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Full text of "Quarterly journal of the Folkestone Natural History Society"

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■f^n 1 T rPBICB SIXPENCE, , , 

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QUARTERLY JOURNAL 

Of THfi 

dfolftestotte 




sociETir, 



PAOB. 

Address .... ,. ,, ,> 1 

Geology of the Warren , . 3 

Freshwater MolltJBks , .. 7 

The Microscope 12 

Fertilisation of Orchids 4 17 

Experiences of Aquarium Life 18 

Notee and Queries 23 



DECEMBER, 1868. 



FOLKESTONE: 

PBINTBD FOR THE SOCIETY BY J. ENGLISH, "EXPEESS" 
OFFICE, HIGH STKEET. 

And Sold by all Bookaellera. 



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THE FOLLOWING IS A 



LIST OF OFFICERS 



OF THE SOCIETY. 



C. E. 



PBESIDENT : 

FITZ GEEALD, M.D. 



OOMillTrEE : 



H. B. Mackeeon, F.G.S. 
C. H. Dashwood, F.Z.S. 
Eov. C. L. Acland, M.A. 
Ecv. C. J. Taylor, M.A. 
Eev.E. Langdon,M.A.,F.G.S. 
S. Eastes, Esq. 



G. M. Scholey, Esq. 

A. M. Lcith, Esq. 

W. G. S. Hameon, Esq. 

W. Batcman, Esq. 

J. Clarke, Esq. 

E. W- Boarer, Esq. 



Honorary Secretary, Hy. ULLTETT. 



Subscribers- are respectfully informed tliat it would .save 
much trouble, and ensure punctuality in the delivery of the 
Magazine, if they would forward their names and the year's 
subscription to the Secretary at their earliest convenience. 



QUARTEELY JOURNAL 

at THB 

FOLKESTONE 

NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

DECEMBEB, 1868. 

ADDRESS. 

In the present glut of the literary market as regards periodi- 
cal literature, an apology will be expected in hringiag before 
the world another scientific quarterly. It will then, perhaps, 
be well to state the grounds on which such a course of action 
may best be defended. 

The days are happily long gone by, when scientific theories 
were constantly beiug propounded regardless, or nearly so, 
of experimental observation, and when each philosopher 
thought it his duty to outbid aU others by the wildness and 
extravagance of his speculations. And with the expiration of 
what may be called the theoretical period of science, and the 
substitution for it of a more solid method of reasoning, the 
^- B 



professors .of eacli particular branch of natural science have 
endeavoured to obtain in all parts of the world, and in as 
many localities as possible, in our own island, persons who 
should become accui-ate observers of aU classes of natural 
phenomena. 

It is with this great object steadily kept in view, that the 
Folkestone Natural History Society has been formed, and, by 
keeping it in view as its main object alone can it hope to 
floui'ish, or this paper to succeed. We must not expect aU of 
us to become great naturalists, so as to inti'oduce important 
changes in classification, or by propounding deep theories, but 
we should all of us endeavour to be good and accurate 
observers. 

Tliis journal will contain such papers from among those 
that have been read before the society as shall seem suited for 
publication ; and we shall be glad to receive original papers, 
records of scientific discoveries, and other communications 
that may seem likely to promote the great object that we have 
set before us. "We shall also devote a portion of our pages to 
notes and queries. It wiU be oui* endeavour to exclude as 
much as possible irrelevant matter, and we shall do the utmost 
that lies in oui- power to further the prosperity of the 
Folkestone Natural History Society, and to furnish a satis- 
factory record of our local scientific phenomena to its members 
and to the stranger naturalists who may from time to time 
visit om' town. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



A meeting of gentlemen interested in the study of Natural 
History was held in the Town Hall, by kind permission of the 
Mayor, April 4th, C. E. Fitz Gerald, M.D., in the chair. 

After a few remarks on the desirability of forming a society 
for the above study, and on the natural facilities for it which 
abounded in our neighbourhood, the Chairman called upon 
Mr. Ullyett, formerly secretary to the High Wycombe Society, 
to explain the mode of formation and working. After this 
had been done, it was resolved that a society should be formed 
in Folkestone, all those present, about five-and-twenty, giving 
in their names. C. E. Fitz Gerald, M.D., was elected presi- 
dent, and a committee was appointed with power to add to 
its number. The subscription to be half-a-crown per annum, 
for ladies or gentlemen. Mr. Ullyett was elected secretaiy. 
It was resolved that a field day should be held on the first 
Saturday in each month during the summer; but the first 
ramble should be on the Wednesday in Easter week, as a day 
when the majority of the members would bo at liberty. 



FIELD DAY, APRIL 15th. 



The members met at Tower No. 2, for a geological ramble 
over East Wear Bay; about five-and-twenty were present. 
On arriving on the sands, the secretaiy read the following 
jjaper on the 

GEOLOGY OF THE WARREN. 

We are standing on ground full of historical interest. Before us 
stretch the white chalk cliffs of Albion that tempted the Roman con- 
queror across from Gaul. Far away inland runs the lino of hills of 
which they are the termination, until the Plain of Salisbury is reached, 
fraught with no loss interest as the spot where the ancient inhabitants 
B 2 



4 GEOLOGY OF THE 'WAEREN. 

of our land reared one of their largest temples. All the chalk ranges 
of England commence at Salisbury Plain, radiating from it to the 
north-east, east, south-east, and south-west. What we see here is the 
termination of the east range, known generally as the North Downs, 
forming the Northern boundary of the Weald of Kent. The precipitous 
and abrupt appearance of the cliffs will cause any thoughtful mind to 
ask the question — Did the range over extend farther seaward than it 
does now? As the clifTa appear to be continually undergoing degrada- 
tion, there are certainly grounds for supposing that it did. Cast your 
eyes across towards France, and when the atmosphere is in a favour- 
able condition you will behold a similar termination of chalk hills on 
the opposite coast, just as abrupt, just as steep. The geologist will 
toll yon that in ages gone by the cliffs of Albion were united with 
those of Gaul, that our counti-y was not then an island, but a portion 
of some large continent ; and that the separation has been effected by 
a gradual sinking of tho land, and the incessant dashing of the ocean 
waves on a barrier too feeble to resist their mighty influence. Tho 
increased shallowness of the water in the line between these cliffs, 
compared with that of the sea on either side of it, supports this view, 
as does also the fact that the other formations found here beneath the 
chalk occur there in the same order. This hypothesis accounts at 
once for the mode in which our present island became populated with 
its various wild inhabitants, as well as with the lions, elephants, mon- 
keys, hyaenas, &c., the remains of which are disinterred by the 
geologist. They crossed over, not by water, but by the land that ia 
now submerged. 

The Chalk is tho uppermost of the secondary series of rocks, and is 
a very extensive deposit, being found not only in England but in various 
parts of Europe between us and the Black Sea. It is formed chiefly 
of the remains of shell fish and microscopic animals, being found to 
consist of carbonate of lime ; and was evidently deposited in a tranquil 
deep sea, far from land, as tho nature of the animal remains testifies. 
The climate, too, was a much more equable one then than it is at pre- 
sent, and much warmer ; very few vegetable remains of any kind are 
found in it. The fossils found in it in this locality are abundant, but I 
have not as yet worked them much ; here we may get, however, 
numerous Tei-ehratulx, Sea Eggs of sevei-al kinds, Anaiicliytes, Mi- 
craster, and Cidaris, with their detached spines, and any quantity of 
shells and fragments of rnocerami; the last-named, together with 
Bliynclwnellce, are very abundant in the detached blocks at the foot 
of tho cliffs near the Coast-guard Houses. 

Besides the Chalk, we have here the Upper Greensand, Gault, and 
Lower Greensand. The strata, as you would observe better in going 
along the Lower Sandgate Eoad, are not horizontal, but inclined at a 
small angle and dip to the east, cropping up, yon will notice, from 
beneath the superincumbent formations as you go westward. Very 
little, indeed, of the Upper Greousaud is to be seen ; there are a few 



OfiOLOGY OF THE WARREN. <J 

blocks scattered liere and there, and some small remnants in nitu far 
out on the beach. I have not yet succeeded in extracting any fossils 
from it except a few specimens of wood, though there are plentiful 
traces of apparent organic remains in some portions of it. 

Next below it comes the Gault, or Blue Clay, as it is locally called, 
and here it is that the fossil remains appear so exceedingly abundant 
and beautiful. If we Wished to place a young geologist whore he 
would be likely to meet with the least disappointment, we ought to set 
him down either in a Lias quarry or on a bed of Gault. They are 
scattered about on the beach here in the utmost profusion, though 
they are more easily attainable at some particular times : the tide 
overflows the clay twice a day and washes them out, but it sometimes 
covers them up With sand instead. It is difficult to preserve them, as 
they are apt to drop to pieces as soon as dug out ; it is very disap- 
pointing sometimes, just as you fancy you have got a good large 
Ammonite out, resplendent with all the hues of the rainbow, to see it 
separate into four or five parts. It is best to dig out the lump of clay 
in which the specimen lies, carry it carefully home, and soak it a short 
time in a thin solution of gum. The most abundant fossils here 
are Ammmites, several species, Belemnites by hundreds, BacuUtes, 
Hamites &c., the pretty Nucula pedinata, and one or two other 
bivalves. I have come across one tooth belonging to a species of 
Shark, and some bits of fossil wood. From the frequent occurrence of 
the latter substance in the Gault and Greensand it would appear that 
they were formed in the vicinity of land ; in fact many geologists re- 
gard these formations as a littoi-al deposit going on in some places 
simultaneously with the deposit of Chalk in the deep sea. Fragments 
oUnoccrami may be found in every block; I. sulcatus is one of the most 
common and curious. It is of little use working in the dry blocks above 
high water mark, as everything there is so friable. The thickness of 
the Gault is best seen by observing the high promontory to the left, 
beyond Tower No. 3, which is wholly composed of the Blue Clay. 

Between this Gault and the Lower Greensand is a very narrow bed 
of unique formation, known as the Folkestone Junction Bed, it is seen 
only near the aforesaid promontory ; it is very ferruginous, and con. 
tains sulphur, with small portions of selenite ; it produces a few 
fossils, particularly wood. 

Next below the Gault we find the Lower Greensand, well known to 
us all, forming the clifis near the harbour and those all along the 
Lower Sandsate Road. I have worked in it scarcely at all ; one of its 
characteristic fossils is a large oyster, Ostrea simuita, to be seen in 
most of the loose blocks scattered about below East and West Cliff. 
Tho formation consists, at Folkestone, of layers of tolerably hard 
stone, with intervals of loose sand between them, on which the Gorse 
and other wild plants flourish luxuriantly. The beds of Sandgate are 
less sandy, and mixed with Fuller's earth, while at Hythe they become 
much more compact and are known as Kentish Eag. To geologists 



6 GEOLOGY OF THE ^TAEEEJT. 

these three arc known as the Folkestone, Sandgate, and Hythc Botls 
respectively. Below West Cliff, at a considerable distance from the 
surface of the Lower Grecnsand, is a large black deposit of sand and 
clay, quite friable in some spots and in others di-ying like the Gault. 
The surface appears to be unifoi-mly level, and the deposit itself is 
probably a very sandy mixture of Fuller's earth. I extracted a long 
piece of wood from it this morning. One more fonnation remains — a 
conglomerate, blocks of which are lying in the clay and sand some 
distance to our left, and a long stratum immediately beneath the Chalk 
past the Coast-guard Houses. Nodules of Iron Pyrites are exceedingly 
abtmdant on the beach, and blocks of Iron Sandstone as well, also up 
higher on the Warren. It is hardly necessary to remind yon that before 
the use of coal in smelting there was an immense quantity of iron dug 
from the Weald of Kent. In the time of James I. there were 400 
furnaces at work in this and the adjoining counties, smelting the iron 
ore with the wood then so abundant in this part of the country. 

The whole of the coast immediately before us is being rapidly 
destroyed; even in a week or two we should look in vain for the identical 
spots we may notice now at highwator mark. This destruction is, of 
course, owing partly to the action of the waves, but much more to tho 
loosening effects of the land springs, which wash out subterranean 
channels for themselves, and by so doing cause tho mass of earth 
immediately above them to sink down more or less suddenly. A large 
slip occurred on the 10th March just beyond the Coast-guard Houses ; 
the mass of earth went down at all once, but preserved its own level 
so well that any one standing on it would have received no injury, 
probably not even a fall. 

From this very imperfect sketch of local formations, we may see 
that a rich harvest awaits any who intend collecting and studying ; and 
there is also tho interesting opportunity of watching a coast visibly 
wearing away, and of thus being able to form some little idea of the 
power of one of the grand agents in nature in altering the surface of the 
earth. 

The members then worked for themselves in the Gaiilt ; 
the high water prevented thoir going to the most productive 
spots, hut many good specimens were found. Among them 
•v^rei-e — Ammo7utes lautus, A. tuhercuhtm, A. splendeni, Nueula 
pectinata, N. otata, Inoeernmm sulcatus, 1. concentricm, BeUmnites 
Listen, a Natica, Shark's Tooth, &c. 

Much assistance in identifying these and others was afforded 
by the Eev. E. Langdon, F.G.S., who had drawn sketches of 
the commoner ones for the occasion. 



fueshwatee mollusks. 



FIELD DAY, MAY and. 

The members met on the Lees, and proceeded to the canal 
at Seabrooke. The Eev. E. Langdon read the following 
paper on 

FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS: 

The tmllusca, or mollusks, form one of the most numerous specifically 
and individually, and the most widely distributed, both in time and 
space, of all the great divisions of the animal kingdom. Most widely 
distributed in time, for geologically we find their remains embedded 
in all rocks of sedimentary origin, from the very oldest to the most 
recent; the most widely distributed in space, for iu every quarter of 
ths globe where life can be supported the moUusca in some form are 
met with. Called mollusks from the softness of their bodies, they have 
no articulated skeleton nor vetebral canal. Their nervous system is 
not united as in the vertebrata by a spinal cord, but scattered about in 
nervous masses, disposed in various parts of the body ; the principal 
one, or brain, if we may so call it, forming a nervous collar or ring 
round the gullet. A large number of them have no head or brain, as 
having no need of nerves for the transmission of the impressions 
received by organs of special sense. In them, the inlet foi' food is 
simply an opening or beginning of the alimentary canal, without jaws, 
tongue, or mouth, properly so called. All the remaining mollusks are 
provided with a head, which generally support feelers, or tentacles as 
they are called, eyes, and a mouth armed with jaws. So that we at 
once get a good division of them into two classes, both of which I 
hope I shall be able to shew you to-day : 

AcEPHAr.A, or mollusks without heads. 

ExcjiPHALA, or mollusks with heads. 

The headless mollusks all live in the water, and are divided intu 
three further classes : 

Tunicata, Brachinpoda, and Lamellihranchiata, 

Of these, the first two I will pass over, as we shall be unable to 
obtain any practical knowledge of them to-day, merely pausing to 
make one remark about the Brachio^JOtJji. They are among the most 
abundant of the molluscous remains that the geologist finds in the 
early deposits, and very abundant in all up to the time of the chalk, 
after which thoy become less frequent ; but the point to which. I wish 
to call especial attention is that the geologist knows somewhere about 
3,000 species, whereas in our own times only 13 species are known, and 
those very difficult to be procm-ed. 



8 FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS. 

Bnt to leave them for the Lamellihranchiata, of which I hope the 
canal will furnish us some specimens. 

Bearing in mind that all mollnsks with a double shell are set down 
as "oysters," " cockles," or "mussels," by the uninitiated, I beg you all 
to keep a good look out to-day for " mussels" and " cockles." 

Now just a word or two about the way in which these Lamellibran- 
chiata are grouped. 

When they are in their ordinary condition you will see them in the 
water with one or more tubes projecting from the partly open shell for 
inhaling and exhaling the surrounding fluid; bnt if they are disturbed 
or alarmed in any Way the two shells are drawn close together. Now 
you will ask, how do they close their shells? In a very simple manner, 
by having a muscle attached to each shell, which they have the power 
of expanding or contracting at their will, very much like those India 
rubber springs with which doors are sometimes kept closed. 

Now some of these Lamellihranchiata have one of these muscles 
attached to each shell, and form a class called the Morwmyaria, or one- 
muscled Lamellibra/nchiatcs. Of these the oyster is a common example, 
and the next time you have an oyster shell in your hand, yon will see 
on it a scar where the muscle was attached. Of this group we find 
only one in freshwater in our country ; and I fear we must not expect 
to find it to-day, although it is far from improbable that there are 
Bome to be met with in this canal. 

Others of the Lainellibranchiata have two of these muscles attached 
to each shell, and are called Dimijaria, or two-muscled La/mMibran- 
chiates; these are the "cockiea" and "mussels." In them you will see 
two scars on each shell. 

1st The Anodonta cygnca, or Swan Mussel, of which we may, I hope, 
bo fortunate enough to obtain specimens three or four inches in length, 
and which have been known to attain as great a measurement as nine 
inches. 

2nd. Unio, a smaller and rounder mussel than the preceding, of 
which there are three species, that I shall be hajipy to name if any 
gentleman finds specimens. 

3rd. Oyclas, a kind of freshwater cockle, of which there are five 
species, all small, the largest barely an inch across. 

4th. Pisidium, another cockle, of which there are seven species, the 
largest no bigger than a pea. 

These are all the Larnellibranchiates to be found in English fresh water. 

We must now turn to the Eiicepliala, or mollusks with heads. 

These are divided into (a) Ptcropoda, creatures that swim by two 
wing-like muscular expansions extended outwards from the sides of the 
head. There are only throe or four modem genera, all found in salt 
water. 

(h) The Ceplialapoda, creatures having their feet or organs of motion 
attached to their head, so that literally it is a question whether they 
stand on their head or their heels, as the expression is. These we 



FRtlSlTWATETl MOLLtTSKS. 9 

shall not find in freshwater ; but yon are most of yon familiar with 
8omo of them, such as the Ammonite, Belomnite, Squid, and Cuttlefish. 
And lastly (cj, the Gastropoda, creatures that creep by means of a 
muscular disc attached to their belly, such as the slug and snail. It is 
with this class, and with those members of it called the freshwater 
snails, that we have the most to do to-day. 

We shall, however, find a shell named Succinea, which although an 
air-breathing and not a water-breathing mollusk, is never found except 
in wot places. I shall hope to point it out to you presently. The 
genus Succinea contains three species. 

Next we come to four families of shells, the inhabitants of which 
breath both air and water, and can, consequently, live on mud and on 
the banks of rivers a short time, although water is their more congenial 
element. 

1st. Pla-vyrhis, shaped somewhat like an Ammonite, of which there 
are eleven British species, and of which we may hope to find some 
specimens, at any rate Planarbis complanat^lS, which is flat one side and 
has a sharp keel ; and, perhaps, Planorhis crista, a small, dehcato, ribbed 
shell, with which I made my first practical acquaintance in this canal 
about five weeks ago. 

2nd. Physa, of which there are two species : always coiled to the 
left, as you will see if you find a specimen by holding it with the aper- 
ture facing you and the apex or spire upwards : the aperture then will 
appear on the left hand side. The common snails are coiled to the 
right, and a left-handed garden snail would be a rich prize as there are 
not a dozen in the British Museum. 

Physa may be easily recognised by its body being much too large for 
its shell. 

Its shell, too, is very bright, its occupant continually polishing and 
cleaning it by portions of its body folded up over its shell like little 
fingers ; we may take it home as a model for housewives, if we can 
succeed in fijiding a specimen. 

Physa has the property of letting itself down from the top of the 
water, or from the leaf of a water plant, by a thread of mucus. 

This has been doubted by several able authorites, among them the 
late Lovell Reeve ; but I have had the good fortune to witness it my- 
self, and experimented on it in the presence of some friends with such 
conclusive results that the above-mentioned eminent conchologist ex- 
pressed himself perfectly satisfied when I gave him an account of my 
investigations. 

3rd. Ltjrrmosa, the commoner family of water snails, of which we 
have eight in Great Britain, of which one is confined to Ireland and 
two others are very i-arely met with. 

We shall find, I hope, to-day, at any rate two species, L. limosa, also 
known as L. peregra ; and L. palustris, a shell easily recogised by the 
malleated appearance of its surface as if it had been hammered all 
over. Nor do I see any reason, except in the fact that 1 have not yet 



10 FRESinVATER MOLLUSKS. 

met with thein in this canal, why we may not expect to find *L. auri- 
cularia, a pretty shoU in the shape of an ear, L. stagnalis, the largest 
British species, and L. tnincatula, making, in all, five ont of the eight. 
If not in this canal, we must not, I think, at any rate rest satisfied 
until we have found them somewhere in the neighbourhood. 

4th. Ancijlus, or freshwater Limpet, of which there are two species. 
Th^y are usually found adhering to stones or water weeds, more com- 
monly the former, unless found in situations with a very muddy bottom, 
Oi" the two, they rather prefer clear to stagnant water, although they 
will live for years in a healthy aquarium. They are both small ; the 
larger, Ancylus fluviatili*, never exceeding half an inch in diameter. 

This completes my list of those that respire both air and water, and 
they are all, like the common snail, without an operculum or trap- 
door with which some moUusks shut themselves in when they retire 
within their shell. 

We now come to those that are provided with an operculum, such 
as you must have noticed in the common periwinkle. Of these wo 
have in England two genera, which, like the common snail, breathe air 
only ; but these I pass over as foreign to our purpose to-day. The re- 
mainder (there are but five families) respire water only. 

1st. Of these I pass over one, Dr. Gray's Assiminea, as it has been 
only as yet found in the River Thames. 

2nd. Bythinia, a genus of pretty mollusks of which there are three 
species, and of which we must make up our minds to find one at least. 
The animal when crawling puts forth two white, elegantly-curved ten- 
tacles, and is, altogether, a genteel looking creature and exceedingly 
dainty in an aquarium, choosing out for itself all the youngest and 
most tender bits of water weed. 

3rd. Fiiludtiui : Of this there are two species, not particularly easy 
to distinguish. 

These are certainly by far the handsomest of our fresh-water sheila. 
The colour of the shell is a dark olive green with three purple bands 
running round it ; the animal which is shy and unlike the peacock, not 
fond of exhibiting itself, is of a rich dark umber tint, covered with 
minute yellow dots, suggesting the idea of gold dust. 

It has the peculiar characteristic of hatching its young in the ovary, 
and ejecting them when alive three or four at a time when they are 
about two months old. Whenever I have found in the breeding season 
shells of these creatures icith the operculum perfect, in ichich the aninial 
had 2)erishcd, I have invariably found two or three of the young fry 
also, about | of an inch in diameter. 

4th. Valvata, of which there are two species. 

This is a small animal generally found adhering to stones and sticks 
in still and gently running waters. The animal is pretty, being almost 

*This shell was found on the day in which this paper was read. 



FRESHWATER MOLLUSKS. 11 

milk white, its blue-black eyes showing conspicuously at the base of 
each tentacle. It has two characteristics almost peculiar to itself ; 
ouo is, two almost crescent-shaped projections on either side of 
the front of the foot, reminding one somewhat of the feet of birds in 
Noah's Arks. The other is its branchia, or breathing apparatus, 
which is somewhat like a feather, and is sometimes protruded outside 
the shell above the head, protected by a third tentacle, which curls 
about as a sentry to see that the coast is clear. 

Both the species are small. 

5th and last. Nerititia of which we have but one British species. 

It is not unlike in shape to Nerita, the little yellow shell that is so 
common on our coasts on rocks at low tide. It may be found on 
stones or on the gravelly bottom of rivers and streams, bat not, I fear 
in the still waters of the canal. 

Before closing my paper, I must make a few remarks on the order 
generally. 

Some of them are hermaphrodites ; i.e. contain the male and female 
organs in one individual ; others have the sexes distinct. Some bring 
forth their young alive, without any distinct eggs ; others liko Paliidina 
hatch their eggs within their body. They have no distinct organ of 
smelling as yet discovered, although they undoubtedly, for the most 
part, possess that sense. The organs of hearing in some of them are 
very curious. They consist of two round cells containing fluid and 
crystalline particles, called otolites or ear stones, which, by means of 
minute hairs or ciliffi, spin round and round at a tremendous pace, and 
will continue to do so for some hours after they have been removed 
from the animal, when the cilisa stiifen and di'op off and all motion 
ceases. The best creature for obtaining these otolites from is Paludina, 
the handsome purple-banded shell I have spoken of. 

The organs of respiration vary ; some have branchia, or gills, some 
have lungs, and some both. The tongue is, in all the Gastropoda, an 
organ for the attrition of its food. It could not, one would think, con- 
vey any sense of taste to the so-called brain, as it is of a silicious or 
flinty nature. It forms a beautiful object for the microscope. 

There are many other objects of exceeding interest connected with 
these animals ; their microscopic appearance in the early stages of de- 
velopment, their distribution throughout the globe, theories connected 
with origin and range of species, which I hope, with the leave of the 
president and committee, to discuss on a future occasion in a paper on 
the laud mollusks. 

I can only conclude by recommending any who desire to become 
further acquainted with these interesting creatiires to search for them- 
selves, and to set up an aquarium, by which alone any real knowledge 
of their habits and other points of interest connected with tliem can 
be acquired ; and I shall be most happy to render any assistance in the 
way of instraction or advice to those desirous of doing so, and also to 
lend and recommend books on the subject. 



12 



THE MICTROSCOPK. 



I should bo glad to bo shown any now specimens that any membof 
may find now or hereafter, as I am forming a catalogue of the local 
species. 

Nets and bottles then made their appearance, and a good 
collection of shells, &c., was procured among the members. 
Amonc^ them yfev^-Lymnaa Imosa, L. palustris, Succmea 
gracilS, BytUnia tentaculata, B. Leackii, Planorhis comphmtm, 
Cyclas ovalis, with fragments of Anodonta cygnca, and var. 
anatina. 

Several new members were added. 



SOIREE, MAY 13th. 

