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The Quarterly journal of 

the Geological Society of London 

Geological Society of London 





Sturgit Hooper Proftuor 




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June 2005 

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Qnod d cni BMMrtalinm eordU et com tit noa tantam inT«atb harere, atque iU uti, Md ad vlterioia 
p«oeCnn; atqaeiMm dltpata&doadT«miiam,Md opeie natnnun viiicere; deniqacnon belle eCprobabUitar 
opinari, oed earto eC oatanahre aefara; like, tanqnam irari aeieatiamin fllU, nobia (d Tidabitnr) m a4iaii§aat. 
^Nmrum Orgmmtm, PntftMn, 








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. aFFI€EB8 



Elected Febnuuy 21st^ 1862. 

Professor A. C. Bamsay, F.R.S. 

Sir P.O. Egerton, Rart.»M.P.,F.R.S. & L.S. I J. Carrick Moore, Esq., M.A., F.It.S. 
Sir Chtries Lyell, F.R.S. & L.S. | Pibf. John Morris. 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, F.R.S. & L.S. 
Warington W. Smyth, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

dTortign i^enttatp. 

William John Hamilton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Joseph Prestwich, Esq., F.1LS. 


John J. Bigsby, M.D. 
Sir Charles Bunbury, Bart., F.R.S. & L.S. 
Robert Chamben, Esq., F.ILS.E. & L.S. 
Sir P. G. Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S.&L.S. 
Earl of Enniftkillen, D.C.L., F.ILS. 
Hugh Falconer, M.D., F.ILS. 
William John Hamilton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Leonard Homer, Esq., F.R.S. L. & E. 
Prof. T. H. Hnxley, F.R.S. & L.S. 
John Lnbbock, Esq., F.R.S. & L.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S. k L.S. 
Edward Meryon, M.D. 

John Carrick Moore, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Prof. John Morris. 

Sir R. L Mnrchison, G.CStS., F.R.S. & L.S. 

Robert W. Mybe, Esq., F.R.S. 

Joseph Prestwich, Esq., F.R.S. 

Prof. A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S. 

G. P. Scrope, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 

Warington W. Smyth, Esq., M Jl., F.R.S. 

Alfred Tylor, Esq., F.L.S. 

Rer. Thomas Wifuhire, M.A. 

S. P. Woodward, Esq. 

9iUiAXmU^ttttiBxiif ^JUbtwAm, atitr Curator. 

T. Rnpert Jones, Esq. 


Mr. G. E. RoberU. 

Itbrarp antr fRxiittxm liMiiiwai. 

Mr. H. M. Jenkins. 

; r 

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— r^ 



BscKLBSy S. Ry Esq. On some Natural Casts of Reptiliaii Footprints 
intheWealdenBedsofthelsleof Wightandof Swanage 443 

BiNMBYy R W., Esq. On some Fossil Plants, showing StnictureL 
from the Lower Coal-measmes of Lancashire. (Wim 8 Plates.) 106 

. On some Upper Coal-measuxes, containing a bed of limestone, 

at Catrine in Ayrshire 437 

Bolton, J., Esq. On a Deposit with Insects^ Leaves, &&, near 
Ulvenrton 274 

Cabbttthxbs, W., Esq. On a Section at Junction-Boad, Leith . . 460 

Clabkb, The Rev. W. R On the Occurrence of Mesosoic and 
Permian Faunaa in Eastern Australia 244 

Davidson^ T., Esq. On some Carboniferous Brachiopoda collected 
in India by A. Fleming, M.D., and W. Purdon, Esq., F.G.S. 
(Witii 2 Plates.) 25 

DAWKms, ^. Boyd, Esq. On a fiysana-den at Wookey-Hole, near 
Wells 116 

Dawson, Dr. J. W. Notice of the Discovery of Additional Remains 
of Land-animals in the Coal-measures of the South Joggins, 
Nova Scotia 5 

On the Flora of the Devonian Period in Nortii-eastem 

America. (With 6 Plates.) 296 

Dbnison, Sir W. On the Death of Rshes during the Monsoon off 
the Coast of India ' 463 

EvBBBST, The Rev. R. On the Lines of Deepest Water around the 
British Isles. [Abridged.] 87 

Falooneb, Dr. H. On the Disputed Affinity of the Mammalian 
Genus BagimdaXf from the Purbeck Beds 348 

Fi8HKB,TheRev.O. On the Braddesham Beds of the Isle of Wight 
Basin 66 

Gbixib, a., Esq. On the^ Date of the Last Elevation of Central 
Scotland .,, 218 

GxMMBLLAiio, Sign. G. G. On the Volcanic Cones of Patem6 and 
Motta (Sta Anastaoa), Etna 20 

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GBBNBBy Br. A. On the Petroleum-eprinM in North America. 
[Ahetrtct] 3 

HABXNB88, Pro! R. On ihe Metamorphic Rocks of the Banffihire 
Ooasty the Scarabina, and a Portion of East Sutherland 831 

. On the Position of the Pteraspis-beds, and on the Sequence of 

the Stzata of the Old Red Sandstone Series of South Perthshire. 253 

k On the Sandstones and their associated Deposits in the Vale 

of the Eden, the Cumberland Plain, and the South-east of Dum- 
friesshire 205 

Hauohton, The Rev. S. Experimental Researches on the Granites 
oflieland. Part m. On the Ghranites of Donegal 403 

HsxiLProflO. On certain Fossil Plants from the Hempstead Beds 
or the Isle of Wight : with an Introduction, by W. Pbnoblly, 
Esq. (With 1 iKto.) 869 

HisLOP, The Rev. S. Supplemental Note on the Plant-bearinff 
Sandstones of Central tiidia 3^ 118 

HoNBTiCAN, The Rev. D. On the Geology of the Gold-fields of Nova 
Scotia. [Abridged.] .T 842 

Hull. R, Esq. On Iso-diametric Lines, as means of representinji; 
tne Distnbution of Sedimentary Clay and Sandy Stmta, as di- 
stinguished from CslcareouB Strata,with special reference to the 
CarboniferouB Rocks of Britain. (With 1 Plate.) 127 

HuxLBY, Prof. T. H. On a Stalk-eyed Crustacean from the Carboni- 
ferous Strata near Paisley 420 

^ On new Labyrinthodoi^.from the Edinburgh Coal-field. 

(With 1 Plate.) ..291 

— — . On the Premolar Teeth of Diproiodony and on a new Species 
of that Genus. (With 1 Plate.) ..., 422 

JAMIB80N, T. F., Esq. On the Ice-worn Rocks of Scotland .. 164 

Jukes, J. B.. Esq. On the Mode of Formation of some of the River- 
yalleysm the South of Ireland. (Wit£ 2 Plates.) 878 

Kbt, J. H., Esq. On the Bovey Deposit [^Abridged.] 

KiRKBT, J. W., Esq. On some Remains of ChiUm from the Moun- 
tain-limestone of Torimhire 233 

LiSTB&y The Rer. W. On the Drift containing Recent Shells, in the 
neighbourhood of Wolyerhampton 159 

MoRBis, Profl J., and G. R Robbbts, Esq. On the Caiboniferoua 
Limestone of Oreton and Fariow, Clee Hills, Shropshire; with 
a Description of a new Pteriehtkui, by Sir P. db M. G. Egbbton, 
Bart (With 1 Plate.) 94 

Mobton, G. H., Esq. On Glacial Surface- markings on the Sand- 
atone near liveipool 877 

NiooL, Pro! J. On the Geological Structure of the Southern G^ram- 
piana. [Abstract] 448 

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OwBN, Pro£ R. Description of Specimens of Fossil Reptilia dis- 
covered in the Coal-measures of the South Joggins, Noya Scotia, 
by Dr. J. W. Dawson, F.G.S. (With 2 Pktes.) 288 

Palioebi, Sicn. L. On some Volcanic Phenomena lately observed 
at Torre del Greco and Resina. [Abstract] 126 

PowBiB, J., Esq. On the Old Red Sandstones of Fifeshire 427 

Ramsay, Prof. A. C. On the Glacial Ori^ of certain Lakes in 
Switzerland, the Black Forest, Great Britain, Sweden, North 
America, and elsewhere. (With 1 Plate.) 186 

Salter, J. W., Esq. On a Crustacean Track in the Llandeilo Flags 
of Chirbury, Shropshire. [Abstract] , . . . 347 

. On jytocariSf a new G^nus of Silurian Crustacea. [Abstract] 347 

. On some Fossil Crustacea firom the Coal-measures and Devo- 
nian Rocks of British North America. [Abstract] 346 

. On some Species of Euryptenu and Allied Forms. [Abstract] 346 

Sandbbrgbb, Prof. F. On Upper Eocene Fossils from the Isle of 
Wight 330 

Sebbes, M. Mabcbl db. Note on the Bone-caves of Lunel-Viel, 
Herault [Abridged.] 1 

Smith, J., Esq. On a Split Boulder in Little Cumbra, Western Isles. 162 

Thobnton, R., Esq. On the Geology of Zanzibar 447 

TcHiHATCHBFF, M. P. DB. On the recent Eruption of Vesuvius in 
December 186L [Abstract] 126 

Tylob, a., Esq. On the Footprints of an Iguanodon, lately found 
at Hastings 247 

Vbttch, J. G., Esq. On a Volcanic Phenomenon witnessed in 
M^inillA. 8 

Whitaxbb, W., Esq. On the Western End of the London Basin ; 
on the Westerly Thinning of the Lower Eocene Beds in that 
Basin ) and on the Greywethers of Wiltshire 258 

Whitlby, N., Esq. On some Flint Arrow-heads (P) from near Baggy 
Point, North Devon. [Abstract] 114 

Wtatt, J., Esq. On some further Discoveries of Flint Implements 
in the Gravel near Bedford. [Abstract] 113 

Annual Report i 

Anniversary Address xxvii 

List of Foreign Members xx 

List of the WoUaston Medalists xxi 

Donations to the Libraiy (with Bibliography) x, 43, 147, 278, 454 

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Flatk Pack 

"^ J [ Garbonifkroub Bbaohiopoda fbom Ikdu, to illustrate Mr. Da- 
^ Yj* 4 yidson'flpaper on Carboniferous Brachiopoda collected in India 

[ by Pr. Fleming and Mr. Purdon tofaoepage 35 

^ III. FiSH-RUfAiKS FROM Orston akd Farlow, to illustrate the paper 
by Mesors. Morris and Boberts on the Carboniferous Limestone 
of Oreton and Farlow 105 


f V. > trato Mr. Binney's paper on some Fossil Plants from die Lower 
»r VI.I Coal-measures of Lancashire 


f VII. Map of Ekglakd, Wales, and part of Scotland, to illustrate 

Mr. Hull's paper on the Distribution of the Carboniferous Strata. 146 

VIII. Sketch-map of part of the Ancient Glaciers of Switeerland, 

to illustrate Prof. Bamsay's paper on the Glacial origin of Lakes. 204 

" IX. f I^'K'^*^*^^ Bemains from Nova Scotia, to illustrate Prof. Owen's 
'^ \ paper on Fossil Beptilia discovered in the Coal-measures of the 
^ ^\ South Joggins, Nova Scotia 244 

^ XI. Carboniferous Labyrinthodonts, to illustrate Prof. Huxley's 

paper on new Labyrinthodonto from the Edinburgh Coal-field. 296 


^ XIV. 
^ XV. 


Devonian Plants from North-babtbrn America, to illustrate 
Dr. Dawson's paper on the Flora of the Devonian Period in 
North-eastern America 

' XVin. Fossil Plants from the Hempstead Beds of the Isle of Wight, 
to illustrate Dr. O. Beer's paper on Fossil Plants from the 
Hempstead Beds of the Isle of Wight 376 

^ XIX. 
^ XX. 

Geological Map of parts of the Counties of Cork and Water, 
ford, and Sections across some of the Biver-vallets in the 
South of Ireland, to illustrate Mr. Jukes's m^r on the mode of 
Formation of some of the Biver-valleys in tiie South of Ireland. 402 

^ XXI. Teeth of Diprotodon from Queensland, to illustrate Prof Hux- 
ley's paper on Diprotodon 427 

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[In this list, those fossils the names of whieh are printed in Roman type have 
been pre?ioasly described.] 

Name of Species. 




Vlavtm, (77.) 

Jeantkqpkjftcn tpmotum. PI. xii. f. 6. 

Andromeda reticulata. PL xviiLf. 12,13 

Ammlaria acummaia, PL xiii. f. 21 ... 


Jiterophylliiei aeieularii, PL xiii. f. 16. 

laii/oUa. PL xiii, f. 17 


— parvula 

licutigera, PL xiii f. 18-20 ... 

Calamites cannseforrois 

^— monui/ttf. PLxriit56 

— Transitionis 

Cardioearpum eonmium. PL xiii. f. 23, 


'•'•^ obliquum, PLxiii.f.25 

CarpotiihetffloMm. PL xviiL f. 14-16. 


tubercnlata, var. 

Cordaites angnstifolia # 

Robbii. PL xiv.f. 31 

(?). PLxvi.f.59 

Cychpterit BrownH. PL xlL f. 9 

Halliana. PL x^U. f. 54, 55 

inceritu PLxtLf:44 

— ^ Jacksoni 

obtnsa. PLxY.f.33 

— voiMfa. PKxiriLf.52 


Cyperiie$ ForbtH. PL xriii. f. 20, 21. 

JkOogyUm Haim. PL xiiL f. 11 

•— ^ (Araucarites) Ouangondiannm ... 
Didymqpkjflhm ren(forme, PL xiii, 


HymmophylUte9 euriUobut. PL xr. 


GersdorffiL Pl.xv.f.37 

f Hempstead 
I Beds. 


^ Beds. 


" Hempstead 


New York 

Isle of Wight .. 


Seneca Ld&e .. 

St. John 

St. John 

N.-E. America., 

St. John 

N.-E. America., 


Cayuga Lake .. 
St. John 

St. John 
, St. John 


/'St. John 

St. John 

British N. Amer. 


New York .... 

New York .... 


St. John 

St. John 

^ N.-E. America . 

Isle of Wight . 

/'New York .... 
St. John 

New York 

St. John 
(, St. John 









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Name of Species. 




Plants (coii/tmiMf). 

Lepidodendron Chemimgeiise 

corrugatam. PI. xii. f. 10 ... 

Gaspianam. PL xiv. f. 26-28, 

and PI. xTii. f. 58 

PL xii. 

— Tascalare. PI. vi. f. 1-5 

Lepidostrobut ^obosos 


Leptophkntm rhombieum, 


Lycopodites Matthewi 

VomxemiL PLxTiLf.57 .. 

Megaphyton (?) 

Nelambium Bachii. PL xviiL f. 19 

Netaropieru poiymorpkm. PLxt. f.36. 
$errulata. PL xy. f. 35 

Nymphaea Doris. PL xriiL f. 8-1 1 

Pecopterit (Alethopieris). PL xti. f. 49. 

diterepant. PL xv. t 40 , 

ingetu. PL xv. f. 41 

Pinnulaiia diipalans. PL xiii. f. 22 ... 
PtUopkytfm etepam. PL xir. f. 29, 30, 

and PL XT. f. 42 

— ?|rto*n«m 


Rhaekiopterii eyelopterwdet , 

phmata, PLxvLf.60 

jnmeiaia, PLxflfcCl 

tiriata , 

temUtiriaia. PL xiy. f. 32, and 

PL xvi.f. 45,46 

Sabal major, sp. (?) 

Selaginites formosas 

Sequoia Couttsiae. PL xviiL f. 1-7 

SigiUaria paJpebra, PI. xiiL f. 12... 


VanuxemiL PL xiL f. 7 

Tascnlaris. PL iv. f. 1-6, and 

PLv.f. 1-5 

Sphenophyilnm antiquum 

S^thenopterit HarttU, PL xvi. f. 48 . . 

Hiicheoekuma. PLxvi.f.51 .. 

margmata, PLxy.f.38 

Stigmaria exigua. PLxiii.f. 13 

flcoides, var. 

Sgrmgodendron graeite. PL xiii. f. 14. 
Syrmgoxglon mirabUe, PL xii. f. 1-5. 

Trichomanitea (?). PL xvi. f . 50 

Trigfmoearpum raeemotum. PL xvi. 


Uphantaenia Chemungensia. PL xviL 


Lower Coal- 






I Beds. 


/ Hempstead 
\ Beds. 




Lower Coal- 


New York .. 
Nova Scotia.. 

St. John 


Perry, Maine ... 
Perry, Maine ... 

British N. Amer. 

St. John 

New York 

, British N. Amer. 

Isle of Wight 


St. John 

Isle of Wight .. 

St. John 

St. John 

St. John 

N.-E. America.. 


N.-E. America.. 


New York 

New York 

New York 



Isle of Wight 

Isle of Wight 

St. John 

Lake Erie ... 

Lancashire ... 

St. John .. 
St. John .. 


St. John .. 
New York 
St. John .. 


Lake Erie 
St. John .. 

St. John 

i New York &Ohio 

















I 112 



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Name of Species. 





Nmnmulina planulata, var. 


}i^« {r7«^^*''i} 93 

MOLLUSCA. (30.) 


Athyris RoyasiL Pl.i.f. 6 

sttbtilita, var. grandla. PL Lf. 7,8 

Jml09ieff€8 DaihoutH, PI. ii. f. 7 ... 
Camaropkoria PureUnU. PL iL f. 4 

Orthis resnpinata. PLLf. 15 

Prodactns Cora 

cosutus. PI. L f. 20, 21 

HnmboldtiL PLu.f.6 

longispiniu. PL L f. 19 

PwrdonL Pl.u.f.5 

— semireticiilatos 

gtriatiu. PLLf. 18 

Retzia radialis, rar. Krandlcosta. PL L 


Rhynchonella pleurodoo 

Spirifera lineata. PL ii. f. 3 

MootakkaUentig. PL ii. f. 2. . . , 

striata. PLLf. 9, 10 

Spiriferina octoplicata. PL i. f. 12, 13 

Streptorhynchus crenistria 

^■^ crenistria, var. robostns. PL i. 


pecih^fbrmig. PLLf. 17 

Strophalosia Morrisiana. PL ii. f. 8. . , 
Terebratola biplicata. Tar. problema- 

tica. PLLf. 3 

{"veiWaldheimia) FkmingH. PLL 

f. 1, 2 

HimalajfmuiM. PL ii. f. 1 

nAnericuUxrit. PL L f. 4 


Punjaab . 







Chiton Burrowiamis. Woodcttts,f.l,2 

cohrahu. Woodcots, f. 3-6 ... 

? Woodcuts, f. 7, 8 

(sp. nov. ?). Woodcuts, f. 9, 10 


h Yorkshire. 


Pygocephalns (?). Woodcut | Coal-measures | Paisley 

.| 421 

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Nime of Species. 




P18CB8. (y) 

Cladodui. PL ill. f. 6 

DeUodw. Pl.iU.f.2,3,4 

Palaial tooth {Deltodui}). PI. iiL 


A palate. PLiiLf.5 

Ptericktkjf9 maeroeephaku. Ft. iii. 

f. 7» 8, 9 ; and Woodcuts, f. 1, 2, 3. . 




RSPTILIA. (12.) 

Dendrerpeton. Pl.ix.f.l5 

Acadianum. PLx.f.5-7 ... 

Hylerpetom. PLix.f.17,18 

Dawtoni, PLix.f.l6 

HjfUmomut aeiedentaiui, PL is. f. 7 a, 


Lyelli, PI. ix. t 1-6, 14, and 

PLx. f.3,4 

ITymamu. PI. ix. 18, 11, 12, 13 

? Pl.x.f.1,2 

Iguanodon Footprints. Woodcuts 
Lovomma AUmatmi. Pi. xL f . 1 , 2 
PhoHdoifatterpiieiformii. PI. xi. f.3,4 
Reptilian Footprint. Woodcuts, f. 2-4 




Mammalia. (7.) 

Cheiromys Madagascariensis. Wood- 
cut, f. 20 

Diprotodon australis .> PI. xxi. 1 1-3 

minor. PI. xxi. f. 4-6 

Hypsiprymnus Gaimardi. Woodcut, 

Plagiautax BecklesiL Woodcuts,f. 1-5, 

— minor. Woodcut, f. 15 

Thylacoleo Carnifex. Woodcuts, 
f. 16-19 

Recent . 
Tertiary . 

Recent . 

Purbeck . 

Tertiary . 

NoYa Scotia ...< 


Gilmerton .... 
Gilmerton .... 
Isle of Wight 

Madagascar . 
Queensland . 
Queensland , 

Australia .... 

Swanage , 


Australia .... 








Flint Implement. Woodcuts, f. 2-5. . . IPleistoceue ? 





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Page xxxiii, line 20, for flints rtad fluids. 

„ TTiHT, lines 3 and 4 from bottom, trcaiBpou of which and position of. 

„ 16, line 10, for Fluoric rtad Hydrofluoric. 

„ 69, description of the woodcut, for the upper* ready,. 

„ 100, line 28 of Table, for Cricacathus read Oricacanthus. 

„ 107, line 3, after as insert in. 

„ 109, line 21, for with read as to the woodj cylinder in. 

„ 131, line 24 from bottom, for vlaley read TaJlej. 

„ 133, line 9, afitr had insert their. 

„ 137, line 35, for Chamworth read Chamwood. 

„ „ last line, insert during the deposition of that rook. 

„ 138, line 41, /or in read on. 

„ 198, line 26, for 685 read 646. 

„ „ line 28, /or 1940 r«wi 1979. 

„ 201, line 15, for 1992 read 1979 ; for 1043 read 1229. 
Pages 238-244. Dr. Dawson having informed the Editor of the Quartorlj Journal 
of the Geological Society that some errors in Professor Owen's paper 
on FossU Beptilia from the Coal-measures of the South Jogffins had 
been caused by an accidental intermixture of the specimens, which was 
not detected until after the publication of the August Number of the 
Journal, a complete list of the Birrata thus renderea necessary has been 
given in the Appendix at page 244. 
Page 263, Diagram-section, for 6* rem sea-level ; below 6* insert I?. 

„ 271, line 8, for Woolwich read the Isle of Sheppey. 

„ 275, line 17, add Shaft No. 10. 

„ 276, line 1 1, <mW Shaft No. 1 1. 

„ 279, last line, and line 7 from bottom, for Hall read Hull 

„ 280, line 28, after Proceedings insert vol. iv. No. 53, 1861. 

„ 281, line 24, qfter Epoch insert (10 plates). 

„ 283, line 27, for Tynside read Tyneside. 

„ „ last line, cfier portion insert (21 plates). 

„ 284, line 4, after grandis.) insert (7 plates). 

„ „ line 6, after wyxMon insert (13 plates). 

„ ^7, line 27, for Bamell read Biimeil. 
Pages 296-^29 inclusive. A delay in the transmission to Dr. Dawson of a 
proof of his paper bavins occurred, the Author's corrections were not 
received until imer its publication, and the following list of Errata has 
conseouently become necessary : — 
Page 299, line 30, for M^Clakenev's read M*aoskeney's. 

„ „ line 30, for Cones read Coves. 

„ „ line 39, for Fort House read Fort Howe. 

„ 305, line 8, second column, for deeurrens read discrepans. 

„ ,. line 11, first column, for Goeppertreud Lesquereux, 

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F^ 309, line 26, /or Sfameatales read Sheneotales. 

„ 310, line 4 fiK>in bottom, for specimen read Bpeoimens. 

„ 313, line 14, for Haughton read Houghton. 

„ 314, line 9 horn, bottom, for pinnaformia read pefintrformis. 
„ „ line 7 from bottom, for were read wae. 

„ 321, line 25, for Davallioides read DavaUia, 

„ 323, line 27, for Bimeriana read RcBmeriana, 

„ 324^ line 5, for Mr. Lann read Mr. Lozm. 
„ „ last line, for Uneaia read hirsuta. 

,, ^25, line 12, for invested read inverted, 

„ 327, Table, No. 57, for decurrene read diBcrepans. 

„ 329, Description of Plate XIII. fig. 25, for C. aeuium read C. obliqutem. 
„ „ „ „ XV. fig. 39, for ohtusilobua read eurtHobus. 

„ flf. 40, for decurrens read diacrepans. 
3ix to Dr. 

(See sJflo the Appendix to Dr. Dawson's paper, p. 329.) 

Page 342, line 8 from bottom, for mispickle read mispibkel. 
„ 395, line 1, for suppositian read supposition. 
„ „ line 7, for that Tallej read Con yalley. 
„ 400, line 4 from bottom, for E.S.E. read W.S. W. 
„ 401, line 2, for N.N.E. read N.N.W. 
„ „ line 8, for E.S.E. read W.8.W. 
„ „ lines 14 & 15, for Dranse and Durance and their tributaries read 

Dranoe and its tributaries. 
„ 402, line 9, for Durance and Dranse read Dranoe. 
„ 421, line 4, (^er Paisley insert (Twice the natural size.). 
„ 541, line 4, b^ore Yery insert 6. 


Page 6, ({fter line 35, insert Br Fr. tor Hauxb. 
„ 10, line 36, for those reaa then. 
„ 28, line 5, for seiner read seinen. 
„ „ line 33, for rom read from. 

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Ths Council of the Geological Society, in presenting their. Annaal 
Eeport to the Fellows, have great satisfaction in pointing out the 
increasing numbers and geneial usefulness of the Society. 

They have, in common with the entire nation, to lament the loss of 
H.E.H. the Prince Consort, one of our extraordinary Membeis, from 
the small number of whom we have also lost H.M. King Frederick 
William IV. of Prussia. 

In all, the Society has lost by death twenty-seven, some of 
whom were among the oldest and most highly honoured of its 
Members. But during the past year forty new Fellows have been 
elected, thirty-four of whom have duly paid their fees, which, with 
eight previously elected, who have since paid their admission-fees, 
makes up the considerable number of forty-two new Fellows. 

The resignation of three persons has been accepted. Two Foreign 
Members have died during the past year, and the place of one of 
them has been filled by the election of a new Member. The total 
number of Fellows at the dose of 1860 was 922 ; at the dose of 
1861, 939. 

During the years 1860 and 1861, some heavy special expenses 
have been incurred, by order of the Council, winch have been 
defrayed out of a spedal source of income, viz. the Bequest-fund, 
of which ^£500 have been drawn, leaving a balance of ^00 yet 
undrawn. Taking these unusual sources of income and expenditure 
into account, the Income of the Sodety for the past year has ex- 
ceeded the Expenditure by the sum of ^125 3«. 8^. 

The amount of the Funded property of the Society is ^350. 

Among the unusual items of expenditure may be cited the 
donation of £10 to Mr. Nichols, the Society's late derk, authorized 
by the Oenorpl Meeting; X50 ordered by the Council towards the 

VOL. xvin. a 

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fortlier arraDgement and naming of the Foreign Collections ; X40 19«. 
for Cabinets for Australian spedmens ; and a sum of £48 9«. Qd, 
for the library. 

The Council have to announce the completion of Vol. XVll. of 
the Quarterly Journal, and the First Part of Vol. XVIII. They 
have authorized the distribution of the Journal to the Foreign 
Members of the Society. 

The arrangement of the Foreign Collections has been diligentiy 
continued, and for this purpose the second temporary Assistant, 
engaged at the recommendation of the Special Museum Committee, 
has been retained up to the present time. 

Thd questioti c^the Amount and liatore of the p^nnalietit attdstance 
required for the efficiency of the library and Museum has engaged 
the attention of the Council, and is at present in the hands of a 
Special Committee. 

Witii reference to the Oreenough Map, the Council have to an- 
nounce thaty after uaavoidaUe ddays^ the third sheet wiU soon be 
ready for publication. 

In conclusion, the Council have to report that they have awarded 
the WoUaston Medal to Mf. Kobert A. C. Godwin- Austen, for his 
various researches during the last tweniy-eight years, illustrating 
bi n "f^iy (Mrigitial and remarkable tnanner the j^ysical geography 
of a large region of Europe during by-gone periods, as ttuunly oom- 
prised under the four following heads t^» 

1st. For his elaborate <' Memoir on the Geology of the Bouth-^east 
df l)etonshire;" wh^tnn he pointed out the difierent periods c^ 
disturbance firom palnocmo to almost recent times in that ootnplicated 
tract, as based upon actual observations made between the yeans 
1684 and 1840, both inclusive*. 

2ndly. For Us obs^^ations cm the Geology of the Soutii-east of 
lStm«yt% whiohi with his Memoir on the Gravel Aooumulations of 
ihe Vauey <^ Uie Weyj:, are explanatory of the changes of land 
and watiM^ in the South-east^n region of England and a^aoent 
parts oi France) whilst his pap^ " On the Sands of Farringdon " 
treated (^ that deposit as anintermede between the Lower Orecoisand 
(Neoooffiian) and the Portland Oolite§. This memoir, togeth^ witii 
othAr papers in our Journal, indicate his views c^ the probaUe goU" 
figtaOMiak of the land and water in the Western European area 
during the Mesozoic or Secondary period ||. 

9tdlj% For his ori^nal and stiiking Memoirs on the Valley of 
the fiolglish Channel and the superficial accumulations on its coasts^ 
•which d^nd the former physical geography of the South of England 
imd ftc^ae^t parts of F^oei particularly during the FM^ocene 
period* And^ 

4thly. For his bold tind ing^ous hypothesis, founded on the 
relations of the older rocks in the Nwth ^ France and the South of 

* Geol.TrafL8.fitad«eri60»YoLri.iK43di t JPn>c.Qeelfioo.ToLiT.i^lW, 196. 

I Quart JouriL Q«ol. SoOi voL rii p. 27d. 

I Quart Joum. GeoL 600. toL vi. p. 454. 

I Qtiart Jourh. Q«ol. Boo. tol ti. p. 69| and vol* YiL pi 118» 

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AHinrAXi xiFOBi. iii 

Eng^dy which Boggeeted the prohable ezteziBion of the younger 
pal^eosoio (GarboniferoiiB) depoaits* beneath the GretaoeouB group 
around our metropolis^ to the ezduaion, in that aroa, of the TAauic, 
liaadcy and Oolitio depodtst. 

The balance of the proceeds of the WoUaston Fund haa been 
awarded to Frofossor Heer^ to assifft him in hia important InTOsti* 
gationa into the fossil botany of the Tertiary Strata. 

Sq^ of the Library and Museum CmmUUe, 1861-62. 
7^ Museum. 

Your Committee have much pleasure in reporting that several 
important additions have been made to the Foreign ^Uection since 
the last Anniversary. Among them may be noticed the large 
collections of Books and Fossils &om several German localities, 
presented by the President ; a most valuable series of Beptilian and 
other fossils^m the coal of Nova Scotia, presented by Dr. Dawson, 
F.G.S. Fossils from Gothland, presented by Dr. landstrom, and 
from the Andes b^ Mr. David Forbes, F.G.S. Also a number of 
South African specimens, presented by Dr. Bowerbank, Dr. G. Grey» 
Mr. G. W. Stow, the Royal Geographical Society, and Dr. A, 6, 
Atherstone; while Bocks and Fosidls frt)m BiitLui Iocaliti«e have 
been presented by the President and other donors. 

The library and Museum Committee stated in their laat Beport 
that the collection of European Fossils, occupying 48 cabinets oon- 
taining 336 drawers, had been nearly re-arranged according to 
the plan determined upon by the Special Museum Committee at 
their Meeting on the 25th of June, 1860, and that a catalogue of 
those collections had been prepared by the President. 

Since that time the remaining Foreign Collections have been 
sdmilarly re-arranged under the direction of the President and 
Assistant-Secretary, and Catalogues of them have been made by the 
President uniform with that of the European Collections, in accord- 
ance with the wish expressed by the Committee in their last Beport. 
They occupy 68 cabinets, containing 490 drawers as follows : — 









North America 



Wert Indiea 



Boath America 






Miscellaneoos ... 



68 490 

* Quart Joum. GeoL Soo. roL liz. p. S84. 

t fieo Notioes of tiw Ph)oeediiigi of the Boyia Inslitali^ 


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IV AjnnrsBSABT mormro. 

On the 19th of April, 1861^ the Council granted the sum of 
JS50 to the Special Committee, to be expended in re-naming the 
specimens in the Enropean CoUections ; and the services of Mr. J. 
W. Salter, F.G.S., Mr. R. Etheridge, F.G.8., of Mr. H. Woodward, 
and of Mr. 8. P. Woodward, F.G.S., were secored for that purpose. 
Of the specimens named by them the following have been placed 
upon tablets, labelled, and nnmbered ; and a detailed catalogue of the 
contents of each drawer has been made and placed therein. 


Norway Silurian 5 

Uddevalla, &c Postpliooene .... 2 

Sweden Silurian 2 

Antwerp Pliocene 1 

Toundne Miocene 2 

Paris Basin Eocene 9 

Normandy Jurassic 6 

North America .... Cretaceous 1 

The naming of the Tertiary fossils has not yet been verified by 
Mr. S. P. Woodward : for the accuracy of the rest, Messrs. Salter 
and Etheridge are responsible. 

Furthermore, ten drawers of fossils, chiefly from the Eifel and the 
Ehenish provinces, have been tabletted, labelled, and named, but 
not arranged zoologically or certified. 

The Rev. T, Wiltshire, F.G.S. , is making progress with the re- 
naming and re-arrangement of the British specimens of Cretaceous 
fossils, which he has been good enough to undertake. 

In addition to the foregoing Report of the work done in the 
Museum during the past year, the Committee subjoin for the in- 
formation of the Council the following summary of the present state 
of the Foreign Collection as a whole, viz, : — 

28 Drawers of Fossils ore now completely arranged and 

10 Drawers of Fossils are nearly complete. 
479 Drawers of Fossils are arranged, but require naming. 
And 234 Drawers of Rock-specimens are arranged, but not named. 


A series of Coloured Maps, illustrative of the Geological Areas to 
which the several divisions of the Foreign Collection belong, have 
been provided under the care of the President 

Those specimens of Fossils from Foreign localities, which are too 
bulky to be placed in drawers, have been carefully washed and 
labelled ; each one has also been packed in a separate paper, and the 
name, locality, &c. written upon its outside. 

The glass doors of an old cabinet have been converted into a wall- 

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case for the teception of a number of large spedmens, chiefly coal- 
plantB from Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. 

Two new cabinets, ordered by the Council at the cost of £44 lis,, 
have been supplied for the reception of certain of the Foreign 
Collections ; one, consisting of 24 drawers, contains specimens from 
the West Indies and South America ; the other, consisting of 64 
drawers, contains the Australasian Collections. The latter cabinet 
is placed in the tea-room. 

The Special Committee have distributed duplicates to public 
bodies, donations haTUig been made to the British Museum, the 
Museum of Uniyersity College, and the Eoyal Uilitazy College at 
Sandhurst A considerable number of duplicates still remains for 

In conclusion, the Committee desire to record their sense of the 
great and unremitting labour (whose value has already been recog- 
nized by the Council) which the President has bestowed on the 
re-axTangement and general superintendence of the Museum. 


In addition to the usual increase by donation and purchase, the 
library has receiyed important additions in consequence of the 
special yote by the Council of £35, for the purchase of yarious 
dedderata, among which may be mentioned — 

Kaup's 'Urweltiiche Saugethiere,' Pander's Monographs upon 
Silurian and Deyonian Pishes, Sartorius's 'Atlas yon ^tna,' 
Bammelsberg's 'Mineralchemie,' Cams and Engelhardt's 'Bibliotheca 
Zodogica,' H. D. Eogers's * Geology of Pennsylyania,' lire's * Dic- 
tionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines/ and Dumont's Geological 
Map of Europe. 

The supply of periodicals by exchange, gift, and purchase con- 
tinues to be large. Books and pamphlets, presented or purchased, 
haye, as usual, been catalogued, shelyed, and, when necessary, 

The Assistant-Secretary reports that he has receiyed yaluablo 
assistance in the Library and Museum from Mr. Jenkins and Mr. 

The Committee are glad to find that, though on an ayerage aboyo 
100 works are simultaneously absent from the Library, and in use 
by the Pellows of the Society, but one case of irregularity in the 
return of such books has come under their notice, one Member of the 
Society, notwithstanding repeated applications, having as yet failed 
to return a work taken out by him two years ago. 


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OcmparoAve Statemmt cf (he Number of the Seeiety at the close of 
the years 1860 and 1861. 

Deo. 31, 1860. Dec 31, 1861. 

Componiiden 119 126 

•BendentB 214 225 

Non-raddeats 531 535 



Honomiy Hemben 



FonJgn Hemben 



Feno&agw of Boyal Blood 



922 940 

Oeneral Statement ea^lanatory of the Alteration in the Number of 
Fdlcws, Honorary Members, ^e. at the dose of the years 1860 and 
Numbed of Compounders, Eesidents, and Non-iesidents, 

December 3lBt, 1860 864 

Fellows reported as dead in two successiye Beports, 

1859 and 1860 2 

FellowB not included in last Beport (Besidents) . . 2 

Add Fellows elected in 1860 and ] 
paid in 1861 


' Non-residentB .... 8 

Besidents 13 

Md FeUows elected and paid in I STnird^te'"". ! '. 15 


pounders 4 

— 34 
Add Fellow re-admitted 1 



Jkdmet Gompounden deceased 3 

Besidents „ 6 

Non-residents „ 10 

Besidents sesigned 3 

— 22 


Number of Honorary Members, Foreign Members, and 1 -^ 

Personages of Boyal Blood, Dec. 31, 1860 J ^^ 

Add Foreign Member elected during 1861 1 


Dedfict Foreign Members deceased 2 

Honorary Members deceased 1 

Penonages of Boyal Blood deceased 2 

— 5 

As above 54 

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Number ofIMow9 Uahle to Annual O&ntribuHon, iuBe»ldmt9, ^ A# 
chse of 1861, tuith the aU&raUont duiHng the y^or. 

Number at ttie dose of 1860 »...,..* 2U 

4dd Eleetad and paid in I860, bat not indoded in laat ' 
Beport , , , . , 

Jbii Fellow ooqnted as Non-residoiit m makiiig out last ' 

4di ElecM in fiinner yeani; and paid in 1861 



Fellow re-admitted , r . • . . 1 

~ 20 


Dedtiet Deceased 

Bfiiignod ,,. S 

— 9 


Dr. Fitton. 

PscBiifisn Fbixowb. 

Persoiuxges of Royal Blood (2). 

His Boyal Highnesa tbe Frinpe Oopaort, 
HiB Majesty &e King of Pru^siQ* 

Con^pQundera (3). 

J F. Perkins, Esq. 
lieut-Gen. Sir C. Pasley. 

T. W. Atkinson, Esq. 
Sir W. Cubitt. 
lieat-Col, Dawson, 


J, Ott^, Esq. 

Dr. A. E. Sutherland. 

O, E. JL, Vernon, £sq. 

Non-residents (10). 

Bir A, de Capel Brooke, Bart. 
Sir T. Cartroght. 
J. J, Forrester, Esq. 
A. Hambrough, Esq. 
Bey, Prof, HeiMiIow, 

E. Hodgkinson, Esq. 
W. Hutton, Esq, 
J. Mao A dam, Esq. 
Col. Hon. M. L. OnsloWf 
Eev. J, M, Tn^me, 

Jf . Cordier, 

Foreign Members (2). 

I M. C. Lardi. 

The following Persona were elected Fellows during the year 186 J. 

ij^annary 9th. — ^William Charles Lacy, Esq., Olouoester; Bobert 
Dnkinfield Darbishire, Esq., B.A., 1 Heald Oroye, Busholme, 
Manehester ; George Charles Wallich, M.D., 17 Campd«ii Hill 
Bead, KensGigton. 

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nii AmnYBBSABT MSExnre. 

January 23rd. — William Weston, Esq., of Birkenhead. 

February 6th. — ^William Bntherford Ancram, Esq., 75 Inverness 

Terraoe, Kensington Gardens ; Thomas William Jeffcock, C.E., 

Woodside, Sheffield. 

— 20th.— J. Frederick Davis, Esq., Walker Iron-works, New- 
castle-npon-Tyne^ John Frederick Collingwood, EBq.,13 Old Jewry 
Ghamb^; Joseph Milligan, Esq., F.L.S., Hobart Town, Tas- 
mania ; Heniy Porter, M.I)., Fellow of Queen's GoU^ge, Bir- 
mingham, Peterborough ; Bichard Charles Oldfield, Esq., Bengal 
Givil Serrice, Farley Hill, Beading. 

March 6th.— Erands George Shirecliff Parker, lient. H.M. 54th 
Begiment, Boorkee; J. Gwyn Jeffireys, Esq., F.E.S., 25 Devon- 
shire Place, Portland Place. 

April 10th.— James Hector, M.D. Edinb., 13 Gate Street, Lmcoln's- 

— 24th.-— Daniel liCackintosh, Esq., Chichester; Bichard Payne 
Cotton, ILD., Fellow B. CoU. Phys. Lend., 46 Glarges Street, 

Hay 8th.— Bobert Mills, Esq., F.S.A., Bochdale ; Edmund William 
Ashbee, Esq., 14 Butland Street, Momington Crescent; Captain 
Willoughby Osbom, C.B., Madras Army, Brunswick Hotel, 
Jermyn Street. 

— 2^d. — Silas Bowkley, Esq., Mining Engineer, Batman's Hill, 
near Bilston, Staffordshire ; John Edward Forbes, Esq., 3.Fau]kner 
Street, Manchester ; Captain Francis William Heniy Pelaie, H.M. 
11th Begiment, Portsmouth. 

June 5th.— Joseph Tolson White, Esq., Mining Engineer, Wake- 
field, Yorkshire; William Boyd Dawkins, Esq., B.A., Jesus 
College, Oxford. 

19th. — John Atkinson, Esq., Mem. Phil. Geol. Soc., Man- 
chester, Thelwall near Warrington; Major Nathaniel Vicary, 
Wesigate, Wexford; Lord BoUo, 18 Upper Hyde Park Gar- 

November 20th. — Charles Sanderson, Esq., C.E.^ Engineer-in-Chief, 
Bombay and Baroda Bailwaj, Surat, Bombay ; Balph Tate, Esq., 
Teacher of Natural Science, Philosophical Institution, Belfast, 42 
Eglington Street, Belfast; James Bay Eddy, Esq., C.E., Carleton 
Grange, Skipton ; Henry Worms, Esq., of tiie Inner Temple, 27 
Park Crescent, Portland Place ; Haddock Dennys, Esq., 3 Percy 
Terrace, Lower Boad, Islington. 

December 4th. — Samuel Harradan, Esq., 6 Westboume Terrace, 
Bamsbury, London; Frederick Merryweather Burton, Esq., 
(Gainsborough ; Jonathan Sparrow Crowley, Esq., Lavender Hill, 
London, S.W; ; William Henry Paine, Esq., Stroud, Gloucester- 
shire; Edwin WitchcU, Esq., Stroud, Gloucestershire; Henry 
Tibbats Stainton, Esq., F.L.S., Mountsfield, Lewisham, Kent; 
Captain Auguste Frederic Lendy, F.L.S., Sunbury House, 
Sunbury, Middlesex ; Isaiah Booth, Esq., Mining Engineer, Oaks 
CoHiery, Oldham ; Don Bamon da Silva Ferro, Consul for Chile, 
43 Moorgate Street, E.G. 

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ThefoOowmg Perw/iag^ woi deeted a Foreign Mmhtr* 
Profeflsor Onstav Bisohof, UniTeisity of Bonn. 

The foUowing Donations to the MrssiTx have been receiTed since 
the last Anniversaiy. 

British Spedmaa* 

Specimens of Corals firom the lias ; presented by the Be?. P« B. 

Brodie, F.G.S. 
Two spedmens of Flint mth mammillated surface from chorch- 

tower^ in illustration of Mr. Bose's observations, published in the 

Froc. Oeol. Assoc., No. 5, p. 624; presented hj the Bev. J. S. 

Henslow, F.G.8. 
313 specimens of British Bocks and Fossils; presented by L. 

Homer, Esq., Ftes.G.S. 
Specimen of Cjrena-bed &om STew Cross ; presented by J. Sparks, 

Specimens of Mountain-limestones (rocks and fossils) from cuttings 

at Casterton, near Eirkby Lonsdale, on the line of the Lune 

Yalley Bailway ; presented by G. Jackson, Esq. 
Large mass of Anthracosia, &om Coal-bed near Oldham ; presented 

}aj J. 0. Middleton, Esq. 
Plant-bed £com Upper Tilestones of Kidderminster, with Lycopodites 

(Pachyiheea spharica) ; presented by Mr. G. E. Boberts. 
Cast of Flint-Implement from Icklington; presented by J. Evans, 

Suite of Fossils from Coniston Limestone and Shale ; presented by 

J. 0. Middleton, Esq. 
Boulders from the Gravel of Kelsey Hill and the Boulder-day of 

Paul Cliff, near Hull; presented by J. Prestwich, Esq., F.G.S., 

and F. J. Smith, Esq., F.G.S. 
Two specimens of Boulders (Granite) from the West Bosewame 

Mine, Gwinear, Cornwall; presented by H. C. Salmon, Esq., 

Specimens of Bones and Bocks from the Cuttings and Tunnels of the 

Worcester and Hereford Bailway; presented by the Bev. W. S. 

Sjinonds, F.G.S. 
Specimen of Conglomerate with Tin-stone, from Belistian Mine, 

Cornwall ; by A, Majendie, Esq., F.G.S. 
Specimens of Bones of Mammalia, from Wickham-lane Brick-field ; 

presented by W. E. Dawson, Esq. 
Specimens of Ventriculites, Serpul», &c., Upper Greensand, Compton 

Bay, Isle of Wight; presented by Major B. J. Garden, F.G.S. 

Foreign Specimens. 

105 specimens of Foreign Bocks and Fossils; presented by L, 

Homer, Esq., Pres.G.S. 
Specimens of Fossils from the Bolivian Andes; presented by D. 

Forbes, Esq., F.G.8. 

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X AJUmTJUtiLBT Mll'I'liO* 

A group of Kraussia rubra from Algoa Baji and spedmeni of Fossil 

Ferns, &g,, from South A&ica; presented by Dr. A* G. Ather- 

A suite of spedmeoB from Natal, coUeoted by A. Holdeni Esq. ; 

presented by the Eoyal Geograi^cal Sooiety. 
Nine specimens of Flint-Tools -with specimens of Gravel, Brick-earth, 

and Bones from St. Acheulf Amiens ; presented by T. E. Jones, 

Esq., F.G.S. 
A suite of Bocks and FossDs fi^m Western Australia; presented by 

T. F. Gregory, Esq. 
Speelmena fS !Ktaniferoua Iron-sand firom Taranaki, New Zealand, 

and of Stream-tin, South Australia ; presented by Prof. Tennant, 

Specimens of Bones in Stalactite from Natal ; presented by Ibgor 

B, J. Garden, F.G.B. 
Suite of Fossils from Pangadi, India ; presented by Captain Stoddard, 
Suite of Fossils f^m Sunday BiTor, South Afirioa | presented by 

G. W. Stow, Esq., and Captain Bock. 
Bpeolmens fiiom the Bryozoan limestone of Mount Gambier, South 

Australia; presented by the Bev. J. £. Woods, F.G.S. 
118 specimens of Books and Fossils from 26 localities in Saxony, 

85 specimens of Bocks and FossUs from 15 localities in Bohemia, 

and 7 specimens of Fossil Plants from (Eningen ; presented by Ih 

Homer, Esq., Pres.G.S. 
Specimens of Fossils from near Harrow, on the Biyer Glenelgi 

Victoria ; presented by the Bev. J. E. Woods, F.G.S. 
A suite of Upper Silurian Fossils from Gothlaud ; presented by Dr. 

Specimens of Volcanic Bocks from lipari and Ascension ; presented 

by Sir C, Bunbury, Bart., F.G.S. 
Twenty Book-specimens from Borneo ; presented by Mr. Buasell. 
Fossil Bird-bone and Fossil Bone of M!ammal from New Zealand ; 

presented by Prof. Huxley, Sec.G.S. 
Ten specimens of Weelden Coal, <&c., from Obemkirchen, Domberg, 

Osterwald, &c. ; presented by T. B. Jones, Esq., F.G.S. 
JE^pedmens of Dicynodon firom Cradock, South Africa; presented by 

Dr. G. Grey. 
Specimens of Fossil Bones from Lunel Viel; presented by M. 

Specimens of Fossils from South Africa ; presented by Dr. Bower- 
bank, F.G.S. 
Specimens of Posidonise, Jurassio and Deronian, from Germany ; 

preoented by T. B. Jones, Esq., F.G.S. 
Speaimens of Books from the Interior of Australia, collected by 

Mr. Macdougall Stewart; presented by Sir B. I. Murchison, 


Ohaxtb, Maps, xto. pbxsextxd. 

Section of a Well at Hastings; Seetion of Mr. Gumey's Well at Bed 
Hill; Section of the Well at the Northampton Water-worka; 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

AinrvAi BiPOBt. zi 

Section of a Well at Warnham, SuBBex ; Section of Well at Birken- 
head Water-works ; presented by G. R. Bumell, Esq., F,G.8, 
Section of Well at Thames Bank ; presented by T. B. Jones, F.G.8. 
Geological Map of Western Anstmlja, from the researches of Mesns. 

Gregory ; presented by J, Azrowsmith, Esq., F.B.G.8, . 
MS. GeologiciEd Map of Cornwall and part of Devon, showing 

tiie strike of the Slate-beds, 1858 ; presented by £• Whitley, Esq. 
Carte Hydrdi^ne de la Yille de Paris, par M. Delesse; presented 

by M. iDelesse, For.M.G.8. 
Garte 0^oI(kgiqne eouterraine de la Yille de Paris, 1868. A, Delesse, 

Carte des andens Glaciers dn Yersaiit Italien des Alpes, par Gabriel 

de Mortillet} presented by M. G, de MortUlet, 
Carte G^logique de la IT^rlande, Nos. 19, 20 ; presented by the 

Gedogioal Conunission of the Netherlands. 
Sixty-six Hydrographig Charts and Plaiis; presented by the 

Ministre de la Manne, Paris. 
Geological Map of a portion of Central India ; Savgor and Nerbudda 
. Territories J presented by Prof. Oldham, F.G.S., Director of the 

Geological Survey of India* 
Geological Map of a part of Bundelcund ; H, B. Medlioott» Esq., F.G,S. 
Map d^ Sarawak ; presented by Mr» Bnssell, F.G.S, 
Physical Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland, by Walter M^^Leod, 

F.E.G.S.I presented by W. M^'Leod, Esq. 
Carte Physique et Industrielle de la N^lande (in 16 sheets); 

presented by the Geological Commission of the Netherlands. 
Eorten und ICttheilungen des Mittelrheinischen Geologischen Ye* 

reins : Section Diebuig von F. Becker und B. Ludwig. Presented 

by the Ge<dogioal Society of the Middle Bhine, 
Map of the British Coal-fields, showing the extent and depth of the 

Cosl-formation, by E. Hull ; presented by E. Hull, B.A., F.G.S. 
Geological Survey of Great Britain. Yertioal Section, Sheet 26. 

Horizontal Sections, Sheets 58 to 61. Whole sheets, I^os. 12 

and 13. Quarter sheets, Nos. 45 N.W.--53 N.E. ) 53 S j:.---63 

SJE.; 80N.W.; 82-89 8.W. 
Chart of the British Isles, showing the lines of Deepest water, and 

lines of Depression and Elevation, 1861. The Bev. B. Everest, 

Schoolkaart voor de Natuurknnde en de YolksvHjt van Nederland. 

I860. 16 sheets. Dr. W. C. H. Staring. 
Photograph of a remarkable sur&ce of Coal-measure Sandstone at 

Swansea ; presented by M. Moggridge, Esq., F.G.S. 
lithographed Panoramic Yiew of the Kashmir Mountains, by T. Q. 

Montgom6rie,1859; presented by B. Godwin-Austen, Esq., F.G.S. 

The following lists contain the Ifames of the Persons and Public 
Bodies from whom Donations to the Library and Museum have been 
received since the last Anniversary, February 15^ 1861. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



I. list of Societies and Pablio Bodies from whom the Society has 
received Donations of Books since the last Anniversaiy Meeting, 

Basely Natural History Society of. 

Berlin^ German Geological Society 

f Boyal Academy of Sciences 


Berwick. NatoraHst's Field Club. 

Bogota. Natural History Society 
of New Granadians. 

Bordeanzy Soci^t^ linn^enne de. 

Boston (U. S.), Natural History 
Society of. 

Breslau. Silesian Society for Fa- 
therland Eiiowledge. 

— — • Imperial Leopold Aca- 
demy of Naturalists of Ger- 

British GoTemment. 

British Museum, Trustees of. 

Brussels. L'Acad^mie Boyale des 

Caen. Bod^t^ linndenne de 

Calcutta. Geological Survey of 

-»-• Bengal Asiatic Society. 

Cambridge (Mass.). American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Canada, Geological Survey of. 

Cherbouig, Soci^t^ des Sciences 
Naturelles de. 

Christiania, Boyal University of. 

Copenhagen. Boyal Danish Aca- 
demy of Sciences. 

Cornwall, Boyal Polytechnic So- 
ciety of. 

Darmstadt. Geological Society of 

the Middle Ehine. 
Dijon, Academy of Natural 

Sciences of. 
Dorpat, Natural Histoiy Society 

Dublin, Geological Society of. 
— — , Boyal Irish Academy at. 

Edinbuighy Boyal Society of. 

France, Geological Society of. 
Frankfurt, Senckenberg Natural 

History Society of. 
— (Kentucky). Geological 

Survey of Eentudcy. 

Geneva. La Soci^t^de Physique 
et d'Hlstoire. 

Halle, Saxony and Thuringian 
Natural Society in. 

Hambuig. Natural History So- 

Hanau. Natural History Society 
of the Wetterau. 

Heidelberg, Natural History So- 
ciety of. 

HobartTown. Geological Survey 
of Van Diemen's Land. 

India, Secretary of State for. 

Lausanne. Sod^t^ Yaudoise des 
Sciences Naturelles. 

Leeds, Philosophical Society of. 

Li^, la Society Boyale de. ! 

Liverpool. Lancashire and Che- 
shire Historical Society. 

' , Philosophical Society of. 

, Geological Society of. 

London Commissioners for the 
Exhibition 1861-1862. 

London. Geological Survey of 
Great Britain and Ireland. 

. Boyal Astronomical So- 

. Boyal Asiatic Society of 

Great Britain. 

f Art-Union of. 

. British Association. 

, Chemical Society of. 

. College of Surgeons of 


. Coll^ of Physicians of 


. BoyolGcographicalSociety. 

. Geologists' Association. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



London^ Boyal HoTtioaltaral So- 
ciety of. 

. Institate of Actuaries of 

Great Britain and Ireland. 

. Institate ofCivilEngineeis. 

• King's College. 

, Linnean Society of. 

, Mendicity Society of. 

f Meteorological Society of, 

-^9 Microscopical Society of. 

, Fhotographio Society of. 

, PalflBontological Society of. 

— , Boyal Society of. 

. Boyal^Institotian of Great 


. Science and Art Depart- 

, Statistical Society of. 

, Zoological Sodety of. 

— — . London Institution. 

. Board of English Ord- 

Louis. Academy of St. Louis. 

Lyons, les CommisBionnairesHy- 
drom^ques de. 

Madrid, Academy of Sciences of. 

Mandiester, (Geological Society of. 

Melbourne. Mining Surveyors of 

. Colonial Mining Journal. 

Milan, Imperial Institute of. 

Montreal, Natural History So- 
ciety of. 

Moscow, Imperial Academy of 
Naturalists of. 

Munidi, Academy of Sdenoes of. 

Netherlands, Geological Com- 
mission of. 

New Haven (U.S.). Editor of 
American Journal of Science. 

New York. Cooper Union for 
Advancement of Science and 

, State library of. 

, Lyceum of Natural His- 
tory df. 

Offenbach, Natural History So- 
ciety of. 

Palermo. Agricultural Society of 

Paris, r Acaddmie des Sciences de. 

, Depot Gdn^rale d'Annales 

des Sciences Naturelles k, 

, Ddpdt de la Marine L 

. Imp^riale Zoologique d' Ac- 


• L'Ecole des Mines. 

Pesth, Academy of Sciences of. 

Philadelphia, Academy of Na- 
tural Sciences of. 

Plymouth Institution. 

Puy-en-Yelay, la Soci^t^ d'Agri- 
culture et Sciences du. 

Stockholm, Academy of. 

St. Petersburg, Imperial Aca- 
demy of. 

Stuttgart. Fatherland Natural 
History Society of Wurtem- 

Toronto (Government of Canada), 
Public Library of. 

. Canadian Institute. 

Turin, Academy of Sciences at. 
Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club. 

Yienna, Geological Institute of. 
, Imperial Academy of. 

Warwickshire Naturalists' Field 

Washington. United States War 

. Smithsonian Institution. 

Wiesbaden. Natural History So- 
ciety of the Grand Duchy of 

Yorkshire (West Biding). Geo- 
logical and Polytechnical So- 

, Philosophical Society of. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


ASmynBBBASY msbtdto. 

n. list containing the names of the Persons from whom Donations 
to the Library and Museum have been received since the last 

American Journal of Science and 

Art, Editor of the. 
Arkanisas^ Governor of. 
Arrowsmith, J., Esq. 
Athenaeum JoumaL Editor of 

Atherstone, Sr. A. G. 
Atlas Newroaper, Editor of the. 
Austin, Maj(», F.G.B. 

Barrande, M. J., Por.M.G.B. 
Beke, Dr. 
Belt, T., Esq. 
Biden, W. D. 
Binkhoorst, M. 
Bland, T., Esq., P.G.8. 
Botfteld, B., Esq., M.P., P.G.S. 
Bowerbank, Dr., F.G.S. 
Bristow, H. W., Esq., F.G.S. 
Bronn, Prof., For.M.G.S. 
Bunbuiy, Sir C, Bart., F.G.S. 
Bumell, G. R., Esq. 

Cabral, Don. 

Carpenter, Dr. W. B., F.G.S. 

Chapuis, M. P. 

Charlton, Mr. 

Chemist and Druggist, Editor of 

Chrestien, M. 

Clarke, Rev. W. B., F.G.S. 
Colliery Guardian, Editor of the. 
Critic, Editor of the. 
Cumming, Bev. J. G., F.G.S. 

Daubeny, Dr., P.G.S. 
Daubr^, M. A. 
Davidson, T.» Esq., P.G.8. 
Dawson, Dr. J. W., F.G.S. 
Dawson, W. E., Esq. 
Delesse, H., Por.M.G.S. 
Deshayee, Prof., For.M.G.S. 
Deslongchamps, M. E. E., For. 

Evans, J., Esq., P.G.S. 

Favre, M. A. 
Ferrd, W., Esq. 
Forbes, D., Esq., P.G.S. 
Forbes, Prof., P.G.S 
Foumet, Prof. 

Gabb, Dr. 

Garden, Ks^or, P.G.S. 

Gaudry, M. 

Gemmellaro, Sig. G. G. 

Geologist, Editor of the. 

Gibb, Dr. G. D., F.G.S. 

Godwin-Austen,R.,Esq., F.G.S. 

Grant, Dr. 

Gray, Dr. Asa. 

Gregory, T. P., Esq. 

Grey, Dr. G. 

Guyot, Dr. 

Haast, J., Esq. 

Hall, Prof., For.M.G.S. 

Hauer, H. von. 

Haughton, Rev. S., F.G.S. 

H^rt, M. E. 

Hector, Dr., F.G.S. 

Heer, Prof. 0. 

Helmersen, G. von, For.M.G.S. 

Henslow, Rev. J. S., F.G.S. 

Henwood, W. J., F.G.S. 

Hopkins, E., Esq., F.G.S. 

Homer, L., Esq., Pres.G.S. 

Horton, W. S., Esq., F.G.S. 

Hull, E., Esq., F.G.S. 

Huxley, Prof. T. H., SecG.S. 

Jackson, G., Esq. 
Jamieson, T. P., Esq., P.G.B. 
Jeffreys, J. G., Esq., F.G.S. 
Jones, T. R., Esq., P.G.S. 

King, Prof. W. 

Lartet, M., Por.M.G.S. 
Lea, Dr. I. 
Lindsay, Dr. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


JAndsMm^ Dr. 0. 

literary Gazette, Eclitor of the. 

London, Edinburgh, and Dublin 

Philotophioal liagaiine, Editor 

of the. 
London Eeriow, Editor of the. 
Longman and Ck).^ Kessra, 
Longman, W.» Esq., F.O.B. 
Lov^, M. 8. 
Lubbodk, J.» Eiq.» F.O.S. 
Lyell, Sir C, P.G.S. 

IC^'Androwi J^ Esq. 

M^Leod, W., Esq. 

Higendie, A., EAq.» F.O.S. 

Marcou, M. J. 

Meohanioi' Magadne» Editor of 

Michelin, K. 
Ifiddldton, J. 0., Esq. 
lOning Eeview, Editor of the, 
Koggridge, M., Esq., RO.S. 
Mortillet, M. 
Mttrohison, Sir E» L> Y»F.O.S. 

Naumann, Dr. C. F., For.M.G.S. 

Newberry, J. S., Esq^. 

New Zealand Ezammer, Editor 

of the. 
Niool, Prof. }., F.6.B. 

Oldham, Dr., F.G.S. 

Ordway, A. 

Owen, Prof. B., F.G.8. 

Parker, V. K., Esq. 

Penv, M^ 

Perthes, 7' 

, B. de. 
Pictet, M. F. J. 
Pirona, Dr. 
Porter, Dr., P.0.8. 


Prestwioh, J., Esq., F.G.8. 


Quarterly Journal of Mierosco^ 
^cal Sdenoe, Editor of the. 

Qnarteriy Journal of theChemical 
Socie^, Editor of the. 

Bamsay, Prof. A. 0., F.O.a 
Beeve, L., Esq., F.O.S. 
Butimeyer, Dr. 

Salmon, H. 0., Esq., F.O.S. 

Sandberger, Dr. 

San, Dr. M. 


Schvarcs, Dr. 

Soott, B. W., Esq. 

Sorbv, H. 0., Esq., F.O.S. 

Sparks, J., Esq. 

Stoddard, Captain. 

Stoliocka, M. F. 

Stoppani, A. 

Stow, G. W., Esq. 

Street, G., Esq. 

Studer, Prof. B., For.M.G.S. 

Suess, Prof. E. 

Symonds, Bev. W. S., F.G.8. 

Tonnant, Prof. J., F.G.S. 
Tylor, E. B., Esq. 
Tyson, P., Esq, 

Weizel, T. 0. 

Whitley, N., Esq. 

Whitley, B., Esq. 

Willis and Sotheran, Messrs. 

Woods, Bev. J. E., F.G.S. 

Zigno, Signer A. de. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


.List o/Fapbrs read since the last Anniversary Meeting, 
Feln-uary 17th, 1861. 
Fob. 20th. — On the Coincidence between the Stratification and 

Foliation of the Altered Books of the Scottish Highlands, by Sir 

R. I. Murchison, V.P.G.S., and A. Geikie, Esq., F.G.S. 
— ^— On the Eolations of the Strata of some parts of the 

Scottish Highlands (Sonth of the Caledonian Canal) and in the 

North of Ireland, by Prof. Harkness, F.G.S. 
Harch 6th. — On the Succession of Beds in the Hastings Sand, by 

F. Drew, Esq., F.G.S. 
— »— ^-^— On the Permian Bocks of South Yorkshire, and their 

Palffiontological relations, by J. W. Eirkby, Esq.; communicated 

by T. Davidson, Esq., F.G.S. 
Han^ 20th. — ^Notes on a Collection of Fossil Plants from N<Sgpur, 

by Sir C. J. F. Bunbury, F.G.S. 

■ On the Age of the Foesiliferous Thin-bedded Sand- 
stone and Coal of the Province of N^ur, India, by the Bev. 

Stephen Hisbp ; communicated by the I^^dent. 

On the Belative Positions of certain Plants in the 

Coal-bearing beds of Australia, by the Bev. V. B. Clarke, F.G.S. 

Apnl 10th. — On Elevations and Depressions of the Earth in North 
America, by Dr. Abraham Gesner, F.G.S. 

■ On the ecology of tiie Country between Lake Su- 

perior and the Pacific Ocean (between the 48th and 54th parallels 
of latitude) visited by the Government Exploring Expedition 
under the command of Captain J. Palliser (1857-60), by J. Hec- 
tor, M.D. ; communicated by Sir B. I. Murchison, V.P.G.S. 

April 24th. — On the Occurrence of the Oyrena flvminalis, together 
with Marine Shells of Becent Species, in beds of Sand and Gravel 
over beds of Boulder-day near Hull ; with an Account of some 
Borings and Well-sections in the same District, by J. Prestwich, 
Esq., Treas.G.S. 

^ On the " Symon Fault " in the Coalbrook-dale Coal- 
field, by M. V. T. Scott, Esq., F.G.S. 

May 8th. — On two Bone-caverns in the Montague du Eer at Mas- 
sat, in the Department of the Ari^ge, by M. Alfred Fontan; 
communicated by M. Lartet, For.M.G.S. 

■ Notes on some further discoveries of Flint Imple- 
ments in Beds of Post-pliocene Gravel and Clay; with a few 
Suggestions for Search elsewhere, by J. Prestwich, Esq., Treas.G.S. 
. On the Coiiicula (or Oyrena) flunwnaUs geologically 

considered, by J. Gwyn Jeffireys, Esq., F.G.S. 
May 22nd.— On the G^logy of a part of Western Australia, by 

F. T. Gregoiy, Esq.; communicated by Sir B. I. Murchison, 

— — — On the Zones of the Lower lias and the Avxeula e(m'- 

torta Zone, by C. M(A>re, Esq., F.G.S. 
June 5th. — On the Occurrence of laige Granite Boulders, at a Great 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

- AmruAL BEPOBT. kvii 

Depth, in Vest Rosewarne Mine, Gwinear, Cornwall, by H. C. Sal- 
mon, Esq., F.G.8. 

June 5th. — On an erect SigiUaria from the South Jogging, N(Jva 
Scotia, by Dr. J. W. Dawson, F.G.8. 

Note on a Carpolite from the Coal-formation of Cape 

Breton, by Dr. J. W. Dawson, F.G.8. 

On some of the Higher Crustacea from the British 

Coal-measures, by J. W. Salter, F.G.8. 

On a Eeconstructed Bed on the top of the Chalk and 

underlying the Woolwich and Beading Beds, by W.Whitaker, B.A., 

June 19th. — On the Lines of Deepest "Water around the British Isles, 

by the Rev. E. Everest, F.G.S. 
On the Old B«d Sandstone Rocks of Forfershire, by 

James Powrie, Esq., F.G.S. 

• On the Ludlow Bone-bed and its Crustacean Remains,, 

by J. Harley, M.B. ; communicated by Prof. Huxley, Sec.G.S. 

On the Outburst of a Volcano near Edd, on the 

African Coast of the Red Sea, by Capt. R. L. Playfair; commu- 
nicated by Sir R. I. Murchison, V.P.G.S. 

Notice of the Occurrence of an Earthquake on' the 

20th of March, 1861, in Mendoza, Argentine Confederation, South 
America, by C. Murray, Esq. ; communicated by the President. 

On the Increase of Land on the Coromandel Coast, 

by J. W. Dykes, Esq. ; from a letter to Sir C. LyeU, F.G.S. 
Nov. 6th.— On the Bone-caves of Lunel-Viel, Herault, by M. Marcel 

de Serres ; communicated by the President. 
On the Petroleum-springs of North America, by Dr. 

A. Gesner, F.G.S. 

On a Volcanic Phenomenon witnessed at Manilla, by 

J. G. Veitch, Esq. ; communicated by Dr. Hooker. 

Notice of the Discovery of Additional Remains of 

Land Animals in the Coal-measures of the South Joggins, Nova 

Scotia, by Dr. J. W. Dawson, F.G.S. 
Nov. 20^. — On some Volcanic Cones at the foot of Etna, by Prof. 

GemmeUaro ; communicated by Sir C. LyeU. 
On the Deposits at Bovey Tracey, Devon, by J. H. 

£ey, Esq. ; communicated by Sir C. Lyell, F.G.S. 

> On some Carboniferous Brac^iiojpoda from the Pun- 

jab, by T. Davidson, Esq., F.G.S. 
Dec. 4th.— On the Bracklesham Beds of the Isle of Wight Basin, by 

the Rev. 0. Fisher, F.G.S. 
Jan. 8th. — On the Carboniferous Limestones of Oreton and Farlow, 

Clee Hills, Shropshire, by Prof. J. Morris, V.P.G.8., and Mr. G. E. 

Roberts ; with a note on a new Plerichthys, by Sir P. do M. Groy 

Egerton, Bart., F.G.S. 

On somo Fossil Plants showing Structurc, from the 

VOL. xvin. h 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Lower Coal-fiddf of lanotahire, by E. W^Binnej, Esq., F.II.S., 

Jan. 22nd.^— On the ftiriher DiBCoyery of Flint Implements in Gravel 

near Bedford, by J. Wyatt, Esq., F.G.S. 
■■ ■■■ OnFHntAnw*heads(?)fromtfael)riftinNorthItovon, 

by N. Whitley, Esq. ; communicated by J. B. :^y8, Esq., F.GJ3. 
On the Hynna-^den at Wookey-hol% near Wells, by 

W. Boyd Dawkins, Esq., F.G.8. 

After the Beports had been read It was resolved,— 

That they be received and entered on the minutes of the Meeting ; 

and that snoh parts of them as the Council shall think fit be printed 

and distributed among the Fellows. 

It was afterwards resolved, — 

1. That the thanks of the Society be given to Sir R. I. Mnrchison, 
Prof. John Phillips, and G. P. Scrope, retiring from the office of Vice- 

9. That the thanks of the Society be given to Dr. J. D. Hooker, 
Prof. W. H. Miller, Prof. J. Phillips, Maior-General Portlook, and 
T. Sopwith, Esq., retiring from the Council. 

After the Balloting-ghisseB had been duly closed, and the lists 
examined by the Scrutineers, the following gentlemen were declared 
to have been duly elected as the Officers and Council for the ensuing 


Professor A. C. Bamsay, F.R.S. 

Sir P. G. Egerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. & L.S. 
Sir Charles Lyell, F.R.S. <fe L.S. 
J. Carriek Moore, Esq., F.R.S. 
Professor John Morris. 

Prof. T. H. Huxley, F.R.S. & L.S. 
Warington W. Smyth, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

William John Hamilton, Esq., F.R.S. 

Joseph Preetwich, Esq., F.R.S. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 




John J. Bigsby, M.D. 
Sir Charles Bunbury, Bart, 
r.R.s. & LS. 

Robert Chambers, Esq., F.B.S.E. 

qL Ii.S« 

Sir P. G. Egerton, Bart., M.P., 

r.E.S. & L.S. 
Earl of Enniskillen, D.C.L., 


Hugh Falconer, M.D., F.RS. 
William John Hamilton, Esq., 

Leonard Homer, Esq., F.R.S, 

L. &E. 
Prof. T.H. Hnxley, F-RS. Aj L.S. 
John Lubbock, Esq.,F.R.S.&L.S. 

Sir Charles Lyell, F.B.S. & L.a 

Edward Meryon, MJD. 

John Carrick Moore, Esq., F.R.S. 

Prof. John Morris. 

Sir B. L Muiehiflon, 6«G.8t.8., 

F.B.S. & L.8. 
Eobert W. Myhie, E^., F.R.S. 
Joseph Presiwich, Esq., F.B.S. 
Prof. A. C. Bamsay, F.B.S, 
G, P. Scropef, ESq.,MJP.,F.K.eL 
Warington W. Smyth,Eiq., M.A., 

Alfred Tylor, Esq., P.L.& 
Bev, Thomas Wiltshirei M.A, 
8. P. Woodward, Esq, 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 






1817. Professor Karl Ton Raomer, ilftiitu*^. 

1818. Professor G. Ch. Gmelin^ Tubingen. 

1819. Count A. Breunner, Vienna, 
1819. Sign. Alberto Parolini, Bassano, 
1822. Count Vitiano Borromeo, MHan. 

1828. Professor Nils de Nordenskiold, HMngfors, 

1825. Dr. G. Forchhammeri Copenhagen, 

1827. Dr. H. von Dechen, Oberbeighauptmann, Bonn, 

1827. Herr Karl von Oeynhausen, Oberbeighauptmann, Breslau, 
182a M. J. M. Bertrand de Doue, Ay-en- Velay. 

1828. M. L^nce Elie de Beaumont, Sec Perp^tuel de llnstit France, 

For. Memb. R. S., Paris, 

1828. Dr. B. Silliman, New Haven, Connecticut, 

1829. Dr. Ami Bou^, Vienna, 

1829. J. J. d'Omalius d^Halloj, Namur, 

1882. Professor Eilort Mitscherlich, For. Mem. R. S., Berlin. 

1839. Dr. Ch. G. Ehrenberg, For. Mem. R. S., Berlin. 

1840. Professor Adolphe T. Brongniart, For. Mem. R. S., Paris. 

1840. Professor Gustav Rose, Berlin. 

1841. Dr. Louis Agassiz, For. Mem. R S., Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
184L M. G. P. Deshayes, Pam. 

1844. Professor William Burton Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

1844. M. Edouard de Vemeuil, Paris. 

1847. Dr. M. C. IL Pander, JZ^o. 

1847. M. le Vicomte B. d'Archiac, Paris, 

1848. James Hall, Esq., Albany, 
1860. Professor Bernard Studer, Berne. 

1860. Herr Hermann von Meyer, Frankfort on Maine. 

1861. Professor James D. Dana, New Haven, Connecticut. 
1861. Professor H. G. Bronn, Heidelberg. 

1861. Colonel G. von Helmersen, St. Petersburg. 

186L Hofrath W. K, Haidinger, For. Mem. R. S., Vienna. 

1861. Professor Angelo Sismonda, Turin, 

1863. Count Alexander von Keyserling, ItevaL 

1863. Professor Dr. L. G. de Koninck, Li^ge. 

1864. M. Joachim Barrande, Prague. 

1864. Professor Dr. Karl Friedrich Naumann, Zeipsic. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 




Profeesor Dr. Robert W. Bunsen, Heidelberg. 

Professor Dr. H. R. Goeppert, Breslau. 

M. E. Lartet, Parte. 

Professor Dr. H. B. Geiiutz, Dreeden, 

Dr. Hennann Abich, SL Peiereburg. 

Dr. J. A. R Deslongchampe, Qten. 

Heir Am. Escher von der Linth, Zurich, 

M. A. Deleese, Parie. 

Professor Dr. Ferdinand Roemer, Breelau. 

Professor Dr. H. Milne-Edwards, For. Mem. R. S., Paris. 

Professor Gustav Bischo^ Bonn. 

Se&or Casiano di Prado, Madrid. 

Baron Sartorius Waltenhausen, GoUingen, 

FxofoB&ot Piexre Merian, Basle, 





'^To promote researches eonoeming the mineral s l m ct up e of the earth| 
and to enable the Council of the (Geological Society to reward those 
indiyiduals of any coontry by whom such researches may hereafter be 
made;" — ''such indiyidual not being a Member of the CoundL" 

1831. Mr. William Smith. 
1836. Dr. G. A. Mantell, 
1836. M. L. Agassiz. 
1M7 i Capt P. F. Cautley. 
^^'- I Dr. H. Falconer. 
183a Professor R Owen. 
1830. Professor C. G. Ehrenbeig. 

1840. Profidssor A. H. Dumont 

1841. M. Adolphe T. Brongniart 

1842. Baron L. von Buch« 

IM. R de Beaumont 
M. P. A Dufir^noy. 
1844 The Rev. W. D. Conybeare. 

1845. Professor John Phillips. 

1846. Mr. William Lonsdale. 

1847. Dr. Ami Bou4. 

184a The Bey, Dr. W. BucUand. 







Mr. Joseph Prestwich, jun. 
Mr. William Hopkins. 
The Rev. Prof A. Sedgwick. 

)M. le Vicomte A. d'Archiac 
M. R de y emeuiL 
Dr. Richard Griffith. 
Sir H. T. De la Beche. 
Sir W. R Logan. 
M. Joachim Barrande. 

(Herr Hermann von Meyer. 
Mr. James HalL 
Mr. Charles Darwin. 
Mr. Searles V.Wood. 
Prof Dr. H. G. Bronn. 
Mr. Robert A. C. Godwin- 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

Estimates /or 


£ f • d. £ s, d. 
Due for SnbacriptionB on Qnarteriy Jooxnsl (con- 
sidered good) • 60 

Dae for Aathors' Correctionfl 18 IST 

Doe for Arrears (See Valoation-Bheet) •.... 1S7 16 

196 13 

Ordinary Income ftnr 1661 (estimated). 

Annual Contributions : — 

232 Resident Fellows at jCS 3« .699 6 

48 Non-resident Fellows at ^ei 119.. 6d ... 76 12 

774 18 

Admission-fees (supposed) 200 

Compositions (supposed) 150 

Dividends on Consols •• •••••• • ••• ^31 12 

Sale of Transactions, Proceedings, Geological Map, li- 
brary-catalogues« and Ormerod's Index •••., 60 

Sale of Quarterly Journal • 200 

DuefromLongmanandCo. in June..... 60 9 4 

Balance due from Bequest-Fund on account of Expenditure 
on Map» Museum* and Library «...«»» 106 IT .3 

Feb. 5, 1862. 

£1870 9 7 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

the Year 1862. 


£ 9. d. € $, d. 

Genenl Expenditure : 

Tines and Intmanoe •• 40 

Honae-Repain ••»•» » 80 

F urni t ur e »•••# 20 

Foel , 35 

liipht .,.. 35 

BfisceUanecms HooBe-expenaet 60 

Statienery 30 

Mijcellaneoqa Printing, inclnding Abstracts . . . . 30 

Tea for Meetings 20 


Salaries and Wngea : 

Aasistaat4(eorstary fOO 

Clerk 90 

Assistants in Library and Museum 100 • 

Porter .,.., 90 

Housemaid #••.•• 40 

Occasional Attendants .*. , fO 

Collector 30 6 


library: Ordinary and Special Expenditure * 10 

Museum : Ordinary Expenditure • • ..••• 60 

Diagrams at Meetings •••..•• 6 

Miscellaneous Scientific Expenditure 60 

Publications : Quarterly Journal 630 

„ Transactions • f9».» 10 

„ Geological Map» special expenditure ,.. 80 

Balance in favour of tbe Society 95 9 7 

jC1870 9 7 

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Income and Expenditure during the 


£ 9, d. £ i. d* 

Balance at Banker's. January 1. 1861 19 8 10 

Balance in Clerk's hands ^ 15 3 6 

Compositions received, 1861 141 15 

Arrears of Admission-fees 50 8 

Arrears of Annual Contributions 63 

Admission-fees for 1861 214 4 

Annual Contributions for 1861, viz. — 

204 Resident FeUows £636 16 6 

36 Non-Resident Fdlows ... 51 19 

688 15 6 

Dividends on Consols 13118 8 

Dividends on New Soudi Wales Bond. , . , 7 4 4 

139 3 

Publications : 

Longman and Co., for Sale of Quarterly Journal 

inl860 63 12 3 

Sale of TrantactionB 16 8 

Sale of Proceedings 10 

SaleofJoomal, Vols. 1-6 10 2 6 

„ Vols.7-12 17 17 6 

„ Vols.13-15 19 9 

„ Vol. 16 50 12 6 

VoL 17* 94 10 10 

Sale of Geological Map 6 12 3 

Sale of library-catalogues 2 18 6 

Sale of Onnerod's Index 3 5 4 

285 18 8 

Journal-Compositions 18 

Portion of the Greenough and Brown Bequest- 
Fund, ordered by Sie Council to be sold 

out on account of Special Expenditure 
on Map, Library, Museum, and House- 
repairs, as per general estimates for the 

year 1861t 490 2 6 

Donation from Mr. Alfred Tylor 52 10 

We have compared the Books and 
Vouchers presented to us M'ith these 
Statements, and find them correct. 

THOMASF. GIBSON,! . .., -oi7q o n 

ALFRED TYLOR, ) •^''^*'^''*- ^^'^^ ^ ^ 

Feb. 1, 1862. 

* Due from Messrs. Longman and Co., in addition to the above, 

on Journal, Vol. XVll £60 9 4 

Dne from Fellows for Journal SubscripUon 50 

t Balance due from the Bequest-Fund for expenditure on Map. 

Library, and Museum 106 17 3 

X217 6 

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Year ending December 3Uty 1861. 


General Expenditure : £ $, d. £ $. 4. 

Taxes 28 8 4 

Plre-Insunnce 3 

Hoote-Repain :— Ordloary .... £\h 14 6 

Special 148 4 6 

163 19 

Fuel 34 3 

Light 32 18 9 

Misoellaneoos House-expenditorey including 

Postage^tamps 87 4 7 

Stationery *.. •••..,,,, 23 17 2 

Miscellaneous Printing 20 8 6 

Tea for Meetings 17 15 8 

o , . . «r ^^^ ^5 

Salanea and Wages : 

Assistant-Secretary 200 

Clerk 76 5 

Assistants in Library and Moseum 91 o 

Porter 90 

Housemaid 40 

Donation to Mr. Nichols 70 

Occasional Attendance 21 19 6 

Collector 25 ft 9 

■ 614 10 3 

Library: — Ordinary Expenditure 56 6 2 

Special ditto 43 9 6 

99 15 8 

Museum: — Ordinary Expenditure 37 13 9 

Special. Foreign Collection . . 50 

Ditto. Cabinets 40 19 

— 128 12 9 

Diagrams at Meetings 10 

Miscellaneous Scientific Expenses 17 18 10 

Publications : 

Geological Map 55 4 3 

Transactions and Ormerod's Index 6 3 5 

Proceedings and Abstracts 8 6 

Journal, Vols. Vll.-XII 15 3 

„ V0U.XIIL-XV. 2 8 

„ V0I.XVI 4 13 7 

., V0I.XVII 616 3 10 

693 1 6 

Balance at the Banker's and at Messrs. Longman's, 

Dec. 31, 1861 192 6 1 

Balance in Clerk's hands 19 is H 

£2178 9 

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I ^ O O ^ ^ 

5 O) O O 40 C9 Ob 


5 j :2 

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21w FEBEUAET, 1862. 


The Chairman, Sib Bodbbxck Mitbchibov, then addnaaed Hr. 
GoDwnr'AiTaxBV aa folbws : — 

Mr. GbDwiK-AxrsiEir, — ^Yalimig as I do the services you haTe 
rendered to geological science, I consider myself very fortunate in 
ooonpying this chair to perform the duty of the President in his 
unayoidable absence, by placing the Wollaston Medal in your hands. 

Although there are two points in your numerous writings in which 
I have differed from you, viz., your theory of the synchronism of the 
Upper Silurian and Devonian rocks, and your view of the lacustrinio 
or terrestrial nature of the Old Bed Sandstone, yet even in these 
views I admire your originality of thought; whilst on all other 
grounds I am bound to say that I am convinced of the sonndneas of 
your speculations. 

In truth, all your associates, as well as myself, are aware that you 
have distinguished yourself during a Long series of years by your 
SDCceBsful inquiries into the former changes of land and wat^ from 
the Falffiozoic age to modem times. 

PeiBistentLy keeping that great object in view, you have put forth 
well-founded hypotheses, based on actual and numerous observations, 
which have raised the philosophical character of our science. Your 
sedulous study of the organic remains, as well as thematerialiof the 
beds ihemselves of each formation which you have examined, and 
your laborious tracings of various lines of ^location, have all been 
made subsesrient to that one great end; andl amtherabreproud to 
announce that you are this day justly rewarded with the Wollaston 
Medal as being pre^-eminently the physical geograpber of bygone 

hi your latest remarkable reseoroheS; yon have, by fidr indneliTe 

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reasoning, brought to the mind's eye of geologists the high probability 
of the extension of Upper Falseozoic, if not of Garbomferous strata 
beneath the surface of the Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks surrounding 
our metropolis ; and you have thus made the value and importance 
of our science apparent even to the commercial classes of the country. 
Pray receive this Medal as the hearty expression of otir approba* 
tion ; and may it stimulate you to extend to the study of the subsoil 
of those foreign lands into which you are about to toivel the same 
ener^ and talent which enabled you to elaborate so ingeniously and 
so skilfolly the former changes of land and water over so lai^ an 
area in the west of Europe. 

Hr. GoDWQr- AuszEV, on receiving the Hedali thus replied :-^ 

I have so frequently been a member of the Council of this Society 
when the award of the WoUaston Hedal has been under considera* 
tion, I so well know how many qualifications have been taken into 
account in its adjudication, that I am enabled to appreciate in the 
fullest the very high honour which I now recdve, at your hands, 
from this Society. I am proud of such a record of the estimation 
in which the part which I have taken in our common work has been 
held by you. But when I speak in this way of the WoUaston Medal, 
I beg that you will feel assured, and by no idle form of words, that 
I should almost regret the honour if I thought for a moment that I 
could thereby deceive myself. I know how very unequal are tiie 
degrees of merit of those who receive the same honours ; and I can 
myself, as^well as anybody, draw the broad line which must separate 
me from others whom you have already placed in that distinguished 

Tou have been pleased. Sir, to refer to some of those contributiona 
which have been fevourably considered by the Council. I will not 
follow you over that ground ; but perhaps I may be allowed to say 
this much, that in every contribution I have endeavoured to work 
out and apply what has been seen and recorded to some of the ulti- 
mate aims and objects of geological investigation. It may have been 
no veiy difficult matter to restore the physical features of the north 
hemisphere for the Tertiary, or even for the Cretaceous and Oolitic 
periods of past time. The Permian area and that of old Coal-growths 
are both easy enough of definition. But, standing before you as I now 
do, I am forcibly reminded that when it came to the consideration of 
those vast masses of early Palaeozoic deposit, now raised up into 
the mountains of Wales, so large a portion of which go to form your 
Silurian series, that then for the first time all landmarks seem to 
disappear, and that I was driven to steer for a Western Atlantis older 
and larger far than that of Plato. 

Such speculations may by some have been thought hazardous ; but 
littie by littie this Western sub- Atiantic land has acquired wonderful 
distinctness, and towards this chapter in ancient geography those re- 
searches which you haverecentiy been engaged in in the nortii-westem 
regions of these our British Islands have lent a most important aid. 

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You have alladed to the period of my connection with this Society : 
twenty-seven years become a serious retrospect to every man. I 
might perhaps not have thought so mudi of it, but it now strikes me 
that I lived too much in the Castle of Indolence : this Medal almost 
seems to reproach me by the suggestion that I might and ought to 
have done more. However, we are told '^ that it is never too late to 
mend ;" and I hope to bear away this Medal, not as a solatium for 
labours that are ended, but as an incentive to work which may yet 
be accomplished, 


In delivering the purse containing tho balance of the proceeds of 
the Wollaston Fund to Pbofessob Huxley, the Chairman said : — 

Mr. SscRBTAitY, — ^In handing to you the purse containing the 
proceeds of the Wollaston Fund, and in requesting you to convey it 
to Professor 0. Heer, it is enough for me to remind the Meeting 
that this eminent botanist and entomologist has rendered great 
services to geology by his remarkable works on the * Tertiary Insects 
of Oeningen and Eadoboj,' by his * Tertiary Flora of Switzerland,' by 
his * V^ietation and Climate of the Tertiary Period,' and recently by 
throwing light on the true age of the lignite deposit of Bovey Tracey. 
For these important works Professor Heer is indeed well entitled 
to any honour we can give him ; and these proceeds are awarded to 
him to enable him to prosecute with greater ease his praiseworthy and 
enlightened researches. 

Tho Chairman next, before reading tho following letter firom the 
President, regretting his unavoidable absence in Italy, expressed his 
sense of the eminent services rendered to the Society since its foun- 
dation by Mr. Leonard Homer. 

Florence, 11th Febroaiy, 1862. 

To Sir Boderick I. Murchison, F.RJ3., Vtce-President of the Geo- 
logical Society, 

Mt deas Sib Eodebick, — ^You are aware that it was indispensable 
for me to leave England last autumn to pass the winter in Italy, for 
the benefit of a member of my family who had been long in bad 

As senior Vice-President, you will, I hope, be in the chair at the 
ensuing Anniversary, and I request that you will assure the Meeting 
that no other consideration would havo induced me to absent myseK 
from my duties as President. Tho honour conferred upon me of 
being elected a second time to the highest office in the Society I 
felt as a very great distinction. It is now ^nearly fifty-four years 
since I began to take an active part in the affiurs of the Society ; and 
to have be^ called upon to exert myself for its honour and interest, I 
felt as a renewal of tiio pleasure of my younger days. 

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PBOCEEDnrOfl OF THE 0X0100100. 80CIETT. 

I b^ you to convey my rery sincere thanka to the Members of 
the Gonndl and to the Society at large for the kind support I nni- 
formly experienced from them on all occasions. So long as life and 
health may be left to me, I shall continue my devotion to geological 
science, and my attachment to the Society which has done so much 
to promote it. 

I am, my dear Sir Boderick, 

Faithfully yours, 

Leokabb Hobkzk. 

The Chairman then proceeded to read the following Obituary 
Notice of Dr. Fitton. 

The record of the decease of Fellows of the Geological Society is 
naturally commenced this year with a sketch of the life of one of 
our most distinguished leaders. The late Dr. W. H. Fitton, who 
was bom in Dublin in January 1780, and died in London on the 
13th May, 1861, at the mature age of 81, was truly one of the 
British worthies who have raised modem geology to its present 
advanced position. 

Descended from an ancient family in Cheshire, whose tombstones 
are still to be seen in the parish church of Gawsworth, Dr. Fitton's 
ancestors had been long settled in Ireland. As a little boy, he fre- 
quented the same school in Dublin as Thomas Moore, the poet, and 
Eobert Emmett, the United Irishman ; and already in 1798, through 
his proficiency in classics, he gained the Senior Scholarsliip of Trinity 
College, which he held till 1803, whilst as early as 1799 he became 
Bachelor of Arts in that University. Even in those troublous times, 
as I am informed by his old friend, that distinguished linguist and 
geographer, the Eev. G. B.enouard, young Fitton began to collect 
foB^, in doing which, having been unjustly suspected to be a rebel, 
he was for a short time kept in militaiy durance. 

From letters addressed to his leamed friend, the Rev. J. Eogers, 
of Mawnan, in Cornwall, we loam that he made visits to that 
county to acquire a knowledge of its mineral stmcture ; and in one 
of these letters, dated from Trinity College, Dublin, in November 
1807, we find that he had then determined the heights of the 
principal Irish mountains by barometrical admeasurement. In that 
letter he also speaks of an associate who has since given to the world 
the best geological map of Ireland — our eminent fdlow-labourer the 
present ^ Eichard Griffith. 

Originally destined for the church, Mr. Fitton was soon attracted 
to the medical career and the pursuits of physical science by entering 
into tho studies of the University of Edinburgh (1808-9), then so 
justly celebrated for its great philosophical teachers. There it was 
that he formed intimacies with other students of medicine who after- 
wards reached the summit of their profession. Attending the lectures 
of Professor Jameson, he then made the acquaintance of the Rev. 
Dr. John Fleming and other young men of science. There it was 
also that he learnt to admire the writings as well as to imbibe the 

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libend aentimentB of Sydney Bmith, Jeffirey, Bzongham, and the 
fonndeiB of that ' Edinbuigh Beview ' to whidi in subsequent yean 
he himself became a distinguished contributor. Bemoying to Lcmdon 
in 1809 or 1810| ho kept house with his widowed mother and his 
three^ sisters— studying medicine and chemistry assiduously^ and 
asBOGiAting with aU the rising men of science in that day, par- 
ticularly with Wollaston, Holland, Boget^ Ghambers, Bright, and 

In 1811 Br* litton commenced to write on our soienoe by commu- 
nicating, throng our respected Frcsidenty Leonard Homer, to the 
then young Gedogical Society a memoir << On the Geological Struc- 
ture of the Vicinity of Dublin," which appears in the 1st volume 
of our Transactions (Old Series). Again, in * Nidiolson's Journal ' 
of 1813 we find one of his essays on the Geological System of Werner, 
as doubtless derived from his Scottish studies in the days of Jameson, 
Hall^HuttoUi andPlayfair ; and in the following year he wrote upon 
the Porcelain Bodu of Cornwall, which he had personally ezaminedi 
and also gave out his views on a new system of ventilating mines. 
In 1812 he removed with his mother and sisters to Northampton, to 
which place he was attracted chiefly through the patronage of the 
then Earl and Countess Spencer, and in the hope of succeeding to 
the practice of the venerable Ihr. Kerr, the father of Lady Da^y. 
Practising for eight years as a physician at Northampton, it appears 
that in 1816 he was admitted ^' ad eundem" M.D. of the University 
of Cambridge. 

In 1817 Dr. Eitton b^gan that series of artides in the 'Edinburgh 
Beview,' to which he contributed at intervals untQ the year 1841, 
and wluch proved him to be a just and enlightened commentator 
on the progress of geological science during the eventful thirty years 
of whidi he treated. Thus, when we look back to his first article^ 
which analysed the * Transactions of the Geological Society * since its 
establishment in 1804 up to the publication of a new volume in 
1817, or refer to his review in the following year of the first geolo- 
gical map of England^ and the other original efforts ef William 
Smith, we at once see how happily he seued upon and illustrated 
the prominent features in the foundations of our sdenoe, and the 
establishment of that British nomenclature which has become so 
generally current. Then again in 1823, when he indited his stirring 
pages on Buckland's * Beliquiie Diluviansd/ or in 1839, when he 
reviewed the < Elementary Geology ' of Lyell, and put forUi so much 
knowledge respecting the Huttonian theory of the earth, or in 
1841, when he reviewed the succession of palseozoic periods, as 
ezplfldned in the Silurian System of Murduson*, we see how vigor- 
ously he watched over and rejoiced in the progress of all inquiries 
which unfolded the history of bygone ages and enabled us to read 
off the ancient legends of the former inhabitants of the earth, as 

* Br. Fitton olio contributed to the •Edinburgh Beview' two articles oon- 
iieoied with big profenion M a medical man* tu. " Keport on Lonatic ABylums," 
ToL zzriu.. May 1817i and ** Laney's Siiigioal Campaign," voL zxxi. No. 02, 
March 1819. 

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well as the mntations by which the present outline of our planet has 
been brought about. 

The researches, however, by which the name of William Henry 
Fitton will be most surely handed down to posterity are those by 
whichy during twelve active years of his life (from 1824 to 1836), 
he laboriously developed the true descending order of succession from 
the Chalk downwanls into the Oolitic Eormations, as exhibited 
in the south-east of England* and in the adjoining ^mrts of France. 
Before these labours commenced, geologists had confrised notions 
only as to the order of the strata beneatii the Chalk, as well as of 
the imbedded fossil remains c^ each stratum. It was Fitton who 
made the Gfreensand Formations his own, by clearly defining the 
position and character of the Upper and the Lower Greensands, as 
separated by the Gault. On this point, the writer of this sketch may 
well gratefully testify to the deamess and truthfulness of the views 
of his lamented friend, and the hearty zeal with which they were 
communicated ; for it was through the instruction given to him in 
the field by Dr. Fitton, in 1825, that he was enabled to write his first 
paper in the * Transactions ' of this Society t. 

Ever striving to advance his favourite science, Dr. Fitton was the 
zealous instructor not only of young geologists, but also of many 
travellers and naval officers; and among those to whom he volunteered 
to give practical lessons. Captain Philip King, R.N., Admirals Sir 
Johii Franklin and Sir Geoige Back, as well as Sir John Eichard- 
Bon, may be cited. He also devoted much of his time to the writings 
. of his friends, invariably labouring zealously to improve their com- 

Such gratuitous efforts, the care of a family, and other occupations 
necessanly delayed the completion of his great work on the Green- 
sand Formations ; but at length those memoirs were completed, both 
by very elaborate details regarding the succession of these deposits 
in various parts of England, in separating ihem from the iron- 
sands of the inferior Wealden Formation, and also by showing how 
that great freshwater deposit passes down into the Purbeck beds, 
and from them into the Portland Rock. 

On various occasions of his life Dr. Fitton displayed much honesty 
of purpose and a strong sense of the value of independence of cha- 
racter. Of his associates who survive, Herschel and Babbage, as well 
as Lyell and myself, can well remember when H. E. Highness the 
Duke of Sussex was suddenly brought forward as a candidate for the 
Chair of the Eoyal Society, that among the large body of men of 
science who then stood forward to vindicate the rights of their order, 
no one was a more ardent supporter of Herschel, in opposition to the 
Eoyal Prince, than the warm-hearted and honest Fitton, united as 
he then was with WoUaston, Eobert Brown, and aU the notabilities 
in science. 

One of the claims of Dr. Fitton on the gratitude of geologists 
is, that after having been the Secretary of the Society during some 

* Trans. Geol. See., 2nd series, vol. iv. pp. 103 to 388. 
t Trana. Geol. Soc., 2nd series, vol. ii. p. 97. 

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years of his life, no sooner did ho attain the honour of our Chair, than 
he established tho publication of those ' Proceedings ' which are tho 
true synopsis of our labours, and have been imitated by the Royal 
Society and most of the scientific societies in the metropolis. He was 
also the first of our Presidents who adopted the practice of deliyer- 
ing an Anniyersary Address, which under his management was a 
wdl-eomposed and accurate sketch of the progress we had made. 
Let me here add, that his two addresses contained much good matter 
in a yery small compass ; for the first of them occupied eJeyen pages, 
and the second twenty-two pages only of our * Proceedings.' 

In the first of these, Dr. Pitton energetically adverted to the then 
imperfect condition of our knowledge concerning the distribution of 
phuits upon the former surfaces of the globe during epochs of geolo- 
gical deposition, as well as to the yariationd which such distribution 
may have undergone from changes of climate, either by alteration 
of internal temperature or elevation above tho sea. Then let us 
turn to his just eulogy of the labours of von Buch, Humboldt, and 
McCulloch^ in supporting the theory of Hutton, as illustratod by 
Playfair and Hall^ and verified in Anglesea by the striking observa- 
tions of Kenslow, as well as by Davy's experiments on the flints in 
the cavities of crystals. 

Then, again, let us look at his well-merited encomium on the 
wondrous effect in the progress of English Geology as produced by the 
publication of the * Outlines of England and Wales,' by Conybcare and 
Phillips, which volume was well said by him to have had an effect 
to which nothing since tho institution of the Geological Society and 
the diffusion of geological maps could then be compared. With just 
pride did he affirm that that work " acquired a new and a more 
dignified interest when we reflected that this island is in a great 
measure a general epitome of the globe, and that the observer who 
made himself &miliar with its strata and the fossil remains which 
they include, had not only prepared himself for similar inquiries in 
other quarters, but was alre^y acquainted by anticipation with what 
he may expect to find there." It can with truth be said that this 
advice and the exhortation which followed, calling upon all those 
who had leisure, health, and talent for such inquiries to carry them 
out, were truly the incitements which roused the then ScK^retary 
of tiie Geological Society, who pens this sketch, to undertake ex* 
plorations abroad by which he has endeavoured to bring the struc- 
ture of other countries into direct comparison with those of our 
own land. 

It is indeed most gratifying to one of the olden time to reperuse 
in the address of Dr. Fitton of 1829 the brief, touching, and just 
eulogy which he pronounced on the character of our then recently 
decc^ised Member, the illustrious WoUaston. The words came from 
his heart, and specially marked the penetration, correct judgment^ 
and high moral character of the deceased philosopher. 

Dr. Fitton further signalized his presidency by drawing to the 
Society and engaging in its service, as Assistant Secretary, that re- 
markable man William Lonsdale, whose acquaintance it was my good 

VOL. XVIIt. € 

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iaapr psocEEDiirGS or xhb eEOLoeiOAL socistt. 

forhme to have made in the fields and to have recommended strongly 
to the notice of the President. To no one man certainly has our 
body been more indebted than to the excellent and gifted Lonsdale, 
whether for his publications, his conduct of our afiBedrs, or the zealous 
and disinterested labour he bestowed in aiding and improving the 
works of his associates. 

Retiring from active partidpation in our business during the last 
fiBW years of his life^ Dr. Mtton still earnestly watched and ap^ 
predated our progress, and no act was ever more grateful to the 
feelings of the Council and of the then President, Mr. W. Hopkina, 
than when in 1852 they conferred on their veteran associate the 
highest honour in their gift, the Medal founded by his dear Mend 

United in marriage in the year 1820 to Miss James, a most 
amiable lady, who brought to him the means of a comfortable ez^ 
istence. Dr. Fitton not only reared his five sons and three daughters 
with untiring solicitude, but, just as in previous years he had been 
the solace of his venerable mother, so he continued to be the pride of 
his sisters, the youngest of whom, Miss Sarah Fitton, still living, 
possesses much of the genius of her lamented brother, and has dis- 
tinguished herself in natural-history pursuits. 

Giving throughout his life constant proofs of his hospitable and 
generous disposition, he opened his house during his Presidency to 
all the Fellows at evening soir^, when his dieerfiil and joyous 
countenance and kind manner encouraged many a beginner. Fol- 
lowing the example of Sir Joseph Banks, who was pro^bly the most 
popular President the Eoyal Society ever possessed. Dr. Fitton, as 
wdl as his predecessor, Mr. Greenough, held these agreeable scientific 
conversazioni on Sunday evenings. Up to that time, few persons 
thought there was any sin in so spending the latter part of a Sabbath 
eve ; but remonstrances commencing on the part of the rigid Sabba- 
tarians, a stop was put to those instructive and innocent recreations ; 
and the only remaining relic of that which was so long the custom of 
this land is now confined, as for as 1 know, to the social Sunday- 
evening meetings of the Dilettanti Society of Antiquaries. 

It is however fair to observe, that the parties of Sir Joseph Banks, 
Mr. Greenough, and Dr. Fitton were composed chiefly of a few scien** 
iific men ; the large and mixed assemblies which now flock to the 
0oir^ of the Presidents of Societies being scarcely compatible with 
the quiet of an English Sunday night. 

In conclusion it may well be said, that Dr. Fitton was so nngle» 
minded, guileless, and affectionate, that every one who knew him 
loved hhn ; and as his memory is cherished by cdl his contemporaries, 
so is this the fitting occasion to record, however imperfectly, the 
virtues and deeds of so good a man and so sound a geologist. 
1 Dr. Fitton became a Fellow of the Boyal Society in 1815 ; and 
he was also a Fellow of the linnean^ Astronomical, and Boyal 
Geographical Societies* 

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Ur. W. W. Smyth> Secretary^ next proceeded to read the follow- 
ing Obituary Notices. 

Sir ABTHim DE Gapell Bboics^ Bart., of Oakley Kall^ in Nortk* 
amptonshire, although not a contributor to the litetature of our 
science, is known to the world as the author of several valuable books 
of travels, some of which were magnificently illustrated. More partiL* 
cularly may be cited his * Travels in Lapland and to the North Cape/ 
and his * Sketches of Spain and Morocco/ 

The Bev. Jakss B. Piooot Dskvib took his degree as a member 
of Queen's College, Oxford, and resided for many yean at ^e town 
of Bury St. Edmunds. Mjr. Dennis devoted mudi of his time to 
microscopical researches bearing on geology, such as examinationi 
into the structure of bone, and was the author of papers commu- 
nicated to our Society and to the ' Journal of Microscopical Sdenoe.* 
He died at the early age of 45. 

General Sir C. W. Paslbt, K.C.B. This veteran offteer, who died 
19th April, 1861, at the age of 80, was actively engaged in warlike 
operations as a Eojal Engineer for many years in the Mediterranean 
and in the Peninsula, commencing with the defence of Gaeta in 1806. 
After his publication of a work on Chatham's military policy, which 
excited great interest at the time, he was appointed in 1812 Di- 
rector of the Engineer Establishment at Woolwich, which was 
established at his instigation for the training of the young officers 
in Practical Military !&igineering ; and he devoted hmiself to nu- 
merous inquiries in solving the application of science to the military 
art, and became the author of several works on purely professionsd 
subjects, as well as of one ' On Limes and Cements,' which exhibits 
a great amount of industry in the examination of the various mineral 
substances of this and of other countries, which had been or might 
be employed for such purposes. When it was determined in 1839 
to attempt the removal of the wreck of the ' Boyal George ' at Spit- 
head, the operations were confided to Colonel Pasley, who, during the 
years 1840-1-2, succeeded so fully in accomplishing the object— 
Igniting charges of gunpowder by the galvanic battery — that he 
became the chief authority on similar subjects, and his results con« 
tributed greatly to the success with which galvanic blasting has 
since been introduced on a large scale into various engineering 

The Bev. John Stevens Henslow, Among the scientific men of 
the present century there are few whose career has been so fraught 
with usefVilness to the public as that of the late Professor Henslow» 
He was bom at Bochester in 1796, and at a very early age dis* 
played a love of natural history, which was inherited fi^m his 
fSather, who practised in that town as a solicitor. In 1818 he gra- 
duated at Cambridge as 16th wrangler, and declining to compete 
for the higher academic position^ which, with his mathematical 


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powers, he might easily have attained, he studied chemistry under 
Professor Gumming, mineralogy under Dr. Clarke, laboured hard at 
geology as an original inquirer, and became a Fellow of this Society 
in 1819. 

In 1821, at the early age of 23, he communicated to the Society 
his " Supplementary Observations on Dr. Berger's Account of the Isle 
of Man," containing a map and sections, to the preparation of which 
he had devoted his spare time whilst spending two long vacations in 
the island with pupils. At about the same period he was led to 
explore the geology of Anglesey, and embodied the results in a most 
elaborate paper, printed in the first volume of the ' Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Transactions.' This paper raised its author at once to a 
high position among observers, and may to this day be quoted as a 
model of truthful and sagacious scientific research. It possesses 
also rare merit, as combining with groat power of co-ordinating 
physical features skill and accuracy in the application of chemistry, 
mineralogy, mathematics and drawing to the illustration of a very 
complicated region. 

In 1822 he was appointed to the Professorship of Mineralogy, a 
post which he held for three years, and in 1825 resigned it in order to 
succeed Professor Martyn in the chair of Botany, a subject to which 
he had devoted much labour for some years preceding. His lectures 
inaugurated a new era in botanical teaching at the University, and, 
aided by frequent excursions, awakened interest in a study to which 
some of the mathematicians of Cambridge had hitherto hardly ac- 
corded the dignity of a science. 

In this career, as well as in the character of a country clergyman, 
when appointed by the Crown, in 1833, to the rectory of Hitcham 
in Sufiblk, his admirable personal qualities endeared him to all who 
were bi-ought in contact with him, and enabled him successfully to 
overcome difficulties which would have presented serious obstacles to 
a man endowed with less perseverance, mental power, and invari- 
able good temper. Among the special services which he rendered to 
the scientific world must be particularly noticed the clear and judi- 
cious arrangement which he imparted to the Cambridge Botanical 
Museum, to the collections in the Royal Gardens at Kew, and to the 
Museum of Ipswich, which last, pUumed and carried out under his 
guidance, stands out in striking contrast to so many of our local 
museums as an institution in which the objects preserved have really 
an educational and scientific value. 

The attention of Professor Henslow was constantly directed to 
subjects of geological interest, and frequently to phenomena little 
observed by others,- of perhaps obscure character, but into the caus- 
ation of which his ingenuity delighted to inquire. Of this order 
was the peculiar disintegration of flints, and the concentric bands of 
various colour often found in flint and other silicious pebbles. And 
he was equally ready in turning to practical account the results of 
his scientific observations. Thus his acquaintance with the chemistry 
of agriculture enabled him at once to appreciate the value to the 
farmer of the phosphate-nodules which abound in the Tertiary 

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Fonnations of the Eastern Counties. No credit^ no reward, no con- 
siderationy even as tho discoverer, was claimed by him, but he at once 
freely gave the widest publicity to his discovery ; and the result has 
been that an enormous store of wealth has accrued alike to landlord 
and tenant over a very largo area of country, whilst up to the day of 
his death no acknowled^ent was ever made of his services to 
the public weal. 

His sympathies were enlisted in every branch of science, and in 
many educational efforts. He was one of the first Examiners in the 
University of London, and was up to the last an efficient member of 
its Council. He aided actively in the Society for the Diffusion of 
Useful Knowledge, and m the working of the Bay Club and Falseon- 
tographical Society ; and when assistance was needed for the pub- 
lication of a useful work, or the relief of the needy in his own pro- 
fession, or among naturalists, the kindly heart of Professor Henslow 
was never appealed to in vain, 

Joseph James Pobbesteb, created, for his services in develop- 
ing the resources of Portugal, Baron de Forrester in that counti^, 
was a man of unusual vigour of intellect, who, in his capacity of a 
vine-grower in the Alto I)ouro district, paid much attention to the 
geological character of the subsoils. Several works published by him 
on the capabilities of Portugal and on the port- wine trade, and tho 
elaborate map of the river Douro, which he exhibited at the Universal 
Exposition of Paris in 1855, attest the perseverance of his obser- 
vations, and awakened a regret that, apart frt)m his loss as an active 
and useful citizen of the world, we should so soon have lost a pro- 
mising Fellow of the Society. It was one of his great pleasures to 
ascend and descend the Douro in his own boat, sketching and photo- 
graphing the granite rocks, and the peculiarities of their junction 
with tho clay-slate ; and it was in one of these expeditions that he 
was unfortunately drowned, at the age of 51, by the upsetting of his 
boat in the rapids. 

Mr. WnxiAM Huttok, of West Hartiepool, was remarkable as 
one of the chief contributors to the geology and fossil botany of our 
northern coal-fields. In 1830 ho communicated to tho Natural 
History Society of Newcastio " Notes on the New lied Sandstone,'* 
and in the next following years contributed to our Society papers 
** On the Stratified Basalt associated with the Carboniferous Forma- 
tions of the North of England," " On Coal," and " On the Occurrence 
of certain Minerals in Northumberland." 

Jahes MacAdau was bom at Belfast in January 1801, and died 
1st June, 1861. His family belonged to the commercial class, and 
he was himself actively engaged in business throughout his life. 
From boyhood he had a taste for classics, for continental literature, 
and for different departments of physical science. In early life 
ho attended some of the college classes in the Koyal Academical 
Institution of Belfast, and after a lapso of some years, amid the 

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:paviii PBooEEDiNes of the osoLoeicAi^ sogtett. 

turmoil of oonunerce, he became a graduate of Trinity College^ 

He was one of the eight original founders of the Natural History 
and FhiloBophical Society of Belfast, established in 1821 ; he took an 
active part in promoting the erection of their museum in 1830, and 
filled the ofice of Fresident of that Society at the time of his death. 
He was also one of the founders of the Botanic Garden at Belfast. 
He took a warm and active interest in the various educational and 
scientifio institutions of his native town, ond his time and advice 
were ever at the service of the young who were entering on their 
studies and stood in need of the encouragement ard assistance of 
their seniors. In this and various other ways, he exerted great local 
influence for the promotion of physical science, and especially of 
geology, his own favourite pursuit. 

Por a long period, the intervals of relaxation from business were 
steadily devoted by Mr. MacMam to. the investigation of the geor 
logical structure of the north of Ireland ; the results being occasionally 
made known through the Geological Society of Bubliuj the volimes 
of whose * Transactions ' bear testimony to his industry and ability as 
a geologist. The most important of his papers published there is 
one upon the structure of a very interesting district in the county of 
PonegaL But the service rendered to our science by his papers is 
perhaps less important than one which he was not spared to complete. 
By personal exertion continued through upwards of twenty years, 
and by expending considerable sums of money in employing intelligent 
collectors, he had succeeded in bringing together a vast assemblage 
of fossils from the Upper Secondary Hocks of Ireland; and in the 
arranging and naming of these he was stiU actively engaged at the 
time of his last illness. This collection is believed to contain many 
rare and not a few new species. It was intended to be emplo/ed 
in illustrating a memoir on the north-east of Ireland, to be contri- 
buted to our Society under the joint authorship of himself and 
Dr. Bryce of tjHasgo^, formerly of Belfast. A paper by the latter 
gentleman, on a portion of the Antrim coast, has already appeared 
in our * Transactions ;' and we may hope that he will in a short time 
carry out the plan arranged between him and his departed Mend^ 
and thus, while completing the survey of that coast, make known 
the riches of this fine coUectioii of fossils, and the various important 
observations, hitherto unpublished, which have been made by our 
late associate. 

Eatow Hodgkikson, F.R.S., Professor of the Mechanics of Engi- 
neering in the University College, London, was bom at Anderton, 
near Northwich in Cheshire, on the 26th February, 1789, and 
died at Eaglesfield House, Manchester, on the 18th June, 1861, He 
lost his father in childhood, and was sent to the grammar-school 
at Northwich. He was originally intended for the church ; but his 
mother's circumstances having compoEed him to renounce this pro- 
ject and enter into trade, he went to reside in Manchester. During 
his residence in that dly for nearly half a century, he devoted his 

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time to making ezpenmeats on the strength of iron, stone, andwood, 
and gave to tiie world the formulce for solid and hollow pillars of 
iron, whidi have been adopted in England and the Continent, and 
which are now the basis of calculation for all structnres made of that 
metal, Mr. Hodgldnaon was probably the most laborious and care- 
M experimenter that has ever devoted himself to the study of the 
laws which regulate the strength of materials ; and all his great 
labours were given to the investigation of truth for its own sake, 
without any pecuniary returns, but at a considerable loss to himself. 
He was for some years President of the Manchester Literary and 
FbOpsophioal Society^ in whose Memoirs most of his papers appeared. 
Although he did not write much on geology, he was warmly attached 
to the science, and possessed a good collection of coal-measure plants, 
which he delighted in showing to his friends. In private life his 
simple habits and kindly disposition endeared him to a large circle 
of acquaintances, who have sustained a loss which will not soon be 

Thomas William Atkhtson became a Fellow of this Society in 
1850, on his return from the long wanderings in Asiatic Eussiaj 
described in his ^Travels in Siberia.' Originally an architect, he 
added high qualifications as an artist to the energy and endurance 
that distinguished him as a traveller. It may, however, be regretted 
that his connection with our Society had not commenced before rather 
than after his travels, destined as he was to visit so many of the 
most interesting districts of the Altai and of the chains bordering on 
the Kirghis Steppe. 

Sir Chables Fellows was bom in 1799, and became well known 
to the public on producing, in 1838, the Journal of his < Excursions 
in Asia Minor,' memorable for the discoveries of ancient buildings in 
the valley of the Lycian Xanthus. He subsequently published 
several other works on the antiquities of the same region, in the 
exploration of which he was associated with Edward Forbes, Captain 
Graves, and Captain Spratt. Sir Charles resided latterly in the Isle 
of Wight, where he took a leading part in the question of the estab- 
lishment of a local museum, geological and antiquarian, at Caris- 
brook Castle. 

