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Announcement >^v^\ 

THE Quarterly Journal is a publication establisht and main- 
taind by the University of North Dakota. Its primary func- 
tion is to represent the varied activities of the several colleges and 
departments of the University — to serv as the medium of exchange 
between the members of its instructional force and the learned world 
outside. Still, it is not limited to that. Its colums are open to 
other writers, particularly of the Northwest, in the discussion of 
topics germane to the work of higher education. Especially wel- 
come are writers who bring the fruitage of scientific research, lit- 
erary investigation, or other forms of constructiv thought. Con- 
tributions are welcomd and, when found suitable and available, 
redily given space. Correspondence is solicited. 

The subscription price is one dollar a year, postpaid, single 
numbers, thirty cents. 

All communications should be addrest, 

The Quarterly Journal, 

University, North Dakota. 



Editor's Bulletin Board 

UNFORESEEN difficulties have prevented the issuance, at this 
time, of the science number as announced in the last. It is 
merely a postponement, however, not an abandonment. It may be 
lookt for as the next number, to appear in Janaury, 19 12. An 
abundance of excellent material is on hand, and a valuable number 
assured. 

Among the articles redy are the following: "The Design of 
Engin Parts," by Professor A. J. Becker, of the College of Mechan- 
ical and Electrical Engineering; "Mersenn's Numbers and the Re- 
ciprocal of Fermat's Theorem," by Mr. Raymond R. Hitchcock, of 
the department of mathematics. College of Liberal Arts; "Some 
Physical Properties of North Dakota Clay," by Dr. Spence, Assist- 
ant Professor of Physics, College of Liberal Arts; "The Modern 
Telefone Table," by Dr. Stephenson, also of the department of 
Physics; "The Discrimination of Pitch and its Relation to Train- 
ing," by Professor Wm. W. Norton, Director of Musical Organi- 
zations, of the University. From these and others the contents will 
be made up. 



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■b 



The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 2 OCTOBER, 1911 Number 1 

The Poetry of Matthew Arnold 

An Essay in Interpretation 

Vernon Purinton Squires 

Professor of the English Language and Literature, University 

of North Dakota 

I. 

ARNOLD may be described as a poet of transition."' "The 
general characteristic of Mr. Arnold's poetry is moral and 
intellectual scepticism and despondency." ^ "No poet has ever come 
so near the perfect Greek." ^ 

These three quotations are typical. They represent the general 
tenor of hundreds of pages of criticism of Arnold's poetry. He is 
commonly regarded as a master of technique but of passing value as 
an interpreter of life, because of an omnipresent world-weariness and 
gloom. He is made to stand forth as a representative of a day and 
a movement long left behind — interesting, highly instructive indeed, 
as a master of form, but without a vital message to the rushing 
twentieth century. Such criticisms have, one may admit, a slight 
touch of truth in them — just that slight touch of truth that oftentimes 
makes error plausible; but, in my judgment, they are far from ex- 
pressing the real significance and value of Arnold's work. In fact, 
they leave on the mind an impression positivly unfair to the poet. 

Of course, no man can entirely escape the influence of the 
Zeitgeist. The air one breathes continually is bound to have its ef- 
fect. So was it with Arnold. The three decades during which he 
wrote most of his poems — the decades from 1840 to 1870 — constituted 
a period of unusual upheaval and transition. Rarely during an equal 
time have so many long-cherished ideas, both scientific and religious, 
been discarded and so many new ones taken up. This readjustment 
was necessarily accompanied by more or less travail of spirit, traces 
of which are to be found in practically all the writers of the period. 

1. Moody and Lovett. 

2. E. P. Whipple. 

3. A. C. Swinburne. 



4 The Quarterly Journal 

Precious heir-looms of thought with all their enhaloing associations 
cannot be lightly cast aside. Often, however, one is clearer as to the 
necessity for rejecting the old than as to what to accept in lieu 
thereof. This state of mind is doutless best exemplified in the poems 
of Arthur Hugh Clough. Arnold, too, voices \f again and again, as 
for example in the following lines: 

"Ah, not the emotion of that past, 
Its common hope, were vain ! 
Some new such hope must dawn at last. 
Or man must toss in pain." * 

This is likev/ise the burden of the wonderful Dover Beach lines and 
the striking, half-humorous poem entitled Bacchanalia; or The New 
Age. Yes, there is no dout that Arnold voices with distinctness and 
power the moods and thoughts of these transition decades. 

But it is both superficial and unfair to regard this as the poet's 
chief or most insistent theme. Far more significant than this mes- 
sage, caught as it were from the air, was another message wrung from 
his very soul by the experiences of many years of active life, a message 
of real and vital importance and of wide application. To call a 
writer "a poet of transition" is to condemn him to oblivion; for the 
poets who endure are those who speak out of eternity and deal with 
universal truths. The poet of a day or of a decade becomes event- 
ually a mere literary curiosity, interesting historically, perhaps, but 
without permanent value. Matthew Arnold was much more than a 
poet of this sort ; he was a seer, an interpreter of certain great truths 
of human nature which are the same yesterday, today, and forever. 

As is well known, Arnold, far from exalting technique as the 
chief desideratum, regarded poetry as primarily a "criticism of life," 
that is, an interpretativ statement of the really significant truths with 
which we mortals are inevitably brought face to face. Nor was this 
with him an idle theory. He exemplified the idea. As, to use his 
own inclusiv phrase, he sought "to see life steadily and see it whole," 
he was imprest by a fact which needs to be taken into account, but 
which in some way most poets had past by. This was the fact — the 
unescapable fact — of the limitations, both from within and without, 
of which all men are more or less dimly conscious, and which, as 
they grow older, become ever clearer and more insistent. Most 
poetry has been — and perhaps rightly — decidedly idealistic. Poets 
have usually assumed, even if they did not say so until Bulwer- 
Lytton came along, that "in the lexicon of youth, there is no such 

4. Obermann Once More. 



The Poetry of Matthew Arnold 5 

word as fail." And they have not usually limited the thought to 
youth. Arnold with as much deep affection for his kind — and shall 
we not say with even more real insight ? — says : 

"In vain our pent wills fret, 
And would the world subdue. 
Limits we do not set 
Condition all we do ; 
Born into life we are, and life must be our mould. 

"Born into life! — we bring 
A bias with us here. 
And, when here, each new thing 
Affects us we come near ; 
To tunes we did not call our being must keep chime." ^ 

This thought is not specially flattering to human nature ; it is 
not, at first blush, very inspiring or cheering; but it is profoundly 
true. It has suggestions of tragedy and pathos, — not always of the 
conspicuous external tragedy which attracts attention, but rather of 
the silent inner tragedy which is enacted in the secret chambers of 
the soul before an audience of One. Arnold was clear-sighted enough 
to see that here was a tragic motiv of weighty and universal import, 
and he took it as the chief theme of his poetical work. It is for this 
that he will live, if live he does. 

He expresses the thought thru various forms and figures. In 
The Buried Life, for example, he emphasizes the idea that, try as 
he may, no man can alwaj-s be at his best; that, in fact, one's finest 
self seems somehow inevitably constraind, and peeps forth rarely and 
timidly. The figure he uses is that of a secret river flowing deep 
in our souls and determining our best selvs, but ever hemd in, hidden 
and hinderd. 

"Fate * * * * 
Bade through the deep recesses of our breast 
The unregarded river of our life 
Pursue with indiscernible flow its way; 

But often, in the world's most crowded streets, 

But often, in the din of strife, 

There rises an unspeakable desire 

After the knowledge of our buried life; 
* * * * 

5. Lyric Stanzas from Empedocles. 



6 The Quarterly Journal 

Only — but this is rare — 

When a beloved hand is laid in ours, 

When our world-deafened ear 

Is by the tones of a loved voice caress'd — 

A bolt is shot back somev^^here in our breast, 

And a lost pulse of feeling stirs again. 

A man becomes aw^are of his life's flow^ 

And hears its winding murmur ; and he sees 

The meadows where it glides, the sun, the breeze." 

Again, in the Forsaken Merman, we find a similar idea. This 
is the story of a merman who married a mortal maiden only to find 
later on that he and his children were doomd to be left alone. It is 
a beautiful poem, full of wonderful pictures of the sea with its great 
billows rolling in upon the beach : 

"Now the wild white horses play. 
Champ and chafe and toss in the spray;" 

Full also of suggestions of the mystery and movement in the sea's 
depths: 

"Sand-strewn caverns cool and deep. 
Where the winds are all asleep ; 
Where the spent lights quiver and gleam. 
Where the salt weed sways in the stream. 
Where the sea beasts, ranged all around, 
Feed in the ooze of their pasture ground." 

But the point of the poem is the pathetic situation in which two 
noble souls find themselves, — a situation in which thru no fault of 
their own, because of forces deep in their natures and wholly beyond 
their control, they are swept hopelessly apart. Alas for the resistless 
power of 

"The unplumbed, salt, estranging sea!"^ 

It would take too long to call attention to every poem in which 
this idea of the unescapable limitations of life is emphasized ; but 
one more must be mentiond — Merope, Arnold's longest and most care- 
fully wrought work. It is a drama in the Greek form and the finest 
modern example of that form. According to the old Greek legend 
on which it is based, Polyphontes, a descendant of Hercules, claiming 
thru his great ancestor a right to the region, invaded and conquerd 
Messenia. He put to death Chresphontes, the reigning king, seizd 
the power for himself and married Merope, his rival's queen. Years 

6. From "To Marguerite — Continued." 



The Poetry of Matthew Arnold 7 

afterwards, Aepytus, son of Chresphontes and Merope, having grown 
up, emerged from a long concealment, kild the usurper and regaind 
his father's throne. Voltaire, in his famous play Merope, first pre- 
sented in 1743, adopts this interpretation of the story, representing 
Polyphontes as a cruel vindictiv man richly deserving the doom 
which comes to him. Arnold, however, takes a very different view. 
His Polyphontes is a noble whole-sould patriot. Messenia belongd 
to him and his people. Chresphontes was a tyrant who had to be put 
down. Led solely by the highest motives of patriotism, and contin- 
ually struggling to unite all factions and maintain peace, Polyphontes 
ruled well for many years. Merope, however, had cherisht the 
thought of vengeance, and mournd unceasingly for Chresphontes. 
With infinit tact and patience, Polyphontes toild on for the welfare of 
his people, fondly hoping that some day he might win the hand of 
Merope and thus put an end to feuds and bickerings. But it was 
utterly in vain ; old animosities persisted, and he met assassination 
at the end. The difficulty was simply too great for man to overcome. 
The keynote of the drama is found in the lines: 

"The man who to untimely death is doomed. 
Vainly you hedge him from the assault of harm; 
He bears the seed of ruin in himself." 

It is not my purpose at this time to inquire whether Voltaire or 
Arnold is truer to the Greek spirit, tho the answer seems fairly 
obvious ; nor is it to discuss the question as to how close a resemblance 
either of these plays probably has to the lost drama of Euripides on 
the same theme. I would simply emphasize the significant fact that 
while Voltaire represents Polyphontes as the architect of his fortunes 
and as bringing down a merited catastrophe upon himself, Arnold 
represents him as caught in a mesh of circumstances in which he 
struggled as heroically as man well could, but which at the last ut- 
terly baffled and crusht him. He has given us a tragedy of life's 
limitations. 

II. 

If now one turns to consider what led Arnold to take up this 
theme of the force of human limitations, the answer is not difficult 
to find. It grew out of his own experience. So, indeed, is it with 
all great works of art. They are woven of heart strings. 
"Such a price 
The Gods exact for song: 
To become what we sing." ^ 

7. The Strayed Reveller. 



8 The Quarterly Journal 

Every student of Arnold soon discovers that his was an unusually 
fine and sensitiv spirit. Nature he loved with passionate affection. 
In his Lines Written in Kensington Gardens, he says: 

"In the huge world which roars hard by, 

Be others happy if they can! 

But in my helpless cradle I 

Was breathed on by the rural Pan." 
His letters tell the same story, with their frequent bits of appreciativ 
description and their almost boyish enthusiasm over an occasional 
holiday spent in the open. He loved his books and his friends with 
rare and beautiful affection. Indeed his friend, Russell, says of him: 
"There never lived a human being to whom Literature and Society — 
books and people — taking each word in its most comprehensive sense, 
yielded a livelier or a more constant joy." ^ More too than most men 
he prized leisure. 

"Moderate tasks and moderate leisure 

Quiet living, strict-kept measure 

Both in suffering and in pleasure — 
'Tis for this thy nature yearns." ^ 

But how was it given him to gratify these natural and noble tastes? 
Did he, like Wordsworth, Shelley, Tennyson, and Browning (to men- 
tion no more), have an opportunity for a quiet life of meditation and 
communion with God and man? Not so. For the best thirty-five 
years of his life, from the age of twenty-nine to the age of sixty-four, 
his time and energies were used up in an almost ceaseless round of 
routine and drudgery. During these years, he servd continuously as 
Inspector of Schools, and as Examiner of pupils and teachers. Thru 
a large part of these years, his daily program was to visit one or more 
schools, give certain examinations, look over a huge pile of papers, 
and prepare a report. In his letters we get many glimpses of him at 
his work. For instance, he writes to his mother under date of April 
29, 1864: 

"The day before yesterday up at seven. Wrote letters and so 
on till breakfast. At half-past nine, off. . . .for Ipswich. Ipswich at 
eleven. A great British school, 250 boys, 150 girls, and 150 infants, 
and the pupil teachers of these schools to examine. I fell to work 
at once with the Standards. My assistant joined me from London 
at half-past twelve. I M^orked in the Girls' School, with the pupil 
teachers on one side of the room and the Standards drafted in, one 



8. Letters of Arnold, Prefatory Note, p. VII 

9. The Second Best. 



The Poetry of Matthew Arnold g 

after the other, on the other side. My assistant in the Boys' and In- 
fants' schools. I had a perpetual stream of visitors from the town- 
people interested in the schools. Biscuits and wine were brought to 
me where I was and I never left the room until four, except for five 
minutes to run to a shop and buy a stud I wanted." 

A few days before this he had written to his friend, Lady de 
Rothschild : — 

"I am perfectly miserable with fret and worry in composing the 
last part of my French Eton under difficulties. The difficulties are 

the daily inspection of a large school, where I have to go thru 

every schedule myself, correcting the errors and supplying the omis- 
sions of the Managers and teachers. Imagine the pleasure of finding 
out from each of 500 boys what his father is! Such is inspec- 
tion at present." ^^ 

And we may add : Such was the work of one who, as he himself 
put it, yearnd for "moderate tasks and moderate leisure." 

Of course, he was not always inspecting. There were vacation 
periods, when the schools were closed and other times when he had 
to devote himself to office work. But always there was on hand that 
never-ending pile of papers to be examind and graded. The read- 
ing and marking of such papers is the greatest possible drudgery. It 
may be safely said that no other work connected with teaching is so 
exhausting and generally irksome. Yet it was a part of Arnold's 
regular program. He did not complain, tho now and then we get 
a hint of his feelings, as in a letter to his mother written January 
7, 1863: 

"I am now at the work I dislike most in the world — looking 
over and marking examination papers. I was stopped last week by my 
eyes, and the last year or two these sixty papers a day of close hand- 
writing to read have, I am sorry to say, much tried my eyes for the 

time At present I can do nothing in the day after my papers are 

done but write the indispensable letters for that day's post." 

Sometimes he longd very keenly for a different sort of life. For 
example, he wrote to his wife in March, 1853: "I don't know why, 
but I find inspecting peculiarly oppressive just now; but I must tackle 
to, as it would not do to let this feeling get too strong. All this 
afternoon I have been haunted by a vision of living with you at 
Berne on a diplomatic appointment, and how different that would 
be from this incessant grind in schools." 

But no diplomatic appointment came, tho at four different times 

10. Letter of March 15, 1864. 



lO The Quarterly Journal 

he was sent abroad to study various aspects of education on the Con- 
tinent. It is to be noted that Arnold's poems never brought him 
any large pecuniary rewards. He never sought for contemporary 
popularity. Like Milton, he had rather "strictly meditate the thank- 
less muse" than yield to what he deemd false standards of art or 
false notions of life. Consequently, in order to support his family, 
he was obliged to keep at his irksome tasks in spite of their dis- 
agreeable monotony, in spite of the fact that it used up all that 
energy which he ardently — almost pathetically — longd to put into 
vital productiv work. 

To his duties as School Inspector were added for several years 
those of the Professorship of Poetry at Oxford, which while not very 
burdensome in themselves added considerably to the load he had to 
carry. For several years, also, in order to eke out his little income, 
he servd as Marshal to his father-in-law. Sir William Wightman, 
Justice of the Court of Queen's Bench. He was usually able to com- 
bine his inspecting tours with his work in the court-room, as the 
judge made his circuit; but it is easy to see that these varied activities 
must have kept him exceedingly busy. Here are two glimpses of his 
strenuous life. The first with its betrayal of his longing for nature 
is specially interesting. It was written to his mother, March 5, 1863: 

"The year is so forward that the violets, I hear, are out; a 
bunch was brought to me yesterday at Royston which had been 
gathered in the lanes, and as the woodlands hereabouts are full of 
wild flowers, I have hopes of finding even white violets if I have time 
to go and look for them. But I have presently to go to Court and 
swear the Grand Jury ; then I have to write a testimonial for Wal- 
rond, who is standing for the Professorship of Latin at Glasgow; 
then I have to write to M. de Circourt at Paris; then I have to get 
ready an old lecture, which I am going to give to Froude for Fraser; 
then I have to go to Haddesdon, three or four miles from here on 
the railroad, to inspect a school, and shall get back only just in time 
to sit half an hour in Court with the Judge before dressing for dinner 
to receive the magistrates. Tomorrow I shall return to London." 

In May, 1866, he writes to his hospitable friend, Lady de 
Rothschild, who had invited him to visit her country place: "As 
for paying you a visit at Aston Clinton, I have in the next two 
months, besides my usual school work, to look over thirty sacred 
poems, the same number of Newdigates [the Oxford prize poem], 
ten Latin poems, and several English essays; to give a lecture on 
Celtic poetry, of which as the Saturday Review truly says, I know 
nothing, to write a Latin speech, and to report on the secondarv edu- 



The Poetry of Mattheiu Arnold II 

cation of the continent of Europe. So I think I had better keep 
quiet at West Humble. Why do not you come over and hear me 
lecture at Oxford on Saturday?" 

In the midst of these multitudinous distractions, and this exact- 
ing labor, he rarely, if ever, lost his cheerfulness. Once in a great 
w^hile, indeed, in a letter to his mother or his wife we find a hint 
which reveals an almost wistful yearning to be able to escape into 
a life of freedom, a life in which his creativ power might have a 
chance to assert itself. Such a hint is found in a letter to his mother 
written from the court-room at Chelmsford, March 24, 1862: 

"I have a lump in my throat and a good deal of flying headache, 
but I cannot at all complain of my health so far this year. But the 
gray hairs on my head are becoming more and more numerous and 
I sometimes grow impatient of getting old amidst a press of occupa- 
tions and labor for which, after all, I was not born. Even my lec- 
tures are not work that I thoroughly like and the work I do like is not 
very compatible with any other. But we are not here to have 
facilities found for us for doing the work we like, but to make them." 

There is certainly a touch of pathos in this letter written to his 
wife from Cambridge where he had spent a quiet Sunday with some 
Trinity College friends: "We strolled back from Grantchester by 
moonlight ; it made me melancholy to think how at one time I was 
in the fields every summer evening of my life, and now it is such a 
rare event to find myself there." But what impresses me as the most 
pathetic hint of all is in a letter to his mother, under date of August 
15, 1861 : "I must finish off for the present my critical writings be- 
tween this and forty [the next year], and then give the next ten years 
earnestly to poetry. It is my last chance. It is not a bad ten years 
of one's life for poetry if one resolutely uses it, but it is a time in 
which, if one does not use it, one dries up and becomes prosaic 
altogether." 

Poor Arnold ! Few and far between were the poems he was able 
to write during the decade in question. The press of work could 
not be got rid of ; the limitations which hemd in his life could not be 
over-come. Five years later he wrote in Thyrsis, 

"Ah me! this many a year 
My pipe is lost, my shepherd's holiday!" 

Here we have a vivid picture of a great determining fact in 
Arnold's life. Qualified as he was by nature and training for the 
highest social and literary success, loving leisure and conspicuously 
able to use it nobly for the world's good, he was compeld by circum- 



12 The Quarterly Journal 

stances to turn away from the activities he loved best to wear out his 
life in grinding drudgery. It is not strange that he felt with the 
keenest realization the hard cold fact that the life of man is ordaind 
to be in some degree "cabin'd, cribb'd, confined ;" or, as he puts it 
himself in "Ohermann," 

"We, in some unknown Power's employ, 
Move on a rigorous line; 
Can neither when we will, enjoy. 
Nor, when we will, resign." 

III. 
A final question remains. In this insistance upon the limitations 
of life, is Arnold taking a pessimistic view? Is the charge of "moral 
and intellectual scepticism and despondency" mentiond at the begin- 
ning justified? By a pessimistic, sceptical, or desponding view of life 
must be ment, of course, a view which regards the world as tending 
more and more to evil, a view which sees in life an aimless or a 
hopeless struggle, not worth the effort. I am unable to understand 
how any one who has red Arnold's poems thru with serious attention 
can say that this is his prevailing message. Here and there, as pre- 
eminently in his poem Growing Old, he does come close to this idea. 
But this is far from typical ; it is the outgrowth of a passing mood. 
And who is there that has not occasionally felt this way? To few 
people is growing old a very cheering thought. As far as Arnold is 
concernd, here is a statement much more characteristic: 

"Is it so small a thing 
To have enjoyed the sun? 
To have lived light in the spring. 

To have loved, to have thought, to have done? 

* * * * 

"I say, Fear not! Life still 
Leaves human effort scope. 
But, since life teems with ill. 
Nurse no extravagant hope ; 
Because thou must not dream, thou need'st not then despair!" ^^ 

Certainly to not a few this seems like good sense and good cheer. 
Still clearer is the statement in his poem The Second Best, where 
after picturing an unattainable ideal of unbroken calm and accom- 
plishment, and contrasting vividly therewith the frequent jangles 
and failures of real life, he adds: 



11. Lyric Stanzas from Empedoclea 



The Poetry of Matthew Arnold 13 

"So it must be! yet, while leading 
A strained life, while over-feeding, 
Like the rest, his wit with reading, 
No small profit that man earns 

"Who through all he meets can steer him, 
Can reject what cannot clear him, 
Cling to what can truly cheer him ; 
Who each day more surely learns 

"That an impulse from the distance 
Of his deeepst, best existence, 
To the words, 'Hope, Light, Persistence,' 
Strongly sets and truly burns." 

Many other specific examples of this thought might be quoted 
from the poems. The fundamental note is struck again and again. 
Invariably the poet frankly recognizes the limitations that beset hu- 
man life ; but he always insists that there is a ray of hope — an ade- 
quate opportunity for noble living inside the inevitable confines. To 
the troubled agnostic who in spite of himself is obliged to reject 
Christianity, he says: 

"Hath man no second life? — Pitch this one high! 
Sits there no judge in Heaven, our sin to see? — 
More strictly then the inward judge obey! 
Was Christ a man like us? Ah! let us try 
If we then, too, can be such men as he!" ^^ 

On the other hand, to the rigid disciple of orthodoxy who feels that 
he must cling to his traditional creed or give up all hope, he cries: 

"For God's sake, believe it then !" ^^ 

In other words, Arnold, as he lookt at life, saw clearly that effort 
and conflict are the inevitable order, that no truly aspiring man can 
fully realize all his hopes, or attain all his ideals. But he did not, 
therefore, despair. He felt that life is still good ; indeed, that in 
this very struggle against world and flesh and devil is to be found 
the noblest proof of man's divine nature. This idea is beautifully 
brought out in the poem called Morality, which begins: 

"W^e cannot kindle when we will 
The fire that in the heart resides; 
The spirit bloweth and is still. 
In mystery our soul abides." 

12. The Better Part. 

13. Pis-Aller. 



14 The Quarterly Journal 

But the most valuable part of the poem is farther on, in the 
dialog between the Soul and Nature. In these lines the ease and 
quiet of Nature's processes are contrasted with the Soul's stress and 
strain, Nature finally admitting, however, that the latter are more 
nearly akin to the divine: 

"That severe, that earnest air, 

I saw, I felt it once — but where? 

***** 

'Twas when the heavenly house I trod 
And lay upon the breast of God." 

Yes, the life of struggle is the divine life and a world of limita- 
tions is the soul's gymnasium. This surely is not pessimism. It is 
seeing life stedily and seeing it whole. It is an excellent illustration 
of what in Arnold's judgment poetry really is: "a criticism of life," 
"a powerful and beautiful application of ideas to life, to the question. 
How to live." " 

A fine prose statement of his general attitude is found in a letter 
to his mother, dated March 3, 1865: "No one has a stronger and 
more abiding sense than I have of the 'daemonic' element — as Goethe 
called it — which underlines and encompasses our life ; but I think, 
as Goethe thought, that the right thing is, while conscious of this 
element, and of all that there is inexplicable round one, to keep 
pushing on one's posts into the darkness, and to establish no post 
that is not perfectly in light and firm." "To keep pushing one's posts 
into the darkness" — that is no pessimist's motto. It suggests a pro- 
found faith in that "enduring power not ourselves that makes for 
righteousness" which Arnold afterwards discust in Literature and 
Dogma. 

Nineteen hundred years ago, the Master is reported to have said 
to Peter: "When thou wast young, thou girdest thyself and walkedst 
whither thou wouldst: but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch 
forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and carry thee whither 
thou wouldst not." ^^ In these words was perhaps, as the context 
intimates, a hint of the deth that awaited the apostle; there was 
certainly also a hint of the life that awaited him — a life of thwarted 
purposes and frequently baffled efforts. But Jesus did not mean to 
suggest that because of these unescapable limitations his disciple's life 
would not be worth living. No, for he mesured life in terms of Soul. 
And so did Arnold. That to me is his supreme and most significant 

14. Essay on Wordsworth. 

15. John XXI. 18. 



The Poetry of Matthew Arnold 15 

message. Indeed, he seems to me to catch up triumphantly the words 
of Christ: "In the world ye shall have tribulation; but be of good 
cheer; I have overcome the world." ^^ 

"Still doth the soul, from its lone fastness high, 
Upon our life a ruling effluence send. 
And when it fails, fight as we will, we die ; 
And while it lasts, we cannot wholly end." ^^ 

Or again, as he puts it in Thyrsis, speaking of the spiritual quest of 
the legendary Gipsy-Scholar: 

"A fugitive and gracious light he seeks, 
Shy to illumine ; and I seek it too. 
This does not come with houses or with gold. 
With place, with honor, with a flattering crew; 
'Tis not in the world's market bought and sold — 
But the smooth-slipping weeks 
Drop by, and leave its seeker still untired ; 
Out of the heed of mortals he is gone, 
He wends unfollow'd, he must house alone; 
Yet on he fares by his own heart inspired," 

Or still more explicitly: 

"O human soul ! as long as thou canst so 
Set up a mark of everlasting light. 
Above the howling senses' ebb and flow, 
To cheer thee, and to right thee if thou roam — 
Not with lost toil thou laborest through the night! 
Thou mak'st the heaven thou hop'st indeed thy home." ^^ 

Perhaps the most complete and artistic picture of man's life that 
Arnold ever pend is containd in the beautiful allegory of the river, 
which closes Sohrab and Rustum. Here we catch a vision of the 
hopes of youth, the disappointments and limitations that beset middle 
life, and the peace that crowns the close. 

"But the majestic river floated on, 
Out of the mist and hum of that low land, 
Into the frosty star-light, and there moved. 
Rejoicing, through the hush'd Chorasmian waste, 
Under the solitary moon ; — he flow'd 
Right for the polar star, past Orgunje, 

16. John XVI. 33. 

17. Palladium. 

18. East London. 



1 6 The Quarterly Journal 

Brimming, and bright, and large; then sands begin 
To hem his watery march, and dam his streams, 
And split his currents ; that for many a league 
The shorn and parcell'd Oxus strains along 
Through beds of sand and matted rushy isles — 
Oxus, forgetting the bright speed he had 
In his high mountain-cradle in Pamere, 
A foiled circuitous wanderer — till at last 
The long'd-for dash of waves is heard, and wide 
His luminous home of waters opens, bright 
And tranquil, from whose floor the new-bathed stars 
Emerge and shine upon the Aral Sea." 

This has indeed the classic finish of the Greek; but there is no 
"moral and intellectual scepticism;" nor is it merely the voice of "a 
poet of transition" that we hear, as we read the lines. It is rather 
the voice of one who has livd, who has gaind salvation thru struggle, 
and who has learnd to combine in his work "truth and seriousness 
of substance and matter, felicity and perfection of diction and man- 
ner" ^^ as these are found in the great classics. 



19. Essay on Byron. 



An Examination of Hume's Theory 

of Causation 

Louis Grant Whitehead 

OF all relations, causation is considerd bj- Hume to be of pre- 
dominant importance. It is, indeed, the back-bone of his 
scepticism. "All reasoning concerning matters of fact seem to be 
founded on the relation of cause and effect. By means of that re- 
lation alone we can go beyond the evidence of our memory and 
senses. If you were to ask a man why be believes any matter of fact 
which is absent ; for instance, that his friend is in the country or in 
France, he would give you a reason ; and this reason would be some 
other fact, as a letter received from him, or the knowledge of his 
former resolutions and promises. A man finding a watch or any 
other machine in a desert island, would conclude that there had once 
been a man in that island. All our reasoning concerning fact are of 
the same nature. And here it is constantly supposed that there is a 
connection between the present fact and that which is inferred from 
it. Were there nothing to bind them together, the inference would be 
entirely precarious. The hearing of the articulate voice and rational 
discourse in the dark, assures us of the presence of some person : 
why? because these are the effect of the human make and fabric and 
closely connected with it. If we anatomize all the other reasonings 
of this nature, we shall find that they are founded on the relation of 
cause and effect, and that this relation is either near or remote, 
direct or collateral. Heat and light are collateral effects of fire, and 
the one effect may justly be inferred from the other." (Essays, P. 322) 

Briefly defined, causation is, or should be, a power of produc- 
tion in cause or a connection between cause and effect. That the 
assumption of a power or connection is necessary to a rational ex- 
planation of the appearance and disappearance of objects. Hume ap- 
parently never douted. Unless the present impression can be traced 
to a power which produced it, or unless it, itself, is a connection, 
there is no rational evidence of natural law. Objectiv validity can 
be predicated of nothing; all ideas of cause and effect are mere fic- 
tions; all matters of fact are the result of chance; all predications 
of the future are idle dreams, and one event is as likely to happen 
as another. 

Considering, therefore, the importance of the relation of causa- 
tion, it is worth while, says Hume, to enquire what is the nature of 



1 8 The Quarterly Journal 

that evidence which assures us of its reality. "I shall venture to 
affirm as a general proposition w^hich admits of no exception, that 
the knowledge of this relation is not, in anj' instance, attained by 
reasonings a priori ; but arises entirely from experience, when we 
find that any particular objects are constantly conjoined with 
each other This proposition, that causes and el^fects are dis- 
coverable, not by reason but by experience, will readily be admitted 
with regard to such objects as we remember to have once been alto- 
gether unknown to us ; since we must be conscious of the utter in- 
ability which we then lay under of foretelling what would arise 
from them," (Essays, P. 323) 

Since the assumption of causation is founded, not on reason, but 
on experience, Hume now asks what foundation experience has to 
ofiFer for this inference beyond the senses. And he answers: "I say 
then, that even after we have had experience of the operations of 
cause and effect, our conclusions from that experience are not 
founded on reasoning, or on any process of the understanding." 
(Essays, P. 326) 

"It is allowed on all hands that there is no known connection 
between the sensible qualities and the secret powers; and conse- 
quently that the mind is not led to form such a conclusion concerning 
their regular and constant conjunction, by anything which it knows 
of their nature. As to past experience, it can be allowed to give 
direct and certain information of those precise objects only, and 
that precise period of time which fell under its cognizance: but why 
this experience should be extended to future times, and to other ob- 
jects, vvhich, for ought we know, may be onl}- in appearance similar; 
this is the main question on which I would insist. The bread which 
I formerly ate nourished me ; that is, a body of such sensible qualities 
was, at that time, endued with such secret powers ; but it does not 
follow, that other bread must also nourish me at another time, and 
that like sensible qualities must always be attended with the like 
secret powers. The consequence seems nowise necessary. At least, 
it must be acknowledged, that there is here a consequence drawn by 
the mind ; that there is a certain step taken ; a process of thought, 
and an inference, which wants to be explained. These two proposi- 
tions are far from being the same. I have found that such an object 
has always been attended with such an effect, and I foresee, that 
other objects which are, in appearance, similar, will be attended with 
similar effects. I shall allow, if you please, that the one proposition 
may justly be inferred from the other: I know, in fact, that it always 
is inferred. But if you insist, that the inference is made by a chain 



Hume's Theory of Causation 19 

of reasoning, I desire you to produce that reasoning. The connec- 
tion between these propositions is not intuitive. There is required a 
medium, which may enable the mind to draw such an inference, if 
indeed it be drawn by reasoning and argument. What that medium 
is, I must confess passes my comprehension ; and it is incumbent on 
those to produce it who assert, that it exists, and is the original of all 
our conclusions concerning matters of fact." (Essays, P. 327) 

"Should it be said, that, from a number of uniform experiments, 
we infer a connection between the sensible qualities and the secret 
powers: this, I must confess, seems the same difficulty, couched in 
different terms. The question still occurs, on what process of argu- 
ment is the inference founded ? Where is the medium, the interpos- 
ing ideas, which join propositions so very wide of each other? It is 
confessed that the colour, consistence, and other sensible qualities of 
bread, appear not of themselves to have any connection with the 
secret powers of nourishment and support. For otherwise we could 
infer these secret powers from the first appearance of these sensible 
qualities, without the aid of experience, contrary to the sentiment of 
all philosophers, and contrary to plain matter of fact. Here then 
is our natural state of ignorance with regard to the powers and in- 
fluence of all objects. How is this to be remedied by experience? 
It only shows us a number of uniform effects resulting from certain 
objects, and teaches us, that those particular objects, at that partic- 
ular time, were endowed with such powers and forces. When a new 
object, endowed with similar sensible qualities, is produced, we ex- 
pect similar powers and forces, and look for a like effect. From a 
body of like color and consistence with bread, we expect like nourish- 
ment and support. But this surely is a step or progress of the mind 
which wants to be explained. When a man says, I have found in all 
past instances such sensible qualities, conjoined with such secret pow- 
ers ; and when he says, similar sensible qualities w\\\ always be con- 
joined with similar secret powers; he is not guilty of a tautology, nor 
are these propositions in any respect the same. You say that the one 
proposition is an inference from the other ; but you must confess 
that the inference is not intuitive neither is it demonstrative. Of 
what nature is it then? To say it is experimental is begging the 
question. For all inferences from experience suppose, as their founda- 
tion, that the future will resemble the past, and that similar powers 
will be conjoined with similar sensible qualities. If there be any sus- 
picion that the course of nature may change, and that the past may 
be no rule for the future, all experience becomes useless, and can 
give rise to no inference or conclusion. It is impossible, therefore. 



20 The Quarterly Journal 

that any arguments from experience can prove this resemblance of the 
past to the future: since all these arguments are founded on the sup- 
position of that resemblance. Let the course of things hitherto be 
allowed ever so regular ; that alone, without some new argument or 
inference, proves not that for the future it will continue so. In vain 
do you pretend to have learned the nature of bodies from your past 
experience. Their secret nature, and consequently all their effects 
and influence, may change, without any change in their sensible 
qualities. This happens sometimes, with regard to some objects: why 
may it not happen alwaj^s, and with regard to all objects? What 
logic, what process of argument, secures you against this supposi- 
tion? iVIy practice, you say, refutes my doubts. But you mistake the 
purport of my question. As an agent, I am quite satisfied in the 
point ; but as a philosopher, who has some share of curiosity, I will 
not say scepticism, I want to learn the foundation of this inference. 
No reading, no inquiry, has yet been able to remove my difficulty, 
or give me satisfaction in a matter of such importance." (Essays, 
pp. 329-330) 

"Suppose a person, though endowed with the stronger faculties of 
reason and reflection, be brought on sudden into this world ; he 
would, indeed, immediately observe a continual succession of objects, 
and one event following another ; but he would not be able to dis- 
cover anything further. He would not at first, by any reason be 
able to reach the idea of cause and efl^ect ; since the particular powers, 
by which all natural operations are performed, never appear to the 
senses ; nor is it reasonable to conclude, merely because one event 
in one instance precedes another, that therefore the one is the cause, 
and the other the effect. Their conjunction may be arbitrary and 
casual. There may be no reason to infer the existence of one from 
the appearance of the other : and in a word, such a person, without 
more experience could never employ his conjecture or reasoning con- 
cerning any matter of fact, or be assured of anything beyond what 
was immediately present to the senses or memory. 

"Suppose again, that he has acquired more experience, and has 
lived so long in the world as to have observed similar objects or events 
to be constantly conjoined together ; what is the consequence of this 
experience? He immediately infers the existence of one object from 
the appearance of the other ; yet he has not, by all his experience, ac- 
quired any idea or knowledge of the secret power, by which the one 
object produces the other; nor is it, by any process of reasoning, he 
is engaged to draw this inference ; but still he finds himself deter- 
mined to draw it ; and though he should be cortvinced that his under- 



Hume's Theory of Causation 21 

standing has no part in the operation, he would nevertheless continue 
the same course of thinking." (Essays, pp. 3i^-i33)- 

The only foundation that Hume can find experience offers on 
which to base so vital a principle is the observation of objects in 
constant conjunction. "When we look about us towards external 
objects, and consider the operation of causes, we are never able, in 
a single instance, to discover any power or necessary connection ; any 
quality which binds the effect to the cause, and renders the one an 
infallible consequence of the other. We only find that the one does 
actually in fact follow the other. The impulse of one billiard ball 
is attended with motion in the second. That is the whole that 
appears to the outward senses. The mind feels no sentiment or in- 
ward impression from this succession of objects: consequently there is 
not, in any single instance of cause and effect, any thing which can 
suggest the idea of power or necessary connection. 

"From the first appearance of an object, we can never conjec- 
ture what will result from it. But were the power or energy of 
any cause discoverable by the mind, we could foresee the effect, even 
without experience ; and might, at first, pronounce with certainty 
concerning it, by the mere dint of thought and reasoning. 

"In reality, there is no part of matter that does ever by its 
sensible qualities, discover any power or energy, or give us ground 
to imagine, that it could produce anything, or be followed by any 
object, which we could denominate its effect. Solidity, extension, 
motion ; these qualities are all complete in themselves ; and never 
point out any other event which may result from them. The scenes 
of the universe are continually shifting, and one object follows 
another in an uninterrupted succession ; but the power or force, 
which actuates the whole machine, is entirely concealed from us, and 
never discovers itself in any of the sensible qualities of body. We 
know, that, in fact, heat is a constant attendant of flame ; but what 
is the connection between them, we have no room as much as to 
conjecture or imagine. It is impossible, therefore, that the idea of 
power can be derived from the contemplation of bodies, in single 
instances of their operation ; because no bodies ever discover any 
power, which can be the original of this idea." (Essays, pp. 345-346). 

"Though, to tell the truth, this new discovered relation of con- 
stant conjunction seems to advance us but verj' little upon our way. For 
it implies no more than this, that like objects have always been placed 
in like relations of contiguity and succession ; and it seems evident, 
at least at first sight, that by this means we can never discover any 
new idea, and can only multiply, but not enlarge the objects of our 



22 The Quarterly Journal 

mind. It may be thought, that what we learn not from one object, 
we can never learn from a hundred, which are all of the same kind, 
and are perfectly resembling in every circumstance. As our senses 
show us in one instance two bodies, or notions, or qualities in certain 
relations of succession and contiguity ; so our memory presents us 
only with a multitude of instances, wherein we always find like 
bodies, motions, or qualities in like relations. From the mere repeti- 
tion of any past impression, even to infinity, there will never arise 
any new original idea, such as that of necessary connection; and the 
number of impressions has in this case no more effect than if we con- 
fined ourselves to one only. But though this reasoning seems just and 
obvious; yet it would be folly to despair too soon, we shall continue 
the thread of our discourse ; and having found, that after the discovery 
of the constant conjunction of any objects, we always draw an in- 
ference from one object to another, we shall now examine the nature 
of that inference, and of the transition from the impression to the 
idea. Perhaps 'twill appear in the end, that the necessary connec- 
tion depends on the inference, instead of the inference's depending 
upon the necessary connection." (Treat. P. 88.) 

"The first time a man saw the communication of motion by 
impulse, as by shock of two billiard balls, he could not pronounce 
the event was connected but only that it was conjoining with the 
other." (Essays, P. 353). "The effect is totally different from the 
cause and consequently can never be discovered in it. Motion in the 
second billiard ball is a quite different event from motion in the first, 
nor is there anything in the one to suggest the smallest hint of the 
other." (Essays, P. 324). 

The above quotations show why Hume holds the relation of 
causation as so significant and indicate the difficulties to be overcome 
in a successful solution of the dilemma. They show also that Hume 
considerd cause to be a hidden, secret power inherent in objects, — if 
there be any cause, — and that cause and effect are two distinct, sep- 
arate events. If observation could discover this power of production 
in any object or could discover any necessary connection between 
two events, then experience could be regarded as furnishing a reason 
a posteriori for inference. But since such a principle or simple im- 
pression cannot be discoverd, inference must be founded upon some 
other principle than that of reason. However we come to predicate 
a future of any sort, it is clear, from Hume's principles, that it is 
not done thru reasoning, whether a priori or a posteriori. 

Concerning his assumption that cause, as distinguisht from 
effect, is a distinct event, examination of any concrete case dose not 



Hume^s Theory of Causation 23 

show this. In the example of the billiard balls, his cause, or "one 
event," is a ball at rest and one in motion, together with other con- 
ditions too numerous to mention. Isolating from the complex 
merely the balls, is Hume consistent with himself in calling them 
one event? If they are equivalent to a single impression, how can 
there be a conjunction? This implies the contact of two or more 
objects. In this particular case, it is the impact of the balls. Obser- 
vation of these two impressions as such, forever, will not give us the 
idea of effect. 

The only point at which the complex impression, cald cause, 
can be termd "one event," is that of conjunction. But there is here 
obviously nothing which can be termd a simple impression. On the 
one side we have the factors which compose the so-cald cause, 
and on the other, those which may be termd effect. The point of 
contact is, as it were, a vanishing point into which certain factors 
disappear and from which others appear. On either side we have, 
as separate events, Hume's cause and effect. 

Granted that they are separate events, in what consists the 
difference? Analyzing the complex impression, cald effect, in the 
case of the billiard balls, we see that the difference is represented by 
motion in the ball formerly at rest. As an existence or impression 
merely, this motion is dependent upon and not separable from the 
ball. But as a relation, freed for application beyond its mere pres- 
entation, it is a connection, thru conjunction, of various factors, in- 
cluding a ball at rest and one in motion. As so conceivd, cause and 
effect, contrary to hypothesis, are "one event." Why then should 
they be considerd two events? 

As has been before set forth, when an impression has been 
referd to others as a relation or idea, it is by the same process and 
at the same instant, differentiated from them as different. Just be- 
cause it originates as a differentiation from other impressions and is 
considerd as a part of them, it must also be considerd as different 
from them and be set off, relativly, as separate and distinct from the 
entire complex. Just as resemblance represents at the same time 
both the unity and the difference of impressions, so effect represents 
their connection and their separation. In both cases, at the instant 
that an impression is distinguisht as different, at that instant it is 
applied as a relation ; or referd back to its origin as a unity or con- 
nection. 

When the motionless ball began to move, therefore, this im- 
pression was set off as separate and distinct from the previous com- 
plex. Since the previous impression has now disappeard, and is 



24 Ihe Quarterly Journal 

retaind onl}' in memory, the present complex must necessarily be re- 
garded as different. Despite this separation, however, motion is 
still retaind as a connection. It brings the past into the present by 
representing it as a change in the status, merely, of a motionless and 
a moving billiard ball. These impressions have past, thru conjunc- 
tion, into motion, and are represented by the latter as an effect just 
because it is the only change or difference distinguisht in the situation. 

Hume's distinction between cause and effect as separate events 
is correct in so far as they are distinguisht by a difference which 
marks the passing of the former. He is in error, however, in holding 
that they are simple impressions and that their only connection is a 
conjunction. Their difference is a connection which gives cause its 
meaning or significance. Effect is the culmination, thru conjunction, 
of all the elements cald cause. 

If experience is as thus described, then upon next observing a 
similar situation, embracing so-cald cause, we will at once infer a 
similar impression of motion, — not merely because we recall a re- 
peated conjunction of the various complex conditions, but because 
the impression, as an effect, is an essential element of the present 
situation. The present experience is not complete without the in- 
ference of an impression, represented on the one side as distinct, and 
on the other, as a connection, absorbing factors and explaining change. 

From the standpoint of knowledge or certainty, inference of an 
effect from a cause, may always be proved. Knowledge becomes 
probability merely in so far as the conditions constituting cause are 
unknown, ignored, or generalized. Using general ideas, and rea- 
soning a priori, it is true, as Hume contends, that we may conceive 
any one of a number of things to happen upon the conjunction of 
two billiard balls. From the general idea of form, surface, mass, 
motion and the like, we never can infer a particular effect. Any- 
thing or nothing is likely to happen. But given a specific mass, 
moving with a certain velocity, upon a mesured surface in a definit 
direction towards another mesured mass, and we can with certainty 
infer a particular effect. It may be that we have never before en- 
counterd in experience some of these particular conditions. It may 
be that in some respects the situation is unique ; it is sufficient for 
certainty if the conditions be mesured and be like in kind to those we 
have had in experience. 

Inference of cause from effect has no more foundation in Hume's 
system than effect from cause. Having defined effect as that part 
of a present complex which represents recognized modification of the 
past, — inference of a cause is simply inference of the conditions of 



Hufne's Theory of Causation 25 

which effect is the visible connection. In the posteriori inference of 
an effect, it is clear that we have within supposed control these con- 
ditions. But in inferring a cause, the conditions are as obviously 
lacking. Unless we can reproduce them and so test the inference, 
the meaning of the present with reference to the past should always 
be clast as probability rather than knowledge. 

Of this nature is all historical, so-cald knowledge. Being un- 
able to reproduce the conditions, their existence as well as their 
interpretation is always an assumption merely. That the effect is a 
connection we may affirm generally. But w'hat kind of connection 
cannot be known except in so far as we control the factors of re- 
production. Search for a cause, in other words, in confirmation of an 
hypothesis, must be search for the origin of some particular impres- 
sion, regarded as a connection. 

Cause, as the source of an effect, is assumed by Hume to be 
synonymous with a power of production. Search of all qualities and 
all impressions fails to show such a power. All simple impressions are 
just what they seem ; they do not conceal within their folds a some- 
thing else. In seeking power, Hume assumes it should be a general 
quality or idea, common to all impressions whatsoever. But power, 
as one of a set of concrete conditions on which connection is based, 
is always a very particular and very definit quality. Any quality 
is a power when conceivd with reference to its ability to combine 
and to resist combination. Complete cause is simply the organization 
of these so-cald powers, combining and resisting combination. 

In common thought and language, however, that factor or 
aspect of cause which is most activ or dynamic is generally isolated 
and set up to represent the complete cause. Other factors are as- 
sumed or ignored. Thus, water, wind, heat, gravity, steam, and 
electricity are spoken of as "powers." But they are powers only in 
so far as they are the dynamic or kinetic phases of a situation of 
which the other elements are static or potential. It is a peculiarity 
of the human mind that attention will seize upon and emphasize the 
activ and moving side of a complex at the expense of the static and 
quiescent factors. In seeking for cause, moreover, it is evident that 
there could have been no connection thru conjunction unless some 
one or all of the antecedent simple impressions were activ and mov- 
ing. For the above reasons in asking for a cause or power of pro- 
duction, we usually mean the dynamic, connecting factor in a 
situation. 

While the kinetic aspect of an impression may be separated and 
interpreted as a connecting factor in a complex situation, it should 



26 The Quarterly Journal 

not be regarded as a connection on the one hand nor as the whole 
cause on the other. In both of these assumptions, Hume's error lies. 
As a simple impression, "power of production" can never produce 
anything. It can only bring to the point of conjunction certain 
elements, regarded as potential. Among these elements will be the 
particular form with which activity is generated. Applying this 
form, as distinguisht from function, to complexes, generally, it may 
or may not be a connecting factor. It is the function and not the 
form that can be generalized as efficient cause. Standing thus between 
apparent static factors and their effect, the kinetic aspect of a situa- 
tion may be mistaken for a connection. Hume refers to power of 
production and connection as synonymous. But connection, as a 
change alredy accomplisht, is easily distinguisht from a dynamic factor 
of the antecedent complex. The former may be used as ground for 
inference, while the latter can be regarded as an explanation for 
conjunction only. 

Up to this point it has been assumed that cause and effect may 
be arbitrarily defined as applied to separate impressions. But the 
same impression Is often regarded as either a cause or an effect. Take, 
for example, flame ; this impression may be regarded as the cause of 
light and heat or as the effect of friction. 

As a cause, flame is an impression in which we either find light 
and heat or from which we infer them. In the former case the quali- 
ties are parts of a complex impression which is no more truly their 
cause than an apple is the cause of a sweet and juicy taste. In both 
cases, the qualities are relations which give the complex its meaning 
or identity. In the latter case, however, having an impression of light 
or heat only, we infer its complement, and Hume asks that a rational 
basis for this inference be set forth. 

