence is 
given for the belief that man lived in Europe during the Gladal 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Book Reviews 283 

Period, and perhaps at an earlier date, and there is a full discussion 
concerning the time of his first appearance in North America, with 
a simunary of the evidence for man's antiquity on this continent. 

The volume is profusely illustrated with photographs of skele- 
tons and restorations of many of the Cenozoic mammals, most of the 
latter from the remarkable paintings of C. R. Knight. In addition 
there are numerous maps, sections and photographs of fossil localities 
and horizons. 

A biblography of forty-four pages contains a list of the principal 
works consulted. The appendix also contains an outline classification 
of recent and extinct mammals, giving their range and distribution, 
and occupjring over fifty pages. 

The Age of Mammals is a book which the geologist and zoolo- 
gist must frequently consult when in search of the latest information 
concerning the highest group of animals and the times during which 
they lived, while at the same time it contains much of interest to the 

general reader. * a-, r 

A. G. Leonard 

Department of Geology, 

University of North Dakota 



A Text-Book of General Bacteriology: William Dodge 
Frost, Associate Professor of Bacteriology in the University of 
Wisconsin, and Eugene Franklin McCampbell, Professor 
of Bacteriology in the Ohio State University. The Macmillan 
G)mpany, New York. 1910. pp. XVII + 340. Price, $1.60. 

Bacteriology is rapidly being recognized as a very important 
biological science and is accorded a permanent place in the curriculum 
of the Arts Course of many of our universities. Many students look 
upon this science as being definitely related only to the study of 
medicine, agriculture, dairying and sanitation but the authors of this 
book properly point out that bacteriology is a great science aside from 
these many and important practical applications. As bacteria repre- 
sent the most primitive and least differentiated forms of life known 
to science, a study of their morphology and physiology, from the gen- 
eral biological point of view, cannot help being both profitable and 
interesting to the student of general science. Furthermore, as this 
science occupies a very important place in medicine, sanitation, dairy- 
ing and agriculture, and has entirely revolutionized these arts and 
sciences, it is very desirable that those not specializing along any of 
these lines should have an understanding of its fundamental prin- 
ciples. In most American universities this subject is still being taught 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



284 Th^ Quarterly Journal 

only in the technical schools, and with undue emphasis of its appli- 
cation in one particular line of industry. This is sure to give the 
student a one-sided view and will greatly interfere with his gaining 
a broader understanding of the subject. It is not likely either that 
a student thus trained will ever contribute much toward the advance- 
ment of bacteriology. 

The book under consideration is written from the general bio- 
logical point of view, irre^>ective of any practical application of the 
subject matter presented. As there is practically no other similar 
text in the Engli^ language this small book will doubtless have a 
large sale. It is divided into seven parts. The first four parts deal 
with the form and structure and general physiology of bacteria, and 
the methods used in the study of bacteriology. These subjects are 
fairly well presented in several other Engli^ texts and need not be 
considered in detail. The chapter on "The Relationship of Bacteria," 
however, deserves special mention. This chapter, no doubt, will be 
very helpful to the student in finding his bearings, as it points out 
the scope of bacteriology and fixes for him the position of this science 
among the other biological sciences. 

Parts VI and VII are the most important portion of the book 
as the topics here discussed have generally received but scant consid- 
eration in the English and American texts. The importance of the 
science of bacteriology is clearly brought out in part VI which treats 
of the "Biology of Specialized Groups" of bacteria. The authors 
clearly bring out the fimction of the nitrifying and nitrogen-fixing 
bacteria in building up the simpler nitrogen compounds of the soil 
from ammonia and elemental nitrogen. Another chapter deals very 
comprehensively with the putrefactive baaeria, i. e. those which are 
concerned with the tearing down of the more complex nitrogen com- 
pounds, as the animal and vegetable proteids. Of equal value is the 
chapter on the zymogenic, or fermentive, bacteria. A brief chap er 
is devoted to the chromogenic or pigment producing bacteria, and 
another to the photogenic or light giving group. 

The chapters dealing with the pathogenic bacteria are well writ- 
ten on the whole but are rather brief for easy comprehension. Many 
of the topics here presented will need further elucidation by lectures 
and experiments to make them intelligible to the average student. 
Ehrlich*s side-chain theory is presented as tho it were a proven fact 
and not merely a theory. 

Part VII on the "Distribution of Bacteria" considers the bac- 
teria of the soil, air, water, sewage, milk, and of the human body. 
This part is ably and concisely presented in about fifty pages. 



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Book Reviews 285 

The proof-reading has apparently been done somewhat hastily 
as is evidenced by the fact that misspelled words are encountered 
rather frequently. Several sentences are found whose meanings are 
somewhat obscure. On page 240 we find the following statement: 
"B. t)rphosus is frequently observed in the gall bladder in persons 
having had the disease for long periods." Apparently what is meant 
is "B. t)rphosus is frequently observed for long periods in the gall 
bladder of persons having had the disease." On the same page we 
find the statement that ''some diseases producing bacteria are largely 
water-borne." This evidently is meant to read "some disease-produc- 
ing bacteria are largely water-borne." On another page we read, 
"The phosphorescence of these is due in a large part to bacteria," in- 
stead of "The phosphorescence of the sea," etc 

The book is well put together, is in convenient form and size, 
and is sure to supply a real want in many class-rooms. 

GUSTAV F. RUEDIGER 

Department of Bacteriology & Pathology, 
University of North Dakota 



The Human Body: H. Newell Martin, Late Professor of Bio- 
logy, Johns Hopkins University. Ninth Edition, Thoroly Re- 
vised by Ernest G. Martin, Instructor in Physiology, Har- 
vard Medical School. Henry Holt and Company, New York, 
1910. pp. XVn -f 546. 

The appearance of a revised edition of this valuable text-book 
should be a source of gratification to all who are interested in college 
courses in anatomy and physiology. Previous editions have occupied 
in their time a foremost position in the list of available text-books on 
this subject. The ninth edition is fully up to the standard set by the 
preceding ones. 

In reviewing this book a few remarks may be made concerning 
the need of an advanced course in physiology and the position it 
should occupy in a college curriculum. At present the average stu- 
dent's ideas of human physiology are obtained, if at all, from a gram- 
mar or high school course taken before he has any knowledge of 
chemistry, physics or biology. Of the books used, many are too in- 
volved to be practical. A comparatively small percentage of college 
students elect extensive courses in biology, and only the few obtain 
any intelligent conception of even the simplest physiological processes. 
Yet nothing is more important to one than a reasonable imdcrstand- 



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286 The Quarterly Journal 

ing of his body and its care. To those who are to« become teachers and 
workers in sanitary or domestic science the need is even greater. Per- 
sonally I believe that such a course ^ould be made one of the strong^ 
in the general curriculum, and that it will eventually be required of 
all students. As furnishing useful and needed information it fills a 
leading position and ofiFers boundless opportunity for mental and 
scholastic training. Two obstacles to such a course are to be found ; 
first, suitable teachers, second, a book which presents the complex 
problems in a clear and simple form. The former can be met in any 
institution having a Medical Department with a chair of human 
physiology, and in many departments of biology, provided only the 
teacher is enthusiastic and has a broad knowledge of biological and 
medical subjects. The second is well met by such a text as the one 
under review. In his preface, the author brings out the difficulty of 
presenting the material in a simple and at the same time a compre- 
hensive form. In general he has succeeded. The anatomical de- 
scriptions are clear and simple, yet sufficiently complete to bring out 
the function. In no important instance has accuracy been sacrificed 
for the sake of simplicity. The author wisely states his own con- 
clusions rather than cloud ideas by presenting incomplete evidence 
on as yet unsettled problems. At the same time the work is, for the 
most part, up to date with the most recent research. On the whole, 
the book is an exceptionally good one well adapted to college classes. 
Criticisms are minor ones, largely varying with the personality of the 
reviewer. 

Certain chapters and sections call for particular commendation 
or suggestions. On page 52, the effect of walking and standing on 
the compression of the inter-vertebral cartilages and the consequent 
decrease in height seems exaggerated. A few statements concerning 
dislocation and fracture of the vertebral column might well be in- 
serted. In discussing the skeleton of the foot and its defomuties, a 
few words about proper shoes and the effect of flat-foot on muscle 
strain might be added. The chapter on ''Motion and Locomotion" 
is exceptionally good and should be found in more advanced books. 
In discussing the communications between the parts of the nervous 
system, a few good charts or diagrams would explain the important 
tracts better than words. It is interesting to note that he discards the 
time-worn term 'Special Senses* and follows the classification of ex- 
ternal and internal sensation. The physiology of the ear and eye is 
simply yet exhaustively presented and well explained. The impor- 
tance of the eustachian tube as a path of infection of the middle ear, 
together with some of the more frequent causes of deafness could be 



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Book Reviews 287 

briefly explained. Also the defects of vision not due to simple re- 
fractive error, but to local or constitutional disturbance and conse- 
quently overlooked in simple refraction texts should be emphasized. 
On page 259, in the statement on renewal of the lymph there is in- 
dicated too direct a relationship between the capillary blood and the 
lymph, as two distinct processes are involved; first, from the blood 
to the tissue, second, from the tissue to the lymphatic vessel. Later 
in discussing the relation of the lymphatics to the tissues he appar- 
ently fails to consider the lymph vessels as closed tubes as is indicated 
by recent research. The statement of blood transfusion should have 
been brought up to date by references to recent experimental and 
clinical work. Also there is here an excellent opportunity to empha- 
size the practical importance of experimental work on animals. The 
chapters on drculation handle a complex and difficult subject in a 
clear, comprehensive manner. In discussing the heart, explanations 
might be given concerning dilatation, compensation, valvular and 
muscular defects, and broken compensation. In connection with the 
peripheral circulation and the vaso-motor control, the effect of pain, 
and sensory stimulation in relation, with a few words on the prac- 
tical treatment should be included. The work on respiration is good, 
especially the statement on ventilation which is simple and not made 
confusing by intricate calculations. The definition of foods should 
be extended to include substances which tho furnishing nutrition or 
energy, are harmful to the body, as alcohol. The discussion of 
alcohol as a food is the one disappointing paragraph in the book. I 
do not believe that such a book is written primarily to teach the 
harmful effects of alcohol, neither should these be exaggerated. I am 
also aware that experienced work shows that alcohol is capable of 
furnishing energy and of conserving nutrition. However I am sure 
that an unemotional statement from a conservative pharmacologist or 
pathologist would make a much stronger case against alcohol than 
does the author. Our present knowledge justifies us in classing it at 
least as a dangerous food, tonic, or stimulant as we see fit, judged 
alone on its pathological effect in any continuous use, irrespective of 
the danger of habit formation. The chapter on reproduction will be 
used or discarded according to the attitude of the instructor. The 
material is presented in a straightforward way, gives all necessary in- 
formation in an orthodox manner, and explains all questions likely 
to arise. 

Archibald L. McDonald 
College of Medicine, 

University of North Dakota 



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288 The Quarterly Journal 

Elements of Geology: Eliot Blackwelder, Associate Professor 
of Geology, University of Wisconsin, and Harlan H. Bar- 
rows, A^odate Professor of General Geology and Geography, 
University of Chicago. American Book Company, New York, 
Cincinnati, Chicago. 191 1. 475 pp., 16 pis., 485 figs. 

There are many elementary text books of geology and several 
excellent ones have recently appeared. This is an indication of in- 
creasing interest in the study of the earth in our preparatory schools 
and a wholesome effort to give to students the freshest and best in- 
formation on the subject. 

Elements of Geology by Blackwelder and Barrows is the latest 
arrival. It evidences thoughtful work on the part of the authors and 
is full of new material. By means of this textbook the authors "have 
sought to give the student ( i ) an imderstanding of the general prin- 
ciples and processes of the science ; (2) a few of its fimdamental facts ; 
(3) an interest in the subject; and especially (4) training in dear 
thinking." 

As stated in the preface the book departs somewhat from cur- 
rent practice in the arrangement of material and in the amount of 
space allotted to certain subjects. Authors naturally diflFer in judg- 
ment as to what is best to omit and what is proper to dwell upon at 
length in a book of this character. In the opinion of the reviewer 
their point is not well taken as to volcanoes and earthquakes. Neither 
of these subjects receives vigorous treatment. In fact, so far as real 
usefulness is concerned, reference to earthquakes may about as well 
have been omitted altogether. This seems all the more regrettable 
in view of the seventeen pages dvoted to the mechanical work of 
winds and the forty-two pages allotted to glaciers in addition to eight 
pages on the ice sheets of the Quaternary. Economic mineral prod- 
ucts receive also scant recognition. The reviewer is well aware that 
these subjects are not so constantly thrust upon ones attention as are 
the acitivities of wind and rain and frost and living organisms but he 
regrets to see so distinct a recognition of the present day tendency to 
allow physiography to fatten at the expense of other worthy members 
of the geologic family. 

The book is divided into two nearly equal parts, part I being de- 
voted to Physical Geology and part II to Historical Geology. Part 
I begins with a chapter on the composition of the earth. Chapter II 
treats of the physical changes of the outer shell. This is followed by 
chapters on the work of the atmosphere, work of waters underground, 
work of streams, gladers, oceans and lakes, and a final chapter 



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Book Reviews 289 

(chapter VIII) on the great relief features of the land. Part II 
opens with an introductory chapter (chapter IX) in which geologic 
and human history are compared and methods of studjring geologic 
history are explained. A very serviceable description is given also 
in this chapter of the more important groups of animals and plants, 
the nature and use of fossils, and the meaning of the geologic col- 
umn. Chapter X contains a clear and concise statement of the 
nebular and planetessimal theories of the origin and early develop- 
ment of the earth. The succeeding chapters are severally divided 
among the great time-divisions beginning with the Archeozoic era. 
This part of the book is in general well proportioned and is thoroly 
up to date. With the exception of two or three features, criticism 
would seem superfluous. The Oligocene is allowed only in footnote 
mention, notwithstanding its importance in various western and 
southern states. Man's appearance is touched upon with the utmost 
brevity. We doubt not many a student will, as a result, read the 
last few pages with disappointment. This will necessitate placing 
upon the shoulders of the teacher of bright pupils a burden of many 
questions that it would seem should have been partly carried by the 
authors. 

The illustrations are abundant. Most of them are good and to 
the point. A few lack snap, and frequent repetition of the names of 
certain geologists is inclined to give one the notion that the circle of 
selection has been unnecessarily restricted. A considerable series of 
historical maps add much to the value of the text. A colored ge- 
ological map should have been included, likewise also a list of the 
figures and plates. 

The various chapters of Part I include helpful lists of important 
books and special papers suitable for reference or further reading. 
They are omitted from Part II. Such lists are less available and 
possibly less essential in historical geology, yet a brief niunber 
of well selected publications would have been serviceable and ac- 
ceptable. 

The book is well written, carefully printed, and neatly bound 
and is in every reasonable sense a handy, useful treatise for students 
beginning the study of geology. 

Cleophas C. O'Harra 

Department of Geology and Mineralogy, 
South Dakota School of Mines 



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ago The Quarterly Journal 

Mechanical Drawing for High Schools: Bbrthe £. Spink, 
Percy H. Sloan, Albert W. Evans, Carl Durand, and 
Fred W. Zimmerman of the Chicago High Schools. Atkinson, 
Mentzer and Grover, New York. 1910. Two Volumes, pp. 282. 
Price, $1.45. 

To write a satisfactory textbook on mechanical drawing, it is 
essential that there be absolute clearness and conciseness of statement ; 
the introduction and that portion pertaining to the description and 
use of instruments should be brief, yet to the point. The cardinal 
principles of neatness and accuracy should be very prominently set 
forth and the instructor warned to insist upon them. The authors 
of "Mechanical Drawing for Hig^ Schools'' have done these things 
with considerable success, yet there are features which detract from 
the usefulness of the book as a general text. 

The first volume is an outline for a three-year course in which 
there is not enough variety to produce the best results. The use of 
geometric figures makes an excellent beginning, but it. should be fol- 
lowed rapidly by problems or constructions to develop accuracy in 
measurement and control of instruments, particularly in inking. The 
third angle projection is the only rational method of presentation, 
but with it comes the temptation to introduce too much descriptive 
geometry. The chief weakness of the book is that the authors have 
in the outline for the second and third year introduced an undue 
amount of development and intersection of surfaces, with the result 
that altho it may be easy to keep the interest of the student, nothing 
of great value in drafting is gained. Drill and practice are necessary 
and these are kept too much in the background. 

The ability of the average pupil to do the work called for in 
the first three years is not questioned, but the point where its com- 
pletion leaves him is short of that necessary to proceed advantageously 
with the last year's work. Some of the work outlined for the fourth 
year, by a proper selection and arrangement, could have been intro- 
duced into three previous years with much better results. 

The second book, which is to cover the work of the fourth year, 
is divided into three parts, shadow drawing and linear perspective, 
machine drawing, and architectural drawing. The intention is that 
the pupil shall choose one of these and follow that only. The shadow 
drawing and linear perspective were better omitted from a hi^ 
school course. Some work of this nature, given as part of the course, 
will aid the teacher to hold the interest of the pupils, but it should 
be only a small part. The outline for the machine drawing is cxccl- 



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Book Reviews 291 

lent and well arranged, but impossible to carry out in the time nor- 
mally given to drawing in the high schools. The latter statement is 
also an additional reason for putting part of this work in the three 
previous years. The architectural drawing is given in the most in- 
teresting and feasible manner. To the average boy the idea of house- 
building appeals strongly and while this work is elementary, it is 
valuable because it gives a good idea of the principal points in the 
construction of an ordinary dwelling. 

The authors state in their preface that the work is intended for 
use in the Chicago high schools, primarily for those pupils who wish 
to make use of the subject as soon as they are graduated from their 
respective high schools. It may, therefore, be taken as representative 
of the mechanical drawing work done there, but the outline is not 
to be recommended for general use, for in the hands of any but 
thoroly experienced teachers who can choose wisely from the text, it 
might be harmful. 

A. J. Bbcker 

Q)llege of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, 
University of North Dakota 



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University Notes 



Unlveralty Evidences of increased interest in the problem of 

Lmcimrea the student are to be found in many of the uni- 

versities. The transition from the old-fashioned college to the larger 
university has brought with it many additional incentives and temp- 
tations to utilize the time of the student in various ways. The con- 
sequence is that the daily contact in chapel exercises between the 
president of the university and the students is coming to be more and 
more a thing of the past. This semester there is being given at the 
University of North Dakota a series of lectures for the purpose of 
presenting some of the phases of student life and the problems asso- 
ciated with it. These were begun in February and will continue 
weekly until the first of May. The following list will give some 
idea of the scope and intention of the series: 

Why are We Here? A discussion of the objects and purposes of 
a college education. President McVey. 

How to Study. Some specific suggestions. Professor A. J. 
Ladd. 

The Use of Time. President McVey. 

College Expenses and the Use of Money. President McVey. 

Friends and Intimates. President McVey. 

Reading, What and Why? President McVey. 

Personal Hygiene. Dr. D. L. Dunlap. 

Health and Morals. Dr. H. H. Healy. 

Choosing a Calling. President McVey. 

What Makes a Real Man? President McVey. 

Legislative The twelfth session of the legislature of North 

Approplatlona Dakota closed on March 3rd. A bill for Uni- 

versity appropriations amounting to $207,000, in addition to the re- 
quests of $45,000 for the Public Health Laboratory and the Mining 
Sub-Station at Hebron, was presented. In view of the financial con- 
ditions in the state, the appropriation for a building for the College 
of Law, amounting to $60,000, was not authorized, but the remain- 
ing requests of the University were granted without modification. 
The total appropriations of the legislature, however, exceeded the 
available revenue of the state, and as a consequence Governor Burke 
found it necessary to cut the University appropriations $12,000. The 
funds authorized for the University, the Public Health Laboratory 



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University Notes 293 

and the Mining Sub-Station at Hebron reached the sum of $180,000. 
Unlike many state institutions, the University of North Dakota has 
some available income from lands and taxes, that for the next bien- 
nial period will amount approximately to $300,000. 

The amount granted by this legislature, while not large, will 
make it possible to finish the Commons building and to furnish it, 
to add to the equipment of the School of Mines and Engineering Col- 
leges, and to meet, by the granting of additional support, some in- 
crease in the organization and teaching force of the University. 

Geological The North Dakota Geological Survey was estab- 

Sarvey lished by an act of the legislature in 1895, but 

it was not until some years later that an appropriation was made 
for carrying on the work. The trustees of the University constitute 
the governing board of the Survey and the professor of geology in 
the University is ex-officio State Geologist. 

The purpose of the Geological Survey is to investigate the nat- 
ural resources of the state and bring these to the attention of the 
public thru its published reports. It makes a careful examination 
of all deposits of coal, clays, cements, building stones, gravel, sand, 
etc., to ascertain their value and extent. It studies the character 
and distribution of the different rock formations so as to determine 
whether they contain deposits of economic importance. By means 
of well records and data obtained from other sources it secures in- 
formation concerning the strata far below the surface, and the under- 
ground water supply contained in them. It prepares and publishes 
geological maps on which the areas occupied by the rocks of different 
character and age are depicted and on which are located the deposits 
of coal, clay, cement, etc. The Geological Survey is thus an organi- 
zation for the gathering of information relative to the natural re- 
sources of the state and from which anyone interested in them may 
obtain such information. 

The Survey has published five reports of from 200 to 340 pages 
each, and containing many illustrations and maps. The first, which 
is now out of print, was a preliminary report on the coal and clay 
deposits of the state. The second is devoted almost entirely to the 
coal deposits, the deposits being considered by counties. The third 
contains the results of the investigation of the coal beds west of the 
Missouri river, together with papers on the topography and geology 
of the state. The valuable clays are fully treated in the fourth re- 
port, which contains the results of a large number of analyses and 
tests of the clays from all parts of the state, with chapters on the value 



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294 The Quarterly Journal 

and uses of North Dakota clajrs and methods of brick manufacture. 
The fifth report has a detailed account of the topography, geology and 
coal beds of southwestern North Dakota, a description of the geobgy 
and topographic features of northeastern North Dakota with particu- 
lar reference to the ceemnt materisl, and papers on the geological his- 
tory of the state as a whole, natural gas, and good roads and road 
material. A sixth report is now in preparation and will soon be 
published. 

School of Mlnea The Mining Engineering building of the Uni- 
Ealldln^ versity of North Dakota is being enlarged and 

the interior remodeled in response to an imperative demand for more 
room. The roof has been raised, materially adding to the lig^t, floor 
space and utility of the technical museum. Adjoining the museum, 
which is in the center of the building, there is to be at one end a large 
preparation room for the curator and at the other a mineral stock 
room. The laboratories on the first and second floors have been re- 
adjusted to provide better facilities for the classes in analytical chem- 
istry and metallurgy as well as for research work in ore treatment, 
coals and clays. The newly-established ceramic department is being 
equipped with general clay working and pottery ma<!:hinery. 

Unlveralty A cooperative station of the United States 

Weather Service Weather Bureau has been maintained by the 
University since 1891. Until the present year the station has been 
under the direction of the department of physics, but on January i 
was transferred to the department of geology and became a part of 
the geographical work carried on by that department. 

In order to meet the needs of the University for more complete 
meteorological data it was decided to enlarge the equipment beyond 
that issued by the Weather Bureau to the ordinary cooperative 
stations, and the University station is now provided with the follow- 
ing instruments: the ordinary maximum and minimum thermometers; 
a sling psychrometer ; two rain and snow guages; a set of barometers; 
a wind vane; a barograph; a thermograph, and a recording anemo- 
meter. With the exception of the last mentioned, the instruments 
are all of the latest United States Weather Bureau standard pat- 
tern. Daily observations are taken and reports are made at the end 
of each month to the section director at Bismarck, and during the 
open season evaporation records are also taken and reports made to 
the hydrographic division of the United States Geological Survey at 
Washington. 



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University Notes 295 

On the first of March the University was made a display station 
and daily forecasts are now received each morning by telegraph, and 
flag signals are shown both at the University and in the City of 
Grand Forks. It is expected that the station will be equipped with a 
complete set of standard recording apparatus with which it will carry 
on its local and educational work while maintaining the closest pos- 
sible affiliation with the federal Bureau without any duplication of 
wort 

The station is proving of value from both an educational and 
an economic standpoint. Within the department it provides a prac- 
tical working equipment for the course in meteorology, and the data 
compiled, together with that being brought together in the library, 
forms a basis for future work in climatology, especially for the study 
of the climate of North Dakota. It supplies current local data for 
the public press and for the varied scientific work of the other de- 
partments of the University, notably, those of biology, physics, and 
engineering, and for the heating and power plant. Transportation 
and investment companies consult the station with regard to condi- 
tions of weather and climate, and the station data has been used as 
evidence in courts of law. These are a few of the many ways in 
which the University station has been of local service in addition to 
the work for which it was founded : that of a cooperative station of 
the United States Weather Bureau. 

The importance of the meteorological and climatological condi- 
tions of the state on the life of its people is very great. The influ- 
ence of these conditions upon health and comfort, agriciilture and 
commerce, transportation and mechanical arts is now being generally 
recognized. The educational training involved in recording the 
data, in drawing conclusions therefrom, and above all in converting 
the scientific knowledge obtained into practical service to man is of 
positive value. It is believed that in developing these phases of 
meteorology the University will be giving a valuable service to the 
people of the state, while rendering the fullest possible cooperation to 
federal Bureau. 



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The Inauguration Number 
of the Quarterly Journal 

The inauguration of Doctor McVey as Preaident of the Uni- 
versity of North Dakota took place during the closing week of 
September. It was an auspicious event in the history of the 
University. The subjects discussed at the various programs were 
of vital importance to educational interests, and the addresses, 
many of them given by experts in their several fields, were of high- 
grade. 

The entire proceedings were published during the month 
of March under the cover of the Quarterly Journal. This makes a 
very attractive volume of 1 72 pages, and one of great value to all 
interested in the problems of higher education. 

PRICE ONE DOLLAR. POSTPAID 

Addrem, The Quarterly Journal 

Unhrersity, North Dakota 

A Partial List of the Gmtents: 

(1) THE PURPOSE AND MEANING OF INAUGURATION WEEK 

Gottfried E. Hult, Unnrermty of North Dakota. 

(2) THE TWOFOLD FUNCTION OF THE UNIVERSITY 

Dean Frank Allen, University of Winnipeg. 

(3) THE UNinCATION OF A STATES EIXXIATIONAL FORCES 

President George E. McLean. University of Iowa. 

(4) THE STATE UNIVERSITY AND THE COMMONWEALTH 

President Edmund J. James. University of Illinois. 

(5) THE PROBLEM OF THE TEACHER 

President Luther C Freeman, Momingside College. 

(6) ADDRESS OF INSTALLATION 

Judge N. C Young, Chairman Board ol Trustees, 
University of North Dakota. 

(7) THE INAUGURAL ADDRESS - THE UNIVERSITY AND ITS 
RELATIONS 

President Frank L. McVey, University of North Dakota. 

(8) THE SCANDINAVIAN INFLUENCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT 
OF THE NORTHWEST 

President J. N. Kildahl, St Olafs College. 

(9) PROPER LAND CULTIVATION AND PRODUCTION 

Chairman James J. Hill, Great Northern Railway. 

(10) THE COLLEGE MAN IN BUSINESS 

President Howard Elliott. Northern Pacific Railway. 

(11) HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH 

DAKOTA 



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TEACHERS COLLEGE 

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA 



FUNCTION: The preparation of teachers and principals for secondary 
schools, superintendents for city schools, and instruments for Nor- 
mal schools and collegres. 

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS: The completion of a four-year high 
school course or its equivalent. 

DEGREES AND DIPLOMA: The degree of Bachelor of Arts and the Bach- 
elor's Diploma in Education (the professional instrument which en- 
titles the ^holder to a First Grade Professional Certificate for life), 
on the completion of the regular four-year course of study. 

Graduate courses are offered leading: to the degrees of Master of 
Arts and Doctor of Philosophy. 

SPECIAL CERTIFICATES: In Commercial work, Domestic Science, Draw- 
ins, Manual Training, and Music, on the completion of two years of 
prescribed work. 

NEW BUILDING AND MODEL HIGH SCHOOL: The new bulldlngr for 
Teachers Collegre (the finest on the campus) is now completed and 
occupied. The Model Higrh School for observation and practice in 
connection with Teachers Collegre is in full operation. 

GOOD SENSE: If you aim to practice medicine, attend the College of 
Medicine; if you intend to practice law, attend the College of Law; if 
you would be an engineer, attend one of the colleges of engineering; 
and If yoa are to teach, enroll la Teaeliera College. 
For information, address 

DEAN JOSEPH KENNEDY, 

University, N. D. 



m 

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THECOLLEGE OF MINING 
ENGINEERING 

UNIVERSITY OF N ORTH DAKOTA 

The curriculum of this College is especially arranged for young men 
who wish a broad technical and practical training for those occupations 
which are more or less closely associated with mlalng, metallurgy, mlll- 
Inffy coal and gaa eaglncerlng, cement, day-working and other allied 
n&anufactarlag tadvatrlea. 

The regular four-years course leads to the degree of Bachelor of Sci- 
ence in Mining Engineering and an additional year of grraduate work 
leads to an advanced degree. 

The more technical work of this College is carried on in the Mining 
Engineering Building in which are located the metallurgical, ore treat- 
ment and Industrial laboratories. Complete working model plants are 
provided capable of concentrating and treating several tons of ore. Sim- 
ilar model plants are provided for making brick, pottery and other clay 
products and for coal testing and treating, gas manufacture, etc. 

To aid in the experimental and research work of this college there 
has been established at the University a Mining Experimental Station 
while at Hebron, N. D., in the coal and clay region a Mining Sub-Station 
has been established to aid in the development of the mining and allied 
manufacturing Industries of the state by providing practical tests on a 
commercial scale to supplement the research work of the laboratories of 
the College of Mining Engineering. 

This Sub-Station also provides for a portion of the summer field work 
required of mining engineering students. 
For further information, address 

DEAN E. J. BABCOCK, 

University, N. D. 



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The University 
of North Dakota 

ESTABLISHED IN EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND EIGHTY THRBI 

FRANK L. McVEY, Ph. P., LL. P., President 

Grand Forks Bismarck Hebron 

University Devils Lake Minot 

I. The College of Liberal Arts offers to men and women pro- 

grams of study leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts which 
may be begun in September or February. 

II. Teachers College prepares for the profession of teaching in 

secondary and higher schools, and grants the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts and the Bachelor's Piploma in Education at the end of 
a four years course. The Model High School is maintained in 
connection with the College as a school of observation and 
practice. 

III. The College of Law offers a three years course and grants 

the degree of Bachelor of Laws. 

IV. Courses of Study leading to degrees of Mining Engineer, Elec- 

trical Engineer, Mechanical Engineer and Civil Engineer are 
offered in the School of Mines and the College of Mechanical 
and Electrical Engineering. 

V. The Medical College provides instruction of high order for 
two years in medicine based upon two years of college work. 
A certificate in medicine is granted with the A. B. degree. The 
course for nurses is affiliated with leading hospitals. 

VI. The Graduate Pepartment presents advanced courses of 
study leading to the degree of Master of Arts and Poctor of 
Philosophy. 

VII. The Summer Session provides college and elementary courses 
for students and teachers. 

VIII. Extension Lectures and Courses of Study are offered by 
the University for persons otherwise unable to receive academic 
training. 

IX. Laboratories and Stations are maintained at University, 
Pevils Lake, Bismarck, Minot and Hebron, North Pakota. 

Information regarding colleges and departments may be obtained by ad- 
dressing the Registrar of the University, University, North Dakota. 



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The 
Quarterly Journal 

of the 
University of North Dakota 



JULY, 1911 

Volume 1 Number 4 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY 



Entered as second-class matter September 16, 1910, at the Post Office at University, 
North Dakota, under the Act of July 16, 1894 



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The Quarterly Journal 

PUBLISHED BY 

The University of North Dakota 



CONTENTS 

I. EDMOND ROSTAND AND ITALIAN COMEDY 

Henry Lampart LeDaum 297 

II. THE QUESTION OF THE THEATRE 

Frederick Henry Koch 308 

III. FICTION IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

Martin B. Ruud 329 

IV. GOOD AND EVIL; RIGHT AND VV^RONG 

Joseph Kennedy 352 

V. THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE AND SCIENCE 

A. HoYT Taylor 363 

VI. BOOK REVIEWS: 

1. Le Cyrano de I'Histoire: M. Emilc Magne. 

H. L. LeDaum 380 

2. An Introduction to the History of the Devel- 
opment of Law: M. F. Morris. 

A. A. Bruce 382 

3. A Beginner's History of Philosophy: 
Herbert Ernest Cushman. 

W. N. Stearns 385 

4. How We Think: John Dewey. 

L. G. Whitehead 388 

VIL UNIVERSITY NOTES 393 



BDITOIIAL COIHITTBB 

A. J. LADD, Wallace N. Stearns, 

Managing Editor Meyer Jacobstein, 

ASSIST AMTS 

Pristsd by Tbs Orsnd Forks Brtnlnt Tlmsi 



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Announcement 

THE Quarterly Journal is a publication established and main- 
tained by the University of North Dakota. Its primary func- 
tion is to represent the varied activities of the several colleges and 
departments of the University — to serve as the medium of exchange 
between the members of its instructional force and the learned world 
outside. Still, it is not limited to that. Its columns are open to other 
^vriters, particularly of the Northwest, in the discussion of topics ger- 
mane to the work of higher education, especially to such as bring the 
fruitage of scientific research, literary investigation or other forms of 
constructive thought. Contributions will be welcomed and, when 
found suitable and available, readily given space. Correspondence is 
solicited. 