M. L. A. Necxsb de Saussueb, elected in 1808 a Foreign Member 
of the Society, was at one time Professor of Mineralogy at Geneva ; 
and although for the last twenty years he had buried hunself in close 
retirement at Portree in the Isle of Skye, where he died, was in the 
earlier part of his life an active contributor to scientific literature. 
In our own volumes he published papers '' On a probable Cause of 
certain Earthquakes," and on the geological laws which govern the 
of which metidHferous deposits wi^ regard to the rock-formations 
position of the crust of the earth is formed. 

Hi9 * Travels in Scotland,' published in Paris in 1821, record his 
observations made in 1806, 1807, 1808, in the scientific part of which 

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work be endeavours judiciously to describe and explain pbenomena 
without having recourse to the extreme views of either Werner or 
Hutton^ between whose rival schools the controversy at that time 
ran high. In the ^Edinburgh Philosophical Journal' and in the 
* Biblioth^ue Universel ' he published views on mineralogy which 
he afterwards gave to the world, in 1835, under the title of << Le 
B^gne Mineral ramen^ aux m^thodes de I'Histoiro Katurelle." In 
this work ho avoided the extreme views of previous authors, who had 
ascribed too great importance exclusively to external properties or 
to mere composition^ and in a series of analytical tables conferred a 
great boon on the student working practically at the discrimination 
of minerals. 

Bt Pbof. T. H. Httxlet, Sbc.G.S., &c., &c. 

MsBCHAirrs occasionally go through a wholesome, though trouble- 
some and not always satis&ctory, process which they term *^ taking 
stock." After all the excitement of speculation, the pleasure of 
gmn, and the pain of loss, the trader makes up his mind to face facts 
and to learn Uie exact quantity and quality of his solid and reliable 

The man of science does well sometimes to imitate this procedure ; 
and, forgetting for the time the importance of his own small win- 
nings, to re-examine the common stock in trade, so that he may 
make sure how far the store of bullion in the cellar — on the faith of 
whose existence so much paper has been circulating — w reaUy the 
solid gold of truth. 

The Anniversary Meeting of the Geological Society seems to bo 
an occasion well suited for an undertaking of this kind — for an in- 
quiry, in fact, into the nature and the value of the present results 
of palajontological investigation ; and the more so, as all those who 
have paid close attention to the late multitudinous discussions, in 
which palaeontology is implicated, must have felt the urgent neces- 
sity of some such scrutiny. 

First in order, as the most definite and unquestionable of all the 
results of paleontology, must be mentioned the immense extension 
and impidse given to botany, zoology, and comparative anatomy 
by the investigation of fossil remains. Indeed, the mass of biologicid 
facts has been so gicatly increased, and the range of biological 
speculation has been so vastly widened, by the researches of the 
geologist and palaeontologist, that it is to be feared there are 
naturalists in existence who look upon geology as Brindley re- 
garded rivers. " llivcrs," said tho great engineer, ** were made to 
feed canals;" and geology, some seem to think, was solely created 
to advance comparativo anatomy. 

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Wore Buch a thought justifiable, it oould hardly expect to be 
reoelTed with favour by this assembly. But it is not justifiable. 
Your favourite science has her own great aims independent of all 
others; and if, notwithstanding her steady devotion to her own 
progress, she can scatter such rich alms among her sisters, it should 
be remembered that her charity is of the sort that does not im- 
poverish, but *' blesseth him that gives and him that takes.'' 

Eegard the matter as we will, however, the facts remain. Nearly 
40,000 species of animals and plants have been added to the Sy- 
stema Naturse by palseontologicid research. This is a living popu- 
lation equivalent to that of a new continent in mere number; equi** 
valent to that of a new hemisphere^ if we take into account the 
small population of insects as yet found fossil, and the large pro- 
portion and peculiar organization of many of the Yertebrata. 

But, beyond this, it is perhaps not too much to say that, except 
for the necessity of interpreting palaontological &cts, the laws of 
distribution would have received less careful study ; while few com- 
parative anatomists (and those not of the first order) would have 
been induced by mere love of detail, as such, to study the minuties 
of osteology, were it not that in sudi minutisB lie the only keys to 
the most interesting riddles offered by the extinct animal world. 

These assuredly are great and soHd gains. Surely it is matter 
for no small congratulation that in half a century (for paheontology, 
though it dawned earlier, came into full day only with Cuvier) a 
subordinate branch of biology should have doubled the value and 
interest of the whole group of sciences to which it belongs. 

But this is not all. AlUed with geology, paleontology has estab- 
lished two laws of inestimable importance : the first, that one and 
the samo area of the earth's surface has been successively occupied 
by very different kinds of living beings ; the second, that the order 
of succession established in one locality holds good, approximately, 
in all. 

The first of these laws is universal and irreversible ; the second is 
an induction £rom a vast number of observations, though it may 
possibly, and even probably, havo to admit of exceptions. As a 
consoquencc of the second law, it follows that a peculiar relation 
frequently subsists between series of strata, containing organic re- 
mains, in different localities. The scries resemble one another, not 
only in virtue of a general resemblance of the organic remains in the 
two, but also in virtue of a rosemblanco in the order and character 
of the serial succession in each. There is a resemblance of arrange- 
ment ; so that the separate terms of each scries, as well as the whole 
series, exhibit a correspondence. 

Succession implies time ; the lower members of a series of sedi- 
mentary rocks are certainly older than the upper ; and when the 
notion of age was once introduced as the equivalent of succession, 
it was no wonder that correspondence in succession came to be 
looked upon as correspondence in age, or " contemporaneity." And, 
indeed, so long as relative age only is spoken of, correspondence in 
euccessio)! is correspondence in age ; it is relative contemporaneity. 

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tUi PBocEEDsree ov xhb qboiooigai soczett. 

But it would have been very mnoli better for geology if so loose ftUd 
ombigaoufl a word as <' contemporaneous " had been excluded from 
her terminology, and if, in its stead, some term expressing similarity 
of serial relation, and exdudiog the notion of time altogether, had 
been employed to denote oorrespondenoe in position in two or more 
series of strata. 

In anatomy, where such ooirespondence of position has eon* 
stantly to be spoken of, it is denoted by the word <' homology " and 
its deriyatiyes ; and for Geology (which after all is only the anatomy 
and physiology of the earth) it might be well to inyent some single 
word, 9uch as ^' homotaxis " (similarity of order), in order to express 
an essentially similar idea. This, howeyer, has not been done, and 
moat probably the inquiry wiU at once be made — ^To what end 
burden science with a new and strange tenn in place of one old, 
familiar, and part of our common language ? 

The reply to this question will become obyious as the inquiry 
into the results of palaeontology is pushed further. 

Those whose business it is to acquaint themselyes specially with 
the works of pakeontologists, in fact, will be fully aware that yery 
few, if any, would rest satisfied with such a statement of the 
conclusions of their branch of biology as that which has just been 

Our standard repertories of palaeontology profess to teach us for 
higher things — to disclose the entire succession of Hving forms upon 
tiie surface of the globe ; to tell us of a wholly different dutribution 
of dimatio conditions in ancient times ; to reyeal the character of 
the first of all Hying existences ; and to trace out the law of pro- 
gress from them to us. 

It may not be unprofitable to bestow on these professions a some- 
what more critical examination than they haye hitherto reoeiyed, in 
prder to ascertain how &r they rest on an irrefragable basis, or 
whether, after all, it might not be well for palaeontologists to leam 
a litUe more carefully that scientific '' ars artium," the art of saying 
<<I don't know." And to this end let us define somewhat more 
exactly the extent of these pretensions of palaeontology. 

Every one is aware that Professor Bronn's < Untersuchungen ' 
and Professor Pictet's ' Traits de Paleontologie ' are works of stan- 
dard authority, familiarly consulted by cyery working palaeontologist. 
It is desirable to speak of these excellent books, and of theirdi^tias. 
guished authors, with the utmost respect and in a tone as &r as 
possible remoyed from carping criticism ; indeed, if they are spe- 
cially cited in this place, it is merely in justification of the assertion 
that the following propositions, which may be found implicitly or 
explicitly in the works in question, are regarded by the mass of 
palaeontologists and geologists, not only on the Continent but in this 
country, as expressing some of the best-established results of palae- 
ontology. Thus : — 

Animals and plants began their existence together, not long after 
the commencement of the deposition of the sedimentary rocks, and 
tben suQoeeded one another in sudi a manner that totally distinct 

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faun® and flone occupied the whole surface of the earth, one after 
the other, and during distinct epochs of time, 

A geological formation is the simi of all the strata deposited over 
the whole surface of the earth during one of these epochs : a geo* 
logical fauna or flora is the sum of all the species of animals or 
plants which occupied the whole surface of the globe during one (k 
these epochs, 

. The population of the earth's surface was at first very similar in 
all parts, and only from the middle of the Tertiary epoch onwards 
began to show a distinct distribution in zones. 

The constitution of the original population, as well as the numerical 
proportions of its members, indicates a warmer and, on tiie wnole, 
somewhat tropical climate, which remained tolerably equable 
throughout the year. The subsequent distribution of living beings 
in zones is the result of a gradual lowering of the general tempe«< 
rature, which first began to be felt at the poles. 

It is not now proposed to inquire whether these doctrines are true 
or false ; but to direct your attention to a much simpler though Veiy 
essential preliminary question — ^What is their logical basis ? what 
are the fundamental assumptions upon which they all logically de- 
pend ? and what is the evidence on which those fundamental propoA" 
tions demand our assent ? 

These assumptions are two : the first, that the o(»nmenoement of 
the geological record is coeval with the commencement of life on the 
globe ; the second, that geological contemporaneity is the same thing 
as chronological synchrony. Without the first of these assumptions 
there would of course be no ground for any statement respecting the 
commencement of life ; without the second, all the other statements 
dted, every one of which implies a knowledge of the state of dif- 
ferent paits of the earth at one and the same time, will be no less 
devoid of demonstration. 

The first assumption obviously rests entirely on negative evidenooi 
This is, of course, the only evidence that ever can be available to 
prove the commenc^nent of any series of phenomena ; but, at the 
same time, it must be recollected that the vdue of negative evidence 
depends entirely on the amount of positive corroboration it re* 
oeives. If A B wishes to prove an alM, it is of no use for hun to 
get a thousand witnesses simply to swear that they did not see him 
in such and such a place, unless the witnesses are prepared to 
prove that they must have seen him had he been there. But the 
evidence that animal life commenced with the lingula-flags, €,ff,, 
would seem to be exactiy of this unsatisfactory uncorroborated sort. 
The Cambrian witnesses simply swear they *' haven't seen anybody 
their way ;" upon which the counsel for the other side immediately 
puts in ten or twelve thousand feet of Devonian sandstones to make 
oath they never saw a fish or a moUusk, though all the worid knows 
there were plenty in their time. 

But then it is urged that, though the Devonian rocks in one part 
of the world exhibit no fossils, in another they do, while tbs lowor 

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Cambrian rocks nowhere exhibit foesils^ and hence no living being 
could have existed in their epoch. 

To this there are two replies: the firsts that the obeervational 
basis of the assertion that the lowest rocks are nowhere fossiliferons 
is an amazingly small one^ seeing how veiy small an area, in com- 
parison to tluit of the whole world, has yet been fiilly searched : the 
second^ that the argoment is good for nothing unless the unfossili- 
ferouB rocks in question were not only contemporaneous in the geo- 
logical sense, but synchronous in the chronological sense. To use 
the aUhi illustration again. K a man wishes to prove he was 
in neither of two places, A and B, on a given day, his witnesses 
for each place must be prepared to answer for the whole day. If 
they can only prove that he was not at A in the morning, and not at 
B in the afternoon, the evidence of his absence from both is nil, 
because he might have been at B in the morning and at A in the 

Thus everything depends upon the validity of the second assump- 
tion. And we must proceed to inquire what is the real meaning 
of the word " contemporaneous '* as employed by geol<^ts. To 
this end a concrete example may be taken. 

The lias of England and the lias of Germany, the Cretaceous 
rocks of Britain and the Cretaceous rocks of Southern India, are 
termed by geologists '^ contemporaneous " formations ; but when- 
ever any thoughlful geologist is asked whether he means to say that 
they were deposited synchronously, he says " No, — only within the 
same great epoch." And if, in pursuing the inquiry, he is asked 
what may be the approximate value in time of a " great epoch " — 
whether it means] a hundred years, or a thousand, or a million, or 
ten million years— his reply is, " I cannot tell." 

If the further question be put, whether phyidcal geology is in 
possessioii of any method by which the actual synchrony (or the 
reverse) of any two distant deposits can be ascertained, no such 
method can be heard of; it being admitted by all the b^t autho- 
tities that neither similarity of mineral composition, nor of physical 
character, nor even direct continuity of stratum, are ahsohUe proo& 
of the synchromsm of even approximated sedimentary strata : while, 
for distant deposits, there seems to be no kind of physical evidence 
attainable of a nature competent to decide whether such deposits 
were formed simultaneously, or whether they possess any given differ- 
Oiice of antiquity. To return to an example already given. All 
competent authorities will probably assent to the proposition that 
physical geology does not enable us in any way to reply to this 
question — ^Were the British Cretaceous rocks deposited at the same 
time as those of India, or are they a million of years younger or a 
million of years older? 

Is palaeontology able to succeed where physical geology fails? 
Standard writers on palaeontology, as has been seen, assume that she 
can. They take it for granted, that deposits containing similar organic 
remains are synchronous — at any rate in a broad sense ; and yet, 
those who will study the eleventh and twelfth chapters of Sir Henry 

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AinmrsssART addbbsb. xlv 

De la Beche's remarkable < Besoarches in Theoretical Oeology/ pub- 
lished now nearly thirty years ago, and will carry out the argaments 
there most luminously stated to their logical consequences, may 
yery easily convince themselyes that even absolute identity of organic 
contents is no proof of the synciirony of deposits, wMIe absolute 
diversity is no proof of differenco of date. Sir Henry De la Beche ^ 
goes even further, and adduces conclusive evidence to show that 
the different parts of one and the same stratum, having a similar 
composition throughout, containing the same organic remains, and 
having similar beds above and below it, may yet differ to any con- 
ceivable extent in age. 

Edward Forbes was in the habit of asserting that the similarity 
of the organic contents of distant formations yroBprimd facie evidence, 
not of their similarity, but of their difference of age ; and holding as 
he did the doctrine of single specific centres, the conclusion was as 
legitimate as any other ; for the two districts must have been occupied 
by migration from one of the two, or from an intermediate spot, and 
the chances against exact coincidence of migration and of imbedding 
are infinite* 

In point of fact, however, whether the hypothesis of single or 
of multiple specific centres be adopted, similarity of organic contents 
cannot possibly afford any proof of the synchrony of the deposits 
which contain them ; on the contrary, it is demonstrably compatible 
with the lapse of the most prodigious intervals of time, and with 
interposition of vast changes in the organic and inorganic worlds, 
between the epochs in which such deposits were formed. 

On what amount of similarity of their faunae is the doctrine of the 
contemporaneity of the European and of the North American Silu-» 
rians based ? In the last edition of Sir Charles Lyell's ^ Elementary 
Geology ' it is stated, on the authority of a former President of this 
Society, the late Daniel Sharpe, that between 30 and 40 per cent, of 
the species of Silurian Mollusca are common to both sides of the 
Atlantic. By way of due allowanco for further discovery, let us 
double the lesser number and suppose that 60 per cent, of the 
species are common to the North American and the British Silurians. 
Sixty per cent, of species in common is, then, proof of contempo-> 

Now suppose that, a million or two of years hence, when Britain 
has made another dip beneath the sea and has come up again, 
some geologist applies this doctrine, in comparing the strata laid 
bare by the upheaval of the bottom, say, of St. George's Channel 
with what may then remain of the Suffolk Crag. Baasoning in the 
same way, he will at once decide the Suffolk Crag and the St* 
George's Channel beds to be contemporaneous ; although we happen 
to know that a vast period (even in the geological sense) of time, 
and physical changes of almost unprecedented extent, separate 
the two. 

. But if it be a demonstrable fact that strata containing more than 
60 or 70 per cent, of species of Mollusca in common, and compara-* 
tively dose together, may yet be separated by an amount of geolo-^ 

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gioal tiine Boffioient to allow of some of the greatest physical changes 
the world has seen, what becomes of that sort of contemporaneity tiie 
Bole evidence of which is a similarity of fades, or the identity of half 
a dozen species, or of a good many genera? 

And yet there is no better evidence for the contemporaneity as- 
sumed by all who adopt the hypotheses of ttniversal faunas and flor», 
of a mdyersally tmiform climate, and of a sensible cooling of the 
globe during geological time. 

There seems, then, no escape from the admission that neither 
physical geology nor palaeontology possesses any method by which the 
absolute syncb^nism of two strata can be demonstrated. All that 
geology can prove is local order of succession. It is mathematically 
certain that, in any given vertical linear section of an undisturbed 
series of sedimentary deposits, the bed which lies lowest is the oldest. 
In any other vertical linear section of the same series, of course, 
corresponding beds will occur in a similar order ; but, however great 
may be the probability, no man can say with absolute certainty 
that the beds in the two sections were synchronously deposited* 
For areas of moderate extent, it is doubtless true that no practical 
evil is likely to result from assuming the corresponding beds to be 
synchronous or strictly contemporaneous ; and there are multitudes 
of accessory circumstances which may faHj justify the assumption 
of such synchrony. But the moment the geologist has to deal with 
large areas or with completely separated deposits, then the mischief 
of confounding that << homotaxis " or <' similarity of arrangement," 
which can be demonstrated, with "synchrony" or "identity of 
date,'' for which there is not a shadow of proof, under the one com- 
mon term of " contemporaneity " becomes incalculable, and proves 
the constant source of gratuitous speculations. 

For anything that geology or palaeontology are able to show to 
the contrary, a Devonian fauna and flora in tiie British Islands may 
have been contemporaneous with SUurian life in North America, and 
with a Carboniferous fauna and flora in Africa. Geographical pro- 
vinces and zones may ha/e been as distinctly marked in the Palaeozoic 
epoch as at present, and those seemingly sudden appearances of new 
genera and species, which we ascribe to new creation, maybe simple 
results of migration. 

It may be so ; it may be otherwise. In the present condition of^" — 
our knowledge and of our methods, one verdict—" not proven, and 
not proveable" — ^must be recorded against all the grand hypotheses 
of the palaeontologist respecting the general succession of life on 
the globe» The order and nature of terrestrial life as a whole are 
open questions. Geology at present provides us with most valuable 
topographical records, but she has not the means of working them 
up into a universal history. Is such a universal history, then, to be 
regarded as unattainable ? Are all the grandest and most interest- 
ing problems which offer themselves to the geological student essen- 
tifdly insoluble? Is he in the position of a scientiflc Tantalus^-* 
doomed always to thirst for a knowledge which he cannot obtain? 

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The reverse is to be hoped ; nay, it may not be impofiaible to in- 
dicate the Bonroe whence help will come. 

In oommendng these remarks, mention was made of the great 
obligations under which the naturalist lies to the geologist and 
palBBontoiogiBt Assuredly the time will come when these obliga- 
tions will be repaid tenfold, and when the maze of the world's past 
history, through which the pure geologist and the pure pala^nto- 
logist find no guidance, will be securely threaded bj the due fdr- 
nuhed by the naturalist. 

All who B^ competent to express an opinion 6n the subject are 
at present agreed that the manifold varieties of animal and vegetable 
form have not either come into existence by chance, nor result from 
capricious exertions of creative power ; but ^at they have taken place 
in a definite order, the statement of which order is what men of science 
term a natural law. Whether such a law is to be regarded as an 
expression of the mode of operation of natural forces, or whether 
it is simply a statement of the manner in which a supernatural 
power has thought fit to act, is a secondary question, so long as 
the existence of the law and the possibility of its discovery by the 
human intellect are granted. But he must be a half '-hearted philo- 
sopher who,' believing in that possibilit}, and having watched the 
gigantic strides of l^e biological sciences during the last twmty 
years, doubts that science will sooner or later make this further step, 
so as to become possessed of the law of evolution of organic forms — 
of the unvarying order of that great chain of causes and effects of 
which all organic forms, ancient and modem, are the links. And 
then, if ever, ^e shall be able to begin to discuss, with profit, the 
questions respecting the commencement of life, and the nature of 
tiie successive populations of the globe, which so many seem to think 
are abeady answered. 

The preceding arguments make no particular claim to novelty; 
indeed they have been floating more or less distinctly before l^e 
minds of geologists for the last thirty years ; and if, at the present 
time, it has seemed desirable to give them more definite and syste^ 
matio expression, it is because paleeontology is every day assuming 
a greater importance, and now requires to rest on a basis whose 
firmnecs is thoroughly well assured. Among its fundamental con- 
oeptions, there must be no contoi<>n between what is certain and 
what is more or less probable*. But, pending the construction of 
a surer foundation than palsBontolc^ now possesses, it may be in- 
structive) assuming for the nonce the general <torrectness of the 
ordinary hypothesis of geolo^cal contemporaneity, to eonsider 
whether the deductions wMch are ordinarily drawn from the whole 
body of palseontological facts are justifiable. 

The evidence on which such conclusions are based is of two 
kinds, negative and positive. The value of negative evidence, in 
connexion with this inquiry, has been so fiilly and clearly discossed 


'< Le pluB gnnd Beryioe qu'on puiaee rendie & la sciekioa est d*y faire place 
i avBut d*y riai eonefaruire.**— Wfwr. 

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in an addross from tho chair of this Society *, which none of us have 
forgotten, that nothing need at present ho said ahout it ; tho more, 
as tho considerations which have heen laid before you have certainly 
not tended to increase your estimation of such evidence. It will be 
preferable to turn to the positive facts of palseontology, and to in« 
quire what they tell us* 

We are all accustomed to speak of the number and the extent of 
the changes in the living population of the globe during geological 
time as something enormous ; and indeed they are so, if we regard 
only the negative differences which separate the older rocks firom the 
more modem, and if we look upon specific and generic changes as 
great changes, which from one point of view they truly are. But 
leaving the negative differences out of consideration, and looking 
only at the positive data furnished by the fossil world from a broader 
point of view — ^from that of tho comparative anatomist who has 
made the study of the greater modifications of animal form his chief 
business — a surprise of another kind dawns upon the mind ; and 
under ihis aspect the smaUness of the total change becomes as 
astonishing as was its greatness under the other. 

There are two himdrcd known orders of plants ; of these not one is 

certainly known to exist exclusively in the fossil state. The whole 

.JapscLDf-geological time has as yet yielded not a single new ordinal 

type of vegetable structuref. 

The positive change in passing from the recent to the ancient 
animal world is greater, but still singularly small. No fossil animal 
is so distinct from those now living as to require to be airanged 
even in a separate class from those which contain ^existing foims. 
It is only when we come to the orders, which may bo roughly esti- 
mated at about a hundred and thirty, that we m^et wiUi fossil 
animals so distinct from those now living as to reqiiire orders for 
themselves ; and these do not amount, on the most li1;^ral estimate, 
.to more than about ten per cent, of the whole. 

There is no certainly known extinct order of Proto W ; theire is 
but one among the CcBlenterata — that of the rugose morals ; there 
is none among the MoUusca ; there are three, the Cystideffl, Blastoidea, 
and Edrioasterida, among tiie Echinoderms ; and two, ithe Trilobita 
and Eurypterida, among the Crustacea ; making altogether five for 
the great subkingdom of Annulosa. Among Yertebratdb-* ihere is 
no ordinally distinct fossil fish : there is only one extinct order of 
Amphibia — ^the Labyrinthodonts ; but there are at least four distinct 
orders of Eeptilia, viz. the Ichthyosauria, Plesiosauiia, Pterosauria, 
Dmosaurii^ and perhaps another or two. There is no known extinct 
order of .Birds, and no certainly known extinct order of Mammals, 
the ordinal distinctness of the ^< Toxodontia " being doubtful. 

The objection that broad statements of this land, after all, rest 
largely on negative evidence is obvious, but it has less force than 
might at first be supposed; for, as might be expected from the 

* Annivetsaiy Addrese for 1851, Qoart Joam. Qeol. Soc. vol. vii. 
t See Hooker'6 ' Introductory Esaay to the Flora of Taemania,' p. zziiL 

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ciroiuiistaaoes of the case, we possess more abundant positiTe evidence 
regarding Fishes and marine Mollnsks than respecting any other forms 
of animal life ; and jet these offer ns, through the whole range of 
geological time, no species ordinally distinct from those now living ; 
while the far less numerous dass of Echinoderms presents three, 
and the Crustacea two such orders, though none of these come down 
later than the PalflBozoic age. Lastly, the Beptilia present the ex- 
traordinary and exceptional phenomenon of as many extinct as 
existing orders, if not more ; the four mentioned maintaining their 
existence from the lias to the Chalk inclusive. 

Some years ago one of your Secretaries pointed out another kind 
of positive palseontological evidence tending towards the same con- 
clusion — afforded by ti^e existence of what he teimed " persistent 
types " of vegetable and of animal life*. He stated, on the authority 
of Dr. Hooker, that there are Carboniferous plants which appear to 
be generically identical with some now living ; that the cone of the 
Oolitic Arauearia is hardly distinguishable from that of an existing 
species ; that a true Pinus appears in the Purbecks and a Juglam 
in the Chalk; whUe, from tiie Bagshot Sands, a Banksia whoso 
wood is not distinguishable from that of spedes now living in Aus- 
tralia had been obtained. 

Turning to the animal kingdom, he affirmed the tabulate corab 
of the Silurian rocks to be wondeifally like those which now exist ; 
while even the families of the Aporosa were all represented in the 
older MesoKoio rocks. 

Among the MoUusca similar facts were adduced. Let it be borne 
in mind that Avicula, MytiluSy Chiton^ Natica, Patella, Trochus, 
Dueina, Orhicula, Lingtda, Ehyruihondla, and Nautilus, all of which 
are existing genera, are given wiUiout a doubt as SUurian in the 
last edition of < Siluria'; while the highest forms of the highest 
Cephalopoda are represented in the lias by a genus, Belemnoteuthis, 
which presents the dosest relation to the existing Loligo, 

The two highest groups of the Annulosa, Insecta and Arachnida,. 
are represented in the Coal either by existing genera or by forms 
differing from existing genera in quite minor peculiarities. 

Tundog to the Yertebrata, the only palesozoic Elasmobranch Fish 
of which we have any complete knowledge is the Devonian and Car- 
boniferous Plewracarihuay which differs no more from existing Sharks 
than these do from one another. 

AgaiA, vast as is the number of undoubtedly Ganoid fossil Fishes, 
and great as is thdr range in time, a large mass of evidence has re- 
cently been adduced to show that almost aU those respecting which 
we possess suffident information are referable to the same subordinal 
groups as the existing Lepidosteus, Pohfpterus, and Sturgeon ; aild 
that a aingnlar relation obtains between the older and the younger 
Fishes ; the former, the Devonian Ganoids, being almost all members 

* See the abrtraet of a Leefcure "On the FeniBtent Types of Animal Life," 
in the ' Notices of the Meetings of the Boyal InstitutLon of Gtreat Britain/ June 3| 


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of the Bame suborder as Polypterm^ while the Mesozoic Ganoids are 
almost aU similarly allied to Lepidosteus* . 

Again, what can be more remarkable than the singular constancy 
of structure preserved throughout avast period of time by the family 
of the Pycnodonts and by that of the true Coelacanths ; the former 
persisting, with but insignificant modifications, from the Carbonife- 
rous to the Tertiary rocks, inclusive ; the latter existing, with still 
less change, from the Carboniferous rocks to the Chalk, inclusive. 

Among Beptiles, the highest living group, that of the Crocodilia, is 
represented at the early part of the Mesozoic epoch by species identical 
in the essential characters of their organization with those now living, 
and differing from the latter only in such matters as the form of the 
articular facets of the vertebral centra, in the extent to which the 
nasal passages are separated from the cavity of the mouth by bone, 
and in the proportions of the limbs. 

And even as regards the Mammalia, the scanty remains of Triassic 
and Oolitic species afford no foundation for the supposition that the 
organization of the oldest forms differed nearly so much from some 
of those which now live as these differ from one another. 

It is needless to multiply these instances ; enough has been said 
to justify the statement that, in view of the immense diversity 
of known animal and vegetable forms, and the enormous lapse of 
time indicated by the accumulation of fossiliferous strata, the only 
circumstance to be wondered at is, not that the changes of life, as 
exhibited by positive evidence, have been so great, but that they 
have been so small. 

Be they great or small, however, it is desirable to attempt to 
estimate them. Let us therefore take each great division of the 
animal world in succession, and whenever an order or a family can 
bo shown to have had a prolonged existence, let us endeavour to ascer- 
tain how far the later members of the group differ from the earlier 
ones. If these later members, in all or in many cases, exhibit a certain 
amount of modification, the fact is, so far, evidence in favour of a 
general law of change ; and, in a rough way, the rapidity of that 
change vnll be measured by the demonstrable amount of modification. 
On the other hand, it must be recollected that the absence of any 
modification, while it may leave the doctrine of the existence of a 
law of change without positive support, cannot possibly disprove all 
forms of that doctrine, though it may afford a sufficient refutation 
of many of them. 

The Protozoa, — ^The Protozoa ai'e represented throughout the whole 
range of geological scries, from the Lower Silurian formation to the 
present day. The most ancient forms recentiy made known by 
Ehrenberg are excessively like those which now exist : no one has 
ever pretended that the difference between any ancient and any 
modem Foraminifera is of more than generic value ; nor are the 

* * Memoirs of the Qeological Survey of the United Kinfldom.— Decade x. 
P^minary Eflsay upon the Systematic Arrangement of the Fishes of the Dero- 
' LSpoch.' 

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: the 

/ fthe 

r the 


I are 



ay of 




> the 

ii« of 


> em« 
n; or 

These examples might be almost indefinitely mnltiplied, but snrely 
they are sufficient to prove that the only safe and unquestionable 
testimony we can procure— positive evidence — ^fails to demonstrate 
any sort of progressive modification towards a less embryonic or less 
generalized type in a great many groups of animals of long-continued 
geological existence. In these groups there is abundant evidence of 
variation — ^none of what is ordinaiily understood as progression ; and. 

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lii PBOCESDnras ov xhx esoiOtficAL socibtt. 

if fhe known geological record is to be regarded as even any consider- 
able fragment of tbe whole, it is inconceivable that any theory of 
a necessarily progressiye development can stand, for the numerous 
orders and families cited afford no trace of such a process. 

But it is a most remarkable fact, that, while the groups which 
have been mentioned, and many besides, exhibit no sign of pro- 
gressive modification, there are others, coexisting with them, under 
the same canditions, in which more or less distinct indications of 
such a process seem to be traceable. Among such indications I may 
remind you of the predominance of Holostome Gasteropoda in the 
older rocks as compared with that of Siphonoetome Gasteropoda in 
the later. A case less open to the objection of negative evidence, 
however, is that afforded by the Tetrabranchiate Cephalopoda, the 
forms of the shells and of the septal sutures exhibiting a certain 
increase of complexity in the newer genera. Here, however, one 
is met at once with the occurrence of Orihoeeras and Baculiks at 
the two ends of the series, and of the feu^t that one of the simplest 
genera, NatOiluSy is that which now exists. 

The Crinoidea, in the abundance of stalked forms in the ancient 
formations as compared with their present rarity, seem to present 
us with a fair case of modification from a more embryonic towards 
a less embryonic condition. But then, on careful consideration of 
the facts, the objection arises that the stalk, calyx, and arms of 
the palssozoic Crinoid are exceedingly different from tiie corresponding 
organs of a larval Oomaiula ; and it might with perfect justice be 
argued that Actinoorinus and Eucal^toorinta, for example, depart 
to the full as widely, in one direction, from the stalked embryo of 
Qomattilaf as Comatvla itself does in the other. 

The Echinidea, again, are frequentiy quoted as exhibiting a gradual 
passage from a more generalized to a more specialized type, seeing 
that tiie elongated, or oval, Spatangoids appear after the spheroidal 
Echinoids. But here it might be argued, on the other hand, that the 

r' roidal Echinoids, in reality, depart further frt)m the general 
and from the embryonic form than tiie elongated Spatangoids 
do; and that the pecuUar dental apparatus and the pedicelhuin 
of the former are marks of at least as great differentiation as the 
petaloid ambulacra and semitsB of the latter. 

Once more, the prevalence of Macrurous before Brachyuroua 
Podophthalmia is apparentiy a fear piece of evidence in favour of 
progressive modification in the same order of Crustacea ; and yet the 
case will not stand much sifting, seeing that the Macrurous Podoph- 
thalmia depart as far in one direction frt>m the common type of 
Podophthalmia, or from any embryonic condition of the Brachyura, 
as the Brachyura do in the other ; and that the middle terms be- 
tween Macmra and Brachyura — ^the Anomura — are littie better re- 
presented in the older Mesozoic rocks than the Brachyura are. 

None of the csbos of progressive modification which are cited from 
among the Invertebrata appear to me to have a foundation less open 
to criticism than these ; and if this be so, no careful reasoner would, 
I think» be inclined to lay very great stress upon them. Among 

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the Yertebrata, however, there are a few examples which appear to 
be fax less open to objection. 

It is, in &ct, tme of several groups of Yertebrata which have 4ived 
through a considerable range of time, that the endoskeleton (mora 
particularly the spinal column) of the older genera presents a less 
ossified, and so fkr less differentiated, condition than that of the 
yojnger genera. Thus the Devonian Ganoids, though almost all 
members of the same suborder as Fol^terus, and presenting nume- 
rous important resemblances to the existing genus, which possesses 
biconcave vertebrse, are, for the most part, wholly devoid of ossified 
vertebral centra. The Mesozoic Lepidosteidee, again, have at most 
biconcave vertebrsB, while the existing Lqndosteus has Salamandroid^ 
op-'sthoooBloas, vertebrae. So, none of the Palaeozoic Sharks have 
shown themselves to be possessed of ossified vertebrae, while the 
majority of modem Sharks possess such vertebrae. Again, the more 
ancient Crocodilia and Lacertilia have vertebrae with the articular 
facets of their centra flattened or biconcave, while the modem mem- 
bers of the same group have them proooelous. But the most remark- 
able examples of progressive modification of the vertebral column, 
in correspondence with geological age, are those afforded by the 
Pycnodonts among fish, and the Labyrinthodonts among Amphibia. 

The late able idithyologist Heckel pointed out the fact, that, while 
the Pycnodonts never possess tme vertebral centra, they differ in the 
degree of expansion and eidiension of the ends of the lx)ny arches of 
the vertebrae upon the sheath of the notochord ; the Carboniferous 
forms exhibiting hardly any such' expansion, while the Mesozoic 
genera pi^esent a greater and greater development, until, in the 
Tertiary forms, the expanded ends become suturally united so as to 
form a sort of false vertebra. Hermann von Meyer, again, to whose 
luminous researches we are indebted for our present large know- 
ledge of the organization of the older Labyrinthodonts, has proved 
that the Carboniferous Archegosaurus had very impeifectly deve- 
loped vertebral centra, while the Triassic Mastodonsaurus had the 
ejime parts completely ossified*. 

The regularity and evenness of the dentition of the AnoptoHhi' 
rium as contrasted with that of existing Artiodaetyles, and the 
assumed nearer approach of the dentition of certain ancient Carni- 
vores to the typic^ arrangement, have also been cited as exempli- 
ficrdons of a law of progressive development, but I know of no 
other cases based on positive evidence which are worthy of particular 

What then does an impartial survey of the positively ascertained 
tmths of palaeontology testify in relation to ihe common doctrines 
of progressive modification, which suppose that modification to have 
taken place by a necessary progress from more to less embiyonio 
forms, or from more to less generalized types, vrithin the limits of 
the period represented by the fossiliferous rocks ? 

» As thiB Address is passme through the press (March 7, 1862), evidenoe lies 
before me of the existence of a new Labjnnihodont (Pholidoffotter), from the 
fidinlnirgh ooal-field, with well-ossified vertebral centra. 

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It negatives those doctrines ; for it either shows us no evidence of 
any such modification, or demonstrates it to have been very slight ; 
and as to the nature of that modification, it yields no evidence 
whatsoever that the earlier members of any long-continued group 
were more generalized in structure than the later ones. To a 
certain extent, indeed, it may be said that imperfect ossification 
of the vertebral column is an embryonic character ; but, on the other 
hand, it woiild be extremely incorrect to suppose that the vertebral 
columns of the older Yertebrata are in any sense embryonic in their 
whole structure. 

Obviously, if the earliest fossiliferous rocks now known are coeval 
with the commencement of life, and if their contents give us any 
just conception of the nature and the extent of the earliest fauna 
and flora, the insignificant amount of modification which can be 
demonstrated to have taken place in any one group of animals or 
plants is quite incompatible with the hypothesis that all living 
forms are the results of a necessary process of progressive develop- 
ment, entirely comprised within the time represented by the fossili- 
ferous rocks. 

Contrariwise, any admissible hypothesis of progressive modification 
must be compatible with persistence VTithout progression through 
indefinite periods. And should such an hypothesis -eventually be 
proved to be true, in the only way in which it can be demonstrated, 
viz., by observation and experiment upon the existing forms of life, 
the conclusion will inevitably present itself, that the PalsDOZoic, Meso- 
zoic, and Cainozoic faunas and fioraB, taken together, bear somewhat 
the same proportion to the whole series of living beings which have 
occupied this globe, as the existing fauna and flora do to them. 

Such are the results of palaeontology as they appear, and have for 
some years appeared, to the mind of an inquirer who regards that 
study simply as one of the applications of the great biologiccd sciences, 
and who desires to see it placed upon the same sound basis as other 
branches of physical inquiry. If the arguments which have been 
brought forward are valid, probably no one, in view of the present 
state of opinion, will be inclined to think the time wasted which 
has been spent upon their elaboration. 

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NOVEMBBB 6, 1861. 

The following oommunications were read : — 

1. Nate on the Bowb-Cavbs of Luitel-Vibl, Hbrault. By Monsieur 
Mabcel db Sebbbs, Professor at the ''Faculty des Sciences/' 


The disooveiy of the bone-caves on the Mazet estate, near Lunol- 
Yiel, already dates back thirty-eight years. Since then I have 
visited some twenty otheis, of which the names are solely known by 
the descriptions given of them by myself and my ooUaboratenrs. 

The femnr of an Aurochs brought me by Colonel Frost and Captain 
Bompleur, E.E., led me to presume that it had been transported into 
the caves of M. Bouquet and belonged to a bone-deposit of late geo- 
logical date. The partial search that I immediately made juslified 
my predictions, and the government accorded me a sum sufficient for 
me to collect every specimen. I had the soil containing the bones 
sifted, and I was Uius able to collect a large number of the bones, 
which are now in the collection of the ** Faculty dee Sciences." 

Unfortunately several of the bones were taken from me by some 
persons more alive to the marvellous than to the interests of science. 


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I still regret this loss — a loss the more felt as those who permitted 
themselves the pilfering did so out of mere curiosity, and I found it 
impossible to recover them. I am ignorant to what species these 
purloined specimens may have belonged. 

The discovery of the large cavern was soon followed by that of 
several others. I have specified them all in my work under the de- 
signation of " fissure " and *' gut," in consequence of their small size 
compared with the first cave*. The fissure was filled with bones of 
different animals ; there were almost as many as in a grave-yard. 
We do not yet know the opening by which the bones were carried 
into the principal cave on ihe Bouquet property ; for that by which 
you now enter is in some degree artificial. The entrance was not, 
in fact, perceived until a mass of calcareous freestone, 35 metres 
thick, haii been removed. Subsequently enlarged^ and closed by a 
door, it now forms the only way into the principal cavern. 

These first points recognized, and the age of the Miocene lime- 
stone established, we soon comprehended that there was nothing in 
common between the formation of these cavities and their filling up. 
In fact these caves belong to the Tertiary period, whereas the earth 
(with rolled pebbles) containing the bones and the excrements es 
clearly belong to the Drift-period (terrains de transport andens) or 
to the most recent geological timest. 

Later we perceived that these rolled pebbles and the fragments of 
rock were always accompanied by bone-remains, and after a great 
number of observations we recognized that the presence of the trans- 
ported materials was essential to the presence of the bones. In feet, 
where none of the former exist, none of the latter are met with ; so 
that on entering a subterranean cavity which has not been explored, 
one can decide beforehand whether or not the remains of animals of 
geological antiquity exist there. In other caverns, on the contrary, 
one can feel sure that there is every probability of finding organic 
remains, especially if a layer of stalagmite covers the pebbly loam. 
It is, nevertheless, well worth while to observe that the phenomenon 
of the bone-caves is accompanied by the same circumstances all the 
world over. The bones are to be referred, some to animals of extinct 
species, and others to races not to be distinguished from those now 
living ; and these are, notwithstanding, mixed together indiscrimi- 
nately in the same soil. 

Finally, the last question which remains is not the least important. 
It is, to learn to what cause ought to be attributed the singular as- 
semblage together of so many bones, often accumulated in such large 
quantities that they are as plentiful as in a cemetery. 

What we have already said about the ahnost constant presence of 
bones in caves where there occur at the same time transported 
materials, leads to a strong presumption that these remains have been 

* "Recherohes sur lee oavemes k ossements de Lunel-Yiel, Montpellier." 
Boehm ^tcup, 1839. 

t At the period of the discovery of the bone^sayes of Lunel-Yiel none had been 
previousljr diBooyered in Tertiary formations ; since then we have found several 
in formations of that age. 

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1861.] MABCSL DE 8fiKR£S— ^BONE-CAVES. 3 

carried in, since they are always accompanied by alluvial deposits. 
If the Camivora alone had been the cause of such phenomena, they 
ought to be found in all ossiferous caves, whereas it is far from 
being so. A very great number of them offer, in fact, only herbivo- 
rous, without a trace of carnivorous animals. 

On the other hand, the condition of the cave-bones proves that 
they had been deprived of their flesh and integuments before they 
were carried into the caves. The numerous fissures connected witii 
them, and the red earth with which these are filled, even the nar- 
rowest of them, prove in the clearest manner that the bones must 
have been transported into their present position merely as bare bones, 
and not otherwise. K, therefore, there are in some caves some bones 
which have been gnawed, that may have happened before they were 
swept into the caves. 

The excrements of Hyaenas are in no wise a proof that these 
animals lived in the caves where they are discovered. Their solidity 
and their rounded form would render their transport easily effectea. 
How otherwise can we suppose that carnivorous animals of very 
unequal strength should live in conmion, and with a good mutual 
understanding, as must have happened with the lions, bears, wolves, 
foxes, otters, beavers, and so many others, which are found in the 
caverns of Lunel- Viel. 

It would be very easy to. mention many other caves, even of less 
size, in which animals of habits not less dissimilar are met with ; but 
the caves of the neighbourhood of Montpellier seem to us to suffice 
for the demonstration of a fact verified by so many observations. 

I will end this note with an observation of the illustrious physidst 
so recently lost to science. Htunboldt observes that, when a pheno- 
menon is general and repeated under the same conditions, as has 
been the case in the filling of the longitudinal and vertical fissures 
of calcareous rocks, such a phenomenon must have been produced 
by a cause as general as the effects which group round it. Accord- 
ing to this double condition, which is presented in all caves where 
remains of animals of geological date are found, it is impossible to 
attribute it to any other cause than to violent inundations. 

2, On the PsTBOLBTJM-sPBmGS in Nobth America. 

By Abkaham Gbsnsb, M.D., F.G.S. 


The ample information on this subject already published renders it 

desirable to make use only of the subjoined portion of Dr. Gesner's 


The petroleum is obtained by borings, to a depth of from 150 to 
600 feet. No reliable record of these borings, or the strata through 
whidi they pass, has yet been kept. As a general rule the sections 
may, however, be represented as — Ist. Soil, ferruginous clay, and 
boulders; 2nd. Sandstone and conglomerates; 3rd. Shale; 4th. 
Bituminous shale ; and 5th. Oil, underlaid by an oil-bearing stratum 


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of fire-clay, containing fragments of Stigmaria and other coal-plants. 
In the deeper sinkings, sandstones and bituminous shales are brought 
up by the borers ; but in every instance the petroleum appears 4x) 
be underlaid with a tight stratum of fire-clay. As soon as the oil- 
bearing stratum is reached, there is usually an escape of carburetted 
hydrogen gas, and it is discharged with such force that the boring- 
rods are often blown into the air, as if they had been discharged from 
a piece of ordnance. The gas is followed by a mixture of oil and 
gas, and finally by the oil itself, which is thrown in a jet upwards, 
sometimes to the height of 100 feet. The bore of the well is usually 
about 4 inches in diameter, being an iron tube let down as the boring 
proceeds. When the oil appears, the workmen, as soon as they can 
approach the spot, drive a wooden plug into the iron pipe, and thus 
prevent the flow of oil, until they are prepared to receive it. Finally, 
when the natural flow ceases, a pump is applied, and the raising of 
the petroleum proceeds. Some wells at &e outset have produced 
no less than 4000 gallons of oil in twenty- four hours. At some sites 
the shallow wells have run out or been exhausted; but by sinking them 
deeper still greater supplies have been obtained, and which at present 
appear to be inexhaustible. It seems very certain, therefore, that 
the reservoirs of oil are fissures penetrating certain oil-bearing strata 
and the intervening deposite. 

The specific gravity of the petroleums varies from -795 to '881. 
In general they are of a dark-brown colour. A few wells have pro- 
duced oils quite clear and transparent ; and simple distillation renders 
them quite pure and suitable for lamps. The inflammability of the 
vapour of the mineral oil has given rise to accidents. In one case an 
oil, tapped by a bore at 830 ^t, rose in a fountain 100 feet high, 
was soon afterwards ignited, and burned for two months before the 
workmen could plug the iron tube. 

After some observations on the antiquity of the use of mineral oil 
in North America and elsewhere, and on the present condition of the 
oil- and gas-springs and the associated sulphur- and brine-springs 
in the United States, the author stated that 50,000 gallons of mineral 
oil are daily raised for home use and for exportation. The oil-region 
comprises parts of Lower and Upper Canada, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, Texas, New Mexico, and 
California. It reaches from the 65th to the 128th degree of longi- 
tude west of Greenwich ; and there are outlying tracts besides. 

The oil is said to be derived from Silurian, Devonian, and Car- 
boniferous rocks. In some cases the oil may have originated during 
the slow and gradual passage of wood into coal, and in its final trans- 
formation into anthracite and graphite, — the hydrogen and some 
carbon and oxygen being disengaged, probably forming hydrocarbons 
including the oils. In other cases, animal matter may liave been 
the source of the hydrocarbons. 

Other native asphalts and petroleums were referred to by the 
author, who concluded by observing that these products were most 
probably being continually product by slow chemical changes in 
foesiliforous rocks. 

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3. Notice of the Discoyb&t 0/ ADBrrioNAL Remains of Land Animals 
in ike Coal-Measubbs of the South Joggins, Nova Scotia. By 
J. W. Dawson, LL.D., F.G.S., Prindpal of McGill College. 
In the long range of rapidly wasting clifib at the South Joggins, 
every successive year exposes new examples of erect trees and other 
fossils ; and, as the removal of the fallen dehris is equally rapid 
with the wasting of the cliff, it is only hy repeated visits that the 
geologist can thoroughly appreciate the ridmess of this remarkable 
section, while every renewed exploration is certain to be rewarded 
by new &cts and specimens. The present notice is intended to 
record the gleanings obtained in my last visit, in connexion with the 
presentation to the Society of a suite of specimens of the fossil 
Reptiles and other land-animals of the locality, which I desire to de- 
posit in the Museum of the Society, that tiiey may be more fiilly 
studied by comparative anatomists, and may remain as types of the 
species, accessible to British geologists. 

In the bed which has hitherto alone afforded reptilian remains in 
its erect trees, two additional examples of these were exposed. One 
was on the b^ich, and in part removed by the sea. The other was 
in the cliff, but so far disengaged that a miner succeeded in bringing 
it down for me. In the first comparatively little was found. It 
afforded only a few sheUs of Pupa vetugta, and scattered bones of a 
full-grown individual of Dendrerpeton Acadianum, 

The second tree was more richly stored ; and, being in evhn,, was 
very instructive as to the mode of occurrence of the remains. Like 
all the other trees in which reptilian bones have been found, it sprang 
immediately from the surface of the six-inch coal in Group XY. (^ 
my section*, which is also Coal No. 16 of Sir W. E. Logan's section f. 
Its diameter at the base was 2 feet, and its height 6 feet, above which, 
however, an appearance of additional height was given by the usual 
funnel-shaped sinking of the overlying beds toward the cavity of the 
trunk. The bark is well preserved in the state of bituminous coal, 
and presents externally a longitudinally wrinkled surface without 
ribs or leaf-scars ; but within, on the '' ligneous " surface, or that 
of the inner bark, there are broad flat ribs and transversely elongated 
scars. The appearances are precisely those which might be expected 
on an old trunk of my Sigillaria Brawnii, to which species this tree 
may have very well belongedit- 

The contents of the trunk correspond with those of others pre- 
viously found. At the bottom is the usual layer of mineral charcoal, 
consisting of the fallen wood and bark of the tree itself. Above 
this, about 2 feet of its height are filled with a confused mass of 
vegetable fragments, consisting of Cordaites, Lepidodendron, DIo- 
dmdron, Lepidostrohus, Calamites, Trigonocarpum, stipes and fronds 
of Ferns, and mineral charcoal ; the whole imbedded in a sandy paste 
blackened by coaly matter. In and at the top of this mass occur 
the animal remains. The remainder of the trunk is occupied with 

* Quart. Joom. Geol. Soc. vol. ix. p. 68, and vol. x. p. 20. 
t Bqwrto of Geol. Survey of Canada, 1845. 

♦ Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. No. 68. p. 523. 

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grey and buff sandstone, containing a few fragments of plants, but 
no remains of animals. 

Portions of six reptilian skeletons were obtained from this trunk. 
The most important of these is a large and nearly complete skeleton 
of Dendrerpeton Acadianum — by far the most perfect example, as I 
suppose, of any carboniferous reptile hitherto found. I shall not 
attempt to describe this specimen, and the new points of structure 
which it illustrates ; but I send the specimen itself, in the hope that its 
details may be examined and described by the eminent naturalist by 
whom the species was originally named and characterized. Another 
specimen found in this trunk is a jaw of an animal about the size of 
Dendrerpeton Acadianum, but with fewer and larger teeth. I send 
this specimen, which may possibly indicate a new species. The re- 
maining skeletons were imperfect, and belonged to a smaU individual 
of Dendrerpeton Acadianum, two of Hylommus Lyelli, and one of 
ffylonomus Wymani, The dislocated condition of these and other 
skeletons is probably due to the circumstance that, when they were 
introduced, the matter filling the trunk was a loose mass of fragments, 
into the crevices of which the bones dropped, on decay of the soft; 
parts. Most of the skeletons lie at the sides of the trunk, as if the 
animals had before death crept close to the walls of their prison. At 
the time when the reptiles were introduced, the hollow trunk must 
have been a pit 4 feet in depth. 

A number of specimens of Pupa vetusta and Xylohius SigiUarias 
were found, but nothing throwing further light on these species. 

I found in this trunk, for the fibret time, indications of the presence 
of Insects, The remains observed were disjointed and crushed frag- 
ments, and as they did not include wings or elytra, I cannot give 
any decided opinion as to the orders to which they may have belonged. 
The most probable conjecture would be that they were Neuroptera or 
Orihoptei^a of large size. The most interesting fragment obtained is 
a compoimd eye, imbedded in coprolitic matter, along with obscure 
portions of limbs and abdominal segments. Its facets are perfectly 
preserved, and are lined with a brownish bituminous matter, simu- 
lating the original pigment. These remains are at least sufficient 
to prove that in Nova Scotia, as in Europe, Insects inhabited the 
coal-forests, and that they furnished a portion of the food of Den- 
drerpeton or its allies. I may mention here that in other coprolites 
quantities of segments of Xylobius occur, and that there are some 
little groups of bones of very small reptiles, which are probably co- 

The beds on a level with the top of this erect tree*are arenaceous 
sandstones, with numerous erect Catamites, I searched the surfaces 
of these beds in vain for bones or footprints of the Reptiles which 
must have traversed them, and which, but for the hollow erect trees, 
would apparently have left no trace of their existence. On a surface 
of similar character, 60 feet higher, and separated by three coals 
with their accompaniments, and a very thick compact sandstone, I 
observed a series of footprints which may be those of Dendrerpeton or 
ffylonomus. The impressions are too obscure to show the toes di- 

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Id61.] DAWBON — ^bsphlbs in thb coil. 7 

Btinctly. They are half an inch in length, with a stride of about 2 
inches. On neighbouring layers were pits resembling rain-marks, 
and trails or impressions of a kind which I have not before observed. 
They consist of rows of transverse depressions, about an inch in 
length and | of an inch in breadth. Each trail consists of two of 
these rows running parallel to each other, and about 6 inches apart. 
Their direction curves abruptly, and they sometimes cross each other. 
From their position they were probably produced by a land or 
freshwater animal — ^possibly a large Crustacean or gigantic Annelide 
or Myiiapod. In sice and'general appearance they slightly resemble 
the curious ClimaeHchniUs of Sir W. £. Logan, from the Potsdam 
Sandstone of Canada. 

I have long looked in vain for remains of land-animals in any other 
situation than the erect trees of the bed above referred to ; but on 
my last visit I was much gratified by finding sheik of Pupa vetusta 
in a bed 1217 feet below the former, in the upper part of No. 8 of 
my section, or about 15 feet below Coal No. 37 of Logan's section. 
The bed in question is a grey and greyish-blue under-clay, full of 
Stigmarian rootlets, though without any coal or erect trees at its 
sui^ace. It is 7 feet thi{£, with sandstone above and below. The 
shells occur very abundantly in a thickness of about two inches. 
They have been imbedded entire ; but most of them have been crushed 
and flattened by pressure. They occur in all stages of growth ; but 
the most careftd examination did not enable me to detect any new 
species, "^ith them were a few fragments of bone, probably repti- 
lian. This discovery establishes the existence of Pupa vetusta in this 
locality during the deposition of twenty-one coal-seams, and the 
growth and burial of at least twenty forests ; and from the occur- 
rence of numerous specimens at both extremes of this range, without 
any other species, it would seem as if, for this locality at least, this 
was the only representative of the shell-bearing Pulmonates. 

I append a list of the specimens forwarded to the Museum of the 
Society, and which, with those formerly sent, constitute a complete 
collection of the air-breathing animals hitherto recognized in the 
Coal-measures of Nova Scotia. 

List of speeimens of Reptiles, Sfc^from the Coal-formation of Nova 
Scotia, accompanying this paper, 

1. Hylonomus LyeUu A nearly complete skeleton, and the maxillary 

bone and teeth of another specimen. 

2. ff, adedentatus. Maxillary bone, vertebrae, ribs, scales, and foot. 

3. H, Wymani, Lower jaw, vertebras and other bones, and scales. 

4. Jaw of a Reptile, supposed to be new. 

5. Skin and dermal plates of Hylonomus. 

6. Dendrerpetan Aeadianum, Owen. A nearly complete skeleton. 

7. Pupa vetusta^. From a bed 1217 feet below that in which the 

species was originally recognized. 

* I obwrre that ProfeMor Owen proposes the name *' Jkndropupa " (* Palieon- 
iologj,' 1860» p. 79) ; but I hsTe retained Pupa for the present, not being satisfied 

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8 PEocBSDnras of the gbolooical societt. [Not. 20, 

4, On a VoLCAKic Fhsvomenok witnuud in Manilla.. 
By Jomr G. Veitch, Esq. 
[Extract of a Lotter* to Dr. J. D. Hooker, F.R&, F.OJS.] 
Ok the Ist ult. a portion of the Biver Pasig, on the banks of which 
the city of Manilla is situated, presented an extraordinary appearance, 
which continued with but slight interruption from 6 to 10 a.x. The 
oldest inhabitant never remembers having seen or heard of a similar 

The river, for the epaoe of a quarter of -a mile from east to west, 
and having at this point a depth of 15 to 18 feet, appeared in a state 
of violent fermentation, as if some commotion were taking place in 
parte invisible to the eye. 

Quantities of air-bubbles rose to the surface, until the river became 
eovered with foam, and presented the appearance of simmering water. 
The temperature of the water where this appeared was 100^ to 105^ 
Fahr., that of the remainder of the river bcnng 80°. • 

The most remarkable circumstance was the effect produced on the 
bed of the river. Mounds of mud were raised several feet above the 
surface of the water, and appeared as if a hnge bank of mud had 
been permanently thrown up in the midst of the river. 

The temperature of the soil thrown up was 60° to d5° only ; but 
it smelt so offensively as to taint the atmosphere for a considerable 
distance in the immediate neighbourhood. 

After having been thus disturbed for the space of four hours, the 
bed subsided, and the river again resumed its ordinary appearance. 

I trust this imperfect description may enable you to judge as to 
the cause of so curious a commotion. Here it is generally looked 
upon as being of volcanic origin. 

NOVEXBBR 20, 1861. 

Charles Sanderson, Esq., O.E., Engineer-in-Chief of the Bombay 
and Baroda Bailway, Surat, Bombay ; B.alph Tate, Esq., Teacher of 
Natural Science, Philosophical Institution, Belfast ; James Ray Eddy, 
Esq., C.E., Oarleton Grange, Skipton ; Henry Worms, Esq., of the 
Inner Temple, 272 Park Crescent, Portland Place ; and Haddock 

that there is anj^ eood generic distinction ; thooffh I admit that the form of the 
aperture soggests we poesibilitj of afflnify to Bmimus as well as to Pujkl 

Mr. J. G-. Jeffreys, F.G.S.» who oonriders the shell to he a true Pupa, has kindly 
directed my attention to traces of ridges oheerrable on the columella of one spe- 
cimen, and which he regarded as eorrespon^Ung with the aorew-like plates in the 
.young of PujMi umbilieata and P, Hnffena, This appearaine I have obeerred in 
specimens now in my poeaession ; and at one time I supposed that I had made 
out a distinct tooth ; but, not findinff this in other and less Compressed indiri- 
duals, I concluded that it was an effect of pressure; in which, howersr, I may 
have been mistaken, as Mr. Jeffireys states that these processes hare no connection 
with the teeth in adult specimens, and that eren the toothless rariety of P. umbiU' 
cafa is furnished with tliem. 

* Dated «* Manilla, June 1861." 

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1861.] KBT — BOVBT DBP06IT. 9 

Dennys, Esq., 3 Percy Terrace, Lower Eoad, laliHgton, were elected 

The following communicatioiis were read : — 

1. 0» t^ BoTET Deposit. By J. H. Eet, Esq. 

(Commonioated by Sir 0. Lyell, F.Gh.S.) 


IntrodvcHon. — ^Singularly enough, as geologists approach our own 
era the difficulty of determining the relative age of a particular stra- 
tum generally increases; and it is in the more modem tertiaries, or 
deposits succeeding to these, that the greatest amount of difficulty 
occurs. Among the strata not yet referred to any certain epoch, 
but hroadly designated " tertiary/' are the day-, sand- and li^te- 
beds, known to geologists as the '* Boyey deposit^." Haying been 
for the last ten years engaged in working and boring the yarious 
beds of clay, I may have become possessed of facts not generally 
known to geologists, bearing on the origin and nature of the deposit, 
and which may assist in some degree to fix its relatiye age. 

The phydcal features of the bakn, — ^The Boyey basin is a depres* 
sion breath the leyel of the surrounding country ; its length, from 
Boyey-Tracey to about two miles south of Kingskerswell, is about 
10 nules ; its breadth at the upper end about 2^ miles, becoming 
much narrower towards its southern extremity. Two riyers, the 
Teign and the Boyey, both having their sources in the granite of 
Dartmoor, run into this basin, meet above Stover, and £bJ1 into the 
sea at Teignmouth. The Teign, the larger and more circuitous, for 
about 13 or 14 miles before entering the Bovey basin, flows through 
the slate ; and the Bovey Biver, rising near the centre of the moor, 
crosses for a short distance the slate, and runs into the basin at its 
upper end. All the drainage of the basin flows to the estuary of 
the Teign through an opening between Buckland Point and Hackney, 
about half a mile wide. 

The deposit, surrounded by hills fQrming the margin of the basin, 
presents to the eye for the most part a level plain ; a large portion 
immediately above the point where the Teign meets the tide being 
of a very low flat character, subject to floodings at high spring-tides 
and heavy rains ; from this point it rises gradually, on the one hand, 

* The clays and ligmtes of Bore^-Traocr^ haye been more or leas fully described 
by Dr. Jeremiah MUles in the ' Pmlosophical Transactions ' for 1753 ; by James 
Parkinson and Robert Seammell ('Organic Bemains,' p. 123, Ac,) in 1811 ; 
C. Hatchett^ Trans. Linn. Soc. toL it. p. 138, &o. ; and Phil. Trans. 1804, p. 390, 
&C.; J. Macculloch, Gfeol. Trans. 1814, toI. ii. p. 18; Mr. Einnton, *Mine- 
ralcwy of Teienmouth'; Conybeare and Phillips, 'Outlines of we Geology of 
England and Wales,' p. 328, and p. 346. 

A rSaumi of the facts and opimons offered by the aboTe-mentioned writers was 
given by Mr. £. W. Bradley m Moore's ' History of DeTonshire,' 1829, vol. i 
p. 380, dec. Further notices hare been made by Mr. Gk>dwin- Austen in 1834 and 
subseguentlT (Geol. Proceed, vol. ii. p. 108, and Geol. Trans. 2nd ser. vol. xi. 
p. 439, &c); by Sir H. De la Beohe in 1839 (Geol. Beport Devon and Corn- 
wall, p. 246, &c.) ; by Dr. Hooker in 1855 (Quart. Joum.Geol. Soc. vol. zl p. 566) r 
and by Dr. Croker in 1856 (Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. vol. zii. p. 354).— Edit. 

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towards Kingskerswell and Torquay, and on the other, towards the 
Bovey and !^iighton Heaths, where the deposit attains its greatest 
eleyation, 151 feet above the mean level of the sea ; farther north it 
sinks again abmptly, before reaching the slate-hiUs of Bovey- 
Tracey, into the valley occupied by the Bovey Pottery. The excep- 
tions to the generally flat appearance of the lower portion of the 
deposit occur where the hiUs forming the border-line of the basin 
are composed of loose material, when it would appear as if portions 
had been washed into the depression oyer the deposit, breaking the 
general level ; this is observ^ at Stover, at Sandy Gate, and below 
Baker's Hill. 

For more than a hundred years the Bovey basin has been worked 
for pipe and potter's clay, sending off annually large quantities from 
its shipping port, Teignmouth, to all the principid sea-ports of the 
United Kingdom. In the northern part of the basin, near Bovey- 
Tracey, an extensive pottery has been established, excavating the 
greater part of its ftiel for many years from the adjoining beds of 
brown-coal or lignite ; although at present, I believe, from exhaus- 
tion of the beds near the surface, sea-borne coal is used to a consider- 
able extent. 

In penetrating beneath the soil of this deposit in any part, the 
borer meets with nothing harder than gravel or beds of lignite, with 
the exception of an occasional boulder near the surface ; the whole 
basin being filled up with loose material, consisting of various kinds 
of clay, silt, sand, lignite, and gravel, deposited in beds, with con- 
siderable regularity. At one place it has been bored to a depth of 
200 feet, and in many places 130 to 150 feet, without meeting rock. 

The strata of the Bovey Basin. — Commencing on Knighton Heath, 
and running down the eastern side of the basin, are three principal 
parallel beds of clay (used in commerce), resting on, separated, and 
covered by other parallel beds of muddy clay, silt, sand, and gravel, 
all having a western inclination or dip^. South of the Newton 
Bailway Station the beds of fine clay thin out to a mere trace, but 
occur again at the Decoy, as a well-defined and regular deposit ; but 
here the dip is changed from the west to the east, the pipe-clay now 
being found to the west, and the potter's clay, accompanied by seams 
of lignite, to the east. Further south, the beds of fine day thin out 
again, still keeping their eastern inclination ; become again well 
defined at Aller, especially as regards the potter's clay and lignite 
(the pipe-clay having here lost its distinctive qualities, being mixed 
up with sand and stained with ochreous matters) ; and onwards in 
the valley leading to Torquay traces of the clay may be found as far 
as the Atmospheric Engine-house, above the Torr Bailway Station. 

As r^ards the strike of the strata on the western side of the 
deposit (its central and upper portion), not so much is known ; no 

* On tho plan of the Bovey basin presented to the Society (not published) the 
bed to the east, marked red, is the pipe-claj (called locally the " white body "), 
the two western beds, marked green, potter^s clay (or the " black bod^ "^, and 
the parallel beds of coarse olay, sand, &o., marked brown. A bed of lignite, in 
some places well defined, but m others forming merely a trace, accompanies the 
middle bed of potter's day — the lignite marked black m the plan. 

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1861.] KBY — BOTET DEPOSIT. 11 

regular workings have been carried on there, as on the eastern side, 
the day found by boring being, for the most part, unsuitable for 
commerce; it is highly stained with red matter, and gravelly. 
The little that is known tends to prove that the strike of the beds of 
clay, sand, and gravel, on the western side, corresponds in direction 
to an extended outline of the hills on that side, the dip of the beds 
being the same as at the Decoy, to the east. 

The north-western part of the basin is better known : here occur 
large deposits of " Bovey-coal " or lignite, — an accumulation of 
tangled masses of vegetation, deposited in regular beds, of various 
thickness, separated by rough clays and sand. At the Bovey Pottery, 
where they have been worked extensively, the beds dip to tihe south- 
east, and the strike of the strata runs about south-west. The dip 
of the beds is about 11 inches in a fathom ; and their vertical thick- 
ness is about 100 feet. The lower beds are those worked for fuel ; 
the upper beds being very loose and irregular, and mixed with coarse 
clay and quartzose gravel. The whole is covered by a deep " head " 
of gravel, such as would be washed from disintegrated granite. 

Fig. 1. — Section of the Lignite-heds at the Bovey Pottery, (Taken by 
Dr. Croker in 1841.) Scale ^th inch to a fathom. 

a. " Head " of rough mvel. 

h. Imperfect beds of Lignite, separated bj thin seams of rough clay and 

c. Yellowish sand, 9 feet thick, with bluish clay, sand, and pebbles at the 


d. Ten beds of lignite, separated bj thin seams of clay, mixed with vege- 

table matter. 
The beds dip to the South-east, with an inclination of 1 foot in 11. 

The order of deposition observed in this section corresponds 
with what would be expected to result were a river, bringing 
various kinds of sediment, to discharge itself into a deep lake. (See 
further on, page 17.) In the regularity of the ten lower beds of 
lignite, separated by thin seams of fine clay and vegetable matter, 
are discerned the characteristics of deposits gradually formed, in deep 
and comparatively still water, as the lake became filled up with 
sediment, and the water became shallower, and the current there- 

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fore more rapid ; the beds of lignite becoming more and more irre- 
gular, and separated by coarser and coarser materials. At length, 
as the sediment approached the surface, the lignite ceased to be de- 
posited ; the speofic gravity of the trees not being sufficient to with- 
stand the current ; and very rough granitic gravel was alone allowed 
to become fixed. 

Fig. 2 is a section across the beds of pipe- and potter's clay, on 
the eastern side of the basin, near New Gross. It is constructed on 
data obtained from the inspection of deep and shallow pits from 
Knighton to Newton-marsh, from reports of the workmen, from 
borings, and frt)m the superintendence of the Newton-marsh Clay- 
works. This section will nearly represent the stratification of the 
continuous day-deposit from near Knighton, on the north, to the 
Newton Bailway Station ; with this difference, that at the com- 
mencement of the deposit the seams of fine clay are thin, somewhat 
irregular, and to some degree mixed with quartz-gravel. The dip 
is also greater than in the section ; and in several places the clay- 
beds show the action, apparently, of running water, portions of the 
fine material having been evidently washed away, so that the fine 
clay runs down to a considerable depth almost perpendicularly. 

From Knighton southwards the beds of fine day increase in thick- 
ness, purity, and regularity to below New Cross, where they begin 
to diminish in thickness, until lost south of the Newton Bailway 
Station. In two or three places narrow bands of coarser clay, 
generally stained, run across the finer clay ; and in several places 
the pipe-day forms two beds. 

Fig. 3 represents a section of the beds of day, &c., at the Decoy*, 
and has been constructed from numerous observations made at the 
spot and in its vicinity during ten years. All the seams of clay shown 
in the section have been worked for considerable distances longitudi- 
nally, from 60 to 100 feet transversely, and to depths of from 30 to 90 
feet. The inclination of the strata here is much greater generally 
than, and in the opposite direction to, that in the section ^, 2. It 
will be observed, however, that the superposition of the beds is 
almost identical with that in the last-mentioned section, taken 
in the upper part of the basin : the pipe-day, it is true, is divided 
into three distinct beds, against two in section fig. 2 ; but the order 
of deposition is the same, and the description of one would suit the 
other. Taking the beds in order upwards, we shall have rough 
clays, pipe-clay, stiff clay, dark fine day, rough muddy clays, pot- 
ter's clay, and lignite. In section fig. 2, ti^ere are two beds of 
potter's day shown ; at the Decoy also there is to the east a small 
second seam of fine day resting on the one shown in fig. 3. 

Several seams of lignite, almost perpendicular in dip for the first 
15 or 18 feet from the surface, and separated by thin divisions of 
dark day and vegetable matter, lie immediately below the bed of 
potter's clay in fig. 3. 

The pipe-day at the Decoy has been worked about 90 feet deep, 

* This is tlie " deep watercourse below Woolborough," in Mr. Oodwin-Austcn's 
Memoir, Geol. Trans. 2nd eer. vol. ri. p. 451. 

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1 . 








"seuag iCtqa-edij 

■sauag ^«p-adij 








k ^ 


Q ^ (H CO "oi* > d<di>^ oi? 


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and bored to about 120 feet ; but the clay-seams gradually thin out, 
in depth, as shown in fig. 3. The pipe- clay and stiff clay in some 
places run down almost perpendicukurly, as shown in bed 3 in fig. 3, 
representing the appearance of haying been partially washed away 
by a stronger current than at first deposited the bed ; and, wherever 
this occurs, the deposit lying on the bed so partially washed away 
is of very much rougher texture — generally fine or coarse sand or 

Here and there a smooth water-worn stone, generally of quartz, 
but sometimes slate, is found imbedded in the clay. Nodules of 
iron-pyrites, of all sizes, from that of small shot to that of an egg, 
are in some places abundant. Detached pieces of lignite, too, are 
very common — sometimes with the surface changed into mundic. 

The clay and accompanying beds at the Decoy rest against the 
Greensand hills surrounding this portion of the basin ; and the strike 
of the beds forms a segment of a circle, somewhat conformable in 
direction to the shape of the hills. 

Fig. 4. — Section of Clays and Lignites at Alter, Scale ^th inch to 

a fathom. 

1. " Head" of gravel. 8. Three seama of lignite, separated by fine clay. 

2. Sand. 9. Fine day. 

3. Muddy clay. 10. Bough clay. 

4. lignite. 11. Fine day. 

5. Clay. 12. Bough clay with gravel. 

6. Lig^te. 13. Bough sand and muddy day. 

7. Clay. The beds dip to the East. 

Fig. 4 shows a section* of the potter's clay and lignite-beds at 
AUer. Hero the lignite, separated by beds of clay, is more developed 
than at the Decoy. No fine pipe-clay has been found at Aller ; but 
underlying the beds shown in the section, and occupying the posi- 
tion of the pipe- clay, are rough clays, highly stained with ochre, all 
having an eastern dip. 

It will be observed in all the sections here given that the dip of 
the beds increases from the sides towards the centre of the basin ; 
and this I believe to be generally the case throughout the deposit. 

The clay-beds throughout the deposit show no sign of disturbance 
by slips or faults ; they seem perfectly unaffected by any other power 
than that of water. 

* Constructed firom numerous observationB whilst superintending the works 
during several years. 

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1861.] KEY — ^BOVET DEPOSIT. 16 

Such is the maimer in -which the days and other beds filling the 
basin are arranged ; but, to complete the sketch, a description of the 
" Head " (seen in the various sections)^ covering the more regularly 
stratified beds, is necessary. 

Lying unconformably on the upturned edges of the claj-beds, and 
becoming considerably deeper towards the centre of the basin (in 
some places 30 to 40 ft., in ethers not more than 3 feet deep), is an 
accimiidation of clay, earthy matter, gravel, rolled stones, and boul- 
ders, with but little stratification. This is called the " Head "♦. In 
some places the gravel and boulders, in others the earth and clay, 
preponderate ; and in many places the '< Head " partakes of the cha- 
racter of the adjacent hills, particularly if they be of loose material. 
At the Decoy, for instance, the ^' Head" is composed of flint-nodules, 
quartz, boulders, and gravel, mixed with clay and earthy matter, 
and containing also the fossils proper to the adjoining hills. In the 
upper portion of the basin, the '' Head " is composed of boulders of 
schorl, quartz, and slate^ with sand and gravel. 

In the low marshes near Newton, the " Head " over the day-beds 
is stratified in the following manner : — ^From the surface to the depth 
of 3 to 5 feet, loose silt, without shells ; then from 3 inches to 2 feet 
of dark silt, containing a very few shells of the oyster and cockle, 
and a great number of the shells now common in liie estuary below. 
Immediately under the silt containing shells, in one place, there is a 
narrow basin-shaped stratum of peat, from 3 to 18 inches thick, 
lying on which I found the rib and jaw of a Deer. Below the 
peat is coarse clay from 6 to 7 feet thick, in which are boulders of 
granite, slate^ and quartz; and then the true stratified beds of 

The shelly bed described above is not found in the higher portions 
of the basin, but only near where the Biver Teign runs into the salt 
water; indeed the shells are all found under high -water mark. 

Materials andprohahle mode of formation of ihe Bovey Deposit, — 
On submitting the pipe-day to analysis it is found to contain aboutt 
63 per cent, of silica, 27 to 29 per cent, of alumina, some oxide of 
iron, and a trace of lime. The stiff day has considerably more silica, 
and in larger partides ; the potter's clay nearly the same amount of 
silica and alumina as the pipe-clay, with a little carbon, from the 
lignite, I suppose, to which it also owes its dark colour. 

The sand and sUty beds on and under the day are composed 
chiefly of minute pieces of quartz, with some schorl and date ; and 
in the finer beds of silt there are also numerous shining partides of 

The greater part of the materials composing the Bovey deposit 
are, therefore, identical with the component parts of granite, or such 

* Some aooount of the "Head,'' and of ita local differenoeB, 10 giren by Mr. 
Qodwin-Auflten at pp. 438 k 440 of his Memoir, GeoL Trans. 2nd ser. vol. vi. — 

t I say tbat the pipe-day oontains about 63 per cent of silica, because all 
clays being meohaniauly, and not chemicall^p', combined, samples of pipe- and 
potter^s day are found to differ much in thor relative proportions of sihca and 

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as would be expected to be brought to and deposited in a lake * by 
a river flowing over decomposed granite. A common variety of 
granite is frequent in Devonshire and Cornwall, containing — 

Silica 73-04 

Alumina 18-83 

Potash 8-51 

Magnesia 0-83 

lime 0-44 

Oxide of iron 1-73 

Fluoric acid 0-18 

By looking at the. above-mentioned plan of the basin, it will be 
seen that the day is continuously deposited in the valley leading to 
Torquay ; therefore, if a lake once existed, in order to deposit the 
day, the current must have run in the direction of Kingskerswell 
and Torquay, and did not, as now, find an exit to the sea by the way 
of Teignmouth. 

In corroboration of this view appears the striking fact, that, were 
the opening in the chain of hills surrounding the basin between the 
hills in the rear of Hackney and Buckland Point (now allowing 
the Biver Teign and other streams to escape to the sea by the way 
of Teignmouth) fiUed up, the water would accumulate until an ex- 
tensive lake would be formed, having its outline indicated by the 
dark line around the margin of the basin on the plan, and discharg- 
ing its surplus water at the point where now stands Lawe's Bridge, 
taking the road over the railway above the Torr Station ; from ^is 
point the water of the lake would flow, with a rapid current, through 
a well-marked channd still existing for some distance, past the Torr 
Railway-station, and at the foot of the site of Torr Abbey, to the sea 
in Torbay. 

The height of this bridge above the mean levd of the sea (as 
kindly communicated to me by Mr. Appleton, surveyor, of Torquay, 
and taken by him for the Torquay Water-supply) is 171 feet ; but, 
on examining the nature of the ground around this bridge, it is found 
to be an accumulation of red brick-earth, evidently washed from 
the immediate neighbourhood, — ^no doubt choking up the andent 
channel of the river for some considerable depth, certainly for 18 or 
20 feet, as seen in the cutting below the bridge. Deducting 20 from 
171, we have 151 feset for the height of the surface of the lake 
above the mean level of the sea. Now this agrees remarkably well 
with the physical features of the basin. I refer to the fact, that the 
outline of the lake at that height nearly indicates the outline of the 
Bovey deposit, no marked member of the deposit being found above 
that line t ; and also that many of the hills forming the margin of 

* That the area of Borey-Heathfield and Bellamanh was onoe a lake waa 
argued by Mr. Godwin- Austen in 1834 (GeoL Proceed. toL ii. p. 103) : the 
upper aooumidation ('* Head") alone, however, was supposed to be referable to 
suob a condition ; the lower sands and days, which are destitute of chalk-flint 
detritus, not being included in that lacustrine series, but (at least those near 
Newton) referred to the Cretaceous series by Mr. Godwin-Austen, Geol. Trans. 
loc. cit. p. 461.—BD. Q. J. G. S. 

t The highest part of the deposit is 151 feet abore tlie mean level of the sea, 
on Knighton Heath. 

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1861.] ZXJ — BOVET DEPOSIT. 17 

tho basin present traces of a horizontal ridge at from 130 to 150 
feet above the sea, particularly tho older and firmer formations, — 
for instance, Backland Point, Knowles, tho hill over Kingskerswell 
Church, west of the road, and many others, indicating, it may be 
supposed, the line of wash near the surface of tho lake around its 

It is easy to conceive the chain of hills around tho basin to have 
been unbroken at some former period, and the consequent existence 
of a lake, extending from Bovey-Traoey to near Torr, ramifying far 
up into the lateral valleys, receiving into it the rivers and streams 
that now run over its bed. Either by the advance of the sea from 
without, or, more probably, by the gradual opening of a channel 
between the hills behind Hackney and Buokland Point ftt)m within, 
by the action of the surface-wash of the lake (the waves of which 
must have attained considerable power, driven by north or west 
winds on the point indicated), the lake grow shallower, until it ulti- 
mately disappeared. 

In order to prove beyond doubt that the surplus water of the lake 
discharged itself at the point mentioned (Lawe'sBridge),it would have 
been desirable to find some beds of sand or gravel, indicating the bed 
of a river between Lawe's Bridge and the sea ; but the loose brick- 
earth forbids. Corroborative evidence, however, of the former chan- 
nel is found in the bed of peat ♦ on the beach, under Torr Abbey ; 
showing, no doubt, that a small lake had existed here on the course 
of the river, and which, after tho river had ceased to run in this 
direction, became filled with a growth of peat. On the beach, too, 
near the peat, are spots of very white sandy clay, resembling that of 
the Bovey deposit, whiter, I think, than any which could be washed 
from the Red Sandstone cliff; and these may be small portions of a 
larger bed, deposited by the river before the sea had penetrated so 
far inland. 

The evidence offered by the strata of tho Bovey deposit itself is, 
perhaps, the most conclusive as to the existence of this lake ; the 
more prominent facts to bo gathered from the plan and sections being 
these : — 

1. That the Bovey deposit is composed of various beds almost 
identical with the component parts of granite. 

2. That the strata run, for the most part, parallel with an ex- 
tended outline of the marginal hills, and dip from the sides towards 
the centre of tho basin, — the nearer the centre, the greater being 
the dip. 

3. That the finer material is deposited towards the sides, and the 
coarser towards the centre. 

4. That where the basin contracts in width, the finer beds con- 
tract in thickness, and sometimes disappear ; on the contrary, where 
the basin widens the purest and most regular beds of day arc found. 

6. That the northern part of the deposit is at first irregular, 
and composed of coarser substances than the central and lower 

* Bones of Deer have been found in tliis peat. 

VOL. XVni. — PABT I. 

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6. That on the eastern side of the basin the beds of fine material 
are more deyeloped than on the western side. 

7. And^ lastly, that the varioos beds ran in the direction of, and 
seem to point to, the Biyer Bovey as the sonrce from whence they 
were derived. 

The anthor then considers the probable conditions of a lake of the 
size of the BoTcy basin, elongate, but contracted in the middle, fed 
by a rapid river entering the lake at its upper end, and having its 
tnbutanes in hills cloi£ed with forest-trees, and consisting of de- 
composing granite, such as is seen at present on the sonth-westem 
slopes of Dartmoor, and at the China-clay-works of St. Austell and 
St. Stephen's, Cornwall, where the felspar of the granite has decom- 
posed into a soft white powder, and the quartz and mica form loose 
sand and gravel of all degrees of size, for a depth, in some places, of 
more than 40 fathoms. 

The materials brought by the river to the lake would (the author 
states) mainly consist of — ^first, clays of diflferent d^^rees of fineness, 
derived from the decomposed felspar ; secondly, earthy matter, from 
the vegetable mould ; thirdly, siliceous sand and gravel, of all de- 
grees of size ; fourthly, vegetable matter, forest-troes and plants of 
various kinds, fit)m the river, in time of flood or otherwise, under- 
mining its soft banks clothed with vegetation ; and, lastly, stones 
and boulders of various kinds. 

The particular plan of deposition, and often redeposition, of these 
matericds is then described by the author, and illustrated by a 
diagram-plan ; and he remarl^ that the various strata, consequent 
on the fluctuating quantity of water discharged by the river, would 
not be deposited horizontally over the bottom of the lake, but would 
incline more or loss frt)m the sides towards the centre, or towards 
the current, the degree of inclination being regulated chiefly by the 
strength of the current. "Where the lake became very narrow, the 
beds of sediment would be thin, and the dip great ; and where the 
lake was wide, the dip would be comparatively small ; the dip being 
probably caused by less material being allowed to permanently fix 
itself at the centre than at the sides ; tiierefore the beds would have 
a tendency to thicken near the surface, and thin out below, causing 
the dip to increase towards the centre of the basin. The dip, too, 
would not be of the same angle throughout, but would be less 
towards the bottom ; the section of such beds assuming a slightly 
concave form. 

Thus the lake would go on filling with sediment, the coarse irre- 
gular deposit of the delta advancing downwards, overlying the more 
regular parallel beds of the fine material beneath : the materials of 
the delta would be very thickly deposited towards the centre, and 
more thinly where the beds of fine material approach the surface, 
and it would thus form a coarse unstratified '' Head," overiying the 
finer stratified deposits. 

Mr. Key observes that the strata of the Bovey basin, on com- 
parisou; will be found to comply in every material circumstance with 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1861*] HET-^BOTET DEP06IT. 19 

what would be expected under the eonditioiiB above giTon ; and that 
though in the Bovey deposit we do not find a uniform arrangement 
of strata on each side of the basin, but a great development of fine 
material on one side, attended by a corresponding regularity, — and 
a paucity of day and much irr^:ularity on the other, yet, supposing 
that the rivers and streams of the ancient lake ran into it firom 
similar situations to those now running into its bed, we oould not 
expect the same degree of regularity as in the mcnre simple form of 
the supposed lake and single river. 

Before the lake became drained by the bursting through, ot wear- 
ing down, of the channel between Buckland Point and Hackney, 
the " Head '* on the day had probably run out over the greater por* 
tion of the higher part of the deposit, every little stream, of course, 
bringing its own formation from the hills ; hence the flint, dieft^ 
and fossils from the Greensand. After the waters had retreated, 
the Teign, the Bovey, and other streams must have channelled out 
tho loose material of the '' Head " considerably ; and to this cause 
may be attributed the valley at the upper part of the basin, and 
others carrying dtnall watercourses. 

The author proceeds to state his belief that the Bovey deposita 
were composed of detritus derived from the surrounding hills, and 
quietly deposited, with no more disturbance than the oecasiolial 
flood : that if the relative level of sea and land has been disturbed, 
it has been over a large area, leaving the physical characters of the 
country comparatively unaltered ; because he does not observe similar 
deposits on the neighbouring hills ; because the basin appears to 
have been always limited by the existing hills ; because there are 
no slips or faults in the deposit; because the mode of deposition would 
account for the inclination of the beds, and for their local variations. 
8ome of the beds have a dip of 46® or 60®, and the lignite at the Deooy 
(flg. 3) is almost perpendicular ; but this is only for about 16 ar 18- 
feet ; afterwards it takes an angle of 40® or 60®, The perpendi^ 
cularity of these beds is accounted for by the author, bv the supposi- 
tion that they have been bent outwards by the slippmg or forcing 
out of the lower wedge-shaped beds, when in a soft state, pressed 
down by the weight of the " Head." 

Recurring, says the author, to the opinion I have heard expressed 
by some geologists, that the Bovey deposit is a portion of more widely 
spread beds that once existed over a large area, I can only say, it may 
be so; but up to the present time I have never seen the least sign of 
the clay and accompanying beds, either in the valley of the Dart, on 
tho one hand, or that of the Exe, on the other. On the northern slope 
of Dartmoor, it is true, near the village of Merton, there is a deposit 
much resembling that of the Bovey basin, both in regard to ttie 
quality of the clay and the manner in which it lies ; but the great 
similarity in general features of the Merton basin with that of Bovey 
explains the derivation of the clay-beds, and adds additional proof 
that my view of the Bovey beds is correct. The Merton clays are 
deposited in beds sloping at angles similar to those of Bovey ; the 
deposit is entirely surrounded by hills, except at one point, wh^:e a 


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chasm of but short width has been worn away, affording a passage 
to the^ drainage of the basin into the Torridge. It is plain that a 
freshwater lake has existed liere, in which clays, brought by streams 
from the northern slopes of Dartmoor, became deposited ; and that, 
by the wearing down of the chasm, the lake has drained itself, and 
the clays have become exposed in the same manner as are those of 
Bovcy basin. 

In conclusion Mr. Key observes — How strange it is that, amid the 
proofs of teeming vegetation scattered throughout the Bovey deposit, 
not a fragment of bone or shell should indicate the existence of 
animal life ! Besides Coniferce (of which the mass of the lignite is 
supposed to be composed), numerous relics of dicotyledonous plants 
— Cleaves and seeds — have been collected by Mr. Key, chiefly from 
the clays at the Decoy; and original sketches of these remains 
accompanied the paper. Pyritous concretions, probably formed 
around some vegetable nuclei, occur abundantly, and are also 
illustrated in Mr. Key's MBS. After some notes on the indications 
of an abundant flora, so weU worth attentive and extended study, 
and the apparent absence of animal remains, the author remarks, 
that, with our present amount of knowledge, we can only suppose 
either that no animals existed around the old lake, or, what is 
more probable, that the conditions of the strata were inimical to the 
preservation of animal remains. 

2. On the Volcanic Cones of Patern6 and Motta (Sta. An astasia), 
Etna. By Signer G. G. Gemmellabo. 

tCommunicated by Sir C. LyeU, F.B.S., F.G.S.] 

The base of that portion of the ancient basin of the Simeto which 
extends from Catania to the Carca di Patemo is formed of pleistocene 
clay, which is particularly exposed at the Siete della Motta and in 
the neighbourhood of the Vcdley of St. Biagio. The post-pliocene 
conglomerate, with beds of yellow sand and bands of clay, overlies 
it, and forms the upper part of the hills of Terre-forti, extending 
down their southern flanks as far as the broad plain of Catania, whilst 
the freshwater calcareous tuif, which is above it, completes for the 
neighbourhood of Patem6 the series of sedimentary materials of the 
Baid basin. 

This fertile district, in addition to having been exposed to the 
pyroxenic lava-streams from Etna, has been disturbed by the de- 
structive agency of volcanic cones. In the pleistocene period the 
intrusion of the basalt, coeval with that of Aci-CastoUo, ravaged 
the district of Valcorrente ; and at a subsequent period two centres 
of volcanic action existed at Patemo and at Motta (Santa Anastasia), 
of which the traces only now remain. These, however, offer such 
interesting phenomena, that I think it desirable to confine my remarks 
in this notice exclusively to them. 

Volcanic Com of Patemd. — ^The beautiful city of Patemo, in the 
Province of Catania, is partly built on a mass of doleritic rock, which^ 

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according to Hofimann^ rises to the height of 620 metres aboTe the 
level of the sea, and is distant about 12 miles from the existing axis 
of Etna. After a careful examination of it, the circumference being 
about a mile, we can make out the central nucleus, the lava, and the 
broken or fragmentary materials, — all of which are elements con- 
curring to the formation of a volcanic cone. 

The central doleritic nucleus rises up directly from below ; its hard 
crests, still rugged and angular, are exhibited at the rock of St. Mark, 
that of La Scala, and near the old Norman tower, and on the S.W., 
W., and N.W. sides of the rock, which are entirely exposed and 
perpendicular, and are denuded of all the fragmentary materials 
which formed the corresponding flanks of the cone. This consists 
of a compact dolerite of a dark-ashy colour, tending to black, with 
conchoidal firacture and porphyritic structure, in which olivine 
occurs, varying in quantity in different portions of the same rock ; 
nor is it difficult to find au^te and labradorite. Some blocks of this 
rock, broken away fi-om the sides of the diff, have fallen down on 
splitting at the siuf ace, which shows itself with an earthy fracture ; 
whilst christianite in small crystals abounds in the vesicular hollows, 
as well as in the incomplete fractures, together with incrustations of 
blue phosphate of iron, which I have not found in the rock in situ 
and not decomposed. The character of this dolerite is that of large 
ovoidal masses laterally depressed, the larger diameter varying from 
2 to 4 metres ; they chiefly occur on the S.W. side of the cliffy, near 
the Bock of St. Peter; and here, as well as under the Norman Tower, 
it assumes a prismatic form, which in the former locality is in largo 
irr^^ar prisms from 1 to 3 metres, whilst in the latter they are 
smaller and more regular. On the N.W. side of the cliff the dolcrito 
is impregnated with petroleum. 

In a kind of articulated junction between the crests of the nodidar 
dolerite, there is found on the Rock of St. Peter a projecting mass of 
day with pebbles of sandstone (gres), and another smaller one on 
the south side of the Rock, in the same matrix ; and those sediment- 
ary rocks, anterior in ago to tho volcanic, have been metamorphosed 
and transported, during the very act of the intrusion of the dolerite, 
at the commencement of this volcanic action. 

The lava in this volcanic cone is easily distinguished. It comes 
out from the upper part of the cone, from the very spot where now 
stand the Church and Garden of the Capuchines, which is the most 
elevated portion of the Rock, and in which are found large quantities 
of scoriae and volcanic bombs. The lava, when issuing from the 
crater, flowed in two directions, tho one due east, and tho other 
S.W. This latter stream near its mouth of eruption is seen to bi- 
furcate into two branches, one of which forms the Rock of Calacala, 
and the other flows due south. The eastern stream extends as far as the 
Chiesa della Consolazione, in the neighbourhood of which it has been 
cut through by the road also called that of the Consolation. During 
tho whole of this course, which is about 60 metres, it appears scoriatcd 
on tho upper surface, to a varying depth of from 3 decimetres to a 
metre, while tho rest of the mass is compact and of great thickness. 

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92 PBO<;;BSBnr<38 ev thb OBO]iO«iOA£ sogiett. [I^ot, 20j 

and does not oeenr as one homogeneous mass, like the ordinary lavas 
of Etna, but in gigantic OToidal masses, articulating one with another. 
It rests on the outer flank of the cone, formed principally of volcanic 
peorise which have hpen altered by the effect of the fumarole of the 
voleanio current, which, however, it is impossible to describe satis* 
factorily, or to trace to its termination, in consequence of the ground 
toeing in an advanced state of cultivation, and modified by the con- 
struction of the more outlying dwelling-houses of Pateni6, which 
extend on that side of the hill to the extreme point. 

The other stream extending to the 8.W. is different. The branch 
which forms the Bock of Calacala — so called in Sicilian dialect on 
liccount of the great steepness of the lava — extends in length 
about 55 metres j it presents a front of about 25 metres, is very 
oompact in the centre, and slightly scoriform on the lower surface, 
very much so on the upper ; it has an average thickness of about 
8 metres, has an inclination of 36^, and rests on the volcanic 
conglomerate, containing rounded pebbles of sandstone and clay 
which have been altered by the action of the fumaroles of tho 
lava itself. This conglomerate forms part of the outer flank of tho 
cone. The other branch, which flows to the south, has not pre- 
served its characteristic features so completely; but neither of these 
two branches of the volcanic stream reaches the base of the cone, 
nor can their continuation be traced in the plain below ; which proves 
that the lava did not extend beyond the side of the cone ; and tho 
base, which was formed of loose fragmentary materials, having been 
carried away by the action of water, it haa partly fallen down, the 
upper portion of it still remaining in situ. 

This volcanic cone, even though it may have been denuded by the 
action of water, nevertheless still affords a large quantity of fragment- 
ary materials. At the Garden of the Capuchmes, in which tho crater 
formerly existed, the scoriae are of a black colour, with a slight reddish 
tinge, very cellular and fragile ; there also occur metamorphosed pre- 
existing sedimentary rocks. Scoriae are found in great abundance 
along the Strada della Consolazione, under one of the ridges of the Eock 
of St. Peter (and near the Church of St. Mark), which originally 
belonged to the inner side of the cone, being found in immediate 
proximity to the doleritic excrescence, and in a state of compact vol- 
canic agglomeration, owing to the pressure of the overlying materials 
which formed the outer flank ; whilst the materials which are soon 
metamorphosed by an arm of the lava-stream near the Eock of Calu- 
oala, those of the Strada della Consolazione to the south of the rock, 
and those which are seen on the old road leading to the Salinelle, to 
the north of this same mass of rocks, are a portion of the fragmentary 
materials which formed the outer flank of the volcanic cone of Patem6, 
which are still liable to removal, and in great measure have been 
carried away by the action of rain-water and the Biver Simeto, which 
is constantly extending, with the materials which it carries along 
with it, the plain of Catania. 

The rocky elements which constitute the fragmentary portion of 
t}iis cone are as follows: viz., doleritic scoriae, more or less altered; 

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day in every state of metamorphiam, passing even into thennantite ; 
and pebbles of sandstone (gr^s), some of which have been roasted and 
fall to pieces with the slightest tonch, while others^ on the contrary^ 
have passed into the state of qnartzite, 

Tie country around Patem6, is, from north to east, entirely covered 
with the pyroxenic lavas from Etna; whilst the alluvial soil which 
forms the plain of Catania is exposed to the south and shows a hori^ 
2ontal stratification, as the freshwater calcareous tuff, which overlies 
it, rests on the west side of the rock. This recent calcareous tuff 
contains many fossil plants and land-shells, amongst which can be 
made out Btdimus deeoUatus, Brug., Eelia vermiculata, L., Heluo 
aspersa, Miill., &o,, — species which are still living and abundant in the 

Volcanic Cone of Motta (Sta, Anastasia). — The village of Motta 
(Sta. Anastasia) is also built on the remains of a volcanic cone. It is 
elevated about 813 Paris feet (Koffinann) above the level of the sea^ 
distant about thirteen miles from the present axis of Etna, and offers 
on a smaller scale the same phenomena as we have observed at 

The sides of the Bock of Motta (6ta. Anastasia), from west to north, 
are in connection with the pre-existing sedimentary formations; but 
tho village being almost entirely buUt on it, it is impossible to de-; 
scribe it satisfactorily. The doleritic nucleus is almost perpendicular 
on tho south side, the lower portion of which consists of large and 
irregular prisms, which from below up'Vfrards, for about 25 mc^treSi 
converge to the centre, whilst in the upper portion the dolerite loses 
this character and becomes amorphous. To the S.E. it is connected 
with great masses of conglomerate, of volcanic scoriae, day, and 
pebbles of sandstone (gres), altered like those of Patemo, On the 
east side, this nudeus is cut through by a road, which has exposed 
between the articulated joints of one of its outer ridges a great masi^ 
of clay, with sand and pebbles of grit, altered and contorted by the 
pressure of the doleritic nucleus, and which at the time of its intru- 
sion were also carried up. On the S.W. side the same amorphous 
nucleus is also seen, and in connection with great masses of volcanic 
conglomerate which overlie it from the base up to the rugged crests, 

In this eruption the lava-stream also issued from the upper part 
of the oone. It issued from the side to the west of the Norman 
Tower, and flowed towards tho B. W., and can be traced as far as the 
Church della Immacolata, This lava, however, is less dearly made 
out than that of Patem6, being cut through and broken away in many 
places for the construction of the houses and roads of the upper part 
of the village ; it is nevertheless easily made out at the commence- 
ment, and its course can be traced, being very cellular on its upper 
surface, compact in the centre, and about 3 metres thick in some 

The frtigmentary materials consist of scoriflB, clay, sand, and pebbles 
of sandstone (gr^), altered by the igneous action of the volcanic rock, 
and which, being hero and there in contact with the doleritic nudens, 
constitute the foundations of the internal sides of the cone. The 

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volcanic scorioe near the Chiesa Madre and the Norman Tower, which 
are close to the source of the lava-stream, are further proofs to en- 
able us to fix accurately the site of the crater, while the moveable 
materials which form its outer sides have been carried away by the 
action of waters. 

There can be no doubt that this doleritic rock offers a smaller 
number of phenomena than that of Patomo, in consequence of its 
smaller diameter and the ground being more changed ; but it is more 
interesting on account of the clear connection which the volcanic 
products show with the pre-existing sedimentary formation which 
has not been invaded by lavas fix)m Etna. The pleistocene clay and 
the post-pliocene conglomerate are closely connected together on the 
west and north-west sides^ where no kind of alternation can be seen 
between these two rocks— either the volcanic or the sedimentary — as 
occurs in many other cases of extinct volcanos in the Val di Note 
and in the Vallone della Pulicera, in which the stratification of the 
sedimentary deposit can be distinctly seen for a great distance ; tho 
day and the conglomerate are perfectly horizontd. 

Conclusion, — ^From these observations we may conclude, — 1st. 
That at Patem6 and Motta (Sta. Anastasia) are the remains of two 
doleritic volcanic cones, because we there find the essential elements 
of volcanos, viz., a central nucleus, lava, and fragmentary materials. 
2nd. That these volcanic phenomena were contemporaneous, and oc- 
curred during the post-pliocene period, previous to the deposit of the 
freshwater calcareous tuff of the neighbourhood of Patemo, because 
in the fragmentary materials of the two cones we find clay and 
pebbles of sandstone (grds) — pre-existing rocks, and no calcareous 
tuff. 3rd. These are cones of eruption and not of elevation, as some 
persons have lately endeavoured to prove, because the pre-existing 
sedimentary deposits of the neighbourhood do not show any modifi- 
cation in the direction of their strata. 4th. These eruptive cones are 
independent of Etna, because the doleritic nuclei have been brought 
up at once fi-om below, and the lavas have issued from their terminal 
portions ; whei-eas in all tho parasitical cones of Etna the streams 
follow the direction of the longitudinal fractures, which extend from 
the volcanic axis to the periphery ; and the lavas do not issue fix)m 
the upper portion of the parasitical cones, but from their bases, or at 
some greater distance. The bursting forth of lava from the throat 
or crater is a peculiarity of central eruptions, but not of those which 
are lateral or parasitic. 

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3. On some CARBOniPEKors BRAcnioroDA collected in Ijcdix hy A. 
Fleming, M.D., and W. Pubdoic, Esq., F.G.S. By T. Dayidson, 
Esq., F.K.8., F.G.S. 

[Plates I. &IL] 

I. Brachiopoda of the Carboniferous Period, collected in ^e Punjab 
by A, Fleming, M.D,, during the years 1848 and 1852. 

DuRmG his geological survey of the Salt-range in the Punjah, Dr. 
A. Fleming had opportanities of collecting a considerable number of 
fossils, which he sent to England in 1849 and 1852, and of which a 
portion were at the time cursorily examined by M. Do Vemeuil, 
myself, and one or two other paleontologists. Some few of these 
fossils have been already recorded in a paper by Dr. Fleming, pub- 
lished in the 9th volume of the Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society (1853), also in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
for 1853, as well as in the same author's excellent * Beport of the 
Geological Structure and Mineral Wealth of the Salt-range in the 
Punjab,' printed at Lahore in 1854 ; and at the author's request I 
have recently re-examined all the species of Brachiopoda of the Car- 
boniferous age which he had collected, with the view of completing 
in this respect the imperfect list published in 1853 *. 

It will not be necessary to dwell upon the geological features of 
the Carboniferous rocks of the district, as I could only repeat those 
details that have been made known in the report and papers above 
referred to. It will suffice for my present purpose to mention that 
the fossils occur in several beds differing mineralogically, some being 
crystalline and very hard, and others argillaceous : a few of the fossils 
occur in a magnesian limestone ; but the same bed may be magnosian 
in one locality, and at a few miles distance bo purely calcareous. 
Thus Dr. Fleming separates the Carboniferous i-ocks of the Salt- 
range into three divisions : — 

f . Upper Limestone. Brachiopoda and other fossils occur through- 
out the formation. 
b. Grey sandstone and shales, in which but few fossils have been 

a. Lower limestone, mth calcareous sandstone. This limestone 
generally abounds in largo Brachiopoda and other fossils. 
It is also necessary to mention that the richest localities for Carboni- 
ferous fossils were Moosakhail, in the Salt-range proper, and Kafir 
Koto on the east bank of the Indus at about twenty-five miles below 
Kalabag, where the western prolongation of the Salt-range stretches 
down to the very bank of the Indus ; and Dr. Fleming informs me, 
moreover, that from these two localities the larger number of his 
fossils were procured, though of course they may also be found at 
intervening localities, such as Chederoo, Vurcha, Nidlc, &c. Dr. 
Fleming assures me, likewise, that he is quite convinced that all the 
species about to be enumerated were derived from rocks of the Car- 

* The following arc tlio species identified by M. Dc Vemeuil and myeelf in 
1853: — Athftii Uoyssiiy a /^Hfera nearly related to S. lincaia^ Strcpfornynchm 
Crenistria, Productw Cora, P. Flcmtngit\ P, costatusj and P. Humlotdtii, 

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fi6 PBOCBSPnres of thb gbolooioa]^ bopibtt. [Not. 20^ 

boniferous period ; and this I hasten to announce, because two of 
the species of Terel>t*attila have puzzled me much, and raised scmic 
doubto in my mind as to their age ; for they remind me more of 
what we should expect to find in the Jurassic or even Cretaceous, 
than in Carboniferous strata. 

Oarboniferous Brachiopoda eoUeeted by Dr. Fleming in the Punjab, 

Torebratula (vel Waldheimia) Fle- 

mineii, Dav, 
biplioats, BroocJU (?). Var, 

problematics, Dav, 

HimalayeiiBis, Dav. 

Bubyesicularis, Dav. 

AUiyris Bo^ii, DEveUU, sp. 

subtihta, HaU^ «p. Var, grandiB, 

BeUia radialifl, Pkiil^ tp, Var, 

Orandicosta, Dav. 
Spirifera striata, Martin, sp. 

MooBakhailensis, Dav. 

lineata, Martin, tp. Var. 

Spirif^rina octoplicata, Sow., ap. 

Bhynohonella Pleurodon, Phillips, sp. 
Camarophoria Purdoni, Dav. 
StreptorbynohuB Crenistria, PkilUps, 

:. Var. robustus, Hall, 

pectiniformiB, Dav. 

Orthis reeupinata, Martin, sp. 
Productus striatus, Fischer, sp. 

longispinus, Sow. 

Cora, D Orbigny. 

semireticulatusi Sow. 

oostatus, Sow. 

Purdoni, Dav. 

Humboldtii, D Orbigny. 

StrophalofiiaMorriaiaiia,Ju>ty(?). Var, 

1. Terbbba^txtla (vel Waldhemia) FLEiONGn, Dav. PI. I. figs. 1, 2. 
Shell variable in shape — ovate, longitudinally oval, or slightly 

pentagonal; valves almost equally deep and convex, but usually 
much depressed ; surface evenly smooth, without sinus or fold. Beak 
and foramen small and slightly separated from the hinge-line by a 
dcltidium in two pieces ; lateral ridges of the beak continued along 
the sides. Margin of the valves straight. Interior unknown. 

Of this species I have examined a number of specimens, which 
were all derived from a bed which first appears in the Nilawan 
ravine, and which Dr. Fleming considered to mark the commencement 
of the Carboniferous formation, which gradually increases in thickness 
as we proceedwestwards towards the Indus. The shell could not,how- 
ever, be identified with any Terebratula of the Carboniferous age from 
any other part of the world, with which I am at present acquainted, 
while its affinities would on the contrary recall to our mind certain 
forms of the Jurassic period and more particularly those of the 1\ 
numismalis group. The largest example measured 13 lines in length, 
11 in width, and 8 in depth, and was proportionally much more 
convex than the other specimens. 

2, Tebebbatula biflioata, Brocchi (?), var. pboblekatica, Dav. 

PL I. fig. 3. 

Shell oblong, obscurely pentagonal ; dorsal valve convex, rather 
deeper than the opposite one, and prominently biplicated ; ventral 
valve flattened along the middle to a certain distance from the beak, 
where a median rounded rib with a sulcus on either side is produced 
and extends to the front. Beak^small, and truncated by a foramen 
of moderate size. Margins of the valves sinuous. Interior unknown. 
Length 20, width 8 lines. 

Of this species I am acquainted with but a single example, stated 
by Dr. Fleming to have been found by himself in the Carboniferous 

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Limestone of Mposakhail; and although the shell is silicified^ like 
many of the other fossils from the Carboniferous Limestone in the 
Punjab, I cannot help repeating what I said with reference to the 
preceding species, viz. that it has much more the appearance of a 
Jurassic or Cretaceous form, e, g. of T. hiplicata, Brocchi, than of any 
shell of the Carboniferous period with which I am acquainted. 

I would therefore call the attention of geologists and palaeontolo- 
gists who may visit the district, to the two last-described shells, so 
as to ascertain whether they do really belong to the Carboniferous 
age as stated by Dr. Fleming, or whether they mig^t not have been 
derived from some less ancient formation. 

8. Tebbbbatula Hdcaiayeksis, Dav. PI. 11. fig. 1. 

Shell ovate or ovato-pentagonal, longer than wide ; valves almost 
equally and moderately convex, without sinus or fold ; beak rather 
small, gently incurved, and truncated by a circular foramen, which 
slightly overlies the umbone of the opposite valve and thus conceals 
the deltidium to a greater or lesser extent. The surface of both 
valves is smooth up to within two or three lines of the margin, where 
a small number of rounded ribs are developed, of which four or 
five occupy the front, while two or three ornament each of the lateral 
portions of the valves ; so that eleven of these short rounded ribs may 
bo counted round the margin of each of the valves. The largest 
specimen I have seen measured in length 11, width 9, depth 6 linos. 

This appears to be a common and characteristic species of the^ 
Carboniferous Limestone of the Punjab. All the specimens fron^ 
Moosakhail are silicified. 

4. Terebbatula stjbvesicularis, Dav. PI. I, fig. 4, 

Shell small, ovato-pentagonal, longer than wide ; valves unequally 
convex, the ventral one being the deepest ; beak incurved, and trun- 
cated by a smaU oval-shaped foramen, which overlies the umbone of 
the opposite valve. Sur&ce smooth to about half the length of the 
valves from the beak, while seven small ribs are developed near the 
margin : in the dorsal valve one or two of these occupy a slight 
mesial depression ; so that the frontal margin of the valve is usually 
triundate, from one or two of the central ribs being on a lower level 
than the lateral ones : in the ventral valve the ribs are somewhat 
similarly arranged. Dimensions generally small ; an average-sized 
specimen measured 7 lines in length by 6| in breadth. 

This form does not appear rare in a darkish limestone in the 
neighbourhood of Moosa^ail, and differs from T. vesicidaris and 
T, Himalaymsis by the arrangement of its mai^al ribs. 

5. Athtbis RoTssn, L'Eveilld, sp, PL I. fig. 6. 

This characteristic and well-known species is very abundant at 
Moosakhail, and in several other localities in the Salt-range. It is 
identical in shape with our European specimens, and has been also 
ound in the black shales in the Chor HoU Pass by Capt. Straohey. 

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6. Atxttris subtilita (Hall, sp.), var. gbandis, Dav. PL I. figs. 7, 8. 

Terehratula suhttlita, Hall (?) in Howard Stansbury's Exploratioa 
of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah, p. 400, pi. 2. 
figs. 1, 2 ; 1852. 

This appears to be a common species in the Punjab, having been 
found in several localities, but more abundantly at Moosakhail. 
It varies also considerably in shape and size ; so that (as justly ob- 
served by Dr. Shumard while describing this shell from the Carbo- 
niferous strata of the Bed River of Louisiana) we are very liable to 
multiply species from its varieties, unless a large number of speci- 
mens are under examination. Some of our Indian examples are 
exactly similar to those from Iowa, or from Pecos Village in New 
Mexico, whence the type of the species was obtained ; while others 
are larger and more inflated or globose than any I have hitherto 
seen from either Europe or America, although these last would agree 
very well with certain specimens described by Dr. Shumard from 
Washington county, Arkansas. The largest Punjab specimen which 
has come under my observation measured in length 21, width 18, 
depth 17 lines. 

7. Retzia badiaus (Phillips, sp.), var. Gbakdicosta, Dav. PL I. 

fig. 6. 

Shell longitudinally oval or ovate, with almost equally deep or 
convex valves ; the beak is produced, and truncated by a small cir- 
cular foramen, which is slightly separated from the hingo-linc by a 
small hinge-area ; each valve is ornamented with about thirteen or 
more angular ribs, of which the central one is somewhat the largest, 
and corresponds to a groove of greater depth in the ventral valve. 

Our British specimens of E. radialis are extremely variable in size 
and plication. In the typical form the ribs are smaller and more 
numerous than in the Punjab variety ; while identical specimens of 
this last have been found in England, as well as in the Carboniferous 
rocks of Bolivia. Dr. Fleming states that he has found this shell 
rather abundantly near Moosakhail. 

8. Spibifeba stbiata, Martin, sp. PI. I. figs. 9, 10. 

Of this shell Dr. Fleming was able to procure but three or four 
fragmentary specimens, which could not be distinguished from simi- 
lar British examples of Martin's species. It occurs at Nullc, Che- 
deroo, and several other localities. 

9. Spibifeba Moosakhailensis, Dav. PL II. ^g. 2. 

Shell transversally subrhomboidal ; valves almost equally deep 
or convex ; hinge-line variable in length, sometimes not half as long 
as the breadth of the shell, while at times it is as long. Ventral 
area of moderate width ; fiissure wide and partially arched over by a 
pseudo-deltidium. Dorsal valve sublinear; beak small and mode- 
rately incurved. In the dorsal valve there exists a ^nde, elevated 
angular fold, and in the ventral one a corresponding sinus. The 
whole surface of the shell is covered with numerous small ribs, which 

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cluster into fasciculi, soyen or eight being collected into groups, which 
give to the yalvcs the appearance of a double plication, many of the 
smaller ribs being due to interpolation ; while the whole surface and 
ribs are closely intersected by numerous sharp, projecting, concentric, 
undulating laminaD, of which four or more may be counted in the 
breadth of a line. Dimensions very Tariable : a huge example 
measured 26 lines in length by 39 in width and 18 or 19 in depth. 
It was not until after much hesitation that I have ventured to 
propose a new name for the Sjpirifera under description. In external 
shape as weU as by the grouping of its ribs, it bears much resemblance 
to several known species of Sptrifera, and especially to that figured 
in Owen's * Geol(^cal Survey of Wisconsin and Minnesota ' (pi. 6. 
fig. 4) under the name of Spirifer fasciger, Keyserling ? ; but I 
partake of that author's doubts while referring the shell in ques- 
tion to De Eeyserling's Kussian species. It approaches also by its 
shape to certain examples of D'Orbigny's Sp, Condor, Sp, cameratus, 
Hall, as well as to some exception^ British specimens of Sptrifera 
striata ; but in none of these do we perceive, nor does any author 
describe, the peculiar and beautifully regular, closely disposed, sharp, 
projecting, concentric, undulating lamina), which resemble so closely 
those ofSp. laminosa, and which give to the shell its beautiful sculp- 
tured appearance. Sp, Moosakhailtnsis is common in the Punjab^ 
at Moosakhail, Chederoo, Kafir Eote, &c. 

10. Spikifbra LiiTEATA, Martin, sp., var. PI. II. ^, 3. 

Martin's shell varies considerably in shape, but has nowhere, to 
my knowledge, attained the large proportions of certain Punjab spe- 
cimens ; and indeed I was for some time uncertain whether these 
last did really belong to our well-known European species ; but, after 
the attentive examination of some smaller Indian examples, I found 
these last to be undistinguishable from many specimens of Martin's 
type. The peculiar arrangement of spinules, so well displayed in 
some Scottish examples of Sp, lineata, could also be observed hero 
and there upon the Punjab silicified specimens. The largest Indian 
example I have seen measured 3 inches 2 lines in length, by 3^ in 
width and 1 inch 7 lines in depth. Another, identical with one 
from Derbyshire, measured in length 22, and in width 23 lines. It 
occurs at Chederoo and Moosakhail. This is the shell which in 
1853 M. De Vemeuil and myself considered to be nearly related to 
Sp, lineata. 

11. Spimpkhina octoplicata, Sow., sp. PL I. figs. 12, 13. 

The Moosakhail specimens exactly resemble our British Cnrboni- 
ferous examples ; they show the same variations in shape and num- 
ber of ribs. 

12. Rhywchonella PLEimoDoy, Phillips, sp. 

One or two examples, which appear to agree with our British 
type, have been found by Dr. Fleming at Moosakhail. 

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30 PBOCBSBnros of ths GEOioeicAi; bocibtt, [Not. 20, 

13. Cahabophobia Pubdoki, Dav. H. II. fig. 4. 

Shell somewhat obscurely subrhomboidal or deltoid^ wider than 
long. Valves almost equally conyex^ with a wide mesial fold of 
moderate elevation in the dorsal valve, and a corresponding sinus in 
the ventral one. The surface of each valve is ornamented with from 
eighteen to twenty-two angular ribs, of which from seven to eight 
occupy the fold, and from six to seven the sinus. The beak is small 
and much incurved ; so that the foramen, which is situated under 
the angular extremity of the beak, is but sHghtly seen. No marginal 
expansions could be perceived. 

This species does not appear to be rare in the Punjab; it occurs at 
Moosakhail, Yurcha, &c. 

14. Stkeptohhyitchits Crekisteia, Phillips, sp. 

Some very large examples, which entirely agree with our British 
specimens, have been found at Moosakhail, at Vurcha, and in other 
localities ; one in particular measured nearly 4 inches in length by 
about 6 in width and IJ in depth. The specimens are usually very 
irregular in their shape, from contortion and malformation, but agree 
in all their characters with Phillips's type. 