In referring heat from a light cald flame, it is evident that we 
must assume a change in the situation ; otherwise we would not ex- 
perience heat. This change may possibly be a movement of ourselves 
towards the flame. In this event, according to what has been before 
stated, we should refer to ourselves as the cause of heat since we 
have been the connecting factor. Apparently, however, we prefer to 
regard ourselves as a controlling rather than as a causal factor. The 
heat was there in the flame to be senst or not as we chose or were 
able. In this particular example, moreover, heat often appears from 
flame without any movement on our part and the connecting factor 
must accordingly be placed there somewhere. 

It is plain that flame, as we sense it without heat, cannot be 
the same flame that we sense with heat. If flame in which heat ap- 



Hume's Theory of Causation 27 

pears be a cause, then flame in which it does not appear cannot be so. 
Letting heat represent the connection or point of change in flame, then 
the latter can be a cause only by being represented as a connecting 
medium between heat and some other impression. The only other 
impression possible is the material from which flame springs. But 
as this is a static mass, or so regarded, it can hardly account for heat 
as change in flame. To account for this we must observe that flame 
itself is continually moving, changing and growing. Just as motion 
in the billiard ball is a passing and a becoming, so flame is seen to be 
a flickering, coming and going. And as motion cannot be defined 
except in terms of static things, so also flame as a connecting activity, 
can be defined only at such places as it can be caught and stopt. As 
a connecting activity, therefore, flame may be regarded as continually 
changing until it reaches the point at least where we sense the change 
as heat. And in inferring heat from flame, the inference is based, 
not only on heat as a connection but also upon flame as announcing 
the presumable conjunction of factors necessary to the development 
of the impression or effect. 

Regarding flame as an effect we simply carry back one step 
the process alredy described. Seeking its cause, we may ascribe it to 
"scratching a match." In a match we have wood, sulfur and phos- 
phorus as separate impressions and it is clear that alone or conjoind, 
they cannot be the efficient cause of flame. They are potential ele- 
ments, lacking as yet the connecting factor. Ignoring entirely our 
own act in "scratching," we may explain flame as the union of heat 
and phosphorus. In this union the intervening activity is the oxygen 
of the air. Again taking heat as an effect, its efficient cause is pres- 
sure or friction between two surfaces. So the phase, — "scratching a 
match," takes in the entire cause and may be verified at any time. 

Whether an impression be regarded as a cause or an effect de- 
pends upon whether we use it as a medium for explanation or as 
something which itself needs explanation. In the former case it is 
cald a cause and in the latter an effect. As an explanatory relation, 
the impression selected may or may not fulfill all requirements. Fre- 
quently conditions more important than the one named are assumed. 
Possibly the conditions assumed are to be considerd so manifest as 
to need no attention. As something to be explaind the same thing 
holds true. Where, however, we desire control with a view to re- 
producing or avoiding an effect, then the whole cause must be made 
explicit and formulated as a method : — embracing both conditions 
and connecting activity ; comprehending both what and how. As a 
basis for inference, such a method leaves the relm of probability and 
enters that of science. 



28 The Quarterly Journal 

The subject of cause has many aspects and may be described 
from many points of view. But if the above discussion has achievd 
its purpose, it w^ill be seen that, as a practical operation, reasoning 
from cause and effect is neither impossible nor mysterious. All im- 
pressions, in a way, represent activity ; a stress and a strain ; a push 
and a pull, whether static or dynamic. As such, given any two as 
conditions and we may infer a third as effect. The escape from 
Hume's difficulty is so simple that it is ridiculous. If insted of 
positing cause and effect as two separate and distinct entities or 
events, we posit three or more activ principles, it follows that no 
matter how we name or regard them we can get from them an ex- 
planation of the past and the future. The only difficulty in practis 
is in finding and in accurately defining the conditions. 



The World a Moral Order 

Samuel F. Halfyard, 

Professor of Philosophy and Theology, Wesley College 

A STUDY of the moral nature of man indicates that human life 
is morally constituted and governd. It affords unmistakable 
evidence that man is under moral law which can be explaind only as 
we look beyond life to some higher reality by which it is supported. 
The moral sense of the individual proves that human conduct must 
be regulated according to certain norms that are transcendent and 
that have their source in the Eternal. It proves that the world in 
which we live is not a chaos devoid of law and order but a cosmos 
which is controld by fixt moral principles. And what holds true 
for the individual holds true for society in the large. Human 
society is a moral institution with moral ideals and moral ends. 
The course of history and the progress of mankind evidence the 
presence of moral laws. Everywhere thruout the structure of so- 
ciety, in its laws, customs, and beliefs are discoverd marks which 
announce that it is morally constituted. 

We begin with the individual. That man possesses a moral 
nature cannot be denied. There is found in the hart of every 
rational being a moral law which proclaims the unalterable distinc- 
tion between right and wrong, good and evil. There is within the 
soul a monitor, whose voice is heard when moral choices are being 
made. And from the admonitions and constrainings of this inner 
voice there is no escape or release. Its commands of duty, its ought 
or ought not, is ever present in consciousness. Did one attempt to 
eliminate this moral sense from his mental constitution he would 
find it a hopeless task. Even if man be the creature of chance and 
the sport of mechanical forces which ultimately fling him aside his de- 
velopment must nevertheless be determind by this moral law. As the 
nature of the tree is determind by the seed from which it springs 
so experience must take its form from this moral germ. It would 
be easier to untwist the light from the sunbeam thaA to eradicate 
the moral instinct from the soul. It is deeply rooted in the hart 
and manifested in the manifold activities of the will. 

But it may be askt. How is the true character of the moral 
sense to be defined ? How is the province of the moral nature to 
be determind or its function understood ? The moral nature may 
be defined as the power by which we distinguish between right 



30 The Quarterly Journal 

and wrong in conduct and character. It is that faculty of the soul 
by which we have a perception of moral distinctions. "What we 
immediately apprehend through conscience is the right or wrong in 
actions." This does not mean, however, that conscience is a moni- 
tor to whom we can always look for authoritativ guidance. Its di- 
rections are oftentimes vague and inadequate. It speaks authorita- 
tivly the mystic words, 'I ought, 'but it does not impart infallible 
instructions concerning any particular course of action. When crit- 
ical decisions have to be made and decisiv steps taken, the moral 
sense ever admonishes us to cleave to the right, but as to what con- 
stitutes the right it does not say. It is from life that we must 
learn the right. It is experience, and experience only, that can in- 
struct us as to the conduct to be pursued. In other words, "a man 
is not born an infallible moralist," but must discover from daily 
action that which accords with moral law. What man does possess 
is not infallibility in the moral relm but a moral constitution. As 
at birth he is endowd with a mental constitution or furnisht with 
certain principles of thought which construct knowledge, so he is 
dowerd with a moral nature which lies at the basis of all moral 
perceptions and by which he is able to discern moral relations. As 
when man comes into being he has power within himself to recog- 
nize spatial relations and relations of number, so he is also gifted 
with the ability to perceive moral distinctions. Engraved on the 
tablets of his hart is a law thru which he discerns good and evil. 
Like the conceptions of beauty which do not wholly depend on the 
objects of the external world, but are constituted by the esthetic 
sense, so perceptions of right and wrong owe their origin to the 
moral faculty of the soul. To the everlasting honor of Kant it 
must be said he taught that for the moral life we must look within. 
Moral experience is grounded in a subjectiv moral nature. 

It will be necessary to enquire at greater length into the source 
or origin of the moral nature. Is the moral faculty a constitutiv 
element of the soul or has it been produced by external forces? Is 
it part and parcel of man's original outfit or is it the outcome of 
physical laws? Is it prior to experience or is it the result of experi- 
ence which has been arrived at thru inference? Is the "categorical 
imperative" innate to the mind or is it a generalization of thought 
based on sense experience? It has been claimd by a certain class 
of evolutionists that conscience or the moral sense is the product of 
evolution and has been brought about by material causes. The 
moral law of the hart is not a categorical imperativ whose insist- 
ence is due to the fact that it is a transcript of an eternal and divine 



The World a Moral Order 31 

law, but is the result of evolutionary processes or, at best, the out- 
come of the empirical laws of thought. As it has been assumed that 
the intellect has been evolvd from the rudiments of animal intelli- 
gence so it is held that conscience is a part of the social instinct 
which characterizes the animal. We are told that "the mental and 
moral world, like the physical, is the result at every stage of the 
working of the laws of evolution," According to the view of 
naturalistic monism, "the moral sense is not ultimate, but derivative, 
having been built up out of slowly organized and duly transmitted 
ancestral experience of pleasures and pains." Mr. Huxley says: 
"Of course, strictly speaking, social life and the ethical process, in 
virtue of which it advances toward perfection, are part and parcel 
of the general process of evolution." On this theory right and 
wrong are not eternal distinctions, but become identical with the 
demands and requirements of society or with the laws and prohibi- 
tions of the state. Morality insted of being an absolute obligation, 
binding on all men, comes to be a relativ thing, the af^tair of the 
community. "Conscience is no longer a temple in which the voice 
of Deity is heard, but a museum in which are stacked up the memo- 
ries of the past." 

Neither the fact of conscience nor the authority with which it 
speaks can be accounted for on such a view. Both the associationist 
theory of morals, which explains the moral nature as the result of 
training and education, and the evolutionary view, which holds that 
it is the transmitted experience of a long ancestry, fail when they 
undertake to give an explanation of the soveren power of the moral 
law. Conscience is unique in its character in that it commands. It 
addresses itself to the will and not to the intellect. It adopts the 
mandatory tone and speaks in the imperativ mood. Its terms are 
absolute and unqualified ; its voice is that of a king whose word is 
law. It brooks no interference with its claims, nor submits to any 
attempts to nullify its demands. Tho it may be ignored or disre- 
garded, yet it will be heard ; no tung can silence it, nor can it be 
forced to abdicate its throne. Not even the stoutest heart dare 
question its right to command. Moreover, conscience is strongly 
intrencht in the hart and has its appropriate expression in all the 
activities of life. And man has come to realize that it is the part 
of wisdom not to attempt its suppression but to harmonize the 
whole round of his daily life with its monitions. The voice of con- 
science, as authoritativ, is sufficient proof that it is neither the pro- 
duct of education nor an inherited trait, but a constituent element 
of the soul. 



32 The Quarterly Journal 

The question may be raised, What does the moral nature of 
man tell us of man's Creator? What light does it shed upon the 
Author of the human soul ? The transition from the moral con- 
sciousness to the Creator of man is clear. The obvious and unmis- 
takable inference is that the Maker of man is a moral Being. That 
man is a moral person and under obligation to choose the right is 
sufficient proof to the unprejudist mind that his Creator is a moral 
Agent. The moral law of the hart is a transcript of the mind of 
God. The inner voice which we call conscience is a voice from 
out the unseen announcing to the soul its kinship to the Deity. The 
ideals of conduct which the moral sense reveals to us and which 
bind the will with absolute authority take us back to the Infinit, the 
ethically perfect Being, who is the ground of all moral truth. All 
character and all moral progress are transcendent and have their 
source in the hart of the Eternal. Wordsworth speaks of the 
conscience or the moral sense as, 

"God's most intimate presence in the soul 
And His most perfect image in the world." 

Robert Browning says that conscience is "the great beacon-light 
God sets in all." Seth, in his "Ethical Principles," writes: "The 
Kantian theory of autonomy does not tell the whole story of the 
moral life. Its unyielding Ought, its categorical Imperative, issues 
not merely from the depths of our own nature but from the heart 
of the universe itself. We are self-legislative ; but we reenact the 
law already enacted by God ; we recognize, rather than constitute, 
the law of our own being. The moral law is an echo, within our 
own souls, of the voice of the Eternal." Thus the moral sense is 
a "participation of a certain eternal and immutable law, which is 
none other than the light of intelligence implanted in us by God 
with a view to guide us in the knowledge of what we should do and 
what we should avoid." 

That the moral nature of man has its counterpart in a moral 
order which is independent of him finds support in the analogies 
that prevail in the physical world. Science informs us that in the 
material relm every organism has its appropriate environment. 
There exists no organism which does not find its fitting complement 
in the physical order. There is no desire which does not somewhere 
find its gratification ; every organic instinct has its correlate. Pro- 
vision is made for every want of man, beast, and plant. The eye 
and the sunbeam, the ear and the waves of sound, the lungs and 
the air, are wondrously adapted to each other. As it is in the 



The World a Moral Order 33 

physical so it is in the moral relm. What is true of man's physical 
organs is true of his moral nature. The moral sense, like the or- 
gans of the body, has it counterpart in a world of reality that lies 
outside of man. The moral powers of the soul are powers that 
reach out to a moral order. The same may be said of the corre- 
spondence between the mental life and its environment. The in- 
tellectual powers of the mind have their counterpart in an objectiv 
world which is independent of human thought. The rational pow- 
ers of the soul are supported by the intellectual order visible in the 
hevens above and the earth beneath. And as the rational in man 
and the rational in the objectiv world fit each other, so the moral in 
man rests upon moral realities that lie beyond the human soul. The 
moral sense finds its counterpart in a world of moral reality whose 
source is the Infinit. 

The moral world reveald by the moral nature of man is also 
disclosed on a larger scale in the history of the race. The structure 
of human society and the course of human history no less than the 
moral sense testify to the reality of a moral universe. The moral 
principles which regulate the conduct of the individual lie at the 
basis of the social order. 

We have been informd that "throughout the whole of astron- 
omy, geology, physics, and chemistry there is no question today of a 
moral order." To be sure, there is no question of a moral order, nor 
has there been one in any of the domains of science cited. The 
moral order is not to be found in the material world but in the 
doings of men and in the drama of human life. It is in the relm of 
free agents, and not that of mechanical law, that we must look for 
the reality of the moral world. Not in chemistry, but in con- 
science; not in physics, but in the life of society; not in astronomy, 
but in the living movements of humanity, must the moral order be 
sought. To look for moral law and government among material 
forces is to seek the living among the ded. 

That there is a moral world whose laws are as iixt and absolute 
as the laws that underlie the physical world no one can dout. So- 
ciety in all its forms is constructed on moral principles. The in- 
sistence which we place on honesty, fidelity, and truthfulness in our 
social, political and industrial relations is a witness to the moral 
order. In every phase of human relationship is seen a moral aim 
and purpose. In every movement of history is manifest an ideal end 
which is gradually unfolding and which, we dout not, will finally 
bt: realized. No one can study the doings of the nations and the 
trend of human development without being overwhelmingly con- 



34 The Quarterly Journal 

vinced that there is a power in the universe which makes for 
righteousness. 

So far as we can trace the history of the nations we are forced 
to the conclusion that there is a Power behind the world who pre- 
sides over the destinies of men and who is working out his will. 

"And the Lord of Right still sits on his throne, still wields 

his scepter and rod, 
And the winds and the waves and the years move on, 

doing the will of God." 

The Creator of the race is not morally indifferent to the doings 
of men but has a deep moral concern in the affairs of mankind. 
The entire course of human history, irregular and broken as it is, 
reveals the will and purpose of a moral Being. The destinies of the 
nations are under the guidance and control of One who loveth 
righteousness and hateth iniquity. Carlyle says, "God sits in heaven 
and does nothing." It is not true. To affirm that God does 
nothing is to misread history. No Being is more activ in the affairs 
of mortals than is God. "The rewards and retribution woven into 
the whole texture of the world point to a just and good God who 
loves righteousness and hates iniquity." "The Power which is 
above all, and through all, and in all things, is not only Intelligence 
and Wisdom, but also an Ethical Will." 

That righteousness is at the hart of things appears from the 
fact that the nations who love justis and truth are in the ascendency, 
while those who surrender themselvs to lying and lust are eventually 
destroyd. The peoples who have approximated most closely the 
highest moral ideals are those who have attaind the highest develop- 
ment and have reard for themselvs the most enduring monuments, 
while the ones who have trampled under foot the moral law have 
stedily declined. Greed and lawlessness have brought about the 
downfall of powerful nations, the overthrow of great civilizations, 
and the destruction of myriads of lives. Empires that have been 
founded on violence and tyranny have eventually crumbled into 
dust. The one powerful lesson which all history teaches and which 
may be red by every serious mind is that righteousness makes for 
stability and life, while vice ends in disaster and deth. We have 
come to see that "on the whole and in the long-run it is not well 
with the wicked ; that slowly but surely, both in the lives of indi- 
viduals and of nations, good triumphs over evil. And this tendency 
toward righteousness, by which we find ourselves encompassed, 
meets with a ready response in our hearts." And the conflict be- 



The World a Moral Order 35 

tween justis and injustis, right and wrong, truth and falsehood, 
that has been going on thru the ages, will finally end in the over- 
throw of all forms of iniquity. Some day final verdict will be past 
"upon the shameless iniquities of inordinate greed, of the organized 
crimes of vice and intemperance," of the inhumanity of war, and of 
the selfishness in its manifold forms. The power behind the world 
is allied with truth and honor. The powers arrayd on the side of 
moral law are more and mightier than those against it, and ultimately 
truth and righteousness will prevail. While God is sometimes on 
the side of the heviest battalions He is always on the side of moral 
government. In a most vital way He is fulfilling His purpose in 
the earth. 

"History's pages but record 
One death-grapple in the darkness 'twixt 

old systems and the Word. 
Truth forever on the scaffold, wrong forever 

on the throne: 
Yet that scaffold sways the future, and behind 

the dim unknown, 
Standeth God within the shadow, keeping 

watch above his own." 

Frederick Hegel, in his brilliant attempt to bring together the 
movements of universal history in an all-embracing system, assures 
us that, "reason is sovereign of the world." He also says, "it is 
only an inference from the history of the world that its develop- 
ment has been a rational process." He, moreover, calls to mind 
that passage in history in which Anaxagoras enunciates the doctrine 
that voSs , or reason, governs the world, and he affirms that this 
reason is God. The history of the race is the carrying out of the 
plan of God — the actual working of His government. It is nothing 
but the development of the idea of freedom. Hegel closes his 
"Philosophy of History" with the profound reflection "that the his- 
tory of the world, with the changing scenes which its annals 
present, is this process of development and the realization of Spirit — 
this is the true Theodicaea, the justification of God in History. 
Only this insight can reconcile Spirit with the History of the World ; 
viz, that what has happened, and is happening every day, is not only 
'without God,' but is essentially His work." History thus con- 
tains a conscious design, which can be explaind only as it is referd 
to a Divine Intelligence who thru it is executing His will. It is the 
realization of an ideal purpose, a divine plan in the world. 



36 The Quarterly Journal 

Our aim has been to show that the moral structure of society 
as well as the moral nature of man implies a moral universe. From 
the moral constitution of life we conclude that the Maker of man 
is righteous and true. The moral principles which underly society 
presuppose a moral Governor. Moral law and government betoken 
a universe whose foundations are the granit stones of justis, truth, 
and holiness. The moral world is, therefore, not a transient phase 
of the process of evolution, but an abiding system rooted in the cosmic 
order. It is the realization of the plan and purpose of One whose 
ways are just and right and who ordereth all things according to 
wisdom and love. 



The European Problem Play — Its 

Three Cases 

Henry Lam part LeDaum, 

Head of the Department of Romance Languages, University of 

North Dakota 

To Will F. Roaf, Esq., 
of Cambridge. 

"The social world, at any rate, is a stage, what- 
ever the real world may be." — The Spectator. 

INTRODUCTION 

THE problem play is an unconventional literary product which 
has too long conventionally cringed to secure the indulgence 
of carping critics. As usual with anything new, it is better known 
thru its enemies and detractors than thru its admirers and friends. 
I venture, incontinent, to consider the problem play as serious liter- 
ature, legitimate drama, and sound philosophy. 

A deal of dreded fog envelops this sort of play in spite of the 
lucid mind of Shaw ^ and his enviable prefaces. . . .But an original 
writer like Shaw ever counts few readers and wields little influence 
except on independent thinkers. .. .The problem play has verily 
nothing to do with musical comedies or questionable plays ; it is not 
a play of old-fashiond intrigue, nor wholly of character; it is a play 
of situations — a study of social conditions. "I have intended," said 
Ibsen, defending one of his great works, "to paint human beings, 
human emotions, and human fate, against a background of some of 
the conditions and laws of society as it exists today." ^ The prob- 
lem play is one in which things and outside interests speak; they 
often control the individual and monopolize the attention. 

The individual, singly or in groups, is largely a creature of 
environment ; the problem play considers him a victim of condi- 
tions ; 3 he is led by circumstances to cogitate upon the social status. 

1. G. Bernard Shaw Is without question the leading writer of the day, 
altho there is still much difference of opinion regarding the literary and dra- 
matic value of his work. Cf. the article by Mr. Felix Grendon, "Some Mis- 
ceptions Concerning Shaw," in Poet Lore, pp. 377-386, Sept.-Oct., 1909. A 
Prophet who Laughs, Francis Lamont Peirce, Twentieth Century Magazine, 
April, 1911, pp. 17-23; and, for a somewhat different view, cf. the essay by 
Edward Everett Hale, Jr.,— Bernard Shaw, pp. 102-125, Dramatists of To- 
Day; Henry Holt & Co., N. Y. 1905. 

2. Quoted by Edmund Gosse in his "Henrik Ibsen," p. 177, Literary 
Lives, — Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1908. 

3. "Evil is produced by circumstances and not by character, — Ibsen's 
oft repeated demonstration." — Gosse, id. p. 178. 



38 The Quarterly Journal 

His inquirj' into the reason of things makes the problem play. This 
play is usually static, no drama of performances, that; nor of glitter- 
ing generalities. Viewed from the old dramatic illusion of action 
the players develop the story, not themselvs. Any study of charac- 
ter is then incidental to the problem presented. But there are plays 
in which this is not the case, and where the unfolding of the story, 
or plot, also reveals character, without, however, being a study in 
character evolution. But this whole process is illusory, — there be- 
ing in drama and in problem plays in particular, only exposition fol- 
lowd by more exposition or revelation, and not really evolution, tho 
we use the term in dram.atic parlance ; — still, if the problem play 
lacks movement, it has intensity of interest ; it has emotion, too, tho 
often morbid because of its few contrasting situations, — the social 
failing at hand being carefully circumscribed and probed relent- 
lessly ; it is actual and unromantic, oft a thing of ugly moods, studied 
seriously ; it is presumably experienced or the mature fruit of reflec- 
tion ; it is seldom picturesque. It views humanity struggling for, 
with, or against position, privilege, fortune, tradition, heredity and 
vice ; — it may be tragedy or comedy, tho grim. It is more often a 
dramatized conversation in which the artistic identity of tragedy or 
comedy is sacrificed to the more pertinent claims of the problem or 
of the situation at issue. The problem playwright has to exhibit 
life, not prove the conventions and petty tyrannies of art ; the con- 
straint of a traditionally fixt form would needlessly hamper his 
pragmatical spirit. Nevertheless, the problem play rests on the 
common inheritance of all dramatists. But the new drama, to be 
appreciated, must be contrasted, not with the field, but with the 
age it strives to meet. Given an accepted social theory or condition 
what will the individual do to meet it or live under it?. . . .What 
are the consequences of education and free-will in a conservativ and 
traditional social order? 

Let me say, at once, that many are cald problem plays that are 
only remotely related to the genre. Nor are they questionable plays 
because they put a question or a situation up to the audience for 
solution or sober consideration. Don't be prejudist: — I once spoke 
to an audience of professional men and city fathers so intent upon 
the obsession of "Questionable Dramas" as to miss the substance 
of my talk for the shadow of their prejudis. The problem play is a 
play of questions, not a questionable play; a play of actual social 
problems, — and not imaginary or traditional literary materials 
warmed over ; each might bear the laconic stage-direction of a recent 



The European Problem Play 39 

play — Time: now. Place: here. * It is hardly more traditional 
in form than in substance. It is a drama of new ideas tho, or per- 
haps only a vehicle for new ideas; and, like anything dealing with 
new ideas, it is a little enigmatic and crude, at first, and a bit revo- 
lutionary. It is pragmatic in its philosophic attitude, and not 
idealistic. It is not satisfied with the convenient but undemocratic 
"eternal verities;" it contests divine pretense, administrativ arro- 
gance and racial prerogativs, absolute values and establisht standards, 
and finds no tyranny in "docil relativity." You will find the prob- 
lem play even in the speculativ field, for we must study and meet 
all questions or situations up for consideration in a society ever un- 
dergoing change in its organization. 

Much ink, unfortunately, has been spilt on the question of 
sincerity in problem plays and playwrights. Something in the new 
point of view, or in the manner of work, evidently baffles the con- 
ventional critic. "What elusive and many-coloured mysteries of 
half-meaning," exclaims Chesterton. ^ But Shaw: — "No doubt 
all plays which deal sincerely with humanity must wound the mon- 
strous conceit which it is the business of romance to flatter." ^ And 
Chesterton to rejoin : — "The problem playwrights make the mistake 
of despising the mental attitude of romance which is the only key to 
real human conduct.". . . ."The glamour of romance is as certain a 
fact as the commonplaces of life..'^ And both go on talking, — 
talking!. .. .like Supermen (*note). The great Shaw critic is in 
generous mood, however, when he grants that "the writers of prob- 
lem plays are not all playing the game (so distasteful to him) of 
catching unconventional people in conventional poses." ^ With or 
without rancor, the eternal debate, grows to the greatest danger of the 

4. The Servant in the House, by Charles Rann Kennedy; Harper Broth- 
ers, New York and London, 1908. 

5. Cf. p. 88 of Gilbert K. Chesterton's "George Bernard Shaw"; John 
Lane Co., New York, 1909. This is perhaps the keenest, albeit the least sym- 
pathetic, English book on Shaw; but it is stimulating in spite of its epigram- 
matic and wrangling tone. 

6. Preface to "Plays Unpleasant," by Bernard Shaw, p. XXX, Brentano's, 
N. Y. 1907. 

7. (a) Chesterton, — op. cit. pp. 123-4. 

(b) Id. pp. 180 ff. Chesterton's animated defense of romance is the 
only genuin thing in this otherwise pretentious and personal book. 

*Man and Superman — a Comedy and a Philosophy; Brentano's, N. Y., 
1905. — Shaw's closing words to this captivating and brilliant work. 

Note: — Regarding Supermen, let me say, to paraphrase Wilde on Shaw, 
—that Chesterton, tho a very young man (he is almost a generation younger 
than Shaw) is the other of the two leading critics in England, — leading the 
opposition with such a relish of letters, such conscience of his role, — lu- 
minous withal; so keen a sense of ... .ill-humour, and such verbal dexter- 
ity as to make it incredible that he is not a disciple of Shaw. But, it may be 
ironically true, from the viewpoint of the progressivs, that if Shaw is a cult, 
Chesterton is an institution, — a conservative . .Chesterton's plays, — tragedies, 
comedies, and other stage creations, are eagerly awaited. 

8. Id. Chesterton, p. 70. 



40 The Quarterly Journal 

amenities. . . .Naturally, the reader is tempted to ask if the cult of 
romance, here, makes for social sincerity. . . .But there is a romance 
of the unconventional, i. e., of non-conformity, — which fascinates 
Shaw. It led him to write plays "dealing with the crimes of society 
and its romantic follies," and, as he says, he "became at once infamous 
as a dramatist."....^ When the smoke has lifted, the cynic and 
the skeptic are still far apart. . . .Alas, that man should tire of ro- 
mance as he will of reason ! Education and life seem ever irrecon- 
cilable. But whether patronizing, rosy-hued idealism, or grim, de- 
fiant realism, it is only literature, a by-product, albeit antagonistic, 
of life itself. 

As you may infer, all problem plays need not deal with econom- 
ic questions; some are social plays, and to that extent are they in- 
terested in showing character, — with the emphasis on the integral 
in life. In its art the problem play may be classic or romantic ; a 
play of invention or a transcription from life, — in plot-building, the 
organization of its materials, the grafting of theses, and the presenta- 
tion of character. The dramatist may create or imitate as he wills. 
The new psychology alone may disconcert, as conscience is the 
institution most under scrutiny. Nowadays, human conduct is largely 
possible not because of this venerable instrument but in spite of it. 
It may be the defeat of the medieval conscience: this theological in- 
stitution, perverted, or antiquated, is helpless to grapple with the 
"practically" minded ruling society, — with modern problems; the 
materials that enter into its edification, certainly keep it out of 
cogency with modern economic and social methods. .. .Ultimately, 
it may be said that a problem play author is not vulgar minded, 
however much he may give the impression of doing his work for 
notoriety and pornographic past-time. ^^ What was true of re- 
formers in the early days of Dumas, Jr., is apparently so today : — 
this literary output, intended to reach humanity, vexes it with 
fancied individual aloofness and sordid motivs. . . .As you perceive, 
the problem play is quite new ; indeed, there is no suspicion of it in 
the history of literature before the XIX century, — our great dra- 
matists, being interested in characterization or satire, and hardly 
near enough life and people; besides, they were too literary by tra- 
dition to be disturbd at the economic or educational status of society, 

9. Preface to Plays Unpleasant, p. XII. — Preface to Three Plays for 
Puritans, — passim; Brentano's, New York, 1906. 

10. (a) Such impression has cakl forth Max Nordau's mighty clinical 
work, (too little known) — "Degeneration," D. Appleton & Co., 1905; cf. espe- 
cially "Egomania," pp. 241-472. 

(b) Cf. also pp. 92 ff. of "The Quintessence of Ibsenism," by G. Bernard 
Shaw, written in 1891, publisht by Brentano's, N. Y., 1905. 



The European Problem Play 41 

or to feel the need of a social drama, as the term is understood today. 

The Alpha and Omega of the problem play are Alexander 

Dumas, Jr., and Henrik Ibsen. Dumas, Jr., was a Frenchman, 

and the natural son of the author of the "Three Guardsmen," 

"Anthony," etc., etc In 1848 Dumas, Jr., wrote his celebrated 

"Camille" (La Dame aux Camelias), ^^ differing from his father's 
manner in that he viewed his heroin as a product of social conditions, 
— more or less observd at first hand. Dumas, Jr., realizing the 
dramatic possibilities of "Camille," staged the novel in 1852, and 
launcht himself on his career as a writer of "problem plays." It 
was a new manner of drama in France, unless we except Denis 
Diderot's — he of the "Paradox on the Comedian," in the XVIII 
century; but Diderot suspected, rather than penetrated, the field of 
social conditions. Still, this much he did: — he cald attention to the 
study of character in relation to the social rather than literary 
milieu. Indeed, it was the age of social awakenmg and reform in 
France, and the great Revolution was at hand. But Diderot's lead 
was not followd. — The humanitarian drama was husht by the fra- 
cas of Jove-born Romanticism until Dumas, Jr., began. ^" Victor 
Hugo swayd the stage of France between 1830 and 1850.... But 
Hugo, altho enthusiastic and energetic, was plainly only a bungler 
at character drawing, and a poor carpenter at play making. . . .He 
saw truly little in the contemporary life about him, for the stage. 
He bilt melodramas out of Spanish, Italian, or English fustian ; he 
said nothing about the actual life, (as he did later in "Les 
Miserables") ; he created what he held about the drama, and did 
not suspect the social function of it ; he refused to admit this function, 
if he knew it. Hugo wrote beautifully, and with imagination, but 

11. (a) Camille, by Alexandre Dumas, Jr., — Th§atre Complet, avec 
prefaces et notes ingdites, 8 vols., Calmann-Levi, Paris. Vol. I contains Du- 
mas, Jr.'s celebrated defense of his play, and an account of that struggle 
with French censorship which delayd his play from 1849 to 1852. 

(b) On Mile. Duplessls, the original of Marguerite Gautier, — "Camille," 
cf. Jules Janin's Preface to the Novel (same publishers as in — a); or, the 
English translation by C. C. Starkweather, pp. IX-XXV, in Masterpieces of 
French Literature series, Soc. des Beaux-Arts, N. Y. etc., 1910. 

12. For a discussion of Alexandre Dumas, Jr., and the Problem Play, 
its' origins, etc., by a French writer at home in English literature also, cf. 
Augustin Filon, — Recent French Drama ("De Dumas h Rostand"), Chap- 
man and Hall, London, 1898; or, his own review of this period in the new 
Encyclopedia Britannica, pp. 516-517, art. DRAMA. — Cf. also H. Parigot, — 
Alexandre Dumas, pere, ch. VII, p. 180 ff. Hachette, Paris, 1902, — where it 
is said, and perhaps rightly, that the younger Dumas was initiated to the 
Social Drama by his elder, this kind of drama having been foreshadowd by 
the great novelist, — especially that phase pertaining to the post-revolutionary 
status of woman and the growth of public opinion in France. — But it was 
not yet the problem play; or Beaumarchais, in the same sense, and others, 
might be named, both before and after Dumas, Jr., in this field. Nor can we 
truly call De Musset's tragic "On ne badine pas avec I'Amour," (publisht 
as early as 1834 but represented only in 1861) a problem play, altho it ex- 
poses the social consequences of the French convent school and its mon- 
strous educational system. There is evidently a difference here between the 
social drama and the problem play, or, as the French have it, the "Drame 
Social" and the "Piece S, Thfise." 



42 The Quarterly Journal 

mainly for literature; — his dramas are largely caricatures and fan- 
tasies in fine rhetoric and lyrical verse, — Swinburne's vehement 
claims to the contrary notwithstanding. ^^ The work of Dumas, 
Jr., and of the later-Ibsen, contrasts curiously with this far-off 
literary parade and helpless melodramatic nonsense, — altho Ibsen 
was at this time yet in the enchanted fogs of his "Brand" and "Peer 
Gynt" ; nor did he find his master-vein before the cosmopolitan life 
of Europe had rubd the provincial scales off his straining eyes. But 
he presently abandond the romantic burden hindering his dramatic 
progress, and wrote "A Doll's House," "Ghosts," and "Little 
Eyolf," — his supreme expression on man, woman, and child. Du- 
mas, Jr., had given life and actuality to the problem play m spite 
of law-suits 1"^ and polemics ; Ibsen gave it classic form and endowd 
it with authority in the face of like opposition and fanatical clamor. 
Dumas, Jr., had proceeded as an amateur, seriously, tho not solemnly, 
— like a pathfinder, an inquirer, the journalist. Ibsen was the con- 
scious builder, the serene artist, the man of authority. It was this 
last characteristic of assurance, which gave the problem play a hear- 
ing before the nations of Europe least endowd by education, or na- 
ture, for the problem play. Indeed, the irony of fate has made of a 
work of French origin a thing generally known and current under 
the Scandinavian stamp. ^^ But it matters little; the artistic 
means of each convey the message of the problem play ; Ibsen is 
symbolical and analytic. Dumas, Jr., remains concrete and syn- 
thetic. Ibsen is the philosopher with socialistic tendencies ; Dumas, 
Jr., is the moralist, and the first inquiring sociologist in the field of the 
drama. — Odd as it may seem, Ibsen is nearer Shakespeare, minus 
his witcheries, than the versatile and alert Frenchman, altho Shake- 
speare really never suspected the problem play, being by nature and 
by circumstances the dramatist of an age above the observation of 
the common life with its prosaic economic concerns. 

But modern society, stagnated by the wonder-working antics of 
the medicin man ; nonplust at the high-priest's passes at the altar, 
has raised a protest. It cries out against the vain idealism that 
barters substance for shadow, fact for idea, and life for deth ; it has 
so long foregone pure water for holy water, common sense for pious 

13. Cf. The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th edition, 1911, for Swinburne's 
uncritical article on Hugo. 

14. Cf. note 11 (a). 

15. This does not imply that Ibsen imitated Dumas, Jr. — There was 
no love lost, it is said, between these two authors, — p. 176, text and foot-note 
of Edmond Gosse, op. cit. in note 2. Besides, the reader is here reminded 

that it is not within the scope of this paper to show influences For an 

attempt at differentiating the work of Dumas, Jr. from Ibsen's, cf. Helena 
Knorr's "Ibsen and the Ethical Drama of the Nineteenth Century." Poet 
Lore, vol. X, pp. 49-65. 



The European Problem Play 43 

delirium, and present well-being for future ecstacy ! . . . . The prob- 
lem play concerns itself with the affairs of men ; society is loth longer 
to leave the human and all important business of life to public 
servants or institutions responsible only to capricious fate or tradi- 
tional bogies. It is interested in contemporary morals; in the facts 
of life. What is the problem play? What I shall now say repre- 
sents in a large mesure the view point of the public press: — I have 
not red, I fear, over a hundred of the thousand problem plays in- 
terpreted in the following pages. I wish to remind you that the 
"critter" is a rank heresy in literature and in social philosophy, view- 
ed from the view-point of existing institutions or private interests; 
and that, because unplesant, many are called "problem" plays that 
are merely a poorly disguised imitation of the old line dramas of 
passion and circumstance. .. .The problem play is really different. 
It is something new, an article from Paris, perhaps of no immediate 
use to the United States and its civilization ; — for, little good can 
come to us from the old world and the old institutions of Europe — 
bilt as they are on the theory of a leisure class and hereditary privi- 
leges. I am convinced of this when I view the problem play of 
Europe critically, and see how ill it fits our national character, social 
aims, or civilization. I do not wonder that the problem play was 
long misunderstood and even rejected. It is un-American in the 
types exhibited until recently, — foren to our ways of life, and to our 
view of life. It is an importation reflecting European conditions. 
We may have the same conditions or social difficulties in 
embryo, latent, or in a state of evolution, but not yet in the form of 
institutions, nor as yet offering a problem — except, perhaps, in our 
foren settlements. As late as 1904, the problem play was on pro- 
bation in the United States. .. .the brand brought over by Mme. 
Rejane at least. "Her fortnight engagement at the Grand Opera 
House," says the Chicago Tribune for December 18, 1904, "has been 
productive of little save disappointment for all concerned. .. .The 
plays offered have been not only immediately unpleasant but have 
left a most unfavorable and disagreeable impression as to the dra- 
matic art and stage literature of France. . . .the plays consisted more 
of conversation than of action ; and the nature of the plays them- 
selves was objectionable." "Besides," the writer goes on to say, with 
grave concern, "who could care to arrange a theater party for a 
debutante and her friends to see Camille, Zaza, and the other delecta- 
ble dramas of the last two weeks?. . . .As for the plays which Mme. 
Rejane has offered it is pleasanter to forget them than to comment on 
them Zaza and Camille may be said to have some reason for 



44 The Quarterly Journal 

stage existence, for they, in their way, are studies in the evolution of 
human character." This in a nutshell is the ordinary com- 
mentary ^^ accompanying reviews of problem plays: — they are un- 
plesant, even objectionable; they consist in conversation, they lack 
action, and only remotely resemble legitimate drama. This, at least, 
is the verdict of Mr. W. L. Hubbard, accredited dramatic critic to 
the Tribune. 

I selected the foregoing from years of clippings I have on the 
subject to show (i) that the problem play, as late as 1904, is not 
wholly in favor even where there is a large foren element, — as in Chi- 
cago ; (2) that a concession is made, however, for Zaza and Camille, 
which according to the same critic may be said to have some reason 
for stage existence because they are in their way studies in the evolution 
of human character. . . .Gratifying as this concession is, it is obviously 
condescending and the position of the critic unduly conservativ. 
But, public and critics are not agreed. . . .However reprehensible the 
plays in question, the public refuses to be frightend or stampeded by 
such unfavorable critics as Winter, Glover, or Hubbard, Hamilton or 
Eaton . . . With the passing of every season it comes to the study of the 
works of Shaw and Wilde, Sudermann and Hauptmann, Eche- 
garay and Bracco, Brieux and others. . . .with more open minds. . .It 
discovers in these disciples of the great Ibsen fine workman- 
ship, grave thought, and an honest effort to aid in the pres- 
entation and elucidation of those problems which Henry Arthur 

Jones says are shaking and vexing humanity. ^^ Hear the 

great interpreters ^^ — like Mmes. Campbell, Carter, Fisk, Shaw, Bing- 
ham, Nazimova and Fabregas, to say nothing of artists like Bernhardt 
and Duse, who speak of these works and their aim ; they make a 

telling case of it Mrs. Campbell calls the problem play moral. . . 

"The greatest dramatists are those who depict life as it is. . . .They 



16. Cf. note 10 (b). 

17. Shaw, op. cit. in note 10 (b) as early as 1891 noted the following: — 
"Playwrights who formerly only composed plays according to the receivd 
prescriptions for producing tears or laughter, are already taking their pro- 
fession seriously to the full extent of their capacity, and venturing more and 
more to substitute the incidents and catastrophies of spiritual history for 
the swoons, surprises, murders, discoveries, duels, assassinations and in- 
trigues which are the commonplaces of the theatre at present." p. 149. 

— Compare the foregoing prognostication of the drama of ideas by Shaw, 
in 1891, and his reiteration in 1900, "that the drama can never be anything 
more than a play of ideas," — p. IX, Preface to Three Plays for Puritans, in 
note 9, with the declaration of E. E. Hale, Jr., p. 122, op. cit. in note 1. that 
"as a means of presenting ideas the drama has one serious drawback, name- 
ly, lack of space....! 

18. Contrast this long list of interpreters with the dearth in the nine- 
ties, as shown by Shaw, op. cit. in note 10 (b) — Appendix pp. 148-9: — The dif- 
ficulty lay in the different training afforded actors by the old school. .. ."It 
is no more possible to get an Ibsen character out of it than to contrive a 
Greek costume out of an English wardrobe." — cf. also the chatty "Preface" 
to "Plays Unpleasant," p. XIII ff., Brentano, N. Y. 1907. 



The European Problem Play 45 

benefit humanity far more than do those people who talk about the 
holy ghost and the infallibility of this or that belief.". .With such 
trust in their calling they apparently cannot err, — so long at least 
as they remain in public favor. The critic stands rebuked, especially 
one like Clayton Hamilton ^^ who deems unplesant plays bad be- 
cause the multitude instinctivly demand an opportunity to sympathize 
with the characters presented at the theater, or because they interest 

merely the intellect and leave the audience cold What, it might 

be asked, of the old time tragedy of suspense, and terror, and blood, 
and deth, and its much vaunted Aristotelian purging or cathartic 
effect? But this is another matter, and there is a difference, altho 
it be only theatrical, between purging the aristocrat and moving the 
democrat. The theater is a democratic institution ; its supporters 
wish not only to be amused, they want to be informd ; not only to be 
pamperd but to be chastized ; not only to be flatterd, but also to be 
criticized, — not only to be ridiculed but to be educated ! They un- 
doutedly want the problem play. . . .They have patronized it for over 
half a century; yet, tho hungry, they have had little stomach for it. . . 
Why is it? Because it is a clinic of social conditions in dramatic 
form, to show some bitter truths; — a crude and cruel but live ex- 
posure of social plagues, a caustic censure of society. It initiated in 
the field of the drama the modern historical treatment, — observation 
of the actual, the method of the scientist, laid bare the soul of a period, 
of a social sore ; "it linked every manifestation of social and mental 
mechanics into a new engine, propelling before society and posterity 
not only the sight of its personalities but also the postures and the 
pangs of its humanity." There are moments when things play a 
greater role than men, when conditions discredit theories, and dogmas. 
Then, life changes, shifts from the hart to the hed ; it takes passions 
for granted, to give heed to the problems they occasion, and passes 
to the solution of the problems .... Reconcile, if you can, the con- 
sciousness of atticism, culture, and urbanity with the demands of 
modern times. It is difficult, especially if these demands come from 
those elements of society which have not contributed to culture di- 
rectly or been considerd adversely by the cultured few. The conflicts 
arise not in following nature so much as in differing from the social 
status, — which, in the last analysis, may prove to be counter to 
nature. In spite of forty centuries of incantation, theology, law, 
or other makeshifts, society has made scant provision for its dis- 
senters or other enemies of the establisht order ; — state and church 
are two humps of the same unwilling camel, in so far as neither will 

19. Forum for March, 1909. 



46 The Quarterly Journal 

carry nor cares to carry disinterestedly society's fallen, the noncon- 
formist, the eccentric, the deformd, the ostracised, the unfortunate. . . 
The prejudises of the individual have been red into our legal and 
social procedure so extensivly, that there is hope only for the sinless 

or the uncaught in such a w^orld Problem plays argue that society 

brands, that society ostracizes and yet that society is responsible 

What, in consequence, is the status of man, woman and child in a 
given state? If there is an elite, w^hat is the com.plexion of the mass? 
What is the relation of the one to the other. . . .economically, poli- 
tically, socially, morally, and mentally?. . . .How much of its organi- 
zation is due to convention, tradition or superstition? How much to 
liberal education, direction or intelligence?. . . .How much of its ad- 
ministration is based on actual condition, how much on theory?. . . . 
Is the aim of that state to leave monuments or to prosper its humanity ? 
.... What is its attitude towards the erring woman, the suspected 
man ; what of the child put at hard labor almost from the cradle ? . . . . 
Does public opinion exist, does it co-operate with intelligence for 
general sanity, or does prejudis dictate and execute with unerring 
egotism?. ... How long should a regime last. .. .how far into the 
future should it mortgage the rights of the individual, or the liberties 
of the community?. . . .How far should a society constituted under 
one regime consider itself judge of another, and how long meet 
execution on an order not of its own making?. , . .1 hardly need to 
say that the more absolute or fixt the regime the more the vexations 
and victims of intolerance and fanaticism, and the more blind the 
organisms to new needs. This rigidity and subsequent intolerance 
have brought forth the European social tract in action cald the prob- 
lem play. The cause of humanity took refuge on the stage for a 
hearing before a multitude which even to-day would stand dum and 
unmoved before a printed page! 

THE CASE OF THE WOMAN 

The problem play was born in the age of Positivism, (to-day 
cald Pragmatism). Auguste Comte, another Frenchman, had 
based the philosophy (*Note) of his times on the practical 

♦Speaking of positivism and tlie influence of the elder Dumas on his son, 
in the drama, M. Parigot says: Le drame paternel sgduit le Ills par I'Snergie 
qui s'y dgploie. . . .Cette logique imp6rieuse, qu'il §tale d'abord. n'est que 
de l'6nergie transformfee par le Posiitivisme." — p. 181, H. Parigot op. cit. in 
note 12. 

Note: — (a) For an excelent and brief exposition of Comte's "Cours de 
Philosophie Positive" (Paris, 1839,-42) cf. Lester F. Ward's Dynamic So- 
ciology, vol. 1, pp. 82 ff.— D. Appleton & Co., N. Y., 1902. For a criticism of 
Comte's work, including his "Later Speculations," cf. J. S. Mill; — Henry 
Holt & Co., N. Y. 1887. As such works are not generally accessible, I here- 
with transcribe a page from Ward. It will help to show the philosophical 
temper of Positivism: — "The positive may be briefly defined as that which 



The European Problem Play 47 

judgment; — Cavour, "an Italian as great as Richelieu, minus his 
priestly hankerings," was building modern Italy on the rights of 
the commoner ; — Thomas Paine, America's adopted prophet, had 
launcht his Age of Reason, The Crisis, Common Sense, and The 
Rights of Man; — Sociology, the most recent, the most modern, and 
the most humane of the sciences, was beginning its work of emancipa- 
tion, and illumination, and education. There is nothing extraordinary 
in the fact that Alexandre Dumas, Jr., and the problems of society 
should then make their way to the stage! The theater is an in- 
stitution eminently fitted to reflect social conditions; a fine humanita- 
rian frenzy was actuating its devotees. The questions it agitated, it is 
true, had long been sentimentally servd up by novelists like George 
Sand and others to the fullest enlightenment and delectation of the 
aristocracy ; but the public for which they were especially intended 
could not read. So Dumas, Jr., dramatizes his Camille. Since 1852, 
the case of the woman has been before society; she is still waiting to 
be answerd or exonerated. As for Dumas, Jr., and his personal in- 
terest in Camille, just a word may be said. Abnormal circumstances 
had presided over his own birth, and had embitterd his early days. 
He, however, tho an illegitimate child, did not start out to bring 
about social reform: but reflecting upon the dramatic possibilities of 
the ill-born and of the ill-stard, he ventured to plead for this large, un- 

really exists, that which is POSITIVELY true — what IS. It will be seen, there- 
fore, that it does not differ from the scientific idea as commonly understood. 
Indeed, Comte, employs the term SCIENTIFIC as a synonym of POSITIVE. 
Starting from the Cartesian idea of self as the only judge of truth, it assumes 
that there is something present when the senses so report; and, not stopping 
to discuss the correspondence of that something with the report thus made 
of it, the positive philosophy confines its investigations to these sense- 
reports which alone can be known. The sum total of these reports to the 
senses constitutes what is called phenomena, and with these and these only 
the positive philosophy deals. This, again, is simply the method of science. 

The two great antagonistic and rival philosophies with which the 
positive philosophy has always had to contend are theology and meta- 
physics. The former is chiefly distinguis'ht by the introduction of 
CAUSES, the latter by that of ENTITIES, into all forms of speculation. 
The essential vice of both, acording to Comte, is that of attempting to 
ACCOUNT for things. Unwilling to regard the phenomena of the uni- 
verse as the true matter, in and of itself, for mankind to study, these 
earlier and less experienced philosophies have perpetually wasted their ener- 
gies in the vain search after the causes of phenomena on the one hand and 
their substance or SUBSTRATUM on the other. The investigations of 
the theological school have been TELEOLOGICAL, those of the metaphys- 
ical school have been ONTOLOGICAL. But, as the individual is cut off 
by his very constitution from all access to either of these fields of thought, 
it follows that all the efforts expended in these directions have been ab- 
solutely wasted. The only field remaining, the field of phenomena on the 
contrary, is found to yield rich and valuable results wherever human re- 
search has been directed to it. All that has been gained toward the eleva- 
tion of society and toward securing the comforts and enjoyments of life 
has come from this source, not one item having ever been contributed 
to the material prosperity of the world from either teleological or ontolo- 
gical researches." — pp. 86-87. — The Three Rival Philosophies, — Ward, op. 
cit. 