A microscopical soiree was held at the President's residence, 
at which about forty members were present. Fifteen micro- 
scopes were provided for the occasion, all weU supphed witH 
objects. The President read the following paper on 

THE MICROSCOPE: 

The microscope is an instrument of groat antiquity; indeed there 
is no doubt that it was in use in its simplest form-namely, a globe of 
glass filled with water, at a period long antecedent to the bxrth of 
Christ. Seneca and Pliny, both of whom were bora at the commence- 
ment of the Christian era, mention lenses made with glass or water ; 
and Ptolemy speaks of magnifying glasses and refraction in his work 
on Optics. This, however, was the microscope in its most piimitive 
and simple form-a single lens of glass or water. It was not until tho 
middle of tho 17th century that tho compound microscope, consisting 
of a combination of lenses, came into limited use ; those microscopes 
wore large, unwieldy tubes, with the objects fixed in them. Very un- 
familiar instruments they must have boon, for we road about this time 
of a travelling philosopher who fell ill with fever and died m a certain 
town The municipal authorities examined his oficcts, and found an 
immense brass tube, some six feot long, which on peeping into they 
found to contain his familiar demon, an immense monster of a very 
"uncanny" appearance. Of course, tho philosopher was refused 
Christian burial ; and it was not until some time had elapsed that an 
adventurous burgess, who had succeeded in unscrewing the end of the 



THE MICROSCOPE. 13 

apparatus, was astonished to fiud tbat tlie philosopher's familiar demon 
was nothing more formidable than the familiar flea. Although the 
m.icroscope was known so many centuries ago, it is really only within 
the last 30 years that it has been brought to its present state of per- 
fection. During that time it has made giant strides, and has advanced 
from being a scientific toy, giving a confused and coloured image, to 
its position of pioneer in the investigation of every mystery of nature. 
I myself can remember when a lens with a quarter-inch focal distance, 
magnifying 200 diameters, was the highest power known ; and when, 
about ten years since, a l-26th of an inch lens was manufactured by 
one of our enterprising opticians, it was considered, andindeedis, a mar- 
vel of delicate workmanship. Since then, however, they have suc- 
ceeded in making lenses with a focal distance of l-50th, and within 
the last few weeks l-70th of an inch, and magnifying between 4,000 
and 5,000 diameters. I should perhaps mention, that the power of a 
lens is known by the distance at which it is held from the object mag- 
nified. This is the instrument with which we now penetrate deeper 
and deeper into the secrets of nature, and solve doubts and problems 
which only a few years ago seemed hopeless mysteries. It was by the 
aid of the microscope M. Trembley first discovered that wonderful 
creature the hydra, or fresh water polype. I suppose there is no other 
creature on earth which could undergo and flourish on such treatment 
as this can. It is nothing that it propagates itself by buds like a 
plant, and that any part cut ofi" is reproduced ; but yon may cut ofi^ or 
slit up its heads, and each piece will produce a new one ; you may 
cut it in halves or quarters, and produce two or four new creatures ; 
you may turn it inside out, so that what is now stomach becomes 
outer skin, and vice versa. You may splice two or three individuals 
together, head to head, taU to tail, or head of one to the tail of the 
other, and they will become one animal, not only without injury, but 
with every sign of placid enjoyment. 

In observations made with the microscope, errors will, of course, 
Bometimes arise, not from any fault of the instrument, but from want 
of care in observation. Thus there was great dispute some years 
since as to the real form of the blood corpuscles. The blood consists, 
as most of you know, of a colourless fluid, in' which float numerous red 
and white discs called blood corpuscles. Well, some observers de- 
scribed them as globular, others as flattened discs, a third as slightly 
convex, a fourth as highly convex, a fifth as concave, &c. ; whereas the 
form of a corpuscle in freshly drawn blood is a circular disc, with 
slightly concave surfaces, the difierenoes of form being produced by 
maceration, or soaking in water or other fluids, during or before the 
time of observation. One of the most carious results of microscopic 
research is the much greater certainty with which it enables us to give 
to various creatures and plants their right places in creation. Groat 
obscurity prevailed among the older microscopists as to what they 
termed animalcules. There are sometimes not less than 27 varieties of 



14 THE MICROSCOPE. 

animalcules in a single drop of water, bearing, as we now know, no 
further resemblance one to the other than their microscopic size ; some 
are plants, some are animals, though which is which,is, or was, diflScult 
to decide. Many a fierce debate has been held, many a fiery word 
spoken on this subject ; for even natural philosophers are not devoid of 
angry feelings. The borderline separating the animal and vegetable 
kingdom has long been debateable ground, and the tribes in close 
contiguity on either side have constantly, though unconsciously, shifted 
sides, now being claimed by the animal philosophers, now by the 
vegetarians. Now, some unmistakeable spontaneous motion being 
discovered, they are given up to the animal world ; then their outer 
coverings yield un-doubted evidence of starch, and they are claimed 
as true vegetables. There is one specimen in particular, the Volvoj) 
Globator which has changed sides so often, that could it be supposed to 
posesss o\ir finer feelings, it must be quite ashamed of itself. For a 
long time it was considered an unmistakeable animal, as it whirled 
round in the water by the aid of its cilife or hair-like appendages, and 
was described as possessing an eye, a mouth, and several stomachs. 
There is now, how-ever, no donbt as to its vegetable character. 
Perhaps you will say, what is the difierence between a plant and a lower 
animal ? Well, the boundary line is faint, and somewhat uncertain, 
and there is no one characteristic mark by which to distinguish one 
from the other. Certainly spontaneous motion is not one ; for so 
frequent is it among vegetables, that I really think the safest plan 
for the young microscopist is, when he sees anything ho is quite con- 
vinced is an animal, to at once put it down as belonging to the vegetable 
kingdom. Perhaps the most practical test is that given by Carpenter — 
the dependence of the animal for nutriment on organic compounds taken 
into the interior of its body ; of the vegetable, its power of obtaining 
its own alimentary matter from inorganic material on its exterior. At 
any rate these are the characteristics of the animal and vegetable 
world as a whole. For while we fixtd the simplest animals, the I'rotozoa, 
nothing more in fact than a mass of jelly, deriving their nourishment 
as much from other animals and plants as we do from hoof 
or potatoes, so we find the Protophyta, the humblest class of plants, 
drawing their support from water, carbonic acid, and ammonia 
(inorganic compounds), and liberating oxygen and absorbing carbonic 
acid, in the same manner as the most highly organised plants. 

The microscope has been most invaluable in investigating many 
diseases, or blights, as they were called. Tlius it was discovered that 
the silkworm disease (muscardine), which annually carried ofi" immense 
numbers of silkworms, was a fungous vegetation; that that most 
troublesome malady to which our countrj men north of the Tweed 
are more particularly liable, and which James I. said no one but a 
king should bo allowed to have, is caused by the burrowing of a 
small insect (Acarus scdbwi) beneath the skin : and what is stil 
the more important, we have within the last few years discovered the 



THE MICROSCOPE. 15 

Trichiiia spiralis, a little spiral worm, which is generated in the 
muscles of unwholesome pork, and is the cause of a frightful 
disease if taken into the human body. It is for this reason, I 
should perhaps mention, that it is so very necessary pork should 
be always thoroughly cooked, or this animalcule is very tena- 
cious of life, and will live through any but the fiercest heat. That 
troublesome disease called ringworm is now known to be of vegetable 
origin, consisting of a fungoid growth ; and the same may, to a certain 
extent, be said of the thrush to which infants are so liable, and even 
of diptheria. By the aid of the microscope it was discovered that all 
things, auimal and vegetable alike, are but a conglomeration of cells. 
In the lower forms of life, each individual cell may be considered 
perfect in itself, forming sometimes the entire individual, and capable 
of independent Ufe; in man and the higher animals the whole complex 
organisation is gradually developed from the multiplication and secre- 
tion of a single cell ; this, however, is far too vast and abstruse to be 
more than alluded to in a fugitive paper like the present. Another 
very interesting result of microscopic discoveries is the curious meta- 
morphosis or transformation that goes on in the lower animals duiing 
the different stages of life. We are all familiar with the change which 
takes place from the tadpole into the frog ; but this, which we are 
accustomed to consider an exception, appears rather to be the rule in 
the lower organisations. I shall show you presently the larva of the 
Mayfly, swimming and diving through the water like some ugly little 
fish, and as unlike the light aerial fly which it ultimately becomes as 
any two objects can be. Again, there is not much similarity between 
a crab and a barnacle, yet in their earlier stages they ai'e like Pompey 
and Caesar, very much alike, both very much like the little water flea. 
Indeed the very youthfal crab was at one time considered and described 
as a perfect adult animal of the water-flea class ; it must therefore be 
quite impossible for a parent to know its own ofispring. 

The wonders which reward even a superflcial knowledge of the micro- 
scope are far too numerous to be alluded to in the limits of this paper; 
for what can be more interesting than to watch the circulation of the 
blood corpuscles in the living animal, and then to compare it with the 
analogous process which goes on in plants, and is so well seen in the 
Valisneria, &c.? What more wonderful object in nature than the com- 
pound eyes of many of our common insects, which are made up of hun- 
dreds and thousands of separate eyes placed side by side, each eye 
provided with iris, retina, and optic nerve ? The common fly is pro- 
vided with no less than 4,000 eyes ; while the cabbage butterfly has 
17,000, the dragon-fly 24,000, and the Mordella beetle no less than 
25,000. To the zoologist the assistance of the microscope is invalu- 
able. By its aid he can detennine from the minutest portion of bone 
or tooth, not only the natural family, but the genus and species to 
which its animal possessor belonged. The geologist again is not less 
indebted to this wonderful instrument, for by its aid he is able to 



16 THE inCROSCOPE. 

determine the nature of various deposits which would be quite inscmt- 
ahlo to the naked eye. By this means it has been discovered that the 
calcareous shelled foraminifera constitute a large proportion of the 
chalk deposits, and that the silicious or flinty coverings of the diatoms 
form extensive flinty deposits ; and this is the way in which some 
geologists account for the layers of flint in chalk formations, the pre- 
sence of which was at one time a source of great speculation. The 
whole city of Eichmond is built upon a layer of infusorial earth 18 
feet thick, and extending to unknown limits ; while the remains of 
foraminifera form a band often 1,800 miles in breadth and of enormous 
thickness, that may be traced from the Atlantic shores of Europe and 
Africa through Western Asia to India and China, as well as over large 
areas of North America. The material of which the pyramids are 
built consists of remains of a species of foraminifera known as nummu • 
lites. Indeed, minute fossil remains, often too small to be recognised 
without the aid of the microscope, constitute no small portion of the 
crust of the earth. The Greensand, for example, which underlies the 
chalk, is composed chiefly of silicious oasts of the interior of forami- 
nifera and minute molluscs. And lastly, in the discovery of crime the 
microscope plays no unimpartant part. By its means many of the 
vegetable poisons are detected ; and especially is it of use in deciding 
whether stains are produced by blood or other fluids, for although the 
blood discs bear a general family resemblance, there are marked 
differences between the blood of man and some other animals. This 
was well exemplified recently, where there was a train of circum- 
stantial evidence pointing to the guilty man, and where, although 
there was no moral doubt of his having committed the murder (he had 
cut the throat of a young girl), there was just one legal Link wanted to 
complete the chain, which was supplied thus : the man had carefully 
washed his clothes; no stain could be identified as blood; even the 
knife found in hia pocket had evidently been carefully wiped, but on 
removing the blade a small dark-coloured mark was discovered in the 
hinge, which being scraped ofi" and placed under the microscope dis- 
played unequivocal evidence of being blood ; nay, more, a few epithe- 
lial cells peculiar to the lining of the air passages were also found 
mingled with it ; and from this evidence the microscopist was not only 
able to pronounce with certainty that the stain was blood, but that 
the blood had fiowed from the windpipe of a human being. 



And if you seek, reader, rather for pleasm-e than for wisdom, yen 
can find it in Nature, pure and midefiled. Happy, truly, is the Natu- 
ralist. He hath no time for melancholy dreams. The earth becomes 
to him transparent ; everywhere he sees significancies, harmonies, laws, 
chains of cause and effect endlessly interlinked, which draw him out 
of the narrow sphere of self-interest and self-pleasing, into a pure and 
wholesome region of solemn joy and wonder. — C. Kikgsley. 



FERTILIZATION OF ORCHIDS. 17 



FIELD DAY, JUNE 6th. 

Abovit forty members assembled at Tower, No. 2, and pro- 
ceeded to the Warren, where the Rev. C. L. Aclaud, read a 
paper on 

THE FERTILIZATION OF ORCHIDS. 

I have been asked, on the occasion of this, the third of our pleasant 
rambles, to read a paper on Orchidaceous plants, or more shortly Orchids. 
Considering that Sowerby enumerates 44 orchids as natives of the British 
Islands, and distributes them among 14 genera, it is obvious that an 
exhaustive account even of our own orchids, would require a treatise 
rather than a paper. Considering moreover that this family of plants is 
perhaps without exception the most extraordinary of the whole vegetable 
world ; that it presents wonders of form, diversities of colour, strange- 
ness of smell far beyond that shown by any other class of plants that we 
know, it becomes again evident that I can do my subject but scant justice 
in the short time I can now ask you to devote to listening to me. I have 
therefore thought it best to confine my attention to one apparently mi- 
nute, but really most interesting point connected with the subject of 
orchidaceous plants, the story namely of their birth, and I will beg your 
attention whUe I point out to you the principles on which, from the tiny 
Dwarf Orchis of our chalk hills to the gigantic Angr cecum sesqnipedale 
of the Madagascar Forests, the agency of insects is absolutely essential 
to the fertilization of the plants, and so to the continuance of the different 
species. I may mention, in passing, a peculiarity about the roots of 
most, if not all, of our perennial orchids. Although perennial, that is, 
coming up year after year, the plant does not come up from the same 
root two years in succession. Notice the double bulb of this root. One 
of these bulbs has given rise to the plant now in my hand, the other is 
ready to give rise to the plant of next year, last year's bulb has rotted oflf 
in the groimd. Each successive year the plant, the same plant observe, 
springs from a new root, and as these new roots are always developed in 
the same direction from the old one, always to the right or always to the 
left, the plant actually moves from year to year, and at the end of 
several years is some inches from its original position. Any amount of 
this kind of work however, so long as one bulb of this year gives but one 
bulb for next year, could lead to no increase in the number of individual 
plants. The orchids do not, like the lilies, throw out fresh bulbs in all 
dii-ections, so that a single plant becomes in turn a patch ; each bj/lb 
produces its one successor and no more, and the chance destruction of an 
individual plant would at once and for ever lesson by one, the number of 
individuals in existence but for the propagation by seed, of which I must 
now speak. 
C 



13 THE PLANOEBIS COMPLANATt'S. 

Let me ask you to call to miud the flower of the White Lily. All of 
vou know it with its beautiful white petals, bright yellow stamens, 
and long green pistils, or rather three pistils joined in one— confluent 
pistils they are called-standing in the middle of the yellow stamens. 
At a certain period of the year, the stamens become covered with 
a yellow easily-removed dust ; the noses of most of ns, no doubt, have 
been discoloured by it before now. At precisely the same period, the 
top of the green pistils, called the stigma, becomes st.cky, and as a 
breath of air, an insect, a nose, it may be, removes the yellow powder 
or pollen from the anthers, some of it gets on to the sticky pistil, 
each particle which does so begins to grow, throws out a long thin 
thread, which runs down one or other of the hundreds of tubes o. 
which the stalk of the pistil is formed, like a bundle of straws on a small 
scale, and makes its way into the ovary, there to fertilise some one of 
the many seeds it finds waiting for it. This process must take place 
with all seed-bearing plants, properly so called. Cat away the sta. 
mens from the flower, and unless pollen is brought from a neigbouring 
flower, the pi.stil is of no use, for the seeds cannot be fertilized ; remove 
the pistil and the pollen is wasted. In most plants this fertilization is 
very easily eflected, as the pollen dust "sits lightly on its throne," and 
is removed by any slight shaking, or chance crawling of an insect. 

(To he cimtintied.j 



THE PLANORBIS COMPLANATUS, 

Or Exjitricnces of Aquarium Lift-. 



AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY. 



I was bom, at least as far as I can ascertain, in the River Chcrwell, a 
tributary of the Isis, and must have lived there about three months, when 
a revolution took place in my foi-tunes, to which I may trace the origin of 
the following eventful history. Phew! how hot that summer was. I 
thought I should have been boiled, at least I felt a very curious sensation, 
although at the time I did not know it was boUiug. Well, one day I was 
floating lazily on the sm-face of the water, when the whole of the liquid 
element was rocked fearfully, and seemed to rise and fall in hollows and 
eminences, up and down which I was home in great consternation. "Dear 
me" thought I, "I had better go down," and was just drawing in my 
head for that purpose when I felt a blow that shook my whole house, and 
quite unsettled my stomach. This had scarcely passed before I felt myself 
lifted up into the aii- upon something which reminded me of the palings 



THE PLANORBIS COMPLANATUS. 19 

at the side of the river, on the corners and crevices of wiiich I was 
accustomed to hide myself iu stormy weather, only much whiter and 
smoother. This I afterwards learnt was what they call in the upper 
world an Oar. " Oh it is only a Planorbis Complanatus " exclaimed some 
gigantic being near me, "throw it in again;" to which another human 
monster replied "you may as well keep it, you have not too many." 
This conversation I listened to as you may believe with mingled feelings. 
In the first place my mother poor thing, she died before I came, though 
my egg shell had given no information about my origin and family, and 
consequently this was the first time I had heard my name. My family I 
Imew was very ancient as I had heard from some conversation with an 
elder brother, and I have since heard that a great authority on genealogies, 
a Mr. Darwin has declared that we are descended from the distinguished 
family Pleurosigma, a noble branch of the famous raee of Diatoms. 
Again I was indignant at the small estimation in which the first speaker 
regarded me, so I drew in my head and determined not to look at him ; 
and indeed for what seemed to me a very long period, I was subject to 
such fearful concussions, that had I been enabled to stifle my feelings 
fear would have prevented me from stirring. Consequently what elapsed 
during these to me trying hours is better imagined than described. My 
next recoUection is a cessation of these direful jars to which I had been 
subject, and a sensation of coolness owing to my being once more in an 
atmosphere of water. Having remained quiet for some little time, I ven- 
tm-ed to put my head out and rise to the top. I had scarcely done so 
when a horrible monster with dingy red scales, a vulgar brute I can assure 
you, mistaJdng me in his blindness for a caddis worm no doubt, or some 
other low thing upon which he feeds, opened his mouth and sw allowed 
me house and all. This was not to be tolerated by a personage of so good 
family as myself, so I made a hard bite at his inside and forced him to 
let me go again aU up his red mouth, and I flatter myself that I cured him 
of such rude inconsiderate behaviour. I fancy also the style of architecture 
in which our family have always been accustomed to build their house must 
have rather teased him, we always have a sharp angular moulding all round 
it, which I think must have scratched his throat in an unpleasant way. 
As soon as I had recovered my usually quiet demeanour, for I am not 
accustomed to such rudeness, I began to crawl over the stones at the 
bottom of the water, but I had not gone far before I came to a sort of 
barrier which puzzled me exceedingly, for I did not see it until close to it, 
and then knocked my head against it. I conclude it was a sort of stone, 
but quite smooth, and I could see through it, and what should I see but 
the monster who slighted me so in the river ; however, I determined not 
to appear disconcerted, especially as there was a barrier between us, and 
I began crawling up it. I soon to my delight met one of my family, but 
on looking closer saw that he had not got the sharp moulding round his 
house which we always pride ourselves on, and thought of passing by, 
but began to entertain a fcelLug of reverence towards him when I saw 
how wrinkled he was and what a long green beard he had, nearly three 



20 THE PLAXORBIS COilPLANATCS. 

times his own length; so I determined to speak to him, so I bade him 
" good morning " and asked him " how he fared." " Very well as things 
go " said he, " only this weed incommodes me so much I can hardly 
crawl." I remarked that I had been admiring his beai-d, and thought it 
his only redeeming point, as he lived in such an ugly house. " Ah ! " 
said he, shaking his feelers indignantly, " I see how it is, you are evidently 
a young upstart, and when I come to look at you I see that you are not a 
Planorhis cornem, only a distant branch of our family, a Planorhis corn- 
planatm, called so because your house is plain. Plain yon always were 
and plain you always will be. Phew ! how hot it is, no room to move or 
breathe." The old gentleman seemed in a talkative mood, so I thought I 
would just swallow his taunts and listen. " It is all because of this 
American weed. My great-great-great-great grandmother was alive when 
it was first introduced, and a fine fuss there was about it, and many were 
the long names they called it. My great grandmother would have 
nothing^to do with the vulgar stuff, although some of the youngsters used 
to go and poke their noses into it (they were as ignorant as you). She 
always said that these new-fangled notions (reform foi-sooth !) would never 
do • she never lived to see her words come true, but I have, and here it is 
Kke all reforms, sweeping away everything that is good, and forcing itself 
upon us. Where are all the pretty Starworts, and other delightful institu- 
tions gone? they must make way for master Yankee. Where is the 
Bweet little water Crowfoot ? It must make way for master Yankee ; 
why even the duckweed which I used to eat floating on my back at the 
top of the water has no room to live in, and all because master Yankee 
wants more room, and so master Yankee has choked us np (I wish he 
would choke himself) till the water can't sparkle, and we can't crawl, but 
get covered with this nasty green weed, which you, young green-horn 
mistook for a beard. But I must not stop talking to yon any longer, I 
want something to eat." So we parted, and I started forth determined to 
see the world. I could not help thinking of what Planorhis cornem had 
told me ; though sometimes when he used hard words I did not understand 
him, but I held down my head, and inclined my feelers downwards, as 
people do when they want to look wise or are in profound thought, and 
although at times the opinions he seemed to hold were jarring to my 
feelings, especially when he made personal remarks, yet I could not help 
entertaining a sort of respect for his profound knowledge and sagacity. 
However, I must tell you about my travels. I had not gone far before I 
heard a fairy voice above me singing — 

" See me toil and see me spin. 
None but those who strive can win." 

I looked up and saw the most delicate little house with a pretty little 
lady in it, sailing gracefully down. " Take care you dirty thing," she 
said, " Why don't you get out of the way," and, before I could reply, 
di-opped down at my feet. " Oh, you pretty creature," I said. " None of 
your nonsense," she replied, " may be I'm pretty, may be I'm not ; at 



THE PLANORBIS COMPLAXATUS. ' 21 

any rate I'm clean, which is more than can be said of you. Why you never 
clean your house ; I met a relative of yours as I came down, he had three 
inches of nasty green weed dangling about, and nearly broke my ladder 
rolling about ; I can't think why the waywardens don't tell such people 
not to stop the thoroughfares." She was indeed very pretty, and I was 
so lost in admiration that I scarcely knew what to say, but I made bold 
to ask her how she kept her house so clean and shining. " Oh, because I 
have been educated properly," said she, " My mother always said that 
all her daughters should know how to look after their own establishment, 
and quite right too, so I'm never idle; I don't mind a chat, but you must 
excuse my rubbing up my ceUing a bit." I could not see the necessity, 
it shone like a bead of gold, but I noticed that she kept five or six busy 
fingers at work, reaching out from the door of her house, and carefully 
polishing the roof and walls ; and one thing I saw, which seemed to me 
strange in so dexterous a lady,— she was left-handed. Her complexion 
was as fair as a lily, and all her motions showed me that she must be 
descended from distinguished parentage. She came down by a pretty rope 
of the most delicate silk with an ease that would have puzzled all the 
female Blondina that ever existed. I ventured to ask her name. 
" Physa," she said, " but it is a great liberty to take with a strange lady ; 
however, one does not expect much from boys like you. Now I would 
lay a wager," says she, " that you are lounging about doing nothing, 
talking of seeing the world or something of the kind. Well I don't 
mind giving you a hint or two. Perhaps you would like to know 
something about my family. Once upon a time, years ago, there 
was a great quarrel between us. A very distant ancestor of mine 
was one day going abroad for his morning constitutional — we always 
take exercise soon after sunrise — when he saw one of the family with his 
house very much out of shape, longer and not so elegant ; besides the 
rascal had the audacity to bmld it blacker and less transparent. He re- 
monstrated with him but to no purpose, the renegade said that he and his 
wife were not going to be dictated to, they had determined to build their 
house in this shape, and they wem't going to alter it for all the world ; 
why should they always go on in the conventional way, they would strike 
out a new line for themselves and form a noble family. Such a thing 
as this was not to be passed over, my ancestor called a council of the 
oldest and most experienced in our tribe, and it was unanimously deter- 
mined that they should be banished from the clear water, so they went 
away and lived in moss, and people called i\ie,m Plnjsa hypnoruvi. They 
are, I believe, a large family, but they live a secluded life and are 
seldom to be seen, and we think ourselves well rid of them. But what I am 
going to tell you now is not creditable to us ; a part of our family have 
determined to give up their cleanly habits, and you may see them some- 
times about in black muddy places; however, like all vicious people, they 
suifer for it, and instead of being like I am (here she looked down over 
her white neck and shoulders) their bodies are almost black. " WTiat can 
you expect from a pig but a grunt?" said I "Very true," she said, you have 



22 



COERESPONDENCE. 



more sense cow than I gave you credit for. However I mnst go, and take 
one word of advice before I go. As you are going about to see the world 
remember one thing ; it is no disgrace to draw in one's horns, and so I 
advise you to be never ashamed of doing so ; if you will be bumptious you 
will meet with some hard blows in this world and wont find every one as 
considerate as I am." I was going to make some pretty speech to the effect, 
that the advice of so sweet a lady could not fail to be excellent, but while I 
was thinking of a proper phrase to express it in, she had disappeared up 
her ladder and I heard her voice above me 

" Toil and spin, toil and spin. 
None but those who strive can win " 

(To he continued.) 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



All communications should be addressed to Mb. H. Ullyett, 
Fiilkestone. We shall he glad to receive notes c(ruc(-r n i ng any of 
our local jilanU and animals, tivies of ajipearanre, abinirmal 
forms and colu-ars, pojndar uatnts and traditions, Ac. These 
viust be authenticated by the ivriter's name and address, but not 
necessarily for publication. 



To the Editor of the Quarterly 

Journal of tlte Volkvsione Natural 

History Society. 

Sir, — I shall esteem it a favour 
if any of your readers can assist 
me in discovering the origin of the 
following names of British plants : 

Pagle : This name vn riously spelt 
Paigle, Pagle, Pagel, Peagle, Peg- 
yll, Peggie, and Pygil, is now 
applied to the Cowslip (Primula 
veris). The Bulbous Crowfoot 
(Ranunculus hulbosus) has, how- 
ever, been so called ; and Gerarde 
assigns the name " Pagle," and a 
somewhat similar one, " Pygie," to 
the Great Stitchwort (Stellaria 
Holostea). 