16, Streptoehtkchtjs Crenistbia (Phillips), var. bobusttjs, Hall. 
PI. I. fig. 16. 

Orthis rohusta, Hall, Report of the Geological Survey of the State 
of Iowa, p. 713, pi. 28. fig. 3 ; 1858. 

Shell somewhat marginally pentagonal and plano-convex ; hinge- 
line nearly as long as the width of the shell. Dorsal valve semi- 
circular and gibbous: ventral valve pentagonal and nearly flat; 
area triangular and wide, with a narrow pseudo-deltidium. Surface 
marked by small radiating strifiB with interspaces of almost equal 
width, wlule at variable distances from the beak finer interpolated 
striflB occur between the larger ones. The valves are ako crossed by 
numerous concentric lines or striae. A specimen from the Carboni- 
ferous Limestone of Yurcha measured 21 lines in length by 23 in 
breadth and 14 in depth. 

The Punjab examples of this variety of 8, Crenistria so closely re- 
semble a specimen of Orthis rohusta, Hall, 'from the Lower Coal- 
measures of St. Clair County, Illinois, in North America, that I am 
induced to consider them identical. 

16. SrREPTOBirTNcnus pectikipobmis, Dav. PL I. fig. 17. 

Shell scallop-shaped; valves equally convex ; hinge-line sometimes 
less, rarely longer, than half the width of the shell, with projecting 
angular extremities. Ventral area triangular, usually higher than 
wide, and longitudinally divided by a narrow convex pseudo-delti- 
dium. The beak is pointed and tapering at its extremity, which is 
generally bent or twisted more to one than the other side. Dorsal 
valve pecten-shaped, very convex at the umbono, with small oared 
02cpansionS; this valve being also slightly depressed along the middle. 

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1861^] BATID80K— 'BKAesiOPODA^ SAIT-BAKeBk 81 

The Talves are omamented irith from twelve to fourteen angidar 
ribs ; whOe the ratire surfiAce (area excepted) is coyered with a great 
number of minute cienulated strife^ which increase in number by the 
interpolation of smaller Btrise^ especially doee to the margin. The 
lai^est example I hare aeen. measured 20 lines in length, by about 
the same in width and 14 in depth. 

This beautiful shell is not rare in the Carboniferous Limestone of 
Moosakhail, Chederoo^ Nolle, and Kafir Kote ; and appears to me 
to be quite distinct from any of its congeners. 

17. Oethm besttfinata, Martin, sp. PI. I. fig. 15, 

Of this well-known species one or two examples have been cA^ 
looted by Dr. Fleming in the Punjab. 

18. Pbodfctus stbiatus, Fischer, sp. PI. I. fig. 18. 

This European Carboniferous shell does not appear rare in a light* 
yellow limestone at Ehond in the Punjab. 

19. PBODircTiTs LONsispiinrSy Sow* (=sP. ELEntNon ^usd.). PL I. 
fig. 19. 

Two specimens exactly agreeing with Sowerby^s type have been 
found by Br. Fleming, at Moosakhail in the Punjab, and at Brinug-* 
gar in Kashmir ; the specimen figured in my plate is the one iden* 
tified by M. De Vememl and myself in 1863. 

20. Pboducttjs CoBAy D'Orbigny. 

Specimens identical with those of America and Europe havd been 
found at Kafir Kote, Moosakhail, &c. 


Of this species two or three specimens have been found in the 
Punjab by Dr. Fleming. 

22. PBOBTJCTtJS C08TATUS, SoW. PI. I. figB. 20, 21. 

This appears to be one of the most common species in the Carboni- 
fbrous Limestones of the Punjab. It occurs at Moosakhail, Kafir 
Kote, &c., where it has sometimes attained lai^e proportions, as may 
Ik) seen from the specimen figured in my plate. The Indian ex- 
amples are exactly similar to those we find in Europe. 

23. Peoductits PrmnoNi, Dav. PI. 11. fig. 6. 

Shell longitudinally oval, broadest at two-thirds the length from 
the beak ; ventral valve moderately convex, fiattened along the middle 
and longitudinally divided into two lobes by a deep sinus, which com- 
mences at the extremity of the beak and extends to the front. Beak 
and ears small ; hinge-line very short, and generally not exceeding 
half the breadth of tiie shell. The dorsal valve is very much flat^ 
tcned until within a short distance from the margin, where it be* 
comes concave, and is divided by a mesial elevation, which commences 
close to the hinge-line and extends to the fnmt» Exteriorly the 

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Burfoco of the ventral valve is entirely covered with minute, narrow, 
elongated tubercles, from which rise numerous small tubular spines, 
both the tubercles and spines becoming smaller and shorter as they 
approach the margin. The dorsal valve is covered with small pits 
and tubercles, jfrom which also rise slender spines, but apparently 
less abundantly than on the ventral one. A large specimen measures 
2 inches 5 lines in length, by 2 inches 2 lines in breadth and 1 
inch in depth. 

Of this interesting species I have seen several specimens from 
Chederoo ond Moosakhail. 

24. Productus Humboldtii, D'Orbigny. PL II. fig. 6. 

Producim IlumbolMi, D'Orb., Paldont. du Voyage dans FAmc^riquo 
Meridionalc, pi. 5. figs. 4, 7 ; 1842. 

Shell marginally transverse, rotundato, quadrate; ventral valve 
moderately convex, with a wide shallow longitudinal sinus commen- 
cing at a short distance from the extremity of the beak and extend- 
ing to the front. Beak small and incurved ; hinge-line rather shorter 
than the greatest width of the shell. Dorsal valve almost flat for 
some distance, becoming slightly concave close to the margin, and 
with a small mesial fold or elevation perceptible only close to the 
front. The siuface of the ventral valve is covered with numerous 
small elongated tubercles arranged somewhat in quincunx, and from 
which rise short tubular spines. 

The largest of Dr. Fleming's specimens measured 13J lines in 
length by 16 in width and 6^ in depth. Dr. Fleming found his 
specimens at Kafir Koto on the west bank of the Indus. D'Or- 
bigny's examples were obtained from Yarbichambi, on the Bolivian 
table-land of the Andes. I must, however, observe that several of 
the Indian examples bear so closo a resemblance to some of our 
British specimens of P, scahinculus, that they could be with difficulty 

25. Steopiialosia Morbisiana, King (?), var. PI. II. fig. 8. 

Among the fossils stated to have been procured at Moosakhail, I 
found two specimens of a shell which so closely resembled certain ex- 
amples of the Permian StrophaUsia Moimsiana, that neither Messrs. 
Kirkby, Howse, nor myself were able to distinguish it. In shape 
it is nearly circular, with the same convexity of the ventral, and con- 
cavity of the dorsal valve, the same relative proportions of the dorsal 
and ventral areas, and, lastiy, the presence of the same elongated 
adpressed spines which adorn the surface of the ventral valve in the 
Permian specimens ; while the only difierence consists in the appa- 
rent absence of those minute radiating raised striae observable in the 
perfect shell of King's species : but it must also be remembered that 
this point of difference is only a negative one, and of slight value ; 
for some specimens of the species from Tunstall Hill do not show 
the character. The material at my command is not, however, suf- 
ficient to enable mo to positively affirm the identity ; so that the 

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safest plan will be for the present to consider the Punjab shell as a 
variety of S, Morrisiana *. 

II. Braehiapoda of the Carboniferous Period, collected in India 
by W. Purdon, Esq,, F.G.S, ' 

At Mr. Pardon's request I have examined the Brachiopoda collected 
by himself during his survey of the Punjab and N.E. Himalayan 
districts of India. 

Mr. Purdon's collection contained many interesting and fine exam- 
ples of the following species f: — 

1. Terebratula Himalayensis, Dav. ; 2. Athyris Boyssii, L'Eveille; 
3. Athyris »uhtilita,Hal\ (2), y&r, ; 4. Spirlfera MoosakhailensiSfJkLV.; 
5. 8p. Uneaia, Martin, var. ; 6. Ehynchonella Pleurodon, Phillips, 
var. ; 7. Camarophoria Purdoni, Dav. ; 8. Streptorhynchtu Crenistria, 
Phillips; 9. Strept, pectiniformis, Dav.; 10. Productus striatus, 
Fischer; 11. P. C7om,D'Orb. ; 12. P. Purdoni, Dav. ; 13. P. costatus. 
Sow.; 14. P. ffumboldHi,B'OTh, ; 15. P. senUreticulatus, Sow.; 16. 
Strophalosia Morrisiana, Xing (?), var. ; 17. Aidosteges Dalhousii, 
Dav.; 18. Crania (sp. undeterminable). 

Having already described the sixteen first-named species in my 
preceding communication, all that remains for me to do, in order to 
complete the notice of what has been up to the present time dis- 
covered, is to describe the Aulosteges DaUiousii from the very inter- 
esting specimen found by Mr. Purdon in the Carboniferous (?) rocks 
of the Punjab. 

AxTLOSTEOBs Dalhottsh, Dav. PL n. fig. 7. 

Subtrigonal marginally, wider than long ; anterior angles rounded ; 
moderately indented in front ; hinge-line slightly exceeding half the 
vridth of the shell. Ventral valve convex, divided by a wide and 
deep mesial sulcus or sinus ; beak nearly straight, but inclining more 
to the one than the other side ; area flat, irregularly triangular, 
forming an obtuse angle with the plane of the dorsal valve, and di- 
vided along the middle by a narrow convex pseudo-deltidium, the 
entire surface (area excepted) being closely covered with slender 

* In 1857 Messrs. Howse, Eirkby, and myself entertained the opinion that ths 
British Permian 8. Morrisiana should be considered identical with the S. lameUasa 
of QeinitE, or as nothing more than a variety of it ; but although we are not yet 
prepared to abandon that view, it must be mentioned that Dr. Geinitz has ex- 
pressed a contrary opinion in his recently published work, ^ Dyas oder Zeohst./ etc., 
wherein he asserts that 8. lamellosa and 8, Morrisiana are entirely distinct species. 
It must not, howeyer, be forgotten that 8. UtmeUaea appears to have been a very 
variable species, and to haye suffered great modifications of general form, mode 
of growth, and of spine-arrangement, such as changes ia physical condition would 
necessarily induce, and which should never be oyenookea in taking philosophical 
views of species. 

t It was not my intention to have alluded to the species collected in the Punjab 
by Mr. Purdon until the publication of that gentleman's memoir upon the geo- 
logT of the district ; but, as I had also promised Dr. Fleming to describe those he 
had found in the same localities, I thought it desirable to delay no lonnr the 
mention of those collected by lir. Purdon, and to give him fall credit for his 

VOL. XVni. — ^PABT I. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

34 pROCEXDnras of the gsolooical socixtt. [Not. 20, 

tubular spLaes, which appear to have exceeded in certain places 4 or 
5 lines in length. The spines lie rather dose to the sur&oe of the 
valves, with their extremities directed towards the margins of the shell. 
The dorsal valve is convexo-concave, that is to say, gently convex 
until within a short distance of the margin, where the valve becomes 
concave or bent. The dorsal area is narrow and linear ; and the 
entire sur&ce of the valve appears to have been covered with slender 
spines. In the interior of the dorsal valve the cardinal process is 
tiilobed ; and on either side may be seen some slight indications of 
dental sockets : a small longitudinal ridge, which fi^t appears under 
the cardinal process, extends to rather more than half the length of 
the valve ; and on either side are situated two elongated-oval-shaped 
dendritic muscular scars, which are no doubt referable to the adductor 
or occlusor muscle. From the inner extremities of these depart the 
so-called reniform impressions, which extend by an outward oblique 
curve to near the margin, and, turning abruptiy backwards and in- 
wards, terminate at some short distance from their first point of de- 
parture. The interior of the ventral valve could not be observed. 

An attentive examination of this interesting species has led me 
to consider that its affinities lie more with Helmersen's subgenus 
Aulosteges than with King's Strophalosia. Specifically speaking, it 
bears some resemblance to A, Wangenhdmi (s=^. variabilis, Hebner- 
sen); but it may, I think, be distinguished by its shape, larger 
dimensions, and internal details. 

The species composing the subgenera Aulosteges and Strophalcsiay 
though represented in the Carboniferous period, appear in Europe to 
be more specially characteristic of the Permian epoch ; and it may 
therefore remain a question whether in the Punjab there does not 
exist, above all well- authenticated Carboniferous strata, some small 
bed representing the Permian age, and &om which A. Dalhovaii 
and the variety of Stroph, Morrisiana we have described might have 
dropped and become mixed with shells of the Carboniferous period. 
We may also here remind the reader that another species oiStropha-- 
losia (S. Oerardi, King) was some years ago discovered^by Dr. Gerard 
in the Himalayan range at 17,000 feet above the sea. 

Of Aulosteges Dalhousii a single example has been hitherto pro- 
cared from the Carboniferous limestone (?) of Moosakhail. 

In conclusion, we may observe that the total number of Car- 
boniferous Brachiopoda hitherto discovered by Dr. Fleming and 
Mr. Purdon in the Salt-range of the Punjab amounts to about 
twenty-eight species, of which thirteen at least are common to 
European rocks of the same period, although several of these have 
in India attained larger proportions. It is also very probable that 
further research among the Carboniferous deposits of the Punjab 
would bring to light several more species in addition to those here 

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Digitized by CjOOQIC 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1861.] HTSXOP — PlvUSTT-^BPB OF INPIA, 35 



Bpeeimeiu in Dr. Ileming'B colleotioQ, and in tha Oeologioal Bo&iely's 


Fig. 1, 2. TWebraitUa (rel WaWtmmia) Flemin^i, Par, 

3. 7*. bipHeata, Bvochi (?X tbt. probisnudica, \}%y. 

4. 7! sahvesicularis, Dar. 

5. Betsia rodialiSy Phil., var. Orandicoata, Day, 

6. 4Mym Z?w«i»; L'BreilW. 

7. 8. ^. subeihta. Hall, var. grcnUUs^ Dar, 
9, 10. Sptrifera $iriiftay Martin. 

11-14 Gpiiiferina octopUeaia^ Sow. 

15. 0^^A» rempinata, MarUn. 

16. Streptorhynchus Crenistria, Phil,, var. robiuivs, HaU, 

17. /8f. 7i«?ftnv!>f?»Mi I>*v. 

la Producing striatuSy FimAief, 
19 P, longiapinuB, Sow, 
20,21. P.ca8tait^,BoMr, 


SpeoimeiiB collected by W. Pardon, Esq., and now fonning part of 
Mr. DBvidson'g coJIcotion. 

Fig. 1. Th^ebrahda Sknalaymaia, Day. 

2. Spirifera MooiokhailensU^ Dav. : 2 c, a young example. 

3. B, Urmata, Martin^ var.^ Sc, Crania (?), 

4. Camarophoria Purdoni^ Dav. 
6. Productus Purdoni, Dav, 

6. P. HumboldHi, D'Orb. 

7. Aaiottege* JkOhoniiis Da^. 

3. Strophahsia JlfarrmanOt King(f)i var. 


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Supplemental Note on the PLAKT-BEAKUfa SAin)8T0irB8 of Ckktral 
India *. By the Kev. Stephen Hislop. 

(In a Letter to the Attistant-Secretaiy, dated Nagpnr, July 19, 1861). 

[Bead at the Eyenizi^-inoeting, January 8, 1862; and, by Permiasion of the 
Council, printed in the February Number of the Journal.] 

** Eecentlt I have obtained more Insect-remains t from Kot^, with 
a morsel of Sphenopteris in the limestone; also Kalekthyolite, probably 
JEchmodue Egertoni. 

'' 1 think there are strong reasons for believing that the ichthyo- 
litic beds of Kot<i are superior to our plant-sandstone and coal t; and 
hence, if the former be Lower Jurassic, the latter must be older. 

*' In the sandstone at Sironcha, six miles further down the Eiver 
Pranhita, there is an abundance of compressed stems identical with 
those at Silewac^a ; so that there can be no doubt that the argil- 
laceous sandstone there is of the ' Damuda group.' This sandstone 
of Sironcha is stated by Mr. Wall to underlie almost immediately the 
Koti limestone." 

After remarking that the genus Tcmicpteris occurs both in the 
Bajmahal Beds of Bengal and in the " Damuda Beds " of Nagpur, 
Mr. Hislop proceeds to state that the largest Tceniopteris from 
Kampti (near Nagpur) is exceedingly like T» lata and T, multinervis 
of the Bajmahal Beds. The ToeniopterideSy thus closely approaching 
in form, prove, in his opinion, that the Damuda and the Kajmahd 
Beds cannot be widely separated. 

* See Quart Joum. G«ol. Soc. toL xvii. p. 346 et aeq. 

t The asBodated Estheria {Joe. cit. p. 356) has been carefully examined, and 
appears to be different fifom that found at Mangali : both are new species; the 
liuter, however, is very similar to an Estheria found living in Palestine. — ^T.B. J. 

X An opinion coincident with Dr. Oldham's : see Mem. G«ol. Sury. Lidia^ iii. 
p.202.— T.B.J. 

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On ihe Lznbs of Deepest Waieb anmnd (he Bbhish Isles. 

By the Bey. E. Etebest, F.G'.S. 

(Bead Jane 19, 1861*.) 

• [Abridged.] • 

Fbox two papers by Mr. Gk)dwin-Au8tent we learn that the English 

Channel was, in aU probability, a valley of depression. K, by the 

light thus afforded ns, we examine the locality as laid down in a 

good chart, we shall see that as there is a valley of depression, so is 

there also an axis of depression, if the term may be used. We have 

in common nse the term ** axis of elevation " to signify the line of 

greatest elevation in a mountain-range ; and in a siioilar way we 

would employ the phrase ** axis of depression " to mean the line of 

deepest water in a narrow sea. 

If we take a point (see Map) nearly south of Dungeness in Kent, 
or in north lat. about 50^ 30', and east long, rather less than P, and 
from this draw a straight line a little to the south of west, passing 
through the middle of the deep water, and meeting about north lat. 
48^ 20', and west long. 8^20', and another line of a similar kind pass- 
ing through the deepest water of the St. George's Channel between 
Ireland and England, we find, tracing the course of our line, that it 
first passes between the two pits, called " North Deep " and " South 
Deep," in the same longitudmal or axial direction as both of them ; 
it cuts the " "West Deep" in its deepest part, and nearly in the same 
longitudinal direction ; it passes through the '< Hurds Dyke " from 
end to end, and meets successively the projecting easternmost points 
of the lines of 40 to 50, 50 to 60, and 60 to 70 fathoms. Beyond 
this last, the lines of equal depth are but triflingly affected by the 
entrance to the Channel. See the Admiralty C!hart8. 

We would now wish to draw attention to the above-mentioned 
longitudinal pits, remarkable as they are for their great length, and 
for lying, all of them, nearly in the same direction. 

It has, I think, been suggested that a laige river once passed 

* For the other papers read at the Eyening-meeting, tee Quart. Joum. QteoX. 
Soc Tol. xvii. p. 533, Ac. 
t Quart Joum. Geo!. Soc. 1850-51 ; vol. vi. p. 69 ; vol. viii. p. 118. 

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through the bed of the Channel, when it was above the level of the 
sea ; but the action of mnning water cannot be considered sufficient 
to have hollowed out troughs of this kind, with no exit or open 
passage at either end. We should rather wonder that they have not 
yet been filled up by the deposits that must have been poured into 
them. Here we have a long narrow cavity (** Hurds Dyke *') sur- 
rounded by water of the depth of about 30 fathoms up to its sides, 
and having in its centre a depth of 72 faUioms, or about 240 foet 
more than its edges. It therefore seems probable, from what we 
know on the subject, that the remark of Sir Henry De la Beche 
respecting a similar pit (the " Silver Kt " off the coast of lincoln- 
shire) would apply to these, viz. that they were the remains of ancient 
cracks or fissures in the earth. 

The chemical theory of volcanos, the subterranean solution of 
felspathic, calcareous, and other rooks l^ water, and the crumpling 
of strata* appear to account for the ongin of cavities beneath the 
crust of the earth, and its consequent during. 

From the point first taken, nearly to the south of Bungeness, the 
line of deepest water takes a north-easterly course to a little 
above lat. 52P N. ; a winding course, like that of the English Channel, 
if observed only for a short distance, but in long distances deviating 
not much from a straight one. From the point last mentioned, in 
lat. 52° K., the line appears to turn in a direction somewhat to the 
west of the north ; but beyond this it rapidly becomes shallower, 
indeed below 30 fathoms. It may be traced, however, with a depth 
of between 20 and 30 fathoms to a little north of lat. 53° K., and 
there ceases as a continuous line, though there are detached pits, 
such as the " Silver Pit " above alluded to, with a depth of from 40 
to 50 fathoms. But, generally speaking, a bank here runs across the 
Channel all the way from England to Holland, so that a rise of 20 
fathoms (120 feet) in the bed of the sea would enable us to walk 
across to Holland diyshod, all the way from the Wash to the Elbe. 

As the line of deepest water has now terminated in this locality, 
we must turn to anotiier, and endeavour to recover it. To the north- 
east of the Shetland Isles we meet with the 100-fathom line, which 
passes round the western coasts of Scotland and Ireland. North of 
the Shetlands it takes a bend to the east, and runs in a direction 
nearly west to east ; then sweeps round to the north, until it termi- 
nates its course in that direction almost in a point, and then runs 
away in a south-cast direction, following the Une of the coast of 
Norway. But during the short distance that it has run from west to 
east, it gives off a deep channel to the south ; so that in an easterly 
direction from the north point of the Shetlands there is, after passing 
over the shoal water near the land, a channel of frx>m 80 to 100 
fathoms in depth, then a bank of from 60 to 70 fathoms, and beyond 
that the deep channel which runs conformably to the coast of Norway, 
to the depth of 200 fathoms or more. There is a deficiency of deep- 
sea soundings from about lat. 60° 30' to 59° 30' ; but the channel we 
have mentioned, divided from the deep water on the coast of Norway, 
» See De U Beche, Mem. Geol. Surr. vol i. p. 237. 

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maj be traced all the way, nearly in a sontheily direction, at a depth 
of 70 to 80 fathoms, having on its eastern side the bank of 00 to 70 
fietthoms, which separates it from the Norway Sea. At about lat. 
68*^ 40', where the soundings are more regularly given on the charts, 
we find again the deep channel of from 80 to 100 fathoms, running 
in a direction nearly south, with a slight inclination to the east, 
having on either side a depth of 70 to 80 feithoms, and outside of that 
again a depth of 60 to 70 fathoms. Here we observe that it must 
have divided into two, after passing the northern point of the 
Bhetlands, though the soundings are too impeifect to enable us to 
say where the division took place. We find, however, two channels 
of 70 to 80 fjEtthoms in depth, with a bank between them. The 
easternmost or principal cbmnel is continued to below lat. 58° at 
the depth of above 80 fathoms, and a little farther at the depth of 
above 70 fiithoms. It continues at a depth of 50 to 60 fitthoms to 
below 56^ dO', and there merges into a broad expanse of 40 fathoms 
depth. The westernmost or side channel appears to conform more to 
the line of the coast than the other. It gives off a branch into the 
Moray Firth, and another into the Firth of Forth. Lower down it 
runs conformably to the line of coast, and ends in about 54° 10' lat. 
in a rounded point at the depth of 30 fathoms, — ^unless indeed we 
suppose the detached pits, the " Silver Pit," the " Sole Pit," the 
"Cole Pit," and the "Outer Silver Pit," to be continuations of it, 
which is probable. The first appears to branch aside in the direction 
of the " "Wash ;" the second and third to continue in the direction 
of the channel which, as we saw, ends in lat. 54° 10' ; and the last 
runs in a direction west to east, whence it may be traced in the chart 
all the way to the mouth of the Elbe. 

Now, take a central point, at the end of the principal or eastem 
channel, which we saw was in about lat. 56° 26', and draw a straight 
line from that to the point which we have before taken in lat. 52° ; 
then produce the strait line so formed until it meets the line drawn 
from the projecting angle of the 100-fathom line, west of the He- 
brides, towards the projecting angle of the same line which lies to 
the north-east of ihe Shetlands; from the first point draw a 
straight line to the next projecting point of the 100-fathom line in a 
S.W. direction, which lies between lat. 53° and 54° N., off the west 
coast of Ireland ; from this last point draw a straight line to the 
point we have before taken at the entrance of the British Channel, 
in lat. 48° 20' N. and long. 8° 30' W. : we have now completed an 
unequal-aded hexagonal figure, which may be said very nearly to 
represent the lines of deepest water round the British Isles. It is 
obvious, on referring to the Map, that, starting from the last-named 
point, in lat. 48° 20' N., a similar process may be repeated for 
Ireland ; and we then get a pentagonal figure, the third side of which, 
running between the coasts of Ireland and Scotland, passes along a 
remarkeible pit, 30 to 40 miles long, 3 to 4 miles broad, and 100 to 
150 fiithoms deep, or as much as 70 to 80 fathoms (420 to 480 feet) 
deeper than the water at its edges. See the Admindty Charts. 

It may be objected, that in these two figures we have t«ken, on 

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the western or oceanic iacee, the 100-fathom line of equal depth, 
which is a different tiling from a line or lines of greatest depth. To 
which we can only answer, that the 100-fathom line is the greatest 
depth for which the necessary soundings have been given to enable 
us to construct a continuous line for the whole distance. There are 
indications of a line of greatest depth outside of this, and which may 
be distinctly traced iu the channel between the Eerroe Islands and 
the Orkneys, and between Bockall and the Hebrides ; but, as the 
necessary soundings are not given for the southern part of its course, 
we do not insist on it. 

This form of an irregular polygon, usually the pentagonal or the 
hexagonal, is the form that bodies approximate to, more or less, in 
shrinking, either when cooling down from a great heat or when 
drying. Of the former process basaltic columns afford familiar ex- 
amples ; and the same kmd of thing may be seen in large surfaces 
of river-mud drying under the influence of a hot sun ; and from 
what we know otherwise, the probable inference is that the con- 
traction or shrinking in question (from whence these large polygonal 
areas appear to have had their origin) has arisen from cooling, and 
the falling in of cavities occasioned by upheaval. 

The difference between the deep isolated pits and simple lines 
of depression appears to be this, that in the one case the strata 
are more unyielding than in the other. The area of the English 
Channel has been shown to be a valley of depression, from the 
terrestrial remains fished up in it, and the sunken forests on its 
edges. The same thing is known of that part of the Gferman Ocean 
which is south of lat. 53°. There can then be no improbability in 
assigning a similar origin to the northern part of it. We have, 
therefore, two antagonistic forces in operation — the one an elevating 
and expanding force, the other depressing and contracting, both 
acting, if not in lines exacUy straight, at least nearly so. If the 
bed of the English Channel, east of the Start Point, were upheaved 
30 fathoms or 180 feet perpendicular, it would present the ap- 
pearance of a chain of lakes, similar to what is seen in the inland 
valley (the Great Glen) through which runs the Caledonian Canal. 
Does it not then appear probable that the latter vaUey has also had a 
similar origin, lying as it does between two lofty mountain -chains ? 
The furrow has run parallel to the ridges on either side of it. That 
it has been upheaved above the level of the sea by an after-process 
may be inferred from this, that the narrow trough at the western 
end of it (the linnhe Loch), and the Moray Eirth at its eastern 
entrance, have both the same maximum depth of water, viz. 100 to 
120 fathoms. 

The line of 100 fathoms on the western face of the islands is the 
greatest depth at which numerous soundings are given, and thus 
yields better data for a continuous line. 

We will commence at its north-eastern end, to the north-east of the 
Bhstland Isles, where it forms a remarkable projection into the deep 
water beyond. (1) From this point, it keeps a westerly direction 
until north of the Shetlands, and then bends somewhat to the south 

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in a line nearly straight, until off the Hebrides, (2) when it again 
makes a bend to the soath. It continues in this direction until about 
lat. 53^ 20', (3) when it again bends to the south, and continues 
nearly as a north and south line to a little above 49° 20', (4) when 
it takes a sudden bend to the south-east, and runs in that durection 
all the way across the Bay of Biscay to the western foot of the 
Pyrenees. It will be observed that between these projecting points 
(see Map) the line bends inwards, like a slackened rope between 

Map of ihe British Isles, showing the lOO-fathom line and the 
Hexagonal Area. 

its poiuts of support, and the cracks or rents we have been discuss- 
ing begin between the points of support at the deepest point of the 
curve. It will be observed also, that this 100-fathom line par- 
takes but little of the irregular shape of the coast; but that the 
shallower the water becomes, the more does the line of equal depth 

Digitized by CjOOQIC ^— 


conform to the outline of the dry land opposite to it. May we not 
then explain these appearances hy saying, that as the mass was 
upheaved from the bed of the ocean, the sides opened, in a degree, 
with the strain and shrank inwards or towards the land, so as to 
produce (in the case of the channel to the north-east of the Shetlands, 
the northern entrance of the Irish Channel, and the entrance of the 
English Channel) a great crack or rent, which opened more and 
more as the mass rose into shallower water ? This appearance in 
the last case, at the entrance of the English Channel, can be best 
studied in Maury's small Chart of the North Atlantic. 

The relations of the strong projections or angles, and the weaker 
sides, of the half-hexagonal figure thus described are then treated of 
by the author ; — ^the analogous irregularly hexagonal outline of the 
Isle of Arran and of the Spanish Peninsula, and its 100-fathom 
line, — ^the absence of such a line of angles on the eastern side of 
England, where the strata are softer, — and the bearings that certain 
lines drawn across the British Isles from the projecting angles of the 
polygon appear to have on the strike, and other conditions of the 
strata — were described. After some remarks on the probable effect 
that shrinkage of the earth's crust must have on tiie ejection of 
molten rock, the author observed that, in his opinion, the action of 
shrinking is the only one we know of that will afford any solution 
of the phenomena treated of in this paper, namely, long lines of 
depression accompanied by long lines of elevation, often, as in the 
case of the British Isles, Spain and Portugal, and elsewhere, belong- 
ing to parts of huge polygons broken up into small ones, as if the 
surface of the earth hiad once formed part of a basaltic causeway. 

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From July Ut to October dlst, 1861. 


Presented by the respective Societies and Editors. 

American Joumal of Science and Arts. Second Series. Vol. xzzii. 
No. 94. July 1861. 

H. How.-^Natro-boro-calcite and another Borate oocnrrmg in the 

Gypsum of Nova Scotia, 9. 
— . Gyrolite occurring with Calcite in Apophyllite in the Trap of 

theBayofFundy, 13. 
:.— The r 

L. Leeouereuz.— The Coal-formations of the United States, 16. 

R W. EvanB.--The Guernsey County (Ohio) Meteor of May Ist, 
1860, 30. 

£. R Andrew8.-^Rock*oil ; its G^logical RelationB and Distribu- 
tion, 86. 

R J. Brush. — Crystalline form of Hydrate of Magnesia fix>m Texas 
in Pennsvlyama, 94 

The Tunnel of Mont Cenis, 101. 

G. Rose. — ^Deportment of Carbonate of Lime at a high temperature, 

Geological Surrey of Kentucky, 118. 

J. H. M'Chesney. — ^New Fossils from the Palssoioic Rocks of the 
Western States, 123. 

W. Haidinger. — ^Meteors, 136. 

Earthquake at Mendoza, 148. 

Assurance Magazine and Journal of the Institute of Actuaries. 
VoLix. Parte. No. 46. July 1861. 

Athenaum Joumal. Nos. 1758-1774. July-October 1861. 

Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 

E. Hull's <The Coal-fields of Great Britain,' noticed, 22. 

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44 DOKAiioirs. 

Athenaeum Journal. Nos. 1758-1774 (continued). 

R. Chamber's ' Ice and Water,' noticed, 63. 

T. BeU's 'Mineral Veins/ noticed, 101. 

Meeting of the Britbh Association, 313, 343, 378, 411. 

Murchison aad G^eikie's ' Geological Map of Scotland,' noticed, 322, 

'Our Black Diamonds,' &c, noticed, 401. 

Bengal Asiatic Society. New Series. No. 107. 1861, No. 2. 
T. G. Montgomerie. — ^Progress of the Kashmir Survey, 99. 

Berlin, Abhandlungen der konigl. Akad. d. Wissensch. zu. Aus dem 
Jahre 1860. 1861. 

Beyrich. — ^Ueber Setnnojnthecus petUelieuSy 1 (plate). 
HenseL — Ueber Htpparion medUerraneum, 47 (4 plates). 

. Qucestiones quas Academife Eegiee Scientiarum BorussicaB 
Classis physica et mathematica certamini litterario in annum 
MDCccLXiv. proponit, &c. 

. Zeitschrift der Deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft. Vol. xii. 

Parts 3 and 4. 1860. 

Protokoll, 361, 617. Briefliche Mittheilungen, 373. 

H. V. Strombeck. — ^Ueber die Trias-Schichten mit Myophoria pes- 

anserisj Schlot., auf der Schafweide zu LUneberg, 381. 
Th. Kjerulf.— Ueber das Friktions-Phanomen, 389. 
M. Sars. — ^Ueber die in der norwegischen post-pliocanen oder gla- 

cialen Formation Torkommenden MoUusken, ^)9. 
A. Delesse. — Ueber das Vorkommen des Stickstoffes und der oigani- 

schen Stoffe in der Erdrinde, 429. 
Fr. Pfaff.— Beitrajge zur Theone der Erdbeben, 461 (plate). 
H. B. Geinitz. — ^r Faima des RothHegenden und Zechsteins, 467. 
O. Speyer. — Ueber Tertiar-Conchylien von SoUingen bei Jerxheim 

im Ilerzogthum Braunschweig, 471 (plate). 
R Weiss.— Ueber ein Megc^h^m der Steinkohlen-Formation von 

Saarbriicken, 609. 
H, Wolf und Ferd. Roemer. — Nachricht von dem Vorkommen der 

Posidonotnya Becheri in den Sudeten imd in Mahren, 613. 

F. von Richthofen. — Bemerkungen iiber Ceylon, 623. 

. Ueber den Gebirgsbau an der Nordkdste von Formosa, 632. 

— Unger. — ^Der Sdiwefelkies-Bergbau auf der Insel WoUin, 646 

G. Sandberger.— Versuch, das geolo^sche Alter einer Therme, der- 
jenigen von "Wiesbaden," zii bestimmen, 667. 

R. Andree. — ^Zur Kenntniss der Jurageschiebe von Stettin und 
Konigsberg, 673 (2 plates). 

Boston and Cambridge, U.S. American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. Memoirs. Vol. i. Boston, 1785. 

Williams. — ^Earthquakes of New England, 260. 

D. Jones. — West-Kiver Mountain, and the appearance of there having 

been a volcano in it, 312. 
C. Alexander. — Account of Eruptions and present Appearance in 

West-River Mountain, 316. 

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DOlTATIOira. 45 

Boston and Cambridge, U.S. American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. Memoirs. Vol. i. Boston, 1785 (continued), 

B. Lincoln. — Several Strata of Earth and Shells on the Banks of 

York River, Vimnia ; Springs in Pennsylvania, &c., 372. 
J. Belknap. — ^Fossu substance containing vitriol and sulphur, 377. 

. . . Vol. ii. Part 1. Boston, 1793. 

S. Tenny. — Medicinal Springes at Saratoga, N.Y., 43. 

S. Hitchcock. — Fro^ found in the Earth, 63. 

Parsons. — ^Discoveries made in the Western Country, 119. 

S. West — ^A Letter concerning Gay Head, 147. 

W. Baylies.— Description of Gay Head, 150. 

R. Annan. — Account of a Skeleton of a large Animal found in 

Hudson's River, 160. 
T. Edwards. — ^Description of a horn or bone lately found in the River 

Chemung or Tyoga, 164 

. . . VoL ii. Part 2. Charlestown, 1804. 

R de Witt. — ^Mineral productions of the State of New York, 73. 
0. Fisk. — ^Account of the Resuscitation of a Mouse, found in a torpid 
state enclosed in a fossil substance, 124 

, , . New Seriee, Vol. i. Cambridge, 1833. 

ir. — Mineralogy and Geology of N 

— . . . . Vol. vi. Part 2, Cambridge and 

Boston, 1859. 

Proceedings. Vol. iv. From May 1857 to May 

C. T. Jackson and F. Alger. — Mineralogy and Geology of Nova 
Scotia, 217. 

1860. 1860. 

A. Ghray. — ^Botany of Japan compared with that of Asia. Europe, and 

North America, 131, 171, 195, 411, 424 
C. T. Jackson. — ^Analysis of Bomite from Georgia, 196. 
P. Cleaveland, R. Brown, and A. Humboldt, Obituary Notices of, 

C. T. Jackson.— Frozen Well in Brandon, Vermont, 269. 
S. S. Lyon and S. A. Casseday. — Syncmvmic list of the Palteozoic 

Echinodermata of North America, 282. 
— Shaw.— Granite as a Building Material, 353. 

. Vol. V. Sheets 1-30. May 1860-April 


S. A. Cassedav and S. S. Lyon. — Fossil Crinoidea from Lidiana and 

Kentud^, 16. 
F. H. Storer and C. W. Eliot — Chromate of Chromium and Black 

Oxide of Manganese, 192. 

Breslau. Abhandlimgen der Schlesischen Geeellschaft fur vater- 
landische Cultur. Philosopbiseh-bistoiiBche Abtheilong. 1861. 
Heft I. 

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Broslati. Abhandlnngen der Scblosischeii GMellsdhaft fUr viater* 
l^ndisohe Caltar. Abtheilting fiir NatarwiBsensohafteQ nnd 
Medidn. 1861. Hefte L and 11. 

H. R. Goeppert — ^Ueber dae Vorkoinmeu yon laas-Pflanzen im 

EaukasuB und der Albonis-Eettey 189. 
, Ueber die Tertiiurflora der Polaigegenden, 196. 

. Acht und dreiasigster Jahres-Bericht der Sohlesiachen 

Gesellachaft filr yaterlandiaehe Enltur. Arboiten und Yeribi- 
derungen der Ges. hn J. 1860. 1861. 

— Ton CamalL — ^Ueber die Lagening der SteinkoblenflOtze in Ober- 

Bcblesien, 28. 
C. Beinert — ^tleber die G^Bchiebe in den Conglomeratbimkeii der 

Grauwacke-Fonnation bei Schweidnitz, Seifenraoxf und Gablau, 30. 
H. R. GiMppert — ^VerzeichniBa der Meteoriten der Minetalien- 

Sammlung der Schlesischen GesellBcbailfcy 32. 

, Ueber Liasflora RusslandB, 38, 

, Ueber die Eohlen Oentral-RusalandB, 34 

. Ueber die polare Terti&r-Floray 34. 

British Aasooiation for the Advancement of Seienoe, Report of the 
Thirtieth Meeting of the, held at Oxford, 1860. 1861. 

J. Anderson* — ^Excavations in Dora Den, 32. 

R. P. Greg.— Catalogues of Meteorites and Fireballs from A.n. 2 to 

A.D. 1860, 48. 
W. Vernon Harcourt — ^Efiect of long-continued Heat, illostmtive 

of Geological Phasnomena, 175. 
J. A. Brown. — ^Magnetic Rocks in South India, 24 
W. R. Birt — ^Forms of certain Lunar Craters indicative of the 

Operation of a peculiar degrading Force, 34. 
H. Hennessj. — ^Possibility of Studying the Earth's Internal Structure 

from Phenomena observed on its Surfkce, 36. 
H. Moselej. — ^The Cause of the Descent of Glaciers^ 48. 
F. Anca. — Two newlj disoovered OssifSorous Caves m Sicily, 73. 
P. B. Brodie. — Stratigraphical Position of certain Species of Corals 

in the Lias, 73. 
J. A. Broun. — ^Velocity of Barthquake-shocks in the l4aterite of 

India, 74. 
J. C. Clutterbuck. — ^The Course of the Thames from Lechkde to 

Windsor, as ruled by the Geological Formations over which it 

passes, 75. 
Daubeny. — ^The Elevation-theory of Volcanos, 76. 
J. B. P. Dennis.— On the Mode of Flight of the Pterodactyles of the 

Coprolite-bed near Cambridge, 76. 
J. Dingle. — Corrugation of Strata in the Vicinity of Mountain- 
ranges, 77. 
P. de M. G. Egerton.— The Ichthyolites of Famell Road, 77. 

. A New Fonn of Ichthyolite discovered by Mr. Peach, 78, 

A. Favre.— Circular Chains in the Savoy Alps, 78. 

A. Gages. — Some Transformations of Iion-pyntes in connexion with 

Org^c Remains, 70. 
H. B. Geinitz.^The Siluxian Formation in tha district of Wilsdruff, 

T. RH. owney. — Analvsis of some Connemara Minerals, 71. 
. Composition ot Jet, 72. 

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British Afisociatioii for the AdTaacemont of Science, Beport of the 
Thirtieth Meeting of the, held at Oxford, 1860 {continued). 

R. Harknefls. — ^The Metamorphic Rocks of the North of Ireland, 

Hector. — ^The Geology of Captain Palliser'8 Expedition in British 
North America, 80. 

R Hull. — ^The Blenheim Iron-ore ; and the Thickness of the Forma* 
tions below the Great Oolite at Stonesfield, Oxfordshire, 81. 

T. S. Himt. — Some Points in Chemical G^logy, 83. 

J. B. Jukes. — ligneous Rocks interstratified with the Carboniferous 
Limestones of the Basin of Limerick, 84. 

J. A. Knipe.— The Tynedale Coal-field and the Whin-sill of Cum- 
berland and Northumberland, 86. 

W. L. Lindsay.— The Eruption in May 1860 of the Kotltig3& Volcano 
in Iceland, 86. 

W. Lister.-— Some Reptilian Foot-prints from the New Red Sand- 
stone north of Wolverhampton, o7. 

C. Moore.— The Contents of Three Cnbic Yards of Triassic Drift, 

W. Molynenx.— Fossil fish from the North Stsfibrdshire Coal-fields, 

J. Powrie. — ^A Fossiliferous Deposit near Famell, in For&rshire, 
N.B., 89. 

J. Prestwich. — Some new facts in relation to the Section of the 
OiSk at Mundesley, Norfolk, 90. 

W. Pengelly. — ^The Chronological and Geographical Distribution of 
the Devonian FossHs of Devon and Cornwall, 91. 

G. N. Smith. — Three tmdescribed Bone-caves near Tenby, Pembroke- 
shire, 101. 

W. S. Symonds. — ^The selection of a peculiar geological habitat by 
some of the rarer British Plants, 102. 

H. B. Tristram. — ^The Geological System of the Central Sahara of 
Algeria, 102. 

J. F. Whiteaves. — ^The Invertebrate Fauna of the Lower Oolites of 

T. Wright — ^The Avicula contorta beds and Lower Lias in the South 
of England, 108. 

J. Rae.— Icebergs and Ice-«ction as observed in the Hudson's Bay 
and Straits, 174 

Canadian Journal. New Series. No. 34. Jnly 1861. 

C. Robb. — ^Petroleum Springs of Western Canada, 314 

E. Billings.— Devonian Fossils of Canada West, 329. 
£. J. Chapman. — ^Elaprothine or LazuHte, 363. 

R Lartet. — Coexistenoe of Man with certain extinct Quadrupeds, 

Chemical Society. Quarterly Journal. Vol. ziv. Parts 2 and 3. 
Nos. 54 and 55. July-October 1861. 

R. Adie and E. Frankland. — Ground-ice, 112. 

F. Field. — Some Minerals from Chile, 153. 

V. Harcourt — ^Peroxides of Potassium and Sodium, 267. 

Christiania. Solennia Academioa Univendtatis Literariie Regis 
FrederioianflB ante l. annos oondits die 2 Septembris anni 
MDCccLxi. celebranda indidt Senatus Aoademicus. 1861. 

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48 lyovjLTiovs. 

Colonial Mining Journal (Melbourne). Vol. iii. Nos. 7 and 8. 
March and April 1861. 

P. Niaser. — Origin of the Metals in the Pleistocene detritus, 09, 111. 

H. Mackworth*s * Pocket-metra,' 116. 

J. Brady. — ^Bendigo Waterworks, 120 (map). 

Critic. Vol. xxii. Nos. 574-500. Jnly-October 1861. 

Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c 

H. W. Bristow's * Glossary of Mineralogy,' noticed, 423. 

Darmstadt, Notizblatt das Vereins fiir Erdkonde und verwandte 
Wissenschaften zn, und des Mittebheinischen geologischen 
Vereins. Vol. ii. Nos. 32-40. 1860. 

Seibert — Mineralogisch-geognoetiche Notizen fiir Excursionen in 

der Umgegend von Bensheim mid Auerbach, 66. 
H. Tasche. — ^Zu den Sectionen Alsfeld und AUendorf, 69. 

. Zur Section Giessen, 86. 

A. Gross. — Fossile Pflanzen im Taunusquarzit bei Ockstadt, 71. 

R. Ludwig. — ^Lagerungsverhaltnisse des Quarzites und Sericit- 

schiefers bei Bingen, Schloss JohumiBberg und Riidesheim, 71. 
A. Gross. — Aus der Section Fauerbach-Usingen, 83. 
Seibert — Versteinerungen aus der Section Worms (links Rhein- 

seite), 86. 
R. Ludwig. — ^Kalk, Schiefer und Eisenstein von Walderbach ohnfem 

Strombergi 86. 
Seibert — Beobachtungen aus den Sectionen Erbach und Michelstadt. 

87. . . 

R. Ludwig. — ^Kramenzel, EieselBchiefer und flotzleerer Sandstein 

bei Butzoach, 99. 
O. Buchner*s ' Die Feuermeteore,' 102. 
F. Scharff.— Die Quarzgange des Taunus, 116, 123. 
Seibert — Die Buntsancbteinformation im ostliche Theile der Section 

Erbach, 126. 

. . Vol. iii No8. 41-60. 1861. 

Seibert — Die crystallinischen Gesteine des Odenwalds, 2. 

R. Ludwig. — ^Animalische Reste aus der westfiilischen Steinkohlen- 

formation, 10. 
C. Koch. — Das Vorkonunen von Schwefelkiesen und Pseudomor- 

phosen nach denselben in der Krammenzelformation, 12, 21. 
R. Ludwig.— :Die f^tstehung von Siisswasserquellen bei Homburg 

am Taunus, 18. 
. Das Verhaltniss der Braunkohlenabhigerung der Grube Jager- 

thai bei ZeU zu den Vogelsberger Basalten, 29, §9. 

, Die Braunkohlen von Wolfen in der Nahe von Halle, 66, 62. 

. Geologisches aus Russland, 66. 

.. Die B£neralquellen zu Homburg vor der Hohe, 82, 89, 98, 

107, 116 (plate). 
C. Koich. — Vitrioleier, 6. 
Seibert — Knochenreste bei Heppenheim, 7. 

, Aus der Section Worms, 23. 

. Aus der Section Hirschhom, 132.^ 

. Versteinerungen aus dem Bensheim-Heppenhemier tertiaren 

Meersandstein, 118. 

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Darmstadt, Notizblatt des Ycroins fur Erdkunde and verwandte 
Wissenschaften zvl, und dos Mittelrhoinischen geologischen 
Vereins. Vol. iii. Nos. 41-60. 1S61 (continued). 

Tasche. — ^Breccio aus Fischzahnen und Knochonstiicken boi Angera- 

bach, 118. 
A. Delease^s < Uebor die Entstehung der sogenannten Massenge« 

steine/ 24, 

Dijon. Mcmoires de rAcademio Imp. d. Se,, Arts et Belles-Lettres de 
Dijon. Deux. Scr. Vol. viii. 1861. 

A. Perrey. — Documents sur les Trcmblements do Terre et los phd- 
nom^nes volcaniqucs dans TArchipel des Philippines, 85 (map). 

Dorpat. Archiv fiir die Naturkimdo Liv-, Esth-, und Kurlands, 
Herausgegobcn von dcr Dorpator Naturforscher-GosoUschaft. 
Zweiter Serie. Biologischo Naturkunde. Vols. ii. and iii. 1860. 

Frankfort. Abhandlungen, horausgcgeben von dcr Sonckenbergis- 
chen Natnrforschenden Gesellschaft. Vol. iii. Part 2. 1861. 

Fr. Hassenberg. — ^Mineralogische Notizen, 255 (S plates). 

P. A. Kesselmeyer. — Ueber den Ursprung der Metcorsteine, 313 (3 

O. Buchner. — Quellenverzeichniss zur Literatur der Meteoriten, 455. 

Geologist. Nos. 43-46. July-October 1861. 
R. N. Rubidge.— Metalliferous Saddles, 281. 
F. W. Ilutton.— The Darwinian Theory, 288. 
W. Pengelly.— Deer's Horns in Brixham Cave, 288. 
Foreign Correspondence, 280. 
Proceedings of Societies, 294, 364, 375. 
Notes and Queries, 306, 366, 383. 
Reviews, 313, 356, 399, 463. 
W. Pengelly.— The Devonian Age, 332. 
J. W. Salter. — AremcoUtes in Bonemia, 347. 

F. Drake. — Human Remains in the Drift of Belvoir, 349. 

0. Fisher. — ^Fossil Deer's Horn with marks of Human Operation at 

Clacton, 352. 
C. C. Blake. — MacraucJtema in Bolivia, 354. 
S. J. Mackie.— Turbane Hill Mineral, 369. 
J. Anderson. — New Fossils in the Old Red, 386. 
A. Deleaae. — ^Minerals of the Metallic Veins of Freiberg, 387. 
A. R Rcuss.— C/yfi'a LeacJui, 392. 
C. C. Blake. — ^Association of Human Remains with those of Extinct 

Animals, 395. 
S. J. Mackie.— The Lunar Seas, 409. 
T. Grindlcy.— The Darwinian Thcorv, 410. 
J. II. W. — ^Human Remains in the Valley of the Trent, 415. 
\V. Haidingcr. — ^Meteoritc^, 420. 

G. E. Roberts.— Coal-field of Wyre Forest, 421 (plate). 

R. I. Murchison. — Address to the Geological Section at Manchester, 

R W. Binnev. — Geology of Manchester, 443. 
R. Owen. — Hesiosaurus amtralts from New Zealand, 44 L 
A. B. Wynne.— Geology of Knocksigowna, 445. 
W. Pengelly. — ^Encroachments of the Sai at Torbay, 447. 
J. Yatea. — ^Excess of Water in the Region of New Zealand, 453. 

VOL, XVm, — PABT I. E 

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&3 poFAnoire. 

Oeologist. Nob. 43-46 (eorUtnued). 

E. HulL — ^Distribution of the Carboniferoiifi Sediments; 454. 
W. Pengelly. — ^New Bone-cavern at Brixham. 456. 
H« Seeley.— Elsworth Rock and Bluntisham Claj, 460. 
J. Hector. — ^Pleistocene Deposits of North America, 461. 

Great Britaiii. Geological Stmrey. Annual Beport of the Director- 
General for 1860. 1861. 

, . Memoirs : — 

The Geology of the Warwickshire Coal-field and the Permian Bocks 

and Trias of the surrounding District By H. H. Howell. 1859. 
The Geology of the Leicestershire Coal-field, and of the Country 

around Ashby-de-la-Zouch. By R HuU. 1860. 
The Iron-ores of Great Britain : — 

Part 1. Iron-ores of the North and North-Midland Counties of 

England. By J. Percy, W. W. Sm^h, and others. 1856. 
Part 2, Iron-ores of South Staffordshire. By Jukes, Dick, and 

others. 1858. 
Part 3. Iron-ores of South Wales. By R Rogers, Ratdiife, 
Salter, and others. 1861. 
The (Geology of the Country around Wi^. By R HulL 1860. 
The (Jeology of the Country around Nottingham. By W. T. Aveline. 

The Geology of Parts of Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire. 

By W. T. Aveline. With Lists of Fossils by J. W. Salter, F.G.S. 

The Geology of the Country around Prescot, Lancashire. By E. 

HulL 1860. 
The Geology of Parts of Oxfordshire and Berkshire. By R Hull and 

W. Whitaker. With List of Fossils by R. Etheridge. 1861. 
The (Geology of the Country around Woodstock, Ozfordshiie. By 

R HulL With List of Fossils by R. Etheridge. 1859. 
The Geology of Part of Leicestershire. By W. T. Aveline and H. H. 

HowelL With List of Fossils by R. Etheridge. 1860. 
The Geology of Part of Northamptonshire. By W. T. Aveline and 

R. Trench. With List of Fossils by R. Etheridge. 1860. 
The Geology of Parts of Northamptonshire and Warwickshire. By • 

W. T. Aveline. With List of Fossils by R. Etheridge. 186L 
The Geology of the Country around Altrmcham, Chesnire* By R 

HulL 1861. 
Description of Horizontal Sections, Sheets 46, 47, and 52. By R 

Hull and H. W. Bristow. 1859. 
Description of Geological Map, Sheet No. 78. By A. C. Ramsay. 
The Geoloffv of the Neighbouriiood of Edinburgh. By H. H. Howell 

and A. Geikie. With Appendix and List of Fossils by J. W, 

Salter. London. 186L 

Hamburg. Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete dcr Natarwissenschaften, 
herausgegeben von dem naturwissenschaftlichen Yerein in Ham- 
burg. Vol. iv. Part 2. 1860. 

Heidelberg, Yerhandlung des naturhistorisch-medizinisclien Yereins 
zu. Ypl. ii. Part 4, 
Bunsen. — ^Ueber Rubidium und Caesium, 128. 
Kirchhofil — ^Ueber den Spectral- Apparat, 129. 
Blum.— U?ber «ia M^t^owiwa Ton Daimstadt^ 164. 

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lostitate of Aotoaries. list of Members. 1861. 

Institution of Civil Engineers. Premiums. Session 1860-61. 

Leeds. Geological and Polytechnic Society of the West Biding of 
Yorkshire. Report of the Proceedings for 1860. 1861. 

J. Watson.— Geology of the Esk Valley, 91. 

R. Hunt — Iron-ore ^Deposits of Lincolnshire, 97. 

R. Carter. — Colliery-ventilation, 110, 

W. R. Milner. — ^Explosions in Coal-pits and state of the Barometer, 

J. Jebson. — ^Water-springs, and their relation to Manufactures, 122. 
— Drayson. — ^Relative Chcmges of Land and Sea, Expansion of Strata, 

&C., 180. 

Philosophical and Literary Society. Report for 1860-61. 


Li<%e. M^moires de la Soc. Roy. dee Sciences de Ii<%o. Vol. xvii. 

T. Davidson et L. de Koninck. — Sur les Brachiopodes munis d*appen- 
dices spiraux, et sur leurs esp^ces d^couvertes dans les couches 
caifoonif&res des lies Britanniques, 1 (2 plates). 

Literary Gazette. Now Ser. Tol. vi. Nos. 143, 145, 146, 157; 
Vol. vii. Nos. 158-174. 

Notices of the Meetings of Scientific Sodeiiee, &c 
Meeting of the British Association, 229, 252, 278, 802, 829. 

Liverpool literaiy and Philosophical Society. Proceedings. No. 15. 

H. H. Hig^ and C. Collingwood.— The Darwinian Theory, 42, 81, 

G. H. Morton.— Coal-measures of Liverpool, 193. 

London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine. 4th Series. 
Vol. xxii. Nos. 144-147. July-October 1861. 

W. Thomson. — ^Underground Temperature, 23, 121. 

M. W. T. Scott— The Symon-fault of Coalbrookdale, 77. 

J. Prestwidi. — CyrenaflummaUa fossil at Kelsey Hill, 78. 

E. J. Chapman. — ^Klaprothine or Lazulite of North Carolina, 81. 
R. P. Grep.— New Falls of Meteoric Stones, 107. 

J. TyndalL — ^Physical Basis of Solar Chemistrv, 147. 

A. Fontan. — ^Bone-caves in the Languedoc, 1^ 

J. Prestwich. — Flint Implements in the Dim. 166, 

J. G. Jefi&eys. — Corhicutajlummdlis geologically considered, 165. 

Holzmann.— Cerium compounds, 216, 

F. T. Gregory. — Geology of a part of Western Australia, 246. 
C. Moore. — ^Zones of the Lower Lias, 246. 

H. C. Salmon.— Granite-boxilders in Rosewame Mine, 324, 
J. W. Dawson.— Erect Sigillaria at the South Jogjnns, 325. 

. Trigonocarpon Hookeri firom Cape Breton, 325, 

W. Whitaker.— Reconstructed Chalk, 825. 

J. W. Salter. — Crustacea in the Coal-measures, 325. 

H. How.^Analysis of Gyrolite^ 326, 


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London Review. Vol. iii. Nos. 53-69. July-October 18G1. 

Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 
What Lj Coal ? 20L 

ISritish Association, Geological Section, 344. 
Compressed Coal, 363. 

Longman's Monthly List. No. 226. October 1861. 

Notes on Books. Vol. ii. No. 26. August 31, 1861. 

J. R. Greene's ' Manual of the Subkingdom Cajlentcrata,' noticed, 157. 

Manchester Geological Society. Transactions. No. 6. 1861. 

R W. Binney and others.— Safety-lamps, 86, ia3. 

Obituary Notice of Ellas Ilall, 92. 

E. W. Binney.— The Drifb-dopoeits near Llandudno, 97 j Hnematites 

of Ulverstone, &c., 102. 
. Coal ; SigiUaria and its Roots, 110. 

Mechanics' Magazine. New Series. Vol. vi. Nos. 132-148. July- 
October 1861. 

Notices of Scientific Meetings, &c. 

Tunnel through the Alps, 32. 

Gentili. — Causes of Earthquakes, 47. 

Oil-springs in America, lob. 

British Association Meeting at Manchester, 147, 165. 

Milan. Atti del R. Istit. Lombardo di Sc, Lett, ed Arti. Vol. ii. 
Ease. 1-3 (in one). 1860. 

Belli. — Intomo a diverse particolariti della crosta terrostre, apnrossi- 
mativamente dedotte da alcuni calcoli sulla dissipazione del calor 
centrale della terra, 45. 

. Memorie del R. Istit. Lombardo di Sc., Let. ed Arti. Vol. viii. 

(2nd Series, Vol. ii.). Ease. 2 and 3. 1860. . 
Verga. — ^Della nuova fonte salso-jodica di Miradolo, 67. 

Montreal. Canadian Naturalist and Geologist. Vol. vi. Nos. 1-4, 
Eobruary-August 1861. 

R. Bell. — Occurrence of Freshwater Shells in some of the Post- 
tertiary Deposits of Canada, 42. 

A. Guyot — ^Physical Geography of the Appalachian Mountain Sy- 
stem, 51. 

T. Sterry Hunt — Some points of American Geology, 81. 

J. Barrande, AV. E. Logan, and J. Ilall.— The Taconic System, 106. 

J. W. Dawson. — Geology of Murray Bay, 138. 

. Pre-carboniferous Flora of New Brunswick, Maine, and 

Eastern Canada, 161. 

T. Sterry Himt.— Origin of some Magnesian and Aluminous Rocks, 

G. D. Gibb.— On Canadian Caverns, 184 

Duke of Argyll. — Flint-drift and Human Remains, 190. 

W. E. Logan. — Quebec Group and the Upper Copper-bearing Rocks 
of Lake Superior, 109. 

J. PhUlips's ' Life on the Earth,' noticed, 207. 

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Montreal. Canadian Naturalist and Geologist. Vol. vi. Nos. 1-4. 
Pebniary-August 1861 {continued). 

J. Sterry Hunt — History of Petroleum or Rock-oil, 241. 

E. Billings. — Bocks andPossils occurring near Phillipsburgh, Canada 

East, 310. 
How.^New Mineral (Cryptomorphate), 333. 

Munich. Sitznngsberichte der konigl. Bayer. Akad. d. Wissensch. zn 
Miinchen. Vol. i. Parts 1-3. 1861. 

H. R Goeppert. — ^Ueber die KoMen von Malowka in Central-Russ- 

land, 199. 

, Ueber die Verbreitung der Liasflora, 210. 

, Ueber einen bei Ortenoerg gefundenen I^aromuSf 211. 

A. Wamier. — ^Zur Feststellimg des Artbegriffes, 316. 

. Ueber die Auffindung von Lophiodon in einer Bohnerzgrube 

bei Heidenheim^ 358. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. Bules of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field- 
dub. 1861. 

— . Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field-dub. Vol. v. 
Parti, 1861. 

New York, Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of. Vol. i. 

W. Coo^r. — Remains of the Megatherium recently discovered in 

Geor^a, 114. 

. I>iscovery of a Skeleton of the Mastodon giganteum* 143. 

J. R Dekay. — Organic Remains termed BHobiic9 from the Kaats- 

kill Mountains, 45. 
. Structure of Trilobites; and description of an apparently new 

genus, 174 
J. Delafield. — ^New localities of simple mineral) along the North 

Coast of L«ake Superior, &c., 79. 
E. James. — Identity of the supposed Pumice of the Missouri, with a 

varietv of Amygdaloid found near the Rocky Mountains, 21. 
S. L. Mitchell. — Teeth of the Megatherium recently discovered in 

the United States, 58. 
J. Renwick. — ^Mineral from Andover Furnace, Sussex County, Ntw 

Jersey, 87. 
. On the Geological Position of the Trilobites foimd at Trenton 

Falls, 185. 
J. Torrey. — ^Locality of Yenite in the United States, 51. 
» Columbite of Haddam, Connecticut} and notice of several 

other North American Minerals, 89. 
J. G. Totten, New supports for minerals subjected to the action of 

the blowpipe, 100. 
J. J. Bigsby. — Sketches of the Geology of the Island of Montreal, 108. 
J. Cozzens. — ^Iron-oros from the northern part of the State of New 

York, 378. 
J. E. Deka}'. — Observations on a Fossil Cnistaceous Animal (Eurg- 

pterus) from Westmoreland, Ouelda County, New York, 375. 
H. R. Schoolcraft — Native Silver from Michigan, 217. 
J. Van Rensselaer. — Fossil Crustacea from Now Jersey^ 105, 
. Supplement to this notice, 240. 

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New Yorki Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of. Vol. ii, 

W. Cooper. — ^Further discovers of Fossil Bones in (Jeorria, 267. 

J. F. Dana.— -Analysis of the Copper-ore of Franconia, New Hamp- 
shire ; with remarks on Pyritous Copper, 263. 

J. £. Dekay. — Several multiloculflr SheuB from the State of Delaware ; 
with observations on a second specimen of the genus Min/pterus, 
278 (plate). 

. Fossil Skull of the genus JBoa, from the Banks of the 

Mississippi, 280. 

Mitchill, J. A. Smith, and Cooper. — ^Discovery of a Fossil Wabrus in 
Virginia, 271« 

• VoLiH. 1828-36. 

T. Thomson. — Chemical Examination of some Minerals, chiefly from 

America ; with Notes by John Torrey, 9, 
W. Cooper. — ^Fossil Bones of the Megcuonyx from Virginia, &c., 160. 
J. E. D^y. — ^Remains of Extinct Eeptiles from New Jersey \ and 

on the occurrence of Coprolites in the same locality, 134 
, Fossil Jaw of a species of Gavial from West Jersey, 158. 

. • Vol.v. No. 2. 1850. 

.; . VoLvL Nos. 1-13. 1853-58. 

J. D. Dana. — ^Homoeomorphism of Mineral Species of the Trimetric 

System, 37. 
T. Prime.— Three new Species of Pisidium, p. 64. 

. VoLvu. Nos. 1-9. 1859-60. 

T. Prime. — List of the known Species of Pisidiumf with their 

Synonymy, 94. 
S. Smitli. — Moihisca, Peconic and Gardiner's Bays, Long Island, 

N.Y.,147. Jf ^ > 

R P. Stevens.— Taconic System, 276. 

Oriental Translation Committee. Export, &c. 1861. 

Palermo, Atti della Society di Acclimazione o di Agricoltora in 
Sidlia. Vol.i. Nos. 1-4. 1861. 

Paris. Annales des Minos. 5« S^. Vol. xix. 2* et 3® livr. do 

Oruner et Lan. — ]£tat present de la m^tallurgie du fer en Angleterre, 

De Senarmont — Extraits de mindralo^o, 249. 

Callon. — Statistique min^rale de Tempire d'Autriche, 286. 

Limp^rani. — Sur la ddcouverte de gisements aurif^res dans la pro- 
vince de Valdivia (Chili), 488. 

Gauldr^e-Boilleau.— Sur les gisements de cuivre nouvellement d^- 
converts au Canada, 489. 

De la Fosse. — Sur le traitement des minerais de fer a Tanthracite en 
Pennsylvanie, 490. 

Hocquaid. — Sur la d^couverte d'un gisement de houille au Mon- 
t^n^gro, 495. 

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Paris. Bulletin de la Bodit6 O^Iogique de Eranoe. Deux. S^r. 
Vol. xvii. Feuil. 53-57. 1861. 

^, Reunion eziraordinaire a Beean^on (Doubs)) 810. 
. . Vol. xviii. Feuil. 22-43. 1861. 

Bureau. — Sui le termin d^yoii£en de la Basse-Loire, 337. 

De Vemeuil et de Kejseriing. — Coupes du yersant meridional des 

Pyrenees (pi. vi.), 341. 
Ebra^. — Sur les faunes des couches A oolithes ferrugineuseSy 667. 
Bounot et P. Mar^s. — Sur P&ge difl^rentiel des roches qui constituent 

le massif d'Alger, 359, 365. 
Deshajes. — ^Distribntion des mollusqnes ao^phalte dans le bassin ter- 

tiaire de Paris, 370. 
Albert Gaudry.---Sur les Antilopes trouvdes A Pikermi (Ghrdce) 

(pL vii. viii. ix.^, 388. 
Saemann. — Addition k sa communication du 4 fiSyrier dernier, 322, 

Ed. Suess. — ^Extrait d'une lettre A M. Deshayes sur la gtelogie de 

Viemie (Autriche), 407. 
Albert Oaudiy et J. Barrande. — Sur la long^yit^ in^gale des animaux 

sup^rieurs et des animaux infi^rieurs dons les demidres p^riodes 

ffdologiques, 408^ 412. 
MdleTiJie.-j-De8cnption g^ologique de la montagne de Reims et des 

pays Yoisins, 417. 
£mile Goubert. — Coupe dans les sables moyens, & Lisy-sur-Ouroq 

rSeine-et-Mame), M6. 
D'Arcbiac. — Observations critiques sur la distribution stratigraphique 

et la synonymie de quelques rbizopodes, 461. 
Daubr^e. — ^Etudes et experiences synthetiques sur le metamoiphisme 

et la formation des roches cristallines (K^sume), 468. 
Marcel de Serres. — ^Note additionnelle sur la troncature ncnmale des 

coquilles foesiles, 409. 
Th. Ebray. — Stratiffraphie du syst^me oolithique inCdrieur du ddpartoi- 

ment au Cher, 501. 
J. Bairande. — Sur deux ouyrages de MM. Eoetting et Ed. Zeis, 617. 
Emile Goubert et Zittel. — Sur le gisement et les fossiles de Glos 

(Calyados), 520. 
D'Archiac. — Reponse k quelques observations critiques de M. Co- 

quandy 522. 
Albert Gaudry.— Sur les camaasiers fossiles de Pikermi (Gr^) (pL z. 

et xi.), 52L 
Gosselet — Sur des fossiles siluriens ddcouverts dans le massif rh^nan 

du Condros, 538. 
Delesse. — ^Etudes sur le metamorohisme des roches, 541. 
Nogu^. — Sur le terrain cretacd de Tercis ([Landes), 548. 
D'Archiac-— Sur quelques fossiles tertiaires et cretac^e de TAsie 

Mineure, 552. 
De Raincourt. — Sur les sables moyens de Vemeuil (Mame), 564. 
D'Archiac.— Sur Texistence du second ^tage du has prds d'Hinon 

(Aisne), 567. 
E. Piette. — Sur un gite coquillier h Maubert (Ardennes), 672. 
E. Bumortier. — Sur le calcaire k Fucoides, base de Toolithe inf^n- 

eure dans le bassin du Rh6ne (pL xii.), 679. 
Albert Gaudry. — Sur la Girafe etrHeUsidotherium tiouv^s k Pikermi 

(Gr^e) (pL xiiL), 587. 

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Paris. Bulletin do la Socidt^ Gdologique de Franco. Deux, Sdr. 
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Jaubert et Ed. Hubert. — Sup la grande oolithe de la Provence, 699, 

G. Cotteau. — Sur la famillc des Sal^nid^es, 614. 
Kaulin. — ^Notice indicative des Pholadomyes tertiaires, 627. 
D'Archiac et De Roys. — Sur la faune tertiaire moyenno des environs 

de B^ziers et de Narbonne, 630, 638. 
Jules Martin. — ^De Tdtage bathonien dans laC6te-d*0r (pi. xiv.), 640. 
Alph. Milne Edwards.---Sur les crustac^ fossiles, 656. 
Paul Dalimier. — Sur la stratigraphie des terrains primaires dans la 

presqu*ile du Cotentin^ 663. 
lyArchiac — Sur les fossiles recueillispar feu M. de Boissy au plateau 

du Four (Loire-Inf^rieure), 666. 
Clarke. — Sur la formation carbonift^re de TAustralie, 660. 
Ed. Jannettaz et Delanoue. — Sur la formation du cacholong dans les 

silex de Champigny, 673, 674. 
Edm. Pellat. — Sur I'existenco aux environs d'Autun d^ossements de 

Sauriens dans une assise calcaire, 676. 
J. Foumet — Sur les roches druptives modemes du Lyonnais, 677. 
Naumann. — Sur les pseudomorphoses (extrait d'une Icttre k M, 

Delesse), 678. 

. L'Acad. d. So. Comptes Rendus hebdom. 1861. Prem. 

Scmeetre. Vol, lii. Nos. 21-25. Deux. S4r. Vol. liii. Nos. 1-11. 

Photographic Society. Journal. Nos. 111-114. July-Oct. 1861. 

Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural History 
Society. Annual Export and Transactions, 1860-61. 1861. 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. New Series. Nos. 
2, 3, 4. April, June, October, 1861. 

Boyal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. xviii. 
Part 2, and Vol. xix. Part 1. 1861. 

Royal Astronomical Society. Memoirs. Vol. xxix, 1801. 
A. R. Clarke.— The Figure of the Earth, 25. 

Royal Geographical Society. Proceedings. Vol. v. No. 3. 1861. 

Royal Horticultural Society. Proceedings. Vol. i. Nos. 26-29. 

Royal Institution of Great Britain. Notices of the Proceedings. 
Part xi. 1860-01. 

U. Faraday.— ^Platinum, 321. 

H. D. Rogers.--Parallel Roads of Glen Roy, 341. 

. List of Members, &c., 1861. 

. Additions to Library (No. 4) from July 1800 to July 1801. 

Royal Society. Proceedings. Vol. xi. Nos. 44, 45, 40. 
II. Moseley. — Descent of Glaciers, 168. 
R. Mallet. — Wave-transit in rock-formations, 362. 

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St. Louis. Academy of Science. Transactions. Vol. i. No. 4. 1860. 

A. 11. Worthen.— Fossils from the Mountain-limestone of Illinois 
and Iowa, 569. 

H. A. Prout — Palajozoic Bryozoa from the Western States, 671. 

B. F. Shumard. — Cretaceous Strata of Texas, 582. 
. Cretaceous Fossils from Texas, 500. 

J. Marcou. — Geology of Kansas and Nebraska, 610. 

S. S. Lyon.— Rocks of Kentucky, 612. 

B. F. Shumard. — Meteoric Iron from Texas, 622 (plate). 

. Palfeozoic Fossils from Texas. 624. 

S. S. Lyon. — Blastoidea from Kentucky, 628 (plate). 
G. C. Swallow. — Carboniferous and Devonian Fossils from Missouri; 

St. Petersburg. Bulletin de TAcad. Imp. d. Sc. de St. Pctcrsbourg. 
Vol. ii. Nos. 4-8. 1861. 

K. R de Baer. — Sur une loi g^n^rale de la formation du lit des 

rivieres, 362. 
H. Abich. — Sur un aerolithe tombd k Stavropol, 404, 433. 

. Sur son voyage au Daghestan, 443. 

J. F. Brandt — La pal^ontologie de la Russie mdridionale, 60L 
— — . Sur un squelette de Mastodon, 607 (plate). 

. . VoL iii. Nos. 1-6. 1861. 

G. de Helmersen. — G^logie de la voll^ du cours inf<^rieur de la 

Narova, 12 (map and plate). 
J. F. Brandt — La paldontologie de la Russie m^ridionale, 74. 
^— . Sur Textinction de la vie animale dans la Bale de Balaklava, 

par suite de la putrefaction d*une grande quantity de poissons, 84. 
J. Fritzsche.— Siu- le Ret^n, 88. 

. Sur un sel double de carbonate et de chlorure de Calcium, 286. 

II. R. Goeppert — Sur les plantes du terrain liassiquo du Caucase et 

de TElbrous en Perse, 2fife. 

, Mdmoircs do I'Acad. Imp. des Sciences do St. Pdtersbourg. 

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G. V. Helmerscn. — Steinkohlenlager des Gouvermcnts Tula. 

— ^. Das Olonezer Bergrevier geologisch untersucht in den Jahren 

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Society of Arts. Journal. Vol. ix. Nos. 460-463, 405, 466. July- 
Oct 1861. 

W. P. Jervis.— Mansfeld Copper-mines, 598, 603, 616, 627. 

Consular Information, 0'*$2 ; FDianionds and Nitrate of Soda, San 
Domingo, &c.] 647, 760, 780, 793. 

New Paint from Antimony, 769. 

A. K. Irbister. — Discoveiy of Gold in the Valley of the Saskat- 
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W. Vivian.— Structure of Metals, 782. 

Stuttgart. Wiirtcmbcrp:ischc naturwisscnsch. Jahrcshcftc. Sieben- 
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Vienna. Denkschriften der kais. Akad. der Wissensch. Math.- 
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Ileckel und Kner. — ^Neue Beitrage zur Kenntniss der foasilen Fische 
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Washington. Smithsonian Institution. Bmithsonian Contributions 
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R. Mallei — ^Earthquake phenomena, 408. 

Wiesbaden. Jahrbucher dee Vereins f iir Naturkunde im Herzogthum 
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. Vebet ein Qraphityorkommen in der Nahe yon Montabaur. 

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A. Oker. — Chemische Analyse eines Spirifersandsteins yon Kem- 

menar, Amts Nassau, 447. 
Berichte, &c., 460. 

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Zoological Society of London. Proceedings (Qlastrated)^ 1861. 
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H. Falconer. — Synonymy of Echmodon, Owen, 34L 

Edinbui^h New Philosophical Journal. New Series. Nos. 27, 28. 
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W. King. — Certain species of Permian shells said to occur in the 

Carboniferous Rocks, 37. 
D. M. Holme. — Ancient glaciers of Chamouni, 46. 
A. Geikie, — Rise of the Coast of Frith within tiie Historical Period; 

H. How. — ^Natroborocalcite and another borate in the Oypsiun of 

Nova Scotia, 112. 
, Oyrolito with Caldte in ApophyUite in the Trap of the Bay 

D. Pa^'s <The Past and Present Lifid of tho Globe,' noticed, 129. 
A. Geude. — Chronology of the Trap-rocks of ScoUanc^ 143, 
A. Biyson. — ^Aqueous origin of Granite, 144. 
Obituary notice of the Rev. J. S. Henslow, 169. 
R. Edmonds. — ^Earthquakes and extraordinary agitations of the soa, 

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Institut, r. !-• Section. Nos. 1434-1450. June-October, 1861. 

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Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 

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Leonhard nnd Bronn's Neues Jahrbuch fiir Min., &c. Johrg. 1861^ 
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Fichtelgebirge, 257. 
C. F. Peters. — -Ein Beitrag zur Entwickelim^gescliichte des Azurits 

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PalsDontograpbica von H. von Meyer. VoL vii. Parts 6 & 6. 
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H. von Meyer. — ^Reptilien auB dem Stubensandstein des oberen Eeu- 
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Becker, F., und R. Ludwig. Geologische Spocialkartc des Grosshcr- 
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Bosquet, J, Notice sur lo genre Sandbergia, genre nouveau de 
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Perthes, S. de. De la Q^ndration Spontan^. Avons-nous en p^re 
et m&re. 1861. 

■■ N^gre et Blanc ! de qui sommes-nous fils ? Y a-t-il une 

ou plusieurs espdces d'hommes ? 1861. 

•*-> — . (Euvres de M. Boucher de Perthes. Histoire, sdenoes^ 
dconomie, littdrature &c. (1). 1861. 

Plctet, F. J. Note sur la Succession des MoUusques. 

Pirona, 0. A. Oenni goognostici sul Friuli. 1861. 

Bath, G. V. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Trachyte des Siebenge- 
birges. 1861. From Sir C. LyeU, F.OJS. 

Report. Annual Report of the Progress of the several Surveys 
carrying on under the Three Presidencies as called for in Letter 
No. 102, dated 6th November, 1833, from the Honourable the 
Court of Directors of the East India Company, being from 1st 
October, 1869, to 1st October, 1860. 1861. From the Secretary 
of State of India. 

. Papers relative to the Exploration by Capt. Palliser of that 

portion of British North America which lies between the Northern 
Branch of the River Saskatchewan and the Frontier of the United 
States, and between the Red River and Rocky Mountains, and 
thence to the Pacific Ocean. 1869. From Dr. J. Hector, F.O.S. 

. Further papers, &c. 1860. From Dr. J. Hector^ F.OJS* 

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Report, statistical Report on the Sickness and Mortality in the 
Army of the United States, compiled from the Records of the 
Surgeon-Gcnerars Office ; embracing a period of five years from 
January 1855 to Januar}- 1860. 1860. Fmn the United States' 

of Explorations and Surveys to ascertain the most practicable 

and economical route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to 
the Pacific Ocean, made in 1853-55. Vol. xii. Parts 1 & 2. 
1860. From the United States' Qovernme^it. 

Rutimeycry L, Die Fauna der Pfahlbauten in dcr Schwciz. Un- 
tcrsuchungon iibcr die Geschiehto dcr wilden und der Haus- 
Siiugethiere von Mittcl-Europa. 1861. 

Sandberger, F. Die Conchylien dcs Mainzer TertiUrbeckcns. Fiinfte 
Liefcrung. 1861. 

Sorhy, H. C. On the Organic Origin of the so-called " Crystalloids" 
of the Chalk. 1861. 

Stoliezha, F, Ueber die Gasteropoden und Acephalen der Hierlatz- 
Schichten. 1861. 

Suessy E, Ueber die grossen Raubthiere der osterreichischen Ter- 
tiar- Ablagerungcn. 1861. 

Ttjsony P. T. First Report of Philip T. Tyson, State Agricultural 
Chemist, to the House of Del^;atcs at Maryland, January 1860. 

Wyatty J, On the Flint Implements in the Drift, discovered near 
Bedford. 1861. 

ZignOy A, de, Sopra un nuova genere di Feloo fossile. 1861. 

. Sulla constituzione geologica dei Monti Euganei. 1861. 

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Dbgembeb 4, 186L 

Samuel Harradan, Esq., 6, Westbonme Terrace, Bamsbtuyy 
London; Frederick Merryweatlier Burton, Esq., Gainsborough; 
Jonathan Sparrow Cowley, Esq., Lavender Kill, London, S.W. ; 
William Henry Paine, Esq., Stroud, Gloucestershire ; Edwin WitcheU, 
Esq., Stroud, Gloucestershire ; Henry Tibbats Stainton, Esq., E.L.S., 
Mountsfield, Lewisham, Kent; Captain Augoste Frederic Lendy, 
F.L.S., Sunbnry House, Sunbury ; Isaiah Booth, Esq., Mining En- 
gineer, Oaks Colliery, Oldham ; and Don Bamon da ^va. Consul for 
Chile, 43, Moorgate Street, were elected Fellows. 

The following communication was read : — 

Oft the Bbacklesham Bbds of the Islb of Wight Basin. 
By the Rev. Osmond Fisheb, ILA., F.G-S. 



BracUeflhamBedB at White Ciiff Bay. 

at BraoUeBham Bay. 

^at the Park, Sel0ea» and 

the Mizen Bockk 

at Bury Crofls. 

at Fort Cbmer. 

— at Fort Bowner. 

at Stubbington. 

at Netier. 

in fciie ifew Forest 

at Hunting Bridge. 


Brackleaham Beds at Bramshaw; Shep- 
herd's Gutter. 

at Brook. 

in their western ranje. 

near Poole and Corfe. 

at Alum Bay. 

High Cliff. 

The Pebble-beds of the Biaeklesham 


Appendix A. (Correlation of beds.) 

B. {Nummulina Presiwichiana.) 


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Introduction, — ^We are indebted to Mr. Prestwich for a dear con- 
ception of tbe age of the Bracklesham series, and of its place among 
the Eocene Tertiaries ; while the late Mr. Dixon has described the 
fossils of Bracklesham and Selsea, and given a very interesting 
account of the coast of that part of Sussex. In the course, however, 
of collecting specimens from these beds during the last eight years, 
I have been led to think that there are many points of interest on 
which a more minute description of the succession of their subordi- 
nate divisions, and of the fossiliferous localities, might be acceptable. 

The term " Bracklesham Beds" is applied to the group of strata, 
many of them rich in organic remains, the greater part of which are 
seen displayed at low water upon the shore of Bracklesham Bay in 
Sussex. But I shall include under that name beds that are above 
any seen at Bracklesham Bay, because, when the deposits of Stub- 
bington and of the New Forest come to be described, it will appear 
that many of the fossil forms peculiar to the Bracklesham Beds 
range higher than the highest stratum seen at the Bay. In other 
words, I shall group certain strata, which appear to intervene 
between the base of the Barton series and the highest beds of 
Bracklesham Bay, among the Bracklesham Beds, on account of their 
containing an assemblage of fossils more akin to the fauna of the 
latter than of the former. 

As regards the inferior limit, I have not seen anywhere any marine 
fossiliferous beds below the lowest at Bracklesham Bay until we 
reach the Bognor Bock or the London Clay, except it be in a thin 
stratum of day at the very base of the Bracklesham series at White 
Cliff Bay. 

Many species, as is well known, range uninterruptedly from the 
Bracklesham Beds into the " High CHff Sand" (by which term I do 
not intend the sands at the base of High Cliff, but those about its 
middle portion, so long known for the richness of their fossil-beds), 
and a considerable proportion into the stiU higher beds of Barton 
Cliff. (See ^. 2, p. 87.) For the purposes of this paper I shall 
foUow Mr. Prestwich in considering the High Cliff Sand as a part 
of the Barton series *. 

The Cardita planico8ta\ Fecten comeus, Sanguinolaria HoUowaysii, 
Solen ohliquus, Cytherea isuherycinoides, Voluta ciihara, and Turri- 
UUa suldfera range throughout the group, and seem to be confined 
to it, with the single exception that Pecten comeus is rarely met with 
in the High Cliff beds. There are certain spedes which have a 
much more confined range t, and by means of these I have divided 

* Quart Joum. CteoL See. voL v. p. 44. 

t The geniiB Pleurotoma affords great help in subdiyiding the beds, as Dr. 
Wright and others have remarked of the Ammonites in the Mesosoio rocks. 
Wi^ a few exceptions, the range of the yarious species seems very confined. 
Pleurotoma plebeia has a very extended range, eren throughout the Eocene 
period. Plmrotxmajprisca ranges throughout a great portion of the Bracklesham 
and Barton beds. I'hese are the chief exceptions. The great abundance of the 
individuals generally adds to the value of this genus in correlating beds ; while 
the complete Monograph of Mr. Edwards renders their determination com- 
paratively easy. 

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the whole series into four principal groups of strata distingaished by 
the letters A, B, C, D. 

A is the upper group, generally abounding in Oasterapoda, and 
has one of its foB»l-beds, in the eastern part of its range, fiill of 
Ntmmidina variolaria. It contains four principal fossil-beds, di- 
stinguished by the letters a, b, c, d, 

B is the next member of the group, more sandy in its general 
condition than the last, and marked by the presence of Cerithium 
gigantevm. It contains two fossil-beds, e, /, of which / is the most 
noteworthy. JNwnmulina variolaria is found in this member of the 
group at White Cliff Bay. 

C, the next division, is sandy, like the laat, but rendered remark- 
able by the profusion of NummtdinoB IcgvigatoB which crowd its prin- 
cipal fossil-bearing bed, g*. 

D embraces the lowest fossiliferous sands of Bracklesham Bay. 
The distinctive shells are Cardita acuHcosta and Oyprcea tuber- 

The whole group consists of alternations of beds of sand and sandy 
day, — the days being more prevalent in the highest member, and the 
sands in the lower. Green grains abound in all the beds. Many of 
the beds are laminated, being formed by alternations of very thin 
bands of clay, separated by sandy layers. Such are generally devoid 
of shells, but contain mudi vegetable matter. They appear to have 
been caused by the deposit of sediment, in a quiet estuary, from a 
great river, the changes to the coarser sediment being caused by the 
state of flood. 

The beds of sand point to a shallower condition of the sea-bottom, 
aubject to drifting water. The sheUs in such beds are often drifted 
into patches, and are sometimes exceedingly abundant at one spot, 
while a few yards off scarcely a specimen will be found. The beds 
of day were deposited in a deeper sea, and the spedes found in them 
agree with such a supposition. 

Bracklesham Beds at WUU Cliff Bay, — ^The Bracklesham Beds 
are unquestionably better exhibited, in respect conjointly of develop- 
ment and display, at Bracklesham Bay than at any other place. 
But, because many parts of the series are there covered up by more 
modem deposits, while the relation of the whole to overlying and 
underlying deposits is indifferentiy shown, the section at White 
Cliff Bay becomes of much value ; for there we have an unbroken 
sequence throughout, from the Chalk to the Bembridge Marlsf. 
Mr. Prestwich has given a detailed account of this section in the 

* Sir C. Lyell found the same 6faaiifi» in the spedes of the Nummulites at the 
Ceritlmim gigantewn bed at Cassel. Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. yd. yiii p. 328. 

t When examining the White Cliff Bay section, I was much interested in 
finding the equivalent to, and so fixing me position of, the yery remarkable 
fossili&rous bed of Broclranhurst It occurs in the upper part of bed No. 21 of 
Mr. Prestwich's section, Quart Joum. Gteol. Soc. vol. u. pi. 9. p. 253. In plate 
10 (by E. Forbes and W. H. Bristow) of the Memoir on the Isle of Wight (GeoL 
Sury. 1856), it ib described as "brown clay, with irregular fracture, shaly in 
plaoes, often with dayey nodules, containing fish and marine ^SosXIa-— Cardita 
aeuHcosta'* {dettoidea, Edw. MS.). 


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2nd volmne of the Societ3r'8 Journal, in his paper on the Isle of 
Wight Tertiaries. I have compared his section with the beds on 
the spot, and found it very correct. But, inasmuch as some parts of 
the series seem better exposed at the present time, and since my 
object in this paper is more especially to disUngtdsh the fossiUferous 
bedSf I shall give a part of his section somewhat more in detail 
(fig. 1), together with lists of fossils made from my own observation. 

The Bracklesham Beds resting on the Lower Bagshot Sands may 
be considered to commence in ascending order with No. 6 of Mr» 
Prestwich's section, where their base is a bed of rolled flint-pebbles, 
from 10 inches to a foot in thickness*, incomparably the most 
marked bed of pebbles in the section. Immediately above the 
pebbles impressions of bivalve shells occur in clay ; they are scarce, 
and difficult of determination. One looks like a Cytherea, and 
another like a Tellina, But their presence is interesting, because 
the next 200 feet of sands and finely laminated clays and sands 
contain apparently no oi^;anic remains except vegetable impressions 
and lignite. A thin band of impure pipe-clay may be made out in 
this part of the series, with vegetable impressions very inferior to, 
but possibly corresponding with, the leaf-bed of Alum Bay. 

There is much difficulty in fixing here a superior limit to the 
Bracklesham Beds. It is true that the series is complete ; but the 
highest fossiliferous bed which can be satisfeustorily made out un- 
doubtedly belongs to the Bracklesham series. 

Above this we do not know our whereabouts for certain, until we 
reach the Headon Sands. The intervening beds are badly displayed, 
and appear to contain very few fossils, and those not very typical. 
Provisionally, No. 18 of Mr. Prestwich's section t may be taken to 
represent that stratum of the Barton series usually known as the 
« High Cliff Sand ;" and then No. 19, and possibly part of the Sand- 
bed No. 20, which Prof. Forbes found to contain '< abundant impres- 
sions of marine shells, apparently of Barton species'' :(, will represent 
the upper part of the Barton series §. It will be seen that the strata 
of No. 17 of Mr. Prestwich's section are much obscured by the con- 
dition of the diff. If we give the whole of this portion to the 
Barton series, we shall not be able to allow as much thickness to 
the superior part of the Bracklesham Beds as the Stubbington section 
and the New Forest beds would lead us to attribute to them. It 
therefore seems most probable that the line of separation at this 
place is to be sought somewhere in the concealed portion of No. 17 
(No. XDC. of the following section). The upper part is probably the 
equivalent of a bed near the base of the Barton series, which is 52 
feet thick at Alum Bay, and at that place very fossiliferous, having 
been formed under a less deep-water condition. The next portion 

* A pebble-bed, forming the base of the BraoUesham series, is very fully 
developBd at Bishopstoke. See Geol. Surrey Map, sheet No. xi. 

t See Quart. Journ. Qeol. Soc. vol. iL p. 264. 

t Memoirs of the GwL Survey, Isle ofWight, 1856. 

% Even at Alum Bay the dark clays of the central portion of the Barton series 
are replaced by sands. 

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8 S 


« .5. 

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will be the equiyalent of the green bands which form the base of the 
Barton beds at High Cliff and Alum Bay, and there contain the 
Ntimmtdina planuJaia, var. Prestwichiana, while the lower part will 
represent the upper beds of the Bracklesham group as seen at Stub- 
bington and Hunting Bridge. No. 16 of Mr. Prestwich (Nos. xviu. 
& XYU. of the following section) undoubtedly belongs to the Brac- 
klesham group, as I shall prove when speaking of the New Forest 
beds. It is on the horizon of the highest bed seen at Bracklesham 
Bay, and locally known as the " Clibs ^ •. 

In the following section the numerals within brackets agree with 
those in Mr. Prestwich's section, where the numbers run through- 
out all the Eocene beds seen at the Bay. The Roman numerals 
refer to the Bracklesham Beds alone, which I have subdivided some- 
what more minutely. It is well to premise that the colours of the 
strata at this locality are, for the most part, much altered by recent 
weathering, and their lithological characters a good deal changed 
from the same cause. 

Descending Section of the Bracklesham Beds at White Cliff Bay, 
Isle of Wight 

[NoTB. — o, by Cf &0., denote the more important fossil-bedB, which, by means 
of tiiese letters, may be identified at the Tarious localities t.] 

Somewhere in this portion commences the-— 

Brackleshax Seeies. 

[Qxoap A.] 

Not. inlCr. 

P-SJi'- m. Feet. 

(17) a Greenishand blue days 162 

At 24 feet from the top is a band of small shells im- 
perfectly exhibited. 

Ostrea flabellula. Cardita, a small species like C. 

Mytilus, a small species. oblonga, 

(16) Dark-blue day, weathering brown 22 

h Nummtdina variolaria in blue clay. The clay is crowded 
with Nummulites, which are often black 10 

Tm^inolia sulcata. Cassidaria nodosa. 

Nummulina variolaria. Fleurotoma inflesa. 

Quinaueloculina Hauerina. — plebeia. 

Alyeolina sabulosa. scalarata. 

Rotalia obscura. FisherL 

FusuB longsevus. Voluta nodosa. 

— pyros. Mitra labratula. 

* Dixon's Foss. and Geol. Sussex, p. 25. 

t Many of the species were, on account of their fragile and weakened con- 
dition, necessarily determined and noted on the spot. It is possible that a few 
errors may thus haye arisen ; but the author hopes th^ are but few. 

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Mitanparra. Cardiuxn? parile. 

, var. ? Lucina. 

Turritella sulcifera. Cardita planiooeta. 

Bentalium politum. CnaBateUa (the spedeB found also 

? staiaioni. at Brook). 

Binoa oochlearella. Corbulapisom, 

Pecten oomeiu. ouspidata. 

XVI. Feet 

(15) c light-coloured sand, with two beds of sand-rock. TeU 
Una and small Univalyes in the bottom of the lower 

rock 6 

Natica. Tellina donacialis. T. plagia. 


(14) Sandy day, paadng into lead-coloured compact clay .... 10 

Echinoderm in sand. Ancillaria canalifera in day. 


d Dark sandy (day, with grains of black sand, fiill of 
Corbtda pisum in the upper part, and with numerous 
shells below; passes into dark clayey sand with 
PecUn comeus 3 

Nommulina yariolaria Turritella imbricataria. 

(common). sulcata. 

Bostellaria subludda. Ditrupa plana. 

Murez asper. Fecten comeus. 

Fusus pyrus. Pinna margaritacea. 

Strepsidura turgida. Nucula Dixoni, Edw. M8, 

CaasidAria nodosa. Leda. 

Pleurotoma plebeia. Gnusatella (the Brook spedes). 

Yoluta nodosa. Gorbula pisom (abundant). 

Selsdenab. — oostata. 

Ceritbium tritropis, Edw, MS. CTtherea ludda. 

Calyptrsea troduformis. Oultellus. 

Beds not exposed ; apparently days 39 

[Oronp B.] 

Streaked, whitish-yellow, and foxy sands 10 


e Sandy days, weathering grey and yellow. There is a 
layer of casts of shells where it passes into the next 
bed, Satiguinolaria HoUowaysii being extremely 
abundant 4 

Turritella sulcifera. Cytherea lucida. 

Pecten comeus. Sanguinolaria Hollowajsii. 

Pectunculus pulyinatus. Solen obliquus. 


Sand, weathering ycUow and grey 7 

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IX. Feet 

(13) /Bzownish sandy cby, with shells aoid pebbles at the 
bott(»n. Hie shdly layer appears to be a lenticular 
mass, and not to be persistent 6 

NummuliaA Tviolark. Oetrea ? lozuilata. 

Muraz xninaz. Area. 

Voluta nodosa. Peotonculiu pulyinatiis. 

Tunitella imbrioatBri& Chama gigantoa, 

~ — solciferm. C rafl nate lla oompraeea. 

Natica ? labeUata. Csrdita ploniooBta. 

Hucola? subtransfena. Corbuk piaum. 

TeUina? plagia. Sangninolaria HoUoiroyni 

Peoten 90-nSati]» 

[droap C] 

(12) Foliated, datrk, sandy days, weathering brown; with 
T^;etable matter interspersed. There is a layer of 
casts of shells at the junction with the next bed 46 

g Oreen sand, in which Soingvinolaria HoUowaysii is very 

abundant 15 

(NummuliTia laevigata occurs in a mass four feet from 
the bottom.) 
Nammalina loffigatia. Sanguuiokria HoUowaysii 


(11) h light- anddark-ooloured green sands, with many shells 

in the upper part. (A ^ring at the base of the diff.) 62 

Ifummqiina liengata. Peoten oomeua. 

FuflUB longfeTUB. MytiluB. 

— pymt. Nuoula. 

Voluta nodosa. Leda. 

spinom. liUcina. 

Pleorotoma dentota. Gardita planiooeta. 

Natica (small). TeUina plagia. 

Turritella sulcata. Sanguinolaria Hollowaysii. 

sulcifera. Solan obliquus. 

terobeUata. Corbula ( f Gallica). 

Oalyptxtta trochifbrmia. pisum. 

[Oxoap D.] 

(10) Laminated grey day, with some beds of calcareous green- 
sand, and a few beds of lignite ^ 76 


(9) k Calcareous, clayey, green, and iron sand, with numerous 
shells in seams. The base seems washed into the 
next bed 52 

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KiiTninnlinft UBvigata (rare). Ostrea flabellula. 

Fusiu pvniB. Cardita planiooeta. 

Metola (Buodnum) junoea. Cytherea ludda. 

FleuTotoma (small). C. suberyoinoidea. 

Voluta nodoea. Tellina. 

Naidoa. Panopflsa. 

Tonitella? imbricataria. Oorbula pisum. 
Oalyptnea troofaifomua. 

ni. Feet 

(8) Altematmg beds of green sand and finely laminated 
day, weathering grey and brown ; with thin seams 
of lignite 18 

(7) Yellow sand 10 

(6) Sandy day, weathering grey and brown, finely laminated 
with yellow sand. There are casts of bivalve shells 
in a band of day at the bottom. It is based on from 
10 to 18 inches of black rounded flint pebbles, often 
as large as swans' eggs 95 


This section will be used as a typical section, the beds being 
referred to by means of the Boman numerals. 

BraMesham Bay, — I will now shortly describe the principal 
localities where the Bracklesham Beds yidd a harvest to the 

Among these, Bracklesham Bay, both for interest and display of 
the beds, undoubtedly holds the highest place, although it is ex- 
tremely difficult to preserve the fossils found there, on account of 
their perishable condition *. 

The beds are exposed on the shore of a shallow bay ; their strike 
is about W. by 8. and E. by N., and they dip slightly S. by £. 
There is no opportunity given to measure tihe dip or the thickness 
of the beds with accuracy. In the following section the order of 
the beds is correctly noted ; and the distances between the outcrops 
on the shore may be taken to give the proportions of the thicknesses 
of the lower beds approximately ; but towards Sebea Bill, where 
the upper beds are exposed, their strike is nearly tangential to the 
coast, and consequenlly we continue upon the same outcrop for a 
considerable distance. Here, as at White Cliff Bay, the chief dif- 
ficulty in determining the relation of the beds occurs at the upper 
part of the section. At the extreme southern point, at low water 
at spring-tides, a few septaria crop out, resting on a very sandy 
day, weathered greenish, and containing the remains of fossils. 
Among these I distinguished Cassidaria eorwuUa and Metula (Bue- 
ctnum) juneea ; but the relation of this bed to the rest of the section 

* I have used isinfflaM diMolyed in gin for this porpoee. Mr. Dixon recom- 
mended a mixture of diamond-oement and water. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


was, when I saw it, very obscure; whether above or below the 
Nummtdina variolaria bed, I could not satisfy myself. The dip of 
the strata would appear to make it the Cyprsaa-bed of Dixon (c2, 
below) ; but its liihological character is different. I will give ^e 
sequence of the beds round Selsey BiU as I observed them, merely as 
a guide to those who may visit the spot. 

Commencing at a spit of gravel seen at low water, brought 
together by the meeting of the tides from the Park and Bracklesham 
Bay, and going westward, we have this apparently ascending sec- 
tion: — 


Beds oovered with aea-fland .^ 600 

Outcrop of Beptaria, restmg on sandy day, weathered green, with 
remains of sbella ; just seen. 

Beds coyered with sea-eand 127 

Hard, dark-grey, sandy bed, Nummalitio in the upper part Num- 

muiites abundant at 216 paces. Concretions at 226 paces 420 

Nommulites and other Foranunifera in day 324 

The Nummulite of these beds is NummuUna variolaria. 
Taking up the last-named bed again, as being the highest cer- 
tainly distinguishable at this place, we have the general descending 
series along nearly 3 miles of the shore as follows : — 

Descending Series at Bracklesham Bay *. 


^22 (b) Clay, weathered erey, crowded with Nummultna varioktriOj 
Alveolina aabtuosot Quingueloculina Hauerina, BUoculina 
ringensy BotaUa obxura, Turbinolia tulcaia, &c. ("Clibs") 324 

Beds covered with sea-sand 185 

21 (c) Hard calcareous sand, with comminuted shelly matter and 
numerous TeUiiuB and other fossils ('*Hard Bed"t). 
Many of the Foranunifera of No. 22 are common in 

this bed 140 

Concretionaiy lumps at the bottom of the above 105 

. i 20 Greyish clay, with Corbula and Nummulinm at 38 paces . . . 120 
' '^ 19 (<Q The day becomes darker and more sandy, and fosdls increase 
in number. They are most abundant towards the middle 

of the bed (Cypraea-bed of Dixon) 460 

18 Sandy clay, firmer than the last, containing many of the 
same shells, but not so abundantly ; seldom seen : it was 

exposed in Aug. 1857 66 

17 Sandy clay, weathered green (Pleistocene weathering |); 

remains of fossils in the upper part 194 

Pleistocene mud 112 

Qreen sandy day 300 

« This list of beds was made in May 1861. The beds were then, on the 
whole, very favourably exposed ; but occasions sometimes occur when they are 
still better seen. I saw them better than I have ever seen them before or since, 
in June 1856. 

The fossils of the different beds of Bracklesham Bay, and of the other most 
celebrated localities, will be given in a catalogue which is in preparation. 

t The local names are those used by W. Woodland, of Medmery Farm, who 
collects for sale. 

I Not the least interesting phenomena at Bracklesham Bay are those con- 
nected with the Pleistocene beds. The greater part of that area has been 
occupied with forest-ground ; and during the period that it was dry land the 
Eocene beds formed the subsoil, and that weathering took place which is so fre- 

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^ 16 (e) Send fall of casts of biyalves, weolihered yellow and reddish, 

partly ooyered by sea-sand 

Pleistocene mud 

15 Hard sand, weathered yerdif;ris-green 

14 Shelly sand, weathered greenish brown, full of fossils ; small 

CwUhia and Cythena striaittla common. ( ** Little Bed.") 

13 Dark sandy cUy, with numerous TiirriteUa vmbricatcarim, . . 

Pleistocene sandy clay, laminated, with a bed of (k^rea 

edtUMKoidi other sheUs at the bottom 

12 (/) Dark clayey sand with numerouB specimens of CerUMiim 
giganteuTth, PectuncultupiUvinatus, and other shells ... 
Septaria, resting on a bea of shelly sand, with black flint 






Laminated liyer-coloured clays ; more sandy towards the 


9 Osirea tenerahed: a congeries of Oysters, about 18 inches 


8 Dark-green sand, full of broken shells — Peciuncttlus jntlvi- 
ncUuSf Lucina (unnamed), BuUa Edwardsii^ &o., towards 
upper part (79 paces) ; less shelly in the middle (48) ; 
abouncung in TurriteUa terebeUata at the base (48) : m lUl 

7 Soft laminated dark-coloured day 

Pleistocene mud, out of which in places protrudes a day, 

weathered green 

^' -{ 6 (ti^) Nummulina UBvigata bed, with numerous fossils (" Little 


5 Sandy day, weathered green 

Beds covered partly wi& sea-sand and partly with Pleisto- 
cene mud 

4 (A) Dark, mottled, sandy day, with perished shells and scattered 
Kummulites, fish-, and serpent-remains. (** Palate-bed" 

of Dixon) 

Coyered with sea-sand 

3 Dark sandy clay 

Dark sandy day, with soft broken shells 


( 2 TurriteUa-bed ; Turrii^la imbricataria, and T. mlcifera... 

1 ik) Septaria; containing shells and occasionally BosteUaria 

ampla (68 paces), resting on a mass of Cardita pianicoaia 

and C. aeuticosta. The lower part of the bea is green 

sand, crowded with shells, among which, immedutely 







quently referred to in the text. It will be observed that^ wherever a tract of 
Pleistocene forest is approached, the bordering Eocene deposit is ** weathered ; " 
but if Uie Pleistocene oe subaqueous at that spot, the bordering Eocene retains 
its original colour. Weathering is caused by ue atmospheric air which the rain 
carries down with it as it percolates the soil. Another interesting phenomenon 
here is the furrowed condition of the surface of the Eocene beds, caused by the 
coursing of drifting gravel over them. The furrows are filled with large flints 
and bomders from the older rocks, in many places undisturbed, but sometimes 
washed out by the present waves and redeposited in the furrows along with 
shingle £rom the present beach. 

* Fossil shells, in a beautiful state of preservation, are frequently washed up 
by the sea in the neighbourhood of the Geritbium-bed. They probably are 
derived from lenticularpatches of shells on the horizon of No. 11, ana correspond 
with the fossil-bed of Blill Head, near Stubbington. 

t Concretions containing this Nummulite are often washed up by the sea. 
They are probably derived from No. 4. The Nummulite-bed No. 6 is ereen in 
Bracklesluun Bay, but yellow at the Park, where it has suifered Pleistocene 

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beneath the Cardita, the CyprtBa tuberctUosa * may be 
found. The bed then becomes lees foseiliferouB, and 
D. •{ passes into a dark-grey hmiinated clay, broken up and 
rearranged, mixed with dark sand and black pebbles. 
"Bam-bed" of Dixon 330 


Below this the beds are coyered np, and no fossils are to be found. 
I belieTe it is the lowest fossiliferous bed of the series ; for it is a 
fortunate circumstance to the collector that the presence of fossils, 
and the calcareous matter derived from them, impart a hardness to 
the matrix, which causes the fossiliferous beds to resist the action 
of the water, so as to be always more exposed to view than un- 
fossiliferous beds. 

TJie Park, on the east side of Selsea, and (he Mixen BocJcs, — On 
the eastern side of the Selsea peninsula there is also a display of a 
part of the same series. The highest bed seen is on the horizon 
of yn., — ^the Nummulina loemgata bed being better developed there 
than elsewhere, and abounding in fossils. All the succeeding beds, 
down to the CardUa planicosta bed. No. 1, are usually e2q>osed upon 
that part of the coast which is called " The Park." 

There is a ledge of rocks off at sea, about a mile south of Selsea 
Bill, called the Mixen Bocks: they consist of a sandy limestone, 
made up almost entirely of Foraminifera, principally of a MUiola 
and an Alveolina, I believe the rock to be nothing more than a 
continuation of No. 22 (5) under a more calcareous condition f. 

Bury Cross. — In following the course of the Bracklesham Beds 
westward, the next section is that at the Gosport Water-works at 
Bury Cross, of which Mr. Pilbrow has supplied a section in vol. xvi. 
of the Journal, at p. 447. 

I have examined the series of specimens preserved at the office 
of the Water-works at Gosport, and was much interested by their 
striking resemblance to the lower part of the Bracklesham Bay 
beds. The following abstract of the section is made from these 
specimens, which were taken at the depths noted : — 

ft. in. 

Lammated clay (weathered) 11 9 

Laminated day and dark sand 37 3 

Nummulina livwaia bed 67 3 

Very green sand, with a few specimens of Nummulina la* 

irigata 75 

Turritella-bed, a conglomerate of shells, as at Bracklesham, 

here containing Cardita planicosta 96 

(k) Cardita-bed; shells rather smaller 104 

Shaly and peaty days 109 

In Mr. Pilbrow*s section he has given sandy day and black peb- 
bles, 1 foot 3 inches thick, at 329 feet ; and the boring was carried 

* This is not an extremdv rare shell, though TOiy difficult to obtain perfect ; 
but it is seldom that the bea is suffidently exposed to a£ford a fair opportunity 
of observing them. 

t For a description of this part of the coast of Sussex, see Dixon*s ' Fossils 
and Geology of Sussex,* chap. ii. 


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only 2 feet 3 inches Airther in hard clay. If I were to hazard an 
opinion, I should say that the water was obtained in the London 
Clay series, and that the Bracklesham Beds ended at a depth of 
201 feet 9 inches. The green sand (with water), 20 feet 6 inches 
thick, would then belong to the Lower Bagshot Sands. There is a 
remarkable thinning-out of the lower fossiliferous beds here, as 
compared with the section at White Cli£f Bay ; while beneath them 
the unfossiliferous laminated clays and sands continue of nearly the 
same thickness. We haye an interval from vn. to iv. at White 
Cliff Bay, 198 feet; at Bury Cross, 47 feet: interval from iv. to 
I. at White Cliff Bay, 119 feet ; at Buiy Cross, 118 feet ♦. 

Fort Ocmer, — ^At the new works at Fort Gomer, south of Bury 
Cross, are to be seen the beds on the horizon of xtu. near the 
upper part of the series. NummtUina variolarxa and PecUn comeus 
occur in blue sandy day. 

Eowner Fort. — ^At Bowner Fort, now in process of construction, 
some sand frt>m a shallow well contained comminuted shells, among 
which TurriteUa imhricataria was distinguishable, but no traces of 
Nummulites. There was not sufficient evidence to identify the bed. 

StuhbingUm. — ^The next locality to which I refer is Stubbington. 
This is a place of some interest, having long been known for ita 
Eocene fossils ; but they were, I believe, formerly collected from 
only one or two beds in the upper part of the series. I was myself 
the fortunate finder, in March 1856, of the very rich deposit of 
fossils on the horizon of ix./. 

The beds here, as at Bracklesham, do not admit of convenient 
measurement. They are seen, at intervals, beneath gravel at the 
base of the low cliffs west of Brown Down. But a more complete 
section may be obtained by noticing their outcrop at low water. 
The dip of the beds is nearly 8. by W. ; their dip in the direction of 
the shore is but slight, and consequently we continue a long distance 
upon the same bed. The proportion of the thickness to this distance 
is nearly uniform for all the beds, because the shore is very nearly 

Commencing from a point in a line with two large boulders on 
the shore, and opposite a hut upon the cliff, near the eastern end 
of Stokes Bay, and going westward, we have the following descend- 
ing section t. ^^^^ 

Paces, ft. in. 

Shingle and 8imd (beds not exposed) 130 

Sunk forest (Pleistocene) 60 

Bedsnotseen 46 

A. •< 21 Lieht-ffreeniBh-blue sandy clay, laminated 219 14 6 

Brackletiham Beds: — 
20 (a) Light-greenish sandy clay, containing rather abon- 

• Quart Joum. Geol. Soo. vol. xvi. p. 448. 

t By measuring the dip of the nodules in the cliffy I obtained a dip of about 
5^ feet in 64 paces ; and by comparing the thickness of the Nunmiulitic bed 
with its extension on the sliore, we get a dip of 4^ feet in 74 paces ; taking the 
mean of these, we find the factor which, multiplied bjr the extension in paces, 
will give the thickness of the beds in feet, to be approximately -066. 

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dantly a Coral like Paraeyaihm carvophyUm ^^^^' ^ ^' 

(see Falaeont. Soc. Monogr. toL for 1850, pt. 1) 

and cnished DerUaHa^ with a few Biyalyes, 

speoiee undistinguishable. (The equivalent 

tied is found at Hunting Bridge, in the New 

Forest.) It ends not far east of some rails on 

thecliff 8 6 

19 Greenish-blue sandj clajr ; no fossils seen 339 22 4 

18 The same, rather more laminated 114 7 6 

17 The same, with Pleistocene weatherme and roots 

of trees, opposite the mouth of a yafiej 43 2 9 

16 {b) Nummtdina variolaria bed ; with Pecten comeus 
at the top, and CardUa planicosta at the bottom. 
(This bed was proved to be 4^ feet thick bj 
digging through it) 74 4 6 

15 liver-ooloured stiff clay 49 3 3 

14 Dark-greenish-blue day, crowded with CorbtUa 

pisum 62 4 

13 (d) Very dark clayey sand, with many fossils and a 

layer of large Cardita planicosfa at the bottom 97 6 4 

12 Clay greyer and less sandy, fewer fossils, but 

Vormua common 15 Oil 

11 Clay darker and more sandy ; flat septaria, usually 
formed on drifi-wood bored by Teredines. 
There is sometimes coarse drift-sand on the 
eastern side of the logs. Pinna margaritacea 
abundant 100 6 7 

10 Strata not seen; presumed, from what appears 

in the cliff, to be soft sand, with small shells... 152 
9 Dark sand; very few shells 105 

8 Bed of great septaria in dark sand, which weathers 

of a greenish yellow in the cliff 57 

7 Dark sandy clay 39 

6(«?)Dark sandy day, with broken fosdls. (This is 
seen as the most westerly fossiliferous bed in 
the cliff.) Denialium and Oytherea lucida 
common 66 4 3 

5 Dark-green sand : Cardium ? Edwardsi, var., very 

common 24 16 

4 The same : P«?^c» comewa very common 48 3 1 

3 Darker and coarser sand 26 18 


6 11 





Total 106 9 

From this point the section is nearly obscured for about half a 
mile; but soffident is exposed to show that it consists almost 
wholly of sands belonging to Group B. 

Then, in the old diff, at Hill Head, at the point where the word 
" fossils " is engrayed in the map of the (Geological Survey, there is a 
bed of large septaria in sand, resting upon laminated clay. Here I 
found, in 1856, a lenticular mass of fossil shells with Certthium gigan- 
teum, washed together, partly concreted into septaria, and partly free. 
The position in the section, as well as the assemhlage of shells, 
prove it to be on the horizon of ix.* Beyond this point the beds 
consist of sands, weathered yellowish and bluish green, and rather 
micaceous. Further east, near Meon, are greenish sands, with 

* An extension of this bed, with similar fossils, seems to occur beneath low- 
water mark, at the furthest extremity of the spit of shingle opposite Stubbington 
Lane-end, where specimens may be found washed in by the sea. 

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casts of TumteUa, but with no distinct indication of their place in 
the series. 

Netley, — Following the shore of the Southampton Water, we find 
the strata un&Tourably exposed. At Netley Hospital, Pecten comeus 
occurs in clay; and other common Bracklesham fossils, in dark 
sand, were brought up from a well. At Netley Cliflf, casts of uni- 
valves may be seen in bluish-green sand; while at Southampton 
Docks, Nummulina Icevigata occurred. This fixes the horizon of the 
beds at group C. 

The New Forest. — ^Within the last few years the cabinets of 
collectors of Eocene fossils have been enriched with specimens 
from Bramshaw and Brook, in the New Forest. The first intelli- 
gence which I received of the occurrence of fossils in this neigh- 
bourhood was from Mr. Bristow, of the Geological Survey, who 
discovered them here in the year 1854. I believe H. Keeping had 
become acquainted with the spot about the same time. In the course 
of my own working in that neighbourhood, I found other places 
which yielded many specimens. The strata where these beds occur 
are coloured as belonging to the Barton series in the Geological 
Survey Map, the line of demarcation being drawn at the commence- 
ment of the sands which characterize the 2nd fossiliferous horizon B 
of the Brackleshams on the Cerithium giganUum division. The 
richness of the deposits in this neighbourhood exceeds that of the 
relative beds at any of the places I have mentioned. 

Hunting Bridge. — ^The highest fossil-bearing bed belonging to the 
Bracklesham senes which has been met with in the New Forest is 
near a place called Hunting Bridge, in an artificial watercourse in an 
enclosure near the letter **c^" in "Lynwood Coppice " on the Ordnance 
Map. This fossil-bed was discovered only within the last month, by 
Henry Keeping, of Freshwater, who collected for me the specimens 
from which the following list is taken, and to whom I am indebted 
for the stratigraphical particulars of this locality. His section 
gives — 

ft. in. 
(a) Bluiah-green clay, full of large Dentalia (sp. nov.) and Corals. . . 6 
Dark-green nsiij clay, with foBsils scattered throughout, about 

perhaps 20 

I have not yet had an opportunity of visiting Hunting Bridge. 
The specimens which I have received therefrom are — 

Bostellaria ampla (fine). FseudoliTa oralis. 

rimosa. Caasidaria nodosa. 

arcuata. coronata. 

minax. Pleurotoma prisca. 