(b) On the philosophical attitude of "Pragmatism," cf. the delightful 
essays of Wm. James, — The Will to Believe, etc., Longmans, Green & Co., 
N. Y., 1910. 

(c) For the new turn in positiv philosophy, cf. the work of Henry 
Bergson, of Paris, reviewed in The Independent, June 8, 1911, and in The 
Literary Digest, Sept. 2, 1911. 



48 The Quarterly Journal 

conventional product of French society, — "with somewhat too much 
robustious pathos in the voice," perhaps, but defending their inter- 
ests and virtues with great courage ; before any other dramatist he 
had presently touched upon all the great problems which occupy the 
thought of this age, morally, and economically. He profited by the 
social unrest to apprise the public of characters developt like his own, 
— nameless and numberless men, women, and children, — an im- 
mense by-product, ill-famed, discredited, helpless! That some of these 
scandalous exposures led to social reform, at least to social introspec- 
tion, there is no dout. He began with the woman of illicit relations, 
perhaps the most notable class in European society, and in that class 
no one knows why, — nor cares. Marguerite Gautier, 20 now cald 
Camille, was a woman of the people, well intentioned withal, but 
spurnd by the establisht order, condemned by public opinion, the 
woman with a past ! Camille, seized with the desire to please her 
lover, to conform, listens to marriage. It was ridiculous; Christian- 
ity was shockt! Those for whom Camille was intended, tho moved, 
dared not be convinced, .she is about to enjoy "respectability," when 
French respectability, i. e. convention, appears at her door in the per- 
son of the young husband's father, poised, immaculate, and orthodox. 
She pleads in vain the natural appeals ; the absurd artificial order de- 
crees against her. It concedes her the liberty to continue her irregu- 
lar life ; she may not, however, become respectable, at least not at 
the cost of our name! Dumas, Jr., had put his finger upon a delicate 
spot ; I do not think he saw all he reveald ; I cannot make sure that 
he saw the modern sociologist's point of view, — the effect of these lost 
women upon the social fabric. But he argues : — a vice, however 
enchanting, ancient, human, or divine, is not less a vice, and is not 
isolated ; it influences the whole community. We seek to interpret 
our lives too much by the experience of the past; — it is wrong; we 
must interpret our life in the light of our experience 21 How can 
life be interpreted thru any abstract truth, or religion? Why not thru 
nature ? Could it not be as richly exploited ? Every man has a share 
if not a voice in the establisht order, he is vitally concernd ! . . . . 

I am speaking of European conditions, of course! — The case of 
the unconventional woman has run thru a gamut of tones and half 
tones, undreamed of by Alexandre Dumas, Jr.,. . . .Zaza, Magda, 
Sappho, Hedda, Nora, and Ana...* in conflict with love, with in- 

20. On Marguerite Gautier's life, cf. note 11 (b). 

21. Notis also that Ibsen insists "that conduct must justify Itself by its 
effects upon happiness and not by its conformity to any rule or ideal.".... 
Quoted by Shaw, — Quintesisence of Ibsenism, ch. V, p. 141. (The passage 
is questiond by some gentle reader in the margin of the copy I hold.) 

*Add to this "rabble of petticoats," H. A. Jones' Rebellious Suzan, — Mac- 
millans, N. Y., 1905. 



The European Problem Play 49 

stincts, with honor, with justis, with passion, with heredity, with pov- 
erty, with prejudis, with destiny. . . .with all the moral ailments pe- 
culiar to her relativ station, to her subordinate role in our modern 
life. Society has perverted her social status; her case is moral rather 
than economic. — But there are plays showing the economic problems 
growing out of the honord institution of marriage and the puzzling 
question of divorce .... Woman has ceast to bow to feudal laws and 
barbarous practices. She has learned in silence with all subjection, 
following the arbitrary biblical injunction. But she can no longer 
mind St. Paul or all that. . . .She must rise, she must teach, she must 
work, she must even usurp authority over "man," when within her 
natural right, she must have independence, and must no longer keep 
silent if she would live, tho married. There are also problem plays 
on conventional or legal relationship and loveless marriages. . . .Ibsen 
first presented effectivly, a form of marriage akin to slavery and 
worse, sanctiond by society and legal, tho it call forth the very 
"ghosts" of disease or insanity. France is still struggling with the ab- 
surdity of a tradition that would deny love to the dowerless daughter 
after having deprived her of marriage. Bracco ^2 in Italy takes up 
the jealous husband pledging a young wife to the indignity of eternal 
widowhood and perpetual cloistration at his approaching deth .... 
Spain denies burial in consecrated ground for irregularities in mar- 
riage and makes marriage economically impossible to the proletariat. 
With such likely morals in Spain and other old countries the advent 
of the civil marriage is rationally explaind. Civil baptism and other 
like civil enactments have the same origin... But the fiercest battle 
waged thru the problem play has been on the divorce, in France es- 
pecially where the situation is hopelessly bound up with the life of 
dying institutions. The concensus of opinion is that marriage is a 
social contract, only needlessly befogd by religion, and that marriage 
should never have been made a sacrament. It is an economic prob- 
lem ; "it compels even the judicious to dispense with this expensiv 
and irrelevant superstition." Still there are advocates, — belated sen- 
timentalists, perhaps, suspect apostles of ritualism, awestruck, morbid, 
moralists like Bourget who in their dotage barken to the good old 
order they have livd to annihilate. But "the despotism of custom is 
on the wane. — We are not content to know that things are; we ask 
whether they ought to be." An irremediable marriage, ill-assorted and 
incompatible is immoral, injudicious, and despotic, be it ever so much 

22. Cf. "Phantasms" by Roberto Bracco, — Poet Lore, Autumn. 1908. 
Translated by Dirce St. Cyr. — On Bracco's contribution to the recent Ital- 
ian drama, cf. Le Temps, art. cit. in note 32. 



56 The Quarterly Journal 

a tradition, or venerated a convention. . . .Thus runs the argument, 
on the divorce problem .... I have now presented the case of the 
Woman, much exploited helpless vv^oman, — seeking to extricate her- 
self from the toils of the social order... What w^ill stage history 
record of her trials in the life of today? 

THE CASE OF THE MAN 

The case of the man is somewhat different altho none the 

less characteristic Man has nothing to sell! His fortunes 

have been largely associated with the labor problem. He 
is not on a moral basis — tho he judge the woman on a moral 
basis. As Mr. Robert Smith, — he of the "necessary occupa- 
tion" — says, his conflicts are with his needs ; the situation is primarily 
economic. But with his opportunity of securing a livelihood go ob- 
stacles of a social nature. Herman Sudermann ^^ whose "Stein unter 
Steinen" (Among Stones) I shall now consider, takes for granted 
the nature of a German working man and his natural prejudis against 
work, — in a country where work is disdaind by the ornamental classes. 
Sudermann notes his indiscipline in a well perfected order of dis- 
cipline, his grievances against organized power, his conflicts with pas- 
sion, his strictures on a system of education, — largely fitting him for 
obedience, subservience, dependence, or deth. But some men, many 
men, were not made to fit this, or any social order. . . .He offends, is 
arrested, and incarcerated. Then he returns to the fold. A reformer 
befriends him, dares to give him work and advancement. The work- 
man has grown into consideration when the shopmen find out his. . . . 
past. They protest, turn to stone.... no more work for him, no 
more peace ; he must move on ; for such as he society has instituted the 
passport, 24 his papers; — henceforth he must show this letter of intro- 
duction on demand; whither shall he turn... to men, of course, or 
against them. It seems incredible. But again I am speaking of Eu- 
rope. . .these things do not happen in the United States. . .They will 
come here no doubt when the right of asylum is gone, the boon of 
personal identity and privacy is denied, the privilege of professional 
independence and choice has been curtaild. 

When dealing with such topics, you would hardly expect a dra- 
matist to write for the mere plesure of indulging his literary passion ; 
he is defending a cause ; he is studying pitiless realities ; things endured 
by a phase of society whose status has been barterd and mortgaged 

23. Translated into French as "Parmi les pierres," in L'lllustration 
(Thgatrale), Paris, October 24, 1908. Review by Grummann, art. Sudermann, 
p. 207, Poet Lore, — Summer 1911. 

24. For the classic instance of the passport iniquity read the S'tory of 
"Jean Valjean" in Hugo's Les Misgrables, either in the French original, 
or in Isabel F. Hapgood's translation, T. Y. Crowell & Co., N. Y. 



The European Problem Play 5 1 

by former generations. . ."until the human 'worm' shall turn." Class 
prejudis, racial hatred, national pride, religious enmity, political agi- 
tation, and labor strife, bring the social order into bitter economic con- 
flict. . .with what dramatic effect the story of Sudermann's 
"Stein unter Steinen," or Hauptmann's ^^ "Weavers" well show. It 
is not literature for the delectation of the economic parasites that in- 
fest the working world. Collective sores fester no less than individ- 
uals' ... to ventilate the cause of such ills in an age of great capitalistic 
Pharaoism or designed governmental soup-pauperism, is the play- 
wright's only fault. But there are also effectiv problem plays of civil 
life, showing the economic workings of the old religion, the exercise of 
authority in the every day life of the people, the stupidity of police 
despotism in European officialdom, — judicial procedure in countries 
where a man is guilty until proved innocent, and where he is a lost 
soul, until he is redeemd thru the good offices of a Pharisaical church. 
Constraint if not fear is the normal status of human beings in such 
a civilized state, — in the presence of those minions of public order at 
least. The social wrongs of militarism are one with such a system of 
existence. The common and ancient evil of endless lawing comes 
from lack of self-direction no less than from that self-surrender 
fosterd by the practices of the confessional. A man's strivings with 
heredity are a mild burden compared with his struggles with a social 
order not of his own making, and not ment to make him. The prob- 
lem play takes up social vices like drink legalized for national revenue, 
— to maintain the establisht order, to protect church, state, schools, 
penal and charitable institutions ; — to educate the delinquent, to re- 
form the drunkard, (indeed!) and the prostitute, and to civilize the 
pauper. Life in its infinit variety seems ever larger than the social 
order. There are men, women, children, I repeat, who do not fit any 
social cast, to whom laws ar meaningless, who will not submit to 
system or civil ways. There have always been such, no dout ; and 
you must compromise with the recalcitrant since he is largely society's 
own creation : — maim him and he is dependent ; drive him from your 
midst and he threatens your urban peace ; imprison him and you must 
support him ; destroy him and you must care for his own, or only 
multiply his kind for future generations. Are they a negligible quan- 

25. On Hauptmann's "Weavers," cf. Nordau, op. cit., in note 10 (a), 
pp. 525 ff. — What Nordau says regarding the servis renderd by this play 
to the wage earners of Europe, p. 547 — confirms the effectiveness of the 
staged social problem, — now that authors "have given tlie proletariat the 
rights of citizenship in art and literature." p. 546. 

— For a good review of Hauptmann's work, cf. Paul H. Grummann's 
Modern European Dramatists, I., — G. Hauptmann, Poet Lore, March- April, 
1911. — Well discust also by Hale, op. cit., in note 1, p. 40. — Translated by 
M. Morison; Russell-Harpers, N. Y. 



52 The Quarterly Journal 

tity ? Society has long considerd them so, but are they ? This negligible 
quantity not awake to social ideals, below the establisht standard, is 
large enough to dam the establisht order. — In this negligible quantity 
the dramatist finds the public woman, whose sinuous reach extends 
to the prim and proper home ; the hardend defectiv whose evil deeds 
cripple the family group .... the man who has conflicted with the sys- 
tem, who has coold in penitentiaries, whose stripes are noted in his 
passport, whose humanity has been discredited, whose wife, children 
and relativs are objects of social prejudis, religious fanaticism, or in- 
dividual persecution. A nightmare of inherited prejudises haunts Eu- 
rope. Institutions have ostracized and branded, but cannot, nor will, 
rehabilitate. . . .This states the case of the man. It is incomplete, of 
course, but it will do. 

THE CASE OF THE CHILD 

With regards to the child the problem play has at least put 

the question What of the child ignored until the day 

of Dickens, still ignored in most continental homes, and accepted 
with ill grace in all Christendom? You would hardly sus- 
pect in connection with the child, deep moral problems, or prob- 
lems of an economic nature, but such they are indirectly. Still 
there are others, and those of sentiment must in the nature of things 
claim the most attention. Dickens, and Hugo, ^^ after Rousseau, 
introduced the subject, sympathetically; Malot spoke for the child 
of questionable origin ; but it remaind for Ibsen to give us "Little 
Eyolf, 2'^ and for Renard to write "Carrots," to show the tragic 
milieu in which the child often lives and to present the sadder case 
of the misunderstood child in difficult epochs of its life. . .Yes, "you 
came to us too late in our lives Carrots and when your mother and 
I were at outs." — This also was in France. . . .Ibsen's "little stranger 
boy" grips into the vitals very strangely. ... I wish I might quote 
whole scenes from the play. . . .they are significant. . . .That kind of 
drama, it would show you is very new indeed ; it w^ould ill fit the 
pomp of the old literature, much less interest a civilization which 
prizes only boys at birth and only girls when mature.* The study 
of child conditions and environments in Europe would startle an 
American audience. The ill-born and the orphan have a bevy 
burden of opprobrium to bear which is often coupled with fanaticism 
and persecution. The cup is fild, you will say, when poor waifs and 

26. Cf. Story of Cosette; Hugo, op. cit. in note 24. 

27. Little Eyolf, (1894), Act II, p. 93;— translated by William Archer; 
cf. also Introduction, pp. VII-XVI in the same volume; — Charles Scribner's 
Sons, N. Y., 1907. 

*Mme de S6vign6,— Correspondence, passim. 



The European Problem Play 53 

cripples are still stoned for the "evil eye;" you wonder, too, whither 
the milk of human kindness has fled in such a society. But I must 
tell you of Hannele 2^ — why.... the martyrdom of illegitimacy 
sufEerd by Dumas, Jr., until his jovial father had acknowledged this 
pamperd child of eighteen publicly, pales into insignificance before the 
sterner realities of Hauptmann's "Hannele," the child of the sub- 
mergd German classes! Hauptmann's "Hannele" was given in No- 
vember, 1893, then forbidden; like Shaw's "Mrs. Warren" ^^ in 
England, forbidden in 1893; like Hauptmann's "Weavers," forbid- 
den in 1893. For, that fated year. His Majesty, the Emperor of 
Germany had shown his august displesure at a performance of the 
"Weavers" and the play vanisht from the subsidized stage. It was 
a hard year on Divine rights, in Germany, and in England .... So it 
was in France with Camille, first censord, then prohibited, and per- 
mitted only later. But, Hannele. . . . 

Poor Hannele! What a collective shriek of dred she 

utters in the monstrous world she is about to leave ! 

Whose child is she? Who is her Father? Who has starvd, abused, 
abandond her?.... The play is a blend of human suffering and 
physical want, met with the tinsel of Christianity. .. .The picture 
of Hannele's life is real ; the poor have often seen the like in Eu- 
rope She just gives up the ghost of her painful little life; that 

is all she could do, the atmosphere was stifling. She dies, poor thing, 
for want of bred and clothing, — bruised and terror stricken. But 
what fare, what relief, what comfort, what a home she will have in 
Heven. She will go to a land far away in the clouds, accessible .... 
to the ded. She dies a deth of dramatic possibilities, — such at least 
as lends itself to effectiv ceremonials: — she is put in a glass coffin, 
drest in glass slippers, and adornd with the rest of the useless para- 
phernalia showerd on the ded .... in fairy-tales. Then follows the tra- 
ditional theme on Angels, the Lord, and Paradise ; precious stones, 
fine rhetoric, and artificial things fill the tribute in verse ; heven 
breaks, stony, conventional and cold, with the ignoble visions of the 
miser and the oriental glow of the barbarian. Thus splendidly she 
did ascend the hevenly ladder. . . . Is it not sad to have expired be- 
tween such a lean stomach and such riotous imaginings! Alas for 
Europe, that hunger should be so real. The reader's inference is in- 

28. The full title is "Hanneles Himmelfahrt," 1893. Englished by C. H. 
Meltzer, Doubleday, Page & Co., N. . Y. 1908; also by G. S. Bryan, — As- 
sumption of Hannele, in Poet Lore, May-June, 1909. Cf. the innocuous dis- 
cussion by E. E. Hale, Jr., — pp. 44-47, op. cit. in note 1. 

— Why the Kaiser bans the Drama, — Literary Digest, Sept. 16, 1911. 

29. "Mrs. Warren's Profession" by Bernard Shaw — Plays Unpleasant; 
Brentano's, N. Y., 1907. Cf. also the "Preface," p. XIII ft., on the censor- 
ship; and Chesterton's discussion, op. cit. in note 5, pp. 132 f£. 



54 The Quarterly Journal 

evitable .... the poor need more bred and less religious twaddle, more 
wages and less ceremonies, more schooling about earth and less about 
heven. A tiny ray of human hope breaks thru this pitiless nightmare. 
— The schoolmaster (if emancipated from tradition) alone can res- 
cue the submergd humanity of Europe. 

RECAPITULATION 

I have now stated the case of the woman, that of the man, and 
that of the child. Thus they come in the evolution of the problem 
play in Europe. It becomes evident that society is painfully artificial 
and arbitrary ; it lacks not culture but nature ; it prizes itself on a 
little religious fog and ancient learning, to relieve actual misery and 
to cure universal discontent. As intimated by the plays under con- 
sideration, the shortcomings of European society are largely due to its 
two leading and time honord institutions, the Church and its compeer 
the State, both founded and operated on theory. To have sought to 
be all things to all men, to have endowd with divine ends a man's 
institution at the expense and exclusion of all others ; to have de- 
throned human reason, to have exalted the absolute and discredited 
life livd outside of the church, spells the human failing of all human 
egotism. It took centuries to show that life is as divine at home (if 
divine it must be) as at church, in the shop as in the sanctum, in the 
public school room as in the parish, in the government office as in the 
holy office. All Europe is crying at this tyranny of the supernatural ; 
will man never again be on a natural basis?. Eighteenth century 
France put the question long inevitable, — Why lead men to heven, 
detach them from the earth? — Is it unholy (if holy it must be), 
or is it easier to bait unto adherence with artificial, man-made trink- 
ets which gleam with more effect than nature, because forsooth he 
made them?.... The indifference of the state, and the oversight of 
the church in social disturbances, — its reluctance in matters of ac- 
tuality, its indifference to progress and change, are no dout responsi- 
ble for the preaching of the stage; — the problem play, the Y.M.C.A., 
the W.C.T.U., and the Salvation Army, like the public school, the 
public press, and socialism,** — the remedy offered by "The Servant 
in the House," — came out of the same social condition, to meet the 
same social need, to the horror of the foolish old order! An ignorant 
people cannot be free, said Lakanal, the apostle of public education 
in Revolutionary France. . .The. church is too preoccupied with its 

**Jerrold, quoting Capus for France, says: — No man of to-day has lived 
without talking of Socialism. When he comes on the stage, we must feel 
that he has been talking of Socialism: That is "atmosphere," in a modern 
play.... and, "no play of to-day can afford to ignore what is thot by to-day." 
—The Real France, p. 256, cap. cit. infra***. 



The European Problem Play 55 

own organism, its leisure life, and predatory interests, to succeed in 
the venture of educating liberally, — and with its medieval equipment. 
How could it liberate now that the principal fields of human knowl- 
edge are securely fenced round with supernatural terrors? Besides, 
in spite of its claims, the church has not the remedy for ills largely 
due to church causes ; the surgeon is needed : — the European is aware 
of this ; — whatever be the ecclesiastical diagnosis, incantations are out 
of date; Europe needs not a theology, nor a cosmology, but a 
sociology ! — 

The principle of divine authority postulated by the old institu- 
tions of Europe, works remotely and peculiarly. In the church, it 
makes the ecclesiastic officious or indifferent. In the state, it makes 
the civil servant overbearing, and self seeking. When I think of one, 
I invariably dred the other ; and the European masses have to live 
between these two vultures of civilization, both void of human sym- 
pathy and love of progress, and each preying upon the same helpless 
creature. The problem play has come to his rescue; it is laboring 
to save him from man's inhumanity, his love of power, his divine pre- 
tense to exploit man .... 

That the problem play was a timely instrument and a welcome 
innovation is shown by its fortunes in Europe itself. Even Spain, 
the most impenetrable of the old countries has had distinguisht cham- 
pions of this kind of play. Its dissemination over a wide field 
has greatly aided the cause of Democracy in Europe. The movement, 
from France, spred widely and rapidly. Ibsen turns from philos- 
ophical musings to social concerns, — and proves to be one of the 
most effective of problem playwrights. His influence I repeat, has 
been so large as to eclipse the fame of France and the part that 
Dumas, Jr., playd in originating the species. To Dumas, Jr., we owe 
the introduction on the stage of the everyday issues of modern society. 
But Ibsen greatly enlarged this field of the drama, and proved its 
possibilities in the relm of speculation and symbolism. Bernard 
Shaw's matchless work is largely of this sort .... But, it is without 
the scope of my paper to deal w^ith authors and works. Just let me 
say in summary that Ibsen's plays are, on the whole, wonderful, 
forceful, and truthful. ^^ They were widely imitated. . . .The sym- 
bolical sun of his tragic "Ghosts" burns lividly on, and never sets. 



30. For a contrary opinion, with thoro, adverse criticism of his works, 
of. Max Nordau's Degeneration — Ibsenism, pp. 338-415, op. cit. in note 10 (a). 
— Unfortunately, the critical amenity of this obdurate German sometimes 
"degenerates" in turn. He calls Ibsen a "malignant, anti-social simpleton, 

highly gifted, it must be admitted, in the technique of the stage." 

p. 407. 



56 The Quarterly Journal 

Echegaray ^^ in Spain took whole scenes from him. His "Locura 
o Santidad" is an effective importation of "Ghosts." To have adapted 
such realism successfully in Spain, only points more forcibly to the 
needs of all Europe and to the similarity of its social trials. In turn, 
Echegaray precipitated a copious social drama in Spain itself. Italian 
dramatists are also at work. ^^ In Germany, several eminent writers 
of the school of '8g have contributed. Suderman's "Magda" has 
gone around the world ; of Hauptman I have spoken, and startling 
work in sex-problems is now being done by Wedekind. In England 
and America, we are acquainted with and interested more or less 
seriously in Bernard Shaw, Jones, Fitch, Pinero, and others. France, 
ever on the alert, is prolific.*** A live, new school is rising in 
America, under the leadership of college and university. ^^ 

The problem play has given the modern stage its best "raison 
d'etre" without necessarily destroying its older purpose of amusing 
and pleasing, altho the aim of the problem play be rather to interest 
and to civilize, — possibly only to educate. The educational value of 
the problem play may be graspt if we reflect that more than half of 
the world is still illiterate, cannot read a newspaper, much less a book. 
European Russia alone reckons 84 per cent of her population thus. 
Spain 2-3, and other nations add a no mean per cent. In Russia, the 
Salvation Army is not allowd free scope in its work of rescue and 
charity. The Russian government dreds its reform program, and 
trembles at its pseudo-military nomenclature, — so averse it is to prog- 
ress and diflident of Revolution. You remember the Russian 
censor's objection to Ward's Dynamic Sociology, ^* an American 
text book.... the title sounds so like "Dynamite!" The seditious 
Salvation Army is no less formidable a host to such a hopeless lot. 
The problem play was inevitable owing to the despotism of tradition 
and the archaic culture of the "cultured few." It has sought to 

31. Cf. Poet Lore, Spring, 1908, pp. 405-416 for a review of Echegaray 
by Fanny Hale Gardiner. — ^Cf. also "Jos6 Echegaray" — a discussion of four 
of his plays; by Nora Archibald Smith, — Poet Lore, pp. 218-228, May- June, 
1909. 

32. Cf. Le Temps, Paris, July 31, 1911. M. Jean Carr6re, Le Thgatre 
en Italie, — Chronique Th§atrale. An excellent article on the vitality of the 
Italian stage of to-day. 

***In France, the followers of Dumas', .Jr., are numerous: — Capus, Mir- 
beau, Bernstein, Hervieu, Brieux, Lavedan, Bataille, Lemaitre, Donnay, 
France, etc. .. ."There has not often been such a battalion of spies catch- 
ing the spirit of their times." p. 257.... But these are not imitators, for 
they now find "the atmosphere of the younger Dumas' plays theatrical in 
the wrong sense, his social problems almost crude, and his moral purpose 
even ingenuous". .. .Laurence Jerrold, — The French Stage of To-day, cli. 
XV, p. 254,— The Real France, John Lane, London and N. Y., 1911. 

33. On this "University Movement," cf. "The Question of the The- 
ater," by Professor F. H. Koch, Quarterly Journal of the University of 
North Dakota, July, 1911, pp. 323 ff.— Cf. also The Literary Digest, Uni- 
versity Aid for the Drama, p. 141, July 22, 1911. 

34. For an interesting recital of the facts, cf. Ward's Dynamic So- 
ciology, Preface to vol. I, pp. X ff.— D. Appleton & Co., N. T., 1902. 



The European Problem Play 57 

rectify social vision ; for, tho it mystify and disconcert at present, 
the problem play was conceivd to disillusion the people ultimately. 
It has thrown a search-light on moral and social affairs, private or 
public ; it deliberately works now to make men think on actual con- 
ditions. Its appeal, if somewhat special in matter or manner, is uni- 
versal in audience. Judge of my astonishment at meeting Suder- 
mann's "Stein unter Steinen" in Mexico City! But, here it was, 
in a fallow field, impenitent, and in good Spanish : — teatro Vir- 
ginia FABREGAS,. . . Martes 17 de Agosto de 1909,. . . . 
PIEDRA ENTRE PIEDRAS 
obra....de Hermann Sudermann, traducida al castellano, . . . . etc. 
Nor did Echegaray's "Loco-Dios" ^^ in the Spanish original elicit 
that season more general applause or stir deeper feelings. 

It was natural that the stage should espouse public causes and 
needs: — since the French Revolution all institutions have gone into 
the field of education ; some to proselyte, others to emancipate. How 
much of this vehicle of modern reform will remain as literature, is 
of little importance ; great literature is incidental ; man does not exist 
to make great literature. Letters like houses are only an incident 
of life, at least ought to be; one of the many artificial projections of 
human import, which may or may not find their way into anthologies 
or archeologies, after having servd their social purpose. Many of the 
old time plays have thus deliverd their message ; the same will be 
characteristic of the present out-put of problem plays. Much 
verbiage no dout will have crept into their scenes, much incoherence 
into their acts, much tedium into their fabric, but it is peculiar of 
the drama that thinks, that reaches out into the difficulties of a prob- 
lem insted of burying itself under fine rhetoric and other purposes of 
the old craft : — ultimately, as Ibsen says, it will have aflForded man 
"holding judgment day over himself." Like all artifises, so long 
as it must make a drama, have a form, it will show shortcomings, 
until it is itself a tradition, be in conflict with certain ideals, and 
clash in time with the artificialities that would forsooth be life it- 
self : It must long seem intellectual without being literary, in spite 
of numberless masterly pages and undying portraits. But the quality 
of the drama is likely to vary as much as the quality of government, 
religion, or any other man-made thing. In spite of resistence to in- 
novation by the leisure class, with its predilection for conventional 
things, the problem play is here to stay: the "simon pure" literary 
man does not like it, does not read it, is not concernd with it. Was 

35. The Madman-Divine, given in Mexico City, Sept. 4, 1909; — cf. Poet 
Lore, Spring 1908, translated by Elizabeth Howard West; — also note 31. 



58 The Quarterly Journal 

it not ever so with the conservative, the retainer* . . ? Fortunately, the 
world cannot w^ait for him, or, it might still depend on the rigor 
of old time absolutism to prove society. 

If the value of a principle lies in the number of things it wiW 
explain the outlook for the problem play is vast; the new-born first 
stammerd a mere question ; then, the drama ceast to exist for its own 
sake ; it became the purpose play, a synonym for progress — in Europe, 
at least. But, we too shall have our problem play; no importation 
that, tho the evils exposed be still of foren origin largely. . ! The 
"Melting Pot" ^^ is epoch making; its problem and its types are in- 
telligible to the American people. Other dramatic studies of local 
conditions have followd and have met with success in Puritan Amer- 
ica. . . .Even the censor of Plainfield ^'^ gives his approval to Sheldon's 
"Salvation Nell" and to Walter's "The Easiest Way," no less than 
to Ibsen's "Ghosts". . . .American critics are beginning to recognize 
things. Verily, we may yet hear that the Dutch have taken Holland, 
and did right in doing it ! There are signs ; and, no solicitude is 
needed. In spite of a hundred years of laissez-faire policy in the 
United States, clamor of fair play and a clear field in clericalism, 
politics, education, business, and opinion, the nation is hardy and 
elastic, of a constitution strong enough still, to react for a time 
against the natural decay of men, the harmful ingredients of civiliza- 
tion, the social theories of a leisure class, the excesses of human 
ambition. 

But, in our problem play, the same old Adam, with his akes and 
shams, his apologies and frauds, will appear so long as his life is bound 
up with the cause of social prejudis, the lust of power, the greed of 
authority, the predilection for ecclesiastic symbolism, the worship of 
tradition, the existence of superstition, the dred of progress, the le- 
galizing of vice, the surrender of individualism, the fury of partisan- 
ship, and the barter of human liberty. 

Our national product will be differently complexioned, of 
course. So it must be, in a country that launcht its social career on 
the "Rights of Man" and still stands reminiscent of the "Age of 
Reason." 

♦Note that Shaw classifying himself with them, ruthlessly stigmatizes 
social servants supinely committed to conservatism, — "these great prosti- 
tute classes of men; — dramatists and journalists, not to mention lawyers, 
doctors, clergymen, and platform politicians who are daily using highest 

faculties to belie their real sentiments" Op. cit. in note 6, — pp. XXVI- 

XXVII. 

36. Cf. The Melting Pot, by Israel Zangwill; The Macmillan Co., N. T., 
1909. 

37. Cf. The Literary Digest, May 1, 1909.— Mr. Walter Prichard Eaton 
of Plainfield, was once dramatic critic to a New Yorlt daily. The ideas of 
Mr. Eaton, reviewd in the Digest quoted, appeard in a number of "Suc- 
cess," May, 1909. 



The Common Law and Judicial 

Legislation ' 

Andrew Alexander Bruce, 

Dean of the College of Law, University of North Dakota 

T BELIEVE that few will take issue with me when I prophesy 
■*- that the present century will be immesurably great in its social 
and political importance and will always be lookt upon as an impor- 
tant epoch in our national history. It was for the past to democratize 
politics and religion. It is for our age to democratize industry. It 
was for the past to solv the problems of production. It is for this 
generation to solv the problems of distribution. It was for the past 
to protest against the tyranny of kings and of a landed aristocracy. 
It is for our age to furnish not merely the ideals but the legal and 
social foundations for a newer democracy. It was for the past to over- 
throw royal monopoly. It is for our age to equalize privilege. It 
was for the past to overthrow the restrictions of feudalism and to 
preach a laissez faire doctrine of individualism. It is for us to put 
checks upon that individualism and to so form and control our mod- 
ern industrial system that it may be a benefit and not a curse. It was 
for the past to teach a national loyalty and patriotism based upon a 
common inheritance and upon a common blood. It is for us to teach 
the newer cosmopolitan patriotism which is based upon a common in- 
terest, a common sympathy, and a common democracy.. We have 
practically solvd the problems of production and of transportation. 
Not many years ago it would have taken a girl a week to knit a pair 
of stockings. To-day, she can sit down at a knitting machine and 
turn out dozens in a single day. In every field of production we can 
produce a thousand-fold more than we did before. We can harness 
the air, the winds, to our chariots. We can cross the ocean in a few 
days. We hear everj'where men complaining of overproduction. Yet 
in times of business depression, and they are frequent, we find in this 
country alone between one and two million people out of employment. 
We find in our cities beneath all the refinement and culture of the 
so-cald upper classes a vast and pitiable substratum of misery and 
wretchedness, destitution and discontent. We find that crime is in- 



1. "The President's Address," deliverd before the North Dakota State 
Bar Association on September 6th, 1911. 



6o The Quarterly Journal 

creasing rather than decreasing. We find that our hospitals and 
asylums are growing larger and larger. We find that in New York 
alone there are over 19,000 public prostitutes and that lack of employ- 
ment and poverty is responsible for at least one-half of these unfortu- 
nates. We find that at least one-tenth of the population of Europe are 
paupers. We go to Trafalgar Square in London and we see, on cold 
winter nights, sleeping in the open air at the foot of the statue erected 
there to commemorate a nation's glory, hundreds of helpless human 
beings who have nowhere else to lay their beds. During the panic 
in the winter of 1893 it was a common sight to see hundreds of home- 
less men sleeping upon the cold stone floors of the basements of the 
court house and the police stations of the city of Chicago, lying in 
long rows, and as close together as the logs on a raft, in the slush and 
snow which they had trampt in from the streets with them. We 
have carried our individualism so far, the laissez faire doctrine, the 
supposed right of a man to run his business as he pleases, has in the 
past so dominated our social and political thought, that business, until 
very recently, has been but little regulated and controld, and the wel- 
fare of the weaker classes has had but little consideration. We have 
conservd neither our natural nor our human resources. We have been 
a nation of commercialists and of shop-keepers. We have had behind 
us the individualism of Jeremy Bentham and of the laissez faire school 
of political economists, who opprest as they were in their times by the 
exactions of the crown, the short-sighted selfishness of a landed aris- 
tocracy and the inheritance of a barbarous feudal system, only saw 
that which was immediately before them and deemd that a withdrawal 
of the restrictions of the past would be all that would be necessary for 
the social betterment. Our forefathers were individualists, but they 
were not democrats. The American colonist was an intense believer 
in personal rights and personal liberty, but in personal liberty in so 
far only as he himself was concernd. Up to and including the strug- 
gle in America, the whole growth of the English revolution, in which 
the war in America was merely a chapter, was a story of individualism, 
but of an individualism which was commercial rather than humane 
and aristocratic and selfish rather than altruistic and democratic. 
The colonists in America were merely insisting upon the recognition 
of the same theories of constitutional government which Oliver Crom- 
well insisted upon in his struggle against Charles I, and to which the 
English people at a later period made William III subscribe. The 
struggle in America as in England, however, was a class struggle. 
Neither the barons who met at Runnymede, nor the Roundheads who 
fought at Naseby, nor the Puritans who landed at Plymouth Rock, nor 



Judicial Legislation 6 1 

even the American revolutionists themselves, had any broad realization 
of the solidarity of mankind nor of the doctrine of human rights 
which fired LaFayette and which so dignified the earlier stages of the 
French Revolution. They wanted liberty, but they wanted it for 
themselvs. They wanted freedom of worship but freedom of wor- 
ship for themselvs alone. The barons at Runnymede demanded the 
privileges granted for the freemen of England alone, and at that time 
seventy-five per cent of the population was in the thralls of serfdom. 
The Puritans of the old and of the newer England were almost as 
merciless in their persecution of those who did not conform to their 
particular religious beliefs as were the Spanish inquisitors themselvs. 
To use the language of Senator Ingalls, "They first fell upon their 
knees and then upon the aborigines." They rarely got beyond the 
idea of a small religious or industrial unit. The merchant classes 
of Liverpool, of Bristol, of Boston, and of Newport were perhaps 
more active in, and reapt more plentiful harvests from, the African 
slave trade than did the inhabitants of any other cities. The growth 
of a broad civic conscience, of a generous altruism in the law of both 
England and America, was for a later day. The American nation 
had its origin in an age when the forms of modern industry were but 
evolving, of the Ricardian and laissez faire schools of social and 
political thought, in the era which antedated the English factory laws, 
in an age of slavery and of bonded servants, in an age of a personal 
as opposed to a social conscience and which inherited and per- 
petuated a system of law which was concernd not so much with 
social righteousness, as with individual rights. ^ Our criminal law 
was in its inception and still is, individualistic. It was originally, 
and still is, class made. The English revolutions did not alter this 
fact. They merely changed and broadened the class. At first there 
was practically no distinction between the law of personal torts and 
the law of public crimes, and the opportunity for personal revenge 
or redress was the only thing aimd at. There was a table of charges. 
An ear was worth so much, and eye so much. One could destroy 
either if he would pay the tabulated price. If he faild to pay such, 
he was outlawed, that is to say, the injured party or his friends 

2. "So great, moreover, is the regard of the law for private property," 
says Sir William Blackstone in his well known Commentaries, "that it will 
not authorize the least violation of it; no, not even for the general good of 
the whole community." If a new road, for instance, were to be made thru 
the grounds of a private person, it might perhaps be extensivly beneficial to 
the public, but the law permits no man or set of men, to do this without con- 
sent of the owner of the land. In vain it may be urged that the good of the 
individual ought to yield to that of the community; for it would be dangerous 
to allow any private man, or even public tribunal, to be the judge of the 
common good, and to decide whether it be expedient or no. Besides, the pub- 
lic good is in nothing more essentially interested, than in the protection of 
rvery individual's private rights." 



62 The Quarterly Journal 

could take his life without paying to his relatives the tabulated price 
which otherwise he would have had to pay. This is the reason for 
so many of the flagrant injustices and inequalities which are to be 
found even in our present day criminal codes. Even to-day our 
punishments as a rule are not mesured out upon the basis of 
culpability, but upon that of the personal injury suf¥erd, and this 
in spite of the fact that we now allow a civil suit for damages for 
the personal wrong. Take, for instance, the distinction which is 
made between petit and grand larceny. One may steal ten dollars 
without excuse and from the basest of motivs, yet his punishment 
will be light. Let him, however, steal twenty-five dollars in order 
that his family may be saved from starvation, and even the minimum 
penalty will be very severe. We do not take into consideration the 
motiv or the real wrong to society, but rather that which would fur- 
nish compensation or revenge for the individual. Our criminal code 
is still the criminal code of the eye for the eye and the tooth for the 
tooth. It is a code which is made by the well-to-do. It is a class 
code, and it is the vulgar offenses which as a rule we alone severely 
punish. For the smaler offenses and sometimes even for the larger, 
we impose fines. As an alternativ for paying the fines, we provide 
a term of imprisonment. A well-to-do man becomes intoxicated. 
He is fined fifty dollars. This he redily pays and suffers no incon- 
venience. A laboring man commits the same offense. He is fined 
the same amount. This he is unable to pay and he goes to jail, and 
his wife and family starv. 

Even the public prosecuting attorney is a product of the civil 
law and came to our jurisprudence by way of Scotland and in com- 
parativly modern times. Until very recently, the prosecuting wit- 
ness even in criminal cases, was obliged to pay the costs of the 
prosecution. The sanguinary penal code which so disgraced the 
English criminal law of the last century, and whose concepts we 
even to-day enforce, was the work of the squirearchy which then 
controld England and the English parliament. It was the work of a 
governing class whose ancestors had exploited the poor, who had 
fenced in the Commons, who under Henry VIII had shared in the 
spoils of the plunderd churches, who had turnd farms into deer 
parks and game preservs and who were afraid of the thousands of 
desperate vagrants whom they themselvs had renderd homeless. ^ 

3. Prior to the age of gunpowder, the knightly and the landed classes 
needed no police force or standing army or sanguinary criminal code to pro- 
tect them. They alone possest the armor and were alone properly traind to 
arms. They could protect themselvesr and enforce their own demands. Trial 
by battle became unpopular among the landed classes only when the inven- 



Judicial Legislation 63 

But the steamship, the railroad train, the telegraf, and the 
printing press have suddenly brought us into a new age and we have 
advanced a step nearer to the millenium. We are gradually learning 
to overcome our class and racial consciousness and to have a clearer 
conception of what Jesus ment when he spoke of the fatherhood of 
God and of the brotherhood of man. We are gradually beginning 
to realize the value and the worth-while of the individual of all 
classes and to believe with LaFayette that there is something diviner 
than the divine right of kings and of class prerogativ, and that is, the 
divine right of man himself. We have begun to realize that in a 
democracy "the whole is no greater than the sum of all the parts, 
and when the individual safety and welfare are sacrificed or neglected 
the state must suffer." ^ We have begun in America to realize the 
truth of the remark of Doctor Arnold when in speaking of England 
in 1838 he said: "This neglect, namely, to provide a proper position 
in the state for the manufacturing population, is encouraged by one 
of the falsest maxims which ever pandered to human selfishness under 
the name of political wisdom. I mean the maxim that civil society 
ought to leave its members alone, each to look after their several in- 
terests, provided they do not employ direct fraud or force against 
their neighbors. That is, knowing full well that these are not equal 
in natural powers, and that still less have they ever within historical 
memory started with equal artificial advantages; knowing also that 
power of every sort has a tendency to increase itself, we stand by and 
let this unequal race take its own course, forgetting that the very 
name of society implies that it shall not be a mere race, but its object 
is to provide for the common good of all, by restraining the power 
of the strong and protecting the helplessness of the weak." We have 

tlon of gunpowder made it useless for the aristocracy to train their sons in 
the exercises of the tilting field. Even when the jury system was adopted, 
the summoning of its members was entrusted to the sheriff, who was always 
a country gentleman. We should remember, however, that much of the in- 
dividualism of the English common law is due to causes which are more 
democratic in their origin. 

Later, indeed, we find a judge-made code of criminal procedure, used as 
an offset to the selfishness of a bloodthirsty squirearchy who, tho it itself had 
been victorious in its battle against the royal prerogativ and the Star 
Chamber, sought to protect itself and its vested interest by a brutal criminal 
code against the lower classes whom it had in a large mesure exploited. We 
criticise our judge and our criminal codes of procedure. We criticise the 
safegards which the criminal law affords to the defendant and the fact that 
they were originally judge-made. We should remember, however, that they 
were merely an offset to a brutal and sanguinary penal code. When a clas's 
blinded parliament made one hundred and sixty offenses capital and the steal- 
ing of a sheep, the shooting of a hare, and the begging of an old soldier upon 
the street punishable by deth, the humaner judge sought to give the accused 
fair play and every opportunity for self defense, and to prevent, if possible, 
the execution of the innocent. This gave rise to much of the technicality of 
our criminal law and itsi solicitude in so far, at any rate, as the rules of evi- 
dence and of procedure are concernd, for the rights of the individual. So, too, 
even the landed aristocracy were at times obliged to insist upon a democratic 
doctrine of individual rights and of fair and open trial in order to protect 
themselves against the Star Chamber and the royal prerogative. 

4. Brown, J. in Holden v. Hardy (1898) 18 Sup. Ct. Rep. 383. 



64 The Quarterly Journal 

come to realize that governmental control of some sort is absolutely 
necessary to the welfare not merely of the employee and of the work- 
ingman but of the broader public itself. As the problem of existence 
grows harder and harder our demands for redress grow louder. 
Even the formerly self -satisfied and laissez faire bourgeoisie are be- 
coming uneasy and the middle class business man who formerly pro- 
tested against governmental regulation, is now feeling the competition 
of the trusts and of the great corporations and is insisting that they, 
at any rate, shall be regulated and controld. 

All this has cast a responsibility and a burden upon the shoul- 
ders of the American judiciary which they have never before been 
cald upon to bear. The judges of to-day have inherited the law 
and the traditions of an individualistic and of an unsocial past. They 
have been suddenly cald upon, however, to meet the demands and 
the ideals of a democratic collectivism, but -of a collectivism which 
is ill defined and nowhere fully understood. The march of events 
has been more rapid than has been the growth of sane and construc- 
tiv statutory law and the common law of the past is coming to be 
more and more lookt upon by the public as arbitrary and its reasoning 
obsolete, and the courts are blamed for all of its remissness. If they 
change its form they are charged with judicial legislation. If they 
enforce it in its entirety, they are charged with technicality and a lack 
of democracy. Even when the legislatures seek to legislate in con- 
formity to the popular demands, they find themselves lamentably 
ignorant of the law as now constituted and of what the public really 
wishes. The public itself does not know what it really wants. Our 
consciences have been aroused, but we are still at heart individualists 
and are still selfish. We know that something is wrong and that our 
social housekeeping is not of the best. We are moved by a fervor 
of reform, but we are clouded by our ignorance and by our own 
selfishness. We know that we want to strike at something, we are 
on the lookout for scpae-goats, but we are by no means certain that 
we desire to forbid to all and to ourselvs, that which in the scape- 
goat we desire to punish. We all desire liberty, but in the main, 
liberty for ourselvs alone. We all desire to control the combinations 
of others, but seldom those in which we ourselvs are interested. The 
consequence is that our criminal law is, and always has been, un- 
scientific and class-made, and that our industrial laws by which we 
seek to control monopolies and trusts, and our trade and labor com- 
binations generally, are either unintelligible or are purposely made 
so drastic and far-reaching in their nature that if they were gener- 
ally applied and enforced they would revolutionize our whole in- 



Judicial Legislation 65 

dustrial system, and are therefore tacitly understood to have been 
directed merely against the combinations which happen at the time 
to be unpopular. ^ We thunder against Mr. Rockefeller, but every 
day we have conventions in our cities which we encourage but 
whose only purpose is the bringing about of "gentlemen's agree- 
ments." When the courts fail to enforce these laws because they 
are unintelligible, or try to construe them so as to make them 
enforceable, we condem them either for a lack of democracy or be- 
cause they have dared to judicially legislate. No better illustration 
of this point can be given than the Standard Oil and the Tobacco 
cases. In them the Standard Oil Company and the so-cald Tobacco 
Trust, were indicted for violating the provisions of the Sherman Act, 
and were charged with being combinations in restraint of interstate 
trade and commerce. Congress, in the Sherman Act, forbade and 
sought to punish combinations which were in restraint of interstate 
trade and commerce alone. This was all it could do. It had no 
powers under the federal constitution to punish combinations gen- 
erally, even tho they might be in restraint of competition. The in- 
terstate field was its only field of jurisdiction. The Sherman Act, 
however, neglected to give any explanation as to what constituted 
a combination which was in restraint of interstate trade, or to define 
the offense which it created in any way. It left it to the court, 
therefore, to decide when a combination, which as a combination alone 
Congress could not touch, came so to interfere with interstate com- 
merce as to come within the terms of the act. This, the Supreme 
Court in the Standard Oil and the Tobacco Cases sought to do and 
in them it drew a clear and helpful line between those combinations 
which were organized and conducted for the economy of production 
and distribution merely, and those combinations which sought to in- 
jure the interstate trade of others and which could be punisht under 
the law. For doing this, the court was widely criticised and was 
charged with judicial legislation and with seeking to tie the hands 
of congress, when as a matter of fact if the strict rules of criminal con- 
struction had been applied, the act would have been declared void for 
uncertainty. ^ 

5. For years, for instance, the statutes of Illinois have required all foren 
corporations as a prerequisit to doing business in the state of Illinois to file 
an affidavit with the secretary of state denying their connection with any pool 
or trust or unlawful trade agreement. This statute properly enforced would 
have vacated whole business streets in the city of Chicago and the result was 
that for many years the parties concernd were told that the statute was 
merely aimd at the great corporations like the Standard Oil Company, and 
affidavits were either not required or the falsity of those which were filed 
was ignored. 

6. So also, the act said nothing In regard to the confiscation of the prop- 
erty of offending corporations, and the Supreme Court also no dout realized 
that the public needed oil no matter how culpable the Standard Oil Company 



66 The Quarterly Journal 

In our criticism of our courts, indeed, we have not stopt to 
consider our own uncertainties and our own shortcomings but have 
chosen to make our judges our public scapegoats. When we criti- 
cize the law and its administration it is always the courts and the 
judge-made law that we criticize, it is never ourselvs, and seldom 
our legislativ bodies, with the one exception of the Senate of the 
United States which is now one of our popular scapegoats. Our 
criticism, if logically applied, would lead to but one of two results — 
a code Napoleon or a pure democracy and a law of momentary pop- 
ular prejudis. I speak of the popular criticism. There are those 
who desire to strengthen rather than to weaken the judiciary, but 
these are so few in number at the present time that their words are 
hardly heard, and much less considerd. The critics, indeed, of our 
present legal system and of our American courts can be roughly 
divided into two classes, the populistic and the scholastic. Both join 
in condeming our judge-made law and the conduct of our judicial 
tribunals. The one however, sees a certain salvation in a govern- 
ment by a referendum-controld-legislature and by recall-intimidated- 
courts, and the other a salvation which will be as equally sure in a 
Code Justinian or a Code Napoleon and the superimposed law of the 
law professor and of the legal essayist. There is as we have before 
said, yet a third class which believes in a state as well as national life 
term and appointiv judiciary, and in an almost absolute government 
by the courts, but this class tho rich in pocket, is lacking in numbers 
and in votes. The one of the first two classes believes, in short, that 
the cure for the evils of democracy is still more democracy and in the 
ultimate wisdom and omniscience of the masses. The other believes 
that in an enlightened paternalism alone can salvation be found. To 
this latter class especially, the individualism of the common law and 
its foundation of precedent makes appeal, and its members believe 
that no real advance can be made until like wandering sheep we re- 
turn once more to the fold of the civil law. "To Rome, Athens and 
Israel," says Judge M. F. Morris, in his Introduction to Develop- 
ment of Law, "we owe all that is best in our institutions. It is they 
that have developed our law for us. To the barbarians from whom 
we are descended we owe nothing but our descent. We do not owe 
them even the spirit of liberty with which they have often most er- 
roneously been credited. Their liberty was lawlessness ; it was the 

might have been. The court, therefore, gave to the defendant six months 
in which to sell its plants and pipe lines and refineries or in which to reor- 
ganize its' business in some legitimate manner which would keep the plants 
and lines open as producing agencies but not as agencies to suppress or to 
interfere with interstate trade. For doing this .however, the tribunal was 
also loudly condemned. 