The subscription price is one dollar a year, postpaid, single num- 
bers, thirty cents. 

All communications should be addressed. 

The Quarterly Journal, 

University, North Dakota. 



Editor's Bulletin Board 

THE present number of the Quarterly Journal closes its first year. 
The warm reception it has received from other publications, 
from institutions of higher learning, and from the reading public has 
been very gratifying. Our paid subscription list has already reached 
respectable proportions and is gradually increasing. We bespeak for 
the publication continued support and loyal patronage, feeling sure 
that the standards thus far set can be maintained. From a knowledge 
of material in sight for future numbers, we do not hesitate to promise 
as much. 

The next number of the The Quarterly Journal will be devoted 
to the sciences, mainly engineering and mathematical. Professor A. 
J. Becker, of the College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, 
contributes an article on "The Design of Engine Parts.'* Mr. Ray- 
mond R. Hitchcock, of the department of mathematics. College of 
Liberal Arts, writes on "Mersenne's Numbers and the Reciprocal 
of Fermat's Theorem." Dr. Spence, Assistant Professor of Physics, 
College of Liberal Arts, has been carrying on a very interesting in- 
vestigation in the uses of clay, and will embody the results in "Some 
Physical Properties of North Dakota Clay.** This promises to be 
both interesting and of considerable economic value. From these 
and such as these the contents will be made up. 



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The University of North Dakota 

SUMMER SESSION, 1911. JUNE 19 TO JULY 29 

THE COLLEGE SECTION oflFers instruction in fourteen college de- 
partments, including the sciences, literature, economics, history, 
ancient and modern languages, mathematics, sociology, educa- 
tion, and law. The University credits work done during the 
Summer Session the same as during the regular University 
year. 

THE ELEMENTARY SECTION is conducted under the supervision 
of Dean Joseph Kennedy of Teachers College and a Board 
of County Superintendents. It offers work of special interest 
to teachers in the rural schools, and also to those expecting to 
occupy grade positions in village and city systems. County 
Superintendents accept creditable work in lieu of examination 
in certificate subjects. 

THE ENTIRE FACILITIES of the University are at the service 
of students during the six weeks of the Summer Session. 
Residence halls for men and women. A cool climate and a 
pleasant campus. Expenses reduced to the minimum. 
For further information, address 

The Registrar, University, N. D. 



The University of North Dakota 



BIOLOGICAL STATION 



LAKESIDE LABORATORY FOR THE STUDY OP BOTANY. ZOOLOGY. AND PHYSIOLOGY 



THE BIOLOGICAL STATION, located at Devils Lake, is admirably situated 
for the study of plants and animals and their natural surroundings. 
Courses are offered in the study of both plant and animal hydro-biology. 
The instruction is in charge of specialists, and rare opportunities for 
laboratory and field work will be afforded general and special students 
desiring to prosecute summer studies in any or all of the three depart* 
ments represented at the Devils Lake station. 

UNIVERSITY CREDIT will be given for the work completed at the biological 
station precisely as if the courses had been taken at the University. 

OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUMMER STUDY at Devils Lake are unexelled be- 
cause of the rich illustrations of ^neral and special problems; and also 
because of the splendid opportunity for salt water bathing and boating, 
which are particularly attractive during the summer season. 

THE SESSION OF 1911 will begin June 19 and continue six weeks. Those who 
desire will have an opportunity of collecting material which will be 
helpful in teaching high school biology and pnysiog^phy. 

FEES AND EXPENSES are very moderate. A fee of $10.00 wiU be charged 
each person enrolled for the six weeks course in any of the subjectt 
offered. Living expenses may be made very light. 
For further information, address 

Dean M. A. Brannon, University, N. D. 



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The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 1 JULY, 1911 Number 4 

Edmond Rostand and Italian 
Comedy—^ Fantasy 

Henry Lampart LeDaum, 

Head of the Department of Romance Languages, University of 
North Dakota 

A\ Cavaliere Giulio Castelli,* di Roma 
Italiano simpatico, vero aroico. 

Cyrano. Vcnez tous, le Docteur, Isabelle, Leandre, 
Tous! Car vous allez joindre, essaim charmant et fol, 

La farce italienne a ce drame espagnol; 
Et sur son ronflement tintant un bruit fantasque, 

L'entourer de grelots comme un tambour de basque! 

— Cyrano de Bergerac, Act I, Sc, VIL 

IN a vexatious work on Cyrano de Bergerac ^, M. Magne de- 
plores the liberties taken by M. Rostand with the Cyrano of his- 
tory. The scholar, tho captivated by the play, accuses the poet of a 
travesty on his hero and calls pure fiction the ''Venez tous. ." I have 
just quoted in all good faith. M. Rostand's drama, he avers, is only 
a mongrel pasticcio of Cyrano, half Capitan, half Matamore ; a Quix- 
otic Pulcinella — incongruous and fantastic, contrived to make the 
historian's work imperative, altho the reader's conclusions be perhaps 
final that Cyrano's place is henceforth in literature and not in history. 
I will surely not quarrel with M. Magne, historian: — ^by the 
irony of things, however, his work only helps to identify Cyrano with 
the drama, and unwittingly serves to confirm in us Rostand's long 
suspected familiarity with the old Italian stage. Nor will I find 
fault with M. Rostand, poet, for patching the glorious tatters of the 
mimic stage, or making over the fitful masks spelling our destiny. 

*Signor Oiulio Castelli, K. C. I., was the first International Exchange 
Conference lecturer for Italy, in the department of Romance Languages of 
the University of North Dakota, for the years 1909-1911. 

1. Le Cyrano de I'Histolre, — Les EIrreurs de Documentation de "Cyrano 
de Bergerac," by M. Emile Magne; second edition, Dujarric and Co., Paris, 
1903. For a more extensive account, see the review of this book in the 
present number of the Quarterly Journal. 



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298 The Quarterly Journal 

I will take this kindred blend of native art, creative genius, and 
imagination, deplored by M. Magne, and seize the opportunity it af- 
fords me of turning the attention of students of the drama to the 
lovely ways and days of Italian Comedy and the much negleaed roles 
of old Italy, which M. Rostand, in poetic inadvertance, has mixed 
with historic fact; — things he must live and admire withal, if we 
rightly interpret his career since "Lcs Pierrots'* 2, and things which 
in his hands once more delight the world with their youthful vigor 
and local color. I wish to say, indeed, that the strength of Cjrrano, 
as a stage piece, and the principal merit of Rostand, as a dramatist, 
lie in Italian Comedy: for, in a dull epoch of French literature, he 
gave a startling resurrection to Italian farce ^, introducing it in his 
comedy and in his tragedy, refreshing it with French wit or with 
lyricism and producing works of rare dramatic f elicit}. 

Italian comedy, allied naturally enough to that Spanish sword 
and cloak play of intrigue, — 

La farce italienne a ce drame espagnol 

is not only traditional in France but as hopelessly mixed, in truth, 
as the political fortunes of its Neapolitan home, now Italian and 
now Spanish ^, during the centuries. Nor was it less a force in the 
dramatic literature of Europe than of France, whether pre-Shakes- 
perean or pre-Cornelian ; and, barring all presumption, it may be 
safely supposed that M. Rostand knows his Italian stage after 
Moliere quite as intimately as before ^ ; and, again, nothing hinders 



2. Lea Deux Pierrots, — a farce in verse written by M. Rostand probably 
before Les Romanesques (1890) but given with illustrations by Orazi only 
recently. Cf. Je Sals Tout.— Paris, Xmas, 1910. 

3. (a) Cf. Les Romanesques. Act m, Sc. 2, — (where Straforel supplies 
the acting nerve lacking in "A quoi revent les Jeunes FiUes/' — ^Alfred de 
Musset's lovely comedy in verse, borrowed by Rostand with the happiest 
results).. Cjrrano de Bergerac, Act III, Sc. ll...Li'Aiglon, Act m. 8c. 7, 
8... La Princesse Lointaine, Act II, Sc. 5. 

(b) That Rostand "a fait 6cole," may be inferred by the imitation or 
emulation of his work in the Drama or in Lyrica. Of the School of Rostand 
in France, cf. Les BoufTons (1907) by Miguel Zamacols; and La Cena delle 
beffe (1909) by Sem Benelli, in Italy. Cf. also n Mantellaccio by Benelli, and 
the dramatic review signed "Stanis:Manca," -pseud., in La Tribuna, Rome, 
for April 1st, 1911. 

(c) Indicative of Rostand's influence, and significant of the present in- 
terest awakened by his work in Italian Comedy, is the revival of Ooldonl 
in Italy, — attributed by the distinguished critic Just quoted, to Professor L. 
Rasi, of Florence,— author of "I Comici italiani" (1897) and editor of 
Goldoni's best comedies; and, to Benini, the leading actor in (3oldonian 
roles.— Tribuna, April 14, 1911. 

4. The intimate relation between Italian and Spanish literature may 
be inferred from a critical study of "Don Quixote," Spain's contribution to 
the world's masterpieces: — El "Orlando Furioso" considerado como fuente 
del "Quijote" by Marco A. Garrone, pp. 114-144, of La Espafia Modema, 
Madrid, March 1911. On these relations in the sixteenth century, cf. also 
Donald Olive Stuart's suggestive article — "Honor in the Spanish Drama,** 
tracing this omnipresent motive of the Spanish neo-classic stage back to 
Italy. Romanic Review (U.S.A.) 1910, Nos. 8 and 4. 

5. For a good account of Italian comedy and its vicissitudes in France, 
cf. Maurice Sand, — Masques et Bouffons, with valuable plates, 2 vols., Michel 
L4vi Frdres, Paris. 1860. 



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Rostand and Italian Comedy 299 

his undergoing or reflecting its influence in his works ; incidentally it 
may explain Rostand's predilection for things Italian and Spanish. . . 
Howsoever this may be, the celebrated French dramatist instinctively 
followed a universal love for the part (as the world fame of Cyrano 
attests), when he sought out "Pulcinella," erstwhile "Capitano" • 
of the illustrious company of Masks, in abeyance since the dawn of 
the problem play. Rostand has since utilized in his theater the two 
forms of Italian art due to this comedy of Masks, — Italian drama 
and Italian opera. 

These sister crafts, it will be recalled, once embodied all the 
arts of the mediaeval Italian stage; juggling, mimicking, featuring; 
dancing, wrestling, fencing; extemporizing, improvising, impersonat- 
ing; — drama, music spectacle! From a show of independent masks, 
it became a group of masks playing "Commedia dell* arte," the far- 
famed prototype of those Italian-Comedy companies which, to this 
day, tour the capitals of Europe, and once took residence at the courts 
of kings ''. Its early actor, alert, resourceful, and moody, was a 
genius of rugged strength and imitative grace, tho his art, individual 
and native, was often, I confess, a compound of insolent postures, 
caustic humor, and disconcerting confidences; yet, his wit was con- 
tagious and his laughter hearty. A long sojourn among knights and 
ladies, and contact with the princely Renaissance, however, give him 
ease, manners, and distinction; there, he softens his voice and selects 
his part; he learns to play a more intimate role, cultivates higher 
music, fancy dancing, stage-craft; dons silk and satin in exquisite 
colors; puts on a velvet mask, and gloves his satire. It is with the 
waning splendor of the aristocracy that he leaves high patronage, 
joins other masks and forms guilds, and as the skilled and tried actor 
of the Commedia dell' arte, casts his fortune with the public; and, 
while he works out — to his undoing — the written mask of Goldoni * 
and Gozzi ^, the musical craft brings to perfection the opera of 

Paesiello, Cimarosa, and Mozart Types of all kinds, however, 

continue to wander over the face of the earth, starring alone or 



6. In France, now a twin- brother of Pulcinella (Fr. Pollchlnelle), not 
often differentiated beyond the psychology of dress. 

7. Armand Baschet, — ^Les Com6diens Italiens, H la Cour de France, etc. 
B. Plon et Cle, Paris, 1882. Much indebted to the work of M. Sand. 

8. On the "Comedy of Masks," "Goldoni and Realistic Comedy." "Carlo ' 
Ooszi and the Venetian Fairy Comedy," cf. the delightful work of Vernon 
Lee, Studies of the XVni Century in Italy, second edition, illustrated de 
luxe; A. C. McClurg. Chicago, 1908. Cf. also Nathan Haskell Dole, "Goldoni 
and Italian Comedy," Ch. VI of Studies in Italian Ldterature, Moffat, Yard 
& Co., N. Y., 1908. 

9. Gozzl's Fiabe — or Fairy plays are more on the order of Maeter- 
linck's Blue Bird, now sharing public attention with Rostand's Chanteder. 



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300 The Quarterly Journal 

operating a miraculous puppet stage ^^. Meanwhile the literatures of 
Europe rescue and adapt, each according to its own genius, elements 
of this glorious stage threatened by the Revival of Learning. The 
neo-classic drama of Shakespeare, Cervantes, and Lope de Vega, of 
Moliere, Goldoni, and Goethe, incorporates masks with magic effect ; 
the opera of Mozart casts a spell of eternal youth over innamorato, 
soubrette, and gradoso; and Watteau, in a gay century, paints In 
sheen and con amore these animated figures of the lovely old stage. 

In time, the Italian mask was widely imitated; roles of local 
and special significance multiplied rapidly. At first, theatres ex- 
ploited specialties regardless of the nature of the drama to be enacted, 
the actor holding the stage until dispossessed by the next actor and 
maybe by force. The plot was simple, tho the intrigue often grew in 
complication ; if written, it was a mere outline, or canvas ^^ ; but, no 
matter what the play, these stock characters wore the same mask and 
costume and acted in the same mimic style. The company usually 
played ex-tempore. Its moral signs were sometimes of the race of 
Pan ; the humour of another age . . Each player wore a mask or some- 
thing distinctive, conventional, symbolical, or characteristic, — z false 
nose, horns, a hump or two, a false beard, a tongue, a wooden sword, 
— indispensable to the action ; a head-gear, or a dress, which was or 
became traditional with the part. Withal the genre persists! If 
today, a lone Pulcinella, Stenterello, or Pantalone, playing the 
humbled role left him by Goldoni ^2, tours his native haunts of 
Naples ^^, Florence, or Venice, the delighted pit cries out its time- 
honored "mask off** to renew the old acquaintance it craves. And so 
it was that in 19 10, while studying these remnants of the early Italian 
stage, in Naples, I saw among others 

"la celebre Maschera," 
GIUSEPPE DE MARTIN O, in "PULCINELLA, 
e la sua critica giornata," 
cast, as is still the Italian custom, with a modern company giv- 
ing a modern play or farce. This symbol of another age struck-in 

10. For the decadence of this Neapolitan "Pulcinella" -booth, and Its 
pitiful degeneration into a gambling institution finally condemned by civil 
authorities, cf. Alberto Cappelletti — ^L'Agonia del Pupi" reprinted from the 
"Unione" in No. 12 of L'tilustrazlone Popolare. for March 1911. 

11. Examples of these are given In M. Sand's work quoted above: cf. 
also L. Moland. — Moli&re et la Com^dle Itallenne, with cuts: Dldier, Paris, 
1867. 

12. In 0pite of this. W. D. Howells writes as late as 1887 that he enjosrs 
"the elder plays of Goldoni. compositions dellciously racy, when seen in 
Venice," — p. 73, Venetian Life, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston and New 
York. — For a present day revival of Goldoni in Italy, cf. note 3, (c). 

13. On the Nativity of Pulcinella and his numerous twins, — brothers 
and sisters of the Italian stage, cf. Ch. I of the modest but Independent 
"Studi e Profili" of Dott: Mlchele Scherillo's "La Commedia dell' Arte in 
Italia;" Ermanno Loescher, Torino, 1884. 



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Rostand and Italian Comedy 301 

like an apparition ; and I was wondering at this articulate stage-drift 
of antique mien when a testy "machera!" near-by broke my spell 
and unmasked the mellow player who bowed his recognition. 

Once the unerring artistic sense of Rostand led him to try one of 
these clever fellows, a bravo, for a naive and delicate enterprise in 
"Les Romanesques" ^*. It captivated the "Comedie-FranQaise. He 
then hired this bravo to impersonate "Cyrano de Bergerac." It was 
a triumph! Since then, Rostand has retained him in his service to 
the glory of the French stage. For, those who follow the dramatic 
movement of France must have been struck with the curiously remin- 
iscent appearance of Cyrano de Bergerac. The whole world recog- 
nized and welcomed him, and yet forgot, in its long pent up joy, to 
cry out "mask off" at his symbolical entrance. You will recall how, 
in the first act of Cyrano de Bergerac, Montfleury, dull actor, mouth- 
ing a duller play of Baro, is interrupted ^^. He hears the speech of 
defiance Cyrano is intoning thru the nose of Pulcinella, and startles 
at the return of this figure of might and wit to the French stage. Exit 
Montfleury! The stage must no longer "heave" its message across 
the footlights; the stage must take wings. It is after this pre- 
cipitate exit of Montfleury and the snufling out of Baro, that Cyrano 
groups about him what is left of the players in the Burgundy Theatre, 
alert and fantastic members of the "Commedia dell* arte" — Isabella, 
the Doctor, Leander and other Italian masks, comedians and musi- 
cians. He invites them to witness another "play," spontaneous and 
merry, full of glory and of wit, of courage and honor; a play of life 
and of death, with the maddest bravo in the leading role: — for, in 
this living, glowing, quivering act, the hero is to be Cyrano de Ber- 
gerac. His beloved moon, mute and expectant, lights up the exquisite 
scene. — "You are going to see what you are going to see !" 

This bit of theatrical symbolism in Rostand's celebrated play is 
now literary history. In it, France had turned once more to literary 
tradition for its poetic drama. It had barkened back to the Italian 
comedy of masks for action ^•, and to its fair consort — Italian opera 
for lyrical outbursts of the purest glow: — back to the glad Italian 
light (a theme destined to find its supreme expression in Chantecler), 
to disperse the gloom and fog which had long obscured the French 
sky. A new chapter in the literature of France had been opened; 

14. Cf. my Introduction to "Les Romanesques," — Dramatic Review; 
International Modem Lans^uage Series, Glnn & Co., Boston, 1904. 

15. Scene 3. 

16. On this essential quality of Italian Confedy and the role played by 
Italian farce In the evolution of French Comedy, cf. M. Andr6 Le Breton. 
In vol. V of Petit de Jullevllle's Hlstoire de la Langue ei de la Latt6rature 
Francalse. Armand Colin et Cle, Paris, 1898. 



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302 The Quarterly Journal 

and altho the great virtue of Rostand's plays is shared by literature 
and acting alike, it inheres in action most. The Italian comedy of 
masks was the most vital dramatic element available to animate a 
turgid play; the Italian opera, the most happy lyrical concomitant of 
a play in verse. It would take no less to refresh and re-attune the 
blase French soul, and Edmond Rostand had consummated this new 
French comedy with "Cyrano de Bergerac'* This lone protagonist, 
this Capitano with the resistless plume of Cyrano, was no longer the 
playful bravo of "Les Romanesques,** but the exalted leader in ear- 
nest ! Flashing his dazzling blade into the night about him, he thrust 

home Rostand's duel with Parnassism and Naturalism, prosaism, 

and the commonplace, — was on the stage. 

As I have said, the plays of Rostand act ; they wing their flight 
over the dismal thesis of the day, and move with Hamlet's injunction 
to suit the action to the word and the word to the action. It is this 
principle of action, I repeat, that Rostand has borrowed from the 
Italian mask, the traditional medium of intrigue, the servant of fancy, 
the sinew of the European drama, and the life spring of the organism 
we call the modern stage. Accordingly, Rostand's plays abound in 
potent stage directions, insistent, poetic, electric: — ^Take this magic 
wand of youth and humor and energy, — ^and wave high the smiling 
Punch-capped symbol! Not unlike Shakespeare, you exclaim; but 
you might say Moliere-like, or like Goethe with the same sweep of 
truth. The Italian spirit breathes in them all. For, Shakespeare 
animated the drama of Marlowe with Italian mirth ; Moliire stirred 
the static French drama and urged the self-complacent society of his 
day with Italian bastonata; Goethe cleared the nightmare of endless 
German cogitation about him with Italian Mephistophelism ; and, 
single-handed, Edmond Rostand, consciously or unconsciously, re- 
newed the modern stage with Italian comedy. 

This comedy incarnate is Straforel in "Les Romanesques;** this 
unifying genius in action is Cyrano de Bergerac ; this tireless puppet- 
string is Camerata^'^; this lusty light-motiv* is Chanteder ^* ; this 
synergistic stage-force is Rostand himself, who, Mephisto-like, grips 
these living symbols until they have yielded him their soul. And how 
they respond, these lyrical instruments strung to the snapping point 1 

17. Cf. L.'Aiglon. 

*Wlth apologies to H*n Wagner and to M. Rostand's M*rh, 

18. "Chantecler est Toeuvre d'un admirable excltateur d'6nergle/' says 
M. Adolphe Brisson; — ^Le Symbole chez lee Pontes — Maeterlinck et I'Olseau 
Bleu. Rostand et Chantecler. p. 558, Journal de rUniyerslt6 des Annales, 
October 25, 1910. M. Brisson is perhaps the most competent and sympa- 
thetic interpreter of Rostand and his work, In France. In differentlaung 
between these two plays, he says justly: "On passe de I'atmosph^re bru- 
meuse et ouat6e du Nord flamand H I'atmosph&re 6clatante et ensolelllfte du 
Midi latin".... p. 568, Journal cited. 



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Rostand and Italian Comedy 303 

What materials they stir and unify! How they quicken into new 
being — society and nature, art and literature, music and stage! For 
Rostand assimilates readily. He wills new life as well as new drama ; 
he gives the messengers of his fancy a live, new interpretation of the 
philosophic man undergoing or supervising his play at life. But, his 
first and most important work was the rehabilitation of the Italian 
comedian, merry promoter of destinies, and subtle artificer of moon- 
light and sunstrokes; trusty intriguer and picturesque conjurer. He 
reinstated him in his traditional role, rescuing the mask from his long 
degradation into the sinister villain of the European drama, the degen- 
erate mounte-bank, the ignoble side-show of the modern circus. He 
had gone all the steps of a saddening decadence, in spite of the literary 
eflForts of LeSage, Sedaine, and Nodier ; the racy acting of Gros-Guil- 
laume, Gaultier-Garguille, and Turlupin, or later heroes of the open- 
air stage and fair booth In Rostand, he again becomes a re- 
sourceful genius, the merry go-between, busy-body or philosopher, 
poet, musician, or actor. 

Rostand is his own mysterious showman, animating plays and 
players with the cavalier air of a Roman padrone showing marion- 
ettes ^*. When we hear his voice in their glorious tatters, we look 
expectantly : is it Capitano or Pulcinella ; bravo, conspirator, or mer- 
chant ; — it may be that Genoese ; or the Neapolitan ; or the Corsican ! 
Is the stage not a guignol's? Will there be the eternal duo, a jolly 
quintetto, a rural imbroglio ? Not real ? ^^ No matter ! The show 
is on ; the magic curtain has flown. .Whether squeak, voice, or clarion, 
such is the interest awakened by the theatric genius of Rostand; in 
its limited and chosen sphere, it is magnetic tho protean. His stage 
is at once illuminating and enigmatic, provocative and audacious! 

When the role is not borrowed from Italian- comedy, the at- 
mosphere pervading the play is unmistakably from Italian comedy. 
This atmosphere inheres in names and scenes, works and deeds remin- 

19. Ro9tand's reputed passion for marionettes and his puppet stage 
at Cambo long exercised the press of the day. — ^In his plays, Rostand often 
speaks of pupazzi, guignol, marionettes, mimes, etc., and shows perfect 
familiarity with this phase of the old Italian stage. For interesting side- 
lights on puppet-shows, carnival life, acting and actors, during the last cen- 
tury, cf. (1) the very popular and often reprinted sketches of Italian life 
in Roba di Roma, by W. W. Story, favorably mentioned in Hawthorne's 
preface to "Marble Faun," Chapman & Hall, London, 1876, or the edition of 
Houghton, Mienin & Co., 2 vols., Boston & N. T., 1887; (2) W. D. Howells' 
Venetian Life, Ch. V, cited in note 12; (3) Goethe's somewhat neglected 
"Travels in Italy," Bohn's Standard Library, London, George Bell & Sons, 
1883; (4) Ernest Maindron, — Marlonnettes et Guignols,— Illustrated ; F. Ju- 
ven, Paris, 1900, shows latest phase before moving pictures, the literary 
Marionnette. 

20. For a classic example of the reality of the Italian puppet-stage in 
Spain, re-read Ch. XXVI, part n. of Cervantes' Don Quixote, either in the 
original or in Ormsby's translation,>-T. T. Crowell & Co., N. Y.; Goethe 
and Howells' works cited in note 19 give interesting accounts of this popu- 
lar entertainment of Latin countries. 



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304 The Quarterly Journal 

iscent of Italy: in countless allusions to works and things embodying 
the Italian spirit; in endless references to Italians and Italianists in 
literature, art, or music. This enchanted world is his field. For, if 
we would give back to Italy what the modern world has borrowed 
from her in art and thought, we would have to take from Shakes- 
peare his mottled fools and Italian "dukes," to say nothing of his 
wonder world of fancy and action ; we would have to take from Lope 
de Vega his graciosos; from Moliere, his stage-sinews, merry wags 
and madcap valets; from Goldoni, his dialogue; from Goethe, his 
Mephisto, — lone and superb figure in a volume of learned lucubra- 
tions! We would have to take from Hugo (tho Spanish), his roisterers 
and poisoners; from Musset, his atmosphere and in^iration; from 
Gautier, his Capitaine Fracasse ^^ and love-sick pierrots; from Ban- 
ville, his leaping clowns and lyrical rope skipping ; from Rostand, his 
Cyrano, — or his soul ! Let me enter the field of music only to listen 
to Mozart's undying preludes, intermezzos and arias, and hail in pass- 
ing Almaviva, Figaro, and Rosina, this vivacious and melodious trio. 
I reluctantly refrain from more. For it shows, I think, how much we 
would have to give back to Italy; how much we owe, directly and 
indirectly, to its Commedia deir arte and to Italian drama or its 
lyrical counterpart, Italian opera. * 

When the atmosphere is not to the purpose, the manner of Ros- 
tand is still reminiscent of the acting characteristic of the Commedia 
deir arte ; — the tension of Italian players, their spontaneity and droll- 
ery, conceits and farce ; the engaging self-possession of the plotter, his 
ruse or roguery; the bravura of the bravo, his prolixity, abundant 
lyrism, glow of life, and zest for acting ^^ ; his resourcefulness, pres- 
ence of mind, sense of humor, and quick repartee; the opera star's 
gusto and brio, his automatic gesture of the guignol, — the endless fa- 
cility of the Italian improvisatore. For, the nature of the Commedia 
deir arte long enabled a role or mask to be developed at the expense 
of the drama. It exploited that improvising actor once condemned 
by Shakespeare for speaking more than was set down for him . . . With 
the poet and the madman should have been classed the actor and the 
musician. For, the same state of affairs obtained in the Italian opera 

21. A novel embodying the life and types of the stage world; cf. 
vol. I. modelled after the celebrated French prose clasaic. — "Le Roman 
Comique" of Scarron, ed. Victor Fournel, 2 vols., Biblioth^que EIz6v6rlenne, 
P. Janet, Paris, 1857. 

*On the Italian opera, (It. Melodramma) cf. Vernon Lee op. cit in note 
8; — consult also the historical programs of the Music section of the ES- 
POSIZIONE di Roma, (Idll). giving the evolution of the musical drama, 
thru the Commedia dell' arte, to date. 

22. "I have not often seen more natural acting than that by these 
masks. It is such acting as can only be sustained by a remarkable happy 
talent and long practice.^' Goethe, Op. dt. p. 67, of. note 19. 



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Rostand and Italian Comedy 305 

where the singers, fond of arias, fioritura, and coloratura, proceeded 
unmindful of the action. In this musical play of intoxicating lyrism 
and animation, duos and recitatives alternated with riotous dramatic 
unconcern. But, tho a poetic promise, it is perhaps a danger in 
the modern drama, as Hugo's stage career demonstrated in his own 
day. Still, Hugo's defeat lay in erring characterization or impossible 
situations — ^his lack of organic unity, and not truly in excessive 
lyricism, as often supposed. The same fate may ultimately overtake 
Rostand — for, his tuneful Chantecler has caused uneasiness in spite 
of its unity of role and self-assurance, its larger life outlook and wider 
philosophic horizon, his wonted psychology and artistic candor. 

But that this lyrical method should tempt a poet like Rostand 
is no marvel, if his aim be to entertain first and to concern himself 
with dramatic processes next. From lyrical poetry to music, there 
was but one step, though Chantecler stands a near neighbor to Cyrano 
in mind and heart and destiny. There is no mistaking this musical 
idea in the poetic dream of Rostand if we but note its consummation 
in a work whose key-note is in the title, or catch its intent more fully 
as his prismatic mind dissolves the traditional prolog into a memor- 
able prelude ^^. Besides, the artificial nature of the drama does not 
preclude in the author any possible resource available to the artist. 
It is true that a play should act, but this would not make it real; a 
play should be coherent, but this would not make it real ; a thing of 
artifice must be judged by the tenets of that artifice. In the poetic 
drama, fancy creates its own world ; its truth, and reality, and human- 
ity, are as relative there as in any other sphere of man's artistic en- 
deavor. Critics and points of view differ ; with the traditional student, 
the unity of subject is still highly regarded; but, interest is largely 
individual, and probability is of little consequence in a work of world 
symbols ^4. The dramatic unities are observed or neglected accord- 
ing to the elasticity or rigidity of the critic judging the work. Only 
the unity of soul, — the soul of Rostand — remains to link him with 
Victor Hugo, the great Romanticist who cannot be said to have kept 
much of the old dramatic faith in his emancipation from the classic 
stage, nor to owe his immortality to dramatic perfection ^5, But it is 
fatuous to vindicate the blending of music with drama in the phan- 



23. For an excellent interpretation and appreciation of Chantecler, 
read the article of Professor Richard Burton, of the University of Minne- 
sota, in the Bellman (Minneapolis) for May 28. 1910. 

24. In this connection a re-reading of Chantecler and of the Blue Bird 
would afford matter for reflection. 

25. Hugo's dramatic works, — Ruy Bias, Hemanl, etc., constitute none 
the less a mine of rich materials from which poetic dramatists like Ros- 
tand have drawn unsparingly; in the music world cf. Vtfdi'9 Rigoletto, etc. 



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3o6 The Quarterly Journal 

tasism of Rostand. "Chantccler" is with us.* Still, Chantccler may 
have its raison d'etre only in this elastic view of the poetic drama ; for 
Chanteder is a veritable music score in the manner of the "Magic 
Flute" of Mozart, wrought about a sturdier chord and satiric strain 
from Beethoven. What a world of ready music in this libretto alone 1 
Chanteder is at times pure Italian opera. 