Murex asper (common) plebeia. 

Fasdolana uniplicata. planetica. 

Fusus No«. crassioosta. 

pyrus. li^ta. 

carinella (common). Voluta labrella. 

interruptuB. nodosa. 

? n, B., found also at Alum maga. 

Bay and Hill Head. Natica Willemetil 

Strepsidura turgida. ? ambulacrum. 

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Torritella suloifera. LimopsiB (nov. up.) 

Turritella ? nov. sp. Cytherea ludda. 

FhoruB agglutiiiaiiB. ? sp. 

? exoaTatcui, Edw, MS. Gardiuin parile. 

Calyptnea trochiformis. pormosum (U8te Keeping). 

Bulla (?) Edwardflu. Oardita elegans. 

Dentahum (large and yerj common), Crnanatella (found also at Brook). 

noT. sp. PectunculuB pulyinatus (common). 
SerpulorcnsomatuB? (rather common). Tellina (?) Branderi, Tar. (rather 
Niso terebellatus. common). 

Peoten comeua (not common). Corbula Qallica (teste Keeping). 

Area barbatula. Pinna margaritaoea. 

prope avioulina. ( ? n. s.) Nummnlina (apparently N, variolaria) 

SpondyluB rarispina. on Pkorus aggUUina$u, 

The upper layer of blniah-green day at this place seems un- 
doubtedly to be tiie equivalent of the bed No. 20 (p. 77), with Corals 
and Dentalia, at Stubbington, which I have taken as the highest of 
the Bracklesham series at that place. The lower portion, which has 
afforded, with very little working, the above list of species, does not 
appear to have an equivalent fossil-bed there ; or, if it has, I have 
overlooked it. The species are so decidedly of a Braokleshsjn type, 
that I have no hesitation in dassiog the deposit as a part of that 
series ; and, as I have prendsed when speaking of its limits, I am 
obliged to extend the classification under that head to beds above any 
seen at Bracklesham Bay, where the section terminates with the 
" Clibs." Those " Clibs " are the equivalent of the NummuUna 
variolaria bed. No. 16, of Stubbington, which is more than 30 feet 
lower than the ooral-bed corresponding with the upper part of the 
Hunting Bridge Bed. Nevertheless the character of the matrix at 
Hunting Bridge approaches more nearly to some of the Barton de- 
posits than to any of the Bracklesham strata. 

Bramshauf ; Shepherd^ $ Outter. — ^The nature of the surface does 
not admit of giving complete sections in the forest ; but the general 
stratification of the district leaves no doubt of the last-mentioned 
fossil-bed being followed in descending order by the Shepherd's 
Gutter Bed, wMch is to be met with at Three-water Gutter, about 
half a mile to the south-east of Hunting Bridge. The spot where 
this bed was originally found on Shepherd's Gutter, and which is 
indicated in Mr. Edwards's monographs as the <* Bramshaw" lo- 
cality, may be found by drawing, on tiie Ordnance Map, a straight 
line from the first "B" in "Bumtford Bridge" to the "tt" in 
« Bramble Hill Lodge." 

Passing through some soft blue clay, the first part of the fossili- 
ferous bed reached, about a foot thick, is crowded with Turritella ca^ 
rinifera in day. Then we have a few inches of stiff blue clay, in which 
occur Triton nodulotus, Edw. MS., and PUurotoma ligata, and then 
from three to four feet of very dark clayey sand, with abundant shells. 
The larger shells are at the bottom of the bed. At the base is a layer 
full of Pecten eomeus and many specimens of Conus deperditus. 
The whole rests on a dark-grey sand, with fragments of Pecten 
cometu, which have lost their fresh brown tint. The Nummulina 
variolaria \a by no means uncommon in this bed, and is usually to 

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be found attached to the specimens of Phorvs aggltUinans, Beneath 
this bed are days, perhaps 10 feet thick ; and then a thin fossil-bed, 
with Pecten comeua abundant, and many of the smaller sheUs of 
the bed just described. This is succeeded by dark and very sandy 
clay, with scarcely any traces of fossils. Cardita planicosta is rare 
at this locality. On following the brook a few hundred yards down- 
wards, through the length of two fields, the Corbula-days, belonging 
to the next succeeding fossil-bed (d), may be made out in a 
weathered condition in the bank of the stream. A very few feet 
beneath this stratum, coarser sands with grains of silicate of iron 
come in. I place the Bramshaw or Shepherd's Gutter Bed on the 
horizon of xtii. (b). 

The argument for the position of the Shepherd's Gutter Bed is 
of this kind. It is succeeded at the interval of a few feet (there 
is no opportunity of taking a measurement, but it may be 20 or 30 
feet^) by the *^ Brook " Bed, a deposit of a marked character (see 
p. 83). The extraordinary abundance of Corbula pisum in the 
upper portion of this bed, the abundance of Pleurotoma cUUnuata, 
elsewhere rare, and the presence of Valuta horrida render it peculiar. 
There is also an individuality about a fossil-bed which cannot be folly 
appreciated except by one who has personally worked it. The cha- 
racters of the " Brook Bed " belong also to bed No. 13 at Stub- 
bington and to the Cyprsea-bed, No. 19, of Selsea, in Bracklesham 
Bay; there is therefore a presumption that the three are equi- 
valent. Now there is, at a short interval above the beds 13 of 
Stubbington and 19 of Selsea, a remarkable deposit of Nummulina 
variolaria : at Selsea that Nummulite is accompanied by AlveoliwE 
in abundance, and by other Eoraminifera. Thus we have two beds 
at Stubbington and Selsea similar in their general character, and 
also similar in sequence. Passing to White Cliff Bay, we find 
a Nummulina variolaria bed, No. xvn., intermediate in character 
between those of Stubbington and Selsea, containing a larger 
proportion of Nummulites than at Selsea, but with AheoUncB and 
other Foraminifera of Selsea which are not found at Stubbington. 
The bed is based on a sandy deposit, as is that at Selsea, containing 
in both places numerous TeUinas, The sand-rock is soon succeeded 
by a bed (xiv.) full of Corbula pisum, which, as far as 1 was able to 
examine it, appeared to agree with the Cypraea or " Brook " Bed (d) 
of the New Forest, Stubbington, and Selsea. Thus it seems to admit 
of little doubt that the Nummulina variolaria bed (the " dibs ") of 
Selsea, the NummuUna-bed of Stubbington, and Nummtdina vario- 
laria bed of White Cliff Bay are equivalent. 

Now, the Nummulina variolaria bed of White Cliff Bay contains 
rather a peculiar assemblage of Pleurotomas as well as tiie Itissoa 
cochhareUa, which are found at Shepherd's Gutter, as are also all its 
fossils, except the Alveolina, absent also at Stubbington ; and it is 
shown to occupy a position with regard to bed d similar to that 
occupied by the Shepherd's Gutter Bed ; therefore the argument 

* All the beds in thii part of the series appear thicker in the New Forest than 
to the south-east. 

VOL. XVm. — ^PART I. 

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from fossil contents and sequence renders it most probable that the 
two are equivalent, and therefore that the Shephei^'s Gutter Bed is 
equivalent also to the Nurmmdina variolaria beds of Stubbington and 

But the argument is still further strengthened thus. Let it be 
granted that the Shepherd's Gutter Bed is equivalent to No. xvn. 
of White Cliff Bay ; it is therefore equivalent to the Nummulina 
variolaria bed of Stubbington. Now, there is at Stubbington, about 
thirty feet higher up, a very remarkable bed, No. 20, containing 
Paracyathus caryophyllus and DentaUa ; whilst a bed with similar 
contents is also found in the New Forest, at Hunting Bridge, 
not many feet above the Shepherd's Gutter Bed. It will be seen 
that the above contains also the data upon which I have ventured to 
differ horn, former observers* respecting the line of separation 
between the Bracklesham and Barton Beds at White Cliff Bay, and 
to place it slightly higher up. 

At about a mile and a quarter S. by W. of Shepherd's Gutter, 
near the letter " it " in " Brook Common " on the Oninance Map, at 
the comer of Prior's Acre, is a fossil-bed, in its leading features 
very similar to that at Shepherd's Gutter. The stratum covering 
the fossil-bed is soft blue clay. To this succeeds a bed of day 
crowded with 7\irriUlla imbricataria and T, carinif^a, and then a 
bed of dark sand with many shells. This last is not so thick as at 
Shepherd's Gutter, averaging about 1^ foot. There are not so 
many broken shells ; but the percentage of tolerably perfect shells is 
perhaps larger. Beneath it we find decayed Pectines comei in a 
sandy day. Cardita planicosta is very rare. This bed is, I believe, 
a continuation of the Shepherd's Gutter Bed, and is on the horizon 
of xvn. 

A section, by digging and boring, gave — £^ j^, 

Superficial Boil 2 

Soft, weathered, blue clay, with selenitet and Turritella 7 

Foasil-bed (b) 1 

Stifi'ilate^louredclay 3 6 

Ail:nnfo8Bal'hed,vn.ihPectencomeu8X say 3 

PurpliBh, very sandy clay (not pierced), probably c of Bracklesham 2 

Brook, — About a quarter of a mile down the brook or " gutter " 
called King's Garden Gutter, in which the last-mentioned bed was 
reached, occurs a second rich fossil-bed, which lies beneath it. It 
is that dted by Mr. Edwards § as the '' Brook " locality. After 
passing through a covering of clay, a thin bed of dark-green sand 

* Prestwich on Baffshot Sands, Quart Joum. Geol. Soo. vol. iii. p. 388. 

t A collector should keep a look-out for selenite, because it la often the 
only indication, seen on the buHSbum, of the neighbourhood of fossil shells. When 
day contains fossil shells and sulphuret of iron, the change which takes place in 
the course of weathering is this: — The sulphur combines with the oxygen 
of the atmosphere to form sulphuric add ; thiB combines slowly, as it is formed, 
with the carbonate of lime of the sheUs, and crystallizes into selenite, the shell 
being ultimately entirely removed. 

\ Corresponding probably with the thin fossil-bed, containing Pecten comeus, 
mentioned as occumnff at Shepherd's Gutter. 

$ Pakeontographical Sodety*s Monographs, 1858, p. 270. 

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is reached, full of shells. Single valves of Cardita planicosta are 
commoiu There are nomerous small CeritfUa in this bed, of several 
species, Fusw polpgonus is also not uncommon, as also Pseudoliva 
ovalis. The bed is about 8 or 10 inches thick. Beneath it we come 
upon very stijQP lead-coloured claj, in which Carbula pisum soon be- 
gins to make its appearance ; and, after passing through about 4 feet 
of this clay, we reach a sandy layer, of a somewhat greenish tint. 
In this many good specimens are to be found, especially of Plewro- 
tama aMmwUa. The day then becomes less sandy, and is crowded 
with Corbtda pisum, other fossils occurring sparingly for about 2j^ 
feet. We then reach a bed of dark sand with shells, chiefly (but by 
no means all) broken. Thero are a large number of single valves 
of CardUa planicosta at this level ; and, when these are passed, an- 
other layer of shells, mostly broken, is usually found, containing seve- 
ral rare species, and among them many specimens of VoltUa horrida, 
a species known only by a single broken specimen from Bracklesham 
before I found it at this place. Hard grey day, with intermittent 
layers of Corbulas, and but few other spedes, succeed this bed. 

I consider the Brook Bed to be on the horizon of xrv. (d). It is 
the bed most constant in its character of any, and differs so little at 
White Cliff Bay (where, however, it is difBicult to find, as it lies in 
a vertical position at the bottom of a small streamlet), Bracklesham 
Bay, Stubbington, and Brook, that it affords a very satisfactory 
presumption of its being quite possible to divide the Bracklesham 
series iuto successive beds, each recognizable by its lithological cha- 
racters, position, and fossil contents. 

The " Brook Bed " crops out in the ditch by the side of Sir 
F. Pollock's Wood, in Canterton Lane ; and it may be seen there, as 
well as in Shepherd's Gutter, that it is soon succeeded by sands, 
which are no doubt the sands belonging to the horizon of ix. 

Western Range of the Bracklesham Beds. Poole and Corfe, — ^I have 
thus described the character and sequence of the Bracklesham Beds 
as they occur at intervals throughout the eastern and northern parts 
of the Isle of Wight Basin. I have now to speak of their western 
development near Poole, at Alum Bay, and at High Cliff. There is 
a specimen in the Museum at Dorchester, which I have been credi- 
bly informed came from a sand-pit at Lytchett, near Poole. It is a 
concretion of ferruginous sand, formed upon a mass of Carditce 
planicostcB and Turritelke (probably T. imbrieatarice), the casts only 
remaining. This is an interesting specimen, because it shows that 
the sea of the Bracklesham period was tenanted by such forms very 
near the district of Poole and Bournemouth, where the only remains 
hitherto observed have been those of vegetables and insects. I 
have, however, seen a small round Oyster from Furzeybrook day- 
pit, near Corfe, — the only instance on record, as I believe, of a marine 
shell from these Corfe Beds *. 

* Large palm-leaTtes are not imoommon at Furzeybrook, which seems to 
show thttt a subtropioal climate waa shared in by the land as well as bj the 
ocean, during the Bracklesham period. A specimen of these palms was ex- 
hibited when the paper was read. 


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These facts seem to point to the coast-line of the sea of the 
period having passed near the area in which these pipeclay-beds 
occnr. The prevailing character of the Corfe deposits is such as 
would indicate them to have been derived from land consisting of 
granitoid rocks, while the days and sands of the beds which lie to 
the north and east have been partly derived from rocks of the 
Secondary and Older Tertiary Periods, supplying the dark clays and 
the flint-pebbles which abound in them. 

There remain but two localities of which I shall speak, namely. 
Alum Bay and High Cliff near Christchurch. 

Alum Bay. — At Alum Bay, the greater part of the fossiliferous 
beds included in No. 29 of Mr. Prestwich's section ♦ may be satis- 
factorily correlated with those usually known as the Barton and 
High Cliff series. There is a well-known and marked seam of 
dark-green sandy clay, containing abundance of Nummulina Prest- 
wiehiana f. It contains Barton forms ; and therefore we may 
safely carry the Barton series down so far, though it is lower in the 
series than any bed from which fossils have hitherto been collected 
at High Cliff. The same Nummulite-bed occurs there also. Com- 
mencing with this bed, a descending section brings us, in about 
15 feet, into beds of Bracklesham age. 

ft. in. 

10. Dark-greenish, coarse, sandy clay 3 

(Crowded with Nummtdina Frestwichtana.) 

Bostellaria ampla. Fleurotoma? sp. 

rimoBa. Yoluta othleta. 

Murex aaper. ^— depauperata. 

TyphiB pungens. *— maea. 

Canoellaria. — nodosa. 

Fymla nexiliB. Mitara panra. 

I^iisiiB bulbus. Marginelia. 

^— oarinelia. Natica labellata. 

^— errans. Turritella imbricataria. 

intemiptufl. Phonis agglutinans. 

— longiBTUB. Calyptreca obliqua. 

Noffi. Dentaliam. 

regulariB. Ostrea flabelluhk 

mdcarinatuB. ? donata. 

n. sp., as at Hunting Br. Peoten oomeus. 

and Hul Head. Cardium (small species, like that of 
Strepsidura turgida. High Cliff). 

Cassidaria ambigua. Corbula pisum, 

Ancillaria. Pholadomya. 

Fleurotoma torbida. Echinoderm. 

oonoides. Operculina. 

-^— plebeia. Nummulina Prestwichiana. 

9 (5). Lead-coloured day, with few fossils 3 

Bostellaria macroptera. Corbula pisom. 

* Quart Joum. Geol. Soo. vol. ii pi. 9. See also the elaborate section at 
p. 136, and pL 9, Mem. Geol. Surr., Isle of Wight, 1856. 

t See note, on the determination of this NummuUto by Mr. T. B. Jones, to 
the piMper by Sir C. Lyell on the Belgian Tertiaries, Quart. Joum. GeoL Soc 
▼oL Tin. p. 334. See also Appendix B, p. 93. 

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8 (a). Dark sandy claj^ with fossils (principally small 

Area ayicalina. 
Leda (oommon). 

Oardium parile. 
Cardita globooa. 
Corbula pisum. 

ft. in. 

Bostellaria ampla. 
FosuB (? regnlariB). 
Flearotoma exorta. 
Yoluta nodosa. 
Turritella imbricataria. 
Solarium plicatom. 

Braekleaham Series. 

7. Dark sandy day 16 6 

6. Indurated, dark-greenish, sandy clay, with impressions 

of fossils , 1 

Cytherea ladda. 


Sanffuinolana HoUowaynL 



? Branderi (oommon 

at Hunting Bridge). 


Area aTioulina. 

5. Dark sandy day, containing a bed of septaria, like 
those heneath Bothsay Castle, High CM 11 

4. Indurated, greyish, sandy day, with impressions of 

fossils 7 

Fu8U8 ? undoflus. 
Fymla nexiliB. 
Turritella imbricataria. 
Natioa ambulacrum. 
Bentalium,^bably the BpedeB 

found at Hunting Bridge. 
Cardiimi parile. 
Gkurdita ? Bp. (abundant) ; ribe 

acute and numerous, rather 

Cardita (with fewer ribe; 

Cytherea obliqua. 



Tellina ? tumescens. 



Sanguinolaria Hollowaysii. 

Panopoea oomigata. 


Modiola(or Mytilwi)^ n. sp. 


Yoluta nodosa. 


Phorus agglutinans. 

Turritella sulcifera. 


Teredo (in wood). 

Pecten comeus. 

Cardium parile. 

^— (ratner small and broad 
species, unknown). 

Caraita (rather small, with nu- 
merous acute ribs; yery 
abundant, the same as in the 
last bed). 

3. Dark sandy day, weathering greenish-grey, containing 

carbonaceous matter 16 

2. Conglomerate of large flint-pebbles 10 

1. Sands of various shades of yellow, white, and crimson. 

The lower 43 feet of this section appear to belong to the Brackle- 
sham Beds. 

Mr. Prestwich has remarked on the change of character in the 
otganic remains towards the lower part of his stratum No. 29 (Joum. 
vol. ii, p. 242). The species, as he observes, are those of a shallow 
sea. But if I have determined them aright, several of them bdong 

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to the Bracklesham series, and, as 1 shall show hereafter, are in a 
part of the series which Mr. Prestwidi has placed among the 
Bracklesham Sands at High Cliff. 

Here, then, we have a proof that the Bracklesham Beds have not 
all heoome unfossiliferons at Alum Bay *, hot the same shelving of 
the sea-hottom towards the coast-line t, which has here given an 
estaarine condition X to the shallower seas of the lower and middle 
beds of the northern and eastern area, has converted the deep sea 
of the upper part into a shallow sea, represented by beds 6 and 4 
of the section. 

This shallower condition may account also for the disappearance 
at Alum" Bay of the Nummuiina variolaria. The water, already con- 
verted from an estuary into a diallow sea, seems to have continued to 
deepen § ; and at No. 10 Nummulites come in abundantly. But the 
variety is not identical with that found in the upper beds d the 
Bracklesham series || ; and the list of fossils from that bed contains 
species of a Barton type, viz. PUurotOfna twrbida (coIoh), P. conoides, 
and Castidaria ambigua. 

High Cliff. — ^The weU-known series of fossUiferons sands and 
sandy clays of Barton Cliff and High Cliff terminate downwards 
in a series of dark-green sandy days^, which are based upon 
light-coloured sands**. These Mr. Prestwich considers to belong 
to the Bracklesham series. 

There is an advantage in studying these beds at High Cliff, f^m 
the flEtct that the same strata are visible for a considerable distance in 
the cliff (fig. 2) ; so that the changes, due to horizontal range, which 
took place in them can be observed, — an advantage whidi is not 
offered by the vertical strata at Alum Bay and White Cliff Bay. 

* Quart Joum. GeoL Soc. vol. iii. p. 394. 

t " Physical Geography of the Tertiary EBtuary of the Isle of Wight," by H. 
C. Sorby, Esq., Edin. New Phil. Joum., Apr. 1857. 
X Memoir of G^L Survey on Isle of Wight, p. 34. 

I Edin. New Phil. Joum. ibid. 
See Sir C. Lvell's paper on the Belgian Tertiaries fGeol. Soc. Jonra. vol. viii. 
p. 334, fiote). Mr. T. K. Jones informs me that this Nummulite is a variehr of 
N. planulata^ as also is N. variolaria. The common Nummulite of the High 
Cliir Sands is N. vQriol4iria. The Alum Bay variety is here called N. Prestwich' 
iana. See Appendix B, page 93. 

^ The green colourinff-matter which is so common in the Middle Eocene beds 
is remarkably abundant here. It occurs in grains, which, when separated from 
the matrix, have the size and form of trains of fine gunpowder. 

Professor liveing has kindly fumished me with the following analysis of this 
substance, and informs me that it does not differ materially from the colouring- 
matter of the Qreensand bed at the base of the Lower Chalk of Cambridge- 

Water 10-02 

Silica ftOll 

Iron, protoxide 26-04 

Aluinma 612 

M^gi^esia 3-14 

Potash 517 

«* See Mr. Prestwich's paper "On the Strato of Christchurdi Harbour,'' 
Quart. Joum Oeol. Soo. vol v. p. 44. 

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It has been seen^ in the lists of fossils from the Alum Bay beds, 
that the NummvUna Frestwichiana bed contains Barton forms, viz. 
Pleurotoma turbida, P. conaides, and Cassidaria ambiguOy while the 
superior beds at that place s^ord assemblages of fossils exactly 
analogous to the well-known High Cliff and Barton types. 1 have 
therefore assumed the Nummtdina Prestwiehiana bed at Alum Bay 
to belong to the Barton series. 

Fig. 2.—8tcti^ of High Cliff and Barton Cliff. Length 2 miles. 






1. White silioeous BMid« 

2. Band of flint-pebbles. 

3. Sands, with a huid of iron- 

stone septaria. 

4. Pebble-bed and fossils. 

5. Dark-men sandy day. ^ 

6. Sli^tfy indurated marly day. 
Bradde- 7. Nunmulina Prestwiehiana bed. 

' sham beds. 8. Chrey days. 

9. "High Cliflf Sands." * 
10. "Barton days." 


I find a bod containing Nummutina Prestwiehiana^ at High Cliff, 
analogous to that at Alum Bay. I believe it has hitherto been over- 
looked, but it may easily be recognized by the following indication : 
— ^There will be observed extend^g along all the central portion of 
High Cliff, not far overhead, as you walk upon the beach, a narrow 
band of hard marly day ♦, not quite a foot thick, weathering of a 
reddish foxy tint, and projecting slightly beyond the general fece of 
the cliff* Immediately above this, in marked contrast of colour, is 
a narrow green band of coarse sandy day, about 8 in. thick. This 
is the iVtitwmwZina Prestwiehiana bed. It is much thinner than at Alum 
Bay, and the Nummulites are less profusely scattered in it. At this 
place they are pyritized. They are entirely distinct in appearance 
from the N, variolaria of the sands in the beds above. Now, here 
this bed is thin, and poor in fossils ; but, judging from the equi- 
valent bed at Alum Bay, it belongs to the Barton series ; and I have 
seen nothing above it which would lead me to place it otherwise. 
I therefore commence my High Cliff section with this bed, as has 
been done already in the Alum Bay section t. 

* This is the band of tabular soft septaria, mixed with green sand, of Mr. 
Prestwich's section (Quart. Joum. Geol. See. Yol. v. p. 44). 

t The upper part of this section was made more to the east than Mr. Prest- 
wich^s, as ma^ be seen by the position of the flint gravel which caps his section. 
The slight differences in the measurements are uius accounted lor. It is also 
carried rather further down. The lower part is often obscured by talus, but 
was better exposed than usual when I last saw it. 

The fossils of this locality, having lost all their shelly matter, are the less easy 
of determination. On that account the lists here given must not be looked upon 
as beyond question. Nevertheless the characters of the species are better pre- 
served than in ordinary casts. 

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Section at JBigh Cliff. ^ . 

7. Nwnmtdina Prestwichiana bed, in coarse, green, sandy 
day with grains of quartz. The tool gives a bright- 
green streak. This bed passes beneati^ the beach at 
about 760 yards westof Chewton Bunny 8 

Nummulina Preetwiohiiios. Gardita (small, ribbed). 

Natica (smalll Cytherea. 

Gaidiuin parile. 

6. Slightly indurated marly day, motiled green and 
brownish grey. It weathers of a foxy-red. " Ta- 
bular soft Septaria " 7 

Nnmmnlina Preshrichiana. Cardium parile. 

Ancillaria canalifera. Oardita (small, ribbed). 

Voluta (small, with distant Modiola. 

ribs). Corbula pisum. 

• (? nodosa). Thracia. 

Turritella imbncataria Echinoderm. 

6. Dark-green, coarse, sandy clay, giving a bright-green 

strei^ with the tool. ** Clayey green sand " 9 

Fusus pyrus. Cardita (small, ribbed). 

Pyrula nexOii. Cytherea (a Bajrton species). 

Voluta ? nodosa. Craasatella oostata. 

Dentalium. Corbula pisum. 
Cardium semistriatum. 

(Bracklesham Series,) 

4. Pebble-bed towards the west, changing towards the 
east into a soft, dark, sandy day, with scattered 
pebbles, and full of impressions of fossils. << Rounded 
flint-pebbles" 1 6 

Murex minax. Cytherea (? lucida). 

Fusus carinella (common). subwycinoides (common). 

Voluta nodosa. — ? trigonula. 

Serpula. Crassatella sulcata. 

Dentalium (large species). ? compressa. 

Area duplicata. Sanrainolana HoUowaysii. 

Cardium parile. Corbula GhJlica. 

ponuosimi. pisum. 

Cardita (ribbed). Panopeea. 

3. Sands, clayey at the bottom. Towards the west these 
are clearly stratifled in three beds ; but soon the 
middle division suddenly thins out, and the upper 
and lower divisions com© into contact, with very con- 
fused bedding. The colour also changes from white 
to a brownish hue. Vegetable matter is abundant 
throughout; and impressions of fossils abound to- 
wards the east. There is a band of ironstone -sep- 
taria in these sands which \a not persistent 33 

Turritella imbricataria. Pecten ? 30-costatus. 

Area aviculina. Tellina dis-stria. 

Pecten oomeus. Cardium parile. 

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Cjtherea suberycinoidfis (com- Solen (long and narrow), 

mon). Panopsa. 

lucida. Modiola. 


It. in. 

2. Band of flint-pebbles, engaged in the base of the last 

bed. They have become white and friable 6 

1. White siliceous sand ; the bottom is not seen 6 

The list of fossils from No. 4 agrees well with its assigned position 
in the Bracklesham series ; while I have seen no species in No. 5 to 
bring it within that category. Moreover there is every indication of 
No. 4 having formed the bottom of the sea for a long period, during 
which the sediment, small in quantity, differed from ti^at which after- 
wards constituted bed No. 5. From these two considerations, it may 
appear admissible to place the line of division where nature seems 
to have placed it, viz. above the pebble-bed ; and I have endeavoured 
to place it in the corresponding point at Alum Bay. This pebble- 
bed, which is strictly a fossil-bed, seems to be contemporary with 
No. 6 at Alum Bay, and is probably a shallower condition of the 
Hunting Bridge Bed. There are two species, not usually at all 
abundant in the other beds of the series, which appear rather 
common at Hunting Bridge and in these highest Bracklesham beds 
at Alum Bay and High Cliff; they are Fusus carinella and TelUna 
Branderi, var. 

Figs. 3 and 4. — Comparative Sections of the Strata at Alum Bay and 
High Cliff, Scale Jth of an inch to a foot. 

Fig. 3.— Alum Bay. Fig. 4.—Btgh Cliff. 



NummuUna Prefiwickiana bed. 
<*^«^y- Barton 


J)ark sandy clay, with 
■mall biVuves. 

Dark sandy clay. 

Fossils in the state of casts. Braokle- 
Dark sandy day. ^^6* 

Septaria of ironstone (tab. ). 
Fossils in the state of casts. 

Bark sandy clay. 

Coloured sands. 

Indurated brownish-fp«y 

day, mottled witii green. 
Coarse, green, sandy day. 
Pebbles and casts of fossils. 

Casts of fossils in brown 


White sai 

Present beach. 

ia of ironstone (tabu- 

A comparison of the sections near the junctions at Alum Bay and 
High Cliff will render the correlation of the beds at those places dear. 
It appears that all the strata in this part of the series are thicker 
at Alum Bay than at High Cliff. The Nummulina Prestwichiana 
Bed may be taken as a safe horizon at the two localities. Seeing 

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that the upper pehhle-bed of High Cliff changes into a fossil-hed, with 
8C6UX!ely any pehhles, in the range of ahout a mile^ it is not surprising 
to find no pehhle-bed in its place at Alum Bay. The tahular iron- 
stone septaria hold a similar place in each section, and are identical 
in appearance. The great pehhle-hed of Alum Bay appears to be 
equivalent to the lower and less important one of High Cliff, and the 
coloured sands of Alum Bay to represent the white sand at the base 
of the High Cliff section. (See %s. 3 <S& 4.) 

The casts of fossils at both these localities are in a rather peculiar 
condition. They are not casts of the inner, but of the outer surfaces 
of the shells. After the shell had been dissolved away, the matrix 
which filled it appears to have been pressed into the mould left by 
the outer surface ; and in some cases traces of the epidermis seem to 
have remained. Thus it will be seen that these casts are more suited 
to the determination of species than is usually the case. 

It may also be noticed that High Cliff is the only locality referred 
to where there appears to be a natural physical break and distinct 
change in the character of the deposit between the Bracklesham and 
Barton beds. The division is probably, in reality, one of convenience 
only, the two groups forming a continuous series changing gradually 
throughout in its Uthological character and &una. And if we take 
a comprehensive view of these two portions of the Eocene series in 
Hampshire, it will appear that the amount of depression of the sea- 
bottom*, on the whole, exceeded the depth of sediment deposited 
during the Bracklesham period, while the reverse was the case during 
the Barton period ; so that the tendency in the former case was from 
an estuarine to a deep-sea condition, while towards the dose of the 
Barton period an estuarine condition again prevailed. Tins, how- 
ever, again gave way to a marine condition during the deposition of 
the Hempstead series ; and we have no means of canning the record 
further in our district. 

Pebble-beds.— At White Cliff Bay, Alum Bay, and High Cliff, and 
in a less degree at Bracklesham, we meet with several pebble-beds ; 
and the sequence in which they occur seems usually be this : — The 
character of the deposits in ascending order, that is, in the order of 
events, changes gradually from clay to sand ; and when a sandy 
condition has obtained for some time, we meet with a bed of pebbles ; 
these are again followed by clay, and a like sequence recommences. 
It is also very evident that the pebble-beds at localities not far 
distant from each other occur on different horizons. 

Now the pebble-bod at High Cliff affords an opportunity for 
studying one of these deposits for about a mile ; and the changes in 
it in that short distance are very remarkable. At the western part, 
where a fallen block fortunately gave me an opportunity of studying 
it, it is a conglomerate of rolled pebbles of flint, with a few of quartz 
and other rocks, imbedded in a clayey matrix, which contains im- 
pressions of fragments of shells and of vegetable matter. But as it 
is followed towards the west the pebbles become gradually less 
numerous, until, at the point where it sinks beneath the beach, 

* Prestwich, Quart. Joum. Qeol. Soc. vol. ii. p. 251. 

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there are few to be met with, while the shells are much less broken. 
This shows that the pebble-bed was a very local condition of the 
sea-bottom of that period, either caused by the spot being subject to 
stronger currents, or to its being a littoral zone. The matrix, how- 
erer, in which the pebbles are imbedded is of a different character 
from the bed beneath, being finer and more argillaceous. There 
must, therefore, have been a change in the conditions of deposition 
accompanying, or immediately succeeding, the dispendon of the 
pebbles. And one new condition seems to have been, that the 
amount of deposit for a long period of time was comparatively very 
small, so that the exuvisB of many generations of moUusks were ac- 
cumulated in a small vertical range. Afterwards the amount of 
deposit increased, and simultaneously the Bracklesham types dis- 
appeared from the locality. There is another pebble-bed at High 
CUiff, lower in the series ; and a similar change in the deposit occurs 
there also. From a sharp sand we pass upwards into a sandy day, 
and the pebbles are imbedded in the base of the bed of clay. 

In short, it appears as if a pebble-bed usually accompanied a 
change from a shallow to a dee^r condition of tiie sea. Can the 
dispersion of these pebbles have been owing to sudden subsidence of 
the sea-bottom ? This is a question which has much interest ; and, 
when we consider the local condition of the area, it does not appear 
to surest an improbable solution of the phenomena. Such move- 
ments would have distributed pebbles to a certain distance from 
the marginal zone, or from such other accumulations as may have 
been subject to their influence. 

Sir Charles Lyell has brought together proofs that the Weald had 
begun to be elevated before the Eocene period*. The elevation of the 
Chalk of the Isle of Wight is imdoubtedly a part of the same 
system of disturbances ; and the present contorted form which it 
has assumed is merely an intensified condition of a form that it had 
begun to assume before the Eocene period. Anticlinals were then 
probably forming where anticlinals exist now ; and the synclinals 
occupy the same positions that they did of old. 

Moreover the whole effect was produced by lateral pressure. 
When, then, at any period the pressure had accumulated to such an 
extent that the beds gave way, the anticlinals would be raised and 
the synclinals be depressed relatively, if not absolutely ; and thus 
(the curves occupying but moderate intervals) areas not far distant 
would be raised and depressed simultaneously. Nor does it appear 
necessary that an equal amount of disturbance should take place 
along the axis of the country at the same period; but a portion 
towards the east might be more affected at one time, and towards 
the west at another. 

Movements are still going on in the island. Mr. Godwin- Austen, 
amongst other evidences of change of level, refers to an old well, near 
Brading, which is now rendered useless, being covered by the sea 
at high tidef. The opposite coast of Sussex has been not unfre- 

* Manual of Geology, 5th ed. p. 282. 
t Quart. Joum. G^l. Soc vol. xiii. p. 66. 

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qaently visited by earthquakes : sack are recorded as having occurred 
in recent times, and, of late years, in December 1824 (Portsmouth, 
Chichester, and the neighbourhood), in 1833 (Horsham, Sussex), 
and in January, August, and October of 1834 (Qiichester, &c)*. 

Condtmon. — Before concluding this paper, there is one point to 
which I would refer. It seems that in a series of deposits like that 
of the Bracklesham and Barton beds we have the best field for the 
investigation of the great problem of the succession of species. We 
have in these an extended series of beds in which the record seems 
nearly perfect. It is true that we have occasionally physical breaks 
in the sequence; but stiU we have long intervals in which the 
species change and no physical breaks can be detected. I would 
suggest that a genus shoidd be taken in hand, such as Valuta or 
Pleurotoma, and that intermediate forms between species succeeding 
each other in time should be sought out, not necessarily on the same 
spot, but in beds of the same or intermediate age in other parts of 
l^e area occupied by eocene deposits. 

I should ill repay the kindness of Mr. F. E. Edwards did I omit 
to acknowledge the invaluable assistance I have received from him 
towards naming the specimens in my collection, by the aid of which 
I have been enabled to give the Hsts of fossils from the various 
localities. Mr. T. R. Jones has also helped me most materially 
with respect to the Foraminifera, and likewise by pointing out 
many references to the works of other geologists, who have preceded 
me in this most interesting field of research. 


On the Correlation of the FossUiferous Localities of the Bracklesham 
Beds (descending). 

{Some portion of No. xrx.. White Cliff Bay. 
Coral-bed (No. 20) of Stokes Bay, Stubbington. 
Coral-bed and Shell-bed of Hunting Bridge, New Forest. 
Pebble-bed (No. 4), with casts of shells, at High Cliff. 
Bed (No. 6), with casts of shells, Alum Bay. 

^Nummulina variolaria bed (No. xvn.), White Cliff Bay. 
N, variolaria bed (No. 22) (the "CUbs") and Mixen rocks 

of Selsea. 
N. variolaria bed (No. 16) of Stubbington. 
Shepherd's Gutter Bed of Bramshaw, New Forest. 
Threewater Gutter Bed of Brook, New Forest. 

{Sand-rock (No. xvi.), White Cliff Bay. 
Hard bed (No. 21), opposite Medmery Farm, Selsea. 
Liver-coloured clay (No. 15), Stubbington. 
Purplish sandy clay^ beneath the Shepherd's Gutter Bed, 
New Forest. 

* See Mallet's * Earthquake Catal(>gue/ 

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^Dark sandy clay (No. xiv.), White Cliff Bay. 
Clay bed (No. 19), west of Medmery Fann-house, Selsea. 
It is the Gyprasa (Bawerbankii) bed of Dixon, from 
, I which most of the Selsea fossils have been collected. 
^' \ Cardita-bod (No. 13), Stubbington. It is the oldest 
known collecting-ground of that place. 
King's Garden Gutter Bed, New Forest, cited by Mr. 
1^ Edwards as the " Brook " locality. 

{Sandy clay (No. xi.), White Cliff Bay. 
Sand (No. 16), Bracklesham Bay. 
Sandy clay (No. 6), Stubbington. 

(SheU- and pebble-bed (No. ix.). White Cliff Bay. 
Ceriihium giganteum bed (No. 12), half a mile west of Thor- 
ney Station, Bracklesham Bay. 
HiU Head, Stubbington. 

Nummulina Icevigata bed (No. tu.). White Cliff Bay. 

** Park Bed," on the west of the Selsea Peninsula, near 

the " Barracks." 
" Little Park Bed " (No. 6), Bracklesham Bay. 
In the well at Bury Cross, Gosport Waterworks. 
At the Southampton Docks. 

Bed No. VI., White Cliff Bay. 

"Palate-bed" of Dixon: No. 4, Bracklesham Bay, nearly 
half a mile east of the spot where the Bracklesham Home- 
stead formerly stood. 

It is also to be found at " The Park," Selsea. 

Bed No. IV., White Cliff Bay. 

" Venericardia (Cardita) bed " of Dixon : No. 1, Brackle- 
sham Bay, opposite where Bracklesham formerly stood. 
It also occurs at " The Park." 


APPENDIX B. (See pages 86 ^nd 87.) 

Note on Nummulina planulata, Lamarck, sp., var. Prestwichiana, 
Jones. By T. Rupebt Jones, F.G.S. 

This little Nummulite is discoidal, smooth, and flat, rarely in any 
d^ree biconvex, even in the young state, unless the outer whorl has 
been flattened by pressure ; about ^th inch in diameter, and Xth 
in thickness. The gently sigmoid and semitranslucent edges or the 
septa appear at the surface, and but seldom rise above it (except 
when the specimens are mechanically compressed, which is a common 
condition). The whorls (three in large specimens) are all visible in 
empty shells made transparent by water or Canada-balsam ; they 
are proportionally wide for Nummulina (the outer whorl making half 
the width of the disk). The chambers are about half as long as 
wide, neatly curved, but subject to irregularity of growth. The 
lateral portions of the chambers, though very shallow, are continued 
over the surface towards the centre on each face, and are rather 
straighter in old specimens than in the young. 

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This neat and delicate variety of Nwmmidina planulata, Lamarck, 
sp., has long been known in a clay containing much green sand, at 
Alum Bay, Isle of Wight (lower part of the bed ' No. 29 ' of Mr. 
Prestwich's Section, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. vol. ii. p. 257, pi. 9. 
fig. 1.) ; but it has not hitherto been described *. It is near to MM. 
d'Archiac and Haime's * Nwnmtdites planulataf var. a,' from Jette, 
Belgium t; but the latter has a biconvex centre (opake when 
mounted in balsam), has narrower whorls (in the proportion of 1 to 
4, instead of 1| to 4), and grows to a somewhat larger size. To 
distinguish our variety (which characterizes a weU-marked geological 
zone), I propose to give it the name of Prestwichiana ; and, as the 
small biconvex variety of Nummvlina planuUitu passes binomially as 
N. variolaria, so this small depressed variety of the same species may 
be allowed to stand on a similar footing, and be known as N. Prest- 

In the sandy clay-bed at Alum Bay the shells of this little Nummu- 
lite are very numerous, and often well preserved, but not unfrequently 
much crushed by pressure. In many specimens, especially large 
ones, the chambers are occupied by iron-pyrites ; and neat casts 
may be obtained by carefdlly dissolving ilie shell in weak dilute 
acid. In the day at High GHff the shells are not so numerous, are 
very much compressed, and so highly pyritized that they are readily 
destroyed by the atmosphere. 

Januabt 8, 1862. 

Charles Sturtirant Wood, Esq., Geological Survey of Otago, New 
Zealand ; Robert Harris Valpy, Esq., Enbome, near Newbury ; and 
William Shepherd Horton, Esq., 10 Church Street, Liverpool, were 
elected Fellows. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On the Cakbonifeboxts Lihestone of Orbtow and Farlow, Cleb 
Hills, Shropshire. By Prof. John Morris, V.P.G.S., and Mr. 
George E. Roberts. With a Description of a New Pterichthys ; 
by Sir Philip db M. G. Eoerton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
[Plate HI.] 


1. Cbographical Position of the Series. 

2. Relation of the Yellow Sandstone to the Carboniferous Limestone. 

3. Nature and Character of the Carboniferous limestone. 

4. Its Fossil Contents. 

§ 1. The general physical and palseontological features of the small 
district referred to in these notes having been carefully and clearly 

* "Nummulites lavtaatus and N. elegarts** are incorrectly referred to as occur- 
ring in this bed, No. 29, op. cit. p. 257. 

t See *Foe8. de I'lnde,' pp. l6, 144; and also Quart Joum. Geol. Soc. vol. 
viii p. 333, note. 

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described by Sir Roderick Murchison in his classic work ' The Siiu* 
nan System/ the additional facts which a visit paid to it during the 
past autumn enables us to record may be considered simply as a 
continuation of those previously observed. 

The thin beds of limestone which form the basement of the Titter- 
stone Clee Coal-field are well exposed in a marginal flexure of the 
strata north-eastward of the hill, at Oreton and Farlow, and also^ 
at a somewhat higher level, around its southern abutments. Our 
observations upon the character of the beds and their fossil contents 
have been confined to the exposures in tho first-named localities. 

The geographical relations of this limestone ridge with the near- 
lying millstone-grit and coal-measures, in their turn covered up by 
the sheets of erupted basalt which form the high summits of the 
Clee, arc well seen from the igneous knoll of Kinlet, three miles to 
the eastward. 

§ 2. Immediately below the summit of the ridge at Farlow, and 
on the northern side, is a quarry of yellow sandstone, from which 
recently a large quantity of stone has been obtained for the rebuild- 
ing of the church. 

It is a thick-bedded, fine-grained sandstone, having ripple-marked 
surfaces, and occasionally containing disseminated pebbles of quartz. 
The colour of the stone is a pale yellow, in places slightly stained 
by ferruginous oxidation. Bemains of fossil Fishes were first de- 
tected in this quany in 1856 ; these consisted of dermal plates of 
Pterichihys, or an aUied genus ; and from it was subsequently ob- 
tained by Mr. T. Baxter, F.G.8., the anterior portion of a Pteruih^ 
ihys, of a new species, which is now in the collection of Sir Philip 
Egerton. It is described by Sir Philip at the end of this paper. 
Several other specimens (one nearly perfect) of this new species have 
lately been obtained by us from some large slabs of this yellow 
sandstone, as well as fragments of a larger Pterickihys, and de- 
tached soJes of a small Holoptychitis, probably of an undescribed 
species. A single plate of the well-known ffohptychius gigantevLS 
also rewarded our search. No remains of Testacea (with the ex- 
ception of frtigments of Conularice) nor of Plants have yet been de- 
tected in these beds. 

The measures lying between this Pterichthys-bearing sandstone, 
and the Old Red rocks which form a wide surface to the northward, 
are the following, given in descending order : — coarse yellow sand, 
without pebbles ; yellow sand with loosely laid pebbles of quartz ; 
a thin .bed of similar pebbles, compacted into a conglomerate ; and 
fissile yellowish sandstones. The precise junction of this lowest 
bed with the red rocks having comstone-bands is not at present to 
be seen, but a roadway now in pr(^ess of cutting wiU probably 
expose it. 

Above the Pterichthys-bed, a nearly similar series of alternating 
sands, with and without pebbles, lead up to compact pebbly sand- 
stones and coarse grits ; and these are capped near the summit of the 
ridge by fissile yellow sandstones. About thirty feet of unknown 
ground lies between this and the beginning of the limestone series. 

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Passing southward over the ridge, and at a point immediately helow 
its summit, the upper beds of this sandstone series are observed, 
underlying and passing into the Carboniferous Limestone series 

This junction with the superincumbent limestone beds is clearly 
to be seen in a quany 8. of the road, in a line with the one we 
have been describing. The general relations of the series are seen in 
the following section. The strata dipping to the S.E. at an angle 
of 60°. 

All the beds in this section, and more especially the oolitic lime- 
stone, are seen to increase in thickness as we trace them eastward 
from Farlow to Oreton. 

Many Cestradont palatal teeth and Brachiopodous shells have 
been obtained from this opening into the limestone ridge, so graphi- 
cally described by Murchison. Half-a-mile eastward of it are the 
greater quarries of Oreton. There is evidence in the intermediate 
apace of the limestone having been formerly worked ; for numerous 
hollows, from which stone has been got, make the irregularly 
undulating ground still more uneven. 

We are indebted to the Bev. J. Williams, of Farlow, for some 
valuable information relating to a recent exposure, in one of the 
deepest of the Oreton quarries, of the subterranean stream which 
has long been known as flowing parallel with the axis of the ridge. 
This " mole river " loses itself in a hollow called the Foxholes, at ttie 
western extremity of the limestone, and, taking an N.N.E. course, 
reappears at the distance of a mile, about 300 yards from its con- 
fluence with the River Rea. Two of the quanymen, who had struck 
upon it at the depth of about fifty feet from the surface, described 
it as a constant stream, occasionally greatly swollen by floods. An 
interesting account of an accidental stoppage at its inlet during one 
of the great floods of last year was furnished us by Mr. Williams. 
He stated, from his own observation, that two and a half acres of the 
hollow were covered to an average depth of fifteen feet by the dam- 
ming up of its course. Forty-eight hours sufficed to drain away this 
accumulation of water through its underground passage. From the 
data supplied by the careM observations of Mr. Williams, whose 
residence is above the stream, the lake thus formed must have con- 
tained one million six hundred and thirty-five thousand cubic feet 
of water ; and the rate of its subsidence was not less than thirty- 
four thousand cubic feet per hour. It appears from this that the 
fissure through which the stream flows is of no insignificant dimen- 

§ 3. The quarries at Oreton are very extensively worked, and 
afford a good section of the general thickness and character of this 
limestone in its northern area. In the order of the beds, the deposits 
are a repetition, in greater thickness, of those exposed at Farlow. The 
variable character of this limestone, and its thinning out at each 
extremity, have been alluded to in ' The Silurian System,' and are 
interesting as showing the different conditions, within a limited 
area, whidi obtained during its deposition. As a rule, the middle 

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•ad lower parts of the limestone series are more fossiliferous than 
the upper ; and these indicate a deep-sea condition, hy the abundance 

CT «^ C^ ^ f-H ^- ^-^ ^H f-H ^H^HF-^^H^ 

of Brachiopodous shells, and the absence of large Lamellibranchiate 
bivalves. The most important physical feature of the series are the 
bands of oolitic limestone, which indicate by their structure similar 
agencies of formation to those which have |>roduced like beds in the 

TOL. XVni. — PUtT I. IT 

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98 PBOCEEDnres of the eBOLoeiCAL socdbtt. [Jan. S, 

Carboniferous limestones of Bristol and along the maigins of the 
8outh- Wales Coal-field. 

Most of the larger palatal teeth lie in the specular limestone, and 
in this the oolitic grains are associated with fragments of Bra^o- 
podsy BryosEoa, and Crinoids. 

As the lim^(tone-bands differ in character, some being more shelly 
than others, some oolitic, and a third group slightly argillaceous and 
sandy, they necessarily vary in commercial value, and are used for 
sundry purposes, among which lime-making and building-stone ap- 
pear to be chief. The thickest of the oolitic beds has been worked 
to a considerable extent for decorative purposes ; this is locally called 
« jumbles," but is elsewhere known as '' Clee Hill marble." 

§ 4. But, besides its economic value, this quarry is particolaiiy 
interesting and important to the palaeontologist, with regard to the 
fossil fauna of the period, in the comparative abundance of well- 
preserved ichthyic remains, chiefly Cestraciont teeth and fin-spines. 
We are indebted to Mr. Weaver Jones, of Geobury Mortimer, for 
the preservation of some of the finer and more remarkable of these, 
especially the great Deltadi, which probably belong to an undesciibed 
species. The attention of another gentieman, Mr. E. Baugh, of 
Bewdley, has been directed of late years to the fossil contents of 
these limestones ; and with much assiduity he has collected every 
fragment of organism which could add to our knowledge. 

The following genera are represented by palatal teeth : — Oradut 
(specimens of 0. ramosits of unusual sixe are occasionally met with, 
—one of those we exhibit exceeds the largest figured by Agassiz), 
ffclodus, Cochliodtis, Cladodtu, P^ammodus, DeUodua (examples of 
a new species of this form of tooth, of great dimensions, which have 
been found several times of late, are here figured), and, more rarely, 
the cusped Prisiicladodus Oovghii, 

With these, fin-spines of great size are occasionally found asso- 
•iated. The form most commonly met with is that of a Ctenacanthus ; 
but the series of tubercles, more or less compressed, which are ar- 
ranged perpendicular to its length, do not agree with any published 
figure. Bpecimens, however, less ornamented, and which appear to 
be Ctenacanthtis hrevis, are al^ met with. 

No other ichthyic remains,; save a few undeterminable fragments, 
probably of dermal plates, ^^e come under our notice. 

Zones of shells also occur in these limestones, both above and 
beloT^ the beds which contain the fish-fossils, but very rarely asso- 
ciated with them. These are principally Brachiopods, of which 
SjnrifercB and BhynchonellcB are the most abundant. The species are 
but few in number ; but an instructive series of intermediate forms 
— as, for example, those which appear to link together Spirifer ei»- 
pidatiM and Sj>, distant — ^may be collected. 

Among the BhyrushoneUcB, E.pleurodon is found in great abundance 
at the bottom of. the series, though we have met with no instance of 
its occurrence in the previously Laid sandstones. 

Terebratfdas are nearly, if not quite, absent ; and Disdnce are only 
represented by one species — D. niHda. 

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Of Ougteropoda we have only seen EuomphaLus pentangulatuB. 

The Crustacea are as poorly represented ; one imperfect specimen of 
PhUl^psia mucronata, from the lower beds, being our sole illustration. 

Bryozoan remains are numerous, though they appear to be con- 
fined within the narrow limits of the crinoidal band. Several species 
of FenesteUa make a seeming confusion upon some sur£BU)es in this 
bed, by the wildness and luxuriance of their growth ; of these, the 
commonest are Fenestella plebeia and F, MorrigiL Associated with 
them is the elegantly sculptured Vincularia megastama, and some 
other slightly branching Bryozoa. 

No weU-defined remains of Crinoidea have been found, although 
one band of rock appears to be made up of the separated ossicula 
and pelvic plates of these animals, chiefly referable to Poteriocrinus 
gfueUiSf Cyathocrintu nuierocheirus, and C. qmnqua/ngiilaris. 

The fish-remains tabulated below, and contrasted with those from 
the Mountain limestone of other districts, though numerous, do not, 
as we believe, exhaust the series. Some of the smaller forms of 
Jffdodus and PiammoduSf unrepresented in the Oreton column of the 
annexed Table, probably occur in those limestones, but we are unable 
at present to verify this assumption. 

In concluding our remarks, we have to express regret that the 
distance and the difficulty of removing the large collection liberally 
offered us for study by Mr. Weaver Jones prevent us now entering 
upon other questions of interest connected with the relative value of 
the palaBontol(^cal contents of this interesting locality; for we 
see in this, as in other instances, the possibility of giving decudons 
of value, by carefully elaborating the treasured-up systems of organic 
life preserved by a single district. 

TahU showing the Geographical Bangs of the Fishes of (he Mountain- 


[Nate. — ^The materials of this Table are deriyed from the following authori- 
ties : the British species from Amdz and "Mi^Coj ; the Belgian from De Koninok ; 
and the Russian from those cited hy E. d'Eichwald in his * Lethiea Bossica,' 
1861. The column for &eland ii chiefly made up from the Armagh spedmens, 
and indudee the new species with MS. unpublished names contained in the 
cabinet of the Earl of Emuskillen, upon which it is the intention of Professor 
Agassis to publish papers ; and alsio tnoae, from the Lower Carboniferous rooks, 
dted by M*Cot. The column for North Britain refers to the Lower Carboni- 
ferous rooks of Westmoreland, Northumberland, and Scotland.] 







Acrolepis Hopkinsii, M^ Coy . . . 
Aateropfychius omatus, Ay. ... 
Garcharopsis prototypus, Jy.,.. 
TofUhdlm, Ay. 

Charaoodus angulatus, J^. 

' # 





Chdrodus pes^rans, APC^ ... 
Chomatodus ductus, Ay 


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PBOQKBDnrea or zb> ^ko/mioal socebit. 

[Jan, 8, 









GhonuOodiu claTatiu» M'Coy,,, 
denticulatiu, ibrCb^ 




•• ... 












— obliquus, Bi^Chy 

CladacanthoB panidoxiu, Jg.... 
GladoduB acutuBi .^^. 



ClimazodoB iinbriefitoa» JJfChy 
?Gooo(M(eas carbonariiu, dPCoy 
Cochliodus oontortufl, ^ 

ttnaJboB (?\ Ji. 

J n. 8 

Oopodufl oomatuB, Jff 

Gricacathufl Jonmii, .4^. 

cremjlaJbu, Jg. 

diMtaoB, APCoy 

heterogyrus, Ag 

•"•%|^;" 1 «y . 

Deltoc lu sabbeyifl. ^ 

DeltopJTchias aoutUB, jfy 

DimySiiB wJSii, Jg'Z'Z'.'Z 

Dipriaouithiu faloatus, ATCoy 

Stokesii, M*Cdy 

ErumaosnUius Jonesii, Jii^Ooy 
Glonodee linguA-boviB, M*Ooy 

marffnaHxm, M'Ooy 

Oyraoanthui tabeicalatafl, Jg, 

Harpaoodus dentatas, Jg 

HelodoB appendioolatna, APCoy 

flUbUlNB, ^. 


Holopfejehiui Hibbertii, Jg, ... 
Homacanthiu maorodaa, M^Coy 

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Homacanihiu miorodiia, M*Coy 

protofypitt, 4^. 

Leptacanlibtifi junoeufl, ITCby. . . 








• * 









-SenkiiucMS, itCoy 

Mesogomphns lingua, Jg. 

Mylaoodufl qiuidrataB, Ag* 

MylaxbatoideB, ^^. 

NemaoanUiuB priscus, M^Coy... 
Onfbng faWtat, 4g 

ifi^fobltmi Jg, 

OraisanthuB oon&eiu, Ag, 

MiUeri, Ag, 

minor, Ag 

pustuloBUfl, ^^. 

Orodus angoBtuB, Ag 

— oompraMOs, M*Coy 

ffibbns, Aa 

poroflnis Af' Cbjr 

ramoflufs, ufy. 

Petalodiu aeominatoB, Ag 

Hastingsue, Ofoin 

marginalis, ^^ 

lagittatas, Ag 

Petarodus petalliformis, M'Cog 

PinaoodoB gelaonofl, 4^. 

gon<n>laz, Ag, 

PhyBonemuB arcuafcuB, M^Coy. . . 

PlatjoanthoB isoBoeleB, JiPOig 
PlduroeomphuB annculatuB, Ag, 
PoBciloduB aliformiH, M*€k>y ... 
foveolatuB, JITOjy 

obliquuB, ikd' 

PolyrhizoduB puailluB) M'Chy. . . 

Pri^tfodflB fa1<Mi^u, Ag 

PriflticladoduB dentatuB, APOoy 
PBammoduB Gbughii, M* Coy. . . 

PaephoduB magnuB, Ag 

RhuoduB ferox, Owen 

StrebloduB Colei, ^y. 

EMrUmi, Ag 

TomoduB oonvexoB, Ag 

XystrodoB augUBtUB, Ag 

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Btbonnf . — {From De Koninck.) 
Helodiis kBTiBBiinua, Jff. 
Orodus ramonu, Aff, 
FMunmodus porosos, Jff, 


PMmmoduB rngosoB, Ag. 

NoBTH Ajcxrica. — (Lord EmuBkillfln.) 
PsammoduB poro0a«, Aff, (Wanaw 

in Illinois.) 
PsephoduB magnua, Ag, 

BU88IA.— <From E. d'Eiehwald.) 
Cladodns mirabiliB, A^. 
Ciodiliodiu oontortuB, Aff. 
Gtenoptjchius denticulatu8(?), Aff, 
Dierenodus Okenos, Bom, 
HdoduB gibberuIuB^ Ajf, 

leTiBBumu, Aff. 

Hjbodua pol^rion (?), Ag. 

Panaen, Eickio. 

LeptaoanthuB remotiu, Etekw. 
PetaloduB acuminatna, A^, 
PoBoiloduB BoflsieuB, K^$. 
PBammodoB porOBUB, Aff. 

For revismg this list, and for much aaaiBtance in correcting the 
names of the species examined by M. Agassiz during his last visit 
to England in 1859, we are greatly indebted to the Earl of Ennis- 
killen and Sir Philip Egerton. In explanation of the changes in 
many names of genera and species referred to in the Table, we have 
been fayoured by these gentlemen with the following notes : — 

Fcmnd at Is now the 

CoehHodua moffnua BriBtol Tomodvs oonvesus. 

C. magniu Armagh, Biohmond, and 

Kendal P^ephodtu mantis. 

C.aoutuB Armagh Dekontyehius acutuM. 

a aaOus Bristol D. g&bendus. 

C.cblotiffus Armaeh Sirisblodus oblonffus, 

Cobloiupa HookPoint» Co. Wexford 8. ^ertoni, 

Cobiongm Armagh 8, Colei, 

^ .jL.-.w(... / Armagh XvMirodua siriaiua, 

^•"^'^'*^ lAimagh ,. ^anffuHw. 

Glotaodes lifngua-iova Agaadz Bapposes to be the front tooth of Sahdia 
didymuM ; but he haa taken the Bi>ecimen to America. 

ndodtts planut is now memd into JPsephodtts magnu$. 

nuUa is suppoaed by A^aBsiz to be a young tooth. 

Orodus ramosuB occurs also m Monmouthshire. 

Petaiodtu acuminaiua and P. HaxtmgtiuB are said to be of the same spedes ; if 
so, the name must remain P. HoMHngM, The localities for this species are 
Biohmond in Yorkshire and Ticknall in Derbyshire. It is not found at 

Fe^dodus radieans is now Pofyrkieodtts radicans ; and P^talodua rectus is a 
young tooth of the same species. 

Petalodus paittacmus is now Pettdorkytwhus pdttacmus, 

FucUodus sublavis „ Deltodus sublavts, 

P. paraUekts is a second tooth of the above speoiee. 

P. iransvtrmts is half a tooth of Poecilodus Jonesii, 

Pristodus faloatus is a new genus and species from Mr. Wood's collection. 

Psammodus canaU c ulaius is now mergea into Psammodus poroaus and rugoaus. 

Paammodusrugoaus, The type-specimen of the genus is firom Eskey, Co. Sligo. 

P. comutus is now subdiTioed into the following genera and i 

Charaoodus angulatos Annagh. 

C. cuneatus „ 

Copodus comutus ,, 

C. xnrcatus „ 

C. lunulatns , 

C. spatulacus „ 

DimjleusWoodii... BiehmondfYorks. 
Labodus planus Armagh. 

LaboduB protofypus Armagh. 

Mesogomphus Ungua ,, 

MjlaooduB ^uadratus 

Mylax batoides 

Pinaoodus gelasinus 

P. gonoplax 

Pleurogomphus auriculatus 
Bhymodus traasrersus ... 

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On a New Species of Ptsbighthts (Pxebichthts xacbocephalits, 
Egerton), ^rom the Yellow Sandbtokb of Fablow, Co. Salop. By 
Sir Phtltp db Malpab Gbet Egebton, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., 
F.G.8., &c. 

[Plate HE. Piga. 7, 8, 9.] 

The spedmen of Pterichthys diBooYored by Mr. Baxter, F.G.S., in the 
yellow sandstone of Farlow is the smallest example of the genus 
which has come under my notice. Its total length, from the anterior 
margin of the head to the termination of the dorsal shield, is exactly 
one inch, of which the head occupies four-tenths. The breadth of 
the shield is half an inch. The fish reclines on the ventral plates, 
thus presenting to view the upper surface of the body. The tail and 
left pectoral appendage are deficient; but the right arm is pre- 
served, and measures eight-tenths of an inch in length, or two-tenths 
more than the carapace. See woodcut, fig. 1, and PI. III. fig. 7. 

On comparing these dimensions with 
those of the other members of the genus. Fig. 1. — OtUline of Mr, 
it appears that, although the small size of Baxter's Specimen of 
the body suggests a resemblance to the Pterichthys macro- 
Pteriekthys MiUeri of Cromarty, yet the cephalus from Far^ 
disproportionate length of the pectoral ap- low. (See PI. III. 
pendages (a feature of safe guidance in dis- fig. 7.) 
criminating the species) assimilates it more 
closely to Pterichthys hydrophilus (Paw- 
phractus of Agassiz) found in the yellow 
sandstone of Dura Den in Scotland. It 
differs, however, remarkably from this 
species in the large proportionate size of 
the head. The breadth of this member 
in the Farlow species is just commensurate 
with its length, whereas in Pterichthys 
hydrophilus it is one-third greater. The form of the head is also 
very different in the two species ; the outline in the former is nearly 
circular, whereas in the latter it is subtriangular, broad at the base, 
and contracting towards the snout. 

The length of the pectoral oars in the PteriMhys of Dura Den 
exceeds considerably that of these organs in any other species, being 
equal to that of the dorsal shield ; but the English Pterichthys (the 
only one yet discovered on this side the Border) transcends in this 
respect that of Dura Den as much as the latter outstrips its con- 
geners ; for the arms project one-fourth beyond the posterior margin 
of the carapace. The plates of the cranium are not sufficiently per- 
fect for description. 

I may here remark that a specimen recently acquired by the Mu- 
seum of Practical Geology, from the Dura Den deposits, fully bears 
out the opinion advanced by the late Hugh Miller and myself in 
1848, as to the identity of the genera Pterichthys and Pamphractva, 

Since the foregoing description of the solitary specimen of Pter^ 

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104 PBOCBBDnres of the osoLoeiCAL socofiTT. [Jan. 8, 

ichthys disoovered by Mr. Baxter in the Farlow sandstone was penned, 
the researches of Mr. Boberts have brought to light fh>m the same 
locality several additipnal specimens of the same speciee, which 
enable me to add the description of the ventral and thoracic plates. 
The former specimen is still so far unique that it is the only <me yet 
discovered which gives a view of the dorsal surfiace, or reveals the 
proportions of the head, from which the specific title was derived. 
One of the more recently found specimens is quite a gem. The fish 
redines upon its back, and thus presents to view the ventral ]^tes, 
the thoracic plates, and their appendages ; the head and tful are 
both wanting. See woodcut, fig. 2, and PI. lU. fig. 8 & 9. 

Figs. 2 ft 8. — Outlines of Specimens of Pterichthys macrocephalus 
from Fhrlow. (See PI. III. figs. 8 & 9.) 

Fig. 2. Fig.3. 

In a former paper, read before the Geological Society in April 1848 
(Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. vol. iv. p. 302), the arrangement of the 
plates composing the integument of this genus was so folly described 
that it is needless to go over that ground again. I wish, however, 
to correct an error in the number of the ventral plates. Two plates 
are there enumerated as the posterior ventral plates, letter^ h h 
on the outline-figures, ibid. p. 805, which (as shown by Pro- 
fessor M'Coy) are not independent elements of the shield, but 
prolongations of the posterior ventro-lateral plates. I was led 
into this mistake by tiie semblance of a suture visible on most 
epeoimens, which proved to be the impression of the posterior mar- 
ginal rim which encircles the inner posterior edge of the dorsal 
plates, but traverses the inner surface of the posterior ventro- 
lateral plates in the direction of the supposed suture. The im- 
pression of this marginal rim is distinctly preserved in the Farlow 
specimens (figs. 1, 2, — I), and affords a secure datum for measuring 
the dimensions of the plates. The antero-posterior dimensions of the 
dorsal surface were taken from the front of the first dorsal plate to 
the posterior marginal rim ; a similar measurement of the ventral 
surface, namely from the anterior margin of the shield to the impres- 
sion of the posterior marginal rim, exactly coincides with the former ; 
the width of the body and the length of the arms also correspond so 
exactly that the two specimens might have been derived from the same 
individual. The hinder prolongations of the posterior ventro-lateral 
plates extend in this, as in all other species, beyond the termination 
of the dorsal shield. In front of the anterior ventro-lateral platea 

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two plates are Bitoated, which, in the memoir before alluded to, I 
named the thoracic plates. These oonstitate an important item in 
Ihe stractural economy of PteriMkys, inasmuch as they afford attach- 
ment to the lateral appendages, and form the basis of support for 
these organs in all their movements. This being undoubtedly the 
case, as shown in specimens of every species I have examined, I am 
at a loss to conceive how Professor Pander can have been led to assign 
the attachment of the arms to the ventro-lateral plate, as shown in 
the magnified figure on tab. 6 of his magnificent work on the Devonian 
Fishes, although in the preceding plate these organs are oorreotly 
drawn as appended to the thoracic plate. The ^oracio plates are 
well preserved in three of the specimens of Pterichthys macrocq>7iaIus, 
and in two of them one or botii arms are seen in their natural posi- 
tion. On comparing these plates with the homologous parts of 
other species, tjiey differ so remarkably, that, in the absence of all 
other characters, a specific discrepancy might be affirmed. The 
ordinary appearance of these plates when in conjunction is that of a 
narrow band or belt, hollowed out anteriorly in a crescentic iorm, 
to allow space for the vertical movements of the head. In the 
Farlow species these plates are quadrilateral, with an anterior margin 
convex rather than concave, each of them being nearly half as long 
as the anterior ventro-lateral plates (figs. 2, 3, — i t). We cannot 
but recognize in these peculiarities characters strictly in accordance 
with the other deviations of structure from the allied species de- 
tailed in the foregoing remarks. The greater length of the pectoral 
organs required a stronger fulcrum, and the large-sized head a firmer 
support. One of the specimens last forwarded for examination shows 
the character of the suifaoe-omament of the plates. (See PL III. 
fig. 9, and woodcut, ^. 3.) This resembles the tubercular pattern 
so constant in Pterichthys and Coasosteus, and offers no peculiarity 
worthy of remark. The ornamentation of the arms is, however, 
more than ordinarily coarse, and along the outer margins of these 
o]^;ans the single row of tuberdes gives, in section, the appearance 
of a strongly serrated border. 


lUudrative of wnu new Fith Bematrufrcm Farlow and Oreton^ Shropshire, 

Fig. 1 a. Palatal tooth, alHed to DeUodia and Cochliodua (?). 
Fig. 1 b. The same, edge-view. 
Fig.2tf. JkltodttSfneyrspeaM, 

kI 2 c \ '^^ B*™©* edge-vicw». 

Fig. 3. DeUodue, probably of the same species as fig. 2, but a larger 
specimen (broken). 

Sig. 4. 2>eAi9ai(s, possibly of the same species as the foregoing, but much 
smaller, ana transrersely sulcated where the surface of the 
others is but slightly unduUted. A small, flat, quadrate 
palatal tooth, flagged on two of its edgea, accompanies this 

Fig. 5. A palate, or part of a palate, oompoied of four Bubquadrate 
and subocmvex plates. 

Fig. 6. Cladodue ; the only specimen of this form* 

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Fig. 7. PUriehihyi macrocepkaltUj Egerton. Donal aspect 

CoUeotaon of Mr. T. Baxter, F.QB. 
"Fig. 8. YentraL aspect. The head is wanting. In Mr. 

Boherts's Collection. 

Fig. 9. Impreadon of the anterior yentral and thorado plates and 

of a part of one limb. In Mr. Weaver Jones's Collection. 

(All the figures are of the natural size.) 

2. On some Foasn Plants, showing Stbxtctxtbe, from the Lowxr Coal- 
MxABUSBS of Lastcashibe. By E. W. BimrET, Esq., E.R.S., E.G.S. 

[Platm IV. V. VI.] 

Or all the foesil plants found in the Coal-measures, probably none 
is more widely diffiised, or its whole internal structure considered to 
be better known, than the genus Lepidoderidron, The investi- 
gations of Messrs. Witham, Lindley and Hutton, Corda, Brongniart, 
and J. D. Hooker appeared to have almost exhausted the subject, 
so far as the structure of the stem was concerned. Br. Hooker, 
after describing the double system of vessels in Stigmaria, first shown 
by Goeppert, and the consequent approach in this respect to the 
Diphxyhn of Corda, says — ^* In Lepvdodendron, again, there is the 
same double vascular system ; but that from which the bundles arise, 
which proceed to the leaves, is placed externally to the wood, where 
it formed a continuous zone with a well-defined inner edge (in juxta- 
position with the outer circumference of the inner zone) and a sinuous 
outer edge from which the diverging bundles are given off."* He, 
as well as all the other authors before named, considered the pith of 
Lepidodendron to be composed of cellular tissue, and that it was 
surrounded by a zone of large barred vessels, of hexagonal shape, 
which was succeeded by a narrow circle of lesser hexagonal vessels, 
also barred on their sides. Then came the great mass of cellular 
tissue containing the bundles of vessels which traversed it, leading 
from the outer vascular cylinder to the leaves. This was succeeded 
by a radiated series of elongated utricles forming the outer bark of 
the tree. The whole of the structure, as above described, was clearly 
proved by the specimens of Mr. Witham to belong to Lepidodendron 
ffareourtii. Corda proved Protopteris Cottonea to have the same 
structure ; and Mr. Bawes, of Smethwick, near Birmingham, pos- 
sesses in his cabinet most beautiful specimens which fully confirm 
the above views, and especially with respect to the pith being en- 
tirely composed of cellular tissue. 

The specimens intended to be described in this communication 
show that fossil plants having all the external characters of Lepi-- 
dodendron have a pith, if it may be so called, or, more properly 
speaking, a central axis, composed not of cellular tissue, but of very 
large hexagonal vessels (a) mixed with smaller ones, both having aU 
their sides barred with transverse strise. This is succeeded by 

« Memoirs of the Geological Surrey of Gfeat Britain, vol. ii. part ii. p. 436. 

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1862.] BnnnET — nenxABii Aim LEPii>oi)xin>BOir« 107 

hexagonal vessels (h) of much less suse, ananged in radiating series 
of a wedge-shape, and divided by mednllary rays of finely barred 
vessels, as Stigmaria and SigiUaria. Outside this series are some 
circular bundles of small vascular tissue, similar to those described 
by Brongniart in Sigillaria elegans. Next comes a mass of delicate 
cellular tissue (d), which has generally been destroyed, and replaced 
by mineral matter. This is succeeded by a zone of coarse cellular 
tissue (/), which gradually passes into the outer circle, composed of 
small hexagonal utricles Q), arranged in radiating series ; and then 
comes some coarse cellular tissue, which appears to have been the 
outer bark (A). 

The fossils were found by me in the lower part of the Lanca- 
shire coal-measures, aa were also the specimens of Trigonoearpon 
described by Dr. Hooker and myself in the * Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' * for 1855, but in a different seam of coal. They occur in cal- 
careous nodules of various shapes, dispersed throughout the seam, and 
evidently afford a fair sample of the vegetable matter of which such 
coal was formed ; they having been (»lcified, and thus preserved, 
before the bitnminizing process commenced, which ultimately con- 
verted the rest of the vegetable matter surrounding them into coal. 
The seam varies from 2 to 5 feet in thickness. It has a good floor, 
full of Stigmaria ; and its roof, a black shale containing rounded and 
depressed nodules of calcareous and ferruginous matters, abounds with 
remains of Avictdapeeten papyraeeus, Ghmatitea Listen, Nautihis, 
BelleropJion, and other marine shells, the destruction of which has 
most probably afforded materials for the calcification of the nodules 
found in the seam of coal. Although fossil shells occur abundantiy in 
the nodules found in the roof of the coal, they have not as yet been 
met with near the locality wh^re the specimens were met with in 
the nodules containing the fossil wood amidst the coal itself t. 

The Lepidodendron is the most common plant in the coal found 
preserved in the nodules, although specimens of Lepidostrohus, Halo^ 
nia, SigiUaria, Stigmaria, AnahcMra, Cdlamites, Jjycopodites, and 
other plants, idl more or less showing structure, are frequently met 

In the present paper it is my intention to confine myself to the 
description of three specimens of fossil plants which would generally 
have been designated Lepidodendron in England, and Sagenaria on 
the Continent. 

No. 1. The specimen illustrated in PI. IV. consists of a cylindricid 
stem -^ths of an inch in diameter, nearly enveloped in its stony 
matrix, and only showing its external characters on one side. These 
consist of rhomboidal scars, of an elongated and somewhat irregular 
form, arranged in quincuncial order, but not so perfectiy as seen in 
most species of Lepidodendron. In the middle of each scar there is 
an oval depression, from which rises a rounded prominence where 
the leaf was attached. These scars resemble those of Lepidodendron 

* Vol. cilv. p. 149, &c. 

t I have in some few insta^oee found noduleB in the ooal itself oontaining 
•bellB, but these are rare. 

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108 PBocssDnres of the gsolooicil bociett. [Jan. 8, 

selaginoideiy figured by Messrs. lindley and Hutton in their ' FossQ 
Flora/ vol. i. fig. 12 ; but the depression in the scar on their speci- 
men is not so marked as in mine. 

In the middle of the large cylinder last described is a smaller one, 
of abont -fth of an inch in diameter. This is composed of large 
hexagonal yessels, of irregular sizes (a a), placed one beside the other, 
without order, but becoming smaller as they approach the circmnfer- 
enoe, all having their sides barred with trcmsverse stnaB, and some of 
the smaller ones (a' a') being divided at short intervals by horizontal 
and oblique partitions. The outside of this inner cylinder* (6 h) is 
composed of hexagonal vessels barred with transverse striad, of about 
^th of the diameter of those contained in the centre, arranged in 
radiating series of a wedge-shape, and divided by medullary rays or 
vessels very finely barred (e c), as in the vascular cylinders of Sigil- 
laria and SHgmaria, respectively described by Brongniart and 
Hooker. Around, and placed next to, the cylinder are a number of 
round bundles of fine vascular tissue (d d), some of which are oppo- 
site to the medullary rays or vessels, and others apparently away 
from them near the wedges of the wood. These bundles seem to 
be connected with the vessels which supply the leaves, but cannot 
be well traced to the medullary rays in all cases. It is probable 
they may be sections of vessels passing from the medullary rays 
or vessels to the leaves. They are evidently the same vessels as 
are figured by Messrs. Lindley and Hutton (' Fossil Flora,' vol. ii. 
pi. 90. fig. 1), and also resemble the vessels described by Brongniart as 
occurring on the outside of the woody cylinder in Sigillaria elegans. 
On the external portion of the outer radiating cylinder of the specimen 
similar vessels can be distinctly traced into the projecting scan from 
whence the leaves arise. 

Next occurs a space of about -^tha of an inch (e e), in which the 
tissue has for the most part disappeared and been replaced by mine- 
ral matter ; but it seems to have been composed of delicate cellular 
tissue, which was traversed by bundles of vessels leading from the 
axis to the leaves. Then comes a zone of coarse cellular tissue (//) 
which gradually passes into small elongated utricles, of hexagonal 
form, and arranged in radiating series, which probably formed the 
inner bark. These, in their turn, pass into a black carbonaceous 
matter {h h), the remains of the outer bark of the tree. The vessels 
traversing the external cylinder are of the same character as those 
traversing the internal one, except that they are of much greater 
size, each of the latter being probably composed of two or more of 
the former, as Dr. Hooker describes in SigiUaria f. A transverse 
section of the specimen No. 1 is similar to the same section of SigiU 
laria elegans, with this exception, namely, that the inner lunette- 
shaped bundles of vessels found within and next to the woody cy- 
linder in M. Brongniart's specimen fill the whole of the central axis in 

* In this spedmen, by some cause, a portion of the inner cylinder has been 
destroyed, eitoer by the section not being cut true, or by a put of the woody 
cylinder having been destroyed in calcification. 

t Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Ghreat Britain, toI. i. part ii. p. 436. 

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mine. At first flight, it might haye been empposed that the specimen 
oiSigUlaria elegans before named had had some of its middle portion 
destroyed, and that the lunette-shaped bundles once occupied the 
whole of the central axis; but having, by the kindness of M. 
Brongniart, been permitted to examine the original specimen pre- 
served in ike Museum of the Jardin des Plantes, it appears to me 
that the learned author's description of the specimen, as weU as the 
figure in the plate, are both remarkably correct. Although his 
specimen does not show the external structure of large Si^Uarice, 
my own observations lead me to the conclusion that we shall find the 
latter very much resembling, if not altogether identical in structure 
with, SigiUaria elegans. In large specimens of S. reniformis and 
S. organum, whose structure is preserved, in my own cabinet, there 
is distinct evidence of the internal cortical envelope formed of elon- 
gated cellular tissue or utricles, and disposed in radiating series, in 
all respects like that described by M. Brongniart in his Autun spe- 

The longitudinal and tangential sections of my specimen show that 
the vessels of the central axis and the woody cylinder are barred 
transversely on all their sides. M. Brongniart found this to be the 
case with SigUlaria, and gives it as diaracteristic of SigiUaria, 
Stigmaria, and Anabathra*. Specimens of these three, now in my 
cabinet, clearly prove that their central axes and their woody cylin* 
ders are exactly the same in structure and arrangement; thus 
affording evidence from structure that Stigmaria is the root of Sigil^ 
lariay and that Anabathra is a SigiUaria — ^which has long been ex- 
pected would prove to be the case. 

The specimen No. 2, in PL V., to a great extent resembles No. 1 
last described, except that it is not so perfect with respect to the 
outermost cylinder ; but its external characters, its inner bark show- 
ing the vessels traversing it, its tangential section showing also the 
vessels traversing the inner cylinder, and some singular delicate ves- 
sels in the centrBd axis, render it a valuable specimen and worthy of 

It is of somewhat larger dimensions than No. 1 specimen, and 
shows its external characters on one side only of the stem. These, 
like those of No. 1, consist also of rhomboidal scars arranged in 
quincuncial order, each scar having on its upper part a comparatively 
large circular cicatrix, where the leaf was attached. The scar, like 
that of No. 1 specimen, most resembles Lepidodendron selaginoides 
in the rounded figure of the cicatrix left by the leaves, except that 
it is much larger, occupying the greater portion of the upper part of 
the surface, whilst that of the latter is scarcely one-fifth of the minor 
diameter of the scar. In other respects it cannot be distinguished 
from L. selaginoides figured by Messrs. lindley and Hutton. 

The internal cylinder is ^^tha of an inch in diameter, and is com- 
posed of large hexagonal vessels (a a) ; those in the middle being 
more irregular in shape, placed wider apart from each other, and in 

* Sztrait dM Ardhives du Mufl^uxn d'Histoire Naturelle, p. 424. Faria, 1899 

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some instances snrronnded by much smaller yessels (6 h), than in the 
specimen first described ; but the outer range of vessels next the 
vascular radiating cylinder (b h) is, like it, composed of smaller vessels. 
The extremely minute vessels (a'' a") seen in the longitudinal section 
of the centred axis show a remarkably delicate tissue, of which the 
first specimen exhibits no trace. The inner cylinder is more perfect 
than that first described, owing to the transverse section being cut 
truer, or being better preserved, than that specimen : but the vessels 
are of the same size with relation to the larger ones in the centre ; 
they are barred with striae on all their sides ; and the tangential 
section shows the small openings for conveying vascular bundles from 
the axis to the leaves, which is not shown in the first specimen. In 
all respects as to its internal structure, so far as it can be examined, 
it is the same as No. 1, with the exception of the small vessels in the 
central axis (a** a"), which have not yet been seen in that specimen. 

No. 3 is an oval specimen, its original circular form having been 
changed by pressure. It is -^ths of an inch across its greater, and 
•^ths of an inch across its lesser axis. The external characters are 
well shown all round the specimen ; and the scars are more elongated 
and placed further apart than in either of those previously described, 
like No. 1, the scars have in their middle along their greater axil 
a depression, in the centre of which is a small projection, to which 
the leaf was attached. The appearance of the scar somewhat re- 
sembles those of a Knorria described by Goldenberg*. An oblique 
fracture of a portion of the stem displays the position of the vascular 
bundles which traverse the stem and communicate between the 
central axis and the leaves (PI. YI.). 

The central axis much resembles that of No. 2, especially in the 
fact of the large hexagonal vessels in the middle being replaced and 
parted by smaller ones, and appearing in more regular order near 
the circumference ; but the radiating cylinder of barred vessels de- 
scribed in specimens Nos. 1 and 2 is wanting, and a band of fine cel- 
lular tissue appears to occupy its place. This tissue has, for the most 
part, been destroyed in the specimen ; but traces of it are left in por- 
tions, showing numerous round bundles of fine vascular tissue tra- 
versing it, springing from the side of the central axis and extending 
to the leaves, similar to those bundles described in the two preceding 
specimens as occurring on the outside of the vascular cylinder. In 
this specimen a zone of coarse cellular tissue bounds the band of fine 
cellular tissue last described. A small space then appears which 
has been for the most part destroyed, but traces of tiie vascular 
bundles traversing the stem are met with at intervals. Then again 
coarse cellular tissue occurs, which graduates into small elongated 
cellular tissue or utricles of hexagonal form, arranged in radiating 
series similar to that seen in Nos. 1 and 2, and most probably form- 
ing the bark of the stem. 

In the longitudinal section of the vascular axis about the centre 

* Flora Sarspontana foanlis. Die PflanzenTeMtoiiierangeQ des Steinkohlen- 
gebirgea von SaarbrockflQ. 1855, pi. iv. t%, 8a. 

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are seen some of the smaller vessels (a' a!) divided by horizontal and 
oblique partitions similar to those before mentioned as occurring to 
a less extent in No. 2 ; but in this specimen there is no trace of the 
fine tissue (a" a!*) seen in the centre of that stem. 

The tangential section shows the vascular bundles traversing the 
cellular tissue from the axis to the leaves, in a similar manner to 
those described in specimens Nos. 1 and 2. 

Upon the whole, No. 3 may be said to resemble Nos. 1 and 2 in 
every respect, except that the internal radiating cylinder of barred 
vessels is wanting in it. At first, it was supposed that this cylinder 
might have disappeared in the cutting and polishing of the stone ; 
so several other specimens were examined, but in all cases the 
cylinder was found wanting; so there is no doubt that this is a 
plant more nearly allied to the common Lepidodendron than Nos. 1 
and 2, which it will be more convenient, for the present, to class 
under the genus SigtUaria, on account of their internal structure, 
notwithstanding their external characters. It is proposed to distin- 
guish these two specimens (Nos. 1 and 2) by the name SigiUaria 
vtueulartSy from the circumstance of each of them possessing a central 
axis composed of barred vessels, in the place of the cellular tissue so 
generally formed in piths. No. 3 it is proposed to designate as a 
Lepidodendron, and to give it the specific name of vascidarey from 
the fact of its central axis being also composed of barred vessels, 
similar to those of SigiUaria vascularis. 


Plats IV. SigiUaria vaacularii. 

Fig. 1. Speomen (No. 1) of a stem of SigiUaria vaacularia in a caloified itate, 
found in the Lower Coal-meosareB of Lanoaahire, in the middle of a 
■earn of coal ; showing a portion of the exterior sorfaoe, the bark of 
which IB preflerved, displaying the leaf-scars and the dcatrioes whidi 
characterise this ffenos. 
Fig. 2. Transyerae view of uie same stem ; magnified 3} diameters. 
Fig. 3. Portion of the same transrerse section of stem ; magnified 12 diameters. 

Note. — ^The same letters indicate the same parts in this and the pre- 
ceding figures. 

a a. The central part, showinff the central axis or pith, composed of large 
hezaffonal Teseels haTing all their sides barred. 

a' a'. Thd smaller hexagonal vesseb in the axis or pith, found sometimes 
interspersed amongst the larger ones. 

a" a". Small vesseb, of very delicate tissue. 

b b. The vascular cylinder of wedge-shaped hexagonal vessels. 

e c. The spaces wl^re the medulluy rays passed between the bundles on 
their passage from the centre to the leares at the circumference. 
d. Small round bundles of fine vascular tissue, placed next the outside 
of the woody cylinder, often apparently displaced firom their original 

e«. Space where the fpreater part of the oeUular tissue baa been deatroyed, 
and replaced by mineral matter. 
/. Coarse cellular tissue arranged without order. 
g. Elongated tissue or utridea, arranged in radiating series. 
A. Coarse cellular tisane, forming the outer bark of the tree, 
i. Indication of fibro-yascular bundles, which traTerse the bark to 
oofamonicate with the base of the leaToa, 

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Fig. 4. A longitudinal section of SigiUaria wucularisy from the central axis to 
the exterior of the stem, showing the structure of the plant ; magnified 
12 diameters. 

a a. The central axis composed of large vessels, barred on all their sides 
by transrerse striae. 

a' a'. The smaller vessels, divided into parts by horisontal and oblique 

b b. The vascular cylinder of wedge-shaped hexagonal vessels, barred on 
their sides by transverse stris. 

d d. Traces of the vascular bundles of vessels oommnnicatang from the 
centre to the leaves. 

//. Coarse cellular tissue, arranged without order. 

ff g. Elongated tissue or utricles arranged in radiating series, forming 
the inner bark. 

k k, C!oar8e cellular tissue, forming the outer bark. 
Fig. 5. A tansential section of SigiUaria vaaeulari$ at ricfat angles to the outer 
radiated cylinder, showing the vascular bundus of vessels, d d, tra- 
versing the elongated tissue or utricles, //; magnified 12 diameters. 
Fig. 6. A transverse section of a portion of the outer radiated cylinder of Sigil- 
laria wueulariSf showmg the vascular bundles, d dy passing through 
the scar into the leaf; magnified 25 diameters. 

PlatbY. SigiUaria vaacularis. 

Fig. 1. Specimen (No. 2) of this stem in its calcified state, showing portions of 
its external surface and internal bark, displaying the vascubr bundles of 
vessels, d d. 

Fig. 2. Transverse view of the same specimen, showing the central axis, woody 
ojiinder, and bundles of vessels placed on uie outside of the latter; 
magnified 12 diameters. 

Fig. 3. Longitudinal section of the same specimen, showing the vessels of the 
central axis, a a, the small vessels of very delicate tissue, a" a'\ some- 
times enclosing portions of barred vessels, and the small barred vesseb 
of the woody cj^linder, b b ; magnified 12 diameters. 

Fig. 4. Longitudinal section of a portion of the same specimen, showing the 
smaQ vessels, a" a" ; magnified 25 diameters. 

Fig. 5. Tangential section of the same specimen, showing the small vessels tra- 
versing the woody cylinder, b b ; magnified 25aiameters. 

PiiATB YI. Lepidodendron vaaculare. 

Fig. 1. Specimen (No. 3) of a stem of Lepidodendron vatculare in a calcified 
state, showing portions of the external sur£EM» and its scars, as well 
as a portion or the inner bark, with the vascular bundles of vessels, 
d df traversing it 
Fig. 2. Transverse view of the same specimen ; magnified 3} diameters. 
Fig. 3. Portion of the same transverse section of the stem ; magnified 12 dia- 
The central axis, composed of larse barred vessels, a a. 
a' a\ The smaller vessels, divided into parts l^ horizontal and oblique 

d d. Traces of the vascular bundles of vessels communicated from the 

centre to the leaves. 
//. Ck>arse ovular tissue, airanged without order. 
gg. Elongated tissue or utricles arranged in radiating series, forming 

the inner bark. 
k h. Ovular tissue, forming the outer bark. 
Fig. 4. Alongitudinal section of iho Lepidodendron from the central axis, showing 
the structure of Che plant; magnified 12 diameters. 
The letters indicate the same parts as in fig. 3. 
Fig. 5. A tangential section of the coarse cellular tissue, // traversed by the vas- 
cular bundles of vessels communicating from tiie central ■■"■ to the 
leaves; magnified 12 diameters. 

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3. Supplemental Note on the Plant-beaeino Sandstones of Central 
India. By the Rev. Stephen Hislop. 

(In a Letter to the Assistant-Secrotaiy, dated Nagpur, July 19, 1861.) 

[Printed in the February No. of the Journal, p. 36, by permiasion of the 

Janitaet 22, 1862. 

Samuel Sharp, Esq., DaUington Hall, near Northampton, and 
George Parks Wall, Esq., The Hills, near Sheffield, were elected 
FeUows. Senor Casiano di Prado, Madrid, was elected a Foreign 

The following communicationfl were read : — 

1. On some further Discoveries 0/ Flint Implements in the Gratel 
near Bedfobd. By James Wyatt, Esq., F.G.S. 


Since Mr. Prestwich described the occnrrence of flint implements 
near Bedford (GeoL Soc. Joum. No. 67, p. 366), Mr. Wyatt, Mr. Nail, 
the Eev. Mr. HiUier, and Mr. Berrill have added seven or eight to 
the list, from the gravel-pits at Cardington, Harrowden, Biddenham, 
and Kempston. 

Mr. J. G. Jeffreys, F.G.S., having examined Mr. Wyatt's further 
collections of shells from the gravel-pits at Biddenham and Har- 
rowden, has determined seventeen other species besides those noticed 
by Mr. Prestwich ; and among these is Hydrohia marginata (from the * 
Biddenham Pit), which has not been found alive in this country. 
At Kempston, Mr. Wyatt has examined the sand beneath the gravel 
(which is destitute of sheUs), and at 3 feet in the sand (19 feet from 
the surface) he found Helix, Succinea, Bythinia, Pupa, FlanorMs, &c., 
with a flint implement. The upper gravel contained several flint 

Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.K.S., F.G.S., having had the shells sub- 
mitted to him, says, — 

'^ I have carefully examined and assorted the shells sent to me by 
Mr. Wyatt from the Harrowden and Biddenham Pits, and I And 
that they belong to the following species (distinguished by H. & B. 
respectively) : — 

H. B. Sphferium oomeum, Linn. (CycloB cornea of authors.) 

H. B. Fisidiuni nitidum, Jenyns. 

H. B. Henslowanum, Jenyns. 

' H. , monstr. (P. sinuatum, Normand.) 

B. B^thinia tentaculata, MuUer. 

H B. Valrata pisoinalis, Miill. 

B. cristata, MiiU. 

R Hydrobia marginata. {Paludina marginata^ Miohaud.) 

B. Suocinea putris, Linn, 

H. , dwarf var. resembling S. oblonga^ Drap. 

VOL. xvin. — paet I. I 

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H. B. Helix hispida, Miill. 

H. B. pulohella, MiiU. 

B. ooncinna, Jejfr. 

H. B. Pupa marginata, ^op, 

H. B. Flanorbis glaber, Jeffr. (Banging from Sweden to Madeira.) 

H. B. TortOT, Linn. 

H. leuoostoma, Michaud. (P. apirorbia of some authors.) 

B. nautileuB, lAghtfoot. 

B. marginatuft, MUU, 

H. Idmnaeaper^gra, MuU, 

H. B. — auncularia, Linn., yar. acuta, Jejfir. 

H. B. Btagnalia, Linn. (Var. HdixfragiUst Montagu.) 

H. B. truncatula, MuU. 

H. , dwarf var. 

H. palustris, Drap. 

H. B. Ancjlua fluTiatilis, MuU. 

B. oblongusi MuU. 

'^The nature and condition of the shells from the Harrowden 
Pit show that, in all probability, the area formed part of the site of 
a large lake or piece of fresh water, having a sandy bottom and 
banks ; that it was situated very near an estuary or flat sea-shore ; 
and that a small stream flowed into the lake at its upper end from 
a hill of considerable eminence. The lake must have had water- 
plants in it and rushes or flags (Iris pseudacorus) at its mai^;in. I 
assume that all the shells came from one and the same stratum. 

" The area of the Biddenham Pit did not apparently form part 
of the site of the same lake as at Harrowden ; but it was, in all 
probability, a smaller piece of water, with more weeds in it. In 
other respects, as well as in its being the receptacle of a small stream, 
the conditions appear to have been the same. I take for granted in 
this case also tiiat all the shells last named came from only one 
'stratum. It may be a question as to whether both these pieces of 
water existed at the same time. This must in some measure depend 
on the relative position of the fossiliferous strata in each of the 
pits in which the shells were found. The occurrence of Hydrobia 
marginata in the Biddenham Pit is interesting. See Sir Charles 
Lyell's Paper in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 
" On the Crag Districts of Norfolk and Suffolk," and the Appendix to 
Searles Wood's * Monograph on the Crag MoUusca,' published by the 
Palseontographical Society. I lately noticed it in the freshwater 
bed at Mundesley, while in company with Mr. Preetwich. It has 
never been found alive in this country." — J. G. J. 

2. On some Fliwt Akrow-heads (?) from near Baogt Point, North 
Devon. By N. Whitley, Esq. 

[Communicated by J. S. Enys, Esq., F.G.S.] 

Beneath the surface-soil (at the depth of 18 inches from the top) 
above the " raised beaches " of North Devon and Cornwall, the 

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1862.] DAWKDJS HTiENA-DEN. 115 

author has observed broken flints ; and even at the SciUy Isles such 
flints are found. At Croyde Bay, about half-way between Middle- 
Borough and Baggy Point, at the mouth of a smaU transverse valley, 
Mr. Whitley found them in considerable nimiber, collecting about 
200 specimens. About 25 per cent, of the splintered flints at this 
place have more or less of an arrow-head form, but they pass by 
insensible gradations from what appear to be perfect arrow-heads 
of human manufacture to such rough splinters as are evidently the 
result of natural causes. Hence &e author suggested that great 
caution should be used in judging what flints have been naturally, 
and what have been artificially shaped. 

3. On a HY.fiNA-DKN at Wookey-Hole, near Wells. 

By W. Boyd Dawkws, Esq., B. A., F.G.S., Burdett-Coutts Geological 

Scholar in the University of Oxford. 

Of aU the ossiferous caverns of this country which have from time 
to time been explored since 1821, there are none, perhaps, which 
form so exact a parallel to the Hyaena-den at Kirkdale as that which 
I bring before your notice this evening. 

Fig. 1. — Diagrammatic Section of the Hyama-den at WooJcey-HoU, 
near Welh, Length of the excavation 34 feet ; maximum height, 
9 feet ; width of cave at the entrance, 36 ft. 

1. Canal for the Biver Axe. 5, 5. Undisturbed debris (cave-earth 

2. Excavated portion of the cave. and bones). 

3. Lateral branch to the left. 6, 6. Dolomitic conglomerate. 

4. Upward branch. 

It is situated at Wookey-HoIe, a village on the southern flanks of 
the Mendips, and about two miles to the north-west of WeUs. The 
ravine in which it was discovered is one of the many which pierce 
the dolomitic conglomerate, or petrifled sea-beach of the Permian (?) 
age, still underlying its ancient sea-clifl^s of Mountain-limestone, and 


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overlying the lower slopes of the Mendips. Open to the south, it 
runs almost horizontally into the mountain-side, until closed abruptly 
northwards by a perpendicular wall of rock, 200 feet or more in 
height, ivy- covered, and affording a dwelling-place to innumerable 
jackdaws. Out of a cave at its base, in which Dr. Buckland* dis- 
covered potteiy and human teeth, flows the River Axe, in a canal cut 
in the rock. In cutting this passage, that the water might be con- 
veyed to a large paper-mill close by, the mouth of the Hyeena-den 
was intersected some ten years ago; and from that time up to 
December 1859, it was undisturbed save by rabbits and badgers ; and 
even they did not penetrate far into the interior, or make deep 
burrows. Close to the mouth of the cave the workmen (employed 
in making this canal) found more than 300 Eoman coins, among 
which were those of the usurper Allectus and of Commodus. When 
Mr. Williamson and myself began our exploration in 1859, about 
12 feet of the entrance of the eave had been cut away, and large 
quantities of the earth, stones, and animal remains had been used in 
the formation of an embankment for the stream which runs past 
the present entrance of the cave. Of the animal remains, some found 
their way to the British Museiun and to the Museum of the Somerset 
Archaeological Society at Taunton; but the greater portion were 
either thrown away or scattered among the private collections of the 
neighbourhood. According to the testimony of the workmen, the 
bones and teeth formed a layer about 12 inches in thickness, which 
rested immediately upon the conglomerate-floor, while they were 
comparatively scarce in the overlying mass of stones and red earth. 
The workmen state also that at the time of the discovery of the cave 
the hill-side presented no concavity to mark its presence. When we 
began our exploration, so completely was the cave filled with debris 
up to the very roof, that we were compelled to cut our way into it. 
Of the stones scattered irregularly through the matrix of red earth, 
some were angular, others water- worn ; all are derived from the 
decomposition of the dolomitic conglomerate in which the cave is 
hoUowed. Near the entrance, and at a depth of 5 feet from the 
roof, were three layers of peroxide of manganese t, full of bony 
splinters ; and, passing obliquely up towards the southern side of 
the cave, and over a ledge of rock that rises abruptly from the 
floor, further inwards they became interblended one with another, 
and at a distance of 15 feet from the entrance were barely visible. 
In and between these the animal remains were found in the greatest 

While driving this adit, we found an angular piece of flint, which 

* Vide * Eeliquise Diluviamc,' p. 164. On examining this cave in September 
1861, 1 waa not fortunate enough to find human remams. During the winter, 
the stream flowing through the cave overflows, and covers the floor with a fine 
red earthy sediment, simitar in every respect to that which is found in the hyaena- 
den. It varies in thickness from a few inches to a few feet. 

t As in the case of the Kirkdale Cave. And here let me mention that 1 have 
takea for mnted the fact of the cave having heen filled with remains by the 
agency of hyaenas, to avoid reproducing Dr. Buckland's arguments about the 
normal inhabitants of Kirkdale. Vide ♦ BeUquiae Diluvians?.' 

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1862.] DAWMNS — HYiBNA-DEN. 117 

had evidently been chipped by human agency, and a water- worn 
fragment of a belemnite, which probably had been derived from the 
neighbouring Marlstone-series. Bones and teeth of Bhinoceros 
tichorhinus, Cervus Bucklandi^ of other species of Deer, Irish Elk, 
Mammoth, ffycma, Ursus spelams, Wolf, Fox, and Horse, rewarded 
our labours ; and at the mouth of the cave, and cemented together 
by stalagmite, were frogs' remains. Remains of Felis spdasa also 
were found at the time of the discovery of the cave, and are at 
present in the Museimi of the Somerset ijchaeological Society. The 
teeth preponderated greatly over the bones, and the great bulk were 
those of the Horse. The Hyaena-teeth also were very numerous, 
and in all stages of growth, from the young unworn to the old tooth 
worn down to the very gums. Those of the Elephant had belonged 
to a young animal, and one had not been used at all. The hollow 
bones were completely smashed and splintered, and scored with 
tooth-marks, while the solid carpal, tarsal, and sesamoid bones were 
uninjured, as in the case of the Eirkdale Cave. The organic remains 
were in all stages of decay, some crumbling to dust at the touch, 
while others were perfectiy preserved and had lost very little of 
their gelatine. 

In 1860 we resumed our excavations; and, in addition to the 
above remains, found satisfactory evidence of the former presence of 
Man in the cave. One white flint spear-head, of rude workmanship 
(figs. 2-5), one chert arrow-head, a roughly chipped piece of chert, a 
round flattened piece of chert, together with various splinters of 
flint, which had apparently been knocked off in the manufacture of 
some implement, rewarded our search. Two rudely fashioned bone 
arrow-heads were also found, which unfortunately have since dis- 
appeared ; they resembled in shape an equilateral triangle with the 
angles at the base bevelled off. AU were found in and around the 
same spot, between the dark bands of manganese, in contact with 
some Hysena-teeth, at a depth of 4 feet from the roof, and at a 
distance of 12 feet from the present entrance. 

That there might be no mistake about the accuracy of the observa- 
tions, I examined every shovelful of debris as it was thrown out by 
the workmen ; while the exact spot where they were excavating was 
watched by Mr. Williamson. The white flint spear-head was picked 
out of the undisturbed matrix by him ; the remainder of the imple- 
ments were found by me in the earth thrown out from the same 
place. Thus there can be no doubt as to their exact position ; and 
error of observation is rendered very improbable. Two of the speci- 
mens are similar in workmanship and general outline, though not in 
size, with two of the typical forms found at Amiens and Abbeville, 
which Evans terms respectively spear-heads and sling-stones. The 
spear-head is of white flint (figs. 2-5) : in outline, size, and workman- 
ship it resembles a beautiful semitransparent quartz-rock specimen 
from the burial-mounds of North America, in the possession of Dr. 
Acland. The bone arrow-heads resembled most strongly in size and 
outline a flint arrow-head, also from the burial-mounds of North 

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Digitized byCjOOQiC 

1862.] DAWXIK8 HTiBNA-BSN. 119 

America, and in the possession of Dr. Acland*. The chert arrow- 
head is dissimilar to any that I have seen. A splinter, which is 
bounded on one side by a straight cutting edge, appears to me to 
have been used as a knife, and to have been intentionally chipped 
into its present form for that purpose. 

But what inference can be drawn from these signs of Man's 
presence in a Hysena-den filled with unmistakeable remains of a 
fEiuna now extinct in Exirope ? Was the fabricator a contemporary 
of the British Cave-bear, BMnoceros, Mammoth, and their congeners? 
Or did he leave his implements in the cave at a time posterior to that 
of the other creatures whose remains are associated with them in the 
Post-glacial period? If the former be answered in the affirmative, 
Man, instead of having appeared on the earth some 6000 or 7000 
years ago, must have ezLsted at a time anterior to the glacial epoch f, 
and at a time when the relations between land and water were alto^ 
gether different, — ^a period that we cannot sum up in years. But 
if the latter, the great antiquity of the implements is by no means 
proved, and they may have belonged to any period anterior to that 
of the Saxons. The facts of the case, to my mind at least, lead but 
to one conclusion — that these implements were deposited in the cave 
during the Preglacial period. The cave at the time of its discovery 
(assuming the statement of the workmen to be true) was completely 
blocked up, so that the ravine-side presented no concavity to indicate 
its presence ; there were no traces of disturbance posterior to the 
filling up of the cave either on the spot where they were found, or 
as we were driving our adit thither. And, as 12 feet of the former 
mouth of the cave have been cut away, we must double the distance 
from the present entrance to the spot itself, which wiU thus be 24 
feet The motive certainly has yet to be assigned that would induce 
a savage to excavate a trench 24 feet long with his miserable stone 
implements, and consequently with great labour ; and, having exca- 
vated it, again to fill it up to the very roof with the dibris which he 
had removed — earth, stones, and animal remains. The absence of 
charcoal, pottery, and human bones precludes the idea of the cave 
ever having been a place of sepulture, as was the cave close by, also 
one on the northern flank of the Mendips at Burrington-Comb, and 
a third in Cheddar CMat 

But, on the other hand, it may be said that the fact of their being 
found in and around the same spot is a weighty argument in favour 
of their introduction in the Post-glacial times. Had they been sub- 
jected to violent watery action, ti^ey would, like most of the animal 
remains, have been scattered confosedly through the matrix, and 

* The chert of which some of these implementB are made appears to have been 
derived from the Qreensand series of Blackdown. 

t In making use of the terms Preglacial, Glacial, and Foet-fflaoial, I hare 
followed Phillips's dirision of the Pleistocene. ( Vide FhiUipe's Manual of Geo- 
logy, p. 408.) 

I Kide Buckland*s * Beliquiie DiluviansB,' p. 164. In one cave in this Comb 
Dr. Buckland found human bones encrusted with stalagmite ; in another, about 
two years aco (1859X I diMxyvered numerous fragments of charcoal, and one of 
the sternal bones of CanU lupus mixed with numerous ahells of Helix. 

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would not have been found as they were left by their former possessor. 
They would moreover have lost their sharp edges. On this point, 
indeed, they, as well as a large number of the animal remains, where 
slender processes and points of bone are left uninjured (as, for 
instance, the palatine process of the right maxilla of a Wolf), agree in 
showing that violent watery action had a very small share in filling 
the cave. 

I should infer that, as the dolomitic conglomerate of the roof and 
walls gradually yielded to the attacks of the carbonic acid in the air, 
the cUbris was gradually accumulated at the same time that the 
Hyaenas from time to time brought in the remains of their victims. 
On this hypothesis the fact of the occurrence of these implements in 
the same place, coupled with the absence of all traces of an entrance 
having been effected posterior to the filling up of the cave, is easily 
explicable ; as also is the fact of the hemes and teeth being confusedly 
scattered, and yet in no instance water- worn. This gradual process 
may at times have been varied by floodings, by which a large quantity 
of earthy sediment, derived from higher levels, may have been 
introduced, as now in a cave close by, in which sediment similar in 
every respect to the red earth of the bone-cave is deposited during 
a rainy season (p. 116, note). Had the numerous lai^ stones been 
put in motion by water in the cave, they would soon have ground 
down the animal remains to an impalpable dust. 

Thus, indeed, the discovery of these implements in the same spot, 
so far firom proving that they were introduced subsequently to the 
other remains, adds additional testimony to the metiiod by which 
the cave was filled, — that it was fiUed gradually and by causes still 
in operation, and not by any great cataclysm, by which the contents 
of numerous bone-caves are supposed to have been introduced. And 
the only alternative left us is to believe that they were deposited 
during the time that the Rhinoceros tichorhimiSj Irish Elk, and 
Cave-bear inhabited the British Isles, and before the great sub- 
mergence of land in the Northern Hemisphere. 

In April 1861 we resumed our excavations ; and, as we made 
our way inwards, found that the cave began to narrow, and ulti- 
mately to bifurcate; one branch extending vertically upwards, 
while the other, which is undisturbed, appea^^ to extend almost 
horizontally to the right hand. As we reached the middle constricted 
passage, the teeth became fewer, while the stones were of larger 
size than any that we had hitherto discovered. The great majority 
of the gnawed antlers of Deer were found at this part, also the pos- 
terior half of a COTvine skull, the right maxilla of Cants lupus, and, 
what is more remarkable, a stone with one of its surfaces coated with 
a deposit apparently of stalagmite : this, however, was much lighter 
than stalagmite, and not so good a conductor of heat; and, on 
analysis, I found that it consisted of phosphate of lime, with a little 
carbonate, and a very small portion of peroxide of manganese. 
Doubtless the surface of the stone, covered with phosphate of lime, 
formed part of the ancient floor of the cave, and hence was coated 
with excrement, while the lower part, being imbedded in the earth 

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1862.] DAWXIN8 ^HYJBNA-DEN. 121 

on the floor, was not so coated. This deposit may, perhaps, explain 
the absence of round balls of Album grcecum, which, assuming that 
the cave at the time was more damp than that at Kirkdale, would 
be trodden down on the floor by the hyaenas, instead of presenting 
a rounded form. The stone abo itself exhibits tooth-marks, and 
probably was gnawed by the hyaenas, like the necrosed antlers, for 
amusement. Dogs are very fond of exercising their teeth in this 
way. This discovery also proves that violent watery action had but 
small share, if any, in filling the cave ; for in that case the soft 
Album grcecam would have been removed from the stone. 

The section made in cutting this passage presented irregukr layers 
of peroxide of manganese, full of bony splinters, and in general 
covered by a layer of bones in various stages of decay. These layers 
disappeared in the upper portion of the passage. There were masses 
of prismatized stalactites scattered confusedly through the matrix. 
After excavating the vertical branch as far as we dared (for the 
large stones in it made the task dangerous), we were compelled to 
leave off, having penetrated altogether only 34 feet from the cave's 
mouth. In this vertical branch, the bones, stones, and red earth are 
cemented together by carbonate of lime, — a circumstance which 
added materially to the difficulty of the excavation. 

A short distance from the entrance the cave gives off a lateral 
branch to the left, which tends obliquely upwards, and is abruptly 
closed by stalagmite. This forms a marked contrast to the rest of 
the cave, being covered with stalactite and stalagmite, and free frt)m 
debris ; while the other parts are full of debris, and at the same time 
free from any but the merest traces of carbonate of lime, except in 
the case of the vertical branch above mentioned, where, however, it 
does not assume a stalagmitic form. 

There are numerous caverns in the vicinity which, in all proba- 
bility, are connected with the one under notice, and which, to say 
the very least, are parts of the same great system*, and all open 
upon the same ravine. And even this probably is but a cavern 
unroofed by the chemical action of the carbonic acid in the air, 
by which the insoluble carbonate of the stone is changed into the 

* By a syBtem of caverns 1 mean all those which open upon a common ravine. 
Through this a stream often flows, supplied in many cases by feeders out of one 
or more cayems. On close examination of a number of the caves in the Mendips, 
I find them, in the main, ranged round their ravines as branches are arranged 
on a tree. Burrington-Comb, Cheddar Pass, and Wookey-Hole Ravine, each 
surrounded by its system, are eminently typical. I do not see the reason why 
the change of insoluble carbonate into soluble bicarbonate of lime, by which 
swallow-holes and parte of caverns are perpetually and gradually being enlarged, 
should be limited in ite effecte, if infimte time be granteid, and why it should not 
have been the chief agent in forming the ravines so common in all limestone dis- 
tricte. By this process one of the caverns at the top of Cheddar Pass is gradually 
being unroofed, and is becoming a miniature ravine. On this view, the great 
majority of limestone ravines are but ruined caverns. The loose stones on the 
summit of the Mendips in many cases present a ground-plan of a system of 
caverns on the upper surface, by tlie chemical action of the carbonic acid, the 
main channel being surrounded by numerous accessory ones, which collect all 
the moisture on the surface in their ramifications. 

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soluble bicarbonate, and conveyed away atom by atom. It probably 
was tbe main trunk fed by numerous tributaries, now represented 
by caverns, all of which are dry, with the exception of that at the 
head of the ravine, through which the drainage still passes, though 
not to the same degree as formerly. 

On measuring the cave, we found that the maximum height of the 
entrance was 8 feet and the width 36 feet ; in the interior the max- 
imum height was 9 feet. 

Organic Bemains. — I will now proceed to a description of the 
organic remains found, selecting out of my descriptive catalogue 
those which present points of the greatest interest. 

To begin with the Perissodactyles. The remains of Equvs by far 
predominate over the rest : 4 astragali, os calcis of colt, metatarsals 
and carpals, a distal end of tibia, more than 70 molars, 7 in- 
cisors, and one canine attest how numerous Horses were at this 
period in the West of England. And here let me remark that 
the vast preponderance of the teeth of Bos in the Eirkdale Cave 
over those of Equus seems to indicate that the Ox preponderated 
over the Horse in Yorkshire, at the same time that Horses were 
more abundant than Oxen in the plains of Somerset. The remains 
show that Equus was of the ordinary size. Of the Ehinoceros ti- 
chorhinus also 14 lower and 10 upper molars, and 2 molars in the 
possession of Williamson, also the proximal ends of 3 ulnas, frac- 
tured exactiy in the same place, a metacarpal, astragalus, and 2 
phalanges rewarded our seardi. And one upper-jaw deciduous molar, 
of the right side, presents this difficulty — ^that, while the posterior 
island of enamel in its depth, and the shape of the valley advancing 
obliquely outwards, approximate closely to the typical species (B. 
tichorhinus)*, the broad entrance of the valley, and the presence of 
a small cusp in it, at first sight appear to be referable to Bhinoceros 
lepiorhinus. The absorbed fangs and the small size indicate a 
deciduous tooth. In another upper molar of the left side, according 
in every other respect with this, the cusp is absent. 

The Artiodactyle division of Herbivores is represented by the re- 
mains both of Bovidas and Cervidm, Of the remains of Bosprimi- 
genius, one os calcis was far larger than any in the Oxford Museum, and 
about twice the size of an average recent Ox; another was of the same 
size as those from Wirksworth, Kirkdale, Ban well, and Plymouth ; a 
ri^t astragalus was larger than three out of four specimens from 
Xu^kdale, but was identical with one from Caswell Bay near Swansea. 
A phalanx larger than any which I have seen, a scapho-cuboid of the 
same size as those from Kirkdale, a frtigment of left femur, identi- 
cal in size with those found at Banwell, and three molar teeth were 
also found. Of the remains of the Cervidce, I regret to say that I 
have been unable to identify more than three species : — 1. Megaceros 
Hihemims ; four premolars, and one molar of the upper jaw, four 
molars of the lower jaw, and two fragments of the lower jaw con- 
taining respectively P. M. 2-3| and |M. 12-3t. 

* Comp. Owen's British Fois. Mam. p. 374. 

t In identifying teeth and bones, I have found that a concise mode of distin- 
guishing right from left was extremely useful, as it adds great precision to the 

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1862.1 DAWXIKS — HTJENA-DEN. 123 

The accessory column in the interspacee between the lobules of 
the crowns of tiie true molars ♦ on the outer side in the lower jaw, 
and on the inner of the upper jaw, is rudimentary, being developed 
basally as a small tubercle. These tubercles are much narrower 
than ^ose in specimens in the Oxford Museum, from a turbary, and 
consequently are more pointed, and do not keep the lobules, as it 
were, so far apart. 

2. Antlers of Cervtis Bucklandi t characterized by the brow-antler 
arising at a distance of 2^ inches or more from the base of the beam. 
These had fallen off by necrosis. Two antlers of Cervus QuettardiX : 
the one, a mere fragment and broken in exactly the same feushion as 
one from the cavern of Breugue, figured in the fourth volume of Cu- 
vier's ^Ossemens Eossiles,' pi. 6. fig. 15; the other also is exactly 
similar to ^. 17 of the same plate, and is characterized by the brow- 
antler arising 2^ inches from the base of the beam, and by the bez- 
antler arising from the posterior and opposite side. The beam is 
round, and in circrmiference is 2 inches, and in length 14 inches. 
The branches have a tendency to become palmated. 