Judicial Legislation 67 

liberty of the nomad, the wild Indian and the Arab. True liberty 
is law ; or, as it has otherwise been stated, it is freedom regulated by 
law. The barbarians sought to perpetuate their lawlessness and to 
strangle civilization by the institution of the Feudal System ; but civ- 
ilization was saved by the incessant efforts of Christianity and the 
Roman law. To Christianity and the Roman law we, the descendants 
of the barbarians, are indebted for the blessings of freedom and for 
the happy failure of our ancestors to arrest indefinitely the develop- 
ment of law." ^ 

Our law, in short, is criticised as unscientific and inadequate 
and the merits of the Roman law and of the Code Napoleon are 
held up before us, yet at the same time there is a clamor for more 
democracy and for a larger share of the public both in the making 
and in the construction of our laws. Both classes of critics seem, how- 
ever to forget that the civil law and the Code Napoleon were essentially 
aristocratic in their origin and that the common law with all of 
its defects has been essentially democratic. The latter has crystall- 
ized the ideals and the customs of our evolving democracy. The 
former has reflected the ideas of the scholar and of the statesman, 
and tho scientific, has reflected the opinions and the ideas of the few 
rather than of the many. It has been the law of the beneficent 
despot. It has been a law for the many made by the few, from above, 
codified, and inelastic. The latter, the common law, is the law of 
custom and of precedent. It has been democratic and elastic, tho it 
may not have been scientific. The codes of the civil law were writ- 
ten largely from the standpoint of a superimposed state and of society 
as a whole, and apart from its individual citizens. The common law 
is individualistic and has had its origin in struggling units and in 
struggling men, and has only been unsocial because the individual 
has been slow to appreciate the solidarity of all mankind. 

There is, of course, much in the argument that the need of to- 
day is to protect society rather than the individual, but that idea 
should by no means militate against the common law nor make us 
believe that all the ills of the English speaking world are due to the 
fact that it has faild to adopt the civil law or the Code Napoleon. 
All we need, indeed, is a sane conception of the real rights and real 
needs of the individual. 

We cannot ignore the theoretical perfection of the civil law, of 

the Code Napoleon, and of all of the study and cloister made laws, 

yet we cannot shut our eyes to the fact that in America it was the 

English civilization and not the French that ultimately prevailed, and 

7. Page 314. 



68 The Quarterly Journal 

that the British Empire in extent and strength and prosperity and in 
all that makes life and civilization, has far surpast that of the Ro- 
man Caesars. In the individualistic common law idea, indeed, is 
to be found a constant source of rejuvenation. In it are the germs 
of self government. The continental European idea is bu- 
reaucratic, and that of the English speaking world individualistic, 
and it is for this reason that the English speaking people have not 
merely occupied but have colonized and have civilized the earth. 
France and Spain first occupied the New World, but they were un- 
able to hold it. Their governmental structures fell to pieces because 
when once the bonds which bound them to the mother countries were 
cut, the local units were unable to govern themselves. In France 
the law is from the top and filters downwards. In England and in 
America its origin is at the bottom in custom and in precedent and it 
osmoses upwards. In France the localities are essentially agencies 
of the central government. In the development of both Great 
Britain and America and in the mastery of the American continent 
the principle of home rule has been the corner stone. The French 
idea has been essentially nationalistic and bureaucratic. The Ameri- 
can and English ideal has been essentially individualistic and Calvin- 
istic. It has been a home rule not necessarily of colonies or states 
but rather of the family, of the village, of the hamlet, of the church, 
of the township and of the hundred. The right to choose one's as- 
sociates has always been insisted upon. Precedent and local custom 
and the traditions of the fathers have been more highly honord than 
the dicta of any king or the arbitrary rules and theories of any legal 
essayist. It was for this reason that the English civilization outstript 
the French civilization in America and overcame it. The growth of 
the English speaking peoples in America was the result of the growth 
and migration and pushing forward into the wilderness of small local 
groups whose members made their own laws, chose their own asso- 
ciates and set up their own standards of public and of private morality. 
The West was not conquerd, the Indians were not subjugated by the 
troops of Great Britain nor of the United States. It was conquerd 
and occupied by the hardy, individualistic, often Calvinistic, pioneer, 
who without aid, except that derived from his own axe and his own 
rifle, cleard and settled the land, admitted his own associates, estab- 
lisht his own social customs, framed his own government, provided 
for his own defense and fought for the home and the social institutions 
which he himself had created. The French colonists on the other 
hand, were always looking to their central government for their sup- 
port, their ideals and their policies. There has indeed, been in Amer- 



Judicial Legislation 69 

ica a local home rule, a right of flocking as one chooses and a latent 
individualism which as an accomplisht fact has been more potent 
than the theory of state soverenty itself and has not been dependent 
upon it. It has been the home rule of the local unit, of the family, 
of the local church, of the village and of the township, and in the 
history of Anglo-Saxon and American development no government 
has ever been able to ignore it. No law has ever been strong enough 
to force the Anglo-Saxon to change his natural habits or to mate or 
mingle with those whom he does not desire. The Civil War may 
have destroyd to a large extent the doctrine of states rights. It did 
not destroy the doctrine of inherent social rights, nor the fact that 
that government is alone strong and virile which dignifies the in- 
dividual and builds its jurisprudence upon the struggles and ideals 
of its peoples. 

After all, the only criticism upon our individualistic theory is 
that it is concernd rather with individual rights than with social 
righteousness and that often the theory that no person should be de- 
prived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law has 
been used to prevent legislation for the social betterment. All that is 
needed, however, is that there shall be among the people themselvs ( for 
it is their ideals that the courts ultimately reflect and enforce) a saner 
and more Christian idea of wherein liberty really consists, what are 
and what are not our personal privileges and immunities and what are 
and what are not our inalienable rights. 

It may be true as has often been stated that the fifth and four- 
teenth amendments to the federal consitution and their counterparts 
which are to be found in the constitutions of the several states grafted 
upon our jurisprudence the individualism of the common law, but 
neither the principles of the common law nor the guarantees of prop- 
erty and liberty and the due process of law in the constitutional provis- 
ions referd to have ever, in the history of English jurisprudence or in 
the opinion of the American courts themselvs — when these courts have 
been compeld fairly and squarely to face the issues — been construed 
to guarantee unrestricted individual liberty or unlimited contractual 
or property rights. The rights guaranteed have always been deemd 
to be subordinate to the doctrine that the public welfare is the highest 
law and the theory that even the rights to individual liberty and 
property must yield to the paramount demands of the public welfare 
and the public necessity. Not merely, indeed, is a due regard for 
the individual and for individual initiativ necessary to a public and 
social virility, but a certain mesure of paternalism and of collectivism 
is necessary in order that the weak may not be submerged and that 



70 The Quarterly Journal 

the individual of all classes may be able to compete. Sometimes a 
mesure of collectivism is necessary in order that individualism may 
survive. The trouble with us in the past has merely been that we 
have not sufficiently realized the value of the individual to the com- 
munity, and the fact that anything, whether it be the exaction of too 
long and arduous hours of toil in industry or the monopolization of 
the products on which he depends, which seriously injures and 
jeopardizes his helth, his morals or his means of subsistence, is an 
injury not merely to him but to the parent state itself of which he is 
but a unit and a part. This the courts, largely from a lack of 
scientific, and economic and social knowledge have come, it is true, 
but slowly to realize, but it is a doctrine to which they are now 
thoroly committed. ^ 

But unadapted to our race and to our social and political tra- 
ditions tho the civil law concept may be, and necessary tho it may 
be that an enlightened individualism shall be the foundation stone 
of our legal system, it is seldom if ever necessary that our courts 
should legislate and it is because they have sometimes attempted so to 
do that they have been chiefly criticized. We realize the fact that 
the statute law can never be adequate to our social and economic de- 
mands, that the legislatures can of necessity meet but now and then 
and that their members cannot be expected to be learned in the law 
as an entirety. We realize that there will always be vast spaces 
which must be fild in and that the courts in the future as in the 
past must, as new questions arise for which the legislative bodies 
have made no provision, expand the common law and crystallize 
custom into law. We recognize the fact that the courts will and 
must always be cald upon to construe ambiguous statutes and that 
it is seldom that a statute is absolutely clear. We recognize the need 
of a government which shall be based upon precedent and upon 
tradition and which shall be a government by law and not by men. 
We recognize the necessity of the interference now and then of the 
courts to keep even the legislativ bodies within thir proper constitu- 
tional channels. We are strongly opposed to the recall of judges. 
Is it ever necessary, however, that on questions of fact and of neces- 
sity, and where the legislatures acting within their general domain 
have fairly and clearly spoken, that the courts should oppose their 
ideas and their judgments to those of the popular tribunals? Where, 
for instance, the legislature has past a statute limiting the hours of 

8. Compare Ha-rbison v. Knoxville Iron Co., 103 Tenn. 421, Knoxville 
Iron Co. V. Harbison, 183 U. S. 13, State v. Holden, 14 Utah 71 and Holden 
V. Hardy, 169 U. S. 366 with In re Morgan, 26 Colo. 415 and Ritchie v. People, 
155 Illinois 98 with Ritchie va People, 244 111. 509, and Muller v. Oregon, 208 
U. S. 412. 



Judicial Legislation 71 

labor of men in dangerous or unhelthy employments, because in its 
opinion the employments are dangerous or unhelthy, is it within the 
province of the court to set the statute aside not because the legisla- 
ture would have no power if the employments are injurious, but 
because in the opinion of the court the legislature was mistaken on 
the question of fact as to whether helth and life were really en- 
dangerd ? The members of the legislature come fresh from the people, 
they can appoint committees and can investigate. It would certainly 
seem that their opinion and judgment upon a question of fact is as 
reliable as that of a more or less cloisterd court. There is really no 
foundation in history for the assumption of any such power by our 
judicial tribunals. 

The doctrine, indeed, that on a question of fact and of necessity 
the supreme court of the nation may oppose its judgment to those 
not merely of the state legislatures but of the state courts, and that 
the state tribunals may on like questions of fact overrule the judg- 
ments of their own state legislatures, is a doctrine which altho, until 
recently, generally acquiesced in, has no foundation in sound reason 
nor sanction in the history of our jurisprudence. It can only be as- 
serted on the theory that our legislativ bodies are undemocratic, un- 
intelligent and unrepresentativ. It is a doctrine which has been 
grafted upon but which has not been rooted in our English or in 
our American jurisprudence. It is the product of class pride and 
of class prejudis. It was not, indeed, until after the civil war that 
the doctrine of the supremacy of the courts was ever asserted in 
relation to the acts of a popular parliament or a popular legislature, 
when that body was acting within its legislativ domain. In England 
the doctrine was only announced as a check to an unlawful exercise 
of the royal prerogativ and never as a check upon the popular parlia- 
ment after that parliament had once assumed form and become in 
any manner representativ. It was asserted, indeed, for the purpose 
of keeping the king from encroaching upon the prerogativs of parlia- 
ment, and not to prevent the parliament from encroaching upon the 
prerogativs of the king. In America, until after the civil war, and 
up to the decision of the so-cald Railroad Commission Cases in the 
year 1886, ^ it was only asserted for the purpose of keeping the differ- 
ent branches of the state and national governments within 
their respectiv spheres of action and from encroaching upon one 
another. The struggle for popular liberty and for popular control 
in England which culminated in the famous cases of Wilkes Wood, ^^ 

9. 116 U. S. 307. 
10. 19 State Trials 1153, 3 Burrow 17, 42. 



72 The Quarterly Journal 

and Entinck v. Carrington, ^^ merely resulted in England in the doc- 
trine that no act done severally by the king, the lords, or the com- 
mons, or their agents or servants in excess of their powers as defined 
by the statute or the common law could preclude judicial inquiry or 
be an answer to a suit brought for redress. It was never seriously 
contended that the king, the lords and the commons acting con- 
jointly (and these constitute the British legislativ triumvirate) could 
be controld by the courts. Almost all of the conflict between the 
judiciary and the law making and the law enforcing power, centerd, 
indeed, around the exercise of the royal prerogativ and the functions 
of the administrativ bodies and tribunals. The famous cases, indeed, 
of Wilkes v. Wood and Entick v. Carrington, in which a verdict 
for £20,000 was renderd against the Secretary of State, Lord Hali- 
fax, for issuing a general warrant under which the printing establish- 
ment of the plaintiff was searched for seditious literature and the 
plaintiff was arrested in violation of the general law of England in 
relation to search warrants, was not merely a victory for the supremacy 
of the law and for personal liberty in England, but in America itself. 
Just prior to the entering of the judgments referd to, indeed, James 
Otis in a fiery speech deliverd in Boston in 1761 had pronounced the 
writs of assistance which were then being freely issued to revenue 
and other inferior officers as "the worst instruments of arbitrary 
power, the most destructive of English liberty and the fundamental 
principles of English law that ever were found in an English law 
book," since they placed "the liberty of every man in the hands of 
every petty official." "Then and there," said John Adams, "then 
and there was the first scene of the first act of opposition to the ar- 
bitrary claims of Great Britain ; then and there the child Independ- 
ence was born." ^^ 

11. 19 State Trials 1030. 

12. It is because no such doctrine has been announced in France, in 
Spain, in Mexico and in Germany, and that in these countries the true 
function of the jury has never been fully understood, nor its jurisdiction 
extended to political cases, that these nations have never been in any sense 
really democratic. "Notwithstanding the liberte, egalite, fraternite which 
the Republic has taken as her device," says Mr. Hare in his work on Con- 
stitutional Law, pg. 141, "her officers and agents do not stand on the same 
level before the law as their fellow citizens, and may, when called to ac- 
count for the wrongs done in their administrative capacity, have the case 
removed to tribunals which are commissions rather than courts, and look 
on the offence from a governmental point of view, and decide in a different 
spirit from that which influences ordinary judges. The privilege extends 
beyond governmental acts and acts done undercolor of an authority from 
the government which it has not conferred, to injuries inflicted incidentally 
by an official in the discharge of his official duties. Thus, if a cavalry of- 
ficer when under orders rides from one place to another at a review and 
knocks) down A, a spectator, A cannot bring an action in the ordinary 
courts. So if a policeman is charged with t-respass and assault and bat- 
tery committed by breaking into a monastery, seizing the property of the 
inmates, and turning them out of doors, and relies on an order from his 
superior as a justification, the case gives rise to a conflict of jurisdiction 
and is referred to a body known as the tribunal des conflits, which deter- 
mines whether he shall be heard by the civil or the administrative tri- 
bunal." 



Judicial Legislation 73 

What our legal and political revolutions really emphasized and 
made clear, however, was the supremacy of popular law and the duty 
of public officials to yield obedience thereto, and not the right of the 
courts to set their individual opinions of expediency and of advisability 
against those of the popular soveren as represented in the popular 
legislativ body. There can, indeed, be no question of the right and 
power of the courts to compel public officials to keep within their 
legal spheres and to prevent, for instance, the executiv from judging 
or legislating and the legislature from judging or the states from 
encroaching upon the domain of the national congress. There is a 
wide distinction, however, between this and the setting aside of an 
act of a legislature, such as the Eight Hour Labor Law, which is past 
by a popular assembly wuthin the undouted sphere of its legislation 
and not for the purpose of oppression, but of protection. The prov- 
ince of the courts, in other words, is to keep the public and the 
public officials within the law and not to check the legislativ bodies 
in the exercise of their law-making powers. This indeed, with but 
rare exceptions, has been the policy of our courts and it should 
always have been adhered to and have been made clear and certain. 

The conflict is between two basic theories which are totally 
opposed to one another. The one was exprest by Mr. Justice Miller 
when in the case of Loan Association Company v. Topeka, ^^ in 
which he held invalid a tax in aid of manufacturing enterprises, he 
said, "It must be conceded that there are such rights in every free 
government beyond the control of the State. A government which 
recognized no such rights, which held the lives, the liberty and the 
prosperity of its citizens subject at all times to the absolute disposi- 
tion and unlimited control of even the most democratic depository 
of power, is after all, but a despotism. It is true it is a despotism of 
the many, of the majority, if you choose to call it so, but it is none 
the less a despotism. It may well be doubted if a man is to hold all 
that he is accustomed to call his own, all in which he has placed his 
happiness, and the security of which is essential to that happiness, 
under the unlimited dominion of others, whether it is not wiser that 
this power should be exercised by one man than by many. The theory 
of our governments, state and national, is opposed to the deposit of 
unlimited power anj^vhere. The executive, the legislative and the 
judicial branches of these governments are all of limited and defined 
powers. There are limitations on such power which grow out of the 
essential nature of all free governments. Implied reservations of 

13. 20 Wall. (U.S.) 655. 



74 The Quarterly Journal 

individual rights, without which the social compact could not exist, 
and which are respected by all governments entitled to the name." 

The other was exprest by Mr. Justice Clifford when in his 
dissenting opinion in the same case, he said, "State Constitutions 
may undoubtedly restrict the power of the Legislature to pass laws, 
and it is plain that any law passed in violation of such a prohibition 
is void, but the better opinion is, that where the Constitution of the 
State contains no prohibition upon the subject, express or implied, 
neither the State nor Federal Courts can declare a statute of the 
State void as unwise, unjust or inexpedient, nor for any other cause, 
unless it be repugnant to the Federal Constitution. Except where 
the Constitution has imposed limits upon the legislative power, the 
rule of law appears to be, that the power of legislation must be con- 
sidered as practically absolute, whether the law operates according 
to natural justice or not in any particular case, for the reason that 
courts are not guardians of the rights of the people of the State, save 
where those rights are secured by some constitutional provision which 
comes within judicial cognizance; or, in the language of Marshall, 
Ch. J., 'The interest, wisdom and justice of the representative body 
furnish the only security in a large class of cases not regulated by 
any constitutional provision.' Courts cannot nullify an Act of the 
State Legislature on the vague ground that they think it opposed 
to a general latent spirit supposed to pervade or underlie the Con- 
stitution, where neither the terms nor the implications of the instru- 
ment disclose any such restriction. Such a power is denied to the 
courts, because to concede it would be to make the courts sovereign 
over both the Constitution and the people, and convert the govern- 
ment into a judicial despotism." It has often been stated and it is 
no doubt true, that the framers of our several constitutions intended 
to reduce the principles of the Magna Charta and the Petition of 
Rights to rules which should be incorporated within these instruments 
and which should be unalterable except as in these constitutions 
provided. It is also no dout true, that it was the intention of the 
framers of the national constitution to deny to that body any vestige 
of the royal prerogativ which in the old day was used as a sort of 
police power, parliament being occupied mainly in fiscal affairs, ^'* 
and that in the powers delegated by the states to the central govern- 
ment, no so-cald police powers were included. But this admission 

14. The earlier parliaments, as a rule, met to consider questions of tax- 
ation, and nearly all the legislation which affected the individual wasi the 
subject of royal decree or the acts of the king in Council. The police power 
has been aptly defined as "that power of government under the control 
of which private rights fall." See the Supreme Court and the Fourteenth 
Amendment by Edward S. Callwin, Mich. Law Rev., v. p. 644. 



Judicial Legislation 75 

falls far short of conceding 'that the 5th and 14th amendments, or 
their counterparts in the constitutions of the several states, were ever 
intended to confer upon the supreme courts of either the state or the 
nation the power to interfere with the soveren power of the state 
legislatures when they were acting as soveren and within the limits 
prescribed by the constitutions. Due process of law merely ment a 
process according to the Magna Charta, the Bill of Rights and the 
State and Federal constitutions, and the right to liberty and property 
and the equal protection of the law were never intended to interfere 
with mesures which were past for the public betterment and for 
the public welfare. The supreme courts of this country both state 
and national, have always gone back to the Magna Charta and the 
Bill of Rights for their conception of life and liberty and property 
and equal protection, but where in these instruments was there any 
evidence of an intention to make property and individualism superior 
to the public welfare or to tie the hands of the law making body? 
The barons at Runnymede and the puritan revolutionists under 
Cromwell and the protestants of 1688 merely objected to the royal 
prerogativ, to the enforcement of a police power not by the consent 
of the governd, but by the whim and caprice of a single king. They 
wanted merely to keep the king within his constitutional executiv 
bounds, and all that our constitutions originally intended was to keep 
our executiv officers and our legislatures within theirs. ^^ The prov- 
ince of the legislatures is to legislate for the public good and they are 
limited in their powers merely by the constitutional inhibitions and 
requirements, which as a rule merely forbid the depriving any one 
of a day in court and a fair hearing, and which require that laws 
shall be generally applicable and be enforced upon all the members 
of the class to which they relate. They are not required to make 
all laws omnibus, nor was the determination of their wisdom and 
necessity intended to be taken from them and to be vested in the 
courts. The province of the courts is to see that the legislatures legis- 
late within their lines and it is not to inquire into the necessity of the 
legislation. 

15. The right of the courts, indeed, to inquire whether governmental 
acts are justified by the constitution and fundamental law was first as- 
serted from below and not from above and from a democratic impulse. It 
was the result of the theo-ry of the infallibility of the crown and of the 
royal prerogativ. As the "king could do no wrong," it was thought an 
agent or ministerial officer could be held liable in a civil or even a criminal 
action, who violated rights guaranteed by the Magna Charta, the Habeas 
Corpus Act, and the Bill of Rights, even tho he acted under royal com- 
mand or by the command of the king in council. The command, indeed, 
was considerd no command as being contrary to the fundamental law 
which was superior to the king. Since the "king could do no wrong," no 
one would be allowd to contend that the king had ever given it. But, as 
we have pointed out, it was never claimd that any court could set aside 
or hold an officer liable for enforcing an act which was past by the soveren 
people itself, that is — by the king, the lo-rds and the commons. 



76 The Quarterly Journal 

It is true that it is stated in Brooms Maxims that "It is indeed 
an essential principle of the law of England that the subject hath 
an undoubted property in his goods and possessions; otherwise there 
shall remain no industry, no more justice, no more valor ; for who 
will labor, who will hazard his person on the day of battle for that 
which is not his own?" This, however, applied to the individual as 
opposed to the communistic ownership of the proceeds of industry and 
did not in any way apply to the regulation of industry itself. It is 
as absurd, indeed, for the courts to say that freedom from govern- 
mental regulation and control was guaranteed by the Magna Charta 
as it was for them to say that the right to a trial by a jury of twelve 
men was guaranteed in that document. ^^ The Magna Charta was 
extorted from King John by but a few great lords and the high 
dignitaries of the church. Neither class of men was engaged in 
trade. At that time and up to the time of Charles I the right to 
trade was under governmental control and was to a large extent the 
subject of royal favor. The 5th and 14th amendments were not 
originally considerd as applicable to these things. To use the lan- 
guage of Mr. Justice Miller in the so-cald Slaughter House Cases, ^'^ 
in which the butchering of animals in the city of New Orleans was 
taken by the legislature from the public generally and granted to a 
single company, "The constitutional provision there alluded to did 
not create those rights, which it called privileges and immunities of 
citizens of the States. It threw around them in that clause no secur- 
ity for the citizen of the State in which they were claimed or exer- 
cised. Nor did it profess to control the power of the State govern- 
ments over the rights of its own citizens. Its sole purpose was to 
declare to the several States, that whatever those rights, as you grant 
or establish them to your citizens, or as you limit or qualify, or im- 
pose restrictions on their exercise, the same, neither more nor less, 
shall be the measure of the rights of citizens of other states within 
your jurisdiction. Was it the purpose of the fourteenth amendment, 
by the simple declaration that no State should make or enforce any 
law which shall abridge the privileges and immunities of citizens of 
the United States, to transfer the security and protection of all the 
civil rights which we have mentioned, from the States to the Federal 
government? And where it is declared that Congress shall have the 
power to enforce that article, was it intended to bring within the 
power of Congress the entire domain of civil rights heretofore be- 



16. This the Supreme Court has erroneously stated in more than one 
case. 

17. 16 Wall. 36. 



Judicial Legislation 77 

longing exclusively to the States? All this and more must follow, 
if the proposition of the plaintiffs in error be sound. For not only 
are these rights subject to the control of Congress whenever in its 
discretion any of them are supposed to be abridged by State legisla- 
tion, but that body may also pass laws in advance, limiting and re- 
stricting the exercise of legislative power by the States, in their most 
ordinary and usual functions, as in its judgment it may think proper 
on all such subjects. And still further, such a construction followed 
by the reversal of the judgments of the Supreme Court of Louisiana 
in these cases, would constitute this court a perpetual censor upon 
all legislation of the States, on the civil rights of their own citizens, 
with authority to nullify such as it did not approve as consistent with 
those rights, as they existed at the time of the adoption of this 
amendment. The argument we admit is not always the most con- 
clusive which is drawn from the consequences urged against the adop- 
tion of a particular construction of an instrument. But when, as in 
the case before us, these consequences are so serious, so far-reaching 
and pervading, so great a departure from the structure and spirit of 
our institutions; when the effect is to fetter and degrade the State 
governments by subjecting them to the control of Congress, in thf; 
exercise of powers heretofore universally conceded to them of the 
most ordinary and fundamental character; when in fact it radically 
changes the whole theory of the relations of the State and Federal 
governments to each other and of both these governments to the 
people ; the argument has a force that is irresistible, in the absence of 
language which expresses such a purpose too clearly to admit of 
doubt. We are convinced that no such results were intended by the 
Congress which proposed these amendments, nor by the legislatures 
of the States which ratified them. ****** Xhe argu- 
ment has not been much pressed in these cases that the defendant's 
charter deprives the plaintiffs of their property without due process 
of law, or that it denies to them the equal protection of the law. The 
first of these paragraphs has been in the Constitution since the adop- 
tion of the fifth amendment, as a restraint upon the Federal power. 
It is also to be found in some form of expression in the constitutions 
of nearly all the States, as a restraint upon the power of the States. 
This law, then, has practically been the same as it now is during the 
existence of the government, except so far as the present amendment 
may place the restraining power over the States in this matter in the 
hands of the Federal government. We are not without judicial in- 
terpretation, therefore, both State and National, of the meaning of 
this clause. And it is sufficient to say that under no construction of 



78 The Quarterly Journal 

that provision that we have ever seen, or any that we deem admissi- 
ble, can the restraint imposed by the State of Louisiana upon the 
exercise of their trade by the butchers of New Orleans be held to be 
a deprivation of property within the meaning of that provision. In 
the light of the history of these amendments, and the pervading pur- 
pose of them, which we have already discussed, it is not difficult to 
give a meaning to this clause. The existence of laws in the States 
where the newly emancipated negroes resided, which discriminated 
with gross injustice and hardship against them as a class, was the 
evil to be remedied by this clause, and by it such laws are forbidden. 
We doubt very much whether any action of a state not directed by 
way of discrimination against the negroes as a class, or on account of 
their race, will ever be held to come within the purview of this 
provision. It is so clearly a provision for that race and that emer- 
gency, that a strong case would be necessary for its application to any 
other." 

The same course of reasoning was followd in 1876 in the so- 
cald Granger Case of Munn v. Illinois, ^^ where an act of the state 
of Illinois which regulated and controld the charges of terminal grain 
elevators, was under consideration. "The question," the court said 
in its opinion, "is one of power, not of expediency. If no state of 
circumstances could exist to justify such a statute, then we may de- 

* 

clare this one void because in excess of the legislative power of the 
state. But if it could, we must presume it did. Of the propriety of 
legislative interference within the scope of legislative power, the leg- 
islature is exclusive judge." Again and in 1888 in the case of Powell 
V. Pennsylvania, ^^ in which the court sustaind a state statute which 
absolutely forbade the manufacturing of oleomargarine, no matter 
how helthful its constituents, Mr, Justice Harlan said, "Whether 
the manufacture of oleomargarine, or imitation butter, of the 
kind described in the statute, is or may be conducted in such a 
way, or with such skill and secrecy as to baffle ordinary inspection, or 
whether it involves such danger to the public health as to require, for 
the protection of the people, the entire suppression of the business 
rather than its regulation in such manner as to permit the manufac- 
ture and sale of articles of that class that do not contan noxious 
ingredients, are questions of fact and of public policy which belong 
to the legislative department to determine. And as it does not ap- 
pear upon the face of the statute, or from any facts of which the court 
must take judicial cognizance, that it infringes rights secured by the 

18. 94 u. s. 113. 

19. 127 U. S. 678. 



Judicial Legislation 79 

fundamental law, the legislative determination of those questions is 
conclusiv upon the courts. It is not a part of their functions to 
conduct investigations of facts entering into questions of public policy 
merely, and to sustain or frustrate the legislative will, embodied in 
statutes, as they may happen to approve or disapprove its determina- 
tion of such questions. The power which the legislature has to pro- 
mote the general welfare is very great, and the discretion which that 
department of the government has, in the employment of means to 
that end, is very large. While both its power and its discretion must 
be so exercised as not to impair the fundamental rights of life, liberty, 
and property, and while, according to the principles upon which our 
institutions rest, 'the very idea that one man may be compelled to 
hold his life, or the means of his living, or any material right es- 
sential to the enjoyment of life, at the mere will of another, seems 
to be intolerable in any country where freedom prevails, as being the 
essence of slavery itself,' yet 'in many cases of mere administration, 
the responsibility is purely political, no appeal lying except to the 
ultimate tribunal of the public judgment, exercised either in the 
pressure of public opinion, or by means of the suffrage.' Yick v. 
Hopkins, ii8 U. S. 370, 6 Sup. Ct. Rep. 1064. The case before 
us belongs to the latter class. The legislature of Pennsylvania, upon 
the fullest investigation, as we must conclusively presume, and upon 
reasonable grounds, as must be assumed from the record, has deter- 
mined that the prohibition of the sale, or offering for sale, or having 
in possession to sell, for purposes of food, of any article manufactured 
out of oleaginous substances or compounds other than those produced 
from unadulterated milk, or cream from unadulterated milk, to take 
the place of butter produced from unadulterated milk, or cream from 
unadulterated milk, will promote the public health, and prevent 
frauds in the sale of such articles. If all that can be said of this leg- 
islation is that it is unwise, or unnecessarily oppressive to those manu- 
facturing or selling wholesome oleomargarine as an article of food, 
their appeal must be to the legislature, or to the ballot-box, not to the 
judiciary. The latter cannot interfere without usurping powers 
committed to another department of government. It is argued in 
behalf of the defendants, that if the statute in question is sustained 
as a valid exercise of legislative power, then nothing stands in the 
way of the destruction, by the legislative department, of the constitu- 
tional guarantees of liberty and property. But the possibility of the 
abuse of legislative power does not disprove its existence." 

And this with few exceptions, has practically been the holding 
of the Supreme Court of the United States thruout its history, tho 



8o The Quarterly Journal 

it has not always been borne out by the dicta of its judges. The only 
cases, indeed, in which it has departed from the rule, have been a few 
taxation cases, railroad commission, and railroad rate cases and one 
labor case. In the first of these, the so-cald Railroad Commission 
Cases, ^'^ the court in 1886, sustaind the validity of a state statute 
which regulated the charges of railway companies, but limited the 
concession by the following words, "From what has thus been said, 
it is not to be inferred that this power of limitation or regulation is 
itself without limit. This power to regulate is not a power to destroy, 
and limitation is not the equivalent of confiscation. Under pretense 
of regulating fares and freights, the state cannot require a railroad 
corporation to carry persons or property without reward ; neither 
can it do that which in law amounts to a taking of private property 
for public use without just compensation, or without due process of 
law." 

In the second, that of the Chicago, St. Paul & Milwaukee R. R. 
Co. V. Minnesota, ^^ Mr. Justice Blatchford, in delivering the opin- 
ion of the court, said "The question of the reasonableness of a rate of 
charge for transportation by a railroad company, involving as it does 
the element of reasonableness both as regards the company and as re- 
gards the public, is essentially a question for judicial investigation, 
requiring due process of law for its determination. If the company 
is deprived of the power of charging rates for the use of its property, 
and such deprivation takes place in the absence of an investigation 
by judicial machinery, it is deprived of the lawful use of its property 
and thus, in substance and effect, of the property itself, without due 
process of law, and in violation of the Constitution of the United 
States, and in so far as it is thus deprived, while other persons are 
permitted to receive reasonable profits upon their invested capital, the 
company is deprived of the equal protection of the laws." 

In the third case, Regan v. Farmers Loan and Trust Co., ^^ the 
court held that the court had jurisdiction to inquire into the matter 
of rates and to award the shipper any amount exacted from him in 
excess of a reasonable rate, and this, irrespectiv of the fact as to 
whether the rates were fixt by the railroad company or by the legis- 
lature itself. This was held to be part of due process of law and 
the doctrine was re-affirmd in Smith v. Ames ^^ and in the so-cald 
Consolidated Gas Company Case. ^4 



20. 


116 


U. 


S. 307. 


21. 


134 


U. 


S. 148. 


22. 


154 


U. 


S. 362. 


23. 


169 


u. 


S. 466 


24. 


(? 







Judicial Legislation 8i 

The labor case is that of Lochner v. People of State of N. Y,, 25 
and was decided in 1905. This case is one of a series of labor cases 
and is the only one of such series in which the supreme court has op- 
posed its discretion to that of the state courts and of the state legis- 
lature, 26 In it, however, it set aside as unreasonable and as a der- 
ivation of liberty and property without due process of law, a statute 
of the state of New York which limited the hours of labor in public 
bake shops to ten hours a day." "It must of course be conceded," 
says Mr. Justice Peckham in the opinion of the court, "that there is 
a limit to the valid exercise of the police power by the State * * * 
Otherwise the Fourteenth Amendment would have no efficacy in 
the legislatures, and the legislatures of the States would have un- 
bounded power, and it would be enough to say that any piece of leg- 
islation was enacted to conserve the morals, the health, or the safety 
of the people ; such legislation would be valid no matter how abso- 
lutely without foundation the claim might be. The claim of the 
police power would be a mere pretext, — become another and elusive 
name for the sovereignty of the State, to be exercised free from con- 
stitutional restraint. * * * * J^ every case that comes before 
this Court, therefore, where legislation of this character is concerned 
and where the protection of the Federal Court is sought, the question 
necessarily arises: Is this a fair, reasonable, and appropriate exercise 
of the police power of the State, or is it unreasonable, unnecessary, 
and arbitrary interference with the right of the individual to his per- 
sonal liberty?" This case is, however, as we before intimated, but 
one of a series and is the only one of such series in which the court 
assumed or attempted to review the discretion of the state legislature. 
Even it was followd in 191 1 by the so-cald Oregon Ten Hour Labor 
Case in which on a somewhat similar state of facts the court yielded 
to the legisiativ discretion. '^^ Even in the Lochner Case, there 
were four dissenting opinions, and no one can help but be imprest by 
the words of Mr. Justice Harlan to the effect that the "responsibility 
therefore, rests upon legislators, not upon the courts. No evils aris- 
ing from such legislation could be more far reaching than those that 
might come through our system of government if the judiciary, 
abandoning the sphere assigned to it by the fundamental law, should 
Iter the domain of legislation, and upon grounds merely of justice 
. wisdom annul statutes that had received the sanction of the peo- 
p'r representatives. We are reminded by counsel that it is the 



198 U. S. 45. 

2t. 
!S3 



2t. See Holden v. Hardy, 169 U. S. 366; Knoxville Iron Co. v. Harbison, 
; U. S. 13; Muller v. Oregon, 208 U. S. 412. 
'uller V. Oregon, 208 U. S. 412. 



82 The Quarterly Journal 

solemn duty of the courts in cases before them to guard the constitu- 
tional right of a citizen against mere arbitrary power. That is 
unquestionably true. But it is equally true, — indeed, the public im- 
peratively demand — that legislative enactments should be recognized 
and enforced by the courts as embodying the will of the people, unless 
they are plainly and palpably beyond all question in violation of the 
fundamental law of the Constitution." ^s 

As we have before said, this doctrine of a newer individualism 
tho asserted in the dicta of many other cases, has only been in- 
sisted upon by the supreme court of the nation in taxation, railroad 
and one labor case. And is not the reason back of these 
decisions a reason which is national, rather than individual- 
istic, and cannot the decisions be justified on national, rather 
than upon individualistic lines? Cannot the supreme court 
of the nation adhere to its decisions in all but one of these cases, but 
emphasize a newer reason therefor, and both harmonize them with 
the so-cald Minnesota Rate Case and disown once and for all the 
intention of applying the test of reasonableness to all state legislation 
which in any way interferes with liberty or with property. Can any 
one, indeed, examin the cases in which the right of supervision was 
exercised, and the test of reasonableness applied, and compare them 
with the cases of Powell v. Penns3dvania, the Slaughter House Cases 
and the case of Holden v. Hardy without feeling that some new motiv 
or fear influenced the judges, and that that motiv was not prejudis 
nor corruption, but the feeling that the railroad business was, after 
all inter and not intra state, and that the unchekt tendency of the state 
legislatures to prescribe confiscatory rates would result in wreck- 
ing the trade and commerce not merely of the states concernd, but 
of the United States as a whole. Could not the court, however, as 
did the lower tribunal in the recent Minnesota Rate cases, have 
taken the position that the state statutes were regulations of inter- 
state and not of state commerce, and were therefore void, and at the 
same time have disclaimd all intention of reviewing any state legisla- 
tion which was within the state's province and jurisdiction and did 
not interfere with interstate commerce, the currency, the postal sys- 
tem or anything over which Congress had exclusiv control? In the 
same way can any one read the decision of the Supreme Court in the 

28. Nor can we fail to be imprest with the truth and pertinence of the 
remarks of Mr. Justice Holmes that "It is settled by various decisions of 
this Court that State constitutions and State laws may regulate life in 
many ways which we as legislators might think as injudicious or, if you 
like, as tyrannical as this and which equally with this, interfere with the 
liberty of contract. * * * * The Fourteenth Amendment does not ei.iact 
Mr. Herbert Spencer's Statics. ***** j^ constitution was not in- 
tended to embody a particular economic theory, whether of paternalisni and 
the organic relation of the citizen to the State or of laissez faire." 



Judicial Legislation 83 

Lockwood Case, without feeling that somehow or other Mr. Justice 
Brewer had dominated the deliberations of that body, that the court 
had watcht the growing strength of organized labor and the great 
interstate strikes of the Ann Arbor and Burlington Railroads and the 
paralysization of national industry, which were the results of the 
troubles in the anthracite coal district and of the so-cald Debb's Strike 
and had begun to feel that, for the sake of national security and pros- 
perity, the power of labor must in some way be controld and its poli- 
tical power over individual state legislatures be checkt ; and could 
they not now assert that supervision and control in matters which are 
interstate and repudiate it in those which are not? The case of 
Lochner v. New York, indeed, is really out of harmony with a long 
line of cases. It was decided by a majority of only one. Was it not, 
and were not the railroad cases before referd to, the result of the 
fear expressed by Mr. Justice Brewer when in the year 1893 in an 
address before the New York Bar Association, he said: "There are 
to-day ten thousand million of dollars invested in railroad property, 
whose owners in this country number less than two million persons. 
Can it be that whether that immense sum shall earn a dollar, or bring 
the slightest recompense to those who have invested perhaps their all 
in that business, and are thus aiding in the development of the coun- 
tr}', depends wholly upon the whim and greed of that great majority 
of sixty millions who do not own a dollar? It may be said that that 
majority will not be so foolish, selfish and cruel as to strip that prop- 
erty of its earning capacity, I say that so long as constitutional 
guaranties lift on American soil their buttresses and bulwarks against 
wrong, and so long as the American judiciary breathes the free air 
of courage, it cannot. ***** Within limits of law and 
justice, labor organizations and state regulation of charges for the 
use of property which is in fact devoted to public uses are commenda- 
ble. But with respect to the proposition that the public may rightfully 
regulate the charges for the use of any property in whose use it has an 
interest, I am like the lawyer, who, when declared guilty of contempt, 
responded promptly that he had shown no contempt, but on the con- 
trary had carefully concealed his feelings. ***** Will 
the many who find in its progress temporary and apparent advantages, 
so clearly discern the ultimate ruin which flows from injustis as 
voluntarily to desist? or must there be some force, some tribunal, 
outside as far as possible, to lift the restraining hand? The answer 
is obvious. Power always chafes at, but needs, restraint. This is 
true whether that power be in a single monarch or in a majority. 
All history attests the former. We are making that which proves 



84 The Quarterly Journal 

the latter. The triple subdivision of governmental powers into legis- 
lative, executive and judicial, recognizes the truth, and has provided 
in this last co-ordinate department of government the restraining 
force. And the question which now arises is whether, in view of this 
exigency, the functions of the judiciary should be strengthened and 
enlarged, or weakened and restricted. * * * * Now, if ever in 
the history of this country, must there be somewhere and somehow a 
controlling force which speaks for justice, and for justice only. Let 
this movement sweep on with no restraining force, and it is the rule 
of all such movements, that unchecked, they grow in violence, and 
Carlyle's Shooting Niagara will epitomize the story of the downfall 
and departure from this western continent of government 'of the 
people, by the people, and for the people.' What, then, ought to be 
done? My reply is, strengthen the judiciary." 

Is it not time that the courts both state and national should 
cease to review the legislativ discretion and should confine their ef- 
forts to legitimate judicial construction and to the keeping of the 
various departments of government within the limits which the con- 
stitution have clearly prescribed ? There is, at any rate, hardly an 
instance where they have opposed their judgment upon a question of 
fact and of necessity to that of the legislativ bodies that they have not 
later been compeld to yield to the popular sentiment and to retrace 
their steps and where the irritation caused by the conflict has been 
compensated for by the good accomplisht. 

The fears exprest by Mr. Justice Brewer are no dout in a 
large mesure well grounded, but it is after all to the popular con- 
science and to the popular intelligence that we must appeal, for our 
democracy will never for long forego its right of ultimate judgment 
and of ultimate control. The powers vested in Congress to regulate 
interstate commerce and its other undouted prerogativs would cer- 
tainly have furnisht pretext enough for the Supreme Court of the 
nation to check an unreasoning legislativ radicalism in the cases men- 
tiond and to obviate the disasters feard by the eminent justice. If 
Congress cannot be trusted to be wisely conservativ and to duly pro- 
tect personal and property rights, no other body can. In England the 
courts never attempt to set aside an act of parliament on the grounds 
of basic unreasonableness. The House of Lords is barrier enough 
against a ruinous legislativ radicalism. Our upper houses composed as 
they are in a large mesure of traind and able lawyers, should be trusted 
to perform a similar public function. All that is generally necessary, 
indeed, is to keep the departments of the government both state and 
national within their respectiv spheres. 



Book Reviews 



The Fourth Physician: Montgomery Pickett. A. C. Mc- 
Clurg and Company, Chicago, Illinois. 191 1. Price, $1.00. 

The Fourth Physician is a little novel which is full of psycho- 
logical and sociological interest, but which is so fascinating in its style 
and so interesting in its theme that it is only after we have laid it 
aside that we realize its depth and its meaning. It is a beautiful 
Christmas story, but it is a story which is more than beautiful. It 
is a novel, but it is something more than a novel. It is timely at this 
Christmas season, and it will be timely at all Christmas seasons. 

It is an expansion of a play by the same author and of the same 
title which recently won the first place in a great dramatic contest 
conducted by The Chicago Tribune, in which eleven hundred con- 
testants were enterd, and concerning which the well-known author 
and critic Elia W. Peattie so aptly said that "A mystic note of wor- 
ship and humanitarianism is struck which reaches somehow down to 
the roots of the emotions. It deals with men of science and men of 
faith, and it depicts graphically and dramatically a spiritual conflict 
into which they are drawn, the issue of the contest providing a situa- 
tion of moving power and impressive beauty." 

Such books are perennial because the emotions which they betray 
and the inspiration which they furnish are perennial. The work, 
indeed, tho a novel has more than the ordinary novel's value, and is 
of real psychological and sociological interest. Back of the science 
of sociology are human lives and human motivs, and these the book 
portrays in all their tragic pettiness and in all their godlike beauty. 
It is the story of a fashionable city physician who is taught at last how 
to heal himself. It is the story of one who in saving others learned 
how to save his own soul. Its climax is to be found in the words of a 
faithful negro servant of the old school who, tho droll and ebon-hued, 
had had reveald to him the mysteries of The Great, The Fourth 
Physician, "Can't you see, sah? You wah de patient, an' you am 
healed !" 

It is a doctor's book, but it belongs to us all. It depicts with 
merciless accuracy the sordid selfishness of a fashionable physician, 
but it also depicts the abnegation of the profession. The author 
heard of and was fild with admiration for a well known physician 
who with faith and courage fought out and won a seemingly hopeless 



86 The Quarterly Journal 

battle against deth, and with the help of a faithful nurse who was 
equally devoted and brave, saved the life of a little child. The in- 
cident, however, suggested a larger and a bigger thought, the thought 
of Christmastide, the thought that human professions and callings 
are only ennobled as they serv, and that the "little one" to whom 
the "cup of cold water" should be given is not the child of the well- 
to-do alone, but of the tenement and of the slums also. 

The climax of the book is the supreme revelation which sooner 
or later comes to every great physician, to every great lawyer, to every 
great teacher and to every great man, that whosoever saveth his life 
will lost it, and that oftentimes the sacrifice of welth and ambition 
and influence but opens a way so that the Kingdom of God may enter 
and be enthroned. 

A. A. Bruce 
College of Law, 

University of North Dakota 



The Bi-Literal Cypher of Sir Francis Bacon, Discovered in 
his works and Deciphered by Mrs. Elizabeth Wells Gallup. 
Part III, "The Lost Manuscripts." Howard Publishing Com- 
pany, Detroit, Michigan. Gay and Hancock, Limited, London, 
pp. 234. Price, $2.00. 

This new contribution of deciferd material from editions of the 
works of Francis Bacon publisht from 1622 to 167 1 form a volume 
much like Part I, bearing the same general title, put out in 1900. 
The book is not generally known or accredited as authoritativ as the 
statements are contradictory to accepted history, and persons not hav- 
ing masterd the art of decifering cannot verify the work. It is to be 
hoped that the appearance of this new volume will bring about a care- 
ful investigation and that painstaking work on the part of thoro re- 
search students may give us many deciferers in place of one. 

To aid would-be-deciferers there is added to the book as an intro- 
ductory primer facsimile pages of the chapter on cifers from Bacon's 
de Augmentis Scientiarum, London, 1623, and Paris, 1624, also the 
translation of Gilbert Wats, 1640, and that of Spedding, Ellis, and 
Heath containing the bi-literal cifer which Bacon invented in his 
youth and here gave out forty-five years later as of the highest degree 
of cifer fully described and applied to script for use in correspondence. 
It occurd to Mrs. Gallup that perhaps he might have used it in the 
mixt type of his time and she applied herself for months to the study 
of the italics of the 1623 Folio of Shakespeare's works and made her 



Book Reviews 87 

wonderful discovery. Illustrativ examples are given showing the 
method of extracting the cifer messages from pages of the 1623 and 
1632 Folios of Shakespeare's works, Bacon's Novum Organum, 1620, 
and Spenser's Complaints, 1591. 

It appears that Bacon taught cifering but left the method of de- 
cifering to be acquired by the inductiv method. This would seem to 
be Mrs. Gallup's greatest contribution, since she alone has masterd 
the art. Continuing in the work for the last fifteen years, she has 
been able to decifer sixty-one books, giving us over 600 pages. Much 
of the deciferd story from editions before Bacon's deth is made up 
of repetitions of the sercrets of the life of Queen Elizabeth, her hus- 
band the Earl of Leicester and their two sons, Francis Bacon and 
Robert, Earl of Essex. William Rawley after Bacon's deth confirms 
the statements of his late master and also tells how he cared for the 
manuscripts of the works which were put out under the masks — 
Spenser, Peele, Greene, Marlowe, Burton and Shakespeare. 

Bacon states that one of the purposes of the bi-literal cifer was 
to guide and teach a greater cifer — the key-word cifer. This third 
volume contains most important lists of keys and directions for the 
word cifer which were omitted from the former volumes. With 
these it may be possible to reconstruct with some degree of certainty 
the work of Dr. O. W. Owen. If sufficient, this will prove a most 
valuable contribution and furnish a great field for research. It is to 
be regretted that the book has not full explanatory notes and all refer- 
ences necessary to follow the cifer in the original editions, but on 
the other hand, for the general reader it would be more acceptable if 
the statements were culd and the spelling modernized. The illustra- 
tions are a pleasing addition but could have been much more useful 
to the student if facsimile plates had been made as the differences 
in the letters of the inscriptions do not carry in the process used. 
Mrs. Gallup gives us a very interesting account of her search for 
the manuscripts, but it does not seem final, and when this new lan- 
guage can be speld out for all, a more exhaustiv search will be de- 
manded. 

The editor has kindly introduced us to the author by a prefatory 
biografy and her picture. We cannot escape a verdict — either the 
Howard Publishing Company are perpetrating the most monstrous 
literary fraud of the century, or Mrs. Gallup has found the wondrous 
work of a super-man, and is able to restore it. The problem before 
us is not the consideration of all this, or the rethreshing of the Shakes- 
peare-Bacon controversy, but first the verification of the decifering 
of the vast amount of material in cifer signed by Bacon, Rawley, 



88 The Quarterly Journal 

Dugdale and others in the editions of books from 1579 to 1679 pub- 
lish! under the names of Spenser, Peele, Greene, Marlowe, Shakes- 
peare, Bacon, and Burton's "Anatomy of Melancholy." When once 
the material is proved to be genuin, we shall be redy for the historian 
and the literary critic to weigh and use or reject as he must. 

Speculations as to the truth of the statements, the purpose of the 
author or the use to us of a change of belief, etc., are not to the point. 
The first volumes have been put in the museums or markt "Re- 
served" and relegated to a book prison. To-day this new volume 
is before us and it is time that those who speak with authority at our 
seats of learning look into this work which seems to have taken six- 
teen years of painstaking labor on the part of a sane research student. 