We seem a long step from Cyrano; but, fortunately for my 
thesis, not only the genius of Rostand but its symbol, the mask, has 
survived in the hatching process that gave us Chanteder ; there is only 
apparent difference between the nose of the insolent Cyrano and the 

beak of the supercilious cock The matamorphosis of the 

spontaneous Cyrano, hero, into the improvising Chanteder, martyr, 
deceives nobody ; the Capitano of Italian comedy animates them both 
and the same voice speaks victoriously thru them. It seemed futile, 
you will agree, to conceal my desire to end this dissertation with a 
word on Chantccler .... verily, Chanteder sings ! And, as truly as it 
can be said that Mozart and Beethoven have expressed Germany's 
greatest poetry in Italian music, so Rostand has immortalized his lyri- 
cal raptures in this brilliant Italian pastoral ^^. As in other things, 
Rostand has repeated himself pleasingly ; he has grown, tho, from the 
merry jingle and chatter of his "Journee d'une Predeuse" 27 ^q th^ 
orchestral "Prelude" of his great nature play; from the declamation of 
the "Cadets of Gascony" to the "Song of the Nightingale" and the 
"Crapeaux chorus," — orphic if not dramatic growth. I know of no 
bookish thing so effective, at least musically, as Rostand's Chanteder; 
nor do I exclude his cruel satire on Parisian critics and harmless 
pedants, his Academic confreres. For all its falsetto and hoot, his 
symbolical "Retreat" of cringing, croaking "toads" from the moonlit 
stage of France, is portentous and significant. Since "Les Mon- 

*Note: The play. In English, was first given at the Knickerbocker the- 
atre. New York, January 23, 1911, with Miss Maude Adams in the title-part. 
It was a success; but from all reports, our tragic swaggerer has become 
a hectic dwarf at the hands of Miss Adams, altho in her version, (Englished 
by Louis N. Parker who translated L'Aiglon, also played by Miss Adams), 
something of the perverse cock percolates thru the pretty bantam. Since 
his migration to these climes, the QalUc original has undergone the fate of 
traveling abroad and lost something of his native crest and point. A New 
York first-nighter reports this, — clear but bald outline of the new version: 
"The role of Chanteder, as interpreted by Miss Adams, is that of a man, 
masterful, passionately fond of his life's work and SFure he is accomplishing 
it. He meets the hen-pheasant — representing the modem development or 
woman — domineering, selfish, jealous of the man's success. Then follows 
hi9 disillusionment, when the hen-pheasant shows him the day has dawned 
without his crow. And his reply is that his destiny Is surer than the 
day." — Minneapolis Journal. Nevertheless, the celebrated barnyard idvl is 
attracting even jaded play-goers, and Chantecler heralds the virtues of the 
fairest American stage charmer, if he no longer aings his own vainglorious 
praise. Cf. The Literary Digest, February 4, 1911, pp. 208-9. 

26. M. Brisson, art. cited p. 667, calls the fourth act of Chantecler, a 
vast pastoral symphony. 

27. A dainty motive worked out of Musset's A quoi revent les Jeunes 
Filles,— cf. note 8, (a). 



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Rostand and Italian Comedy 307 

treurs" ^8 and the "Coucher du Solcil Romantiquc" ^9 ^o stricture 
more bold has been provoked by outraged Romanticism in Europe. 
Whether a clarion call to higher national endeavor, or exultant, un- 
compromising egoism, Chantecler remains a superb ode to light, a plea 
for art, a song of life — set to Italian music. Nor is this Rostand's 
farewell bow to his entranced public. He has not, in his willful exile, 
cast off the magic cloak of Arlequin. He is conjuring up a stage, they 
say, there, away in the Pyrenees ^^, — the very stage for his long-loved 
proteges: Buonavventura, Maschere, and many a glorious scene may 
you revive! 



28. Leconte de Lisle. 

29. Baudelaire. 

80. For Roatand's early resolve, to be "smuggler" of superfluous her- 
oics and Spanish imaginings to France, in a dull age. read his epic inter- 
view with l>on Quixote in "Le Contrebandier," — a noble poem of 64 stanzas, 
S regnant with meaning for French lyrical poetry and the French poetic 
rama. Cf. Li'niustration, Paris, February 25, 1911. 



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The Question of the Theatre 

Frederick Henry Koch, 

Assistant Professor of Dramatic Literature and Oratory, University 

of North Dakota 

WHAT of the theatre? This question is being asked by think- 
ing men in our colleges and universities to-day as never be- 
fore. Tardily indeed we have come to recognize our own, to know 
that the drama is the true child of democraq^, to realize our responsi- 
bility as educators. Yet at last it has dawned upon us that we have 
a high privilege in helping shape the public mind thru this irresistible 
institution. We have long been disinterested because we have not 
thought sufficiently on the significance of the theatre, we have disre- 
garded, even decried it without asking the question, why is the 
theatre so fascinating? We have not looked behind the facts. 

Mr. James F. Metcalfe, the dramatic critic of Life, in an article 
published in the Atlantic Monthly some time ago, estimates the 
amount of capital invested in theatres in this country as more than 
$300,000,000. No less authority than Mr. Robert Grau, a veteran 
in the business, writing in the April number of The Theatre maga- 
zine gives a list of the salaries paid some of the stage favorites of the 
present time; Elsie Janis and Louis Mann each receive $2,000 per 
week, Eva Tanquay receives $2,500 per week, Lillian Russell, 
$3,000 weekly. Rose Stahl, $3,500, and David Warfield recently re- 
fused an offer of $4,500 per week. These figures represent only 
a parcel of the vast sums passed thru the box office nightly; the 
fortunes that are made and lost in the business seem fabulous. 

I. THE audience 

The social scope of the theatre is even more surprising. We 
have not duly considered its wide province, the reaches of its influ- 
ence, its deep impression on the masses. From New York, the centre 
of this huge institution of the theatre, companies of actors come into 
every community of ten thousand people and less. In these cities are 
millions of workers living for the most part routine lives, weary with 
work, restless in their drudgery, clerks in banks and offices, tired 
men and women in shops and factories, in restaurants and depart- 
ment stores, who need at night time a change, relaxation, entertain- 
ment, new life. They go to the theatre. They stand an hour, 
two, or three hours huddled together in the narrow court at the foot 



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The Question of the Theater 309 

of the gallery stairs waiting with patient, happy expectancy, with 
many a friendly jest, each with his silver quarter in hand, for the 
moment the doors will open, for the glad rush up the steep cir- 
cuitous stairs and the bolt for a good place in the family circle to see 
Robert Mantel in Shakespeare's tragedy of Lear, the beloved Maude 
Adams in the fantasy of Chantecler, or her fairy play Peter Pan, or 
perhaps Sheldon's vigorous presentation of the problem of the South 
in The Nigger, This, however, is merely a handful. There are 
hundreds of thousands, millions of men and women assembled in the 
theatres and music halls of our cities nightly. The imagination can- 
not conceive the illimitable sea of human faces, row after row, bal- 
cony upon balcony, crowd after crowd the English speaking world 
over. Some are thrilled with the high flights of Shakespeare's genius, 
venturing far out on his intellectual ocean; sounding with him the 
deeps of the tragedy of life, its ceaseless mystery; skipping with him 
over the shining shallows of the comedy of life, the frailties and 
whims of man's little world. Others there are with leering faces 
fascinated by the sensuous rythm of the ballet, not heeding the sod- 
den looks of the dancers; some are in tears with the mother in the 
sorrow that shadows her home; others are grinning and guffawing 
at the jaded vulgarity of the jester ; some are gazing with wide eyes 
of wonder into the fairyland of the scene-shifter; others are wrapt 
in the morbid mystery of the problem play; some are admiring the 
feats of aerial performers, others the clever impersonations of the 
character-actor; and some are charmed by the old homestead in thet 
Green Mountains and the wholesome humor of New England coun- 
try life. Laughter and tears, peaceful meadows and burning land- 
scapes, beauty and passion, sledge-hammer humor and blunderbuss 
bathos, hopelessness and happiness, despair and faith, such are the 
contrasts of human emotions experienced in the theatre. Some are 
inspired, others degraded; some see the vision, others the shadow. 
This is the situation. 

These circumstances warrant the protest of Mr. George Bernard 
Shaw's recent letter to the London Times against a purely commer- 
cial theatre: 

"The theatre is literally making the minds of the people today. 
It is a huge factory of sentiment, of character, of points of honor, 
of conceptions of conduct, of everything that finally determines the 
destiny of a nation. And yet it is openly said that the theater is only 
*a place of amusement.' It is nothing of the kind. A theater is a 
place of culture, a place where people learn how to think, act, and 
feel; more important than all the schools in Christendom." 



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3IO The Quarterly Journal 

He expresses in this the sentiment of many who are thinking 
seriously of the question of the theatre to-day. 

A renaissance of thoughtful interest in the stage is evident on 
every side. In the criticisms of current plays and players in our 
magazines, in the comments of the daily papers, in the scores of 
books published each year on the literature of the drama from 
Shakespeare to Ibsen and Shaw, and in the prominence given 
to the study and presentation of the drama in our leading colleges 
and universities, the social significance and educational values of this 
enchanting art of action are beginning to be recognized by an awak- 
ened public consdence. We are coming to realize that the thinking 
and the feeling of all classes of society are being moulded, that the 
conduct and character of the masses are being formed, silently and 
permanently, in the cosmopolitan play-house. For all are included 
in this art, the poor worker who spends his small earnings for a 
bench-seat in the moving picture show of the slums as well as the 
well-to-do merchant who invests his dollars in a cushioned chair 
at the fashionable theatre down-town. And there is no reader of 
these pages who is not thrilled in recalling the white nights of won- 
der when he saw the lovely Mary Anderson play Juliet, Madame 
Modjeska in the awful majesty of Lady Macbeth, Sir Henry Irving 
in his tragedy of the Jew, Shylock, Joseph JeflFerson in the hearty 
humor of Rip Van Winkle, the great Italian Eleanora Duse as the 
ill-fated Francesca, or the beloved Edwin Booth in the sweet prince 
Hamlet of Denmark. 

Of the burial of Thomas Betterton, the greatest actor of the 
seventeenth century. Sir Richard Steele wrote in the following sym- 
pathetic manner: "Having received notice that the famous actor 
Mr. Betterton was to be interred this evening in the cloisters near 
Westminster Abbey, I was resolved to walk thither and see the last 
office done to a man whom I always very much admired and from 
whose action I had received more strong impressions of what is 
great and noble in human nature than from the arguments of the 
most solid philosophers, or the descriptions of the most charming 
poets I have ever read." The leading actor of the next century, 
David Garrick, was held in the same high esteem during his life, 
and when he died his body was entombed with royal ceremony in 
the old Abbey, the shrine of England's history. And in our own 
times, when Henry Irving was knighted by Queen Victoria 
for the first time in history was the highest honor in 
England accorded to an actor. Now he too rests in the great 
Abbey. And only a few months ago a heroic statue of the dead 



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The Question of the Theatre 311 

actor was unveiled in London, a symbol of the affectionate apprecia- 
tion of his fellow-players, but more than this a new recognition of the 
profession in which he lived and wrought. Says the Manchester 
Guardian of the ceremony, "Irving thus honored, begins a new 
phase in the public estimation of our actors." 

n. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT 

In order to understand fully this moving appeal of the theatre 
we should consider its origins. The dramatic instinct is inborn; it 
arises from man's desire to express the innermost yearnings of his 
being. It has manifested itself in some form in all stages of the 
development of the race; in the crude memorials of the Mound 
Builders and the Cliff Dwellers from which archeologists have re- 
constructed the strange rites of prehistoric man ; in the pomp of pagan 
worship pictured in the Aztec temples of old Mexico and in the deep- 
hewn tombs of Egypt; in the spectacles of our American Indians, 
the Wolf Dance of the Arapahoes, the Sun Dance of the Shoshones, 
the Snake Dance of the Hopis; in the mimetic Bird Dance and the 
frenzied pantomines of the Igorot Head-hunters in the Philippines; 
in the impressive Shinto ceremony of Japan ; in the ancient religious 
drama of India; in the religious dances of the early Greeks at the 
altar of Dionysus, god of the vintage; in the symbols of our Chris- 
tian faith, the ritual of the Roman and Episcopal churches, the Mass 
from which the early drama takes its rise. From the pagan cere- 
monies of China and Japan have come by gradual growth the pon- 
derous historical plays — the native drama of the Orient one may see 
represented in the dingy Chinese theatre in Mott Street, New York, 
to-day; from the wild goat-song of shaggy-vestured priests at the 
altar of Dionysus, Greek god of wine, of joy, and new life, gradually 
evolved the poetry of the Pcridean age of Greece — the tragedies of 
Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripedes, that great trinity of Hellenic 
singers. 

At Athens, city of clear white temples and forest of statutes, 
in the height of ancient achievement, under the open sky, thirty 
thousand expectant Greeks from every corner of the world of Hellas 
assembled for a three days national festival in the theatre on the 
south side of the Acropolis, there to witness these literary master- 
pieces of antiquity* A reverent audience was this vast concourse of 
Greeks, for these dramas at the altar of the god formed their highest 
expression of both religious and national life. To them these dram- 
atic festivals were at once church and state, religion and patriotism. 

From the impressive service of the Church of Rome the modern 



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312 The Quarterly Journal 

drama was slowly evolved. The dramatic liturgy of the Mass, with 
its blending of symbolic action, scriptural narrative and antiphonal 
singing, furnished all the elements of the liturgical drama. The 
embroidered robes, the paintings and figures, the stained glass win- 
dows, with the lighted candles and altar-bells and clouds of incense, 
all together added much to the scene. The great church festivals 
at Easter and at Christmas time suggested living tableaux to illustrate 
the Gospel story, and gradually with responsive reading and singing 
came gestures. And so grew the Miracle and Mystery Plays to serve 
the purpose of the church. Of these the Passion Plays of Selsach in 
Switzerland and of Oberammergau in Bavaria are perhaps the most 
notable survivals. Later we have the allegorical sermons of the Mor- 
ality Plays; then Interludes and the Drama proper which found its 
full flower in the plays of William Shakespeare. So, figuratively 
speaking, the theatre of to-day planted and nourished within the altar 
railings by Mother Church herself, speedily outgrowing the narrow 
walls of the cathedral, was transplanted by the trades-guilds on the 
village green. Then, passing from the priests to the people, it was 
lost to the church. 

The life story of our English theatre is, indeed, a thrilling one. 
Rooted at the high altar of the church, reared by the trades-guilds, 
flowering wondrously in the days of good Queen Bess, poisoned by 
the decadent atmosphere of the Jacobean era, cut oflF by the relent- 
less sword of the Puritan, bursting out again in the rank luxuriance 
of the Restoration, developing a more vigorous growth in the xvin 
century Comedy of Manners, and passing with the changing social 
conditions into the various modern forms, — exciting melodrama, the 
kaleidoscopic vaudeville, the homely domestic drama, plays of sym- 
bolism, the musical comedy, the sombre problem play, and the real- 
istic studies of our social, political and economic problems — ^the Eng- 
lish theatre has never in all its life history lost its vitality. 

It is interesting to note in this connection that with the devel- 
opment of nationality the people have gradually evolved a drama of 
truly national significance. We have seen that this is so in Greece and 
in England. We find France attaining to her literary own in the 
plays of Moliere, Corneille, and Racine under Louis XIV., Spain in 
the plays of Lope de Vega and Calderon under Charles V. and 
Philip II., Germany in Goethe and Schiller, and so on. Rome sub- 
dued Greece by force of arms but was herself subdued by the intellect 
of Greece, so the national development of Rome was limited, and 
she accepted Greek models in her literature. So Italy, long divided 
by the petty jealousies of separate states, has to-day developed no 



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The Question of the Theatre 313 

national drama but has copied the Greek and Latin forms coming 
by way of France. And in our own day the national spirit of Nor- 
way, by this same process, has cumulated in Ibsen's plays. That the 
slow-forming nationality of a people should crystallize itself in the 
literary form of the drama is interesting and significant. 

It should be remembered, then, that this inbred desire for 
mimetic expression has shown itself in some sort of dramatic repre- 
sentation from the primitive state of man to the highly organized 
sodety of to-day. The theatre in some form, crude or complex, has 
always been intimately cherished by the masses of the people, and to 
lose faith in the theatre were to lose faith in mankind. It owes its 
popularity to its representation of human life in action ; it is the art of 
revealed human nature sprung from man's inborn desire to know 
himself, to body forth the mystery of his being. 

III. THEATRIC TYPES 

The theatre, then, as a natural product of the life of the people, 
reflects their conduct and character. The different stages in the de- 
velopment of man have resulted in corresponding dramatic forms, 
as has been indicated; the different classes of society have produced 
various theatric types recording their several tastes and modes of 
life, as the classic, domestic, symbolic and society dramas, the 
musical comedy, the vaudeville show, the melodrama and the prob- 
lem play of to-day. The theatre has always reflected the taste and 
conduct of its sponsors. 

The individual repeats within himself the history of the race, 
and the development of the histrionic art in the race is reflected in 
the growth of dramatic appredation in the individual. It will be in- 
teresting to correlate the tjn^ical dramatic forms of to-day with the 
different stages of appreciation in the individual, and hence in the 
race. Shakespeare holds the world but as "a stage, where every man 
must play a part," and Wordsworth reminds us in a noble ode that 
every child repeats within himself the play of life in miniature: 

Behold the Child among his new-bom blisses 
A six years' Darling of a pygmy size ! 
See, where 'mid work of his own hand he lies 
Fretted by sallies of his mother's kisses. 
With light upon him from his father's eyes! 
Sec, at his feet, some little plan or chart. 
Some fragment from his dream of human life. 
Shaped by himself with newly-learned art; 
A wedding or a festival. 



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314 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

A motirnifig or a funeral ; 

And this hath now his heart, 

And unto this he frames his song; 

Then will he fit his tongue 

To dialogues of business, love, or strife; 

But it will not be long 

Ere this be thrown aside. 

And with new joy and pride 

The little Actor cons another part ; 

Filling from time to time his 'humorous stage' 

With all the Persons, down to palsied Age, 

That Life brings with her in her equipage; 

As if his whole vocation 

Were endless imitation." 

We are familiar with these early evidences of the dramatic in- 
stinct in the playing of children. The small boy is wild with delight 
at the prospect of a circus coming to town — a circus with its big 
gilded wagons, its gay colored trappings, its wild animals of every 
description from the mammoth "Juml^" elephant to the den of 
writhing boas, its livid painted clowns and the strange wonders of its 
"side-show." This circus represents his highest histrionic appreciation 
and his little being is bubbling over with happiness. This is the 
small-boy stage of his taste; his primitive love of barbaric splendor. 
The showy vaudeville house with its aerial acrobats, its buffoonery 
and its wonderful feats of magic is his ideal theatre. He changes 
rapidly in the next few years, and by the time he attains his teens 
the enthusiasm of a vigorous youth begins to assert itself. He now 
reads with avidity the exciting tales of Henty and Oliver Optic He 
craves the heroic in life. He likes the plays where many people are 
shot on the stage, not indiscriminately, but in a manner consistent 
with his ideas of right. He insists that the hero of the play must de- 
fend the helpless girl and thwart the villain; this fitness of things 
has become necessary to his growing feeling of the rightness of honor 
and the wrongness of crime. He worships physical powei and skill, 
but there is also that within him which recognizes right as well as 
might. The home of melodrama is now his favorite theatre. The 
play, perhaps From Rags to Riches, expresses this youth stage of 
histrionic taste. It is a tjn^ical melodrama. The scene is the Bowery 
in New York ; the hero an orphan newsboy ; the villain a sleek scoun- 
drel of the silk-hat variety with an ugly Chinese accomplice; the 
heroine, sister to the newsboy, frail and lovely. The climax comes 



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The Question of the Theatre 315 

in the Chinatown cellar-scene. Brother and sister in chains will be 
blown to atoms in the dungeon. In the crisis of pain the girl is saved 
from yielding to the villain by clutching the cross on her neck chain. 
When she holds out the golden symbol to the audience and exclaims 
in a frenzy of triumph, "The cross my mother gave me!" it seems 
as tho the response from the crowd would burst the walls of the 
theatre. Of course they escape, the villain after a prolonged storm 
of hisses from the houses is shot, and the Bowery orphans, by a sudden 
stroke of fortune, pass from "rags to riches." But for all its prim- 
itive passion and pathos one feels the strong lesson of the play, its 
unmistakable moral. Let us not scoff at the melodrama of our mod- 
ern folk theatre. 

We see in Shakespeare's tragedies all the elements of melodrama. 
Take Hamlet, for instance. Here is a majestic ghost, a "damned 
smiling villain," an adulterous queen, a frail girl driven to madness 
and death by drowning, a funeral ceremony on the stage, a duel, a 
poisoned cup, five people killed before the audience, and a dead 
march. The same elements are found in Lear, Othello, Macbeth,^ 
and the rest. It is not to be wondered at that these masterpieces 
of melodrama draw eager crowds in the East Side of New York. Mr. 
W. S. Lockwood, in the Theatre magazine, October, 1 9 10, recounts 
his impressions of a Shakespearean play at the Academy Theatre on 
Halsted Street in the slums of Chicago as follows: 

"Not one person in twenty of that audience ever saw Romeo 
and Juliet or ever heard of Shakespeare, except in the vaguest, most 
indefinite way. These people came and paid their hard, very hard- 
earned money for entertainment. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The curtain rose, 
the chatter, laughter, cat-calls, and general confusion gradually 
quieted. The play was the thing. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ The audience was 
committed to unslacking interest. * * * In the great balcony 
scene they all sympathized. ♦ ♦ ♦ Verily, no audience had 
more sorrow for brave Mercutio's death, more savage joy in the 
killing of Tybalt, which was applauded to the echo. ♦ ♦ ♦ The 
nurse's announcement of Romeo's banishment was tensely received. 

* * * * They felt it. There were no bored auditors here. * 

♦ ♦ ♦ All thru the play to the terrible end they felt it. The 
play had touched the heart, it had stirred the emotions, it had raised 
us to awe by opening the door of the human soul. They went away 
satisfied, for the drama still remained." 

It is not reasonable to ridicule the melo-type of play, for as 
Charles Frohman says, "Life itself is melodrama," and melodrama 
always teaches moral truth, the reward of right living and the pimish- 



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3l6 The Quarterly Journal 

ment of sin. Shakespeare's tragedies are but consummate melodramas. 

Very gradually now as the influences of education are assimil- 
ated, the boy passes the youth-stage and arrives at the mature taste 
of the man. This slow unfolding of the artistic sense in the indi- 
vidual and in the race points to the conclusion that the different 
theatric types should be judged not absolutely but relatively. The 
ethical status of the audience for whom a play is presented should 
always be taken into account. The highly colored melodramas of 
the family theatre should not be undervalued because they do not 
maintain the highest standards. They have a very necessary place 
in our social ^stem, providing, as they do, a wholesome histrionic 
bill-of-fare for the audiences in the boy and youth stages. Such audi- 
ences will attain to a finer appreciation and demand better art as the 
race standards are advanced; we cannot expect from them mature 
taste; we must encourage their immature likes in the right direc- 
tion. Race ideals are not to be attained by a sudden bound, but by 
slow and labored stages. 

The underlying motive of the acted drama is educational. It 
offers opportunity for the study of man in his most intimate indi- 
vidual and social relations. Human life is enacted in its true rela- 
tionship, showing "virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and 
the very age and body of the time his form." The people ori the 
stage speak as if quite alone, they act their real selves, their inner- 
most motives are truly reported and the audience is privileged to study 
the vital human problems from an unbiased viewpoint. The lesson 
of the footlights is a simple, concrete illustration of the law of cause 
and effect in himian conduct. It cannot be misinterpreted. It brings 
the audience face to face with the reality of the true, and the fallacy 
of error. Right living is advocated by an actual life-study in true 
perspective. 

The histrionic art portrays not only the sodal conditions of the 
present day, but likewise the pageant of the past. It teaches history. 
The audience is permitted to understand the life and motives of oth- 
ers who have patiently or restlessly played their part in the great hu- 
man drama. In Sophocles and Shakespeare and in all the drama of 
history, faded manuscripts and crumbling ruins are made to give up 
their secrets, and the life of centuries long dead is again revived. 
But besides affording a portrayal of the best ages of the past, set like 
a rich jewel in its poetry, is the highest human aspiration of all time. 
This gives the classics a universal and permanent appeal. 

And what of the modern Problem Play, the stark realism of 
the school of Ibsen and Sudermann and Bernard Shaw which probes 



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The Question of the Theatre 317 

our social organism to the quick ? Altho J Dolts House, The Fires 
of St. John, and Mrs. Warrens Profession may not be pleasant to 
sec, they may be necessary to serve the function of the surgeon's 
knife in our disordered social body. Such plays set forth truly the 
inevitable problems of our complex society, problems which must 
be considered if we would progress. 

Another form of wide popularity has no serious appeal. The 
Musical Comedy attracts unthinking throngs in every dty with its 
medley of meretricious dances, stupid horse-play and sentimental 
songs. We have all manner of sensations, the yellow Gingerbread 
Man, the frivolous Madame Sherry, The Girl in the Taxi, The 
Beauty Spot, Marrying Mary, — ^which makes divorce a merry jest 
— and a troop of others equally unwholesome. This is no true child 
of art, but a false creation of Shylock managers whose only aim is a 
long run and large returns on their investment. To this end they 
tickle the public palate with sensational inanities and respectable vul- 
garity. The problem-play is bold in its attack, but frankly moral in its 
purpose. The musical comedy is insidious and inimical to art and 
to ethics. 

And the vaudeville, censured by some as vapid and improfitable, 
what of it? Is not this popular form a natural and necessary 
product of our strenuous living? Does it not a£Ford the much needed 
relaxation from business and social stress by luring the tired mind 
back for a time to the magic land of boyhood? For vaudeville, to- 
gether with the circus and the moving-picture show, belongs to the 
youth-stage of appreciation, and as such has a proper place. Such 
phases should not be condemned for their abuses, but they should 
be held to higher standards by discriminating public opinion. Ad- 
vanced vaudeville, consisting of clever sketches of life, ingenious 
magic, feats of skill, and good singing and dancing, is legitimate art ,* 
it contributes wholesome amusement, a sound state of mind, and 
new life. 

The growing tendency to use the theatre as a teacher of moral 
truths has given rise in recent years to a popular drama of deep 
religious spirit. Typical of this class are such plays as Jerome K. 
Jerome's modern morality, The Passing of the Third Floor Back, 
and Charles Rann Kennedy's The Servant in the House. Both these 
plays are exalted by the presence of a sacred figure at once human 
and divine, Christ-like. Both plays have been widely successful, the 
first-mentioned having netted its managers no less than $350,ocx> 
during its first short American season. A single sentence from The 
Servant in the House will su£Sce to illustrate the spiritual quality 



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of these plays. The Bishop of Benares, in describing the true Church 
of Christ, says: 

"The pillars of it go up like brawny trunks of heroes ; the sweet 
human flesh of men and women is moulded about its bulwarks, 
strong, impregnable ; the faces of little children laugh out from every 
corner stone ; the terrible spans and arches of it are the joined hands 
of comrades; and up in the heights and spaces there are inscribed 
the numberless musings of all the dreamers of the world.*' 

Perhaps the most phenomenal success of this sort is Every- 
woman, avowedly a modern morality play, modelled after the grew- 
some fifteenth century church drama, Everyman, which Ben Greet 
revived with so much success a decade ago. Like its prototype, it is 
an impressive sermon in dramatic form, setting forth the vanity of 
worldly living. Here are the old allegorical characters and the anti- 
quated form, but the scene is modem New York, and the idea trans- 
planted has actually taken root in the New York soil; it has be- 
come a living representation of the follies of the twentieth century 
city. The same spirit of true idealism is noticeable in Maurice 
Maeterlinck's symbolical plays. Sister Beatrice, Mary Magdalene, 
and The Blue Bird. The same might be said of Hauptmann's Han- 
nele and other recent New York productions. That dramas of real 
spiritual significance should have gained such wide favor is gratify- 
ing indeed. 

Another wholesome influence comes from our domestic drama. 
The Old Homestead, fVay Down East, Arizona, Shore Acres, Ala- 
bama, The Virginian, The Country Boy, Rebecca of Sunnybrook 
Farm, The Girl of the Golden West, The Nest Egg, and Mother 
are native to our soil, genuinely American. In hearing them, 

"Laughter lingers in the heart. 
Tears — ^we wipe away." 

They embody the spirit of our home life and countr3rside, and should 
contribute much to the ultimate American drama. 

Still another purely American t3rpe has evolved in recent years. 
Such plays as The Lion and the Mouse, The Great Divide, Strong- 
heart, The Music Master, The Third Degree, Brewster's Millions, 
The Squaw Man, Dope, Salvation Nell, The Nigger, The Next of 
Kin, The Fourth Estate, The Boss, The Melting Pot, The Gamblers, 
and many others of equally strong appeal set forth vital American 
questions from the viewpoint of American plasrwrights, problems of 
great political, economic, and social significance. There is the prob- 
lem of enormous fortunes, of the labor struggle, of the slums, of 



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The Question of the Theatre 319 

the police courts, of our press, of our lawmaking, of our social 
abuses, of the fusion of our race — the black in the South and the red- 
man in the West — and many other problems of equal moment. These 
are realistic studies of American life. They are shaping continually 
our national consciousness; their attitude is sane, their outlook opti- 
mistic, their spirit truly American. The signs of our day are favor- 
able; idealism and realism flourish side by side on our modem stage. 
No doubt in the centralization of these United States, in the perfec- 
tion of our representative government, there will come a Shakes- 
peare to combine these various phases and to crystallize them into 
a national American drama. 

IV. THB ACTOR 

So much for the audience, what now shall we say of the actor? 
What is the effect of the mimetic art upon him ? The profession of 
the stage has been held in more or less dishonor by our English 
speaking peoples for over three hundred years; it has been ridiculed 
as an art of imitation, of sham, and as such has been consistently 
neglected and condemned. The late Professor William James has 
noted that *'a successful piece of mimicry gives to both bystanders 
and mimic a peculiar kind of esthetic pleasure," and that "the dram- 
atic impulse, the tendency to pretend someone is someone else, con- 
tains this pleasure of mimicry as one of its elements." Into this 
'pleasure of mimicry* let us briefly inquire. 

The first questions perhaps that arise in our minds are : What is 
the effect upon the real self of the actor of assuming a character alto- 
gether different from his own? What is the effect of living for the 
time an unreal life? Are the characters personated by the player 
simulations, or are they real to him, actually as tributes of his ego? 
The Passion Play of Oberammergau offers an interesting illustration. 
Here is natural dramatic art of a high order. Mr. Archibald Hen- 
derson, special correspondent of the Theatre magazine, to the notable 
religious pageant writes, "It would be a great error to call Anton 
Lang a great actor. ♦ ♦ ♦ he lives the part of the Christus in 
a manner so simple, so unaffected, so gentle, that he creates the ideal 
illusion — the tremendous illusion — that we are witnessing a scene 
from real life." He is so imbued with the genuineness of Anton 
Lang's impersonation that he asks himself, "Is it a re-incarnation 
who walks the tragic path to the crucifixion?" All visitors to Ober- 
ammergau return similarly impressed with the reality of this religious 
representation. These simple God-fearing peasants in their rever- 
ence actually live and move and have their being in the Biblical fig- 



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320 The Quarterly Journal 

ures they personate. In the little village of Selsach in the Al|>s the 
writer witnessed the Passion Play of the Swiss peasants. Here, too, 
all was reality to the players. Robert Kocher, who had already five 
times taken the part of the Master, the writer saw walking many 
times in the streets of the mountain village. There were always the 
same wonderful deep-seeing eyes, the clear, gentle face framed in thick, 
wavy hair. He looked as tho he had just stepped out of one of the 
great Italian canvases of the Christ. He was the part. 

And what is the testimony of the profession on this point? Most 
of the great actors have been at their best when at the highest pitch 
of feeling, i. e., when their psychic state was most nearly at one with 
the thought to be expressed. Macready writes that he never played 
Virginius better than after the death of his daughter, Nina, when his 
feeling nearly overpowered him. And a year later he says, "Acted 
Virginius, one of the most brilliant and powerful performances of 
the character I have ever given. I did indeed *gore my own thoughts,' 
for my own Katie was in my mind, as in one part the tears streamed 
down my cheeks ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ such is a player's mind and heart." 
Rachel, on being told that she had played Adrienne Lecouvreur as 
she would probably never play again, replied: "I believe you, and 
do you know why? I was not weeping for Adrienne, but for my- 
self." Salvini writes that he has duplicated Macready's experience, 
and Ristori, Salvini's great countrywoman, says: "I have occasionally 
been so overcome by an analogy between a fictitious situation and an 
event in my own life that I have had to put forth all my strength 
to retain self-control, and have not always entirely succeeded. The 
effects obtained under such mental conditions are naturally stronger 
because they are truer." Mrs. Siddons, Edmund Kean, and Talma 
give very similar experiences, but perhaps the most valuable opinion 
is that of Garrick, who, with Talma, is almost the only great actor 
claimed by the automatists. He writes thus: "The greatest strokes 
of genius have been unknown to the actor himself till circumstances 
and the warmth of the scene have sprung the mine, as it were, 
much to his own surprise as that of the audience." 