Among the equivocal cervine remains is the posterior portion of 
a skull §, which in the posterior position of the antler-basement, and 
in general form, strongly resembles that of Cervus Tarandus, figured 
in Owen's ' Fossil Mammals ' and in the ' Ossemens Eossiles,' and 
one in the British Museum. The antler-basements are but one inch 
removed from the occipital crest, and are about one inch and a half in 
diameter. On comparing this latter measurement with the diameter 
of the necrosed bases of antlers of Cervus Bucklandi^ I find that it 
exactly coincides with one of them, and with the short diameter 

inquiry. To effect this I use a yertical hne, which is supposed to represent tbe 
median Hue of the animal, putting teeth and bones of the right side to its right, 
and of the left side to its left, as in the text. This method isvery useftd in cata- 

« See Owen's British Foss. Ifam. pp. 449, 450. 

t Dimensions of two fragments of antlers of Cervus Bucklandi : — 

in. lin. in. lin. 

Distanoeofbrow-antlerfrom the base of beam 2 6 2 6 

Circumference near the base 6 6 3 

Diameter at the base 16-9 16 

Both are rounded basally and rather flattened where the brow-antler is given. 

in. Un. 

X Length ofbeam 14 

Brow-antler, distance from base 2 6 

Bez-antler 8 9 

Circumference of rounded beam 2 

§ Dimensions of skull : — 

in. Un. 

Diameter of antler-basement or frontals 1 6 

Distance between antler-basements 1 9 

Distance of antler-basement from occipital crest 1 

From the summit of median crest on occipital to foramen ma^um 2 3 
From the summit of mastoid to the superior and median portion of 

foramen magnum, where the crest on ocdpitals impinges upon it 2 9 
Diameter of occipital, measured between the points where the squa- 
mous portion of the temporal impinges upon the occipital crest. . . 3 6 

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of the other, the length being 1 inch 9 lines. This similarity is 
striking, though perhaps it is a mere coincidence. An antler with 
rounded beam and brow-antler arising close to the base, and having 
a circumference at the base of 3 inches 3 lines, and at mid-beam 
2 inches 6 lines, probably belonged to Cervus Tarandus. There are 
also numerous pieces of palmated antlers, which either belonged to 
Cervus Datna, C. Tarandus, or G. Ouettardi. There are also teeth, 
fragments of carpals and tarsals, and other fragments, which are 
imdoubtedly cervine, though I have not been able to make out the 

Of Elephas primigenius the only remains found were a portion of 
a tusk of a large, and the second molar of a small individual *. Of these 
latter, one has not been used at all, and the other is hardly worn. 

Of Ursus spelceusf, the only representative of the Plantigrade 
family in the cave, were found the left humerus (of the same size as 
some from Gailenreuth), also canines and molars. The latter are 
larger than any from Quinger or Gailenreuth, in the Oxford Museum. 
The humeri and tibiae of the Fox indicate a creature of the average 
size. On the other hand, the upper jaw and sectorial upper molar, and 
humerus of Canis lupus are much larger than any of the recent spe- 
cimens with which I have had an opportunity of comparing them. 
But, to pass from the Canidoi to the cognate family of Hycmidm, as 
at Kirkdale, the normal inhabitants of the den, numerous teeth of all 
ages, the ilium and metacarpals and jaws, which were in various 
stages of decay, rewarded our research. The great preponderance of 
teeth t may perhaps in some degree be accounted for by the decay 

in. lin. 

* Length of crown of perfect molar 2 6 

Breadth of ditto 1 

It is broader posteriorlj than a molar from Eirkdale, in the Oxford MuBeum, 
and figured in the ' Beliquias.' 

t The third molar of the upper jaw (M. 3) is 2 inches in antero-posterior 
length, and in breadth 0*875 of an inch; while the largest from Quinger 
and Gailenreuth (in Oxford) measures but 1*875 in length and 0*75 in breadth. 
The canines are smaller than the largest from Quinger, but of equal size with 
others: — 

in. lin. 

Length of perfect canine 4 3 

Circumference at base of crown 2 3 

} In identifying the premolars, I made out the following points which may 
perhaps be found useful. A ridge passing over the crown in the lower-jaw series 
divides it into two equal or subequal parts, while in the upper jaw it circum- 
scribes the inner third only of the crown, or at least divides it very unequally. 
Of the lower jaw, premolar 2 (P. M. 2) is characterized by the small crown, large 
posterior talon, and by having its anterior fang suddenly reflected to afford room 
for the root of the canine ; premolar 3 (P. M. 3) by the slight backward curvature 
of the anterior feng, coupled with the transverse compression of tlie posterior 
talon ; premolar 4 (P. M. 4) by the straight diverging fangs and the enormous deve- 
lopment of the posterior talon, the posterior and inner side of which is bevelled 
off obliquely to allow of the close apposition of (M. 1) the molar. In the upper 
jaw, the first premolar has its single root incurved, the second has its crown 
divided into two unequal portions and its fangs diver/^ent ; while the length and 
great curvature of the fangs, the incurved crown, and the ridge circumscribing 
its inner third characterize the third premolar. About the fourth no mistake 
can be made. 

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1862.] DAWKIK8 — HYiENA-DEy. 125 

of the jaws while the teeth remained perfectly sound ; though, in 
the main, as in the case of the solid bones, their rejection by the 
Hyaenas was the main cause. One jaw, which I did not see dug 
out, is stated by the workmen to have been found in two por- 
tions, the one at least a foot &om the other, in the undisturbed 
matrix. Supposing this to be true (and the fracture of the parts 
appears to be old), I have had the satisfaction of putting together 
what the Hyeenas left dissociated, and additional testimony is afforded 
that the contents of the cave were never subjected to violent watery 
action. This was found about 13 feet from the entrance, and at a 
considerable depth from the roof. Fragments of bone are polished 
by the tread of the Hyaenas, as at Kirkdale. 

The absence of the Water-rat and Hippopotamus from these re- 
mains seems to indicate that the cave was further removed from a 
river or lake than the Hyaena-den at Kirkdale. 

In conclusion, I will only add that, after carefully weighing the 
facts of the case, on the site of our excavation, I cannot but infer, 
from the evidence afforded by this cave alone, that Man was a con- 
temporary of the gigantic Ursits spelams, the Hyaena, the Mammoth, 
and their congeners ; and I feel convinced that the cave was filled 
with its present contents, not by a violent cataclysm, but by the or- 
dinary operations of nature now, as then, in progress; with this 
difference only, that the remains of Poxes and Badgers are now being 
entombed in the caverns still open in the district, instead of the 
extinct preglacial fauna. 

List of Mammalian Remmns, 

HTiSNiDiE. Hyttna »p€l<Ba^ 4 jaws, 49 teeth, left ilium, 2 metacarpals, 

portion of right rib, and right maxillary. 
Cavidje. Cants vtilpes^ 4 humeri, 3 ulnw, 5 tibiae, left, radius. 

Cani9 lupus, right maxillnc with P. M. 4 and incisors 2, right humerus. 
Ursida IJrsus spelants, 3 molars, 2 canines, left humerus. 


SoLiDUNQULA. Equus, OS calcis, 4 astra^iali, metacarpal, metatarsal, distal 

end of tibia, upwards of 70 molars, 7 incisors, one canine. 
MuLTUNGULA. Ekinoceros tichorhinus^ 3 proximal ends of ulnae, astragalus, 
phalanges, 29 molars. 


BoYiDiB. Bo8 primigenittSy 2 ossa calcis fright), astragalus, phalanx, portion 

of shaft of femur, scapho-cuboid, 2 molan. 
Certid^. Teeth, antlers, and various fragments. 
Megaceros Hibemtcus, 7 molars, fragment of jaw containing M. 1, 2, 3. 
Cervus Bucklartdi, 2 antlers (skuU?). 
C. Guettardiy 2 antlers. 
C. Tarandus (?), (skuU?), (antler?). 
C. Dama (?), nragments of antlers. 

Elepkas pritnigenittSf 2 second molars, portion of tusk, innumerable splin- 

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February 6, 1862. 

Captain WiUiam Henry Mackesy (79th Highlanders), Waterford ; 
Harry Seeley, Esq., Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge ; and Thomas 
Francis Jamieson, Esq., Ellon, Aberdeenshire, were elected Fellows. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On some Yolcakic Phenomeka lately observed at Tobee del Greco 
and EjBsnrA. By Signer Luigi Palioeri, Director of the Boyal 
Observatory on Vesuvius. 

fin Letters addressed to H.M. Consul at Naples, and dated December 17, 1861, 
and January 3, 1862. Sent from the Foreign Office, by order of Earl BusseU.] 


The evolution of gases, the outburst of springs of acidulous and hot 
water, and particularly the upheaval of the groimd at Torre del 
Greco to a height of 1*12 metre above the sea-level, are mentioned 
in this communication. 

2. On the recent Eruption of VESFvnrs in Decexbeb 1861. 
By M. Pterbe de Tchihatchefp. 

[Communicated by Sir B. I. Murchison, Y.P.G.S.] 

On the 8th of December the ground in the neighbourhood of Torre del 
Greco was shaken by repeated earthquakes from dawn up to 3 o'clock 
in the afternoon. As many as twenty-one distinct shocks were counted 
there, but only one of them was felt at Naples. At the hour above 
mentioned the atmosphere over Torre was wrapt in complete darkness, 
clouds of ashes having been projected from several mouths which 
had opened on the slope of Vesuvius, a short distance above the town. 
Early on the next day (the 9th) I visited Torre del Greco, and leaving 
the town below, mounted towards the stream of lava which had in 
the preceding night poured forth from the apertures already men- 
tioned. It had cooled so rapidly that I was enabled to walk upon 
the scoriaceous crust, though the interior was so hot that my stick 
took fire on being thrust into its cracks. 

After proceeding about 600 metres to the N.E., I came to the 
smoking hills, whidi were stiU vomiting glowing scorise and ashes so 
abundantly as to prevent a near approach. The white steam and 
black ashes, ejected from them with violent shocks resembling the 
intermittent pufib of a steam-engine, rose in globular masses so as to 
form a columnar shaft, which, spreading laterally at a great height, 
reproduced the " pine " of Pliny. On my return to Torre del Greco I 
saw two new mouths open before me. About this time the central cone 
of Vesuvius, which had been tranquil hitherto, began to eject steam 
and ashes in thick clouds, attended by frequent flashes of lightning. 
The explosions of the new craters, as well as the flow of the lava, 
ceased almost wholly about the third day, viz. by the 12th of December. 

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':^jiarl Jounx L>ol Soc Vol Y/IH,PI VU. 

J. W. Lc wry. fcxi Ip * 

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On the 16th heavy' rams fell, the weather having heen quite 
dear and tranquil up to that time. On a second visit made on the 
23rd of December, I ascertained the number of openings, marked by 
minor cones with funnel-shaped craters, that had been formed on 
the flank of the moimtain were about twelve — ^ranged dose together 
on a line from E.N.E. to W.8.W. at the distance of about 600 metres 
8.8.E. from the old" lateral crater whence the lava-stream of 1794 
proceeded which had poured down on Torre dd Greco. Thus it 
appears that a fissure had on this occasion been formed in the sidd 
of the mountain, either on the prolongation of that of 1794, or 
paraMel and close to it. The lavas produced by the two eruptions are 
also almost identical in mineral character, being very poor in leudte, 
but rich in augite crystals. 

On returning to Torre dd Greco, I was surprised to find the prin- 
dpal fountains of the town overflowing with an excessive supply of 
water, as in general during eruptions the springs are rather apt to 
fedl. Bubbles of carbonic add gas were rising abundantly from the 
water. Many of the' cracks which had been formed by the earth- 
quakes in the pavement of the streets of the town were seen, it is 
said, to emit small flames (of carburettod hydrogen ?). It is certain 
that the shore beneath Torre del Greco was permanently elevated by 
above a metre^ — a long white line composed of moUusks and zoophytes 
attached to the rock, which only live under water, being now gene- 
rally raised that much above the sea-level, through a space of at 
least two kilometres. 

The cone of Vesuvius continued to smoke at intervals for several 
days. On the 23rd of December ashes fell abundantly in the streets 
of Naples — a circumstance that has not occurred since 1822. 

3. On Iso-DiAKETBTC LiNBS, OS mtans of representing the Distbibution 
of Sbdimentaky Clay and Sandt Strata, as distinguished from 
Calcareous Strata, with special reference to the Garbonxfbrous 
- Books of Britain. By Edward Hull, B; A., FiG.S., of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Great Britain. 

[Plate VII.]' 

I: Introduction. — Comparison of Argillaoeo-arenaceous Vith CalcareouB Sedi- 
ments, as to their ran^ in Modem and Ancient Seas. 

Eeoent — Caribbean Sea, Ac. • " ' 

Past — Oolites of Oxfordshire and Yorkshire. 

Permian Strata of Ensland. 

Lower Carboniferous Strata of Belgium and Westphalia. 

Nature of Calcareous Deposits. 

Contemporaneity of the Deposits and Oscillation of the Land. 

Threefold arrangement of Groups with a calcareous centre. 

Iso-diametric aspect of Strata. 
II. Carboniferous Land-surface of Central England— Existence of an old £. and 
W. Barrier. 

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1. Begion North of the Barrier. — South-easterly Attenuation of the Argil- 

laceo-arenaoeouB Strata. — ^North-westerly Attenuation of the Calcareous 
Distribution of the " Sedimentary" Strata and of the Limestones of the Car- 
boniferous Period : — 

South Staffordshire. Anglesea. 

Warwickshire Coal-field. Notts, Derbyshire, and Yorkshire. 

Leicestershire Coal-field. Lancashire.* 

North Staffordshire. Cumberland. 

Flintshire and Derbyshire. Scotland. 

2. Begion South of the Barrier. — Eastwly Attenuation of the Argillaoeo-arena- 

oeous Strata. — ^Westerly Attenuation of the Calcareous Strata. 

3. North Atlantic Continent. — Northerly Drift of Sediment during the Car- 

boniferous and Mesozoic times. 
m. Summary of Conclusions. 

\Not€. — In the following pages the term "Sedimentary** is used to denote 
exclusively such inoi^nic strata as sandstones, clay, shales, &c., in opposition to 
Calcareous strata or mnestones.] 

§ 1. — Introduction, — ^A large and interesting field of inquiry is 
open to us in comparisons of the relative distribution of the calca- 
reous and the truly sedimentary members of different geological 
formations. We have, as it appears to me, been too much in the 
habit of classing limestones (whether coralline, crinoidal, shelly, 
or oolitic) as strictly sedimentary ; yet it will be found, by such 
comparisons as those alluded to, that the relation which is borne 
by sandstones and shales to limestones is one, not of similarity, but 
of contrast. In other words, that where we have a group of strata, 
as, for example, the Lower Carboniferous, composed partly of " sedi- 
mentary " and partly of calcareous members, it will generally be 
found that the one series is complemental of the other, and developed 
from opposite directions. This arises from the differences in the 
origin of the two classes of stratified rocks, the calcareous being 
essentially organic, and the " sedimentary " essentially mechanical ; 
so that where the forces and agencies tending to the accumulation of 
the latter are in active operation, these very forces and agencies arc 
in direct antagonism to the other, and, as a result, calcareous strata 
are either not formed or only sparingly*. 

(a.) Of these two ever-acting principles we have numerous ex- 
amples both in recent and in geologic periods. If we take as an illus- 
tration the Gulf of Mexico and the West Indian Islands, we find 
the sediment brought down by the Mississippi forming deposits of 
sand and clay which are spread along the cocist and far out to sea 
by the Gulf-stream, while around the West Indian Islands coralline 

* That limestones are either directly or indirectly the production of animals 
is now so generally admitted that it seems scarcely necessary to cite authorities. 
Bischoff in his work on Chemical Geology (vol. iu. p. 35) says, " So long as the 
formation of mechanical deposits was predominant^ the organic action of the 
marine animals that separate limestone, or at least that of the corals, could not 
be exercised.*' This passage (which did not come under my notice until these 
pases had been brought before the Oeologioal Society) fully bears out the prin- 
ciple of opposition tetween the origin of the two classes of rocks, which 1 am 
now endeaTouring to illustrate. See also lieut. Nelson's ' Account of the Ber- 
muda Coral-formations,* Trans. G^l. Soc. 2nd series, vol. y. 

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limestones are being accumnlated in a dear ocean*. If we take the 
North Atlantic, we find reason for believing, on the evidence of the 
deep-sea soundings, that the central area is composed of a fine cal- 
careous mudt, the production of Forarrdnifera and other marine ani- 
mals, while along the shores of the American continent and those 
of Europe deposits of sand, gravel, and day are in course of accumu- 
lation. If these regions were elevated into land, we should probably 
find a formation composed in one direction of limestone, like dialk, 
and in the other of sandstones and shales, both classes of material 
being developed from opposite areas of dispersion. 

Indeed, the representative positions of liie pelagic and littoral for- 
mations — the one calcareous, the other sedimentary — are very dearly 
stated by Sir C. Lyell, who says J, "It has been ascertained by sound- 
ings in all parts of the world, that where new deposits are taking place 
in the sea, coarse sand and small pebbles commonly occur near the 
shore, while further from land and in deeper water finer sand and 
broken shells are spread over the bottom ; still farther out, the 
finest mud and ooze are alone met with. Mr. Austen observes that 
this is the rule in every part of the English Channel." I think, how- 
ever, that experience will bear us stUl further than this, and that 
we may regard the predominance of sedimentary strata as highly 
unfavourable to the development of calcareous, in the same group of 

(6.) The same general principle is in force over our globe at the 
present day, and probably has been from the times when calcareous 
strata, which are the representatives of marine life, first began to be 
formed. Wherever large rivers pour sediment into the ocean, or 
where currente take up and distribute this sediment over the sea-bed, 
there limestones will be very sparingly formed. On the other hand, 
where, from certain causes, such as the great distance from land, or the 
absence of such rivers and currents, the water of the sea is dear and 
fru from mvd within the temperate or tropical regions, there calca- 
reous matter will be accumulated. Of the strata at present forming, 
the great calcareous members are to be found occupying prindpally 
mid-oceanic regions, and their representative sedimentary members 
range themselves in the direction of the coaste. Still there may be 
fr^uent cases where the limestones may be formed along the coasts 
of large tracts of land, as on the shores of Australia and Southern 
India, but in every such case there is an absence or scarcity of sandy 
or muddy sediment §. Keverting to geologic periods, I have no wish 
here to repeat what has been frequently shown by Lyell, Darwin, 
Phillips, Godwin- Austen, and other writers, that calcareous forma- 

* For this illustration I am indebted to my friend Dr. J. Hector, lately Surgeon 
and G^lodst to the exploring expedition under Capt. Falliser. 

t Capt. Maury's ' Physical Geography of the Sea.* A very interesting account 
of these soundings has been pubiiuied by Dr. Wallich for private distnbution. 

t * Principles of Geolocy/ 8th edit p. 770. 

I On this point Ehrenberg states " that he nerer saw corals grow where the 
sea was frequently rendered turbid by shifting sand, but only where it was clear 
and pure."^ — PoggendoriTs Annal. The same UatA. is stated by Bir. Jukes, Mr. 
Darwin, and other writers. 


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tions of one region are represented by shales and sandstones in 
another ; but the point I wish to urge particularly is that such con- 
temporaneous strata are necessarily developed &om opposite direc- 
tionsy and that the region over which one of these classes of strata 
is most fully represented is that in which the other has been most 
sparingly deposited. Thus the White Chalk of Europe is replaced 
by sandstones, shales, and lignite in America*, in which there is very 
little calcareous matter. We ^lay therefore believe that a dear ocean, 
uncontaminated by muddy sediment, overspread the greater part of 
Europe, while the waters of North America were chained with sedi- 
ment. The cause of the change of mineral character is here sufficiently 
evident. The animals which flourished in the clear waters of Europe, 
and by whose vital powers the soluble calcareous matter was con- 
verted into chalk, were incapable of living where the sea was turgid. 
In this case the animals were Corals, Sponges, Bryozoa, Cyiheridae^ 
and Foraminifera, 

(c.) Confining our view to narrower limits, let us take for another 
illustration the Great Oolite as it occurs in Oxfordshire and on the 
east coast of Yorkshire. In Oxfordshire the most conspicuous member 
is the '' White Limestone " (not unlike hardened chalk), interposed 
between the Btonesfield Slate series f and the Forest-marble. The 
White Limestone is generally very free &om any admixture of sand 
or day, and is essentially organic in its composition. On the other 
hand, the Forest-marble and Stonesiield Slate contain a large admix- 
ture of sedimentary ingredients ; but neither of them is as thick as 
the White Limestone. Yet, when traced to the coast-section of Scar- 
borough, a great change is found to have taken place in the relative 
development of these three members of the Great Oolite. The 
lowest and highest members have expanded by an accession of sedi- 
mentary materials. They are (as it seems to me) the '' lower " and 
'< upper sandstone and shale series," stated by Prof. Phillips to be 
700 feet in thickness (but possibly more), wlule the central calca- 
reous member has become so thin and debased as to be scarcdy re- 

(d,) We may also instance the Permian Hocks of England. Thus 
we find the calcareous members attaining their maximum development 
of 600 feet according to Prof. Sedgwick, or 600 feet according to Mr. 
Kirkby, in Durham, dwindling to 440 feet in South Yorkshire ; and 
when last exposed towards Sottinghaja,; showing evident symptoms of 
debasement. Over these di^cts the Lower Permian strata are but 
sparingly represented, but as we proceed south-westward are found 
gradually to augment, till in Warwickshire and Salop they attain their 
full thickness of 1500 or 2000 feet, the whole of which is formed of 
sandstones, shales, breccias, and conglomerates. It will be observed 
that the points of maximum development of the calcareous and sedi- 

* Lyell*8 Manual of Elem. Qeol, 6th edit. p. 255 ; Dr. Hector, Quart. Joum. 
Qeol. Soc. vol. xvii. p. 412, &c. 

t In the Memoirs of the G^logical Surrey, 1858, the White Limestone is 
called " the Upper Zone," and the Stonesfield Slate " the Lower Zone *' of the 
Great Oolite. 

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mentary elements are situated at opposite extremities of the area 
occupied by the Permian group. 

Fig. 1. — Comparative Sections in Oxfordshire and Yorkshire, showing 
the Changes in the Sedimentary and Calcareous Members of the Great 
Oolite, when traced from SovUh to North, 



1. Cornbraah. «!. Oombnwh. 

2. Forest-marble. «2. Upper Sandstone and Shale. 

^' ^Ht^***^'^ "" ^^^ ^°* ^"^ ^'^' } =^- I^estone. 

4. Stonesfield Slate, or Lower Zone. ■>4. Lower Sandstone and Shale. 

(«.) To take another example of development, from opposite direc- 
tions, of calcareous and sedimentary strata, we may select the Lower 
Carboniferous Rocks of Belgium and Westphalia, which present phe- 
nomena analogous to t^ose of the same formations in our own country. 
In Belgium the Coal-measures rest upon a thin floor of sandstone 
representing the Millstone-grit. Below this is the Carboniferous 
limestone in great thickness, which in turn rests on a thin series 
of shales. On tracing these strata north-eastward towards the vla- 
ley of the Bhine, they are found to undei^ marked changes in their 
development, as shown by Sir R. Murchison and Prof. Sedgwickt. 
The limestone thins away, while the grits and shales proportionably 
expand. Thus it is found that the series which underlies the Coal- 
measures of Westphalia resembles the Lower Carboniferous series of 
Scotland, consisting of sandstones (Flotz-leerer Sandstein) and shales 
with Posidonomya Becheri, the limestone itself having disappeared*. 
These changes I consider to be intimately connected with those under- 
gone by t^e same formations in Britain, and to be due to the same 
general cause, namely, the northerly drift of sediment during the 
Carboniferous Period. 

Similar illustrations might be multiplied, did space permit ; but, 
without here entering farther into the general principle, I will 
merely state my belief that a comparison of the relative distribution 
of the calcareous as distinguished from the argillo-arenaceous, or 
sedimentary, strata of the Carboniferous, Devonian, and Upper Silu- 
rian formations would show, as a general rule, that the regions of 
maximum development <^ the one series are those of minimum de- 

* "fiihiria" 2Bd edit p. ^27. 

t Although there is a marked unconformity between the Lower and ih& Upper 
Oarbontfsrons Rooks of Westphalia, I do not oonnder it, of itself, suffiaent to 
aoooont for ihe interchange of dcTclopment between the arenaceo-aigilkceoos 
and tiie caloaraoiia strata. 


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velopment of the other, and, consequently, that the relationship of 
the two classes of rocks is complemental. 

Fig.- 2. — Section of the Carboniferous Rocks of Belgium and Westr- 
phalia, showing the augmentation in the thickness of the " Sedimen- 
tary " Strata, and the simultaneous thinning-out of the Carhoni" 
ferous Limestone towards the North-east. 

B.W. Belgium. The Bhine. Weetphdut. N.B. 

1. Coal-measures. 

2. MillBtone-grit (Flotz-leerer Sandfltein). 

3. Carboniferous Limestone (absent in Westphalia). 

4. Lower Shales, expanding in Westphalia. 

* DeTonian Schists, &c. at the base of the Carboniferous Bocks. 

(/.) I have already hinted at the cause of thia inherent distinction, 
but it may be as well to state it in more precise language. As lime- 
stones are by universal consent allowed to have resulted from the 
exuviffi of living animals, they will be accumulated in greatest 
quantity wherever the conditions of life are most favourable. Now, 
tiie fact that limestones, when they occur in considerable thick- 
ness, are generally pure, and free from foreign matter, shows that 
one of the first requisites for limestone-making animals is that they 
should inhabit waters free from mud or sand. Where the White 
Chalk is in greatest thickness, it is pure ; the same is the case with 
the OoHte limestones and with the Carboniferous Limestone of Derby- 
shire, which is of enormous thickness and contains very few beds of 
shale ; but whenever these massive calcareous, rocks begin to be 
split up by the admixture of shales or sandstones, they become im- 
poverished in mineral character and diminished in thickness*. The 
formations in which these phenomena occur show us that the Mol- 
lusca are to some degree independent of such changes, as the remains 
of animals of this class are often abundant in sandy and muddy 
deposits containing small quantities of lime ; but, as a general state- 
ment, it may be affirmed Uiat clear and unpolluted water was essen- 
tial to the full development of those delicately organized animals, the 
Foraminifera, Zoophyta, Polyzoa, and Crinoidea, which are, and have 
ever been, the most efficient elaborators of limestone rocks. 

It is almost superfluous to observe, that, in speaking of the neces- 
sity of pure water to the full development of the marine animala 
above named, carbonate of lime in solution is not understood as a 
source of impurity. This mineral must necessarily be present as the 
material from which the Zoophytes and other animals construct their 

* The limestones of the Culm of Devonshire, as compared with their repre- 
sentatiTes at Bristol, are illustrations of this principle. At Bristol, where it 
occurs in great force, the limestone is pure and Grystelline ; but in Devonshire, 
where black shales are largely distributed amongst the beds of limestone, these 
latter are frequently of so poor a quality that '• even in the richer portions there 
is seldom more than a third or fourth part which is actually burnt for lime.*' 
See Memoir of Sedgwick and Murchison, in QeoL TmoM. 2nd ser. toL t. p. 67i. 

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fitony skeletons and habitations. Carbonate of lime/ however, when 
dissolved by the agency of free carbonic-acid gas, does not interfere 
with the transparency of the water ; and this transparency is the all- 
important condition to the organic growth of limestones. And not- 
withstanding that the amount of carbonate of lime in solution in the 
mid-ocean is often extremely minute, yet its solubility enables it to 
be carried to all parts of the ocean where no particle of sand or day 
can reach ; and thus it may be possible that all sedimentary forma- 
tions have had contemporary calcareous representatives at some one 
or more parts of the globe. 

(g,) There is one objection which may be urged against this view 
of the relations of true sedimentary and the calcareous strata. In the 
cases just cited of the Carboniferous Eocks of Belgium and West- 
phalia, and of the Great Oolite of our own country, the development 
of the sandstones and shales from the one direction, and of the lime- 
stones from the opposite, are not strictly contemporaneous. Thus the 
lower and upper sandstone and shale of the Great Oolite, which are 
thickest in the North, are earlier and later than the " white lime- 
stone," which is most highly developed in the South. This, however, 
arises from the very slow progress of those changes in the character 
of the land and sea which have conduced to the differences of the 
strata formed in each district. While the low6r series of sandstones 
and shales were being formed over the Yorkshire area, the sea-bed 
was gradually preparing for the future development of calcareous 
strata over the Oxfordshire area ; and while limestones were forming 
under Oxfordshire, the sea of Yorkshire was still sufficiently charged 
with sand and mud to prevent their full development in that quarter. 
Another change occurred : the Yorkshire sea again became charged 
with sand and mud, which so far extended its influence to Oxford- 
shire as to check the formation of pure limestone. 

In this instance, as in others, there was a series of oscillations as 
the two agencies alternately predominated ; but, while each in turn 
obtained the ascendency, the influence of the other never entirely 
ceased within certain Umits. Thus, while sandstones and shales 
were accumulating in Yorkshire, sandy limestones and calcareous 
shales were forming in Oxfordshire, as the influence of the calcareous 
element was always more or less in force in the southern direction, 
when it was entirely overpowered by the ascendency of the sedi- 
mentary element in the north. And if we adopt the conclusion of 
Bischof, that it is impossible for any carbonate of lime to be preci- 
pitated at the bottom of the open sea by chemical action, but only by 
the intervention of organized beings, we must allow that tiiese 
agencies, by whatever terms they may be designated, are not mere 
figures of speech, but real and ever-acting forces* of nature. 

It is difficult to represent by means of a diagram what is here 
discussed; but perhaps fig, 3, representing the Great Oolite of 
Yorkshire and Oxfordshire, may assist in rendering my meaning 
more dear*. (See also fig. 1, p. 131.) 

* I am aware that Dr. Wright, than whom there is no better authorify, calls 
in question, on palaontolqgi(^ eyidenoe, the parallelism here stated, which is, I 

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pBocBEDnres op the esoLoeiCAX societt. 

[Feb. 5, 

Pig. 3. — Showing ihe JHttrUmtion of the Calcareous tmd ^^Sedimen- 
tary'' Strata of the Oreat OoliU. 



Il^;arding, then, the calcareous strata as differing in their origin 
and in their mode of distribution from the other stratified rocks with 
which they are associated, it appears to me that it is incorrect to 
class them together under the same term of " sedimentary." I there- 
fore propose to eliminate the limestones from this category, and to 
place them as a distinct class of rocks, confining the term " sedi- 
mentary " to gravels, sandstones, shales, and clays, with their vari- 
ations. The presence of each class of rock in the same geological 
group is no argument in favour of their similarity. Whenever inter- 
stratifications occur, they may be regarded as occupying the neu- 
tral ground between their respective areas of dispersion ; and I have 
little doubt, could it be possible to trace the sources of the " sedi- 
mentary " strata of any formation on the one hand, and of the lime- 
stones on the other, they would be found expanding in opposite di- 
rections, and, as it were, originating at opposite poles. The relation- 
ship here contended for wiU be rendered more clear in the case of 
the British Carboniferous Kocks by the iso-diametric lines presentiy 
to be described. 

(A.) Cause of the frequent occurrence of a Threefold Arrangement in 
Groups of Rochsy with a central Calcareous Member. — We cannot fail 
to have observed that many groups have a tendency to arrange them- 
selves into threefold divisions, the upper and lower being composed 
of sands or clays, the middle of limestone. This has been remarked 
as the result of his observations on the continent by Sir R. Murchi- 
son, and we have many examples in tins country. Thus in the 
Upper Silurian Rocks there is a calcareous centre. This is also the 
case in the Devonian group of Devon and Cornwall, the Carboni- 
ferous, the Permian, the Triassic (when complete), and the Jurassic 

Phenomena of so general a character cannot be accidental, but 
must be in accordance with the system of nature. May not the fol- 
lowing be the true (explanation ? 

bdiieye, in aooordanoe with the order of luooession determined by Prof. Phillips. 
Kotwithstandiiiff, however, the existence in the Scarborough Limestone of an 
Ammonite which is characteristic of the Inferior Oolite in Gloucestershire, I am 
ilrongly inclined to beUere, on stradgraphical grounds, that there has been a 
" migration" of species ; and that this is a case where identity of fossil remains 
does not prove that the strata are contemporaneous. In eidber case, the illus- 
tration is of equal value for my purpose. 

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We may consider a group of rocks as primarily representing thiee 
periods : the first of movement, the second of quiescence, the third 
of movement again. We have already seen that the formation of 
calcareous strata depends mainly on the absence of sandy or muddy 
matter in the sea, which we may believe would be most likely to 
occur during a long period of repose from, oscillations of land, as 
every movement of that kind would tend to increase the quantity of 
sediment poured into the sea. Hence we have the following paral- 
lelism in the three stages : — 

Upper stage preseniinff moremeiit reauUinff in Bedimentaiy strata. 
Middle gt^ „ quieeoenoe „ calcareous strata. 

Lower stage ,, moTement ,» sedimentary strata. 

The movements of the introductory stage have generally been 
more powerM than those of the closing stage ; and thus, while we 
seldom or never find a Geological Epoch introduced with the forma^ 
tion of limestones, we sometimes fibad limestones maintaining their 
position to the close, as in the case of the Clymenia-limestone of the 
Upper Devonian of the Rhine, and in the Upper Silurian Group of 
North America. The earliest stage is generally formed of sandstones 
and conglomerates, representing those physical changes which intro- 
duced the new epoch. 

(t.) IsO'diametrie Lines, — ^We may regard all formations composed 
of sedimentary materials as exhibiting in cross-section a figure in- 
cluded by the arc of a curve and its chord (fig, 4). The end of the 
figure which tapers the more rapidly will represent the shore, the 
other the sea-deep ; and the form of the figure will be variously mo- 
dified by circumstances. The thickest or deepest portion will be not 
at the centre, but between the centre and the shore. 

Kg. 4. — Diagram representing the Primary Section of a Formation, 


d o Beft-BorCgtoe. The Deep. 

Now, if we divide this figure by a series of lines (A, B, C, &e., and 
a, by c, &c.), each decreasing by the same amount, and trace these 
lines over the region occupied by the formation, each will be a 
sort of stratigraphical contour ; but, instead of representing equal 
altitudes, will show equal thicknesses. As such, these lines should 
properly be called iso-picthic ; but this word is so difficult of pro- 
nunciation that I prefer the term iso-diametrie, or simply isometric. 
Such lines are not intended to show the present or actusd thickness 
of the strata, which may have been in part denuded, but the original 
dwehpment before denudation, and may thus be traced over areas 
where the whole has been swept away. In tracing out such lines, 
it is necessary to make accurate comparisons of sections scattered 
over the entire area, and of the original thickness of the strata which 

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are either partially or altogether denuded, estimated upon certain 
definite principles. Of such principles the development of calcareous 
and *' sedimentary '' strata from opposite directions is one of the 
most important. 

It will be perceived that isometric Unes may be used in repre- 
senting the thickness of an individual stratum, as well as of forma- 
tions, groups, or systems ; and the chief point to be attended to in 
tracing them is that the calcareous elements be eliminated from the 
" sedimentary." 

In the case of '' sedimentary ** strata, a series of isometric lines, 
each representing an equal increase or diminution in thickness, will 
become nearer or wider apart as they approach or recede from the 
centre of maximum development. 

In the case of calcareous formations, the focus or centre of nuud- 
mum development will be at opposite points to that of the *^ sedi- 
mentary " in the same group or system of rocks, and the isometric 
curves vrill intersect, gradually diminishing in force from their re- 
spective centres, just as a series of waves propagated from two centres 
of disturbance cross each other and gradudly die away in opposite 
directions. (See Map, PL VII.) 

§ n. Carboniferous Land-surface of Central England, — Having 
thus explained the nature of isometric lines, we proceed to consider 
their application to the Carboniferous Eocks of Britain. I believe 
they wUl be found of essential service in bringing clearly and intel- 
ligibly before the eye several phenomena connected with the distri- 
bution of the sedimentary as compared with the calcareous portions 
of this group. 

It is necessary that a few words should be said in reference to a 
point of interest in the phpical geology of our island, which should 
be clearly understood before treating of the distribution of the Car- 
boniferous strata. I refer to the existence of a barrier of land 
which there are grounds for supposing to have stretched from Wales 
eastward, skirting the southern ends of the South Staffordshire and 
Warwickshire Coal-fields, and including the Cambrian Bocks of 
Chamwood Forest. The evidences for the existence of this land- 
surface I cannot here stop to point out in detail, having already done 
so elsewhere * ; suffice it to say that they are numerous and satis- 
factory, both on general physical grounds and from phenomena ob- 
served in the mines of the coal-fields on approaching its borders. 
This barrier (which possibly was an extension of the Scandinavian 
promontory on the one hand, as very clearly indicated by Mr. (God- 
win-Austen, and thence stretched across the Insh Sea to embrace 
the Cambro-Silurian districts of Wicklow and Carlow on the other) 
divided the Carboniferous Eocks of South Wales, Somersetshire, and- 
Dean Forest from the coal-tracts of Central and Northern England 
and Scotland (see Map) ; and, as we shall see, the strata on each 
side belong to two distinct systems of distribution, and are due to 
two different sets of oceanic currents. 

• * Th6 Coal-fields of Grcat Britain,' 2nd edit. p. 246 e^ m^. 

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1862.] hull — cabbonifssovs strata. 137 

1. Bbgion Nobth of the Barrier. 

(a.) South-easterly attenuaUon of the ^'Sedimentary" Strata; 
North-westerly attenuation of the Calcareous Strata. — If we take a 
series of vertical sections of the various sandstones, grits, and shales 
of the Carboniferous Period, from the midland counties of Lei- 
cester, Warwick, and South Stafford, then through the adjoining 
districts to the north, and ultimately into Scotland, we shall 
find a constant accession of material edong this course. Thus, I 
find that the increase from Leicestershire to Lancashire, along a 
line running north-west, is no less than 8000 feet of strata in a 
horizontal distance of 65 miles, which gives a slope of 1 in 43, or 
about 1^ 30', as the angle of increment of sediment in this distance ; 
the maximum thickness of the strata in. Lancashire being 12,000 
feet, and in Leicestershire 4000 feet. 

If, on the other hand, we make a similar series of sections of the 
limestones, from Derbyshire as a centre, either west, north-west, 
or north, we shall find that these calcareous strata constantly di- 
minish in thickness in these directions. In other words, the lime- 
stones become thin as the sandstones and shales become thick. 

We may thus regard Derbyshire as a focus of activity from whence 
the calcareous elements have been propagated with constantly 
diminishing intensity, at least in the directions here stated. What- 
ever be the extreme thickness of the Derbyshire limestone, it is 
apparently not less than 5000 feet, as determined by several mea- 
sured sections of the Geological Survey, — ^a bulk of calcareous matter 
truly astonishing when we regard it in its true aspect as the work 
of marine animals. Nowhere else in Britain does the formation 
attain such vertical dimensions ; but they may possibly be less than 
those which it reaches in the B.ocky Mountains and elsewhere. 
Traced northwards into Northumberland and Scotland, the lime- 
stones, as is now well known, dwindle down in thickness as they 
become more and more mixed with transported sediment, and in 
Lancashire appear on the point of expiring. 

Traced southwards, the limestone ends against the shelving shore of 
the old land-surface of the barrier, as at Chamworth Forest (fig. 6) ; 

Eig. 5. — Section of the Carboniferous and Triassic Strata lying on the 
edge of the Cambrian Bocks of Chamwood Forest, 

Chamwood Forest 

Gk«oe Bien. 

1. Triassic Breocia. 3. Carboniferous Limestone. 

2. Carboniferous limestone-shale. 4. Cambrian slate and porphyry. 

or is altogether absent, as in South Staffordshire*, on account of 
this district having been above the sea, as shown by Mr. Jukes f. 

* Murchison, Proc. Gteol. Soc. vol. ii. p. 407. 

t ' Memoir on the South Staffordshire Coalfield/ 2nd edit 

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From this old land, however, little or no sediment was given oflf, as 
the limestone attains a very great thickness, and is pure dolomite at 
a short distance from the present site of the Cambrian rocks *. Over 
Derbyshire the sea must have been remarkably clear ; but it became 
more muddy northward, till in Scotland the sediment was so abun- 
dant as to extinguish life in the Crinoids and Corals, by whose 
labours the limestone was formed. Hence we have a clear proof thai 
the sources of the sediment were in the north. 

In Yorkdiire these variations in the relative distribution of the 
calcareous and non-calcareous strata of this group have long sined 
been pointed out by Prof. Phillips. In a diagram appended to ' The 
Geology of Yorkslure ' these variations are represented by an in- 
genious design, <' and prove," as the author remarks, '^ that the 
agencies which resulted in the formation of the limestone acted with 
greatest effect from the south-east, while those which resulted in 
the deposition of sandstones and shales acted with greatest effect 
from the north-west." 

He then proceeds to trace the range of the Lower Scar-limestone, 
showing that towards the south-east of its course between Bibbles- 
dale and Wharfdale it is 1000 feet in thickness. Northward at 
Pen-y-ghent it is about 600 feet; at Kirkby Stephen even less. North 
of the Ime frt>m Kettlewell to Bar Fell it becomes split up by beds of 
shale, grit, and coal, which continually augment northwards, until at 
length it assumes all the characters of the Lower Carboniferous 
group of Scotland. 

He then shows that the Yoredale series increases in thickness 
towards the north-west (that is, in the direction along which the 
Umestone becomes attenuated), attaining at Bar Fell 1000 feet or 
more, and dwindling down to 300 feet under Great Whemside. 

These passages describe changes in the Lower Carboniferous series 
of Yorkshire, which are applicable on a much wider stage to Eng- 
land and Scotland, from the edge of the harrier northwards. Had 
Prof. Phillips extended his observations, and followed out the train 
of thought upon which he had entered, 1 can well understand what a 
fund of illustration and force of reasoning this subject would have 
received at his hands. 

The thickness of the Carboniferous Limestone over every part of 
Britain is indicated by the isometric lines on the Map. These thick- 
nesses have been obtained from the carefully measured sections of 
the Geological Survey — so far as it has extended, and from the 
published works of various authors in the northern districts of Eng- 
land and in Scotland: the following are a few special instances. 
Thus, the thickness of the Umestone in Coalbrook-Dale is 60 to 1 00 
feet ; in Denbighshire, 1000 to 1500 feet ; in Flintshire, 1000 to 
1500 feet ; Anglesea, 360 feet ; south side of the Lake District, 
1500 feet; Scottish Borders, 500 feet; the Lothians, 162 feet; and 
Lanarkshire, less. In Fifeshire it is sometimes on the point of ex- 

* « At Breedon Cload, where its thickneaa is upwards of 1000 feet, with few or 
no bands of shale. 

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(b,) Distribution of the '* Sedimentary*^ Strata of the Garhomferovs 
Period, — ^The isometric lines on the Map will indicate better than 
any description the development of the grits, sandstones, and shales, 
from the north towards the south, collected firom the most reliable 
sources. We shall commence witii South Staffordshire. 

South Staffordshire, — As is well known, the Lower Carboniferous 
Bocks, including the MiUstone-grit, are absent here, for the same 
reason that the limestone is absent, namely, that this was a district 
of land forming a portion of the northern side of the barrier at this 
period. As the land became submerged during the Coal-period, the 
sea gradually encroached, and spread the Coal-measures as far south 
as the Lickey. Notwithstanding the uneven nature of the Silurian 
sea-bottom on which the Coal-measures were spread, we feel certain 
that near Dudley there exists the fall series of the Coal-formation, 
as proved by the fossil shells from the ironstones, which are iden- 
ticsd with those from the Lower Coal-measures of Coalbrook-Bale 
and Lancashire^. Here the combined thickness of the lower, 
middle, and upper Coal-measures (as determined by Mr. Jukes) is 
1810 feet, which becomes considerably expanded north of Wolver- 
hampton. This northerly expansion is remarkably exemplified in 
the case of the '* thick coal " of Dudley, which, forming at tiiat j^ace 
one solid seam 10 yards in thickness, becomes split up into nine 
distinct seams by the intercalation of 420 feet of strata over the 
northern area of the coal-field. 

In the Warunckshire Coal-field we find tiie Coal-series attaining, 
according to Mr. Howell t, a combined thickness of 2950 feet, in 
addition to which the Millstone-grit and limestone-shale is 500 feet. 
The main coal here also presents an example of the thinning of the 
strata tow£u-ds the south ; for, at the north side of the field, this 
seam is split into five beds by the intervention of 120 feet of strata. 

In the Leicestershire Coal-field, the Coal-series attains a thick- 
ness of about 2500 feet, while the Millstone-grit and limestone-shale 
never exceeds 150 feet. The " main coal" of Moira offers another 
illustration in addition to those mentioned above of southerly at- 
tenuation t' 

The three coal-fields of South Staifordshire, Warwickshire, and 
Leicestershire, presenting, as they do, a somewhat similar develop- 
ment of sedimentary strata, lie in the direction of the same series of 
isometric lines, and are to be compared with the coal-fields of North 
Staffordshire, Notts, and Derbyshire, immediately to the north of 

Nwrih Staffordshire, — ^The development of the strata in this coal- 
field, as compared with that in any of the three just described, is 

* The following are some of these, determined by Mr. Salter : — Diacina nitidti^ 
Producta xabrictUa, lAngula eUiptica. — Mr. Jokes's Memoir, 2nd edit. p. 27. 
The presence of these Lower Coal-measures is distinctly stated by Sir R. Mur- 
chison in his original description of this coal-field (Proc. G^L Soc. vol. ii. p. 407). 

t " Memoir on the Warwickshire Coal-field," Mem. Geol. Surr. 1859. 

\ Memoir by the Author, " On the G^eology of Ashby-de-la-Zoucb," &c, Mem. 
Geol. Surv. 1860. 

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great indeed. The three divisions of the Coal-measures attain a 
thickness of 6000 feet, in addition to which the Millstone- grit and 
Yoredale series are about 4000 feet, forming in all 10,000 feet of 
sedimentary strata, which is an increase of 6550 feet over the War- 
wickshire coal-field. The Carboniferous sands and days appear to 
have been poured in greatest quantity along a tract of country 
running south-eastward through this district, causing the isometric 
lines to make a southerly bend when crossing it, and entitle this 
tract to be called '* the line of maximum accumulation " *. 

Flintshire and Derbyshire, — ^The development of both the calca- 
reous and " sedimentsj'y " elements in these counties are probably 
nearly similar. The combined thickness of the upper, middle, and 
lower Coal-measures reaches 3000 feet ; and the Millstone-grit series 
from 800 to 1000 ; in all 3800 or 4000 feet. The Carboniferous Lime- 
stone varies from 1000 to 1500 feet f. 

Anglesea. — ^The thickness of the Carboniferous series in Anglesea 
(as determined by Prof. Ramsay) is as follows : — Coal-measures, 
1300 feet ; Millstone-grit, 200 feet ; Carboniferous Limestone (con- 
taining some beds of sandstone and shale), 450 feet t • separating 
the two elements we may say for the << sedimentary," 1600 feet; 
for the calcareous, 360 feet. The whole series, however, is not pre- 
sent, as the little coal-field has suffered from denudation, for which 
allowance must be made. 

NottSy Derbyshire^ and Yorkshire, — Crossing the limestone anti- 
clinal into Derbyshire, we find the thickness of tiie strata in the neigh- 
bourhood of Alfreton as follows : — lower (or Gannister series), middle 
and upper measures, 3500 feet ; Millstone- grit and Yoredale series, 
600 feet ; in all 4100 feet. As we do not, however, throughout the 
whole of this great coal-field reach the top of the Carboniferous 
rocks, which have either been denuded or are hidden beneath the 
Magnesian Limestone, several hundred feet ought to be added to 
the above, making the total thickness about 4500 feet, as compared 
with 2600 feet in Leicestershire. The thickness of these strata 
augments, though not rapidly, along their extension into Yorkshire. 
The development of the series in Durham varies from 3500 to 4000 

Lancashire, — In this county there is a greater development of 
Carboniferous sedimentary strata than in any district in England. 
The upper Coal-series of Manchester is 2000 feet in thickness ; the 
middle, 3200 feet ; and the lower, 2000 feet ; the thickness of the 
Millstone-grit series is unascertained, but is at least 3000 feet ; and 
the Yoredale Eocks, 2000 feet ; in all 12,200 feet. This thickness is 

* I maj here explain that it appears probable that the barrier of land was 
broken through to the south of Warwickshire, allowing the northern current, 
which brought the sediment, to escape through the opening. (See Map.) On this 
hypothesis we can explain the enormous accumulation of sediment along this 
line. The thicknesses of the strata are taken from sereral sections made by the 
Qeoloeical Survey. 

t These thicknesses are taken from the horizontal section by the Geological 

I Horizontal Sections, Sheet 40, with description. 

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greater than that of North Staffordshire hy 2200 feet^ and of War- 
wickshire by 8760 feet*. 

CwmherUmd. — It might have been expected, according to the 
principle of north-westerly expansion which I am now endeavouring 
to explain, that the sedimentary series of Cumberland should be 
even thicker than that of Lancashire, lying, aa it does, to the north 
of this latter county. This, however, is not the case ; and to account 
for the meagre development of the Carboniferous rocks there appeared 
to me for some time extremely difficult. I feel confident, however, 
it is only an apparent anomaly, and is capable of explanation. The 
proximity of the Cumbricm Mountains is evidently the primary cause 
of the thinness of the strata ; and my fiiend, Mr. Salter, has sug- 
gested to me that a shallow sea and a shelving shore are sufficient 
to account for these phenomena. There is at least another explana- 
tion, and that is, that the Cumbrian Mountains having been islands 
in the Carboniferous sea, and rising in front of the current which 
brought the sediment, caused it to bend from its course, and by in- 
creasing the velocity, prevented the deposition of the fiill supply near 
their coasts. Either of these explanations appears sufficient. 

Scotland. — ^From the position of the Carboniferous rocks which 
occupy the great depression between the Firths of Forth and Clyde, 
as compared with their representatives soutii of the border, and 
from the substitution of stratified shales, sandstones, <&;c., for lime- 
stones in the lower portion, it seems probable that, when the whole 
series was originally deposited, the sedimentary portion attained 
a development unsurpassed in any other district in Britain. In 
reality, however, we have no means of judging of the thickness of 
the Upper Coal-series, as it is incomplete, a vast quantity of strata 
having probably been removed by denudation from off the present 

The highest member of the Carboniferous series is the ** Flat- 
coal Group," representing (as shown by Messrs. Howell and GFeikie) 
a portion of the true Coal-measures of England, as being more recent 
than the Boslyn sandstones, the equivalent of the Millstone-grit f. 
The thickness of this division is 1000 feet in the Lothians, and 840 
feet in Lanarkshire, according to Mr. Ealph Moore J. The ** Flat- 
coal Group " would appear from the fosffll shells, which consist of 
various species of Andiracosia, to be the equivalent of the Middle 
Coal-series of England ; and we have hitherto looked in vain for 
representatives of the Lower Coal-measures, or Gannister Beds, with 
their peculiar Lower Carboniferous Mollusca. The Millstone series 
is then, compared with that of Lancashire or Staffordshire, only 
1500 feet, as is also the case with the ** Edge-coal Group," while 
the sedimentary strata of the Carboniferous Limestone have enor- 
mously expanded. It thus appears that there has been an increase 

* Most of these thickneesee have been determined bj Mr. fiinney, F.B.S., with 
the exception of the Millstone-grit and Yoredale series, which were partlj mea- 
•tored bj myself. (See Mr. Binney's papers in Trans. Qeol. Soa of Manchester, 
vol. i.) 

t " Memoir on the Geology of Edinburgh," p. 105. 1861. } '* Yertioal Sectioa." 

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of sediment in the lower portion, and a decrease in the upper, as 
compared with the northern districts of En^nd. 

The following seems to be the correspondingseries in both countries: 

Carboniferous Series of England and Scotland, 

England (Lancashire). Scotland (Lothians). 

Feet. Feet 

1. Upper Coal-measupes 2,000 1. (Lost by denudation ?) 

2. Middle Coal-measoree 3,200 2. rPartiaUj denuded ?) 1000 

3. Lower Coal-meaBures 2,000 3. (Supposod to be absent) 

4. MiUstone^t 3,000 4. Kosljn Sandstone Group ... 1500 

5. Yoredale Rocks 2,000 5. Edge-coal Group 900 

6. Lunestone (no "sedimentary" 6. Lower Carboniferous series ] 

strata) 2,000 (shales and sandstones, j- 3000 

with little limestone) 


Total "sedimentary" strata. . . 12,200 Total " sedimentary" strata. . . 6400 

It will thus be observed that, even allowing 2000 feet for the 
upper portion of the Scotch series, lost by denudation, the amount of 
" sedimentary " strata in Scotland could not reach that of Lancashire, 
notwithstanding the accession it receives in the horizon of the Car- 
boniferous Limestone. Future investigation will probably result in 
adding considerably to the thickness of strata, and in throwing some 
light on the equivalents of the Gannister Beds, which in the north 
of England form a most interesting and important group of strata*. 

Two other suppositions, however, may be advanced, one of which 
is that we have here a case of compensation not unfrequently to be 
observed ; and that, as the sedimentary strata have received so large 
an accession in the lowest member of the series, they have had a 
corresponding reduction in the upper portions of the system, as com- 
pared with England. But the supposition which I regard as the 
more probable is, that we may here have passed across the position of 
maximum accumulation, and may have reached the point where the 
beds begin to thin away in the direction of the old coast-line, as 
represented in fig. 4, page 135 f. 

2. Bsoiov South op the Barrier. 

We must now retrace our steps to the district south of the barrier, 
which includes the coal-fields of South Wales, Forest of Dean, Bristol 
and Somerset — ^Mr. Godwin-Austen's hypothetical trough of the 
Thames Valley, and the culm series of Devonshire. 

The sedimentary strata of this region appear to have been derived 
not from the north-west, as in the case of Uie coal-fields north of the 
barrier, but from the west-south-west, as indicated by the isometric 

* Mr. Geikie has suggested to the author, as a possible explanation of the 
absence of the Gannister Beds or Lower Coal-measures of England, that the 
Scottish area was elevated into land during the period in question. 

t Taking tlie line A as the point of maximum accumulation, this may represent 
Ibe Carboniferous series of Lancashire and Yorkshire, while the Scottish Coal- 
fields will be situated at 6, and the English at B, C, D, E, — ^E being the THniBfaBiig 
poiat towards the South-east of Bngluid. 

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lines. The variations of development of the Carboniferous rocks have 
been fuUy discussed by Sir H. De la Beche*, who shows that the 
greatest vertical thickness is attained in Glamorganshire of 12,000 
feet or more, while east of Bristol the same beds are only 5500 feet, 
and in the Forest of Dean 3385 feet thick. 

To what extent the true Coal-measures once surmounted the culm- 
measures of Devonshire it is, of course, impossible to say ; but, from 
the position of these beds with reference to the Glcunorganshire 
coal-field, from which they are separated by an anticlinal axis, there 
was probably a large amount of strata now lost by denudation. We 
must, with Sir E. Murchisont, regard the culm-measures themselves 
as the representatives of the Carboniferous Limestone, and probably 
the Yoredale series and Millstone-grit ; but, as there are only thin 
bands of limestone, with Posidonomya Becheri, to represent the great 
limestone formation of Bristol and Chepstow, it is evident the " sedi- 
mentary " elements have predominate in Devonshire to the disad- 
vantage of the calcareous. These changes I have endeavoured to 
illustrate by means of the isometric curves. 

The Carboniferous series, therefore, to the north and to the south 
of the barrier belong to two different systems, not of time, but of 
circumstances. Their materials have been accumulated in nearly 
opposite directions. The sources of these materials have been differ- 
ent, and also the direction of the currents. That the Carboniferous 
series was connected by sea, round the western extremity of the 
barrier, is proved by identity of fossils in the limestones and Lower 
Coal-measures of the North of England, Central Ireland, and South 
Wales, <fec. In each of these districts Pecten papyraceus and Oonia- 
titea Listen occur in the Lower Coal series. The calcareous member 
was more fully developed in the east than in the west, and extends 
from Somersetshire into France and Belgium, until, as already stated, 
it thins away on approaching the Rhine. 

3. North Atlantic Continent. 

Readers of the works of Sir C. Lyell will recollect how that author, 
in treating of the distribution of the Carboniferous rocks of North 
America, shows that the sedimentary materials increase in thickness 
and become coarser in texture as they approach the north-eastern 
seaboard. Thus in Nova Scotia these materials attain, according 
to Dr. Dawson, a thickness of 14,000 feet J, in which the limestones 
play a subordinate part, as they do in Scotland. From the flanks of 
the Alleghany range, westward and southward, into Central America, 
the *' sedimentary '* strata gradually thin away, while the calcareous 
as constantly augment in bulk, until, on reaching the Rocky Moun- 
tains, they attain magnificent proportions §, forming, as shown by 
Sir J. Richardson and Dr. Hector, the huge and rugged masses of 
the central range. The tendency of the calcareous and sedimentary 
elements of the system to become developed in opposite directions is 
therefore strongly marked over this Continent. 

♦ Memoirs of the Geological Survey, vol i. t " Siluria," 2iid edit. pp. 298 A, 
\ '' Acadian Geology." §. Quart Joom. GeoL Soc. vol. xriL 

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From the north-easterly expansion of the sandstones and shales, 
as well as their increased coarseness in the direction of the North 
Atlantic, Sir C. Lyell has inferred the existence of a continent 
(occupying the position of this ocean), from the waste of which these 
strata have been derived. Mr. Oodwin- Austen has also indicated 
its position*. The probability of such a continent is reduced to 
certainty by the similarity and frequent identity of the Carbonife- 
rous flora of Europe and America, the land having formed a bridge 
for the migration of the plants from one country to another. We 
may suppose this land to have included Greenland, Iceland, and 
Scsmdinavia. Eecollecting, then, the south-westerly attenuation of 
the American strata, and the south-easterly attenuation of the 
North-British, can it be doubted that the same continent was the 
parent of the coal-bearing strata of both countries ? This being ad- 
mitted, we may also idfer that the shores of this AdarUis were 
washed on the West side by a current running south-west, which 
drifted the sediment in that direction ; and on the other by a cur- 
rent running south-east, which carried the sediment over the sub- 
merged portions of Scotland, England, and Irelandf. It may be 
assumed as a general principle, that all the oceanic currents north 
of the equator running west come from the north, and those running 
east come from the south. Hence we may infer that, during the 
Carboniferous Period, there was open sea in the arctic regions of the 
Western Hemisphere, generating an arctic current — a proposition 
borne out by the occurrence of plants and shells of this period j: as 
high as lat. 78^ ; and on the other hand we may infer land to have 
existed to the north of Europe, or at least of Britain., whose shores 
were swept by a current similar in its direction to the Gulf-stream. 
Throughout this long geological period did these currents carry the 
sands and days southward ; and as the distance from the sources of 
these materieds increased, so did the amount deposited diminish; 
which to my mind is a satis&ctoiy explanation of Uie tTiiTining out of 
the strata in certain directions. 

I would here beg to remind the Society of a former communica- 
tion, in which it was attempted to be shown that the sedimentary 
strata of the Lower Mesozoic Formations undergo a similar diminu- 
tion of volume, when traced from the north-west towards the south- 
east of England. Now it is remarkable that the line of maximum 
development of the Carboniferous and the Mesozoic Eocks very nearly 
correspond in each case, stretching from Lancashire in the direction 
of London. So rapid does the attenuation of the Trias and the Lias 
appear to be, that I inferred that these formations would be found 
to terminate somewhere about the position of the Chalk escarp- 

« In hiB elaborate memoir " On the possible Extension of the Coal-measures, 
&0.," Quart. Joum. GeoL Soc. vol. xii 

t I do not propose to touch on the subject of the deriTation of the Carbo- 
niferous strata of Belgium and Oermanj ; but there can be little doubt of the 
northerly origin of ihe sedimentary strata, drifted bj currents from land lying 
to the eastward of the Scandinayian Promontory. 

I Brought to this country by Sir £. Belcher. 

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1862.] HULIr— CABBONIFER0173 SI&ITA, 145 

ment*. Tho whole series, therefore, may be considered as a system 
of wedges lying with their thin edges pointing towards the escarp- 
ment of the Chalk ; and the absence of these formations under the 
Cretaceous Bocks at Harwich (for an account of which we are indebted 
to Mr. Prestwich) is, I submit, a proof of the soundness of the views 
here advancedf. 

Is it not therefore a remarkable circumstance, that the north has 
been the source for the supply of so many non-calcarcous formations, 
including those of the Carboniferous, Triassic, liassic, and Oolitic 
Periods, and that there has been a general *' northern drift," re- 
peated at intervals from a period so far remote (at least as far as the 
commencement of the Carboniferous) until that immediately pre- 
ceding our own epoch ? Such a series of events, when we consider 
the great physical changes which have occurred throughout this 
enormously long period, must, I think, be traced to some general law 
r^^ting the course of oceanic currents, and exhibits a remark- 
able uniformity in the operations of nature through long periods of 
geological history. 

The extent of the land which was capable of supplying so vast a 
quantity of material must have been very large, and, judging by the 
characters of some of the Carboniferous and more recent strata, seems 
to have been composed principally of granitoid or metamorphic 
rocks. Its southern limits may have reached the western and northern 
coasts of Scotland ; and the Highland mountains may have formed 
outlying islets and headlands. 

§ IIL Summary of Oonelusions. 

1. It appears, from the above considerations and examples, which 
farther research will enable us to multiply, that calcareous strata are 
distinct from argillaceo-arenaceous, not only from differences of ori- 
gin (a fact now generally admitted), but also in the manner of their 
distribution ; so that limestones ought to be removed from the class 
of rocks termed " sedimentary." 

2« That in any natural group or system of strata, consisting, on 
the one hand, of *^ sedimentary " strata, and on the other of calca- 
reous, it appears that the dir^ion of tiie greatest vertical develop- 
ment of the one will be that of the smallest vertical development of 
the other. In a word, where the one gets thin, the other gets thick. 

3. That, on the principles here stated, the frequent occurrence of 
natural groups of rocks consisting of three members, the first and 
third " sedimentary," the second (central) calcareous, admits of ex- 

* ** On the Soath-easterlv Attenuation of the Lower Secondary Bocks, Sec,*' 
Quart Joum. Qeol. See. toI. xvi. 

t In my wprk on *The Coal-fielcU of Great Britain/ I have given a full 
exposition of these views, and a section showine the limits of the Carboniferous 
and Mesozoic Bocks over the South-east of England (pp. 253 et seq., 2nd edit). 


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4. That a bairier, or tract of dry land, existed nearly across Cen- 
tral England, dividing tke Carboniferous Bocks' into two distinct 

5. That to the north of this barrier the " sedimentary " strata of 
the Carboniferous Period become attenuated from north- west to 
south, while the calcareous strata thin out from south to north, 
Derbyshire being the centre of greatest development. 

6. That to the south of this barrier the "sedimentary" strata 
become attenuated from west to east ; while the calcareous thin out 
tram east to west 

7. That, while on the north side of the barrier there was a cur- 
rent bringing the sediment from the north, on the south side there 
was a current bringing sediment from the west. 

8. That richly productive Coal-measures do not exist under the 
Eastern Counties. 

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Frwn November let to December Slit, 1861* 


Presented by the respective Societies and Editors. 

Albany. Forty-second Anmial Report of the Trustees of the New 
York State library. Transmitted to the Legislature, April 3, 
1860. 1860. From the New York State Library, Albany. 

. Forty-third: April 9, 1861. 1861. 

Seventy-third Annual Report of the Regents of the Uni- 

versity of the State of New York. Made to the Legblature, January 
13, 1860. 1860. 

— . Seventy-fourth: made to the Legislature, January 17, 1861. 

Twelfth Annual Report of the Regents of the University of 

the State of New York, on the condition of the State Cabinet of 
Natural History and the Historical and Antiquarian Collection 
annexed thereto, &c. Made to the Assembly, March 15, 1859. 

J. Hall. — Contributions to the Palaeontology of New York (1865- 
58), 7 (woodcuts). 

— . Thirteenth Annual Report of the Regents of the University 
of the State of New York. Made to the Senate, April 10, 1860. 
J. HalL — Contributions to Paleontology (1858-59), 55 (woodcuts). 

— . Fourteenth : made to the Assembly, April 10, 1861. 1861. 

L. Lincklaen. — Guide to the Geology of New York, 17 (19 plates). 
J. Hall-Contributions to PalsBontoIogy (1869-60), 89. 


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American Journal of Science and Arts. Second Series. VoL zzxii. 
Nos. 95 and 96. September and November 1861. 

J. M. Ordway.— Wateiglass, 153, 837. 

F. B. Meek and A. H. Worthen.— The age of the Goniatite-lime- 
stone at Rockford, Indiana, 167. 

L. Lesouereux. — The Coal-formations of North America, 193. 

6. H. Cooke.— The White Limestone at Sussex and Franklin Zinc- 
mines, New Jersey, 208. 

B. F. Shumaid.— -The Primordial Zone of Texas, with New Fossils, 

F*. Biiiinffs.— The Red Sandstone of Vermont, 232. 

S. W. Johnson. — ^Agricultural Chemistry, 233. 

F. B. Meek.— The Cretaceous and Carboniferous Rocks of Texas, 278. 

J. P. Lesley. — ^The North American Coal-measures, 281. 

T. S. Hunt — ^The origin of some Magnesian and Aluminous Rocks, 

J. M. Gillis. — Earthquake on the island of Penang, 297. 
Earthquake at Syracuse, New York, 297. 
Eckfeldt — ^Natural dissemination of Gold, 297. 
J. Evans, Obituary Notice of, by C. T. Jackson, 311. 
L. Lesquereux. — ^Fossil Fruits m the lignite of Brandon, Vermont, 

W. Fairbaim. — Address to the British Association, 363. 

C. W. Eliot and F. H. Storer.— Arsenic and Zinc, 380. 

0. C. Marsh.— Gold of Nova Scotia, 395. 

J. L. Cassels. — Meteorite which fell in Hindostan in 1857, 401. 
Spectrum-analpis, 408 ; Caesium and Rubidium, 409 ; Thallium, 411. 
H. St-Cl. Deville.— Reproduction of certain Crystalline Iklinerals, 

J. Nickl^ — ^The so-called Semi-metals, 416. 
T. S. Hunt— On the " Taconic System," 427. 

1. G. St Hihdre.— On Species, 431. 
W. Haidinger. — ^Meteontes, 440. 

Assurance Magazine and Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, No. 
47. Vol. X. Parti. October 1861. 

Athenaeum Journal. Nos. 1775-1783. 

Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 
Swedish Expedition to Spitzbergen, 760. 
Eruption of Vesuvius, 884. 

Berlin. Zeitschrift d. Deutsch. gool. Gesellschaft. Vol. xiii. Heft 1. 

Proceedings, 1-5; Letters, lG-19. 

A. von Strombeck. — Ueber den Gault und insbesondere die Qargas- 

Mergel (Aptien, d'Orb.) im nordwestlichen Deutschland, 20. 
R. Bunsen. — Ueber die Bildung des Granites, 61. 
A. Streng. — ^Zur mineraloj^schen imd chemischen Kenntniss der 

Melaphyre und Poiph\Tite des sudlichen Harzrandes, 64. 
C. Rammelsberg. — Die Pseudomorphosen in Leucitform von Boh- 

misch-Wiesenthal, 96. 
M. Deiters. — Die Trachytdolerite des Siebengebirges, 99 (2 plates). 

Canadian Journal. New Series. Nos. 35 and 36. September- 
November 1861. 
T. S. Hunt— Canadian Chloritoid, 484. 

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Canadian Journal. New Series. Nos. 35 and 36 (continuid). 

R J. Chapman. — ^Freshwater Shells in the Upper Drift of Western 

Canada, 497. 
— . Minerals and Geology of Canada, 425, 500. 

. Lazulite, 465. 

H. Milne-Edwaids. — ^Molluscs and Zoophytes at great sea-depths^ 

L. SaBmann. — ^Unity of geological phenomena in the planetary 

system of the sun, 525. 
Coal-deposits of British colonies in the South, 478. 
Mineralogical Notices, 526; Notices of Books, 528. 

Chiistiania. Del Eongelige Norske Erederiks Universitets Stiftelse 
FremstiUet i Anledning af dets Halvhondredaarfest af M. J. 
Monrad. Universitets-Program. 1861. 

. Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-SelBkabet i Christiania. Aar 

1860. 1860. 

Sars. — Oyer de i vor Glacialformation indsluttede organiske Lev- 
ninger, 104. 

. Solennia Academica Universitatis Liter. Reg. FredericaneB 

ante 50 annoa conditse die 2 Sept. anni kdccclxi. celebranda in- 
dioit Senatos Acad. 1861. 

Colliery Guardian. Vol. ii. No. 52. December 28, 1861. 
W. W. Smyth.— licctures on Mining, 433* 

Critic. Vol. xxiii. Nos. 591-599. 

Notices of the Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 

D. Page's 'The Past and Present Life of the Globe,' noticed, 543. 
G. Rorison's 'The Three Barriers,' noticed, 544. 

H. Miller's ' Footprints of the Creator,' noticed, 545. 

Geneva. Memoires de la Soc. Phys. et d'Hist. Nat. de GeneTe. 
Vol. xvi. 1st Part. 1861. 

E. Ritter. — Recherches sur la figure de la terre, 165. 

Geologist. Vol. iv. Nos. 47 and 48. November and December 

S. J. Mackie. — Cervus teiracroceros? from Folkestone, 465. 

G. E. Roberts. — Deep sinking for coal in the Wyre Forest Coal-field, 

C. C. Blake. — ^Distribution of Mastodon in South America, 469. 
J. Delbos.— Geoloffv of Biacrritz, 473. 

E. Hull — Glacial Phenomena of Wastdale, Cumberland, 478. 
J. H. Macalister.— Fossils of North Bucks, 481. 
J. Plant — ^Human Remains in the Trent VaUey, 495. 
K Suess. — ^Large Camivora of the Austrian Tertiaries, 496. 
Report of the Meetings of the German Association, 501. 
J. Whitaker and T. T. Wilkin&on.— The Burnley Coal-field, 508. 
T. A. Readwin. — Gold in Merionethshire, 511. 
H. Eley. — ^Acciunulation of Earth in caves, 521. 
C. C. Blake.— Creation by law, 525. 
A. C. Ramsay. — Glaciers in Wales, 530. 
J. W. Salter.— SigiUaria and Bivalves of the Coal-measures, 532. 

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Geologiflt. Vol. iy. Nog. 47 and 48 (continued). 

- J. H. ftnd G. Gladstone. — ^Aluminous mineral &om the Cluilk of 
Brighton, 635. 
C. Gould.— Geology of Tasmania, 536. 
R. R Scott— Granites of Donegal, 537. 
W. Fabbaim.— Temperature of the Earth's Crust, 540. 
R. Mallet. — ^Velocity of Earthquake-waves, 542. 
J. Borwick. — Ebctinct Volcanos of Western Victoria, 643. 
E. Belcher. — Glacial phenomena of N.W. America, 544. 
Vaughan. — Subterranean movements, 545. 
C. B. Gordon. — ^Formation o fland, 547. 
Proceedings of Geological Societies, 605, 548. 
Notes and Queries, 517, 554; Reviews, 517, 559. 

Halle. Zeitschrift fiir die gesammten NaturwiBsenschaften. Her- 
ausgegeben von dem Naturw. Ver. f. Sachsen u. Thiiringen in 
Halle, redigirt von C. Giebel und W. Heintz. Vol xf. 1860. 

O. Heer. — ^Die klimatischen Verhaltnisse des Tertiarlandes, 1. 
A. Kenngott. — ^Ue|)er die Zusammensetzung einer Vesuvlava, 102. 
fl. Suckow. — ^Ueber den Kohlenstoff in den Urgebirgsgesteinen, 275. 
fl. B. G^einitz. — Die Zukunftsgeologie und Hm. Volgers Schrifb iibeF 

die Steinkohlenbildung Sadisens, 148. 
C. Giebel.— Ueber Hm. von Schauroth's Kritik der Muschelkalk- 

petrefakten, 42. 
W. Heintz. — ^Ueber den Btassfurtit und Boracit, 155. 
W. Lilljeboig. — ^Fund eines fossilen Walfischskelets in Roalag, 279. 
Raman. — Die Trias der Umgegend Amstadts, 325. 
Notices of Geological, Mineralogical, and Palseontological works. 

. . VoLxvi. 1860. 

K Chop. — ^Ueber den Sondershausen Muschelkalk, 48. 

C. Darwin. — G^eologi8che Aufeinanderfolge organischer Wesen, 125. 

A. Delesse. — ^Untersuchungen iiber die Pseudomorphosen, 136. 

C. GiebeL — Neue .^chna aus dem lithographischen Schiefer Solen- 

hofenj 127 (plate). 
. Zur Fauna der Braunkohlenformation voii Rippersroda, 147 


. Aechte Knochenfische im Steinkohlen^birge, 324. 

J. Steenstrup. — ^Die Knochenbreccien am Adnatiscnen imd Mittel- 

meere, 183. 
Ft. Ulrich. — ^Die Mineralvorkommnisse in der Umgegend von Goslar 

nach ihren Fundorten zusammengestellt, 209. 
0. GiebeL — Der Lias in den CordiUeren S.-Amerikas, 54. 
. Analysen des ooUthischen Thoneisensteinsbei Sommerschen- 

burg, 339. 
. Zur Flora der sachsisch-thiiringischen Braunkohlenforma- 
tion, 517. 
M. Siewert— Ueber Wolfiiamstahl, 332. 
E. S()chting. — ^Ueber den Einschluss von Fliissigkeiten in Minera- 

Notices of Geological, Mineralogical, and PaliBontological works. 

Institation of Oivil Engineers. The National Defences, by Q. P. 
Bidder. 1861. Excerpt, Minutes of Proceedings, Vol. zz. Ses- 
sion 1860-61. 

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D0VATI0V8, Ifil 

InsUtotioii of Civil Engineen. Abstraoti of Frooeediags, Satrimi 
1861-62. N08.I-6. 

J. A. Longridge.— The Hooglilj and the MutU BiTm, 3. 

linnean Sodeiy. Journal. YoL tL No. 21. Noyember 1^ 1861. 

literary Gaiette. New Series. Vol. Tii. Nos. 175, 178, 180, 181, 

Notioes of Meetings of Scientific Societies, ftc 

liyerpool Geological Sooiety. Froceedings, S^obs lit and 2iid, 
1860-61. 1861. 

Q, H. Morton. — ^Basement-bed of the Eeuper in Wirral| 4. 

, Geology of Shelve, Shropshire. 7. 

W. 8. Horton.— Oolitic strata of Wilts, Glooeestershin, and York- 
shire, 8. 
H. Duckworth. — ^Fossils of Peiim Island, Gtdf of Oambay, 9. 
G. S. Worthy.— Aust Cliff, Gloucesterslure, 10. 
D. Walker.— Arctic Regions visited hj the '<Fox " in 1867-68, IL 
G. H. Morton. — ^Pleistocene deposits in the vicinity of liveipooli 12, 

. Laws and List of Members 1861. 

London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magaiina. 4th 
. Series. YpL ttji, Nob. 148 and 149. November and December 

G. Eirchhoff and R. Bunsen. — Spectram-analyns, 829. 

W. Haidinger. — Considerations on Meteorites, 3^. 

F. Field.— Silicates of Copper from Chili, 86L 

R. Everest — Deep-water-unes around the British IsleSi 408. 

J. Harley. — ^Ludlow Bone-bed and Conodonts, 404. 

J. Powne.— Old Red Sandstone of For&rshire, 404. 

J. L. Playfiair.— Volcano at Edd, 406. 

C. Murray. — Earthquake at Mendoza, 406. 

J. W. Dykes. — ^Increase of Land on the Coromandel Cosst, 406. 

W. Haicunger. — ^Meteorites, 442. 

Frankland. — ^Lithium-spedrum, 472. 

London Review. Yol. ii. No. 42. YoL iii. Noe. 71-78, 
Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 

Longman's Notes on Books. Vol. ii. No. 27. November 30, 1861. 
H. W. BristoVs ' Glossary of Mineralogy,' noticed, 186. 

Manchester Geological Society. Transactions. Session 1861-62. 
Nos. 7 and 8. 

R Lacey and E. W. Binney. — ^Lead-ore in the coal-measures, 186. 

J. Taylor. — Pleistocene Deposits on the Stockport and Woodley 

Railway, 147. 
J. Ghoodwin. — ^Ventilation of Mines, 164. 

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152 poKATioira. 

Ueohamcs' Ifagazine. New Series. Vol. vi. Nos. 149-157. 

Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 

Metallurgy of Copper, 289. 

G. Simpson. — ^Ventilation of Mines, 389. 

Hilan* Memorie del R. I. Lombardo di So., Lett, ed Arti. Ser. 2. 
Vol.ii. rasc.5. 1861. 

. Atti del R. I. Lombardo. Vol. ii. Fasc. 10-14. 1861. 

L. Magrim. — Sulla Meteora cbe nella sera del 4 Marzo 1861, colpiya 
la Cattedrale di Milano, 284 

Mining Review. Vol. iv. No. 159. November 6, 1861. 

MontreaL Canadian Naturalist and Geologist. Vol. vi. No. 5. 
October 16, 1861. 

K Billings. — Graptolites at the base of the Lower Silurian rocks, 

T. S. Hunt— Barrande's Primordial Zone and Emmons's Taconic 

Svstem, 874. 
R. L Murchison. — Geological Address given at Manchester, 898. 

Moscow. Bulletin de la Soc. Imp. des Nat. de Moscou. Ann^ 
1860, No. 2. 1860. 

H. Trautschold. — Ueber die stratigraphischen Verhaltnisse des Gou- 

vemement Kalu^ 589. 
V. Kiprijanoff. — ^Fisdireste im Eiu'kischen eisenhaltigen Sandsteine, 

601 (4 plates). 

. . Nos. 3and4. 1860. 

V. Kiprijanofif. — ^Fichreste im Kurkischen eisenhaltigen Sandsteine, 

40 (plate). 
R. Hermann. — Ueber die Zusammensetzimg der Epidote, 191. 
N. B. de Mamy. — ^Ueber die Entdeckung von Kammererit im Beig- 

bezirke Ufalensk (Ural), 200. 
R.Ludwi^. — Die Lagenmgsverhaltnisse der productivenSteinkohlen- 

formation im Gouvemement Perm, 223 (map). 
H. Trautschold. — Recherches g^ologiques aux environs de Moscou : 

couche jurassique do Galiowa, 838 (3 plates). 
W. Haidmger.— Ueber das von H. Dr. J. Auerbach in Moskau 

entdeckte Meteoreisen von Tula, 362. 
E. von Eichwald. — Ueber die Saugethiere der neuem Molasse des 

sUdlichen Russlands, 377. 
R Hermann. — Ueber monoklinoedrischcs Magnesiahydrat oder Tex- 

alith, 675. 

. Nouveaux Memoires do la Soc. Imp. des Nat. do Moscou. VoL 

xiii. Livr. 2. 1861. 

Munich. Sitzungsberichte der k. Bayer. Akad. d. Wissensch. zu 
MUnchen. 1861, L Heft 4. 1861. 

Offenbach. Zweiter Bericht des Gffenbacher Vereins fiir Natur- 
kunde. 1861. 

0. Volger. — Zur Kenntniss der Orthoceraten und Belenmiten, be- 
senders der Belemnitellen, 59 (plate). 

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soKAnoKS. 153 

Paris. L'Ecole des Miues ; Annoles des Mines. 5* B^rio. Vol. xx. 
4* et 6* livr. de 1861. 

Groner et Lan. — ^Etat present de la m^tallurgie du fer en Angleterrei 

Gallon. — Sur les pron^ r^cents de Texploitation des mines, 279. 
Delesse et LaugeL— Kevue de geologic pour Tann^ I860; 899. 

Philadelpliia. Academy of Natural Sciences. 1861. Sheets 5-10. 

F. B. Meek and A. H. Worthen.^New Palfisozoic Fossils from Illinois 
and Iowa, 128. 

Photographic Society. Journal. Nos. 115 and 116. 

Boyal Geographical Society. Proceedings. Vol. v. No. 5. 
A. R. C. Selwyn. — Geological Notes on South Australia, 242. 

Eoyal Horticultural Society. Proceedings. Vol. i. Nos. 27-31. 

Society of Arts. Journal. Vol. ix. Nos. 467-478. 

W. Vivian.--Structure of Metals, 806. 

Consular Information [San Salvador and Chantuban, &c.]; 804, 815. 

A. Macrae.— -Oil-springs of America and Canada, 89. 

Stockholm. Kongl. Svenska Vet.-Akad. list of Members, &c. 
May 1861. 

, Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akad. Handlingar. New 

Series. Vol. iii. Parti. 1859. 

. Ofv^ersigt af Xongl. Vetenskaps-Akad. Forhandlingar. Sjut- 

tondo Arg&n^n, 1860. 1861. 

0. Bystrom. — ^Hum metallemas specifika varme tillvezen med tem- 

peraturen, 307 (2 plates). 
L. I. Igelstrom. — Om ett aphrosideritlikt mineral, 453, 

B. Lindman. — ^Den blekroaa faltspathens sammansattning, 259. 

G. Lindstrom. — GoUands Brachiopoder, 337 (3 plates). 

A. E. Nordenskjold. — Om Svenakift yttrotantal- och yttroniob-mine- 
ralier, 27. 

. Vanadin- och molybdensyrans kristallformer, 299 (plate). 

. Oxidemas kristallformer, 439 (2 plates). 

och J. J. Chydenius. — ^Kiistalliserad thonord och tantalsyra, 

133 (plate). 
H. V. Post—Om gyttja, dy, torf och myUa, 41. 
J. Steenstrup. — Om JBenbreccioma vid Adriatiska och Medelhafvet, 


Turin. Memorie dolla Reale Accad. d. Scienze di Torino. Serie 
Sec. VoLxix. 1861. 

Perazzi. — ^Formazione cuprifera contemporanea al terrene inferioie al 
calcare liassico nella provincia di Nizza, Lxn. 

B. Castaldi. — Cenni sm vertebrati fossili del Piemonte, 19 (10 plates). 
G. L. Montefiore. — Sopra una nuova lega cristallizzata di nicheHo e 

ferro, 119. 
G. Capellini. — Cenni geologicisulgiadmento delleligniti dellabassa 

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£. Sismonda. — Appendice alia descrizione dei Pesci e dei Crostacei 

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Yienna. Feierliohe Sitzung der kais. Akad. der Wissenschaften am 
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Fr. von Hauer. — Die Geologie und ihre Pflege in Oesterreich, 119. 

— . Sitzungsberichte der kais. Akad. d. Wissen. : Math. Nat. CI. 
Vol. xlii. No. 29. 1861. 

W. Haidinger. — Die EisverhjQtnisse der Donau in den Jahren 1861 

bis 1860, 739. 
— . Ueber daa Rothbleierz von den Philippinen, 742. 
, Ueber das Meteoreisen von Nebraska, 744. 

. . Vol. xliii. 3. Heft. Jahrg. 1861, Mara. I.und2. 


E. Suesfl. — Ueber die grossen Raubthiere der osterreicbischen Ter- 

tiar-Ablagerungen, 217 (2 plates). 
K. von Sonklar.— 5)er grosse Schuttkegel von Wiener-Neustadt, 288 

(map and plate). 
G. TscnermaK. — ^Analyse eines dem Hydrophan ahnlichen Minerals 

von Theben, 381. 
W, Haidinger. — Ueber die Natur der Meteoriten, 889. 

. . 4. Heft. Jahrg. 1861, April. Erste AbtheiL 

A. Bou€. — Ueber die Karst- und Tricbterplastik im Allgemeinen, 283. 

■ . . 6. Heft. Jahrg. 1861, Mai. 1. und 2. Abtheil. 

K. F. Peters. — Geologische und mineralogische Studien aus dent 

siidostlichen Un^rU) 385 (map and platej. 
T. Redtenbacher.-— Ueber die neuesten Entdeckungen durch die Spec- 

tralanalyse, 664. 

. Vol. xliv. 1. Heft. Jahrg. 1861, Juni. Zweite AbtheiL 

W. Haidinger. — Dr. IL v. Dechen's geologische Kaite von West- 

phalen und der Rheinprovinz, 28. 
. Meteoreisen von Kogue River Mountain in Oregon und von 

Taos in Mexico, 29. 

. Die Dandenong-Meteoreisenmasse in Melbourne, 31. 

, Die Meteoritensammlung des k.-k. Hof-MineraUen-Cabinets 

am 30. Mai 1861, 31. 

. Ueber A. de Zigno's Genus CSfcadopteris, 32. 

. Der Meteorit von Yatoor bei Nellore in Hindostan, 70. 

' . . 2. Heft. Jahrg. 1861, JuH. Zweite Abtheil. 

W. Haidinger. — Der Meteorit von Pamallee bei Madura, 117. 

G. Tschermak. — ^Untersuchung des Cancrinits von Ditro in Sieben- 

biirgen, 134. 

. Die Wanneentwicklung durch Compression, 141. 

. Analyse des rhombiscnen Vanadits von Eappel in Kamten, 

J. Redtenbacher. — ^Untersuchung einiger Mineralwasser und Soolen 

mittelst der Spectralanalyse, 153. 
V. Forcher. — ^Ueber Wolfiramverb ndungen, 159. 
A. Schrotter. — ^Nachricht von zwei Vorkommen des Casiums und 

Rubidiums, 2ia 

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Yiexma. Jahrbuch der k.-k. geologiflchen EeichBanstalt, 1860. 
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F. yon RichthofezL Stu^lien aus den ungarisch-siebenbiirg^hen 

Trachytgebirgen, 153. 
Aibeiten in dem chemischen Laboratorium d. k.-k. geolog. Reichs- 

anstalt, 279. 
Yerhandlungen der k.-k. geoL Eeicbs.^ 101. 

Wiesbaden. Jahrbiicher des Vereins fiir Naturkunde im Herzog- 
thum Nassau. Yol. xv. 1860. 

B. FreB^uB. — Ohemische Untersochiuig der wichtigBten Mineral- 

wasser des Herzog. Nassau, 124. 
W. Casselmann. — Chemische Untersuchung einiger Mineralquellen 

iU Soden und su Neuenbeimi ISd. 


Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Srd Series. Yol. viii. 
Nofl. 47 and 48. November-December 1861. 

H. J. Carter.— Structure of Foraminifera of Scinde, 866, 446 (3 

J. W. Salter.— New PaleBozoic Star-fishes, 484 (plate). 
W. W. Stoddart. — ^A Microzoal Bed on the Carboniferous Limestone 

of Clifton, near Bristol, 486 relate). 
J. R. Greene's ^ Manual of the Coelenterata,' noticed, 40S. 
H. Seeley. — ^The Fen-clay formation of Cambridgeshire, 503. 
M. F. Kaner.-^The Foraminifera of the Yienna Tertiary Basin, 607. 

Inatitut, P. !'• Section, Nos. 1451-1458 ; 2* Sect. Nos. 301, 310, 
Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 

Leonhard und Bronn's Neues Jahrbuch, Jahrgang 1861. lY. Y. YI. 

F. Schar£ — ^Ueber die Bau-Weise der wiirfelformigen Krystalle, 

385 (3 plates). 
R. Blum. — ^Foyait. ein neues Gestein aus Siid-Portugal, 426. 
C. F. Peters. — ^Ueoer Ealzit und die rhomboedrischen Earbonspathe 

im AUgemeine, 434 
A. Eiiop. — Die Kupfererz-Lagerstatten yon Namaqualand und Da- 

Gergens. — ^Entstehungvon Schwefel-Erystallen in seiner Miner^lien- 

Sammlung, 551. 
A. Delesse. — ^Die hydrolonsche Karte der Stadt Paris, 553, 

H. Fischer. — ^Ueber den Einziffit, 641 

C. F. Peters. — ^Mineralogische Notizen, 656. 

H. B. G«initz. — Ueber denRiesenhirsch des Dresdener Museums, 669. 

Gergens.^-Ueber fossile BLuteffel-Coccons bei MaiiuL 670. 

Letters ; Notices of Books, Mubvals, Geology, and Foesils. 

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Names of Donors in Italics, 

Barrande, J, Defense des Colonies. Groupe Frobatoire compre- 
nant la Colonie Haidinger, la Colonie Erejei et la Coulee Erejei. 

Bidder, G. P. Jun. The National Defences. 1861. From the In- 
stitution of Civil Engineers. 

Binhhorst, J. T, B. van den. Monographie des Gastdropodes et des 
Cephalopodes de la Ciaie Superieure du Limboiii*g. 1861. 

Bland, T. On the Geographical Distribution of the genera and 
species of Land Shells of the West India Islands, with a Catalogue 
of the Species of each island. 1861. 

Capellini, G. Cenni geologic! sul giadmento delle ligniti della basa 
val di Magra. 1860. From J. G. Jeffreys, F.0.8. 

Carpenter, P. P. Catalogue of the Eeigen Collection of Mazatlan 
MoUusca. 1860. From the New York MtaU-Library. 

Catalogue of upwards of fifty thousand volumes of ancient and 
modem books, English and Foreign, in all classes of literature 
and the fine arts, by Willis and So^eran. 1862. From Messrs. 
WUUs and Sotheran. 

Cheney, T. A. Illustrations of the Ancient Monuments in Western 
New York. 1860. From the New York State-Library. 

Deshayes, G, P. Description des Animaux sans Yertebres decouverts 
dans le bassin de Paris, pourservir de supplement h, la description 
des coquilles fossiles des environs de Paris. livr. 25 et 26. 1861. 

Dewalque, M. G. Sur la constitution du Systeme Eifelien dans le 
bassin anthrazifke du Condros. 1861. 

Esposirione Italiana. 1861. Classe YI. Mineralogia, MetaUurgia, 
ed Armi. Consiglio dei Giurati. 1861. From L. Homer, Esq., 
Pres. G.S. 

Favre, A. Notice sur la B^union extraordinaire de la Soci^te Geo- 
logique de France k Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne (Savoio) le 1«' 
Septembre 1861. 1861. 

Gahh, W. M. Synopsis of the Mollusca of the Cretaceous Formation ; 
geographical and stratigraphical. 1861. 

Haast, J. Report of a Topographical and Geological Exploration of 
the western districts of the Nelson Province, New Zealand. 1861. 

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ffaU, J. Contributiona to PaLeontology (1858-59). 1860. 

. . (1859-60). 1861. 

■I . Descriptions of New Species of Fossils from the 

Upper Helderbeig, Hamilton^ and Chemung Groups. 1861. 

Hector y J. On the Geology of the country between Lake Superior 
and the Pacific Ocean (between the 48th and 54th parallels of 
latitude) visited by the Government Exploring Expedition, under 
the command of Capt. J. Palliser. (1857-1860). 1861. 

HuTy 0, Becherches sur le Climat et la Vegetation du Pays Ter- 
tiaire. Traduction de C. T. Gaudin. 1861. 

Hopkins, E, Fiery Globe and the Australian Gold-fields. 1861. 

Horton, W. 8. On the Geology of the Stonesfield Slate and its as-* 
sociate formations. 1861. 

James, H. Abstracts of the Principal Lines of Spirit-levelling in 
Scotland; and Plates, 1861. From the Ordnance Survey of 
Great Britain, 

KongHga Svenska Fregatten Eugenics Itesa omkring Jorden under 
Befal af C. A. Virgin &ren 1851-53. Haft 8. Fysik, II. 1861. 

. . Haft 9. Physique, IL (French Translation). 1861. 

. . Haft 10. Zoologi,V. 1861. 

. . Haft 11. Botanik, II. 1861. From the Swedish 


Lartet, E. NouveUes recherches sur la co-existence de Thomme et 
des grands mammiferes fossiles r^put^s caract^ristiques de la 
demi^re p^riode g^ologique. 1861. 

LineMueUy L, Guide to the Geology of New York and to the State 
Geological Cabinet. 1861. 

Lovhiy 8. Om nAgra i Vettem och Venem Funna Crustaceer. 1860. 

MarcoUy J. Notes on the Cretaceous and Carboniferous Kocks of 
Texas, 1861. 

Murchison, R, L On the Inapplicability of the new term " Byaa " 
to the **Permian" group of rocks as proposed by Dr. Geinitz. 1861. 

Odernheimery Fr, Das Festland Atistralien. 1861. 

Oweny R. Paleaontology, or a systematic summary of extinct 
animals and their geological relations. 2nd edit. 1861. 

PeriheSy B, de. De Thomme ant^diluvien et de ses oeuvres. 1860. 

Reevey L, Colichologia Iconica. Monographs of the genera Trigonia, 
Scarabus, Myochama, Cymhiumy TerehratuUt, Argonautu, Nautilus, 
Melania. 1860-61. 

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158 DOKATIOirg. 

Eeport of the Committee on the Decay of the Stone of the ISew 
Palace at Westminster. 1861. FrcmProf. J. Tinnant, F.QJ3. 

Jleport on the Nova Scotia GFold-fields, by J. B. Hea and J. Howe. 
From Prof esaor J. T&nnarU, F.Q.8. 

Sandherger, F. DieConchyliendeslCainMrTertiiirbeckena. Seohste 

Sara, M. Om Siphonodentalium vitreum en ny alasgt og art af 
dentolidemes faimlie. 1861. 

. Oveisigt af 'Serges Echinodeimer. 1861. 

Schvarcz, O. A Fajtak^es SzLnvonala hirom ^y elost. 1861. 

. . A Gorogok geologiaja jobb napjaik ban. 1861. 

. Foldstani eLn^etek a Hell^na^^ nagy stfndor koraig. 

1 Kotet. 1 FuMt. 1861. 

. . IKotet. 2Pmtet. 1861; 

. La G^logie Antique et lea Fragments du Oayom^en. 1861. 

' ■ ■. Lampsacusi Strato. AdalA a tudom^y tort^et^ez. 
IFuzet. 1861. 

. Becherches but les Th^ries Geologiquee des Grecs. 1861. 

Towson, J. T. Icebeigs in the Southern Ocean. 1859. 

Welhaven, L S. Cantate ved det Norske UniTcrsitetB HalThnndred- 
aarsfest den 2*«" September, 1861. 

Zirkel^ F. De geognostica Islanditt constitutione obserratioliea. 
1861. Presented by Sir C. Lyell, F.Q.8. 

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Fbbbuaky 26, 1862. 


It was Resolved that the^Annual Contribution to be paid by both 
Resident and Non-residenl Fellows elected after the Ist of March 
next shall be Two Pounds Two Shillings per annum : the Composition 
for future Annual Contributions being Twenty-one Pounds. 


George Charlton, Esq., Mining Engineer, Dukinfield, near Man- 
chester, and Julius Schvarcz, Ph.D., Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary, 
were elected Fellows. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On the Drift containing Recent Shells, in the neighbourhood of 
WoLYEBHAHPTON. By the Rev. William Listeb, F.G.S. 

• (Abridged.) 

These drift-deposits lie £or the most part upon a nearly level surface 
of Lower Keuper Sandstone, overlooked eastward by a range of low 
Bunter and Permian hills, of which Show Hill and Bushbury Hill 
are the chief. Other exposiures are upon Permian sandstone in the 
town of Wolverhampton, ana upon the Coal-measures of the district 
adjoining. Bushbury Hill i^ chiefly remarkable for the number of 
travelled blocks of granite and greenstone Ijring aroimd its north- 


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western base — ^the side lying most open to bygone arctic and glacial 
influences. No boulder-clay nor drift;6d material of other land is 
associated with these blocks upon the hills in this immediate neigh- 
bourhood. The drift at three localities, viz., Bushbury Junction, Oxley 
Manor, and Wobaston Big Meadow, had probably a paralleHsm in 
time of deposition and agency of formation ; though I cannot satisfy 
myself whether to regard them as the remains of a low terrace-line 
skirting the valley, or as the result of undercurrents, relaying the 
derived material in banks parallel with its strike. In the exposure 
of this drift at Bushbury Junction, where it is an apparently un- 
stratifled bed of day and sand, with an admixture of both rounded 
pebbles and angular flints, I have met with the following marine 
shells, which have been kindly determined for me by Mr. J. Gwyn 
Jeffireys, F.G.8.: — Nassa reticulata^ Tvrritella communis^ Purpura 
lapilluSf Littorina squalida, Astarte arctica, Cardium edule, TelUna 
solidula, and Cyprina Islandica. 

Rolled shells and other fossils derived from Liassic rocks accom- 
pany these, such as Ort^hcece, Ammonites, Cardinioff and Belem- 
nites, I have also met with a fragment of Downton Sandstone 
(Upper Silurian), bearing a cast of Mhynckonella, together with 
pieces of coal, having rounded edges and strise upon their surfaces, 
and of unfossilized wood similarly rounded. 

At the exposure of this drift at Oxley Manor, half a mile N.W. of 
Bushbury, its physical character was that of a day-bed resting upon 
sand. The following shells were met with in the clay, though the 
condition of all the imbedded remains was more fragmentary than at 
the first-named place : — Cardium echinatum. Tapes vtrginea, Venus 
striata, Modiola modiolus, and Turritella communis. In connexion 
with his determination of these and the before-mentioned species 
from Bushbury Junction, Mr. Je£&eys has favoured me with the 
following note : — 

" All of these shells are much rolled and broken, and they appear 
to have been cast up by the tide on a pebbly beach. They indicate 
also the former presence of a gradually shelving tract of sand below 
the beach seawards, as well as of an intermediate belt of loose stones 
or shingle in the littoral zone. It is possible that these shells may 
have been carried off with the pebbles from a beach in the Arctic 
regions by an iceberg, which, after traversing a considerable distance 
in a glacial sea, may have stranded or melted, and deposited its load in 
the spot where the shells and pebbles have now been found. The pre- 
sent data are, however, insuffident to enable me to form any opinion 
on this point. All the species now inhabit the Arctic Sea. Two of 
them, Astarte arctica and Littorina squalida, are not found living in 
our seas ; but all the rest are common British species. The period 
of this deposit in Staffordshire, whether original or derivative, may 
have been coeval with that of the Kelsey Hill formation, which has 
been lately described by Mr. Prestwich in the * Quarterly Journal of 
the Geological Sodety *.' Eight spedes enumerated in his paper also 
occur in the deposit under notice, which in its turn possesses four 
* Vol. xvii. p. 446. 

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1862.] LI8TBB — 8HELL9 IK DRIFT. 161 

(AstarU arctieay Cardium eehtnahmif Modiola modiolus, and Tapes 
virginea) wanting in the Eelsey Hill catalogae. The Cyrena, or 
Corbicula, is absent.'' 

The third exposure of this line of drift-deposit is a partially strati- 
fied mound of sand and gravel, 88 yards long, 38 yards wide, and 
about 2 yards in height, situated in Wobaston Big Meadow, about a 
mile and a half north of Bushbury Junction. The long axis of this 
mound corresponds with the strike of the before-described beds, and 
with the direction of the valley, which is due N. and 8. This 
deposit has not at present yielded me any shells nor specimens of 
angular flints. The chief of its derived contents are the following : — 
pebbles of limestone, slate, quartzite, vein-quartz, black quartz, 
veined lydian-stone, a fragment of syenite, and a small Silurian 
coral {CyathophyUum Loveni), The part cut into exhibits the fol- 
lowing section : — 

ft. in. 

Vegetable mould 6 

Pebbles and sand (the pebbles vary in size, are 
largest at the top of the bed, and become gra- 
dually smaller below) 2 6 

Bed of stratified sand, with a few small pebbles . . 16 

Two other patches of drift, lying at a somewhat higher level, occur 
in this imme^te neighbourhood, and are probably related by coin- 
cidence of time and deposition. The first locality is that of Gompton 
Holloway, in the parish of Tettenhall, where day-deposits are seen 
to fill up eroded hollows of the Keuper Sandstone on the hiU-sides 
west of the plain. These contain derived fossils from liassic rocks, 
similar to those met with at Bushbury. A suite of them has been 
collected by Henry Hill, Esq., of Dimstall. Many Hke remains were 
found some years ago at Wightwick, another point at this higher level. 
Here, however, the day contains angular flints, as at Bushbury, and 
the low hills are covered with scattered drift-pebbles. 

In drift-day, at about the same level, near the Hospital in Wol- 
verhampton, Liassic OrypTuxcs have been met with ; and fossils of 
like age in a similar bed at the New Cemetery. I am indebted to 
Mr. Henry Beckett, F.G.8., for some notes respecting this easterly 
extension of the boulder-day, as also for a notice of other exposures 
at Penn, from two to three miles south of Wolverhampton. At Upper 
Penn, the day yidded pieces of wood and a broken tibia of Bos. I 
am also informed by Mr. George E. Eoberts of a considerable exten- 
sion of these clays, with sandy layers, westerly ; for they are well 
exposed at Adeton, eight miles S. W. of Bushbury, and there abound 
in TurriteUcB, A recent exposure in that district is at a spot half a 
mile north of Badger Hall. 

In condusion, I would call attention to the deep and wide- 
stretching sand deposit described by Prof. Beete Jukes as lying in 
immense quantities around West Bromwich and upon the district 
east of Birmingham*. In the lower part of this sand, which in places 

* " The South Staffordflhire Cod-field," p. 326. 


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attains a thickness of 100 fee^ marine sheUs identical with those 
found by myself at Bushbnry and Oxley Manor have been detected 
by Mr. Beckett, at Mr. Sparrow's colliery of Portobello. This feet is 
valuable as a determination of the relative position in which we shall 
be justified in placing these shell-bearing days in the drift-deposits 
of Staffordshire. 

2. On a Split Boulder in Little Cijhb&a, Wsstebn Isles. 
By James Smith, Esq., F.R.8., F.G.S., of Jordan HUl. 

Split erratic blocks are of frequent occurrence in Switzerland. The 
only explanation of this phenomenon which I have met with is that 
of M. diarpentier, in his " Essai sur les Glaciers." Speaking of the 
blocks, he says, " Quelques uns sont fendus, mais la direction des 
fentes prouve jusques k I'^vidence que les ruptures sont le r^ultat 
d'une chute et nuUement d'un choc horizontal " (p. 180). M. Char- 
pentier offers no conjecture as to the height from whence the blocks 
could have fallen ; but where there is no superincumbent precipice of 
rock near, it must have been from one of ice. Indeed, I may say that I 
obtained proof that such was the case ; for upon examining the frag- 
ments which lay at the foot of the escarpment of ice which terminates 
the Glacier of Grindelwald, I observed one which, from the fr^hness 
of the fracture, I concluded must have fallen very shortiy before my 
visit, and obviously from the surface of the glacier. 

Such blocks occur occasionally in the basin of the Clyde, in situa- 
tions where there is no adjoining height from which they could have 
fallen, — a circumstance which I can only account for by supposing the 
former existence, in the same localities, of ice in the shape of glaciers, 
icebei^, or coast-ice. I may add that some of the split boulders 
are also scratched, exhibiting additional proofs of glacial action. 

To one of these blocks I wish to call the attention of the Society, 
on account of the pectdiarity of the circumstances of its present 
position. There is on the west coast of Scotland a well-marked cliff 
and terrace, indicating an elevation of about forty feet above the 
present sea-level ; and, from the amount of solid rock which has been 
removed by the washing action of the sea, we may form some con- 
ception of the prodigious lapse of time during which the sea-level was 
stationary at that height. 

This is nowhere better seen than in the Islands of Great and 
littie Cumbra. The larger island is composed of red sandstone, 
traversed by trap-dykes ; the smaller one is composed entirely of trap. 
The trap of the dykes, from its greater hardness, has been worn away 
more slowly than the sandstone ; hence their projection frx)m the 
sandstone cliff; hence also the greater breadtii of the terrace in 
Great Cumbra than in that of the trap of the smaller island. 

The terrace in Littie Cumbra, formed by the wasting action of the 
sea at right angles with the coast-line, has been subsequentiy ground 
down and scratched by a force acting parallel to it and the ancient 
cliff; and it is upon this that the blocks in question must have fallen. 

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The block is composed of trap, apparently the same as that of the 
island, but at such a distance from any neighbouring height as to 
preclude the supposition that it could have fallen from it. I see there- 
fore no other hypothesb by which we can account for its present 
position than that of supposing that it must have fallen from an 
escarpment of ice. 

We have thus two independent glacial phenomena which belong 
to a period subsequent to the formation of the forty-feet terrace, 
showing that the lengthened period of its formation belongs to the 
Glacial Epoch. 

Sketch of the Split Boulder on Little Cumbra, Western Isles, 

[N.B. In the foreground the shore ehows glacial striae.] 

There is yet one circumstance connected with this locality which 
requires to be noticed. The scratched surface of the ancient terrace 
passes under the sea ; and although it has been exposed to its wasting 
action for a length of time equivalent in duration to that of the 
present sea-level, the strise have not been obliterated. 

Here we have in juxtaposition two distinct cases of the efltects 
of the wasting action of the sea. In the most ancient of these, or that 
when the cliff and terrace were formed, we have a removal of rock 
amounting to at least a hundred feet ; in the second, or that of the 
present sea-level, the amount of wearing away of the same rock 
cannot exceed a small fraction of an inch. 

I am convinced that no decided change of level has taken place in the 
West of Scotland during the historic period ; but there may have been 
small changes : and it is no objection to such a supposition that they 
have not been observed and recorded ; such changes of level either pass 

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onobservedy or are ascribed to the retiring or encroaching of the sea. 
We may suppose, therefore, that in times comparatively recent a small 
movement of elevation or depression of the land has taken place, 
sufficient to have brought the rocks in question within this wasting 
action of the sea. 

3. On the Icb-wobn Bocks of Scotlakd. 
By T. F. Jamibson, Esq., F.G.S. 


1. Erosion of the rooks beneath the Drift. 

2. loe-aotion compared with torrent-action. — Case of the latter at Grinan. 

3. Beaaons for thinking the erosion of the rocks in Scotland to be due chiefly to 

land-ice, and not to water-borne ice. 

4. Bemarkable instances at Ixx^ Treig and Glen Spean. — ^Boulders lifted up 

far aboye the parent rock. — Glen Boy. 

5. Example of ice-action at Enapdale. — Motion uphilL 

6. Probaole solution of the phenomena. — Beference to Greenland. 

7. Difficulty as to climate. — ^Fossil-eridenoe. — ^Probable period of elevation. 

8. Proofs of great submergence subsequent to period of elevation. 

9. Criteria for distinguishmg action of land-ice from that of floi^ting ice. 

10. Denudation. — ^Probable geological date of the great land-glaciation of Scotland. 

§ 1. At the bottom of all the Drift-beds there is in our northern 
latitudes a phenomenon which, if rightly understood, would dispel 
much of the obscurity that still envelopes the history of that period ; 
I mean that curious scoring and polishing of the rocky bed on which 
the Drift is found so frequently reposing. Saussure, in his Alpine 
journeys, had often remarked those rounded masses which he called 
rochea moutonnSes, and also did not omit to note the polishing of the 
rocky surfiEice ; curiously enough, however, although so familiar with 
glaciers, he did not refer these appearances to their true cause, but 
attributed this scoring of the rocks to the passage over them of 
boulders hurried along by a rush of water. Colonel Imrie, also, and 
Sir James Hall, who in 1812 both described the same appearances 
in Scotland, sought to explain them in a similar manner. As this 
theory of their origin has found favour with several geologists, I am 
induced to describe here a case of some interest which came under 
my notice, and was peculiarly fitted to test the sufficiency of a 
powerful torrent, carrying with it great boulders and stony d^ris, 
to afiect the rocks in tiie manner under consideration. 

§ 2. In the county of Argyle an artificial channel was cut, a good 
many years ago, between the Sound of Jura and Loch Fyne, called 
the Crinan Canal ; it is about 9 miles long, and lies in an £. and W. 
direction, or rather S.E. and N.W. Sloping up from the south side 
of this canal there is a range of hilly ground, where there are a 
few small lakes that have been converted into reservoirs for regu- 
lating the supply of water, and which are situated at a height of 
about 700 feet above the c^ial. Three of these lakes, each of them 
covering an area of about thirty acres, have been connected, and the 
depth of their waters increased by artificial embankments. But in 
February 1859, owing to heavy floods or some other cause, the 

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1862.] JAXIESOir— GLAdAHOK OF SCOTLAin). 165 

embankment of the uppermost of these three lakes gave way, and 
its water, rushing into the next one, caused it also to burst its bar- 
rier ; and the contents of both, now descending suddenly into the 
lowermost lake, broke the embankment of it likewise ; so that the 
contents of the whole three were at once let loose, and rushed down 
the steep channel of a mountain-stream with immense force. Owing, 
luckily, to the retired, barren nature of the locality, there were no 
houses in the way, nor much else that could sustain serious damage, 
except the canal, a great part of which was destroyed, and quite filled 
up with stones and graved. It took an expenditure of several thou- 
sand pounds to repair the injury done to its channel, and the engi- 
neer who superintended the work told me that some of the boulders 
he had taken out of it weighed eleven tons. Here, then, was a great 
volume of water rushing violently down the flank of a hill, through 
a descent of about 700 feet, and carrying along with it stony debris 
and boulders of several tons weight. Having seen some account of 
the matter in the newspapers at the time, I was very glad when, in 
August 1860, I had an opportunity of examining the scene of the 
catastrophe. By this time the damage to the canal had been re- 
paired, but the channel of the hill-stream was very much as the 
torrent had left it. The rocks there consist of firequent alternations 
of clay-slate, greywacke-grit, and syenitic greenstone, covered occa- 
sionally by a variable thickness of stony earth or drift. This cover- 
ing the rush of water had in many places quite cleaned off, carrying 
the boulders and stony d^ris before it, and throwing them down in 
those spots where the force of the torrent began to ML. I saw many 
blocks that it had borne along, measuring 3 to 4 feet in length, and 
a few even fix>m 8 to 11 feet. On none of these was there anything 
at all resembling the glacial polish and strisB ; neither were there 
any such markings on the smaller pebbles. Moreover, the debris 
was for the most part quite unmixed with clay or mud, and consisted 
either of clusters of large boulders, or masses of washed gravel, — ^the 
finer sediment having been carried away by the retiring water. This 
debris was therefore quite unlike our boulder- earth, and more resem- 
bled some of the coarser kinds of what I have elsewhere described 
as the upper rolled gravel that is so frequently met with covering the 
drift in almost all our river-valleys. I also examined the rocks 
along the bottom and sides of the ravine, to see how they were 
affected. Now, its direction is right down the hill-slope from 8. W. 
to N.E., with occasional windings, and such was the course of the 
torrent in descending it ; but here there was a circumstance which 
added greatly to the interest of the case. This was the occurrence of 
true glacial striee and scores, beautifdlly and extensively marked, and 
running obliquely across, and sometimes even at right angles to the 
direction of tiie ravine ; so that there could be no risk of confound- 
ing them with any ruts made by the descending torrent, which by 
washing off the drift had finely exposed these markings, and they ^ 
could be traced passing under banks of undisturbed drift. These 
glacial impressions, I may also mention, are not confined to this 
ravine, but are displayed over much of the neighbourhood, and will 

Digitized by 


166 psocxsBDiea or the esoLOoiCAL sooisit. [Feb. 26, 

be again referred to in a subsequent part of this paper. But in no 
case could I discover the least indication of any such polish, or 
straight parallel scratching, due to the action of the torrent; I 
observed, however, in some places on the surface of the greenstone, 
many round pits or dints, and short irregular scoops or furrows, 
seldom longer than a man's finger, caused apparently by the bumping 
of the large boulders as they rolled along. These markings were 
irregular in their direction, like the scratching of poultry on a gravel 
walk, and quite unlike the long, rectilinear, parallel grooves and 
the polish which are ascribed to &e action of ice. Here, then, it was 
evident that not only had this violent torrent no power to cause such 
markings, but, from the shortness of its duration, it had also failed 
in most places to obliterate the real glacial markings of a former 

Agassiz likewise mentions that the dehdde of the Dent du Midi — 
another example of a current of water charged with fragments of 
rocks — ^left no trace of this kind in any part of its course*. 

§ 3. In 1837, the Swiss naturalist whom I have just mentioned com- 
municated to the Academy of Sciences at Paris some observations on 
the mode in which glaciers thus affect their rocky bed ; and his force 
of character, together with the ardour he threw into the pursuit, 
effectually roused attention to the subject f. In 1840 (nearly 30 years 
after Imrie and Hall wrote) he paid a visit to this country, and, in an 
extensive tour through Britain and Ireland, everywhere recognised 
in our rounded, scored rocks appearances precisely similar to those 
he had long studied among the glaciers of his native country ; and 
he did not hesitate to express his conviction that in Britain glaciers 
and large sheets of ice, " resembling," as he says, " those now exist- 
ing in Greenland," had formerly existed, to whose action these 
markings are due. The occurrence, however, of marine remains 
belonging to the Pleistocene period at various elevations, and even on 
the tops of considerable hiUs, together with a great mass of collateral 
evidence which went to show that this country had been to a great 
extent depressed beneath the sea during the Drift-period, led many 
to believe that the appearances referred by Agassiz to glacier-action 
might be better accounted for by the agency of floating ice ; while 
the absence of alpine heights, and the comparative lowness of much 
of the country where these markings occurred, still further conduced 
to this opinion. 

When, therefore, I began the study of the subject, it was rather 
with a disposition to refer these appearances to sea-borne ice ; but a 
careful examination of such instances as have come under my notice 

* The obserrationB of Ljell on the Willey Slide in the White mountainB of 
North America, and those of Dr. Hooker in the Himalaya, go to show that even 
land-slips do not mark the rocks over which they pass in the same way that a 
glacier does. 

t Although Charpentier, and perhaps others, had previously mentioned the 

> erofliye action of glaciers upon their rocky hed, yet Agassiz comprehended better 

than any the geological importance of the phenomenon ; and ne seems to have 

heen the first to draw attention to the marked distinction that exists between the 

features of ioe-wom and those of water-worn rocks. 

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has led me to believe that no modification of this agency will meet 
the requirements of the case, and that, in the great majority of 
instances, this grinding down of the rocks has, in Scotland at least, 
been caused by the long-continued movement of land-ice and gla- 
ciers ; — that, in short, when this abrasion took place, our country 
stood quite above the level of the sea, and probably formed part of 
an extensive northern continent ; and that the submergence which 
led to the formation of the marine beds, with arctic shells, was a 
phenomenon subsequent to this great glaciation. 