Anna A. Schryver 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 



The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Part VIII. Edited, with Transla- 
tions and Notes by Arthur S. Hunt. Seven plates, Egypt 
Exploration Fund, London, 191 1. Price, $6.25: to Subscribers, 
$5.00. 

The Egypt Exploration Fund has placed the learned world 
under further obligation by the publication of another volume under 
the Graeco-Roman branch. The present volume, the eleventh under 
this series, is the eighth collection that has appeared of the Oxyrhyn- 
chus papyri under the editorship of Doctors Grenfell and Hunt. 
This eleventh volume includes nine theological fragments, eight new 
classical texts, bits from ten extant secular authors, and sixty-six 
non-literary pieces. 

Valuable is a fourth century vellum fragment of the Latin 
Bible from Gen. v-vi, showing twenty-five lines on each side, recto 
and verso, of the leaf. This find is of more than usual value since 
our present Vulgate text is for about half of the Old Testament the 
sole authority, the Old Latin being imperfectly known. Two brief 
third century fragments from the Septuagint follow, Ex. xxxi, xxxii, 
xl, interesting for occasional agreements with Cod. A. as against 
Cod. B. — The verso of one of these fragments (No. 1075), which, 
by the way, is part of a roll and not from a book, shows the opening 
verses of the Apocalypse — late third or fourth century. The text 
inclines to that of Cod. A. rather than of Cod. B ^. Other theo- 
logical fragments are bits of Heb. ix and Rev. iii, iv (vellum). A 
vellum leaf of the sixth century gives a new recension of Tobit ii, 
the text not agreeing thruout with either ^ or B A. In parallel 



Book Reviews 89 

colums the editor presents the three texts with the Vulgate for 
comparativ study. Of curious interest is an amulet fashiond from 
a bit of vellum showing Matt. iv. 23 f. The writing is arranged 
in five colums, each colum written in crux form, three crosses in 
each column except the third, where a human bust takes the place 
of the middle cross. The crosses in the outside colums are sur- 
rounded each by a border. The fragment is further decorated by 
cutting notches from between the colums as if by folding the leaf 
over and notching with the shears. Mention should be made also of 
the valuable plates at the close of the volume enabling the student 
to make some first-hand studies for himself. Finally there is a por- 
tion of a Gnostic gospel, possibly, as suggested by Professor Swete, 
the Valentinian Gosepl of Truth (Iren., C. Haer. iii 11. 9). 

Some reality is given to the philosopher of Megalopolis, Cercidas, 
by the finding of fragments of a roll giving portions of two of his 
poems. Cercidas urges the supremacy of Fate, before whom even 
Zeus is impotent. Under the guise of an earthly triad — "Paean," 
"Giving," and "Retribution" — the writer pleads for help for the 
needy in body and soul and punishment for evil doers. Other sec- 
ond century fragments include a bit from a satyric drama and por- 
tions from the Atlantis of Hellanicus and the Hadrian and Antinous 
of Pancrates. There are scholia on the Iliad (ii, vii) dating to the 
first century, and an Alexandrian chronicle of the third century. 
Among extant authors are to be mentiond Hesiod, Bacchylides, Her- 
odotus, Demosthenes, Isocrates, Vergil (ii, cent iv), and a Greek 
paraphrase of Vergil (a bilingual word-list). 

The new volume is rich in non-literary documents ranging in 
date from A. D. i (a temple-account) to the sixth century. These 
the editor classifies as: (i) Official, (2) Declarations to Officials, 
(3) Petitions, (4) Contracts, (5) Taxation, (6) Orders, (7) Ac- 
counts, (8) Oracular Questions and Amulets, (9) Private Cor- 
respondence. We find here the open door to the real hart life of the 
people. Here is the human touch that makes them akin to us. Nice 
questions the oracle as to the expediency of purchasing a slave. A 
Christian prays the patron Saint Philoxenus to show in some won- 
drous way whether a friend should be taken to hospital. There is a 
curiously worded prayer, a blend of magical, Jewish, and Christian 
elements, "Oror, phor, eloi, adonai, lao saboath, Michael, Jesus 
Christ, help us and this house." In the course of his letter to his 
son, Apollonius says: "If I can buy a cloak for you privately, I will 
send it at once, if not, I will have it made for you at home. The 
blankets have been cut out; the account of them, as you write, shall 



90 The Quarterly Journal 

be sent by Diogas to Nicanor through Heraclas. A pattern of the 
colour of the dress that is being made is enclosed in this letter." 
Theon advises his sister: "Do not be anxious about me because I am 
away from home, for I am personally acquainted with these places 
and am not a stranger here." "When you come," writes a husband 
to his wife, "bring the old cushion that is up in the dining-room. 
Salute my children whom the evil eye shall not harm, and our 
mother and your sister and all my friends." 

Copious notes, textual, historical, and literary accompany each 
piece, and the editor, himself a critic of wide range of knowledge 
and recognized skill, has availd himself of the help of such experts 
as Wilamowitz-Moellendorf¥, Swete, and others, and the scope of 
his reading is evidenced by the number of authors cited, secular and 
ecclesiastical, and by the bibliografies at the opening of the volume. 
The book's usefulness is greatly enhanced by copious indices, as 
tables of Emperors, consuls, months and days, personal names, geo- 
graphical divisions, as nomes, cities, religious terms, official and mili- 
tary titles, weights, mesures, and coins, taxes, Greek and Latin words, 
and an index of passages discust. 

W. N. Stearns 
Department of History, 
University of North Dakota 



Fundamentals of the Christian Religion: Samuel F. Half- 
yard, Professor of Philosophy and Theology in Wesley College. 
Eaton and Mains, New York, 191 1, pp. 242. Price, $1.00. 

In the seven chapters of this book, Dr. Halfyard discusses in 
a clear and illuminating way and with genuin insight the relation 
of Christianity to other religions, the Christian idea of God with 
special emphasis on the doctrine of divine Fatherhood, the preemi- 
nence of Christ, the moral nature of man, and the problem of im- 
mortality. The work makes no pretense to special originality, its aim 
being rather to set forth in popular form free from technicalities the 
best thought of the day in regard to these difficult but exceedingly 
interesting subjects. The author is liberal and progressiv in his ideas 
and irenic in spirit, making few if any attempts at the destructiv 
criticism of others' views, but aiming rather to present his own with 
clearness and cogency. Any one familiar with traditional theological 
discussion will be struck almost as much by what is not said as by 
what is; for most of the time-honord bones of theological contention 
are never referd to. One finds, for instance, nothing about total de- 



Book Reviews 91 

pravity, predestination, election, justification, or the other great points 
of Calvinism ; nothing about the inspiration of the Scriptures, the 
virgin-birth or divine nature of Christ, or the significance and value 
of the Sacraments. In omitting these things Dr. Halfyard has, in 
the main, done well ; for most of them are now only of antiquarian 
interest. They were never discust by Christ himself and have now, 
fortunately, ceast to be regarded as essential dogmas. Feeling, dout- 
less, that he could not within the limits of his volume discuss fully 
every aspect of Christian doctrine, he selected for treatment the really 
vital questions which specially appeal to thinking men and women in 
the twentieth century. 

If one wisht to criticise the style, one might call attention to a 
tendency to repetitiousness or excessiv re-iteration which is found 
here and there. Sometimes one finds two or three sentences in suc- 
cession in which practically no progress is made ; they simply mark 
time. Iteration, it is true, tends to clearness, and is often a useful 
device, especially in teaching, or in spoken discourse, where the 
thought has to be caught, as it were, on the wing; but in written 
style it is less useful, and in reading this volume one feels that in 
some places it is overdone. Again, Dr. Halfyard quotes too much, 
erring especially in borrowing too many little snatches of phraseology. 
In most of these cases the author's name is not given ; and so the 
quotation carries no special authority. It is evidently used because 
it is deemd to be particularly felicitous, as indeed it generally is ; but 
too many quotations tend to interrupt the flow of the author's own 
thought, and one feels that in most cases, at least, the author could 
have exprest the idea quite as happily in his own words. 

These seeming defects do not, however, seriously impair the value 
of the book for those for whom it is intended. The Sunday-School 
teacher, the intelligent layman who is desirous of knowing what are 
to-day regarded as the real fundamentals of Christian faith, the stu- 
dent who is beginning to think seriously of the problems of human 
life, the rural clergyman who does not have access to a large library 
and who feels somewhat at sea as to the trend of thought in the 
twentieth century will all find in this work an admirable guide to 
their thinking. They will find in it a wise selection of material, a 
bredth of view which comprehends the best results of modern scien- 
tific and philosophic thought, a profound knowledge of the Scrip- 
tures in the light of recent research, a clear unambiguous style, 
genuin religious insight, a beautiful spirit of true piety, and a deep 
reverence for the great verities of the Christian faith. They will 
find a book which is at once interesting, informing, and inspiring. 

V. P. Squires 

Department of English, 
University of North Dakota 



University Notes 

Bureau of Educa- The Bureau of Educational Cooperation, for- 
tional Cooperation n^gj-ly known as the Extension Department, bids 
fair to become one of the most activ and productiv departments of 
the University. The preliminary work, consisting largely in the 
preparation of circulars and other publications and the outlining of 
plans and methods, has been pusht activly forward during the summer 
under the direction of the secretary, Miss Mabel Randolph, with 
the assistance of the Field Organizer, Mr. N. C. Abbott. Four 
special bulletins have been issued thus far: one covering the work 
of the Bureau in a general way and three others giving details of the 
courses of study that are open to correspondence instruction. One 
of these latter discusses the courses in business methods, economics 
and political science, law, and sociology ; one takes up the courses for 
teachers, and the third is devoted to general university courses. 

During the summer, the Field Organizer visited all of the large 
summer schools of the state and presented the general work of the 
Bureau with special emphasis on the possibilities of correspondence 
instruction. Great interest in the work was shown by the teachers 
in attendance, and a large number of enrollments are in prospect. 
The inquiries cover practically all the lines offerd at the University, 
and the majority of those who inquire do so with the object of taking 
up the work in such a way as to earn University credits. It is easily 
apparent that in entering upon this new field of effort, the University 
will render a genuin public servis. 

The Field Organizer of the Bureau will also have charge of the 
work of making the plans and arrangements for this year's extension 
lectures. An effort will be made to spred them out more widely than 
has been the case heretofore and to reach the more remote parts of 
the state. The Bureau will also serv as the official agency thru 
which University news will be disseminated, and a regular news 
letter will be sent out weekly to the leading newspapers of the state. 

The President's President McVey's annual report to the Board 
Annual Report ^f Trustees has just come from the printer's. 

It is brief but comprehensiv, the entire institution in its varied ac- 
tivities being past in review. As one might expect, considerable 
space is devoted to the student body. Tho a hard year, owing to the 
extensiv crop failure of 19 lO, the attendance in the colleges is shown 



University Notes 93 

to have increast by a comfortable per cent over that of the preceding 
year. Enrollment in the Model High School, hovi^ever, for various 
reasons, vv^as somevv^hat lower. Tho a young institution and in a 
new state, the entire attendance reacht very nearly the looo mark. 
And tho a home institution and emphasized as such, three foren 
countries and fifteen sister states were represented on the student 
rolls. The students are commended for good behavior and earnest 
work, and the religious life and athletic activities shown to be in a 
helthy condition. 

The affiliation idea by which the various religious denominations 
have been invited to locate near the University and make use of the 
facilities offerd, thus enabling them to concentrate their own efforts 
upon specifically religious instruction, is favorably commented upon. 
In this connection he says, "....with the passage of the years the 
wisdom of the arrangement becomes increasingly apparent." The 
feeling of loss experienced in the resignations of Doctor Thomas 
from the deanship of the College of Liberal Arts, of Judge Corliss 
and Mr. Skulason from the College of Law, of Doctor McDonald 
from the College of Medicin and of Miss Hickman from the library 
staff, is well voiced. The needs of the institution are briefly tho 
clearly set forth. As always, such needs can be sumd up in the one 
word 'money,' but yet money to hire needed instructors, to pay for 
needed campus improvements, and for additional bildings the demand 
for which is becoming year by year more imperativ. 

On the whole, the report is conservativly optimistic. One gets 
the impression from its reading that the institution is in a helthy 
condition, that progress is being made along all lines, that vigorous 
and intense, tho sane, activity and the growth and development that 
inevitably result from such are the characteristic features, and that 
ever increasing efficiency is the end clearly and intelligently in view. 

The University and Publicity has an attractiv ring about it that is 
the State Fair expected to arouse attention. North Dakota 

needs publicity since the memory of the Custer massacre and the 
Battle of Wounded Knee seem still to be the markings of the new 
Empire in the minds of many people. Yet schools, colleges, factories, 
railroads, immense acreage of splendid crops and constantly better 
housing prevail everywhere in the Commonwelth. The State Fair 
in Grand Forks has grown each year in attractivness and by the 
same token the University has been represented in this picture of 
state progress. The purpose of such representation has not been to 
try to transfer the University to the grounds of the Fair, but in an 



94 The Quarterly Journal 

attractiv way to extend the hospitality of the institution and to show 
some feature of interest. Two years ago much stress was laid upon 
the work in the lignite, last year the Public Health Laboratory and 
this year the experiments in wireless telegrafy brought more closely 
to visitors the nature of the work in that direction. Each year the 
University will expect to make some presentation of the progress of 
science, and in time the results of publicity will bring acknowledge- 
ment of the actual civilization that is to be found in North Dakota. 

The Dean of the Everywhere the word comes that the anatomist 
Medical School jg ^ -j-^j.^ ^vis" and most difficult to find. After 
several months' search Dr. H. E. French has been appointed to suc- 
ceed Professor M. A. Brannon as dean of the School of Medicin and 
Dr. A. L. McDonald as professor of anatomy. For the past four 
years Dr. French has been professor of anatomy at the University 
of South Dakota. His education was secured at the State College 
of Washington, where he receivd the degree of A.B., the Medical 
School of the Northwestern University, and at Chicago University. 
By the second he was awarded the degree of M.D. The letters 
receivd by the President of the University all express the high ap- 
preciation in which he is held by his brother scientists, and the Uni- 
versity of North Dakota looks forward to a real enjoyment in the 
services of the new dean of the Medical School. 

The University The book store question assumes considerable 

Cooperative Store proportions as a problem so soon as a university 
reaches any size. This is particularly true where the university cam- 
pus lies some distance from the buying places of the community. 
Originally the store at the University of North Dakota was estab- 
lisht more as a means of employment for needy students than as a 
medium for the sale of books. As the years have past, however, and 
the University enlarged, the book store business has become increas- 
ingly important, and correspondingly difficult of management by 
young men whose principal activities are in so different a line as that 
of study. 

In many institutions the co-operativ store has been tried without 
much success, the explanation being that it has lackt the stimulus of 
private business management. Nevertheless, under the sanction and 
support of the Trustees of the University, a Co-operativ Book Store 
has been organized, the stock of the old concern taken over, and a new 
regime establisht. The first step taken by the directors of the enter- 
prise, the stock of which is ownd for the most part by members of 



University Notes 95 

the student body, was to secure as manager the services of a traind 
business woman who had had experience in the book trade. Under the 
management of Miss Helen J. Adams a closer relationship among 
the students, with the accompanying stimulus to book ownership, is 
hoped for and lookt for. While the success of the semi co-operativ plan 
may be problematical as tried elsewhere, it is expected that the Uni- 
versity Co-operativ Store will spell success by the end of the year. 

The Sock and The drama is a moving representation of human 

Buskin Society jjfg jj^ jj-g many moods. It has come from the 

inborn desire of man to understand his own nature, to see himself 
in true perspectiv. For the proper direction of this impulse the Sock 
and Buskin Society of the University of North Dakota was formd. 
Its object is not merely to give students of talent opportunity for prac- 
tis in the presentation of dramas, rather, as the constitution of the 
society puts it, "To study the literature of the drama, to promote 
the art of the theater by the discussion and presentation of good plays, 
to stimulate and develop higher ideals for the drama in America, and 
to initiate a movement to establish, as soon as practicable, a Univer- 
sity Theater at the University of North Dakota." 

The society was organized in January, 19 10. Its membership, 
limited at first to thirty, now to forty, is made up from both fac- 
ulty and student bodies. The basis of admission is merit, each can- 
didate being required either to present before the society an approved 
scene from dramatic literature or to submit a satisfactory piece of 
dramatic criticism. Much of the time of the meetings is given to the 
discussion of carefully prepared papers bearing on dififerent phases of 
the literature of the drama and the various problems of the modern 
stage. The following partial list of topics discust by the society will 
give some idea of the scope of its work: 

The Theater: Its Origin and End, 

Henrik Ibsen, 

George Bernard Shaw, 

The Out-of-door Theater, 

The European Problem Play, 

The Modern Problem Play, 

Some Phases of the Modern Stage, 

Everyman. 

The policy of the society is to present at least one significant 
play in public each year. Its first production was an out-of-door 
performance of Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, during Commence- 
ment week, June, 19 10. Staged on the University campus, under 



g6 The Quarterly Journal 

ideal wether conditions, before a large and appreciativ audience, the 
play was an unqualified success. This was the first out-of-door per- 
formance of Shakespeare ever given in the state of North Dakota. 
The revival of the impressiv Morality Play of the fifteenth century, 
Everyman, at the Metropolitan Theater in Grand Forks in April, 
191 1, as the society's second public performance was a distinct con- 
tribution, again being the first play of its type ever given in the state. 
The performance was unique, the scenery — an old XV century 
cathedral interior — being designd especially for the production by a 
member of the society, and the title role, "Everyman," the society 
believes, for the first time since its original production more than four 
hundred years ago, being taken by a man. The Sock and Buskin 
Society, with two very successful years behind it, is planning even 
more and better things for the future. 

The Preparatory The evolution of the profession of nursing in this 
Course for Nurses ^^^ other countries has been an interesting proc- 
ess, especially within the past ten years. It has not been at all unlike 
the evolution of the profession of medicin, indeed, has kept even 
pace with it. As the medical profession has developt giving the prac- 
titioner more and greater opportunities for usefulness, and as he has 
thus assumed larger and more intricate responsibilities in the great 
work of life-saving, more and more has he come to rely upon his 
skild nurse. 

But to meet the exigencies of this growing profession — made 
more largely useful but, as well, more difficult and exacting, by the 
marvelous advances in science — the nurse as well as the physician 
must have an enlarged equipment. That all this is true can easily 
be seen by a glance at the enlarged scope of work and the broadend 
field of the nurse's activities of the present time. Some twenty-five 
or thirty years ago practically the only work done by the profes- 
sional nurse was in an occasional private home of welth and in the 
small variety of hospital positions then open. To-day, however, her 
field is broad and her openings many. In addition to the above, 
many times multiplied, we find her in the public school, likewise en- 
gaged in hospital social servis work, and in alms houses. She is often 
employd by the large industrial establishment to work among the 
employees. We find her, too, in the employ of the city acting as 
district nurse, as tenement house inspector, and in pure milk stations. 
Her services are also constantly being enlisted in behalf of such great 
humanitarian movements as the tuberculosis propganada and in pre- 
ventiv work of many kinds. The present-day idea of social better- 



University Notes 97 

ment demands educated women for such positions, women who not 
only know how to do things but why they do them; women of broad 
sympathies and social understanding as well as of practical skill. 
This enlarging field of nursing activities makes a new and direct call 
upon the hospital training schools; these must uphold high standards 
of entrance requirements and furnish a type of professional training 
which will fit the student not only for private and hospital servis, but 
for the social and educational fields as well. 

All this lays a hevy burden upon the hospital, hevier than can 
well be borne. Central Preparatory Schools have recently been ad- 
vocated by prominent educators to satisfy this need. Such a school, 
it is thought, could do for a number of hospitals what each is now 
trying to do, yet doing in a very imperfect manner, for itself. Aside 
from relieving the hospitals of a work not their own, it could do in 
a much better way the work needed. Many things could easily be 
said in favor of such an institution. It may come in time. In the 
meantime, the situation must be met in some other way. The uni- 
versity, especially the state university, which is the college of the 
people, should be particularly interested in providing the highest and 
most selectiv training for those who are to engage in pursuits where 
human life and human helth are concernd. 

The University of North Dakota, in trying to meet this situation 
and at the same time furnish young women having inclinations to- 
ward this really splendid servis with adequate preparation, establisht, 
one year ago, in connection with the College of Medicin, a course 
of study for the education of nurses. The work was placed in the 
hands of a competent, well traind, and experienced nurse. It has 
been successful, and promises much for the future. The course as 
workt out and now in operation covers one year and includes, among 
other things, anatomy, physiology, chemistry, dietetics, principles of 
nursing, household and hospital economics, and materia medica taught 
from the standpoint of the nurse. After the completion of the year's 
work the student enters the hospital of her choice (affiliated with the 
University) for two years of practical training and further theory 
in nursing. She is then etnltled to a diploma from the University 
and is conslderd prepared to enter any of the above-metlond fields of 
servis. 

Hl^h School De- A very interesting line of work among the high 
bating League g^^^Q^ig ^f ^^^ ^^^^^ 1^ ^j^^^. carried on by the 

High School Debating League. Organized two years ago, under 
the auspices of the University, it has more than met the hopes of its 



98 The Quarterly Journal 

founders. The purpose of the League is to give the high school stu- 
dents of the state practis in the investigation and discussion of im- 
portant public questions. To facilitate the work, the state has been 
divided into districts and the work so pland as to provide for pre- 
liminary, local, and district contests, all culminating in a State Con- 
test held at the University near the close of the academic year — at the 
time, indeed, of the annual Interscholastic Track meet and the an- 
nual Principals' Conference. 

The material objectiv point is a handsome Trophy Cup con- 
tributed by the Grand Forks Herald. It enters into the possession 
of the school winning the final contest and, with the victory duly 
inscribed, remains its property until won another year by some other 
school. However, should it be won by the same school for three 
successiv years, it then becomes that school's permanent property. 

The librarian of the University takes an activ part in the work 
of the League, making bibliografies of all questions selected for de- 
bate, and sending the same and even material, in the form of books, 
pamphlets, and periodicals, on request to any school in the state. 

During the first year fourteen high schools debated the question : 

"Resolved, That the commission form of government, as pro- 
vided in Chapter 45, Session Laws of 1907, State of North Dakota, 
is superior to the mayor and council form." 

The final contest was between the teams from Leeds and Car- 
rington, the former winning. 

Last year twenty-two high schools participated in debating the 
question : 

"Resolved, That the Constitution of North Dakota be so 
amended as to provide for the Initiative and the Referendum. (It 
is understood that the method of amending the Constitution remains 
unchanged.") 

The final contest was between teams representing the Minne- 
waukan and the Casselton high schools, with Minnewaukan the 
victor. 

While it is exceedingly difficult to catalog all the benefits result- 
ing from such a line of work, many of them are clearly apparent and 
at once suggest themselves. 

The Royal Fred- In September, the exact date was from the fifth 
erick University ^^ jj^g seventh of the month, the Royal Fred- 
erick University, located at Christiania, Norway, celebrated its one 
hundredth anniversary. Founded at the period of Norway's libera- 
tion from Denmark it has stedily grown in reputation and in servis 



University Notes 99 

during it century of history. The close relation existing between 
many of the people of North Dakota and Norway made it eminently 
fitting that the University of North Dakota be represented at the cele- 
bration commemorating this event. Upon the suggestion of Presi- 
dent McVey the Board of Trustees appointed Professor John Tingle- 
stad to represent the University. The appointment was especially 
appropriate in view of Professor Tinglestad's position as professor of 
the Scandinavian Languages and Literatures and his knowledge of 
his fatherland. He carried with him the following greetings of the 
University of North Dakota, fittingly inscribed upon parchment: 

To the Rector and Senate, 

Royal University of Frederick : 
Thru the bearer of this testimony, Professor 
John Tinglestad, The University of North Da- 
kota conveys to you as the representatives of the 
Royal University of Frederick its good wishes and 
congratulations on the occasion of the one hun- 
dredth anniversary of the University. The special 
interest of the University of North Dakota, but 
scarcely more than one-fourth of a century old, 
in its older sister rests upon the splendid contribu- 
tion Norway has made to the Commonwealth of 
North Dakota. Sturdy sons and daughters have 
given their strength, courage, and fidelity to the 
upbuilding of a new state. Reared to the idea of 
education their faith in learning has again been 
manifested in the establishment of a state univer- 
sity in the middle west of America. May the 
great guild of learning bind the universities of the 
two people closely together! 
For the Board of Trustees, 

University of North Dakota: 

Frank L. McVey, President. 



The College of Medicin 

University of North Dakota 

SCOPE: The University College of Medicin offers to young men and 
young women the first two years of medical work. 

ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS: Two years of prescribed collegiate work 
preceded by sixteen prescribed units of high, school studies. 

DEGREE AND CERTIFICATE: Upon the satisfactory completion of 
these two years of medical work the University grants the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts and the Medical Certificate which admit to 
the third year of medical colleges of good standing. 

ADVANTAGES: (1)— Thoroly equipt teachers of all the subjects includ- 
ed in the combined curriculum; (2) — Splendid laboratory and 
library facilities; (3) — Small classes, making it possible for the 
instructor to give a large amount of personal attention to each 
student; (4) — Expenses reduced to the minimum; no tuition fee, 
only the semester fee of $25; living expenses very low; much 
car fare saved. 

TIME OP OPENING: The Fall semester opens on September 19. 

For further information, address 

THE REGISTRAR, 

University, N. D. 



COLLEGE of MECHANICAL and 
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 

;:; :•: UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA ;:: ;:: 

COURSES OFFERD: 

A Four-year Course leading to the degree of B.S. in M.E. 

A Four-year Course leading to the degree of B.S. in E.E. 
A Five-year Course leading to the degree of M.E. 

A Five-year Course leading to the degree of E.E. 
And in conjunction with the School of Mines 
A Four-year Course leading to the degree of B.S. in C.E. 
A Five-year Course leading to the degree of C.E. 

EQUIPMENT: The shops are well equipt with the latest machines. The 
mechanical and dynamo laboratories have, among other pieces 
of apparatus, a fifty horse-power suction gas producer and gas 
engin, and two seventy horse-power boilers each with a dif- 
ferent type of furnace including an automatic stoker. The fa- 
cilities for offering thoro courses in steam and gas power engi- 
neering and in research work in the utilization of various fuels 
for power purposes are ample and of the very best. The recent 
legislativ appropriation of $17,000.00 for laboratory purposes will 
enable the College still further to improve these facilities. 
For further information, address 

DEAN CALVIN H. CROUCH, 

University, N. D. 



|0 

Announcement 

THE Quarterly Journal is a publication established and main- 
tained by the University of North Dakota. Its primary 
function is to represent the varied activities of the several colleges 
and departments of the University — to serve as the medium of 
exchange between the members of its instructional force and the 
learned world outside. Still, it is not limited to that. Its 
columns are open to other writers, particularly of the Northwest, 
in the discussion of topics germane to the work of higher educa- 
tion, especially to such as bring the fruitage of scientific research, 
literary investigation or other forms of constructive thought. 
Contributions will be welcomed, and, when found suitable and 
available, readily given space. Correspondence is solicited. 

The subscription price is one dollar a year, postpaid, single 
numbers, thirty cents. 

All communications should be addressed. 

The Quarterly Journal, 

University, North Dakota. 

Editor's Bulletin Board 

THE next number of the Quarterly Journal will bear the date, 
April, 1912. It will be devoted to the political and social 
sciences. The writers are all connected with the University of North 
Dakota. The leading article will be a study of the early history 
of political parties in the United States, by Dr. O. G. Libby, head 
of the Department of History. Dr. John M. Gillette, Professor of 
Sociology, will contribute an article on " The Location of the Rural 
Social Problem." This is Chapter VII of Dr. Gillette's forth- 
coming book on " Constructive Rural Sociology," and gives the 
author's point of view in the entire discussion. Dr. James E. 
Boyle, Professor of Economics and Political Science, will give the 
second article of the series begun in the October, 1910, number 
of the Quarterly Journal, on " Cooperation in North Dakota." 
This second article is on "The Cooperative Elevator." "The 
Remaking of Egypt; the Nile Irrigation Project," will be handled 
by Dr. Wallace N. Stearns, Assistant Professor of History. An- 
other subject of more than usual interest, " Local Government in 
the Panama Canal Zone," will be discust by Mr. A. F. Hun- 
saker, instructor in history in the Model High School of Teachers 
College. The last two articles named will be illustrated by maps 
and photographs. The number bids fair to be one of the most 
interesting thus far issued. 



The Quarterly Journal 

PUBLISHED BY 

The University of North Dakota 



CONTENTS 

I. THE DESIGN OF ENGINE PARTS 

Albert John Becker 103 

II. NOTE ON THE BEHAVIOR OF HIGH FRE- 

QUENCY DETECTORS 
Albert Hoyt Taylor 121 

III. THE DISCRIMINATION OF PITCFI AND ITS 

RELATION TO TRAINING 
William Wellington Norton 129 

IV. SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NORTH 

DAKOTA CLAY 
Bartholomew John Spence 141 

V. ELECTRICAL TESTING OF TELEPHONE CABLES 

Edward Beattie Stephenson 149 

VI. MERSENNE'S NUMBERS AND THE RECIP- 

ROCAL OF FERMAT'S THEOREM 
Raymond Royce Hitchcock 161 

VII. A QUANTITATIVE EXPRESSION OF PERIODIC 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS 
Frederick Clay Jackson 174 

VIII. BOOK REVIEWS: 

1. The Principles of Scientific Management: 
Frederick Winslow Taylor. F. L. McVey 180 

2. Physical Optics: R. W. Wood. B. J. Spence. . . 181 

3. Advanced Physiology and Hygiene: H. W. 
Conn and R. A. Budington. G. R. Caldwell. . . 183 

4. The Fundamentals of Agriculture: Jam.es 
Edward Halligan. C. C. Schmidt 185 

5. The Elements of Geometry: John B. Clarke 

and Walter N. Bush. W. C. Stebbins 187 

6. The Concise Oxford Dictionary: Edward S. 
Fowler and F. G. Fowler. F. L. McVey 189 

7. The Essentials of Character: Edward O. 
Sisson. J. Kennedy 190 

8. Introduction to the Study of the Greek Dia- 
lects: Carl Darling Buck. W. N. Stearns 191 

9. Biblical Geography and History: Charles 
Foster Kent. W. N. Stearns. . . , 192 

10. Minnesota Academy of Social Sciences: 

William A. Schaper. F. L. McVey 193 

IX. UNIVERSITY NOTES 195 

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

A. J. LADD, Wallace N. Stearns, ) ^gg^^^j^^s 

Managing Editor. Meyer Jacobstein, 



The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 2 JANUARY, 1912 Number 2 



The Design of Engine Parts 

Albert John Becker, 

Professor of Applied Mathematics and Mechanical Drawing, 
University of North Dakota 

THE study of the steam engine in an engineering course is not 
undertaken because the knowledge of this machine is of 
fundamental importance to the engineer, but rather because it 
is probably the best machine for analysis, and the application of 
theory. The principles involved are those met with in many 
other machines, and the drill in them will prepare the student to 
solve the associated problems as they arise. Comparatively few 
graduates have anything to do with the design of heat engines, 
but all have to face problems daily, the solution of which depends 
upon the principles whose application was shown in the study of 
the steam engine. This is not to be interpreted as favoring a 
cut-and-dried course in steam-engine design, but rather one with 
plenty of opportunity for variation, and one which follows a 
thoro descriptive course in heat engines in general. No study of 
the action of steam or other forms of heat energy, or of its gen- 
eration, should be undertaken before the student has been given 
an introductory course, and knows something of the machine in 
which this energy is to be utilized. This work should properly be 
given the latter part of the second year (of a four years' course) 
in order that the student may have the time and preparation 
necessary to take up the allied subjects in his junior and senior 
years. 

Good textbooks on design are difficult to find. Of those avail- 
able, the larger number devote too much space to details of con- 
struction. They do not give a complete outline, and the student 
who uses one of them is left to reach his own conclusions as best 
he can. Details of design are needed instead of details of con- 
struction; every step should be readily comprehended, and the 

103, 



104 The Quarterly Journal 

formulae for parts should have the theory clearly outlined, to- 
gether with the reasons and steps which lead to the final form. 
The mere statement that such and such a formula with proper 
substitutions will give the desired result, tends to develop a 
mental shiftlessness, and slipshod knowledge to which the average 
student is unfortunately too much inclined. 

While it is true that the study of the steam engine is somewhat 
standardized, and does not offer the opportunities for original 
thinking that may be found in some other fields, yet it presents 
the best available subject for general study and drill. After the 
student has finished this drill, he is prepared to attack the prob- 
lems in which there is more opportunity for original work. These 
properly form a part of the work of the senior year. This so- 
called standardization has made it possible to take the formulae 
derived from theory and simplify them by using the best current 
practice to check the results. The final form may be largely 
empirical, but the student has been shown the principles with the 
adaptation to the special case before him. 

On the manufacturing side, there are certain limitations which 
must not be forgotten. Questions of steam economy, durability, 
character of service required, or cheapness of production are strong 
factors which enter into the design, yet which are not readily 
expressed in mathematical symbols. A manufacturer who lists 
12 X 12, 13 X 12, and 14 X 12 engines will very often use the 
same parts for each, merely increasing the cylinder diameter. 
Depending upon which of the three engines was designed first, 
computation of the parts for the remainder would show results at 
variance with the sizes actually used. Another manufacturer 
might use entirely different sizes for the same conditions of ser- 
vice. Then too, an engine intended to run the usual factory 
machinery is designed diiferently from one which is to be direct- 
connected to a generator. The questions of manufacturing 
economy which enter into the design, are such that hard and fast 
rules cannot be laid down and each case as it arises, must furnish 
the data necessary for good design. Many of these questions 
affect the general design, but afltect only indirectly the later design 
of the parts. To illustrate: in the cylinder, the steam pressure 
and ratio of the diameter to the stroke, must be fixt before the 
thickness of the walls is determined. The fixing of the former has 
no influence on the character of the formulae for the latter, altho 
they aff^ect the thickness of the cylinder walls. Again, with the 
connecting-rod, in addition to the above, we have first to decide 



The Design of Engine Parts 105 

upon the shape of the cross-section, the ratio of the length of the 
rod to the stroke, and the form of the ends before the formula 
for the size of the rod can be applied. 

In presenting the following formulae for the design of a number 
of engine parts, it is hoped that this addition to the numerous 
formulae now existing will be justified by the close accord between 
the results obtained by their use and the best current practice. 

THE CYLINDER 

In any cylinder the stress tending to rupture an inch length of 
the walls is equal to the product of the pressure in pounds per 
square inch and the diameter in inches. This is resisted by the 
two sections on opposite ends of a diameter, so that 

if=pr = ^^ (i) 

where t = the thickness of the cylinder wall in inches, 
/ = the stress per square inch in the material, 
p = the pressure in pounds per square inch, 
D = the diameter of the cylinder in inches. 

From (i) we can obtain a cylinder formula by transformation, 

but the following is a better general form: 

' = f + K. (2) 

C is twice the allowable stress and ^ is a constant to allow for 
reboring, and to give the required thickness in small cylinders to 
insure sound and rigid castings. The selection of the proper 
constants involved the tabulation of a series for each stress and 
constant, and it was found that the best results were obtained 
with C equal to 4000 (corresponding to a stress of 2000 pounds 
^ cr square inch) and K equal to .60 inch. Inserting these in our 
-rmula, we have 

f= -^ + .60 inch. (3) 

4000 -^ 

For the cylinders of gas engines, or engines in which lightness 
is of importance, C should be taken equal to 6000, while for large 
low-pressure cylinders our formula would read as follows: 

t = .00025 P^ + 1-25 inch. (4) 

These formulae are for horizontal engines; for vertical engines the 
resulting thicknesses may be reduced 10 per cent. For engines 



io6 



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The Design of Engine Parts 107 

which have a bushing or liner, whether jacketed or not, the thick- 
ness of the outer shell can be reduced to approximately .80 of the 
values obtained by using these formulae; the liner, however, is to 
be made full thickness. 

The accompanying table has been prepared to compare the 
thicknesses obtained by using a number of representative formulae 
and those presented above. No comment will be offered, and the 
designer may choose for himself. Where a formula is intended 
to cover only a limited range, no values are given outside this 
range. 

PISTON RODS 

A piston-rod can be regarded as a column with rounded ends 
and should be designed for rigidity to reduce friction and wear. 
The first part of this statement is not in accord with the method 
of treatment found in many textbooks, where the piston-rod is 
treated as a pin and square column. But the conditions of rigidity 
required for a square end are not found in either end of the rod 
and the most probable condition existing is that which has been 
assumed here. 

Using Rankine's formula for a round-ended column, we have, 



P = maximum thrust exerted by the steam against the piston. 

Substiti 
stress), 



C 

Substituting for — ' 6000 pounds per square inch (the safe working 



pD^ _ 6000 X 1500 r^ 
~i i50or2-|-/2 ' 



(2) 



where / is the length of the piston-rod and r is its radius. 

(6000 r2)2 - 1500 r2 pD^ = pDH\ (3) 

6000 r^-1^ = ^ V64 1'p + pW\ (4) 

o o 

To simplify this expression it is necessary to make an approxi- 
mation. To eliminate the radical, replace 64 l^p by a term con- 
taining p^D^. D varies from .40 to 1.2 times the stroke, while / 
varies from 1.5 to 3 times the stroke, and from 1.5 to 4 times D. 
The pressure varies from 1.33 to 3 times 64, with the usual pressure 



io8 The Quarterly Journal 

from 90 to 100 pounds. Averaging the above we obtain as a good 
substitute for 64 Pp, 1.5 p'^D'^. 

1500(^2 = .32/)Z)2. (^) 

d = .0146 oVp. (6) 

This is the same as Unwin's formula if .0146 is substituted for k. 
I would suggest a slight change in the final formula and have it 

read thus: _ 

d=CDVp-\-K. (7) 

Use the column formula as before with a safe working stress of 
8000 pounds per square inch, and then add as a constant .4 inch 
for engines of the high-speed type and .6 inch for engines of the 
low-speed type. The formula would then read 



d = .0123 OVp -\-\ 



.40 inch for high-speed engines. 
,60 inch for low-speed engines. 

CRANKS 



(8) 



A crank is subject to: 

I, Twisting moment PL 
Bending moment Px. 
At dead centers, a bending moment PL 



2. 

3- 
4- 

5- 



Shear P. 
Thrust P. 




Fi". I. 



For any position 6 of the crank the tangential effort equals 
P sin {6 + </)) and the normal pressure equals P cos {d + (}>). 



The Design of Engine Parts 109 

Writing the above in terms of the angular displacement of the 
crank and connecting-rod, 

1. Twisting moment = P sin {d + 0)/. 

2. Bending moment = P sin {6 -\- 0)a:. 

3. Bending moment = P cos (0 + </>) /. 

4. Shear =P sin (0 + 0). 

5. Thrust = P cos (0 + (/)). 

Let 4^ = e-\-<f). 

Assuming the ratio of breadth to thickness as 2, the total bend- 
ing moment is 

2 PI cos xp -\- Pr sin ^; and the twisting moment is PI sin ip. 




Fig. 2. 



The equivalent twisting moment = B -{- V'B'^ + T^ (B = bending 
moment) 



= 2P/cos^4-Prsin^+PV4/2cos^)/'+r2sin2)/'+4/rsin^cosi/'+/-sin2i/'. 

Differentiating 

-jj = P[— 2 / sin j^ + r cos ^ -{- ^ (l"^ sin^ i/- -|- 4 /^ cos^ i^ + r^ sin^ ^ 
+ 4 /r sin 1^ cos \p)~i (2 /^ sin ip cos \p — 81^ sin^ 1/' cos ^ 
-\- 2r~ sin 1/' cos ;^ + 4 /r (cos^ 1/' — sin^ \p))]. (2) 



r 



Setting this equal to zero we obtain a maximum for tan i/- = o 7 

*^ 1.805/ 

Substituting this in (i) and puttings = n, 

p 

.0^32 fsb^=Ti= — [3.61-1-^''+ \/i3.o4+8.22w2-}-n^], (3) 

n V3.26+n^ 

,3 10.73 CPr , . 

b^ = -^ , (4) 



w 



here 



_ 3.61 -\- n^ -\- V13.04 + 8.22 «2 + n* 



n V'3.26 -|- n^ 
After b and h are found we must add to the cross-section an 



no The Quarterly Journal 

P 

area equal to square inches to provide for the thrust and 

^ 12,000 ^ ^ 

shear. 

b = Ci v -^ + s/-^' (s) 

V 12,000 V 6,000 ^•'^ 

For n = I Ci = 3. 648 

n = i§ Ci = 3.310 

n = 2 , Ci = 3.136 

w = 2| Ci = 3 . 032 

ti = 3 Ci = 2. 968 

n = si Ci = 2.923 

« = 4 Ci = 2.892 

When the term for shear and thrust is added the allowable 
stress may be taken as 12,000 pounds per square inch for forged 
steel. To calculate the thickness of various sections it is only 
necessary to substitute the distance from the crank-pin center 

to the section for r and use the corresponding value of -, for n 

instead of y 

For center-crank engines, the first term of the formula should 
be reduced twenty per cent since the bending moment PI cos \p 
is but one half that in side-crank engines, and n is usually small 
so that this moment is relatively large. 

For side-crank engines, then 

b = 2h = Ci\/^^+\/-^- (s) 

V 12,000 V 6,000 ^-'^ 

For center-crank engines, 

^ = 2 A = .8 C, V — ^ + V ^^- (6) 

V 12,000 V 6,000 ^ .^ 

b is the dimension at right angles to the shaft. For forged cranks 
the rectangular section is very largely used and a good rule which 
is simple and accurate is to make the thickness of the forged crank 
one-fourth of the cylinder diameter, and the breadth twice the 
thickness. 

CRANK-SHAFTS 

A crank-shaft must resist the twisting moment due to the 
pressure of the connecting-rod, the bending moment due to the 
overhang of the shaft and crank-pin, and the bending moment 
due to the weight of the fly-wheel, belt pull or some similar action. 



The Design of Engine Parts iii 

The twisting moment is Pa which equals the moment of resist- 
/7rr3 



ance 



2 

Average P = ^'^•^' ^J^'°°° > where N = R.P.M. and S = 

the stroke in feet. Maximum P may be 2.5 times the average, 
and with the working stress 6000 pounds per square inch 

, 12 X 82,500 I.H.P. 

6000 ttW 



or d= s.ii\/—^ — (i) 

The combination of the bending moments, due to the shaft 
overhang and to the fly-wheel, with the twisting moment above, 
leads to an expression which cannot be used without empirical 
substitution. It can be shown that, if the best current practice is 
followed when these substitutions are made, our formula for the 
combined bending and twisting moments reduces to 



d = 6M\/^^- (2) 

After the form of equation had been obtained, a tabulation of a 
large series of values for the constant corresponding to 6.84 above 
was made by using the sizes of shafts in engines built by standard 
manufacturers. The average of these constants was 7.20. Since 
this is considerably in excess of the constant of equation (2), the 
latter should be increased giving the final equation 



For standard Corliss engines the shaft diam.eter is one half of 
the cylinder diameter, but for heavy duty or rolling-mill engines, 
the exact bending moment should be determined and combined 
with the maximum twisting moment to obtain the correct diameter. 
There are a number of graphical methods by which this may be 
done. Our formula (3) reduced to terms of the cylinder diameter 
gives d = .449 D, which is slightly higher than the .43 D obtained 
as the average of the sizes actually used by manufacturers. This 
relation is useful to check the results of computations. 



112 



The Quarterly Journal 



CONNECTING-RODS 

The greatest stress in a connecting-rod is due to the combined 
action of the thrust and the forces which accelerate the rod. 
The components of the latter forces, which act at right angles to 
the rod, produce flexure; these combined with the thrust, and the 
components parallel to the rod will give the dimensions of the rod 
at the dangerous section. In the following discussion the com- 
ponents parallel to the rod are neglected as they are small. The 
first eleven equations following are taken from a paper by S. E. 
Moss, before the A. S. M. E. (Vol. XXVI, pp. 367). 

Let R = the length of the crank in inches. 

r = the length of the crank in feet. 

/ = the length of the connecting-rod in feet. 

a = the distance of any point on the rod from the center of 
the wrist-pin. 
Let ai= a for the center of gravity of the rod. 




Fig. 3. 

X and y are the co-ordinates of the center of gravity of the rod, 
with the center of the shaft as origin and the X axis horizontal. 

X = r cos 6 -\- I cos <j) — a cos 0. (i) 



But 



r sin = /sin </>, and - = n, 

r 



X = r cos 6 -\- 
y = - sm B. 



nr — a 

n 



V«2 - sin2 d. 



(2) 
(3) 



The velocities of the center of gravity, parallel to the co-ordinate 
axes, are found by differentiating (2) and (3) with respect to the 
time. 



dx 

dt 



= — r sm 



ft— — r ^^ ~ ^ ~\[ sii 



sin 6 cos 6 



2 - sin2 0J 



dd 
dt' 



dy a ^dd 

-f = -cos d-T' 

at n dt 



(4) 
(5) 



The Design of Engine Parts 



113 



dd 



Now^ = CO, the angular velocity, which substituted in (4) and 



(5) gives 



dx 
dt 



= -co[rsin0 + (^^) 



sin B cos 6 
Vn2 - sin2 Q, 



]]■ 



dy aoo 

-f = — cos 6. 

dt n 



(6) 

(7) 



The acceleration parallel to the axes is the first derivative of 
the velocity, or the second derivative of the space with respect to 
the time. 



=-co2r 



d^x 



r cos 8 + 



nr — a\ fn^ cos 2 d -\- sin* 6 



n 



(w2 - sin2 ey 



aw^ 



(8) 
(9) 



Then the component of the force along X acting on each particle 
W . 



g 



is 



w 2 r 

g L 



cos0 + (/- 



a 



n"^ cos 



Ui («2 



2 9 + sin* 6 11 
-sin^e)'- JJ 



/ = — wV-rsm d. 

g I 



(10) 
(II) 



In these expressions a is the variable by substituting for which 
the values of the forces at any point in the rod are known. If 
now we take a\ as .6 /, which according to Unwin is the approxi- 
mate distance of the center of gravity of the rod from the wrist- 
pin, and w = 5, (10) and (ii) become 



X = 
Y = 



/Fco2 



g L 

,2, 



g 



cos 6 -\- .4 
.6 sin d. 



[ 



25 cos 2 9 + sin* 6 
[25 - sin2 0f 



]} 



(12) 
(13) 



To find the maximum bending moment, we note that the 
components of X and Y producing bending are X sin (f) and 
Kcos^. We next substitute a series of values for 6 in (12) and 
(13), to find the greatest stress. 

Changing equations (12) and (13) from w = 5 to w = 6, and 
substituting as before we find the maximum occurs at 72° 30'. 

For this angle Y cos <f) -{- X sm<j) equals .604 • 

. _. . o 



114 



The Quarterly Journal 



6 in degrees. 


X 


Y 


F cos + Z sin 0. 

















50 


.629 


.460 ''-''- 


.551 ^-'^ 


w 






g 


g 




55 


.546 


.491 


.573 




60 


.460 


.520 


.592 




65 


.371 


.544 


.602 




68 


.316 


.556 


.605 




70 


.280 


.564 


.607 




72§ 


.234 


.572 


.606 




75 


.190 


.579 


.605 



Putting a = o, and 6 = 70° in (10) and (11), we obtain the 
components of the force acting on the wrist-pin (w = 5). Simi- 
larly for the crank-pin, a = I. For n = 6, d = 72° 30'. 



X sin + y cos 

Wrist-pin: n = 5 0352 ^-^-^ 

g 

n = Q 025 " 

Crank-pin: n = 5 988 " 

71 = 6 991 " 

Center of gravity: n = 5 607 " 

n = 6 604 " 

Since these values are so nearly alike there will be but a slight 
error in the final result if we use either set, and those for « = 5 
will be used. (From this point on / is in inches.) 

The ends of the vectors representing these forces lie in a straight 

line, and it can be shown that this line limits all the forces acting 

at right angles to the rod. We now have a beam with a uniformly 

varying load whose resultant acts .348 / inches from the crank-pin, 

/^ 77/ /f 2 
while the load is the sum of the quantities , where W is 

I2g 

the weight of a cubic foot of the substance acted upon, and ^ is 
the cross-sectional area of the rod. If the rod is of steel, W = 

490 pounds, and our summation becomes .1058 coV^ / C, or the 

Woi^rA JVoi^rJ 
area of the trapezoid whose sides are .0352 and .988 

o 

and whose base is /. This area is .00451 oP'rlA. The maximum 
bending moment occurs .427 / inches from the crank-pin and is 



The Design of Engine Parts iiS 

.000577 co^rPJ inch-pounds. Equating this to the resisting moment 
of the rod section, for a circular rod 

.0000378 co2i?/2i2 = .0982/1^'. 

r .00038 c aj^i?/^ / V 

/i = ^-J (14) 

For a rectangular rod 

, .000280 00^7?/^ / V 

/■ = — I — (.5) 

Combining this with the thrust and using 8000 pounds per 
square inch as a safe working stress, we have 

375 « ^ 

_ pD"" (375 ^" + /') , .00000422 N^RP , . 

or 

3,000,000^4= pZ)2(375^' + /') + .ooi58iV2;?/V3forcircular rods (ig) 

and 8,000,000 hh^ = i.S7 pD"^ (500^2 + P) + .00317 N^-RPbh'^ for 
rectangular rods. (19) 

If the connecting-rod acted as a strut only, the ratio of the 
height to the width would be two to one on account of the end 
conditions. The inertia stresses, however, which act only in the 
plane of the greatest dimension of the rod, permit this ratio to be 
exceeded. Practically all high rotative speed engines have rect- 
angular connecting-rods, and the ratio of A to Z* used varies 
from 2^ to 3, the former preferred. 