Kingjingers : Applied to the Early 
Purjjlc Orchis (Orchis mascxtlaj, a 
plant called also " Bloody-man's 
lingers," "Kingfisher," and"Gid- 
dyjjander." 



John Georges : A Buckingham- 
shire name for the Marsh Mangold 
(Caltha palustrisj. 

Church-brooms: A name given in 
Essex to the Teasel (Dipsacus 
sylvestrisj. 

What is the origin cf the name 
" Charlock," applied to the Wild 
Mustard (Sinapit arvengis and S. 
alba) I Other forms of this word 
are — Chedlock, Chadlock, Curlick, 
Curlock, Ketlock, and Kadlock. In 
Cheshire another yellow-flowered 
weed, the Ragwort., is called 
"Kadle-dock." Have "Kadle-dock" 
and " Kadlock " the same origin ? 

JAMES BRITTEN. 
High Wycombe. 

[By the kindness of a corre- 
spondent, we are able to insert an 
answer to Mr. Britten's question 
in this number.] — Ed. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



23 



AVhen Anptlo-Saxon words are 
transferred into modem English the 
labials B and P are often inter- 
changed. The word " Pagle" or 
" Peagle," applied to the Cowslip, 
is compounded of two Anglo-Saxon 
words — " Beag," " Beah," " Beh," 
or " Beeh," a garland or crown, and 
" Gylden," " Gelden," " Gealde," 
or " Gelde," golden or yellow ; thus 
" Beah-Gelde," Golden-Garland. 

Michael Drayton, in describing 
the wedding garlands of his day, 



To sort these flowers of show with others 

that were sweet. 
The Cowslip thea they couch, or Oxlip 

for her meet. 

It is just possible that the term 
" John Georges," as applied to the 
Marsh Marigold, may be a corrup- 
tion of the Anglo-Saxon words 
" Geond," over or through, and 



" Geres," a fen or marsh, in allu- 
sion to its habital. 

No doubt the Common Teazel 
was called " Church-brooms" from 
its resemblance to the long-handled 
" Turk's-head " brooms with which 
they sweep the cobwebs from 
church ceilings, &c. 

The modem word " Charlock" or 
" Carlock," is derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon " Cawel," " Cawl," or 
" Cael, " cale or cabbage, and 
" Leac," a herb, thus we have 
"Gear-leac," Spear-leak, or Gar- 
lic, " Cerse-leac," " Cress-leak," or 
Nasturtion. Many herbs whose 
seed vessels or flowers bore a 
fancied resemblance to a purse 
were called in Anglo-Saxon " Codd- 
leac," from "Ceod" or " Codd," a 
purse or small bag, and "Leac," 
whence the English word " Kadle- 
dock" or " Kadlock" is no doubt 
derived.^C. E. Fitz Gebald. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



The two Clouded Yellows, Colias 
Edusa and C. Hyale, have been 
tolerably plentiful along the Lower 
Sandgate Road this season. — Q. 

A SLOW-WORM of unusual length 
was brought to us from the War- 
ren, a short time ago. The body 
measured eight and a half-inches, 
and the tail eleven, making a total 
of nineteen inches and a half. We 
were also told that one was taken 
out of the stomach of a viper that 
had been killed ; this is not a usual 
meal for him, we believe. 



White Varieties of Plants. — 
I have obtained white varieties of 
the following plants from the 
Warren, viz. — Geranium prateiisi', 
Echium Vulgare, Ophrys Apifcra, 
and Campanula Trachelium. — C. 
H. Dashwood. 

Anaoallis Tenella. — Last sum- 
mer I found one plant of this pretty 
and somewhat rare Pimpernel, 
growing in a damp piece of ground 
on the WaiTen. I have not met 
with any other specimens.— C. H. 
Dashwood. 



24 



NOTES XSI) QtTERIES. 



Paris Qtjadrifolia. — In April, 
1867, I found the five leaved 
variety of this plant growing in 
considerable abundance, in a small 
wood near Paddlesworth Church. — 
C. H. Dashwood. 

The Wasp (Vespa Vulgaris). — 
The common wasp may frequently 
been seen flying in numbers round 
the flowers of the Water Figwort 
( Scrophularia Aquatica). For what 
purpose these insects frequent this 
particular plant, I am unable to 
say. — C. H. Dasht^'ood. 

The Viper. — Can any of our 
readers inform us of any well au- 
thenticated cases of death resulting 
from the bite of the viper? We 
have never been able to trace any re- 
port to its foundation, and as the 
question excites some attention 
among naturalists, we shall be glad 
of any information on the subject. 

Melitea Cinxia, one of oar more 
uncommon Fritillaries, has been 
said to occur along the Lower 
Sandgate Road. We have looked 
for it in vain, although the situation 
is favourable, and the food-plant of 
the caterpillar, Plantago lanceolata, 
is very plentiful. Have any of our 
readers met with the butterfly in 
the neighbourhood at all ? 



Five-spotted Bprxet Moth. — 
I took several of these (Zygmna 
trifoUi I believe), in comj)any with 
the common six-spotted species, 
this summer, on the hills west of 
Cherry Gardens. I captured one 
good variety, too, having aU the 
spots running into each other. — Q. 

Queen of Spain Fbitillart — 
Argynnis Lathonia. — Hearing that 
this rare butterfly had been cap- 
tui'ed at one or two places along 
the Kentish coast, I paid one or 
two special visits to the Warren 
in search of it, but in vain. Mr. 
W. Purdey, of Grove Terrace, was 
however, more fortunate, as he took 
a tolerably good specimen there on 
September 7th. — Henry Ullyett. 

Local Names. — We are particu- 
larly anxious to obtain as many as 
possible of the local names of 
plants and animals (especially 
birds). The assistance of aU who 
take an interest in the subject is 
requested. Lists will be gladly 
acknowledced by the editors, or by 
James Britten, Esq., High Wy- 
combe. 

Want of space compels ns to 
postpone the publication of two or 
three papers until the next number. 



TYKlLUyu. 




14 FEB 1337 



v.--\^4^^';^ >-,v .f/^^Pv;:/!^:^!^^^ ' ^ 







: '^\ 



"":<-:$7:^il^<^ 






^a^s*^- 



I No. 2.] 



QUARTERLY JOURNAL 

OP THE 



^(oax-jBYJoir. 




fPRICE SIXPENCE, 
L Or 83. per Animm 



CO]^Ti;]^TS: 



Buttercups 

Fertilization of Orchids 

Local Museums 

The Folkestone Museum 

Proceedings of the Society 

Prizes 

Winter Work 

Notes and Queries ... 



MAKCH, 1869. 



PAGE. 

•• 25 

,. 30 

•• 33 

.. 37 

.. 40 

.. 4J 

.. 42 

.. 48 



FOLKESTONE: 

PRINTED FOB THE SOCIETT BY J. ENGLISH, "EXPRESS" OFFICE, 
HIGH STREET. 




And Sold by all Bookadlers. 



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^2i^ 



THE FOLLOWING IS A 

LIST OF OFFICERS 

OF THE SOCIETY. 



PRESIDENT : 

C. E. FITZ GEEALD, M.D. 



COMMITTEE : 



H. B. Mackeson, F.G.S. 
C. H. Dashwood, F.Z.S. 
Rev. 0. L. Acland, M.A. 
Eev. C. J. Taylor, M.A. 
Eev.E.Langdon,M.A.,F.G.S. 
S. Eastcs, Esq. 



G. M. Seholey, Esq. 
A. M. Leith, Esq. 
W. G. S. Harrison, Esq. 
W. Bateman, Esq. 
J. Clarke, Esq. 
E. W. Bearer, Esq. 



Honorary Secretary, Hy. ULLTBTT. 



Subscribers are respectfully informed that it would save 
much trouble, and ensure punctuality in the delivery of tJie 
Magazine, if they would forward their names and the year's 
subscription to the Secretary at their earliest convenience. 



Postponed for want of space, communicationa from S. 
Greensti'eet, Q., and A. B. 



All Communications should be addressed to H. Ullyett, 
Folkestone. We shall be glad to receive notes concerning any of 
ov/r local plants and animals, times of appearance, abnormal 
forms and colours, popular names and traditions, Sfc. These 
7nmt be authenticated by the writer's name and address, but not 
necessarily for publication. 




BUTTERCUPS. 



Those who love to exaggerate the difficulties attendant oi^ 
a systematic study of any branch of Natural History usually 
enlarge upon — I. the technical terms employed ; II. the min- 
ute distinctions on which the separation of one species from 
another depends. Now as to the former charge, we do not 
deny that a page of, say, Babington's " Manual," does look 
rather formidable to a novice : and as to the latter, there is no 
doubt that, in some cases, very minute distinctions are of great 
importance ; thus the difference of size between the pollen- 
grains of Lotus major and L. corniculatus (two species of 
Bird's foot Trefoil) is one of the chief points by which these 
nearly-allied plants are determined. But technicalities are 
as necessary in science as they are in any branch of manu- 
facture ; and minute distinctions are only exceptionally 
exalted to verj' great importance, unless in connection with 
other evident marks of difference. As an illustration of this, 
and as showing that, in some cases at any rate, the distinctions 
between allied species are sufficiently obvious, we may take 
the three species oi Ranunculus which are usually called "But- 
tercups," glancing first of all at the other species of the genus 
to which they belong. 

The genus Ranunculus contains twenty-five British species. 
Twelve of these, however, are but developments, forms, varie- 
ties, modifications, which you will, of the Linnean Ranunculus 
aquatilis ; and a thirteenth, the Ivy-leaved Crowfoot (i?. /^(?(/ijr- 
aceus), a small species with white blossoms, growing in mud, 
or in shallow water, may be dismissed from our notice. Con- 
sidering these thirteen as Water Crowfoots {Batrachium, Fries,) 
we may pass them over with the remark that they all have 
white flowers, and grow in, or near water ; while the re- 
maining twelve have yellow blossoms. 

Now let us take these twelve yellow-flowered species, and 
select from them the " Buttercups," which we are going to 
consider. Three of the twelve have long, entire, narrow 

D 



26 BUTTERCUPS. 

leaves, and grow in marshy places, sometimes even in the 
water: these are called Spearvvorts, and scientifically 7?. Lingua, 
R. Flammula, and R. reptans — this last very rare, and only 
recorded from one locality in Scotland. Then we have the 
Pilewort, or Lesser Celandine {R. Ficarid), with roundish or 
heart-shaped glossy leaves, and starlike, equally glossy, flowers. 
The remaining eight have divided leaves. The Celery-leaved 
Crowfoot (i?. scelcratus) is marked by its hollow stem ; it 
grows by or in water, and has small pale yellow flowers in 
which the oblong head of immature fruit is conspicuous ; this 
has ver}- glossy leaves, as has also the Wood Crowfoot {R. 
aun'comus), distinguished by its kidney-shaped root-leaves, and 
affecting shady places. We may remark, in passing, that R. 
auricomus, as a rule, has not its full complement of petals, ot 
rather that they are not fully developed ; three or four attain 
their proper size, but one or two arc usually either absent, or 
very diminutive ; this gives the flower an irregular appearance. 
The Corn Crowfoot (/?. ari'ensis) is an inhabitant of cultivated 
fields (usually cornfields) ; it is a smooth, upright, pale-green 
plant, with lemon-coloured blossoms, which are succeeded 
by large prickly carpels, these at once detennining the species. 
Another {R. parviflorus) has very hairy leaves, spreading and 
hairy stems, and minute, almost petalless, flowers ; this grows 
in dr}' banks, but is somewhat rare. A fifth, R. hirsutus, is 
even less frequent ; it is an annual species, and grows in 
cultivated fields or on waste ground ; we shall have occasion 
to refer to it again. 

We have now but three species to consider — known indis- 
criminately as Buttercups. IMany, doubtless, are not aware 
that there is more than one species comprehended under that 
name : and yet, although there is a general likeness among 
them, a ver>' little examination will show us ver}- evident 
points of difference. 

When the meadow grass is beginning to shoot up, while 
the primroses still linger on the banks ; when the cowslips 
are just bursting into blossom, we shall find the Buttercups 
beginning to show themselves. Here and there a flower 
expands, and, if we look down among the grass, we are sure 
to see in every direction the soft, hairy, cut leaves, and among 
them soft, hairy, green buds ; giving promise of the wave of 
gold which will, in a week or two, pass over, the meadow land, 



BUTTERCrPS, 



27 



^'hen Dame Nature produces every^vhere a " Field of the 
Cloth of Gold," far more effective than the one celebrated 
in history, and far less costly. The species which is the 
chief contributor to this display is the Bulbous Buttercup (JR. 
bulbosus), readily distinguishable-if you will take the trouble 
to pull one up-by the bulb-like base of its stem. Yet 
not by this alone. There are but two other species, with 
divided leaves and yellow flowers, with which R. bulbosus 
could be confounded ; and, if you do not care to examme the 
stem you may determine this one by its flowers. Blossoms 
are usually-as far as their non-essential parts are concerned 
-composed of corolla and calyx, the "flower" and the flower 
cup The corolla is formed of petals, the cal)^^ of sepals, 
which are, in the Buttercups, small, green, and insignificant, 
five in number. So insignificant are they that you may possi- 
bly never have noticed them ; but you have only to turn a 
Buttercup upside down to be convinced of their existence. 
Now in the two species which we have yet to consider, these 
sepals, like the petals, spread upwards; but in R. bulbosus they 
abruptly turn down. The only other species with reflexed sepals 
is R hirsutus, to which we have before alluded ; but besides 
the difference in locality, time of flowering, etc., R. hirsutus 
is destitute of the bulbous stem which marks R. bulbosus. 

Our second species is the Creeping Buttercup (/?. repens) ; 
and this, too, has a peculiarity of its own. It is stoloniferous : 
that, is, it sends out long, creeping, rooting shoots, which are 
called— without any ritualistic significance— ^/(?/^^. The main . 
stem is usually upright, especially when the plant grox^^ in 
damp or watery situations, and the flowers are very like those 
of R bulbosus; but the different position of the sepals at 
once distinguishes them. This Creeping Buttercup has a 
very happv knack of adapting itself to circumstances. It is 
equally at-home in meadows and cornfields, on dry banks or 
damp banks, in cultivated land or waste ground. 

The third Buttercup {R. acris) is a more elegant plant than 
either of the preceding. It has very deeply cut leaves, the 
se-ments of which are pointed, and tall slender upright stems, 
which support flowers of a somewhat paler hue than those 
of R. bulbosus or R. repens, having sepals spreading upwards 
as in the latter. Neither the bulb of R. bulbosus nor the 
stoles of R. repens are found in this species. 



28 BUTTERCUPS. 

For practical purposes, therefore, we may note the following 
as among the essential points of diflerence between these 
Buttercups. 

£. acris. Stem erect, without bulblike base. Sepals 
spreading upwards. 

R. repens. Stoloniferous. Main stem (usually) erect. Sepals 
spreading upwards. 

R. bulbosus. Base of stem bulblike. Sepals reflexed. 

The three differ somewhat in their times of flowering. 
R. bulbosus, speaking generally, begins to blossom about the 
middle of April, and ceases about the middle of June: R. 
repens is in perfection during the summer months, but occa- 
sional specimens may be found almost all the year round: 
R. acris comes into flower about a fortnight later than R. 
bulbosus, and continues until the end of June; occasionally 
as in the late autumn of 1868, producing a second crop of 
blossoms. 

All the Buttercups have- a tendency to produce double 
flowers. Examples of the transition or conversion of one 
part of a plant into another will occur to every one : an admi- 
rable example will be found in the White Watcrlily Nymphcea 
alba), in which the outer circle of petals is tinged with green, 
thus approximating to the sepals, and the inmost circles pa.ss 
almost imperceptibly into the stamens. The large number of 
stamens in the Buttercups offer ample opportunities for con- 
version into petals, and thus it is that, especially in R. repens, 
we often find one or two odd petals among the stamens. 
Occasionally all the stamens become thus changed ; and the 
result is a perfectly double flower, such as Gerarde says he 
found while "walking in the field next to the Theatre by 
London, in the company of a worshipfuU merchant named 
Mr. Nicolas Lete". The double-flowered variety of ^. acm 
is permanent, and is cultivated in gardens under the name of 
"Bachelor's Button." A curious figure is given by Gerarde 
of a double Crowfoot which "thrusteth forth of the middest 
of the floures one other smaller floure," in a manner similar 
to a monstrosity which not unfrequently occurs in garden 
roses, when a leaf-bud, or a second blossom, grows through 
the centre of the flower. 

Having said thus much about the plants, we will glance for 
a moment at their names. Whether the practice, common 



BUTTERCUPS. 29 

among children, of holding the flower under the chin, and 
judging from its reflection whether the individual thus tested 
"likes butter" — whether this may have originated the name 
Buttercup, depends, to a great extent, upon the antiquity of the 
custom itself. Such an origin seems, at least, possible ; but 
Dr. Prior derives its name from the " French bouton d'or, the 
cup, being the Old English cop, a head, a word that became 
obsolete, and was replaced with cup. It will have meant 
originally but Ion- head." As far as the latter half of the word 
is concerned, it seems to me that the shape of the blossom 
at once accounts for it ; and as to the former, if, as Dr. Prior 
states, the name bouton d'or was originally " given to the 
double variety," it seems hardly likely that it would, as long 
ago as Gerarde's time (who gives " Butterfloures" as a syno- 
nym) have been extended to the wild form. Another old 
name for R. bulbosus was S. Anthony's Rape, or Turnip. In 
Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, and throughout the Cotswold 
district Buttercups are known as "Crazies" — a word, which 
is, in Buckinghamshire embodied in " Butter-creeses" and 
" Yellow creeses," applied indiscriminately to the three 
species. "Creese" is but a vulgar pronunciation of "cress ;" 
and it seems at least possible that "crazies" may be intimately 
connected with this latter word ; " cress" is usually supposed 
to be applied especially to cruciferous plants ; it is a word of 
obscure origin. 

Thus have I endeavoured to show you in plain language a 
feAV of the more noticeable characteristics of our Buttercups. 
Should this short paper be fortunate enough to prove interest- 
ing to any who have not yet begun to study our British plants, 
I would urge them to make a beginning by collecting as many 
species of Ranunculus as possible, and observing their pecu- 
-liarities: they will find in the living plants ample materials 
for careful study, and an interest far exceeding any which can 
be raised by mere descriptions. 

JAMES BRITTEN. 
High Wycombe. 



THE FERTILIZATION OF ORCHIDS. 

Continued from page 18. 



Now let us see how the same work is done for orchids. 
If we examine the fertilizing apparatus of one of our com- 
mon orchids, — Orchis pyramidalis will serve our purpose, and 
we shall very easily find it — we shall at once see how utterly 
unlike it is to the inside of a lily, or of any other flower we 
can call to mind. Let us cut away all the petals and sepals 
of the flower, except the lower petal. This petal, which in 
the orchids developes into a host of forms of every size and 
colour, and is called the labellum, has very frequently a long 
tube at the back part of it, the nectar)% which from its surface 
secretes the nectar — the drink of the gods in the days cf 
old, but now reserved for the insects. Looking at our flower 
from the front we see the dark opening to the nectary under, 
and hidden by a small roundish projection, whose use we 
shall learn directly. The anther, above this projection, is 
single, and, instead of the pollen being sprinkled all over 
its surface, it has deposited within its substance two club- 
shaped masses, consisting of little lumps of pollen-dust, held 
together by a network of fine threads. The surface of the 
upper part of the inside of the nectary, just under the 
projection I have mentioned, is called the stigmatic surface^ 
and v.-hen the pollen is ripe, this stigmatic surface becomes 
very sticky, and is prepared to fulfil the same function as the 
stigma of ordinary plants, if only the pollen can get to 
it — a thing absolutely impossible so far as we have seen. 

The pollen-clubs have stalks which run down through the 
side of a small box — the projection I spoke of — and are 
attached to a disc of membrane in it, on the under side of 
which is some very adhesive gum, constantly kept moist and 
fit for use, when once the flower is mature, by a liquid almost 
like water, with which the box is filled. When all this is 
quite ripe this box cracks across the front, and remains in 
position, suspended by its lid, ready to open downwards on 
the application of the slightest force. On the bright colored 



THE FERTILIZATIOX OF ORCHIDS. Jt 

labellum, or lip, are two guiding plates set up on edge, which 
form a sort of passage leading direct to the mouth of the 
nectary. Bear in mind that the pollen-clubs, though they 
cannot be shaken out of the anther or knocked out, can very 
easily be drawn out from the bottom, like sticks out of a 
bundle, and that the little box held fast by its lid opens 
downwards at the least pressure on the front, and you will 
see a most admirable trap ready laid, and wanting nothing 
but somebody or something to spring it. 

A moth approaches, flying busily about in search of nectar, 
for bees are by no means the only insects who search for it, 
in fact, bees seldom visit orchids. He perches on the label- 
lum, and led by the guiding plates, puts his proboscis straight 
into the nectary ; it is longer than he thinks for, and the 
nectar must be reached by pushing the proboscis further and 
further in. At last the proboscis presses the outside of the 
little box, and the box, yielding to the push, opens. Now 
the proboscis touches the little sticky disc at the bottom of the 
pollen clubs as the unthinking insect sucks in his delicious 
draught, and when, having drained the cup of joy to its very 
dregs, he withdraws his trunk, he draws out with it the sticky 
disc, and two clubs of pollen, which stand up like little horns 
on either side of his nose. — So ends the first act. The 
cement at once sets hard, but that is not all, the pollen-clubs 
thus set upright would be of no use to fertilise the n^t 
flower the insect might visit. As he pushed in to the nectary 
they would but assume a position as close as possible to that 
from which they had been taken, and no good would be 
done. Now listen and wonder. As soon as the cement has 
set, one side of the club-stalks contracts and draws the clubs 
outward like a capital V. Barely is this motion completed 
than another side contracts and draws the clubs forward like 
the same capital V laid flat. Now the insect comes to a fresh 
flower, pushes into it, the tips of his clubs in their new posi- 
tion strike upon the stigmatic surface, and the stickiness of 
this surface, forced into full play by the pushing of the insect, 
takes hold of the pollen-masses and pulls off" some of the 
pollen-dust, held closely together by its network of threads, 
not strong enough to resist altogether the influence of the stick- 
iness of the stigmatic surface, but too strong to let go all their 
precious dust at once. Thus then the moth goes from flower 



32 THE FERTILIZATION OF ORCHIDS. 

to flower, fertilizing all, and acquiring at intervals a new pair 
of horns, till at last his proboscis becomes useless to himself 
owing to these appendages (Mr. Darwin saw one unlucky 
moth with 1 1) and the poor insect, imable any longer to reach 
the nectar which is dear to him, perishes miserably — a victim 
to drink, and the fertilization of orchids. 

This is no chapter of a novel that I am reading to you, 
but a matter of plain evcry-day fact, which you can soon 
verify for yourselves. Gather the first orchis you can find, 
and push gently into its nectary a pin, a bristle, or the point 
of a pencil. It will not be long before you can withdraw one 
or more of the pollen clubs ; watch them carefully and see 
them put themselves into the very position in which, and in 
no other, their heads will reach the stigmatic surface of the 
next flower ; see in the diff"erent orchids different sets of 
circumstances, met by different adaptations. See in the 
Butterfly Orchis, the strong perfume of which comes out only 
at night, when the moths by which it is fertilized are flying 
about, and are at once attracted by its powerful smell in a 
manner in which they never would be by its pale and incon- 
spicuous flowers — see here the pollen is lying high up out of 
reach of the proboscis of any insect, and therefore the nectary 
so long that the insect has to push his head right home into 
the flower and drag out the pollen-club on his cheeks or his 
ej^s instead of his nose — but I might go on for ever. 

I will conclude with a few words about AngrcEcum sesqui- 
pedale, the gigantic orchid of the Madagascar forests, which 
I mentioned just now. Picture to yourselves dazzling white 
•si.x-pointed stars, some six or eight inches in diameter, 
growing, numbers of them together, from the trunks of the pri- 
meval trees, and you get an idea of something very wonderful. 
But — and here comes the great wonder — the nectaries of 
these orchids are twelve inches to fourteen inches long, 
which means moths with the proboscis twelve or fourteen 
inches long for their fertilization. Our largest moth, the 
Death's Head, has a proboscis not an inch long. Fancy 
a moth as big as a blackbird * hovering over these flowers, and 



* It does not necessarily follow that a moth possessing a very long pro- 
boscis must be of gigantic size ; there are moths not one sixth the size of 



THE FORMATION OF LOCAL MUSEUMS. 33 

at times inserting his nose, twelve inches long and nearly 
one eighth of an inch thick into the nectary, drawing 
away the pollen clubs, fan-shaped in this case, and going on 
to fertilize other like flowers. Does it not sound like an 
uneasy dream? These moths have not yet been seen, but 
there are the flowers and there the moths must be, and by the 
time the Tananarivo branch of the Natural History Society 
of Madagascar is holding its third Monthly Ramble, we may 
hope that the moths will have been f6und, and specimens 
of them deposited in the Folkestone Museum. 



jThe formation of local museums. 

Read hefwe the Society, October lith, 1868. 



As we have now to some extent come to the close of the 
first working year of our Society, it might be expected that 
1 should give a sort of resume of what we have done. That, 
however, is not my purpose this evening. I want to speak to 
you on a subject closely connected with the well-being of the 
Society, which will tend to give it an interest in the eyes of 
individual members greater than can be given by anything 
else, and which, moreover, ought to present even greater 
attractions to the visitors, who are, year by year, increasing in 
numbers, as year by year it grows in completeness and in 
importance. I mean the formation of a Local Museum. 