One of the first things which convinced me that no icebergs run- 
ning aground, nor pack-ice driven by the winds, nor coast-ice lashed 
by the breakers, could explain the case, was the observation that it 
was always the land-side of the rocks — the exposure facing the 
highest mountains of the interior — ^that was most worn and polished, 
the side fronting the sea being in comparison much more rugged and 
angular. No instance occurred to me that could be explained by a 
motion of ice coming from the sea towards the land, while the boul- 
ders and scratched pebbles, when traced to their sources, also indicated 
a seaward transport. Thus, along the eastern border of Aberdeen- 
shire, the glacial striae and scores run from west to east ; in my own 
neighbourhood at Ellon, the general direction is nearly due E. and W., 
or a few degrees to the N. of W. ; and a low tract of syenitic greenstone 
has yielded a profusion of large blocks which have been all carried 
towards the E., while the smaller scratched pebbles are of the kinds 
which would be got from rocks to the W., many of the varieties not 
occurring in any other direction, and it is the western sides of the rocks 
that are most worn and scratched. Again, at Aberdeen, the sur&ce 
of the granite, when newly uncovered, shows the glacial striffi and 
grooves pointing a few degrees to the S. of W., in the direction of the 
valley of the Dee, the rounded and polished faces of the rocks looking 
up the valley. On the southern shores of the Moray Frith, between 
Banff and Troup Head, I found glacial markings pointing S.E. and 
sometimes S.W.; and along the £^ores of the f^rth of Forth a mul- 
titude of instances have been recorded by Kally Maclaren, Chambers, 
and Fleming, all indicating a movement from W. to E., and at Stir- 
ling from N.W. Such is the case in the low grounds along the 
east seaboard of the island. But when I went to study the facts on 
the west coast, I found it was no longer the same side of the rocks 
that had been ground down ; it is there the east and north-east fronts 
that have suffered most abrasion, and the scores and striae that streak 
the rocky ^ores of the fiords of Argyleshire are just such as might be 
expected from the action of ice moving down from the mountains. 
The markings along these sea-lochs are offcen very striking, and 
have attracted the notice of Agassiz, Murchison, and Madaren, 
who have all insisted on the fact of the rounded striated suifaces 
being invariably presented to the interior, and the rough jagged 
fronts to the sea. Prof. Nicol has also chronicled the direction of the 
striae, as noticed by Sir Boderick Murddson and himself, in several 
of the glens along the eastern, northern, and western seaboards of Ross 

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168 PBOCEBDnres of thx gbolooigal sogebtt. [Feb. 26, 

and Sutherland, all pointing to the same condnsion, viz., that they 
are due to the passage of ice down the glens. 

Another consideration that impresses me in favour of the theory 
that land-ice has caused these appearances, and which was also 
remarked by Forbes in Norway, arises from the fact that they be- 
come more extensively and clearly developed as we leave the low flat 
r^ons and approach the mountains. For instance, although there 
is good evidence that the greater portion of England was submerged 
during the Drift-period, yet it is only in the hilly tracts of W^es 
and the lake-district that we hear much of the rocks being striated 
and ice-worn ; and in Scotland, although no part of the rocky floor 
of the country seems quite free from these markings, yet it is in the 
Highlands that they become so striking and intensely marked. But 
the instances I have mentioned above, being all purposely taken from 
localities close upon the present shores of Scotland, in my opinion go 
to prove that even in the low grounds this glacial erosion has radiated 
from the interior ; and that not only in the mountain-glens has this 
action been due to glaciers, but down to the present coast-line we 
must still ascribe it to an agent moving off the land, and not to 

The evidence required to distinguish glacier-action from the effects 
of an icy dSbdde rushing down the glens, caused by the dislocation 
of sheets of ice owing to earthquake-shodcs or movements of eleva- 
tion, is somewhat different from what I have brought forward in the 
preceding paragraphs. Here we have ice moving off the land in the 
same direction as a glacier, or nearly so ; but in the one case the 
action would be transient, and in the other of vast duration. Now 
I think the amount of rock which has been worn away, even at the 
mouths of the sea-lochs of the W. Highlands, as at Loch Fyne and 
at the Eyles of Bute, opposite the steamboat-quay at Colintrive, by 
the glacial action, is far too great to be accounted for by the passage 
of even a succession of such d^ficles. The rounded outlines of 
the tough gneiss and syenite, which I there saw, denoted to my mind 
the long-continued grinding action of ice slowly moving over them ; 
for I think the rapid, hurried rush of a sludgy mass, even although 
repeated, would not priduce such finely rounded contours : neither 
would the grooves and frurows be so persistent and rectilinear in their 
direction ; for the ice being in broken masses, and accompanied with 
water and melting snow, would have more freedom of movement than 
the rigid mass of a huge glacier or ice-stream filling the valley ; and 
in the lower open grounds, where there were no heights to confine 
the torrent, the straight persistent direction of the scores is even 
more striking than in the glens and gorges, and to my mind still 
more inexplicable by such a catastrophe or series of catastrophes. 
At Ellon, for example, on the east side of Aberdeenshire, there are no 
hills exceeding 600 feet in height within ten miles, and none exceed- 
ing 1000 feet within 20 miles ; yet the scores on the rocks exposed in 
the railway-cuttings and quarries have a remarkably uniform direction, 
and run across hill and dale with a perfect indifference to the minor 

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contours of the surface. Now here, as in the basin of the Forth, 
no ordinary glacier-action will suffice for the explanation ; yet the 
proof is dear that the action has come from the west or land side, 
and not from floating ice propelled inwards or parallel to the coast. 

§ 4. In a paper in the 16th volume of the 'Journal of the Geological 
Society/ at pp. 368 and 370, 1 gave it as my opinion that at the 
commencement of the Drift-period this country had stood as high as 
at present, or perhaps much higher, with an extensive development 
of glaciers and land-ice, like that of Greenland ; and I there described 
a case near EiUiecrankie, in Perthshire, where the flank of a hill called 
Meal TJaine is rounded, scored, and in some places even polished, 
as if by the passage of ice down the valley ; and I pointed out that, 
as the markings on the hill-top are about 1800 feet above the pre- 
sent bottom of the glen, it was evident that, were land-ice the cause, 
it must have been in a volume altogether extraordinary. My curiosity 
was greatly excited by what I there saw ; and since then I have been 
so fortunate as to discover some other cases quite as remarkable, 
where the cause of the phenomena is more clearly indicated. 

One of the most complete of these was in the Lochaber district of 
Inverness-shire, so celebrated for its Parallel roads or terraces. 

High up among a cluster of hills forming the eastern extension of 
Ben Nevis, there is a mountain-pass, of a beautifully wild and 
savage character, where two streams take their rise, and flow in 
opposite directions. One of these runs to the N.W. down a very 
short glen, called the Lang Leachach, into Glen Spean. This Lang 
Leachach, or " the Stony Lang," is at its upper end very rocky ; and 
some strata of quartz, that run vertically across the glen, show 
abundant traces of glacial action, the hardness of the rock having 
preserved even the finer strise and scratches : these markings are 
parallel to the direction of the stream, and the abrasion is most 
visible upon the faces of the rock looking up the hollow. Further 
down there is a great deal of mondne-matter — ^more indeed than is 
usually seen, owing, I imagine, to the precipices and high corries 
that overhung the ancient glacier, and had sent down much rocky 
debris upon its sur&ce. 

The other stream, taking its rise at this mountain-pass, flows S.E. 
into the head of Loch Treig down a much longer glen, known simply 
as ** the Larig." Similar evidence of glacial action occurs along its 
course, but owing to the nature of llie rock being different, and 
yielding more rapidly to the weather, the glacial impressions have 
not been so well retconed. From this pass, therefore, we may sup- 
pose two ice-streams to have set out in opposite directions — one to 
the N.W., the other to the S.E. 

Two other glens, one of them larger than the Larig, contribute 
their streams to Loch Treig — a beautifdl sheet of water, about six 
miles long, in a N. and S. direction, and scarcely a mile broad at its 
widest part. It is enclosed by steep hills on both sides, and is so 
deep that I am told it was never known to be frozen over. Around 
its upper extremity there are many irregular hillocks of unstratified 
stony debris, fuU of boulders ; these are most numerous in the curve 

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of the hill at the south-eastern end of the lake. Near its outlet into 
Glen Spean, Loch Treig tapers to a narrow point, owing to the near 

Fig. 1. — (kUUne-map of apart of Invemess-shire, showing ihe Olacial 
Stria! and the distribution of Moraine-matter on the Spean and 


SI'S a "8 

N.B. — ^The sjenitic area, finely dotted in the map. is mainly after Maoculloch. 
The boundary of the syenite on the south side of the Spean is unknown 
to me, and even that on the north side is in some parts conjectural. There 
is much granite in the hill to the N.E. of Craig Dhu ; but it is of a different 
character from the other. — T. P. J. 

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approach of two moantains, each about 3000 feet high ; so that a 
glacier filling the hollow of the lake would, in issuing out into Glen 
8pean, be very much compressed by the narrowness of the goige, and 
therefore act more powerfully upon the rocks along which it had to 
force its way: here then, if anywhere, we ought to expect some 
tokens of its former presence. Accordingly we find that the tough 
micaceous gneiss, all around the outlet on both sides, has a character 
that attracts attention even at a great distance. Although the 
strata are highly inclined, and present their outcrop to the lake, yet, 
notwithstaniSng this disadvantageous position, they have been ground 
down into rounded flowing outlines l&e those of a feather-bed ; and 
these domes and bosses of rock are scored in many places with long 
rectilinear furrows, in the direction of the lake, spreading out to 
either side like a fan as they recede from the gorge, just as might be 
expected from the action of a glacier issuing from the narrow pass, 
and dilating as it got out into the more open ground. One bare, flat 

Fig. 2. — View of the North Entrance to Loch Treig, from the hiU on 
the North side of Olen Spean, 

1 . Gr&yei terraces, corresponding in height with the lowest of the Glen Boy lines 
(854 feet above the sea).' 

surface of gneiss, about 30 yards long, is beautifully smoothed, and 
covered wifii parallel scratches, scores, and flutings, running straight 
from end to end. The preservation of these markings so distinctly is 
very singular : no vegetation or covering of any kind appears to have 
sheltered them from the weather, and yet the frosts and storms of 
many ages have failed to wipe them out. It is right, however, to 
mention that such cases are exceptional ; for in most places, although 
the rock has a smooth rounded outline, yet only a few of the ruder 
scores are visible, and often none at all. On the angle of the hill, 
at the west side of the outlet, this worn character of the rock is very 
marked, up to a height of more than 1000 feet above the present 

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surface of tbe lake, while glacial scores running horizontally along 
the faces of the rock were traced up to 1280 feet (by aneroid) *. 
Not that I can affirm this to be their upper Umit ; for on the moun- 
tain, at the opposite side of the gorge, 1 found the scoring fade 
away so graduaUy at these great heights, owing to the weathering of 
the rock, that I was unable to satisfy myself where it ended, perched 
boulders and rounded surfaces occurring much higher ; and even up 
to the top, which I made out to be about 3055 feet above the sea, 
the gneiss, although it runs in nearly vertical stratification (dipping 
N.W. at an angle of about 70° or 80°), is nevertheless so free of any 
loose fragments on its surface, and the ends of the strata are often so 
rounded in outline, as to raise a suspicion that some denuding agent 
has flowed over it at a period geologically recent. This absence of 
fragments cannot be attributed to the eflect of the rain or snow 
gradually carrying them down ; for it so happens that some felspar- 
porphyry is occasionally interbedded with the gneiss: one such 
stratum passes over the highest point of the hill ; and this porphyry, 
like similar beds lower down in tiie gorge, is covered with a quantity 
of its own angular d^iis which has not been carried off by the 
rains. If the gneiss, therefore, had disintegrated to any extent, its 
d^ris ought still to be found lying on its surface like that of the 

As I have already said, the evidences of glacial action are very 
plain up to rather more than 1000 feet above the lake, and 1800 
feet above the sea ; and near the angle of the mountain, between 
Loch Treig and Corry Laire, I found at this great height moraine- 
matter, consisting of d^ris of mica-schist, gneiss, quartz-rock, and 
felspar-porphyry, forming a loose heap of stony rubbish, which the 
rains, aided by the scraping of the sheep, had laid open to a depth of 
12 or 15 feet. The stones were of all sizes, up to about 3 feet in length, 
and many of them glacially striated. This moraine-matter may be 
traced down the spur of the hill for a long way, increasing in breadth. 
Corry Laire, I have no doubt, has also been occupied by a glacier ; and, 
lookmg down, I observed in the bottom of the glen what appeared 
to be moutonnied rocks, but had no time to visit them. 

Nowhere have I met with such impressive evidence of intense 
abrading force as these rocks present all about the outlet of Loch 
Treig. The rounded masses of tough gneiss are so extensive as to 
form hills several hundred feet high, and so smooth and bare that, 
over extensive areas, even the moss and heather have completely 
failed to get a footing on their surface. The amount of mineral 
matter that has been ground down testifies how lengthened the 
period must have been during which the abrasion had gone on ; and 
the preservation of the scores and scratches on the present surface, 

* These aneroid meaauremeiits have, of ooone, no pretensions to aocoracy, 
and their results are given merely as the best approximation I can offer ; yet I 
bdieve they are nowhere so far from the truth as to disturb any of the con- 
clusions drawn from them. Indeed, where I have been able to (meek them by 
other data, they have turned out to be nearer the mark than might have been ex- 
pected, being seldom 50 feet wrong. 

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since the disappearance of the ice, is an excellent proof of the tough, 
indestructible nature of the substance it had to work upon. Well 
might Agassiz say of it, ^' I do not believe that a locality exists^ 
where the facts indicate in a more special manner the cause which 
has produced them.'' 

The River Spean, which receives the drainage of Glen Treig, runs 
from E. to W. at right angles to the direction of the lake ; and just 
opposite the gorge ^ere is a mass of syenitic granite, forming some 
low rocks that extend for some distance eastward. Now it is an 
interesting fact, that this granite lying on the north side of Glen Spean 
is, as Agassiz observed, '' not only polished with that polish charac- 
teristic of glacier-action, but is, moreover, scratched transversely — 
that is to say, at right angles to the direction of the valley — ^by a 
cause which evidently proceeded from Loch Treig." (Ed. Phil. Joum. 
xxxiii. p. 238.) As the existence of these transverse markings has 
been disputed, I am glad to be able to confirm the accuracy of the 
illustrious Swiss, and may mention that an instance of such marking 
is to be seen on the north side of the Loch Laggan road, about 200 
yards west of the thirteenth milestone from Loch Laggan Inn. Pro- 
ceeding down Glen Spean, the striae (everywhere to be seen) are found 
gradually to curve round from N. and S. until they finsdly assume 
a normal east and west direction parallel to the valley, and at right 
angles to their former course ; and along the road for four miles west- 
ward, as far as the Catholic Chapel, the rocks are seen to be ground 
down more especially upon their east side, and, where not too much 
weathered, still showing the glacial scoring. Here I have to men- 
tion an important fact that seems to have escaped the attention of 
previous visitors ; and it is this, that from a point in Glen Spean 
opposite the gorge of Loch Treig, all along the road to Loch Laggan, 
glaciated rocks are to be found, showing the scores running psurallel 
to the valley, but it is now no longer the east, but the west, side of 
the rocky masses that has sustained most abrasion ; and far away, 
even for three miles to the east of Loch Laggan, I traced the same 
appearances. For beyond the Pass of Makoul, the low rocky emi- 
nences show evident traces of the passage of ice going out towards 
the valley of the Spey ; as if at a point in Glen Spean, opposite the 
gorge of Loch Treig, there had been an immense accumulation, 
which had parted there and gone out in two great streams^ one 
taking an eastward route by Loch Laggan to the Spey basin, while 
the o^er flowed west, down Glen Spean, to swell the mass of ice at 
the mouth of the great Caledonian Valley. 

The following are some striking facts that will help to give an 
idea of the deptii and volume of this great ice-stream. Glen Spean 
is rather a wide glen, and, for some miles below the junction of the 
Treig, is bounded on its north side by a considerable hill called Craig 
Dhu, on whose flank the lowermost of the parallel lines of Glen Boy 
is clearly marked. The bottom of the vaJley is here about 400 or 
600 feet above the level of the sea, while the line is 847 feet, accord- 
ing to the levelling of an engineer employed by Mr. Eobert Chambers. 
Tbe top of Craig Dhu, by aneroid measurement, I made out to be 

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about 2100 feet above the sea, or 1260 feet above the level of the line, 
and, say, 1600 feet above the bottom of the valley. Now I found 
the flank of this Cndg Dhu strongly impressed with marks of glacial 
action up to within a hundred yards or so of the very top. Bounded 
shoulders of rock, scored and fluted horizontally, sometimes even 
polished, may be seen in many places all over the side of the hill ; and 
it is worthy of notice that these appearances are well displayed 
immediately above, below, and even on the very line itself. The 
highest well-marked scores observed by me were at a level of 300 
feet below the top of the hill, or (say) 1300 feet above the bottom of 
the valley ; but transported boulders {bhes perchis) occur up to near 
the very summit. From the brow of Craig Dhu to the brow of Ben 
Chlinaig, on the opposite side of Glen Spean, is a distance of two miles 

Fig. 3. — OtUUne'Section across Qlen Spean 

or so ; here, therefore, is a striking proof of what a volume of ice 
must have swept down this valley, if these scores were caused, as I 
believe they were, by this agency. 

The rock of the hill, wherever I saw it, consists of micaceous 
gneiss or mica-schist, dipping N.W. at a very high angle, with some 
thin dykes or beds of felspar-porphyry. Now, the cropping out of 
the ragged edges of the gneiss-strata obliquely to the east must 
have c^orded tough morsels for the bite of even a glacier-stream 
moving westward ; but notwithstanding this disadvantageous circum- 
stance of the edges being presented towards, and their backs away 
from the stream, it became evident to me, after a careM examina- 
tion of much of the hill all along its south flank, that from top to 
bottom the scoring agent had moved from east to west. This was 
apparent not only from the greater rounding and polishing of the 
east faces, but a further proof was afforded by the movement of rock- 
masses: for instance, from a great dyke of white quartz a large 
angular block had been torn off and carried some yards to the west- 
wu^ ; also porphyry fragments indicated a similar direction of trans- 
port. But there was another most striking and convincing proof of 
this nature. The gneiss over the hill-top being quite bare, or covered 
only by a thin peel of turf, it was easily seen that no other rock 
was present ; it will therefore be admitted to be a highly interesting 
fact when I state that large angular boulders of syenitic granite, 
precisely similar in mineral quality to the low mass of that rock 
which occurs in situ in the bottom of the valley to the eastward, 
opposite the gorge of Loch Treig, are scattered in great numbers all 
over the brow of the hiU, resting on the bare upturned edges of the 
gneiss, which is shorn and rounded into smooth outlines ; and what 

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is very remarkable, the largest and most angular blocks are more 
numerous high up on the very brow of the hill, at a level of from 
130 to 400 feet from the top, than they are further down. Thus, one 
measuring 12 feet long, by 9 broad, and 6 high, lay 130 feet lower 
than the summit of the hill ; a few yards frt)m it was another 9x6x4; 
and at a level of about 400 feet below the top, or 1700 feet above 
the sea, was a magnificent block, 15 feet long, by 10 broad, and 6 
high : this was the largest, and, from its conspicuous position on the 
bare brow of the hill, may be seen at a great distance, being visible 
with the naked eye frt>m the Bridge of Eoy Inn, four miles off. 

This is another very striking example of boulders being carried up 
far above the source from whence tiLey were derived ; and I have 
little doubt that these granite blocks have come from the patch of that 
rock in the bottom of the valley to the eastward ; for no mineral 
mass of the same kind is known elsewhere in thelieighbourhood, nor 
did I see any of it on the sides of Loch Treig, where, by the by, 
there is an absence of these fragments also. It has been suggested 
by Mr. Darwin that such cases might be explained by supposing the 
boulders to have been frozen into coast-ice and carried upwards 
during a period of submergence, when the land was gradually sink- 
ing ; and it is also found to be the case that even the sea- waves, un- 
aided by ice, can during a heavy swell throw up boulders upon the 
rocks out of deep water. But neither of these explanations will, I 
think, suffice for the phenomena on Craig Dhu ; for, in the first place, 
there are no water-rolled pebbles accompanying these boulders ; and 
in the second place, the repeated strandmgof the blocks by coast-ice 
or a heavy suif would, as Darwin admits, have roimded and reduced 
them to smaller size the farther up they were carried, whereas we 
see here that those most conspicuous for size and angularity are 
highest up on the very brow of the hill. I may also point out that 
the submergence of an isolated hill, like Craig Dhu, would have left 
its top but a little round speck of an island, where coast-ice would 
have had no shelter and been readily driven away. The scoring 
also of the subjacent rock, if caused by the stranding of the boulders 
either by coast-ice or waves, would not have been so horizontcd and 
so steadily in one direction ; we should have rather fotind scores run- 
ning uphill, from the blocks being driven on it by the surf. 

The extraordinary profusion of these granitic boulders all about 
the valley, the manner in which such immense blocks are piled up 
one over another on the surface of heaps of moraine-like d^ris, and 
the way they have been elbowed up the slope of the hill opposite the 
gorge of Loch Treig, together with the strong scoring and polish on 
the rocks, — all seem to me to speak an unmistakeable language ; for 
I know of no agency, except that of a great glacier-stream, that could 
have effected all this. 

The granite boulders have been carried westward past Craig Dhu, 
for I found some of them on the top of Bohuntine — a hill on the west 
side of Glen Eoy, nearly 2000 feet high, and of a remarkably rounded 
outline, as if it had been moulded by the passage of ice. In an oppo- 
site direction they have been carried towards Loch La^;an, affording 

VOL. IVni, ^PABT I. K 

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176 PBOOSBBuroe 09 thb osoiooical sooibtt. [Feb. 26, 

ftnother proof of what I before stated, namely, that the ice-stream 
had parted and gone out both to £. and W. I even found some of 
them to the east of that loch, near Makoul. 

On looking up Glen Spean from the top of one of the hills, I was 
struck by the greater wear and smoothness of the hill-slopes flanking 
the valley, below a level of about 2000 feet or so ; and this moulding 
I could not help attributing to the same agency that had so power- 
fully scored the rocks of Cndg Dhu. 

I have been induced to describe the foregoing case somewhat 
minutely, because not only is it interesting from the clear evidence 
it affords of the extent to which the ice had been developed, but it 
is further important as affording a good example of a movement frt)m 
both 8. and E., thus enabling us to get rid of the notion which 
has been so prevalent, that this great glacial action had come invari- 
ably from the N. and W. 

I have still to mention a circumstance perhaps even more singular 
than any I have described, showing the remarkable state of ice- 
development that had once existed in this region. Just below Craig 
Dhu there branches off frt)m Olen Spean, in a N. and N.E. direction, 
the well-known little valley called Glen Roy, extending in that 
course to the watershed of the Elver Spey. Near the head of the 
Boy, the Glen is contracted and nearly closed by some rocky eminences 
which seem to form its natural termination, and beyond which there 
is a wide hollow opening into Strath Spey. Now the surface of these 
rocky eminences presents dear evidence of glacial action, being 
rounded off and scored, and also dotted with occasional perched 
boulders ; but I was not a little surprised to find it quite apparent 
that the ice had come frt)m the S.W. up Glen Boy, and gone out in 
a stream towards the wide valley of the Spey. My first tiiought was 
that glaciers might have descended frx)m Glen Eggie and other litile 
side-glens which branch off here ; but, on examining the rocks at the 
junction of the Eggie and the Boy, I found the furrows on the well- 
moutonn^ed mica-schist passing right across the mouth of Glen 
Eggie ; and the strata, which are almost vertical in position, have 
been so blunted and rubbed on their «outh-west exposiu*e as plainly 
to show that the movement came from that quarter ; and high up on 
the brow of the adjoining hill (which is an extension of that marked 
Tom Brahn on most of the maps, but known to the shepherds by the 
name of Craig Corrak) I saw several very large blocks and boTdders 
that appeared to have been shifted or moved some distance by glacial 

In Glen Boy itself, owing to the great accumulations of stratified 
debris, the rock is not weU exposed, and, where seen, is often oi a 
rotten, shivery nature ; so that, although I had remark d some striated 
boulders, I had not seen any ice-worn surfaces except on the top of 
Bohuntine Hill, where however I could detect no scores or scratches, 
although the rock was much ground down. But on returning down 
the glen my eye caught some suspicious-looking lumps of rock on ihB 
flank of Ben Erin that had been bared of their earthy covering by 
the water of a descending rivulet ; and on scrambling up to examine 

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tbeniy I found a £bw clearly marked glaeial scores running horizon- 
tally along, at a height a Uttle below that of the lowest Glen Boy 
line, while the worn and rounded edges looked doum the glen. The 
amount of rock exposed and thus marked was but small ; and I should 
have attached little importance to the latter circumstance had it not 
been for the fact already mentioned of the rocks at the head of the 
glen indicating the motion of ice coming up it, and passing out 
to N.E. : for this would seem to show that Glen Roy had at one time 
been filled with ice, which, unable to get out by way of Glen Spean. 
owing to the vast accumulation in that direction, had been obliged 
to discharge itself at the upper end into the more open outlet of the 
Spey basin. When we consider the narrow character of the gref^t 
Caledonian VaUey, bordered by lofty mountains and numerous side- 
glens, and choked up as it must have been at its mouth by the jost- 
ling of all these united ice-streams pressing out past Ben Nevis, and 
recollect that proof has been adduced of Glen Spean being filled 
with ice to the level of the top of Craig Dhu, which exceeds by 900 
feet the summit-level of this pass into Strath Spey, the above singular 
fact becomes less mysterious. 

§ 5. I have yet another example I should like to give, as farther 
illustrating and confirming what I have already advanced. 

In Argyleshire there is an arm of the sea called Loch Fyne, whose 
upper branch stretches 25 miles from S.W. to N.E. far into the High- 
lands. The scored and polished rocks all along its shores, from In- 
verary down to Loch Gilp, plainly indicate the former passage of ice 
down the loch ; their rounded, worn sides facing the interior, and 
the rough and more jagged outlines the sea. At Loch Gilp (which 
is a small inlet off the west side of the lake), a low tracts forming the 
bed of the Crinan Canal, runs across in an eastern direction to the 
Sound of Jura. The rocks along this hollow are likewise much worn 
and rounded, but chiefly on their eastern sides, and scored by glacial 
furrows pointing W., parallel to the canal, and indicating the course 
of an ice-current diverging from Loch Fyne. 

On looking at the map it will be seen that, if we produce the line 
of Upper Loch Fyne in a south-west direction, it would run across 
Knapdale into Jura Sound, near Loch Killisport. Now, I find the gla- 
ciation of the rocks of Knapdale looks as if the stream of ice descend- 
ing Upper Loch Fyne (so great had been its volume, and so immense 
the vis d tergo impelling it onwards) had gone right out, over hill 
and dale, into the Sound of Jura. Let any one who wishes to satisfy 
himself of this examine fir^t the course of the Crinan Canal, and he 
will find the masses of syenite, in the hollow beside the Dunartry locks, 
all worn and rounded on their south-easteiTi sides ; and searching 
where the drift has recently been removed, he will find scores and 
polish indicating a motion to N.W. Let him then ascend the hill- 
slope from Caimbaan, following the course of the ravine down 
which the torrent came when the reservoirs burst, and he will see 
the scores at the mouth of the stream running fix>m E. 30° S. to W. 
30*^ N. ; ascending the slope of the hill, he will find the scores turn- 
ing gradually to due E. and W., and, as he goes higher up, curving 


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more and more round to the N. of E., and, what will probably sur- 
prise him, as it certainly did me, he will see evidence that the agent 
which impressed these farrows moved obliquely uphill, mounting a 
slope of 700 or 800 feet ; he will then find himself on a sort of table- 
land spotted with several small lakes, and along the rocky sides of 
these reservoir-lakes he will observe some of die most beautiful ex- 
amples of glaciation I have ever seen — long rectilinear grooves run- 
ning uninterruptedly onwards from N.E. to S.W. for many yards, 
wil£ all lesser degrees of scratching and polish. Let him then 
ascend over the ridges towards Cmach Lussa, and he will no longer 

Fig. 4. — Profile of the Ice^wom KnoUs of Gheenstone at the Crinan 


find these markings on their bare, weathered fronts ; but he will 
notice the rounded snouts they present invariably to the N.E., and 
the more rugged outlines to the S.W. Let him then continue all 
along until he gains the top of Cruach Lussa, the highest point in 
North Enapdale (and 1530 feet above the sea, according to the 
Admiralty chart), from whence, if the day be fine, he will have a 
view of one of the most beautifrd scenes in Scotland, which alone 
win recompense his toil if he be no geologist. 

§ 6. The ice, therefore, descending by Loch Fyne, seems to have 
passed round and over this hilly ridge, just as ^e water of a river 
flows round and over a large boulder in its bed. 

It seems odd to talk of a glacier doing this ; but nothing short of ice, 
filling the valleys up to the brim, and covering the whole country in 
one great windmg-sheet, will meet the requirements of the case. In 
short, we should have to describe it just in the way Rink speaks of 
Greenland, when he tells us that a spectator standing on the top of 
a mountain near the coast sees the various ice-streams ** approach 
and unite in an icy level occupying the whole of the eastern tract or 
area of the continent,'^ and which annually discharges its enormous 
excess in those great icebergs that infest Bafi^'s Bay and the neigh- 
bouring seas. ** To have a correct idea of the glacial accumulations 
in Greenland," says that observant voyager. Dr. P. C. Sutherland, 
" we must imagine a continent of ice fianked on its seaward side by a 
number of islfuids, and in every other direction lost to vision in one 
continuous and boundless plain. Through the spaces between these 
apparent islands the enormous glacial accumulations slowly seek 
their passage to the sea." In Mdville Bay (lat. 75P), it presents to 
the sea one continuous wall of ice, unbroken by land for a space of 
70 or 80 miles; and the average thickness, he tells us, is 1200 
to 1500 feet, but in some of ti^e valleys upwards of 2400 feet 
(Joum. of Geol. Soc. ix. p. 301). Somewhat similar, but much more 

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1862.] JAMiBsoir— oLACiATioir or sooiLAin). 179 

extendye, is the ioe-coyering of the Antarctic Continent, where Sir 
James Bobs traced a continuous vertical cliff of ice, more than 1000 
feet thick, for 540 miles ; and detached portions were found 60 miles 
from its main edge, aground in 1560 feet of water. 

We see, therefore, i^at in certain parts of the globe land-ice attains 
a thickness at least as great as is required for the most extreme 
cases I have adduced in this paper, even allowing that the bottoms 
of the. valleys had been as deep as they are at present when the ice 
reached the highest scores now found on the flanking hills, which is 
not at all likely ;. for I believe that tiie grinding of tiie ice for many 
ages along the glens must have powerfully eroded its bed^ and worn 
the bottoms of the valleys much deeper than they were at the 
commencement of tiie Glacial period, and in fsust occasioned an 
amoimt of denudation of the surface which has been much too littie 
allowed for. 

It may seem more probable to some, that the curious features in 
the erosion and scoring of Enapdale may be owing to tiie relative 
levels of the district having undergone considerable derangement 
since the time at which the rocks were so marked ; and indeed, when 
I first observed them, this seemed to myself the most likely explana- 
tion; foe although I could not, affcer much careM examination, 
resist the evidence of tiie movement having been uphill over much 
of the ridge, I felt much puzzled by the fact of the rocky masses on 
the top towards Cruach Lussa being so uniformly worn on their 
north-east exposure, while those in the bottom of tiie Crinan valley 
were abraded on their east and south-east sides, indicating a move- 
ment diverging at right angles from Loch Eyne, where there is at 
present a wide opening to the sea. But after studying Lochaber, 
where the facts seem to me clearly to indicate the presence of land- 
ice in a volume quite as extraordinary as would account for the phe- 
nomena in Enapdale (allowing for erosion of the bed of Loch Fyne 
by the long passage of the ice, as I have above suggested), I am 
inclined to think that it is unnecessary to require any great local 
derangement of level. 

Those who would solve the facts I have adduced in this paper by 
means of floating ice have to show how the winds or currents that 
moved it could have radiated from the central heights of Scotland to 
all points of the compass, and in each district have always persisted 
so steadily in one diroction ; — ^how, for example, from a point in the 
middle of Glen Spean, at the junction of the Treig, winds or currents 
could have set out in opposite directions, and in both cases at right 
angles to the line of movement in Glen Treig ; — ^how the movement 
on one side of Scotiand should have been continually from W., and 
on the other from E., and on the north coast from S., and always 
from the land side ; — ^how blocks, 15 feet long, could have been by 
such an agency lifted up out of the bottom of a valley, and set down 
on the bare brow of a hill hundreds of feet above their source. The 
advocates of a cUbdde have, on the other hand, to show how a sudden 
and transitory movement, even although repeated, could have lifted 
these blocks and have worn down ragged masses of tough gneiss at 

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180 pitot^sDnreB or ths ^i^ologicai. soorferT. [Feb. 26, 

the mouthfl of the fiords of Argyleehiie, and at Loch Treig, into 
smooth rounded domes, and scored the rocks in a direction so rigidly 
even ; — ^how, on the brow of a hill like Craig Dhii, at the height of 
1200 feet above the bottom of a wide valley, it could impress hori^ 
tontal scores and fluted hollows along the face of a shelving rock- 

§ 7. Land-ice moving in a volume like that deen in Gfreenland or 
in the Antarctic Continent explains these and many other facts better, 
in my opinion, than any other theory yet proposed; and, so far as I can 
see, the only strong objection against it is tiie extraordinary climate 
for this latitude that it requires : but some such extraordinaiy climate 
is quite necessary to account for the fact of arctic quadrupeds, such 
as the Reindeer*, Musk-ox, the Lemming, and the Lagomys, having 
ranged into the south of England and the heart of Germany during 
the Drift-period ; and one of these Lemmings (Myodes torquatus)^ 
Whose remains were found by Dr. Hensel of Berlin in the Dnft near 
QuedHnberg, is said to delight in so arctic a climate as seldom to 
ramble ftirmer south than the northern limit of the woods, and was 
found by Parry in latitude 82° N. We cannot suppose these ani- 
mals to have been mere stray wanderers ; for in one of the Welsh 
eaves, called Bosco's Den, Dr. Falconer telk us, upwards <^ one thou- 
tond antlers, mostly shed, and of young animals belonging to the 
Ckrvus Cfuettardi and C, priscus — species or varieties allied to the 
Reindeer — ^were found in tiie bottom of the cavern ( Joum« of Geol. 
Boc. vol. xvi. p. 489). 

Such facts as these, together with boreal and even arctic shells 
(like the Cyprina Islandica and Natica dausa) inhabiting the Medi^ 
terranean ^ores of Sicily, bespeak a climate perhaps as severe as, 
with a certain amount of elevation, would account for Greenland con- 
ditions in our latitude. " Not even on the verge of the arctic province," 
toys Edward Forbes, in his last work, " are we to seek for the ana- 
logue of the fauna of the Drift, but within its strictest bounds ;" and 
yet this marine Drift to which he refers does not represent the time 
of severest cold, which was that of the great land-glaciation. We 
have therefore two sets of facts entirely different from each other, 
one &om the organic, the other from ike inoiganic kingdom, and 
botJi alike demanding an arctic climate for their explanation. 

We cannot account for such a development of ice in this country 
without supposing the whole of tlie atmospheric moisture, or nearly 
so, to have fallen in a frozen or snowy condition, and to have had to 
find its way off the land in the shape of sdid ice ; and such a climate 
in the lati^de of Scotland cannot with any probability be supposed 
without 6ome gt^eat dianges in the physical geography of the north-^ 
'em heraisphei^ ; for it comes to this, that the whole of Scotland 
must, during the period of greatest glaciation, have been within 
the snow-line, which renders the conclusion, I think, probable that 
our island must have then stood far higher above the sea-level than 
it does at present. Without supposing some such great elevrntion, 

* The recent dueoyeries of Lartet in the cave at Aurignao Bhow that the 
Beitideer inhabited «Teii the Pyrenees. 

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1862.] jAXTBSoir — oIiAOutiov of scozLAin). 181 

the case would certainly be very marvellotiB ; for evexi in Oreenland, 
except at its northern extremity, the lower limit of tbe ice-covering, 
Bink tells us, is far above the coast-line, and it is only the larger 
glaciers that protrude into the sea ; in the intermediate tracts, the 
snow and ice lying below the level of 2000 feet annually disappear 
before the heat of June. The whole of Norway, Sweden, and Lap- 
land appears to be ice- worn from the mountain-tops down to the sea, 
and a general view of the whole brings out the fact that the scores 
radiate from the central heights to all points of the compass. Along 
the coast of Norway they run to W. and N.W. ; in Lapland, to N. 
and N.E. ; in Sweden, t^ E. and S.E.* 

The phenomena, as a whole, seem to be better explained by land- 
ice moving from the central plateaux downwards and outwards than 
by any other theory t. In order, therefore, to account for this great 
glaciation of Britain and Scandinavia by land-ice, it is necessary, I 
thinJk, to suppose that the elevation of these countries above the sea 
must have been much greater than at present. Ab regards Scotland, 
indeed, there can be little doubt of this, if we admit the markings I 
have described to have been caused by that agency ; for along all the 
wide mouths of its sea-lochs or fiords the glacial scoring everywhere 
dives in fall development underneath the present sea-level, uid the 
aame appears to be the fact in Norway and Sweden. Without sup- 
posing some such elevation, I do not see how a degree of cold at all 
like what seems to have prevailed can be accounted for, without sup- 
posing either the sun's heat to have suffered some great diminution, 
or the position of the earth's axis to have differed from what it is 
at present; and, even granting the elevation^ the fact is very re- 

§ 8, But, while apportioning to land-ice its due share in the events 
of the Drift-period, let us not forget the strong evidence which we 
possess of the great submergence that took place afterwards. No 
action of land-ice, for example, will account for the monne shells and 
ehalk^flints on Moel Tryfan, in Wales, at the height of 1392 feet; 
and a mass of good evidence has been collected to show that this sub- 
mergence amounted to at least some hundreds offset in various parts 
of England^ Scotland, and Ireland, as weU as in the Scandinaviaji 

* It Is alleged, howeyer, b^ Horbye and otheri, that in the midland region 
there is a remarkable exception to this rule. Thej state, indeed, that between 
lat. 62*^ and 63^*^, the eroave a^t proceeding out of the relatively low ground 
of Sweden has marched uphill ngbt oyer the DoTreQeld ! " Bans exception, toutes 
lea striea qui ee trouvent sur la m>nti^Be mentionn^e entre le 62*°* et d3| d^grd de 
latitude ont leur point de depart dans les contr^ do la Suide relatiyement 
plus basses." (Horbje sur les Ph^nom^nee d'^rosion en Norv^, p. 40.) And 
the autlior of the memoir quoted had traced this " burinagB erratique " to an 
tfkyation of 4590 Norwegian feet above the sea : be also quotes the authority 
of M. Durocher in support oi this assertion as to the ascending movement of 
the erosive a^gmt. 

t "We generally ifaid that the ])olished or opposing side (8to&-Seite) of the 
rocks is turned towards the principal plateaux of these countries. It is from 
these plateaux liiat the impelling power seems to have originated which deter- 
mSned ihe direction of the bodies whidi scooped ovot the groQFef." (Bohtliok, 
Ed. New Phil. Joum. z^xi p. 253.) 

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182 PBOOBBDDros OF THE esoLO&iCix 80GIBTT. [Feb. 26, 

peninsula; sea-shells being found up to these heights imbedded in what 
look like marine strata. The mere presence of transported boulders, 
It is evident, can no longer be considered as a sufficient proof of sub- 
mergence if the existence of an extensive covering of land-ice be 
once admitted. For the transport of boulders floating ice is doubtless 
a very efficient cause, but equally so is land-ice ; each case, therefore, 
must rest on its own merits. The polishing and scoring of the rocks, 
however, will, I think, be found to have chiefly resulted from the latter 
cause, at least in this country ; but there are some curious cases for 
which probably few will be (Usposed to admit this explanation : such 
are the north-east striss at the extremity of the Island of Anglesea 
and on the Isle of Man, proceeding apparently from a cause exterior 
to these islands; also those parallel to the coast at Bray Head in 
Ireland, pointing N.E. However improbable it may seem, it will be 
well to bear in mind that it would be possible for land-ice to have 
caused these markings, supposing it to have been developed to an ex- 
tent sufficient to fiU the beid of the Irish Channel. Without venturing 
to say that it did so, I merely point out that, had such been the case, 
it might have marked these rocks in the way we find them to be. 
The continental ice of Greenland fills areas more extraordinary. 

§ 9. It is therefore very necessary that we should have some criterion 
whereby we might be able to distinguish glacier-action from the action 
of floating ice. Mr. Darwin, in an excellent paper on the glaciers of 
Caernarvonshire, suggested that boss- or dome-formed rocks would 
probably serve as such. Another circumstance that, I think, should 
help us is the case of a deep hollow surrounded by a ridge on the 
side from whence the glacial agent has come. Such a ridge would 
evid^tly defend the hollow from the grounding of floating ice coming 
frt)m that side, but would be of no avail against the erosion by a gla- 
cier. Now, such instances are fi^uent in Scotland. The well- 
rounded and scored gneiss which I have cited in the deep hollow of 
the east Kyle of Bute, opposite Colintrive, is one ; that of the Gare- 
loch, described by Mr. Maclaren, is another ; the remarkable case of 
the reservoir-lakes of Enapdale may be mentioned as a third. Again, 
the steadiness of the direction of the striae would seem to be incon- 
sistent with the action of floating ice, unless in the case of deep- 
swimming icebergs in an open sea, moving under the steady influence 
of an ocean-current ; and how could these have grazed the bottoms of 
our intricate glens ? In the case of the Gareloch, Maclaren found that 
the bearing of the strise over a length of seven miles does not vary 
more than a point to the right or left of the axis of the) lake, and 
they are most clearly marked at the lower levels. Now, in Baffin's 
Bay, Dr. Sutherland tells us the icebergs tumble about and butt 
against each other in great confusion, like houses in an earthquake, 
and also occusionally assume a rotatory motion from the pressure of 
ice-floes against them. Further, when an iceberg strikes against a 
sunken ridge, it will push the broken fr*agments of the rock over into 
the first deep hollow, and there leave them ; and, if grounded, it 
would rock about by the action of the surf and thus cause irregular 
curved markings unJike the straight ones that we always find. 

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§ 10. In Scotland the whole d^ris resulting from the erosion of 
the rocks has often been swept clean off, — over most of the glens 
in the North and West Highlands sach is the case to a remarkable 

f*ig. 5. — Sketch-map of Scotland, showing the Direction of the Qladal 
Markings observed in different parts of the country. 



/ \. 


K.B. — ^The headless arrows indicate that the side from which the agent moved 

is not certain. 

— ^- Direction of Glacial striie. 

Nora. — ^In this little map. I haye avaQed myself of the material^ contained in 
a map of the middle region of Scotland which accompanied an Excellent paper 
by Idjr. C. Maclaren in the * Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal ' for 1849, and 
likewise of various scattered notices by Murdiison, Niool, Milne-Home, Cham- 
bers, Forhes, and Smith of Jordan-hill. 

degree. I was much stmck with this on the high barren ridge border- 
ing the Crinan Canal, where the reseryoir-ldkes are situated. The 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

184 psocEEDnres of the esoLoeicAL societt. piCar. 5, 

upturned edges of the vertical strata there are in many places striated, 
and show great marks of erosion, as I have already mentioned ; and 
the interstratified beds of greenstone, which are very numerous, 
stand out like great Cyclopean walls, running for miles high above 
the softer slaty beds that have yielded more to the action of the 
ice. But almost the whole wreck of the strata has been carried off, 
as if the rocks had been swept bare with a great iron besom. Some 
of the protruding trap-dykes that attracted the notice of Macculloch 
in many parts of the Western Isles, and were referred by him, with 
hesitation, to the tedious operation of the atmosphere, are, I have no 
doubt, due to this erosion of the softer beds by the ice. 

The geological period to which this great glaciation of Scotland 
belongs was probably contemporaneous with the formation of those 
" subaerial " beds on the borders of the English Channel, described by 
Mr. Godwin-Austen, and referred by him to the time succeeding the 
Norwich Crag. That, at least, it was not of much older date, I am led 
to think from the discovery of some patches of what appears to be Bed 
Crag in the low coast-district of Slains, in Aberdeenshire, that have 
partly escaped the denudation caused by the ice. In addition to the 
Mollusca recorded at p. 372 of the 16th vol. of the Quart. Joum. of 
the Geol. Soc., I have since found in these so-called " Crag " beds of 
Slains what I believe to be fragments of the Valuta Lamberii, Naasa 
elegans, and Nucula Cobboldice — three shells eminently characteristic 
of the Crag-period. Nowhere, however, have I found in them any 
glacially striated stones ; and the absence of these I consider an im- 
portant fact, showing that glacial action had not then begun in the 

If this development of land-ice coincided with an elevation of a 
great part of Europe, we may expect to find, to the south of the ice- 
covered region, traces of contemporaneous freshwater deposits, and 
remains of the continental fauna that flourished during the long 
period that the North was covered with ice. The valley of the 
English Channel and the southern portion of the German Ocean 
were then probably dry land, and may have been haunted by mam- 
malia of various kinds, and hence the quantity of Elephants' teeth 
and bones they contain. To a part of this period probably belongs 
the ** forest-bed " imderlying the boulder-day of the Norfolk coast, 
and whose tree-stumps are rooted in the Norwich Crag. 

Maech 6, 1862. 

George Ford Copdand, Esq., M.E.C.S., 6 Bay's Hill Villas, Chel- 
tenham ; William James Dunsford, Esq., 14 Taviton Street, Gordon 
Square ; Charles Henry Gatty, Esq., F.L.S., Felbridge Park, East 
Grinstead, Sussex ; and Alexander Henry Green, Esq., M.A., Fellow 
of Gonville and Cdus College, Cambridge, were elected Fellows. 

The following oommunication was read : — 

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Digitized by 



Digitized by 

G oogle 




On the Ot.ACiAi. OBienr of certain Laxbr in Swirz£BLAin), thb Black 
FoBEST, Gb£AT BfiiTAiir, Sweden, Nobth America, and eUewhere, 
By A. C. Bahaay, r.B..8., President of the Geological Society, &c. 

[Plate VIII.] 


IiXToneous theories of the Transport 
of Alpine Blocks : reasons for aban- 
doning them. 

Old Distribution of the GretA Alpine 

Connexion between Tarns and Gla- 

Origin of the Great Alpine Lakes. 

The Great Lakes :— 
The Lake of Q^iera. 

The Lake of Loceme. 

The Lake of Zurich. 

The Wallen See. 

The Lake of Constance. 

The Italian Lakes. 
Summary with regurd to the Alpine 

Lakes of the Noithem HemiapheM 

The Glacial Theoiy. 

Erroneous Theories of the Transport of Alpine Blocks, — In the year 
1859, in a series of papers by the members of the Alpine dub, I 
published a memoir in which I compared the old glaciers of North 
Wales with those of Switzerland ; and in it, among other matters, I 
e3[plained the glacial origin of certain rock-basins now holding lakes, 
on the watersheds and in the old glacier-valleys of both those 
oountries ; and in a later edition of the same memoir, published as 
la separate book, with additions*, I extended these generalizations to 
many of the lakes in Sutherlandshire. 

In the same work I also expressed an opinion that the blocks of 
Honthey, in the valley of the Rhone, and the great erratic boulders 
that strew the southern flank of the Jura had been transported by 
icebergs derived from glaciers which descended in the Alpine valleys 
to the sea-level, during a period of submergence in which the low 
country that lies between the Jura and the Oberland was covered 
with erratic drift. 

There was nothing new in this latter opinion, for it had previously 
been held by several distinguished geologists, both English and con- 

Since liien I have twice revisited Switzerland, and have seen good 
treason to change my opinion respecting the cause of the trans- 
port of erratic blocks to Monthey and the Jura, and of dShris 
not remodelled by rivers, &c., that lies scattered over the lowlands 
of Switzerland, or that borders, or lies in great mounds well out in, 
the plain of Piedmont and Lombardy. I am now convinced, for 
example, that the vast circling moraine of Ivrea, noticed by Studer in 
1844, was shed from a glacier, 105 miles in length, that filled the 
valley of Aosta to a height of more than 2000 feet, and protruded far 
into the plain ; while on tiie north a still greater glacier, long ago 
described by Charpentier, flowed from the valley of the Ehone right 
across the low coimtry until its end abutted on the Jura. As tii^e 
are still many persons in England who doubt these conclusions, it 

* The Old Glaciers of North Wales.* Longman k Go. 

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186 FBOCEEBuros OF THE esoLoeicAL 80CIBTT, [Mar. 5, 

may not be beside the question to state the considerations that led 
me to reject the old theory. 

Beasans for abandoning the older theories. — I first began to donbt 
the correctness of my earlier opinions in the summer of I860, while 
examining the country near Bonn, the banks of the Moselle, and the 
Eifel. Neither in the valleys nor on the wide table-lands on both 
sides of the Bhine and the Moselle is there any sign of glacial drift. 
Excepting alluvial debris in the valleys, the native rock is generally 
quite bare of transported detritus ; and the only marks of glaciation lie 
low on the sides of the Moselle, where the floating down of the river- 
ice has frequently rounded, polished, and striated the rocky banks in 
the direction of the flow. Boulders, transported from further up the 
stream, also sometimes lie on the shores. But, in the absence of true 
drift, I considered that, had Switzerland been depressed at least 3000 
feet, until its mountains were washed by a sea that floated trans- 
ported blocks to the higher Jura, the table-lands of Bhenish Prussia 
and Westphalia would also possibly have been submerged, and more 
or less covered with glacial detritus. Further up the Bhine and in 
the Black Forest the same absence of marine drift prevails. . There, 
looking eastward towards the Rhine, the mountains, chiefly of gneiss, 
are wonderfully scarred, telling the observer of the wasting eflects of 
frost, ice, rain, and rivers, probably ever since the dose of the Miocene 
period. In tiie vaUey of Oberweiler, between Mullheim and the 
watershed, I observed occasional heaps of moraine-Hke detritus, in 
which by diligent searching I found a few stones marked with the 
familiar glacial scratchings. 

In the interior towards Schonau and the Belchen, the rocks being 
generally soft and schistose, no very decided signs of old glaciers 
occur, and no part of the country shows symptoms of the presence 
of drift. Altogether the country looks as if it had stood in the air 
for so great a period that, even if glaciers were once present, they 
had disappeared so long that aU the more prominent signs of d^ra- 
dation are now due to rain and running water. But further in the 
interior it is altogether different; for the signs of old glacier-ice 
are plentifril enough, and for miles roimd the Feldberg, which rises 
4982 Baden feet above the sea, the sides of the valleys to the very 
summits of the mountains are often strikingly moutonnies, though 
the rounded forms are generally roughened and frequently half 
ruined with age. On these, striations, though rare, may occasionally 
be discovered (running in the direction of the valleys), although 
the rapid rate at which the rock weathers is much against their 
preservation. Moraines also are not uncommon. At the foot of 
the Feldberg, on the east, there is a beautiful circular lake, called 
the Feldsee, surrounded by tall cli£& of gneiss and granite in the 
shape known in Scotland as a corrie^ — a form eminentiy charac- 
teristic of aU glacier-countries past or present. The outer side of 
the lake is danuned up by a perfectiy symmetrical moraine, curving 
across the valley, and formed of sand, gravel, and of granite 
and gneiss, often in large boulders. It is now covered with pine- 
trees. The lake is deep, and the moraine rises from 25 to 40 feet 

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above the water. Outside the moraine lies a flat marsh, still 
retaining traces of having been a lake, once also dammed by a second 
and outer moraine, formed chiefly of large angular blocks of gneiss, 
piled irregularly on each other like the old moraine of Gwm Boch- 
Iwyd, above liyn Ogwen in Caernarvonshire. Quantities of moraine- 
matter strew the valley for two or three miles further down to the 
little marshy lake at Waldbauer, which is also dammed up by 
moraine-rubbish, in one place rudely stratified, like some of the old 
moraine-heaps on the Jura and parts of the great moraine of Ivrea ; 
or like the heaps of glacier-c2^&m that often border the lakes marshes, 
and flat peat-mosses, once lakes, that diversify the lowlands of 
Switzerland. At the upper end of the Alb Thai also, at the entrance 
of Menzenschwanden Alb, I saw four moraines curving across the 
valley, arranged concentrically one within another, like those at 
the end of the glacier of the Rhone; and for many miles in the 
Alb YaUey, both above and below St. Blasien, ro(^ nioutonnSes 
stand like islands through the alluvium, while it is also plain that 
the sides of the mountains above have been to a great height smoothed 
by ice. Nowhere however down to Allbruck, where the river joins 
the Bhine*, did I see any '' drift ;" and this village lying close on the 
north side of the Jura, it seemed impossible that the higher ground 
on the south side of that range, between the Lakes of Constance and 
Geneva, should have been submerged during any part of the Glacial 
period, while the country on the Bhine above Basel remained above 
the sea. I therefore saw that the theory that the Pierre d hot and 
its companion blocks had been floated from the Alps by marine ice- 
bergs was untenable ; and a later examination of a portion of the Jura, 
partly under the able guidance of Professor Desor, fully convinced me 
that the ice that descended the great valley of the Bhone had covered 
much of the low country and abutted on the south-eastern flank of 
the Jura. 

Old Distribution of the Great Alpine Olaciers, — ^At that period, then, 
of extreme cold, when the glaciers of the Alps flowed right across the 
Miocene basin of Switzerland, a glacier of vast thickness (No. 1 on 
the Map, PL YIII.), running from end to end of the upper vaUey of the 
Bhone, debouched upon the lowlands at what is now the eastern end 
of the Lake of Geneva, and spreading in a great fiEm-shaped mass 
extended to the south-west several miles down the Bhone below its 
present outflow from the lake, and north-east to the banks of the Aar, 
about half-way between Solothum and Aarau. The length of this 
fan-shaped end of the glacier, from north-east to south- west, was 
about 130 miles, and its extreme breadth about 25 miles. Another 
great glacier (No. 5) descended in a direction opposite to the higher 
part of the Bhone glacier, through the upper vcdleys of the Bhine, 
and debouched upon a wide area that extends from Kaiserstuhl on 
the Bhine, far to the north-east. In the centre of this area lies the 
Lake of Constance. Between these, which were the largest glaciers 
on the north watershed of the Swiss Alps, several smaller, but still 
enormous, glaciers flowed in a north-westerly direction from the 
* Between Basel and the confluence of the Aar and (he Bhine. 

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188 PBocBSDiKGfl 07 THS aEOLooicAi. socnsTT. [Har. 5, 

mountamSy-^-oiLe down the Lmth, through the area now occupied by 
the Lake of Zurich (No. 4), another down the Upper Beuss, across 
the area in which lie the Lakes of Lucerne, Zug, and others (No. 3), 
and a third down the valley of the Aar to Berne, through the countiy 
that now contains the Lakes of Brienz and Thun (No. 3). Accord- 
ing to this view (the result of the researches of the best Swiss 
geologists), the greater part of the Swiss Miocene area lay deep under 
ice*, and I am inclined to think that the country between the great 
old glaciers of the Beuss, Aar, and Bhone was much more covered 
with ice than any map shows, the whole helping to swell the pro- 
digious glacier of the Bhone that abutted on the Jura. 

Conneanon between Tarns and Glaciers. — In ' The Old Glaciers of 
North Wales ' I have shown that in all glacier-countries, whether 
past or present, there is an intimate connexion between tarns and 
glaciers. Some of these are dammed by old morainesf, but the 
greater number lie in rock-basins, formed by the grinding of glaciw- 
ice as it passed across the country, whether in valleys, on rough table- 
lands, or on the watersheds of passes. These lakes and pools are of all 
sizes, from a few yards in widUi, lying amid the mammillations of the 
roches moutonnies, to several miles in diameter. Sometimes in the 
convolutions of the strata (conjoined with preglacial denudation 
subsequent to the contortion of the beds), softer parts of the country 
may have been scooped out, leaving a hollow surrounded by a frame-* 
work of harder rock ; but perhaps more generally they were formed 
by the greater thickness and weight, and consequently proportionally 
greater grinding pressure, of glacier-ice on particular areas, due to 
accidents to which it is now often difficult or impossible to find the 
due. Trifling as this phenomenon at first sight may seem, I yet bdieve 
the manner of the formation of these lakes is of much importance to 
the right understanding of the glacial theory, whether taken in con- 
nexion with the great extension of extinct glaciers in recognized 
glacier-regions, or, farther, when viewed on a general continental 
scale ; for the theory of thealacial origin of many rock^basins must, I 
feel convinced, be extended much beyond such mountain-districte as 
Switzerland, Wales, and the Highlands of Scotland, where they first 
attracted my attention ;|:. 

Origin of the Great Alpine Lakes, Subject stated, — From the con- 
sideration of the origin of mountain-lakes and tarns, the question 
easily arises, — ^What are the causes that have operated in the formation 
of the great lakes of Switzerland, such as those of Greneva, Zurich, 
and Constance, and, south of the Alps, of Maggiore, Lugano, Como, 

* The UmitB of the northern ffladers on the Map (PL VIII.) are ehieflj giyen 
from a MS. map oompiled bj M. Moriot Those on the louth art taken mm ^ 
map hy M. de Mortillet. Both were lent me b? Sir Carles Ljell. 

t Quart Joom. QeoL 3oc. 1851, toI viii. p. 371 ; and ' Old Glaciers of North 

) It is not to be supposed that I attribute tiie origin of all rook-basins to 
glacial action. Many he in the craters of extinct Tolcanos, some, no doubts in 
areas of special subsideoce, and others may be due to causes of which I know 
nothing. I now confine my remarks to oo^ain lakes common in all highly 
glaciated regions such as I know. 


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and others ? To answer this with precision, it wUl be necessary, first, 
to examine several other hypotheses that by some may be thought 
sufficient to account for them. 

It is well known that after the close of the Miocene epoch the 
rocks of the Alps were much disturbed, — a circumstance proved by 
the contortion of the Miocene strata, as for instance in the neighs 
bourhood of Lucerne, where, on the Bigi (and in other conglomeratic 
mountains on the same strike), the strata are considered by the best 
Swiss geologists to be repeatedly folded and fairly inverted, so that 
the basement-beds form the top of the mountain instead of its 
bottom, thus, by reversal of dip, plunging under the Eocene and Cre- 
taceous strata of the mountains i^ther south. The whole, as shown 
by the rapid truncated foldings and the escarpments of the hills, has 
since been much denuded, the denudation being of a kind and amount 
that, to effect it, proves the lapse of a long period of time. Wit- 
ness the outliers of Miocene strata in the upland vaUeys of the Jura. 
Among these disturbed and denuded strata of Miocene and of older 
dates, the Lakes of Geneva, Thun, Brienz, Lucerne, Zurich, Constance^ 
the Wallen See, and the great lakes of North Italy lie. A knowledge 
of the stratigraphical structure of the Alps, in my opinion, proves 
that these lakes do not lie among the strata in basins merdy pro- 
duced by disturbance of the rocks, but in hollows due to denuding 
agencies that operated long after the complicated foldings of the 
Miocene and other strata were produced. 

First, none of these lakes lie in simple synclinal troughs. It iM 
the rarest thing in nature to find an anticlmal or a synclinal curve 
from which some of the upper strata have not been removed by 
denudation. I never yet saw a synclinal curve of which it can be 
proved that the uppermost stratum in the basin is the highest layer 
of the formation that was originally deposited over the area before 
the curving and denudation of the country took place. The only 
approach to this may possibly be in the upper valleys of the Jura, 
where a part of the 3iOoc6ne beds lie in basins separated by second- 
ary antidinaUy curved strata, the tops of the anticlinal bends having 
been removed by denudation ; but these cases are surroujiided with 
difficulties. The lake-hollows in the Alps are, however, encircled by 
rocks, the strikes, dips, and contortions of which often exhibit denu- 
dation on an immense scale ; and in no case is it possible to affirm, 
here we have a synclinal hollow of which the original uppermost 
beds remain. If these beds have disappeared to a great extent, then 
it is evident that denudation has followed disturbance. The £rag«- 
mentary state of the uppermost Miocene strata of the lowlands of 
Switzerland proves this denudation. Again, if it be argued that in 
the lake-areas these denudations have been produced by the waters of 
the lakes, it is r^^ed that, though waves may form cliffii, neither 
running nor still water can scoop out deep trough-shaped hollows. 

Secondly, the same kind of ai^ument applies to areas of mere 
watery erosion by rivers. Eunnijig water may scoop out a sloping 
▼alley or gorges but (excepting little swallow-holes) it cannot form 
and deepen a profound hoUow, so as to leave a rocky barrier all 

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round ; though it may fill with sediment one that had previously been 

Thirdly, neither do most of the Swiss lakes lie in lines of dis- 
location. For many reasons I do not believe that any one of them 
among the high Alps or on their flanks can be proved to lie in lines 
of mere gaping fracture. Let us consider the nature of such fractures. 

In any country where the strata are comparatively little disturbed 
and lie nearly horizontally, if it be faulted, there is no reason why 
the fractures should be open. In the Oolites, for example, in the 
South of England, where faults are numerous, and in the New Red 
Sandstone of the central counties, there is generally a simple dis- 
placement of the strata up or down, on one side or &e other ; or, if 
the disturbance go beyond this, it is that along the sloping line of 
fracture the beds on the downthrow side are turned up, and those 
on the opposite side bent down, by pressure and slipping combined. 
In more disturbed districts, like the Welsh Coal-measures, the same 
phenomena are observable : witness, for instance, the numerous sec- 
tions from accurate observation, drawn on a true scale, by Sir Heniy 
De la Beche, Sir William Logan, and others. Experience both 
above ground and in mines proves ihe same. Most lodes are in frac- 
tures, and many lie in lines of fault. In metamorphic, excessively 
contorted, and greatly fractured districts like those of Devon, Corn- 
wall, and Wales, the cracks, whether bearing metals or not, vary 
from mere threads to a few fathoms in width. They are always 
filled with quartz or other foreign substances, frequently harder 
than the surrounding matrix. I have often traced lodes on the 
surface, in Wales, by the hard matter filling the crack standing 
in reli^ above the surface of the softer enclosing rock. In lime- 
stone rocks the cracks are usually partly filled widi crystallized car- 
bonate of lime. lines of fracture are not, therefore, for purposes of 
denudation, necessarily lines of weakness, unless it happen that on 
opposite sides of the fault hard and soft rocks come together, when 
of course the softer rocks will wear away more rapidly, and generally 
originate a straight valley. 

Again, in an excessively contorted country, such as the Alps, it is, 
I believe, impossible, in consequence of that contortion, that there 
fihoidd be gaping fractures now exposed to view. Assuming for the 
sake of argument the sudden violent contortion of the strata of any 
great tract of country, we shall see that the contorted rocks now 
cvposed at the surface, even if broken, would be most unlikely to 

The expression " elevation of mountains " conveys to the minds of 
many persons the idea that the elevation has been produced by some 
force acting from below, along a Hne in the case of a chain, and on a 
point of greater or less extent when the mountains lie in a cluster, 
as a whole, more or less dome-shaped. Such forces would stretch the 
strata ; and when they could no longer stand the tension, cracks would 
ensue, and many lines of valley are assumed to lie in such fractures. 
But in Wales, the Highlands of Scotland, and more notably in the 
Alps, the strata now visible have been compressed and crumpled. 

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not stretched, and they occupy a smaller horizontal space than they 
did previous to the formation of the chain. 

Let us suppose a set of strata of (say) 14,000 to 20,000 feet in 
thickness, like the rocks of North Wales, and let these be spread 
out horizontally over thousands of square miles. Let these strata, 
from any cause, be compressed from the right and left so as 
to be contorted, and occupy a smaller horizontal area than they 
did before disturbance. Then, at a great depth, where the super- 
incumbent strata pressed heavily on the lower beds, the latter would 
be crumpled up, cleavage would often supervene, and gaping fno" 
tures would be impossible ; for, where mere fractures occurred, the 
walls of the cracks would be pressed more closely together. But 
nearer the surface, where there was less weight, and at it, where 
there was none, the beds would extend into larger curves than they 
did lower down ; and where the limits of extensibility were passed, 
shattering might take place, and yawning chasms might ensue. In 
all violently contorted countries, however, as in the cleaved rocks 
of North Wales, for instance, the present surface shows those origi- 
nally deep-seated contortions that since disturbance have been ex- 
posed by denudation ; otherwise the rocks would not be cleaved. 
I therefore do not believe that in any country I have seen, such as 
Wales or Switzerland, there are any lakes now occupying yawning 
fractures, consequent in Switzerland on post-eocene or post-miocene 
disturbances. On the contrary, they lie in hollows of denudation, 
shortly to be explained, of later date than these disturbances. 

Fourthly, again, it may be supposed that the great lakes lie each 
in an area of special subsidence; but, in reply to this, it is evident that 
among the unnumbered lakes of Switzerland and the Italian Alps it 
would be easy to show a gradation in size, from the smallest 
tarn that lies in a rock-basin to the Lakes of Geneva and Constance. 
Neither do I see any reason why mere size should be considered the 
test of subsidence. Disallowing that test, we should require a great 
number of special subsidences, each in the form of a rock-basin, in 
contiguous areas. Between the Seidelhom and Thun, for example, 
we should require one for the Todten See, several on the plateau on 
the north immediately under the Seidelhorn, one for the lake at the 
Grimsel, another for the drained lake at the Kirchet*, and another 
for the lakes of Brienz and Thun. In Sutherlandshire these areas of 
special subsidence would be required by the hundred, and in North 
America by the thousand. 

Signer Gastaldi, in a masterly memoir on the composition of the 
Miocene conglomerates of Piedmontt, considers witii reason that 
the large angular blocks of these strata, many of them &r-trans- 
ported, and some of them foreign to the Alps and Apennines, have 
been deposited from ice-rafts; and thence he infers the exist- 
ence of glaciers during a part of the Miocene epoch. But, admitting 
this, it is evident that the distribution of the post-pliocene glaciers of 

* See the " Old Gladen of Switierland and North Wales.'* 

t "Sugli element! ehe oompongono i ocrngbmerati Miooeni del Fiemonte.** 

VOL. XVm. — ^PABT I. 

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192 PBoosxDiireM or thx OKOLoeicAL socibtt. [Mar. 6, 

the Alps must, in all details^ Lave been quite different from those of 
Miocene age, in consequence of the great disturbance that the Alpine 
rocks underwent after the dose of the Miocene epoch, and the sub- 
sequent formation of numerous new yaUeys of denudation. Traces 
of the long lapse of time between the Miocene and ^le later Glacial 
epoch are in other countries but imperfectly preserved in the sub- 
divisions of the Crag, and of other minor formations of still later 
date. Of the finer gradations that unite these subdivisions few traces 
have been described. For long before, and during all these Cra^ 
epochs and the ages between them, of which we have little trace, 
and during all the time that elapsed from the close of the Crag until 
the period of extreme cold came into action, the Alps stood above the 
sea, and, sufEering subaeiial denudation, valleys were being formed 
and deepened. It is possible that, while the mild dimates of the 
Lower Crag epochs endured, there may still have been gladers in 
the higher Alps; but at whatever period the later graders com- 
menced, those who allow the extreme slowness of geological change 
will admit that the period was immense that elapsed during the gra- 
dual increase of the gladers, until, in an epoch of intensest cold, 
the ice abutted on the Jura in one direction, in another spread 
£eu: beyond the present area of the Lake of Constance, and on the 
south invaded the plains of Lombardy and Piedmont. During 
all that time weather and running water were at work modifying 
the form of the ground under review. But, as I have already ex- 
plained, these two agents were incapable of scooping out deep hol- 
lows surrounded on all ddes by rocks, and it therefore follows that 
the lakes first appeared afi;er the decline of the gladers left the 
surfietce of the country exposed approximately as we now see it, — 
unless we admit, what seems to me impossible, that fractures, formed 
at the dose of the Miocene epoch, remained filled with water until 
the great glaciers filled them with ice ; or believe, with De Mor- 
tillet, that the valleys and lake-hollows were charged with water- 
borne alluvial or diluvial dSbris before the gladers ploughed it out *. 

Allowing the hypothesis of De Mortillet, the rock-basins mus^ 
have been twice fiO^ed with water ; but, according to my hypothesis, 
they did not exist as lakes till after the disappearance of the 

But the glader map of andent Switzerland shows that the areas 
now occupied by the great lakes, both north and south of the Alps, 
have all been covered with glaciers. No tertiary deposit of an age 
between the close of the Miocene and the commencement of the Gladal 
epoch lies between the Alps and the Jura ; and, had the hoUows of 
the lakes existed prior to the great Glacial epoch, we ought, but for 
some powerful wasting agent, probably in these hoUows, still to find 

<^ See an admirable memoir Mortillef^ ''Des AndenB Gladers da 
YerBant Italien dea Alpea." Milan, 1860. Though I had seen his map, I bad 
not seen this memoir when I read my paper ; and the passages in which it 
is mentioned haye been added as these pages passed through the press. His 
theory leaves the difficulty of the first formation of the basins untouched, unless 
we beUere (which I do not) that the Alpine valleys are lines of fimcture. 

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some traces of freshwater deposits, perhaps of the age of part of the 
Crag. No such relics exist. 

The Oreat Lakes, Lake of Geneva, — ^The Lake of Oeneva is about 
45 miles in length by about 12 in breadth, and its delta, once part 
of the lake, between Yilleneuve and Bex, is 12 miles long. The 
latter and a small part of the banks of the lake beyond the mouth 
of the river lie in the great Bhone valley, formed of older Tertiary 
and Secondary rocks. All the rest of the lake is surrounded by the 
low country formed of the various subdivisions of the Moksse and 
Nagelfluh. The lake is 1230 feet above the level of the sea, and ' 
984 feet deep towards the eastern end, according to the soundings of 
De la Beche ♦. See ^. 1, p. 194. 

Geneva itself stands on superficial dibris; but the solid rock 
first appears in the river-bed below Geneva, at Vernier, at the level 
of 1197 feet above the sear— only 33 feet below the surface of the 
lake, or 951 feet above the deepest part of its bottom. Any one 
acquainted with the remainder of the physical geography of the 
country will therefore see that the water of the lake lies in a true 
rock-basin. The question thus arises, How was this basin formed ? 

1st. It does not lie in a simple synclinal basin ; for, though the 
Lake of Geneva lies in the great synclinal hollow of the Miocene 
strata between the Alps and the Jura, it is evident by an inspection of 
the country that the flexures of that formation are of fietr greater 
antiquity than the lake. These flexures have been denuded, and the 
lake runs in a great degree across their strike. 

2nd. For reasons already stated, it is, I believe, impossible to 
prove that the lake lies in an area of special subsidence, aH the pro- 
babilities being against this hypothesis. 

3rd. It is almost needless to say that the Lake of Geneva is too 
wide to lie in a mere line of fracture ; and I know of no reason why 
the valley of the Ehone, where occupied by the delta, should be 
esteemed a line of fault or gaping fissure, any more than many other 
valleys in Switzerland, which many geologists wiU consider with me 
chiefly the result of the old and long-continued subaerial denudation 
of highly disturbed strata. I could enter on details to prove this point, 
but they belong rather to the rock-geology of Switzerland than to the 
matter in hand. 

4th. Those who do not believe in the existence and excavating 
power of great and sudden cataclysmal floods will at once see that 
the area of the lake cannot be one of mere watery erosion ; for ordi- 
nary running water, and far less the still water of a deep lake, can- 
not scoop out a hollow nearly 1000 feet in depth. 

Now, if the Lake of Geneva do not lie in a synclinal trough, in an 
area of subsidence, in a line of fracture, nor in an area of mere 
aqueous erosion, we have only one other great moulding agency left 
by which to modify the form of the groimd, namely, that of ice. 

When at its largest, the great glacier of the Bhone (No. 1 of the 
Map, PI. Yin.) debouched upon ti^e Miocene beds where the eastern 
end of the Lake of Geneva now lies. The boulders on the Jura, near 
* Edinburgh Phikwophical Journal, 1820, Tol. ii p. 107, and plate 2. 

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1862.] sA3caAT-^^«Li.aiX OBiaiBr op laxeb. 195* 

Neuchitel; at the point on tbe Map marked B^ prove tliat this glacier 
was about 2200 feet thick where it abutted on the mountains ; and, 
where it first flowed out upon the plain at the mouth of t^e vallej 
of the Bhone, the ice, according to Charpentier, must have been 
at least 2780 feet thick *. Add to this the depth of the lake, 984 
feet, and the total thickness of the ice must have been about 3764 feet 
at what is now the eastern part of the lake, fig. 2 f. I conceiye, then, 
that this enormous mass of ice,pushing first north-west and then partly 
west, scooped out the hollow of the Lake of Geneva most deeply in its 
eastern part opposite Lausanne, where the thickness and weight of ice, 
and consequently its grinding power, were greatest. This weight de- 
Greasing as it flowed towards the west, from the natural diminution 
of the glacier, possessed a diminishing eroding power, so that less 
matter was planed out in that direction, and thus a long rock-basin 
was formed, into which the waters of tiie Bhone and other streams 
flowed when the climate ameliorated and the glacier retired. 

Lake of Neuchdtel, — The basins of the Lakes of Neuch&tel, Bienne, 
and Morat were, I consider, hollowed out in a similar manner, dif- 
fering in points of detail. Near the Lake of Neuchatel, on the flank 
of the Jura, the fan-shaped end of the Bhone glacier (No. 1) attained 
its greatest height, swelled in size and pressed on as it was by others 
that descended from the north snow-shed of the mountains between 
the Oldeuhom and the great snow-field above Grindelwald. Accord* 
ing to estimates based on the highest ice-stranded boulders, the ice 
rose 2203 feet above the present surface of the lake. The lake is 
now 1427 feet above the sea, and 480 feet deep ; and the Lake of 
Bienne is 1425 feet above the sea, and 231 feet in depth. The. 
bottom of the Lake of Neuchfttel is thus 947 feet above the sea. 
Unless the gravel, therefore, on the banks of the Aar, immediately 
east of the latter, be over 480 feet deep, the hollow of the lake 
near its immediate bounds is a true rock-basin ; for on the north, 
south, and west it is surrounded by solid Secondary and Miocene 
rocks. Even if the rock does not rise dose to the surface in the 
river near the lake, still, at Solothum, strata in place come dose 
to the river-bank on both sides, the river being 1414 feet above tilie 
sea. Under any circumstances there must therefore be a long, deep 
trough between Solothum and the rocks a little south-west of the 
Lake of Neuch&teL How was this basin formed ? When the gla^ 
der, deboudiing from the valley of the Bhone, spread out like a fan 
and pressed forward till it abutted on the Jura, its onward progress 
was stopped by that mountain ; and direct farther advance being 
hindered, the ice spread north-east and south-west, to the right and 
left, and being as a whole thickest and heaviest above the area where 
the lake now lies, a greater quantity of the Miocene strata on which 
it rested must have been ploughed out there than further on towards 
the north-east and south-west ends of the glacier, towards which 

* The Lake of Geneva is 197 feet lower than the Lake of NeuchAtel. The 

S* loier fint sarmoonted the hilU between Laiuanne and Vevay, and then flowed 
wn ^e general slope northwards to the Jora. 
t This diagram is on a true scale both horixontally and vertaoaUy. 

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the ioe, gradually dedining in thickness, exercised less grinding 
power. In this manner I believe the troughs were formed in which 
lie the three lakes near Nench&tel ; and when the ice finally retreated, 
the ordinary drainage of the country filled them with water, the 
difb on the south-eastern side of the Lake of Neuch&tel and other 
changes of the form of the ground having since been produced or 
modified by watery erosion and the local deposition of sUt and allu- 
vial graveL 

The Lake of Thun.— The Lake of Thun is 1825 feet above the 
sea, and 776 feet deep. Its bottom is therefore 1049 feet above the 
sea. It is about 10 miles in length, 1| broad, and its length chiefly 
cuts across the strike of rocks of Secondary and Miocene age. The 
Lake of Brienz (about the same size) is more remarkable ; for, while 
its level is 1850 feet above the sea, its depth is more than 2000 feet : 
so that its bottom is at least between 100 and 200 feet below the 
level of the sea. Before the formation of the alluvial plain between, 
these two lakes were probably united ; and whether or not this was 
the case, it is evident, from its great depth, that the Lake of Brienz 
lies in a true rock-basin. Even if below Tliun the rocks do not crop 
nearer than Soloihum, the Lake of Thun still lies in a rocky hollow 
more than 600 feet deep, both hollows having, I believe, been deep- 
ened by the great old glacier of the Aar (No. 2 in the Map), the ice of 
which was so thick, that above Brienz it overflowed into the valley of 
Samen by the Brunig, about 1460 feet above the Aar below Meyrin- 
gen, and sent off a branch which scooped out the hollows of the Lakes 
of Lungem and of Samen on its course towards Alpnach on the Lake 
of Lucerne. 

The Lake of Zag, — ^The Lake of Zug is about 9 miles long, from 
1 to 2^ wide, 1361 feet above the sea, and 1279 feet deep ; and 
its bottom is therefore only 82 feet above the sea. The whole is 
surrounded by Miocene strata, the strike of which the lake cuts across^ 
and its great depth clearly shows that it lies in a rock-basin. 

The Lake of Lucerne, — ^The Lake of the Four Cantons (Lucerne) 
ramifies among the mountains and extends its arms in various direc- 
tions. In its lower part, the branches that run N.E. to Eussnach 
and S.W. towards Gestad lie partly in the strike of the Miocene 
and older strata ; but for the most part it runs across the average 
strike of the Eocene and Secondary rocks, between banks, some- 
times precipitous, that rise in noble clifEs sometimes more than 2000 
feet above the water. Its height is 1428 feet above the sea, and 
its recorded depth 853 feet ; but the shape of the banks and the 
round number of 800 French feet make it likely that it may con- 
tain deeper gulfe than have yet been plumbed. If not, then its 
bottom is 575 feet above the sea ; and those acquainted with the 
shape of the ground by Lucerne will easily be convinced that the lake 
lies in an actual rock-basin. The steepness of the walls of this lake 
more resembles the sides of a rent than those of any of the basins yet 
described, and the re-entering angles of rock opposite curving bays 
have been cited as evidences of fracture, one side being suppc^ed to 
fit into the other. But in most cli% valleys of aqueous erosion there 

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are necessarily sach re-entering angles, firom the common action of 
running water; and, in Switzerland, ere these Talleys were filled 
with ice, they existed in some shape, and were drained by rivers that 
deepened them and gave them a general form preparatory to the flow 
of the ice that largely modified their outlines. I should no more 
consider the re-entering angles a sign of gaping fracture in these 
valleys than I woidd the bends of the Welsh valleys or of the tortuous 
Moselle. But even if at first sight one were inclined to believe the 
space between the opposite difEs between Brunnen and Eluhlen to be 
an open fracture, if we take a moderate average slope for each side^ 
say of 65*^, and produce it below the water, we get a depth, ere the 
lines meet, of between 7000 and 8000 feet — a very improbable 
depth for the original hollow of the lake. But it may be said that 
the fracture has been much widened by degradation, ^e line of the 
break merely giving a line of weakness, along which the surface- 
drainage might widen the valley. If, however, we only take an angle 
for the sides of the lake giving a moderate depth, the necessity for a 
fracture does not exist, and we recur to some process of mere erosion 
for the scooping of the hollow in which the water lies, that process 
having, I consider, been the long-continued grinding of the ice of 
the great glacier No. 3 of the Map. 

Th^ Lake of Zuri4sh.— The Lake of Zurich runs from N.W. to S.E., 
across the average strike of the Miocene strata, which are much dis- 
turbed towards its eastern end. It is bounded by high hills, much 
scarred by the weather, on which the different Miocene strata often 
stand out in successive horizontal steps. The linth Canal and the 
Wallen See lie in an eastern prolongation of this valley, which is 
still frurther extended to the valley of the Upper Ehine at Sargans. 
The lake is about 25 English miles in length, by 2^ wide in its 
broadest part. A great moraine partly dams it up at its outflow at 
Zurich; and a second forms the shdlowat Bapperswyl, where the lake 
is crossed by a long wooden bridge. The general level of the water ia 
1341 feet above ti^e sea, and only about 639 deep ; and the bottom of 
the lake is therefore 702 feet above the sea. Gnie limestone rocks at 
Baden, on the Limat,are 1226 feet above the sea ; and the lake there- 
fore lies in a true rock-basin, though it is probable that the old mo- 
raine at Zurich accounts for the retention of the water of the lake at 
its precise level. The long hollow was in old times entirely filled by 
the great glacier (No. 4 in the Map, PL VIII.) which descended from 
the monntaios between the Todi and the Tnnserhom, through the 
valley of the linth, to Baden. 

The Wallen See, — The Wallen See lies in a deep valley, whose 
cliffy slopes of Secondary rocks rise from 2000 to 3000 feet, and in 
the Leistkamm 4500 feet above the surface of the lake. The lake itself 
is 1391 feet above the sea ; and from the great steepness of its banks it 
may be inferred that it is exceedingly deep, but none of the authorities 
I have consulted give its soundings. A large branch from the great 
Bhine glacier (No. 5 on the Map) joined that of the valley of Glarus 
and Zurich through this wide gorge, and ground out the hoUow of 

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198 PBOGSSDnroB of thx osolooical aogistt. [Mar. 5, 

The Lake of Constance, — ^The Lake of Constance, the largest sheet 
of water in Switzerland, is about 50 miles in length, by about 15 
in breadth at its broadest part. It is entirely surrounded by Mio- 
cene strata, often considerably disturbed, and forming great Mis to- 
wards the S.E., which in a remarkable manner evince all the signs 
of long-continued erosion by running water,— conyeying the impres- 
sion l£at chiefly by that means all the deep valleys of the district 
have been worn since the close of the Miocene epoch. This lake lies 
1298 feet above the sea ; and, its depth being 912 feet, its bottom is 
only 386 feet above the sea. The falls of the Bhine are 1247 feet 
above the sea ; and the lake therefore lies in an unmistakeable rock- 
basin, the whole of which was once overflowed by the deep and broad- 
spreading glacier of the Upper Bhine valleys (No. 5 of the Map), 
which stretched far northward beyond the lake into Baden and 
Wurtemberg. Being of greatest thickness where it entered the region 
of the lake, by its enormous weight and grinding power it scooped 
out, in the soft rocks below, the wide hoUow now filled with water. 

The Italian Lakes, — If we now turn to the Italian side of the 
Alps, we shall find the same phenomena prevailing in the Lakes of 
Maggiore, Lugano, and Como, the only important lakes I have 
yet had an opportunity of seeing south of the great chain. To 
each of these the same reasoning applies, modified only in detail ; 
and I shall therefore briefly pass IJiem over. 

The most westerly, the Lago Maggiore, lies in a winding valley, 
40 miles long, excavated in gneissic and Jurassic rocks, which rise 
on either side in lofty mountains. The surface of the lake is 685 
feet above the level of the sea, and near the Borromean Islands it 
has the enormous depth of 2625 feet ; so that its bottom is ] 940 
feet lower than the sea-level. It must, therefore, be enclosed all 
round by rocks, unless we suppose the narrow passage at Arena, 
near its outlet, to be as deep as its deepest part, or that the alluvial 
deposits of the Ticino and the Po are more than 1940 feet deep — 
an assumption no one is likely to make. 

Of all the Alpine lakes, that of Lugano is the most irregular in 
form, — in the language of M. Desor, stretching its arms like a 
great polyp among the mountains in all directions *. Its surface is 
938 feet above ^e level of the sea, and its depth 515 feet. Its 
bottom is therefore only 410 feet above the sea-level, and the shape 
of the surrounding ground renders it impossible to believe that it is 
not entirely surrounded by rocks. 

The Lake of Como, the hollow of which has been scooped out gene- 

* See memoirs " De la Physionomie des Locs SuiBses " (extrait de la 'Revue 
Soisee,' 1860) and " Quelques Considerations sur la Classification des Lacs, & 
propoB des bassins du rerers meridional des Alpes," by E. Desor. The opinions 
of M. Desor and my own do not agree on the question of the origin of 
the lake-basins of the Alps. His xiews are well expounded in the above- 
named memoirs. It was in oonrersation with my friend, in 1860, that I first 
proposed what 1 consider the true solution of the question, and to this conver- 
sation I presume he alludes in the latter memoir, p. 13, — " On a pr^tendu que 
les laos etaient Teffet de Taffouillement dee glaciers qui auraient labour^ le sol sur 
lequel ils B*aTan9aient," &o. 

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1862.] BAJffll.T— eUkCIAI. 02IGIN OP LAJCBS. 199 

rally in the Bame set of rocks as the other two lakes, is 700 feet aboye 
the sea, and 1929 feet deep ; and its bottom is therefore 1229 feet 
below the level of the sea. On the borders of these lakes the rounded 
rocks and the well-known glacier-stranded boulders, high on the 
mountain-sides, attest that these deep vaUeys were filled to the brim 
by a vast system of glaciers (Nos. 6 and 7 of the Map, PI. VIII.) that 
flowed southerly from the snow-shed that runs firom the eastern side 
of Monte Eosa, by the Bheinwald-hom, to the top of the valley of 
the Adda, — a system of glaciers so large that, like that of Aosta and 
Ivrea (No. 8 of the Map), farther west, they protruded their ends and 
deposited their moraines far south on ,the plains of Piedmont and 

The glacier of Ivrea (No. 8 on the Map), when it escaped from the 
valley of the Doire, deposited a moraine at its side, east of the town 
of Ivrea, rising in mere debris 1500 feet above the plain, and 
spreading out eastward in a succession of fan-shaped ridges miles in 
width. The vastness of this mass gives a fair idea of the huge size 
of the glacier, and of the great length of time it must have endured ; 
and just as this glacier hollowed out the little rock-bafiins in which 
lie the tarns that nestle among the large roches moutonnSes be- 
tween the town and the moraine *, so, deep as the hollows of the 
great Lakes of Maggiore and Como are, I believe they also were 
scooped out by the grinding power of long-enduring ice, where, under 
fiEtvourable circumstances, the glaciers were confined between the 
mountains, and therefore thicker than the glacier of Ivrea where it 
debouched on the plain. Diagrams illustrative of this subject should 
be drawn on a true scale ; otherwise, height, depth, and steepness 
being exaggerated, the argument becomes vitiated. I have not the 
data for giving an actual outline of the bottom of the Lago Mag- 
giore ; but a line drawn from the upper end of the lake to the 
required depth near the Borromean Islands gives an angle only of 
ahout 3^ in a distance of abmU 25 miles, and from thence to the 
lower end of the lake (12 or 13 miles) of ahoui 5°. The depths of 
Maggiore and Como do not, in my opinion, militate against my 
view ; for, if the theory be true, depth is a mere indicator of time 
and vertical pressure in a narrow space. It is interesting, and 
confirmatory of this view, that the deepest part of the Lago Mag- 
giore is just at the point where the enormous glacier of the Yal 
d'Ossola joined the great ice-stream that was formed by the united 
glacier-drainage of the valleys above Bellinzona and Locarno. Where 
these glaciers united, there the lake begins ; and where the ice was on 
the largest scale near the Borromean Islands, there the lake is deepest. 

Summary with regard to the Alpine Lakes. — ^And now, in reviewing 
the subject of the origin of the lakes of Switzerland and North Italy, 
I would remark — 

Ist. That each of the great lakes (see Map) lies in an area once 
covered by a vast glacier. There is, therefore, a connexion between 
them which can scarcely be accidental. 

* There are other well-known lakes dammed up by the moraine of this great 

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200 PBocKKDnros of thb asoLoeiCAL bogibtt. [Mar. 5, 

2nd. I think the theory of an area of special subsidence for each 
lake untenable, seeing no more proof for it in the case of the larger 
lakes than for the hundreds of tarns in perfect rock-basins common 
to all glader-countries, present or past, and the connexion of which 
with diminished or vani^ed glaciers I proved originally in * The Old 
Glaciers of North Wales.' In the Alps there is a gradation in size 
between the small mountain-tarns and the larger la^es. 

3rd. None of them lie in lines of gaping fracture. If old fractures 
ran in the lines of the lakes or of other valleys, and gave a tendency 
to lines of drainage, they are nevertheless, in ihe deep-seated strata, 
exposed to us as close fractures now, and the valleys are valleys of 
erosion and true denudation. 

4th. They are none of them in simple synclinal basins, formed 
by the mere disturbance of the strata after the close of the Miocene 
epoch: nor, 

5th, Do they lie in hollows of common watery erosion ; for run- 
ning water and the still water of deep lakes can neither of them ex-» 
cavate profound basin-shaped hollows. So deeply did PlayfaEur, the 
exponent of the Huttonian theory, feel this truth, that he was fain to 
liken the Lake of Geneva to the petty pools on the New Bed Marl 
of Cheshire, and to suppose that the hollow of the lake had been 
formed by the dissolutLon and escape of salts contained in the strata 

6th. But one other agency remains — ^that of ice, which, from the 
vast size of the glaciers, we are certain must have exerdsed a power- 
ful erosive agency. It required a solid body, grinding steadily and 
powerfully in direct and heavy contact with and across the rocks, to 
scoop out deep hollows, the situations of which might either be deter- 
mined by unequal hardness of the rocks, by extra weight of ice in 
special places, or by accidental circumstances, the clue to which is lost, 
from our inability perfectly to reconstruct the original forms of the 

7th. It thus follows that, valleys having existed giving a direc- 
tion to the flow of the glaciers ere they protruded on the low coun- 
try between the Alps and the Jura, these valleys and parts of the 
plain, by the weight and grinding power of ice in motion, were modi- 
fled in form, part of that modification consisting in the excavation of 
the lake-basins under review. 

In connexion with this point, it is worthy of remark thatg^iers^ 
many of them very large in the modem sense of the term, on the 
south side of the Yallais (excepting those of Mont Blanc), and the 
large glaciers on the south side of the Oberland,all drain into the Lake 
of Geneva ; those on the north of the last-named snow-fleld, also 
large glaciers, are drained through the Lakes of Brienz and Thun. 
These, among the largest existing glaciers of the Alps, are only 
the shrunken tributaries of the greater glaciers that in old times 
fllled and scooped out the basins of the lakes. The rest of the 
lakes, as already stated, are in equally close connexion with the old 
snow-drainage of glacier-regions on the grandest scale, — all of them, 
excepting those of Neuch&td, Bienne, and Morat, lying in the direct 

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oottrse of gladers filling vaUeys that extend right into the heart of 
the mountains. 

8th. Most of the lakes are broad or deep according to the size of 
the glaciers that flowed through the vallejB in whidbi they lie, this 
general result being modified according to the nature of the rock and 
the form of the ground over which the glacier passed. Thus, the long 
and broad Lake of Geneva, scooped in the Miocene lowlands, is 984 feet 
deep, and over its area once spread the broad glacier of the Ehone. 
Its great breadth and its depth evince the size of the glacier that over- 
flowed its hollow. The Lake of Constance, lying in the same strata, 
and equally large, is 935 feet deep, and was overspread by the equally 
magnificent glacier of the Upper Bhine. The Lakes of Maggiore and 
Como, deepest of all, lie in the narrow valleys of the harder 
Secondary rocks of the older Alps ; and the bottom of the first 
is 1992 feet, and the latter 1043 feet, below the sea-level. 
Both of these lie within the bounds of that prodigious system 
of glaciers that descended from the east side of the Pennine 
Alps and the great ranges north and south of the Yal Tellina, and 
shed their moraines in the plains of Piedmont and Lombardy. The 
depth of the lakes corresponds to the vast size and vertical pressure 
of the glaciers. The circumstance that these lakes are deeper than 
the level of the sea does not affect the question, for we know nothing 
about the absolute height of the land during the Glacial period. 

The Lakes of Thun and Brienz form part of one great hollow^ 
more than 2000 feet deep in its eastern part, or nearly 300 feet 
below the level of the sea. They lie in the course of the ancient 
glacier of the Aar, the top of which, as roches moutonnSes and 
striations show, rose to the very crests of the mountains between 
Meyringen and the Grimsel. 

The Lake of the Four Cantons is imperfectly estimated at only 
884 feet in depth ; but here we must also take into account the great 
height and steep inclines of the mountains at its sides. The Leke of 
Zug, 1311 feet deep, lies in the course of the same great glacier, the 
gatiliering-grounds of which were the slopes that bound the tributaries 
of the Upper Beuss and the immense amphitheatre of the Urseren 
Thai, bounded by the Kroutlet, the Sustenhom, the Galenstock, the 
St. Gothard, and the southern flanks of the Scheerhom. 

The lesser depths (660 feet) of the Lake of Zurich were hollowed by 
the smaller but stiU large glacier that descended the valley of the 

This completes the evidence. 

Lakes of the Norffiem Hemisphere generally, — 1 shall now make a 
few remarks on the bearing of this subject on the glacial question 

It is remarkable that in Europe and North America, going north* 
ward, lakes become so exceedingly numerous, that I have been 
. led to suppose the existence of some intimate connexion between 
their numbers and the northern latitudes in which they occur. 

Let any one examine the map of North America^ and he wiU 

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find thaty firom the Atlantic coast to the St. Lawrence, through New 
HampshL:^, Vermont, the north of the State of New York, Maine, 
Nova Scotia, New Bronswick, QajBp4, and Newfoundland, the whole 
continent is strewn with lakes. North of the St. Lawrence and 
the great lakes, as feu: as the Arctic Ocean, the same sprinkling of 
unnumbered li^es over the entire face of the country is even more 
remarkable ; and it is a curious circumstance that a large part of 
this vast area is so low and imdulating, that some of its lakes drain 
two ways — ^towards the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, or towards 
the North Sea and the North Atlantic. This vast country, about as 
far south as lat. 40^, shows, almost universally, marked signs of the 
strongest glacial action, in the moutonnie forms, polish, and constantly 
recurring striation of the rocks. I have only seen a few of the 
above-mentioned lakes south of Lake Ontario ; but I have closely 
questioned that able observer, Dr. Hector, who has examined the 
country north and west of the great American lakes, and he informs 
me that, though unable to account for it, he was struck with the cir- 
cumstance that so many (he thought he might say all) of the smaller 
lakes are in rock-basins, I connect this circumstance with the 
universal glaciation of the country, still evinced on the grandest pos- 
sible scale by every sign of ancient ice. These signs, I now believe, 
are far too imiversal and unvarying in their general directions to 
have been produced merely by floating ice, though in part of the glacial 
history of the continent floating ice has undoubtedly left large 
traces. But the lake-basins could only, I believe, have been scooped 
out by true continental glacier-ice, like that of Greenland ; for the 
lakes are universal in all the ice-worn region *. 

On the eastern side of the Atlantic, Wales, Cumberland, many 
parts of Ireland, the North Highlands, and some of the Western 
Isles are also dotted with unnumbered lakes and tarns. All 
of these are well-glaciated countries, both high and low ; and for 
Wales and many parts of Scotland, I can answer that by far the 
greater proportion of these lakes lie in rock-basins of truly glacial 
origin f. 

* Since this memoir was written, I hare oonyened on tbe sabjeot with Sir 
Wm. Lo|;aa, Director of the G^logical Surrey of Canada, who not only agrees 
in my Tiews with respect to the origin of American lakes in general, out also 
believes that the great American lake-basins may have been scooped out by the 
same means. They are all true rock-basins, in areas occupied by comparatiTely 
soft rocks surrounded by harder strata. Given sufficient tune, I see no difficulty 
in this view, to which I inclined while writing this paper, but refrained firom 
stating it, considering that most readers would think it too strong, and thus 
that in general opinion I might damage the whole theory. Sir William says 
that the arran^;ement of the strata proves that the great lakes do not lie in areas 
of special subsidence. 

t See * The Old Glaciers of North Wales.' When I published my account 
of these glaciers, I was too timid to include the Lakes of Llanberis, liyn Ogwen, 
liyn Cwellyn, and some others of the larger lakes in this cat^ory. I now 
feel conyinoed that they are true rock-basins, and also that the shallower pools 
of Liyn lAegeirin, Liyn Felin-y-nant, and others in An^esea bad the same origin. 
The horizontal striations far up the side of Camedd Dafydd, by Liyn Ogwen, 
were probably made by a glacier of immense thickness during the first great 
glader-period, preceding the deposition of the stratified drift 

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Loch Lomond and Loch Katrine, probably, like the greater lakas 
of Switzerland, are of the same kind, being merely Inxge oases of 
glacier-erosion, though in the case of the former it may be that the 
alluvial deposits on the banks of the Leven prevent its being in- 
vaded by the tide. Its islands are mere roches motUonrUes *. 

In the lowlands of Scotland numerous examples of the same kind 
of rock-basins occur, some of them certain, others doubtful because 
of the surrounding drift, which indeed in some cases may be the sole 
cause of the retention of the water. Notable examples of both kinds 
occur in the lowlands of Fife and Kinross, and of true rock-basins 
in the Cleish and Ochil Hills, as for instance Loch Glow, Dow Loch, 
and the two Black Lochs, and more doubtfully Loch Lindores. 

I have not yet had an opportunity of visiting the Scandinavian 
peninsula, which, geologists are aware, is, through aU its length 
and breadth, one of the most wonderAilly glaciated countries in the 
world. On the west, descending from the great chain, striated 
roches moutoniUes plunge right under the deep fiords ; and on the 
east, in Sweden, all between the mountains and the Baltic, round 
the Gulfis of Bothnia and Finland, and up to the North Sea, the whole 
country is covered with a prodigious number of lakes, just like North 
America, the Lewes, and the North Highlands of Scotland. The 
intense gladation which all of these countries have undergone, their 
similarity, and what I believe to be the intimate connexion of sudi 
crowded lakes with the movement of ice, induce me to believe that 
in Sweden also a great number of the lake-hollows must be true 
rock-basins scooped out by the passage of glacier-ice into the Baltic 
area. Furthermore, as the glaciated sides and bottoms of the 
Norwegian fiords and of the saltwater lochs of Scotland seem to 
prove, each of these arms of the sea is merely the prolongation of a 
valley down which a glacier flowed, and was itself filled with a 
glacier ; for the whole country was evidently, like the north of Green- 
land, moulded by ice. In parts of Scotland, some of these lochs being 
deeper in places than the neighbouring open sea, I incline to attribute 
this depth to the grinding power of ^e ice that of old flowed down 
the valleys, when possibly the land may have been higher than at 
present t. It may, however, only arise from unequal deposition of 
detritus. If the former view be admitted, raise the land so as to lay 
bare the surrounding ocean-bottom, and in some respects of levels 
and depth they become approximately the counterparts of the deeper 
narrow lakes of Switzerland and North Italy, glaciers bounded by 
mountains having flowed through both, and debouched upon the plains 

The Glacial Theory, — Furthermore, considering the vast areas over 
which the phenomena described are common in North America and 
Europe, I believe that this theory of the origin of lake-rock-basins 

* When the lake was low, I have seen in Looh Lomond ice-atriafced but- 
aoes of rock jost above the water, the striationB running in the direction of 
the length of the lake. 

t But this ia not essential, unless the lochs are so deep that the ioe most have 
been floated up before reaching the deeper parta. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

204 PBOCSBDnres or thb gkological socebtt. [Mar. 5, 

is an important point, in addition to previous knowledge, towards the 
solution of the glacial theory ; for I do not see that these hollows 
can in any way be accounted for by the hypothesis that they were 
scooped by floating ice*. An iceberg that could float over the mar- 
gin of a deep hollow would not touch the deeper recesses of the 
bottom. I am therefore constrained to return, at least in part, to 
the theory many years ago strongly advocated by Agassiz, that, in the 
period of extremest cold of the Glacial epoch, great part of North 
America, the north of the Continent of Europe, great part of Britain, 
Ireland, and the Western Isles t, were covered by sheets of true 
glacier-ice in motion, which moulded the whole surface of the country, 
and in favourable places scooped out depressions that subsequently 
became lakes. 

This was effected by the great original glaciers (probably con- 
nected with the origin of the unstratiJM boulder-day) referred to in 
my memoir on the glaciers of North Wales t, but the magnitude of 
whidi I did not then sufficiently estimate. The cold, however, con- 
tinued during the depression of North Wales and other districts 
beneath the sea, when they received the stratified erratic drift ; and 
glaciers not only did not cease at this time of depression, but were 
again enlarged during the emergence of North Wales and other 
countries, so as to plough the drift out of many valleys. These 
enlarged glaciers, however, bore no comparison in size to the great 
original sheets of ice that converted tiie North of Europe and 
America into a country like North Greenland. The newer develop- 
ment of glaciers was strictly local. Amelioration of climate had 
already far advanced, and probably the gigantic glaciers of Old 
Switzerland were shrinking into the mountain-vaUeys. 

Finally, if this be true, I And it difficult to believe that the change 
of climate that put an end to this could be brought about by mere 
changes of physical geography§. The change is too large and too 
universal, having extended alike over the lowlands of the Northern 
and the Southern Hemispheres. The shrunken or vanished ice of 
mountain-ranges is indeed equally characteristic of the Himalaya, 
the Lebanon, the Alps, the Scandinavian chain, the great chains of 
North and South America, and of other minor ranges and clusters 
of mountains like those of Britain and Ireland, the Black Forest^ and 

* I do not iD any way wish to deny that much of the glaciation of the lower 
oountries that came within the limits of the Drift was effected hy floating ioe on 
a large scale, which must have both polished and striated the rocks along which 
it ground. I have, with other authors, descrihed this in various memoirs. But 
the two sets of phenomena are distinct 

t The Lewes is covered by small lakes. 

1 Quart. Joum. G^l. Soc. toI. xriii. p. 371. 

S It has been suggested to me by Dr. Sibson that the prodigious waste of the 
Alps by the graduafaisintQgration and diminution of the upper snow-fields, wit- 
nessed by the great moraines of North Italv and other phenomena, must hare 
tended to lessen the glaciers. Q?his is true, but, as he also beUeres, it is not of 
itself enoueh to account for the shrinking of the ioe into the hig^ vaU^s where 
it is now alone found. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1862.] habutbss — ^pebmiah sxrata. 205 

Mabch 19, 1862. 

Elliot Square, Esq., Gresham House, London; Ernest SheUey, 
Esq., Ayin^n House, Winchester; Edward Eomilly, Esq., 14 
Stratton Street, Piccadilly ; The Bight Hon. Edward Cardwell, Esq., 
M.P., 74 Eaton Square; George W. Stevenson, Esq., C.E., F.S.A., 
Halifax; George W. Hemans, Esq., C.E., 82 Leinster Gardens, 
Bayswater ; and Harvey Buchanan HoU, M.D., Woodgate, Malvern^ 
were elected Fellows. 

The following communications were read : — 

1, On the SAin)SToirBS and their associated Deposits in {he Talb of 
the Edbn, tJie Cttmssblaitd Plaik, and the South-east of Dxtic- 
PBDsssHiBB. By Professor E. Habkitess, F.E.S.L. & E., F.G.S. 


1. Introduction 

2. Section near Eirkby Stephen. 

3. Section from Great Ormdde to 


4. Country between Great Onnside 

and Penrith. 

5. Section W. from Penrith to Hart- 


6. Country North of Penrith. 

7. Sandstones of West Cumberland. 

8. Sandstones of South-eastern Dum* 


9. Organic remains. 10. St. Bees. 

11. Scottish Permian Strata — ^their cha- 

racter and age. 

12. Conclusion. 

§ 1. This memoir refers to an area which commences a little south 
of Kirkby Stephen, in Westmoreland, and extends N.N.W. for 50 
miles, reaching the lower portions of the valleys of the Esk and 
Annan in Dimifriesshire. In an east and west direction, this area 
yaries greatly in breadth ; but, measured from Castle Carrock on the 
east, to the sea at Allenby on the west, the extent is about 30 
miles. It occupies the whole of the Cumberland plain, except a 
small portion of the parish of Aikton; and, in Westmoreland, it 
occurs on both sides of the Yale of the Eden. The district under 
consideration exceeds 800 square nules. 

The strata which occur in this area consist of sandstones of two 
distinct positions and characters, separated from each other by a 
well-developed series of shaly beds, in some localities containing a 
considerable amount of gypsum; and calcareous layers are also some- 
times found associated witii the shaly deposits. 

The arenaceous strata of Cumberland and Westmoreland have 
already attracted the attention of geologists. Those contiguous to 
the Penine chain are referred to by Dr. Buckland *. Those of the 
western side of the area have been alluded to by Prof. Sedgwick, 
and their boundaries in this portion of the north of England have 
been defined t. 

These deposits, as they occur at Ejrkby Stephen, have been noticed 
byProf. PhilHpst 

Mr. Binney has also described the nature and age of some of these 

• Geol. Trans., 2nd Series, toL iv. p. 105 et sm. 

t Ihid.ToL iv, ]p,d83ee§eq. J Ibid, vol iiL p. 9. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

206 PBOGXXDnro6 of the obological socibtt. [Mar. 19, 

deposits in his memoir '' On the Permian Beds of the North-west 
of England*." 

In these several memoirs, detached localities are principally treated 
of. The ohject of this communication is not only to point out the 
several forms of rocks which occur in the area under consideration, 
hut also to indicate the relative ages of the sandstones and the 
gypsifsrous shales; and reference will ako he made to the fossils 
which these latter a£Ebrd. 

§ 2. Section near Kirhhy Stephen, (Fig. 1.) 

Wharton Park, immediately south of Eirkhy Stephen, is the most 
southerly limit of the rocks referred to. Here the beds seen in the 
Eden consiBt of a breccia composed of angular fragments of light- 
grey limestone, cemented together by a fine-grained dark-red sand- 

Fig. 1. — Section of Eden Valley, iovih of Kirhhy Stephen, near 
Stenkriih Bridge. Length H mile. 

BaOwaj- Rirer 

W. Station. Bden. E. 

5. Upper sandstone. 3. Red day (15 feet). 

4. Upper breooia (60 feet). 2. Lower breccia. 

1. Carboniferous rocks. 

This rock, locally termed " hard brockram," has a thickness in 
Wharton Park (from information received from a quarry- man) of 
60 feet. Its aspect at Stenkrith Bridge, near this, has been described by 
Professors Berwick and Phillips, and also by Mr. Binney, — the latter 
pointing out the superposition of this ** hard brockram " on an 
underlying mass of a softer nature, known as " rotten brockram," the 
latter resting on soft red sandstone. 

The recent cuttings of the South Durham Eailway, at the Kirkby 
Stephen Station, have exposed a section showing distinctly the rela- 
tions of the two " brockrams." The foundations of the bridge here 
rest upon the "rotten brockram," dipping east at a low angle. 
Succeeding this is a series of red sandy days, about 15 feet thick. 
Upon the sandy clays the " hard brockram " is seen extending to 
Stenkrith Bridge, and having a thickness of about 60 feet. These 
three deposits conform to each other ; and a little below Stenkrith 
Mill, the " hard brockram " is overlain conformably by thin-bedded 
red sandstones. 

* Memoirs of the literary and Pbilosopbioal Society of Manchettar, toIb. xii 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


At the old saw-mill at Kirkby Stephen the " hard brockramB " are 
also well seen, but they are much dwarfed in thickness, and show 
that they are rapidly thinning out. They repose on the sandy days, 
which continue northward on the east side of the Eden, in the form 
of an escarpment ; and at the Brewery, to the west, the " rotten 
brockram " again occurs. 

Northward fix)m this, no trace of the '* hard brockram'' (which 
is an extensively used and durable building-stone) is seen. 

The lower or " rotten brockram " has a different mineral nature 
from the "hard brockram ;" it consists of yellow limestone fragments, 
imbedded m a matrix of light-coloured sandstone; and it is more 
persistent in its occurrence. As it is seen in the Bela Water and 
the neighbourhood of Brough, it has been described by Mr. Binney, 
who has also pointed out the great abundance of soft sandstones 
which are associated with it. 

Deposits of a like nature occupy the country north of Brough, the 
" rotten brockram" being seen west of Warcop ; and to the east of 
this, under the western escarpments of Komanfell, the upper thin- 
bedded sandstones have been extensively worked. 

§ 3. Section from Great Ormside to BomanfeU, (Fig. 2.) 
The section showing most satisfectorily the sequence of the sand- 
stones and the accompanying strata in the north-west of England is 
one traversing the Vale of the Eden, from Great Ormside on the west 
to Eomanfell on the east. 

Kg. 2.— Section from Great Ormside to BomanfeU. Length 6 miles. 


B.W.^S £ Hilton. BomanfeU. N.B- 

I r 1 I 

— 6.«.7J.0.1O.11 

11. TTpper BandBtones (700 feet). 4. Lower sandstoneB (2000 ft.). 

8. Carboniferous rocks. 

2. Old Red conglomerate (600 

1. Lower Silurian schists. 

10. Bed clays (80 feet) 
9. Limestone (7 feet). 
8. Dark-cobured sandstone (6 feet). 
7. Qtrej shale (8 feet). 
6. Thin-bedded red sandstone (60 ft.). 
6. Plant-beds (20 feet). 

Professor Sedgwick notices the hrockrams as they occur at Little 
Ormside, and at Barrels, a mile N.W. of Great Ormside *. 

» Oeol. Trans. 2nd Series, toI. ir. p. 386. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


In Oill Beck, a small brook N.W. of Great Ormside, deposits 
appertaining to the Carboniferous rocks occur. Below these, in the 
brook, breccias are seen, succeeded by red sandstones, having an 
E.N.E. dip at 10^, inclining towards the Eden. East of this river, 
and west of the Appleby load, ridges of sand occur, as seen in the 
cutting of the Eden Valley Railway, resulting from sofb decom- 
posing sandstones. At Coupland Mill, immediately east of the high 
road, in the course of the stream, red false-bedded flaggy sandstones 
manifest themselves. These have a dip and nature similar to the 
flaggy beds which are wrought near Penrith. False bedding gives 
to these sandstones an apparent W.N.W. inclination, but the true 
dip is E.N.E. at a low angle. 

East from Coupland Mill is an extensive moor, called Brackenbar, 
along the western and northern margin of which a stream, called 
Hilton Beck, flows. This stream exposes a beautiful section of the 
higher beds of the inferior sandstones and breccias. Above the 
false-bedded sandstones of Coupland Mill, a thick mass of soft deep- 
red-coloured sandy beds is seen. These are also greatly false- 
bedded, and have upon them strata of a harder nature, in which 
yellow breccias make their appearance in great profusion, conforming 
to the low E.N.E. dip of the sandstones. 

These breccias occur under the same circumstances as those seen 
in the Bela Water ; but they are rarely so thick as those of the latter, 
and the interstratifled sandstones are usually less false-bedded. In 
their higher beds these sandstones become lighter in colour, and are 
conformably succeeded by some very interesting strata. These 
latter consist of cream-coloured, tbin-bedded, arenaceous layers, with 
thin, grey, shaly strata ; and a few thin beds of limestone, well 
marked by their distinct jointings ; the limestone is of a brownish 
colour in its interior, but weathers yellow. The strata, although well 
seen in the brook-course, are better exposed on the face of a small 
difl^ seen below the Appleby guide-post on the south side of the 
stream. These yellow, thin-bedded strata have a thickness of about 
20 feet. They have a remarkable resemblance to the marUslaU of 
Midderidge, Durham, and they afford fosnU. 

The brook-course shows the following conformable succession above 
the yellow beds: — 1st, very regular, thin-bedded, red sandstones, about 
50 feet thick ; 2nd, grey shale, imperfectly seen, having a thickness 
not exceeding 3 feet ; 3rd, thin-bedded, soft, dark-red sandstones, 
6 feet ; 4th, a thin-bedded, compact, brownish-grey limestone, with 
drusy cavities filled with small crystals of calc-spar. The limestone 
becomes darker in colour, and semicrystalline in its upper layers ; 
and papery bands of black shale separate the strata. This limestone, 
which a£Ebrded no trace of fossils, does not appear to exceed 7 feet 
in thickness. 

A series of red clays overlies conformably the limestone. The thick- 
ness of this, which is probably 80 feet, cannot be exactly made out, 
as d^ris masks the junction of this clay with the upper sandstones. 
These latter, with associated clay-beds, form the bed of the brook to 
beyond the village of Hilton, and they also dip E.N.E. at 10^. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


At the smelt-mill, above the village, the dip of the upper sand- 
stones is reversed ; but here they are contiguous to the great Penine 
fault. On the opposite or east side of the fault, Lower Silurian 
rocks are seen dipping N.N.W. at 60®; and on the west side of 
Eomanfell these have upon them Old Bed Sandstones, about 600 feet 
in thickness, dipping east, and passing regularly under the base of 
the Carboniferous series of Warcop FeU. 

The section from Great Ormside to Eomanfell affords means for 
ascertaining the thickness of the inferior sandstones and breccias. 
The dip of these averages 10® E.N.E. ; and the distance from their 
western margin to the spot in Hilton Beck where the yellow series 
occurs is about two miles, measured across the dip. This would 
give a thickness of nearly 2000 feet to the inferior strata. The 
next series, including the yellow sandstones below and the days 
above, with the intervening deposits, has a thickness of about 160 feet ; 
and the upper sandstones are here about 700 feet in thickness. 

§4. Beference has already been made to the occurrence of the 
breccias at Burrels. These are also seen on the east side of the Eden, 
immediately below Appleby ; and at Bongate, an eastern extension 
of Appleby across the river, the fEdse-bedded sandstones also occur. 
At Hungrigg, a mile E.N.E. from Appleby, the higher members of 
the breccia are seen, having here been extensively worked for their 
limestone fragments ; and a short distance from this eastwards the 
clayey zone comes on. 

No traces of the breccias occur north of Hungrigg ; and with this 
thinning out of the coarse portion of the inferior series, we have a 
greater development of the sandstones proper. 

To the norlii of Hungrigg no section can be obtained comparable 
to that across the Eden fr^m Ormside to Bomanfell, but many ex- 
posures of rock are seen which exhibit the sequence of the several 

At Long Marton, three miles north of Appleby, in the stream above 
the bridge, the inferior sandstone occurs, being the higher portion 
of the series. The clay-beds also were formerly wrought on the 
south side of the village, at Haa Plaister Scar, for the gypsum which 
they here afford ; and the upper sandstones are seen in the streams 
between Bufton and Knock. At Stamphill, a mile N.W. of Long 
Marton, the red clays and gypsum were also formerly worked ; and 
at Townhead, a quarter of a mile N.E. of Eirkby Thorpe, a good 
exposure of these now occurs, for here they are worked to a consi- 
derable extent. At this spot a mass of gypsum, called " Haa Plaister,'' 
about 9 feet thick, is seen resting on bluish clay, the gypsum itself 
being capped by about 7 yards of boulder-day. 

The level country W. and N.W. from this affords no sections 
until we reach Clibum, where the false-bedded flaggy sandstone 
has been noticed by Prof. Sedgwick*. From Clibum this extends 
northward ; and, forming Whinfell, it here exhibits its normal false- 
bedded character well developed. East frx)m Whinfell this sand- 

* Op, cit. p. 386. 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 


stone is seen at the bridge over the Eden, on the highway from 
Appleby to Penrith, to a slight extent. Near this is Crowdondle 
Beck, separating Cvunberland from Westmoreland, in which we have 
a fine section of the argillaceous series. This extends from Acorn 
Bank to beyond Newbiggin, and is devoid of gypsam. It exhibits 
the same direction and angle of dip as at Hilton Beck, and is also 
succeeded by the upper sandstones, which are extensively worked at 
Crowdundle quarry. The same sandstone is also seen at Culgaith, 
and forms the escarpment known as Culgaith Peel ; and immediately 
below it, on the opposite side of the Eden, the argillaceous series are 
well exhibited, forming Haa Plaister Scar, on the property of Winder- 

The section at "V^derwaith is as follows : — ^The upper portion red 
days, 12 feet thick, beneath which are greenish-grey clays with thin 
gypseous bands, 9 feet; red and grey days and t£in gypsum, 4 feet; 
a bed of fibrous gypsum, 2 inches, — ^the thickest seen, resting upon 
6 inches of day, passing downwards into an argillaceous sandstone. 