Inserting this ratio in (19) 

3,200,000 A* = 1.57 pZ)2 (500 IP + P) + .00127 N'~RPh\ (20) 

Equation (18) can be used for low-rotative speed engines by 
changing the constant, 3,000,000, to 2,250,000. 

It is to be remembered that the dimensions obtained from the 
above formulae are those at the point .6 / from the crosshead-pin 
end, and that this end must be designed for thrust or tension only 
(allowable stress 8000 pounds per square inch), thus giving two 
points and the taper. It may be necessary to change the height 
of the small end so that the total change in //. shall not exceed i 
inch or i| inches; b normally is constant. The following simpler 



Il6 The Quarterly Journal 

equations, which are sufficiently accurate for ordinary purposes 
may be used instead of (i8) and (20): 



d = .022 VDlpK (21) 



h = .042 VDlpi. (22) 

CRANK-PINS 

A number of formulae have been used to calculate the length 
and diameter of crank-pins, but if the ratio of the length to the 
diameter is fixt (the usual ratio is i to 1.2), the pin can best be 
designed on the basis of maximum allowable pressure per square 
inch of projected pin area. This method gives a crank-pin which 
is not only amply strong, but which will always run cool if properly 
lubricated. The pressures allowed vary from 500 pounds for high- 
speed engines to 1200 pounds for low-speed engines. 

A number of writers have commented on the folly of using a 
formula which is based upon strength or heat dissipation because 
invariably these methods lead to results which must be revised, 
and make the ultimate design wholly a matter of individual judg- 
ment. It is therefore evident that a formula based upon the 
principles used to revise or modify will be of greater value. This 
method has been that of allowable pressures. In the best current 
practice, the ratio of the length of the crank-pin to the diameter 
is unity. The allowable pressure per square inch of projected 
area, varies with the kind and size of engine, but the law of vari- 
ation is approximately that the pressure varies directly as the 
diameter of the pin and inversely as the square root of the velocity 
of the rubbing surfaces; that is, 

tjd = i^. (.) 

4 

Cild' PtD^ , . 



iS = .000171 /)Z)2 Vn + 75. (4) 

Crosshead-pins should be designed on the basis of allowable pres- 
sure only, using 1000 pounds per square inch of projected area for 
high-speed engines, and 1400 to 1500 pounds per square inch for 
Corliss engines, with the ratio oi I to d equal to J. 



The Design of Engine Parts 117 

FLY-WHEELS 

Let vi and v^ be the greatest and least velocities of the fly-wheel 
rim. Then fo = is the mean velocity in feet per second. 

Let W = the weight of the fly-wheel, 

u = the variation of speed from the normal, 
D = the diameter of the wheel in feet, 
n = the number of arms in the wheel, 

m = the ratio of the excess or deficiency of crank effort 
to the normal or average effort. 
Let (K.E.)i, (K.E.)2, and (K.E.)o = the kinetic energy corre- 
sponding to Vi, vi and v^. 
Let N = the revolutions per minute. 

(K.E.)i-(K.E.)2 = f^(^i2-^2^). 



(K.E.)i - (K.E.)2 = 



g 
33,000 LH.P. m _ Wv(?u 



^_ 389,888,000 LH.P. :^ 

~ uD'-N^ 

The value of m should now be determined from the tangential 
effort diagram and substituted with the assumed value of u. 
However, the weight of the wheel can be determined quite 
closely by noting that the value of m lies between .16 and .23, 
an average substitution will be .20. Assuming u equal to y^o> 
corresponding to one per cent regulation, 

7,800,000,000 LH.P. 



W = 



D'~m 



The Buckeye Engine Company, gives the following formula for 
fly-wheels for ordinary service Corliss engines: 

™ _ 20,000,000 AS 

where A = the area of the cylinder in square inches and S = 
the stroke in feet. D and N as before. 

It will be well as a check to calculate the required weight by 
taking the longest time necessary for the governor to act and 
assume that the wheel will give up enough energy to carry the 

3 



Il8 The Quarterly Journal 

load during this interval without decreasing the speed more than 
the assumed amount. 

The diameter of fly-wheels on high-speed engines varies from 
4 to 4.6 times the stroke, 4I to 4I preferred. The width of face 
is equal to the diameter of the cylinder. For slow-speed engines, 
the wheel diameter varies "from 4 to 5 times the stroke while the 
width of face depends upon the kind of service. A simple formula 
for Corliss engine fly-wheels based on the indicated horse power, 
and the velocity of the rim in feet per minute is as follows: 

3oI.H.P.(F-t-37oo) 
yy - y 

When the load is suddenly thrown on to an engine which is 

running without load, the fly-wheel carries the load until the 

governor acts and the engine responds. The energy which is 

thus momentarily furnished is 33,000 I.H.P. foot-pounds per 

minute and the equivalent force acting on the end of each arm 

.„ , 33,000 I.H.P. , _,, . , . 

will be "^-^ ^ pounds. 1 his assumes that each arm carries 

2TrrJSn 

its proportionate load and not that half the arms carry it as some 
textbooks have it. This load produces a bending moment at the 
hub end of the arm, equal to 

33,000 I.H.P. X I2r _fFa^ 
2 -wrNn 4 a 

where a is the semi-major axis of the elliptic cross-section of the 
arm and this axis lies in the plane of the wheel. From the 
centrifugal force the stress per arm is 

/F47rWV ^ 
3600 gw 

W^ir'Nh , 33,000 X 24 I.H.P. , 

-^ r + Wr = / = 2000. 

3600 gw/ TrnJSIra 

F = irab = area of the cross-section of the arm. 
a = 2 b. 

WirNha ' 33 X 12 I.H.P. ,, ,, 
■ + ^ 2 = Nna^b. 

9000 X 2000 g TT^ 

108.5 WNha , _ T rj r> A^ ^ 

^ f- 80.1 I.H.P. = Nna^. 

1,000,000,000 

Substituting for W the value previously determined and trans- 
posing, 



> 



a = \/ 



80I.H.P. ,„ , , 



The Design of Engine Parts 119 

For those engines in which the regulation need not be so close 
as one per cent, particularly the Corliss type, the following must 

be substituted: 

;/ 8oI.H.P. , , , 
^=V Nn (•3^+0- 

The taper of the arms is rather difficult to determine. The 
stresses to be resisted are the tension due to the centrifugal force, 
a shear due to the belt pull or sudden change of load, and a bend- 
ing moment due to the flexure of the arm which is fixt in the rim, 
giving a bending moment oi \ W times the length of the arm. 
Combining these stresses shows that the net section required is 
about 70 per cent of the hub section. With a slight allowance for 
shrinkage and other secondary stresses, a net section at the rim 
equal to 75 per cent of the hub section will be sufficient and at the 
same time give a well-tapered arm. 

Summarizing the formulas of the preceding articles, we have 
the following: 

Cylinder: 

t = -^ \- .60 m, 

4000 

For large low-pressure cylinders only: 

t = .00025 P^ + 1-25 in. 

Piston-rod: 



J n^/~ I i .40 inch for high-speed engines. 

( .60 mch lor slow-speed engmes. 
rank: 

Side-crank engines: 



2h = Cy(/ P' +J 

V 12,000 V ( 



6,000 
Center-crank engines: 



V 12,000 V 6,000 
= I D approximately. 



Crank-shafts: 



N 



J 1 A-H. 

Connecting-rod: 

Circular-rod, slow-speed engines: 

2,250,000^^4 = pD'' (375 ^2 _i_ /2) ^ 00158 mRMK 



120 The Quarterly Journal 

Rectangular rods: 

3,200,000 A^ = i.SJpD^ (500^2 + 12) -[. .00127 N^RPh\ 
or the corresponding simpler approximate forms: 



d= .o^iV^ipK 



h = .042 VdIpK 
Crank-pin: 

l" = d^ = .000171 pD^ Vn + 75. 
Fly-wheel: 

^ _ 7,800,000,000 1. H.P. 

Fly-wheel arms: 

For high-rotative speed engines: 

Hub section (2 a = major axis of elliptic section), 



;/8oLH.P.,- , , 

For Corliss engines: 



VSoI, 



' {.3a+ i). 



Nn 
Area of rim section = 75 per cent of the hub section. 



Note on the Behavior of High- 
Frequency Detectors 

A. HoYT Taylor, 
Professor of Physics^ University of North Dakota 

IT has been generally assumed that any conductor of elec- 
tricity whose static characteristic, e = f{i), shows an asym- 
metry in the first and third quadrants may, under suitable 
conditions, function as an alternating current rectifier. Even 
if it is not asymmetric about the axis of zero E.M.F., the char- 
acteristic may show an asymmetry about an axis of some suitable 
constant applied E.M.F. At the point 
e', at — e", and at the zero, we might 
expect the conductor, whose charac- 
teristic is shown in Fig, i, to show 
rectification. 

Unfortunately for the simplicity of 
the theory, the dynamical character- 
istic often fails to agree with the static, 
as in the case of the carbon arc,^ or 
the aluminum rectifier.^ Indeed, these 
characteristics run in all four quad- 
rants, and show a complicated depend- 
ence on the frequency. Inasmuch as few of the high-frequency 
detectors have a low resistance, and all operate only with small 
currents, it is diflficult and in many cases impossible to obtain 
their dynamical characteristics by means of an oscillograph. Too 
much weight has perhaps been placed on the evidence presented 
by the static characteristic, and altho it is well known that 
electro-motive forces of thermal origin play a role, the main em- 
phasis has been placed on the so-called valve action, or rectifying 
effect, the cause of which is not evident. 

A superficial study of the literature would lead an inexperienced 
operator to the conclusion that the simplest way to use such a 
detector would be to place it in series with a galvanometer and a 




Fig. I. 



> H. Th. Simon, Physilialische Zeitschrift, 1905. 
» A. H. Taylor, Annalen der Physik, 1909. 

121 



122 



The Quarterly Journal 



source of high-frequency E.M.F., providing always that the 
detector in question would operate without an auxiliary applied 
E.M.F. A closer examination of the schemes of connections used 
by various investigators, shows that in practical operation in con- 
nection with a telephone, the latter is always placed in parallel, 
rather than in series with the detector. 

In connection with the installation of the experimental radio- 
telegraphic station at this University, the author constructed 
several types of detectors, among them two carborundum detec- 
tors which seem to be fairly sensitive (compared with a bare point 
barretter) when used without an auxiliary E.M.F. This paper 
is a report on a few simple experiments with these detectors which 
seem to have a bearing on their so-called valve action. 

Fig. 2 shows a carborundum detector D in series with a gal- 
vanometer G, a telephone T, and a small coil C, which is acted on 

inductively by an oscillatory 
circuit C, of a frequency of 
about 150,000 per second. 
This is driven by a step-up 
transformer, at 60 cycles, 
charging a capacity which in 
turn is discharged thru a 
micrometer spark gap. The 
effect on the detector was 
further weakened by choos- 
ing the orientation of the cir- 
cuit so that but little energy 
was received by C. In this 





i 


^ 


1 r- ^ 




> 0^ 


S \ 
1 



Fig. 2. 



0- 
©- 



case the telephone reproduced as usual the noise of the spark, 
and the galvanometer showed a steady deflection which indicated 
the presence of a direct current. 

Fig. 4 shows the same apparatus in series with a 3-foot tuned 
aerial, which received the radiation from a 100-foot 4-wire aerial, 
distant 150 feet. In this case neither L /"Z\ 

telephone nor galvanometer gave any 
indication. But if either telephone or 
galvanometer was placed, as in Fig. 5 
in parallel with the detector, they gave 
energetic indications. 

The circuit of Fig. 3 is similar to that 
of Fig. 4. A capacity K and a tuning inductance L are here 
added to the closed circuit of Fig. 2. It was not expected that 



JilUSMJ — \jj- 



K 







D 



G 



Fig. 3- 



Note on the Behavior of High-frequency Detectors 123 



in this case, Fig. 3, any indication would be obtained, but the tel- 
ephone gave a weak indication, altho the galvanometer remained 
at rest. 

It might be objected that the high inductance of the telephone 
and galvanometer, in cases 3 and 4, would effectually prohibit the 



JLb 



CW^ — :. 





t-/> 



Ground 
Fig. 5- 




Fig. 6. 



passage of any high-frequency current. That this was not the 
case was shown by placing a second telephone in parallel with 
the detector, when energetic indications were perceived in this 
phone, altho galvanometer and first phone remained inactive. 
Indeed, it is clear that the distributed capacity must, at this 
frequency, play the important role in determining the impedance 



124 The Quarterly Journal 

of the telephone. At this frequency it would offer no great imped- 
ance to the oscillations. Fig. 6 shows an arrangement of appa- 
ratus which clearly proves this point. Two detectors, D and Z)', 
were put in series with the same aerial. Shunted across D was 
a 2000-ohm phone, in series with a tuning coil L. Let C be 
the effective capacity of the telephone, considered as localized. 
Shunted across D' was a second phone T'. When the aerial was 
tuned for the wave to be received, both phones would in general 
indicate; but if the product LC was made to correspond to reso- 
nance with the received waves, thus giving the shunt about D a 
minimum impedance, it acted as a short circuit about Z), and only 
the second phone T' gave an indication. When the period of the 
incident wave train was slightly altered, T again gave an indica- 
tion. When an 8o-ohm phone was substituted at T for the 2000- 
ohm phone, a much larger value of L was necessary to produce 
silence in T, as was expected from the action of the smaller dis- 
tributed capacity of the 80-ohm phone. In practice this effect 
has been accentuated by placing a small variable capacity in 
parallel with the receiving phone, thus enabling the operator to 
tune out undesirable signals. 

It is then quite certain that the insertion of a telephone and 
galvanometer in the aerial circuit does not seriously interfere with 
the oscillations, altho the free period of the circuit may be slightly 
changed, and the effective resistance considerably increased. 

Returning to case 3, it is evident that if the received oscilla- 
tions were sustained and continuous, there could be no continu- 
ous rectification in the true sense without the accumulation of a 
charge on the capacity K, or on the aerial wire in case 4. How- 
ever, if the oscillations are intermittent, as is the case where a 
spark gap is used, there is a sufficient lapse of time between 
oscillation groups to allow the capacity K, or the aerial capacity 
as the case may be, to discharge back thru the detector, since no 
detector is a perfect valve. This might explain the action in 
case 3, where only the telephone gave an indication, and that a 
feeble one. It does not explain why neither instrument gave an 
indication in case 4. 

Several attempts were made to detect the presence of a rec- 
tified current in other parts of the aerial circuit, by shunting a 
galvanometer or telephone over a high resistance thru which the 
oscillations passed after first traversing a detector. In no case, 
even with very strong oscillations, did I succeed in detecting the 
presence of a rectified current in the aerial circuit. 



Note on the Behavior of High-frequency Detectors 125 

In order to eliminate group frequency effects, the sending cir- 
cuit was next driven with an arc whose cathode was a massive 
copper rod, and a pilot lamp connected to a few turns of wire v/as 
placed 10 cm. above the sending helix. All the previous experi- 
ments were repeated with similar results, except that in this case 
the galvanometer deflections were much stronger, while the 
telephone recorded only variations in the intensity of the radia- 
tion produced by irregular burning of the arc. 

In the course of these experiments a condenser of i mf. capacity 
was put in parallel with the detector, which was exposed to a very 
strong radiation, and the condenser was discharged thru a ballistic 
galvanometer, giving a deflection which indicated that it had 
been charged to about 1.5 volts potential. The consistency with 
which this experiment could be repeated indicated that the oscil- 
lations were fairly continuous and regular. When this experiment 
was repeated with the condenser in series with the aerial and 
detector, no charge was accumulated on it. 

It seemed advisable, for purposes of comparison, to carry out a 
parallel series of observations with an aluminum cell operated at 



+ 




~1). 



c 



■vWW- 



A 




G 



4— 

Fig. 7. 

60 cycles. Here we have to do with a true valve action, which Is 
due primarily to a large asymmetry in the cell resistance. Fig. 7 
shows the scheme of connections employed for the first series of 
tests. A comparison with Fig. 4 shows that the capacity A of 
Fig. 7 corresponds to the aerial capacity, the aluminum valve V 
to the detector, and the capacity C to an additional capacity to 
be imagined as placed between the aerial of Fig. 4 and the ground. 
C thus corresponds to the i mf. capacity mentioned in the pre- 
ceding paragraph. 

The aluminum valve was a Pb-Al cell with sodium phosphate 
as an electrolyte. It showed a residual E.M.F. as indicated by 



126 The Quarterly Journal 

the plus and minus signs, and a conductivity in the two directions, 
as indicated by the arrows above and below the cell. A ballistic 
galvanometer G was used to determine the nature of the charge 
on C, while A was removed from the circuit and tested on the same 
galvanometer. The condenser A showed scarcely any leak, but 
the charge on C would disappear in slightly less than a minute. 

With no alternating current applied, the residual E.M.F. of 
the valve would, on closing the switch S, give the condenser C 
a charge opposite to that indicated in Fig. 7. When the alter- 
nating current is applied the terminal potential of C at the instant 
of test depends on three things: the residual E.M.F. of the valve, 
the extent of the valve action itself, and the particular phase of 
the alternating current at the instant of breaking the circuit of 
C. The first cause is of little relative importance except for very 
small currents; the last cause produces some irregularity, but the 
second predominates eight times out of ten, a charge on C resulting 
as shown in Fig. 7. 

Now when S is opened, the case is very different. If A is con- 
siderably smaller than C, the residual E.M.F. effect is practically 
eliminated. The valve action will obviously go on only until A 
and C are charged up to a sufficient counter E.M.F. to offset the 
asymmetric impedance of the circuit. Since the valve action of 
the aluminum cell is small for small currents such as would be 
transferred by a few microfarads capacity at 60 cycles, it requires 
several seconds for C to become charged. Indeed, if the circuit 
is closed only for a few tenths of a second, a charge on the con- 
denser always appears in favor of the residual E.M.F., but if it 
is kept closed for several seconds, it accumulates a charge due to 
the valve action. If the circuit is kept closed for a longer time, 
the galvanometer is just as liable to deflect one way as the other. 
This is because the charge on C due to valve action has leaked off, 
and only the third effect remains. This is symmetrical as 
obviously after equilibrium has been established, the same quan- 
tity of electricity must pass in each direction thru the condensers. 
That A was also charged was determined by testing it with the 
same galvanometer. In order to repeat the tests A must be dis- 
charged previously each time. 

If now the capacity A be reduced, the valve action need go on 
for a much shorter interval to produce the same voltage asym- 
metry over^, and thus finally the only appreciable charge accumu- 
lated on C is that due to the residual E.M.F. This, then, is the 
clue to the action of the detector in the aerial circuit. The capac- 



Note on the Behavior of High-frequency Detectors 



127 




G 



G 



4- 




V 



ity of the aerial is so small that only a very small charge is neces- 
sary to produce an asymmetry in voltage sufficient to offset the 
asymmetry in impedance. The previous experiment illustrated 
in Fig. 3 confirms this explanation. There the aerial capacity 
was replaced by a much larger capacity K, and a feeble signal was 
received in the telephone, since the charge on the capacity K 
leaked back between the oscillation groups. Obviously a deflec- 
tion of the galvanometer could not be expected. 

To carry out the analogy still further, the aluminum valve 
was connected up as in Fig. 8, which corresponds to the normal 
detector connection as illus- 
trated in Fig. 5. With a 
small current, that is, with 
a small capacity at A, the 
charge on C was that due to 
the residual E.M.F. of the 
valve cell, but with larger 
values of A the condenser 
C was charged as indicated 
in Fig. 8, a result due to the 
predominance of valve ac- 
tion. Were it not for the 
danger of getting an exces- 
sive alternating current thru 

the galvanometer, the capacity C could have been dispensed 
with, and the current sent directly thru the galvanometer. The 
capacity A very quickly accumulates a sufficient charge to offset 
the asymmetry in the impedance, and thereafter the current is 
symmetrical, at least as far as average values in the two direc- 
tions are concerned. The valve action is then made manifest by 
an asymmetric E.M.F. at the terminals of V, which accumulates 
a charge on the condenser C. The action is thus strictly analo- 
gous to that of the detector. 



VWW 



A 



Fig. 8. 



SUMMARY 

1. The series and parallel connections for the carborundum 
detector have been investigated, and it has been shown, that in 
general the series connection is of no value, as the aerial current 
is not rectified to an appreciable extent. 

2. The difference between the action with continuous oscilla- 
tions and with group frequency (spark gap) has been ascribed 
to a return discharge of the aerial, or capacity K^ as the case may 



128 The Quarterly Journal 

be, thru the detector during the idle periods between group 
frequencies. 

3. For purposes of comparison, the behavior of the aluminum 
rectifier in similar circuits has been investigated, analyzed, and 
found to be consistent with the behavior of the detector, when 
the small capacity of the usual aerial is taken into consideration. 

4. The current in the aerial which contains a detector of this 
type has been found to be symmetrical. The valve action, there- 
fore, makes itself felt as an asymmetric E.M.F, over the detector 
terminals. The parallel connection is by far the most efficient 
way of utilizing this action to produce an indication. 



The Discrimination of Pitch and 
its Relation to Training 

William Wellington Norton, 

Assistant Professor {in charge) of Music, University of North 

Dakota 

THE question of the source of musical ability has brought forth 
such a variety of opinions, that it seems worth while to 
consider some of the phases of a problem which can be scientifically 
investigated, and may prove of practical value in musical educa- 
tion. Investigators have heretofore tested the upper and lower 
pitch limits, the threshold of sound perception, discriminative 
sensibility for differences of intensity, and for differences of pitch. 
As bearing upon the perception of music, there have been tests 
for discrimination of groups of simultaneous tones (chords), of 
tones heard in succession, for perception of rhythm, and for 
emotional or effective response. These investigations have all 
dealt with the sensory process of hearing. The study of motor 
processes of singing will be mentioned later. Our problem would 
lead to such questions as: Does pitch discrimination exist in 
"islands"? e.g., can those able to discriminate pitch within the 
immediate vicinity of International A (435 vibrations) do as well 
in the next octave higher or lower? What part does attention 
play in the keenness of discrimination of sounds? If the memory 
image is involved, what is its nature and importance? Does 
memory of absolute pitch assist in fine discrimination? Will the 
ability to discriminate pitch be improved with training? All 
these questions have their practical bearing upon musical educa- 
tion. Since pitch discrimination is one of the elements in deter- 
mining musical ability a continued incapacity in this particular 
might determine whether training would be worth while for those 
considering the field of music for a career. 

In the present research the work was confined to discrimination 
for pitch and intensity, to discover what correlation between 
them there may be, to determine the extent of individual differ- 
ences, and to ascertain the effect of training upon pitch discrimi- 
nation. In this article the writer will attempt to present the 

129 



ijo The Quarterly Journal 

problem in a popular manner avoiding most of the technical side 
of the investigation. 

From the work that other investigators have done, the follow- 
ing results and conclusions are drawn: 

RESULTS AND CONXLUSIONS 

Seashore found that in a group of 58 adults, 19 women and 
29 men, the best observer recognized a difference of 2 vibrations 
while five were unable to perceive a difference of 30 vibrations. 
More recently, he has found several who discriminate less than 
one vibration. Women were superior to the men. No marked 
relation was found between a keen sense of hearing and discrim- 
inative sensibility for pitch. In his tests with children, as given 
by Miss Northey, they found that many children who had a 
high grade of tone sensibility had no musical education. The 
reverse was also found to be true. A child of 8 in the group of 
166, ranging from 6 to 13 years, never failed to perceive a differ- 
ence of 2 vibrations, while only a small per cent of musically- 
trained adults could reach that limit. Of three cases who had a 
musical education, two failed to lower their thresholds for dis- 
crimination at all after 20 periods of practise on 20 successive 
days; one made some improvement, but had a relapse in the 
trials that were continued after the twentieth day. Of the two 
who had no musical education, one, a girl aged 12, could not per- 
ceive a difference of 30 vibrations at the beginning, but gradually 
improved up to a threshold of five vibrations in the twentieth 
trial. (It seems possible, then, in some cases to have great im- 
provement with practice.) The other, a university student, 
remained at the same sensitivity, a difference of 12 vibrations 
during the 20 periods of practice. Seashore believes that the 
variation between individuals, independent of sex or age, must 
be accounted for chiefly by structural differences in the sense 
organs. "It is probable that the organ of Corti reaches its 
maximum efficiency at the age of about ten, and that it then 
begins to deteriorate, especially if it is not called into systematic 
activity. This would be analogous to the fact that the range of 
perceptible pitch early reaches its maximum extent in children, and 
then gradually narrows down, so that adults do not perceive as 
high or as low pitch as children. "^ The fact that he found no 
functional relation between general mental ability and discrimi- 

1 Seashore, Univ. of la. Studies in Psych., Vol. II, p. 62. 



The Discrimination of Pitch and its Relation to Training 131 

native sensibility for pitch, he offers as the strongest evidence in 
favor of the theory that the discriminative sensibility for pitch 
depends principally upon the natural structure of the end organ 
and is subject only to small variation with education. "There 
is a natural limit to discriminative sensibility for pitch which 
may be reached with little or no practice. "^ If this conclusion 
is correct it is important as indicating that little allowance need 
be made for the practise elements in a pitch test. The following 
scale for the interpretation of results is suggested by Seashore 
on a basis of tests of no adults and 380 children: {a) a child 
whose limen is two vibrations or less may become a musician; 
{b) 3 to 8 vibrations should have a plain musical education, and 
singing in school should be obligatory; (c) 9 to 17 vibrations, 
singing in school optional, and a plain musical education should be 
given if special inclination for music is shown; {d) 18 vibrations 
or above should have nothing to do with music.^ B. R. Andrews 
feels that this grading is not only arbitrary, but its applications 
would result in injustice. He thinks musical capacity cannot be 
judged from tests on a single factor such as pitch discrimination. 
"Moreover, pitch discrimination depends in good part upon 
practise; a person who could just discriminate a difference of 
f J of a tone might, with practise, reduce this to ^J.* A still 
better example is cited above from Seashore's own results. 
Andrews further emphasizes that no child should be considered 
hopelessly unmusical until given an opportunity for musical 
training. 

"The fact that the subjects discriminate an interval of one- 
third of a tone may, perhaps, be taken to indicate that the growth 
in accuracy is a matter of cerebral more than of aural develop- 
ment. Another indication in this direction is that the older 
children in a class who are more likely to be 'left backs' did rather 
worse than the rest of the class, as a rule. Two or three of the 
teachers remarked on the apparent connection between general 
intellectual inferiority and the inferiority according to his tests." ^ 

Whipple at Cornell believes that the auditory image figures 
largely in the discrimination. "If the particular pitch which is 
recognized happens (when the variable is sounded) to be actu- 
ally in process of central excitation in the form of an auditory 

' Seashore, op. cit. 

3 Educ. Rev., Vol. XXII, p. 76. 

* Am. Jour, of Psych., 1905, Vol. XVI, p. 306. 

s Hughes, Psych. Rev., 1902, Vol. XI, p. 609. 



132 The Quarterly Journal 

image of the standard, the recognition is, in all probability, aided 
by this fact. If we attribute musical ability at bottom to a 
specific, transmissible nervous tendency, we do not preclude that 
possibility of greatly modifying this tendency by post-natal 
training, whether favorably or unfavorable."^ 

Angell and Harwood quote AAolfs work on tone memor\' as 
corroborating their experience that, in the case of discriminative 
judgments, the attention usually becomes more and more con- 
centrated and the discriminative powers increase with practise. 

Pillsbury says, "Much of what passes for extreme acuteness of 
some special sense is nothing more than the result of a special 
training of the attention to greater efficiency in one particular 
line. There is a popular belief, for example, that the eye of the 
savage is much keener than the eye of civilized man. It is true 
that he will notice a footprint where the civilized man will not be 
able to see the slightest disturbance of the ground. He will also 
detect the approach of an animal by the ear when another would 
not be conscious of any sound, and so on. Instances of his pecul- 
iar perfection of sense could be drawn from each class of sensa- 
tion. It is not that the organs are more perfect, however. It is 
merely that all their training during their lifetime has been con- 
centrated upon recognizing and interpreting the particular objects 
and differences v.'hich have a meaning for the chase, and in adult 
life no element of the perception that can have the least bearing 
upon this point can escape him. For the sailor, every mark upon 
the horizon is correctly interpreted, and every small object is 
seen, because there are images in mind ready to be called out by 
any impression that is likely to appear there. The passenger 
by his side sees the samiC impressions, but there is nothing in 
the mind to favor the entrance of the important as opposed to 
the unimportant phases, and he will not see one as readily as the 
other. That it is the special training rather than the keenness of 
sense that makes the difference, can best be shown by repeating 
the test with some material for which there has been no special 
preparation. If you ask the savage to describe the characters 
upon a printed page, he will not see as much as a boy of six; 
or compare the sailor's perception of a microscopic preparation 
with the trained biologist's, and you would find him placed at 
a greater relative disadvantage than was the passenger at sea 
compared with himself." 



• Am. Jour, of Psych., 1903, Vol. XIV, p. 304. 



The Discrimination of Pitch and its Relation to Training 133 

"The ear of the musician is probably not more dehcate than 
the ear of the untrained man in the recognition of differences of 
pitch or of intensity, it is only that his training has prepared 
him to notice combinations and shades, that will escape other 
men. The extraordinary acuteness of sense, developed by tea 
tasters and others, who rely upon one sense almost exclusively for 
complicated determinations, is to be traced similarly to mental, 
rather than to sensory training. The effect is central rather than 
peripheral — mental, not physical."^ 

Growing out of the above results and the conflict in conclusions, 
an investigation was started, at the University of Minnesota, to 
ascertain the facts of pitch discrimination among adults both 
with forks and with sonometer, to find the discrimination of 
intensity differences, and to discover the relation of the results in 
these various tests. A further study was made in training the 
discrimination in pitch to see the effect which practise might have 
upon the ability to discriminate pitch differences. 

THE TESTS AS GIVEN AT MINNESOTA 

The tests were given in the spring of 1909 to about 100 stu- 
dents, and in the fall of the same year to 176 others. The groups 
were composed largely of sophomores. Three tests were given; 
one for discrimination of different pitches given with tuning 
forks, one with the tones given on a sonometer (a wire string 
stretched over a wooden resonator, the string supported by a 
bridge), and one for the discrimination of differences of intensity 
given with a sound pendulum (a swinging pendulum with ebony 
ball on the end which struck against an ebony block giving a 
sound which changed in intensity when let fall from different 
heights). 

The test with tuning forks is practically that recommended by 
the committee of the American Psychological Association, as the 
best simple test for pitch discrimination. The tuning forks were 
tuned for increments in pitch below international A as follows: 
\, I, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 17, 23, and 30 vibrations. A resonator of wood 
constructed to reinforce the tones was used to make them of 
sufficient intensity for the entire class to hear. 

With the sonometer the pitch was varied to correspond with the 
same differences in the forks by shifting the bridge which sup- 
ported the wire. A violin bow was used to establish the tone. 

' Pillsbury, "Attention," pp. 40-42. 



134 The Quarterly Journal 

Full instructions were given to the class before each test. As 
the two tones or two intensities were given, the judgment of 
"higher," "lower," or "same," was indicated by them on a 
record sheet. The judgment always compared the second tone 
or intensity to the first. Whether the second tone was actually 
higher or lower depended entirely upon chance thruout the test, 
so that every judgment was given independently of what went 
before. The chance order was arranged so as to have the standard 
(A 435 vibrations) given first, as many times as the varied forks. 
Since auditory memory and imagery are a necessity, in vocal 
music particularly, a reasonable interval of time between the two 
sounds would make the tests similar to practical conditions as 
found in music. 

Of the six judgments recorded for each set of tones given, the 
median was taken as the measurement for the discrimination of 
the individual in that test. 

DIFFERENCES IN ABILITY TO DISTINGUISH SOUNDS 

The variation of different individuals in pitch discrimination is 
quite pronounced. With the sonometer they range from a dis- 
crimination of one-half of a vibration to more than 30 vibrations. 
(A 30-vibration difference was the largest interval used.) The 
average record was -a discrimination of 5.8 vibrations with an 
average variation from that record of 4.7 vibrations. With the 
forks the individuals ranged from a discrimination of .75 vibra- 
tions to more than 30 vibrations. There were eleven observers 
unable to tell a difference of 30 vibrations. The average dis- 
crimination was 6 vibrations, and the average vibration from 
that record was 4.2 vibrations. A rather peculiar fact was that 
there were only two who could not discriminate at least 30 vibra- 
tions with either the forks or the sonometer. The distribution 
of the cases showed a skewed curve. Two-thirds of the students 
were able to discriminate a difference of less than 4.5 vibrations 
with the forks. This is j%q of a tone at that place in the scale. 
In the intensity test, the variations ranged from more than 
60 degrees to 3 degrees. (The height of the fall of the pendulum 
was mesured in degrees of arc.) The average discrimination 
was 13.3 degrees with an average variation from that record of 
3.9 degrees. 

It is interesting to note the relation of the records to the musi- 
cal experience of those tested. The indications are that those 
with the better ability had had more training, but whether the 



The Discrimination of Pitch and its Relation to Training 135 

training caused the difference could be determined only if we 
knew their comparative ability before the training. Almost 
without exception the cases which, as adults, had the keener 
discrimination, had had vocal training thru the grades, and had 
taken private lessons of some sort for varying periods. All had 
one or more instruments in their homes in constant use. The 
majority enjoyed the music as well when the performer was not 
seen, and some enjoyed it more. This last fact indicates that 
the enjoyment was not due to any great extent to visual per- 
ception. Among these with the poorer discrimination, all had 
meagre public school training and only a few had taken either 
vocal or instrumental lessons. The instrument studied was 
piano with some other instrument which needs little discrimina- 
tion of pitch less than half a tone. Several had instruments in 
their homes, but in every case they were used but slightly. A 
number of them said they could not sing. It is interesting to note 
that so many of them enjoy music thru its rhythm. It may be 
that they recognize some tunes thru the rhythm rather than the 
pitch relations. Such cases are known. (The rhythm stage is 
regarded as the primitive stage of musical appreciation.) Some 
had not noticed the difference in their enjoyment of music as 
affected by seeing or not seeing the performer, but for the majority 
it was necessary for them to see the performer to enjoy the music 
at all. It rather suggests that the performance, enjoyed thru 
vision, appeals because of its acrobatic nature. 

It was found also that those showing the poorest discrimi- 
nation in the intensities had similar musical experience, with two 
exceptions, to those poorest in pitch discrimination. 

In the opinion of the experimenter, based on the musical 
history of the subject, 53 per cent of those in the best quarter for 
musical education were in the best quarter for pitch discrimina- 
tion with the forks, while 59 per cent of those in the poorest 
quarter for musical education were in the poorest quarter for 
discrimination of pitch. 

CORRELATION 

Do those having a keen discrimination in one test for sound 
discrimination have a tendency to have a keen discrimination 
in the other tests? Perfect correlation would be indicated by 
the coefficient i.o. The correlation, as determined by Thorn- 
dike's graphic method of finding the median ratio, is .94 for the 
forks and sonometer, .47 for the forks and intensity, and .65 for 



136 The Quarterly Journal 

the sonometer and intensity. Calculated by the Pearson coeffi- 
cient we find the correlation to be .75 for the forks and sonom- 
eter, .30 for the forks and intensity, and .39 for the sonometer 
and intensity. It will be seen that there is a strong correlation 
between the discrimination with forks and the sonometer. This 
is a most significant fact as indicating that a test for pitch dis- 
crimination does not vitally depend upon the means or instru- 
ment used in producing the tones, that the element of relative 
pitch can be tested either with sonometer or with forks. It 
might suggest that the same individuals tested with wind instru- 
ments would probably give similar results so far as their relative 
ability is concerned. The less correlation between discrimi- 
nation of intensity and pitch indicates that discrimination of 
pitch includes other factors than ability to discriminate sounds. 

THE TRAINING EXPERIMENT 

Six of those who had the poorest pitch discrimination in the 
above tests were selected to try the eff'ect of training upon their 
ability to discriminate. 

For half an hour, five days a week, for two weeks, the test as 
given in class was repeated with this difference that after each 
judgment was recorded, the correct judgment was given for 
comparison with the one noted down, a line being drawn thru 
the record in case of error. There was no practise between the 
tests. 

By checking the record each day the subjects kept track of 
their progress thus largely overcoming the effect of monotony 
in the same practise each day. This also instilled a spirit of 
competition, both to excel one's own record and that of the 
others. Introspections were recorded and the subject's own 
interpretation of a poor record. Any fatigued condition or 
other factor thought to influence the record was also noted. 

The Easter vacation of one week intervened and then the 
following method was used for two weeks. Commencing with 
the interval of 30 vibrations difference, 10 trials were given (the 
order of the forks being determined by chance as previously). 
The correct judgment was given and checked after each trial 
with the one noted down. As far as possible when three or 
more mistakes were made in the ten judgments the interval was 
repeated, otherwise the next smaller interval was taken. On the 
last day the original test was given and the record scored as for 
the larger group. 



The Discrimination of Pitch and its Relation to Training 137 

In noting the effect of practise we must take into consideration 
various factors which influence the learning process, especially 
the physical condition of the subject. Frequently we hear the 
subject say, as in other experiments with the learning process, 
"What was easy for me yesterday is hard today," or "This 
seems to be my off day," or "It seems as if I have to 'warm up' 
before I can do good work." Interest in the work seems to be 
another important factor. "One cannot escape a dead level 
in uninteresting work, and after the enthusiasm that novelty 
stirs has spent itself the interest is dulled and effort slackens."* 
"Fatigue from any cause not only brings a lowering of the day's 
score, but the entire process of learning is probably hindered."^ 
Below is submitted a table showing the record of one of the sub- 
jects. The median record is taken as the discrimination of that 
day, and the median variation shows the variation from that 
record. By looking at the right-hand column the tendency 
toward improved discrimination can be seen. The last record 
taken on April 14, with the method of the original test shows 
3.25 vibrations difference discriminated in contrast to the record 
before training, when he was unable to discriminate even a 
difference of 30 vibrations. 

SUBJECT NO. 184 

FORKS 

Median record in 
vibrations. 

March 8 15.25 

" 9 8.25 

" 10 1.63 

" 11 3.25 

" 14 5.25 

" 15 2.75 

" 16 4. 

" 17 3.25 

" 18 2. 

" 28 2.6 

" 29 2.4 

" 30 2.1 

" 31 .}.;., 1.4 

April 1 ..;.. 4.6 

" 4 2.3 

" 5 1.9 



8 Swift, "Mind in the Making," p. 178. 
• Swift. OD. cit.. D. 185. 



Swift, op. cit., p. 185. 



138 The Quarterly Journal 

Median record in 
vibrations. 

April 6 1.5 

" 7 2.6 

" 8 3.3 

" 11 1.5 

" 12 1. 

" 14 3.25 

The practise curves for the forks for five of the subjects show 
the practise effect in a general tendency toward improvement. 
Those subjects who had the most difficulty in eliminating the 
intensity factor and keeping their attention upon the pitch 
factor, show the greater irregularity in their curves. 

In the original experiment with the larger group the practise 
effect of two hours can be seen in comparing the records of the 
first and third double series with the forks, and a comparison 
of their average variations from that record. Two days inter- 
vened between the record of the first and third series. A com- 
parison of 236 cases shows an average record of 6.14 vibration 
difference for the first series with an average variation of 3.68, 
while for the third series the record was 4.5 vibration difference 
and the average variation 3.14. 

SUMMARY 

The six subjects who were trained show considerable individual 
variation. Is this individual variation due, then, as Seashore 
suggests, chiefly to the structural differences in the end organ.'' 
It would not seem so from the indications of our present results 
since all improve rapidly with practise in discrimination. The 
factors to be taken into account are, the end organ, the specific 
nerve centers, and the association centers. It is universally 
accepted, by physiologists and neurologists, that the nervous 
system can be modified and made more efficient during the life 
of the individual. We do not know that the end organ is modi- 
fied, except when less efficient thru abuse and injury, nor do 
we know that it is not modified by training, unless we accept the 
microscopic investigations of the histologist as sufficient evidence. 
It is doubtful whether we should accept the fact that no struc- 
tural difference is discernible under the microscope as conclusive 
evidence that there is no modification. In the central nervous 
system, however, there is undoubtedly a change. Thru practise 
we are able within certain limits to establish habits of attention. 
From the meagre evidence of the present test, I cannot but believe, 



The Discrimination oj Pitch and its Relation to Training 139 

as does Pillsbury, that the individual differences are due mainly 
to training the attention along a specific line, rather than to 
important structural differences of the end organ. The musical 
training and environment have given special ability to attend to 
the discrimination of sounds. 

The fact of close correlation between the results of the fork 
and sonometer tests seems to indicate that either is a good test 
and probably would give a person's relative ability to distinguish 

pitch. 

Seventy-five per cent of those having the better discrimination 
have had the more extended musical experience. 

The ages of the six subjects trained were 22, 20, 22, 34, 20, and 
23 years. Every one of those trained, with one exception, reached 
a discrimination that was better than the average of the 276 
college students tested. Seashore concluded from his work, 
that training was practically of no value at so late an age, and 
that since the organs of Corti had passed the age of their highest 
efficiency the training was useless. I am inclined to think that 
it comes down primarily to a training of attention in selecting 
the one factor of pitch and holding that in the focus. The 
experiment as given would indicate that as soon as the subject 
had his attention called definitely to the factor of pitch, he com- 
menced very soon to improve in his discrimination. Consider- 
able effort was manifest for some to keep that one element in the 
focus of attention and eliminate particularly the confusing factor 
of intensity. (The louder tone was always judged the higher.) 
This may explain some of the relapses that are shown in the 
practise curves. Altho Seashore apparently does not limit his 
statement about training he evidently should. I believe we must 
regard the question as still open that short practise might reach a 
person's limit. 

OTHER STUDIES 

A rather unexpected result was obtained in testing two other 
individuals. The one who sang considerably and was a member 
of a male chorus had a poorer discrimination than the other, who 
could not carry a tune thru in the same key, altho realizing that 
he had changed. A reasonable explanation seems to be that the 
singer was better able to coordinate the sensory and motor proc- 
esses. The second party had poor control of the vocal organs 
in adjusting them for the proper pitch. This indicates another 
important phase of musical education. Similar facts have brought 



140 The Quarterly Journal 

about the investigation of the motor process used in singing. 
Seashore has perfected an instrument known as "a voice tono- 
scope" which has proven to be an accurate means of observing 
the pitch of tones produced by the human voice. "It causes the 
vibration-frequency, which denotes the pitch of the tone, to be 
seen directly when the tone is sung." The vibrations of the 
voice are made visible upon moving surface by the action of 
intermittent light. ^^ Already investigations have been carried on 
in training the control of the voice as to pitch by the aid of the 
eye.^^ Some of the conclusions reached are: (i) the aid enhances 
the ability to strike a tone which has been heard, (2) it also 
enhances the ability to sing an interval, (3) the voluntary con- 
trol of the pitch of the voice is improved, (4) there is probably 
some transfer of gain from the aided training to later unaided 
singing, (5) there is no evidence of transfer of the gain in the 
accuracy of the memory image (due to the fact that we have here 
to do with memory rather than discrimination, and the acquisition 
of accurate memory images is a slow process), (6) the gain in the 
discriminative control of pitch of the voice is fully transferred. 
By consulting the articles cited the reader may follow the problem 
and results more in detail. 

To what extent the tonoscope will be used in the vocal studio 
is a matter of conjecture, for its need will be appreciated slowly. 
Those who pursue the study of voice privately are assumed to 
have a relatively keen discrimination of pitch so that the voice 
teacher deals very little, ordinarily, with the element of pitch. 
There is no question, but that its need may be felt by those 
whose discrimination is not so keen. The training of pitch dis- 
crimination in singing has been the duty of the singing teacher 
rather than the voice teacher. 

A somewhat related investigation, "Studies in Melody," has 
been carried on recently by Bingham ^^ in which he works out 
a motor theory of melody. 

All the above investigations find their practical value for the 
educator, and will ultimately effect our methods materially. 



i» Seashore, Univ. of la. Studies, 1902, p. 13. 

" Seashore, Jour, of Educ. Psych., June, 1910, p. 311. 

" Bingham, Psych. Rev., Vol. XXI, p. 3. 



Some Physical Properties of 
North Dakota Clay 

Bartholomew John Spence, 
Assistant Professor of Physics, University of North Dakota 

THE aim of this paper is to set forth briefly some of the 
physical properties of North Dakota clay as they have been 
observed in the high-temperature laboratory of the University of 
North Dakota during the past year. 

It is a clearly recognized fact that the clays found in the state 
are of considerable economic importance in such industries as 
pottery, brick making, etc., and any data which are gathered 
will add to the general store of cumulative knowledge which we 
have of these clays and bring out still more clearly their economic 
importance. 

The first part of the paper contains a description of the electric 
furnaces, which have been so successfully made from this clay. 
The second part contains the results of an investigation of the 
thermal conductivity of a few samples of clay. These clays exist 
in a multitude of grades depending upon the stratum from which 
they are taken. A complete investigation of all grades would 
be impossible. As a result a few samples have been investigated 
and they represent perhaps the general characteristics of the 
clays existing in the district from which they were taken. 

The writer takes this opportunity to express his obligation to 
Prof. E. J. Babcock, Dean of the School of Mines, of this institu- 
tion, for the samples of clay and for information concerning 
many properties of these clays. 

Part I 

ELECTRIC-RESISTANCE FURNACES 

There is a general demand in high-temperature work for an 
electric-resistance furnace which is economical as well as efficient. 
This type of furnace is put to a variety of uses, such as the deter- 
mination of the melting points of metals and their alloys, the 
determination of specific heats, and the recalescence points of 
various grades of iron and steel, a thoro knowledge of v/hich 

141 



142 The Quarterly Journal 

plays a most Important role in high-speed tool making, accordingly 
they must possess adaptability and efficiency. 

Many types of furnaces are at present on the market. The 
most efficient is the platinum resistance furnace, but it is costly 
and as a rule must be imported from Germany or England, 
owing to the fact that it possesses a central tube made of high- 
grade porcelain upon which is wound platinum foil to serve as a 
heating coil. This central porcelain tube is the chief draw-back 
to furnace making, for at present it seems that there has been no 
distinctly successful attempt to replace this porcelain tube with 
other material. 

It occurred to the writer that it might be possible to make use 
of the clay found In the state to replace the porcelain. The 
result has been very gratifying, for a number of furnaces, of differ- 
ent sizes and for different purposes, have been made, with con- 
siderable success. As an example, one will be described which 
has been most frequently used since it was constructed. 

The furnace consists of a tube of clay upon which Is wound 
nichrome wire.^ This tube of clay has a diameter of 2.5 Inches and 
a length of 6 Inches. It was first moulded and when dry was 
placed in the lathe, cut to the required thickness, the thinner the 
better, then threaded with 12 threads to the inch. It was thoroly 
fired and then wound with the nichrome wire of .058 inches In 
diameter. The winding was covered with a paste of clay to keep 
the wire in position. The whole was then inserted In another 
cylinder of larger dimensions and the intervening space between 
the cylinders filled with grog.^ This was then placed in a sheet- 
iron receptacle, supported by three uprights, and the space out- 
side of the second cylinder filled with grog. In this form the 
furnace was complete. 

When this furnace was connected to a 220-volt circuit and the 
external resistance so adjusted to give a current of 15 amperes, 
it attained a temperature of 1100° C. within three-quarters of an 
hour. The maximum temperature attained with this furnace 
has been 1200° C. as a safe limit. At this temperature, the 
inner tube showed no evidence of fusing and after repeated 
heatings and coolings showed evidence of minute cracks. These 
cracks are of little Importance for the clay tube is held In position 
by the winding and coating of clay. This particular furnace has 

> Nichrome is an alloy of iron, chromium, and nickel; it has a melting point of 
about 1400° C. and is not readily oxidizable. 

' Grog is a fired clay which has been coarsely ground. 



Some Physical Properties of North Dakota Clay 143 

had hard usage and thus far has showed no evidence of deteriora- 
tion. 

With the platinum resistance furnace, a temperature of 1400° C. 
may be attained as a safe limit. The nichrome furnace just 
described attains a temperature of 1200° C. The cost of produc- 
tion is perhaps one-fifth of the cost of the platinum furnace. 
The ratio of efficiencies is decidedly less than one-fifth. Of 
course at times the higher temperature is required, and one must 
have the platinum furnace, but for the uses to which these furnaces 
have been put they are fully as efficient as the platinum furnace. 

Part II 

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 

In many instances where fire clay is put to use, it is necessary 
to know how much heat will pass thru it for a given thickness 
and temperature difference, or simply how good the heat insulat- 
ing property is. As a specific instance, a fire clay is desired to 
be used for a furnace lining or a muffle, other things being equal, 
the clay which has the lowest conductivity is the clay naturally 
used owing to the fact that it will allow less heat to pass thru it 
in a given time. This investigation deals with this specific 
property. 

The methods at one's disposal for the determination of the 
conductivity of solid substances are very limited, owing to the 
few simple forms into which the test sample may be moulded 
and obtain a flow of heat the direction of which is known. 