Before going further into this matter, I must say a few words 
as to what we have been doing in connection with this subject 
and what we have to do. We have had several most pleasant 
and well attended rambles, at which, under the direction of 
those better instructed than ourselves, we have learned to see 



the Death's Head, with much longer trunks than it possesses. We believe 
there are specimens of the Madagascar Moth referred to in the British 
Museum, and that they are of very moderate size. — Ed. 
£ 



54 THE FORMATION OF LOCAL MUSEUMS. 

what there is of interest in the Natural History of the neigh- 
bourhood, and we have heard a series of papers read more or 
less calculated to help us in our investigations. And this evening 
I want to say a few words about a general collection of objects 
of interest into our museum, to which each of us may do 
something, and some may do much. TTiat is, observe, we 
have learnt what to work for and how to work for it, and we 
are going to consider what to do wath it when formed ; but, of 
course it will have struck all the clear-headed of my listeners, 
that is to say, all who are now listening to me, that there is a 
great gap between these two — the Rambles and the Museums. 
They are the extremities and the middle is wanting. How 
to get it and what to do with it are capital things to know ; 
but the actual getting of it, let it be what it may, is the thing 
to do. Rambles are good, and Museums are good, but that 
which comes between is better ; the patient individual work 
by which the knowledge acquired at the rambles, is soon for- 
gotten in the wonders discovered by personal investigation, 
and the members of our Society, from being merely interested 
in Natural History, by degrees educate themselves into 
naturalists. Unless we take up each for himself or herself 
some one or more lines of search, and follow it out, either 
singly or in groups of not more than two or three, we shall 
never become naturalists in any sense of the word ; our 
rambles will be nothing but pleasant walks of monthly occur- 
rence during the summer, and our museums will never be 
made, and if made, never filled. 

Look at all these books round us on the various subjects 
connected with Natural History. They are not the result of 
rambles, nor do they represent the incomes of their writers. 
In the main they are the work of men's leisure time, and it is 
by employment of leisure time that you may become natu- 
ralists too. However I do not want to preach a sermon, but 
to give a hint. I want to see a museum in Folkestone worthy 
of the name, and I want you to "make it and fill it. 

Such a Museum ought to consist of three portions, an 
educational and a local museum and a library. A general 
museum, a collection of odds and ends, serving no ends, and 
merely odd by reason of where they are, is not a high type of 
exhibition, and though, in the first fury for giving, many 
offers would probably be made of things which it would be 



THE FORMATION OF LOCAL MUSEUMS. 35 

unwise to check the enthusiasm of the givers by rejecting, 
such as clubs from the South-sea Islands and walrus-tusks 
from the North Pole, Egyptian dried crocodiles, and Australian 
boomerangs, still a room full of these is not a museum worthy 
of the name, and it would be the duty of the Committee to 
eliminate the hodge-podge element as speedily as possible. 

Now the Educational part of a museum need not be purely 
local, in fact, it cannot be. I was in Southampton a few 
weeks back, and looked in at the Hartley Institute, where 
there is the commencement of a very good museum, and the 
educational part struck me much. A series, I take this as an 
example, but it will explain what I mean, of the skeletons of 
vertebrate animals arrang^ed in an ascending scale, beginning 
with the lower forms, snakes, lizards, and fish, and ending 
at the top of the tree, with a picture ox stuffed specimen of the 
complete animal, and a short explanation of how this particular 
vertebrate animal differed from others, and what were the 
chief points worth notice in the skeleton, gave one in a few 
minutes a better notion of comparative anatomy, so far as the 
vertebrates are concerned, than a whole term of lectures, a 
whole year of rambles, or a whole Bloomsbury of miscella- 
neous articles. In fact the educational part of the Museum 
ought to consist of a series of sets of typical specimens, 
recent and fossil, of each of the great families of animal and 
vegetable life, duly arranged and descriptively labelled, so 
as to tell at sight how this specimen differed from that, and 
what there was characteristic in each. 

Don't I wish I may get it ? Of course I do, though I don't 
think it likely, But at the same time we might make a 
beginning, and the great advantage is that in this sort of 
thing we may have fifty beginnings, all in the middle, and 
each good and useful in itself. So much for the Educational 
Museum. 

Next as to the Local. This to be complete ought to represent 
in miniature the district covered by the Folkestone Natural 
History Society, so far as the Natural History is concerned. 
There ought to be complete and well-arranged collections of 
our local insects, birds, reptiles, plants, and all that is con- 
tained in the very wide range of investigation opened up to 
us by our field days. This too can be done by fifty people at 
once, eaeh working on his own responsibility, and selecting 



36 THE FORMATION OF LOCAL MUSEUMS. 

his own line of investigation. One adjective ought to be 
applicable to all you do, and that one is " systematic." Take 
up something, or some part of something, and stick to it till 
you have done with it. Don't try to be complete Naturalists 
all at once ; but take one the ferns, one the grasses, one the 
snails, or what not, and get that done first. Collect your speci- 
mens and learn all you can about them ; label and arrange 
them and put them in the museum, when we have got it. 

Moreover, Natural History Society as we are, it does not 
do to be too rapid. I would not exclude from the museum a 
series of photographs or sketches of local objects of interest 
in other lines of study. Churches, Castles, Ruins, Scenery, all 
deserve a place, and in time all ought to find it ; while the 
Pier, the Harbour, the Steam-boats, offer attractions to those 
whose hands are skilful at woodwork, and to whom the 
prospect of adorning the IMuseum of this town, might just 
give the inducements necessary to lead them to put their 
theoretical skill into practical working. 

Of the librar}- I need say nothing. The advantages to an 
institution, such as I have attempted to describe, of the 
possession of a library of reference, consisting of works on 
Natural History generally, English Natural History especially, 
and of all both of local interest, whether antiquarian, statistical 
or scientific, need no explanation of mine. Many of us 
probably have works of one sort or other that we should be 
happy to give to such a librar)% and others would, I am sure, 
come in when once the library was in good working order. 

In conclusion I will only say that I should like to see our 
society and our museum among the best of the kind in 
England. But neither can exist as an abstraction ; an ab- 
stract society, or an abstract museum would be of little 
service unless to the brains of a metaphysician, apart from the 
concrete individuals comprising the one, and the concrete 
specimens contained in the other ; and if we individuals will 
set to work to collect the specimens, this museum will soon 
cease to be an abstraction, and will have a real existence, and 
the Folkestone Natural History Society will make a name for 
itself and a reputation which, depend upon it, will extend be- 
yond Folkestone. At all events if the thing comes to grief, 
do not let us allow it to be the fatilt of the original promoter. 

C. L. ACLAND, 



FOLKESTONE MUSEUM. 



As this will be the most suitable place for informing the 
Members what has been done with regard to the Town 
Museum, we here give an account of the proceedings. 

The following communication was forwarded by the Com- 
mittee of the Society to the Corporation in September last : 

TO THE MAYOR, ALDERMEN, AND COUNCILLORS OF THE 
BOROUGH OF FOLKESTONE. 

September, 1868. 

Gentlemen, 

Youiare no doubt aware that a Society has been 
formed in this town called the "Folkestone Natural History Society," 
the object. of which is not only to afford pleasure and recreation by 
rambles in well known localities in the open air, with descriptive lee- 
tares, but to collect specimens connected with Natural History, with 
which the neighbourhood of Folkestone so richly abounds. The 
Society though recently formed, consists of upVrards of eighty Mem-' 
bers, and has met with much encouragement and success during the 
past season, and has already by the exertions and assiduity of in- 
dividual Members collected many valuable specimens. 

As it is the desire of the Society that any benefit which it may 
attain, shall not only be for itself but also for the town, and that the 
results of its labours shall be open to all, the Societyis very anxious to 
secure some place where the specimens may be exhibited, and enter, 
taining explanations may be given on the subject, and as the Society 
is aware that a very valuable collection of specimens (though in sad 
disorder) is already possessed by the town, the Society beg to ask you 
whether you will allow it to have the use of the room at the Sessions 
Hall, where the present collection is placed, and to have the present 
museum placed under- its charge. If this request is granted, the 
Society will undertake the charge of the museum, to arrange- and 
classify the specimens, to famish a catalogue to the Corporation, to 
keep the museum open for pubUo inspection at suitable periods to be 
fixed by the Society, and in the event of the dissolution of the Society, 
to return to the Corporation all the specimens placed by that body 
under its charge. 

The Society wiU also pledge itself to preserve the specimens, and 
to use the room only as a museum and for holding meetings and giving 
lectures and entertainments connected with the objects of the Society. 



jS FOLKESTONE MUSEUM. 

By this moans the present collection will be utilizecl and placed 
under the care of gentlemen well acquainted with its value and im- 
portance. 

The Corporation are no doubt aware that the room and the speci- 
mens are now in a useless state from dirt and dnst, and as it will not 
only be a matter of great labour, but of considerable expense to 
arrange the specimens and to put the museum into a state fit for public 
inspection, the Society trust that the Corporation will give them some 
substantial aid towards cleaning and painting the room, towards fitting 
it up with shelves, cases, and other adjuncts, and for adapting it for 
the purposes of a museum. 

The Members of this Society trust that you will be pleased to 
entertain their request, and thus farther their exertions in securing a 
museum for this town. 

We have the honour to be, 
Gentlemen, 
Your obedient servants, 

C. E. FITZ GERALD, Pkebident. 
Members of the Oommittee, on behalf of the Society, 

Hy. ULLYETT, Beceetaet. 

In reply to this, the following was received by the Com- 
mittee in January of the present year : 

Borough of Folkestone \ At an Adj oumed Quarterly Meeting of the 
im, the [■ Council of the said Borongh, held at the Town 

Cotmty of Kent. J Hall, in the said Borough, on Wednesday, the 
Twenty-seventh day of January, 1869. 

Present — 

Mr. Alderman John Gambrill (in the Chair), Aldermen Ham Tito, and 
James Tolputt. Councillors Ebenezer Pope, Henry Stock, Franoia 
Coules, John Head, John Sherwood, James Jinkings, Joseph Christian 
Davidson, John Bamford, and John Fitness. 

The following Report of the Museum Committee wae read, and 
ordered to be received and entered upon the Minutes : — 

MUSEUM COMMITTEE. 

•' In pursuance of the instructions that your Committee should 
consider the Memorial received from the Members of the Committee 
on behalf of ' The Folkestone Natural History Society,' relative to the 
Fossils at the Sessions Hall, and report thereon to the Council. 

" Your Committee have considered the Memorial and the applica- 
tion made thereby, and beg to recommend, with a view to secure the 
objects contemplated by the Society, 

" 1st— That the Corporation do grant the use of the large room of 



FOLKESTONE MUStlF.M. 39 

the Sesslona HaU to the Society, with all the flxtares, shelves, eftsea 
and fittings, rent free. 

" 2nd— That the tenancy be yearly, Btibjeot to the determination 
by either party, on giving twelve months' notice. 

•• 3rd — That the present collection of Possila and Bpocimons bo 
placed tinder the sole charge of the Society. 

<« 4th— That the Corporation do forthwith at their expense, properly 
repair, cleanse, and paint the inside of the room, and the doors and 
passages leading thereto. 

ON CONDITION 

« 5th— That the Society do take every oare of, and preserve the 
present collection and specimens. 

« 6th— That the Society do at their expense arrange, clean, and 
classify the present Bpeoimens, and fnmisli a catalogue of them to 
the Corporation. 

«' 7th — That the Society do keep open the museum for publio 
inspection, and grant free admission thereto at stiitable periods ; and 
that the Society do use the room as a mnsenm only, and for holding 
meetings, lectures, and other entertainmenstv connected vrith the 
objects of the Society. 

«< 8th — That in the event of the dissolution of the Society, or if the 
room ceases to be used by the Society for those purposes, the room 
shall be delivered up to the Corporation with all fixtures, shelves, cases, 
and fittings, and the present collection of fossils and specimens un- 
damaged. 

" 9th — That the Mayor and Deputy-Mayor for the time being and 
one of the members of the Museum Committee to be appointed by that 
Committee and notified to the Society, shall at all times be ex-officio 
members of the Committee of the Society. 

««10th — That in labelling the specimens those belonging to the 
Corporation shall be distinguished by a distinct label with the letter 
C in red marked thereon. 

" Dated thia Twenty-fifth January, 1869. 

JOHN GAMBRILL, Deputy Mayor." 

In discussing the contents of this reply, the Members of 
the Committee felt that their offer had not been met with 
that liberality which the interests of the town demanded, 
and though they were, and are still extremely anxious that 
the museum should not continue to be, as it has been for so 
long, a disgrace to the town, yet they could not take upon 
themselves the pecuniary responsibility, which the conditions 
laid down by the Council would involve. The following 
resolutions were passed and for\varded to the Council : 

1st — That having an anxious desire to make the present collection 
of fossils and specimens of publio utility, the Society are willing to 



■40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 

undertake the arrangement of the same, and to pay certain expenses 
out of their subscriptions and funds in aid thereof. 

2nd — That having regard to the heavy expenses which will be 
entailed upon the Society by the strict conditions of the Council, and 
to the great labour Which will at the same time fall upon the members 
of the Society individually, and no pecuniary assistance whatever 
feeing offered by the Council towards the object of so much importance 
to the town, the Society with great reluctance must decline to accede 
to the conditions imposed by the Council. 

3rd — That the Society regret that their efforts to utilize the collec- 
tion neglected for so many years, and greatly injured from want of care, 
have been received with so littlo sympathy by tho members of the 
Council, and hope that tho Council will be induced themselves to estab- 
lish the museum for tho town on a proper footing. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



Wednesday, June 24M, 1868. — Members met in the evening 
at the Half Way Rocks, where an exceedingly interesting 
paper by Mrs. Bateman on the "Wonder of the Deep" was 
read by the Rev. C. L. Acland. A cordial vote of thanks to 
both writer and reader was passed, and two hours were, spent 
in examining the objects left bare by the receding tide. 

Saturday, August \st. — Members met at Victoria Grove, and 
traced the Bayle stream nearly to its source. Our readers will 
recollect the popular error connected with this stream and the 
legend as well. The water is said to run up hill, and in fact 
is believed to do so by many people; the cause of this pheno- 
menon is found in the following legend : — A religious house 
on the Bayle had great difficulty in obtaining water, S. Eans- 
withe exerting her miraculous influence, went to a spring 
situated at the foot of the hill, and caused the water to follow 
her to the Bayle, where it formed the present pond, and still 
itinues to feed it. To any one standing by the side of the 
,ream and looking towards its source, it does seem tp be 
flowing up hill ; this is a curious optical illusion arisin^^ "i 
the nature of the ground. 



PRIZES. 41 

Wcdne^dav, Olober \\th. — A conversazione was held at the 
house of the Rev. C. L. Acland. Many valuable works on 
Natural History were on the table ; among them several 
publications by the Ray Society, Harris's Aurelian, Moore's 
Nature Printed Ferns, Sowerby's Shells, &c. A living Death's 
Head Moth, Spider's Nest and Eggs, and some dried plants 
Were also shown. The paper on Local Museums (see p. 10) 
was read producing some little discussion, and the rest of the 
evening was spent in examining microscopic objects. 

Wednesday, December znd. — A conversazione was held at the 
President's house. On the table was a collection of Folkestone 
Gault Fossils, and some Land and Fluviatile Shells, lent by 
the Secretary. A paper on Winter Work was read by the 
Secretary, after which there was an animated discussion on 
the Reasoning Faculties of Animals, which had been inci- 
dentally mentioned. In speaking of Migration, A. H. Taylor, 
Esq. said that swallows might sometimes be seen in the 
Warren on mild days in December and January. 

Saturday, January \6th, 1869. — W. Bateman, Esq., kindly 
placed his house at the disposal of the Society for a meeting. 
Among the objects exhibited were a collection of local marine 
shells and dried plants by the Secretary, a beautiful case of 
Lepidoptera by the Rev. C. Reed, and some works on Natural 
History. Captain Crozier, R.E., read a valuable and interest- 
ing paper on diatoms, illustrated with specimens under the 
microscope. 



PRIZES. 



The following Prizes have been kindly placed at the dis- 
posal of the Committee : — 

I. — By C, H. Dashwood, Esq., F.Z.S., Three Prizes, 20s., 
los., and 5s., for the three best collections of Dried Flowering 
Plants. 

II. — By C. E. Fitzgerald, Esq., M.D., Two Prizes, 30s,, 
and IDS., for the two best collections of Fossils from the 
Ganlt, and the Junction Bed. Not more than three of any 
gspecies to be shown. 

F 



42 "WaNTER WORK. 

III.— By The Rev. C. L. Acland, M.A., Two Prizes, 
30s., and I OS., for the two best collections of Insects, 
(excluding Lepidoptera.) 

COXDITIONS : 

Specimens to be collected personally during the present year ; to be 
collected within an area of five miles radius from tlio Town Hall ; and 
to be delivered into the care of the Secretary (properly named), before 
December Ist, 1869. 

The Prizes are open only to Members of the Society. 



WINTER \VORK. 

Bead be/ore the Society, December 2nd, 1868. 



The glorious Summer weather of 1868 is all past, and the 
usual October and November gales sent us rather sooner than 
we expected into the regions of winter. All around us now 
is inhospitable and bleak, and there is little inducement to 
follow out in the open air the practical study of Natural 
History. So we are tempted, perhaps, to sit still and ponder 
over the rambles we took in the summer, to regret that they 
are over, and to wish they would soon come again. It is 
well, perhaps, that we should do so, for they ought to have 
supplied us with a whole treasure-house full of " studies," 
from which we may draw one after another to gaze at and 
admire. It is well to ask ourselves now, with these pictures 
set in the golden frame of memory still fresh before us, 
whether we valued them so much before they were thus ' 
framed — in plainer words, whether we thought at the time 
that we really had great opportunities for gathering food for 
thought in quiet hours. Did we do all we might have done ? 
In what respects did we fall short ? So we may gather expe- 
rience to guide us when the swallow and the cuckoo return 
again. Perhaps some of us made a tolerable collection of 
objects, which we had not then time to arrange, perhaps, 
not even to name. Now is the time ; the collector would 
never get through his work if he were always collecting, if 
he never had any seasons of leisure, for simply gathering 
objects is but half the work ; they have to be compared, 
classified, and specified ; general laws deduced, hasty conclu- 



WINTER WORK. 43 

sions tested, perhaps reversed ; all this you know is specially 
the work of the mind, and the mind at such times must not 
be hampered by the body, leisure and freedom from distur- 
bance is essential for contemplation and study. There are 
our Land and Water Shells ; it was no easy task to name some 
of them, and no doubt some of us have got three or four pill 
boxes full of shells somewhere or other labelled '' doubtful." 
Now is the time, when the drizzling November rain keeps us 
in doors, to sit down, and by the aid of Lovell Reeve and a 
magnifier to settle the question. A few papers of dried 
flowers too, not yet properly labelled, will occupy us now and 
then for an hour or two, perhaps also birds' eggs, seaweeds, 
and fossils. Winter is necessarily the time for theoretical 
study ; we cannot do so much out of doors, and in Summer, 
when all is favourable for so doing, it would be folly to be 
reading books at home. We must perfect and complete m 
December what we began in the early spring. 

But there is an impression I know that no active out-door 
work can be done by a naturalist in winter. I should be glad 
to do something towards removing this impression. Winter 
is not so lifeless as we are apt to think. I look back on many 
mild days in IDecember and January when I experienced 
great pleasure and gained no little knowledge in my rambles 
days spent in the leafless woods perhaps, but yet where the 
squirrel might be surprised at a winter meal, and the hawk 
at its feast of blood. True, there is not in winter the mys- 
terious abundance of life around us which astonishes us in 
summer, but the very lack of this abundance makes it easier 
for us to make observ^ations on those objects that are left. 
In June and July we are so embarassed by the multitude of 
objects we see around us, that we do not know where to begin, 
we feel quite helpless till some friendly hand comes and puts 
us to work. Now Botany is a subject which is associated 
so thoroughly with summer that few ever thinkj it possible, to 
do anything at it in the cold weather. Yet winter has a flora 
of its own, and even now, in December we might go and 
gather a handful of flowers. There is more room however 
for active work among the mosses which flourish most 
luxuriantly in the midst of snow and rain. Many of them 
ripen their fruits only in the dead of winter, and for beauty 
of detail, they rival all the rest of the botanical creation. 



44 WINTER WORK. 

It is worth a damp walk to some woody dell to see their 
varied hues of green, and the marvellously contrived mechan- 
ism for the dispersion of the fruit which characterises these 
"children of winter;" they appear all the more flourishing 
by reason of those very influences which lay their more sturdy 
brethren low. And many an evening's amusement may be 
obtained by studying these mosses with a microscope. In 
Geology a great deal can be done, when neither plants nor 
animals put in an appearance we can always go geologising. 
I do not mean simply fossil-hunting, but geologising in the 
fuller sense of the word — gaining a knowledge of all the 
formations in our neighbourhood, where they crop up, and 
their line of strike — the gravels, the clays, the sands, and the 
drift, as well as the harder rocks ; all these will afford plenty 
of room for speculation, too much, perhaps, but at any rate 
they will set us a thinking. And if we go out simply in 
search of fossils, we shall meet plenty to encourage us in this 
rich neighbourhood. Among the chalk on the cliffs crowded 
with fragments of Inocerami and Rhynchonellce ; in the Green- 
sand blocks scattered over the beach in East Wear Bay, rich 
in oysters and fossil woods ; and above all in the blue clay 
left bare by the receding tide, studded with countless ammo- 
nites and belemnites — here we shall find ourselves surrounded 
by the remains of a former world, and find problems set us 
that men very far wiser than ourselves have never yet been 
able to work out. Although it is certainly not pleasant to 
stand chipping corners off stones with a cold hammer, with 
the wind and sleet driving in our faces, yet there are many 
mild soft days in the very depth of winter when we may thus 
comfortably amuse ourselves. 

But now, to pass to the animal world. Many of our sylvan 
inhabitants have, it is true, retired for the winter, but they 
are not wholly lost to us. Many a time, when rooting among 
the mosses we shall turn out perhaps a beetle snugly en- 
sconced, or a plump caterpillar, perhaps a dormouse fast 
asleep, and this sets our mind astir in another direction, we 
ponder over that mysterious thing called hybernation. Why 
these animals should thus pass away the winter we can perhaps 
see — change of climate and scarcity of food render it necessary; 
but how it is done is beyond our ken. We see it in all sorts 
of creatures — in the great Brown Bear in the forests of Russia, 



AVINTER WORK. 45 

in the Marmot, the Squirrel, down to the tiny Caterpillar 
not the tenth part of an inch in length. We see it again in 
those weird creatures the Bats. Go into some sheltered cave 
and you will probably find numbers of these creatures hanging 
by their claws to the roof, head downwards, their wings 
closely enwrapped around them — not a sign of life, not even 
any perceptible breathing. It is not merely sleep, you may 
rouse up an animal from its ordinary sleep, and it does not 
take long to collect its faculties; unlike the lords of the 
creation, there is no stretching of limbs and rubbing of eyes, 
the creature springs up from slumber and is on the alert at 
once. But not so with hybernation; it takes some time to 
rouse a bat, the wakening comes very gradually and is 
generally fatal. It is evidently a much nearer approach to 
death than sleep is — the breathing is so slight as to defy 
investigation, and the blood courses so sluggishly along that 
you can detect no pulsation ; the air in which the creature 
passes the winter, undergoes no change, and strangest of all 
the animal will exist for some time in gases that would be 
immediately fatal to it if awake. I just refer briefly to these 
points in hopes to provoke a discussion on the subject 
presently. By thus exploring caves and other suitable spots, 
we may become acquainted with some species of bats not 
otherwise often seen. I remember once going into a chalk 
cave and finding four species, the Pipistrelle, Noctule, Long 
eared Bat, and the Lesser Horse Shoe Bat having the curious 
leaf-like appendage to the nose. 

Again, we may study birds as well during the winter as in 
summer, perhaps some species better. The little Tits may be 
seen in flocks of about a dozen flitting in and out of the 
hedgerows, or busily running up and down the stems of trees 
searching for sleeping insects ; the little Wren often scuds 
across the road a foot or two above the ground ; the song of 
the Skylark may be heard on a sunny day in any month of the 
year. The habits of most of our birds change as they don 
their winter plumage ; they begin to flock together in great 
numbers, especially the Starlings, the Larks, the Finches, &c. 
The Chaffinch is seen in large flocks, containing only males, 
very few females are to be seen, and these mostly in the 
south. Another question here arises — Why this collecting 
together in flocks ? And why in winter and not in summer? 



46 WINTER WORK. 

Well we, perhaps, can understand why not in summer, because 
of the family duties which engage them, and the intense 
rivalry and jealousy of the males. These feelings, however, 
die away with the summer months. Do they congregate in 
the winter for warmth, or for food ? Scarcely the latter, 
since it would be easier to obtain food singly. 

Then there are the birds of passage — those going and those 
coming ; the Swift, the Swallow, the Cuckoo, and others 
disappearing ; the Fieldfare, the Redwing, the Hooded Crow, 
&c., coming. The latter, as of course you know, frequents 
the shore and the adjacent fields now in search of food, and 
at once attracts notice by the hood it wears. Where does 
it raise its family } Does it ever breed in England } Why 
does it come here at all ? 

Migration is almost as wonderful as hybernation. Before 
it was so well established a fact as it is in the present day, 
hybernation was much more extensively allowed. The 
Swallow tribe in particular attracted most notice, as was but 
natural, and they were all firmly believed to spend the winter 
in this country, hidden up in caves and rock crevices, old 
buildings and places similar to those where we find the bats ; 
some thought even in the bottom of lakes and rivers buried 
in the mud. Dr. Johnson in his usual dogmatic style, once 
remarked in the course of conversation — " Swallows certainly 
sleep all the winter. A number of them conglobulate together 
by flying round and round, and then all in a heap throw them- 
selves under water and lie in the bed of a river." And 
Gilbert White, of Selbome, could never bring himself to 
totally disbelieve in their hybernation. Nor has the belief 
died out even in the present day, for there was a discussion 
about it in the pages of " Science Gossip" only a few months 
ago. But this is rather digressing. 

There is often much talk about the " mysterious" instinct 
which guides birds in their migrations. I confess I can see 
little mystery in it, not nearly so much as in hybernation. 