Down the Eden on the east side, the argillaceous series forms a 
well-marked escarpment; and on the west side of the river the 
inferior sandstone is occasionally seen. The latter is, however, 
very well exhibited in the Eamont, a short distance above its junc- 
tion with the Eden, for about a mile and a half. In this section 
the fedse bedding is so abundant that on account of it no idea could be 
arrived at concerning the arrangement of the inferior sandstones. 

§ 5. Section from the West of Penrith to Hartnde. (Fig. 3.) 

West of Penrith, the junction between the Carboniferous rocks on 
the W. and the sandstone deposits on the E. is not apparent. 

Fig. 3. — Section from the West of Penrith to the Penine Chain. 
Distance 10 miles. 

7. Trap-pock. 3. CarboniferouB rocks. 

6. Upper sandstones. 2. Old Bed conglomerate. 

6. Bed clay. 1. Silurian schists. 

4w Lower sandstones (fidse-bedded, 
5000 feet). 

At Newton Raigny and Catterlen, a purple grit of the Carboniferous 
series has been noticed by Prof. Sedgwick*. This grit b seen in the 

» Op. cit. note, p. 387. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1862.] HA&KKE88 — PEBMIAN 8TBATA. 211 

Petterill, about half a mile below Newton ; and there is reason for 
inferring that the red sandstone does not extend further than a mile 
west of Penrith. East of this place the sandstone is amply developed 
on Penrith Beacon Hill. Soft sandstones, nearly in the condition of 
sand, form the lowest beds here. Harder rocks succeed these, having 
a fSEdse-bedded and flaggy nature, the false bedding inclining west- 
ward, and the beds having sometimes a light colour. 

The same rocks occur at Ck)wrigg quarry, about a mile and a half 
£. from Penrith. Soft beds again succeed these, as seen on crossing 
over the Beacon Hill ; and at Snitteisgill, a mile and a half below 
Langwathby Bridge, on the west side of the Eden, the higher beds 
of l£e inferior sandstones occur with a false-bedded W. dip. On 
the east side of the river the ridge of the argillaceous strata is seen 
striking N.N.W., the road from Langwathby to Hartside crossing 
this between the village and Whinskill Bridge, where the upper 
sandstones make their appearance with an E.N.E. dip at 10^. lliese 
continue to beyond Melmerby, and are well seen in the Eake Beck, 
three-quarters of a mile E. from this, where they come abruptly 
against a mass of trap occupying the line of the Penine fault. East 
of this. Lower Silurian rocks, overlain by Old B«d Sandstones, passing 
upward to the Carboniferous series, occur. The rocks here have been 
alluded to by Dr. Buckland*. 

The section from Penrith to Hartside, with the exception of the 
traps, has a great affinity to that ftom Great Ormside to Boman- 
fell. In the former, however, there is a greater development of the 
inferior sandstones, and a total absence of the breccias, which are so 
abundant in the latter. The Jlaggy strata which occur between the 
soft sandstones are much more extensive in the former than in the 
latter, and equal the total thickness of the inferior sandstones as 
seen between Great Ormside and the plant-beds. Measured along 
the dip, which averages 10^, the lower sandstones of the Penrith 
section extend more than five miles ; and f^m this it would appear 
that the total thickness of this portion of the rocks here woidd be 
nearly 5000 feet. 

§ 6. North from the line of the last section, numerous exhibitions 
of rocks appertaining to all the three groups are seen. The lower 
sandstones form the ridges which occur on tjie east of the Lancaster 
and Carlisle Eailway, and are extensively marked on Bowscar and 
at Browniigg in Plumton, where, in a quarry affording flags remark- 
ably like those of Corncockle and Ihunfries, footprints similar to 
those of the Scotch localities have been found. 

Impressions of the same nature have been also noticed by Mr. 
Binney and the author on the flaggy beds near Penrith, but these 
are not so distinct as the impressions at Brownrigg. On Lazonby 
Fell the same flaggy beds, with the false-bedded westerly dip, are also 
very abundantly wrought, and, affording very superior flags, these 
are often sent to great distances. 

East from this range of hills we have also, in the Valley of the 

* Qeol. Trans. 2nd Series, toL iy. p. 112. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

212 PBocEBDDres of the oeolooical 80CIBTT. [Mar. 19, 

Eden, the inferior sandstones. They occur at Forge Mill, immedi- 
ately opposite to Lacy Oaves, where they are intersected by a fel- 
stone dyke ; at Scatterbeck, and in the brook near Lazonby village, 
they are also seen ; they form Blaze Fell, and Great Barrock ; and 
east from these we have them well exhibited in the Eden, immedi- 
ately above Armathwaite Mill, where they are intersected by the 
trap-dyke which nms from the Carboniferous rocks at Eenwick, in 
a N.W. direction to Petterill Crooks, near the Wreay Station on the 
Lancaster and Carlisle Eailway. East from Armathwaite, the in- 
ferior simdstones are found at Napestone, and amongst these are 
hard coarse flags like those of Templand quarry near Corncockle. 

Below Armathwaite Bridge the inferior sandstones are confined 
to the west side of the Eden. They are worked at Little Barrock 
quarry, near the Wreay Station ; but here they have a yellow colour, 
and no flaggy beds. 

Their most N.E. exposure is in the course of a small stream flowing 
into the Petterill, known as Howgill Beck, on the west side of the 
Carlisle road, near Carleton Hill. Only a small portion of the higher 
beds appear here, consisting of red sandstones dipping W., succeeded 
by nearly horizontal layers passing conformably under the marls 
and gypsums of the argillaceous series, which here dip N. at a low 

The western margin of the inferior sandstones also affords some 
sections. As occurring in Ive-gill, they have been described by 
Prof. Sedgwick*. Here the upper part of the stream is through 
these rocks, which dip N. at 20°. 

Below these, purple Carboniferous grits are seen ; and closely con- 
tiguous to these grits the red sandstones exhibit reversed dips, and 
also a thin bed of breccia composed of fragments of the Carbomferous 
grits. The Carboniferous rocks extend down the stream to near 
High-head Castle, where the inferior red sandstones are again seen, 
and where their occurrence is mentioned by Prof. Sedgwick. Well- 
marked northern inclinations obtain here, and continue to near the 
junction of Baw Beck, below which the sandstones again appear, 
and continue with the same inclination to Stockdalewati^, where, for 
a short distance. Carboniferous rocks again occur. 

The inferior sandstone, however, soon again makes its appearance, 
forming the brook-course to below the bridge at Througholme, where 
it passes conformably under the aigillaceous series, which occurs 
about 200 yards below Througholme Bridge, dipping N. at 10°, and 
is about 100 feet in thickness. 

Below the argillaceous series, on the east side of the stream. 
Carboniferous rocks again appear, and extend south-eastward to 
Broadfleld, where they were formerly worked for Hme, as referred to 
by Prof. Sedgwick t. From Broadfleld they extend still further in 
the same direction to Boughten Gill, a mile north of Southwaith 
Station, where they are wrought for the ironstone-nodules which 
they contain. 

♦ Gcol. Trans. 2nd SoricB, toI. i>. p. 406. t Op, cit. p. 391. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1862.] HABsmsfls — pbhmian strata. 213 

The rocks seen in Ive-gill have the same general arrangement as 
that which obtains in the Valley of the Eden, the only difference 
being in the direction of the dip. This change from E.N.E. to N. is 
a gradual one, as is well shown in the strike and dip of the argilla- 
ceous series. 

Following the argillaceous series along its strike from Haa Flaister 
Scar, on the Eden, we find it exhibiting the following modifications : — 

At Langwathby it seems to consist solely of red clays. At the 
fieum of Lang Meg und her Daughters, near Lacy Caves, it consists 
of gvpsum and days, the former having been wrought here. About 
a mile and a half northwards, at Glassonby Beck, red days alone 
occur; and at Bavens Beck, east of Kirk Oswald, where a good 
section is seen, the same features are manifested. In the river 
Croglin, between Dale and the Nunnery, argillaceous beds are the 
sole constituents of this series. Here, below the argillaceous strata, 
a fine section of the inferior sandstones is seen in the course of the 
Croglin, and, above these, the upper sandstones are worked at Sevie 

North of the Croglin, on the Armathwaite road, at Cross House, 
there are remains of a quarry in the argillaceous series, from whence 
gypsum was formerly obtained ; but here the beds are thin, and not 
profitable, being irregular in tiieir occurrence. The next locality 
which affords an exposure of the argillaceous series is the Haa Beck, 
at Ainstable. The strata here are only partially seen, but they seem 
exclusively clay-beds. On the west side of the Eden, at High Stand, 
gypsum is now extensively worked, the section of the quarry afford- 
ing the following beds : — ^The lowest (passed through in sinking a 
well below the floor of the quarry) consist of 8 feet of fine-grained 
purple sandstone, with thin layers of fibrous gypsum. Above these 
are three beds of gypsum, with a total thickness of 20 feet, the whole 
dipping N.E. at an angle of 5^. Similar gypseous strata are wrought 
at Carleton Hill, three miles N.W. from High Stand, near the Carlisle 
high-road. Here the gypsum is about 18 feet thick, irregular in its 
upper surface, and succeeded by indurated day 3 feet in thickness, 
upon which rests a shaly sandstone 15 feet in depth. Here the strata 
have a low N. dip. 

On the east side of the argillaceous series, near High Stand, on 
the banks of the Eden, the upper sandstone is seen dipping N. at 2QP, 
At Wetheral Pastures we have also this sandstone dipping in the 
same direction at an angle of 10°. At Corby the dip of this sand- 
stone is N.N.W. ; and from thence it extends eastward to beyond 
Castle Canock, where, in the Gelt, it is seen in dose proximity to the 
Penine feiult. 

From this the fault runs N. to Lanercost, occurring immediatdy 
bdow the bridge. From Lanercost its course is N.N.W. ; and it is 
again seen at Penton linns, on the Liddel, as described by Professor 

§ 7. In the neighbourhood of Carlisle we see the upper sandstones in 

* Op, cit note, p. 385. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

214 PBOGEEDnres of the geological bocibtt. [Mar. 19, 

the course of the Galdew, both below and above Balston, the dip here 
being N.N.W. at 10°. No trace of the argiUaceous series is seen in 
thiB river ; and the only evidence it affords of the inferior sandstones 
is at the bridge near Bose Castle^ above which light-coloured rocks 
of Carboniferons age occur. 

West from the Caldew, in Chalk Beck, a good exposure of the upper 
sandstones and the argillaceous beds appears. The former, which 
dip N.W., have afforded the Bomans materials for the construction 
of the western portion of Hadrian's Wall ; and the latter seem to 
repose upon a breccia, to the south of which occurs the fault sepa- 
rating the red sandstones from the Carboniferous rocks. The strata 
here, and also those which occur near this at Westward, have been 
described by Mr. Binney in the memoir before alluded to. 

West of these localities the vpper sandstones strike W.S.W., abut- 
ting directly against the Coal-measures of West Cumberland. At 
Maryport these upper sandstones are seen in near proximity to the 
Coal-measures. They are also well developed in the cliffs north of 
this place, where they exhibit the N.W. dip they usually assume in 
the west part of the Cumberland plain. 

On the Engb'sh shore of the Solway these upper sandstones are 
not well seen ; there is, however, every reason to infer that they 
occupy the whole of the flat area of N. Cumberland, except the por- 
tion covered by lias referred to by Mr. Binney * (see fig. 4). 

The Scotch shore of the Solway, especially E. of Annan, affi>rds 
these upper sandstones. They also, in Scotland, occupy the south- 
em halves of the parishes of Canobie, Half Morton, and Eirkpatrick 
Fleming, the greater portion of the parish of Annan, the southern 
part of Cummertrees, and also the whole of Domock and Graitney. 

The Scotch area of upper sandstone has for its northern boundary 
the same fault which in Cumberland separates it from the Carboni- 
ferous formation ; but in Dumfriesshire this fault has a direction 
nearly E.N.E. and W.S.W. 

§ 8. In Dumfriesshire, besides the fine section in the Esk, S. of 
Knotty Holm, the upper sandstones are seen in Half Morton, and at 
Cove, in Eirkpatrick, on the west side of the Caledonian Eailway. 
They are also veiy extensively worked in the neighbourhood of 
Annan. Their general dip shows that they trough under the Solway, 
and become united with their equivalents on ^e south side of the 
Firth : see the section from Eirkpatrick to the Chalk Beck limestones 
showing their arrangement (fig. 4). 

Little has been said concerning the lithology of the inferior and 
the upper sandstones. 

There is a well-marked difference in this respect between them. 
In the former the particles are more angular, often exhibiting shining 
facets ; the colour is also brighter than that of the upper sand- 
stones, and there is an absence of the interstratifying clay-beds 
which usually accompany the latter. These latter are more compact 

* Quart. Journ. Gteoi. Soc. Tol. xt. p. 549. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


HASKmeas — pebmian stbata. 


in their compoeitLoiiy and the faces of the strata exhibit features 
which are not seen on the lower series, consisting of beautifal rip- 
plingSy desiccation-cracks, rain-pittings, and pseudomoiphs of salt — 
features accompanying the upper sandstones throughout the area 
where they present themselves. 

Fig. 4. — Section across the Cumberland Plain to Dumfriesshire. 
Distance 15 miles. 

5. Lias. 

4. Upper sandstone. 

3. Bed clay. 

2. Breccia. 

1. Carboniferous rocks. 

§ 9. Organic Remains. 

Beference has been made to the occurrence of fossils in the yellow 
beds at Hilton Beck. The strata affording these form the lowest 
portion of the argillaceous series, and have, as before stated, a great 
affinity to the marl-slates of Midderidge. The remains consist prin- 
cipally of Plants, specimens of which were, through the kindness of 
Sir Charles Lyell, submitted to Professor Heer, who determined their 
general Coniferous character. The remains consist usually of leaves 
and wood, and in one instance of a cone. This, Sir Charles Lyell 
suggests, is of some importance, especially if the strata be Palaeozoic, 
since the absence of cones in Coal-strata induces botanists to r^;ard 
the ConifercB of the Carboniferous epoch as having a taxoid character, 
*' and, like a great majority of the Coniferas of the southern hemisphere, 
as berry-bearing, and not cone-beaiing." 

Through the Hndness of Mr. Wood of Bichmond, I had an oppor- 
tunity of examining the marl-slate of Midderidge, and was furnished 
by him with fossil plants from this locality, which are remarkably 
like the fossils from the Hilton beds. Besides the remains of coni- 
ferous leaves, this locality affords ferns referable to Neuropteris and 
Sphenopteris. Of the latter, one form seems nearly akin to S. erosa 
(Morris), a species from the Bussian Permians*. Bemains are 
found which appear allied to Weissites (Goppert), resembling that 
figured by Geinitz (< Die Yersteinerungen des Zechsteingebirge und 
Bothliegenden oder des permischen Systemes in Sachsen,' tab. viii. 
fig. 8). A form having the aspect of Caulerpites selaginoides 
(Stemb.) occurs here ; and, with this, leaves identical with those of 
the Saxon Zechstein, as figured by Geinitz (tab. viii. figs. 11, 12, 13), 
are found. Detached leaves, resembling Cupressites UUmanniy Brongn., 

* See * Bussia and the Ural Mountains/ plate C. fig. 3. 

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216 PBocEEBiirGs OF THE exoLooicAL 80CIBTT. [Mar. 19, 

and others attached to stems akin to VoUzia PhiUipsii (lindley and 
Hutton), are also seen. 

These plant-remains are usually in the state of carbonaceous mark- 
ings ; sometimes, however, they occur not iwbeddedy but enclosed 
between the laminsB ; and when in this condition, their preservation is 
very imperfect. 

A few traces of animals have also been found here, but, as yet, these 
have been seen only in the condition of casts. Crinoid stems, of small 
size, which seem identical with the casts of Gyathocrinus ramosus, 
are among them. Brachiopodous shells, which in size and general 
aspect resemble Terel>raiuila eUmgata, Schloth., present themselves, 
and also other bivalves which are too imperfect to allow of their 
relations being determined. 

Although the fossils obtained at Hilton are as yet comparatively 
few, they conduce to the conclusion that the strata which afford them 
are at the base of the Zechstein portion of the Permians, and that 
the overlying b0ds, including the red clays, must be regarded as the 
representatives in the N.W. of England of the higher members of 
this formation ; while the thick mass of underlying sandstones and 
breccias is the equivalent of the Bothliegende, which attains its great- 
est development in this part of England. 

§ 10. SU Bees, — ^Referenceto strata which are seen on the north- 
east side of St. Bees Head, Whitehaven, and which have been long 
regarded as Permian, still further corroborates this conclusion. 

Here, at Barrow Mouth, reposing on purple sandstones of the Car- 
boniferous age, is a deposit of breccia only 3 feet in thickness, repre- 
senting the higher members of the inferior sandstone. 

Magnesian limestone, which is worked on the side of the hill, 
occurs above the breccia. This limestone, the base of which is not 
here seen, contains Permian LamelUhrawihicUa. On the shore it 
reposes on the breccia, and its thickness at this spot is about 11 feet, 
being much thinner than on the hill, and indicating a rapid thinning 

Bed marls, with interstratified gypsum, about 30 feet in thickness, 
succeed the limestone, upon which the fine-grained red sandstones 
with interbedded days of St. Bees Head occur, — these latter being in 
every respect identical with the upper sandstones of Eastern and 
Northern Cumberland. 

The absence of the magnesian limestone, which we have seen 
is thinning out, would give us here the most common mode of occur- 
rence in this county of the argillaceous series and the upper sand- 
stones. These Permians of St. Bees have been described by Prof. 
Sedgwick *, and also by Mr. Binney in the memoir so frequently 
referred to. 

§ 11. The Permians of Cumberland, especially their lower mem- 
bers, have an interesting bearing on the isolated Permian patches 
scattered over portions of the South of Scotland, and which, in Dum- 
friesshire, affori footprints. 

* Geol. Trans. 2nd Series, vol. ir. p. 395. 

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In their mineral nature these Scottish Permians have a great affi- 
nity to the Rotiiliegende of the N.W. of England, and especially 
that portion which is seen in the Ormside and Hilton section. 

The Corncockle area exhibits the lowest beds of the Scotch equi- 
valents at several spots where these abut against the Lower Silurians. 
These lowest beds are breccias made up of fragments of the surround- 
ing Lower Silurians. One locality in this area, Dalton Hook, shows 
the inferior sandstones in proximity to the Carboniferous rocks. 
Here the breccias abound in Umestone-fragments, have the aspect of 
the lower breccias of Burrels, and, Hke these latter, were formerly 
wrought for the limestone which they contain. 

Above the lower breccias the sandstones, with impressions as seen 
at Corncockle, occur; and any section taken across this part of 
Annandale would exhibit the arrangement seen in fig. 5, which is 
an extension of that given by Sir Wm. Jardine *. 

Fig. 6. — Section across the Permian Strata of Annandale, 
Distance 8 miles. 

8. Sandstone, with Fossil Footprints at Corncockle Muir. 
2. Permian breccia. 1. Silurian rooks. 

The Annandale Permians do not show a full series of the Eothlie- 
gende : in order to see the other members, it is necessary to have 
recourse to the Nithsdale areas. The one which best exhibits this 
is seen in the district around Dumfries (fig. 6), extending from a 

Fig. 6. — Section of the Permian Strata of the southern part of the 
^ Valley of the Nith. ^ 

River Nith. CrmigB. Locher Moss. Forthorwald. 

Mftbie HiU>. 

4. Peat. 

3. Permian breccia. 2. Sandstone with Footprints. 

1. Lower Silurian rocks. 

Ichnology of Annandale, p..l6. 

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218 PBOcsEDnroa of tee esoLoeiCAL socnsTr. [Mar. 19, 

mile E. of the Nith to about two miles W. thereof. In this section 
the lowest strata, well seen at Craig's Quarry, are red sandstones with 
the same footprints as those of Comoockle, upon which, after passing 
through false-bedded sandstone, the thick mass of breccia forming a 
trough through which the Nith flows, and which extends to the Silu- 
rian hill W. of Dumfries, is seen. 

The sections of Annandale and Nithsdale collectiyelyfuiniah the fol- 
lowing groups which compose the Permians of this part of Scotland : — 
first and lowest, breccias ; second, a thick series of sandstones, some of 
the strata of which are somewhat incoherent, and some flaggy, with 
footprints ; and third and highest, a thick mass of breccias, lliis se- 
quence shows such an analogy to the inferior sandstones of Westmore- 
land as to justify the conclusion that in Scotland,so &r as is yet known, 
the Bothliegende portion only of the Permians is exhibited. 

Another important circumstance connected with the Scottish Per- 
mians is the position of the footprints. like those occurring in the 
neighbourhood of Penrith, which consist of Chelichnus Duneani, 
these impressions appear to mark the middle portion of the Bothlie- 
gende — a position probably below that portion of the inferior sand- 
stone represented in the East of England, but which has very likely 
its equivalent in the well-developed Bothliegende of Saxony. 

No allusion has been made to the geological age of the upper 
sandstones of the N.W. of England and the S.E. of Dumfriesshu^. 
like similar strata in the S.E. of Durham, they succeed the Zech- 
stein representatives of the Eden valley, and might therefore be 
regarded as Triassic. 

As Mr. Binney has noticed the occurrence of liassic strata in North 
Cumberland, near the margins of the Solway Firth, which exhibit 
themselves in such a position as to lead to the conclusion that they 
repose in the trough formed by the upper sandstones, the Triassic 
age of these arenaceous deposits, with clay-beds, becomes highly 

Note, — In a memoir published in the 6th voL of the Quart. Joum. 
of the GeoLSoc., having reference to the sandstones of the Yale of the 
Nith, I allude to them as appertaining to the same age as those of the 
Cumberland area, referring tiie whole to the Trias. This opinion I 
adopted in consequence of its being then a generally received one 
among geologists. Subsequently, in another memoir (vol. xii. p. 266), 
1 stated the reasons which induced me to alter this opinion, and 
to r^ard these deposits as belonging, for the most part, to the Per- 
mian age. 

2. On the Date of the Last Elevation of Csntaal Scotlaitd. By 
Akchibald Geikie, Esq., F.B.S.E., F.G.S., of the Geological 
Survey of Great Britain. 

That the central districts of Scotland, together with the greater part 
of the British Islands, have undergone a movement of upheaval within 

* Quart Joum. G^eoL Soc. vol. xt. p. 549. 

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1862.] GEDCHi — ^ELBYATIOK OP SCOTLAin). 219 

a comparatiyely recent geological period is a fact which has long 
been familiar to the geologist. A line of raised beach, with shells 
of living species still in a perfect state of preservation, fringes many 
parts of the coast, at a height of from 15 or 20 to upwards of 40 
feet above the present sea-level. This difference of elevation may 
point either to different periods of upheaval or to one great upward 
movement which varied in intensity in different parts of the island. 
For facts so well known it is only necessary to refer here to the 
papers of Mr. Smith of Jordan HiU, Mr. Maclaren, Mr. Chambers, 
and others who have described the evidence which different parts of 
the Scottish coast-line frunish as to a recent rise. The object of the 
present communication is to inquire how far we have data for ascer- 
taining the time at which at least the later stages of this rise took 

Ever since the publication, in 1838, of Mr. Smith's great paper on 
the last changes of level in the British Islands*, the belief has been 
universal that no alteration of the relative position of sea and land 
has taken place within the last two thousand years, the coast-line 
being the same now as it was at the time of the Eoman invasion. I 
shall have occasion, in a subsequent part of this paper, to examine 
the evidence on which such a belief is founded. With regard to the 
centuries prior to the Christian era, Mr. Smith remarks that probably 
no change of level has taken place within the human period f. For 
this statement, however, he adduces no other foundation than that 
mounds known as British tumuH, along with vitrified forts, exist 
close to the margin of the present high-water mark. The discovery 
of canoes in an elevated part of the old alluvium of the Clyde, and 
of other antiquities in that of the Forth, tended to throw some doubt 
on Mr. Smith's assertion. Mr. Chambers, in his volume on ' Ancient 
Sea Margins ' (pp. 18-22), published in 1848, refers witii hesitation 
to the possibility of these canoes having been in use prior to the last 
shift of the land, and the same view was entertained by other geo- 
logists ; but in October 1850 he published an account of some anti- 
quities found in the Carse of Gk)wrie which he conceived to have been 
brought by an abnormal inundation within the historical period, 
and he then acknowledged his belief that those of Glasgow had been 
similarly imbedded, and that consequentiy they afforded no evidence 
in favour of a change of level since Scotland had been tenanted by 

Such was the state of the question when, in the spring of last year 
(1861), I obtained evidence which seemed to show that a portion of 
the coast of the Firth of Forth had been elevated not only within 
the human period, but even since the first years of the Boman 
occupation §. This observation involved so wide a departure from 

* Edin. New Phil. Jonm. xxv. p. 385 ; and Mem. Wern. Soo. vol. viii. part i 
t Mem. Wern. 8oc. vol. viii. p. 68. 

iSee Edin. New Phil. Journ. vol. xlix. p. 233. 
Edin. New PfaiL Journ., new series, toI. ziv. p. 107. Since this paper 
was written, more recent excarations have shown tne existence of mediieTa] 

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preconceived opinionB, and bore so closely on questions of the deepest 
moment regarding the antiquity of man, that I felt the necessity of 
examining other parts of the coast with the view of ascertaining how 
far the movement may have been general over the central districts of 
Scotland. It seemed to me advisable also to make a search through 
such archaeological volumes aa treat of our maritime antiquities, in 
order to see whether any antiquary had detected proofs of physical 
changes. The results of these inquiries are now communicated to 
the Society. 

The Firths of Clyde, Forth, and Tay are each bordered with a 
strip of flat land, varying in breadth from a few yards to several 
miles, and having a pretty uniform height of 20 or 25 feet above 
high-water-mark. This level terrace is the latest* and on the whole 
the most marked of the raised beaches. It must have been formed 
when the land waa from 20 to 30 feet lower than at present, and 
evinces an upheaval which was nearly uniform over the whole of 
the central valley of Scotland. What, then, was the date of this 

The discovery of human remains in the sands and days of the 
raised beach affords the only ground for an answer to this question. 
From these strata canoes, stone hatchets, boat-hooks, anchors, pot- 
tery, and other works of art have been from time to time exhumed 
on both sides of the island. These remains are usually claimed by 
the antiquary. He arranges them in his museum according as they 
belong to the Ago of Stone, of Bronze, or of Iron. He speculates 
fit)m them aa to the character of the early races, and from the indi- 
cations which they may afford he compUes his prehistoric annals. 
But the geologist, too, has an interest in them. To him they are true 
fossils, as much as the footprint of a Eeptile, the track of a Crustacean, 
or the tube of an Annelide. He deals with them aa he deals with 
other evidence of the former presence of animal life. The circum- 
stance of their occurrence, the nature of the material in which they 
lie imbedded, the indications which they may afford of former di- 
versities of surface, whether of lake or river, land or sea, their 
association with the bones of animals now rare or extinct, and then 

pottery in the sandB and silt of the section described b^ me as occurring at Leith. 
Attempts haye been made to show that the deposit in which these fragmet^ts 
occur IS merely artificial ground. Since this idea was suggested I hare sereral 
times visited the sand-pit, both alone and in company witn obserrers of greater 
experience than mjseli, and hare been unable to alter the opinion I originally 
formed as to the true aqueous oriein of the up|)er silt and sand. A h^ty in- 
spection might lead one to confound these beds with an unconformable artificial 
earth which oTerlaps them, and to class together the contents of two Yerj dif- 
ferent formations. The occurrence, howerer, of pottery, to which Mr. franks 
of the British Museum can hardly assi^ a higher antiauity than 700 years, 
seems to diow that the upper parts of this series of strata haTe been re-assorted 
in more recent timet than I nad supposed. But the subject requires further 
investigation, and until this is given, I am unwilling to depart from my original 
conclusion.— July 18, 1862. 

* There are occasional traces of a later terrace, as along the Clyde at Glasgow, 
but these may for the present be disregarded. 

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their intriiiBic character as illustrations of various stages in the 
onward march of human progress, — ^all these are points of view from 
which the geologist claims to study such remains. The antiquities 
of man have thus a geological as well as an archaeological interest. 
The day, indeed, is perhaps not far distant when archaeology will 
form wdl-nigh as integral a part of geological science as palaeonto- 
logy does now. This conviction must, at least, be my apology for 
bringing before you some parts of a subject which is not usually 
held to come within the scope of the Geological Society. 

Along the mar^ of the Clyde at Glasgow, the raised beach ex- 
tends as a level terrace of varying width, its surface lying about 26 
feet above high-water-mark. This plain, when sections are cut 
through it, is found to consist of alluvial clay, silt, and sand, with 
layers of shells — ^the deposits of an ancient estuary. Its presence 
so high above the limits of even the extremest spring-tides or the 
highest recorded river-floods can only be accounted for by an actual 
upheaval of the land. No transient flood, of what magnitude soever, 
could deposit well-stratifled laminae of fine silt and mud in regular 
succession to a height of 26 feet above the ordinary level of the 
estuary. The bed of the river, along with the surrounding country, 
must tiierefore have been raised ; and hence any remains which may 
occur contemporaneously imbedded in these alluvial deposits must 
have been involved in the same upheaval. If it can be shown that 
human works of art lie beneath some of the undisturbed silt-beds, it 
will follow that the elevation has been witnessed by man. 

Human remains have been especially abundant in the alluvium of 
the Clyde. There is comparatively little variety, however, in their 
character, inasmuch as they have been almost entirely connected with 
the primitive navigation of the river. Within the last 80 or 90 
years the huUs of no fewer than eighteen canoes have been exhumed, 
some of them even from under the very streets of the city*. The 
most important discoveries took place during the progress of those 
great excavations by which the harbour of Glasgow was widened and 
deepened. Twelve canoes were then obtained, the whole of which came 
under the notice of the antiquary, who in 1856, under the signature of 
J. B., communicated an account of them in the third volume of the 
work entitled * Glasgow, Past and Present.' With only one exception, 
tl^ey were all formed of single oak-trees. Two had evidently been 
scooped out by the action of fire ; others had been hollowed with a 
rough implement, such as a stone axe; while several were cut 
beautifully smooth, evidently with metal tools. Hence a gradation 
could be traced, from a pattern of extreme rudeness to one showing 
considerable mechanical ingenuity. The average depth beneath the 
surface of the ground at which the whole were found was about 19 
feet, or about 7 feet above the level of high waterf. They all lay 

* For the details of the Glasgow canoes I am indebted to an interesting paper 
in ' Glasgow, Fast and Present,' voL ii., written, I believe, by that zealous anti- 
quary, Mr. Buchanan. 

t The canoe found at an earlier date, on the site of the Tontine Hotel, laj 
about 21 or 22 feet above high-water-mark in the river. 

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222 PBOCBBDnres of the esoiooiCAL socistt. [Mar. 19, 

at a distance of more than 100 yards back from the margin of the 
Clyde SB it existed before the alterations began, and were diiefly im- 
bedded in a thick bed of finely laminated sand. 

Most of the Clyde canoes were formed out of single oak-stems ; 
but two of them were built of planks. Of these the more elaborately 
constructed was discovered on the property of Bankton, in 1853. A 
large oak had been cut longitudinally into a mere strip, as the back- 
bone of the boat, from which a long keel was formed underneath by 
being simply left standing out, while the back-bone was pared away, 
so that the keel appeared a mere longitudinal projection from the 
lower plane of the same strip. Strong transverse ribs were inserted 
for the skeleton of the back. These were clothed outside with deals 
about 8 inches broad, and they overlapped each other precisely as in 
modem clinker-work. The stem was formed of a thick triangular- 
shaped piece of oak, fitted-in exactly like those of our day. Again, 
the prow had a neat cutwater, rising about a foot above the gunwale, 
and giving it rather an imposing effect, not unlike, on a very small 
scale, the beak of an antique galley. The length of this curious 
vessel was 18 feet ; width at tibe waist 5 feet, and at the stem 3^ 
feet. When discovered, it was lying keel uppermost, with the prow 
pointing straight up the river. It had probably been capsized in a 
storm. The planks were fastened to the ribs, partly by singularly 
shaped oaken pins, and partly by what must have been nails of some 
kind of metal. The perforations where nails had been were uniformly 
square, and the marks of their broad heads driven home by smart 
blows deeply into the wood were very perceptible. None of the 
nails themselves were, however, to be seen ; but several of the oaken 
pins were left. They were round, thicker than a man's thumb, and 
ingeniously formed. The pin, after being rounded, had been sliced 
in two, and a triangular-shaped tongue inserted ; so that, when 
driven into the deal, the pin would firmly hold its place*. 

In addition to these canoes, a polished celt of greenstone, a thin 
piece of lead perforated with nail-holes, and a plug of cork in the 
bottom of one of the vessels have also been discovered. Such are 
the remains of human workmanship which have been found in the 
elevated silt-beds of the Clyde. Do they of themselves afford any 
indication of the probable period during which this elevation was 

At the outset it must be borne in mind, that the occurrence of 
these canoes in the same upraised silt by no means proves them to 
be synchronous, nor even to have belonged to the same archaeological 
period. The relative position in the silt from which they were exhumed 
could help us little in any attempt to ascertain their relative ages, 
unless they had been found vertically above each other. The varying 
depths of an estuary, its banks of silt and sand, the set of its currents 
and the influence of its tides in scouring out alluvium from some 
parts of its bottom and redepositing it in others are circumstances 
which require to be taken into account in all calculations as to the 
relative position of different parts of the bed of the stream in any 
• Glaagow, Pa»t and Present, pp. 565-6. 

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former period. Hence mere coincidence of depth from the present 
surface of the ground, which is tolerably uniform in level, by no 
means necessarily proyes contemporaneous deposition. Nor would 
such an inference follow eyen from the occurrence of the remains 
in distant parts of the very same stratum. A canoe might be cap- 
sized and sent to the bottom just beneath low-water-mark ; another 
might experience a similar fate on the following day, but in the 
middle of the channel. Both would become silted up on the floor of 
the estuary ; but as that floor would be perhaps 20 feet deeper in the 
centre than towards the margin of the riyer, the one canoe might 
actually be 20 feet deeper in the alluvium than the other ; and on 
the upheayal of the alluvial deposits, if we were to argue merely 
from the depth at which the remains were imbedded, we should pro- 
nounce the canoe found at the one locality to be immensely older 
than the other, seeing that the fine mud of the estuary is deposited 
very slowly, and that it must therefore have taken a long period to 
form so great a thickness as 20 feet. Again, the tides and currents 
of the estuary, by changing their direction, might sweep away a con- 
siderable mass of alluvium from the bottom, laying bare a canoe that 
may have foundered many centuries before. After the lapse of so 
long an interval, another vessel might go to the bottom in the same 
locality, and be there covered up with the older one, on the same 
general plane. These two vesselB, foimd in such a position, would 
naturally be classed together as of the same age, and yet it is 
demonstrable that a very long period may have elapsed between the 
date of the one and that of the other. Such an association of these 
canoes, therefore, cannot be regarded as proving synchronous deposi- 
tion ; nor, on the other hand, can we affirm any difference of age from 
mere relative position, unless we see one canoe actually buried 
beneath another. 

Hence the only evidence that remains is that which may be 
afforded by the character of the antiquities. It is usual to speak of 
the canoes which have been from time to time exhumed in Scotland 
as of an extremely rude construction, and as the relics of a very bar- 
barous people. They are described along with the stone implements 
of the Stone Period, standing thus as far back in the past as the 
antiquary can place them *. But it is manifest that most of the 
Glasgow canoes cannot be spoken of as works of extreme rudeness. 
One or two of them, indeed, were certainly primitive enough in their 
construction ; but the Bankton boat could not have been built by a 
race of sayages. It is, indeed, impossible to avoid the conviction 
that the rough-hewn, fire-burnt oak-trunks must have belonged to 
an earlier time than that of the smoothly cut canoes, and that these 
again date further back than the regularly built boat of Bankton. 
lie first class may be a relic of the Stone, the two latter of the 
Bronze Period, if, indeed, the boat came not within the Period of 
Iron. We seem to see, in the various stages of mechanical skill 
shown in these primitive vessels, a record of the gradual progress of 

* See Dp. Wilson's • Prehistoric Annals of Scotland,' chap. ii. 
VOL. XVni. — PABT I. Q 

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advancement from a state of comparative barbarism to a kind of 

It is plain that the islanders who built this primitive fleet were 
not only acquainted with the use of metal, but that before they 
could have cut out the more highly finished canoes they must have 
been long familiar with its use. They must have had serviceable metal 
tools wherewith they could saw an oak through deanly and sharply 
at its thickest part, make thin oaken boards and plai^, and plane 
down a large tree into a smoothly cut and polished canoe. They had 
advanced, too, to a high degree of mechanical ingenuity. We are 
told, for instaiice, by Qie antiquary whose account of the discovery of 
these canoes has been cited, that one of them had its open stem so 
broad that the builder seems to have been imable to procure a board 
large enough to fill it. In this dilemma he took two boards, fitted 
them into the usual grooves, and inserted between them, along their 
vertical line of junction, a thin lath of oak, which dovetailed them 
together and made them water-tight. 

What may have been the nature of the metal out of which these 
aboriginal tools were fashioned has not yet been ascertained. The 
square metal nails too, although the marks of their heads were still 
visible, had themselves wholly disappeared. If they were made of 
bronze, we cannot assign to the canoes in which they were used a 
date older than some part, it may have been a very late part, of 
the Bronze Period. If it can be shown that the metal employed 
was iron, the age of the antiquities must, in accordance with the 
received archseological chronology, be brought still further down 
towards the present time. 

Two of the canoes were built, not out of a single oak-stem,' but of 
planks. That of Bankton, already described, had its deals &stened 
to strong ribs, like a modem boat ; its prow was turned up '' like the 
beak of an antique galley," and its whole build suggests that the 
islander who constmcted it may have taken his model, not from the 
vessels of his countrymen, but from some real galley that had come 
from a foreign country to his secluded shores. Nor is this the sole 
ground for inferring that, at least at the time indicated by some of 
these canoes, the natives of the west of Scotland had some communi- 
cation with a more southern and civilized race. How otherwise are 
we to account for the plug of cork ? It could only have come from 
the latitudes of Spain, Southern France, or Italy. By whom, then, 
was it brought ? Shall I venture to suggest that the old Briton who 
used it was not so ignorant of Epman customs as antiquaries have 
represented him, and that the prototype of the galley-like war-boat 
may have come from the Tiber to the Clyde ? 

But whether such a suggestion be accepted or not^ it is abundantly 
evident that the elevation of the bed of the estuary, by which the 
canoes have attained an altitude of sometimes 22 feet above high- 
water-mark, cannot be assigned to the rude ages of the Stone Period, 
but must have taken place long after the islanders had become ex- 
pert in the use of metal tools J^. 

^ To the oonclufion stated in the text, the only objectioii with which I am 

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If now we cross the island to its eastern coast, we shall find the 
shores of the Eirth of Forth hordered with a belt of upraised alluyial 
deposits similar to those of the estuary of the Clyde. This belt 
reaches its greatest extent on the south side of the Firth, where it 
expands into a broad plain, known as the Carse of Falkirk, the sur- 
face of which appears almost a dead flat, with a general height of 
about 20 or 25 feet above high-water-mark. From Stirling the 
same plain extends westward along both sides of the sinuous river 
for a distance of 16 or 18 miles. This upper part is called the Carse 
of Stirling. When these carse-lands are cut through by drains, they 
are found to consist of fine dark silt, with layers of sand, and of 
shells belonging to species that still live in the adjoining estuary. 
Layers of peat, with great numbers of oak-stems, occur in the sUt; 
and many parts of the plain, especially above Stirling, are at this 
moment covered with a thick stratum of peat-moss. The occur- 
rence of finely laminated silt, and layers of marine shells, at a height 
of 20 or 25 feet above the present high-water, and over many square 
miles of ground, implies a rise of the land to about the same extent 
as that indicated by the sUt-beds of the Clyde ♦. 

That this elevation has taken place within the Human period is 
proved by the existence of human remains at various localities, im- 
bedded in the upraised alluvium. In the year 1819, on the carse- 
land of Airthrey, near Stirling, the skeleton of a whale was found 
imbedded in the silt fully a nule back from the river-bank, and at 
a height of nearly 25 feet above the high- water-mark of spring- tides. 
At I>unmore, on the south bank of the estuary, a few years later, a 
second whale was disinterred from a stiff clay at a height of 23 or 24 
feet above high-water-level. Again, in 1824, a third wbale-skeleton 
was exhumed from under a covering of peat-moss and clay at Blair- 
Drummond, which lies seven miles higher up the valley than Air- 
threy. Beside the bones, both at Blair-Drummond and at Air- 
threy, lay a piece of perforated deer's horn, unmistakeably a work of 
human fashioning f. They were, in short, two harpoons, one of 
them having stiU partially attached to it the fragments of the wooden 
handle by which it had been wielded. The circumstances under 

acquainted Ib a casual remark by Mr. Smith, of Jordan-hill, in his paper on the 
" Last Changes of Level in the British IsLands," Mem. Wem. Soc. toI. viii. p. 58, 
to the e£Pect that some British tumuli and vitrified forts have been formed with 
a recard to the present level of sea and land. Now, in the first place, we know 
abeolutcdy nothing of the age of the vitrified forts. Dr. Wilson, indeed, in his * Pre- 
historic Annals of Scotland,' p. 413, discusses them along with the strongholds 
of the Iron Period. A^^ain, the date of tumuli, I ima^e, must be fixed, to 
a large extent> if not entirely, by the nature of the antiquities found within them. 
A mere mound of earth or stones may surely belong to any conceivable period of 
human history. The custom of raising cairns over dead liodiee or on the scenes 
of suicide and murder is still prevalent in some parts of Scotland. 

* For an account of the aUuvium of the Forth, see Blackadder, Mem. Wem. 
Soc. voL V. p. 424 ; also, Chambers's Ancient Sea Margins, p. 131 ; New Statis- 
tical Account of Scotland (Sturlingshire). 

t For accounts of these whales, see Edin. Phil. Joum. i. 393 ; Mem. Wem. Soc. 
iii. 327 ; Edin. Phil. Joum. xi. 220, 416 ; Mem. Wem. Soc. v. 437,440. See 
also Wilson's Prehistoric Ann. of Scot. p. 33 ; Owen, Brit. Foes. Mamm. p. 542. 


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226 pvocBSDiKes of thb geological socjbtt. [Mar. 19, 

which these remains were fbund leave no possibility of doubt that the 
land here has been upraised at least 24 feet, and that this upheaval 
has been witnessed by man. The horn weapons do not indeed 
indicate an advanced state of civilization ; yet they miquestionably 
prove the presence of a human population perhaps contemporary 
with that which built the ruder canoes of the primitive fleet of 

In the elevated alluvial plains of the Forth, canoes similar to 
some of those of the Clyde have also been found. One was dug up 
on the Carse, not fax from FaUdrk, from a depth of 30 feet Early in 
the last century, too, a flood of the Elver Carron, which flows through 
the carse, undermined a part of the alluvial plain, and laid bare 
what was pronounced at the time to be an antediluvian boat It 
lay 15 feet below the surface, and was covered over with layers of 
clay, moss, shells, sand, and gravel. Its dimensions were greater 
than those of any other canoe yet found in Scotland ; for it reached 
a length of 36 feet, with a breadth of 4 feet ** It was described by 
a contemporary newspaper as finely polished and perfectly smooth, 
both inside and outside, formed from a single o^L-tree, with the 
usual pointed stem and square stem *." 

These features seem to harmonize weU with those of the more per- 
fect of the Clyde canoes, and to justify the inference that they were 
produced by the employment, not of stone, but of metal tools. 

But in the Carse of the Forth an implement of metal has actually 
been found, and one formed not of bronze, but of iron. It was an iron 
anchor, dug up a little to the south-east of the place from whence 
the Dunmore whale was obtained. The exact depth at which it lay 
is not given; it wa& probably about 20 feet above high- water. 
<' The flanks were much decayed ; but the beam, which was of a rude 
square form, with an iron ring, was tolerably perfect. It hung 
many years in the old tower near Dunmore, but was at length 
stolen t." Pieces of broken anchors have also been found below 
Larbert Bridge and near Camelon]:. 

Putting together, therefore, the arehseological evidence to be 
gathered from the contents of the elevated silt of the Forth, the in- 
ference, I think, can hardly be avoided, that not only was the up- 
heaval effected subsequent to the first human immigration, but that 
it did not take place until the natives along the banks of the Forth 
had learnt to work in metal, and until vessels sailing over that broad 
estuary had come to be moored with anchors of iron. There is some 
additional evidence, however, from another class of works of art, 
which will more appropriately be discussed in a subsequent part of 
this paper. 

The Firth of Tay, like the estuaries already described, is bordered 
with a flat plain, which on the north side expands into the broad 
tract of country known as the Carse of Gowiie. Its general 

* PrehlBtoric Ann. of Soot. p. 32. 
t Edin. Phil. Joum. zi. p. 416. 

X Nimmo'B * History of Stirb'ngshire/ 2nd edit p. 74; Chambers's 'Ancient 
Sea Margins,' p. 160. 

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eleTatiQii above the level of high water is about the same as that of 
the raised beaches of the Forth and Clyde. like these also, it con- 
sists of clay, sand, gravel, and layers of shells, and proves an up- 
heaval of from 20 to 30 feet. The analogy holds still iiirther ; for 
the old alluvial deposits of the Tay fiimish evidences that the rise 
has been effected within the Human period. 

Mr. Robert Chambers* has pointed out that along the Carse of 
Gowrie many of the hillocks and eminences which rise above the 
general level of the plain bear names in which the Celtic word inch 
(island) occurs ; such are Inchyra, Megginch, Inchmichael, Inch- 
martin, Inchsture, — ** as if a primitive pe<^le had originally recog- 
nized tiiese as islets in the midst of a shallow firth.'' But, besides 
these names, the Carse is still full of traditions that represent the sea 
as having once advanced inland a long way from the present maigin 
of the Forth. Time out of mind, it has been a popular belief in ^s 
district that the Flaw Craig, a cliff which overlooks the Carse be- 
tween Einnaird and Fingask, bore the remains of a ring to which 
ships were fastened when the sea ran at the base of the hill. Mr. 
Chambers adds that, a few years before the appearance of his volume 
on < Ancient Sea Margins,' << there was a man living who alleged 
that he had seen this ring in his youth, as he climbed bird-nesting 
along the face of the crag. So also it is told that the rock on 
which Castle Huntly stands, in the centre of the Carse, once had rings 
fixed to it, for mooring the boats formerly used in saUing over the 
surrounding waters f." These circumstances all conspire to indicate 
that the rise of the Carse of Gowrie above the limits of the sea is a 
comparatively recent event. If there were no other evidence, how- 
ever, such traditional beliefs would hardly be worth the serious 
attention of the geologist ; but they acquire a peculiar significance 
from the fact that they are fully borne out by the character of the 
antiquities from time to time exhumed from the clay and sand of 
this great plain. 

Between sixty and seventy years ago a stnall anchor was dug up, 
not many feet beneath the surface, on a piece of low ground near 
Megginch t. Mr. Chambers refers to anoliier anchor as having been 
met with in castLog a drain below the Flaw Craig §. But the most 
important and the most carefuUy investigated relic yet discovered in 
this district was an iron boat-hook, found in 1837 by some work- 
men on the farm of Inchmichael||. It lay imbedded under eight 

* • Ancient Sea Margins,' p. 18. t Ibid. pp. 19, 20. 

1 New Stat. Aoc. Scotland, Perth, x. p. 378. 

i ' Ancient Sea Margins,' p. 19. 

I Mr. Chambers, in the work ahready cited, briefly alludes to this relic ; but he 
subsequently made it ^e subject of a Tery careful investigation, and published 
the results in a paper (Edin. New Phil. Joum. 1850, p. 233), from which the 
twrticulars above given are quoted. From the fact of the implement being iron, 
he admitted that it must have belonged to no very remote period, and that the 
rise of the land, if at least this boat-hook were to be taken as evidence, must have 
been greatly more recent than any one had imagined. To such a conclusion he 
demurred, and accordingly he endeavoured to account for the position of the 
boat-hook by some other means than an elevation of the Carse*. For this pur- 
pose he supposed that the vessel in which it was used may have been swept inland 

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feet of stratified gravel, at a distance of a mile from the margin of 
the Firth. The sorfjEU^ of the groimd waa ahout 3 feet higher than 
the level of the surrounding part of the Carse, or ahout 28 feet above 
high- water-mark ; so that the height of the boat-hook above the 
upper limit of the tide was fully 20 feet. '< The relic itself," says 
Mr. Chambers, <' was in no respect uncommon. It was pronoiinoed 
by Bear- Admiral Sir Adam Drummond of M^ginch to be such an 
instrument of its kind as would be used in a man-of-war's launch 
or a mercantile boat of 3 or 4 tons," It is now preserved in the 
Museum of the Scottish Antiquaries at Edinburgh. 

No river-flood or violent inundation will account for the position 
of this interesting relic. The gravelly ridge in which it occurs is 
surrounded by the finely stratified silt of the flat Carse, and belongs, 
like all the otiier similar moimds of the district, to the ordinary slow 
deposits of the estuary. The inference therefore appears to me irre- 
sistible that, when this boat-hook was in use, the sea was beating 
upon these islets of gravel, and depositing around them the dark 
mud on which the fertility of the plain now depends. Hence the 
elevation of this part of the coast of Scotland must have been efi^ected 
since the introduction of iron into the country. And thus all the 
traditions of the district, the names of its rising-grounds, and the 
character of its antiquities contribute each their independent testi- 
mony to the fact that a large accession of land has been gained firom 
the sea within a comparatively recent, if not actually within the his- 
torical period. The historical period dates in Scotland from the year 
80 of our era, when Agricola first led the Boman legions across the 
Tweed. Is there, then, any evidence to connect the elevation of the 
Scottish coast-line with the time of the Roman occupation ? 

Mr. Smith of Jordan Hill was the first to assert that since the 
Antonine Wall was built (about a. d. 140) there could have been 
no change in the relative position of sea and land, inasmuch as the 
ends of the wall were evidently constructed with reference to the 
existing level*. This statement has been the foundation of all the 

during some of the great floods reoorded in history. Such an exphmation I be- 
liere to be not only unlikely, but eren impossible. The effects of a storm must be 
comparatiTely slight in so sheltered an estuary as that of the Tay. We can hardly 
conoeiye the sea rising upwards of 28 feet above high- water-mark, and flowing for 
more than a mile inluid. Still less can we beliere that, if it did so rise, it could 
deposit 8 feet of sediment over the surface of the Carse. The effect of ^preat floods 
is not to renovate the land, but to waste it ; and the result of a violent inundation 
of the Tay would be to sweep away the surfiioe-soil and carry it out into the estu- 
ary. LasUy, if we could suppose any sediment to have been deposited by such a 
sea-flood, it would not have oeen in the form of stratified gravel, but of fine 
mud and silt; for the rush of water coming from the sea comd only carry with 
it the fine muddy sediment of the estuary, and in crossing the Carse it could get 
nothing but clav to tear up and re-deposit No geologist can doubt as to the origin 
of those gravelly mounds or inches of the Carse. Most assuredly they are not the 
result of violent inundations, but of the mingling currents of the river and the sea, 
irhsn the bed of the estuary stood at least 25 feet lower than it does now. As 
they rose, and the channel shallowed, only the finest silt gathered round their 
margins, forming now the rich alluvial soil of the Carse. 

* Mem. Wem. Soo. viii. p. 58, and Edin. New PhiL Joum. vol. xxv. for 1838, 
p. 385. 

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subsequent geological arguments as to the long period at which the 
British Isles have been stationary. If it be true, then we must 
allow that the upheaval, of which the evidence has been adduced in 
the present communication, is referable to a period certainly previous 
to the Boman invasion. If the statement be erroneous, the other 
alternative remains, that the upward movment may have been wholly 
or in part effected after the Boman invasion. 

After carefully examining both extremities of the wall, and 
reading the narratives of the various antiquaries who have treated 
of the Boman remains in Scotland, I have no hesitation in affirm- 
ing that not only is there no evidence that the wall was constructed 
with a regard to the present level of the land, but there is every 
ground for believing that it was built when the land was at least 
20 feet lower than it is at present. To begin with the east end, — 
from the Avon west of Borrowstounness eastward to Carriden the 
ground rises from the old coast-line as a steep bank, the summit 
of which is from 50 to 100 feet above the sea ; between the bottom 
of this abrupt declivity and the present margin of the Firth there is 
a narrow strip of flat ground, about 200 yards broad, on which Bor- 
rowstounness is built, and which nowhere rises more than 20 feet 
above high water. It is a mere prolongation of the Falkirk Carse, 
already described, and beyond doubt formed the beach when the sea 
broke against the base of the steep bank. Now the Boman Wall 
was carried, not along this low land bordering the sea, but along the 
high ground that I'ose above it. The extremity at Carriden, there- 
fore, instead of having any reference to the present limit of the tides, 
actually stood on the summit of a steep bank overhanging the sea, 
above which it was elevated fully 100 feet. If the land here were 
depressed 25 feet, no part of the wall would be submerged. The 
only change on the coast-line would be in the advance of the sea 
across the narrow flat terrace of Borrowstounness and Grange, as 
far as the bottom of the abrupt declivity 

The western termination of the Antonine Wall stood on the little 
eminence called Chapel flill, near West Kilpatrick, on the north bank 
of the Clyde. Between this rising-ground and the margin of the 
river lies the Forth and Clyde Canal, the surface of which is 20 feet 
above high-water-mark, and the base of the hill at least 5 or 6 feet 
higher. Hence the wall terminated upon a hill, the base of which 
is not less than 25 feet above the present level of the sea. In making 
the canal, a number of Boman antiquities were found at various 
depths in the alluvium : these seem to have been part of the ruins 
from the fort above. If we admit that the wall was constructed 
previous to the last elevation of the land, we see a peculiar fitness in 
the site of its western termination. The Chapel Hill must in that 
case have been a promontory jutting out into the stream, and at 
high water the river must have washed the base of the Kilpatrick 
HiUs — a range of heights that rise steeply from lower grounds, and 
sweep away to the north-east. Hence, apart altogether from consi- 
derations dependent upon the strategic position of the hills which were 
infested by the barbarians, we obtain an obvious reason why Lollius 

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Urbicus ended his vallum at Old Eilpatiiok. He carried it, in fact, 
as far westward as he could carry it, and placed its last fort on a 
promontory which commanded the passage of the Clyde. He thus 
drove the natives to the necessity of making their incursions by 
crossing further down in the more open and exposed part of the 
river below Dumbarton. The Antonine Wall, therefore, yields no 
evidence in favour of the land having remained stationary since the 
time of the Romans. On the contrary, it appears to indicate that 
since its erection the land has actually risen. 

I have examined the sites of the Eoman harbours along the east 
coast of Scotland, without obtaining any proof of a stability of level. 
Inveresk and Cranund, the chief seaports, tend to confirm the opinion 
that since the Bomans left the country the coast of the Forth has not 
merely been silted up, but has actually been upraised 20 or 25 feet 
above its previous level. The position of the remains of a harbour 
mentioned by Sir Bobert Sinclair as having existed fully five miles 
from the present sea-margin, in the valley of the Cairon, near Oamelon 
(the old Static ad Valium), along with an anchor dug up at the same 
place, likewise go to corroborate this conclusion *. But for this part of 
the evidence I may be permitted to refer to the paper in which 
attention was first called to this subject f. 

Several antiquaries have referred to the difference between the 
present aspect of the Scottish coast-line and that which it must have 
had in some places when seen by the Bomans. This evidence is 
that of men who had no geological bias, but who drew their infer- 
ences chiefly from a consideration of the present position of the 
antiquities which they described. So far as it goes, therefore, it is 
not without its value, adding as it does another collatcoral confirmation 
to the proofs in favour of a recent rise of the land. Thus Horsley, 
sagaciously observing the disposition of the ground at the western 
end of the Wall of Severus, and the necessity of defending this 
point with care, concludes that the Boman engineers could never have 
allowed so long a spaoe to intervene between the sea-shore and the 
end of the wall, as that which now separates them. The Solway 
Firth, he says, '^ must have reached much higher, both southward 
and northward, than it does now;" for, as the wall stands at present, 
a body of men might easily march unperoeived round its end. He 
abo states that, although now so £eu: removed from the sea-margin, 
this rampart of Severus extends further seaward than the earlier 
one of Hadrian. How far the change may have been due to a 
sUting up of the estuary, or to an actual elevation of the land, can 
only be determined by a careful examination of the locality. 

Horsley's observations along the Solway prepared him for the 
detection of similar phenomena along the other Scottish estuaries. 

* Sibbald, Histor. Inquir. pp. 34 and 41. See also Gordon's * Itinerorimn Sep- 
tentrionale/ pp. 23, 29 ; and Stuart's * Caledoma Boxnana,' pp. 177-8. Buchanan 
wrote that in his tune ruins of the Roman Camelon resembled those of a modem 
cify ; and that its ditches^ walls, and streets were then apparent (Hist. Soot 
lib. iX 

t Edin. New Phil. Journ., new series, vol. xiv. p. 107- 

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1862.] GBIXIE — mJSVATlOTS 07 BCOTLAinO. 231 

'* There is good reason to think/' we find him remarking, ** that both 
the Solway Firth and the Firtiis of Clyde and Forth were formerly 
deeper, and that the tide has flowed further up than it does now;" 
and thus that ^* the land seems to have gained here *." 

General Boy, about the middle of last century, made the Roman 
antiquities of Scotland the subject of careful study, when they re- 
mained much more perfect than they do now, after a hundred years 
of advancing agriculture. He surveyed with a military eye the 
sites of the forts, camps, ramparts, and highways which the legion- 
aries had left to mark their presence. ** With regard to the position 
of these forts," he says, *' the Eomans seem to have been guided by 
the same general principles which now-a-days would direct in the 
execution of works of a like nature. A high and commanding 
situation hath therefore been their choice, from whence the country 
could be discovered to a considerable distance all round, but espe- 
cially towards the north — the quarter from which they were to 
expect the enemy, — contriving, as often as circumstances would per- 
mit, that a river, morass, or some difficult ground, by way of obstruc- 
tion and additional security, should extend at some little way along 
their front. Thus we find that the forts toward the right occupied 
the heights which overlook the shores of the Forth, the low carse- 
lands of Falkirk, and the banks of the Carron." He was con- 
vinced that these low lands could not have existed then in their 
present condition. " If," he remarks, " the Falkirk Carses were not 
entirely overflown in the time of the Romans, it is probable at least 
that they were then salt-marshes, subject in some degree to tem- 
porary inundations in high spring tides f." 

Nimmo, in his * History of Stirlingshire,' published in 1777, after 
alluding to the tradition of a harbour having existed on the inner 
edge of the Falkirk Carse, below Larbert Bridge, and to the fact that 
pieces of broken anchors had been found in that neighboiurhood 
within the memory of people then living, contends that there was 
''reason to believe that the firth flowed considerably higher in 
former ages than it does at present :t*" 

Lastly, Mr. Stuart, the most recent writer who has treated spe- 
cially of the Roman antiquities of Scotland, is still more explicit. 
He declares his belief that ** the whole of this lower district (towards 
the mouth of the Carron) had in all likelihood been covered by the 
sea when the Roman forces occupied the Wall of Antonine. It is 
likewise probable," he adds, *' that the entire plain between Inner- 
avon and Grahamstown (that is, the whole of the Falkirk Carse) was 
at the same period subject to the influx of the tide, which may even 
have penetrated the deeper hollows of the Carron as far up as Duni- 

* Hordey's 'BritaimiA,' pp. 167, 160. 
t ' Military Antiq.' book it. chap. iii. sect 2. 
I ' Hist StarlingBhire,' Bdinbnrgh, 1777. p. 63. 
I * Caledonia S^mana,' Edinburgh, 1845, p. 177- 

I have not deemed it necessary to increase the length of this communication 
by controverting the alleged Roman origin of certain roadways and other traces 

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232 PBOCBEDnres of thb esoLoeicAL society. [Apr. 2, 

Putting together all the evidence which the antiquities yet dis- 
covered idong the Scottish coast-line afford as to the date of the last 
upheaval of the country, we are led to infer that this upheaval must 
have taken place long after the first human population settled in the 
island — ^long after metal implements had come into use, after even 
the introduction of iron ; and reviewing the position and nature of 
the relics of the Boman occupation, we see no ground why the move- 
ment may not have heen effected since the first century of our era ; 
nay, there appear to be several cogent arguments to make that date 
the limit of its antiquity. 

Although lines of raised beach, or marine littoral deposits, may 
be traced round the greater part of the Scottish coast-line, I am not 
aware that remains of art have been found imbedded in any of 
them, except in the districts described in the preceding pages. 
The elevation of the land appears to have been general over the 
whole of the central districts of Scotland between the Firth of 
Clyde and the Firths of Forth and Tay. Whether or not the 
movement extended northwards into the Highland districts, or south- 
wards into England, must be determined by ^ture observation. In 
the mean time, we seem at last to have a date for one of the latest, 
but not least important, changes which have affected a part of the 
British Isles. 

April 2, 1862. 

Charles Longman, Esq., Shendish, Hemel Hempstead, and Thomas 
Wyles, Esq., AUesley Park College, Coventry, were elected Fellows. 
Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, Professor at the University of 
Gottingen, and M. Pierre Menan, late Professor and Hector of the 
University of Basel, were elected Foreign Members. 

The following communications were read: — 

of art found along the present coast-line at a height of lees than 20 feet above 
high-water-mark. The cauBeway of logs, for instance, which crossed a part of the 
Kincardine Moss, in the Carse of Stirling, is commonly spoken of as Boman ; but 
this is mere ooivjecture. The bronze vessel foimd in the same moss, and cited by 
some writers as a Boman camp-kettle, is most certainly of ancient British work- 
manship. (See Dr. Wilson's * Prehistoric Annals,' p. 247.) It is quite possible, 
indeed, that Boman masonry may be found at a lower level than 20 feet above 
the present high- water-mark, just as in our own day piers and other pieces 
of stone-work are constructed which the tide covers twice every twenty-four 
hours. It does not appear, however, that anything of the kind has yet been 
described. In short, so far as I am aware, there are no remains of Boman biiild- 
ings which would be submerged by a depression of the land to the extent of 20 
or 25 feet ; and there seems, therefore, to be no archaeological evidence to con- 
tradict the conclusion that the land has been actually raised to that extent since 
the beginning of our era, while the evidence which does exist, whether of anti- 
quaries or of antiquities, tends materially to confirm that conclusion. 

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1. On some Remains of Chiton from the Mountain-limestone of 
YoRKSHiBE. By Jambs W. Xirkby, £sq. 

[Communicated by Thomas DaTidson, Esq., F.B.S., F.a.S.] 

The remains of Chiton noticed in the present paper were sent to me 
for examination about two years ago by Mr. H. J, Burrow, of Settle, 
with permission to describe them should it appear to me desirable 
to do so. Not being able to identify any of them with species 
already described, I agreed to draw up a short account of them, so 
as to make their discovery known. My delay in doing this is mainly 
due to an expectation of the discovery of additional materials ; but 
as this expectation has not been realized, it will be well, perhaps, 
not to withhold their description any longer ; for though the plates 
already known may probably give but a very imperfect idea of the 
species to which they belong, they certamly seem of sufficient im- 
portance to allow of their being brought before the attention of palae- 

There are eight plates in the collection, four of which are posterior 
plates, and the others intermediate ; and, notwithstanding the small- 
ness of their number, they appear to belong to four species. That 
so many species should be represented by so small a number of plates, 
all from one locality, seems, I must confess, somewhat remarkable ; 
but the differences of the characters of the plates are such as to 
render it scarcely possible for them to belong to less than the number 
of species named. 

The specimens were found in the Lower Scar Limestone, in the 
vicinity of Settle, and apparently near the base of that subdivision 
of the Mountain-limestone of Yorkshire; but I hero rely solely 
upon the observation of Mr. Burrow, whom it may be well to quote. 
He states, '< The exact position of the bed in which the Chitons 
occur is rather difficult to determine, though it certainly belongs to 
the Lower Scar Limestone of Phillips. So far as I can judge, the 
bed is nearer the bottom than the top of the Lower Scar limestone ; 
but, from the bed only occurring in one place, and then where the 
strata have been disturbed, I hardly dare venture to make a guess 
at the thickness of the limestone above it. The place where the 
bed crops out is on the very edge of the Craven &ult, by which, not 
a hundred yards from the spot, the Millstone-grit is thrown down 
to a level with the Lower Scar Limestone. The only place where 
the specimens occur is a field within a hundred yards of a very 
beautiful little waterfall, called Scaleber Foss." 

<< The matrix is a dark, hard limestone, and abounds in fossils. 
Among others are Orihoeeras Ooldfussianum, De Kon., 0, Muensteria- 
num, De Eon., Cyrtoceras Unguis ?, De Eon., an abundance of beau- 
tifully preserved Ooniaiites striatus, var. crenistria, Phillips, and 
several other species of QonifUites, Orihoeeras, and NatUiltis; also 
f PateUa imlyrieata, a Buccinum, Cypricardia trapezoidalis, De Eon., a 
large Pecten^ and other Conchifera, some in great abundance. The 
principal Brachiopods are Rhync^nella angulata, Terehratula hastata, 
and ^pirifera cuspidatay 

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As the following descriptioiis only refer to the features of the 
plates discovered, which can only give but imperfect ideas of the 
species to which they belong, I have thought it better to leave two 
unnamed, so that those who follow in helping to work out the 
characters of the species may have their share of the honour (if 
there be any) of giving them names. 

1. Chiton Bubbowiakus, spec. nov. Figs. 1 & 2. 

A nearly perfect posterior plate and a fragment of an intermediate 
one represent the present species. 

Posterior plate rather more than semi- Figs. 1 & 2, — Posterior 
circular marginally, depressed posteriorly Plate of Chiton Bur- 
and laterally ; median elevation moderate, rowianus. 
angulation obtuse; dorsal area oompara- (Enkirged one-third.) 
tively long, flatly rounded, terminating pos- 
teriorly in a blunt, depressed f^x ; shell 
thick, surface apparently worn, lines of 
growth fiEdnt; length i inch, breadth ^ inch. 

The fragment of the intermediate plate 
is on the same piece of limestone as the 
one described. It shows the apex, most of 
the dorsal and small portions of the lateral 
areas. The apex is acute and depressed ; 
dorsal area rounded and arched longi- 
tudinally ; lateral areas slope rapidly, al- 
most at a right angle ; shell thick, suiface j Upper view, 
similar to t^at of the posterior plate, and 2. Lateral view, 
size proportionally the same. 

The near position of these plates, and their similarity of size, sur- 
face, and sheU-thickness lead me to consider them to belong to one 
individual, hence to the same species. 

As a slight acknowledgment of the value of Mr. Burrow's re- 
searches in palaeontology, particularly of his discovery of four 
Chitons new to science, I gladly adopt his name for the present 

2. Chiton colobatus, spec. nov. Eigs. 3-6. 

Under this name I include an intermediate and a posterior plate, 
which, from their size and general character, appear to belong to 
one species. 

The intermediate plate is one-fourth wider than long, and much 
longer medianally than at the extremity of the lateral areas, as both 
anterior and posterior margins trend inwards as they proceed frt>m the 
median line to the lateral extremities ; angulation of the plate more 
obtuse than a right angle, though more acute centrally than laterally ; 
dorsal area (?) raised a little above the general surface ; lateral areas 
obscure ; later lines of growth well marked ; anterior portion of the 
plate and dorsal area coloured black, the colour following the con- 
tour of the margin and the raised dorsal area ; shell strong, length 
•^ inch, breadth ^ inch. 

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The posterior plate resembles that of many recent Chitons ; it is 
wider than long, has a semicircular posterior margin, an anterior 
margin obtusely angulate, a depressed apex almost centrally placed ; 
shell strong, and its surface marked by a few coarse lines of growth. 

Figs. 3-6. — Plates of Chiton coloratus. 
(Nearly twice natural size.) 


3. Intermediate plate. 

4. Lateral view of the same. 

5. Poflterior plate. 

6. Lateral Tiew of the 

The intermediate plate possesses considerable interest on account 
of its colour-marking ; the colour is very evident ; the uncoloured 
surface is grey, which is the tint of the matrix. That this is truly 
the remains of the original colour I can scarcely doubt, considering 
the symmetry observed in its arrangement, which cannot be ascribed 
to the accidents of fossilization. 

Both plates belong to the ordinary type of Chiton, The interme- 
diate plate, from its comparatively great median length, is probably the 
second, or perhaps the penultimate, of the series. C, gemmatus, De 
Kon., perhaps approaches the nearest to this species among the fossil 
forms, particularly in the general outline of its intermediate plates. 

3. Chetoit ? Spec. nov. Figs. 7 <fe 8. 
A shield-shaped plate, much wider behind than before, strongly 

keeled medianally, sloping rapidly on each 
side and anteriorly ; apex prominent, point- 
ed, and slightly depressed ; two faint lines 
diverge from the apex to the antero-lateral 
margin, being apparently analogous to the 
lateral sulcations that bound the dorsal areas 
of many Chitons; lateral areas evident, 
small ; surface rather coarsely granulated, 
granulations arranged somewhat concen- 
trically after the manner of the lines of 
growth; lines of growth faintly marked, 
regular; shell rather strong ; length -j% inch, 
hieadth -X inch. 

The only plate known to me that has 

Figs* 7 & S.—PlaU oj 
(Enlarged one-third.) 

7. Upper view. 

8. Lateral view. 

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any resemblance to the present one is described by Baron de Ryckholt 
under the name of ChttoneUtis Barrandeanus ; but, so far as may be 
judged from De Ryckholt's figure of the plate, the relationship does 
not appear to be specific. 

The general form of this plate, its great elongation, and the 
merging of the anterior into the lateral margins are features that 
belong rather to CkitoneUtis than to Chiton proper. Not knowing, 
however, anything of the form or development of the apophyses, or 
rather of that portion of the plate which was imbedded in the 
mantle, I have doubtfully retained the species in the genus ChUan, 

4. Chiton. Spec. nov. ? Figs. 9 <fe 10. 

An intermediate plate, short, very transverse, obtusely angulated ; 
anterior margin concave; apex pro- 
jecting, but not acute ; median line Figs. 9 & 10. — Intermediate 
arched ; dorsal area obscure, lateral Plate of Chiton, sp. ? 

arcM not krge; apophyses wide, semi- ^^^^ ^^ „^ ^ ^ 

lenticular ; surface apparently worn ; 
length ^ inch, breadth ^ inch. 

There is no mistaking the type of 
Chiton to which the present plate 
belongs. Its form is that of the inter- 
mediate plates of many recent species 
of the common type. Had it occurred 
in Permian strata, it would most un- 
doubtedly have been referred to Chiton 
LoftusianuSf^iag, to the middle plates 
of which it bears great resemblance. 
It would, of course, be premature to 
identify it with that species at pre- 9. Upper view. 10. Lateral view, 
sent, upon the strength of a knowledge 

of a single plate ; and it would be just as premature to say positively 
that they are distinct, upon the strength of their being found in dif- 
ferent formations, particularly as several species of Mollusca are al- 
ready known to be common to the faunae of both periods. 

Besides the preceding plates, there is a cast of a patelliform shell 
among Mr. Burrow's specimens that may possibly be a plate of a 
Chiton or Chitondlus, It is | inch long, rather convex, and slightly 
flanged marginally ; and a posterior plate of an undoubted Chiton 
rests upon one side of it. I do not describe it with the other plates, 
because I cannot detect traces of apophyses, nor satisfy myself as to 
its shell-structure, nor yet perceive anything conclusive of its rela- 
tion to this family. 

These species appear to be the first Chitons that have been ob- 
served in Carboniferous strata in England. In the equivalent rocks 
of Belgium Chitons have been known to occur since 1843, when 
Professor De Koninck described two species in his ' Description des 
Animaux Fossiles du terrain Carbonif&re de Belgique,' pp. 321-323. 


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Two years after this, in 1845, Baron de Ryekholt described ten new 
species from the same formation, in a paper that appeared in the 
* Bulletins de P Academic Boyale de Broxelles ' (tome xii. no. 7). In 
1847 the same author noticed another species, which he referred to 
Chitonellus, in the 'Bulletins de 1' Academic Boyale de Belgique' 
(tome xxiv. p. 63). Lastly, a species was described by Mr. W. H. 
Baily, of the Geological Survey, in 1859, from the Carboniferous 
Limestone of Ireland, in the * Dublin Natural History E^view,' vol. viii., 
and * Joum. Geol. Soc. Dublin,' vol. viii. p. 167. 

The latter author has also recently pubHshed an annotated trans- 
lation of an old though interesting paper by Professor De Koninck, 
on two Silurian species of this genus, in which is given a short 
sketch of all that had been done in the palaeontology of the Chito- 
nidce up to the date of publication of the paper ; tiie sketch being 
accompanied by a Hst of fossil Chitons from the Lower Silurian to 
the UpperTertiary, and Mr. Baily having increased its value by adding 
to it the results of recent discoveries. Both in this list, however, 
and in the one originally pubHshed by De Koninck, several of Do 
Ryckholt's species are considered but varieties of those described 
by De Koninck, or altogether ignored ; hence, instead of eleven, 
only three of De Ryckholt's species are allowed in these lists. It is 
quite possible that Professor De Koninck may be right, to some ex- 
tent, in considering certain of De Ryckholt's species to be only 
varieties of his own, but, so for as may be judged from the descrip- 
tions and figures of the forms described by the latter author in his 
valuable paper in the * Bulletins of the Royal Academy of Brussels,' 
I see no reason for adopting so sweeping a criticism as that which 
De Koninck has virtually passed upon De Rvckholt's species ; tor, 
though I have had but ^iight opportunities of examining specimens 
from Belgium, there seems evidence enough in the figures of De 
Ryekholt to show that other forms, besides the three allowed by 
De Koninck, possess peculiar characters of specific value. I include 
therefore, in the following Hst of the Carboniferous species of this 
family, all those described as such by Baron de Ryekholt ; it being, 
in my opinion, only fair to that palaeontologist to acknowledge his 
species until we have shown them to be unworthy of such distinction. 

List of Chitones from the Carboniferous Rocks, 

1. Chiton priBCUB, Munster. 

2. gemmatuB, De Koninck, 

3. ooncentricufl, DeKon. 

4. TomacioolB, De Rt/ckholi. 

5. SoildianuB, De Eyck. 

6. Nemcanus, De Ryck. 

7. Mempiaciw, De Ryck. 

8. MoBenBiB, Ik Ryck. 

9. Viaetioola, De Ryck. 

10. L^giacoB, De Ryck. 

1 1 . Chiton EburonicuB, De Ryck. 

12. SluoeanuB, De Ryck. 

13. TumaoianuB, DeRyck. 

14. ThomondienBiB, Baily. 

16. BurrowianuB, Kirkl^. 

16. ooloratos, Kirkby. 

17. ?, spec. nov. 

18. spec. nov. (?). 

*19. ChitonelluB BarrandeanuB, De 


* The Chitonellus cordifer, which ProfeBBor De Koninck doubtfully referred 
to thiB fSsunily, haa been Bhown by Baron De Ryekholt to belong to the Cfrinoidea. 

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PROCEEDnres of thb exoLoaiCAL socibtt. [Apr. 2, 

2. Description of Specimens of Fossil Rsptuja discovered in the 
COAL-MBASVSES of the SouTH JoBQun, NoYA SooTiA, by Dr. J. W. 
Dawson, F.G.S., <fec. By Professor Owbk, F.R.S., F.G.8. 
[Plates DL & X.] 
The following specimens were transmitted to the Museum of ilie 
Geological Society by Dr. Dawson, in a series of boxes and parcels, 
most of which are numbered according to a Hst accompanying them, 
and have been submitted, by his desire, to my inspection. The 
descriptions will follow in the order of that list. 

"Box No. 1. — Hyhnomus Lyelliy Dawson." 

This specimen is imbedded in a portion of a thin layer of carbo- 
naceous matter, measuring six inches by four inches. It consists of 
scattered parts and impressions of vertebne, ribs, limb-bones, and part 
of a cranium crushed, including part of a maxillary bone with teeth 
(PI. IX. figs. 1-5). Not any of &e bones are entire : all ilie long bones, 
even the ribs, are hollow; and ilie cavity is enclosed by a compact wall 
of almost uniform thinness throughout each bone, indicative that 
such cavity was not properly a medullary one, in Hie sense of having 
been excavated by absorption after complete consolidation of the bone 
by the ossifying process, but was posthumous, and due to the solution 
of the primitive cartilaginous mould of the bone, which had remained 
unchanged by ossification in the living species. I conclude, there- 
fore, that these hollow long bones (and, indeed, the bodies of the 
vertebrae seem only to have received a partial and superficial crust 
of bone) were originally solid, and composed, like Hie bones in most 
Batrachia, especially the Perennibranchiates, of an external osseous 
crust, enclosing solid cartilage. The body of tiie vertebra (figs. 1 & 2) 
is chiefly represented by a downward growth of ilie base of the neural 
arch (n) ; and in the best-preserved specimen there seems to be a 
distinct inferior plate (c), with a median longitudinal channel on the 
lower surface, — such vertebne belonging to the dorsal region : the 
cylindrical cavity of the centrum was doubtless occupied by the noto- 
dkord. The neural arch developes a short, broad diapophysis (cQ, to 
which the rib articulates : it also has zygapophyses both before (z) 
and behind (z'), and a moderately long truncate spine (n s), slightly 
expanding in Hie fore-and-aft direction to its summit. The ribs are 
of various lengths, the shorter ones straight, the longer ones slightly 
bent ; the best-preserved of iliese have an expanded end, slightly 
notched (fig. 3), but none show a distinctly bifurcate extremity. 
Those limb-bones, metapodials or phalanges, which have their arti- 
cular end preserved, show it to be fiattened (fig. 4), — not fashioned 
for a condyloid or trochlear joint with articular cartilage and syno- 
vial membrane, but adapted for a simple ligamentous union, as in 
the digits of the Salamanders, Turtles, Amphiume, and Protetts, One 
end of some of these bones sho¥rs a short longitudinal impression at 
the middle. The surface of some of the larger long bones shows 
longitudinal striation, indicative of a fibrous structure like that of 
the bones in some fishes. The maxillary fragment in the slab. 

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No. 1, which Dr. Dawson supposes to belong to anoilier individual 
of HyhnomuBy ia figured of twice the natural size in PI. IX, fig. 5. 
The bone, in respect to its proportions as to length and depth, 
to the number, size, and shape of the teeth it contains, and to the 
indications of sculpturing of the outer surfEUse, resembles the maxil- 
lary and dentary bones of Arckegosaurus, A series of twenfy-four 
teeth occupies a part of the alveolar border, a, 6 millimeters (nearly 3 
lines) in extent ; but impressions and fragmentary traces of others 
beyond show that there were at least 40 teeth in a row on one side 
of the upper jaw. There is an indication of the lower border of ilie 
orbit 0, above the hinder third of this series. The teeth increase 
gradually in length as they approach this part ; their crowns are 
idender, subcompressed transversely, pointed, but not sharply, with 
evidence of alternate shedding. They are partially anchylosed to 
shallow alveolar depressions on the border, towards the inner side, 
of the jaw-bone. Their enamelled surface is smooth, and shows a 
whiter colour than the bone itself. 

" Box No. 2. — Hyhnomus aciedentatus, Dawson." 

This contains two portions of shaly carbonaceous matter. In one 
is imbedded the major part of a maxillary bone (PL IX. fig. 6), with the 
inner side exposed, which is smooth, and demonstrates the fixation of 
the teeth not to be as in the pleurodont lizard, but according to the 
acrodont type ; the sockets, however, are shallow, and the simple bases 
of ilie teeth are partially anchylosed thereto, as in Archegosaurw and 
Labyrinihodon, and that of the largest tooth (being exposed by re- 
moval of the inner alveolar wall) shows the fossa due to the matrix of 
the successional tooth. The teeth are not so bent as to indicate which 
is the front or which the hind end of this maxillary bone. The teeth 
are the smallest at both ends, gradually increasing as they recede from 
one end, and rapidly from the other, near to which are four or five 
teeth, four times the length of the terminal ones of the series. I 
suspect this to be the fore part of the bone. The proportions and 
shape of the crown are much as in the Hylonomus I^elli ; but there 
seems to be a greater variety of length in the teeth of Hylonomus 
aciederUatm, In both species the dentition indicates a small insecti- 
vorous or vermivorous reptile. 

A second portion of coal-shale, in box No. 2 (marked 5 a), con- 
tains the impression, with a small portion of one end, of a dentary 
bone of the lower jaw, which held a series of at least 40 teeth 
(PL IX. fig. 7a). These, in size and proportion, agree with those of 
Hylonomus LyelU, in No. 1. The teetii very gradually decrease 
from, the middle to the two ends, especially to the auterior one. In 
the number, proportions, and dose arrangement of the teeth, this 
dentary bone agrees with that of the Archegosaurus, lizards have 
not so many teeth. 

A third portion of coal (5 a), in box No. 2, contained the slender- 
pointed end of a jaw-bone, with a close-set series of about 25 teeth 
in an extent of 13 millimeters, or 6^ lines (PL IX. fig. 9). These teeth 

VOL. XVni. — PABT I. R 

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240 PROCEEDnres of the oeolooical societt. [^P^ • ^s 

increase from the pointed end of the bone to about the tenth tooth, 
and thence continue with little difference of size : the crown ex- 
pands slightly beyond the implanted base, before narrowing to the 
rather blunt-pointed end. The outer surface of the jaw-bone shows 
a striated or strio-punotate pattern of sculpture. 

A fourth portion (5 6) included parts of the bones of a short 
natatory fore limb (PI. IX. fig. 10). The humerus (h) has an 
expanded proximal end, with three ridges, two of them more extended 
than the other ; the shaft of the bone is rather bent. This bone has 
been dislocated from the radius (r) and ulna (n), beyond whidi are 
evidences of three, if not four, digits ; these progressively increase 
in length to the fourth (iv), of wMch, and of the third, impressions 
and parts of three successive phalanges are shown. These are 
slightly expanded at their flattened articular ends, at which the 
longitudinal impressions may be seen in two instances; but the 
joints were syndesmotic, as in Archegosaurus and modem aquatic 
batrachian reptiles ; and the humerus and antebrachium are short in 
proportion to the manus, although not to such a degree as in Arche- 

The group of dermal scutes includes some (PL IX. ^^, 13 h,e) which 
are nearly perfect, of an oval form, smooth on the inner surface, with 
a low longitudinal ridge, half the length of the scute, on the outer 
surface ; the external layer is of ganoid hardness ; the internal struc- 
ture is cellular. They indicate the nature of the covering of one of 
the species of Ht/lonomus. 

" Box No. 3. — HylonomuB Wymanni, Dawson." 

The remains of foot-bones (PI. IX. fig. 11) in one of the portions of 
coal-shale in this box show a tridactyle structure, with more slender 
proportions than in the Hylonomus aeiedentatus ; but the phalanges 
have the same flat joints and incomplete ossification, a thin external 
erust of bone enclosing a cavity which had been occupied by cartilage : 
they much resemble the phalanges of the Axolotl. 

A second portion contains a series of six or seven crushed neural 
arches of vertebrae (PI. IX. fig. 12), of a length twice their breadth, 
with horizontal zygapophyses — the spines probably broken away. In 
the proportion of length to breadth, these vertebrae resemble those of 
Proteus*. There is no evidence of an ossified centrum in any part 
of this series ; but there are some elongated vacuities, which seem 
to represent the unossified parts of centrums, partially cased by thin 
bone. The impressions, vdth filmy remains of bones of a second 
series of six vertebrae, of similar slender proportions, are preserved 
in the same portion of coal. 

PL IX. ^, 13 a represents one of the largest specimens of a rib, 
partly in bone, partly in impression, with an expanded, slightly 
notched head, as in the ribs of the Axolotl, but of greater length and 
more curved than in any modem naked Batrachian : it is hollow, as 
in the shorter specimens, with a thin outer crust. 

* Cuvier, OssemenB Foasilw, v. pt ii. pi. xxvii. fig. 14. 

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Near the specimen, and near the jaw of Hylonomus (%. 7a), are 
specimens of the dermal scutes. Ihey are oval^ flattened, smooth 
and slightly concave on the inner side, with parallel curved stxia- 
tions on the outer suifiBtce. 

PI. IX. fig. 14 is the dentary bone, with very small, equal, close- 
set teeth, eleven being in the extent of 2 millimeters ; they best 
accord in character with those of the upper jaw of Hyhnomus LyeUi 
(fig. 5), to which species I believe this lower jaw to belong. 

PI. IX. fig. 15 is part of an upper jaw, with teeth less closely 
arranged, and very small in proportion, to the breadth of the bone. 
It is of a Hylonomus, and exhibits on the outer surface of part of 
the bone the pits and radiating furrows which characterize the outer 
sculpturing of the skull-bones of Archegosaurus, 

" Parcel No. 4. — Jaw of a Reptile, supposed to be new." 
ffylerpeton Dawsani, Ow. (PI. IX. fig. 16). 

This specimen consists of the IdTt ramus of a lower jaw, which 
has been dislocated from the crashed head, of which the fore end 
of the left premaxillary (/>) is preserved, terminating near the 
middle of the series of the teeth of the more advanced mandible. 
A fragment of the left maxillary (m), which has been separated from 
the premaxillary, ov^laps the hinder mandibular teeth. The fore 
part of the mandible is wanting. The teeth in the remaining part 
are larger and fewer, in proportion to the jaw-bone, than in Hyhr- 
nomus or Dendrerpeton, They have thicker and more obtusely ter- 
minated crowns ; they are close-set where the series is complete at 
the fore part oi the jaw, and their base appears to have been an- 
chylosed to shallow depressions on the alveols^ surface. The shape 
of what is preserved of the upper jaw affords the only evidence, and 
not very decisively, that the present fossil is not part of a fish. It 
inclines the balance, however, to the reptilian side ; and, accepting 
such indication of the class-relations of the fossil, it must be referred 
to a genus of ReptUia distinct from those it is associated with in the 
Nova-Scotian coal, and for which genus I would suggest the term 

A small part of the external surface of the dentaiy bone shows a 
longitudinidly wrinkled and striate or fibrous character. The outer 
bony wall, broken away from the hinder half of the dentary, shows 
a large cavity, now occupied by a fine greyish matrix (ar), with a 
smooth surface, the bony wall of which cavity has been thin and 
compact. We have here the mark of incomplete ossification, like 
that in the skeleton of Arekegosaurus, The crushed fore part of the 
right dentary bone, with remains of a few teeth, is below the left 
dentary, and exemplifies a similar structure. The teeth slightly 
diminish, though more in breadth than length, towards the fore 
part of the series : here there are nine teeth in an alveolar extent of 
10 millimeters, or nearly 5 lines. The portion of jaw, figured of 
twice the natural size, in fig. 17, shows the anchylosis of the base of 
the teeth in a shallow groove or alveolus : the base of the teeth is 


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longitadinally fissured, but the fissures do not extend upon the 
exserted crown. In their general characters, the teeth manifest at 
least as close a resemblance to those of Oanocq>hdla as of Lacertia 
or any higher group of Beptilia ; whilst their mode of implantation, 
with the structure and sculpturing of the bone, weigh in favour of 
its relations to the lower and earlier order of the cold-blooded 

** No. 5. — Skin and dermal plates of Hylanamus (?), probably 
H. Lyemr 

The specimen so marked shows three oblong plates (PI. X. a, 6, 
c, fig. 2), with a slightly concave surface, finely striate trans- 
versely, and with one margin free, obtuse, and weU defined. Con- 
tinuous with this is a granulate surface, like shagreen, of small, 
dose-set, subelliptic scales or tubercles (d). 

Another portion of coal-shale shows a layer, and an impression of a 
continuous part of the same layer, of int^;ument (PL X. fig. 1) which 
has been defended by similar small and subimbricate scales. From 
their state of preservation, these were probably bony or ganoid. I 
do not know the evidence in proof of their belonging to Hyhnomus, 

PL X. fig. 3 is a portion of the bones of the cranium, including 
the frontal and parts of the prefrontal, postfrontal, parietal, post- 
orbital, and supertemporal bones of probably a Hylonomtu* They 
show the skull to have been broad and much depressed : the super- 
orbital border (o) is formed by the pre- and post-frx)ntals. In most 
of the bones, and especially the supertemporal plate, s, the outer 
surface is sculptured according to the pattern shown in the skull of 

PL X. fig. 4 is a portion of a jaw, with small equal teeth having 
the characters of those of HvlonorMss, and with a sculptured external 
surface like that in PL X. ^. 3 and in PL DC. fig. 15. 

Passing over the interesting examples of probably the food of the 
small reptiles, shown in No. 5 {Pupa vetusta, Dawson) and No. 7 
(XyloMtu siffiUarius, Dawson), I come to 

" No. 8. Loose specimens of Dendrerpeton Accuiianum, Ow. 
(a nearly complete skeleton)." 

The chief addition to the evidence already recorded of the charac- 
ters of this reptile* are, 1st, the incompletely ossified conditions of the 
endoskeleton, manifested even in the slender ribs, which have their 
cavities filled with matrix, as formerly with the primitive cartilage ; 
2nd, the shape of the head (PL X. fig. 5 a); 3rd, the superficial 
markings of the cranial bones (fig. 6) and scutes ; 4th, the batrachian 
type of the ilium, and probably of the pelvis, fig. 7. 

The skull (PL X. fig. 5 a) is broad, depressed, obtusely rounded 
anteriorly, rather Labyrinthodontal than Archegosaural in shape; 
although, in the species of both these early types of batrachian air- 
* Quart. Joum. G«ol. Soc. toI. ix. p. 64, &c. 

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breathers^ there is such a known range of variation as to detract 
from the value of the character of the degree of obtuseness of the 
muzzle. Unfortunately, the occipital part of the skull, which would 
have afforded the test of the mode of its articulation with the atlas, is 
wanting. The Labyiinthodonts have a pair of condyles, as in Bana : 
the OanoeepTidla, like Lepidosiren, show no bony joint between the 
basi-occipital and atlas. 

The under surfiEice of the bones forming the roof of the skull is 
exposed in this spocimen. As in Archegosaums and HyhnomuSy the 
frontal (ii) is separated from the orbital border (o, o) by the union of 
the post- (is) and pre- (u) frontals. The temporal fossso were roofed 
over vnth bone ; and these cranial bones show their external surface, 
fig. 6, to be sculptured with the beautiful and characteristic pattern 
exhibited in the supertemporal plate of the specimen of ffylonamus, 
fig. 3. This pattern may be seen on the cranial bones of some 
ganoid fishes, and on those of Archegomurus and Labyrinthodon* 
The orbits in Dendrerpetan are circular, divided by a bony tract of 
more than their own diameter : they seem to have been midway 
between the two ends of the skull; but the hinder part of this 
is not complete in the specimen. The small nostrils are not midway 
between the orbits and the muzzle, but nearer the latter. The few 
teeth preserved at this part of the skull show the plication of the 
base due to the entering folds of the cement, and yield, on a trans- 
verse section (fig. 5 h), the same approach to the lab3rrinthic cha- 
racter as in Arehegosaurus. Their bases are confluent vdth the alveolar 
depressions : there are no tusks as in Lahyrinthodon, 

A short straight bone, uniting with two other divergent ones, ap- 
pears to be the ilium ; and I regard the specimen PL X, fig. 7 as part 
of the pelvis of Dendrerpeton : tiie ossified part of each of these bones 
is a thin outer crust. The ilium, by its shortness and straight sub- 
cylindrical rib-like form, agrees with that in Arehegosaurus and in 
modem Perennibranchiate reptiles. In Lahyrinthodon the ilium ex- 
pands in some measure according to the Crocodilian type of the bone. 

The short proportions and simplicity of shape and structure of 
the limb-bones combine, with the above-mentioned characters, to 
demonstrate the Ganocephalous nature of this Nova-Scotian reptile 
of the Coal-period. 

Dendrerpeton, like Hylonomus and Arehegosaurus, shows the 
affinity (shall we call it ?) or analogy to the ganoid fishes, not only 
in the character of the cranial bones, but in the retention of a covering 
of the body by ganoid scales : these are elliptic, smooth on their 
inner surface, with a slight indication of a ridge, about half the 
length of the scale, on the external surface, — at least, in certain of 
the scales, and probably those along the back. 

The genus Hylonomus also, although with more minute and simple 
teeth, ^d the skin defended by similar elliptic or suboval ganoid 
scales. Much remains to be detenmned as to the structure of the 
skull : nevertheless such cranial bones as have been obtained (PI. X. 
figs. 3, <& 5a, 6) exemplify the Ganocephalous sculpturing ; while the 
arrested state of ossification of the endoskeleton and the characters 

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of the limb-bones sustain the reference of the genus to the ordw 

After careful scrutiny of all the specimens confided to my inspec- 
tion by Dr. Dawson, I have not met with decisire evidence of a 
member of any of the orders of Eeptilia represented by species of 
the Oolitic or later series of deposits. Some, as (e.g.) Baphetes, may 
be Labyrinthodont, but the rest are Ganocephalous ; and Baphetes 
may possibly belong to this lower group of palaeozoic air-breathing 


Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Hylonomus LyeUi, dorsal rertebra, three times magnified: side Tiew. 
Fig. 2. '■ — , dorsal vertebra, three times magnified : transverse 

Fig. 3. , one of the longer ribs, twice nat. siie; the end showing 

the hollow. 

Fig. 4. , metapodial and phalangial bones, twice nat. size. 

Fig. 5. , upper maxillarv and pitft of orbit, twice nat sire. 

Fig. 6. Part of upper maxillary and teeth of Hylonomus aciedmtatua. 

Fig. 7fl. Impression and remains of the dentary bone of the lower jaw of Htfh- 

nomus aciedentatns^ and of a scute, three times magnified. 
Fig. 8. Part of the dentary bone of a young, or snudl kind of HyUmomui, three 

times magnified. 
Fig. 9. The anterior end of a jaw-bone of HyUmomtts, twice nat sire. 
Fig. 10. Bones of the fore hmb of Hylonomus, three times magnified. 
Fig. II. Bones of a foot of Hy'onomus Wymanni, twice nat size. 
Fig. 12. Series of (caudal?) vertebm? of Hylonomus Wymanni, twice nat sixe 
Fig. 13. Rib (a) and two scutes (h and c) of Hylonomus, twice nat size. 
Fig. 14. Right dentary part of lower jaw of Hylonomus Lyelli, twice nat. siie. 
Fig. 15. Part of the upper jaw and te?th of a Hylonomus, three times magnified. 
Fig. 16. Parts of upper and lower jaws of Hylerpeton Dawsoni, nat size. 
Fig. 17. Small part of jaw of Hylerpeton, showing the mode of implantation of 

the teeth ; twice nat. size. 
Fig. 18. A group of the scutes of Hylerpefon (?) ; twice magnified. 

Plate X. 

Figs. 1 & 2. Dermal scutes and markings of the sldu of Hylonomus? 

Fig. 3. Portion of the frontal and contiguous cranial bones of a Hyloiwmus, twice 

nat size. 
Fig. 4. Part of the lower jaw of apparently the same species of Hylonomtts. 
Fig. 5 a. Inner surface of upi>er part of the skull of Dendrerpeton Acadianum^ 

nat size. 5 h, magnified section of base of tooth. 
Fig. 6. Outer surface of supertemporal bone of Dendrerpeton Acadianum^ twice 

nat size. 
Fig. 7. Ilium and parte of pubis and ischium of Dendrerpefon Acadianum. 

3. On the Occurrence of Mesozoic and Permiaw Faun-2e m Eastern 
Australia. By the Rev. W. B. Clarke, F.G.S. 

Since I forwarded my remarks on the " Relative Positions of certain 
Plants in the Coal-bearing Beds of Australia," which were published 
in the Quarterly Journal, vol. xvii. pp. 354-3G2, I have received, 
from a friend who is engaged, under my direction, in exploring? the 

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[Opposite page 244, vol. xviii.] 

Description of Specimens of Fossil Rbptilia discovered in the Coal- 
KSASXTRES of the South Joggins, Nova Scotia, by Dr. J. W. Daw- 
son, F.G.S., &c. By Professor Owen, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Appendix. — ^Dr. Dawson, of Montreal, on receiving the paper on 
Fossil Reptilia discovered at the South Joggins, printed in the 71st 
Number of the Society's Quarterly Journal (August 1862), observed 
that some of the specimens referred to in that paper must have been 
displaced from their respective boxes before Professor Owen de- 
scribed them, and that, therefore, he was milled by the labels on 
some of the boxes as to the nature of their contents. Dr. Dawson 
has therefore su^ested some corrections for the paper in question, 
which, with Professor Owen's sanction, are here enumerated. The 
Professor accepts the interpretation of specific characters and distinc- 
tions arrived at by Dr. Dawson through a study of the rich materials 
which that gentleman has collected and worked out, in preference 
to the opinion which Prof. Owen himself may have formed from the 
selection of specimens submitted to him, and under the circumstances 
in which they reached him. 

Page 238, line lit for This specimen read The second specimen. 
,, 239, lines 1 and 2, dele which Dr. Dawson supposes to belong to another 

individual of Hyhnomtts, 
„ „ lines 19 to 36 inclusiye, transpose to p. 238 above Une 11, and under 

„ „ lines 32 to 35 inclusiye, dele the sentence commencing The proportions, 

&c., and ending Hylonomus aciedentatus, 
„ „ line 35, dele In both species. 
„ „ line 37, for A second read The first. 
„ „ line 46, for A third read A second. 
„ 240, line 6, for A fourth read A third. 

„ 241, line 8, add It was probably placed bv mistake in this box. 
„ „ after line 13, insert PI. IX. fig. 8 is the lower law of HyUmomus Wy^ 

manni. Its teeth somewhat resemble those of ^. Lyelli, but are fewer 

and more obtuse. As in all the species of Hylonomtis, they are much 

longer toward the anterior end oi the jaw. 

Page 244, Descbiption of thb Plates. 

PL IX. Fig. 6, for aciedcntatus read LijeUi^ twice the natural size. 
„ Fig. 8, dth a young, or small kmd of: after Hylonomus insert 

„ Fig. 9, after Hylonomus insert aciedcntatus, 
PI. X. Fig. 3, after Hylonomus insert LyeUi, 

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Quart. Joum Geo! . Soc.Vol XVIII. P! . K 


J 2 



J Doikd hth . WW(MPt imp 


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Quart. JouTTi &o].Soc.Vol.XVIlI. ?IX. 


WWeci irnj. 


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country between the Balonne and Maranoa Elvers (now a portion of 
the new colony of Queensland), a collection of fossils which will 
serve, to a certain degree, to meet the remark I made at p. 361, 
respecting <' the want of good unmistakeable deposits in which the 
animal remains will leave no ftirther room for doubt." Mr. W. P. 
Gordon, a young squatter on Wollumbilla Creek, one of the branches 
of the " Yahoo River " of Leichhardt, was requested by me to search 
his neighbourhood and the Fitzroy Downs for fossils ; and he has 
been enabled to send me a very goodly collection. The specimens are 
accompanied by the pale sandstones of the Creek, and hard red 
conglomerates and quartzites from between Wollumbilla and the 
River Amby of Mitchell, including a tract on Fitzroy Downs nearly 
halfway to Mount Abundance. 

On receiving them, I reported at once to Sir Henry Barkly, the 
Governor of Victoria, who has taken a deep interest in the little 
matters of difference in opinion between Prof. M'Coy and myself 
respecting the Coal-epochs, that I had obtained Mesozoic evidence 
(enumerating many of the genera), and that I should be obliged if 
he would submit them to Prof. M*Coy, to whom I wished them 
referred, because I considered it was due to Mr. M'Coy on all accounts 
(specially as he had examined my collections of 1844, sent to Cam- 
bridge) tiiat I should lay before him such new facts as I could obtain, 
whichever way the evidence fix)m them might turn. 

Accordingly Mr.M'Coy has very obligingly examined the specimens, 
and reports that he considers them '' not younger than the base of 
the Great Oolite, and not older than the base of the Trias." 

On this occasion, the departure of the mail, after an interval of 
only 24 hours for correspondence, prevents me from doing more than 
announcing this discovery to the Geological Society, naming the 
principal genera determined by Mr. M'Coy, without any particular 
arrangement, but numbered as they stood on my own lists when I 
broke the fossils out of the matrix. 

The rock in which they occur is a bright calcareous grit, passing 
into an imperfect limestone, which decomposes into a soft chalky- 
or greensand-looking substance. 

1. Gigantic Serpulae. 

2. Pentacrinus. 

3. Monotis (? lias). 

4. Pectines [^ lias). 

5. linguLe. 

6. Myacites. 

7. New species of Aviculae, of the section Mehagrina, 

8. Lima. 

9. Turbo. 

10. Natica. 

11. RhynchonellaB. 

12. Monotis (? Saliferian), 

13. Pectines (? Muschelkalk). 

14. Myophoria, a typical new species (? Muschelkalk). 

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246 PBOGSEBnrefl of the OEOLoeiciL sogiett. [Apr. 2, 

15. Lamellibranchiate bivalTe of a new genus, between Mo- 

diola and Pachydomus. 

16. Maeonia or Astartilla. 

17. Lamellibranchiate bivalTe of a new genus. 

18. Avicula. 

19. Small Orthoceras (?). 

20. Belemnites, like B. giganteus, and proposed by Mr. W. B. 

Clarke to be termed B. Barhlyu 

21. Area. 

22. Nucula. 

23. Modiola-like shell. 

24. Fossil Wood. 

26. Lamelliferons Coral (very like a fossil from the Wiana- 
matta beds, N. S. Wales). 

26. Fossils, very like fish-teeth, but considered by Mr. M*Coy 

to be the spines of the suckers of probably No. 20. 

27. ? ScalpeUum. 

28. Sponge. 

29. Belemnites (like B, paxiUosus). 

30. DentaHum. 

There are several other fossils, not yet examined, besides the above. 
There are three casts of, probably, Eurydesma or Astartilla. These 
come from Fitzroy Downs, about 13 nules N.W. from Wollumbilla. 
Professor M*Coy considers them to be of different age from the pre- 

Moreover I submitted to him three Permian fossils, which I have 
long had in my cabinet, from the Mantuan Downs, 200 nules north 
of Wollumbilla, and which he has confirmed as such, viz., two very 
like ProductxAS calva, Sow. (I have another in my collection which 
I believe to be identical with that species), and one allied to Auh- 
sieges or Strophalosia, by which latter name I have marked it. These, 
being shells which belong to the Magnesian Limestone, indicate the 
Permian epoch. 

I have had also lately some fossils which were found on the Dawson 
Biver, consisting of Jhroducta and columns of Cyathocrintis, and are 
therefore either Permian or Carboniferous. 

Any frirther notice of these Queensland fossils, with their bearing 
on doubtful opinions, must be deferred. 

Mr. M'Coy believes the Wollumbilla fossils to be the marine re- 
presentatives of the so-called Jurassic Coal-beds of New South Wales. 
My own opinion is that they represent the marine life of the Wiana- 
matta formation, and are nearer Trias than anything else ; and with 
this the Fitzroy Down fossils and the Red Sandstones of the Amby 
would well agree in local position and other circumstances. I fed 
confident, frt>m what I personally know of the region from which they 
come, that they are altogether above the Coal-beds of the Hunter 
Biver and lUawarra, distant about 530 miles, and of which there 
are representatives, with the Newcastle coal-plants, about 200 miles 
farther N.W. at the junction of the Comet Biver with ^e 

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1862.] TTLOB — ^WBALBEK P00TPRINT8. 247 

'< Mackenzie ** of Leichhardt. I have inBtitated a search (at my 
own expense) at the head of the Maranoa Elver, and shall be able, 
I hope, to report further discoveries hereafter. These fossils were 
exhibited in Sydney, and are included in the Catalogue of the New 
South Wales products for exhibition at London in 1862*. 

4. Onihe Footprint of an Iguanodon, lately found at HASTmes. 
By Alfeed Ttloe, Esq., F.G.S., F.L.S. 

The occurrence of ichnites or footprints in the Wealden strata has 
on previous occasions been brought before the notice of the Geolo- 
gical Society by both Tagartf and Beckles:^; and these remains 
have also been alluded to by Mantell in his * Geology of the Isle of 
Wight ' (1st edit., 1847, pp. 247, 328). 

A notice of the recent discovery of similar impressions may be 
interesting, and may assist in throwing some light upon their nature 
and character, as well as lead us to some general observations on 
the strata in which they are found. 

By the earlier observers these footprints were referred to gigantic 
birds, but subsequently the probability of their being reptilian has 
been advanced §. This idea is supported by the abundant occurrence 
of numerous bones of the Iguanodon and other Dinosaurians in the 
Wealden deposits. By Dr. Mantell's exertions many of these re- 
mains were brought before the scientific world ; and more lately 
Professor Owen, in a monograph published by the Palseontogra- 
phical Society II, has figured and described, among other fine speci- 
mens, the bones of the foot of a young Iguanodon, obtained by Mr. 
Beckles in the Isle of Wight. This foot has thi'oe toes, measures 
21 inches in length and 9j^ in width, and would form a print or 
"spoor" similar in outline to that shown by the imprint now 
exhibited, and by the several other imprints and natui^ casts of 
imprints found in the Wealden rocks. 

The footprints recently observed near Hastings were upon de- 
tached blocks of sand-rock which had fallen in large masses from 
the upper part of the cliff a little west of Ecclesboume Glen. About 
150 yards of this sandstone in pieces was there exposed on the 
beach, exhibiting numerous footprints on the ripple-marked sur- 
faces, apparently in a continuous direction. 

* These specimens have not reached London, July 20, 1862. — ^Editor. 

t Quart Joum. 6^1. Soc. vol. ii. P- 267. 

t Ibid. vol. vii. p. 1 17 ; vol. viii. p. 396 ; and vol. x. p. 456. 

$ In Tagart's Letter, an abstract of which was prmted in the 6^1. Joum. 
ToL ii. p. 267. In this letter (dated March 10. 1846) he states that *' Dr. Harwood 
suspects them to be the foot-marks of the Iguanodon.*' See also Rupert Jones's 
edition of Mantell's * Wonders of Geolorar,* 1857, vol. I p. 383, and vol ii. 
(preface) 1858 ; and * Literary Gazette,' N. S. vol. viii. No. 19^, March 22, 1862. 

II * Monograph on the Fossil Reptilia of the Wealden Formation,' Part iv. 

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Natural Imprint of the Foot of an Iguanodon from the Cliff near 
ffastin/s, (Reduced ^th nearly.) 

Cast of the Natural Imprint of the Foot of an Iguanodon from the 
Cliff near HaAiings. (Reduced ^th nearly.) 

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The peculiar interest of the plaster cast now exhibited by Mr. C. 
S. Mann, of Eltham, taken from one of the best impressions visible 
on the beach, is, that it represents what I believe to be the foot- 
print of probably the hind foot of an Iguanodon, standing upon a 
ripple-marked surface of sandy mud sufficiently hard to retain an 
exact impression. The pressure of the foot has raised the sand sur- 
rounding the impression about half an inch above the ripplc-mark, 
at the same time turning over some shells of the genus Cyreiia, 
which may be seen in the disturbed mud. 

Professor Owen's figure of the bones of the foot of the Iguanodon, 
above referred to, exhibits phalanges having similar proportions, 
and similar relative position, to the impressions visible^ in the newly 
discovered footprint from Hastings, which measures 24 inches from 
the toe to the posterior margin of the cup-shaped depression which, 
I suppose, marks the heel of the Iguanodon, and is 3 inches in dia- 
meter and I inch deep. 

The impressions made by each of the three toes are well defined : 
the middle one measures 11 inches in total length, 6 inches at the 
posterior margin, widening to 7 inches, and then tapering doAvn 
to 2 inches at the depression of its anterior extremity, made by 
the ungual phalanx, which probably penetrated deeply into the 
mud. The impression of the dextral or exterior toe is 9 inches 
in total length, and 6 inches wide, tapering to an obtuse point, 

I inch wide at the daw; that of the sinistral or internal toe is 

II inches long and 6 inches vidde, tapering to 1 inch, with an 
irregular cup-shaped termination as in the right toe. 

The posterior margin of the impression left by the exterior toe 
commences at a point very much posterior to that left by the central 
toe ; while the posterior margins of the central and internal toes are 
more nearly level with each other. 

The animal appears to have been walking in a direction nearly at 
right angles to the ripple-marks, turning his foot a little on one side, 
so as to give a slightly oblique direction to the footprint. The 
animal appears in this instance to have left an impression of a rest- 
ing foot, which is much more distinct than, and also diflfers in cha- 
racter frt)m, others of the associated imprints, which were apparently 
made by feet of an animal in continuous motion. 

These remains occur in the upper part of the East Clifi*, near the 
junction of the shales (known as " Tilgate Beds ") and the Hastings 
Sand proper, corresponding in position with the strata of other loca- 
lities in which osseous remains of the Iguanodon have been found. 

If, as I am disposed to do, we may really regard these trifid, 
paehydactylous, and apparently uniserial imprints and casts of im- 
prints as the ** spoors " of quadrupeds, and not of bipeds, and if we 
refer them to the thick- footed, three-toed Iguanodon, we have indi- 
cations of the tracks of that great reptile at several places and on, at 
least, two horizons in the Wealden area. The footprints already 
described by Beckles are, first, from grey sandy shales at and near 
Couden and Bexhill, west of Hastings. Here the tracks were repre- 
sented by numerous imprints on the surface of the shales. The foot- 

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[Apr. 2, 





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prints varied from 8 inches to 27 inches in length, with strides of 
18 inches and upwards, in proportion to the size of the feet. These 
shales are probably on the same geological horizon as those at East 
Cliff, in which natural casts of similar imprints frequently occur. 
2ndly, from the strata of the cliffs at Bulverhithe (including Galley 
Hill), east of Bexhill. Here also the footprints and their casts are 
numerous, and sometimes of large size (27 inches long). These 
track-bearing beds are below the Couden shales, and probably on 
the horizon of the Castle Rock (Hastings Sand proper) and its under- 
lying shaly beds. 3rdly, Mr. E. Tagart* and Mr. Beckles have noticed 
the occurrence of the track-marks on sandstone slabs at East Cliff. 
The place of these shales and calciferous sandstones is immediately 
above the Castle Rock ; and they may be called the " Endogenites- 
shales," as that curious plant is of common occiurence in them, 
both at this cliff, on Castle Rock, at St. Michael's (Coastguard- 
station, Hastings), and St. Leonard's. 4thly, Mr. Beckles has dis- 
covered similar print-casts in the strata near Lee Ness, 40 feet 
above the sea-level. These beds are much lower in the series than 
the Castle Rock, as shown by the long section of the Hastings coast 
now exhibited, constructed from observations made by Professor 
Morris, Mr. Rupert Jones, and myself, at various opportunities during 
several years. 

Similar casts of footprints (about 12 inches long) occur in the 
thin sandstones at Biggs' Farm, near Cuckfield. These were ob- 
served by Mr. Hancock, of Tye's Farm ; and a specimen is now 
in the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermjn Street. Li this 
specimen the toes have made isolated prints, as in Mr. Mann's cast, 
and in some seen by Mr. Beckles, the palm or heel leaving a 
faint separate depression. The shales near Cuckfield are higher in 
the series than some of those at East Cliff, and belong probably to 
the " Wadhurst Clay " of Mr. Drew. As the Endogenites-shale and 
the Wadhurst Clay may both be represented at East Cliff (see sec- 
tion), some of the foot-marks found on the beach here may have 
come from the upper (Wadhurst) as well as from the lower (Endo- 
genites) shales. The latter shales, however, certainly bear foot-tracks 
at Hastings ; for where they come to a low level, behind the Castle, 
at the Waterworks, the sinkings there exposed some specimens in 
the calciferous sandstone shales. 

The relations of the strata are well shown in the long section now 
exhibited, made on a horizontal scale of 8 inches to a mile, with 
the vertical heights exaggerated three times. We here see the 
Hastings Beds, with the overlying Weald clay, arching across the 
Wealden area, and forming low undulations dong the crown of the 
arch. The passage of some beds of sand-rock into day is well shown 
on the east of Hastings (from the East Cliff to Goldbury Point) ; and 
the thinning of the Castle Rock on the same line is also shown. 
The bearings of the same strata to the west, through St. Leonard's 
to Bexhill, are of considerable interest, as they appear to lose much 
of their thickness before they pass under the highest part of the 
Hastings Sand series and the overlying Weald Clay of Pevensey. 

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1862.] HABKNESa PTE1U8PI8-BEDS. 263 

The occurrence of the imprints, sometimes on the surfaces of sand- 
rock, but more frequently on clay-beds, and that probably along 
definite geological horizons, is suggestive of speculations as to the 
replacement of clays by sandstones horizontally in delta-deposits ; 
and on this subject, and its connexion with the stratigraphical cha- 
racters of the Wealden formation, I hope to offer some observations 
on another occasion. 

April 16, 1862. 

Thomas M'Kenny Hughes, Esq., B.A., of the Geological Survey of 
Great Britain, Jermyn Street, and Edward Petre, Esq., 38 Brook 
Street, were elected Fellows. 

The following commimications were read : — 

1. On the Position of the Pteraspis Beds, and on the Sequence of the 
Strata of the Old Red Sandstone Series of South Perthshire. 
By Professor R. Harkness, F.R.S., F.G.8. 

Introduction, — In the * Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society,' 
vol. xvii. p. 541, Mr. Powrie mentions the occurrence, for the first 
time, of Pteraspis in the Old Red Sandstone of Scotland, as developed 
in the neighbourhood of the Bridge of Allan in Perthshire. The 
specimens obtained by this geologist I had an opportunity of seeing 
in his possession in the early part of this year. Being under the 
impression that this area was occupied by that portion of the Old 
Red Scries which is so extensively developed in Fife and Kinross, 
and which appertains to the upper portion of the series, it occurred 
to me that either there was something anomalous in the position of 
these Pteraspidian remains, or that the true horizon of the strata in 
this portion of the southern margin of the Old Red Sandstone north 
of the Firths of Forth and Clyde had yet to be determined. 