The method here used was to mould a cylinder of clay about 
15 cm. long and 8 cm. in diameter, dry it thoroly and then 
along the axis of the cylinder bore a hole 6 mm. in diameter thru- 
out its length. At known distances from the central hole and 
parallel to it a series of holes was drilled about 3 mm. in diameter. 
These holes served for the insertion of the thermo-couples, by 
which the temperature was mesured. In the central hole was 
inserted a closely-wound spiral coil of nichrome wire of small 
diameter, which served as a heating coil. 

This coil of wire was heated by an electric current, the magni- 
tude of which depended upon the temperature at which the con- 
ductivity was desired. When the coil is heated there will occur 
a flow of heat in a radial direction. This will be approximately 
true in the center of the cylinder for, when a thermo-couple is 



144 The Quarterly Journal 

inserted in the small holes parallel to the axis to various depths 
and no temperature gradient is observed, then the flow parallel 
to the axis must be negligible within those limits. Such proved 
to be the case. 

To obtain an expression for the conductivity, in terms of the 
boundary conditions of the experiment, we shall assume the 
Fourier equation for the flow of heat in a solid of unlimited 
dimensions: 

'^^ dt " W^/ ^2=^, 

where c is the specific heat, p the density, K the conductivity 
assumed as independent of the temperature, d the temperature 
at any point whose coordinates are x, y and z. 

For the steady state, the Fourier equation becomes 

dx^ dy^ dz^ 

The state of a body is steady if the temperature at different 
parts of the body is different, but does not change with the time. 
In this case each particle gives up as much heat on the one side 
as it receives on the other. 

An integral of the equation for the steady state is 

e = Clogr-h C\ 

where r"^ = x"^ -\- y^, and C and C are constants. Therefore, if 
we set 61 = C log ri + C, and 6% = C log ro + C, we obtain 

^ {di — 62) log r di log r2 - 02 log ri _ 
log ri — log r2 log r2 — log ri 

The rate of flow in the direction of the radius is 



dr r{\og Ti — log ri) 



The quantity of heat which passes out thru unit length of the 

coil is 

2 7rZ(gi-g2) 

Q = iTrrU = i 7 

log ri/n 

The quantity of heat Q can be determined when the number of 
watts of electrical energy which is put into the heating coil is 
known when the body is in the steady state. Hence 

I log r2/ri 



Some Physical Properties of North Dakota Clay 145 

Therefore the conductivity 

.2394^/ log r2/ri 



K = 



2 irlidi - 62) 



Thus we have an expression involving the number of watts EI, 
two temperatures di and 62, at the distances ri and r^ from the 
axis of the heating coil, and the length / of the heating coil. If 
the quantities are mesured in terms of watts, centimeters, and 
degrees Centigrade, then the conductivity is defined as the 
number of calories of heat transmitted in one second between 
two faces of a centimeter cube when the faces are at a temper- 
ature difference of i° C. 

METHOD OF MESUREMENTS 

The cylinder of clay prepared as described as above, was en- 
closed in another cylinder with walls an inch thick. It was then 
placed in a vertical position upon thick magnesite bricks. The 
whole was surrounded with magnesite bricks with the exception 
of a small space thru which to insert the thermo-couples. To 
the terminals of the heating coil was connected a Weston alter- 
nating-current wattmeter, which gave the amount of electrical 
energy converted into heat. The temperature difference at 
different distances from the axis of the cylinder was mesured by 
means of two platinum, platinum — 10 per cent rhodium thermo- 
couples. The electro-motive forces of these couples was mesured 
by means of a Leeds and Northrup Type K potentiometer. 
These thermo-couples were carefully calibrated and curves 
drawn, relating electromotive force and temperature, from which 
the temperatures involved in the experiment were obtained. 

The method of observation consisted in heating the cylinder 
for about six hours until a steady state was observed, then in- 
serting the thermo-couples in the various holes at known distances 
from the axis of the cylinder, and reading their electro-motive 
forces. The temperatures corresponding to these electro-motive 
forces were obtained from the calibration curves mentioned above. 

In this manner a series of values of the conductivity at different 
temperatures was obtained, ranging from 150° C. to 850° C. for 
the couple nearest the axis of the cylinder. The object in view 
was to determine whether or not the conductivity was a function 
of the temperature. 



146 The Quarterly Journal 

RESULTS 

Two samples of clay were tested which came from Hebron, 
North Dakota. These samples were a high-grade pottery clay. 
From a visual examination they appeared to be of the same 
texture. A sample of English ball clay of unknown origin was 
also tested. The results for the samples of North Dakota clay 
are contained in Tables I and II, and those for the English ball 
clay in Table III. 

The samples of clay from the state show a decreasing con- 
ductivity between the temperatures at which it was observed, 
thus making the conductivity a function of the temperature. 
This is more clearly brought out by the fact that, for the same 
sample and during the same steady state, the values of the con- 
ductivity are greater for a greater ratio of the radii which enter 
into the computation. For example, in Table II, the conductiv- 
ities are computed using radii of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 milli- 
meters and the temperatures corresponding to these radii. The 
conductivity corresponding to the radii 10. and 30 mm. is larger 
than that for the radii 10 and 15 mm., showing that for a higher 
average temperature which existed between the radii 10 and 
15 mm. the conductivity was less than that corresponding to the 
lower average temperature between the radii 10 and 30 mm. 
This is in accord with the supposition that the conductivity 
decreases with the temperature. These samples were not initially 
fired, but were simply dried thoroly, hence it may be expected 
that as the temperature rises the conductivity will change owing 
to some change in the test sample. The change may be due to a 
driving off of gases due to combustible matter naturally included 
in the clay. 

It may be argued that this is a fault inherent in the method, 
but it does not seem likely, owing to the fact that when the ther- 
mo-couples were inserted to various depths in the holes there 
was no temperature gradient except near the ends of the sample. 

The English ball clay shows a much higher conductivity and 
not the remarkable change with a rise of temperature. It, there- 
fore, seems apparent that North Dakota clay of texture and com- 
position similar to the samples which have been tested exhibit 
admirable heat-insulating properties owing to the low thermal 
conductivity. However, the samples, as stated above, were not 
initially fired and after a thoro firing may show entirely different 
results. At the present time, experiments are in progress deal- 



Some Physical Properties of North Dakota Clay 147 

ing with the conductivity of other samples of North Dakota and 
English ball clays, also mixtures of the two; KaoHn clay is also 
being attempted. Larger specimens are being used in order to 
obviate any possibility of the flow of heat not being approximately 
radial. 

An investigation of similar character was pubHshed in a bulle- 
tin of the University of Illinois Experiment Station. There the 
investigators found that fire clay, obtained from the Leclede- 
Christy Clay Products Company of St. Louis, Missouri, had a 
conductivity ranging from .0024 to .0035, a much higher conduc- 
tivity. 

TABLE I 

NORTH DAKOTA CLAY 





Temperature for 


Conductivity for 


Watts. 














ri = 28 mm. 


rj = 18 mm. 


r, = 10 mm. 


Ti - ri. 


rj - r,. 


60 


135° C. 


160° C. 


190° C. 


.001230 


.001255 


80 


170 


204 


247 


.001180 


.001206 


100 


203 


247 


300 


.001171 


.001223 


120 


232 


285 


354 


.001130 


.001150 


140 


255 


320 


404 


.001117 


.001138 


160 


278 


354 


452 


.001010 


.001080 


180 


298 


386 


504 


.001044 


.001058 


200 


318 


421 


554 


.000979 


.000989 


220 


336 


453 


606 


.000962 


.000979 


240 


354 


485 


658 


.000896 


.000926 


260 


369 


516 


708 


.000871 


.000899 


280 


384 


546 


758 


.000850 


.000856 


300 


398 


576 


810 


.000829 


.000831 



I = 15 cm. 



148 



The Quarterly Journal 



TABLE II 

NORTH DAKOTA CLAY 





Temperature for 


Conductivity for 


Watts. 






















r, =30 


r2 = 25 


r3 = 20 


U = 15 


rj= 10 


rs-n 


rj-rj 


n-r, 


n-rt 


40 


100° C 


108° C 


116°C. 


130° C 


149° C 


.000989 


.000986 


.000927 


.000941 


60 


142 


154 


167 


186 


214 


.001010 


.001010 


.000976 


.000958 


80 


180 


194 


214 


238 


280 


.000969 


.000940 


.000927 


.000852 


100 


212 


232 


258 


292 


346 


.000904 


.000886 


.000869 


.000828 


120 


240 


268 


300 


344 


412 


.000845 


.000842 


.000819 


.000789 


140 


260 


304 


342 


393 


478 


.000812 


.000823 


.000787 


.000754 


160 


295 


336 


380 


442 


542 


.000785 


.000785 


.000755 


.000699 


180 


318 


360 


418 


492 


605 


.000760 


.000771 


.000736 


.000712 


200 


340 


396 


452 


540 


668 


.000739 


.000743 


.000708 


.000699 


220 


362 


424 


488 


590 


732 


.000728 


.000722 


.000689 


.000692 


240 


383 


452 


523 


640 


796 


.000721 


.000705 


.000672 


.000688 


260 


404 


476 


558 


690 


860 


.000691 


.000684 


.000658 


.000684 


280 


424 


500 


593 


740 


920 


.000669 


.000675 


.000655 


.000696 



I = 15 cm. 



TABLE III 
ENGLISH BALL CLAY 



— . 






Watts. 


Temperature. 


Conductivity. 








r = 15 mm. 


r = 25 mm. 




80 


405° C. 


240° C. 


.00280 


100 


490 


290 


.00289 


120 


580 


328 


.00275 


140 


648 


362 


.00283 


160 


710 


392 


.00291 


180 


776 


420 


.00292 


200 


840 


444 


.00292 



{ = 14.5 cm. 



Electrical Testing of Telephone 



Cabl 



es 



Edward Beattie Stephenson, 
Instructor in Physics, University of North Dakota 

THE cable has been one of the important features in the 
development of telephone service, especially where protec- 
tion from the weather, the limitations of space, or the esthetic 
standards of the community do not permit the use of bare wires 
suspended on poles. It is the principal object of this article to 
consider the testing of the cables at the manufacturing plant, but 
for the proper understanding of the purpose of the tests it will be 
necessary at times to go briefly into general electrical and tele- 
phone theory without attempting rigorous mathematical treat- 
ment. 

The dry-core, paper-insulated, lead-covered type of cable is in 
almost universal use. This cable is built up as follows: Each 
copper wire has a strip of special paper about an inch wide wound 
spirally around it, two wires with different colored paper are 
twisted together into a pair, two pairs are laid up into a quad, 
the quads are arranged in concentric layers wound in opposit 
directions, around the outside two layers of paper are wrapt in 
opposit directions, and finally, after baking in an oven at 212° F. 
until perfectly dry, the whole is covered with a continuous lead 
sheath which is molded on the cable at a very high pressure, but 
low temperature. 

The electrical properties of a cable depend largely on its design. 
The ideal condition is to get as many wires as possible into a 
small space and yet preserve the insulation and talking qualities. 
A full consideration of the talking qualities of a cable would 
necessitate a complicated mathematical study ^ but it may be 

* Most of the methods and apparatus described are those in use at the present 
time by the Western Electric Company, as learned by the writer during the past 
summer's work in the Inspection-investigation department at the Hawthorn plant, 
Chicago. The writer wishes to express his thanks to the department manager for 
explanations of many of the theoretical and practical points involved in the methods 
and apparatus. 

• For a mathematical study of the subject, see Oliver Heaviside, "Electro- 
magnetic Theory," "Collected Papers"; Abbott, "Electrical Transmission of 
Energy." For a comprehensive study of the practical side, see Kemster B. 
Miller, "American Telephone Practice." 

149 



150 The Quarterly Journal 

stated briefly that they depend on the ohmic resistance of the 
wires, their capacities, their inductances, and their insulation, 
and that these factors are intimately related. Standard practice 
has set certain limiting values for these quantities so that, before 
being delivered, each cable is subject to a series of tests to see 
that it comes within the required limits. 

The ohmic resistance is a function of the wire alone, depending 
on its size, length, and composition. As these are known from the 
specifications of the wire, this is not a routine test, except quali- 
tatively in the continuity test. The capacity depends on the 
number, length, and size of the wires, their spacing, i.e., their 
distance from each other, and from the lead sheath, and on the 
dielectric constants of the paper insulation. For example, paper 
insulation has an advantage over rubber insulation in having a 
much smaller dielectric constant and therefore a lower capacity. 
The inductance depends also on the spacing, on the twist of the 
wires, and on the wave form of the applied voltage and current. 
The insulation or leakage depends on the mechanical properties 
of the paper covering and largely on the complete dryness of the 
air in the interstices. 

The routine commercial tests are (i) for simple continuity, 
(2) for crosses and grounds, (3) for capacity, (4) for insulation 
resistance b}'" direct deflection, and (5) for location of breaks, 
crosses, and grounds. For long-distance toll cables special tests 
are made (6) for unbalanced capacity and (7) for ten combina- 
tions of the capacity by a bridge method. On experimental or 
discarded cables a "break-down" test is often made. 

The continuity test is a simple qualitative one in which 12 volts 
direct current and a bell are used to "ring out" each wire. The 
wires at the far end of the cable are bound together and grounded 
on the sheath, and the circuit is completed by tapping each wire 
at the near end. If a fault is found the wire is marked and tested 
further as described below. 

The test for crosses and grounds is made with 100 volts direct 
current, and a relay which actuates a key in the 12-volt circuit 
used in the continuity test. The crosses or grounds frequently 
have very high resistance, so it is necessary to use a high voltage 
and the relay. For this test the wires are all separated at the 
far end while at the near end, the test is made on one wire at a 
time, the others being bunched and grounded on the sheath. 
In case a fault is found, the wire is marked for further testing. 
The apparatus for these two tests is placed in a box underneath 



Electrical Testing of Telephone Cables 



151 



the operator's chair. The boxes are especially designed to be 
automatic and "fool-proof," and their manipulation is limited 
to plugging in the cable and throwing the switch on the high or 
low voltage. 

The test for capacity is made by the direct deflection method. 
A diagram of the apparatus is given in Fig. i. A known voltage 
is connected thru a condenser key to a ballistic galvanometer 



■< — 


500 V. 
D. C. 




D. 


u 


Res. 








u 



p. D. T Switch 
-O O- 



I— I 



Megohm 




Dry Cells 

H 

1-50 V. 



oc-.OOl 
Shunt 



-> 



v 



Cable 
© 



<r' 



Cond. Key 
Fig. I. — Capacity and Insulation Resistance. 

and certain wires of the cable. On closing the key there is a 
deflection of the galvanometer, due to the rush of electricity into 
the cable. By calibration with a known capacity in place of the 
cable the constant of the galvanometer may be found so that 

def. 



C = K 



volt. 



The galvanometer used is of the astatic Thomson type, with a 
very high resistance and high ballistic sensibility. It is placed 
on a modified Julius' suspension, and read with a lamp and scale 
at about two meters distance. The apparatus is arranged to be 



152 



The Quarterly Journal 



as automatic as possible, the manipulation consisting in connecting 
the proper wires of the cable, closing the key and reading the 
deflection. The capacity can then be found from previously 
prepared tables. The testing booths are on the floor above the 
cables, and great care is taken to insulate the leads and prevent 
leakage. The keys and binding posts are mounted on hard rubber 
posts on hard rubber panels, and the leads are insulated with hard 
rubber tubing where they go thru the walls. Number i8, 
copper wire with black enamel insulation is used for the wiring. 
Experience has shown that this wire gives the least trouble, and 
that it is easier to locate any that may occur. 

The apparatus, shown in Fig. i, is also used for testing insula- 
tion resistance, when the 500 volts direct current are thrown onto 
the wire under test, the others being bunched together and 
grounded. A .1 megohm coil is always in series both for pro- 




Bf 




Ixo, 



n^ 



Ground 
Fig. 2. — Varley Loop Test. 

tection and for calibration of the galvanometer. On closing the 
key there is a ballistic throw of the galvanometer (which should be 
prevented by the use of a short-circuiting key) and then a drift 
back to a steady deflection. The deflection is usually read after 
a certain time, say 15 seconds. The insulation resistance is then 
calculated in megohms per mile from the calibration constant of 
the galvanometer. For a high-resistance circuit and constant 
voltage, the deflection of a galvanometer is inversely propor- 
tional to the resistance. By finding the deflection for .1 megohm 
the constant is easily calculated. 

In case a fault is found in either of the first two tests, it is 
located by some form of the Varley loop test. One application of 
this is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 2. This is essentially a 
Wheatstone's bridge method, but as the cross or ground is usu- 
ally of a high resistance, and often changes irregularly, it is 



Electrical Testing of Telephone Cables 153 

necessary to eliminate this in the mesurement. In cable work, a 
good wire is usually available, and the resistance of this wire is 
known from its size and length. The grounded wire is twisted 
together with the good wire at the far end of the cable, and the 
near ends are joined to the bridge. 
The equation of balance is 

R2 Ry + Re 

Letting 7?o = i?x + i?i/ + Re, 

then Kx = — 5 — I — 5 — 

j<i ~r J<2 

whic h is independent of the resistance of the fault. 

If R, = R2, R. = ^^- 

R R 

Since — is the resistance of one wire, — is evidently equal to Ry 

in the figure, and we have the following rule: Adjust R for a 
balance and divide by 2. This gives the resistance from the 
fault to the further end of the wire.^ For breaks, an alternating 
or interrupted current and telephone may be used, and the bridge 
balanced for capacity of the broken wire and a good wire. A 
special bridge is sometimes used, and so arranged that when one 
dial is set on the length of the cable and the others are balanced, 
the distance to the cross or ground may be read directly in feet. 

In order to test the insulation in another way, a break-down 
test is made on some of the experimental and discarded cables. 
This consists in applying a known voltage from a step-up trans- 
former and increasing it by regular amounts until the insulation 
breaks down. A high-resistance lamp bank should be used in 
series to prevent a dangerous flow of current. The paper insu- 
lation will stand a surprisingly high voltage. 

When cables came to be used for long-distance work it was 
found that the crowding together of the wires into a limited 
space introduced several complications. Placing the two con- 
ductors close together, but separated by a dielectric caused a 
large increase in the capacity, and there was a decrease in the 
inductance due to the bifilar winding. The efficiency of a line 
depends on how well it will transport all the energy without 

2 Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, p. 1041. 



154 



The Quarterly Journal 



distorting the wave form. Thus the first cables were found to 
be much less efficient than the open line. It remained for Prof. 
M. I. Pupin,^ to demonstrate mathematically and experimentally 
(altho Heaviside first indicated it mathematically) that the proper 
relation between the capacity and inductance can be secured by 




0-IOOA 



500 mmf. 
Fig. 3. — Capacity-conductance Bridge. 

loading the cable. Loading a cable means inserting, at certain 
intervals, self-inductance coils with iron cores which serve to 
preserve the proper relation between the inductance and capacity. 
In order to determine the number and location of these loading 
coils it is necessary to know the capacities and conductances of 
the wires with the highest accuracy. For this mesurement the 



» Pupin, Trans. Am. Inst, of E.E., Mar., 1899, May, 1900; Trans. Am. Math. 
Soc, July, 1900. Campbell, Phil. Mag., Mar., 1903. 



Electrical Testing of Telephone Cables 



^SS 



bridge method of comparison of capacities is used.* As this 
method has been developed to a very high degree of sensitiveness 
by the Western Electric Company, and is used in their investi- 
gational work on new types of cables as well as for commercial 
tests on the long-distance ones, it will be described in consider- 
able detail. 

The apparatus is a combination bridge for the mesurement of 
capacity and conductance. It is shown diagrammatically in 
.Fig. 3. Two equal resistances, R\ and i?2, of 1000 ohms each, 
are used for the ratio arms and the other two arms, Rz and i?4, 
have resistances with capacities shunted over each. An alter- 
nating-current generator running steadily at a frequency of about 
900 cycles provides the current and the point of balance is deter- 
mined by silence in the telephone receiver T. It is desired to 
mesure the capacity and the conductance, and it is also necessary 
to balance for both of these to get silence in the receiver. It is 
impossible to go into the dis- 
tinctions between grounded, di- 
rect, and mutual capacities, and 
the connections for each, but 
suppose two wires of the cable 
are connected to two points of 
the bridge, say C and D. This 
is equivalent to putting a high 
resistance and a capacity in par- 
allel with Ri and C2. 

A sketch of the balance for 
resistance is shown in Fig. 4. 
The addition of a high resist- 
ance in parallel with R^ requires 
the addition of a small resist- 
ance to restore the balance. Since Ri = R2, Rz = Ri, and if the 
reciprocal of the resistance r is called the conductance G, 




Fig. 4. — Resistance Balance. 



I 

R 



-5—; h G, from which G = -7^ 

K -\- r K^ 



4» 

neglecting the additive term -^ as r is very small in comparison 

with R. If now R is made 1000 ohms, r gives the conductance 
directly in micromhos. 



* Rosa and Grover, Bull. U. S. Bur. Stds., Vol. I, No. 2, 1905. Giebe, Zeitschr. 
fiir Instrumentenkunde, Vol. XXXI, Jan., 1911. 



iS6 



The Quarterly Journal 



The capacities of the bridge consist of a series of 6 fixt air con- 
densers of 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 micro-microfarads 
(mmf. = io~'2 farads) capacity and a revolving three-part con- 
denser of 500 mmf. The fixt condensers are so connected to 

a commutating switch that any 
value from o to 10,000 in 1000 
steps may be obtained on either 
side of the bridge. A sketch of 
the capacity balance is shown in 
Fig. 5, The introduction of a 
capacity Cx in parallel with C2 
requires a shift of capacity to 
the AD arm. This is accom- 
plished by the use of the com- 
mutating switch, and finally by 
the revolving air condenser, the 
two halves of which are separate 
and connected to A and C re- 
spectively, while the semicircular 
revolving part is connected to D. 




Fig. 5. — Capacity Balance. 



When the knob is turned it cuts capacity out of one side and 
into the other. The capacity Cx is thus twice the change in the 
revolving condenser. The calibration curve of such a revolving 
air condenser approximates closely to a straight line, so that it is 
easy to adjust and the capacity balance is sensitive to i mmf. 

The actual capacity conductance set consists of three units: — 
the bridge box, the capacity box, and the resistance box. The 
bridge box has four heavy metal bars representing the four 
corners of the bridge, A, B, C, D, which form common connections 
for four sets of binding posts. The looo-ohm ratio coils are 
connected thru reversing plugs in the AB and BC arms. This 
box also includes, in separate compartments, the transformers 
for the generator and receiver. The capacity box contains the 
condensers with the dial and commutating switch. The re- 
sistance box contains two boxes {R3 and ^4 in Fig. 3), ranging 
from o to 70,000 ohms and a set of dial resistances of tens, units, 
tenths, and hundredths (r in Fig. 3). 

The fixt air condensers are built up of aluminum plates, cut 
as in Fig. 6, in which two superimposed plates are shown, the 
under one by dotted lines. The plates are held apart by washers 
approximately three times the thickness of the plates. The 
plates and washers are strung on 6 rods with firm insulated top 



Electrical Testing of Telephone Cables 157 

and bottom plates so that alternate plates are connected together. 
The condensers have from 10 to 100 plates about 5 inches in 
diameter. It is very essential that the plates be free from dust 
and lint when they are set up, so they should be blown out with 
a strong blast of dry air. 

The extreme sensitiveness of the apparatus makes special pre- 
cautions necessary to eliminate variable external influences if the 
readings are to remain constant. It is evident that every part 




Fig. 6. — Condenser Plates. 

of the apparatus has capacity to every other part and to earth, 
so that any change in the relative positions of the apparatus or 
the operator would destroy the balance. The necessary freedom 
from external influences is obtained by a method of shielding 
which localizes the capacities, keeps them constant and permits 
their being balanced. Each of the three boxes described above 
is lined with sheet tin which forms the outer shielding, and 
is connected to ground. All the separate pieces of apparatus, 
the condensers, the primaries of the transformers, the ratio arm 
resistance coils, the bars in the bridge box, and the connecting 
wires, have complete metallic casing which is called the inner 
shielding. 

There is a certain capacity between, say, a condenser proper 
and its inner shielding, and also a capacity between the inner and 
the outer grounded shielding, but it is obvious that this capacity 
is a fixt quantity which can be determined, or balanced, and is 
not subject to varying external influence. By a proper ground- 
ing of the inner shields on the corners of the bridge their capacities 



158 The Quarterly Journal 

may be balanced. Thus the inner shield of the receiver circuit 
is grounded on C, and that of the generator is grounded on D. 
The slight unbalanced capacity to shielding of the two ratio arms 
is corrected by shunting over one arm a small condenser made by 
silvering about a square centimeter on each side of a thin plate 
of glass. The inner shielding of the capacity box is connected to D 
and then by means of a three-part movable condenser (see Fig. 3) 
one side of which is connected to Z), the other to C and the middle 
to ground, the unbalance of the AD and CD arms to ground can 
be compensated. The shielding system is one of those details 
which determines the constancy and accuracy of the method. 
The efficiency of it may be shown by the fact that it is possible 
to mesure these small capacities, and get the readings constant. 
The distributed capacity of a cable is a function of the alter- 
nating current produced by the generator, but as this is a com- 
parison method that difficulty is practically eliminated, and in 
addition, the frequency used is that of maximum sensitiveness of 
the receiver and the one used in commercial work. 

The capacities of the set were calibrated by first comparing 
the 500-mmf. revolving condenser with a known standard, then 
balancing this against the 500-mmf. fixt condenser. The two 
500 condensers were balanced against the 1000, and so on up to 
the 10,000 one. They were thus interchangeable to within i mmf. 





Pair 



Phantom .E 



Pair 



Fig. 7 — PhaJitom Circuit. 

By an ingenious application of the diff'erential transformer* 
it has been found possible not only to make a marked saving in 
cost of the plant, but to increase the talking efficiency of a cable, 
and extend its range of transmission. This method is called 
"fantoming" and is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 7. It con- 

• A. Trowbridge, Phys. Rev., Vol. XX, p. 65 (1905). 



Electrical Testing of Telephone Cables 159 

sists essentially in introducing a transformer in the circuit of 
each pair of a quad and taking off another circuit from the 
middle of each coil on the line side and leading it to another 
transformer. The two wires of one pair in parallel form one side 
of the fantom circuit, and the two wires of the other pair form the 
other side. Thus an extra telephone circuit is secured without 
increasing the number of wires in the cable. It is even possible 
by the extension of the system to two quads to take another 
fantom off the fantom of each quad and thus to have seven 
telephones on eight wires, each having a complete metallic cir- 
cuit, and not interfering with the use of the other.* 

If the electric wave from the telephone in the fantom circuit 
is to be transmitted along the two wires in parallel, without 
distortion or interference with the current in the single circuit, it 
is necessary that the capacity and inductance of the two wires 
be uniformly distributed and accurately balanced. The bifilar 
winding makes the inductance negligibly small, but the capacity 
must be accurately mesured by the bridge method described above. 
Let the capacity of the two wires of a pair in a given length of 
cable be such that a > b. If a pair in the next length of cable 
have approximately the same difference and c > d, hy connect- 
ing a to d and b to c, the unbalance may be brought within the 
allowable error. 

If we consider two pairs of wires forming a fantom circuit, the 
twisting of the wires together, winding the layers of quads in 
opposite directions and the covering of the continuous lead 
sheath very effectually protect the cable from external disturb- 
ances, but there are evidently three general capacity relations 
between the four wires themselves; namely, six side to side, 
four fantom to side and one fantom to fantom, which must be 
properly balanced. It has been found that a current induced 
in a wire due to a current in a neighboring wire is chiefly due to 
electrostatic induction and bears a constant ratio to their capac- 
ities. As the capacities are much easier to mesure than the 
small induced currents, a test is made for unbalanced capacity 

* A further economy in plant is now made by using the same wires for tele- 
graphing. This system is based on the principle that a high inductance offers no 
resistance to the passage of a continuous direct current other than its ohmie resist- 
ance but effectively "chokes" an alternating current. On the other hand, a direct 
current will not pass through a capacity which offers but little impedance to an 
alternating current. Thus by connecting the telegraph circuit through an induc- 
tance and the telephone circuit through a condenser, neither one interferes with 
the other when they are properly balanced. This "double tracking the Bell 
highway" makes it possible to send three telephone messages, and eight telegrams 
simultaneously over four wires. 



l6o The Quarterly Journal 

or "cross-talk." As it is only the small unbalanced capacity 
that is required to be known, it is mesured by a similar but simpler 
bridge method than that described above. The balancing 
capacity is a 500-mmf. revolving air condenser with a large scale 
that may be read to micro-microfarads. No new principles 
are involved so this bridge will not be described in detail. 

The tests described above are especially designed for cables, 
but it is obvious that they may be applied to general laboratory 
work, and for the mesurement of very small capacities the bridge 
method with careful shielding becomes a method of the highest 
precision. 



Mersenne's Numbers and the Re- 
ciprocal of Fermat's Theorem 

Raymond Royce Hitchcock, 
Instructor in Mathematics, University of North Dakota 

PROFESSOR DOUTHAT of the University of West Virginia 
says in his treatise, "A New Method of Obtaining all 
Possible Prime Numbers from One to Infinity," "God gave man 
the digits, and taught him how to use them, in order that thru 
them man might be led to use these forms; first, to perfect all 
commercial transactions; second, in solving the chemical, physi- 
cal and electrical problems of earth; third, in the study of immen- 
sity and grandeur as revealed in the heavens. Such ideas of 
continuance can be attained only thru calculations in space." 

"The one subject connected with arithmetic, on which all 
arithmeticians so far have failed, is analysis. They seem to have 
partaken in common with ordinary people of the erroneous idea 
that numbers, like sticks and stones, belong just where you put 
them and that the only way to find out how to deal with any 
large number is to try experiments. This latter operation of 
experimentation is proof of the want of proper analysis." 

It was the mathematician, Mersenne, who, in 1644, asserted 
that out of the 56 primes not greater than 257, there were only 
12 primes which, taken as exponent {p), make the number N = 
2" — I, also prime. No proof was published, and even up to 
now, this statement has been only partially verified. 

The resolution into numerical factors of a" — i, when a and n 
denote positive integers, is a problem to which students of higher 
arithmetic, especially in past time, have devoted much attention. 

The factors of 2^ — i are of especial interest for two reasons: 
first, because of Mersenne's assertion as to 2^ — i being a prime 
for certain values of p less than 257; and, secondly, because of 
their bearing on the product 

A{p-\) TT 2 7r 3 7r \{p — i)v 

2 cos - • cos • cos — . . . COS ^^-^ 

p p p p 

which is not always equal to i, but for certain values of p is the 

161 



1 62 The Quarterly Journal 

product of a number of similar products, each equal to i. The 
best known example of this is 

, TT 27r ATT StT , 3 TT 6t 

2* cos — • cos — • cos -^^— • cos — = 2^ cos — • cos — 
17 17 17 17 17 17 

C TT 77r 
• cos^^ — • cos^^^ — = I, 

17 17 

which is proved at once by putting the first product equal to X 

■i . i.x^-"' ^-2^ 27r att 8x 

and notmetnat JL,2sm — = 2*sm — cos — 'cos^^— • cos — ' 

17 17 17 17 17 



47r 47r Stt 

^^— cos-'— cos — > 

17 17 17 



= 2^ sm -^— cos -^ — cos — > 



„ . Stt Stt 
= 2^ sm — cos — ' 



17 17 

. l67r 
= 2 sm » 

17 

. TT . 

= 2 sm — 
17 
Whence X = i. 

If p = 31, or ^ = 43, the original product resolves into three 

TT TT 

others, as is readily seen by beginning with — or — as argument 
of the cosine and successively doubling; 
then since 2^ = i (mod. 31) and 

2^ = - I (mod. 43), 

one of the three products for 31 and 43 is obtained. 

Mersenne' asserted, in 1644, that the only values of p not 
greater than 257 that make 2" — i a prime are 

I, 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19 ,3 1, 67, 127 and 257, 

to which list Seelhoff^ has shown that we must add 61, and Cole' 
has shown that we must strike out 67. 

The method by which Mersenne determined the values of p is 
lost, and its discovery remains among the riddles of higher arith- 
metic. Lucas has estimated that in order to verify the last 
assertion of Mersenne's, that is, that 2^^^ — i is a prime, by 
known methods other than his, the whole population of the globe 



» Mess, of Math. (W. W. R. Ball), Vol. XXI, pp. 34-40. 

» Ibid. » Am. Math. Soc, Vol. X, p. 134. 



Mersenne^s Numbers 163 

calculating simultaneously would require more than a million of 
millions of millions of centuries.^ 

Mersenne's statement, regarding the value of p, has been 
verified for all excepting 21 values of p, namely, 

89, loi, 103, 107, 109, 127, 137, 139, 149, 157, 163, 167, 173, 181, 
193, 197, 227, 229, 241 and 257. 

It remains to prove that p = 127 and p = 257 make 2^—1 
prime, and that the other values here given make 2^—1 composite. 

If p is not a prime then it is evident that 2" — I is composite, and 
two or more of its factors can be written by inspection. The 
factors of such values of 2^ — i as are less than a million can be 
verified easily. 

The table on the following page gives the investigations to date. 

In his letter, Fermat had said that the only possible prime 
factors of 2^ db i, when p was a prime, were of the form np -\- i, 
where n is an integer or zero. In 1748, Euler proved this state- 
ment and added that since 2" ± i is odd, every factor of it must 
be odd and therefore if p is odd n must be even. The proof 

follows: 

2P —1=0 mod T, 

2P = I mod TT, 

2^p = I mod X. 

Let 2 p = a; then by Fermat's theorem 

TT — I is divisible by 2 p, 
TT — I = 2 np, 

IT = 2np -\- I. 

Euler showed that if 2^^ — i had any prime factors they had 
to be o f the fo rm 248 w + i or 248 w + 63, and had to be less 
than V2^^ — I, that is than 46339. It was necessary to try only 
40 divisors to see if 2^^ — i is prime or composite. 

Plana used a similar method in his study of 2^^ — i. The 
prime factors of this number, if any, are of the form 328 w + i 
or 328 n + 247, and He between 123 1 and V2*^ — i, that is, 
1048573. There are 513 such divisors, and the seventeenth of 
these gave the required factors. This method is too laborious 
to use for values of p greater than 41. 

Lucas proved a proposition to the effect that if 4^ + 3 and 
8 w + 7 are primes, then 

24n+3 _ J = Q j^qJ 8 w + 7. 

« Am. Jour, of Math., Vol. VI, p. 236. 



164 



The Quarterly Journal 



1 
2 
3 
5 

7 
11 
13 
17 
19 
23 
29 

31 

37 



t41 

t43 
t47 
t 53 
t 59 
* 61 
67 

71 



*73 

• 79 

t 83 

• 97 
*113 
*127 
tl31 
*151 
tl79 
tl91 
*211 
*223 
*233 
t239 
t251 
*257 



2^-1 



Prime . . . 
Prime.. . 
Prime . . . 
Prime . . . 
Prime . . . 
Composite 
Prime . . 
Prime . . 
Prime . . 
Composite 
Composite 

Prime . . . . [ 

Composite 

Composite 

Composite 
Composite 
Composite 
Composite 
Prime .... 
Composite 

Composite [ 
Composite [ 

Composites 

Composite 
Composite 
Composite 
Prime .... 
Composite 
Composite 
Composite 
Composite 
Composite 
Composite 
Composite 
Composite 
Composite 
Prime 



Discoverer. 



Mersemie 
Mersemie 
Mersemie 
Mersemie 
Mersemie 

Fermat 

Mersemie 
Mersenne 
Mersenne 

Fermat 

Landry 
Mersenne . . . 

Euler 

Fermat 

Plana 

Landry 

Landry 

Landry 

Landry 

Landry 

Seelhoff 

Cole 

Cmmingham 

Lucas 

Lasseur 
Landry 
Lassem* 
Landry 

Lucas 

Lasseur 
Lasseur 
Mersenne 

Lucas 

Lasseur 

Lucas 

Lucas 

Lasseur 
Lasseur 
Lasseur 

Lucas 

Lucas 

Mersenne 



Year publication. 



1640 letter 



1640 letter 

1771 

1640 letter 
1859 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 



Am. Math. Soc, VoL 10, p. 134. 
1909 Intermediare. 



1878 



1878 

1878 
1878 



1878 
1878 



• Mess, of Math., Vol. 21, pp. 34-40. 
t Am. JouT. of Math, Vol. 1, p. 236. 



\ 



From this it follows that 2^—1 is composite for the values 
P = 83, 131, 179, 239, 251, 191, included in Mersenne's statement 
and also for 

^ = 331, 359, 419, 431, 439» 443, 49i- 
The proof of the theorem follows: 
When 8 n -}- 7 is prime we have by Fermat's theorem 
2 8n+6 _ I = omod8n-l-7 
... (24- +3 _ i) (24n+3 -f- j) = q mod 8 n + 7. 



Mer serine's Numbers 165 

But 2^"+' + I is not divisible by 8 « + 7, since 2 is a quadratic 
residue of primes of the form 8 w -j- 7, and therefore 

The method used by Cole^ in his investigation of 2®^ — i is 
interesting as illustrating the application of the theory of quad- 
ratic residues to the factorization of large numbers in general. 

Let 

where u and v are chosen so that their difference « — f is as small 
as possible. Every factor of 2^ — l, p being a prime, ,is of the 
form kp -\- 1 and 8 / ± i. Every factor of 2^^ — i is, therefore, 
of the forms 536^ + 1,536/ + 135 which are further specialized 
to 1608 k -\- I and 1608 j^ + 1207 by virtue of their common 
quadratic remainder — 3. With the help of the other small 
prime remainders, fortified by the presumption that — 23 and, 
therefore, 53, — 83, . . . were non-remainders, he had no diffi- 
culty in sifting the first sixteen million natural numbers, but 
search proved without result. A method of sifting is indicated 
at the end of this thesis. 

He then made the resolution 

and noting that u — v \& divisible by 3 and 6j, he found the 
following congruences for determining \{u -{■ v): 

\{u -\- v) =671 mod 672 = o mod 8 = i, 4+ mod 5, 
= I, 3+ mod 7 = 0, i+, 12 mod 13, 
= 10, 37, 46+, 64 mod 81. 

The cases marked + give 

h{u-\-v) = 1323536760 ;v + 1 160932384. 

Sifting with 23, 37, 41, 53, 61, he found x = 287 remaining. 

287 X 1323536760+ 1160932384 = 381015982504, 
2" — I = 3 8 loi 59825042 — 3808222747832, 
= 193707721 X 761838257287. 

Lucas gives a method for investigating numbers of the form 

(i) A = 2*« + '- I, and (2) 5 = 2*^+'- I. 

• Am. Math. Soc, Vol. X, p. 134. 



1 66 The Quarterly Journal 

(i) Form the series of numbers 

1,3,7,47,2207,4870847,27325150497407, . . . 

in which each is equal to the square of the preceding diminished 
by 2, and keep the residues to modulus A', the calculation of the 
residues is easily performed by successive subtractions, the first 
ten multiples of A having been first calculated. 

If no one of the 4^ + 3 first residues is equal to zero, the num- 
ber A is composite; if the first o is comprised within the limits 
2 q -\- I and 4^ + 3, the number A is prime; in fact if a < 2 ^+1, 
denotes the position of the first zero residue, the divisors of A 
belong to the form 2" /^ + i and to the quadratic form x"^ — 2 y^. 

Example : 

A =2' - I. 
The residues are 

1,3,7,47,48, 16, o mod 127. 

Therefore the number is prime. 

^ = 2" - I. 
The residues are 

I, 3, 7, 47, 160, 1034, 620, - 438, - 576, 160. 

The residues reproduce themselves periodically and A = 2047 
is not prime. 

2I1 - I = 23 X 89. 

(2) Numbers, of the form 

3 = 2''"^'- I. 

Form series of numbers rn 

I, - 1,7,17,5983, • • . 
such that 

and take the residues to the modulus B. The number B is 
prime if the first o residue has a position between 2 q and \q -{- i. 
It is composite if no one of the first 4^+1 residues is equal to o; 
and if a < 2 ^ is the position of the first O residue, the divisors 
of B belong to the linear form 2" >^ ± i combined with those of 
the quadratic divisors of the form 2 x"^ — y"^. For example 

rs = 5983 = 193 X 31, and 2^ — I is prime. 

The reciprocal of Fermat's Theorem. 

\i a^ — I is divisible by p when x = p — i and is not divisible 
by ^ for a: < ^ — I, the number p is prime. 



Mer sennets Numbers 167 

In this case « is a primitive root oi p. li p — \ is equal to a 
power of a power of 2, a is a quadratic non-residue of p. Let 

2" - I = t/„, 2" + I = Vn. 

A fundamental theorem is: 

If in one of the recurring series ?7„, the term Up-i is divisible 
by p, without that it {p) be a divisor of any of the terms of the 
series whose rank is a divisor of ^ — i, the number p is prime; 
likewise, if ^p+i is divisible by p, without that ^ be a divisor of 
any of the terms of the series whose rank is a divisor oi p -\- i, 
the number is prime. 

In fact, since p divides f/p±i, all the terms divisible by p are 
of a rank equal to a multiple of a certain divisor of ^ ± i. On 
the other hand, suppose p not prime and equal for example to 
the product of two prime numbers r and s. We have 

f^r±i— omodr, L/^, ± 1 = o mod j, 

and consequently the term of which the rank is (r dr i) (j ± i) 
is divisible by rs; but by hypothesis p divides the term of rank 
r J db I and, consequently, also the term whose rank is equal to 
the difference of the preceding, that is 

(r db l) (j- ± l) - rj ± I, or 

±rdb J± I ± I. 

But the last number is evidently much smaller than rs', conse- 
quently if p is not prime it divides a term whose rank is lower 
than ^ db I. This is contrary to hypothesis. 
To illustrate the preceding: 

2^ — I = 127. 

To know if 127 is prime we calculate C/128 in the series of Fibonacci. 
We have then the formula 

Form the table thus: 

U, = U, (Fi2 - 2) = ^2 X 3, 

U, = U, {F^' -2) = U, X 7, 

f/i6= Us {V^-2) = U, X47, 

^32 = ^16 (^8=^ - 2) = t/i6 X 2207, 
^64 = Uz2{Vi,^ - 2) = Uz2 X 4870847, 
f/l28 = Uu{Vzi^ - 2) = U^i X 27325150497407. 



1 68 The Quarterly Journal 

127 divides the last factor and does not divide any of the 
preceding so 

27325150497407 = 127 X 186812208641. 

Consequently 127 is a prime number. 

One may considerably simplify the calculation in this method 
by continually replacing the numbers V2, Fi, Fg, . . . by their 
residues with respect to the modulus 127. 

^4 = 32 -2 = 7 

F» =72 - 2 = 47 

Fis = 47^ — 2 = 48 ■ mod 127. 

^32 - 482 - 2 = 16 

Fei = i62 - 2 = o 

This method of verifying large primes is the only direct and 
practical method to solve the problem in question. 

It is opposed to the method of verification by Euler, deduced 
from the consideration of power residues. In the latter method 
one divides the number suspected to be prime by the numbers 
less than its square root, and which belong to the determined 
linear forms that one must calculate at first; the dividend is con- 
stant and the divisor variable, but less, it is true, than the number 
tried. It is the insuccess of these divisions, which are consider- 
able in number, in spite of their linear form, that leads us to 
affirm that the number tried is prime. 

By the method of Lucas just stated we divide by the number 
suspected prime, numbers of an easy calculation, obtained by 
the multiplication of the numerical functions. Here the dividend 
is variable and the divisor constant; consequently we replace the 
divisions by simple subtractions, if we have previously calculated 
the first ten, or better, the first hundred multiples of the con- 
stant divisor. It is the success of this operation that leads us 
to affirm that the number tested is prime. 

The method discussed by Longchamps.^ 

The Mersenne's numbers when written in the decimal system 
are difficult to use in computations because of their large size. 
It is probable that Mersenne did not calculate 2", but that he 
wrote the numbers in the binary numeration noticing that 

2" + I = (looooo . . . 01), 
• C. R., Vol. LXXXV, pp. 950-952. 



Mer sennets Numbers 169 

that is, two figures separated by « — i zeros, and, 

2" — I = (mil . . . i), 

that is, the figure I written n times successively. 

The numbers 2" ± i are characterized in the binary system 
by these two remarkable forms. 

A prime number A = 2 n -\- \, according to the theorem of 
Fermat, divides 2^" - i or (2" — i) (2" + i). Write A in the 
binary system; if A divides 2" + i, it is necessary that, multiplied 
by a certain number which we suppose we can write also in the 
binary system, we produce the form (looooo . . . 01). But the 
multiplication of A is made by a simple displacement to the right 
or left. One ought thus by a series of successive, proper dis- 
placements of the number A to reach by one addition the binary 
form (looooo . . . 01), or the form (mill . . . i) if it divides 
2" — I. 

It is possible that Mersenne used some such method to abridge 
his computations. 

An example of this kind of multiplication follows: 

223 _ I = 178481 X 47. 

I78481 = lOIOIIIOOIOOIIOOOI 

47 = loiiii 



lOIOI I lOOIOOI lOOOI 
I OIOI IIOOIOOI lOOOI 

lOIOI I iooiooi ioooi 
loioi I iooiooi ioooi 
loiomooiooi loooi 



223 _ I = immmmimmm 

Mersenne's numbers are closely connected with the theory of 
perfect numbers. 

Since the time of Euclid, it has been known that any number 
of the form 2""^ (2^ — i) where 2^—1 is a prime is perfect, 
that is, it is equal to the sum of its integral sub-divisors, includ- 
ing unity. It is probable that an odd number cannot be perfect, 
altho a rigorous proof of this has not yet been given. 

If 2^ — I is a prime, it follows that ^ is a prime; hence either 
the last digit of an even perfect number must be 6 or the last 
two digits must be 28. Every perfect number, except 6, is con- 
gruent to unity to the modulus 9. 



170 The Quarterly Journal 

Using the known results on Mersenne's numbers, we shall see 
that the first nine even perfect numbers are obtained by putting 

P = 2,3>5jI3, 17, 19,31561 
in 2P-'^{2P — i), 

and are 

6, 28, 496, 8128, 33550336, 8589869056, 

137438691328, 2305843008139952128, 

and 2658455989570131744644692615953846176. 

The method used by Cole in sifting prime numbers may be 
illustrated by considering the form of the factors, if any, of 421. 
This number may be expressed by quadratic partitions as 

421 =(23)2- 3(6)2, 
(21)2 - 5(2)2, 

(22)2 _ 7(3)2^ 

(39)2- II (10)2, 
(77)2-17(18)2. 

The discriminant of these quadratic expressions, 3, 5, 7, 11, 17, 
are all quadratic residues of 421. 
Consider the quadratic residue 3. 

[-]= I for ^ a factor of 421. 

(|j = +i if/) = 4n + i, 

^— iifp = 4n + 3. 
Take p = 3 n + i. 

Combine p = ■^ n -{- i with ^ = 4n+i, p = 4n + 3- 

This gives p = i2n-\-i, and p = i2n-{-ii. 

Take quadratic residue 5. 

(-]= I for p a factor of 421. 

fp^ 



I. 

5/ 

The quadratic residues of 5 are i and 4. 

;> = 5n+ 1,4. 
Combine p = 12 n -\- 1, 11 with p =5 w + i, 4. 

This gives p == 6on + i, 11, 49. 



Mer sennets Numbers 171 

Now consider the quadratic residue 7 to further limit the forms 
of the factors. 

(- j = I for ^ a factor of 421. 

(^^ = +i,if^ =4n + i, 
— iifp=4w + 3. 

The quadratic residues of 7 are i, 2, 4, and the quadratic non- 
residues are 3, 5, 6, 

Take p = 7n + 1,2, 4, 

^ = 7« +3,5,6. 

Combining the last forms with ^ = 4^+1,3 gives 
^ = 28W+ 1,3,9,19,25,27. 

Combining with p =6on -\-i, 11,49, gives 

^ = 420W + 1, 109, 121, 131, 169, 251, 289, 311, 361. 

Since no factors larger than the square root of the number 
investigated need be tried, the only form for a factor of 421 is 

p = 420 « + I, where w = o, i. 
Therefore 421 is prime. 

THE RECIPROCAL OF FERMAT's THEOREM 

The reciprocal of Fermat's theorem states that if a^ = i mod m 
iov X = m — 1, and not when x = a, where w — i is divisible 
by a, then m is a prime. 

Suppose 

m — I = 0:1*1 . a^"^ . 0:3*3 . . . a^ 



V > 



then the number of divisors of w — i is 

(^l4-l)(^2 + l)(^3 + l) . . . (^. + 1), 

which number includes unity and the number itself. 

In testing to see \i a' = i mod m, where x is a factor of m — i, 
it is not necessary to take for x each of the {ki -\- i) . . . (k^ + i) 
factors. 

In fact, the Reciprocal of ^ermat's Theorem may be modified 
to read as follows: 



172 The Quarterly Journal 

Theorem'. 
If a' = 1 mod m, x = m — i, 

r I , m — I . 

and a'^i mod m, x = > z = i, 2, 3 , . . . , a» 5^ l, 

at 

then m is a prime. 
m— \ 



fore if 



is the product of all the factors of w — i but a». There- 



m-\ 



a "* ^ I mod m, then 
a'^l mod w, where x is any combination of any or all the factors 



of ; for if 



a' = I mod m, 



then by raising both sides of this congruence to a suitable power, 
we obtain 

fl "* = I mod w, 

which is contrary to hypothesis. 

Let us see how this theorem applies to the investigation of 
2^ — I, a Mersenne number. 

We have 

and, therefore, 3 is a quadratic non-residue of 2*' — i, also of 



(289 _ i) _ I 



2 



= 2^ — 1. 