Disbelieving totally, as I do, in what is commonly called 
the " instinct" of the lower animals, and believing that the 
whole animal creation possesses pretty well the same facul- 
ties and reasoning powers as ourselves, nay, I may go further 
and say, an immaterial and undying principle similar to our 
own, the mystery commonly supposed to be connected with 



WINTER WORK. 47 

the instict of animals, vanishes in my mind to a considerable 
extent. It is improbable in the highest degree, that a flock 
of birds all of the first year, should set off for a foreign land 
alone, with no old ones in their company, who have been the 
road before ; and therefore, I believe there are always plenty 
in a flock to guide them. And if so, why should not birds 
be able to travel about just the same as men ? But even 
supposing for the sake of argument that such an improba- 
bility as I have stated takes place, what then ? A flock of 
birds feel the weather in their locality, getting too cold for 
them. They do what a tribe of men might do, try to find a 
warmer place. If they fly northwards, they only experience 
colder winds, what should they do then but turn round to the 
south ? In that direction they meet with warmer air, and are 
beckoned continually on and on by more balmy breezes, until 
they arrive in a locality which suits them, and there they wait 
until they feel compelled by circumstances to go back again. 
In short they act like reasonable beings as they are, I should 
be glad if some one would take up the discussion of the 
subject presently. 

I fear I have trespassed somewhat too much on your 
attention, and must now draw to a close my desultory remarks. 
I have simply tried to show what we may all do in what are 
generally called the dreary months of winter, and I hope I 
have proved that there is plenty of occupation both for mind 
and body. 



We have received the "Fifth Annual Report of the Belfast 
Naturalist's Field C//^5," containing the proceedings of this 
energetic Society during the season of 1 867-68. The accounts 
of the excursions are exceedingly interesting and instructive. 
We heartily wish the Club continued success. 



Local Names. — It is desired to collect as many as possible of the local 
names of British plants ; and the assistance is requested of aU who take 
an interest in the subject, or who may have the opportunity of ascertaining 
and recording them. Any list sent to Mr. James Beittes, High Wycombe, 
or to Mr. Robert Holland, Mobberley, Kmitsford, will be thankfully 
received and acknowledged. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Mildness of the Past Season. — 
On the morning of Christmas day, 
1868, I took on my dressing table 
at Abingdon, Berks, a specimen of 
the common Tortoise-shell Butter- 
fly, and on the day before Christ- 
mas day a Garden White was seen 
flying outside the house. — C. L. 

ACIAND. 

I have started a small fresh- 
water aquarium. I put into it 
several specimens of Notoneda 
Qlaiica, the Water Boatman, but 
they were so destructive to every- 
thing else, that I transferred them 
to another vessel. On one occa- 
sion I found that one of these 
beetles had attacked one of his 
fellows, and would have killed it 
had I not separated them. I also 
found one of them firmly fixed to 
the side of a Newt ten times his own 
size. They are themselves des- 
troyed by Dytiscus lattis, the great 
Water Beetle. I feed the Newts 
and Beetles with meat chopped 
very fine. The Water Boatman 
will not eat fat. 

I found on one of the great 
Water Beetles spots of what look- 
ed like white mould or mildew. 
Under the microscope these prov- 
ed to be dense bushes of infusorial 
animalcules. From a well defined 
root sprang branches irregularly 
and freely forked, and at the end 
of each branchlets were two, some- 
times three pitchers, not unlike 
those of the common rotifer, but 
open at the top with a kind of 
tube projecting from them, shaped 
like the barrel of an old fashioned 
blunderbuss, but carved in its 
whole length. The mouth of this 
tube (and, I think, the mouth of 
the pitcher itself, but of this last 



I am not sure) was ciliated, and 
the consequent currents were 
very beautiful. At intervals the 
projecting tubes were sharply 
withdrawn into the pitchers, but 
soon again protruded. Some 
of the pitchers (there must have 
been many hundreds on the bush) 
appeared to survive freely after 
being separated from the bush^ 
but I am not certain on this point. 
Can any of your readers learned 
in infusoria tell me the name of 
my new friend? — C. L. Acland. 

[Probably Epistylus nuta/ns ; wa 
shall be glad of additional remarks 
from any of our correspondents. 
—Ed.] 

Gull Parliament. — The follow- 
ing scene may be beheld in April, 
on the beach below Copt Point, 
Folkestone. One aged gull appears 
amongst a crowd of others to act 
as judge, moderator, or speaker. 
A great deal of fussiness takes 
place, whether of business or 
pleasure I cannot tell, but it is 
evidently of great importance. 
From time to time you will see 
a member of the community ap- 
parently receive notice to quit 
from the ancient swell, and im- 
mediately he flies away to sea. 
Whether this said victim is on the 
" staff," or on a ticket-of-leave, or 
is compelled to visit other climes, 
but not at his own expense, is, at 
least with me, an undetermined 
question. But I have seen the 
above take place several times, 
sometimes on successive days, the 
birds gathering together on the 
sea shore. It may be worth while 
noticing, that all this occurs just 
before nesting begins. -A. C. Tatlok 




11 FECI ifleP 




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XI U. O.J |_ Or 28. per AiiTiTim 

THE 

QUARTERLY JOURNAL 

OF THE 

dfolltestone 




SOCIET"3r. 



COHTEHTS: 

The Landslip on the Warren 

Annual Meeting of the- Society 

President's Address ... 

Instinct or Reason ... 

Local Natural History Societies ... 

The Mechanism of the Human Voice 

Our Orchids 

Notices of Books 

Naturalists' Kalendar 

Notes and Queries 



PAGE. 
48 
51 

58 

62 

64 
67 

68 
70 
71 



a) 




FOLKESTONE: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY J. ENGLISH, 
HIGH STREET. 
And Sold by all Booksellers, 




' EXPRESS" OFFICE, 




m 









THE FOLLOWING IS A 

LIST OF OFFICERS 

OF THE SOCIETT, 



PRESIDENT : 
C. E. FITZ-GERALD, M.D. 

COMMITTEE : 



H. B. Mackeson, F.G.S. 
C. H. Dashwood, F.Z.S. 
Rev. C. L. Acland, M.A, 
Rev. C. J. Taylor, M.A. 
Rev.E. Langdon, M.A., F.G.S. 
S. Eastes, Esq. 
G. M. Scholey, Esq. 



A. M. Leith, Esq. 

W. G. S. Harrison, Esq. 

W. Bateman, Esq. 

J. Clarke, Esq. 

R. W. Boarer, Esq. 

F. Fagge, Esq., F.L.S. 



Ho7iorary Secretary, Hy. ULLYETT. 



Subscribers are respectfully informed that it would save 
much trouble, and ensure punctuality in the delivery of the 
Magazine, if they would forward their names and the year's 
Subscription to the Secretary at their earliest convenience. 



All Communications should be addressed to H. Ullyett, 
Folkestone. We shall be glad to receive notes concerning any of 
our local plants and animals, times of appearance, abnormal 
forms and colours, popular names and traditions, &c. These 
must be anthenticated by the writer's name and address, but 
not necessarily for publication. 



^STh m/, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



Wednesday, March 17th, a conversazione was held at the 
President's house. The Secretary exhibited a collection of 
Ranimculacece; Mr. J. Fitness, a very beautiful collection of 
drawings of microscopic objects; the Rev. C. L. Acland, 
some Gault Fossils from East Wear Bay. Microscopes were 
on the table as usual. The President read an interesting 
paper on the "Mechanism of the Human Voice" and this 
was followed by another on 

THE LATE LANDSLIP ON THE WARREN. 
By the Rev. C. L. Acland. 



By permission of the President I am going to say a few 
words on the subject of a great landslip on the Warren, 
which occurred on the night of Thursday, the 25 th of 
Ji'ebruary. Of course you all know that the Warren itself is one 
great landslip, and that one part or other of its surface is 
always on the move, so that an attentive observer finds some- 
thing fresh at almost every visit. I hope all of you have 
seen or will see this latest slip for yourselves, and I also hope 
that after I have said what I have to say, or during my 
remarks if you like better, any of you will put in statements 
or opinions of your own. 

The beginning of the slip is a little this side of the Long 
Pond, and its further end is some quarter of a mile or so 
from the Coast Guard houses. The whole slip is very regular 
in shape and dimensions, and when you stand at the far end 
of it, and look back towards Folkestone, you cannot help 
being struck by the magnitude of the dislocation, nor can 
you help speculating as to what could' have caused it. A 
long narrow strip of land, about half-a-mile in length and 
from 50 to 70 yards wide, has sunk down, so quietly and 
G 



49 THE LATE LANDSLIP 

evenly as to have scarcely misplaced a single stone or bush, 
through some 15 feet on one side of it, and five feet on the 
other. Those who did not know the Warren pretty well 
might easily, especially if they approached it from the east- 
ward, walk over the ground that has given way without 
noticing anything exceptional, so little is the ground broken 
up or the paths and landmarks disturbed. Going along the 
path on the right hand side of the railway which leads to 
the Coast Guard Station, you first become aware of the slip 
when you reach the steep slope which led downwards on to 
the lower part of the Warren. Here the path is suddenly- 
dislocated, and you see it 15 feet below ypu. Descending by 
a flight of newly made steps rather to the eastward of this 
dislocation and walking still on to the east, you have on your 
left hand a raw edge in the shape of a bank, of about 1 5 feet 
slope, generally composed of smooth chalk rubble, but in 
parts covered with large lumps of chalk, which in one par- 
ticular spot have fallen onto and obliterated the old path. 
On the seaward side of the main valley the slope is from five 
to six or seven feet only, and the ground is on this side more 
broken and cut up than on the other. As I said, the view 
from the eastward end of the slip is very remarkable. The 
high ground on either side is not disturbed, and as far as I 
have been able to make out there is nowhere any thrust of 
the seaward slopes onto the shore. But some 50 or 80 yards 
from the foot of this seaward slope there has appeared a very 
remarkable ridge, now rapidly undergoing destruction by 
the waves. This ridge consists of (j) loose lumps of chalk, 
(2) upper greensand in much larger quantities than I have 
ever seen it on this shore before, (3) gault of both kinds both, 
dark and light, and (4) a large quantity of what I believe to 
be clay iron-stone, with large quantities of the solidified 
iron stone, lumps of which lie in such profusion all along 
Eastwear Bay. One or two splendid blocks of stone covered 
with haematite I noticed as I walked along this ridge on 
Wednesday last. These may have been visible before, but I 
had not noticed them. The work of the sea in reducing the 
ridge is shown by the specimens of comminuted chalk and 
gault which lie before you. The ridge is being rapidly 
reduced, as I said before, to the general level of the shore, and 
in a few months will probably be hardly distinguishable. 



ON THE WARREN. 50 

I ought to mention the eflfect of the landslip on the Long 
Pond. It is unquestionably wider than it was. The sloping 
banks on each side have slid down forward, and while iilling 
up, no doubt the bottom have so advanced downwards that the 
opposite sides of the water are farther apart than they were, 
and while on one side the path that ran by the edge of the 
pond is entirely submerged, on the other, bramble bushes, 
which till lately grew high and dry on the bank, are now in a 
most unwelcome depth of water. 

Such is a brief and imperfect description of the features of 
this remarkable slip, and I hope that our committee will, as 
soon as the weather can possibly be pronounced sufficiently 
genial, organise a ramble to the Warren, that those of us 
who have not seen the slip may do so, and that we may meet 
on the spot and compare notes. I should have said that the 
alteration in the banks of the Long Pond, will, I fear, render 
it utterly unproductive in the matter of Natural History for 
this year ; as the old bottom of the pond is no longer ap- 
proachable, and water snails and other such beings, naturally 
prefer living water plants to dead land ones. 

If you are not tired I will say a few words on the theory of 
such slips as these, and on the causes which have led to the 
present one. Doubtless, you know that, all along the Warren, 
the Gault, a stiff greyish or blueish clay, underlies the chalk, 
and is much more easily acted on by water than is the chalk. 
Now chalk hills are invariably well supplied with springs, 
and if you walk with your eyes open along Eastwear bay, and 
note the many runnels of fresh water finding their way across 
the beach to the sea, you will see that our chalk hills are no 
exception to the rule. These chalk streams, and such as 
these have caused this landslip. The surface of this portion 
of the Warren at which it has occurred is chalk, and there- 
fore underneath it is the gault. This being reduced by 
degrees to a more or less liquid condition by the water, and 
you must remember what unusually heavy rains we have had, 
and how the underground streams must, consequently, have 
been swollen, has at length been unable any longer to support 
the superincumbent chalk, and, the whole being in a state of 
unstable equilibrium for some time past, as soon as any one 
point began to sink the motion must have extended to all, 



51 ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY. 

while, going down, as it did, upon the surface of a tenacious 
mud, the fall has been very gradual and steady, and the 
consequent disruption of the ground very small. Had the 
gault underneath been in a very liquid condition, it would, 
doubtless, at several points, have forced its way up through 
the overlying chalk, and a geological phenomenon of a 
totally different nature would have presented itself. As it 
was, the enormous weight of this vast body of chalk produced 
a pressure on the gault beneath, which could be relieved only 
by a giving way at the point of least resistance, which in this 
case happened to be the place where the gault comes to the 
surface, at and near low water mark. Here, therefore, the 
internal pressure has come into play, with the result of 
throwing up the ridge, of which I have spoken, along the 
shore. But observe, that, to produce this ridge, pressure and 
therefore motion, must have been propagated through the 
mass underlying the seaward hills and slopes of the Warren ; 
and here I should be inclined to think that the next great slip, 
must occur. Meanwhile let the S.E.R. Co. look to it, for 
one part of the present slip is within 1 5 feet of their em-, 
bankments. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY. 



Wednesday, April 14th, at the Commercial Hall, Graco 
Hill. The following objects were placed on the table : — 

Collection of Fossils from the formations lying between 
the Tertiary beds and the Silurian. 

Land and Fluviatile Shells 

Marine Shells (local). 

Several families of Plants (dried). 

Cases of Lepidoptera, &c., &c. 

There were also four Aquaria, temporarily fitted up by 
the Rev. C. L. Acland, with specimens of aquatic life, both 
animal and vegetable ; and a very beautiful bank of wild 
flowers gathered and arranged by Mrs. Fixz Gerald. 



THE president's ADDRESS, 



52 



The President having taken the chair, called upon the 
Treasurer to read the Balance Sheet, for 1868, which we here 
present to our readers :— ' 

BALANCE SHEET. 



RECEIPTS. 

£ s. d. 
To Subscriptions re- 
ceived for 1868 8 17 6 
,, Keceipts for the 

Magazine 2 2 lOJ 



£11 4i 



EXPENDITURE. 

£ a. d. 
By Printing Circu- 
lars, &c 3 19 

„ Ordinary Expen- 
ses, Postage, &c. 13 7i 
„ Postage of Ma- 
gazines 1 10 

„ Cash in hand 6 5 11 

£11 4i 



THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



Ladies and Gentlemen, 

On this our first Annual Meeting, I think I 
may be fairly allowed to congratulate you on the great success of 
the Folkestone Natural History Society ; a success due not only to 
the long-felt want of such a Society in this neighbourhood, but to 
the great exertions and never-ceasing interest of some of our 
members. Nor do I think it would be right to allow this occasion 
to pass without thanking our Hon. Secretary and the Eev. C. L. 
Acland for all they have done for us. They, in fact, are the patient 
nurses who have guided and guarded the first tottering footsteps of 
our infant Society until it has become the stalwart stripling we 
now behold it. Beginning with only 30 members we have 
reached the respectable number of 85, and are even now daily in- 
creasing. Nor is this surprising when we remember that a love 
of Natural History being once awakened, it becomes the most 
fascinating of pursuits ; every surrounding object, however familiar 
apd common-place assumes a new interest, it is like the first dawn 
of love in the human breast ; immediately every object assumes a 



53 THE PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 

more roseate and lovely hue, and unlike too often the grosser 
passion, the love of nature lasts until the termination of our life. 
What greater difference can there be then between the dull " con- 
stitutional " along an uninteresting road, taken perhaps at the 
urgent instigation of some tyrannical doctor, and the happy 
*' ramble " of the Naturalist, to whom every blade of grass, every 
peeping wild flower or graceful fern, every stone becomes an object of 
rational interest, to whom every little pond swarms with curious and 
interesting life ; to whom to have discovered a new or even a rare 
specimen is ' worth any expenditure of time, trouble, or exertion. 
What can be more exhilarating than the first dip with the net in 
a new and tempting looking water ; what can equal the healthy ex. 
citement when the net comes to the surface laden with what a single 
glance tells us to be rare or interesting specimens. What care we then 
for muddy clothes, wet boots, or even aching backs, does not the result 
fully compensate for such trivial misfortunes ? You may laugh, feut 
I only say " Try it ! " and if you do not then agree with me, I shall 
pronounce you difierent to all the specimens of humanity I have 
ever met. Perhaps you will say, or think, " But I don't care for a 
parcel of dirty beetles, snails, and newts." I can only repeat, " Try 
the experiment and the love will surely come." You will find nature is 
one lovely and harmonious whole, to which all things, however ap- 
parently trivial, contribute. You will find nature is full, she swarms 
and palpitates with life under a myriad of unseen and unsuspected 
forms ; the very air we breathe is full, each drop of water swarms with 
life, — with tiny animalcules, so small that 150 millions of them would 
not weigh a grain. The earth we tread teems with life, and to the 
naturalist all this is lovingly revealed. He is invited to an intellectual 
repast, such as might tempt the most fastidious, and his researches 
are the more delightful because there is still so much to discover, so 
many difficulties to reconcile, so many theories to corroborate or 
disprove, so much information to impart to others. Already we have 
had several highly interesting papers read by members of our Society, 
one on " Geology," by our indefatigable Secretary, which possessed a 
peculiar interest for us, because the site whence it was delivered (the 
Warren) is not only peculiar in its geological formation, but because 
just now it is undergoing changes produoad by the gradual action of 
landsprings, &c., and gives an admirable instance of how alterations of 
the earth's crust have been and are even now effected ; how chalk 
clifi"s are left perpendicular, the bottoms of lakes changed and ele- 
vated, and islands thrown up at sea. All these phenomena have lately 



THE president's ADDRESS. 54 

taken place, on a small tetale, In the Warren. We are indebted to 
the Rev Mr. Langdon foi* a most elaborate paper on "Freshwater 
Molluscs," a subject of the greatest importance to the naturalist ; and 
to a distinguished lady member for a moat poetic essay on " The 
Wonders of the Deep." The Rev. C. L. Acland, too, gave us ^ Capital 
paper on the " Fertilization of Orchids," in which he pursued a most 
judicious course, and one which I strongly recommend to all of our 
members (and I trust they may be numerous) who intend to favour 
us with papers during the ensuing year, and that is to dwell rather on 
one single point of scientific interest, aud explain it thoroughly and 
intelligibly, than to attempt too much, and leave on the minds of your 
hearers a confused notion of having listened to a number of very 

hard words. 

I shall hope to hear to night some discussion on a very clever and 
original paper by Mr. Ullyett, in which he distinctly states 
his belief in the reasoning powers of the lower animals, and 
which he believes them to possess in common with ourselves. 
Although I cannot follow him quite so far as that, I freely grant that the 
lower animals possess "sense," "instinct," "promptings," (call them 
what you will, for they are merely words which conceal our ignorance on 
the subject), which we not only do not possess, but which we cannot even 
conceive, which our minds cannot grasp. Mr. Ullyett instanced the 
migration of Birds, which he partly explained (I trust to his own satis- 
faction) by the existence ofreasoning powers, but can a reasoning power 
tell a vulture that a camel lies dead in the desert when it is far, far out 
of what we can conceive the limits of sight or smell ? Often at sea when 
the sky has been cloudless and no spec visible on the horizon, have I 
thrown a morsel of biscuit or meat into the water, and yet within a few 
minutes hundreds of birds were hovering around the vessel, following 
in her wake and watching hungrily for more. I might multiply 
instances by the score, bnt to what good we simply do not know, we 
can but wait patiently and strive to understand what our mother 
nature teaches us. 

And to those who really mean to study the more easily solved 
problem of Nature, I would say at once, "Buy a microscope," or rather 
« Procure a microscope." Buy it if you can, by hook or by crook afford 
it ; save for it— beg for it, at any rate, get a microscope, and if 
possible, a 30od one; get a steady stand and good lenses, but do not 
attempt at first to have them of too high a power, these are difficult 
to work and not necessary for anything but the higher and more 
elaborate researches of the Physiologist. A 1 inch, i inch, and a 
1 inch are sufficient to begin with, though they now make lenses as 



55 THE PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

Ifcigh as 1-12 and even 1-25 of an inch. Then what wo^iders will yon 
'behold ! Each dew-drop, each withered leaf, becomes a world. We 
see the very stones of which onr houses are bnilt, the chalky cliffs of 
old England which we love so well, are composed of microscopic forms, 
the relics of a bye-gone age. Now may we find the "Red Snow,'' 
which was formerly considered a portent of awful omen (and of which 
I have myself seen vast fields in the polar regions), to be merely 
caused by the growth of a minute plant, Protococcus Nivalis, which ia 
reproduced with marvellous rapidity, and spreads immense distances 
in a single night. We discover " Life within Life," as for example, in 
the common Aphis, with which our roseries swarm. Inside you will 
find another insect, nearly perfect, open this carefully and you find 
another, and again within this last you will discover eggs, which 
require only time to become perfect insects. 

There is one point in Natural History which will, I am sure, com- 
mend itself to our Lady Members. I allude to the very poor figure 
often cut by our sex among the lower forms of animal Ufe, and which' 
they will doubtless argue, extends v/pwards in the scale of creation, 
though it might be difficult to say how high ! They will find that not 
only are male creatures often inferior to their partners in strength, 
intelligence, and beauty, but that there actually exists a race of insects 
without any males whatever (I allude to the Apus). True they are only 
Entomostracse, allied to the Daphnia or Water Flea, which is, again a 
sort gf poor relation or distant cousin of the shrimp, crab, &c. Bat 
then compare the lazy ugly drone with the resplendent nnd stately 
Queen Bee. The puny male spider with his fierce and pugnacious 
lady, who sometimes even goes the length of eating him up\ And 
there is even a parasite Lernea, whose husband is merely a parasite to 
her and actually Jives on her. Can male depravity go farther than 
this? 

What can be more wonderful than the way a naturalist, such as 
Professor Owen will take up a piece of fossil bone thousands of years 
old, and from this imperfect fragment give a correct description of an 
extinct animal, describing not only its texture of skin, whether scaly, 
feathery, or smooth, but will tell its food and habits of life, and even 
make a drawing of its external form and appearance! Indeed even a 
very humble naturalist may sometimes tell a good deal from a bone. 
I remember some years ago when I was in Cologne going over the 
Church of St. Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins, her companions, I was 
shewn a portion of the scull of St. Ursula, and by the side of it the 
the scull of St. Elfrida, her especial favorite, "Was she one of the 
Yirgius " ? I asked j " of course " said my indignant guide. "But this is 



THE president's ADDRESS. 56 

the skall of a man " I replied. " Impossible, perhaps yoa will tell mo 
this is a man's scull," said the monk taking up another "Virgin." 
"Yes she was also a man." "But how canyon possibly tell?" said my 
guide, who did not quite know whether to be more outraged or staggered. 
«' Because " I replied, " I can by some points of its structure, such as 
the frontal sinuses, its thickness, size, &c., tell the difference just as 
certainly between a male and female scull after death as I can between 
a man and woman when alive." 

Camper, if you remember, formed a very sensible and ingenious 
theory from the formation of the scull, professimg to discover from the 
different facial angles, not only the distinctions between the sculls of 
the several species of animals, but also those which exist between 
different nations. Thus he considered the Negro an intermediate step 
between the European and the Orang-IJtang, and he established a sort 
of scale graduating from a newt up to the loftiest type of human 
beauty. Thus birds have the smallest angles, asses an angle of 42, 
to 50, a Negro and a Calmuck a facial angle of 70, while the average 
angle of European faces is 80-, except in the loftiest or most sublime 
etyle of beauty where it amount to 100 degrees. On this difference of 10 
degrees, depends the difference in beauty between the Negro and the 
lovliest of Europeans. But I am sorry to say that, ingenious as this 
theory undoubtedly is, it is not quite true, indeed it was founded on an 
error, as the skulls of apes which were used for comparison were those of 
immature animals, and Professor Owen has clearly proved that in the 
adult ape the facial angle is far less than stated by Camper, being 
indeed only 30 to 35, so that the transition is far more abrupt than 
he imagined, and makes a difference so great that the utmost diversity 
between any two human races becomes quite insignificant compared to 
it. I had intended giving a slight Ethnological sketch in my paper this 
evening, but I found it would unduly extend its limits ; I trust however 
some of you will give us a paper on this subject ere long. It was a 
subject which first forced itself on my attention when travelling in 
Iceland and afterwards in Lapland, where I noticed the curious noma> 
die or wandering habits of the people, apparently so inappropriate to 
the cold, inhospitable country in which they dwell, and which must 
have been, as they were, imported from the sunny skies and burning 
deserts of the far east. In the interior of Iceland you see a scattered 
people, travelling conlinually on horseback from place to place, dwelling 
in tents, subsisting by scanty flocks just as do the Arabs of the desert, 
practising too, like them, a prodigal hospitality, which is given and 
H 



57 THE PRESIDENT S ADDRESS. 

accepted as & sacred right. They are, however, a very difieront looking 
people to the degraded Lapps, who are by some classed among the 
Celtic family. It needs only a glance at their oblique eyes, high cheek 
bones, low foreheads, bronzed skius, and straight black hair, to detect 
their Mongolian origin, And this brings us to the fertile field for 
Bpeculation opened up by modern philosophers, as to the fixity or 
mutability of species. How sublimely simple and harmonious appears 
Darwin's theory of the developement of all species from few or even one 
type, and yet, at first sight how unanswerable seems the objection 
made by the other school, that if species have not altered during the 
last 4,000 years, since the timo of Pharaoh, they are not likely even 
to have varied, for, as I daresay you know, the beetles, dogs, cats, and 
negroes portrayed on the Egyptian obelisks and tombs are identical with 
the same animals and negroes of the present day, and the black slave 
who offers the jewelled cup to Pharaoh, is identical with the grinning 
Sambo, who brings up tiffin in a Peninsular and Oriental steam boat. 
The reason of this is plain ; where like united with like, varieties did not 
arise, but once introduce a point of divergence, — let two divergencea 
unite and the beginning of a new variety is established. This we see 
even in our own day, take sheep for an example ; what can differ more 
than the Spanish sheep with large curled horns, long hair, and bushy 
tails, and tha fat-tailed sheep of Syria, with their large pendant 
ears, and their enormous fat- laden tails ? and yet both, together with 
our own totally different looking sheep are allowed by all sides to be 
trorxx the same stock. Again how different are the several breeds 
of dogs ; compare the Scottish terrier with the staghound ; a New- 
foundland with a greyhound, and say if members of different species, 
euch as wolves and jackals, are not more like some dogs than these 
several breeds are to one another. Then we are tempted to enquire, do 
the different races of men arise from one common origin, modified 
by climate, habits, and dispositions ? or were they essentially different 
from the beginning ? But this is far too wide a subject to discuss 
to-night. Let me rather remind you that not only all men, but all 
animal nature, whether Vertebrate, Articulate, Radiate or Mollusc are 
precisely alike at one period of their existence, and this is the period 
■when, as some one observes, there is no difierence between a frog and 
a philosopher for all alike arise originally from the developement from 
« single cell. 