Under this impression, I was induced to examine the district 
around the Bridge of Allan ; and I was also induced to extend my 
observations north-westward, across the Old Red Sandstone area of 
this part of Scotland, to the metamorphic rocks of the southern 
margin of the Grampians, as these occur N.E. of Callander. The 
result of this has been to ascertain the position of the Pteraspis-beds, 
and likewise to show a variation in this section from the lithology 
which usually obtains in the deposits which make up the Old Red 
Sandstone areas lying to the N.E. of the line of this section. 

Commencing at the S.E. margin of the district under consideration, 
we have, a little to the south of the Bridge of Allan, the great fault 
which here separates the Carboniferous rocks of Stirlingshire on the 
S. from the Old Red Sandstones of Perthshire on the N. ; and along 
this line of fault, to the W.S.W., we have that great development 
of trap-rocks which forms the range of the Campsie Hills. To the 
E.N.E. this line of fault traverses fiie country N. of the Ochills, and 

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254 PBOGEEDnrcm of thb GEOLoeiCAL BOciBTT. [Apr. 16, 

passing through Perthshire by the Carse of Gowrie, it separates, in 
the latter area, the lower members of the Old Bed Sandstone on the 
North (as seen at Bossie, Balmdery, and in the neighbourhood of 
Dundee) from the higher members on the South, as exhibited at 

Old Bed Sandstone Series at the Bridge of Allan. — ^Immediately N. 
of this line, in South Perthshire, at the Bridge of Allan, the Old Bed 
deposits make their appearance. The lowest strata whidi occur here, 
and which are seen on the road from the village by the well to Wolfs 
Hole Quarry, on the Westerton estate, consist of conglomerates 
made up of fragments of trap ; and these conglomerates have, as we 
ascend in the series, deposits of grey sandstones intercalated with 

These latter dip N.W. at an angle of about 20°, and they gra- 
dually become so developed as to exclude the conglomerates which 
are so abundant beneath them. 

These grey sandstones are now worked at Wolfs Hole Quarry ; 
and, as seen here, they are covered by a mass of trap. It is in this 
quarry that the only recognized specimens of Fteraspis have been 
found in Scotland ; and the species appears to Prof. Huxley, who 
examined the specimens obtained by Mr. Powrie, to be P. rostratus. 
These Pteraspidian remains are by no means uncommon here ; but 
they are usually in an imperfect condition. Besides Pteraspis, 1 have 
procured from this locality Cq>Jial{ispis ; and Mr. A. Bryson, of 
Edinburgh, informs me that he also obtained this latter genus from 
the same locality some years ago. 

The grey sandstones are well seen in the course of the Allan above 
the last-mentioned locality. They form the bed of the river to beyond 
EippenroBs House, and are also seen in ascending the stream to 
beyond Dunblane; but they gradually change ti^eir colour and 
become purple flaggy sandstones. The north-west dip at the same 
angle, however, prevails along the course of the Allan, from the 
Bridge of Allan to above Dunblane. 

East of the Bridge of Allan, — In the district which lies on the east 
side of ihe Allan Water the same grey sandstones occur, succeeded 
by the purple beds. At Stonehill Quarty, a mile and a quarter £. 
from Dunblane, the former are wrought, and these quarries are the 
source from whence the^ building-stone of Dunblane is principally 
obtained. Some of the beds are micaceous and fioggy ; and, on the 
whole, the strata at Stonehill have a great lithologicaL affini^ to the 
Forfarshire flags. I learn from Mr. Page that Cephalaspis LyeUii 
has been found in this quairy. The angle of dip and the direction 
here also conform to the strata traversed by the Allan Water. 

East from Stonehill, and flowing along the northern margin of the 
Ochills, is a stream called Alt Wharry : this separates the traps on 
the S. from the grey beds of the Old Bed Sandstone on the N. ; and 
the character of the vegetation on these respective rocks well marks 
the difference in their mineral nature. The former is clothed with 
a fine green herbage, while on the latter brown benty grasses prevail. 
These latter cover the surface of Sherra Muir, which, where inter- 

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aected by the streams flowing i&to the Allaa^ affordt exhlhitionH of 
the rooks of this area. 

On Sherra Muir, at Blaokford of Bom Ogihrie» the grey beds 
are wrought, and have the N.W. dip at 20^ The tame beda are 
seen on the east side of Sherra Muir, in the conrse of the Millstone- 
bum which joins the Allan near Greenloaning Station ; and in thia 
stream we have the sequence of the grey and purple beds well shown. 
At Balhardie in the brook-coarse the higher purple strata occur, and 
are worked ; they are flaggy, and have green layers and- nodules 
accompanying them. The rocks here are false-bedded, but the pre- 
vailing dip is N.W. at 20^. This locality is on the road from 
Greenloaning to Dunblane ; and to the S.W. thereof we have, in the 
stream on 1^ road from Dunblane to Kinbuck, the same purple 
flaggy strata, with the same dip and direction ; and these false-bedded 
sandstones have been partially worked about a mile and a half N.E. of 
Dunblane, on the east side of the road. 

North-west of the Bridge of AUan, — ^In the country which lies 
west of the Allan we have strata of a like nature manifested ; but 
in passing north-westward into the area drained by the Teith, we 
have oth^ and higher strata exposed than those which the Allan 
Water exhibits. West from the Bridge of Allan, along the esoarp* 
ment in the north side of the Carse of Leckrop, the grey sandstones 
are seen ; west of this, at Craig Amhall, these are succeeded by the 
purple porticm of the series, and in the upper parts of these latter 
intercalated light-purple shales occur. On the nortii side of the 
Teith, in Craig Arnhall Wood, the light-purple shales are exclusively 
seen, and these continue to the Farm c^ Bow. The whole of tiiis 
series of strata, as seen west of the Bridge of Allan, has the N.W. 
dip at an angle of about 20^. In passing higher up the Teith these 
purple shales have interstratifled with them thin beds of fine-grained, 
brown-coloured sandstones, which gradually increase until we find 
the higher strata entirely composed of the latter. This is the case 
at Ardoch Bum, which flows past Doune Castle ; and of these brown 
sandstones this stronghold is built. As seen in the stream at Doune 
Castle, the brown sandstones have in them green laminsB, and are 
spotted with the same colour ; here their dip is W. at 20^. The 
brown sandstones are also seen above Doune, in the course of the Teith 
at Deanstown, and about half a mile to the W.N.W. they have been 
worked. Above Doune Bridge they exhibit N.W. inclinations* 
Beyond Deanstown, in the course of tlie Teith, they are seen in the 
grounds of Lanrick Castle still with a N. W. dip, but at a low angle ; 
and they continue, as seen in the Teith, all through the estate of 
Lanrick, becoming to the W.N.W. by degrees almost flat. They 
pass gradually upwards into grey flaggy rocks which, within about 
four miles of CaUander, have become nearly hoiizontaL 

In the course of the Teith, from about four miles below Callander 
to this place, no rocks are seen in the river; at Callander on the 
Muir, which is situated on the south side of the river, conglomerates 
make their appearance, made up for the most part of quartz-frag- 
ments. These conglomerates, which are well developed, and which 

VOL. XVm. — ^PABT I. s 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

256 psocsEDiKefl op thb &bolo0ical sogibtt. [Apr. 10^ 

are used for boilding-purpoeeB at Callander, have a S.E. dip at a 
high angle. Their relation to the strata dipping N.W., as seen 
between the Bridge of Allan and Lanrick, is not apparent in the 
diBtrict drained by the Teith ; bat in the conrse of the Eeltie, whioh 
joins the Teith fix)m the N., the connexion of the conglomerates of 
Callander with the rocks on the S.E. can be well made out. 

In the course of the Keltic, about half a mile above the bridge, on 
the road on the north side of the Teith leading from Callander to 
Doune, at the Mill Weir, the grey^sandstones above referred to are 
seen ; and here they have a horizontal position. On ascending the 
stream the same strata occur, and become more highly inclined ; 
beneath these upper grey sandstones there are seen brownish-red 
fl^^gSy strata, conforming to the higher series in dip. The brownish- 
red flagstones gradually increase in dip to Bracklin linns, where they 
become coarser ; and some of the beds, in consequence of containing 
quartz-fragments, put on the aspect of a fine conglomerate. Some of 
tiie surfiEtces of the beds at Bracklin linns exhibit well-marked 
ripples, and here the strata dip S.E. at 75^. 

Above Bracklin linns in the course of the Eeltie these conglome- 
rates and associated red sandstones also occur, the former prevailing 
to a greater extent than the sandstone layers ; but these beds pass 
downwards into thin-bedded brown flags, which rest upon a series of 
fine-bedded, light-purple, micaceous sandstones. Fine conglomerates, 
with quartz-pebbles, are seen below the purple micaceous sandstones ; 
and under these latter are reddish-coloui^ shaly sandstones, reposing 
upon sandstones of a grey colour, and bearing great affinity to the 
grey sandstones of the Bridge of Allan. 

Dtagram-Beetion from the Bridge of AUan to CaUander, 
Distance 12 miles. 

W.N.W. E.BA 

Donne The Bridge 

Callander. BnoklinLuina. Lanriok. Caatle. CnigArnhalL of Allan. 

8. Carboniferous rocks. 

7 & 6. Brown sandstone surmount- 
ed by erev sandstone. 

5. Purple snale. 

4. Chrey sandstone passingupwards 
into red sandstone. 

* Place where remains of iVfrofpts 

and Cephalaspia have been 

Sb, Trappean conglomerate, 
do. Conglomerato of felstone. 
2. Trap-rocL 
1. Metamorphio Lower Silurian 


These latter are well seen in the lower portion of a beautiful T.itit^ 
in the course of the Eeltie, about a mile above Bracklin linns ; and 
here they rest upon brown sandstones with well-developed oon- 

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1862.] HASXinESS — ptsraspis-beds. 257 

^lomerates made up of quartz-pebbles, which at this spot have 
almost a vertical position. The conglomeratic portion of this series 
becomes more prevalent in the lower members, and finally we have 
a very great thickness of these latter exclusively occurring. The 
fragments which enter into the composition of these last conglo- 
merates differ from those in the higher beds of the Old Bed Sand- 
stones of the Keltie; for in these lowest conglomerates rounded 
fragments of felstone almost solely make up this portion of the series ; 
and these fragments vary very greatly in size, some being as much 
as two feet in diameter. The lower conglomerates, which are devoid 
of any trace of stratification, are well seen in the Eeltie immediately 
opposite the small farm-house on the east side of the stream. Above 
these conglomerates, which are nearly a thousand feet in thickness, 
we come upon a fine exhibition of trap-rocks occupying the line of 
fault which separates the Old Bed Sandstones on the S.E. from the 
metamorphic rocks of the Grampians on the N.W. 

The sequence of deposits, as represented in the course of the 
£eltie, has a great affinity to that which occurs on the southern 
margin of the Old Bed Ssoidstone of Scotland north of the Forth 
and Clyde, as seen in the neighbourhood of the Bridge of Allan and 
in the course of the Teith. In the former locality we have^ how- 
ever, a much greater development of the conglomerate series which 
forms the lowest member in both these areas ; and in both instances 
we have these conglomerates succeeded by grey sandstones, the latter 
at the Bridge of Allan affording CephalEu^idian remains. In the 
course of the Eeltie the grey sandstones are succeeded by purple 
beds ; and the like circumstance marks the superposed beds on the 
grey sandstones north of the Bridge of Allan. Upon these we have 
the purple shales of Leckrop, which in the Eeltie section are repre- 
sented by thin-bedded, light-purple, micaceous sandstones; and 
upon these there are found brown sandstones and conglomerates 
which are the equivalents of the brown sandstones of the Ardoch, 
of Doune, and of Lanrick. In the Eeltie and in the Teith this por- 
tion of the series has reposing upon it the grey flaggy strata which^ 
in the section between the Bridge of Allan and Callander, form the 
highest beds of the Old Bed Sandstones in this part of Scotland. 

With reference to the thickness of the strata exhibited in the 
Eeltie, — if we take the distance from the trap-rocks which inter- 
vene between the metamorphic Lower Silurian rocks on the N.W. 
and the spot where, in this stream, the upper grey beds become 
horizontal, as two miles, measured along the dip, and the average 
angle of dip as 45^ (which is most probably below the mean), then 
we have, in the course of the Eeltie, from the lowest beds of the 
conglomerate to the highest beds of the upper grey sandstone series, 
a thickness of more than 7000 feet of strata appertaining to the 
Old Bed Sandstone in South Perthshire. In the arrangement of the 
mineral matter which forms these Old Bed Sandstones we have a 
much greater affinity to the deposits which represent this series in 
the N.E. of Scotland, than to those of the extension of the Perth- 
shire deposits as they occur north-eastward in Forfarshire and 


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258 PBooEBBiKos OF CHB ftBOLoeioAL floconmr. [Apr. 16, 

Kiticardine, siiioe tlie base in South Perthshire is composed of a con* 
gLomeiatic mass folly equal in thickness to the lower oonglomerates 
of the country south and east of the Moray Firth. In Forfieur and 
Kincardine the lowest members are composed of Forfarshire flags and 
inferior red shaly sandstones ; but in the district under consideration 
we hare, underneath the representatives of the Forfarshire flags and 
beds equiyalent to the infarior red shaly sandstones, a thick oon* 
glomeratic series, differing in the nature of its fragments from the 
higher conglomerates ; and this, both in position and thickness, can 
only be p wiUel with the base of the Old Bed, as occurring in the 
countries which margin the Moray Firth. 

Organic remains. — ^Beference has already been made to the dis- 
covery of PUnupis by Mr. Powrie in the grey beds at Westertown 
Quarry, near the Bridge of Allan. This form, I leam from Prof. 
Huxley, is probably P. rostraius. I have also stated that Mr. Bryson 
has procured from the same locality a specimen of CepTuUaspis, This 
specimen has unfortunately been mislaid. From this spot I have 
l^wise obtained, along with remains of Pteraapis^ the head of a 
Cephalaspu. Tfais specimen is not in a very perfect condition, and 
the species cannot be satis&ctorily made out by Prof. Huxley ; it is 
there^re desirable that the fossils frtmi the Bridge of Allan idiould 
be carefully looked after in order that the form of CephdUupia which 
is associated with Fteraspis here may be determined. 

No traces of Plants, so far as I am aware, have been found in this 
neighbourhood, nor are there any remains of Crustaceans. 

With reference to the strata which overlie the grey sandstones 
reposing on the inferior conglomerates, I have seen it stated that the 
brown sandstones of Doune afford Cephdkutpis LyeUii ; but this ii 
a matter on which I am in doubt, as I can get no satisfactory evi- 
dence of the occurrence of this flsh in this portion of the Old Bed 
Sandstone area of ScotUind« 

2. On ike WnsTKBir Ein) of the London Basiit ; on the Westbbit 
THimmro of the Lowsb Eogenb Beds in that Basdt ; and on the 
Gkstwethebs of WiLTSHiBB. By William Whitakee, B.A. 
(Lond.), F.G.8., of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. 


I. Tertiary Outliers hi the N.E. part of Sheet 14 of the Map of the Geological 
Surrey of Qtest Britain. 
Surfisuse-deposlti on tlie top of the Chalk-hiUa in the aboye diatrict. 
II. Thanet Sand. 

Woolwich and Beading Beda. 

{Baaement-bed of the London Clay. 
London Chty, 

££QMst of the Westerly Thinning of the Lower Booene Beda. 
HI. QreywetherB. 

The Sanda of Ketley and Headley Heaths (Surrey). 

Introduction, — ^The above three subjects are closely akin to one 
another. The sections that will be described in the first part of this 

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1862.] WHITAXSB — ^LOKDOK BA81K. 259 

paper show that the *' thinning^' treated of in the Beoond is greater 
than has been hitherto thought ; and the extent of this latter mucrt 
muoh change our notiona as to the formation from which have come 
the greater part of those loose blooks of Greywether-sandstone that, 
in many places, lie on the surfeice of Cretaceous and Tertiary beds. 

The age of the sands noticed in the third part may also have some 
beaiing on that of the Greywethers. 

The data on which a great part of this paper is fonnded haye been 
in my hands for some time ; and the condusion that I have come to 
with regard to the age of the Greywethers at the western end of the 
London Basin has been shortly giyen in the Geological Survey 
Memoir on Sheet 13 (p. 48). I haye great pleasure in knowing 
that Prof. Bamsay wholly agrees with my views of the beds in that 
district, to which this paper chiefly refers. The thinning-out of the 
London day in Marlborough Forest has also been noticed at p. 54 
of the above-mentioned memoir. 

The new points of tins paper, which treats of the London Tertiary 
District alone, are — the proof of the occurrence of the London day 
and the Lower Bagshot Sand further westward than they have been 
before noticed* ; tiie thinning of the Woolwich and Beading Beds 
west of Hungerford ; the proof that the London day thins much 
more quickly westward from Beading than has been hitherto thought, 
and that in Marlborough Forest it has thinned out altogether ; the 
inference from the above that further westward, where the Grey- 
wether-blocks abound, the Bagshot Beds probably rested at once on 
the dialk ; the natural conclusion that the greater part of those blocks 
came from that formation, and the frirther evidence in support of this 
theory tiiat may perhaps be given by certain sands, as yet of donblful 
age, tihat are found here and there on the dialk of Surrey and Kent. 

I must state, hovrever, that the idea that the Greywethers once 
formed a part of the Bagshot Beds is not by any means new ; but it 
has of late years been given np in favour of Mr. Frestwich's theory 
that they for the most part belonged to the Woolwich and Beading 
Beds. With the data that Mr. Frestwich had, I do not see how he could 
have come to any other conclusion than the one so ably and logically 
worked out in the latter part of his paper in vol. x. of the Society's 
Journal (p. 123); but I t^nk that the further data given in the first 
part of the present paper, and the conclusions to which I have shown 
that they lead, in the second part, must lead us back again to the old 
doctrine that the greater part (not the whole) of the Greywethers are 
of Bagshot age. The Hertfordshire '< paddmg-stone " I agree with 
Mr. Frestwich in referring to the Woolwich and Beading Beds. 

Fabt L — ^The first part of this paper refers chiefly to the neigh- 
bourhood of Bedwin and Savemake (or Marlborou^) Forest, in Wilt- 
shire, mapped in the north-eastern comer of Sheet 14 of the Map 

* Except on Sheets 12 and 14 of the Map of the Geological Surrey, and in 
the Memoirs on the former and on Sheet 13. The most western Tertiary outliers 
in the London Basin (in Sheet 14) have not been hitherto described with any 

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of the (Geological Survey of Ghreat Britain. As that sheet, which 
was published in 1857, is not illustrated by a memoir, like those 
descriptive of many of the sheets of later date, and as some changes 
were made in the mapping of the Tertiary beds in its north-eastern 
part in 1859, 1 shall give a short notice of the ten Tertiary outliers 
that have been there mapped. The country included in the S.E. 
comer of the sheet to the north (Sheet 34) will also be noticed. Here 
also the Tertiary beds have been resurveyed, which has made needful 
some corrections in the next edition of ^e Memoir illustrating that 

The Tertiary beds that are found in this district are — ^the '' Lower 
Bagshot Sand," the "London Clay," and the "Woolwich and 
Beading Beds " (or, for shortness, the " B.eading Beds "). It will be 
convenient to work from the east westward, and to notice all the for- 
mations together, as they occur, instead of treating of each separately. 

It is well first to state that it would seem that, when Mr. Prest- 
wich examined this district, before the publication of his papers on 
the Lower Tertiary beds, sections were neither so plentiM nor so 
clear as when the Geological Survey was in progress (1858-59). 
Thus Mr. Prestwich says (in 1850), " The first" (that is to say, the 
most westerly) "point where we meet with some uncertain indications, 
without sections, of the basement-bed of the London Clay is capping 
the summit of Bagshot Hill, between Great Bedwin and Hungerfoni* " 
(Map 12) ; and again (in 1853), "In Marlborough Forest the Ter- 
tiary beds are so ti^, and so disturbed by, or mixed with, drift, that 
no good section can be obtainedf." I shall show that there is 
London Clay three miles or more to the west of Bagshot Hill, and 
moreover that the Bagshot Sand ranges still further westward. 

Tertiary outlurs in Sh$et 14 of the Oeohgieal Survey Map. — ^At 
the western edge of the map (14), east of Great Bedwin, there are 
three patches of the Beading Beds, the middle one capped with 
London Clay, forming parts of a large and well-marked outlier, the 
greater part of which is in the map to the east (Sheet 12). lliere 
is a section of the Beading Beds in the brickyard at Folly Farm, and 
northwards there are two other brickyards, the pits in which show 
the junction of the London Clay and the Beading Beds. An act^unt 
of these sections will be found at p. 26 of the Geological Survey 
Memoir illustrating Sheet 12. 

At Castle Hill, south of Great Bedwin, there is an outlier of the 
Beading Beds, probably capped by London Clay at the top of the 
hill (judging by its height alone, there being no section of ^e latter 
formation). Tliis outlier, which is about a mile and a quarter in 
length from north to south, but nowhere half a mUe in breadth, is 
well marked ; the Tertiary beds, for the most part covered with wood, 
rising sharply from the Chalk. On its eastern side, in a chalk- 
pit half a inile a little £. of S. of Broil Farm, there may be seen an 
irregular junction of the " bottom-bed t " of the Beading Beds with 

♦ Quart. Jooni. Geol. Soo. toL Ti p. 267. t Ibid. toI. x. p. 85. 

I For an aoootmt of thia bed, see Memoir illaatrating Sheet 13 of the Map of 
the Geological Surrej of Qreat Britain, p. 23. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1862.] wmTAKIB — ^LONDOK BAflHT. 261 

the Ohalk* The former, heife many feet thick, consists, in descend- 
ing order, of hluish-grej clay (partly mottled yellow), light-green 
sandy day, and light-green san<L . I saw no flints in it. South of 
this there are '^ swallow-holes*" at the junction of the Beading' 
Beds and the Chalk. 

West of Castle Hill there is another outlier, equally well marked, 
forming the wooded hill that stretches for three-quarters of a mile 
from the northern end of Wilton Common nearly to Broil, and the 
top of which consists, without doubt, of London Clay ; for at Wilton 
Eiln, at the southern end of the outiier (where the dip is sharp to 
the north), whilst in places the brown and light-coloured sandls of 
the Beading Beds are found at the surface, I saw, dose by the edge 
of the wood, and near the middle of the brick-fidd, about four feet 
of stiff bluish-grey and brown London Clay, with a line of ironstone 
containing fosols. The fossils were all easts, and amongst them I 
made out Nau^us (casts of detached chambers), GalyptrcMy Fusus 
(or Pleurotoma), Cardium, and Ostrea, 

On the line of hill to the west of the Bedwins there is a lai^ 
outlier of Lower Bagshot Sand, London day, and Beading Beds, 
forming the high ground from Chisbury Barrow to the south-eastern 
part of Tottenham Park, a distance of about two and a half miles 
nearly N.£. and S.W. The outlier is from a quarter to three-* 
quarters of a mile in breadth ; its boundary is for the most part 
well marked, and along it there are many swallow-holes, especially 
within a radius of half a mile from Stoke F«rm to the west of Great 
Bedwin. At the southern end, near the Chalk escarpment, the dip 
is fairly sharp ; but it soon lessens northward, and the beds become 
flat or nearly so : perhaps, indeed, the direction of the dip may haye 
ehanged from north to south at the northern end of the outlier ; but 
not having any datum-heights by which to judge, I cannot say with 
certainty. Down the northern flank of the hill just south, of Stoke 
Farm deep drains were made in January 1869, and I was fortunate 
enough to see part of the work in progress. The following beds 
were cut into, beginning at the bottom of the hill, and taking tiliem 
in ascending order : — 

1. OhaJk (and the reconstructed bed described in Quart* Joum. 
GeoL Soc. vol. xvii, p. 627). 

2. BeaMng Beds. — ^Yarioudy coloured mottled plastic day, with a 
little sand. 

3. London Clay. — Stiff blue and brown mottled day, not plastic, 
with large rounded flints at the lower part (basement-bed). 
Higher up the clay is sandy. 

4. Lwoer Bagshot Sand. — ^Brown and buff sand, partly dayey. 

* For an aooount of these underground water-oourseBi see a paper by Mir. 
Prestwich, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. toI. x. p. 227 ; and also the Memoir iluutra- 
ting Sheet 13 of the Map of the Ghologicd Survejr, p. 24. In the latter tbar 
fre(}uent oocorrence near the junction of the Teroaiy beds and the Chadk ia 

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ThiB leefion shows fhat neither the London Clay nor ihe Beading 
Bed$ aire here more than from 12 to 15 feet Mdlc, and therefore (hat 
the Bagehot Sand ie only 25 or 30 feet from the Chalk. In the London 
da J there were many pieces of ironstone, as at Wilton Kiln ; and in 
one of them I fonnd a cast of an Ostrea. This formation covers the 
Beading Beds over a great part of the outlier ; but Hie patch of Bag- 
shot Sa^ the boundary of which is partly marked by a sliglit rise of 
the ground, only stretches about a tiiird of a mile botili northward and 
aoutibward of Stoke Farm. On the south-west of the farm, I saw a 
deep and long ditch, freshly cut, in the sand ; and along the road, a 
quarter of a mile north-east of the farm, sand is again shown. Further 
northwards the beds are much hidden by pebble-gravel (drift) and 
by wood. At Chisbury Barrow there is a section along the road- 
cutting up the southern side of the hill, showing sands, with a little 
day, fhim the top of the Chalk up to the gravel that caps the MQ. 
These must altogether be some 40 or 60 feet in thickness. As I 
have shown that, in another part of the outlier, the Beading Beds 
are not more than 16 feet thick, it seems unlikely that here they 
should be three times that thickness ; I should conclude, therefore, 
that the sands of Ghisbury Barrow do not belong wholly to that for- 
mation ; but rather that tlie upper beds, which in look are like those 
above the London Clay at Stoke Farm, are also like them in age, tiiat 
is to say, are a part of the Lower Bagshot Sand, wTneh formation 
therefore here reete directly on ihe Beading Bede, the London Clay 
having thinned out, I should not have ventured, however, to colour 
those beds as Lower Bagshot on the Oeologioal Survey Map, had not 
sneh a step been confirmed by a section in an outlier further west, 
where a thin pebble-bed, representing the basement-bed of the 
London Clay, is all that separates the Beading Beds f^m an over- 
lying mass of sand. 

A little west of the large outlier just described are three smaller 
outiJiers of the Beading Beds. Tottenham House stands on one, 
f^rom below which the Chalk rises sharply to ^e south ; another 
caps the Chalk over a great part of Bedwin Common, but is much 
hidden by a clayey drift ; and between these two there is a small patch, 
barely separated from tiie first. 

Farther westward is a more important outlier, stretching from 
the house at the western end of Terrace HOI in a north-westerly 
direction for a mile and a quarter. At its southern end the Chalk 
rises up sharply to the soutii from beneath the Tertiary beds ; but, 
as usual, the dip soon decreases towards the north. At the brick- 
yard on the eastern side of the outlier, the sections in different parts 
of the pit seem to show that the Tertiary beds here rest unevenly on 
the Chtdk ; for although ^e junction is not seen, the waved lines of 
bedding in the sands, &c., look as if caused by the beds having given 
way here and there, and filled pipes and hollows iu the underlying 
Chalk. The section does not show an unbroken series of the Tertiary 
beds f^m top to bottom ; but the upper beds are clear. Plastic clay, of 
the Beading Beds, chiefly green, has been found above the Chalk ; but 

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8 :3 

1 I 







^ oeeo o c' 
B oooo o ji 

LI n f HT1 r5 


III i ^ 







•I Sf-s 

Digitized byCjOOQiC 

264 psooEm)iiro6 of thb exoLooioAL sogibtt. [Apr. 16^ 

whether &6 ''bottom-bed^' occurs here or not, I do not know. 
Higher np, the sands and clays of the Reading Beds are overlain by 
a continuous bed, a few inches thick, of black flint-pebbles of yarious 
sixes, many large ; and above this pebble-bed there are white and 
light-coloured sands, with thin seams of pipe-clay, about 12 or 15 
feet thick. Now in the sections of the Reading Beds in the western 
part of the London Basin pebbles are very rardy seen, except in the 
green sand ('' bottom-bed ") lying directly on the Chalk ; in that bed 
they are not always found, and when they do occur it is not in great 
numbers nor of large size : I have never seen, in that district, any 
regular pebble-bed in the Reading Series *. The basement-bed of 
the London day, however, usually contains pebbles, and generally 
many of large size, as was found to be the case at Stoke Farm, in 
the mass of London day nearest to the section now under notice ; 
and very often there is a layer of them at the lowest part of this 
bed. I have therefore no doubt whatever that tJie pebble-bed of this 
section belongs to the hasement-hed of the London Cflay ; and therefore 
that the overlying sands are part of the Bagshot Beds, and that the 
London Clay proper has here thinned out. The section would then 
stand thus : — 

1. Lower Bagshot Beds. — ^Light-coloured sands, with seams of pipe- 

day about 12 or 15 feet. 

2. Basement-bed of the London day. — A pebble-bed. . a few inches. 

3. Reading Beds. — Sanda and plastic days about 15 feet. 

I will now try to show that the above condusion is borne out by 
other facts. We have seen that at Stoke Farm the Reading Beds 
and the London day are neither more than 15 feet thick. That 
the latter thins westward from London has been shown by Mr. Prest* 
wichf, although he seems to have underrated the extent of the 
thinning ; and as from Reading to Great Bedwin, a distance of about 
28 miles, it has dwindled from 350 feet to 15 (or at the rate of about 
12 feet in a mile), one can have no difficulty in inferring that two 
miles further westward it has thinned out altogether (with the ex- 
ception of part of its basement-bed). Moreover the upper sands of 
the section in question, with their seams of pipe-clay, are lithologi- 
cally more like Lower Bagshot Beds than anything else. 

At the brickyard on the western side of the outlier (dose to the 
yard just noticed) the section was not very clear when I saw it (in 
May 1859). diiefly sands were shown ; and at one part there was, 
at tiie top, a small irregular patch of green sand : could this be a part 

* The statement of Bir. Plrestwioh (in Quart Journ. Geol. Soo. toL z. p. 79) 
with regard to Marlboroueh Forest, that *' the neater part of these fine woods 
are planted on a thin and irregular capping of the clays and {>ebble-beds [of the 
Beading Beds! on the Chalk," is likely to mislead, aluough, in a foot-note, Mr. 
Prestwich includes also " a day and ^yel drift" Onlj a small part of the 
Forest, not more than a square mile indeed, is on Lower Tertiaiy beds ; but a 
very large part is on the drift-day, brick-earth, and clayey pebble-gravd so 
abundant in this neighbourhood. 

t Quart. Journ. Geol. Boc. vol. x. p. 401. 

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of the Braokleshain (or Middle Bagshot) Beds? — ^if so, the Lower 
Bagshot Sand must be thin here. 

A little to the north-west of the northern end of the above outlier 
there is a patch of sand, thickly overgrown with wood. 

At Leigh Fill is another sand-outlier, the boundary of which is 
not quite dear. There are some very large and fine Scotch-firs on 
and near this the most western mass of Lower Tertiary beds in the 
London Basin. 

Surface-deposits on the Chalk of this District. — ^These are of two 
sorts — ^the more widely spread being a stiff clay of a brown or red 
colour with angular flints, which I term " Clay-with-flints *; " the 
other and more valuable one being a loam or sandy clay of various 
colours, mostly fit for making bricks of, and known therefore as 
" Brick-earth." 

The Clay-with-flints lies very irregularly on the Chalk, for the 
most part filling pipes in that rock. The Brick-earth is generally 
underlain by the day. 

As there is no Survey-memoir illustrating Sheet 14, it will be well 
to note here the range of these surface-beds, which were at first 
mapped and published as Eocene in that sheet. The Clay-with- 
flints rarely occurs on the top of the great Chalk-escarpment over- 
looking the Vale of Pewsey ; but it covers the Chalk over nearly the 
whole of the higher grounds from the eastern part of the district 
westward to near East Kennet — ^not, however, in one continuous 
sheet, but forming many separate patches. The Tertiary beds are free 
from it ; indeed the Clay-with-flints does not seem to occur else- 
where than on the Upper Chalk, as I have before noticed (in the Geo- 
logical Survey Memoir on Sheet 13, p. 55). 

Over this widespread bed of clay tiiere is here and there a mass 
of the more sandy Brick-earth. Near Tevals Farm, about two miles 
S.S.W. of Marlborough, there is a brickyard ; there is another by the 
turnpike-road about a mile S.E. of the same town ; and a third on 
the west of Hens Wood, some three mUes to the E.N.E. Without 
doubt there are many other masses of Brick-earth, which perhaps 
may be too thin or too ML of pebbles to be worked. The bricks made 
from this bed in the neighbourhood of Marlborough are remarkable 
for their beautiM rich crimson colour, as may be seen in many of 
the buildings in that town. These surface-beds are not marked by 
features as the outliers of true Tertiary beds are for the most part* 
Thus whilst the latter rise from above the surrounding Chalk, the 
former merely fill hollows in that rock, and have only been saved 
from denudation by their sheltered position. As to tiieir age and 
origin I do not feel able to give an opinion with any certainty. 

Pabt II. — ^This part does not refer to structure, but simply to 
thickness ; in it I shall make use largdy of the sections given hj 
Mr. Prestwich in his papers "On the Thanet Sands t," "On the 

* See Memoir illurtrating Sheet 13 of Uie Map of Uie Qeologioal Surrey, 
p. 54. 
t Quart Joum. GeoL Soo. YoL viiL p. 236. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

266 PBOcESDiKoe of thb geological 80GIBTT. [Apr. 16, 

Woolwich and Beading Series *," and <' On the Thickneas of the 
London day t." It will be better to hegin with the lowest fonnation, 
and to work upwards. 

The Thanet Sand, — ^Mr. Prestwich has fully noted the westerly 
thinning out of this bed of fine soft light-coloured sand ; and I can- 
not do better therefore than quote his words on the matter, firom 
the first of the aboye-mentioned papers (p. 241). ** In some parts 
of the neighbourhood of Canterbury they cannot be much less than 
80 to 90 feet thick. They then apparently maintain a tolerably 
uniform thickness of from 60 to 70 feet, as far as Chatham, Upnor, 
and Gfrayesend. At Bexley Heath they have been ascertained to 
yary in thickness from 45 to 55 feet, and at Woolwich I find that 
they are 60 feet thick. Beneath London their thickness averages 
from 30 to 40 feet. They then become more rapidly thinner as they 
trend underground further westward, being only 20 feet thick at 
Wandsworth, 17 feet at Isleworth, 7 feet at Twickenham, and 3 feet 
at Chobham, beyond which they thin out, although I believe that 
originally they probably had a range westward coextensive in some 
measure with the green-coated flints overlying the Chalk t" 

Along its line of outcrop in Surrey, the Thanet Sand thins west- 
ward from Croydon and Beddington (where it is fall 30 feet thick), 
until at Ashstead it is but a few feet in thickness. Further to the 
west I know of no section in it. 

Its thickness beneath London and the country to the west is known 
by means of wellnsections : thtis near Westboume Grove it was found 
to be 18 feet thick §. Mr. Prestwich says, " At WiUesden there are 
several deep wells, but I have not been able to obtain an exact sec- 
tion of any of them. From a good supply of water, however, being 
obtained before reaching the Qialk, it is probable that the Thanet 
Bands have here commenced || ." At the Hyde, 2| miles north of the 
village, the following beds were found : — 

1. London day, and its'' basement-bed" 66feet 

2. Woolwich and Beading Beds. — Sands^days, and pebbles 84 ft. 8 in. 
a. Chalk. 

* Quart. Joum. Geol. Soa vol. x. p. 75. t Ibid. p. 401. 

} I hardly think that auch ia the oaae ; for tiie bed of green-coated flinta abore 
tiie Chalk in BerkBhire, Ac., ia a purt of the "bottom-bed" of the Beading 
Beda, which liea on the top of the Thanet Sand when that formation is present 
and ia therefore not to be confounded with the bed of flinta at its base. It ia 
poaaible, however, that (aa Mr. Preatwich believea) the two beda may join together 
to ihe weat of London where the Thanet Sand haa thinned out, and thua that 
the rou^y laminitted grey day and the cUvey green aand, with ojater-eheUa 
and groen-coated flinta, that OTerlie the ChaU at Beading and Newborr (aee 
Memoir illuatrating Sheet 13 of the Map of the Geological Sonrey, p. 23, and 
alao the Memoir on Sheet 12, p. 27) may repreaent the bottom-lied not only 
of the Woolwich and Beading Beda, but alao of the Thanet Sand. Speaking 
generally, where the Thanet &nd ia preaent the bottom-bed of the Woolwich 
and Beading Beda doea not contain toe green-coated angvUar flinta ao common 
in Berkahire, Ac, bat the flints are in the atate of pebblee : 4hia need caoae no 
aurpriae, however, aa where the latter formation waa not depoeited directly on the 
Chalk, it is not likely that it ahould contain Ufitoom flinta that muat be derired 
directly from that rock. 

§ Quart Joum. GeoL Soc. toI. z. p. 96. |1 Ibid. p. 95. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1862.] WHrrAXBB — uoisdos basis. 267 

80 that the Thanet Band is absent, as is also the case farther 

At Oastlebear Hill, near Ealing, and at the Hanwell Lnnatio 
Asylum, the Woohfich and Beading Beds were found directly above 
the Chalk * ; and the Thanet Sand does not occur anywhere farther 
to the west. 

The TTooZu/tc^i am2.fi6a^tYi^j9^ seem to hare their greatest tfaiok« 
ness near London, bat do not vary mnch in this respect eastward of 
Hnngerford (not taking into account any northerly thinning). 

With regard to the beds S.E. and E. of London, I do not agree 
with Mr. Prestwioh in dassbg the thick pebble-bed of Bladcheath 
&c,f with the basement-bed of the London day : I take it rather to 
be the top part of the Woolwich and Beading Beds. In the neig^-* 
bourhood in question the former really consiBts of a clayey pebbles- 
bed, from a few inches to rather more than three feet in thickness. 
It may be seen at Loam-pit HDl (Lewisham), in the cutting on the 
London and Brighton Bailway south of the New Cross Station, in 
that (on the Croydon and Epsom Bailway) S.W. of West Cbroydon 
Station, in that (on the Mid-£ent BaUway) east of Bedcenham, and 
in a brickyard about hsK-way between the Bromley and Biokley 
Stations. At the eastern end of the long cutting at Biokley, I saw 
it (in November 1860) overlain by London Clay, and overlying a 
Bandy pebble-bed, like that of Bladdieath, which is here the top bed 
of the Woolwich and Beading Series. In the clayey ** basement-bed ^ 
ike pebbles were, as usual, without any orderly arrangement ; whilst 
thoise of the underlying bed were arranged in lines of flalse bedding 
(with a westerly dip of 10° to 20°) through the whole length of the 
section (about 400 yards). The sides of this cutting have since been 
covered up. 

I am dso inclined to think that in a more eastern part of Kent 
Mr. Frestwich has again been too generous to the basement-bed of 
the London Clay. La the neighbourhood of Heme Bay he includes 
in it a bed of sand underlying the true London Clay, but which, for 
my part, I would rather class with the Woolwich and Beading Beds* 
At the southern end of the large cutting on the Sheemess Branch 
Bailway, about a mile and a quarter north of Sittingboume, I saw, 
in December 1860, the following section (quite clear, and of some 
length): — • 

London Clay, partiy of a greemsh colour ; no pebbles at the base, 
and nothing like the usual basemeHt-bed to be seen* 

Light-coloured sand ; at the base a bed of shells, in a bad state of 
preservation about 6 feetw 

Brown clayey sand, with obscure casts of shells (Cyrena cuneiformist 
and C. cordata?) and a few flint-pebbles about 1 foot 

White and light-coloured sand, with beds of shells, very perfect, but 
very easily broken (Cvrena cuneiformis, 0, cordata, Ostrea, ifd- 
lania inquinata, CerUnium), of which there was to be seen 

about 8 feet. 

* Quart. Joum. Qeol. Soo. vol. z. p. 94. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

:268 PBocEEDnrefl of thx OEOLoeicix soobtt. [Apr. 16, 

That this lower sand belongs to the Woolwich and Beading Beds 
there can be but little donbt, as it abounds in some of the character- 
istio fossils of that formation. The upper sand groups itself naturally 
with the lower, the only difference being that the former contains 
but few fossils. If sudi be the case, it follows that the basement- 
bed of the London Clay is here altogether absent. It is possible, 
howerer, that the upper sand and the loamy bed beneath may belong 
to it, although the former is utterly unlike the undoubted basement- 
bed wherever I have seen it, that is, from Marlborough Forest to 
near Hemel Hempstead on the northern side of the London Basin, 
and from Feckham and Croydon to Chiselhurst on the southern. 

It is but light to state that Mr. Frestwich is very doubtful in 
separating tibe Blackheath pebble-bed from the Woolwich and Beading 
Beds, and that he has also some doubt as to the place which should 
be given to the sands that underlie the London day near Heme 
Bay. Thus he says, ** The difficulty is, whether we are to consider 
any of the peculiar, fossiliferous, sandy, or conglomerate beds of 
Woolwich, Bromley, and adjacent districts as a frdler development 
of the basement-stratum of the London Clay, or whether they all 
belong to a distinct and underlying series. / am rather inclined, on 
ttruetural evidence, to the latter opinion ; nevertheless on palsDonto- 
logical grounds it might be presumed that a passage here exists 
between the two series*:" and again, "I feel slightly doubtful 
whether some of the thick pebble-beds under and around Shooter's 
Hill may not belong to the upper part of the Woolwich series, ratiber 
than to the basement of the London Clay ; the beds which at XJpnor 
and Heme Bay I have included in the ' Basement-bed ' may also 
possibly belong to the upper section of the Woolwich series. I 
mention these doubts, which, however, do not affect the superposition 
and grouping of the three divisions here proposed " (Basement-bed of 
London Clay,WoolwichandReadingBeds,andThanet8and),"although 
it would modify the exact lines of separation, in order to direct atten- 
tion to any new fia^ts which may arise to throw light upon those ques- 
tions where I consider the evidence not quite conclusive t»" 

If the upper sands of XJpnor, <kc., be classed with the Woolwich 
and Beading Beds, we need feel no surprise at so many fossils of that 
formation being found in them. 

If the above-noticed beds be classed with the Woolwich and 
Beading Beds, that formation will have a thickness of about 50 feet 
near Heme Bay, instead of only 30 ; and at Croydon of 45 feet, instead 
of 36. At New Cross they are 54 feet thick ; under parts of London 
from 40 to 70 feet ; at Ealing 60 feet ; at Hanwell 75 feet, and at 
Isleworth and Chiswick as much as 87 and 90 feet respectively^. 

From London westward, by Windsor, Beading, Newbury, and 
Hungerford, the Beading Beds have a general thidbiess of from 40 
to 60 feet (being subject to slight loccd changes), until near Great 
Bedwin, to the west of which place I have ej^own, in tiie first part 

• Quart. Joum. G«ol. Soo. vol. vi. p. 262. t Ibid. vol. x. p. IdO^ foot-note, 
t Ibid. pp. 94, 96, 105, and 142 to 151. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1862.] imnAXER — London basin. 269 

of this paper, that tiiej are not more than 15 feet thick. They do 
not increase forther westward in Marlborough Forest, the last point 
where they occur in the London Basin. 

There is one other fact that seems to point to a thinning of the 
Beading Beds, though in what direction is not dear. In the western 
part of the London Basin, the basement-bed of the London Clay is 
remarkable for the common occurrence of large rounded flintsin it 
(generally in a line at its lowest part), often 6 or 8 inches in their 
longest diameter, and sometimes as much as 14 inches*, besides the 
ordinary flint-pebbles. Now, where any pebbles are found in the 
Beading Beds in the same district, they are not of large size. The 
most westerly placet where I have seen rounded flints of any great 
size in that formation is at Chorley Wood Kiln, about two miles 
W.N.W. of Bickmansworth (in an outlier) ; and these were in the 
'^ bottom-bed," which there oonsiBts of 10 or 12 feet of green sand 
full of pebbles. It would seem likely, therefore, that the large 
rounded JUnts of the " hasement-hed *' of the London Clay were derived 
at once from the Chalk, or thai, if they came from the Beading Beds, 
it was from the lower part of that formcUion ; or, in other words, that 
the London Clay sea stret^ud over the Chalk where the latter was 
either wholly uncovered, or InU slightly covered, by any older Tertiary 
formation. In conflrmation of this, I may quote Mr. Prestwich's 
words : *' It is probable that the denuding action (which accompanied 
the formation of the basement-bed of the London day) acted not 
only on the mottled days and the pebble-beds forming the upper part 
of the underlying series, but that it in places extended to tiie Chalk 
itself t." Mr. Prestwich, however, thinks that the rounded flints 
were all derived from older Tertiary beds, and not directly from the 

TJie Basement-bed of the London Clay. — ^This bed§ seems to reach 
its greatest thickness near Beading, where the Hght-brown loam, with 
green sand, shells, flint-pebbles, and masses of Umestone and of iron- 
stone, of which it there consists, is 5 to 12 feet thick, whilst at 
Northcot (to the west) and at Nettlebed (to the north) it is 9 feet ||. 

In well-sections in and near London it has been found to be from 
2 to 5 feet thick. Near New Cross it is only about a foot (in one of 
the sections at Loam-pit Hill, near Lewisham, it is, however, only 
three inches), and near Bromley from a foot to 3 feet. Further 

* ThiB great size is noted by Mr. Preitwich in Quart. Joum. Oeol. Soo. toI. Ti 
p. 259 (explanation of fig. 4). 

t I speak of the northern outcrop of the Beading Beds. According to the 
sections given by Mr. Prestwich (in Quart. Joum. G«ol. Soo. toI. x.) and by 
Mr. Bristow (in Uie Geological Surrej Memoir on Sheet 12), day chiefly prerails 
along the southern outcrop at the western part of the London Bamn, and the sands 
do not contain pebbles. 

I Quart. Joum. Qeol. Soc toI. tL p. 277. 

$ Not including iherein the pebble-bed of Blackheath, &a, nor the sands just 
beneath the London Clay near Heme Bay. (See above» p. 267.) 

II See Memoir illustratinff Sheet 13 of the Maps of the Geological Surrey, 
pp. 49, 40, 52. Mr. Prestwich is mistaken in saying that " westward of London 
in no case does the basement-bed of the London Clay present a tfaickness of 
more than 5 feet '' (Quart. Joum. QeoL Soo. toL tl p. 280). 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

270 pBOGKEDnres of the OEOLoeicAi. sogustt. [Apr. 16, 

eastward it seems to be tfain ; and if we class the upper sands near 
Heme Bay, ^., with the underlying Woolwich and Beading Beds, 
*^ the basement-bed itself might be considered in this area to meige 
into the thin seam of sandy day just at the base of the great mass 
of the London Clay*." Westward of Beading it is from 2 to 6 feet 
thick, and in Marlborough Eorest it has been c^o wn to consist merely 
of a line of pebbles (see p. 262), 

London Clay. — Of the London Gay itself Mr. Prestwich has 
observed the westerly thinning, as before stated. To quote his words, 
** It would appear that the London day gradually expands as it 
ranges fix>m west to east, at first rather rapidly until it attains 4 
thickness of from 300 to 400 feet, and then very gradually until, in 
the nei^bourhood of London, it ayerages from 400 to 440 feet thi<^ 
In the Isle of Bheppey, and on the opposite Essex coast, however, it 
reaches its greatest deyelc^ment, being there apparently as much as 
470 to 480 feet thickf." The thinning is, however, much shaiper 
on the west of Beading than Mr. Frestwich has supposed* He shows 
that a few miles to the south-east of that town the London Clay can- 
not be less than 370 feet thick ; and says, *^ there exist no definite 
measurements in the neighbourhood of Hungerford or Newbury; 
taking, however, into consideration the dip of the beds and the 
height of the lulls, I do not think that the entire thickness of 
the London day there exceeds 200 to 260 feet|." During the 
progress of the Geological Survey the data wanted for the measure- 
ment of the thickneas of the London day were found, and my friend 
and colleague Mr. Bristow tells me tiiat its thickness on tfa^ south 
of Newbury is not more than 50 or 60 feet, and that westward 
towards Hungerford it is, if anything, less. I have shown that at 
Oare, on the north of Newbury, it is less than 20 feet, the Bagshot 
Sand being there within that vertical distance of the Beading Beds§. 
On the west of Great Bedwin it has been proved to be not more thaA 
15 feet thick ; and in Marlborough Forest the London day proper 
seems to have wholly thinned out ||, all that there remains of the for- 
mation being a pebble^bed forming part of its '* basement^bed/' 

Of the Bagshot Beds, which belong to the Middle, and not to the 
Lower Eocene Series, I do not now treat. Enough to say that Mr. 
Bristow tells me that south of Newbury the Lower Bagahot Sands 
are at least 100 feet thick ; but that, as they are not capped by any 
of the Middle Bagshot Beds within some miles distance, their frJl 
thickness cannot be given. 

Effect of the Westerly Thinmng of the Lower Eoeenee.'^The result 
of Vie westward thinning of the Lower Eocene strata is, that in 
that direction the Bagshot Beds gradually get nearer to the dialk. 
In Marlborough Forest we have seen (p. 262) that there is but 15 feet 

* Qnari Joam. Qeol. See vol. x. p. IdO, fooe-note. 

t IWd. voL tp. 407. t Ibid. voL x. p. 402. 

$ Msmmr illiutnUdng Sheet 13 of the Map of the Geologioftl Boirev, p. 64. 

I This thiimingH>Qt does not neaeaeanly indicate the origmal edge of the 
bann, bat mij be for the moet part due to denudation befofe the depoiitkNi of 
the Bagthot Beds. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1862.] WHTTAXXR — ^LOin>OK BASIN. 271 

between those formatioiiB. Now, if the thinning shonld continue 
(as there is good reason to suppose, from its constancy in the dis- 
tricts where enough of the beds to show their order and thickness 
has escaped denudation), still farther west the Bagshot Beds would 
rest directly on the GhaOe, all the Lower Eocene strata having thinned 
out. This will, perhaps, be made clearer by the diagram-section, 
p. 263, which e^owb the thickness of the yarious Lower Eocene beds 
from Woolwich to Marlborough Forest. 

Pabt in. Age of the Qreywethers. — ^Mr. Prestwich has inferred * 
that the blocks of Qreywether-sandstone scattered over the surface 
of the Chalk and other formations have once formed part of the 
Woolwich and Beading Beds. His reasons are, that their distribution 
is << in accordance with the range of the Lower London Tertiaries '' 
[the basement-bed of the London Clay, the Woolwich and Beading 
Beds, and the Thanet Sand] '' rather tihan with that of the Bagshot 
Sands ;" and that, as there is no reason for supposing them to haye 
come from either the basement-bed or the Thanet Sand, they must 
be referred to the intermediate Beading Beds ; — ^that this conclusion 
is borne out by the facts that the occurrence of the greywethers '< is 
exactly coincident with the deyelopment and preponderance of the 
sand-beds of the mottled day " (that is, the Woolwich and Beading) 
'< series,'' and that ''the lithological structure of each yariety is 
respectiyely in accordance with the mineral ccxnponents forming the 

strata in the immediate yidnity i,e, that the concretionary 

stone in eadi case represents the component parts of some portion 
of the adjacent Woolwich and Beading series ;" thus, '' in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hatfield, Hertford, and Ware, the sands of the Beadmg 

Series are often glutted with flint-pebbles ; it is 

oyer this area more particularly that the Hertfordshire pudding- 
stones are so abundant." 

Speaking of the grayel-drift around Newbury, which contains many 
blocks of greywether-sandstone, Mr. Prestwich says, " The course of 
this drift-is towards, and not from, the area of the Bagshot Sands ; 
and as we haye no proof of the extension of this formation oyer the 
chalk-downs, whereas we know that detached outliers of the Lower 
Tertiary sands extend far oyer those hills, we should expect to find 
in the drift the dihris deriyed from the latter and from the Chalk, 
and not from the Bagshot Sands." 

I think, howeyer, that what has been said in the former parts of 
this paper must lessen the force of Mr. Prestwich's ai^^^mient, founded 
as it is on eyidence " circumstantial rather than direct." I haye not 
only proyed the extension of the Bagshot Sand oyer the chalk-downs, 
but haye shown that in Marlborough Forest, owing to the dying-out 
of the London Clay and the thinning of the Beading Beds, that for- 
mation is but 15 feet or so from the top of the Chalk. K the Beading 
Beds became still thinner further westward, as is most likely to haye 
been the case (unfortunately there are no outliers of any Tertiary 
bed on the Chalk in that direction), the Bagshot Sand would gradually 
* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. toI. x. pp. 123-130. 

VOL. lyill. PART I. T 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


get nearer to the Challe, and at last would lie on thai rock. Now it 
18 just at the part where one would ea^ect this to happen that the grey- 
wethers occur in by far the greatest number, which naturally leads to 
the inference that they have some connexion witii that formation, 
and indeed have most likely been derived from it. 

On the surface of the chalk-country westward of Marlborough 
(Sheets 14 and 34 of the Geological Survey Map) there are literally 
tens of thousands of greywethers. Speaking of their occurrence in 
this district, Prof. Ramsay says, — " A few of the places where they 
are most numerous are marked ' large stones ' on the Ordnance Map ; 
but these yield no idea of their surprising number, or of the extent 
of ground they cover, no indication being given of their occurrence 
over many large areas where they strew the ground so thickly that 
across miles of country a person might leap from stone to stone 
without touching the ground on which they He. Many of these flat 
masses of grit are four or five yards across, and they are often four 
feet in thickness ♦." I saw one block, in a valley on the northern 
side of the Eennet, that measured 13 x 10 x 7 feet, that is to say, 
contained, allowing for irregularity of surface, about 850 cubic feet. 
In the distance it looked like a small hut. 

Greywethers are not only found on the surfSace of the Chalk and 
older formations, but also on the London Clay (though not in such large 
numbers), and that too at a distance of some miles frt)m the outcrc^ 
of the underlying Woolwich and Reading Beds, as is the case to the 
north-west of London ; which fact favours the notion that they have 
come from the overlying Bagshot Beds rather than from a formati<m 
below the London (&ay. 

As it is known that here and there sandstone occurs in various 
parts of the Bagshot Series, there is nothing unlikely in the view that 
greywethers may have been thonoe derived. Indeed Mr. Prestwich 
has noticed that most of the stones have ^' a Uthological structure 
very similar to that of the blocks found irr^^arly dispersed some- 
times in the lower, but more especially in the upper division of the 
Bagshot Sands between Esher and Strathfieldsaye." 

I do not think, however, that all greywethers came from the Bag- 
shot Sands. Many, I have no doubt, have been derived from the 
Woolwich and Reading Beds ; indeed I have seen a large mass of 
sandstone in place in an outlier of that formation at Langley Park, 
near Beedon, to the north of Newbury f. Again, on the south-east 
of London there is a thick pebble-bed in that formation, which in the 
neighbourhood of Bromley is often hardened into a pudding-stone, 
large blocks of which may be seen in the railway- cutting at Beoken- 
ham. The blocks of pudding-stone so common on the surface of the 
chalk-district of HertfordsMre, &c., I think (with Mr. Prestwich) 
also belong to this Series. Other greywethers possibly, but not lai^ 
ones, came from the Basement-bed of the London Clay, which in 
some places contains a bed of sandstone. But I hold that the occur- 
rence, in vast numbers, of these sandstone-blocks westward of Marl- 

* Memoir illustrating Sheet 34 of the Geological Surrey Map, p. 41. 
t See Memoir illustrating Sheet 13 of the Geological Surrey Map, p. 35. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


borou^, just where we should expect, on quite independent grounds, 
that tiie Bagshot Sand at one time rested at once on the Chalk, 
proves, as far as indirect evidence can, that there they have come 
from that formation ; and it seems to me that their sudden abundance 
in that neighbourhood, where they ahnost form a giant pavement 
along some of the valleys, cannot be in any other way so well ac- 
counted for as by that westerly thinning of the Lower Eocene beds 
treated of in the second part of this paper, and the result of which 
has been to bring the Bagshot Series without doubt veiy near to, 
and most likely actually on, the Chalk in that neighbourhood. 

According to this view, it is in that district where the greywethers 
have suffered least vertical displacement (through the denudation of 
the softer beds of the formation to which they belonged), in their 
subsidence from their original position to the one they now occupy, 
that they occur in the greatest abundance. 

On the Sands of Netley and HeadUy Heaths, — It may be as well 
to mention here that Mr. Godwin- Austen is disposed to class with 
the Lower Bagshot Beds some outliers of sand that occur on the 
Chalk of Surrey, to the east of Guildford. For my own part, how- 
ever, I do not think that the sands of Netley Heath and Headley 
Heath are of so great an age. I take them to belong to the same 
set of beds as the sands of Chipeted (south of Croydon) and Paddles- 
worth (near Folkestone), which have been referred by Mr. Prestwich 
to the age of the Crag *. I think that their method of occurrence, 
or their '' lie," is too irregular to allow us to class them with the 
Lower Bagshot Beds. At Headley they seem to abut against an 
outlier of the Lower Eocene Beds, with which series most surely 
they have no kinship ; and they here and there spread some way 
down the slopes of the valleys. 

From what has gone before it is clear that, just to the north of 
the district where these sands are found (in Surrey), the London 
Clay is not less than 400 feet thick : I cannot think it likely that 
that formation should thin off so suddenly southwards, without any 
sign, and that the Lower Bagshots should also cut through the Wool- 
wich and Beading Beds and the Thanet Sand to the Chalk. This 
would show a great unconformity between the Middle and Lower 
flocene Series, which we have no other reason to look for; the 
resting of the Bagshot Beds on the Chalk, that I have shown to be 
most likely to take place at the western end of the London Basin 
(see p. 262), being caused chiefly by " overlap." 

Nevertheless, as all that one can say of the Headley Sands is that 
they are newer than the London Clay, there is just a possibility that 
they may belong to the Bagshot Series ; but, from what I have seen 
of Ihem (in many places), I take this opportunity of stating my beHef 
that they are much more likely to belong to the Crag, or even to a 
later formation, though I can as yet see no evidence as to their 
exact place in the geological series. 

However, should they turn out to belong to the Bagshot Beds, 

* Quart Journ. Qeol. See. vol. xIt. p. 322. 

T 2 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


they will give fdriheT eyidence in favour of the theory that the 
greater part of the Greywethers have come from that formation ; 
for patches of them occur in many places along the Chalk-range of 
Kent, in which, and on the surface of the older cretaceous beds rising 
from its base, there are many greywethcr-blocks, that in this case 
would here, as near Marlborough, have some connexion with the 
range of the Bagshot Beds, being more plentiful where that Series 
is least separated from the Chalk. 

I have noticed the sands of Netley and Headley Heaths but shortly. 
A more detailed account of them will be given in a memoir (now 
preparing) to illustrate Sheet 8 of the Hap of the Geological Survey 
of Great Britain. All that is needful here is to note the bearing 
that they may have on the Greywether-question. 

S. On a Deposit with Insects, Leaves, 4c^,, near Ulvebston. 
By John Boltov, Esq. 

[Communicated by the President.] 

The deposit described in this communication has been sunk through 
during the progress of works undertaken by the lindale Cote Iron- 
ore Company, for drainage-purposes. The mines are situated iu the 
well-known haematite district of Low Fumess, about three miles 
S.W. of Ulverston, in a valley between two ranges of low hills 
belonging to the Mountain-limestone series. The physical geology 
is varied in character, — a fine sequence of the following beds in 
descending order frt)m the Upper Silurian occurring in the hills 
lying norUi of this valley, viz.. Lower Ludlow Bocks, Upper Ireleth 
Slates, Lower Ireleth Slates, Coniston Grit, Coniston Flags, Coniston 
Limestone (equivalent to the Bala Slates), and Green Slates with 
Porphyry, which last rocks extend northward for many miles beyond 
the boundary of Fumess. South of the valley in which these mines 
are situate, the Mountain-limestone is developed on a bu^ scale, 
being upwards of six miles in breadth. The exact position of Lindale 
Cote Mine, upon the promontory of Fumess, is about halfway be- 
tween Morecombe Bay and the estuary of the Duddon. 

In sinking shafts to a water-way driven from the Lindale Cote 
to Urswick Tam, in 1855, down the course of a valley lying about 
100 feet below the table-land, and receiving the drainage of about 
600 acres, a deposit of greenish-drab clay, six feet in thickness, was 
met with at a depth of forty feet frt)m the surface, in the shaft nearest 
but one to the mines, and at the highest '* level." This clay-bed 
contained pieces of unfossilized wood, associated with numerous leaves, 
seed-vessels, and other vegetable remains. Among the few which 
can be determined are, leaves of Beech, with the epicarp of the frmt- 
receptacle, and a well-preserved branch of Sphagnum. A few well- 
preserved Insects also occurred in the deposit. Of these some have 
been determined by Mr. Stainton, F.G.S., as fragments belonging 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1862.] BOLTON ULTKBaXON. 275 

apparently to a land Hemipterous insect, and one as a portion of an 
Oilliopterons wing. Three nearly perfect specimens of Apterous 
Hemiptera he referred to Oimex, or an allied genus. Microscopical 
examination of this clay shows us the conditions under which it was 
deposited*. It is seen to be chiefly composed of lacustrine Diaio- 
maceag, the fades of which point directly to a mountain-tarn as the 
origin and support of their existences. The list of forms obtained 
from it is nearly paralleled by those which Dr. Balfour and other 
gatherers of DiatomaeecB have obtained from subfossil clay- and 
peat-deposits in the Hull of Cantire and elsewhere. The genera 
represented are Oomphonema, Tribtmella, Epiihemia, SurirelUiy 
Cocconeis, OydoteUa, Pleurongma, Campylodiseus, Navieula, Tetra- 
eyclus, OdorUidiwn, Cymatopleura, Cymhella, Stauroneis, Pinnularia, 
Synedra, and Bunotia. These have been kindly determined for me 
by Dr. Wallich, F.G.S. Siliceous spicules of freshwater Sponges 
also occur in this deposit. 

Fig. 1. — Section of a Shaft at the Lindale Cote Mines, near Ulverston. 

a. Soil ; 3 feet e. Clay bed with yegetable matter and 

b. " Pinel " (Bubble) ; 10 feet. Inaect-rexnains ; 6 feet 
e. Orayel; 12 feet /. Black muck; 14 feet 

d. Black mock ; 16 feet y. Limestoiie ; 12 feet 

h. Water-way. 

The length of the water-way driven from the mines to the tarn is 
a mile and a quarter ; and in the portion tunnelled twelve vertical 
shafts were sunk at convenient distances — ^nine in the bare Hountain- 
limestone at the lower end of the adit, and the remaining three 
through the overlying Drift, which at No. 10 shaft was thirty feet 

* To Miss E. Hodgson, of UlTerston, ia due the credit of examining this de- 
posit for Diatomacea, and mounting the specimens that are here referral to. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


in thidmesgy at No. 11 sixty feet, and at No. 12 thirty feet It 
is therefore eyident that a basin in the limestone was crossed by the 
line of the work. 

Probably these days have a considerable extension to the N.E. 
and S.W. ; for thin beds of the same deposits were met with in a 
trial-shaft snnk by the lindale Cote Company at the hi^est part 
of the table-land, one-third of a mile S.W. of No. 11 shaft, and at 
the same level. Here, as in the first-proved locality, the days 
yielded vegetable remains and Diatomacem, The accompanying 
section is ^t of the shaft in question : — 

Fig. 2. — Section of a Shaft at the Lindale Cote ARnes, near Ulventon. 

a. Bartaoo-BoH (and Boadway) ; 1 foot 

b. Hard reddish rubble (" Pmel ") ; 68 feet. 

c. Grayel ; 8 feet. 

d. YellowiBh sandy material ; 16 feet. 

f . Greenish days, with plant-remains ; 3 feet. 

/ Clay, ooloured blue m patches by phosphate of iron, and with woody 
fragments similarly coloured ; 2 feet. 

a. Sand; 6 feet. 

n. Very soft sandy limestone, abounding with characteristic Mountain- 
limestone fossils ; 22 feet. 

t. The North Drift, with the Iron-ore in the Limestone. 

The eight feet of gravel alluded to in this section is of the ordinary 
alluvial character, made up of water-rolled pebbles of Upper and 
Lower Silurian rocks, bedded in quartz-sand. There is dsewhere 
evidence of this drift- deposit having resulted from north-westerly 

From the lowest part of the soft Hmestone thus pierced, a hori- 
zontal drift was driven northward in search of iron-ore; and in 
progress of the work, it was found that the limestone and the lowest 
superimposed beds had a steep downward inclination ; also, that the 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

1862.] BOLTOH — ULVBB8T0N. 277 

plant-bearing deposit, when cnt through by the gallery, had thickened 
to fifteen feet. The wood imbedded in tbe lower seams of the clay 
was partly converted into a soft, blue pigment, having phosphate of 
iron for its colouring-matter. 

Thus it appears evident that the areas anciently covered by the 
lake-water were those of the long valleys which course sinuously 
between the low hills of Fumess. 

A second adit, driven southward from the bottom of the shaft, cut 
into a good bed of iron-ore at twenty feet from the commencement. 

Glancing backwards for a moment at this scant record of a local 
and comparatively insignificant deposit, I diffidently claim a value 
for it in any scheme cast for the determination of Pleistocene time. 
In the absence of great and sudden cataclysmal irruptions of water 
which could fill valleys with drifted material, and of which I conceive 
we have no settled evidence, it appears to me that the time required 
for the deposition of this great thickness of nearly 100 feet of 
transported material upon the comparatively flat surface of this 
lacustrine clay by the ordinary degradation of the low hills around 
it must be one far extended beyond our ordinary notions. The 
material of which the whole thickness of the superimposed deposit 
is composed is of strictly local origin, and, in the absence of violent 
sweeps of north-lying water, and sudden fillings-up, by such means, 
of the shallow valleys by the locally derived detritus, I am at a loss 
to see how the distribution could have been effected, except by 
ordinary aqueous and pluvial agencies extended through a long 
period of time. 

P.S. — Since the above paper was communicated, the miners have 
exhausted the iron-ore in the pit, section fig. 2 ; and then they sank 
to a further depth of about 30 feet, but without getting through 
the soft limestone. They have now left it altogether, and have sunk 
another shaft about 220 yards to the north of it ; and at about the 
same relative depth they have found the same deposit, containing 
vegetable remains, &c., but not in abundance. The miners say also 
that they found the same material in a shaft about 200 yards north 
from this new shaft, that is, about 420 yards north of No. 2 section. 
If this be correct (and I have no reason to doubt it), it demonstrates 
that the deposit covers a triangular area, the three sides of which 
are respectively 420, 450, and 600 yards in length.— May 24, 1862, 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 





From January Ist to March dlst, 1862. 


Presented by the respective Societies and Editors. 

American Journal of Science and Arts. Second Series. Vol. xzxiii. 
No. 97. January 1862. From Prof. SilUman, For. Mem. QJS. 

R. I. MurchiBon. — ^Thirty Years' Retrospect of the Progress in our 
Knowledge of the Geology of the Older Rocks, 1. 

J. M. Ordway.— Water-glaaa, 27. 

L. Saemann. — ^Unity of Geological Phenomena in the Solar System, 

A. H. Worthen. — Age of the *' Leclare Limestone " of Iowa, 46. 

F. V. Hayden. — ^Primordial Sandstone of the Rocky Mountains, 68. 
£. Billings. — ^Red Sandrock formation of Canada and Vermont, 100. 
W. E. Loflan.— Age of the Quebec Rocks, 105. 

J. Hall.— Potsdam Sandstone and Hudson-River Rocks in Vermont, 


. Reply to criticisms on some palsdozoic fossils, 127. 

Depth of the Ocean, 121. 

American mode of working Platinum, 124. 

Saurian remains in the Eeuper of the Jura, 188. 

Obituary Notice of M. Grateloun, 149. 

Geological and Mineralogical collections in the Italian Exhibition at 

Florence, 163. 

Assurance Magazine. No. 46. January 1862. 

AthenaBum Journal. Nob. 1784-1796. 

Notices of Meetinffs of Scientific Societies, &c. 

G. H. Makins's * Manual of Metalluigy,' noticed, 22. 
Eruption of Vesuvius, 68, 120, 200. 

L. A. Neckar, Obituary notice of, 84. 

C. Collier's * Gatherinss from the Pit-heaps,' noticed, 217. 

A. Newton. — ^Volcan ae Fuego in Guatemala, 881. 

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Basel, Verhandlungen der Natuifonchenden Geeellschaft in. Vol. iii. 
1. und 2. Heft. 1861. 

B. Cartier. — ^Der obere Jura zu Oberbuchsiteii; 48. 
A. MiiUer. — Vorlegung der ffeognostischen Earte des Kantons Basel 
und der angrenzenden Geoiete, 66 (plate). 

Bombay. Jonmal of the Bombay Branch of the Boyal Asiatic 
Society. Vol. vi. No. 21. January 1862. 

H. J. Carter. — ^Foraminifera of Scinde, 81. 

— Lnpey. — ^Ammonitiferous Limestone near Jevsehneer, 161. 

— FuDgaines. — Geolojofy of the North Bank of the Nurbudda, 168. 
A. Roflrers. — Nummulitic limestone at Turkeysur^ 164. 

H. J. Carter. — (Geology of the leJands around Bombay, 167. 
. Pegmatite in a Basaltic Dyke in the Island of Carinjay 178. 

— Leith. — Organic remains and minerals in the Trap of Bomoay, 180. 
H. J. Carter.— Trap of the Western Ghauts, 181. 

F. Phillips.— Coal-deposits in the L^eah Valley, Sind, 182. 

H. Cook.— Geology of the Valley or Relet, Beloochistan, 184 

S. Hislop. — Geology of Nligpur, 194 

H. J. Ciurter. — Foasil Bones from N&rr&yanpur, and Reptilian Bones 

in the Museum of the Bombay Asiatic Society, 204. 
. Index to Papers and Compilations, 235. 

Calcutta. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. No. 282. New 
Series, 108. 1861, No. 3. 

J. C. Harris. — ^Rain-fiill in the Basin of the Riyer Mahanuddy, 216. 
Sarel. — ^The Riyer Yang-tse-kiang, from Hankow to Pingshan, 223 

Chemical Society. Quarterly Journal. No. 56. Vol. xyi. Part 4. 
January 1862. 

F. A. Abel and F. Field. — Analysis of Conpers of commerce; 290. 
F. Field. — Bismuth in Copper-minerals, 304. 

Nos. 57 and 58. Vol. xy. Noa. 1 and 2. January 

and February 1862. 

Bolley.— Alloys of Tin and Lead; 30. 

Smith. — Composition of a Boiling Spring in New Zealand; 57. 

Colliery Guardian. Vol. iii. Nos. 53-65. 

Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies; &c. 

M. W. T. Scott— The Symon Fault of the Coalbrookdale Coal- 
field. 5 (map). 

G. C. Greenwell and T. Y. HalL— The Great Northern Coal-field; 6. 

W. W. Smyth.— I^tures on Mining; 9, 26, 49; 66, 105; 127, 145, 
185; 205, 225. 243. 

H. Cosham.— Coal, 28. 

£. HalL— Lancashire and Cheshire Coal-fields; 102. 

H. C. Salmon. — ^Different systems of working mines and coUieries; 

A. Knowles. — Bank-top and Hagside PitS; and the proying of faults, 

The Coal-oO of Pennsylyania, 173. 

£. Hall.— Burnley Coal-field, 182. 

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Colliery Guardiaii. Vol. iii. Nos. 53-65 (eonUnued), 

J. GK>odwin. — Ventiktion of Mines, 185. 
Gold in Wales, 209. 

The Laws legating the descent of water below the smfiskce of the 
Earth, 228. 

Critic. VoLxxiv. Nob. 600-612. 

Notices of Meeting of Scientific Societies, &c 
J. Percy's ' Metalfuivy,' noticed, 80, 55. 
R Hunt's 'Mineral Statistics,' noticed, SO, 55. 
W. Haidinger.— Aeroliths, 102. 

Dublin Geological Society. Journal. Vol. ix. Part 1 : for 1860-61. 

S. Han^ton. — Nickeliferous Magnetic Pyrites from Co. Galway, 1. 
J. Apj^. — ^Two minerals (Bamourite and Andaluaite) £rom Co. 

Galway, 2. 
T. Stanley.— Faults in the Gravel of Ireland, a 
G. Ma>owelL— The Wolfhill and Modubeagh Coal-fields, Queens 

Co., 7 (map). 
W. B. Browniigff and T. Cooke.— Geology of the district between 

Dungarvan and Annestown, Co. Waterford, 8 (plate). 
S. Haughton. — ^Flora of the Yellow Sandstone of Donegal, 13 

(8 plates). 
A. Smith. — ^Pyrognostic arrangement of Irish Minerals, 14. 
R Griffith. — ^Lo^ties of Iriui Carboniferous Fossils, 21. 
A. Smith. — Blowpipe-characters of Minerals, 156. 
S. Haughton. — ^Annual Address, 211. 

Edinburgh Geological Society. Conatitutioii Laws. 1862. 

. Eoyal Society. Proceedings. 

Duke of Argyll. — ^AnniYersary Address, 860, 

W. L. Lindsay. — ^Volcanic phenomena and products in Iceland, 887. 
EL How. — GKrolite occurring with Calcite in Apophyllite in the 

Trap of the Bay of Fundy, 426. 
. Natro-boro-calcite and another Borate occurring in the 

GyjMSum of Nova Scotia, 428. 
A. Geikie.— Chronology of the Trap-rocks of Scotiand, 458. 
D. M. Home. — ^Ancient Glaciers or Chamouni, 454. 
A. Bryson. — ^Aqueous origin of Granite, 456. 

. . Trausactions. Vol. xxii. Part 3. 1860-61. 

H. Cleffhom.— Anamalai HiUs, India, 579 (7 plates). 

A. Geikie. — Chronology of the Trap-rocks of Scotland, 683 (map). 

A. Bryson. — Memoir of the Rev. John Fleming, 655. 

Geologist. Vol. iv. Supplement. February 1, 1862. From S. J, 
MadcU, Esq., F.G.S. 

. Vol. V. Nos. 49, 50. January and February 1862. From 

LoveU Beeve, Esq., KO,S. 

S. J. Mackie.— Fossil Fruits and Wood from the Chalk, 1 (plate^. 
R. I. Murchison. — ^Inapplicability of the term " Dyas " to the Per- 
mian group of Rocks, 4. 

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DOVATioirs. 281 

Geologist. Vol. V. TSoa. 49^ 50 (cofUiriued). 

W. Pengelly. — ^Deyonian FossiIb of Devon and Cornwall, 10. 

C. C. Blake.— Skull of the Cainotkerimny 82. 

J. Elliott — ^Hunian lemainB in Heatheory Bum Cave near Stan- 
hope, 34. 

Proceeding of Geological SocietieBy 87. 

Correspondence, 8d, §5. 

Notes and Queries, 89, 72. 

S. P. Woodward. — Cuphoaoma Koenigi, 41 (plate). 

A. Taylor.— Torbane Hill Mineral, 48. 

R N. Kubidge. — ^Metamoiphosis of Rocks in South A£icay 47. 

C. C, Blake.— Fossil Elephant from Texas, 67 (plate). 

T. Rupert Jones. — Microscopical Examination of tiie Bracklesham 
Beds, 59. 

W. Murray. — ^Peculiar substance in limestone-cayes in South 
Australia, 63. 

Foreign Correspondence, 76. 

Reyiews, 76. 

Geologists' Association. list of Members, 1862. 

Great Britain. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United 
Kingdom. Figures and Descriptions illustratiye of British Or- 
ganic Remains. Decade 10. 1861. 

T. H. Huxley and P. de M. G. Egerton.— Fishes of the Deyonian 

. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, and of 

the Museum of Practical Geology. 

H. W. Bristow. W. Whitaker, and R. Etheridge.— The Geology of 
parts of Berkshire and Hampshire (GeoL Sury. Map, Sheet 12). 

Institution of Civil Engineers. Address of John Hawkshaw, Esq., 
F.R.S., January 14, 1862. 

. . Proceedings. Session 1861-62. Nos. 7, 9, 10, 12, 13. 

C. A. Hartley.^Delta of the Danube. 

Intellectual Observer. Vol. i. Nos. 1 and 2. February and March 

Notices of the Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 

Copper, 67. 

Notes and Memoranda, 82. 

Literary Gazette. New Series. Vols. vii. and viii. Noe. 179, 182, 

Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 

T. H. Huxley.— Fbssil Remains of Man, 167. 

Fossil Footprints at Hastings, 282. 

Works of Man (P) in Eocene Beds near Laon in France, 266. 

T. Rupert Jones. — Fossil Footprints at Hastings, 281. 

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London, Edinburgh, and Dnblin Philosophical Magazine. 4th Series. 
Vol. xxiii. Nos. 151-163. Januaiy-March, 1862. From Dr, 
W. Francis, FGJS. 

S. Haughton. — ^Notes on Mineralogy (Aeroliths^ Hislopite, Hunterite, 
Dolomites]), 47. 

R. L Murchison. — ^Inapplicability of the term " Dyas " to the Per- 
mian group of rocks, 65. 

J. Russdl and A. Matthiessen. — Vesicular structure in copper, 81. 

A. H. Church. — Composition, structure, and formation orBeekite, 
95 (plate). 

RodoszkovskL — ^A new mineral (Wagite) from the Ural, 160. 

S. V. Wood. — ^Land-areas of the Secondaiy and Tertiary Periods, 161. 

M. de Serres. — ^Bone-caves of Lunel Viel, 239. 

A. Gesner. — Petroleum-s{>rinffs of North America, 239. 

J. W. Dawson. — Land-animus in the Coal-measures of Nova Scotia, 

J. G. Veitch. — ^Volcanic Phenomenon at Manilla, 240. 

J. tt Key.— The Bovey Basin, Devonshire, 240. 

G. G. G^mmellaro. — ^Volcanic cones at the base of Etna, 241. 

T. Davidson. — Carboniferous Brachiopoda of the Punjab, 241. 

O. fisher.— Bracklesham Beds of the isle of Wight Basin, 241. 

J. Morris and G. £. Roberts. — Carboniferous Limestone of the Clee 

R W. Finney.— Stigmarias and Lepidodendron from Lancashire, 244. 

S. Hislop.— Flant-beds of Central India, 244 

London Review. Vol. iv. Nos. 79-91. 

Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 

Australian Gold-helds, 10. 

W. Wallace's ' Lead-ore in Veins,' noticed, 19. 

CoUiery Accidents, 103. 

T. a Huxley.— Fossil Men, 162. 

Longman's Monthly List. New Series. No. 229. Jan. 1, 1862. 

. Notes on Books. Vol. ii. No. 28. Feb. 28, 1862. 

Madras. Government Central Museum. Circular Letter. By £. 
Balfour. 1855. 

Manchester Geological Society. Transactions. No. 10. 1862. 

A. Knowles. — ^The Bank-top and Hag-side Pits, and the proving of 

Faults, 190. 
J. Goodwin. — ^The Ventilation of Mines, 202. 

Mechanics' Magazine. New Series. Vol. vii. Nos. 158-170. 

Notices of Meetings of Scientific Societies, &c. 

A. Macrae. — CHI-springs of North America and Canada, 3. 

Jewellers' Gold, 11. 

J. Percy. — ^Lectures on Metallurgy, 15, 29. 

Fuel, 44, 61, 77, 95, 135, 190. 

G. R. Bumell.— Deep Wells and Borings, 80. 

A. H. Church.— Preservation of Stone, 121. 

Quartz-crushing at Sydney, 208. 

Petroleum, 208. 

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Mining and Smelting Magazine. Vol. i. Nos. 1-3. January- 
March 1862. From H. C, Salman, &q., KG.S, 

E. Hull.— Britigh Coal-trade, 1. 

M. Frjar. — ^Working aud Tentilatinff Coal-mines, 4 

Separation of Wolfram and Black lin, 12. 

Machinery for dressing ores, 16, 18. 

Mineral Statistics of nidia, 20. 

Miscellaneous and Reviews, 26, 107, 124, 174, 201. 

J. A. Phillips.— Gold-deposits of Nova Scotia, 81. 

E. Hull — ^Lancashire and Cheshire Coal-fields, 86 (map). 

J. Napier. — ^Mexican Method of Amalgamation, 101, 16o. 

E. Hull.— Burnley Coal-field, Lancashire, 163. 

Munich. Yerzeichniss der Mitglieder der k. bay. Akad. der Wiss. 

. Sitzungsberichte d. k. bayer. Akad. der Wiss. zu Miinchen. 

1861,1. Hefts. 1861. 

A. Wagner. — Ueber die fossilen Keptilien des lithographischen 
SchiSers in Bayem, 497. 

. . 1861, IL Heftl. 

A. Wagner. — Zur Eenntniss der fossilen Hufthier-Ueberreste von 
Pikermi, 78 (plate). 

Abhandlungen der Math.-physik. Classe der k. bayer. Akad. 

d. Wwaen. Vol.ix. Part 1. 1861. 

A. Wa^er. — ^Neue Beitrage zur Eenntniss der urweltlichen Fauna 
des bthographischen Scmefers, 66 (6 plates). 

Neogranadinas (BogotJi). Proceedinga. Pages 23-46, 63-122. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Transactions of the Tynside Naturalists' 
Field-club. Vol. ii. Part 2. 1861. 

R Howse. — ^Fossil Mammalia in the Counties of Northumberland 

and Durham, 111 (2 plates). 
R. C. Clapham. — ^Analyses and Description of Magnesian Limestone 

from the Trow Rocks, 122. 

New York, Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of. Vol. vii. 
Nos. 10-12 (in one). Jan.-June 1861. 1861. 

New Zealand Government Gazette (province of Wellington). Vol. 
viii. Nos. 36, 40. 

J. C. Crawford. — Geology of the Waiiarapa and East-coast Countxy, 

. Search for Gold in the province of Wellington, 269. 

Pateontographical Society. Monographs. 1861. (Issued for the 
year 1869.) 

T. Davidson. — A Monograph of British Carboniferous Brachiopoda. 
Part V. 4th portion. 

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284 DOVATIOnB.] 

PalsBontographical Society. Monographs (continued), 

R. Owen. — ^Mono^phs on the British Fossil Reptilia from the 
Oolitic Fonnations. Part I. (SoeUdosaunu JSdrmomi and FHo' 
saurus ffrandu,) 

S. V. Wood. — ^Monogn^h of the Eocene Mollosca. Part I. (Bi- 
valyes.) Ist portion. 

Palermo. Atti della SocietJi di Acdimazione e di Agricoltura in 
SidUa. Vol. i. Nos. 6, 7. 

Paris. Archiyes da Mus^nm d'Histoire Naturelle. Vol. z. livr. 
3« et 4«. 1861. 

. Bulletin de la Soc. Gdol, de France. Deux. S^. Vol. xix. 

FeuiU. 1-6. 1861. 

A. Delesse. — Cartes g^ologique et hydrologique de la ville de Paris, 

Emile Bormoy. — ^Allure g^n^rale du hassin houiller du nord de la 

France, 22 (pkte 1). 
Th. Ebray. — Stratigraphie du systdme oolithique inf(Srieiir de la C6te 

Cabany.^^ur une petite couche de cannel-coal trouv^e k la fosse de 

B(Bnlz9 49. 
Dalmas.---Sur la configuration des massifs de I'Ard^he, GO. 
A. Bou6.— Sur une communication faite par M. A. Wagner k TAca- 

d^mie de Munich^ 66. 
Ed. d'Eichwald.— Sur le terrain k Orthoo^ratites de Poulkova, 67. 
— . Sur un crinoide hhistoi'de d^couvert pr^ de Poulkova (figure), 

A. Delesse. — Sur I'eau dans Tint^rieur de la terre, 64. 
P. de RouTille.^-Sur la faune tertiaixe moyenne des environs de 

B^ziers et de Narhonne, 91. 
Noguds. — Sur les environs d^Am^e-les-Bains (Pyr^n^s-Orientales), 

. BuUetin Mensnel de la Sod^t^ Imp^riale Zoologique d'Ac- 

dimatation. Vol. iii. No. 11. November 1861. 

Pesth. Magyar Akademiai Ertesfto. Math, es term^szett. oszi&tly. 
Vol.i. I-IV. Szdm. Pest. 1860. 

Term^ettodomiCnyi Pdlyamnnkrfk. Eiadja a' Magyar 

Tud6flTteaB^. I.-HI. Kotet. Bud^. 1837-1844. 
— . Mathematical Pfdyamunk^. I. Eotet. Bnd^n. 1844. 

. Elmdlked^k a' Physiologia es Psychologia' Eor^ben Eii- 

lonos Tekintettel a Polgiiri es Erkolcsi Nevelesre. Irta D. Mocsi 
Mih%. Buddn. 1839. 

— . Felsobb Egyenletek egy Ismeretlennel. Irta D. V^as 
Antal. Elso Fiixet. Bud^n. 1842. 

— . A Felsobb Analysis' Elemei. Irta Gyory B^dor. I. es II. 
FiiTOt. Buditn. 1836-40. 

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Pesth. A Hangrendszer EiazimiUz&r6\ ds Zongordk HangoUsdnSl 
m^^et n^iil tiszta viszonyok szerint. Irta Gyory Sibdor. 
(A Magy. Akad. Erkonyvek IX. Eot. III. darabja.) 4to. Buddn. 

. A Pnhi&nyok IzomroBtjairol. Dr. Maigo Tiyadart61. (A 

Magyar Akad. Eyron X. Eotet. lY. darabja.) 4to. Pesten. 

Photographic Society. Journal. Nos. 117-119. January-March 

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Society of Arts. Journal. Vol. x. Nos. 476-488. January-March 

Auriferous Rocks of Victoria^ Australia^ 101. 

Consular Information [Nitrate of Soda, Peruj Seville], 102, 117. 

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Society of Arts. Jomnal. Vol. z. {continued). 

Ghnndeau. — Ciesium and Rubidium, 117. 

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J. Morris.— The Mauritius, 261. 


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L. Agassiz. — Reptilian Remains from the South Joggins, 258. 
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Edinbuj^h New Philosophical Jounial. New Series. No. 29. 
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Institut,!'. l~Sect. Nos. 1459-1470. 

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W. T. G. Kretschmar. — Ueber die Siphonalbildung der vorweltlichen 
Nautilinen, 68 (pkte). 

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SOlTAXXOHf. 287 

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VOL, XTin,— PABT I. V 

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288 DONATioini* 

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Owen, B. Sur le Gorille {Troglodytes OoriOa), Sav. Traduit par 
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the unpointed Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis ; showing the 

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general scientific accuracy of the Cosmogony of Hoses and the 
Philosophy of Creation, 1861, 

Eeport on the Survey of India for the three years ending 1858-59, 
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Wagner, A. DenkredeaufGotthilfHeinrich von Schubert, 1861, 

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Mat 7, 1862. 

The Eev, R. Stopford Brooke, Fern Lodge, Campden Hill, 
Kensington; Henry Francis Blajiford, Esq., Bouvcrie Street; 
Edward Fitton, Esq., 6 Gloucester Crescent, Westbonme Terrace ; 
Frederick Hill, Esq., Penhellis, Helston, Cornwall ; John Langloy 
King, Esq., 66 Wells Street, London ; and Charles Bogors, Esq., 16 
Beaufoy Square^ Maida Vale, were elected Fellows. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On new Labykikthodokts yrom the EmyBUBGn Coal-fibld. 

By Professor Htjxlet, F.R.S., Sec.G.S., &c. 

[Plate XI.] 

1. Note respecting the Discovery of a new and large Lahgrinthodoni 
(Loxomma Allmanni, Hvjcley) in the Qilmerton Ironstone. 

DuKiwo my visit to Edinburgh in January last, my friend Professor 
Allman, becoming aware that I was engaged in collecting materials 
for the study of the genus Bhizodus (Owen), very libendly granted 
me free access to the large collection of vertebrate fossils tcom Bur- 
die House and Gilmerton, in the Museum of the University. 
I thus became acquainted, for the first time, with the upper and 

vol, ZVin. — ^PABX I. X 

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292 PBOOEEDnros ojr ihe gsoIiOgigal sogieit. [Hay 7> 

under aspects of the head^ and with the indubitable scales of this 
remarkable fish ; and, patting the information thus obtained with 
that derived from the study of specimens in many other collections, 
I am now in a position to prove that Ehizodus is one of the cycliferous 

But, while looking through the large series of remains from the 
Gilmerton ironstone in the Edinburgh Museum, most of which are 
referable to Ehizodus, I came upon two or three specimens of a veiy 
different character. The most important and significant of these is 
the frtigment of the hinder part of the upper wall of a large cranium 
(PL XI. fig. 1) presenting its smooth ioner, or under, surfEuse to the 
eye. Where the substance of the bone has been broken away, however, 
the impresisled surface of the matrix shows that the outer, or upper, 
surface was ornamented with strong inosculating ridges separated 
by intermediate grooves^ The serrated sutores of the bones com- 
posing this fragment of a skoU are, for the most part, distinctly 
traceable, and prove it to be composed of two quadrate, supraocdpitcd 
elements, with two elongated parietal bones, the apposed edges of 
which are deeply notched at the jimction of their middle with their 
posterior third, so as to give ri^ to a rounded parietal foramen, 
-A^ths of an inch wide. The parietals unite, in ^nt, with a pair 
of frontals, which are narrow behind, but expand anteriorly, and 
then become broken and disfigured. An arcuated postfrontal is 
connected with the posterior moiety of the outer edge of each frontal, 
and with the antero-extemal edge of the parietal. Externally, its 
smooth, almost vertically bevelled, margin bounds the inner and 
posterior part of the orbit. The latter cavity has an irregolarly oval 
shape, the long axis of the oval beLog directed, from witi^out and in 
front, obliquely inwards and backwards, at an angle of about 45° 
with the long axis of the skull. ' The anterior and outer part of the 
wall of the orbit is broken away ; but, internally, it is bounded by a 
stout prefrontal, on the under face of which is the indication of a 
ridge^ now broken away, but which once projected towards the palate. 
The prefrontal joins the pos^bntal and, just in front of the junc- 
tion, expands, somewhat suddenly, outwards, so as to form a sort of 
promontory which disturbs the even contour of the orbit on its inner 

The postero-lateral boundary of the orbit is formed, in its hinder 
half, by a postorbital bone, and, in its anterior half, by what appears 
to be the jugal bone. All that remains of the outer boundary is a 
trihedral bar of bone 0*5 inch wide, which I take to be the hinder 
part of the maxilla, though it may be the continuation, forwards, of 
the jugal. This bony bar is concave on its outer or upper surface, 
whidi is coarsely sculptured, while its inner and outer sur&ces slope 
towards one another, so as to form an edge below, which is sharp in 
front and gradually dies away behind. The outer face is flat» and 
exhibits a delicate rugose sculpture : the inner is slightly excavated. 

Behind the orbit the lateral part of llie roof of the cranium widens, 
and is produced, at its external and posterior angle, into a broad, 
expanded, and irregularly shaped plate, whose extreme outer point 

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is broken away. In consequence of the projection of this plate 
beyond the general contour of the skull^ the lateral margin of the 
latter curves suddenly outwards, midway between the orbit and the 
postero-lateral extremity, and then passes into the straight outer edge 
of the plate in question. This plate appears to be mamly formed by 
the quadrate and squamosal bones. Internally it presents a cuired 
contour, convex inwards, which sweeps round when it reaches the 
posterior margin of the skuU, and then passes backwards into the 
lateral boundary of the epiofic bone. The posterior contour of the 
skull, consequently, presents a deep notch between the epiotic bone 
and the plate in question. The epiotic bone, small and pointed 
posteriorly, is wedged in between the supraoccipital element, the 
parietal, and the squamosal. 

The description here given refers chiefly to the right (proper) 
half of the skull. The left half is broken away, so as to leave only 
the left supraoccipital, the left parietal, and part of the left frontal 
and post&ontal. The complete preservation of the latter bone for- 
tunately enables one to form an accurate judgment of the minimum 
width of the interorbital space. 

The structure of the cranial fragment which has been described 
proves it, without doubt, to belong to a Labyrinthodont Amphibian, 
and affords sufficient evidence of the character of the whole skull. 
The straightness of what remains of the external edge renders it 
probable diat the skull was elongated, like that of Arehegataurua ; 
and on completing the left side of the posterior part of the skuU by 
the aid of the right side, and restoring the general contour on the 
basis of Archegosaurus, we get a diagram of the whole skull which 
is probably not very hi removed from the trufli. 

Posteriorly the skull had a width of 10| inches ; and if the snout 
were even less acute than that of Arch^osaurus, its total length 
would be about 14 inches. The largest Archegosaurus skull known 
does not exceed 12 inches in length. 

From the skull of Archegosaurtts, and £rom that of all other 
Labyrinthodonts at present known, the present specimen is distin- 
guished by the proportional size, backward position, form, and 
veiy oblique disposition of the long axes of the orbits. And as the 
orbits of species of known genera of Labyrinthodonts do not differ 
from one another in any essential respect, I conceive this character 
to be of generic importance ; and I propose the name of Loxomma 
for the new genus l^us characterized. The species may be termed 
Loxomma AUmanni, after the eminent Professor of I^atural History 
in the University of Edinburgh, who aided me so essentially in dis- 
covering it. 

The skull, however, was not the first relic of this interesting 
Amphibian which came to light. What, in fact, originally led me to 
divine the existence of a large new Labyrinthodont in the Scotch 
coal-field, was the discovery of a rhomboidal plate of bone so ex- 
tremely similar to the middle sternal plate of a Labyrinthodont as 
at once to awaken suspicion. Subsequently I found another speci- 
men, exhibiting this median plate witii the triangular lateral plates, 

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2^4 pRocssDnras or the esoioaiCAX sociEir. [May 7, 

which are oonnected with its antero-lateral edges in Labyrinthodonts, 
in situ. This specimen is represented in fig. 2. 

The median plate is 5| inches long, by at least 2| inches broad at its 
widest part. Its anterior eztremi^ is broken away, but, I think, 
not for any great extent Its posterior end (almost entire) is abmptly 
truncated, and |^ of an inch wide. It continues of about the same 
width for nearly an inch, and then its edges, becoming thinner, 
sweep outwards with a slight curve until the plate attains the 
maximum width I have mentioned, at a distance of 2^ inches from 
its hinder end. Here it becomes so completely overlapped by the 
lateral plates, that no more can be said about its lateral contour. A 
fragment of a somewhat larger plate of the same kind leads me to 
believe, however, that the bone does not attain any much greater 
width anteriorly. The middle of the plate is thicker than its edges ; 
and shallow^ slightly reticulated grooves diverge from the couched 
centre of the bone, towards its thin edges, before reaching which 
they are lost. The form of what remains of the lateral plates is 
given in the figure; they are thicker internally, and exhibit the 
same radiating grooved sculpture as the median plate. The grooves 
diverge from the middle of die inner margin of each plate. 

2. Description of a new Lahyrinthodont (Pholidogaster 
pisciformis, Huxley). 

Loxomma is not the only Labyrinthodont in the Edinburgh coal- 
field. Some years ago a remarkable fossil was obtained from the 
same district by Sir Philip Egerton and the Earl of EnniskiUen, but 
as, on mature consideration, it appeared to them not to be a fish, it 
was handed over to the British Museum. My attention was long 
ago drawn to this specimen by Mr. Davis, of tiiat Institution, who, 
at the same time, very justly remarked upon the resemblance m the 
arrangement of iiie scales between this animal and Archegomwus. 

A recent careful study of the fossil has fully borne out Mr. Davis's 
suspicion, and has convinced me that the fossil is an Amphibian allied 
to Areh^osawrus^ though it differs from the latter in the form of the 
head, the extent to which the ossification of the vertebral column 
has proceeded, and in the characters of its dermal armour. It shares 
with Archegosaurus, however, the peculiarity of having its over- 
lapping scales arranged in double oblique series between the pectoral 
and pelvic arches only, whence, and on account of its fiah-like form, 
I propose the name of Pholidogaster pisciformis for the genus and 

The specimen (PI. XI. fig. 3) is in a very indifferent state of pre- 
servation, and is so disposed in the matrix as to show the under or 
ventral surface of the head and body.. Its total length is about 43 
or 44 inches, of which the head occupies less than ^th, the ramus of 
the lower jaw being 7 inches long. At its hindmost or widest part» 
the head measures about 5 inches in transverse diameter. In shape it 
resembles an oval bisected along its short diameter, the snout being 
completely rounded off. In front of the symphysis of the mandible, 
the under surface of the premaxiUa is visible, bearing the stumps of 

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two teeth. These teeth are situated at some distance (about 0*7 of 
an inch) from the middle line^ and pass outside the ramus of the 
mandible. They are oonicaly and round in transverse section. 
Neither is entire ; but the fragment on the right side is the longer 
(0-2 inch), and is slightly curved, its convexity being directed for- 
wards. The bases of the teeth are marked by strong longitudinal 

The right ramus of the mandible is better shown than the left;, 
though both rami are more or less distorted and crushed. The 
angcdar piece is large, and has the form and scolpture common 
among lAbyxinthodonts, 

Between the hinder parts of the rami of the mandible, but nearer 
the left than the right, are two bony plates, having the form of right- 
angled triangles, with tiieir bases backwards, and their perpen^ca- 
lars directed inwards, close to and parallel with one anotiier. Here 
of the right p^ate is visible than of the left, and its outer angle is 
seen to he produced into a process which is bent at a right angle 
towards the dorsal side of the body. A coarse sculpture, consisting 
of ridges which radiate fanwise from the outer angle of each plate 
towards its inner edge, and anastomose, so as to leave elongated pits, 
marks the surface of these plates. 

I conceive that these oorzespond with the lateral thorado plates of 
the Labyrinthodonts, thrown out of their proper places and approxi- 
mated, so as to hide the anterior half of the lozenge-shaped median 
plate, distinct traces of the posterior half of whidi plate appear to 
me to be still visible. 

The ventral armour commences behind these thoracic plates, and 
forms an oblong sheet of scales, about 4 inches broad and 17 inches 
long, whUe each scale may measure half an inch long by 45 broad. 
Wben the scales are well preserved and separately distingoishable, 
they are seen to be somewhat oat-shaped, the outer end being much 
more pbtnse in some scales than in otners. The scale is thick, and 
rises to a sort of ridge in the middle. The inner end of its outer 
face is commonly bevelled gS, or grooved, so as to receive the outer 
end of the next scale in .front of and internal to it. The scales are 
so arranged as to form oblique series, directed inwaida and f orwards^ 
and meeting in the ^niflfH e line. 

Posteriorly (fig. 4) the scales seepi to become longer, so as to aasome 
a bar-Kke character ; and at the extreme posterior end of the shield 
there are two irregcdar, broad, flat plates, apparently bony, and each 
rather more than half an inch wide. The structure of tiie fossil is 
here, however, very obscure. 

Vertebral centra become distinctly visible on the left side of tbe 
posterior third of the dermal shield. None of them are completely 
exposed ; but, firom what appears, they measure rather less than half an 
indi anterb-posteiiorly, and a little more in a direction at right angles 
to this. They are well ossified, slightly constricted in the middle, 
and have either flat or biconcave artioolar ends — ^probably the latter. 
The under surface, w^ch is exposed^ exhibits a median ridge and 
two lateral depressions. 

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The characters of the neural arches can nowhere be distinctly 
made out, though well-marked traces of them are discemible, par* 
ticularly in the caudal region, where indications of subvertebral 
arches^ or cheyron-bones^ are also to be foimd. 

At a distance of about 19 inches from the hinder end of the ramus 
of the mandible, and about 17 inches from the end of the tail, a 
stout bone^ 1*6 inch long, broad at each end and thinner in the 
middle, lies obliquely across the axis of the body. Its vertebral end 
is half an inch wide, and has a well-marked, though shallow, groove 
or longitudinal depression on its outer surface. An oval depression, 
fiUed with matrix, occupies the anterior face of the opposite end of 
this bone. There are fragments of one or two other long bones 
behind this ; and the ventral armour, which ends about an inch in 
frx)nt of the bone described, is connected posteriorly, as I have stated 
above, with two much-broken, broad, thin, bony plates. 

I teke these parts to be the remains of the pelvic girdle and 
member^ though their condition is such as to render it dmost im- 
possible to decipher their precise nature. 


Fig. 1. Craniam of Loxomma AUmanni^ one-third the natural size. 
Fig. 2. Median and lateral sternal plates of the same Labyrinthodont* 
Fig. 3. PhoUdoff aster pisciformiSf one-fifth the natural 8ize» 
Fig. 4. Scales of Phomogaster, of the natoral size. 

2. On (he Floba of 
America. By J. W. Dawson, LL.D., F.G.8., Principal of M*GiIl 
College^ Montreal. 

[Plates XIL-XVn.] 


I. Kotioea of the localities of the Devonian Plants. 

1. State of New York. I 3. Canada. 

2. Maine. I 4. New Brunswick. 

Acrc^enous Cryptogams. 
Incertse sedis. 
in. Conclusion. 

n. Descriptions of the species. 
Angiospermous Dicotyledon. 
Exogenous Gynmosperms. 





The existence of several species of land-plants in the Devonian rocks 
of New York and Pennsylvania was ascertained many years ago by 
the Geological Surveys of those States, and several of those plants 
have been described and figured in their Reports*. In Canada 
Sir W. £. Logan had ascertained, as early as 1843, the presence of 
an abundant, though apparently monotonous and simple, flora in the 

* Hall and Vanuxem, Beports on the Geology of New York ; Kogers, Beport 
on Penn^ylyania. 

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Jos DmkEl Hdi. auitial,. 


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Quart. Joum Geo! SocYol.XOTII. KH. 




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1862.] DAV80N — ^DBYOlflAir PLAITEB. 297 

DeTonian strata of Gasp^; but it was not until 1859 that these 
plants were described by the author in the 'Proceedings' of this 
Society*. More recently Messrs. Matthew and Hartt, two young 
geologists of St. John, New Brunswick, have found a rich and interest- 
ing flora in the semi-metamorphic beds in the vicinity of that dty , in 
which a few fossil plants had previously been observed by Dr. Gesner, 
Dr. Bobb, and Mr. Bennett of St. John; but they had not been 
figured or described. These plants^ however^ I described in the 
'Canadian Naturalist 'f, together with some additional species, of 
the same age, found at Perry, in the State of Maine, and preserved 
in the collection of the Natural History Society of Portland. The 
whole of the plants thus described 1 summed up in the paper last 
mentioned as consisting of 21 species, belonging to 16 genera, ex* 
dusive of genera like Stentibergia and Le^idoBtrohus^ whic^ represent 
parts of plants only. 

In the past summer I visited St. John ; and, in company with 
Messrs. Matthew and Hartt, explored the localities of the plants 
previously discovered, and examined the large collections which had 
been formed by those gentlemen since the publication of my previous 
paper. The material thus obtained proving unexpectedly copious 
and interesting, I was desirous of having opportunities of fuller 
comparison with the Devonian Flora of New York State ; and, on 
application ta Prof. Hall, that gentleman, with consent of the 
B^nts of the University of New York, kindly placed in my hands 
the whole of his collections, embracing many new and remarkable 
forms. Prof. C. H. Hitchcock, State-geologist of Maine, had in the 
meantime farther explored the deposits at Perry, and has com- 
municated to me three new species discovered by him. The whole 
of these collections, amounting in all to more than sixty species, 
constitute an addition to the Devonian Flora equal in importance to 
all the plants previously obtained fix>m rocks of this age, and establish 
for some of the species a very extensive distribution both geologically 
and geographically ; they allow, also, more satisfactory comparisons 
than were heretofore practicable to be instituted between the Devo- 
nian Flora and that of the Carboniferous Period. 

I shall first shortiy notice the geological character of the localities, 
with lists of the fosols found in each, and shall then proceed to de- 
scribe the new species. 


1. State of New York. — ^The geology of this State has been so 
folly illustrated by Prof. Hall and his colleagues, and the parallelism 
of its formations with those of Europe has been so extensively made ' 
known by Murchison and others, that it is only necessary for me to 
state that the fossils entrusted to me by Prof. Hall range from the 
Marcellus Shale to the Catskill group inclusive, and thus belong to 
the Middle and Upper Devonian of British geologists. The plants 
are distributed in the subdivisions of these groups as follows : — 

* Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. toI. xv. p. 477. t Vol. vi^ May 1861. . 

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Uppbb Dbyokiait. 
CatdciU Orovp* 


Sigillana Simplicitas, Vamtxem, 
L^idodeadion GkMpianum, JktwBon. 
Pfuophyton prinoeps, Ikmrnon. 

Crelopteris Jadcfoni, Dawmm. 
Siluchiopteris pmiotatB» ep. noT« 
cydopteroideB, sp. qot. 

Chemung Cfroup 

SigiUaria yanozemii, Chtpperi, 
^yringodendron gradle, sp. noT. 
Stignuuria ezigaa, sp. nor. 
Cepidodaidnni ChemongenBe, HaU. 
- — oormgatum, Vaiumn, 

Lyoopodites Vanuxemii, sp. nor. 
C^clopteriB Hftlliiuia, Gappert. 
Pnlo^yton prinoeps^ Dcncwm. 
Acanthophyton ■^OBom, ip. nor. 
BhachiopteriB ■trtate, sp. nor. 

Middle Deyonian. 
HamiUon Group, 

Piilophytoii prinoMM) Ditwtont^ 
€k>rdutes Bobfaii (7), Dammm. 

, 8p. nov. 

angufltifolia, DawBon. 

Cyolopteris inoeitai ip. nor. 
Bhachioptons Btriatay sp. nov. 
— tenoiBtriata, Bp. nov. 
pmnafca^ Bp. nov. 

Syringozylon mimbile, Bp. noT. 

IJiMloiyloii Hallii, sp. nor. 



Bidymophyllnm reniforme, Bp. nov. 

CalamiteB TranBitioniB (?), Gwppert, 

"'— inomatoB, n>. nor. 

LBpidodendron GaBpianum, 2>aiUf909u 

—— » oorragatum, i/otfAm. 

2. Maine. — ^The only locality in this State that has hitherto 
afforded fossil plants is Perry, near Eastport, in the eastern part of 
the State. The plant-bearing rocks are grey sandstones, resembling 
those of Gasp^, and associated with red conglomerate and trappean 
or tufaceous rocks, which^ according to the recent observations of 
Prof. C. H. Hitchcock*, rest nnconformably on shales or slates hold- 
ing Upper Silurian fossils t. I bare little doubt that these beds at 
Perry are a continuation of part of the series observed at St. John, 
New Brunswick ; and it is probable that they are Upper Devonian. 
The following species occur at this place : — 

Lepidodendron Qa^iannxn, Daw$on. 
LepidoBtroboB BidhardBonii, Dawton, 

globoBUA, Jktwson, 

Psilopiiytoii prinoeps, Dawmn, 
LeptophlcBum rhombioum, Bp. nor. 

CjblopteriB Jaokfloni, Daw9on, 

Brownii, Bp. nov. 

SphenopteriB Hitchoookiaiia» Bp. nor. 

3. Canada, — ^Devonian beds holding fossil plants occur in Eastern 
Canada, in Gasp^, and in Western Canada, at Kettle Point, Lake 
Huron. At the former place there is an extensive series of sand- 
stones and shales, regarded by Sir W. E. Logan as representing the 
whole of the Devonian series, and containing plants throughout, but 

* Beport on the Geological Surrey of Maine, now in the preBs. 
t See alBO notices by iSr, JaolcBon and Pft>f. Bogen in tl)e * Proceedings of the 
Boston Society of Natural Histoiy.' 

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1862.] DAWSON — ^DEYOiriAN VLASTB. 299 

more abundantly in its central portion*. At the latter a few plants 
have been found in shales of Upper Beyonian age. The plants found 
at Gasp^ were described in my former paper^ and 

Prototaadtes Logani, Dotoacm. 
Lepidodendron Ghtfpianum, Dawton, 
Psuophyton prinoeps, Dawson, 

Pnloph^oii robastiofl, Dawaon, 
Selaffinites formosiu, Dawson. 
Cor£dtes anguatifolijs Dawson, 

The plants from Kettle Point, noticed with doubt in my former 
paper, I may now refer to the following species : — 

Sageaaria VeLtheimiana, Chtpperi. \ Calamites inomatoa, sp. nor. 

4. New Brvmswick. — ^The rocks' in the yicinity of the city of 
St. John, constituting a part of the coast metamoiphic series of 
New Brunswick, have been described in the official reports of Dr. 
Gesner and Dr. Bobbf ; and additional facts respecting their strati* 
graphical relations, ascertained by Hr. Matthew, were stated in my 
paper in the ' Canadian Naturalist,' already referred to. The new 
interest attached to these beds, in consequence of the discovery of 
their copious fossil flora, induced me to re-examine all the sections, 
in company with Mr. Matthew, during my late visit; and that 
gentleman has recentiy extended the lunits of our observations east- 
ward in the direction of Mispec. The results of these observations 
I shall state in some detail, as the predse age of the St. John series 
has not until now been determined. 

The oldest rocks seen in the vicinity of St. John are the so-called 
syenites and altered slates in the ridges between the city and the 
Kennebeckasis Eiver. These rocks are in great part gneissose, and 
are no doubt altered sediments. They are usually of greenish 
colours ; and in places they contain bands of dark slate and reddish 
febite, as well as of grey quartzite. In their upper part they 
alternate with white and graphitic crystalline limestone, which 
overlies them in thick beds at M'Clakeney's and Drury's Cones on 
the KennebeckasiB, and again on the St. John side of an anticlinal 
formed by the syenitic or gneissose rocks, at the suburb of Portland. ' 
These limestones are also well seen in a railway-cutting Ave miles 
to the eastward of St. John$, and at lily Lake. Near tiie Eenne- 
beckasis they are unconformably overlain by the Lower Carboni- 
ferous conglomerate, which is coarse and of a red colour, and con- 
tains numerous fragments of the limestone. 

At Portland the crystalline limestone appears in a very thick bed, 
and constitutes the ridge on which stands Fort House. Its colours 
are white and grey, with dark graphitic laminae ; and it contains 
occasional bands of olive-coloured shale. It dips at a very hig^ 

* Beports of the G^olodcal Surrey of Canada ; paper on the Deronian Plants 
of Gaep^ Quart. Jonm. Qeol. See. toL xr. 

t Gmner's Second and Third Beporta on the G^eologioal Survey of New 
Brunswick ; Bobb, in Johnston's Beport on the Agriculture of New Brunswick. 

I At this place tiie limestone is penetrated by a thick vein of erephio granite, 
holding black tourmaline ; and at Drury's Cove, not far distant, it contains dykes 
of dark-coloured trap. 

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1862.} BA'WBOV — ^DXVOHIAN FIAKT8. 801 

angle to the south-east. Three heds of impure graphite appear in 
its upper portion. The highest is about a foot in tidckness^ and rests 
on a sort of underday. The middle bed is thinner and less perfectly 
exposed. The lower bed, in which a shaft has been sunk, seems to 
be three or four feet in thickness. It is very earthy and pyritous. 
The great bed of limestone is seen to rest on flinty slate and syenitio 
gneiss, beneath which, however, there appears a minor bed of lime- 
stone. Above the great limestone are beds of a hard grey meta- 
morphic rock, apparently an indurated volcanic ash, associated with 
some sandstone ; and this is succeeded by the great series of grey, 
olive, and black shales and flags which underlie the city of St. John. 
These roeks are well exposed on both sides of Courtney Bay, in the 
city of St. John, and in Carlton. Though somewhat contorted, they 
have a general dip to the south-east at angles of 50^ to 70^. In 
some of the beds there are great numbers of lAngvlaij which have 
not as yet been identified wi^ any described species. There are also 
trails of Worms, and scratches which may have been produced by 
the feet of Crustaceans or the flns of Eishes. 

The comparatively coarse shales above described are succeeded by 
a thick band of black papyraceous shale, much contorted, and with a 
few thin seams of calcareous matter arranged in the concretionary 
form known as cone-in-cone. No fossils were found in them, but 
two thin seams of anthracitic coaly matter are stated to have been 
seen on their line of strike eastward of Courtney Bay*. 

Overlying these beds is a group of very different character. It 
consists of purplish-red and green grit and shale, with beds of red 
conglomerate and red sandstone. Interstratifled with these are 
massive beds of a greenish rock, consisting of trappean and felspathio 
fragments, imbedded in a shining reddish paste, or sometimes pre- 
senting the appearance of a compact trap or am3rgdaloid. This rock 
usually presents an appearance of greater alteration than the neigh- 
bouring beds, and contains veins of epidote, quartz, and calc-spar. 
Its hard and massive character causes it to resust denudation, and to 
project above the surfiace in irregular masses. It has usually been 
regarded as a trap ; I am disposed, however, to consider it as more 
probably a tufaceous or volcanic ash rock, except in a few places, 
where it is either an amygdaloidal trap or a mass of fragments of 
such material too intimately connected to be separated from each 
other. It is evidently a stratified member of the series, though its 
beds are very unequal in hardness and texture, and probably also in 
thickness. This portion of the series is well exposed on the east side 
of Courtney Bay, in the southern part of the city of St. John, and 
in the direction of Carlton, where its tufaceous or trappean members 
QOnstitute prominent elevations. It seems also to be this member 
of the series which, turning to the south, constitutes Cape Meogenes. 

Reposing on the rocks last described is the most interesting 
member of the series, consisting of hard buff and grey sandstones, 
with black and dark-grey shales. The sandstones contain numerous 
Coniferous trunks; and the shales, which are sometimes highly 

* Gesner^s Seoond Beport 

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302 TWocEEBaw OF THx oBOLoeicAL sodXTT. [May Tf 

graphitic, abound in delicate vegetable remains, often in a very per- 
fect state of preservation. These rocks appear on the east side of 
Courtney Bay, near Little River, at the extremity of the point of 
land on which the city of St. John stands, and in the ledges and 
elifb on the shore westward of Carlton. In all these places they are 
quite conformable with the underlying rocks, though the dip gra- 
dually diminishes in ascending. 

No rocks newer than the above are seen at Carlton or in the city 
of St. John ; but near Little River a few beds of red shale and coarse 
sandstone seem to indicate the commencement of a new member of 
the series, the coast-section failing at this point. Mr. Matthew has, 
however, succeeded in finding a continuation of the section further 
inland, exhibiting first, in ascending order, grey sandstone and grit, 
with dark shale holding fossil plants, among which is Calamites 
Trangitionts. This may perhaps be regarded as the top of the group 
last mentioned. Above it, and passing into it at their base, are reddish 
sandstones, grits, and conglomerate, alteTnating with green, greenish- 
grey, and red diale. Resting on these is a thick-bedded, coarse, 
angular conglomerate, succeeded by evenly bedded shales, shaly 
sandstones, and grits, of dark-red and purplish colours. These are 
the highest beds seen, as beyond this place they are bent in a syn- 
clinal, and reappear with reversed dips. 

Another most important observation of Mr. Matthew