The writer recalls a curtain speech of the late Sir Henry Irv- 
ing in Boston, after a notable performance of The Merchant of 
Venice, in which the eminent Englishman said, "I thank you. In 
behalf of Miss Terry and all the members of the company, I thank 
you. I can only say in the words of the play, 'only my blood speaks 
to you in my veins.' I thank you." He was living Shylock so com- 
pletely that the tragic emotion of the scene still claimed him. All 
this evidence points to the same conclusion: to be convincing, the 



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The Question of the Theatre 321 

actor must fed the emotions of the part ; he must really live the life 
of the character. 

But how can he actually live the life of the character and not 
be untrue to his real self ? Let us see. Is the actor's art altogether 
genuine? Certainly the tears an actor sheds are not the tears of the 
character portrayed. They are his own, the expression of his real 
self, himself sympathetically weeping for the person he is represent- 
ing. We must infer that the actor has a dual consciousness, for 
he must be himself and another at once ; he must control himself, his 
ego, and at the same time lose himself in the character. To claim 
that an actor should lose himself entirely in his role would be im- 
reasonable, for the limits and conventions of the stage must be ob- 
served and there must be always proper consideration of the other 
players. Hamlet, e. g., must not stab Claudius, or Othello smother 
Desdemona, too realistically; and the most ardent lovers must re- 
member the rouge and the light effects. The real emotion must al- 
ways be tempered and held in check to some extent by self-conscious- 
ness, else we should not have a fine art, truth idealized, but rather 
a crude reproduction of truth realized — graceless and commonplace, 
to say the least. The true artist enters into the mood of his characters 
sympathetically, his real self ever remaining in the background, di- 
recting, controlling, and harmonizing the emotions he is embodying 
in the character. We conclude that the characters personated by the 
actor are but the different manifestations of his real self, the variform 
reflections of the causative ego. We regard the ego, then, as primal 
and all-comprehensive, the various roles but as secondary products of 
this. Altho the real self of the actor is for the most part hidden by 
the role, nevertheless his entire personality is ever present, manipulat- 
ing and guiding the marionette figure with an easy grace and a per- 
fect execution entirely satisfying the audience. 

So much for the relation of the characters enacted by the player 
to the ego. What, now, is the influence upon the self-hood of the 
actor resulting from habitually enacting certain classes of characters? 
It is a well-known principle of psychology that the practise of con- 
tinually inciting certain strong emotions tends towards setting up an 
automatic, and, if continued long enough, even a reflex activity of the 
same, which becomes so thoroly grafted into the very fibre of his 
being as to be actually a part of it. That every thought or emotion 
tends to express itself in action, and conversely, that every action 
tends to establish a corresponding state of mind, is an undisputed 
fact. Likewise we cannot escape the ethical principle which holds 



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322 The Quarterly Journal 

that the habitual living in a certain universe of desire determines the 
dominant universe of a man's life, his character. 

How do these principles apply to the case of the actor? In the 
characters ^umed by the player we find all grades from the ideal to 
the degenerate. For this discussion a consideration of the extreme 
types will be sufficient as including the whole range of conduct, the 
intermediate forms being only variations from these. What, then, 
is the effect upon the character of the actor of continually embod3ring 
first, ethical; second, unethical characters? In the first case there is 
no reason to doubt the natural conclusion that the actor, habitually 
sympathizing with ideal characters, and so living in a high ethical 
universe, tends to realize a higher standard of conduct in himself. 
The deep piety of the peasant-players of Oberammergau and Selsach 
well illustrates this. "They do not act," says the Theatre magazine 
correspondent, "but actually live" the lives of the sacred characters. 

If we assume, then, that noble types tend to uplift the actor's 
real self, will the converse hold? Does the practise of embodying 
a degenerate type tend in the opposite direction, toward the destruc- 
tion of the ideal in the actor? An interesting illustration from our 
own stage immediately suggests itself. Mr. George Arliss, a mod- 
ern Mephistophilis, has made himself famous as a perfect devil in the 
popular play called The Devil, yet in private life he is as exemplary a 
man as one could wish to meet, a man of gentle disposition and genial 
personality. To understand the psychology of the player of "villain" 
parts a consideration of his purpose in playing such types is funda- 
mental. We must admit that such an actor has no villainous end in 
view, else we could not tolerate for a moment Sir Henry Irving's 
Louis XL, Modjeska's Lady Macbeth, or Edwin Booth's lago. On 
the contrary, is not the great actor's intention genuinely ethical? Is 
it not his purpose to expose the real nature of evil? If this be the 
case, as none will doubt, surely the downward tendency of living the 
degenerate role is more than offset by the high object of the actor. 
His real self is not overcome by the rascal he represents, but is 
rather triumphant in visualizing a good moral lesson by a terrifying 
illustration of the tragic end of evil living. He magnifies the beauty 
of the ethical life by revealing truly the ugliness of villainy. Mr. 
John GrifSth, a Shakespearean actor of the old school who was at 
his best in Macbeth and Richard III., jestingly said to the writer 
in this connection, "My experience is that the stage villains in private 
life are saints, and the stage heroes are rascals." But, jesting aside, 
the biographies of our great stage "villains" from Thomas Beter- 
ton to Sir Henry Irving and our beloved Edwin Booth, record many 



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The Question of the Theatre 323 

noble and exalted lives. All points to the same conclusion, the actor's 
art whether in "hero" or in "villain" roles is essentially ethical. By 
entering sympathetically into the lives of others he enlarges his own 
life, he broadens his own humanity. 

But the question of the actor is best answered perhaps by the 
life and work of William Shakespeare, himself an actor, the most 
illustrious of all the children of the stage, of whom Emerson wrote : 

"I sec all human wits 

Arc measured by the few; 

Unmeasured still my Shakespeare sits. 

Lone as the blessed Jew." 
In answering the question of the actor it is well to bear in mind 
that Shakespeare consistently upheld the profession and developed 
his many sided personality in it. 

V. THE UNIVERSITY MOVEMENT 

So much for the question of the theatre; what is the answer of 
the universities? We are coming gradually to recognize our oppor- 
tunity and our obligation to this "huge factory of sentiment, of 
character." The early schoolmasters and students of England did 
much to shape the English drama in their school performances; 
Shakespeare inherited the results of their learning and their labors. 
Our American universities to-day have an even wider influence and 
may do much more to stimulate the development of an American 
drama which will take its rightful place as the most vital of all the 
fine arts. 

The educational possibilities of the art of acting are as yet but 
faintly imagined. Professor Arnold of the State Agricultural Col- 
lege of Utah, in the March number of Education, undoubtedly has 
this in mind when he proposes putting courses in stagecraft into the 
English department of every college. He sums up the value of such 
courses as follows: "All students taking them would gain a valuable 
ease of manner, a thoro and varied training in oral expression, a 
critical and practical knowledge of the stage, and a familiarity with 
the classical and modern drama." To this excellent summary of 
values should be added the most significant perhaps of all — the ethical 
value, the broadening of the individual point of view, the enlarging 
of his human sympathies by entering with appreciative spirit into 
the lives of others. The writer's experience with students taking 
part in various plays at the University of North Dakota fully war- 
rants this statement. One of our best students, — now a successful 
preacher — ^who had a leading part in the University Class Play of 



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324 The Quarterly Journal 

1906, The Rivals, said to the writer, **I received more real benefit 
from the training I had in the two plays this year than from all my 
courses of the year put together." Granted that this was an over- 
statement, the spirit of the remark illustrates the point. Such unso- 
licited testimony might be multiplied. Another student wrote re- 
cently of his participation in the Sock and Busb'n Society presenta- 
tion of Twelfth Night, "Participation in such plays is one of the 
most potent factors in the acquirement of a liberal education. ♦ ♦ ♦ 
To act in a single play is often more beneficial than any single course 
in the university. Life in progression should be the study of every 
college man. To live the ideals of a character in a powerful drama 
gives an understanding appreciation of the best in literature and life. 
My participation in plays has resulted in a more critical analysis 
and a keener appreciation of life." Another writes of the benefits he 
derived from taking part in the same play: "I learned to appreciate 
the fact that literature is an expression of life. My imagination was 
stimulated, my sympathy was broadened." These letters show a gw 
uine appreciation on the part of the student of the educational value 
of practise in the art of the acted drama. 

Already the university influence is being felt by our American 
stage. Professor George P. Baker of Harvard is a pioneer in this 
movement. He was the first to institute a university course in play- 
writing, and from this course came Edward P. Sheldon, now at 
twenty-five years of age a successful dramatist, with three significant 
plays, genuinely American in spirit, to his credit : Salvation Nell, The 
Nigger, and The Boss. The first-mentioned play, it is said, was 
sketched while he was still an undergraduate of Professor Baker's 
course in Cambridge. He himself says in a recent interview published 
in the Theatre for April: "In the course that I took, Professor 
Baker required us to write two plays. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ There is 
hardly any doubt that the enforced writing of those two plays caused 
me to choose my profession." But Sheldon is only one of a promi- 
nent group of successful young playwrights from our universities who 
have won distinction. The triumphant spirit of American youth is 
in their plays for the typical dramatist of this school is not more 
than thirty years of age. He represents the intelligent awakening 
of our university interest in the theatre. 

The majority of playgoers have become familiar with the names 
of this new school. There is Jules Eckert Goodman, the author of 
The Man Who Stood Still, The Test, and Mother—^ native of 
Oregon and a graduate of Harvard; Mr. Percy Mackaye, another 
Harvard man, has written plays of real literary merit — The Canter- 



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The Question of the Theatre 325 

bury Pilgrims, Sapho and Phaon, The Scarecrow, Anti-Matrimony, 
and others; to Miss Josephine Peabody of RadclifiFe College was 
awarded the Stratford prize for her play, The Piper; Thomas Bu- 
chanan, author of A Woman's Way and The Intruder, is a graduate 
of the University of the South at Sewanee, Tennessee; Avery Hop- 
wood is a graduate of the University of Michigan with two success- 
ful plays — Clothes and Seven Days; A. E. Thomas of Brown Uni- 
versity has won favor in his two comedies — Her Husband's Wife 
and The Divorce Fund; Joseph Medill Patterson, a Yale graduate, 
has made a valuable contribution in The Fourth Estate, Dope, and 
Rebellion. 

Much credit for such results is due to the enthusiasm of various 
professors of English in many of our leading universities. Besides 
Professor Baker and others at Harvard, Brander Matthews of Col- 
umbia, Professors Manly, Herrick, and Lovett of Chicago, Dr. Rich- 
ard Burton of Minnesota, Charles Mills Gayley of California, and 
many others have been active in the study of dramatic literature and 
in the presentation of good plays. The various dramatic clubs of our 
colleges and universities have contributed much by their revivals of 
classical plays and their performances of original plays. The Delta 
Upsilon society of Harvard has revived many of the best Elizabethan 
plays, and the Harvard Dramatic Club, of which Edward P. Sheldon 
was formerly president, devotes itself exclusively to the production of 
of plays written by its members. Other prominent university dram- 
atic societies might be mentioned: the Masque of Cornell, the Tri- 
angle Club of Princeton, the Mask and Wig of Pennsylvania, the 
Cap and Bells of Williams, the Shakespeare Society of Wellesly, 
the Haresfoot Club, the Red Domino, and the Edwin Booth Society 
of Wisconsin, the Dramatic Association of Yale, the Skull and Keys 
Society of California, and others. The Harvard Stadium and the 
noble Greek Theatre of the University of California have witnessed 
a number of notable reproductions of Greek tragedy with both mem- 
bers of the faculty and student body taking part. Oedipus Rex, with 
Professor James Turney Allen in the title role, several of his col- 
leagues in other parts, and a number of students, was enacted on May 
14, 1910, before an audience of ten thousand, — to the limit of the clas- 
sic theatre. The performance of Sophocles* Antigone by Margaret 
Anglin and a company of competent professionals at the same place 
in July was fully as successful. The active cooperation of members 
of the faculty with the various university dramatic clubs in the 
presentation of plays has had a wholesome effect in raising the stan- 
dard of appreciation in the student body. So also the excellent per- 



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326 ' The Quarterly Journal 

formances of the Ben Greet and the Cobum plajrers have added 
much. All along the line there is the same earnest enthusiasm in our 
colleges and universities for the study of the literature of the drama, 
for stagecraft and acting, and all of our leading educational institu- 
tions to-day have either a imiversity theatre or an assembly hall 
adapted to theatrical presentations. The situation suggests the wide 
possibilities of active university leadership in shaping the future of our 
American stage. 

We know that right organization is the secret of furthering 
the acted drama as a fine art. We should have profited long ago by 
the example of Germany and France and Austria, whose theaters 
are no mere halls of amusement but thoroly organized institutions 
for the education and cultivation of the people. The Theatre Fran- 
cais in Paris, the Lessing Theatre in Berlin, and the Volkstheatre 
in Vienna are shining instances of this class. Such theatres are sub- 
sidized generously by either private, mimicipal or national aid ; there 
are no long runs of a popular play, but a frequent change of bill 
during the week from a well-selected repertory of the best plays of 
the classic and the modern stage; a school of acting which forms a 
vital part of the institution furnishes a company of accomplished and 
versatile actors, bound to the theatre by loyalty to their profession, 
for the profession of the player fs highly honored in these countries. 
A theatre so organized promotes good taste in the audience, stimulates 
the player, and encourages the playwright to higher ideals in the 
acted drama as a fine art. 

We cannot expect any fine art to prosper on a purely commercial 
basis. We have subsidized numerous libraries, orchestras, and art 
galleries largely thru private endowment. Only in recent times has 
any effort been made to subsidize the art of the theatre, an art com- 
bining the elements of all the other fine arts, appealing both thru 
the eye and the ear, an art which affects the public mind more than 
all the other arts combined because it represents himian life in terms 
of itself, in action. The New Theatre in New York, generously 
endowed by millionaires, sumptuously equipped, and directed by an 
expert, has just completed its second season with a $400,000 deficit. 
But this burden is borne cheerfully enough by those upon whom it 
falls. The New Theatre has been much criticized, as was to be ex- 
pected, for the huge institution is still in its experimental stage. But 
the outlook is not discouraging as a superficial view might indicate. 
According to their own recent statement to the press: 

' "The founders firmly maintain their belief in the mission and 
purpose of the New Theatre, and in order to thoroly test the sound- 



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The Question of the Theatre 327 

ness of their belief and the willingness of the people of New York 
to lend their cooperation, they will immediately proceed to erect upon 
a site conveniently accessible to all classes of theatre-goers a theatre 
of moderate size especially adapted to the production by a stock com- 
pany of a repertory of modern and classical plays chosen primarily 
for their artistic merit. 

To enable the enterprise to be independent of immediate com- 
mercial success, the foimders will provide for a term of years a guar- 
anty fund which will correspond to the subsidy by which theatres with 
similar aspirations are supported in most of the capitals of Europe." 

The faith of these founders is highly commendable. The New 
Theatre has undoubtedly exercised an improving ethical influence 
on the American stage ; it has been an example to commercial theatres 
of high theatrical endeavor. All who have at heart the development 
of a national American drama to benefit the American people should 
applaud the faith and the loyalty of the founders of our New The- 
atre. Their spirit is well expressed in a recent address by Director 
Winthrop Ames, "We have set a purpose to establish an institution 
to develop the drama. We have launched our ship and nailed our 
flag to the mast, and the ship will go on." 

And the ship is going on. The New Theatre of Chicago, or- 
ganized by the Chicago Theatre Society for the "support of the 
drama in Chicago, encouragement of native authorship and the ulti- 
mate establishment of a theatre devoted to the presentation of the 
best plays of Europe and America" is to become a fact next winter. 
The Ljrric Theatre has been secured as the temporary home of the 
new institution, and its sponsors guarantee ten weeks of repertoire 
during the dramatic season. This rooting of the new seed in the 
great metropolis of the West is promising. 

Everywhere there is an awakening of our theatric conscience. 
England will dedicate on April 23, 1916, on the occasion of the ter- 
centenary of Shakespeare's death, a Shakespeare National Theatre 
in London, with an edowment of two and a half millions of dollars. 
Mr. Ben Greet has proposed a similar American memorial — the erec- 
tion of a national theatre in New York of monumental proportions 
and aspect, equipped with a library and a school of acting, and 
with a liberal endowment. Thinking people are coming as never be- 
fore to recognize the deep significance of th theatre, the wide educa- 
tional opportunity it offers. One of the most noted signs of the 
popular movement for the improvement of our stage is the Drama 
League of America, an organization which began quietly three years 
ago and has already reached a membership of twelve thousand per- 



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328 The Qmrterly Journal 

sons, representing the leading cities of the United States. Our uni- 
versities should assume the leadership in this movement to usher in a 
new era of our stage history, an era which will mark the entrance of 
a National American Drama. 



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Fiction in the Sixteenth Century 

Martin B. Ruud 
Sometime Instructor in English, University of North Dakota 

OF such an amount is the novelistic baggage of England pre- 
vious to the seventeenth century — one court story, two mix- 
tiu-es of the chivalrous and the pastoral, one picaresco of the Eng- 
lidi type." No, conditions were not quite so bad as that, as I shall 
try to show, but Mr. Warren's curt summary of Elizabethian fiction 
expresses very well the conventional attitude. Obviously, it is im- 
possible in a study so brief and superficial as this must necessarily be, 
to treat the subject exhaustively, and, accordingly, I have chosen to 
undertake the task of showing that the novels of the sixteenth cen- 
tury constitute a body of genuine fiction. We must not forget, how- 
ever, that in our era of beginnings the sum of achievement is small, 
and that it will be futile to look for a great body of great work. 

Nevertheless, contemptible or not, a story like ''Euphues" is an 
immense advance upon the prose narrative which goes before it, and 
it is only necessary to dip for a moment into a medieval romance to 
find it out. Poetic the "Morte d' Arthur" always is, but convincing 
never, and its wandering narrative is quite different from the dis- 
cursiveness of Lyly. Sir Thomas Malory is concerned with one 
thing only, to gather into one connected account the body of Anthu- 
rian legend. Lyly has another purpose — to make every episode tell 
toward a single plot. It is impossible to summarize the ''Morte d' 
Arthur; Euphues can be summed up in a single page. Now this is 
what differentiates the novel from the romance of chivalry — that it 
has an aim and an end. Still, it is in these amorphous piles of tradi- 
tion that fiction has its origin, for out of them came that skill in tell- 
ing a tale which has given us such a wonder of fiction art as *' Henry 
Esmond" — ^to my mind the great novel of English literature. 

The romances of chivalry mark the beginning of prose narrative, 
and it is interesting to note that it takes its place in English litera- 
ture synchronously with the introduction of printing. In 1485 Cax- 
ton published Malory's "Morte d' Arthur," and "this great cycle 
took its place in English literature." Caxton's successors took up the 
work, and from the press of Wynkyn de Worde came a constant 
stream of new romances and reprints of the old. His most notable 
contribution, "Lord Berner's version of the story of Huon of Bor- 



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330 The Quarterly Journal 

deaux • • • • • is the best English prose specimen of the 
Charlemagne qrcle of romances • • • • " 

It is extremely doubtful whether the romance did or could do 
more than simply cultivate the narrative sense. Certainly it could 
contribute nothing on the side of technique. It seems to me that here 
lies the distinct contribution of the Italian "novella," so many of 
which were Englished between 1566 and 1599. The long, wearisome 
romances were doomed. The lively fancy of the Elizabethan age de- 
manded stories more pointed, more consciously artistic, more con- 
cerned with the life of every day than were the endless tales which 
had beguiled the winter evenings of their fathers. Life moved ra- 
pidly in the days of Elizabeth, and men would have their stories, too, 
move faster. In the tale of Boccaccio, Bandello, and Cinthia they 
found what they wanted — tales short and pithy, and piquant with 
the interest that attaches to life in the concrete. Very early, therefore, 
and in great numbers they found their way into English. Usually a 
considerable body of them were printed together under some fanciful 
alliterative title, Painter's "Pallace of Pleasure" (1566), Fenton's 
"Tragicall Discourses" (1567), Pettie's "Petite Pallace of Pettic 
Pleasure" (1576), and Whetstone's "Heptameron of Civill Dis- 
courses" (1582). From these stories the Elizabethan novelist learned 
the supreme importance of order, sequence, point. He learned ,too, 
that the really moving story must be concerned with the human emo- 
tions, and that effectiveness is immensely heightened by the vigor 
that comes of concentration. 

But the elemnts of prose narrative were not wholly of foreign 
origin. The Jest-books, ^ of which there are many in our literary 
annals — ^we can hardly say in our literature — are admirable examples 
of short tales told with an eye to dramatic point. And the innu- 
merable journalistic pamphlets and broadsides dealing with contem- 
porary crimes, indicate in their own effective fashion how strong 
is the native English instinct for prose narration. Finally we may 
mention the moral treatises, those, for example, of Guevara and Cas- 
tiglione. But even types of literature so distinctly foreign as these are 
not without purely English parallels, "The Govemour," of Sir 
Thomas Elyot, and "The Schoolmaster," of Ascham. The moral 
treatise is, of course, without the realm of Active art, but it is signifi- 
cant here because of its influence on the whole tone of subsequent 
English fiction. 

Here, then, are the literary forms which contributed to the making 

1. The Jest BookB» Hume: p. 167. 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 331 

of the novel: the romance, by its example of sustained narration in 
prose ; the "novella" by its sense of significant and pointed detail ; the 
Jest-books and journalistic pamphlets, thru the instances they afforded 
of vigorous and realistic narrative; the moral treatises, thru the im- 
pulse they gave to fiction, an impulse never since wholly lost, toward 
moralizing and didacticism. 

It is the fusion of these elements which justify us in calling 
"Euphues" the first English novel. The mutations of fortune thru 
which this book has passed is one of the striking things in the his- 
tory of literature. In its own day it enjoyed a meteoric triumph, 
fell into contempt within a decade, and then, for three hundred years 
had the doubtful honor of being constantly paraded as the culminat- 
ing example of absurdity and affectation. Not until 1867, when 
it was reprinted by Arber and thereby became universally accessible, 
was justice meted out to it. Judged by our standards it is endlessly 
discursive, and almost hopelessly artificial; yet when we rid our 
minds of a priori notions, and read it with that degree of S)anpathy 
which we should bring to every work not the product of everyday 
environment, we shall find that Charles Kingsley was a better critic 
than all the reviewers — Gifford among them — ^when he declared 
with his forthright sincerity that it is, "in spite of occasional tedious- 
ness and pedantry, as brave, righteous, and pious a book as a man 
need look into * * * • " * The criticism of Euphues which 
prevailed from Nash to Arber is as good an instance as I know of 
the universal tendency of scholars to play the good old school-boy 
game, "Follow my leader." But now that we can read Lyly*s novel 
for ourselves, we can form our own conclusions nad answer in our 
own way the question, "What is it?" But before we answer this 
question, a brief account of its history will not be out of place. 

In 1579 John Lyly, still a young man at Oxford, "scored 
the great success of his life with *Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit.' " 
This was followed, in 1850, by "Euphues and his England." The 
plots of both are the slightest possible — still, they are plots — and are 
made the vehicle simply of interminable discourses on love and 
learning, the education of children and the follies of youth. Lyly is 
not content with giving the story merely of what happened ; he must 
of necessity print in toto the correspondence of the hero and his 
dissertations. The prototype of Euphues is, as Landmann pointed 
out a quarter century ago, 'HThe Golden Book" of Marcus Aurdius, 
— a sort of moral treatise for princess and courtiers — ^written in 

2. "BuphuM"~Arb«r Reprint p. M. 



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332 The Quarterly Journal 

1329 by Don Antonio Guevara. It was immensely successful, pass- 
ing thru six editions in two years, and until it was replaced by Ar- 
cadianism, Euphuism was the fashionable parlance of the day. Let 
M. Jusserand, ' with that vivacity which only French criticism has, 
paint the picture: "All who prided themselves on elegance spoke 
his affected language or studied in his book the mythology of plants. 
Edward Blount, a bookseller who reprinted Lyly's comedies in the 
following century, • • • • • has well expressed the kindly 
and sympathetic favor accorded to Lyly by the ladies of Elizabethan 
days: 'The papers of his,' says he, 'lay like dead laurels in a church- 
yard ; by I have gathered the scattered branches up, and by a charm 
gotten from Apollo, made them green againe, and set them up as 
epitaphes to his memory. • • • • Our nation is in his debt 
for a new English which he taught them.' Euphues and his Eng- 
land began first that language; all our ladies were then his sclud- 
lers; and that beautie in Court, which could not parley Eupuismus 
was as little regarded as she which now there speakes not French.' " 
Not as a stylish only, but as a master analyst of Love, Lyly was in 
high favor, and in that day when the pangs and passions of love 
formed the one great theme of poetry, to be the one great authority 
on it was no little distinction. But such popularity was not to be 
enduring. The growth of realism in fiction made the bedizened 
rhetoric of Lyly seem hopelessly stilted, and even the artificiality of 
the "Arcadia" is obviously an attempt to be free and untrammeled. 
In fact Euphuism, as a fashion, lasted hardly more than ten or 
twelve years. "But it saw the birth of works that are not without 
importance in the history of the origin of the novel in this country." 
This brings us to the question we raised at the very outset of our 
discussion of "Euphues:" "What is it?" On the surface, perhaps, 
it is little more than a treatise on the manners and morals of the 
day, disguised by a thin veneer of narrative. But were this all we 
should have no right to call "Euphues" a novel. It is not all, as we 
shall presently see, and the slender story of Euphues in Naples and of 
Euphues and Philautus in England is something more than a cloak 
for a sermon. Doubtless this is all that Lyly would publicly own it 
to be, but we shall go far astray if we permit the professional moral 
purpose of English novelists to govern our appraisal of their work. 
Indeed, as M. Jesserand points out, at this day, "Pofir charmer^ 
selon V opinion generale, il fallait encore le vers. Si on employait 
la prose dans des oevres des plaisance, on se justifiait, d'ordinaire, 

8. Jusserand "English Novel in the Time of Shakespeare," p. 137. 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 333 

en invoquant tutilite, vraie on supposee d Vecrit, comme Caxton et 
Malory; on bien on la fieurissait, a Vegal du vers." Indeed^ the pro- 
fession of high moral purpose did not end with Lyly: Richardson 
long afterward thought it necessary to explain that "Pamela'' is the 
story of "virtue rewarded/' and the homilies of Thackeray constitute 
not a little of his charm. 

One may entertain a well-grounded doubt, however, whether 
the sermons of Lyly contributed in any great degree to the astonish- 
ing success of his work. That success, and the fame that came to 
him in consequence, were due to a style so distinctly and peculiarly 
his own that it has given a term to criticism, "Euphuism." It is 
hardly necessary here, I think, to enter upon "the anatomy of £u- 
friiuism." The work of analysis has been done so completely by Mr. 
Child that I could do little more than copy his very words. But one 
point I should like to make, that the essence of Euphuism is, what 
Mr. Wilson declares it to be, "the inducement of artificial emphasis 
thru antithesis and repetition — antithesis to give pointed expression to 
the thought; repetition to enforce it." The other characteristics of 
Euphuistic style, transverse alliteration, clasical allusions, and the 
egregious pseudo natural history, are but so much tinsel, incident 
to, perhaps, but not essential to Euphuism. 

A few .years ago we were certain that Landmann had settled 
finally the question of the origins of Euphuistic style. ^ And, indeed, 
Landmann did make it clear that from Guevara's "alto estilo" must 
have come a certain impulse toward refinement of style; and I feel, 
moreover, that he proved beyond peradventure Lyly's indebtedness 
on the side of content. But we are not quite so sure that we can 
say that the style of Guevara came into English literature with 
Bemers' translation in 1532 and North's in 1557, and that in the 
style of these translations Lyly found Euphuism ready made. 

Three years after the publication of Landmann's article in the 
"Transactions of the New Shakespeare Society" Sidney Lee, in an 
appendix to his edition of Berners' translation of "Huon of Bor- 
deaux," pointed out that Lord Berners, in 1524, five years before 
"El Libro Aureo" was written, employed in the preface to his trans- 
lation of Froissart a style which is "Euphuistic beyond all question." ^ 
And critics without number have pointed out that inasmuch as both 
Bemers and North did not translate directly from Spanish but thru 
the medium of a French version, it is extremely unlikely that Gue- 
vara's style could have exerted any profound influence on the style 

4. lAndmann— Trans N. S. 8. 1882-1885 pp. 241 ff. 
6. "Duke Huron of Bordeaux" 1887. 



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334 The Quarterly Journal 

of "Euphucs." Whether Lyly came to know the "alto estilo" thru 
North, as the conventional theory has it, or thru Bemers and North, 
according to the modified view, is of little consequence: I think it 
can be shown decisively that the artificiality of the Spaniard is not 
the artificiality of the Englishman. 

First of all, is it, a priori, likely that, by the time Guevara had 
been twice translated, there would be much left of his style ? If we 
are to believe that the French, caught the very trick of Guevara, then 
we must believe that he did what no tmaslator before or since ever 
did — renedered the style of one tongue in another. In the second 
place, the Romance languages are incapable of that consonantal al- 
literation which is so marked in Lyly, and Spanish, with its liquid 
flow, is especially so. Finally, the pseudo natural history of "Eu- 
phues*' is not to be found in Guevara. 

All these considerations seem to me decisive, the first especially. 
I cannot believe that Guevara in translation — he was unknown in 
the original — gave more than impulse toward stylistic "raffinement." 
Indeed, it is impossible to account for the overwhelming popularity 
of "Euphues" except by remembering one important fact, that the 
tendency toward the improvement of vernacular style was at work 
in England and that it would have gone forward independent of 
foreign influences. 

Every now and then, in the simple, direct prose of Ascham 
and many others we encounter purple patches of something that 
looks like Euphuism. In Pettie's "Pallace of Pleasure" the con- 
scious attention of style has advanced much farther, and it is quite 
evident that Pettie was writing with the periods of Bemers and 
North ringing in his ears. What is not so plain is, that in the style 
of the "Petite Pallace" we have "Euphuism full-blown." It may be 
that "all the characteristics of Euphuism are discoverable in Pettie, 
nevertheless, there is a distinct difference between "Smorix and 
Cambria," for example, and "Euphues." Style is a very subtle thing, 
and when Lyly, as Mr. Gallancz puts it, "bettered the example," 
he bettered it so radically that he changed it totally. There is not 
much difference between the titles, "Primate of All England" and 
"Primate of England," but the one is Archbishop of Canterbury and 
head of the English Church, the other is Archbishop of York and 
ranks considerably lower both in the official and the social scale. 

My own feeling in this matter is simply this: the Renaissance 
brought to England, as it did to other countries, a great impetus to 
refine and polish and elaborate the vernacular that it might become 
a fitting medium for all the shades and subtleties of human feeling. 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 335 

To this effort Bemers and Ascham, North and Lyly contributed, 
and Lyly's contribution is as distinctly his own as Berners'. G>ming 
later, to be sure, he would inherit all the achievements of his prede- 
cessors, and, like a man of sense, he would use them. But John Lyly 
was not a mere copyist. He so transmuted the raw materials that 
came to him that they emerged from his crucible something far 
different — something new; something that is his own as distinctly as 
"Julius Caesar" is Shake^>eare*s and not Plutarch's. I have been 
led to emphasize this point thus fully, because it seems to me that 
these "quellen studien" — invaluable in themselves— cause us to for- 
get, often-times, that in a work of art, the poet's the thing. The 
final proof of this is the popularity and the enduring celebrity of 
"Euphues." If Lyly had not added a new element, why was not 
North's "Golden Book" a rival to it in popularity? Or, and this 
is the fairer question, why do we call this type of artificiality 
"Euphuism" and not "Bernerism"? Popular taste is uncertain, it 
is true, and its judgments are often eccentric, but in the long run it 
is likely to be just, and to record the definitive verdict. It is some- 
thing more than whim that has made "Euphuism" a term of 
criticism. 

In all this we have well nigh forgotten that "Euphues" is a 
novel, for it is a novel, embodying all those qualities that go to make 
the novel to-day. In the first place, we have already seen that it 
has a plot — flight and trivial, perhaps, but a plot for all that. The 
action does have beginning, middle, and end, there is an attempt at 
motivation, and at least the foreshadowing of characterization. In 
the first part Euphues, a young student of Athens, comes to Naples 
in the course of his "grand tour," meets Philautus, displaces him in 
the affection of his mistress, and is in turn jilted when the fickle 
Lucella turns her affection to Curio. Philautus and Euphues be- 
come alienated, of course, and the philosophic Euphues consoles him 
with a "Cooling Carcle for Lovers." Truly, nothing tremendously 
exciting about this, and yet "it still moves." In the second part the 
story is much the same, except that there it is the ups and downs 
of the amorous Philautus which furnish all the action. 