ON THE REASONING TOWERS OF ANIMALS. 58 

A vote of thanks was proposed to Dr. Fitz Gerald, in 
seconding which the Rev. C. L. Acland remarked that he 
thought the fact of man-, in an embryo state passing through 
the various metamorphoses of different animals in the sub- 
kingdoms below him, was often pushed too far in support of 
the developement theory. We might argue similarly from 
the fact of his body being composed of the same chemical 
constituents as those of the inferior creatures. 

The President then informed the members that he and all 
those on the committee now resigned their offices, and it was 
necessary to elect fresh ones for the ensuing year. 

The Rev. C. Parsons said that the late officers had per- 
formed their duties so much to the satisfaction of every one, 
that he thought they could not do better than re-elect them. 
He therefore proposed that the whole body should be re- 
elected. This was seconded by A. C. Taylor, Esq., and 
carried unanimously. 

The following paper was then read by the Secretary : 



On the REASONING POWERS of ANIMALS. 



Before bringing forward any arguments in favour of this 
opinion, it will be as well to state what I mean by saying that 
animals possess reasoning powers. This will be best done by 
stating the opinions of some of the naturalists and philoso- 
phers of forinfer years. They believed, as a great many 
non-naturalists of the pi-esent day believe, that " reason " is 
the peculiar property of man, and that other animals are 
totally devoid of it, having instead a mysterious faculty, invented 
by man himself, the ignorance of the nature of which is 
hidden by the term instinct. By virtue of this faculty they 
perform all their actions without •' reason or deliberation " 
(Johnson), — without knowing why they perform them, and in 
fact, not knowing that they perform them at all. Descartes 
says that animals canhot possess reason because they have no 
power of speech, or in his own vvords, "It is a remarkable thing 



59 ON THE REASONING 

that there is no man so stupid, excepting only the insane, who 
is not capable of arranging divers words, and forming a 
discourse ; but on the contrary, there is no other animal how- 
ever perfect that can do the like ; and this not only proves that 
beasts have less reason than man, but that they have none at 
all. ' Placed in a logical form the argument runs thus : 

Creatures which cannot form a discourse do not possess 
reason. 

Animals cannot do this. 

Therefore animals do not possess reason. 

The major premiss is, I think doubtful, the minor one 
can be positively contradicted, and so this argument falls 
to the ground 

I am not at all disposed to say that reason cannot exist 
without speech. BufTon again denied to animals the power 
of thought, reflection, and even of memory. A learned 
Jesuit, who was a little more enlightened, allowed them all 
these powers, but got out of the consequences of his heresy 
by affirming that all the brute creatures were under the 
dominion of evil spirits. In fine, we may say that most of them 
believed brutes to be mere machines, as a naturalist has lately 
expressed it, wound up to go on in one, and only one particular 
course, for a certain number of years. Doubtless this myste- 
rious faculty does exist in them, and infallibly guides them in 
many things vitally necessary to their existence ; but there can 
be no doubt in the mind of any unprejudiced person that they 
have at least some glimmerings of reason — a reason differing 
from ours to a vast extent in degree, but not at all in kind ; that 
each species possesses an amount of this faculty correspond- 
ing to the perfection of its organisation, and that individuals 
diff'er from each other, even as men do, according to the 
opportunities they have had for improvement by associating with 
other animals or with man. It does not follow from this that 
we are to consider a horse or dog capable of having his 
reason improved to such an extent, as make him competent to 
workout an algebraical problem, or to prove that two sides of 
a triangle are greater than the third. There is many a human 
being who cannot be brought up to this pitch, but does that 
warrant us in saying he is without reason ? Now a great write 



POWERS OF ANIMALS. &0 

tells US of two kinds of reasoning, to wit, that concerning 
matters of fact, which are incapable of strict logical proof; and 
that concerning the relations of ideas, which latter kind may be 
carried on independently of all external relations. We reason 
concerning matters of fact solely by experience, and not from 
any necessary connection between them : we cannot prove 
that the sun will rise to-morrow, neither can we by any 
amount of purely mental exertion prove that London is on the 
Thames— we must appeal to the senses. Of course this kind of 
argument, known as that by Induction, is far below the other. 
It is this however, which the lower animals share largely 
with man ; whether they share the higher kind with us 
or not is a question upon which I will not enter, but will simply 
affirm that they are capable of drawing a conclusion from 
several inductions. A dog believes that if he goes too 
near the fire he will get burnt ; he believes this because he has 
experienced it several times : a young one does not know it, 
—if it were instinct, the fire would be avoided by him from 
his birth. Without entering any deeper into the metaphysical 
part of the subject, I will now proceed to two arguments. 
And first of all concerning the speech of animals : is not this 
premiss self-evident— that any creature exercising the faculty 
of speech, does so to transmit its own thoughts, or to make 
known its wants to another ? Where there is speech there 
must be the power of thinking. If we can prove then that 
the lower animals possess speech, we must acknowledge 
that they can think, and the power of so doing surely is a 
" reasoning faculty." It is not necessary that their mode of 
conducting their speech should be the same as ours ; if they 
can make known their wants by words, signs and sounds, or in 
any way whatever, they possess speech in the broad sense of 
the word. A deaf and dumb man who makes intelligible signs 
with his fingers, possesses speech. Now who is prepared to 
deny such a power to the animals below ourselves ? The 
various calls of the hen to her young, which they perfectly 
understand ; the crossing of antennae by bees and ants ; the 
different tones of the dog towards his master and towards a 
stranger — when he is frightened and when he is hurt : nume- 
rous anecdotes referring to all these will recur to the mind of 
every reader of Natural History. We have read of wonderful 
Viziers of mighty Sultans, who could relate the conversations 



6 1 ON THE REASONING POWERS OF ANIMALS. 

of birds. INIonstrous and absurd as those stori°.s are, depend 
upon it they overlie a stratum of truth ; for I cannot but 
believe that a man may become so intimace with his pet 
animal that he shall understand all the sounds it makes, 
and that it also shall to some extent understand his speech. 

Again, if we see a creature acting consciously from a 
motive, we believe it to be exercising reasoning faculties ; 
in other words, whenever it perfonns an action, having a cer- 
tain end in view, which shall be the result of that action, it 
is doing so in consequence of a conclusion it has arrived at 
by some process of reasoning. Now we certainly do see 
animals sometimes performing actions in such a way that 
we are morally confident they know what they are doing ; 
and what conclusion can we draw in such a case ? The dog 
whines at the door because he erpccls to be admitted ; he lies 
on the hearth because he knows he will get warm. A very 
eminent naturalist says that he once saw a species of wasp 
seize a fly, cut off the abdomen, and then attempt to carry off 
the body ; a breeze, however, acted on the wings of its prey, 
twisting it round so that it could not proceed. Upon this the 
wasp alighted, cut off the wings, and then flew away with the 
fly. This was not instinct ; instinct is infallible, and would 
have led the wasp to cut off the wings of all flies, but here it 
accommodated itself to circumstances. It does not follow 
from all th is that if they do reason, they are therefore conscious of 
so doing. " Reasoning by induction is constantly practised by 
the most ignorant clown, and by the most thoughtless school- 
boy," and yet they do not know it. In our ordinary daily 
affairs we do not go through a regular logical process every time 
we act, but it is pretty certain that these actions result from an 
argument, either gone through atthistimeunconsciously, or else 
on some previous occasion, when the result has been stored 
up in the memor)'. 

An animated discussion on the subject ensued, from which 
it appeared that the majority of those present agreed with the 
writer in the views he had enunciated. 

A Gold Coin, lately brought to light in the Warren, was 
then shown, and a few remarks made thereon by the Rev. C. 
L. Acland, who stated it to be one belonging to the Iceni ; 
the circumstance of its being found in this neighbourhood, 
was, therefore, a curious one. 



LOCAL NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETIES. 62 

After a short interval, the Rev. C.J. Taylor exhibited some 
Enlargements under the Lime Light of Microscopic and other 
objects These were exquisitely finished, and afforded much 
instruction to those present. A vote of thanks was warmly 
accorded to Mr. Taylor, and with this a very successful 
meeting terminated. 



ON LOCAL NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETIES. 



On looking through the papers read before the Folkestone 
Natural History Society during the past year, it appears that 
though they are of much general interest, they have (with 
one or two exceptions) but little reference to the Natural 
History of the neighbourhood, the investigation of which 
may be considered to be one of the first objects for which 
our Society has been established ; I therefore venture to give 
a few suggestions to our members as to the course their 
observations should take. But before proceeding to offer 
any remarks of my own, 1 will quote the following from an 
article which appeared in a recent number of The Gardeners' 
Chronicle, bearing reference more especially to a paper read 
by Mr. Gulliver before the East Kent Natural History 
Society : — 

" We have lately had occasion to comment on the healthy 
activity manifested by our local Natural History Societies, 
such as the Tyneside and the Woolhope Clubs respectively. 
East Kent does not wish to lag behind, as witnesses the 
Kentish Gazette of a recent date. That journal contains the 
report of a lecture delivered at Canterbury on 'cell biography 
in relation to systematic botany,' and comprising a summary 
of Mr. Gulliver's researches on the forms of pollen grains in 
various orders, the shapes of cells in newly allied forms, as 
in Hymenophyllum tunbridgense and H. Wtlsoni, and on the 
presence or absence of plant cr>stals or raphides. INIost of 
these topics have from time to time been treated of in these 
pages, and while earnestly echoing Mr. Gulliver's wish that 
amateurs and members of local clubs should concentrate 



63 LOCAL NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETIES. 

their efforts on some particular subject, instead of rambling 
discursively and comparatively uselessly over several, we 
must at the same time add a word of caution, and bid our 
friends not to lay undue stress on such points as those indi- 
cated by Mr. Gulliver's lecture. We began with the East 
Kent Society ; we will now venture to urge upon its members 
the desirability of preparing a flora of their district, with 
special reference to the soils and geological features of the 
county. Few counties are more favourably situated for this 
purpose than Kent, from the great variety of conditions 
under which plants grow. The coast line from Margate to 
Dungeness, so interesting geologically, is hardly less so 
when considered with relation to the plants growing on its 
different strata. In some parts, as near Folkestone for 
instance, it is possible, so to speak, to have immediately on 
the left hand the flora of one district (gault), on the right 
that of the chalk, so sharply is the line drawn in some places. 
The lessons to be learnt by the Naturalist in the district we 
have indicated ought not to be thrown away upon the agricul- 
turist or the gardener. They must be obtuse indeed who 
cannot get some hints which may be turned to profitable 
account in the field or the garden. Our East Kent friends 
might well take as a model the flora of Northumberland and 
Durham, lately issued by the Tyneside Naturalists' Club, and 
in which the distribution of wild plants according to soil, 
elevation, and other climatic conditions, is entered upon at 
considerable length, while the corresponding relations in the 
case of plants cultivated by the farmer and gardener are not 
overlooked. It is a rare thing now to find a " new " plant in 
our well-explored English counties, and if such be found the 
gain is not generally great, either in a scientific or practical 
point of view. On the other hand, the careful study of the 
relation between the plants and the conditions under which 
they grow, the possible range of variation in any given 
plants, and the inducing causes of those variations open up 
a field as interesting as it is promising in important results, 
both in a scientific and in a practical point of view. No 
persons are more favourably situated for the accomplishment 
of useful service in this direction, than the members of our 
local Field Clubs." 
The foregoing observations show how much may be done 



LOCAL N'ATURAL HIStORY SOCIETIES. ' 64 

by Societies like ours to promote investigations of the highest 
interest and scientific importance. But in addition to the 
subjects suggested in the remarks just quoted, there is a vast 
field of interesting research open to the members of our 
Society. Foremost may be placed marine zoology, for 
though the sand and mud of our coast is not so favourable to 
the existence of many forms of animal life as the rocky 
coasts of the south-west of England, yet much remains for 
investigation. Folkestone is also well situated for observing 
the arrival and departure of our summer migrant birds, and 
many interesting questions in connection with this subject, at 
present obscure, might thus be* cleared up. It is moreover 
very probable that one or two species of birds which are 
found in plenty on the opposite coast of France, but which 
have as yet occurred very sparingly in England, might on 
further search prove to be more frequent in this district. 
Entomology also affords a most encouraging subject, as many 
very rare insects have been found in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of Folkestone, and there only. 

In this slight sketch I have endeavoured to point out how 
much it is in the power of our members to forward the study 
of Natural History, without going beyond the limits of the 
locality in which the Society is situated. 

C. H. DASHWOOD. 



THE MECHANISM OE THE HUMAN VOICE. 

Bead before the Society, March llth. 



I purpose to-night to give a short description of the Larynx, 
that most wonderful and complex organ by which the Human 
Voice is produced. We hear a person speak, or hum a tune, 
and it appears to be a very simple and easy act, requiring 
little effort and less thought, while in reality it is a most com- 
plicated operation, requiring an instrument of marvellous 
delicacy and intricate construction to perform it. 

All sonorous vibrations may be divided into "Noises^' 
and "Sounds." Noises are irregular impulses communicated 
I 



65 ON tHE MECHANISM 

to the ear, such as the report of a gun, the wash of waves on the 
beach, «Src. Sounds are produced by regular vibration of the 
elastic air, for example, the note of a musical instrument, of a 
violin or flute, the sounds of the human voice, &c. 

When we hear a note struck, we are able to distinguish 
three points about it* 

1st — Its " Strength" or " Loudness," which depends on the 
size of the waves of vibrating air. 

2nd — Its " Height" or " Pitch." This is dependent on the 
number of vibrations performed in a given time. The 
greater the number of vibrations the higher or sharper the 
the note, and, of course, vice versa, the smaller the number, 
the graver, or more bass will be the sound ; practically 32 
vibrations in one second is the smallest number capable of 
producing sound, and even then the pitch will be so low as 
hardly to be perceptible— it is in fact a mere " hum." 

There is a good deal of talk just now of lowering the pitch 
of the " A" tuning fork, in our English orchestras, and it 
would, no doubt, be a most sensible thing to do, and an 
immense boon to our public singers, whose voices are prema- 
turely worn out by having to sing up to the present high 
pitch — a pitch which has gradually risen in England until it 
is now nearly half a tone higher than it was in the time of 
Handel. The middle A was formerly produced by 417 double 
vibrations, whereas now the A of the London Philharmonic 
requires 440 vibrations. The French legislature has very 
wisely enacted that the same note shall not be higher 
than 424. 

I think I before mentioned that a note is said to be sharper 
than another when it is produced by a larger, and flatter 
when it is produced by a smaller number of vibrations in a 
given time. 

There is a vast difference in the capacity of different ears 
to perceive acute sounds. I know a gentleman who can 
never hear the sharp hissing sound emitted by the field 
cricket, and which has been calculated to require no less than 
24,000 distinct vibrations in a second to produce it. But 
some fine and highly educated ears will detect the faint 
click emitted by 36,000 double vibrations, or (to jump to the 
other end of the scale) the slight hum produced by i6, the 
smallest number capable of producing audible sounds. 



OF THE HUMAN VOICE. 66 

As we know, all our senses are finite, thus with sight it is 
the same thing. If I whirl a ball attached to a string round 
slowly you can perceive clearly both ball and string, and 
moreover no perceptible sound is produced ; but if I 
increase the momentum beyond a certain point both ball and 
string become imperceptible and then sound is also produced. 

jrdly — Sounds of the same pitch may differ widely in their 
Timbre or Quality (the Germans call it Tone Colour), thus 
the same note on a violin and a violincello, a trombone or 
a piccolo, differ materially in character, and even the same 
note on the same instrument produced by two different 
players is often very dissimilar in tone, this is due to the 
form of the vibrations. 

Having now, I hope, arrived at a definite idea of what 
sound is, I will endeavour to explain the means by which it is 
produced in the human voice. To understand the mechanism 
of the human voice, I must ask your attention to these 
diagrams. The human voice may be roughly compared to 
a wind instrument, in which air is forced between two vibrating 
bodies, as for example, the reeds of the clarionet. To produce 
voice we require a current of air (as from the lungs), a bellows 
to force it between the vibrating bodies (as the muscles of the 
chest) and vibrating bodies, capable of delicate adjustment 
(as the vocal chords). 

The vocal chords, are properly speaking not chords at all, 
but membranes with free edges like the split parchment of a 
broken drumhead. These chords must be brought parallel 
to produce sound, in ordinary breathing they are slightly 
divergent, allowing the breath to pass noiselessly ; when we 
speak they are brought very quickly together by the Posterior 
Arytenoid muscle and rendered tense by the Cricothyroid. 
The Thyro Arytenoid re-elevates the Thyroid and relaxes the 
chords. The greater the degree of tension, the higher the 
note. And vice versa. 

The difference of voice in men and women is produced by 
the difference of length of the vocal chords, which are \ 
longer in men than in women and boys The size also of the 
bronchial tubes, and capacity of the chest also modify the sound 
of the voice. The range of the voice, depends on the 
difference of tension which we can give to the vocal chords, 
and on the control we possess over the muscles which tense 



67 OUR ORCHIDS. 

and relax them, and it is for this reason practice is so useful 
to singers, s it developes the two sets of antagonistic muscles, 
and gives greater power over both or either, according as we 
practice more at one or other end of the scale. Accuracy of 
singing, d^.pends on the precision with which one can volun- 
tarily regulate and adjust the opposing contractions of these 
two sets of muscles, (the Crico Thyroid and Thyro Arytenoid) 
this of course can only be attained by careful practice. 

The quality of a voice — bass, barytone, tenor or soprano, 
mezzo-soprano or contralto, depends on the length of the chords 
and their elasticity, the shape of the larynx, resonance of 
the chest, &c. 

That wonderful invention of modern days, the Laryngiscope 
has revealed some curious facts about the different actions of 
the vocal chords in producing different sounds and notes. 
Thus we see that in making a fair resonant chest note the 
vocal chords vibrate throughout their entire length and sub- 
stance. The vibrations become more rapid and ample as the 
sounds become sharper, and the opening between the chords 
is rectilinear; the tension is also greater than in falsetto 
notes. Whereas in falsetto notes the chords vibrate only on 
their free borders ; the parts constituting their base not taking 
any part in producing the sound. The longitudinal tension 
is also much feebler than in chest notes, and the opening of 
the glottis is elliptical instead of rectilinear. 

C. E. FITZ-GERALD. 

fTo be continued. J 



OUR ORCHIDS. 



We take this opportunity of reminding our readers that 
June is the month for the flowering of most of the rarer 
species of this beautiful and interesting family. Kent is 
particularly famous for them, in fact, one species Ophrys 
arachnites the Late Spider Orchis has hitherto been chronicled 
only from Folkestone and Sittingbourne. As the East Kent 
Natural History Society are at present engaged in preparing 
materials for a new flora of this part of the county, we shall 
thankfully receive any assistance from our readers in furthering 



SHORT NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



68 



such a praiseworthy undertaking The Orchidaceoe attract 
attention at once by their beauty and curious mimicry of 
various members of the animal kingdom. There are few of 
our Folkestone readers who will not at once call to mmd the 
Bee Orchis which, may be gathered in the neighbourhood by 
hundreds. Among others chronicled we may note Epipadis 
palustris, E. laiifolia. E. grandiflora (mentioned as having 
occurred in the Warren, but hunted for lately in vain) Orchis 
ustulata, O. viridis, O. fusca, Accras anthropophora, Ophrys 
fucifera, §•<:., ^c. Of these particularly we shall be glad to 
hear, arid still more pleased to have specimens for identifica- 
tion. The date and locality should be affixed in ever)' case. 



SHORT NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



We hope from time to time, to be able to call the attention 
of our readers to works likely to interest them, or to be in 
any way useful to them in the branch of study to which they 
are devoted. Messrs. Low and Marston, some time ago 
issued " The Life and Adventures of fohn fames Audubon,^ 
edited, from materials supplied hy his widow, by Robert Buchanan" 
There are few, who do not take an interest in Biography, and 
certainly to a naturalist, the life of one addicted to kindred 
pursuits, is full of absorbing attraction. The name of 
Audubon is well known, principally in connection with his 
magnificent work on the Birds of America. In order to 
make this collection what it ought to be, he travelled thou- 
sands of miles from first to last, that he might see the 
feathered races in their native haunts, and sketch them from 
Nature. No one certainly, ever threw himself heart and soul 
into his work more successfully than Audubon : possessing 
an ardent love of Nature, and imbued with that courage and 
endurance, which we now connect so much with such names 
as Livingstone, Baker, Speke, and Grant, he never allowed 
any obstacles to stand in his way. Downhearted he was at 
times, as was but natural ; but his elasticity of spirits soon 
overcame this, and he laughed at disappointments when they 
were gone. He describes his wanderings with a charming 
simplicity and freshness ; they are full of fact and anecdote. 



6g SHORT NOTICES OF BOOKS, 

and we can answer for it, that if any of our readers once 
commence the book they will finish it. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Tke Report of the Rugby School Natural History Society, 1868, 
contains some very interesting papers read during the past 
year, and several illustrations. An excellent arrangement of 
the appearances of different animals and flowers appears at 
the end. 

Quarterly Magazine of the High Wycombe Natural History 
Society, April, 1869, The members of this Society are 
admirably doing their work towards making a catalogue of the 
plants and animals of their district. Mr. Britten gives a list 
of the Orchids, with notes; and Mr. Sharp does a similar 
work for the birds. The paper on " Fern Freaks" is very 
interesting. 

"The book, perhaps which turned the tide in favour of 
Natural History, among the higher classes at least, in the 
south of England, was White's " History- of Selborne." A 
Hampshire gentleman and sportsman, whom every body 
knew, had taken the trouble to write a book about the birds 
and the weeds in his own parish, and the every day things 
which went on under his eyes, and every one else's. And all 
gentlemen from the Weald of Kent, to the Vale of Blackmore, 
shugged their shoulders mysteriously, and said " Poor fellow!" 
till they opened the book itself, and discovered to their sur- 
prise, that it read like any novel. And then came a burst of 
confused, but honest admiration ; from the young Squire's 
" Bless me ! who would have thought there were so many 
wonderful things to be seen in one's own park!" to the old 
Squire's more morally valuable " Bless me ! why, I have seen 
that and that a hundred times, and never thought till now 
how wonderful they were." 

KINGSLEY. 



Local Names. — It is desired to collect as many as possible of the 
local names of British plants and the assistance is requested of all 
who take an interest in the subject, or who may have the opportunity 
of ascertaining and recording them. Any lists sent to Mr. James 
Britten, High Wycombe, or to Mr. Egbert Holland, Mobberley, 
Knutsford, will be thankfully received and acknowledged. 



naturalists' kalendar. 70 

NATURALISTS' KALENDAR, 1869. 



April 6th — Sherardia arvensis. Field Madder in flower. 

„ 11th — Cuckoo heard. 

„ 16th — TussUago Farfara, Coltsfoot in flower. 

,, 23rd — Helianthemum vulgare, Eock Rose; Primula vulgaris, var. 
caulescens ; Nests of larrse of the Brown Tail Moth 
(Porthesia chrysorrhea) in great abundance on the War- 
ren ; SmaU Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris rapm) appears. 

„ 28th — Colias Edusa caught on Warren ; Swallows (Rirundo rustica) 
appear ; LarvsB of Oak Egger (Bombyx quercus) out, 
May^3rd — Swift appears. 

„ 8th — DeilepMla lineata, the Striped Hawk Moth found on the 
Warren. 

„ 20th — Orobanche minor, the lesser Broom Rape in flower on the 
Warren. 

,, 26th — Lycosna Aionis out. 

„ 30th — Oak Egger spins. 

„ 31st — Cerura vinula emerges from the chrysalis in captivity. This 
is very late, as specimens were out a month ago. They 
generally appear later in captivity. 



I have seen the young man of fierce passions and un- 
controllable daring, expend healthily that energy which 
threatened daily to plunge him into recklessness if not into 
sin, upon hunting out and collecting, through rock and bog, 
snow and tempest, every bird and egg of the neighbouring 
forest. I have seen the cultivated man, craving for travel 
and for success in life, pent up in the drudgery of London 
work, and yet keeping his spirit calm, and perhaps his morals 
all the more righteous, by spending over his microscope, 
evenings which would too probably have gradually been 
wasted at the theatre. I have seen the young London 
beanty, amid all the excitement and temptation of luxury 
and flatter)', with her heart pure and her mind occupied in 
a boudoir full of shells and fossils, flowers and seaweeds, 
keeping herself unspotted from the world by considering 
the lilies of the field how they grow. And therefore it is 
that I hail with thankfulness every fresh book of Natural 
History, as a fresh boon to the young, a fresh help to those 
who have to educate them. 

C. KINGSLEY. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



A HoLiBUT Of Halibut was 
Caught off our shore on the 
20th of April, and was doubt- 
less seen by many of our readers, 
in the shop of Mr. Baker, High 
Street. This creature belongs to 
the curious family of the Flat 
Fishes (Pleuronectidce i.e. swim- 
mers on the side). From the 
appearance of these fishes (soles 
and plaice are included in the 
family), and the different colours 
presented by the supposed upper 
and under surfaces, they are 
commonly thought to lie with the 
back uppermost : this however is 
a mistake, they ai e much com- 
pressed in form, and actually lie 
upon the ground on the side, and 
•when they move they glide over 
the bed of the sea by a series of 
graceful undulations. What we 
take for the sides or rather edges, 
are in fact the back and abdomen. 
The bones of the head are 
curiously modified to allow of the 
eyes being both placed on one 
"side of the head, viz. that which 
'is uppermost. The specimen 
caught weighed 94 lbs., which, 
large as it may seem for a flat 
fish, is not a great weight for the 
Holibut, as the creature has been 
known to reach a length of seven 
feet, and to weigh 300 lbs. 