The characterization is not much stronger than the action, but 
it required only another step to give to the contrast between Philautus 
and Euphues something of that interest which the modem novelist 
knows so well how to communicate to studies of character. Lyly 
has not altogether failed in the Second Part. The prim Euphues, 
philosophic to the point of pedantry, and the thoroly likeable Phil- 
autus, forever a slave to a pretty face, are well conceived ; and could 



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336 The Quarterly Journal 

Lyly have forgotten that he was writing prose — ^where, forsooth, he 
must teach — and have abandoned himself to that genius for imagin- 
ative creation which he displays so abundantly in his comedies, we 
might have had here a novel as good, in its kind, as is ''Campaspe" 
in comedy. But the <^e ''Haec fabula dodt,** not yet dead in Eng- 
lidi literature, barred the way. 

Mr. Wilson suggests further that in "Euphues" we have the 
first psychological novel. ^ The complications of "Euphues,'' — the 
love of Lucella, for example, for the hero — spring from the insur- 
mountable barrier which convention interposes betwee nlove and its 
free experssion. And this ''relation between the unwritten laws of 
our social constitution and the impetuous ardor of the lover has 
iormed the main theme of our modem love stories in the novel and 
on the stage." It is possible that he presses the point too far, but 
certainly in Lyly's two novels we have an analysis of the Great 
Passion working in actual men and women, that is far indeed from 
the conventional worship of the beauty which was one of the ele- 
ments of Feudal Chivalry, and, of course, of the great romances 
which, after their own fashion, mirror its life. 

And this suggests the decisive difference between the novel as 
we find it in "Euphues" and the mediaeval romance. The interest 
of the novel is subjective: it is concerned with the play of emotion, 
and the expression of that emotion in life. The interest is '^shifted 
from the battlefield and the lists" where impossible knights perform 
impossible deeds for impossible beauties; it centers henceforward in 
that eternal mystery, "the way of a man with a maid." This is 
what Mr. Jusserand means when he says that with "Euphues" the 
"novel of the salon" is created; '^Avec Lyly commence la litterature 
des salons,'* 

G>mmonly, in treatises on fiction, Munday, Warner, Greene 
and Lodge are taken up after Lyly as his "legatees," and there is 
no objection to this plan at all ,but I prefer, at least for the purpose 
of this paper, to approach the subject in a different way. Munday 
and Warner I had no opportunity to study, but the most cursory 
perusal of the novels of Lodge and Greene will make one thing very 
clear — ^that they combine something of the style of Euphues with the 
plan of the "Aarcadia." And for this reason I prefer to call them 
the legatees of Lyly and Sidney. Now it is perfectly true that the 
"Arcadia" was not published till 1595, and "Rosalynde" in 1590. 
Accordingly it is improbable that there was any direct influence of the 

6. Wlteon: "John Lyly." p. ISl. 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 337 

"Arcadia" on the romantic novels of Greene and Lodge. Still, it is 
not impossible. The ''Arcadia'* was written, probably, in 1580, 
and the manuscript remained in the hands of the Countess of Pem- 
broke. The Countess of Pembroke, as is well known, was a sort of 
patroness of the "Areopagus group," and it is entirely possible that 
some knowledge of the character of Sidney's romance may have 
leaked out in this way. Mere reference to Shakespeare's sonnets 
proves that works might be widely known long before they were 
published. So far as I know, however, there is no evidence on the 
point, and all this may be idle speculation. But whether it be or 
not, we are justified in treating the subject in this way, for altho 
Greene and Lodge may have written with no knowledge of Sidney's 
work, the "Arcadia" still remains as the example par excellence of 
the Elizabethan pastoral romance. 

The story of its origin is too well known to need repetition 
here. It was written about the year 1580, when Sidney was under 
a cloud at Court for his vigorous opposition to the French match. 
According to Sidney himself, it was written to rid his head of "many 
fancies," and this is doubtless the true explanation, tho Fulke Gre- 
ville, in his beautiful "Life," has a very elaborate explanation of its 
allegorical significance. '^ The title Sidney doubtless derived from 
the "Arcadia" of the Italian Sannazzaro, the general scheme of 
mingling chivalric adventure with the quiet lanquor of pastoral life 
But whatever the sources, Sidney fused his personality into the book, 
so that, underneath the rich Arcadian brocade, the sweet spirit of the 
noblest of Elizabethan gentlemen is felt as its very life. And when 
it was published in 1595, it quickly took the place of "Euphues" as 
the novel of fashion. Women "parleyed Arcadianism" quite as they 
had parleyed "Euphuism" ten years before. Plays were based on 
many of its innumerable episodes, and in the succeeding century, 
when the heroic romance dominated fiction, the "Arcadia" still re- 
mained the pattern. 

The immediate popularity of the Arcadia may have been due 
in some measure to the magic of Sidney's name, but it was also due 
to its theme and style. Of the theme I shall say a word below; at 
this point I wish to speak of the style. "Arcadianism" is an example 
of that worst of all affectations, the affectation of simplicity. Sid- 
ney had criticised pointedly and effectively the extravagances of 
Euphuism, ^ and in an endeavor to escape from them he fell into an 
error far worse. The long, shapeless, inchoate sentences of the 

7. Grevllle— p. 10 If. 

8. Sidney: "Apoloerie for Poetry/* Ed. Oolllns p. 68. 



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338 The Quarterly Journal 

"Arcadia,'' its long, complicated parenthetical expressions are a 
world removed from the epigrammatic terseness of "Euphues." The 
artificiality of Euphuism is bom of an effort to be clear, ludd, beau- 
tiful ;the artificiality of Arcadianism, on the other hand, lies in its 
bewildering circumlocutions. So, too, "The Defense of Poesie," 
charming as is its diction, is filled with long, complex sentences, dis- 
tinctly medieaeval. I open my Sidney at random, and I read this: 

"But sith I have runne so long a careere in this matter, me 
thinks, before I give my penne a fulle stop, it shalbe but a little 
more lost time to inquire why England (the mother of excellent 
mindes) should be growne so harde a step-mother to Poets, who cer- 
tainly in wit ought to passe all others, sith all only proceedeth from 
their wit, being indeede makers of themselves, not takers of others." 
One must be wide awake to read prose like that. Now the tedium 
of "Euphues" is in its interminable repetition. If you could only 
eliminate four fifths of it, the rest would be clear, precise ,almost 
modem. Of course, Lyly has another fault, his conscious effort to 
be clear is so purely mechanical. Nevertheless, in this purpose to at- 
tain to precise and beautiful expression Lyly is modem; Sidney's 
amorphous sentence structure is not. Of his aboundant periphraisis, 
his use of the "pathetic fallacy" and free alliteration, little need 
be said, for, in varying degrees they are common to literary style 
in all ages. My chief point with reference to Sidney's style in "The 
Defense of Poesie," and, in even greater measure, in the "Arcadia," 
is this, thdt whereas there is a distinct line of descent from the prose 
of Lyly to that of Newman, let us say, there is no continuity between 
the prose of Sidney and that of the Nineteenth Century. 

From the point of view of fiction "The Arcadia" is distinctly 
less in the ^irit of our own day than "Euphues" with all its faults 
of affectation and repetition. But given something of the temper 
of the romanticist one can enjoy the "Arcadia" if one has time. 
There are times when all of us would be in Arcadia, away from tur- 
moil of the street, the cares, the appressive realities of to-day. It is 
then that we read the "Arcadia," for the "Arcadia" is the very es- 
sence of romance. 

But it is not merely because it interprets the romanticist within 
us that the "Arcadia" is a novel. Its analysis of the forms of the 
love passion is modem to a degree: the loves of the young princes 
on the one hand, the mad, sensual love of Basilius and G3mecia for 
Zelmane on the other. Sidney is not so subtle as Lyly in his treat- 
ment of love, but at least he attempted to indicate its nuances, and it 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 339 

is interesting to note that those nuances are precisely the same as 
Ibsen has portrayed in "Hedda Gabler/' 

The touch of humour which lights up the beginning and the 
tdose of the "Defense of Poesie" is not quite buried in the "Arcadia." 
That is a delicious touch where Mopsa sits demurely coy, but with 
desires a-tingle, while Musidorus courts Pamela under show of eag- 
erly suing for the love of the shepherd girl. And the Falstaffian be- 
haviour of Dametas at the approach of the lion is genuinely amus- 
ing. However, we shall hardly read this bulky story as work of 
humour, it is sufficient if we recognize the importance of Sidney's 
step in providing a comic relief. In this respect, at any rate, Sidney 
has taken one step beyond Lyly. 

The other thing in the "Arcadia" deserves mention, for it in- 
volves the one point that brings this complex of episodes closer to a 
"criticism of life." This is the conception imderlying the charac- 
terization of Musidorus and Pyrocles — the conception of the modem 
gentleman. The knight of the Middle Ages as an abstraction was 
fine enough, but he never existed; and, moreover, there was always 
associated with him a sense of mystery, not to say superstition. To 
be "dubbed" a knight was a ceremony half military, half religious. 
In theory, at best, the knight was gentle and courteous because he 
was a valiant defender, divinely consecrated, of the Holy Church. 
The gentleman of the world, as he emerged during the Renaissance, 
was gentle,too, and courteous, but not thru mystic rites. He was 
a gentleman by breeding, training, and the refinement of culture. 
The contrast between the knight of chivalry and the gentleman of to- 
day is the contrast between the Red Cross Knight of Spenser and 
Sidney himself. It is the distinction, in short, which Cardinal New- 
man, in one of his noblest lectures, pointed out between the "Chris- 
tian" of the church and the gentleman of high breeding. Now this 
conception of the "gentleman," strong and brave, but sweet-souled 
withal, and of the ripest culture, is the one realistic touch in the 
shepherds and princes whose loves and wars fill the seven hundred 
pages of the "Arcadia." We are to have him often in fiction as we 
have him in life, for greater than the Empire of Britan is the finest 
type of English manhood — ^the English gentleman. 

We may now very briefly consider the work of the two great 
writers whom I have chosen to call "the legatees" of Lyly and Sid- 
ney. In at least one instance, the "Rosalynde" of Lodge, they 
produced a work of much finer quality than either "Euphues" or the 
"Arcadia," but in no case did they contribute anything distinctive, 
unless we extend our survey — ^which is quite broad enough as it 



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340 The Quarterly Jounud 

and point out the impulse which the autobiographical pamphlets of 
Greene gave to the English novel of roguery. 

I cannot enter here upon the checkered career of Robert 
Greene, "Master of Arts of both universities," nor narrate that 
pitiful tale of high genius thrown away, but only indicate in die 
most fragmentary way his contribution to the evolution of the noveL 
Of Greene's work two novels are important: "Pandosto," later 
known as "Dorastus and Fawnia;*' and "Menaphon." "Pandosto" 
is not a great story, it is wildly improbable from first to last and has 
no attempt at characterization or motivation. The reader must ac- 
cept everything on faith, even to the extent of believing that a child 
could be set adrift in an open boat, toss about on the open sea for 
two days, and still come out unharmed. It's all a part of the con- 
vention, doubtless, and I dare say we should not be too critical, but 
indubitably "Pandosto" is dull stuff. Like the "Arcadia," it mingles 
the pastoral with the chivalric, and an incongruous jumble it makes 
of it, with shepherds tending flocks on one page, and marshaling 
armies on the next. But it is not wholly bad. There is an idyllic 
beauty in Greene's description of the meeting of the lovers at "a 
meeting of all the Farmers' daughters in Sydlia, whither Fawnia 
was also bidden as mistres of the feast." In the main, however, 
"Pandosto" interests us because from it Shakespeare derived the plot 
for "The Winter's Talc ;" and it is an admirable instance of the old 
Danish definition of omnipotence, "at skabe noget af ubekvem 
materie" (to create a body out of impossible material) that the 
great dramatist should have been able to transmute a tale so improm- 
ising into one of the loveliest of comedies. 

A trifle better, tho strikingly similar, in many of its incidents, 
to "Pandosto," is "Menaphon" (1589). Extravagant it is assuredly, 
but the absurdity is heightened by the elaborate Euphuism markedly 
tinged by Arcadianism. "Strumpet of Greece," exclaims Menaphon 
to Samela who has refused his suit, "repaiest thou my love with this 
lavish ingratitude: have I therefore with my plentie supplied thy 
wants, that thou with my pride should procure my wo : did I relieve 
thee in distresse, to wound me in welfare with disdaine?" And the 
following bit of Arcadianism is interesting for its manifest allusions 
to "Euphues." The novelist is describing a meeting between Meli- 
certes and Samela: "Samela made this rplie because she heard him 
so superfine, as if Ephoebus had learned him to anatomize his mother 
tongue, wherefore thought he had done it of an ink horn desire to be 
eloquent; and Melicertes, thinking that Samela had learned with 
Lucilla in Athens to anatomize wit, and speak none but similes* 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 341 

imagined she had smoothed her talk to be thought like Sapho Phaos 
paramour." 

One thing only lifts ''Menaphon" above the hopelessly and 
utterly bad — the delicate, song-like lyrics that are strung thru its 
pages of bad style and wretched story. Greene had the soul of a 
poet and an abundance of that wondrous gift of song which seems 
to have pervaded the reign of Elizabeth like a mystic, ineffable in- 
fluence. Soldiers, rogues, and dandies — all were poets. And so, 
when we find ourselves improvising a a melody for "Sephestia's 
Song" as we read it, we are ready to forgive poor Robert Greene 
for his sins as a novelist. There is the liquid flow of purest melody 
in the lines — ^the seal of a poet by the grace of God. 

"TuUies* Love" is a curiosity. Obviously it is a piece of hack- 
without value, but it is interesting as illustrating Elizabethan ingen- 
uity. Cicero is made to woo and pine like any other swain, write 
madrigals ,and long love letters in the manner of Euphues. It has 
interest for another reason. Greene pretends thruout that the story 
is an account drawn from letters of Cicero himself, and to give veri- 
similitude, quotes some of the letters in the original Latin. This 
device has become popular in fiction. Thackeray used it fully. But 
it is a long step from the feeble effort of Greene to give the color 
and atmosphere of Cicero's Rome to the "Esmond** of the great Vic- 
torian, wherein the Age of Queen Anne lives again. Still, "Cicero's 
Love" is not without significance in English fiction, for it gives the 
very life and speech of another age. It is the germ from which de- 
veloped "Henry Esmond" and "Hypatia." 

The masterpiece of this type, however, was produced by a 
man who, we feel instinctively, had nothing of Greene's sheer gift of 
poetry. He was a clever man, with a keen intelligence and a mar- 
velous power to do well what others had done before him. He wrote 
graceful sonnets, a powerful novel of roguery, and, most important 
of all, "Rosalynde." It is the romance at its best — not so long as to 
be stupid, not so extravagant as to be absurd — and radiant with the 
golden glow of the land 

"In which it seemed always afternoon." 
There are absurdities in abundance — shepherds who talk French and 
write sonnets, sudden turns of fortune and precipitate revolutions in 
character. But what would you have in Arcadia? 

The characters are shadowy enough, with the exception of 
Rosal3mde, in whom we discern clearly the Rosalind of "As You 
Like It." There is a touch of Shakespeare, too, in her bright flirta- 
tion with Phoebe. The genius of Shakespeare, however, is then 



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342 The Quarterly Journal 

most apparent, when the crude materials of his plays are compared 
with the supreme form which he gave them. 

Lodge wrote a second pastoral romance, ''A Margarite of 
America," to my mind decidedly inferior to "Rosalynde." The lat- 
ter, with a little briskness of dialog, would come very close to a ro- 
mance of to-day, but "A Margarite of America" is hopeless. The 
novel fairly reeks with bloodshed and vice. And yet, in this riot of 
murder, there are passages of surpassing beauty — ^the descriptions of 
the Chamber of Protomachus and that of Margarite and the haunt- 
ingly beautiful accoimt of the hermitage of Arsinous. But of motiva- 
tion for the crimes of Arsadachus, there is not a trace, and of a subtle 
study of evil in human character, less than nothing. We know that 
the villain is a villain, and that is all. The character of Margarite 
is better, and, next to Rosalynde, she is the most attractive woman 
in Elizabethan fiction. 

Pages, of course, might be multiplied on the Elizabethan pas- 
toral romance, with its inevitable commixture of chivalric adventure. 
I am not sure that it would lead to anything, however; for, apart 
from "Rosalynde" and the "Arcadia," they are poor stuff — reminis- 
cent of a day when there was an attempt at a plot, and events simply 
followed one another in unending sequence. This is to be distinctly 
noted, however: these impossible tales do have a plot. They are no 
longer what the romances of chivalry were, huge compilations of 
episodes. And to this degree, they approach the modern novel. On 
the other hand, because they embody a technique so utterly crude, 
they seem to revert back rather than point forward. 

Point forward, nevertheless, they did. In the seventeenth cen- 
tury came the halcyon days of the heroic romance. In France there 
centered in the famous salons of the Hotel de Rambouillet a coterie 
of writers who gave to French literature a body of romances which 
are the admiration and awe of the world : the "Clelie" of Madeleine 
de Scudery (1649) which contains the invaluable Carte der Tendre, 
and "Cleopatre" of La Calprenede," to mention only two examples. 
The interminable romances, with their stories within stories, like 
the "Arcadia," were very soon translated into English. Nor did 
Englishmen content themselves with translations. They must have 
original work of the same sort, and, accordingly, Madame de Scud- 
ery's "Qdie" finds a rival in the "Parthenissa" of Robert Boyle 

(1654). 

Brilliant as was this efilorescence of the romantic novel during 
the seventeenth century, it is perfectly clear to us now that the type 
was doomed. Modem fiction mig^t receive from it a certain feeling 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 343 

for beauty of background and conscious finish of pharse, but its 
whole attitude toward life, its technique, and its vigour could never 
come from "Rosalynde." We shall look for this rather in the stark 
realism of Greene's confessions, in the foul scurrility of Nashe's con- 
troversial pamphlets ; most of all shall we look for it in the strongest 
piece of fiction of the Elizabethan epoch, "The Unfortunate Trav- 
eller" of Nashe. 

The origins of the "picaresque" novel, or, better, the novel of 
roguery in En^and is a question as mooted as the source of 
Euphuism, and the conventional statement that it is derived from 
the Spanish "picaresco'^ is about as accurate at that other conventional 
commonplace that the style of Lyly is derived from Guevara thru 
the translations of Berners and North. There is little doubt that 
the Spanish form did have certain influences on the English, but it is 
an influence extremely difficult to trace. 

"The Spaniards," says Mr. Chandler, ^ "were the first to cul- 
tivate preponderant roguery ,and the real literature of the type be- 
gins with 'Lazarillo de Tonnes" (1554). It's a sordid tale, mean 
and ugly, but there is a sparkle in the narrative and a cutting in- 
dsiveness in the satire which tells us that here is no yarn spun by 
fancy for diversion: the author wrote with his eye on the naked 
reality. "Lazarillo" was first translated into English in 1568, and 
there were other translations in 1576 and 1586. It was widely 
popular, but there is no real evidence to prove that it markedly col- 
ored English realistic fiction or that "Jack Wilton" would not have 
been what it is without it. "In even greater measure than Lazarillo, 
another Spanish picaresque novel was the pattern for the 'gusto pic- 
aresco.' " This was Mateo Aleman's "Guzman d'Alfarache," the 
first part of which was published at Madrid in 1599. Indeed, 
"Guzman" is very much more like "Jack Wilton" than "Lazarillo." 
Like Jack, Guzman travels over half Europe, he has adventures 
and misadventures with courtesans and landlords, and there is about 
him less of the utter sordidness of Lazarillo. But inasmuch as 
Nashe's fiction had been off the press five years when "Guzman" 
was published, it is obvious that "The Unfortimate Traveller" can 
owe little to it. 

Accordingly, just as we found that Euphuism is essentially 
English, so we find, when we come to examine the matter, that 
the novel of roguery as we have it in English literature is primarily 
of native growth. "Chaucer, with the tolerance of a great artist, 

9. Chandler, Ut. of Roguery Vol. I. p. 197. 



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344 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

treats vice humorously," and gives us those unforgettable por- 
traitures, Pandarus, in "Troilius and Cryscde;" and the "rogue" 
characters in the Prologue, the Pardoner, the Mendicant Friar, the 
Miller, the Shipman, and the Doctor of Physicke. Langland, less 
effectively, because more impersonally, holds up whole classes of vil- 
lains to scorn and ridicule; and some of the old interludes, notably 
that delicious satire "The Four P's" of John He3^wood, are admir- 
able in the uncompromising fidelity with which they depict the shady 
and doubtful side of life. However, there is always in the English 
tale of roguery a touch of good humour. The rogue is rarely an un- 
mitiagted rascal. He likes the game because it touches his sense of 
humour, and he will gull you with a good humored nonchalance 
quite alien to the Spaniard. The pardoner of Heywood's interlude 
is a graceless wretch, perhaps, but you can't help admiring the in^ 
genuity of the fellow. I think I can illustrate this attitude best by 
the example of Falstaff. The old rogue richly deserves the treat- 
ment which he receives at the hands of King Henry, formerly his 
good friend Prince Hal, but there isn't a reader of Shakespeare who 
doesn't sympathize with him and who doesn't feel that for once Eng- 
land's hero-king is a cad. 

There is naturally less of this in the innumerable "conny catch- 
ing" pamphlets and "Re^ntances" which flooded London in the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. These are so purely realistic, so 
absolutely concerned with minute fact that they have no place for 
that artistic heightening without which humour is impossible. The 
same thing is, of course, true of the criminal pamphlets which told 
without disguise the harrowing details of the latest murder. But 
the repression of these realistic pamphlets is more than counterbal- 
anced by the extravagant nonsense of the Jest books, to which I have 
referred above. These told of the jests and tricks of celebrated 
clowns, and they did not hesitate to descend to downright burlesque. 

Here, I think we may feel certain, are the native materials of 
"The Unfortunate Traveller," and when we compare it with these 
sources, we shall find that it is exactly what we should expect such 
elements to produce. There is, however, one more thing to be borne 
in mind. The "picaresque novel" — if we may use the term — ^in 
Spain as in England is the inevitable reflection in literature of social 
and economic conditions. Rs^id changes in the social order follow- 
ing the discovery of new sources of wealth beyond the seas, the end- 
less wars, an arrogant aristocracy grown more arrogant with recent 
success, a church blindly intolerant, all these conditions produced 
in Spain a class of idlers to whom life was misery and who had 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 345 

to gain subsistence by some means, honest or dishonest. Strikingly 
similar conditions produced a corresponding class in England. More 
denounces the fencing in of the common lands for the benefit 
of the rich so that tenants are driven ofiF — ^to rob, unless they would 
perish. He is unsparing in his denundation of war: "You may as 
well say," replied I, "that you must cherish thieves on account of 
the wars; for you will never want the one as long as you have the 
other." And English literature of the day is full of denimciations 
of "idle servingmen" who have nothing to do but prey on good folk. 
We are not surprised, therefore, when we come to our first "rogue" 
in literature, to find that he is just such an "idle servingman," his 
head bubbling over with wild pranks to beguile the weary hours of a 
siege. 

"The Unfortunate Traveller" is a picaresque novel, for it 
changes with the same ease that an actor changes his costimies. In 
all these changes, nevertheless, it preserves one characteristic thruout 
— ^it is fundamentally English. Jack Wilton does not come, like 
Lazarillo, from the "half world," but from good English folk, and 
when we meet him he is a page in the royal camp at the siege of 
Toumay (15 13). Nor is his life one continual struggle for exis- 
tence. Jack is reduced to severe straits at times, but his good humour 
never deserts him, nor his resourcefulness.. He is conscious every 
moment of the asininity of the average man, and he hasn't the slight- 
est doubt about his own ability to get the better of him. The ex- 
quisite sang froid with which he explains his escapades to Surrey is 
exactly in the manner of the English rogue from Robin Hood to Raf- 
flles. We think at once of Defoe, but better than Defoe, does 
Thackeray illustrate it in "Vanity Fair." Becky Sharp is an ad- 
venturess on principle, and she plays the game to win, but she plays 
it with an ease, a grace, and an assurance that almost disarms one. 
Thackeray wished to make us realize the emptiness of triumph bought 
as Becky bought hers, and he succeeded, but we admire Becky for all 
that. This, it seems to me, is the difference between the Spanish 
"picarsco" and the En^ish, and the difference is fundamental. 

With "The Unfortunate Traveller" English fiction makes an 
immense advance. Here, at last, is a novel, the realism of which is 
indubitable, whose characters are strong and vivid, and which con- 
tains scenes as effective as any in literature. 

How comprehensive is his view! The entire contintot of Eu- 
rope is the backgroimd of story, its wars, its religious upheavals, its 
superstition, and its humanism. "Ueberall," s&ys Kollman, in his il- 
luminating essay on "The Unfortunate Traveller," "ueberall genu- 



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346 The Quarterly Journal 

pen ihm einige mit lebendiger anschaulichkeit hingeworfen Mo- 
mentbilder, um dem Leser, einen historischen Vorgang, ja eine game 
bewegung deutltch vor augen zu fuhren/' 

And yet this historical fidelity of his background is not suffered 
to obstruct the action or obscure the characters. Jack Wilton goes 
to Venice, Florence, Rome, Bologna, but the temptation to bury the 
plot under a mass of description, Nashe successfully resists. Not 
even the magic of the Eternal City can swerve him from his purpose. 
Rome interests him only so far as it is the scene of his story: the 
Rome of antiquity delays him only a moment. To realize what sure- 
ness of technique this implies, we have only to recall a writer of a 
much later time, who, like Nashe, laid the scene of his novel in Italy. 
Hawthorne, to be sure, is an infinitely finer artist than the Eliza- 
bethan, but he succumbed to a temptation which Nashe overcame. 
"The Marble Faun" is a romance of wonderful beauty, but as a 
story it is weakened immensely by the imrestrained play of Haw- 
thorne's fancy. It drags, ofttimes, and frequently it does not move 
at all while Hawthorne lies spellbound under the enchantment of 
the past. Jack Wilton is as real in Rome as at Tournay; and far 
from being idealized, the people of the city are delineated with no 
attempt to gloss over the sordidness, the vice, the ugly selfishness 
of the Rome of Leo X. And the hero is not the only character 
of flesh and blood. The butler at Tournay, it has been suggested, 
is more than reminiscent of Falstaff; indeed, add the cleverness of 
Jack to the pusillanimity of the host, and you have the old rascal! 
Nor is this all. It was Nashe who, by his use of it in "The Unfor- 
tunate Traveller," gave currency to the Geraldine myth ; and, so far 
as I have been able to investigate the matter, the appearance of Sur- 
rey as one of the personae of the novel is the first instance in Eng- 
lish literature of the successful use of an historical character, not a 
monarch, in a work of fiction. And how fine is Nashe's appreda- 
tion of Surrey — knight and poet! 

We might easily dwell on this point at some length, but 
perhaps this same intensity of realistic portraiture is illustrated by 
the effcetive iise of scene. Here, for the first time, are scenes that 
can actually be visualized : Jack's consummate gulling of the butler, 
the debate between Luther and Karlstadt, the reception of the Elec- 
tor at Wittenberg, and — magnificent in its intensity of horror — ^the 
story of Cutwolfe's revenge. These things stick in the memory; 
they become a part of our mental make-up, like some of the scenes 
of Ibsen — the last act of "Ghosts," for instance, — or of "Hedda 
Gabler." 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 347 

The style need detain us only a moment, and I can add nothing 
to the penetrating criticism of M. Jusserand. Nashe was a poet, 
and no one understood better than he the magic of rich and flowing 
expression. He showed how well he could employ it in the episode 
of the tournament at Florence; but, in the main, the style of ''Jack 
Wilton" is not ornate: when he comes to the close of his book and 
has to teil of the accumulated terror of those days at Rome and 
Bologna, it becomes bare in its hard, forthright simplicity. We have 
gone far from the sugary sweetness of ''Rosalynde." 

All this may seem extravagant — perhaps it is. In the joy of 
discovering something that has quality amid all doubtful achieve- 
ment of Elizabethan fiction, it is easy to go too far. But the excel- 
lence that we find in "The Unfortimate Traveller" should not blind 
us to its defects. It is perfectly evident that Nashe is not entirely 
sure of his ground. He begins the story almost in the manner of a 
Jest book, then it becomes, in quick succession, a mere chronicle of 
travel, a burlesque on chivalry, and in the final episodes — a power- 
ful study of criminal passion — a study, it seems to me, not unworthy 
of Marlowe or Webster. Again, Jack at first is an active participant 
in the events ; at last he is a mere spectator. In other words, despite 
Nashe's care to link the events into a coherent whole, they remain 
episodes without organic connection. And finally, altho some of 
the characters — ^Jack, the butler, Surrey, Cutwolfe — ^are drawn with 
great power, there is little subtlety in the characterization. The 
lines are great, bold strokes, with little regard to the play of nuances. 

But when all these weaknesses have been pointed out, "The 
Unfortunate Traveller" still remains a great novel. Here is keen 
observation, a sure instinct for what is significant, and a power of 
creating single scenes quite imapproached before. How striking, for 
example, is the scene of the destruction of the Anabaptist mob before 
Munster, and this despite no little gratuitous satire at the expense of 
the Puritans. We have got out of a mythical Arcadia; we are in 
the Europe of the sixteenth century, and all its ceaseless turmoil is 
ringing in our ears. ''Er schenckte/* says KoUman finely, "seinem 
Volke den ersten historischen Zeitroman auf reahr grund lage, der 
uberdies hinsichtlich wuchtiger gestaltungs-kraft und KUnstlicher 
formvollendung die ubrige roman litteratur seiner zeit turmhoch 
uberragt." 

"The Unfortunate Traveller" is the only genuine rogue novel 
in English before Defoe, but two novels of Lodge merit some atten- 
tion under this head. They are "The Life and Death of William 
Longbeard," and "The True History of Robert, Duke of Nor- 



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348 The Quarterly Journal 

mandy." ''William Longbeard/' at least, has the elements of a good 
novel. There is a vivid realism in the account of the London mob 
which follows at the heels of their pretended deliverer, and the 
character of William himself is clearly conceived and portrayed with 
admirable fidelity and spirit. 

The novel is distinctly worth reading, even tho there is nothing 
like a coherent plot, and tho its fine, sturdy realism is weakened by a 
mass of indifferent poetry. The great weakness of Elizabethan lit- 
erature thruout is a lack of restraint, an almost total absence of a 
sense of fitness and proportion. In ''William Longbeard," Thomas 
Lodge sends his shepherds carolling thru White Chapel, and the 
contrast is about as incongruous as can be imagined. 

The second novel, "Robert, Duke of Normandy," can be dis- 
missed in a word. "It is a pseudo-historical account of the crimes, 
vices, and penitence of Robert, first (Lodge has it second) Duke of 
Normandy." The first part of the story, telling of the insane cruelty 
which gained for the Duke the surname "the Devil," is grcwsome 
enough, but it is at least strong and dramatic; the second part, where, 
apparently to fill out his plot, he sends the penitent Robert to Rome 
and then plunges him into all sorts of impossible adventures, is worth- 
less. The style, too, is "Arcadian," with now and then a perfect 
riot of alliteration, where we are told: "the pursuit was hot, the 
flight fervent, the followers in despayre, the flyer determined; how 
often smiled Robert himself, knowing that he fled before he feared, 
how often feared they to touch him that fled from him I" Neverthe- 
less, into this shapeless romance the poet of "Rosalynde" has put one 
of his loveliest "purple patches" — the description of Editha's bower. 

The "picaresque" novel never developed a school in England. 
There are an abundance of rogues in our fiction, but I wonder if it is 
possible to speak of a "school." In isolated cases, to be sure, we 
have novelists giving us pure novels of roguery: Chettle and Dekker 
in the next period; Defoe in the early years of the eighteenth cen- 
tury; but anything like a picaresque "tendenz" is unknown. Nashe 
made a contribution to the literature of England; with the excep- 
tion of Defoe, he had no successor. 

By far the most interesting, and, to my mind, the most impor- 
tant type of Elizabethan fiction is still to be mentioned — the novel 
of manners. Nashe is a realist, to be sure, but the life he portrays 
is, unfortunately, pathological. It remained for an obscure weaver 
and ballad-writer to give the first indication of the novel of middle 
class life. Princes and shepherds, rogues and demagogues we have 
•had ; but the staid, prosperous man of the craft, who eats his roast- 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 349 

beef and plum pudding, fears God and honors the king — ^him we 
have not had. And the glory of Thomas Deloney is to have given 
this good, wholesome life a place in literature. 

The obscurity into which this rare spirit has fallen is one of the 
mysteries of literary history. Not a single treatise on the novel so 
much as mentions him, and, concerning his fiction, no history of lit- 
erature deigns to say a word with the sole exception of the new 
"Cambridge History," which gives to him that full and sympath- 
etic treatment which he deserves. 

We shall not claim that Deloney has completely severed all ties 
with romances, but he employs the old legends in a new way. G)m- 
monly he will take from the Chronicles some narrative of high life, 
but into this he will weave, so as altogether to alter it, a plain, un- 
adorned tale wherein is the very soul of the "bourgoise." Deloney's 
plan, in each of his three novels, is to glorify a craft, by writing a 
story or "a series of stories" centering about its most famous repre- 
sentatives, and exhibiting "their deeds and worthy hospitality." With 
this purpose went the minor intention of explaining incidentally the 
origin and meaning of customs such as the "ringing of the pancake" 
bell, and of familiar expressions life "gentle craft," "St. Hugh's 
bones," "A shoemaker's son is a prince born." Dr. Lange points 
out with great clearness how markedly the influence of the contem- 
porary drama of manners must have been felt by Deloney, and, 
further, that the straightforward simplicity of his ballads would make 
it easy for him to employ in his prose the same unaffected technique. 

Deloney completed only three of these "studies in the crafts:" 
"Thomas of Reading" (1596), "Jack of Newbury" (1597), and 
"The Gentle Craft" (i597). "Thomas of Reading" deals "with 
the estate of the clothiers under Henry I." The suggestion of the 
story is from William of Malmesbury, but its zest lies in the relief 
with which Deloney portrays the glories of "the master clothiers 
whose wealth is represented by long lines of wagons creaking their 
way to London, and their importance by the attention paid to them 
at London by royalty." 

The second story, accessible in an excellent reprint, is delightful. 
Here we learn of the rise of Jack Winchcombe from an apprentice 
lad to be one of the wealthy burghers of Newbury; here, too, De- 
loney, himself a silk weaver of Norwich, tells with genuine zest of 
the prosperity of the weavers. It is a day of rough abundance, of 
coarse manners, of a gross frankness intolerable to-day, but it is a 
time, too, of unmistakeable solidity. The story of Jack's marriage 
is a bit frank to our taste, but it is an entertaining bit of neighbor- 



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350 The Quarterly Journal 

hood gossip nevertheless. Of the same intimately domestic quality 
is the delicious little episode where one of Mistress Winchcombe's 
neighbors proceeds to give her views about Mistress Winchccwabc's 
housekeeping. One can almost see the two good wives talking it over 
in the backyard. 

Not merely the home life but the public life of the time finds 
here a middle-class expression. Jack flourished in the reign of 
Henry VIIL, and these sturdy weavers do not hesitate to voice their 
opposition to the ruinous foreign wars of the king, the selfish greed 
of Wolsey, and the hordes of "idle serving men and courtiers." The 
splendid British independence of these craftsmen, Deloney interprets 
with great power. They entertain the king with lavish magnificence ; 
they send one hundred twelve deputies, representing fifty-six cities 
and 60,600 weavers, to London to protest against a war that will 
ruin their export trade; in short, they conduct themselves with that 
self-reliant manliness which we like to think is the abiding charac- 
teristic of the Englishman. 

Nor is the style less homely than the theme. With rare excep- 
tions there is a limpidity in the prose quite imusual; and, what is 
even more significant, a sparkling dialogue and an effective use of 
dialect. More clearly than ever do we feel that we have come to 
the first novel of manners. Even Mr. Howells in "The Kentons" 
is not more severely unadorned. The interspersed ballads are no ex- 
ception, rather they constitute an additional realistic detail, for it 
must have been by being sung among the people at their work and at 
their feasts that the great treasure of English ballad poetry was pre- 
served. 

"The Gentle Craft," under which title are collected two groups 
of stories relating to the shoemakers, is decidedly imeven, and not 
even the best of them approach the quality of "Jack of Newbury." 
The first two stories of Part I. "relate to events of the time of Dio- 
cletian and Magnus Clemens Maximus, the scenes of action being 
respectively North Wales and Kent. The concluding story of this 
part opens the London series. The time is that of Henry VL The 
chief incidents narrated in Part H. belong to the reign of Henry 
VHL" 

By far the best tale is that of Simon Eyre, the shoemaker's ap- 
prentice who became at last, through sheer pluck and wit. Lord 
Mayor of London. The story is well known to students of the 
drama for Dekker used it as the under-plot of "The Shoemaker's 
Holiday;" but as Deloney tells it, it has a freshness and a whole- 
hearted spontaneity quite his own. The opening chapter, in which 



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Sixteenth Century Fiction 35 1 

Dame Eyre reveals herself as the brains of the family, is quite ir- 
resistible; and the episode of the Lord Mayor's dinner in honor of 
the good couple is as convincing as Mr. Howell's account of Silas 
Lapham's first dining out. Unfortunately, the main plot is soon 
lost in the mazes of the amorous rivalry of John the Frenchman and 
Haunce the Dutchman, which is amusing in itself, but related only 
by the slenderest tie to the chief interest of the story. 

Here, indeed, lies Deloney's weakness. He cannot sustain a 
plot. Even "Jack of Newbury," which has some pretense to con- 
tinuity, is eked out, after the first chapter, with episodes and pageants, 
strung on a thread of narrative. Despite these faults, however, De- 
loney is of significance in the history of English fiction. He has 
given as genuine historical novels, and more than that, he has por- 
trayed for all time the dignity and solid worth of the English crafts- 
men. Finally, as Dr. Lange suggests, he is a born story teller, with 
an abundance of unforced humour. Not for a century and a half 
was English fiction to have another example of the same indisputable 
realism. With Richardson's "Pamela," the long interregnum was 
ended. 

Now, you have the right to ask "Whither has all this discus- 
sion led?" Frankly, nowhere, unless we have come to realize that 
in the novels of the Elizabethan era we have a body of genuine fic- 
tion. And this raises the query. What, after all, is a novel ? I dare 
say I shall be unable to give a clear definition, but I think we may 
define it as "an interpretation of life by means of narrative and in 
terms of life itself." Matthew Arnold once declared poetry to be 
"a criticism of life." But I am very sure he would agree that this 
is essentially the definition of literature. Each of the great forms 
of literature embodies this criticism in its own way — the epic, the 
romance, the lyric, the novel. In the novel we have human experi- 
ence in all its fullness and complexity, with all its play and inter- 
play of character and events. We have, in short, what Professor 
Baldwin so felicitously termed, the "web of life." 

Have we, in Elizabethan fiction, an interpretation of human 
experience thru a presentation, in all its compelxity, of the "web of 
life?" If I have accomplished in the first part of this paper what I 
set out to prove, I think we shall say, yes. I tried to indicate the plot 
interest and the psychology of "Euphues," the great human interest 
underlying the "Arcadia," the stark realism of "The Unfortunate 
Traveller," and finally, and most important of all, the fine fidelity 
to the bourgeois life in the tales of Thomas Deloney. We must be 
prepared for crudity of technique, for stylistic a£Fectation in an age 
of affectation ; but when we find, as I think we do find, a sincere at- 
tempt to body forth an imaginative form, an ideal life, then let us 
give to Elizabethan fiction the recognition it abundantly deserves. 



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Good and Evil; Right and Wrong 

Joseph Kennedy 
Professor of Philosophy and Education, University of North Dakota 

THE problem of good and evil has always engaged the thought 
of thinking men from the earliest periods of incipient philos- 
ophy. Many theories have been propounded as to their origin, consti- 
tuting in each case either a philosophy or a religion or both. In Persia, 
evil was personified as a god and called Ahriman, just as good was 
personified and called Ormuzd. These two gods were considered about 
equal in power, no doubt for the reason that then as now the evil in 
the world seemed almost, if not quite, as prevalent as the good. It 
is said that the Persian conception of an almost all-powerful demon, 
or god of evil, had great influence on the Christian conception of the 
same problem, and hence is, in part, responsible for the conception 
of a devil such as Milton's, well-nigh omnipotent, omniscient, and 
omnipresent. 

The question as to whether such spiritual beings, good or evil, 
who were never incarnate, exist in this or that mode or not, is not a 
question for our discussion now. Indeed, since its solution has its 
source neither in reason nor in experience, it falls outside the field 
of philosophy proper. 

We must confine ourselves to good and evil as terms used by 
human beings; as earthly terms, used by beings inhabiting this 
planet. They are terms used by humans to characterize certin kinds 
of acts. They arose, in the experience of mankind, in the environ- 
ment and relations, both natural and social, in which human beings 
foimd themselves. 

Away below human beings, among animals and even among 
plants, and indeed in the inorganic, physical and chemical world, 
there is manifest everyhere a striving for existence and expression. 
The animal, the plant, the molecule, apparently wishes, desires, 
strives to exist. Where the striving is greatest, the survival is surest 
and most permanent. The fundamental fact everywhere but, for 
our purpose, in the animal, and especially in the human realm, is 
the desire, the striving, the wish, the will to live. It matters little 
whether we call this manifestation wish, desire or will, it is there. 
It is there also whether it be conscious, as in man, or unconscious, 
as in plants or physical compounds. 

It is noticeable, too, that as we come up the scale of life, there 



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Good and Evil 353 

is a manifest tendenqr, or desire, or wish, or will on the part of an 
organism to express itself pleasurably. In fact, after existence, the 
next great aim appears to be pleasurable expression. It is probably 
the better philosophical conception that existence is the fundamental 
aim, end, or teleology; that expression is the greatest means of exist- 
ence; and that pleasure is coincident with successful expression. In 
other words, pleasure is naturally indicative and prophetic of exist- 
ence, or life. Organisms that do not or cannot fully express or 
manifest their nature will cease in time to exist. 

But in a world like ours — physical, vegetative, animal and 
human — there arc hosts of individual organisms, and these are con- 
stantly coming into contact and conflict with other organisms, like 
and unlike, in their desires, wishes or wills. This constitutes the 
struggle for existence, which existence is, as we said, the highest aim. 
In this struggle, we have to a great extent a "tooth and claw" 
world, the "survival of the fittest" or, at least, of the strongest. 

If, now, a molecule of hydrochloric acid (HCl) could have 
human consciousness and could use human speech, it would protest 
against its disintegration in the presence of its re-agent destroyers; 
and were it inclined to be profane, it might hurl imprecations against 
them. Its neighbors and friends would pronounce its violent disin- 
tegration "foul murder," using both of these words with the con- 
notation of evil ; and when attacked, if it could preserve its own ex- 
istence, even by destroying its adversary, it would pronounce the 
deed justifiable moleculidde. 

The same connotation would appear in animal life could it 
have a human tongue: If the poor beasts of burden could give our 
conscious expression to their treatment and condition, they would 
characterize their state as one of slavery and hence as bad, and their 
masters often as vicious; while our game birds and animals would 
look upon sportsmen as bands of guerillas and banditti that would 
doubly discount the old pirates of the seas or the robbers and high- 
waymen that infest the fastnesses and wilds of eastern countries. 
They would characterize our conduct as "bad," "evil," "cruel," 
"murderous;" while to us it is merely "fun," "sport," "recreation," 
pastime," an "outing." As the frogs of the fable said to the boy 
who was pelting them with stones, "It may be fun for you, but it's 
death to us." 

On general principles, then, it would seem that any consdous 
organism, if it could speak humanly, would characterize as bad, or 
evil, whatever hinders or thwarts the pleasurable expression of itself, 



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354 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

and thus circumscribes its existence ; and it would characterize as good 
whatever tends to those ends. 

In fact» to be good always and everywhere means to be well 
adapted to some purpose. The origin of the connotation is tele- 
ological. This is evident in conunon speech, outside the field of 
moral good. A good ax is one that does well what it was intended 
to do ; a good book is one whose effects are good. The same is true 
of every means: It is good if it fulfills its purpose, or final cause, and 
bad to the extent that it fails in such fulfillment. A good race-horse 
is one that races well ; a good draft-horse is one that draws well, etc 
There is a purpose expressed in every article of furniture, and the 
extent to which it fulfills its purpose is the measure of its worth or 
goodness. A table is a table only while it serves the purpose of a 
table ; if it is broken up, so as not to serve the purpose at all, instead 
of its being a poor or bad table, it is simply not a table. While at 
one time it was a good table, the pieces of wood in it now become 
good pieces if they will fulfill other purposes. 

But as we move into the human realm, the problem becomes 
more and more complex. The greatest difficulty is not in knowing, 
in the abstract, the nature of good and bad, but in knowing, as a 
rule and in the long run, both for the individual and for society, 
what norms will conduce to the ends mentioned, viz, existence and 
pleasurable expression ; and how such norms are arrived at in history 
and individual experience. 

The most puzzling question in the past has been the origin of 
the ethical norms. The rationalists, so-called, have always claimed 
that the ethical norm is a priori; that is, that the knowledge of right 
and wrong is inborn, or at least, that the germ or capacity is a definite 
"form,*' native to the human mind and needing only experience to 
make it develop and flower out. While the empiricists have always 
claimed that we learn what is right and wrong by experience, from 
what is considered good and bad for us, just as we learn anything 
else by experience; and hence, that we learn, and come to feel, by 
inference, abstraction and habit, whether individual or racial, what 
is right and that we should do right. 

Let us examine some situations in human experience. The 
baby kicks and strikes and screams when something interferes with 
its free expression and pleasurable or, at least, not painful exist- 
ence. It can not talk or explain, but if it could, it would declare 
in unmistabd}le terms that that annoyance is "bad'' or "evil" ; that is, 
that it interferes, obstructs, annoys or prevents. Its feelings are its 
norm, or standard, both of the goodness of things and of the right- 



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Good and Evil 355 

ness of others' conduct. Professor James says that in some fits of 
anger, it is not a child's fault that it does not murder its mother; it 
would do so if it could ; its feelings are its standards and its instincts, 
its motives. 

But parents having a larger experience and more knowledge 
than the child, know that some things which it llesires are only 
momentarily, or in the short run, either pleasurable or good, and 
that really, or in the long run, they would be evil or bad, hindering 
later and longer expression, giving later, longer and more intense 
pain, and shortening existence. Hence, they forbid such things and, 
if necessary, enforce their norm, or standard,, by penalties. These 
bring pain, which the child prefers to avoid, and then avoidance be- 
comes a habit. Thus the rule or law of the parent becomes the nom. 
or standard, for the child, and we have the "rightful" authority 
of the home. All our environments, physical and social, act in the 
same way as the family influence. 

We are all the product of the family and society, in our man- 
ners, customs, and standards. In our early and plastic period, we 
accept readily and imitate freely. This plan of accepting a ready- 
made rule or standard is the only possible one for the child and the 
only practicable and feasible one for the ordinary adult; and hence 
for the individual in every-day life the only practical and ethically 
efficient plan is the free adoption of ready-made norms, or principles 
of conduct. This is the deductive, or a priori, plan as distinguished 
from the empirical and inductive, or teleological plan. When these 
ready-made norms are freely assumed as laws of his life by the in- 
dividual, obedience to the law txs law constitutes moral conduct. 
For the individual this has been the ethical conception of strong, 
heroic, moral souls and moral systems in all ages. This was the 
Stoic and the Kantian conception of morality. Under this concep- 
tion the individual does not and should not as a rule take objective 
or "material" results into account; he merely carries out the law 
and lets the results be what they may. He says it is not for him 
to figure results when once he is under the law ; and he is right. He 
will have nothing to do, and rightly, with the theory that the end 
justifies the means. There is no doubt that individuals who begin to 
figure out results for themselves or for others before they decide 
whether or not to obey or enforce a law, are near the parting of the 
ethical ways, and already a short distance even on the road that leads 
to the disintegration of moral integrity. 

But there comes a time in reflective thinking when the individual 
raises for himself or for the public welfare, the question as to why 



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356 The Quarterly Journal 

this or that law should exist or be retained as a rule of conduct for 
individuals, and enforced by society. This leads directly to an in- 
quiry as to what makes existing ethical norms right norms. We 
found that at a certain stage in the child's life his norm is that set 
up by the home or other authority. This is the norm of conduct 
for all domestic and trained animab and for the child races as well 
as for the child. They look lovingly or fearingly to others for stand- 
ards or guidance. In fact, this authoritative norm is more prev- 
alent in civilized nations than most of us realize. Such norms, even 
when low or bad, are readily accepted and lived by many if not by 
most people. This was the kind of norm that Presiednt Roosevelt 
indicated by the concept, "law-honesty," when he said there is hon- 
esty, law-honesty or dishonesty, and that the law-honesty standard 
was altogether too prevalent. 

When the child begins to enter more and more the larger world 
of the school and of companions generally, he finds customs and 
practices quite prevalent which were forbidden by the authoritative 
norm of the home; and then in his own mind he begins to question 
those of his companions, those implied in many customs of society 
which he has probably been taught to shun, and even those of his 
parents. He inquires, by himself, the why of many norms. It is 
then that parents often have the somewhat painful experience of see- 
ing their children grow away from them to some extent. The 
children frequently question both the wisdom and the authority of 
their parents. 

But manners, customs, and laws are only the norms set by so- 
ciety as the result of a long, severe, and extensive experience. These 
are therefore empirical and such as were found by society to be for 
the welfare of all. Society is the larger self, with a vast experience ; 
and its laws, customs and manners are, in the main, good. Society 
has, whether mistakenly or not, figured out the results by experience. 
In this process society is empirical and teleological. It calls con- 
duct good and right which brings the results desired; just as we call 
the ax good which enables us to realize our aim well. 

Sometimes seers, sages and leaders arise, who tower like moun- 
tain-peaks above their age and nation, and who leave to their people 
a new code of laws, a new standard which works like a leaven in 
the customs, manners and morals of that age or nation. In such 
cases, the individual who best gathers into himself the wisdom and 
the spirit of his time and people, and either by a mighty empirical 
and teleological inference, or from a deductive point of view by 
unifying and harmonizing his people's system of ethical concepts,. 



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Good and Evil 357 

sets up a new and better standard. He does this> in other words, 
either by harmonizing and developing old concepts or by divining the 
good results by a more far-reaching inference based on observation 
and experience. 

These new norms, principles, or rules of conduct may, it is 
true, be conceived (however or whence-so-ever they are derived) as 
the expression of the Divine Will or as the expression of conduct in 
harmony with Divine and human nature. But in the last analysis 
and ultimately, ethics, being the human expression of the problem, 
must rest on an empirical and teleological foundation. The ques- 
tion as to what is, either in the short run or in the long rim, good 
for the individual or the race, is one of fact, and can be solved only 
by experience. But ethically it is society, as we said, and not the in- 
dividual that may experiment with ethical standards. If some one 
should ask why, it can only be answered that this procedure is the 
one which society has found by experience most conducive to the 
general welfare. 

What society has figured out or felt out to be most permanently 
conducive to life and its happy expression for both the individual and 
itself, it tolerates or encourages and calls good; and the individual 
who acts in this direction is said to act rightly. Acts which militate 
against the norm set up by society are called bad and the doer of 
such acts is said to do wrong. G)nsequently in the struggle for ex- 
istence and for expression, acts which conserve existence and growth 
are the acts which come to be called good and right ; and acts which 
are thought to be destructive of these are called bad. So that good 
and bad, from the point of view of society, are terms that have an 
empirical and teleological connotation, the connotation being infer- 
ential from the varied experience of the race. 

It may be (It has frequently happened) that society like in- 
dividuals, makes an ethical inference based on experience that is not 
sufficiently varied or extensive. It has happened that customs and 
laws have prevailed in past ages, setting up norms of right which 
civilized nations have since proven to be bad ; that is, it has since been 
discovered by more varied experience and knowledge that acts once 
thought to be conducive to general life and freedom of expresion have 
since been shown to be injurious and hence bad. The Spartan cus-r 
tom of stealing from enemies or of exposing old people to death in 
order to lighten their own burdens, is a case in point: in a selfish age, 
the strength that comes from altruism does not manifest itself. 

As intelligence grew, it also became apparent that an act which 
might help an individual, if alone in the world, would, if universal- 



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358 The Quarterly Journal 

ized, in the solidarity of sodety, be plainly against the life and ex- 
pression of the whole. These injuries to the solidarity of the whole 
are called bad and wrong. When human beings are dependent parts 
of a complex whole and one does an act to survive, which is deemed 
injurious to others, society teaches him to call that act "bad," 
"wrong," or "evil." 

I am not here discussing the problem of freedom and responsi- 
bility in such situations, but merely the kind of acts that come to be 
designated bad or wrong. These concepts and terms are human, 
with connotations derived from human interests and human ends. 
This field of good and evil is certainly pragmatical whatever may 
be said of other fields. To say an act is good or bad, right or 
wrong is to evaluate that act in its relation to the summum bonum, 
existence and happy expression. We evaluate acts by their practical 
bearing on us and our interests or aims. If deceiving, as a rule, were 
found to work to the longer existence and the more complete ex- 
pression of the deceiver and the deceived, it would be designated by 
society as good and virtuous and would be enjoined in our homes, 
schools, churches and laws. Among the Spartans, in certain con- 
ditions, it was mistakenly so considered and enjoined. Promiscuity 
has, thru experience, given way to polygamy and polygamy to mon- 
ogamy, the first having for ages been considered good and hence 
right. 

It may be said, then, that since circumstances or conditions are 
determining factors in what is good or best at that particular time, 
an act (or rather a portion of the act) uiversalized under one set 
of conditions might be good or even best; and when conditions 
change, the portion popularly called the "act" may, instead of being 
good and right, be evil and wrong. Right and wrong in particular 
are a very complex problem, for they depend on how the conditions, 
all things considered, conspire together to make conduct tend toward 
the summum bonum. 

llie pharse "absolute right" expresses two diflEerent ideals, and 
hence, it is ambiguous. It may mean what would be good under 
ideal conditions or among men who had reached a static millenial 
condition; or it may mean what is best, all things considered, under 
existing conditions. Men sometimes use the phrase "absolute right," 
meaning one thing one instant and another thing the next, without 
realizing the distinction, or that those to whom they are speaking 
may have in mind the other conception. But since there is no such 
possibility or, at least, probability in earth-life of a static millenium, 
there is no such thing as "absolute right" in this sense; and hence, 



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Good and Evil 359 

the most reasonable conception of "absolute right" is best under exist- 
ing conditions, all things considered. This, of course, removes it, 
in many cases, as far from human determination as the other con- 
ception, for no human intelligence, individual or collective, can grasp 
all the conditions. The determining conditions, however, may be 
evident; and the conditions are a part of the act, for it is they that 
give ethical value to the act. There is no such thing as "abstract 
right," for right implies human conditions and relations in the 
concrete. 

Whether the common individual gets his standard from the 
race or the race from the uncommon individual, it is the product of 
observation and experiment ; it is teleological in its claims, and infer- 
ential and evolutionary in its processes. 

If some one should say that this makes the end justify the means, 
I would say that the adage has a truth involved in it if applied to so- 
ciety; tho for either society or the individual it has a large possible 
and probable untruth in it. It is an expression that fails to express 
accurately, without long explanations. If one should put a suffi- 
dent number of qualifying conditions around it, it might, when ap- 
plied to sodety, express the teleological and sodological nature of 
the concepts right and wrong; but as a norm for the individual, it 
would be thoroly vicious, for it would make him the judge of the 
effects of his every act, to the remote future. It would vitiate in- 
dividual morality; for wish would become father to thought and to 
selfish act, and it would leave the welfare of the whole to the judg- 
ment of each individual, which would be moral anarchy. 

It may be asked how this theory of moral norms agrees or con- 
flicts with what is known as the theological or Rationalistic theory. 
They may, it seems to me, be synthesized and harmonized. If there 
be a teleology in a larger sense — a one far-off Divine event toward 
which the whole creation moves — then that event is is the goal of 
the Divine will, intention or movement; and all acts which tend 
toward human welfare on the other is one that divides thinkers into 
theological good ; and because they tend toward that event, they are 
teleologically good. But since the Divine will has set the one far- 
off Divine event as the goal, this will and goal are at one; and an 
act which is good in one view is therefore good also in the other view. 
S i The question as to whether right acts are such because they 

"" conform to Divine will and human nature on the one hand or point 
-toward that event are in harmony with the Divine will and hence, 
two classes ; viz, ethical rationalists and ethical empiridsts, the former 
claiming that human nature or human reason reveals the moral norm 



I 



u 



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360 The Quarterly Journal 

independent of experience, and the latter, that such norm is infer- 
entially generalized from experience. The rationalist claims that 
the ''form/' if not the content, of the moral norm is innate and 
prior to experience ; while the empiridst claims that the facts of ex- 
perience come first and that the "form" comes later like any other 
kind of a concept or generalization. But ethical science, like other 
experimental sciences, is individually and sociologically inductive; 
all moral norms are a posteriori and the results of human experience. 

If it be asked whether God be the author of evil, the irrcla- 
vency of the question should appear at once in view of the situation 
in which what we call "evil" arises. God creates organisms, or be- 
ings ; that is, these arise and have or come to have strivings, impulses, 
desires and hence, wills; when these have experiences which they 
judge not for their welfare, they pronounce these experiences bad. 
God could, no doubt, have created beings without such tendencies 
to express themselves; that is, static affairs which would be merely 
non-entities. But since these organisms are here, human and infra- 
human, they are as they are with strivings to express and realize 
themselves. He could not make a human being and not make him 
human at the same time. Our whole system of linguistic terms 
are expressive of values placed upon acts by human beings in their 
relations with each other and other things during their onward 
and upward struggle here on earth. God, then, did not create evil 
in any sense. It is human beings who pronounce certain things evil 
because they hinder their own self-realization or that of the whole. 

In regard to Kant's sonralled "categorical imperative" as a 
norm or a standard, I would say that there is no racial, a priori, 
ethical norm and that there is, now, no primal individual "categor- 
ical imperative." There is not a race of people or even a child of 
civilized races but has to learn by observation, experience and author- 
ity what is good or bad. If the rule, Thou shalt not kill, steal or 
bear false witness, does not seem to need a reason for it, or a hypo- 
thetical sanction for its infraction, it is because the individual has not 
consciously in mind the dreadful experiences of the race and the 
fearful evils which it experienced in the violation of those laws of 
existence and expression. And it becomes a seeming imperative 
under the pressure of the all-pervading suggestion and compulsion 
of our mother, society, as well as under the tutelage of personal ex- 
perience and the formation of habit. If a child of sainted parents 
can be taught, in a short time, to lie, steal or act improperly without 
compunction and remorse, surely hundreds of centuries of pre- 
dominantly good heredity and ten or twenty years of careful culture 



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Good and Evil 361 

should induce the categorical and imperative sense. Nor is the so- 
called "categorical imperative" to "Do what you could wish uni- 
versalized/' the safest standard for the individual. If formulated 
and interpreted by society, it is well and has been the standard which 
the race has followed historically and sodologically from time im- 
memorial. It is a standard arrived at inferentially thru experience. 
In fact, it is a broad and far-reaching generalization of modern civ- 
ilization, and never has been in the minds of individuals in savage 
or semi-civilized tribes. It is the formulation by Kant of the results 
of civilization. 

The maxim of Kant, "Do what you would allow every one in 
like circumstances to do," is, as a personal norm, extremely individ- 
ualistic and might be ethically anarchistic even in highly civilized 
life. Sociologically, Hegel's standard, that the pronouncement of 
society is the ethical norm for the individual, is safer. 

That the only ultimately good thing, as Kant says, is a good 
will is true; for values are put on things or acts according to their 
relation to sodal will, or striving ; this, as we said, judges or registers, 
whether rightly or mistakenly, the degree of good and evil in acts 
affecting its expression or welfare. This is true of the individual 
too, but as in other cases, the individual will may clash with the social 
will and then both the former and its values are likely to be ignored. 
John Wilkes Booth's will, any more than his act, was not good, how- 
ever sincere; for it conflicted with the sodal welfare. 

It is true that great souls may, as we said, challenge the social 
will and its norm, and appeal, as did Sumner, to a higher law, or 
norm; but this only shows that the public intelligence and reason 
may be defective and that the public striving may be in a direction 
detrimental to its own best existence and expression. In other words, 
society may be intellectually mistaken and, like individuals, may 
tolerate or do what is detrimental. When an individual challenges 
the norm of society, he must take his life and its expression in his 
own hands, and this not infrequently becomes a duty; he must then 
be prepared for martrydom of some kind in case of defeat. Cranks 
and heroes are found along the skirmish line between the individual 
and society, the outcome being determined and characterized by the 
test of time and experience. 

If it be said that experience teaches us what is right, but that 
the mandate, "Do right," is prior to and independent of experience, 
I would say that the mandate should be analyzed further into its 
two concepts, "do" and "right." In early philosophy the a priori, 
or intuitional, conception of conscience as an infallible standard of 



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362 The Quarterly Journal 

right and wrong, strongly obtained. But when it became evident 
that different individuals and different ages did not agree as to what 
was right, rationalistic philosophy retreated one step and said that 
while conscience deals with the what, and is fallible, the synderesis (a 
new word for the new defensive position) declares intuitively and in- 
fallibly, not what is right but "that we ought to do right." This 
kept well back of the firing line of the so-called "a priori" and re- 
minds one of Kant's "categorical imperative." It probably sug- 
gested to Kant his broad philosophical generalization, which, in the 
mentality of his day, he could scarcely help mistaking for an a 
priori. 

The mandate, "Do right," embodies the position here set fordi, 
but should, as we said, be analyzed further. The "do" is the same 
concept as "express," which is part of the summum bonum. It is 
the connotation "right" that is, in this paper, the subject of exposi- 
tion, the conception of it being that whatever expression, or doing, 
conduces to happy existence is characterized as right. And since it 
is of the nature of an organism to live and be happy, it is, of course, 
its nature to do right which is equivalent to live. 

Our attempt has been to show that the connotation and concept 
"right" arose in huamn experience. The particular things or deeds 
are experienced first and, if desired in view of all considerations, are 
characterized as good or right. Ethics is a factual, sociological sci- 
ence, inductive, inferential, empirical, evolutionary and teleological. 



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Theory of Knowledge and Science* 

A. HoYT Taylor, 
Professor of Physics, University of North Dakota 

IT is a great honor and pleasure to be able to open a scientific 
jneedng with a philosophical address. I look upon it as an indi- 
cation of the general re-awakening to the necessity of a philosophical 
broadening and deepening of the whole field of science. Where 
discussions over axioms and principles, over space and time, over 
energetics and atomistics, over mechanism and vitalism, are so ram- 
pant as in modern natural science, the way is open for a consid- 
eration of the philosophical aspects of the problem. The connecting 
threads of the two fields are already spun. The situation in the 
camp of the natural scientists themselves has led to speculations in 
the field of metaphysics and the theory of knowledge. 

But Philosophy has also helped to bring about this union, by 
successful efforts to make clear the formal and material postulates of 
science; by an understanding of scientific assumptions and methods 
of procedure, as well as their limits and consequences. Modern 
logic and theory of knowledge have come into close relations with 
the individual sciences, and of modern metaphysics it may now be 
asserted for the first time, that it fulfils its purpose by a most inti- 
mate contact with the special sciences. Among these Psychology, the 
daughter of Science and Philosophy, must be included. Introduced 
by Fechner,, physicist and philosopher. Psychology was put on her 
own feet by the physiologist Wundt, whose broad philosophical spirit 
provided for her further independent development by the erection of 
a special psychological laboratory. Psychology works with scientific 
aids and makes use of the methods which have been worked out by 
the sister sciences. At the same time many points of these latter lead 
towards mental science, thus affording in many directions a noteworthy 
support to modern philosophy. 

Often in life, estranged parents are re-united by prosperous 
children. Let us therefore entrust to Psychology the successful ful- 
filment of a similar mission for Philosopy and Science. 

But if philosophy and science find themselves together here in 
Konigsberg, we have doubtless the Genius Loci to thank — Kant. 
The problem of scientific work appears in the nature of Kant's first 

•Translation of an address delivered by Professor O. KOlpe, of the Uni- 
versity of Bonne» before the eighty-second meetingr of the Natural Scientists, 
at Keinigsberg, Germany. See Physikalische Zeltschrift, November 16, 1910. 



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364 The Quarterly Journal 

development of a theory of knowledge, and under his influence, after 
the founding of the Hegelian philosophy, the first noteworthy repre- 
sentations of the philosophical positions were consununated. 

Even tho Schiller once sounded to the transccndentalists the 
warning cry, "The union with natural science comes too soon,** we 
may to-day look upon it as a favorable omen of the introduction of a 
well understood, fruitful inter-relation between the theory of knowl- 
edge and natural sdence, that we meet upon ground made sacred by 
the work of Kant. 