The term Holibut is a compound 
of holy and but or hot a Dutch 
name for the Flounder ; in the 
Norse languages the fish has a 
similar name. 

YiPEE Abroad in Winteh. — 
A viper was killed in this neigh- 
bourhood on the ninth of January 
last. As vipers are not generally 
out at all in winter, I suppose we 
must attribute the appearance of 
this one to the mildness of the 
season. — S. Greensibset, 

Cheriton. -^^^j e77T?\ 

11 t-tB 1886 



Early Flowers — On the thir- 
teenth of February, in company 
with one or two friends, I found 
Yiola hirta, and Chrysosplenium 
oppositifolium out in flower and a 
profusion of primroses. By- the - 
bye, I would recommend to the 
notice of the Society some charm- 
ing little spots in the neighbour- 
hood of Cheriton and Kewington, 
on the south side of the Eailway, 
as admirably suited for the scene 
of one of their rambles. There 
is a great diversity of surface, hill 
and vale, dingle and dell ; there 
are rocks for the geologist to 
hammer at, sand martins' per- 
forations for the ornithologist, 
woods and low thickets, that 
swarm with lepidoptera in the 
summer, while many a little 
babbling brook and still pond 
await the nets and bottles of those 
who delight in aquatic life. — Q. 

Cabbage Butterflies — These 
appear to me to be scarce this 
season. At this time last year 
the gardens swarmed with them, 
and now scarcely one is to be seen. 
This is good for the gardener, but 
does it foretell a bad season for 
the entomologist ? T. S. 

Tae Striped Hawk Moth 
(peilepkila lineata). A very good 
specimen of this rare moth was 
brought to me from the Warren, 
on the 8th of May. It was found 
by a boy resting on the grass, A 
Death's Head Moth was taken in a 
Similar position on the Warren 
last year. — Hy. Ullyett- 

Clouded Yellow (Colias 
Edusa). — On 28th April, I took a 
beautiful specimen of C. Edusa 
(female), apparently fresh from 
the chrysalis, in the Warren. It 
is the smallest I have seen, 
measuring only one inch nine lines 
,.from tip to tip.— A. H. Taylor. 




rill 

32 No. 4.] 



T] 



rpRiCK sixrrKCK, ^^^ 

L Or 23. per Auiiuiu 



QUARTERLY JOURNAL 

OF TUE 



V !t»y 



SOOIET"y. 



List of Fdkestone Lepiii 
Proceedings of the Society 
On some JMammalian Skulls 
Notes 



OCTOBER, 1869. 






72 
82 

83 
95 



FOLKESTONE: 

PRINTED FOB THE SOCIETY BY J. ENGLISH, "EXPRESS" OFFICE, ^ 

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Am] Sf'hl hi nU Bonhsflh-rs. V 

J— cH irti ( 



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JLOWING IS 



LIST OF OFFICERS 



OF THE SOCIETY. 



PRESIDENT : 

C. E. FITZ GERALD, M.D. 

COMMITTEE : 



H. B. Mackeson, F.G.S. 
CrH'.^ashw'ood, F.Z.S. 
Rev. C. L. Acland, M.A. 
Rev. C. J. Taylor, M.A. 
Rev. E. Langdon, M. A.,F.G.S. 
S. Eastes, Esq. 
G. M. Schbley, Esq. 



A. M, Leith, Esq. 

W. G. S. Harrison, Esq. 

W. Bateman, Esq. 

J. Clarke, Esq. 

R. W. Boarer, Esq. 

F. Fagge, Esq., F.L.S. 



Honorary Secretary, Hv. ULLYETT. 



Those Subscribers who have not yet forwarded their sub- 
scriptions, are respectfully requested to do so at once, as this 
IS the last number for the year. 



All Communications should be addressed to H. Ullyejt, 
Folkestone. We shall he glad to receive notes concerning any of 
mir local plants and animals, times of appearance, abnorma I 
forms and colours, popular names and traditions, Sfc. . These 
must he authenticated ly tlie writer'' a name and address, hut not 
necessarily for publication. 




A^LIST OP MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA 

Occurring in the Neighbourhood of Folkestone. 

BY H. Guard Knaggs, M.D., F.L.S., Author " Lepidopterist's Guide." 
Editor (for Macro-Lepidoptera) "Entomologist's Monthly Magazine." 



As might be expected from the peculiarity of its geological 
strata (lower chalk and upper gault to the east, and the 
various layers of lower greensand to the west of the town), 
the shelter afforded by hills and valleys with which the 
neighbourhood is so picturesquely embellished, the varied 
nature of its Flora, and above all its proximity to the coast 
of France, Folkestone offers a mine of wealth to the working 
Entomologist ; indeed there are few districts throughout the 
United Kingdom which have yielded such an imposing array 
of novel and rare species, as has done this El Dorado of the 
British Lepidopterist. By way of illustration let us enume- 
rate a few of the delicacies for which this locality is so justly 
famed. 

First and foremost Sesia chrysidiformis may be mentioned. 
This glorious clearwing once based its claim as a Britisher 
on the authority of a single specimen in the cabinet of Fran- 
cillon, but not having turned up for many years, was erased 
from our lists, until Mr. Brewer, a Coleopterist, to whom 
Lepidopterists have every reason to feel grateful, gladdened 
our eyes with the sight of a specimen (in 1856) which he had 
consigned to the^undignified depths of his 'bacca box ! and 
thanks to this oJue and the practical manner in which collec- 
ting is condi/cted now-a-days, it was not long before the 
coveted prize found a resting place in most of our collection.s. 
The perfect insect flies for a few hours in the morning sun, 
disappears towards noon, and re-appears on the wing in the 
afternoon sunshine. It should be sought for in the Warren 
on scantily covered flowery chalk banks facing the sea. Its 
flight, when the insect is not disturbed, somewhat resembles 
that of a Burnet, but being of a small size, it is easily passed 
over until the eye becomes familiar with its appearance. 

The discovery of its larva, which feeds on the roots of 
sorrel and dock, was made a few years since simultaneously 

K 



73 A LrST OF MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA, 

by Mr. E. G. Meek, in the Warren, and M. P. Mabille, in 
Corsica. The oblong blackish eggs are deposited on the 
leaves and stalks of its food plants. 

Next we have a Bombyx, or rather Pseudo-bombyx, Clos- 
tera anachoreta, a handsome addition to our moth fauna, of 
which I was myself the fortunate discoverer. My first ac- 
quaintance with the species was made in the larval state ; 
eleven caterpillars, found feeding on Ontario Poplar in one 
of the plantations along the Lower Sandgate Road, producing 
as many moths ; a single female of which became literally the 
"mother of thousands," so that the "Anchorite" is now in 
every cabinet. Several other collectors have subsequently 
taken the larvae. 

Then comes a Noctua, Leucania albipuncta, discovered here 
last season by the Messieurs Briggs, of St. John's, Oxon, 
who were lucky in securing a couple of examples at sugar ; 
the insect may be known from its congener L. lithargyria, to 
which it bears considerable resemblance, by its smaller size, 
its less concolorous appearance, and the greater conspicuity 
of its white discoidal dot. It is on the wing early in August. 

The fourth Folkestone Moth, Tapinostola Bondii a bone- 
dust-white insect, with wings expanding about an inch and a 
quarter, presents a curious little histoirette of its own. It is 
certainly astounding that so conspicuous a species should 
have been flitting freely, every afternoon towards dusk in the 
fashionable month of July, under our very noses, and yet 
have escaped detection up to 1858, and it is still more sur- 
prising that in the eleven years following but two fresh 
localities, namely Lyme Regis and Mount Parnassus, should 
have been discovered for a fly so locally abundant in its 
habitats. Of course it was very hard to believe that a Noctua, 
of which I had secured and distributed some thousand indi- 
viduals among brother collectors, could possibly be new to 
science, and it was therefore not to be wondered at that our 
great authorities should try every means to sink the name 
which I had bestowed upon it in honour of my esteemed 
friend, Frederick Bond. First it was proposed that it would 
prove to be the Nonagria concolor of Guenee, then that it might 
be an aberrant form of Miana arcuosa, and lastly that it was 
the N. extrema of Hiibner ; this latter theory for a time held 
ground, until Professor Zeller showed that the figure of 



A LIST OF MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 74 

extrema, by Hubner, and the description by Treitschke, 
could not, by any twisting, be made to fit my insect. After 
that Bondii found itself unmolested for a time ; recently, 
however, Colonel Macchio, of the Austrian army, having 
found the insect on Mount Parnassus, came to the conclusion, 
after comparing it with the Royal collection at Vienna, that 
it really was the extrema of Hiibner after all. Still later, 
however. Dr. Staudinger, of Dresden, has carefully examined 
both Hiibner's and Treitschke's types, and his unimpeachable 
decision is that Bondii is a good new species ; and that it is 
the concolor of Guenee, which is identical with extrema ; 
so that at last Bondii survives, notwithstanding the severity of 
the tests which have been applied to it. 

The perfect insect appears from the end of June to the 
end of July, and inhabits the slopes below St. Mary's Church ; 
it is on the wing before dusk, and after a short flight of 
twenty minutes or half-an-hour, settles down on the leaves 
and stems of its food plants, where it may be observed by 
the aid of a lantern, singly and in pairs, and boxed in the 
usual manner. 

The caterpillar feeds in the root end of the stems of a 
local coast grass, known to botanists as Festuca arundinacea, 
wherein it changes to a chrysalis. The eggs which are pale 
yellowish, are deposited between the leaf sheaths and stems 
of the food ; the little larvae are at first hairy, but become 
smooth after piercing a layer or two of the plant on their way 
to the pith. 

The next is a Noctua, evidently from the very peculiar 
pectinated form of its antennae, new to the British list ; but 
unfortunately the only example I secured of it (on the fence 
near the Junction station early in June, 1861), is in such a 
dilapidated state, that to identify it is impossible. It appears 
to belong to the genus Pachetra, and from the structure of its 
antennae one would suspect it to be a visitor at light. Col- 
lectors would therefore do well to be on the look out for 
it at street lamps, after 1 1 p.m. in the Autumn, or else after 
hybernation, early in May. 

We now come to a singular slender-bodied moth. Aplasia 
monaria, the extraordinary larval structure of which is ut- 
terly subversive of our notions of a geometric caterpillar. A 
single specimen of this curious species was discovered by my 



75 A LIST OF MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

friend Mr. Bernard Piffard, in the Warren, amongst Ononis 
arvensis, in August, 1867, On the continent, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Paris, the insect is attached to Ononis spinosa. 
It is double-brooded, and ought to be sought for in May as 
well as in August and September. Its habit is to fly up as we 
trample through, or disturb with our beating-stick, the Rest 
harrow. To obtain the larva, which is plump, hairy, and 
very sluggish, our French friends mow off tufts of the food 
plant and shake them over a sheet of paper. Two other 
examples have been secured by Mr. F. Standish in July of the 
present season, 1869. 

Spilodes palealis. Folkestone claims the honour of first 
yielding this delicately beautiful pearl. Several years ago it 
was met with rather plentifully in the Warren during June and 
July, but of late has become rare — indeed seems to have 
disappeared. The species has also been taken at Heme Bay 
and other watering-places, and one year a stray specimen 
actually found its way as far inland as Forest Hill. The 
larva feeds on the umbels of the wild carrot and Peucedanum 
in August and September. 

Lemiodes pulveralis. For the addition of this new British 
genus and species to the Folkestone list of delicacies, we are 
indebted to the 'Messrs Meek, who have this season (1869), 
secured three examples in the Warren ; Mr. Edward Meek 
had a few weeks previously, however, met with a single indi- 
vidual of the, then, unknown in the Isle of Wight, so that 
unfortunately our pet locality has not been the first to yield 
the novelty. Stephens, many years since, gave it as an in- 
habitant of Great Britain ; but, as he ommitted it from his 
Museum Catalogue, and it has not since " entered in the 
lists," the present captures must be regarded in the light of 
a new discovery. The ordinal position of this Pyralis in our 
cabinets will be after the genus Scopula. Its time of ap- 
pearance is August. 

Scoparia ingraiella is the last novel " Macro" here to be 
recorded. This species is abundant in the Warren in June 
and the beginning of July. It may be known from its 
close ally S. duhitalis (pyralella) by its larger size, some- 
what broader forewings, and by black markings being faint or 
altogether absent. It should be killed on the spot of capture, 
otherwise there will be little left to recognise on reaching 
our home quarters. 



A LIST OF MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 76 

Although it is not intended in the present list to include 
the Micro-Lepidoptera, it might not be out of place to notice 
some of the chief novelties and rarities of that section. 

Firstly, we have Nyctegretes achatinella, one of the Phycidm, 
an old Folkestone specialite which has since, or I am much 
mistaken, occurred in Norfolk. 

In the next place Crambus rorellus was discovered some ten 
years since by my friend, Mr. Joseph Sidebotham, of Man- 
chester, on the Lower Sandgate Road, where he secured eight 
or ten specimens. Previous to these captures a single speci- 
men was said to have occurred, but as no locality had been 
given for it, and the species did not turn up again, the 
insect hadbeen eliminated from our lists. This striking 
Crambus has since been met with, by Mr. E. Meek, in the 
Warren. — The time of appearance is early in June. 

Of Tortrices, the chaste Sciaphila cindana, discovered 
twelve years ago by the Rev. Tress Beale, near Alkham, is 
most conspicuous for its beauty. It has not, to my know- 
ledge, ever occurred in any other British locality. Of late 
years it has been freely bred by London collectors who have 
been assiduous in their search for the larva which feeds 
on Echium vulgare. The perfect insect emerges in June 
or July and may be met with in a wood, on the left after 
passing the village of Alkham, amongst the plant named 
above as its food. It will be well for Tortrix hunters to bear 
in mind that the favoured time for the flight of their special 
group is about 6 p.m. 

Catoptria conterminana is another Tortrix which Folkestone 
bears the credit of being the first to yield. Its discovery fell 
to the share of my friend, Mr. Bond, who secured it on one 
of the slopes at the commencement of the Warren. It has 
since been taken by Mr. Machin, at Stratford-by-Bow. I have 
met with the insect to the west of the town early in July. 
Abroad, it is said, to feed on Aster. 

Feeding on that singular plant, the Hippophae rkamnoides, 
in the Warren, is a Spilonota allied to Sp. ocellana, which I 
have serious intentions of describing shortly under the name 
Sp. hippopadna. The species is very abundant. 

Referring to the Tineina, it might be remarked that I was 
fortunate enough to secure, on the Lower Sandgate Road, a 
little larva on a leaf of Achillea millifolium, which duly produced 



77 A LIST OF MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

a Bucculatrix new to the country, B. artemisiella. The capture 
was made early in June, some years since, on one of the most 
boisterous days I ever remember to have experienced even at 
Folkestone. Of course, its occurrence on a yarrow leaf was 
purely accidental ; but full-fed Bucculatrix larvae have the 
peculiarity of leaving their food plant to spin up their seed 
like cocoons elsewhere. 

Thus, the reader will observe, Folkestone has produced at 
least a dozen new British species. Beside these, however, 
many rarities have occurred, and as a taste of the richness 
of this district, may be gathered from the enumeration of a 
few of them I purpose taking a special glance before pro- 
ceeding to the list itself. 

Procris globularicB. To the two habitats already known for 
this local species, Mr. Ullyett has added Folkestone, he 
having met with it in some numbers on Castle Hill in June 
of the present year. At the same time and place he also 
captured several Procris geryon. 

Acidalia 7-uhricata was taken in the Warren, beyond the old 
" Pelter" Brig, by my friend Mr. J. B. Lynch, at a time when 
only one other locality (York) was recorded for the species. 
Since then it has been turned up elsewhere by the Hon. 
Thomas de Grey and Mr. Bond. 

Acidalia rusticata. A few years ago I beat a specimen of 
this local wave out of a maple tree in the Warren, thereby 
adding a third to its other two localities. The caterpillar 
generally feeds on whitethorn. 

Acidalia ornata. A lovely " wave" occurring abundantly in 
the Warren. It is double-brooded, and frequents Marjoram 
and Thyme. The only other locality given for it in Mr. 
Stainton's Manual is Box Hill. 

Acidalia slrigilaia would seem to be almost peculiar to 
the hollows in the Warren, for although Darenth Wood and 
Carlisle have been given as localities for it, the insect was 
certainly of extreme rarity prior to its discovery in this 
neighbourhood. The imago emerges in July, and may be 
either beaten out by day or taken on the wing at dusk in its 
favourite haunts ; in this way a goodly number of captures 
have rewarded hard work. The larva, as far as my experience 
goes, feeds on the Traveller's Joy, Clemaiis vitalha (upon 



A LIST OF MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 7» 

which I have reared the perfect insect from the egg) and not 
upon Stachys sylvatica as generally supposed.* 

Eupithecia sulciliata. My friend Mr. McLachlan and 1 
once secured a number of examples of this curious and local 
Pug in the grounds of Saltwood Castle, and also in Sandling 
Park, amongst lichen-covered maple trees. Notwithstanding 
the acquisition of ova, the larva still remains a mystery ; but 
we have no doubt, but that it will be found to live upon maple. 

Xylophasia scolopacina. Mr. McLachlan captured a fine 
dark example at Saltwood. The species had never previously 
been met with so far south. 

Agrophila sulphuralis.. Mr. Sidebotham some years ago 
secured a few of this pretty little Noctua on the Lower Sand- 
gate road, where its food plant, the lesser Convolvolus grows 
in abundance. Hitherto it had only occurred in Suifolk, and, 
long long ago, near Cambridge. 

Odontia dentalis. This quaint looking insect seems confined 
to Brighton, Deal, and Folkestone. The caterpillar feeds in 
the stems and roots of Echium vulgare, but spins its cocoon 
among the dead leaves lying on the ground, where it may be 
detected without much difficulty. 

PioTiea margaritalis. Cambridge, Ranworth, and Sandown, 
are its known habitats, but I met with an example in the 
enclosure beyond the turnpike on the Lower Sandgate road. 
The caterpillar feeds on the seeds of wild mustard. 

Simaethis vibrana. Ten years ago I took a fine specimen of 
this sparkling little gem on the Lower Sandgate Road. This 
was the fourth known British example, and I have not heard 
of any recent capture. It is said to affect Inula dysenterica. 

Mdissohlaptes hipunctanus fanellaj. The only locality given 
for this is Deal, where it used to be taken by the late Peter 
Bouchard. Mr. Lynch and I have, however, met with a few 
examples to the west of Folkestone. 

Homaosoma sinuella is most abundant in the Lower Sand- 
gate road, although Brighton is the only locality given for it 
in the Manual. I believe it occurs also in the Isle of Wight. 



* Seeing that this truly local " Wave" has occurred singly in its 
other two habitats, the species may be set down as a Folkestone 
speciality, for there is no other known locality where one would stand 
even the faintest chance of meeting with it. 



79 A LIST OP MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 

Gymnancyda canella. The only places mentioned for this 
rarity are Hastings and Folkestone. 

Pempelia oniaiella. This pretty knot-horn is not scarce on 
the slopes towards Sandgate, in the Warren, and at Alkham. 
The only other known British locality is Mickleham. 

Sericoris euphorbiana. This species was unique until a few 
specimens were secured in the Warren : — during the last year 
or two, in consequence of a deeply interesting and sugges- 
tive paper in the " Entomologists' Monthly Magazine," by 
Professor Zeller, of Stettin ; it has been freely bred from 
Spurge — and it has also been taken in some numbers flying in 
the sun in the vicinity of its food. 

Sericoris fuligana (ahscissana). The localities given in the 
Manual are " near London, in Norfolk, and Folkestone." It 
is stated to occur amongst flea-bane (Inula). The species, 
in the Warren, frequents thistles. 

Stigjnonota Leplastriana. Deal, Dover, and Folkestone are 
apparently the only localities for this local species. It frequents 
the wild cabbage. 

Dicrorampha flavidorsana. This novelty to which I had 
recently applied the above name, from an examination of 
specimens captured at Haslemere and Devonshire, appears to 
be an inhabitant of Folkestone also, an example or two 
havir ■•fceen captured by my friend, Mr. Howard Vaughan. 

Catoptria micro grammana is a curiously marked little Tortrix, 
recorded as having occurred at Deal, and also doubtfully 
stated to have been taken on one occasion near London ! 
It is common enough in June at Folkestone, where it fre- 
quents the Rest-harrow, which freely clothes some of the 
slopes in the Warren, and upon which it doubtless feeds. 

Cochylis alternana (gigantana). A tolerably common spe- 
cies amongst knapweed {Centaurea), but its distribution is 
apparently confined to Deal, Dover, and Folkestone. 

So that besides the dozen novelties before-mentioned, we 
possess a score of rarities and species so excessively local as 
to have only one or two other recorded localities. 

Two other points, and we will proceed to the list. 

First — it is very singular that several species, whose food 
plant is absent, or all but absent, should occur in the Warren ; 
for example Gonepteryx rhamni, without buckthorn (Rhamnui 
catharticus or frangulaj ; Vanessa polychloros can find but little 



A LIST OF MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA. 80 

elm near the old lime kilns ; Lyccena argiolus without holly, 
but it probably feeds here on ivy ; Acronycla aiiricoma and 
Phorodesma bajularia with only a few sprigs of oak to support 
them ; Cucullia asleris, with hardly a handful of Solidago 
scattered about its locality ; and Endotrichia flammealis , where 
no brake fern that I can find grows. _ 

The other point is the singular richness of the locality m 
Plume moths ; no fewer than eighteen out of the twenty-nine 
British species inhabiting the neighbourhood of Folkestone. 
They are as {oWo^ -.—Pterophorus Bertrami, not uncommon 
amongst yarrow ; Lower Sandgate road, June and July. Pt. 
trig07iodactyhis, amongst coltsfoot ; Warren, June. Pt. acan- 
ihodadylus, not uncommon amongst rest-harrow slopes in the 
Warren ; June and July. Pt. paroidadylus , common amongst 
the hawkweed slopes in the Warren ; June and July. Pt. 
pilosella:, scarce, amongst hawkweed; June. Pt. phcEodactylus, 
abundant amongst rest-harrow ; June and July. Pt. hipundt- 
dadyhis, Warren ; July. Pt. fuscus, abundant in Warren ; 
June and July. Pt. lithodadylus, not scarce amongst flea- 
bane ; end of June and July. Pt. pterodadylus, Sandgate 
road ; August. Pi. iephradadylus, Warren, scarce ; July. Pt. 
ostcodadylus, Warren, rare ; July. Pt. microdadylus, abundant 
amongst hemp agrimony; May and June. Pt. galadodadylus, 
not scarce among burdock on slopes below Royal^Mi ; July. 
Pt. baliodactylusy common in Warren amongst n!5|Ri'am ; 
July. Pt. tdradadylus, not scarce in Warren amongst thyme ; 
July. Pt. pentadadyliis, common in the outskirts of the town, 
amongst convolvolus ; May, June, and July. Aludta poly- 
dactyla, common inland, amongst honeysuckles ; August, and^ 
again after hybernation. 



RHOPALOCERA.* 

Leucophasia sinapis. The Wood White may be met with not 
uncommonly at Raindean Wood, about three-and-a-half miles 
on the road to Canterbury. The spring brood is on the 
wing in May. 

* Papilio Jdacliaon has been met with year after year on the East 
Cliff, Dover, beyond the Castle ; but has not, to my knowledge, occurred 
in the immediate vicinity of Folkestone, though its favourite food 
(fennel) isnot scarce. 
L 



8 1 A LrST OF MACRO-LEPIDOPTKRA. 

Picris brasstcce, rapee, and napi all occur in the neighbour- 
hood as might be anticipated. 

Pieris Daplidice used to be captured towards Dover in the 
days of Leplastrier ; but has not, I believe, put in an appear- 
ance of late years. 

Anfhocaris cardamines. In the Warren during May, but more 
abundantly inland. 

Gonepferyx rhaimii. In the Warren, but sparingly, in May ; 
more abundantly inland. 

Colias Edusa. Common enough in certain seasons. The 
variety Helice has been captured here on several occasions ; 
August and September. 

Colias Hyale. Ver}' abundant on the Lower Sandgate road, in 
i8b8 ; August. 

Argvnnis Aglaia. Abundant on the downs which run inland, 
from the east of Folkestone ; July. Black examples are rare. 

Argynnis Adippe. A few specimens flying in company with 
the foregoing. 

Argynnis Lathonia, Two or three examples have been se- 
cured in the Warren. It used not to be verj- scarce in some 
seasons, in lucerne fields, at the back of Dover Castle. 

Argynnis Euphrasy ne. Taken inland ; first brood May and 
June. 

Melitoea Artemis. Raindeah Wood ; end of May and June. 

Melitcea Cinxia. The undercliff, Lower Sandgate road, 
where its food plant, Plantago lanceolata, abounds ; June. It 
has not been observed of late years. 

Vanessa polychloros. In the Warren ; July and August — first 
noticed and captured in I869. 

Vanessa urticoe, lo, Aialajita and cardui occur in greater or 
less abundance in the Warren and other places. 

Arge Galalhea. Ver}' abundant, both to the east and west 
of the town ; July and August. 

Satyrus ^geria. Common inland, borders of woods ; May 
and August. 

Siilyrus Megoera. Common in lanes inland ; May & August. 

Satyrus Semele. Common in the Warren and East Downs ; 
August. 

Satyrus Janira. Abundant ever)-where. 

Satyrus Tithonus. Taken inland and in the Warren. July. 

Satyrus Hyperanthus. Very abundant on the Warren ; 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 82 

July. Some very curious varieties wanting the ringlets on the 
under surface have been taken. 

Chorlobius Painphilus. Very abundant in the Warren from 
June to September. 

Thecla rubi. On the Warren, near " the long pond ;" June. 

Polyommatus Phlceas. Common on the Warren and Downs ; 
August. 

Lycosna Agestis. Common on the Warren ; May and 
August. 