It is well known what an influence the mathematical science of 
Newton and his followers had upon the Kantian philosophy. The 
"Metaphysical Foundation of Natural Science,*' in its application of 
the transcendental philosophy to the idea of matter, shows plainly 
how largely the upbuilding of the categories and theorems of pure 
reason were conditioned by the intention of generalizing the assimip- 
tions of mechanics. A distinct metaphysics of mechanical nature, as 
Kant himself remarks, "performs the necessary service of afiFording 
concrete cases or examples, which allow the ideas and precepts of the 
latter - - - to be realized, that is, to put meaning and sense into an 
empty form of thought.** The questions concerning the possibility 
and rights of a mathematics and a natural science which proceed a 
priori, questions of such fundamental import for his positive theory of 
knowledge, open to us the spirit of his notable transcendental 
method, for which a science, as a previous true state of fact, became 
simultaneously problem and basis of philosophy; not as tho it were 
worth while to find fault with a science and its content, and sup- 
posedly by pure thinking to obtain a deeper insight into the being 
of natural phenomena. 

Kant*s transcendental philosophy takes up the assumptions of 
pure mathematics and natural science in an inner and general con- 
nection, seeking to build up with them a theory of sdence itself. 
With him philosophy does not play the role of a crabbed school- 
master who knows everything, and who subjects everything to his 
censure; but in everything concerning the contents, results, and 
methods of investigation, is dependent upon the individual sciences. 
Kant does not ask whether a natural science is possible. He does not 
undertake to erect in its place a philosophical nature study. But he 
does ask how a natural science is possible, and seeks to co-ordinate its 
facts with a theory of knowledge. With all due recogntion of the 
part played by Kant*s theory of knowledge in leading towards a fruit- 
ful mutual relation between sdence and philosophy, and with due 



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Theory of ^Knowledge and Science 365 

appreciation of its consequences at the time of its development, we 
must nevertheless note that two problems remained unsolved. 

One of these consists in the systematic drawing out of the indis- 
pensable assumptions of any particular sdence. Kant himself fur- 
nishes an example of the necessity of such a method of procedure. 
His categories are not taken from science as its assumptions, but are 
deduced from a logical classification of its decisions. Hence it ap- 
pears as if an immediate analysis of the scientific state of affairs was 
not at all necessary for the discovery of those principles which arc 
valid in science. Thus Kant's idealism has received an entirely too 
a priori coloring. We need a reliable method of determining the 
final assumptions and determinations prevalent in a science. To the 
extent that an individual science is not based on axioms, the theory 
of knowledge has the problem of picking out, from the fabric into 
which they have disappeared, the assumption dealt with by thi9 
science. 

The studies of methods of modern logic and of the general or 
principal part of the individual sciences have already made valuable 
contributions towards the solution of this problem. But such an up- 
ward procedure of the transcendental method always dispenses with 
the broader questions of foundation and organization. The second, 
more significant, problem is the extension of transcendental methods 
to the empirical sciences. Altho Kant distinguished between pure 
and applied mathematics, between mathematical, historical, and ex- 
perimental natural science, he grounded and erected his theory upon 
the disdplines which progress a priori. In view of the tremendous 
development of the empirical sciences during the last century, their 
problem is no longer to be ignored. The independent and unique 
methods of investigation in this field have received a merited atten- 
tion in the logic of the nineteenth century, and have inspired note- 
worthy investigations. 

On the other hand the material assumptions of the experimental 
sciences have not been studied and worked over in the same measure. 
Here the theory of knowledge may in the future have to fulfil a 
most important function. I hope to best serve the union between 
philosophy and natural science by a short sketch of an investigation 
bearing on this problem. 



In all experimental sciences we find the endeavor to assume and 
determine objects which are thought of as existing independently of 
the assuming and determining activity of the investigator himself. 

In this sense the astronomer speaks of the heavenly bodies in 



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366 The Quarterly Journal 

their orbits; the physiologist of the contraction of muscles of the 
excitation of nerves, of the secretion of glands; the geologist of the 
rigid inorganic bodies of the earth's surface; the chemist of the ele- 
ments and their combinations. Such objects are in no sense identical 
with the sense impressions which give rise to their assumption and 
determination. The planets are neither sensations nor complexes 
of such ; the chemical elements do not coincide with the contents of 
our sense-perceptions. They are also not ideas, altho they have at 
times been so designated, because ideas do not have optical properties, 
as crystals, or secretions, as glands, or valencies as chemical elements. 
We will designate such objects as realities, or as real objects, and 
characterize them in general by the independence of their existence 
upon assumption and determination. 

I believe it was the famous mathematician, Grassman, in his 
theory of expansion, who first set up a boundary between formal and 
real sciences on the ground of the difference between their objects. 
From this procedure of realization, characteristic of all real sciences, 
is developed the great problem of the theory of knowledge, the prob- 
lem of reality, which can be formulated in four specific questions: 

1. Is an assumption of reals allowable? This question must be 
answered in reference to the opposing attitude of consdendalism, or 
the standpoint of actuality, which declares every realization to be 
an unjustifiable transcendence over the actuality of consciousness and 
original experience. For this remnant of the ancient sceptics all the 
knowledge of the natural sciences can be conceived and expressed as 
a fabric of sensations and ideas. In the eighteenth century the great 
Scotch philosopher, Hume, was the principal exponent in this direc- 
tion. To-day, among the natural scientists, Mach comes nearest to it 
Corresponding to the spirit of the transcendental method, the treat- 
ment of our first question takes the form of a defence of realism, or a 
refutation of the objections of conscientialism. 

2. The second question is as follows: How is an assumption 
of reals possible? It necessitates a proof and development of the 
reasons, which lead to the assumption of real objects. The manner 
in which philosophy has hitherto handled the problem of the outer 
world corresponds essentially to an attempt to answer this question 
for a definite field. 

3. If the attempt to found realism in general on a theory of 
the assimiption of reals is successful, there are two other questions 
with reference to the determination of the nature of the assumed 
realities. The third may be formulated as was the first. Is a deter- 
mination of reals allowable ? This requires an explanation, in the face 



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Theory of Knowledge and Science 367 

of that tendency in theory of knowledge, which would stop with the 
mere conception of a real of unknown constitution. Phenomenalism, 
in classical form represented by Kant, declines a positive answer to 
both these last questions. Many natural scientists of the present day 
have followed this direction, altho for reasons differing from those 
of Kant. Here also the procedure of justifying realistic determina- 
tions will take the form of a defense of the special realizations gen- 
eraUy customary in science. 

4. Finally there is the question, "How is a determination of 
reals possible ?** With the answer to this question, realism in partic- 
ular is completed; that is, a positive theory of the determination of 
real objects is developed, for which there is scarcely a place to-day in 
the theory of knowledge. There are two problems to be solved here. 
Since they do not coincide with the content of consdousness of per- 
ception, and are not merely ideas, real objects, following Plato's for- 
timate designation are "Thought-things." We need therefore, a the- 
oretical appreciation of thought as the organ by the aid of which 
reals may be assumed and determined. The ideal objects, the fictitious 
objects, of which so much use is made in mathematical science, are 
also thought-things. Therefore there is a second problem in the lay- 
ing down of criteria which distinguish real objects, and in the theory 
of the different methods of procedure which may be chosen in the 
interest of a special realization. 

This program of a foundation of the real sdences can naturally 
not be carried thru here. The outlining of it may only open our eyes 
to the fact that the theory of knowledge has here a large and little 
worked field, wherein will be found the best opportunity for an un- 
derstanding between philosophy and the individual sciences. It is 
timely that we should find the problem of science not expressed solely 
by mathematics, and that we should S)rstematically develop and de- 
duce the goal of all real sciences in straightforward recognition of 
their principal rights. 

It is not a case of merely describing facts of consdousness, or of 
discussing pure thoughts, whether they rest upon abstractions, on 
combinations out of experience, or are products of a formal logic 
We have rather to deal with objects the knowledge of which has been 
won from experience and from thought, and which stand therefore, 
in a peculiar double relationship to these two sources of our sdendfic 
insight. A priori factors, pure contemplations and forms of under- 
standing sufficed Kant for a theory of the possibility of mathematics 
and mechanics. But the problem of reality is only to be solved by 



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368 The Quarterly Journal 

taking e^>ecial account of that which is given a posteriori, of the 
facts of consciousness, and of the contents of perceptions. 

I must satisfy myself with a few indications of the difficulties 
here involved, and of the manner of overconung them. I should like 
to show how within certain limits, an assumption and determination 
of reals is possible ; that is, as far as they are related to natural sdence, 
limit myself to the problems designated by the second and fourth 
questions. 

All experience contains, as Kant has shown us, two things: 
factors which are independent of us, and which impress themselves 
upon us as previously found, as given things; and with them, (separ- 
able only in abstracto), our own contributions, which may be acd- 
dental ways of conception, or follow some law of our organization. 
The problem of all realization consists in the separation of these 
factors and in the recognition of that which is independent of us in 
its peculiarity. Already naive realism, which we all cherish prac- 
tically within certain limits, progresses in this way. That which our 
will has not brou^t about, and which it may not alter, is independent. 
But the principle of the subjectivity of the sense-qualities, which in 
the natural investigations of recent times irrepressibly asserted itself, 
and found its positive extension in the law of specific sense-energy, 
has caused sensations independent of our will to appear nevertheless 
dependent upon ''us," and therefore incapable of being constituents 
or properties of natural objects. Out of this may be built a new 
criterion of reality. The independence of the whole experiencing sub- 
ject has become the text of the objective world of the natural scientist. 
Such an independence can only be verified in the case of abstract prod- 
ucts of experience. Space and time changes, the coming and going 
of sense-contents, their longer or shorter duration, their co-existence 
and succession, their configuration and order, show doubtless a regular- 
ity independent of us. At the same time we have given abstract re- 
lations between contents which just as surely depend upon our or- 
ganization. The material, concerning which we discover a law of 
regularity not produced by us, is conditioned by our organs. If we 
seek for an analogy in natural sdence itself, we shall find the idea 
of forced motions most nearly applicable. Here also, the process, 
the change, which takes place in an object, is not brought about by it- 
self, but is forced upon it. 

Thus the real world of the natural scientist is chiefly an al>- 
stract happening; a change without anything to change; a motion 
without anything to move ; a relationship without parts to be related. 



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Theory of Knowledge and Science 369 

As such it penetrates immediately into our actual consciousness; as 
such it can be observed, calculated, and measured. And this is gov- 
erned by laws, by virtual dependencies, which come to validity with 
and without our knowledge, and uninfluenced by our co-operation. 
Its messengers in consciousness, the brilliant throng of our sense- 
impressions, fulfil the function thrust upon them; they must, as the 
"Heinroslein" — es eben leiden." 



If realization is the assumption and determination of objects 
which exist independently of us, then experience and thought must 
have a share in it, for only experience can determine whether there 
are such objects, while the abstraction of all subjectivities, with which 
our facts of consciousness are replete, can only be performed by 
thought. Therefore there is no purely rational, nor even purely 
empirical criterion of reality. These criteria hold for all imaginary ob- 
jects, not simply for real ones, and for no one of their given constituent 
parts is experience plainly real. Therefore the setting up of incon- 
trovertibility, or the logical opposite, or the principle of sufficient 
cause as rational criteria of reality, fails to solve the problem. A 
distinction of ideal and real objects on the ground of pure thought, 
is a priori impossible. Mere thought detennines nothing concerning 
its content except the general determination, common also for all 
fictions, that that which is thought of must be thinkable. But 
even experience, taken by itself either in totality or in individual sec- 
tions, is not synonymous with reality. One does not need to refer 
to matter and energy, to electrons and molecules, but finds illustra- 
tions in the empirical laws of natural science, as the laws of freely 
falling bodies, of electric and magnetic phenomena. These are not re- 
lations between sense-contents, altho they are demonstrated upon 
them with the help of observation. Sense-impressions do not fall ; they 
do not attract or repel each other. Sense impressions are not separated 
by great spaces. They do not have the velocity of light, or breathe, 
or grow, or give off fluids. They can not be fitted into a system of 
atomic weights, nor can they be referred back to some crystalline 
form. 

Therefore, purely empirical reasons for the assumption and de- 
.termination of reals are no sufficient justification of them. The 
special strength of certain sensations, the difference between perception 
and representation, the fact of external perception, and many other 
experimental bases often given for the solution of the problem of the 
external world, are insufficient to explain the realism of natural sd- 
ence, certain as it is that sense-perception plays a necessary part in all 



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370 The Quarterly Journal 

of these. Definite experiments as such indicate nothing as to an ex- 
ternal world different from these experiences. They are something 
completed and closed, neither necessitating nor being capable of an 
immediate evolution of realistic determination. 

The realism of natural science can only be comprehended as a 
product of experience and thought; of actuality of consciousness and 
sensible deliberations ; of sense-impressions and activity of reason. The 
general declaration of Kant, "Thoughts without content are empty, 

observations without ideas are blind , knowledge can only arise 

when these unite," surely holds here in the sense that realism may only 
proceed thru the co-operation of empirical and rational motives. To 
this point of view are then to be accredited the determination of the 
outer world as a cause of our perception, as the agreement of relations 
between objects for the sense-impressions of various persons, or as 
the cause of the irregular relations between our sense-impressions. In 
all these criteria empirical and rational factors are regularly com- 
bined. 

Bearing in mind the last of these mixed criteria, and the pre- 
viously mentioned physical analogy, the problem of the external world 
may be stated as follows: How must that be constituted which 
gives rise to relations between the sense-qualities which are indepen- 
dent of us? The assumption is made that these relationships them- 
selves belong to that world ; that is to say, that the constrained event 
in our experience corresponds to that which exercised the constraint. 
By this limitation the investigation is given a definite direction, and 
the idea of forced motion more exactly determined. 

From here on we are in a position to understand the view-point 
of actuality, which remains with the sensations and their relations, 
without assigning real objects as the basis of those forms of relations 
which are independent of us, tiu-ning aside from the question as to what 
has forced these relations upon the contents of perception. We also 
comprehend naive realism as that stand-point which is unable -to dis- 
tinguish qualitatively between these relationships and the objective 
bearers of them, or objectively between these relationships and the 
sense-impressions. On the other hand, the critical realism of natural 
science separates that which is dependent upon us, which comes pri- 
marily to the senses, and that which is independent of us, which forces 
relationships upon the senses, and seeks to more nearly determine as 
material objects, as bodies, the thought-things, with which the latter 
originally corresponded. In other words, it replaces with primary re- 
lated parts, the secondary, which are given to us in tones, colors, 
pressures, or forms. It is forced to do this by the fact that these re- 



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Theory of Knowledge and Science 371 

ladonships which are independent of us are associated neither with 
definite, similar sense-contents, nor with definite persons with, or in 
whom, they appear. They appear when the continuity of consciousness 
and the sensations with which they are experienced, change. They 
must then be able to exist, even without sense-contents, acting as their 
carriers — ^that is, they must have related parts differing from sense- 
contents. 

This is the path that leads out from the actuality of consciousness 
to real nature, to the assumption of the outer world. The difficulties 
with which even here general realism must battle, lie in the deter- 
mination of the relations, independent of us, between the sense-con- 
tents ; in the solving of this abstract condition of affairs from the con- 
crete connection of our consciousness with its manifold subjective 
contents. 

A multitude of errors in observation threaten here to lead astray. 
Each discovery of a new regiJarity is formally wrested from the 
mechanism of subjectivity. The development of investigative methods 
consists in progress in the governing of our perceptive acts, and in the 
refinement and extension of our estimation of them. Since a knowl- 
edge of those thoughts to which natural laws apply depends upon a 
knowledge of these laws, they must be as exact, as certain and as 
complete as possible, in order that the basis for our determination of 
natural objects be broad and reliable. 

According to this indicated basis of realism, the sensations take 
the place of primary related parts, of bodies. In this sense Helmholz 
was justified in looking upon them as signs of realities. At any rate 
in such a conception we have a better understanding of the principle 
of the realism of natural science, than in the theory, prevalent since 
Schopenhauer, that the outer world is the cause of our sensations. 
By this latter theory, in my opinion, the real motive of the realism 
of natural science is not recognized, and the appearance is produced 
as if from subjective effects something could be concluded as to the 
constitution of the objective cause. If there is an entry into natural 
reality, it may only be found thru those relations among the contents 
of perception which are subject to no regular law. Only from this 
point of view can one fully comprehend and admit, that in natural 
science the sensations are unhesitatingly taken up by the bearer of 
those relations where they lead to an easier and more complete com- 
prehension of the real objects. Thus qualities of taste and smell, color 
and sound impressions, are used in describing minerals, chemical sub- 
stances, plants, and animals; a procedure which corresponds to the 
recognized custom of substituting the accessible sign for the less known 



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372 The Quarterly Journal 

and less easily determined designated object. This would be difficult 
to justify from the standpoint of mere cause and effect. 

The demonstration of the irregular relations of our sensations is 
connected with a certain knowledge of the subjective conditions of 
their manner of appearance in consciousness. For instance, for an 
optical observation, it is not a matter of indifference whether the ob- 
ject be near the observer or distant ; whether the retinal image be cen- 
tral or peripheral ; whether attention and adjustment have this or that 
direction; whether the process was willingly or unwillingly carried 
out. If, therefore, one is to determine different subjective conditions, 
and with this be able to fulfil the assumptions for the realization 
within of the phenomena of consciousness itself, he must previously 
have knowledge of the manifold subjective conditions. In order to de- 
cide which of them are relevant for a given purpose, one must be 
acquainted with their influences. The same holds for the application 
of instruments for the refinement of observation. 

Thus is created a lively interaction of realistic determinations. 
Physics, physiology, and psychology support each other in natural 
knowledge, as has been especially emphasized by Helmholz and Mach. 
Each individual realization brings into play many others, and only 
in the community of interests is essential progress and increasing cer- 
tainty of determination possible. 

This connection between realizations to which only developed 
real science contributes, forms the basis for numerous conclusions 
which facilitate the solution of new problems. In an experim^tal 
investigation, the best work often consists in a careful anticipation 
of the possibilities, and in an exact limitation of the goal to be reached, 
and these preliminaries rest upon conclusions from knowledge already 
won. Further, much use is made of analogy and induction, in order 
to carry out realization in new cases by the aid of previously attained 
insight. Therefore, the theory of such conclusions and the problem 
of their conditions, is the problem of laying a foundation of real 
sciences from the stand-point of the theory of knowledge. 

Even the customary referring of sensations to corresponding real 
objects is no immediate conclusion from the effect as to the cause 
(which could not lead us to any definite view concerning the nature 
of the objects), but is a process of conclusion based upon already exist- 
ing knowledge concerning such connections and objects. The greater 
our hold on the knowledge of real science, the greater is the role which 
such conclusions play in investigation. But since they already presup- 
pose completed realization, we will not linger with them. 



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Theory of Knowledge and Science 373 

An entirely di£Ferent method of realization consists in the deter- 
mination from the real relations of the primary parts which are re- 
placed in our consciousness by sensations. This logically not too 
evasive attempt to trace back the forced relations between the sense- 
contents to those factors which forced them, has excited the most op- 
position among the consdentialists and phenomenalists. The latter 
admit, indeed, that one must or may assume such factors, but dispute 
any possible determination of their nature. Their existence can be 
asserted, but of their essence, nothing can be said. The natural sci- 
ences have not been misled by this, but construct as before a system 
of real events, in which the bearers of these events play an important 
part as material substances of some sort. The controlling principle in 
this may be so formulated: the natural objects are to be conceived 
of as adequate carriers of the real relations; that is, they must be 
suitable for and capable of carrying out or going thru those processes 
for which they are to be considered the substrata. Therefore a body 
is called movable ; capable of attraction and repulsion ; possessing force, 
valence, resistance, energy, potential, etc. All these properties are only 
the ability to perform real events, and the natural substances are the 
essence of the ability to carry out the real relations, conditions, and 
changes, which are associated with them. The event which is inune- 
diately accessible in our experience alone is, according to this, not 
a self-subsistent real, but lacks the relation to such a real. Therefore 
natural objects can be looked upon as the existence conditions for 
the realized relations, for the necessitated changes in the actuality of 
consciousness. That is what we mean when we designate them as 
carriers, or embodiments of those real relations. 

There remains, to be sure, some latitude in the determination 
of these embodiments, if we characterize them solely on the basis 
of the processes to be embodied by them. In order for a body to be 
able to carry out motions, it need only possess space and time char- 
acteristics. One can easily imagine how many things satisfy these 
conditions. 

This latitude may be narrowed by bringing in other processes 
which are to be traced back to the same embodiments. The history 
of science shows that the circle of possibilities is continually nar- 
rowing. Profitable use has been made of the theory of probabilities, 
in order to come to some decision within this latitude. Of course, 
a full knowledge could only be expected if all capabilities of objects 
could be stated, and if at the same time all real changes were known, 
and brought into combination with appropriate existence conditions. 
It is clear, then, that the goal of realization lies at infinity, and that 



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374 The Quarterly Journal 

we still lack a unique determination of our conceptions of bodily sub- 
stances. Metaphysics deduces chiefly from this the right to construct a 
completed, unified view, by enlargement of the scientific world- 
picture. 

The demand of a complete compatibility between the new and 
the already certainly determined characteristics — z demand which 
must be placed upon such metaphysical speculations if they are not 
to remain empty phantasies — is, as we all know, not always fulfilled. 
But even when we have associated all possible real relationships with 
adequate embodiments, we must admit a certain latitude in their de- 
termination. For there can undeniably exist reals which are not self- 
sufficient, for which the conditions of our sense-perceptions are not 
adapted, and of which we therefore have no experience. This is no 
empty speculation if one remembers that there are extensive and inten- 
sive limits within which our senses, aided and unaided, can instruct 
us concerning natural processes. Aside from this possibility that the 
world may be richer than our experience, there remains yet another 
latitude in the determination of natural objects. The purport of ex- 
istence conditions is never sufficiently characterized by the totality of 
empirical capacities. In order to demonstrate the historical correct- 
ness of this assertion, we have only to point to the theories of atom- 
istic mechanics, of energetics, and to other theories of natural sdencc 
and metaphysics. The existence conditions for non-self-suffident 
reals are not suffident conditions of being. Thus the question as to 
the actual nature of the embodiment, even with complete knowledge 
of the events associated with them, can never be scientifically an- 
swered. It is dear, then, that even from our stand-point of critical 
realism, the structure does not rise to the heavens. 

But one certainly does not need to completely abandon realism 
on this account, for the remaining uncertainty is not so great that 
all manner of objects, without reference to their capadties, could 
suffice for the embodiments of a group of realized facts. 

When we say of gold, for instance, that it is capable of cr)rstal- 
lizing in a number of regular forms, possesses no noticeable cleavage 
planes, has a definite atomic weight, appears with copper, iron and 
silver, is exceptionally ductile and malleable, etc., it is decidedly lim- 
ited by the totality of these properties. The strife between theories 
of natural phenomena, which has run thru the history of natural 
sdence, is not everlasting, is not hopeless. The undulation theory of 
light conquered the emission theory ; the Copemican system of the imi- 
verse was replaced by the Ptolemaean; Pasteur disproved the possi- 
bility of spontaneous generation ; Du Bois Reymond's theory of 



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Theory of Knowledge and Science 375 

nerve-cxcitation has been contradicted. It is only a persistent an- 
tonomy that would be dangerous — a useless play of words — but such 
antonomies have always been suppressed in natural sciences as they 
developed and solidified. An actual progress is doubtless visible in 
the determination of real objects, not only in the sense of increasing 
multiplicity of knowledge, but also in the direction of completeness, 
uniqueness, correctness and exactitude. The atomistics of Democritus 
was nothing more than a lucky incidence ; the atomistics of to-day is 
a complicated and well-rounded system of thought-things. 

The old principle of the conservation of matter was an a priori 
theorem, approximately of the contents, "nothing can come of 
nothing." The modern principle of this name is a fundamental 
la\y of natural science of the widest application. The relations be- 
tween body and soul were very superfidally and insufficiently dis- 
cussed by Herbart, and to-day we have the whole science of 
psychophysics. Thus our insight into the being of natural objects has 
grown extensively and intensively in all field. Even the principle of 
the subjectivity of the sense-qualities has, as history shows, in no way 
made the realism of natural science impossible. Physics and chem- 
istry, anatomy and physiology, history of evolution and geology, are 
not hindered by this principle in carrying out and in interpreting 
their investigations in the spirit of such a realism. To be sure, there 
is for this view the important problem of applying for the determina- 
tion of natural objects only that which can be thought of as existing 
independently of the experience subject. 

But atomistics, energetics, the geological and astronomical prob- 
lems concerning the structure of the earth and of the stars; the bio- 
logical investigations concerning the development of life ; the morpho- 
logical investigations concerning the structure of plants, animals, and 
mankind, show, in spite of the renundation of the sense-qualities, that 
a magnificent realism is still possible. To be sure, a clear representa- 
tion of the outer world in the sense of a true reflection of reality, has 
become impossible for the investigator of nature. But logic and 
mathematics have long since made dear to us that the objects of 
scientific investigation do not need to be given in the representation; 
that we may reason in the abstract with assodated properties, and 
have, nevertheless, in those mental aids which are inapplicable for 
the realization, a useful indication of the nature of ideas or objects. 
Thruout determinations of the nature and relations of thought-things, 
we have to do with non-perceptual characteristics, freed from the 
accidents of our perception and representation. 

In the last analysis, it is the prejudice of an era run riot with 



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376 The Quarterly Journal 

the fulness of observation, which considers the thought-things of i 
real science as a poverty-stricken scheme, or as an empty "x." 

As in psychology we are freeing ourselves from sensualism, 
which sought to resolve the world of our thoughts into mere sensa- 
tions and representations, and which declared all non-perceptual con- 
tents of consciousness to be absent, or invented — so in the theory of 
knowledge, we should break from the dogma that mere thou^t- 
things indicate a nothing, or an impenetrable barrier of knowledge. 
In order to do this, we have only to consider and estimate impartially 
the procedure and results of real sciences. It will be seen that a 
genuine realism unfolds itself in them on every hand, and that here 
are consummated a multiplicity of realizations which break recklessly 
thru the limitations of phenomenalism. 

In recent times there has been much talk of pragmatism. Ac- 
cording to this theory, transferred from the utilitarian stand-point of 
morality to science, all truth is subject to the test of advantage. "By 
their fruits ye shall know them." Utility for life, for the economy 
of science, is the criterion of true assertions. Even gauged by thb 
certainly insufficient measure, realism deserves all recognition. It 
has undoubtedly been a driving force, an impulse to the extension of 
empirical and theoretical investigation. It has shown itself far more 
fruitful in the history of science than conscientialistic and phenomen- 
alistic formulation. If it were only a question of deductive mathe- 
matical comprehension, of economical expression, or a priori system- 
atism in the experimental sciences, we could unquestionably be more 
easily satisfied with the knowledge already attained. Thus the clas- 
sical mechanics of a Newton was so long unquestioned; thus the 
proud structure of the Hegelian dialectic appeared to Hegel and to 
his followers as the end of all real science. But if we are convinced 
that we do not order our sensations and ideas ; that we perform more 
than mere internal work ; that we must recognize reals, and penetrate 
into a strange world — then is investigation incomplete, its goal at 
infinity, and all scientific investigation is an approximation of this 
goal. Fundamentally, Hegel had expressed the program of the real 
sciences in pregnant form, with his equality between thinking and be- 
ing, idea and existence, reason and actuality. If Hertz, in his Me- 
chanics, declares we must strive to have not only the assumptions but 
the consequences of them agree with experiment ; or if others find that 
the successful prophecy of a real event is the first test of a scientific 
calculation, they have simply given a more definite application of the 
great idea of Hegel. The method upon which it was built was fate- 



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Theory of Knowledge and Science 377 

ful for the Heglian system. With a dialectic scheme many things 
may be formulated in a realm of pure thought, but the irregular re- 
lationship of our experience can never be completely expressed by 
such simple formulae. 

At the same time the realist must guard against the danger 
of confusing knowledge with reality, our thought-things with natural 
objects. He need not, however, become a phenomenalist to avoid 
this danger. Such errors are not necessarily associated with realism. 
They have led careful investigators, following the method of Hertz, 
to speak of models or pictures, in order not to confuse the conceived 
reality with that which exists independently of our thought. In 
these expressions, there is already an indication of similarity, and of 
the possibility of completion. These pictures are no works of art, 
having in themselves an unchangeable value, but must and should 
be ever retouched as investigation progresses. Even if our endeavors 
to attain knowledge of reals are short, slow, and sometimes mislead- 
ing steps, we come nevertheless nearer the goal, and can view the 
knowledge already attained as an inspiring and encouraging accom- 
plishment. 

If from a section of a curve one can draw conclusions as to its 
whole extent, we have in our time, so astonishingly rich in discoveries 
and important in extensions ♦of the world-picture, every reason to 
speak of progress in the determination of natural realities. Nothing 
is easier, or more unfruitful, than calmly to refer to the world as our 
representation. Originally born out of a real insight into the de- 
pendence of all knowledge upon the experiencing subject, a new as- 
pect of the structure of science, a warning of dogmatic prejudices 
and metaphysical precipitation, this has gradually come to be itself a 
dogmatic phrase, a danger for the investigative spirit and for the 
naivite of scientific work. Copernicus and Galilei, Kepler and New- 
ton surely did not believe that they reckoned with representations 
when they drew the fundamental lines of a mechanics of the earth 
and the heavens. Schleiden and Schwam certainly were not of the 
opinion that they had determined a small bit of representation when 
they declared the cell to be the element of all organization. When 
Rontgen found the X Rays he was far from thinking that he had 
discovered a new representation. But what need was there for nat- 
ural philosophers and knowledge-theorists to bother about the notions 
of such empircists! Philosophy was there to reconsider everything 
and lay bare the deeper meaning of such scientific results. Thus 
conscientialism and phenomenalism became the proper theories of 
knowledge for the natural scientist. Sensations as elementary con- 



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378 The Quarterly Journal 

tents of consciousness; ideas, which had to fit them according to the 
principle of economy ; things which were not possible of investigation, 
and hence were indi£Ferent to science — ^with these certain knowledge- 
theorists thought they justified the real sciences. There is scarcely 
anything more deadening than the plausible presentations of those 
natural sdentists, who in the spirit of this theory of knowledge, con- 
tinually assure us that of course they attach no realistic point of view 
to their choice of realistic expressions. They carry into their field, in 
the presentation of the same, an alien conception, forgetting that if 
Caution is mother of Wisdom, she is also the mother of Inactivity. 
Only he who believes in the determinateness of a real nature will 
apply his forces to the attainment of its knowledge. It is the sign 
of an extravagant idealist that he does not find the way to actuality, 
and that his speech and acts disagree. Such knowledge-theorists con- 
tinually impress upon us that they hold fast only to consciousness, and 
can formulate no natural laws within the bounds of their doctrine. 
They resolve all nature into impressions of sense, into numbers and 
ideas, and find themselves with each step in a world existing inde- 
pendently of sense-perception and acts of understanding. Thus dicy 
wander about in continual self-contradiction, and hinder strong, 
healthy, realistic assumption and determination by genteel, theoretical, 
flowery phrases. At any rate the much reviled metaphysicists can not 
look down more haughtily upon the empirdsts revelling in the dust 
of earth, than do these strict gentlemen upon that sect of their fellows 
who are untutored in the theory of knowledge. 

It is timely to consider the real problem of the theory of knowl- 
edge. Conscientialism and phenomenalism have more than fulfilled 
their mission. They no longer warn and admonish, but have the 
character of an annoying turnpike. They no longer serve a generally 
useful caution and thoughtfulness, but have become welded into dog- 
matic chains. They are no longer called upon to dampen precipitation 
and phantastic realization, but threaten to become a brake on the 
progress of knowledge. In view of the mighty conquests brought 
about by science on the basis of a bold realism, the theory of knowl- 
edge dares not ofTer the spectacle of a discipline closed in itself, re- 
volving and turning formalistic ideas. It is called upon to accompany 
science, not to follow. It must make clear to us the realism of science, 
point out and systemize its assumptions and methods, at the same 
time setting up certain limitations. But it must not smother it in 
trivial conscientialistic and phenomenalistic peevishness. Only dius 
will it carry on the great work of the wise man of Konigsberg, and 
his spirit become a scientific theory. 



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Theory of Knowledge and Science 379 

The assumption for the transcendental method of the theory of 
knowledge is not what is held by some representative of his science, 
influenced by one of these philosophical stand-points, but what has 
shown itself to be fundamental in that science itself. It therefore 
makes the work of the knowledge-theorist none the less difficult when 
he finds the reflections of an investigator carried into his investigations. 
Na'ivitc of scientific practice ; pure devotion to the object, the experi- 
ment; the giving expression as directly and eflFectively as possible to 
its nature and content — these must be the favorable conditions for 
a successful application of the transcendental method. Science, from 
the nature and theory of science, is two-fold, even as artistic produc- 
tion and esthetic theory of creation and enjoyment is two-fold. Kant 
designated genius as that talent which set the ideals for art, and put 
upon esthetics the problem of abstracting these ideals from the at- 
tainments of genius. Genius enriches and fructifies esthetics not by 
contemplation of its art, but by its work. 

It should be similar with the relation between natural science 
and the theory of knowledge. The knowledge-theorist must con- 
sider the genial natural scientist, who knows how to lead us into the 
secrets of the real world. He who takes active part in the marvelous 
structure of the natural sciences will therefore do well to form the 
presentation of his investigations independently of an inclination in 
any particular direction in the theory of knowledge. He may leave 
to the essentially di£Ferent philosophical work, the understanding and 
theoretical appreciation of his attainments. In this sense a peaceable 
and efiicient division of problems and work is possible. There is the 
nature of the object, here the science of it. Knowledge is there cre- 
ated, here merely comprehended. 



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Book Reviews 



Lc Cyrano dc 1' Histoire, — ^Ics Errcurs dc Documentation dc (Ros- 
tand's) "Cyrano de Bcrgcrac": M. Emile Magne. Quatrc por- 
traits inedits de Cyrano; second edition, Dujarric and Co., 
Paris, 1903, — ^A first edition is dated Bordeaux, Mai-Aout, 1898. 

This interesting book was evidently not published when in 1897 
Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac was put on the French stage; M. 
Magne's work accordingly appeared too late to guard the poet from 
error, or afford him the scholar's greater precision in sundry histori- 
cal matters pertaining to Cyrano and his times. As a dramatic critic, 
the French savant follows Gautier and those genial "Grotesques," 
(Preface, p. xv) generally considered one of Rostand's literary 
sources. Incidentally, M. Magne corroborates the story used by 
the poet, and enlarges the vogue of that fascinating C3^ano, so long 
overlooked by French history and literature alike. M. Magne claims 
to hold a brief for Cyrano as history, but in reality he demonstrates 
the futility of the attempt — ^awkward and useless, to separate litera- 
ture from history, or vice versa, particularly in a personage like 
Cyrano de Bergerac. Nor can I share the critic's objections to M. 
Rostand's friendly evocation of Cyrano for dramatic purposes — 
either as Matamore, or Capitan, Punch, Quixote, or Bogeyman. 
Cyrano de Bergerac is undeniably reminiscent if not a compeer of 
them all. I have therefore turned to the advantage of my thesis^ 
M. Magne's well-inspired testimony regarding Cyrano and his kin- 
ship with the old Italian comedy types still in vogue in the life, as 
well as on the stage of Cyrano's day. 

.Long associations with Cyrano, seventeeth century libertine, 
swashbuckler, and literary genius, would make Rostand's character- 
ization not only legitimate but inevitable. Needless to say, it was 
altogether opportune. The conclusion is that within that character- 
ization, and all it awakens of the history of the times, lies the fruit- 
ful feature of such a life, — for the theatre, M. Rostand may well 
be in conflict with the calendar data of M. Magne, but there are no 
contradictions — in psychology or technique, within his play. 

I have no quarrel with M. Magne, historical critic, or biog- 
rapher, his cavalier manner, or unconventional style. But his work 

1. Edmond Rostand and Italian Comedy, In present number of Quar> 
terly Journal. 



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Book Reviews 381 

on 03^-300, saddled as it is on the poetic drama of M. Rostand, makes 
a needlessly disenchanting book; historic strictures seem irrelevant 
to a work of the imagination. The incidental dramatic criticism of 
M. Magne, tho stimulating and suggestive in a few isolated cases, 
dismays not the student, or the poet — ^who knows the depths, but 
mystifies the gentle reader, who would enjoy "sans penser a mal." 

We suspect in M. Magne's book a good occasion for his ener- 
getic study of the libertines 2 of XVII century French society; they 
usually afford the biographist an excellent field for ribald portraiture, 
and a peep at interesting materials. His Famous Women Series, — 
Fenmies Galantes du XVII Siecle, Paris, Mercure de France Pub- 
lishing Co., — are historical monographs, not of literary or artistic con- 
tention, but rather of social exposition, — possibly of personal ex- 
posure, — and highly commendable for treating the fading social fig- 
ures of the French golden age concretely and materially. M. Magne, 
tho more at home in these, is still within his specialty in a social treat- 
ment of Cyrano. But the romantic play of Cyrano de Bergerac is 
built thruout on the benefit of legitimate doubts growing out of the 
obscurity of a famous name in a famous epoch: — ^justified withal by 
M. Magnets book, — ^first, as to the personal character of Cyrano (p. 
114) ; and, second, as to the social age of Cyrano, tho the poet be ac- 
cused early of not knowing its "dessous historiques" (p. i). But he, 
Rostand, knows so well the social heart and spirit of his seventeeth 
century, and M. Magne so lacks conviction in unguarded moments, 
that the reader remains nonplussed as to the real mattering of the 
thesis. It is no doubt the eternal contention between the letter and 
the spirit, the conflict of science and art, in works of the imagination. 
The passage about the comedians assisting in Cyrano's madcap sally 
from the Burgundy theatre pit may well be pure fiction (p. 49) or at 
best fanciful circumstantial evidence according to M. Magne, but 
probable enough and undeniably fruitful fiction in the hands of M. 
Rostand. His love-lorn hero lived ; the man was brave ; the nose au- 
thentic ; Cyrano quarrelsome but generous. A battle did take place ; 
(p. 48) and, if not literally a hundred to one, the sides were uneven, 
and the list of dead matters as much in Rostand's Cyrano as over- 
veracity in Shakespeare's Falstaff. M. Magne relents, however, 
when the Italian ancestry of the Gascon Cyrano established by M. de 
Poli (p. 5, note), is about to put in jeopardy the national laurels won 

by M. Rostand for all loyal Frenchmen In the wizardry of the 

poet what are but insignificant, and pedantic details, the exact chron- 

2. The best of these studies, and a really sjrmpathetic work. Is per- 
haps "Scarron et son Milieu," 1906. 



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382 The Quarterly Journal 

ology of the "Clorisc," or a literal account of the tribulations of its 
actors! But this touch of Zoilism in M. Magne may not be taken so 
seriously in his own province .... and exaggeration or punctiliousness, 
it must be confessed, are alike contagious, if not justifiable, in the pres- 
ence of C)rrano de Bergerac. However, the second half of this 
curious book, once more within the scope of its author, redeems the 
first half of it. Still, the book would, on the whole, prove more 
useful and acceptable, tho less conspicuous, I take it, if independent 
of the great playwright's. 

I conclude that the position of M. Magne — dramatic critic, is 
unenviable ; tho suggestive, he is inconsequent and unconvincing, — M. 
Rostand being in all points within the spirit of the life and of the 
times of Cyrano de Bergerac, and again within the margin, if not 
within the letter of the text. As a biography of the excentric, con- 
tentious, moonstruck, and otherwise versatile Cyrano, the book of M. 
Magne certainly belongs to that series of offhand monographs which 
he alone perhaps can give us on the worthies of XVII Century 
France. 

H. LbDaum 

Department of Romance Languages, 
University of North Dakota 



An Introduction to thb History of the Development of 
Law: M. F Morris, Associate-Justice of the Court of Appeals 
of the District of Columbia. John Byrne and Company, Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1909. Price, $2.00. 

When he first opened Judge Morris's little book, "An Intro- 
duction to the History of the Development of Law," the reviewer 
asked the question why it was written and what need there was for 
its publication. When he read the preface and found therein an ex- 
pression of gratitude to Messrs. Pollock and Maitland for the help 
furnished by their "History of English Law," and to Professor Guy 
Carleton Lee for the information contained in his work on "Histori- 
cal Jurisprudence," he asked the question still more emphatically. It 
seemed to him, indeed, that Judge Morris had merely done that which 
is being done only too frequently to-day, and had merely digested 
the work and exploited the scholarship of others for the purpose of 
publishing an inferior and unnecessary work. As he proceeded, how- 
ever, in the perusal of the book he soon came to a ipoint where he 
withdrew the questions. He found before him, indeed, a work which, 
tho pre-eminently a special plea and a closing argument and review 



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Book Reviews 383 

rather than *'An Introduction to the History of the Development of 
the Law,'' was both luminous and fascinating. Altho perhaps too 
comprehensive in his deductions, as is the case with most special plead- 
ers, Judge Morris has written a book which is full of suggestions, 
which is crammed with historical facts, and which is written in an 
easy, straightforward and fascinating style. So interesting, indeed, 
is the work and so conclusive oftentimes are its arguments that we 
forgive the author for shattering our idols and characterizing our 
ancestors as "ruffians'* and "barbarians." We forgive, even if we 
do not agree with him in his contempt for our ancestors, our so-called 
English Common Law, and our legal and literary demigods. We 
perhaps might wish that he could have seen "some good thing come 
out of the North," and some virtue in the Saxon, the Scandinavian 
and the Norseman, — something besides barbarism in the middle ages, 
and some elements of virtue in the long line of English lawyers. But 
wc forgive him nevertheless. At any rate, he has made us think and 
has presented not a few "nasty facts" which have exploded many, if 
not all, of our most cherished theories. The book, as we said before, 
is hardly "An Introduction to the History of the Development of 
Law," tho there is much history in it. If we go to it, indeed, to gain 
a knowledge of the Mosaic, the Babylonian, the Phoenician, the 
Egyptian, the Hindu, the Chinese, the Median, the Persian, the 
Greek, the Roman, the Civil, the English and the American laws 
(and all these it presumably discusses), we shall be greatly disap- 
pointed. But there is no need that he should give us this knowledge. 
There are already works galore upon these subjects. What he does 
do is to give us a new outlook, new settings, a more or less new por- 
trayal of sources and of reasons, a comparison of systems, and con- 
clusions, which tho hardly scientific or judidal, are suggestive and 
intelligible. Judge Morris, in spite of his title, is an advocate and not 
a judge. We so infer, at least, from his work. Wc have not had 
the pleasure of attending upon his court and watching him while per- 
forming his judicial functions. We should be inclined to believe, 
however, that he dominates in the consulting room, and when in court 
interrupts counsel in the midst of their arguments, and in every way 
dominates the trials. The book, indeed, is a denunciation of feudalism, 
northman and of the barbarian, and a eulogy of the Roman, of the 
Roman law and of the medieval church. It is a plea for the civil as 
opposed to the so-called common law, or at any rate, to the feudal 
law. It is an attempt (in a large measure successful), to prove that 
the law of England and of America of to-day is not the common law 
at all, but that in the past it has largely been, and is more largely 



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384 The Quarterly Journal 

tCMlay being, moulded into the form and similitude of the dvil law 
and of the Code of Napoleon. This is a consummation which to the 
author is "most devoutly to be wished," for "all of our modern work," 
he says, "is no more than a restoration of the Roman system which 
was for a time submerged by the savage hordes of Germany and Scan- 
dinavia ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ white savages, ours are red. There was no 
di£Ference between them except that the Teutonic savages had a lim- 
ited capacity for civilization. ♦ ♦ ♦ Rome fell; Roman civiliz- 
ation went down in blood and carnage. A new Europe ultimately 
arose out of the ruins, but for many centuries it was only a dismal 
barbarism. The so-called Dark Ages of Europe were the result of 
turmoil, and they were dark because these barbarians and their de- 
scendants continued to make them so. * * * The institution of 
Feudalism triumphed over the Roman Jurisprudence, but it was only 
for a time, altho a very long time. It could not last except in the 
perpetuation of barbarism. The spirit of civilization soon reasserted 
itself, and the long and painful reaction of more than a thousand years 
began. In fact, the reaction set in immediately. The Christian 
Church, armed not only with its own supreme spiritual authority, but 
likewise with the Roman law and the Roman civilization, of both of 
which it remained the sole conservator, undertook the gigantic task 
of the conquest of the conquerors and the civilization of the bar- 
barians. No greater task was ever imposed upon civilized man, and 
only the Christian Church could have assumed it. The great victory 
was ultimately won ; the great duty was fully accomplished. And yet 
it may also be said that the e£Forts of the Church, notwithstanding 
the inexhaustible stores of religion and civilization in its possession, 
were never fully successful, since there is a very large remnant of that 
barbarism remaining to-day. ♦ ♦ ♦ The work of reform, of 
elimination and substitution, has gone on gradually but surely. Al- 
most every salient feature of the Common Law of England has been 
banished from our sodal system and from our jurisprudence. We 
have abolished the rule of primogeniture. We have abolished the in- 
vidious distinction between males and females in the inheritance. We 
have abolished details. We have discarded as far as practicable all 
the intricate incidents of feudal tenure — ^their name is legion, and they 
can not all be reached at once, and possibly some of them are in- 
nocuous. We have restored to woman the management of her own 
estate, and her right to contract for herself, which was secured to 
her by the Roman Law and denied by the Common Law of Eng- 
land. We have repudiated and utterly rejected the barbarous and 
inhuman penal branch of the Conunon Law, and have legislated on 



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Book Reviews 385 

the subject independently of the rigid demands of Feudalism and 
more in accord with the more reasonable regulations of the Code of 
Justinian. In brief, we have been solicitiously and constantly engaged 
in undoing the work of the Common Law, which Coke and Black- 
stone declared to be the sum of human wisdom, and which the hu- 
manitarian now is almost ready to declare to have been the sum and 
consummation of human infamy." 

The sum total of Judge Morris's contention and proof is, in 
short, that the civil and ecclesiastical law is infintely superior to the 
so-called English Conmion Law, and that all that is good in the latter 
system has been borrowed from the former sources . He character- 
izes practically all of the advocates of the latter system as ''ruffians 
and barbarians" and in this list are to be found the names of Lord 
Coke, Blackstone, the Henrys, the Edwards and William the Con- 
queror. In fact there was in his eyes no virtue in the English kings, 
nor in the English lawyers, save, as in the case of Lord Bacon and 
Lord Mansfield, they were saved by a knowledge of the Roman law 
and an infusion of Scottish blood. Even this latter fact, however, 
does not save the "great Lord Douglass" whom he "triply damns." 
He does concede, however, tho not prove, that in the matter of ad- 
ministration the English and American courts and judicial officers are 
far in the lead of their European contemporaries. But perhaps even 
this concession is due to the fact that the writer is himself a federal 
judge and a legal administrator. With all of its partisanship, how- 
ever, the book is well worth reading and it is well that it has been 
written. 

A. A. Bruce 

College of Law, 

University of North Dakota 



A Beginner's History of Philosophy: Herbert Ernest Cush- 
MAN, Professor of Philosophy in Tufts College. Houghton 
Mifflin Company, Boston, Vol. I., 1910, pp. VII.+406; Vol. 
II., 191 1, pp. V.+377. Price, ea., $1.60. 

Manuals on the history of philosophy are so numerous that 
the announcement of a new volume in the field excites no little 
curiosity as to the occasion, point of view, or other raison d'etre. To 
us older ones Schwegler's "Epitome" still seems to be worthy of high 
place, particularly in one or two excellent English forms. And books 
since that day are legion. 

Nevertheless an examination of this new treatise satisfies the 



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386 The Quarterly Journal 

student that Cushman has readily made a contribution to the widening 
of interest in philosophy on its historical side. 

There is a new, spicy, almost racy way of putting things. The 
reader is not left to grope in a maze of technical terms, nor is he left 
to bridge his own way from conmion to specialized uses of terms — or, 
more likely, lose himself in the passing. Thus, for example, the dem- 
onstration of the viewpoint of the Ionian physiologers is stated in 
terms intelligible even to the layman. Simplicity is evidence of thoro- 
ness, and the writer has clearly found his own way thru the mate- 
rial and to personal study and reflection adds the clarity that comes 
only from having repeatedly taken classes thru the subject. Excellent 
are the sununaries and tables whereby are made to appear the rise of 
philosophical problems, the different angles from which viewed, and 
the several points of approach selected by different minds. Of partic- 
ular interest is the paragraph on "How the philosophical question 
arose." Men must and will think, and their thinking — good, bad, or 
indifferent — is profoundly affected by environment and existing dr- 
cumstances. In this connection mention may be made also of the 
paragraphs on geographical and political environment. 

Noticeable is the tracing of the relation between philosophy and 
life. These great minds are not viewed as distant stars to be gazed at 
thru the telescopes of a favored few; they are really men who like 
the rest were compelled to think, more wisely than others of us, yet 
fellow-men nevertheless. We see more clearly than before how 
Greek philosophy began on the soil of Asia, passed thence to Sidlian 
and Italian shores, and not until later became domiciled in classic 
Attica. 

And geography is made the handmaid of philosophy. Excellent 
maps give us the locations of the several schools and separate phil- 
osophers, and thus philosophy is graphically shown as related to the 
progress of civilization; philosophy is correlated with history. This 
is marked in the section dealing with the period following the Persian 
wars, an era of wonderful awakening, a period marked by a phe- 
nomenal showing of many and great minds in art, literature, and phil- 
osophy. 

One sees the continuity of thought. Thruout ancient philosophy, 
for example, we see similarity in end sought, and trace progress thru 
the several stages of monism to pluralism, and thru the cosmological, 
anthropological to the systematic period. 

Above all, philosophy is related to life. Philosophy is men think- 
ing. New terms and commonly used phraseology are employed. Phil- 
osophy has so long been a matter of the speculator's den that we had 



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Book Reviews 387 

become impressed with the fact that philosophy is not every one's af- 
fair. Cushman has invested the subject with a human interest and 
has shown it as a flowering out of human h'fe. This appeals to us 
strongly, as we trace the Hellenistic philosophies in the light of Alex- 
ander's Empire and the development of Stoic, Epicurean, and skeptical 
thought in the ligth of the Roman world and the Graeco-Roman civ- 
ilization with the multitudinous forms arising from the blending of 
this with native elements. 

With interest we turn to the writer's presentation of the per- 
pelxing scholasticism of the Mediaeval period. Again we enter the 
field by the historical path. Conditions and environment, educa- 
tional methods, lists of books that made up the reader's life, and the 
great works that most profoundly affected scholastic thought, chron- 
ological tables of political and civil happenings, and a statement as 
to the general character of the period — all prepare our minds for 
what is to follow. Under the heading "What is Scholasticism?" 
(PP- 355 ff-) the main lines of scholastic thought are blazed. The 
effort to reconcile the acceptance of dogma with rational interpreta- 
tion ; the problem of the reality of general ideas, resting on the clas- 
sic passage from Porphyry; the rivalry of nominalism and con- 
ceptualism; primacy of will or intellect; and, particularly, the tre- 
mendous personalities of the leaders are clearly and sequaciously set 
forth. We cannot pass without noting the profound results of the 
meeting and blending of the life and thought method of Western 
Europe with the rich, cultured, we might say florid, life of the East 
— ^the clash of two civilizations so varied and so diflFerent as the 
Christian and Moslem. In her e£Fort to rescue an empty tomb Eu- 
rope was herself wakened to a new and larger life. 

Volume II., received since the above was written and too late 
for extended notice, satisfies expectations. Brief consideration- of 
two or three points must suffice. The significance of the Renaissance 
is tersely and aptly expressed as a time when a "new man found him- 
self living in a new universe," and the problem was the relation of 
that new universe to himself without violation to the hallowed and 
time-honored traditions of the church. Again, carefully prepared 
maps guide the student: the advent of natural science, of a new 
logical procedure, the prevalent political and social unrest that was 
soon to find its counterpart in the intellectual life of Europe, and 
the growing distrust of authority are all clearly presented. Excel- 
lent also are the preliminary pages wherein the two periods with 
their dominant motifs — ^humanism and natural science — are char- 
acterized and their distinguishing features contrasted. The philosophy 



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388 The Quarterly Journal 

of Spinoza — philosphy pure and simple — is traced out thru its antip- 
odal developments, realism and idealism, and the relation of the 
former to the current life and thought of En^and and France is 
brought out, and of the latter to the temple and spirit of Germany 
(pp. 140 ft.) 

The noumenology of Kant has ever been a labyrinth, a maze, 
a puddle of words. After stating squarely the end sought, the au- 
thor in simple form thus puts the relation between phenomena and 
noumena : 

''The problem which Kant placed before himself was that of 
epistemology. Epistemology is the theory of knowledge, and Kant 
set to work to investigate the knowing process. 

Things in themselves (noumena) are not things-for-us, not ma- 
terial bodies, not nature objects. A divine intelligence might have 
the things in themselves as objects of knowledge, but not we human 
beings. * * * * Phenomena are not things in themselves, but 
things for us; they are physical nature, an interrelated totality for 
us. They constitute not absolute reality, but a reality relative to us." 

The teacher can content himself with outline lectures on the 
successive problems of philosophy, trusting to Cushman's volumes 
for a connected statement and to source-books for more complete 
explication of material. The non-professional will also find a path- 
finder easily and profitably followed. 

W. N. Stearns 

Department of History, 

University of North Dakota 



How We Think: John Dewey, Professor of Philosophy in Col- 
umbia University. D. C. Heath and Company, Boston, 1910. 
pp. VI.+224. Price, $1.00. 

How We Think is not, as might be inferred from the title, an 
explanation of the method or technic of all mental processes. It is 
not a description of all states of consciousness. It is not a psychology. 
It is a work confined in scope to a critical discussion of those 
processes by which valid or invalid conclusions or beliefs are reached. 
As such, it is logical. But it is not a formal logic, or one based on 
the ancient assumptions of an Aristotelian philosophy^ It is a logic 
grounded upon those living mental processes unfolded and revealed 
in an expert examination of modern scientific method. It is a logic, 
however, with a decidedly sodal application. To pedagogy is be^ 
queathed its exposition of that method by which Nature has been 



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Book Reviews 389 

made to yidd up her innermost secrets and the ponderous wheels 
of modern industry coaxed to revolve. 

"Our schools are troubled with a multiplication of studies, each 
in turn having its own multiplication of materials and principles. 
Our teachers find their tasks made heavier in that they have come 
to deal with pupils individually and not merely in mass. Unless 
these steps in advance are to end in distraction, some clue of unity, 
some principle that makes for simplification, must be found. This 
book represents the conviction that the needed steadying and central- 
izing factor is found in adopting as the end of endeavor that attitude 
of mind, that habit of thought, which we call scientific." (Preface.) 

The scientific attitude or habit of mind should be the end of 
education. It should be the tool; the medium for development 
freely bestowed upon every American citizen. Scientific method 
is a power for freedom. It is the power to reach a valid conclusion 
or to pass correct judgment concerning the pressing perplexities of 
daily life. As a power, it is an explicit method by means of which 
information is gathered and valued, discipline is acquired and effi- 
cient action promoted. To act efficiently, one must think accurately ; 
and to think accurately, one must learn to control the conditions un- 
der which suggestions are received and accepted as beliefs. 

"The native and unspoiled attitude of childhood, marked by ar- 
dent curiosity, fertile imagination, and love of experimental inquiry, 
is near, very near, to the attitude of the scientific mind." (Preface) 
Only by making the most of the thought-factor, already active in the 
experience of childhood, is there any promise or warrant for the 
emergencies of superior reflective power at adolescence, or at any 
later period. * * * * In any case positive habits are being 
formed \ if not habits of careful looking into things, then habits of 
hasty, heedless, impatient glancing over the surface; if not habits of 
consecutively following up the suggestions that occur, then habits of 
haphazard, grasshopper-like guessing; if not habits of suspending 
judgment till inferences have been tested by the examination of evi- 
dence, then habits of credulity alternating with flippant incredulity, 
belief or unbelief being based, in either case, upon whim, emotion, 
or accidental circumstances." (P. 66) 

Given the powers of natural curiosity and associative imagination 
inherent in the child, it is for the teacher, thru training, to transform 
them into discriminating and organizing powers; into expert and 
tested conclusions and into habit as a method of alert, cautious and 
thoro inquiry. To do this, however, requires a knowledge of, how 
thought grows and how it bestows upon things their objective value. 



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390 'J' he Quarterly Journal 

Without the light that comes from this knowledge, the conditions 
under which habits are formed cannot be intelligently ordered and 
arranged nor can the relative values of information, discipline and 
different mental processes be determined and adjusted. 

The primary end of thought is efficiency of action. Effidency 
of action demands organized thought, u ,^ rganization of thought is 
such an arranging and relating of suggestions that things and events 
not only acquire significance, — but they acquire valid significance. 
Organization is to thought what assimilation is to digestion. Thought 
begins with some perpelxity, confusion or doubt. There is a prac- 
tical problem to be solved or a conflict between acts to be adjusted. 
Thought is purposive. "Life is real, life is^^arnest." In the diflicult}' 
there is at once something known and something unknown. The 
known, — a fact identified from past experience and prior knowledge, 
— suggests some idea as representative of the unknown. As such, its 
appearance involves a leap or jump and its character cannot be pred- 
icated in advance. 

The differential which separates this mechanical product of as- 
sociative imagination from that of intelligent reflection is to be 
found in the organization and control of the suggestion. If it \% 
accepted as true immediately, without examination, we have the 
former, automatic type of thought. But if it be held in abeyance 
until acceptance or rejection is sanctioned by information used as 
evidence, then we have mental growth and the scientific attitude. 

In reflection or in applying scientific method, the individual re- 
turns upon, observes anew, enlarges and analyzes the facts out of 
which suggestion first springs. He breaks up the coarse and gross 
facts of perception into a number of minute processes not at first ob- 
served. If the suggestion given cannot be brought to bear upon the 
facts so as to explain them; if it cannot be verified by experimental 
testing, it is not accepted as a conclusion but is either modified or re- 
jected. In the latter case information that can be used as grounds 
for a new hypothesis is sought. "In a complete operation of think- 
ing * * * the "steps" are the occurrence of a problem or a 
puzzling phenomenon; then observation, inspection of facts, to lo- 
cate and clear up the problem ; then the formation of a hypothesis or 
the suggestion of a possible solution together with its elaboration by 
reasoning; then the testing of the elaborated idea by using it as a 
guide to new observation and experimentations." (P. 203) 

Those who train thought by developing it must carefully ob- 
serve and follow these nodal points. They should weigh and value 
different and apparently opposing educational principles by the same 



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Book Reviews 391 

process used as a standard. How We Think is largely devoted to 
this critical examination of educational values. Information be- 
comes the means by which a problem is solved as well as a meaning 
which is gained in its solution. Skill is ability to apply knowledge to 
a problem ; to use the meaning for an end. Discipline is such control 
of method as to give e tiicipation from external tutelage or au- 
thority. 

The recitation is a place and time for stimulating and directing 
reflection." (P. 201.) The subject matter should be selected with 
a view to the nurture of thought. It should be such as to force 
home the nature of a problem, and to furnish suggestions for dealing 
with it. Suggestions should be elaborated and their bearings upon 
the problem tested by observation and experiment. By comparing, 
contrasting and eliminating, they should be rejected or modified until 
they unify and clearly define what was before puzzling and vague. 

In the redtation the pupil and not the teacher should make the 
suggestions and be responsible for reasoning out their bearings. It is 
the function of the teacher so to furnish and arrange conditions that 
suggestions may be organized into continuity of thought. "The 
problem and opportunity with the young is selection of orderly and 
continuous modes of occupation which, while they lead up to and 
prepare for the indispensable activities of adult life, have their suffi- 
cient justification in the present reflex influence upon the formation 
of habits of thought." (P.43.) "Intelligent consecutive work in 
gardening, cooking and weaving, or in elementary wood or iron, may 
be planned which will inevitably result in students not only amassing 
information of practical and scientific importance in botany, zoology, 
chemistry, physics and other sciences, but (what is more significant) 
in their becoming versed in methods of experimental inquiry and 
proof." (P. 169) Concerning the selection and organization of 
typical activities and problems in their relation to the continuous de- 
velopment of thought, it is to be regretted that the Author has not 
gone more into detail. 

On the philosophical side it Is a question whether the iconoclasm 
with which he has strewn the logical temple might not also have 
been applied with good results to various psychological bric-a-brac. 
It is probable that the Kantian conception of a manifold of given, 
unrelated, atomistic sensations or representations and the English 
theory of association are responsible for regarding the suggestion as 
both a gift of Nature and a leap or jump taken, — Providence alone 
knows how! On the basis, and since the suggestion is the "central 
factor" in thinking, do not induction and analysis become mere 



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392 The Quarterly Journal 

empty shells from which deduction and synthesis have stolen all the 
content! A critical discussion of this question is apart from present 
purposes. It is here suggested however, that, if an intellectually 
tainted curiosity were replaced by an hereditary instinct to repeat, 
suggestion might not only be accounted for as a differentiation of 
values within a whole, but the conflict might also be used as a prin- 
ciple for its control and regulation. This might solve some remain- 
ing educational difficulties. 

To all those who would reflect, and reflecting, prefer a method 
for reaching valid conclusions to a set of ready made commandments 
which may not fit the occasion, this volume is cordially reconmiended. 

L. G. Whitehead 

Duluth, Minnesota 



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University Notes 



The Retirement of The retirement of Dean George S. Thomas at 
Dean Thomas the end of the University year is a matter of 

regret to all who know of his efficient service in the eighteen years 
of his connection with the University. A graduate of the University 
of Virginia and a doctor of philosophy of the University of Leipzig, 
he came to the young institution after efiEective service in a sister uni- 
versity, well prepared ill scholarship and experience. For nearly a 
fifth of a century he has worked among us, always sane, judicial, and 
fair, sensitive for the honor of scholarship and filled with a£Eection 
for the college of his adoption. Upon his students have been im- 
pressed a lasting sense of the reality of things, of the wisdom of hon- 
esty and right-dealing, and of high ideals. No higher tribute can be 
paid. Professor Melvin A. Brannon, who succeeds him, has the 
qualities that will make a successful dean of the College of Liberal 
Arts. He came to the University in 1894, and has given to it years 
of conscientious labor and sacrificing efiEort. Before taking up his 
new duties Dean Brannon will carry out some long cherished plans 
for the continuance of research work in which he has been much in- 
terested. He is to carry on his studies at the University of Chicago. 
During his absence of a year Professor Vernon P. Squires, of the 
department of English, will act as dean of the college. 

Varlona Chanies The passing of a year brings many changes in 
a growing institution. It has been the expecta- 
tion for some time that the important subjects of Scandinavian and 
German would be separated into different departments. W^ith the 
opening of the year this change will be accomplished. Professor 
Tingelstad will devote all of his time to the instruction in Scandi- 
navian, and the instruction in the German language and literature 
is placed in the charge of Dr. W^illiam G. Bek now of the University 
of Missouri. An instructor is being added in the department of 
chemistry, and a professorship of anatomy created to which a well 
trained man will be invited. Dr. A. L. McDonald has acted as 
assistant professor of Anatomy for several years, and his removal to 
Duluth has brought about the change referred to. 

At the last session of the legislature a small appropriation was 
made for the extension work of the University. Organized two 
years ago, the demands upon the department have been more than 



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394 1*^^ Quarterly Journal 

could be carried by the President's office, and a field organizer has 
been engaged to systematize and extend the worL The change in 
attitude toward extension work will be noted in the new name of 
the department. It is now to be known as the Bureau of Educa- 
tional Cooperation. The emphasis is thus placed not upon Univer- 
sity work, but rather upon the cooperation of the University with 
local communities in the several directions of supplying them with 
spedalized information, of providing study courses which can be 
carried on by correspondence, and of sending lecturers to the different 
towns and villages of the state. With the assistance of Mr. N. C. 
Abbott, who comes to the University as field organizer in this de- 
partment of the work, it is expected that greater system will result 
and a larger cooperation between real educational work in the field 
and what is known as university extension. 

Tke Museum A number of years ago, and not so many as 

measured by days, a college museum was re- 
garded as the retiring place of apparatus, materials and objects not 
needed in the everyday teaching worL And in those institutions 
where a good deal of attention was paid to the museum and much 
money spent upon it, the attitude was largely acquisitive rather than 
instructive. A new light has been seen, however, by the interested 
ones, and a museum is now recognized as a valuable adjunct to the 
work of teaching, which is thereby supplemented and made more 
effective. In place of going to the museimi, tho the public must con- 
tinue to do this, the curator sends to the teacher the objects needed 
for the days work in the classroom. For many years the University 
of North Dakota has been collecting interesting objects and pladng 
them in the crowded quarters in Science building, tho no funds were 
available for the work of classifying, arranging and mounting. At 
their meeting in May the Board of Trustees took the important step 
of recognizing the Museum as a department of the University and 
provided for it in the budget of the year. This, together with the 
removal of the collections to the larger quarters in the School of 
Mines building, means a material advance for the Museum as a 
University department. The placing of Miss Marda Bisbee in 
charge as a curator, with provision for the use of her time in that 
position will also add to its efficiency and betterment. 

Hitfh School Ten years ago, at the call of the President of 

Conference the University, a number of the High Sdiool 

men of the state assembled at Grand Forks in the spring of the year 
to discuss questions relating to secondary school matters. The cus- 



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University Notes 395 

torn then established has been followed ever since