Lyccena Alexis. Common ; May and July. 

Lyccsna Adotiis. Abundant on the Downs to the east ; May 
and August. 

LyccBtia Corydon. Abundant on the Warren ; August. 

Lycmna A/sus. Warren and East Downs ; May and August. 

Lyccena Argiolus. Both broods occur sparingly on the 
Warren, where it, doubtless, feeds on ivy. 

Syricihus alveolus. On the Warren ; May and August. 

Thaiiaos Tages. Abundant on the Warren ; May and 
August. 

Hesperia Sylvanus. Abundant in the Warren ; May and 
August. 

Hesperia comma. I have met with this skipper on the cliffs 
towards Dover. 

Hesperia linea. Abundant, chiefly in moist places, in the 
Warren ; June and July. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



June izth. Members met at No 2 Tower, and H. B. 
Mackeson, Esq., F.G.S., gave an interesting and instructive 
lecture on the Geology of the locality, illustrated by large 
diagrams. Shewing a section he explained the formation of 
each bed, and pointed out where each cropped out — the Chalk, 
Upper Greensand, Gault, and Lower Greensand. No. i. 
Tower, stands nearly at the foot of the Chalk ; No. 2, on 
Upper Greensand ; and No. 3, on Gault. By means of 
another section he showed in what order the formations would 
appear in travelling westward, and how the clay formed 



83 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 

valleys, and the chalk and greensand elevations. The forma- 
tion of the Warren itself, and East Wear Bay, was then clearly 
explained as the Members stood at No. 3 Tower (Copt 
Point) : consisting of gault it had been easily worn by the 
action of the sea, the slips being occasioned mostly by the 
land springs, while Copt Point still stood boldly out because 
of the hard rocks of the lower greensand which crop out in 
that exact spot, and may be seen still in situ. 

They then descended to the foot of the cliffs and examined 
them more in detail. Mr. Mackeson showed that the blocks 
of greensand scattered about were remarkably deficient in 
fossils as compared with the Hythe beds, showing among 
other proofs that they had been formed in a tumultuous sea, 
not very pregnant with life. Some false bedding, and the 
fact of some largish pebbles being found mixed up in the 
stones, were also adduced in support of this view. 

A cordial vote of thanks was given to Mr. INIackeson, and 
the Members then went fossil hunting. Some good speci- 
mens of fossil wood bored by worms were found in the Junc- 
tion bed, also large pieces of selenite. 

June 23rd. Evening meeting by invitation at the Rev. C. 
L. Acland's. Thirty Members present. On the table were : — 

A collection of skulls of British Mammalia. 

Vertebra of a Whale, found in East Wear Bay. 

Several gigantic specimens of Anodonia cygncea from the 
Military Canal. 

Living specimens of Hyoscyamus niger (Henbane) from 
the Warren. 

Dried specimens oi Lcguviinosce, &c., 

With several books and microscopes. 
The Rev. E. Langdon, M.A., F.G.S., then read the follow- 
ing paper on the skulls above mentioned : — 



]\Ir. President, Ladies, and Gentlemen, 

I see I am announced in the notice paper, 
as about to read a paper on "Comparative Anatomy;" and I 
would, therefore, wish to say in the first place that I am not 
prepared to read a paper on so vast a subject as Comparative 
Anatomy, but rather to talk to you about these skulls that lie 
on the table before you. 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 84 

I ought however first of all to make a few remarks on the 
subject of classification. Classification is of two kinds : — 
natural and artificial. 

The first, the natural classification takes into consideration 
the general characteristics of every part of the things to be 
classified ; while the artificial classification looks only at the 
variations and modifications of form, shape, colour, and 
function of some particular organ or organs. 

The student of botany will at once recognise an example of 
this in what is called the Natural system, and the Linn^ean 
system of the classification of flowers. 

In the natural system all the parts of the plant, the root, 
the stem, the leaves, the flower, the fruit, are taken into con- 
sideration. In the Linnaean, the number and arrangement of 
the stamens and pistils are alone regarded. And the fact 
that the Linnsean orders very nearly correspond with the 
natural orders of plants, does not militate against the state- 
ment that Linnaeus' classification was artificial, but only 
shows the genius which prompted him to base his arrange- 
ment on those organs of plants which have the greatest eff"ect 
upon the variations of genus and species. 

Were our minds perfect, we should have no need of classi- 
fication, but the horizon of man's finite understanding is so 
bounded that it is only by dividing the picture by one limit 
and another, and examining and photographing with our 
mind, if I may so say, one portion after another, that we ever 
can realize the beauty order and arrangement of that stupen- 
dous whole, which Natural History lays before us ; and the 
variations in the animal and vegetable kingdom may be, if we 
will, the diflferent expressions of the mind of the Creator, 
while the links that unite them, the resemblances that exist 
between one genus and another, one species and another and 
the substantial unity of plan that pervades the whole, may, if 
we will but see it so, exhibit to us the inviolable, yet un- 
fathomable laws of that mind that never varies. 

But to turn to the immediate subject before us. 

Owen made an artificial classification of animals according 
to the arrangement and character of their teeth, but was too 
great a naturalist to overlook the consideration of their other 
organs. Itis, however, to theteeth of the mammalia that I pro- 
pose to devote principally my attention this evening, although 



85 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 

I shall endeavour to poinfout other distinctions in the skulls 
before us, and mention incidentally other characteristics 
which my present specimens do not enable me to illustrate. 

The student who wishes to learn how to distinguish be- 
tween the skull of one animal and another, would do well to 
begin by learning carefully the names and positions of the 
principal bones in a human skull, and although I would will- 
ingly dispense with long scientific terms, if possible, I fear 
that I must ask your careful attention while I name to you 
one by one the bones of this disarticulated human skull 
before me. 

(The lecturer here named the bones of the human skull). 

You are now in a position to compare these various bones 
in the skull of man with the corresponding bones in other 
animals ; but I must warn you of a difficulty that may at first 
startle you, that in some animals you will find more, and in 
some less than in man. This discrepancy will entirely vanish 
if you make yourself master of the circumstances of the 
developement of each bone. For instance, this Pterygoid or 
bat-shaped bone that I am holding in my hand is really ten 
bones ; that is to say it is developed from ten different centres 
or points of ossification, which become united in the latter 
period of the foetal state, or otherwise very soon after the birth 
of an infant ; and in comparative anatomy all these bones 
have names and are in certain instances found distinct. 

Again, the parietal and occipital bones which are not 
united in the infant, producing thereby what you are familiar 
with as the soft part of a baby's head, are in some animals 
united at an earlier period of existence, and so grown to- 
gether that they cannot be separated ; the suture or joint 
having become entirely obliterated. 

But to turn to the teeth. All mammals have a definite 
dental arrangement although in some cases that which is con- 
sidered the regular formula is apparently violated ; nature 
being a much less rigid systematist than man. 

Forty-four is considered the normal number of teeth in 
the mammalia ; three animals alone representing it, viz., the 
mole, the pig, and the gymnure. They are made up in the 
following way: — In each half of each jaw there are three 
incisors or cutting teeth, situated in the front of the mouth ; 
one more pointed tooth called the canine or dog tooth ; four 



COMPARATIVE AXATOMY. 86 

false molars, or pn-molars, corresponding in position with the 
molars of the first set of teeth, the deciduous, or milk teeth ; 
three Irue molars or grinders. 

The whale however has no teeth, but instead, that curious 
horny elastic substance that we incorrectly call whalebone. 

In the ant-eaters, there are no teeth at all, while the arma- 
dillo has ninety-six, and some of the dolphins have a hundred 
and fifty. 

I will now call your attention to this diagram, showing 
Owen's classification of the mammalia ; and will, as far as my 
specimens allow me, go through them class by class. 

Subclasses. Orders, 

Archencephala Bimana. 

'tt • 1 * ( Quadrumana. 
Unguiculata \ ^ 

° \ Carnivora. 

C Artiodactyla. 

Gyrcncephala ^ Ungulata ) Probosddfa^'^" 

(^ Toxodontia. (fossil.) 
TIT i-i * ( Sirenia. 

L^'^t^l^^^ i Cetacea. 



Lissencephala \ Cheiroptera. 

^ ) Insectivora. 



Bruta. 
Cheirc 
Insect 
Rodentia. 



^ ^ ( Monotremata. 

First. The Bimana of which man is the only representative. 
The dental formula in man is written thus : — * 

2 — 2 I 1 2 — 2 3 — 3 

I C PM M 32 

2 — 2 I — I 2 — 2 3 — 3 

Second. The Quadrumana which include the cattarhine or 
old world monkeys, which are found in Africa, Asia, and the 
rock of Gibraltar, have the same number of teeth as man ; the 
number of molars and premolars respectively being reversed. 
The platyrrhine or new world monkeys, which have four more 
teeth than those of the old world ; they have also prehensile 



* I. Stands for Incisors. C. Canines. P.M. Premolars. 
M. Molars 



87 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, 

tails, buccal pouches, and callosities on the buttocks. The 
strepsyrrhine include the Galeopitheci and Lemurs, and in 
their dental formula vary considerably from the other two 
classes. We next come to the large class, the Camivora, 
which is divided into — 

1. Digitigrada, walking on their toes, 

2. Plantigrada, Walking on the flat of their foot. 

3. Pinnigrada, walking on fins. 

Of the order of Camivora generally, I would make the 
following observations:- 

They are at once distinguished from all other quadrupeds 
by having four large long well developed canine or dog-teeth, 
which are well seen in this skull that I have in my hand, the 
skull of a large dog. 

The first tooth after the false molars in the carnivora is 
called a lacerator, being as you see of a larger size than any 
of the others, and cutting with the opposing tooth in the 
lower jaw like a pair of shears. 

You will see this characteristic in all the carnivora, very 
plainly in this cat, the cats being amongst the most blood- 
thirsty of the tribe ; as we shall realise when we remember 
that the lions and tigers belong to this cat tribe. The other 
molars vary very much in the different genera of the carni- 
vora, according as they live more or less entirely upon flesh. 

They have also a large zygoviatic arch leaving room for the 
passage of the large muscle that moves the lower jaw 

You will observe the high occipital ridge on the skull for the 
attachment of the muscle of the lower jaw, and in the lower 
jaw the ascending ramus of the jaw above the condyle or hinge 
is exceedingly long, giving great power or leverage. 

I have here on the table a skull of (i) dog and fox ; (2) an 
otter; and (3) of a cat; giving examples of three different 
families of the digitigrada. 

The dogs as you know have not retractile claws. 

In their dentition they more nearly approach the typical 
formula of 44 teeth than any other animal except the three 
already alluded to. 

Their dental formula is 



42 

3—3 I — I 4—4 3—3 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 88 

There is the skull of a dog in the Oxford Museum in which 
I counted the following formula :- 

3—3 1— I 4—4 3—3 
I C PM M 46 

3—3 I— I 5—5 3—3 

Two more teeth that the typical formula, four more teeth than 
that of a dog ordinarily. 

On close examination I found that the first pre-molar, which 
is a double-fanged tooth, had in this particular skull been re- 
placed both in the upper and lower jaw by two single-fanged 
teeth, immediately following the canine teeth, thus producing 
the extra and unusual number. 

On further inquiring into the history of this skull, it appeared 
that it came of a race of dogs that had been petted, and fed 
unnaturally for many generations, and nature had revenged 
itself, so to speak, by violating her usual laws. 

I would mention this as a caution to my lady audience, that 
pampering pet dogs, and changing their natural habits of life 
in an excessive degree has been often known to produce ano- 
malies similar to the one that I have mentioned. The dog is 
a very near relative to that much dreaded animal the wolf, the 
structure of its skeleton being identical. 

The only wild species of the Canis or Dog tribe in this 
country is the Fox, Canis Vulpes, of which I have a skull here 
upon the table. 

The predatory habits of the Fox are too well-known to the 
farmer's wife to need any comment : the Fox, however, when 
game and poultry are not to be had, will content itself with 
other small animals, not even disdaining worms and insects ; 
when he resides near the coast, he will resort to the beach to 
feed on sea shells and shell-fish, and some of the older natu- 
ralists give a ludicrous account of the Fox putting his tail into 
the water to catch Crabs, giving us an additional reason for 
the common proverb, " As cunning as a Fox." 

The Otter, whose skull is before me, is as you know dis- 
tinguished by its aquatic habits. It has 3 false molars in each 
jaw on either side, and the molars are more tuberculated than 
those of the dog, to adapt them to their difierent habits of life. 
Their toes are also united by a membrane to fit them for 

M 



89 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 

their aquatic habits, and their tail is horizontally flattened. 

The Cats, or Felidm, are as I have already noticed, among 
the most bloodthirsty of the carnivors. 

Their jaws are short, and powerful from the increased lever- 
age, the ascending ramus of the lower jaw being higher in 
proportion than in the dogs. 

Their dental formula is :- 

3—3 I— I 4—+ 2—2 

I c PM M 34 

3—3 I— I 2—2 I— I 

If you pass your finger into this large foramen, or hole 
through which the spinal cord passes up to the brain, you 
will feel a projecting bony ridge. 

This is an ossified tentorium., or bony substitute for the mem- 
brane that in all mammalia separates the cerebellum, or back 
part of the brain, from the cerebral hemispheres or fore-part of 
the brain, and is found in the carnivorous animals that spring 
on their prey, to protect the brain from concussion. 

The same phenomenon is also to be observed in the long- 
necked ungulata, the weight of whose head necessitates a 
similar provision. 

You all are familiar with the arrangement, common to all 
the cats, whereby they are able to withdraw their claws, thus 
keeping them always sharp and making their tread noiseless 
when creeping stealthily towards their prey. 

I would also wish to call your attention to this large bladder- 
like protuberance called the tympanic bone, or ear bone, which 
is very large, almost absolutely as large as that in the skull of 
this dog although the size of the skull is so much smaller. 

This marks its nocturnal habits. And here I would mention 
the common saying that "cats can see in the dark; " this is 
untrue ; their eyes are adapted for seeing in twilight and dusk 
better than other animals that prey by day, from their 
power of dilating the pupils of their eyes, so as to have the 
fullest use of any light there may be ; but as to seeing when 
there is no light, they can no more do so than we can. Much 
of that acuteness of the cat, which is commonly attributed to 
its powers of vision, is due to the greater power of hearing 
with which it is endued. 

I can show you the same thing in this skull of an owl whose 
habits are nocturnal ; and in this skull of a mole, whose vision 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. gO 

is SO feeble that some of the earlier naturalists doubted the 
fact of its seeing at all. 

Notice it also remarkably developed in this bat. 

(2.) I have here a skull of one oi i\\& Plantigrade Carnivora, 
which it will be well not to pass over. 

This that I hold in my hand is the skull of a badger. 

You will notice how much blunter the molars are than in 
those which are strictly carnivorous. 

The different species of the family differ much in the 
number of their pre-molars ; some having 

2—2 3—3 3—3 

3—3 3—3 4—4 

They all, however, have a uniform number of molars. 

I would call your attention to the hinge arrangement of the 
jaw. The cavity for the reception of the convex articulating 
condyle of the lower jaw is hollowed out deeply, and in the 
adult grows round the condyle in such a way as to clasp it, 
and render it impossible entirely to separate the two jaws 
without breaking away some portion of the temporal bone. 
Dislocation of the jaw in the badger is therefore impossible. 
This arrangement obtains in no other animal. 

To the Plantigrada belong also the Bears and the Racoons. 

(3.) The Pinnigrada, including only the Seals and the 
Walrus, are at once distinguished from all other mammals 
by their peculiar extremities. 

The toes of all the feet are united by an integument, where- 
by they are converted in use and appearance almost into fins. 

In the Morses there are neither incisors nor canines in the 
lower jaw, but two enormous canine teeth or tusks grow from 
the upper jaw and project downwards, whose use seems to be 
to detach from the ground the substances on which the 
animal feeds, and to help him to lift himself up on to the 
rocks on which he sleeps. 

We next come to the Ungulate 

I have here specimens of skulls illustrating the Artiodadyla 
or even-toed ungulates ; and the Perisso dactyla or odd-toed 
ungulates. The Pig, the Sheep, and the Fawn, belong to the 
former. This large skull, that of an Ass, or, as for all prac- 
tical purposes we may call it that of a Horse (the distinctions 



91 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 

between the two, except in the matter of size being trifling), 
belongs to the latter. 

And here (as from want of specimens I shall be obliged to 
pass over the Proboscidia and Toxodonlia,) I will endeavour to 
point out with some minuteness the distinctions that mark the 
Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla. 

In the Sheep there are no incisors in the upper jaw, its 
formula being — 

o— 3—3 3—3 
I PM M 30 

3—3 3—3 3 3 

In the Pig as I have already stated the typical number of 
44 is attained — 

3—3 I— I 4—4 3—3 
I C PM M 44 

3—3 I— I 4—4 3—3 

If, however, you will attentively examine these three skulls, 
the Sheep, the Pig, the Fawn, you will notice the following 
characteristics common to them all. 

The pre-molars are only half as complex as the molars, 
that is have one fang while the molars have two. 

The last molar does not project beyond the palatal bones. 

They have their nasal bones of equal width throughout 
their length. 

They have no foramen penetrating lengthways the ectop- 
ter}'goid bone. 

We will now examine this skull of an Ass or Horse, and 
we shall see that the pre-molars are equally complex with 
the molars. 

The last molar projects beyond the palatal bone. Its nasal 
bones expand posteriorly. 

The ectopter)'goid bone is penetrated lengthways, as you 
will see by the direction that this bristle takes, when inserted 
in this small foramen. 

Any one of these characteristics in the skull of an ungulate 
animal would be sufficient to enable you to decide whether it 
belonged to the class Artiodactyla ox Perissodactyla ; you would 
alsobe able to infer other peculiarities in its skeleton. 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 



92 



The following is a tabular arrangement of these distinctive 
points :- 



Artio-dactyla. 

1. Having an even number 
of toes. 

2. Having no third tro- 
chanter in the femur. 

3. The' astragalus divided 
into two almost equal facets. 

4. The pre-molar teeth half 
as complex as the molars. 

5. The last molar not pro- 
jecting beyond the palatal 
bones. 

6. The nasal bones not ex- 
panding. 

7. The ectopterygoid bone 
not penetrated lengthways. 



Perissobactyla. 

1. Having an odd number 
of toes. 

2. Havingathirdtrochanter 
in the femur. 

3. The astragalus divided 
into two very unequal facets. 

4. The premolar teeth as 
complex as the molars. 

5. The last molar projecting 
beyond the palatal bones. 

6. The nasal bones expand- 
ing posteriorly. 

7. The ectopterygoid bone 
penetrated lengthways. 

I will call attention in this Ass's skull to this black cavity 
in the incisors, which corresponds with what is called the 
mark in the Horse's tooth. 

In the Horse it disappears in early life. 

In the Ass it continues throughout life. 

It is formed by the alternate layers of dentine and enamel 
in the tooth structure being turned in as in the finger of a glove. 

In the Horse, not being turned in very deeply, it becomes 
soon worn away. 

I draw your attention to this, as it is the most important 
anatomical distinction that exists between the Horse and the 
Ass, showing how careful the naturalist should be not to over- 
look any _characteristic however minute. 

I pass over the Mutilata, among which are the whales and 
dolphins, as I have no specimens to illustrate them. 

The next class the Bruta consists of the armadillos, ant- 
eaters and sloths, and their dental formula is very irregular. 

The Cheiroptera, or Bats, are of two kinds. The Frugivora 
or vegetable feeding Bats, and the Insedivora or insect feeding 
Bats. The teeth of these latter resemble the true insectivora, 
but vary in number much in the different species. 

The Insedivora consist of the 

Talpidct, Moles 
ErinaddcE, Hedgehogs. 
Soriddce, Shrews. 



93 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 

The dentition of the Mole is that of the'typical formula ; 
small as this skull is, it contains 44 teeth. 

Notice the large tympanic bones, indicating its acuteness of 
hearing, its powers of vision being very feeble. 

The Rodents are divided in the table into two classes 

Non-claviculata 

Claviculata. 

The most striking characteristic, as you may' see in this 
squirrel's skull, is the peculiar formation of the incisor teeth. 

They are made like a chisel, having a hard plate of enamel 
in front, which is kept constantly sharp by use. 

As these teeth would soon wear away, if not renewed, they 
keep continually growing from the roots throughout life. 

As a consequence of this, if a rodent receives an injury 
misplacing one of its incisors, the opposing tooth continues 
growing in a circular direction until it penetrates the skull 
into the brain and causes death ; showing us the" way in which 
nature provides for the termination of the^. existence of an 
animal, whose powers of feeding are considerably impaired. 

Instances of rabbits and hares that have thus perished are 
by no means uncommon. 

The two succeeding classes the Marsupialia and Monotre- 
mata, I will pass over, as they are entirely unrepresented in 
Great Britain, and I have no specimens to show you. 

And now I beg to hand over to the custody of the society 
this small but fairly representative series of mammalian skulls, 
hoping that the members of our rapidly increasing body will 
add to its number more specimens to fill up the gaps and 
render the collection more complete. 

Above all things, I hope that these specimens may be 
placed in a museum, so that they may be accessible to all for 
the purposes of study. 

I hope that, if I have been unable to avoid technical lan- 
guage, I have yet made clear to all of you the^broad dis- 
tinctions wherein one class of animals differ from another. 

The subject may seem at first to be dry bones, but when 
we begin to realise how much those dry bones tell us ; the 
mill of the horse grinding the com ; the incisor of the 
squirrel drilling a hole in the nut ; the tusk of the boar 
tearing up the ground for food ; the tuberculated teeth of 
the mole piercing the insect ; the scissorlike teeth of the cat 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 9+ 

and lion scrunching up their victims; when we become 
familiar with facts like these, each animal adapted in every 
modification of its structure for the parts it is destined to 
play in the animal creation, and for no other ; then we be- 
come struck with wonder and amazement that we ever looked 
on uninterested, while such marvellous episodes of natural 
history were being acted round us. 

Thus may we from good observers become good naturalists, 
and may I add at the risk of sermonizing, begin to realise 
that man has a work in nature, like all these lesser creatures 
of God, " to do his duty in that state of life unto which it 
shall please God to call him." 



FIELD DAY, JUNE 26th. 

One of the many charming spots to be found between 
Newington and the sea was selected for the meeting place. 
A small brook here runs through a little gorge, spreading out 
in one spot into a still pond, which though not of any size, 
abounds in varied species of aquatic beings. Hence it runs 
swiftly down a slope and winds about among osier beds, and 
flowery banks, which are favourite resorts for many species of 
Lepidoptera. The banks on either side of the stream near its 
source are clothed with ferns, flowers, and trees to the top, 
which are not so unpleasantly close, and so interwoven as to 
prevent any one getting among them, and many a handsome 
bouquet was made up from them by the lady members. 

The place being three or four miles from Folkestone, con- 
veyances were provided for the members, of whom nearly sixty 
were present, includingthoseof Sandgate andHythe. Arriving 
on the ground about half-past three, nets and bottles imme- 
diately made an appearance, and the water was well examined, 
if we might judge by the number of bottles that were filled. 
The President read an interesting paper on the Aquarium, 
with special notice of the history and habits of the Stickle- 
back. This was supplemented by a few remarks from Rev. 
C. L. Acland and Mr. Ullyett, and a vote of thanks was given. 
Tea was then provided in the field, and after a few glees and 
songs by some of the members, the party broke up and 
returned to Folkestone. 



95 



COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

The Lepidopterist' s Guide, by H. G. Knaggs, M.D., F.L.S, 
We have very great pleasure in bringing a book like this 
before the notice of our readers, and strongly recommend 
every one of them, who takes an interest in entomological 
pursuits, to provide himself with a copy. It is written by a 
master hand, and is full of most valuable and practical 
suggestions. 

The Quarterly Magazine of the High Wycombe Natural His- 
tory Society, Vol. II, No. 5. There is a capital paper in this 
number on the Prominent Moths of Bucks. The list of the 
Birds of Cookham is continued by Mr. Sharpe, and Mr. 
Britten gives some additional notes on the Flora of the County. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



We take this opportunity of 
calling the attention of members 
to the Prizes offered at page 41 in 
No. II of the Magazine, and to 
the conditions annexed. All col- 
lections must he sent in to the 
Sccretaiy by December 1st. 

Captures in 1869. — I am glad 
to be able to give Folkestone as 
another locality for the scarce 
Forester moth (Proeris globularias). 
I took several on the 26th June on 
the slopes of the Downs. There 
are only two other recorded lo- 
calities for it in England. I also 
took Proeris Oeryon, the Cistus 
Forester in company with the 
foregoing species, and of course 
Proeris statices. 

In Lady Wood I met with the 
Wood Tiger (Nemeophila planta- 
ginisj which had not hitherto been 
recorded from Folkestone. 

My greatest prize of all was, of 
course, Deilephila lineata, of which 
there is a note in No. II. 

Many of the butterflies com- 
monly plentiful here have been 
scarce this year, notably C. Edusa, 
V. Cardui and L. Corydon. Adonis 
has been by no means so plentiful 
as usual ; and Hyale, which visited 
US last year, has not been seen. — 
Hy. Ullyett. 



^.. 



Poisoning feom Bekries. — A 
case of poisoning, which had well 
nigh terminated fatally has just 
occurred here. A little boy 
searching for " haws" in the 
Tramroad, partook rather freely 
of the tempting berries of the 
Woody Nightshade (Solanum dul- 
camara). On reaching home he 
became sick, and for several hours 
was in a wild and violent delirium, 
although the stomach had been 
emptied of its contents, but the 
poison had had time to extend 
itself completely through the 
blood. The pupils of the eyes 
were very much dilated, and the 
symptoms closely resembled those 
attendant on poisoning by the 
Deadly Nightshade (Atrnpa Bella- 
donna), which plant as far as we 
know, does not g^ow anywhere in 
our immediate neighbourhood. 
Ice in large quantities was applied 
to the head, and we are happy to 
be able to state that the boy is 
doing well now. 

8. dulcamara is generally stated 
not to bo dangerous unless taken 
in very large quantities; it is not 
known exactly how many the boy 
ate, but the case may serve as a 
warning to all against tasting any- 
thing of the nature of which thoy 
are ignorant. 

Z/^A 11 F£B1S86