Hence the above theorem may be modified for the case of 2^^ — I 
as follows: 

If 32^-1 e|=- I mod 2^9- I, 

then 2^9 — I is composite; if 

32»-i = _ I mod 289- i^ 

and 3* = — I mod 2^ — I, 

288 — J 
for X equal to any of the numbers > 

for at = 3, 5, 17, 23, 89,353,397,683,2113,2931542417, 
we do not know if 2^' — i is prime or composite; if 

32S8-i = _ I jnod289- I, 



Mersenne's "Numbers 173 

and 3=^^- I mod 2^9- I, 

for X = ^-^^) ai = 3, 5, 17, 23, 89, ... , 2931542417, 

then 2^9 — I is prime. 

The following is probably the most convenient method of 
carrying out the calculation for 2^^ — i : 

Let = (2"! — 2"' + 2"' — 2"' ... + 2"* — 2"* ;• 

Compute 

32". ^ a,^, 3-2". ^ ^,^ 

• ••• •••• 

3 — oivkj 3 — P'^t > 

3 aj = a^j. «!,,.«„, avk-^ni'^n2' • ' ^Mk' mod 2^' —I. 

The /3's may be calculated thus: 

/3o= (3 -^)2° = ^ ^^'' - + I ^^^ ^89 _ j^ 
iS^o ^ (3-1)2' ^ ^1. 
/3i2^(3-r-^^2. 

• •«•• »••• 

^x-:2^(3-2'"?=3-=''^^x. 

This method would, in general, involve about the same amount 
of computation as the method of Lucas.^ 



» See p. 7. 



A Quantitative Expression of the 

Periodic Classification of the 

Elements* 

Frederick Gray Jackson, 
Instructor in Chemistry, University of North Dakota 

IN the periodic classification of the elements, as at present 
published in the textbooks, the elements are placed in squares 
or directly beneath each other. The vertical and horizontal 
periodicity is thus clearly brought out, but no consideration is 
given to the numerical difference between the atomic weight of 
any one element and that of its neighbors. 

It became interesting to investigate these numerical differences 
in view of the large number of very accurate determinations of 
atomic weights that have recently been made. Speculations as 
to the reasons for these differences have been rife for many years, 
and many ingenious and elaborate tables have been published. 
Venable has written their history in his book on "The Develop- 
ment of the Periodic Law." ^ 

Some points not hitherto emphasized, can be shown if we plot 
the elements along a line, placing them in regard to a zero point 
in exact proportion to their atomic weights.^ In order to pre- 
serve the form of the periodic classification, let us stop after 
flourine, and begin a second line with neon. The same abscissa 
are preserved, and a constant whole number is subtracted from 
the atomic weights of the second row. We thus get a row of 
elements that do not come exactly beneath their homologues. 
Beginning with potassium, the third row is placed the same 
distance beneath the second, and plotted by subtracting a larger 
constant. This can be continued until the table is completed. 
Such a table was suggested eleven years ago by Prof. T. VV. 
Richards, in the course of a series of lectures at Harvard Uni- 
versity, but the subject was not carried out beyond an outline. 

* Presented in abstract at the Minneapolis meeting of the American Chemica 
Society. 

1 Chemical Publishing Company, 1906. 

2 All atomic weights used in this paper are taken from the Report of the Inter- 
national Committee on Atomic Weights for 1911. 

174 



Periodic Classification of the Elements \ 



175 




176 The Quarterly Journal 

The constants may be chosen in one of two ways. One group 
may be chosen as a standard, and the constants so selected that 
all of its members come on practically a vertical line. This will 
make the table depend on one group and all the other groups 
w'ill be shown as related to it. A fairer way is to take the aver- 
age difference between rows as the constant to be subtracted. 
This has been done in the table shown, where 17 is subtracted 
from the atomic weights of the members of the second row, 
17 plus 19 from the third, 17 plus 19 plus 24 from the fourth, and 
so on. 

In this table the members of each group have been connected 
by two branching lines. The members of ro vs i, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 
form one branch, and of rows I, 2, 4, 6, 10, the other. This 
seems to connect the best related families, and combines the 
advantages of the classification by great and by small periods. 
Most of the elements of the cerium group are not included in the 
families. 

Group O has but one branch, no members of it occur in a row 
immediately following one in which there are representatives of 
the eighth group. Its members are on a practically straight 
line. The most prominent properties that they have besides 
density are boiling and freezing points, and these increase almost 
regularly with the atomic weight. 

The object of this paper is to show that the atomic weights of 
the elements may vary with their properties. When these prop- 
erties vary irregularly, and we say that the family is not well- 
defined, the line connecting that family in the table will probably 
be crooked. When there is a rapid, but periodic change of 
properties from acid to basic, the line will slope steadily to the 
right until the change is complete. Rapidly increasing density 
of the elements of a family also seems to increase their atomic 
weight above the average, making the family line slope to the 
right, unless some other influence is at work also. A member of 
a family having a density lower than would be expected, seems 
correspondingly to have a low atomic weight. The position of 
potassium and of calcium can thus be accounted for, by compar- 
ing the densities of the metals in their families with their positions 
in the table. This is shown on the following page. 

Here the density of potassium is actually less than that of 
sodium and its atomic weight, less the constant, is decidedly 
less. Caesium is but little denser than rubidium, the percentage 
increase is not as great as the average increase of density from 



Periodic Classification of the Elements 



177 



Element. 


Atomic weight 
less constant. 


Density. 


Element. 


Atomic weight 
less constant. 


Density 


Li 


6.94 
6.00 
3.10 
5.45 
4.81 


0.59 

0.98 
0.87 
1.52 

1.88 


Gl 


9.1 

7.32 

4.09 

7.63 

9.37 


1.93 


Na 


Mg 


1.74 


K 


Ca 


1.58 


Rb 


Sr 


2.54 


Cs 


Ba 


3.74 







row 5 to row 7, and caesium is to the left of rubidium in the table. 
In the second group, both the density and the atomic weight, 
less the constant, decrease from glucinum to magnesium, and 
from magnesium to calcium, and increase considerably from 
calcium to strontium and from strontium to barium. 

This may be connected with the atomic weight of argon, which 
has always appeared abnormal. Potassium, argon and calcium 
may be so close together, not because of a large error in the 
determination of the atomic weight of argon, but because of the 
abnormally low densities of potassium and calcium. It will be 
noticed that there is a wide space between calcium and scandium. 
This shows that calcium has been forced to the left by some 
influence. Undoubtedly there are some other factors than den- 
sity alone that effect the atomic weight, but the density is pecul- 
iarly abnormal, and, therefore, effective here. 

The density at a given temperature is not a very trustworthy 
guide in all cases, since it varies with the temperature, particu- 
larly in the neighborhood of the melting point. In order to 
compare any properties involving temperature, the heat energy 
content of the element must be considered. In a previous 
paper,^ the writer working under the direction of Prof. T. W. 
Richards, determined the specific heats of twenty-five elements 
between — 188° and^ 20°, and also between — 78.4° and 20°. 
(The latter have not yet been published.) In that paper, a 
method is outlined whereby the curve of changing atomic heat 
with change of temperature may be extrapolated to absolute 
zero, and thus the heat energy content be found. Sufficient data 
are not yet on hand to apply these methods completely to this 
consideration. 

In the following table the periodic increase of some of the 
properties of a series of families including the commoner metals 
is compared to their position in the atomic weight table. The 



» Zeit. Phys. Chem., Vol. LXX, p. 414 (1909). 



178 



The Quarterly Journal 



density, the single potential difference (in ion normal solution at 
25°) and the total atomic heat energy content (in 18° small calo- 
ries) are shown. The latter figures are but an approximation. 
They are probably not accurate within 5 per cent, since nearly 
one-fourth of their total amount is obtained by the uncertain 
method of extrapolation. 



Element. 


Atomic heat 
less constant. 


Density. 


Potential. 


Heat content. 


Cu 


3.6 
1.9 
1.2 

5.4 
6.4 
4.6 

9.9 
8.8 
8.0 

12.5 
13.0 
11.1 

14.96 

14.2 

12.0 


8.9 
10.5 
19.3 

7.1 
8.64 
13.5 

5.95 
7.12 
11.9 

5.47 

7.29 

11.37 

5.73 
6.62 
9.80 


+ .329 

+ .798 
+ 1.079 

-.77 
-.42 
+ .75 

-^605 

-'ii2 

-.148 

>.293 
>.466 
>.391 


1230 


Ag 


1475 


a1...: 


1655 


Zn 


1477 


Cd 


1625 


Hg 


2329* 


Ga 




In 




Tl 


1659 


Ge 




Sn 


1648 


Pb 


1706 


As 


1451 


Sb 

Bi 


13765 
1618 







* Includes latent heat of melting. 

' This value may be at fault. The specific heat of antimony appears to have the unique 
property of attaining a maximum at about —40°. 

In any of these families where the data are complete, we find 
that the atomic weight, less the constant, changes from row to 
row somewhat as the change of density and somewhat inversely 
as the change of potential times the change of heat content. It 
is impossible, with the limited amount of data on hand, to do 
more than hint at a law in this connection. That the atomic 
weights are controlled by some such law, few will doubt. It 
must contain other terms also. 

The periodic decrease in the strength of the acids formed by 
the elements is connected with increasing change in atomic weight. 
This makes the connecting line slope to the right. This will be 
noticed in the first four rows in the right hand half of the table, 
where the slope reaches a maximum in the sixth group. This 
increase in basicity cannot be expressed in figures. It must be 
very great from sulphur to selenium, but not so marked in the 
halogen group. There is a change of density in these groups 



Periodic Classification of the Elements 179 

that is very great, but it is complicated by a change in melting 
point, so that comparisons are valueless without including the 
undetermined heat energy contents. However, hydriodic acid is 
a fairly strong acid, while telluric is a very weak one. Metallic 
tellurium conducts electricity, and is heavier than iodine. Is it, 
then, after all so surprising that tellurium should be forced to 
the right abnormally far enough to be beyond iodine? 

The relations of the remaining families, that have been con- 
nected in the table, are not so close. In some cases even, they 
are confined to the isomorphism of a single pair of compounds, 
(as KCIO4, KMn04) so that there is no periodicity that we can 
trace. In the fourth group, however, there is an interesting 
common property, very high melting point. For this reason, 
carbon, silicon, titanium, zirconium and cerium, as well as tan- 
talum and thorium, if they belong in this group, are all used in 
some one of the modern methods of illumination as a source of 
light. 

The relations of the members of the eighth group to each other 
and to the rest of the table will not be gone into in this paper, 
nor will the cerium class of elements be taken up. We are not 
yet sure of the atomic weights of enough of them to assign them 
to definite groups. We are not even certain that there are 
members of the eighth group in the seventh row. This discussion 
will, therefore, have to await further experiments. 

SUMMARY 

1. In the foregoing paper a quantitative periodic classification 
of the elements is presented. 

2. It is shown that the atomic weight of an element is con- 
nected to some extent with its density, its potential, its heat 
content and its basicity, other properties also probably having 
an effect. 

3. The outline of a law connecting these properties with atomic 
weight is suggested. 

4. Plausible explanations are given on this basis for the anoma- 
lous positions of argon and tellurium. 



Book Reviews 



The Principles of Scientific Management: Frederick 
WiNSLow Taylor. Harper and Brothers, New York, 1911, 
pp. 144. Price, $1.50 net. 

Slowly science is coming into its own. The principles which 
underlie action, whether psychological, biological or industrial, 
can be ascertained and applied. In this book of less than one 
hundred and fifty pages, the author maintains the thesis that the 
ordinary industrial business of producing things can be reduced 
to a science. The keynote of the book is found in the sentence 
that "in the past the man has been first, in the future the system 
must be first." When scientific management is applied, the 
result is maximum prosperity for the employer and maximum 
prosperity for the employee, based upon the supposition that the 
interests of the laborer and the employer are the same. He 
maintains strongly that larger output will bring prosperity, 
resulting in greater producing power, for not only the laborers, 
but for the people generally. The old systems of production 
left the workman to work out his own ways of doing things, and 
the result was dependence on the rules of thumb developed by 
the experience and limitations of the past. Attempts have been 
made from time to time to arouse workmen to larger activity, 
but it has never produced the results expected. 

The author distinguishes between what he calls initiative and 
incentive methods as against those of scientific management. 
The principle of the plan is the dealing with men as individuals 
rather than in masses, and the finding out that long hours of 
labor do not increase the amount of work done, but often pre- 
vents the maximum output. While the criticism has been 
made that scientific management does not give to the laborer the 
amount that he is entitled to, the author meets this objection 
by saying that there is a third great party, which has been over- 
looked, namely, the whole people, the consumers who buy the 
product and who ultimately pay both the wages of the workman 
and the profits of the employer; that in the long run better methods 

180 



Book Reviews i8i 

of production, while maintaining higher wages and greater profits, 
will at the same time give a larger output, bringing about lower 
prices. 

It is the belief of the author that under the principles of scienti- 
fic management it is alsolutely impossible to stir up strife between 
men and their employers. Yet the fact remains that labor 
unions generally have been opposed to the acceptance of the plan, 
because, while the new plan increases wages, it reduces the body 
of men employed, and destroys the principle of union bargaining. 
This is exactly the point upon which scientific management will 
be stalled, since any methods that are adopted "must recognize 
the mutuality and solidarity of labor and create the craving for 
harmony and mutual support as well as the impulse of individual 
ambition into a production asset." 

The book, while marred by phrases which overlook the human- 
itarian element and which will tend to arouse the animosity of 
the laboring man — such phrases as "stupid," "ox-like," 
etc. — is of much value to the person interested in the better man- 
agement of shops and factories, as well as the economist who has 
an eye open to the drift of things in the changing conditions of 
industry. 



University of North Dakota 



F. L. McVey 



Physical Optics: R. W. Wood, Professor of Experimental 
Physics in the Johns Hopkins University. New and revised. 
The Macmillan Company, New York, 1911, pp. xvi + 705. 
Price, $4.00. 

This work is a new edition of the volume published in 1905. 
It has been enlarged by 100 pages and nearly 150 additional 
illustrations. Three new chapters have been added dealing with 
Meteorological Optics, Electro Optics and the Principle of 
Relativity. Many sections of minor interest have been removed 
only to be replaced by the more recent advances in optics, since 
the appearance of the first edition. 

The first edition was begun at a time when Preston's "Theory 
of Light," was practically the only book in English chosen by 
teachers as a text. Preston's volume, while containing the 
fundamentals for the student of optics, contains little of the 
marvelous advances of recent times, such as the electro-magnetic 



1 82 The Quarterly Journal 

theory, the laws of radiation, etc. About the time of appearance 
of the first edition Schuster's "Optics," and Drude's "Lehrbuch 
der Optik, " were published, but Professor Wood's book differs 
essentially from any of these in that especial stress has been laid 
on the experimental side of the subject, and it is in this particular 
respect that his book excels any volume of a similar character 
yet published. 

No one is more aptly fitted to put forth a volume of this char- 
acter than the author, for his genius as an experimental manipu- 
lator in this particular field is unrivaled. The book contains a 
description of many of his own delightfully elucidating experi- 
ments, without which the theoretical examination of many trouble- 
some problems would be less clear and very abstract. 

His intuitive grasp of knotty problems is almost infectious. 
Frequently they are explained in his own delightfully clear way 
without the aid of serious mathematical analysis. Such is the 
fashion in which he has handled the principle of relativity by 
which principle there is no such thing as real length of time or 
space. The chapter on Relativity is a note-worthy addition, 
for at the present time no textbook offers a non-mathematical 
resume of this astonishing principle, such as a student can handle. 

The chapter on Electro Optics is decidedly fitting, for since 
magneto and Electro Optics are closely related subjects, it is a 
new venture to devote a whole chapter to Electro Optics rather 
than scatter its contents among various chapters. 

The chapters on Meteorological Optics, containing nine pages, 
could readily have been increased in size by the addition of 
appropriate material scattered thru the text. For example, 
Schmidt's "Theory of the Sun," on page 83, of the chapter on 
Refraction, could very appropriately have been included in this 
chapter. 

The volume is to be severely critized from the point of view of 
the technic of book-writing. The author claims no originality for 
most of the m.athematical analysis in the volume, yet his repro- 
duction contains error after error, and a large amount of incon- 
sistent notation. Furthermore, such a volume naturally demands 
a large number of references, yet in this book the references are 
found frequently at the bottom of the page, again they are em- 
bodied in the text, and some times references to important recent 
works are omitted; in one or two instances they are misquoted. 

However, the volume from the experimental point of view is 
a most welcome addition to the few texts in English on the sub- 



Book Reviews 183 

ject, particularly for the delightful way in which many difficult 

problems have been presented free from long and cumbersome 

mathematical analysis. It appeals to the teacher as a reference 

for clear explanations. 

B, J. Spence 
Department of Physics, 

University of North Dakota 



Advanced Physiology and Hygiene: H. W. Conn, and R. A. 
BuDiNGTON. For use in secondary schools. Silver, Burdett 
and Company, New York, Boston and Chicago, 1909, pp. 
419. Price, $1.10. 

This is the third in a series of three textbooks of physiology, 
arranged by H. W. Conn, of Wesleyan University, called Intro- 
ductory, Elementary and Advanced Physiology and Hygiene. 
Only the last of these has been brought to the attention of the 
reviewer, but if the others are equally good, the series deserves 
hearty recommendation. The author's preface states that they 
have attempted to give to anatomy, physiology and hygiene, 
embracing personal and public health, the emphasis which the 
relative importance of each at the present time seems to justify. 
It does not appear to be their purpose to treat the subject exhaus- 
tively, but rather to give a comprehensive, non-technical knowl- 
edge of the human body, its structure, functions and care. From 
this practical point of view we cannot do otherwise than con- 
gratulate them on their success. 

To begin with, we have a chapter discussing living material, 
including unicellular animals as well as the more complex human 
tissues. The processes of growth and cell division are also briefly 
treated. The second chapter takes up essentially the same 
phases of the subject, but from the standpoint of chemistry. 
In this and the following chapter, we have a discussion of foods, 
their chemistry, the relative values of many common articles of 
diet and some dietetic errors. In this connection it would be 
well to use the term "proteins" instead of "proteids," the 
former term being adopted by the International Congress on 
Chemical Nomenclature a few years ago. There next follows a 
chapter dealing with fermentation and germ diseases, immunity 
and disinfection, conveying in a simple manner much infor- 
mation which every intelligent human being should possess. These 



184 The Quarterly Journal 

four chapters furnish an excellent foundation for the further 
study of physiology and hygiene since they embrace many of the 
principles upon which the practical applications of these sciences 
depend. 

From this point the various systems are taken up one by one 
and treated fully and concisely. A valuable aid to the teacher 
is furnished by the practical demonstrations introduced here and 
there thruout the text and added in an appendix. As a rule, 
the illustrations are good and they are quite numerous, adding 
greatly to the usefulness of the book. The order in which the 
several systems are considered is largely a matter of choice, but 
it seems that it might be well to take up, to some extent at least, 
the nervous system, particularly the peripheral nerves, before 
describing those systems and functions, like digestion and circu- 
lation, which depend so largely on nervous influences. All parts 
of the body are mutually interdependent, and it is hard to say 
which should be treated first. However, many writers prefer to 
have the skeleton, muscles and a few of the less specialized 
tissues fairly well in mind first. It may be that these authors 
presuppose a rudimentary knowledge of anatomy and physiology 
from previous study, but their experience, like that of others, 
probably does not justify any such assumption. 

In discussing the digestive system the enzymes of the intestinal 
secretion are entirely ignored, the statement being made that the 
pancreatic enzymes complete the digestion of all the foodstuffs. 
This is an unfortunate error as late work has shown the unques- 
tioned value of erepsin, enterokinase and the inverting enzymes, 
— invertin, maltase and lactase. Moreover, the end products of 
protein digestion are not mentioned, peptones being the last 
compounds named, while the various amino acids must be formed 
before absorption can take place. In the case of the carbohydrates 
also the statements are indefinite, the term sugars being used to 
designate the fully digested compounds while, as a matter of fact, 
the term is ambiguous and only a subgroup of these, the mono- 
saccharides, are completely digested. 

Following the chapters on the nervous system, we have one 
devoted to the eye and one to the ear. The other so-called 
special senses are treated very briefly in connection with the func- 
tions of the skin and are, perhaps the most disappointing part of 
the book. It is unfortunate that the most modern view of sen- 
sations in general and their classification was not adopted, tho 
there is very great danger of making a textbook in any subject of 



Book Reviews ■ 185 

such magnitude entirely too exhaustive. The last chapter deals 
with the control of public health, sanitation, etc., and is worthy 
the attention of every citizen, actual and prospective. These 
are questions which are still, and for many years probably will 
be, largely in the hands of the people as represented by the voters 
of the commonwealth. The education of the masses cannot 
proceed too rapidly, and it is gratifying to note that these large 
questions are receiving more and more attention. 

Looking at this work as a whole, we must pronounce it an 
excellent textbook of physiology, but not for a half-year course 
in high schools. It would severely tax college students to do the 
work thoroly in a semester. High-school juniors or seniors 
might handle it satisfactorily in a year, and the time could not 
be more profitably spent. But this brings up another question. 
How many teachers of physiology in high schools are capable of 
conducting such a course? The book in itself is not enough, it 
must be elaborated and explained by the teacher. The same may 
be said of any textbook. In the hands of a well-trained teacher 
of physiology this book may form the basis for a most excellent 
course, and one that would be of inestimable value, not only to 
the individual pursuing it, but also to the community in which 
he might live. 

Geo. H. Caldwell 

Department of Physiology, 

University of North Dakota 



The Fundamentals of Agriculture: edited by James Edward 
Halligan, Chemist in Charge, Louisiana State Experiment 
Station. D. C. Heath and Company, 191 1, pp. xiv -j- 492. 

This is a work of nearly 500 large octavo pages, the combined 
work of more than thirty persons. As stated in the preface, 
"Each subject of this book is written by an expert in his line. 
This idea was carried out in order to furnish the student with the 
best possible information that could be obtained. The editor 
thought it would be better to have authorities treat the various 
topics rather than write the book alone as there are few men 
who are competent enough to warrant their writing the best 
textbook on agriculture." 

The book is adapted to use in the third or fourth year of the 
high school, and might form the basis of either a semester's or a 



1 86 The Quarterly Journal 

year's work. In the latter case it would be supplemented exten- 
sively with other material. Like other works treating of the 
elements of agriculture, it covers the leading departments of the 
farmers' vocational interests, there being chapters on soil, fer- 
tilizing materials, plant life, farm crops, trees and garden, plant 
diseases, insects and birds, live stock and dairying, feeds and 
feeding and miscellaneous topics. As a rule, the style of the 
book is fairly simple and clear tho at times unnecessarily technical 
and dry. The general scope of the book as here outlined is prob- 
ably all that the ordinary high schools will be able to attempt in 
the field of agriculture for some years to come. Of course, 
students of agriculture should also have good courses in botany, 
zoology, chemistry, physics and physiography, and some of these 
at least should precede the course in agriculture. 

To make an elementary book of this kind as practical as it 
should be, it would seem necessary to write it for a certain sec- 
tion and not attempt to cover the entire country with its immense 
diversity of soil, climatic conditions and crops. True, there are 
certain scientific principles of agriculture that are applicable 
everywhere and their exposition forms the most important part 
of the present work, as it rightly should, but there are subjects 
such as cultivation of the soil, the conservation of moisture, the 
subject of humus, tree planting, the raising of corn, alfalfa and 
grass, diversified farming, etc., that need to be especially empha- 
sized in North Dakota, and receive far too little attention in this 
book. Flax growing receives no mention at all, except to say that 
"it is raised in the middle west for its valuable fiber." 

The most unsatisfactory chapter, for the northwestern states, 
is that on farm crops, which fills over one quarter of the book. 
Here we find extensive treatment of the culture of cotton, tobacco, 
sugar cane, sweet potatoes, peanuts and rice. These have the 
same kind of value to the child in North Dakota as the articles 
on tea or coffee or silk-worm culture, that he finds in his geography. 
Our schools already make ample provision for general informa- 
tion about far-away things. This subject of agriculture is intro- 
duced for the purpose of giving practical information about things 
near at hand. These sections will generally be omitted by dis- 
criminating teachers and probably their presence in the book is 
not such a serious disadvantage as the fact that the illustrations 
and applications of principles are drawn from all parts of the 
country tho rather commonly from the south, and rarely from the 
northwest. To the North Dakota pupil, who is unfamiliar with 



Book Reviews 187 

the facts alluded to, all such illustrations must of necessity lose 
a large part of their value. 

The book is amply provided with pictures tho these are not 
always selected with discrimination. While many of them are 
of some value, and a portion of them are decidedly helpful, there 
are at least fifteen or twenty that leave the reader to wonder 
what he is supposed to learn from them, and that, therefore, 
might better be omitted. 

President Butterfield in his introduction says: "In our attempt 
to improve farm conditions, we must keep in sight the great human 
problems as well as the great questions of better crops and of 
better methods of selling these crops at a profit. We must 
develop the right sort of home life. We must have in the coun- 
try those facilities for enjoyment and culture, that will keep 
people alive to all of these things that make for a higher manhood 
and noble womanhood." This expresses the highest justification 
for the study of agriculture in our schools, and one wishes that 
such a book as this might make a conscious effort to realize this 
higher aim. Better crops and more profit is the whole burden 
of their message. To attain this end means to secure the neces- 
sary economic basis for the higher life. This is a matter of ut- 
most importance, and cannot be entirely barren of the desired 
results, but much more might be accomplished by devoting more 
space to such subjects as farm management, sanitation, the 
attractive country home, cooperation and social conditions in 
rural communities, and, in general, by infusing life into the dry, 
cold facts and principles of the study, and inspiring the reader 
with higher ideals of rural conditions and of life in the open coun- 
try. 

On the whole, this book probably ranks among the best of its 

kind and we predict for it an extensive sale. 

C. C. Schmidt 
Department of Education, 

■ University of North Dakota 



The Elements of Geometry: John B. Clarke and Walter N. 
Bush. Silver, Burdett and Company, New York, pp. xiii -f- 
355- 

This book is designed to be used as a text in Plane and Solid 
Geometry, for classes in high schools and academies. The 



i88 The Quarterly Journal 

authors have made some rather radical departures from the 
usual form of text. The usual books are broken up into groups 
of closely related propositions, twenty groups in Plane Geometry 
and six in Solid Geometry. 

The first group is on adjacent angles and vertical angles, and is 
followed by a group on parallels. The propositions on perpen- 
diculars, which give so much trouble to beginners are treated as 
axioms. Rather unusual definitions and axioms are made the basis 
for proof in some of the groups. These may be justified in that 
they simplify the proof in some cases, and so make approach to 
the subject less diflBcult. 

The demonstrations are concise and clear; are given in full; 
and, with few exceptions, authority for each statement is cited. 
To facilitate reference to these authorities, a summary of the 
propositions of each group is placed at the close of the group. 
The definitions, brief and well-worded, are appropriately grouped 
thruout the book, but there is a tendency to smother the beginner 
with a multiplicity of definitions, many terms, which seemingly 
might be omitted from an elementary' text, being introduced and 
formally defined. 

Ten exercises in geometrical drawing introduce the work. A 
group of construction problems precedes work on quadrilaterals. 
The early and frequent introduction of this line of work adds 
interest for the average student. A group of nine problems on 
loci precedes the work on circles, and thruout the book exercises 
of this nature are frequent. Much use is made of the principles 
of loci. 

Nothing fantastic in the way of figures has been attempted. 
Simple line drawings are used in Plane Geometry. In Solid 
Geometry the figures with few exceptions are exceedingly well 
shaded to bring out the relations of parts. The book contains 
nearly 1200 exercises which are well chosen and well graded. 
This great abundance and variety will furnish material to satisfy 
the most hungry intellect, and teachers may select so that empha- 
sis may be placed on any desired phase of the work. The authors 
emphasize this part of the work and attempt to get the interest 
of the student directed toward this most valuable part of geometry 
training. 

The book will be found very heavy for high-school students. 
Only the strongest of them could master all of the theorems 
given. However, if the outline proposed by the National Com- 
mittee of Seven, which reported at the San Francisco meeting of 



Book Revievjs 189 

the National Educational Association, is followed, and intensive 
work on some propositions is omitted, the book will be found 
very usable, 

W. C. St EB BIN'S 

Grand Forks, North Dakota, High School 



The Concise Oxford Dictionary: adapted from the Oxford 
Dictionary, by S. Edward Fowler, and F, G. Fowler. 
Clarendon Press, 1911, pp. xii + 1041. 

For a number of years the scholarly world has been told that 
the Murray dictionary would be issued complete. It has now 
reached the eighth volume, two more remaining to be presented. 
But the book here briefly reviewed is a direct result of the work 
on the Oxford Dictionary. There is no other so-called small 
dictionary which presents so many words, definitions, references 
and derivations as does the Concise Oxford Dictionary. By the 
use of a clever system of abbreviations it has been possible to 
bring about this result. 

One of the problems which confronted the makers of the Oxford 
Dictionary was that of spelling, and the position which has been 
taken by the editors brings most vividly to mind the fact that 
the people speaking the English language number more than one 
hundred and fifty millions. Of this number, about ninety-five 
millions reside in the United States. On the other hand, the 
Simplified Spelling Board seem to have taken the position that 
most users of the English language reside in the United States. 

The reviewer hoped that there would be agreement on some of 
the fundamentals, but this has not been the case. For instance, 
the verbs that contain the suffix ize are all given in tsf, while the 
American usage is iz^. After consideration of such forms as 
ardour, colour, etc., the editors of the Oxford Dictionary have 
excluded the use of the form or as being "entirely non-British," 
while in words ending in oes, the preference has been given to os. 
In another place the editors have to say that tho they have tried 
hard to find some principle that should teach us when to separate 
and when to hyphen, and when to unite the parts of compound 
words, they have abandoned the attempt as hopeless and welter 
in the prevailing chaos. 

The book also departs from the American usage in the matter 
of pronunciation marks. It has, however, a distinct value in that 



190 The Quarterly Journal 

a large amount of space is given to the common words that are 
used every day, with the emphasis upon giving them the plain 
and simple definitions to which they are entitled. 

As an offset to American usage this Concise Dictionary has 
much to recommend it as a book to have at hand on the table 
of the scholar. 

F. L. McVey 
University of North Dakota 



The Essentials of Character: Edward O. Sisson, Professor of 
Education, University of Washington. The Macmillan 
Company, New York. Price $1.00. 

This little volume of about two hundred pages is one of the 
first fruits on the market, of an agitation which has been going 
on for a generation or more in favor of more emphasis upon the 
moral and religious aspects of education in the common and 
state supported schools, higher and lower, thruout the country. 
There has been considerable criticism, whether deserved or not, 
of the whole public school system and of the higher educational 
institutions, on the ground that their aim seemed to be merely 
intellectual, to the neglect of the moral and religious elements. 

Much of the adverse criticism of the public school system has 
been wholly unfounded, emanating from irresponsible critics, who 
do not know the facts, and who have axes to grind. As a rule, 
they belong to classes whose attitude prompts the carping ques- 
tion, "Why is it not done some other way?" They adopt the 
antiquated principle, that the state has not the right to educate; 
and so, instead of helping the state and making it easier for her 
to perform her educational function, they try to nullify her work, 
and to misrepresent her aims and her methods. 

But it may be that in a religiously mixed state and country, 
owing to the very mixture, the religious function of the public 
schools has been reduced to a minimum, and that as a consequence 
the deepest motives to morality may have been somewhat neg- 
lected. This, of course, is a real problem, and Professor Sisson's 
book is one of the first sound approaches to it. Such books 
should be welcomed by the teachers of the country; for if there is 
a problem here, it behooves the educational interests to attempt 
its solution. 

Professor Sisson is an unusually sane thinker on matters educa- 



Book Reviews 191 

tional, and directs attention in this volume to the most momen- 
tous problem confronting the present generation. 

The following are the chapters, which will give an idea of the 
direction and scope of the book: Chapter I, Native Tendencies; 
Chapter II, The Treatment of Native Tendencies; Chapter III, 
Disposition; Chapter IV, Habits; Chapter V, Tastes; Chapter VI, 
The Personal Ideal; Chapter VII, Conscience; Chapter VIII, 
The Social Ideal; Chapter IX, Strength of Character; Chapter X, 
Religion; Chapter XI, Notes on the Cultivation of Character. 

The book is neatly bound, in good type, and has an excellent 
index. It deserves a place in every teacher's library. 

Joseph Kennedy 
Teachers' College, 

University of North Dakota 



Introduction to the Study of the Greek Dialects: Carl 
Darling Buck, Ph.D., Ginn & Co., Boston, pp. xvi + 320. 
Four charts, one map. Price $2.75. 

Under a carefully worked-out scheme the author has put within 
the reach of all a working knowledge of the Greek dialects. 

The present volume is really a boon to American students, 
most of whom are prohibited the use of the great corpora, but 
who, nevertheless, desire a modicum of knowledge of the develop- 
ment of the Greek tongue. If the teacher is to do more than 
meet his classes, and hear the same old recitation day after day, 
then he must himself broaden out and track his subject into the 
by-ways. The idea that Greek was a living (never was dead) 
language, subject to the usual vicissitudes of all languages includ- 
ing our own, comes like a startling revelation to many to whom 
Attic, Ionic, Aeolic and Doric comprised all — even Koine being 
relegated to the theologian. "These literary dialects," says Dr. 
Buck, "represent only a few of the many forms of speech current 
in Greece, most of which play no part whatever in literature, and, 
apart from some scattered glosses, would be entirely unknown to 
us were it not for the wealth of inscriptions which the soil of 
Greece has yielded in modern times." 

Part I, grammatical introduction, includes the several heads, — 
Phonology, Word-formation, Syntax — and concludes with an 
excellent summary. A brief chapter states the growth of the 



192 The Quarterly Journal 

various forms of the Koine, too generally and erroneously nar- 
rowed down to an introduction to Biblical Greek. 

Part II presents a carefully selected body of inscriptions 
(Ionic, Arcadian, Cyprian, Lesbian, Messalian, Boeotian, Phocian, 
Locrian, Elean, Laconian, Heraclean, Argolic, Megarian, Rhodian, 
Coan, Theran, Cretan) with concise grammatical and historical 
notes. 

Of special value are the appendices — a selected bibliography, 
glossary and index, and the final graphic summary presented by a 
series of charts. And, finally, a colored map shows the distribu- 
tion of the dialects thruout the Greek world. 

Not only the philologian and linguist, but the historical student 
as well will find here a reliable, useful and usable guide to a 
subject hitherto fathomless, perplexing and inaccessible despite 
its cardinal value to the right understanding of the life and history 
of the period. 

W. N. Stearns 
Department of History, 

University of North Dakota 



Biblical Geography and History: Charles Foster Kent, 
Ph.D., pp. xviii + 296, 16 maps (12 colored). Scribners, 
1911. Price, $1.50. 

Professor Kent has rendered invaluable service to every Bible 
student by making accessible the geographical background which 
is of itself the finest possible commentary on the Scripture. What 
hitherto has been scattered thru numberless volumes, memoirs 
and articles is here collected, condensed and presented in simple, 
usable form. What is even better, he has at each step put the 
reader in touch with sources and authorities, and even given 
pertinent suggestions for possible visitors to Bible lands. That 
the writer feels the worth of his subject is seen early in the preface: 

"Only in the light of their physical setting can the great 
characters, movements and events of human history be rightly 
understood and appreciated. . . . Hence, in its deeper mean- 
ing, geography is a description of the divine character and pur- 
pose expressing itself thru divine forces, in the physical contour 
of the earth, in the animate world and, above all, in the life and 
activities of men." 



Book Reviews 193 

The book proceeds under the two main divisions, "Physical" 
and "Historical Geography." The lay of the land, the cardinal 
divisions, the two foci of Palestine, the sites of the great capitals, 
Jerusalem and Samaria, and finally the great highways that ulti- 
mately bound Palestine into the Empire are all clearly and, by 
means of the excellent maps and charts, graphically, set forth. 

Part II deals with the geography as related to history. The 
introductory chapter deals with primitive Palestine, and then in 
a series of fifteen chapters successive turning-points in Hebrew 
history are portrayed, the geographical setting in each instance 
being the point of approach. Then in order come the nature of 
the land and its bearing on the development of the people, the 
movements of armies and the direction of trade. 

Instances may be noted in the contrast of level Philistia with 
resulting community of occupations and interests, and the rough, 
diversified character of the tableland of Judah and the conse- 
quent diversity among the people themselves. The closing 
chapter opens to the sweep of the Empire, the influence of the 
great highways in shaping the course of Christianity's progress 
westward. 

Classified bibliographies and lists of stereographs suggest 

further study, and a carefully prepared index facilitates ready 

use of material presented. 

W. N. Stearns 
Department of History, 

University of North Dakota 



Minnesota Academy of Social Sciences: Proceedings of Fourth 
Annual Meeting. Edited by William A. Schaper. Free Press 
Printing Company, Minneapolis, 1911, pp. 242 + vii. 

Four years ago the Minnesota Academy of Social Sciences was 
established by a small group of men living in Minneapolis and St. 
Paul. The purpose of the academy was to hold an annual meet- 
ing at which thoroly prepared papers should be presented upon 
definite topics closely related to the problems of the state. The 
volume here noted is the fourth one in the series, and the topics 
dealt with are grouped under the heads of three social problems: 
the criminal, a pure water supply and workingmen's compensa- 
tion. 



194 The Quarterly Journal 

The papers presented under each of these heads are thoro-going 

and contain much first-hand information upon the different 

phases of these questions as they arise in Minnesota. The 

volume may be obtained from the secretary, Dr. William A. 

Schaper, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

F. L. McVey 
University of North Dakota 



University Notes. 



For a number of years the faculty and scu- 
The New Commons , titt- -i iijr j 

dents of the University have looked torward 

to the time when they would have a more adequate and satis- 
factory place to meet together for their meals. The appropri- 
ation, made by the legislature of 1909-11, made possible the 
erection of a Commons building. The planning of it was a labor 
of love, and it is now a completed thing, for the "boarding de- 
partment" has entered upon its occupation and use. With the 
opening of this University year, the Commons became a Univer- 
sity institution. The large lobby, the ample room for the cafe- 
teria and the great dining hall make it a pleasant place to go, 
and the eifect upon the University life has already been marked. 
As the faculty and students come to understand how to use it 
in the broadest sense its influence will grow with the passing of 
the years. 

.. ^. , The University Club is an organization 
The University Club , r , • • 1 r j u 

made up 01 the instructional force and the 

officers of the University. It has recently been reorganized by a 
change of name and by the adoption of a constitution and by-laws. 
The purpose which President McVey had in mind in calling 
together the first meeting of the Club was to give a larger oppor- 
tunity for mutual acquaintance among the members of the 
instructional staff than was possible in the regular faculty meet- 
ings. At the same time by fixing a time and place of meeting 
and having some topic of general interest for presentation and 
informal discussion, the advantage of regularity and organization 
was mesurably preserved. Under the present plan the members 
of the University Club meet once a month for supper at the 
Commons building. After the meal, some subject is formally in- 
troduced by a brief paper and this is followed by general discussion. 
This gives free scope for the presentation of divergent views and 
offers to every one an opportunity to secure a bearing. The 
purely informal nature of the discussion furnishes an easy road to 
the fullest exchange of ideas. The subject to be discust during 
the year are selected by a committee from a list to which all 

195 



196 The Quarterly Journal 

members are asked to contribute. This supplies the necessary 
machinery to keep up the interest and bring to general attention 
University problems of wider interest than those commonly 
discust in a department or college. 

The Resignation of Just as the month of October closed Governor 
Dean Bruce Burke announced the appointment of Prof. 

Andrew A. Bruce, Dean of the University school of law, as a 
member of the supreme court of the state of North Dakota. The 
appointment came as a surprise to Dean Bruce, to the Univer- 
sity and to the people of the state, but it has been received with 
marked satisfaction. Dean Bruce came to the University of 
North Dakota, twelve years ago as a professor in the law school. 
In 1905, he succeeded Judge Corliss as dean of the school. His 
service in that capacity was continued from that time up to the 
date of his appointment. Dean Bruce has always entered fully 
into the life of the University, giving it of his strength and service, 
and has always had a large place in the work of the community 
in which he has lived. His gain has been the University's loss, 
but by his appointment, the state will be the richer, and it is 
hoped that he will continue to serve the University from time 
to time in the capacity of lecturer. 

,, „ , Early in the fall arrangements were made 

Inspection Books .,V>t-o 1 ^^ i-,iivt 

with G. h. btechert & Co., and with the Mac- 

millan Company, whereby they send to the University Library 
at irregular intervals consignments of their new publications for 
the inspection of the members of the faculty. These books are 
billed at the best library rates, and may be purchased by the 
library or by individuals. They are kept on display in the office 
of the librarian, and are accessible at all times. Those remaining 
unsold are returned to the publishers every six months. This 
arrangement is proving to be a great convenience to the Univer- 
sity people since it gives them an opportunity to examine new 
books in their line of work before buying or before recommending 
them for purchase to the library. 

«,.. ,x .. , ... The secretary of the Italian Club has re- 

The Italian Library , , , . , , r 1 t t • 

cently placed in the custody 01 the Uni- 
versity a gift of some one hundred and forty standard books for 
an Italian library. These books were selected by Professor A. 
Galanti, of the central book committee of the "Dante Alighieri 
Society" of Rome, for the local club organized about a year ago. 



University Notes 197 

The library, consisting of reference books, histories, classics and 
modern literature, was secured largely thru the good offices of 
Signor Giulio Castelli of Rome, a patron of the institution, and 
the University's first exchange conference lecturer for Italy in 
the Department of Romance Languages. Many of the books 
are upon the "Risorgimento" — the new Italy of Garibaldi, of 
Mazzini and of Cavour. The gift is a valuable one, not merely 
as an addition to the library, or as a token of international good 
will, but as evidence of Italy's strong national spirit and rising 
international ambition. It shows, too, what cooperation with 
foreign societies may bring to American institutions, and President 
McVey has accordingly sent expressions of appreciation to the 
Italian Embassy at Washington as well as to the society head- 
quarters at Rome. Interest in the study of Italian in the 
United States is growing, and our own University has started 
auspiciously to give instruction in that subject. 

The "Dante Alighieri Society," founded in Rome some twenty 
years ago, is an international organization for the study of the 
Italian language, and the conservation of the Italian culture in 
foreign countries. It may be of interest to know that the first 
collegiate chapter of this society to be founded in the United 
States was organized at the University of North Dakota. This 
organization was effected in February, 191 1, and participated in 
by Signor Castelli, then lecturing at the University. 

The University The fusing, centripetal force in the Univer- 

Convocation sity is its weekly Convocation. It is the 

University conscious of itself as a whole. To look upon Convo- 
cation as a mere adjunct — a sort of fifth wheel — is certainly a 
wrong conception. The University, just as any higher organism, 
has a collective life, a communal consciousness, and Convocation 
should be a weekly or daily drawing upon this reservoir of com- 
bined strength. But for Convocation, the University would be 
aware of itself only in spots; by this periodic fusion into totality, 
the University becomes a selfhood, — a thinking organism, relat- 
ing its parts to a whole, and thus leading a life of rationalized 
self-conscious activity. 

Such an ideal of "e pluribus unum," the University of North 
Dakota has kept steadily in view as the real raison d'etre of her 
weekly Convocation. Because of the feeling of its cardinal 
importance, the hour in which it is to be held has been culled 
out from the sum total of the hours of the week with a view of 



198 The Quarterly Journal 

maximum attendance by the student body and likewise of the 
most favorable conditions for blended interests and social contact. 
After the hurry and stress of six-day continuous activities and 
drains, the end-week hour given to Convocation should mean 
quickening by the different kind of attention, and emphasis it 
demands, in the point of view shifted from speciality to totality, 
in strict intellectual discipline yielding for a little while to senti- 
ment, as mere institution, warmly symbolized, becomes felt and 
hailed in song as Alma Mater. 

Feeling that generosity is here the wisest economy, the Univer- 
sity of North Dakota annually sets aside a goodly fund for bring- 
ing to the University as Convocation speakers, such men as by 
reputation and commanding position, within the state and with- 
out, ensure by their coming the deliverance of a timely and needed 
message, whether relating to student life in particular, or to the 
larger life of the world in general. The mere mention of such 
names as Prof. Graham Taylor of the Chicago Commons; Dr. 
William Ellis Griffis of Ithaca, New York; Dr. A. E. Winship of 
Boston; Prof. W. I. Thomas of Chicago University; Dr. Charles E. 
Beals, Field Secretary of the American Peace Society; Rev. Jenkin 
Lloyd Jones of Lincoln Center; Professor Jastrow of Wisconsin 
University, — names chosen almost at random from the list of 
eminent speakers, who have honored the University by their 
presence, and spoken inspiringly and instructively at Convocation, 
each one with a special message, bespeaks the range and signifi- 
cance of intellectual and moral stimulus afforded by the Uni- 
versity thru the medium of the weekly Convocation address. 

A special and perhaps unique feature of Convocation, at the 
University, is the so-called " Between-Us-Day. " Outwardly it 
consists of an address by the President, calling attention of 
faculty and students to the movement and trend of things in the 
University, to the opportunities for improvement or occasions 
for change in one respect or another. Considered more sub- 
jectively, it is the University collectively introspective. Already 
this holding of judgment day upon ourselves has been felt as 
wholesome and tonic, and continued in the same spirit of honest 
unflinching self-criticism must show its effects in institutional 
betterment and advance. 

For the "living garment," which the "roaring loom" of the 
University of today weaves, its Convocation should furnish the 
finest designs, the choicest and richest interblend of colors. By 
pointing out the ideal and aim of our University in the holding of 



University Notes 199 

weekly Convocation, shortcoming in realization has necessarily 
been suggested. It is to be hoped, however, that the fact has 
also been made evident that this University of the Prairies, 
emphasizes not only "the meat" but "the life" in her educational 
striving. To her Convocation, in a large mesure, she owes, and 
will increasingly continue to owe, it is to be hoped, this impulse 
toward seeking something of "the breath and finer spirit of all 
knowledge. " 

Special Weather On the fifteenth of August last. Chief Moore 

Bureau Station of the United States Weather Bureau, an- 

nounced the location of a special meteorological station at the 
University to supersede the cooperative station established some 
twenty years ago with Professor Estes as voluntary observer. 
The cooperative station was maintained by the Department of 
Physics from the date of its founding to the beginning of the 
present calendar year, when it was transferred to the Department 
of Geology, and became a part of the geographical work carried 
on by that department. The complete meteorological equip- 
ment such as is found at all of the regular stations has been fur- 
nished by the bureau and installed by the University. This 
includes the following: the ordinary maximum and minimum 
thermometers, the thermograph and the whirling psychrometer, 
all exposed in the large standard shelter on the campus; the 
tipping bucket rain gage, and the snow gage located on a low 
concrete platform near the shelter; and on the tower of Main 
building, eighty feet above the ground, the sunshine recorder, 
the support carrying the wind vane and anemometer, and the 
twenty-seven foot flag-staff for the display of the forecast signals. 
The wind and sunshine instruments and the rain gage are con- 
nected by electric cable with the meteorograph in the office of the 
observer, where are also located the barometer and barograph. 

The new station was opened and the first telegraphic message 
forv/arded on the morning of December first. Constant records 
are now kept of temperature, pressure, wind velocity and direction, 
sunshine and precipitation when in the form of rain. Regular 
observations are made twice daily, at seven o'clock morning and 
evening. A report of each morning's observations is enciphered 
and sent by telegraph to the station at St. Paul where it enters 
a circuit reaching all important stations between Winnepeg and 
New York and Washington, and is used in the construction of 
weather maps on which the morning forecasts for the eastern half 



200 The Quarterly Journal 

of the United States are based. These forecasts are received by 
telegram in less than two hours after the observations are sent. 
The evening observations are compiled and reported monthly to 
the section center at Bismarck for use in computing climatological 
data. 

In cooperation with this work, and yet entirely independent 
of it, the United States Geological Survey maintains an evapora- 
tion station at the University on the English Coulee, where it 
is ponded as it crosses the campus to provide a water supply for 
the power plant. Observations taken here thruout the open 
season afford opportunity to correlate evaporation data with the 
weather data. 

There is in some sections of the country an important place pro- 
vided for weather study in both the elementary and the secondary 
schools. In this the weather bureau has maintained an extensive 
system of cooperation by means of the forecasts, weather maps 
and other publications, and by lectures and instruction by its 
officials. This cooperation has extended to a few of the leading 
universities, notably Johns Hopkins, Cornell, Wisconsin and 
Nebraska. The establishment of the special station at the 
University of North Dakota is another advance in this direction. 
It is expected that this station will prove not only of local value 
to the University and Grand Forks, but that it will demonstrate 
the larger service resulting from working together of the state 
and national governments along scientific and educational lines. 

University Radio- Since the installation last summer in the 
telegrapliic Station Department of Physics of the apparatus 
used during the state fair to send wireless messages from the Uni- 
versity to the fair grounds, the equipment for research and for 
practical experimentation in radiotelegraphy has been materially 
increased, partly by the receipt of a consignment of apparatus 
from a New York importing house, and partly by the addition of 
apparatus designed and constructed in the Mechanician's Depart- 
ment. The old aerial has been replaced by a loo-foot 4-wire 
aluminum grid; the Leyden jars of the closed circuit condenser 
have been replaced by a .023 M.F. aluminum-plate condenser, 
and several of the latest types of crystal detectors have been con- 
structed and tested. The present plan is to replace the step-up 
transformer and spark gap with a Poulsen arc, thus making the 
plant available for experiments in wireless telephony. 

The broad prairies of the Dakotas offer interesting opportunities 



University Notes 201 

for experiments over long unobstructed distances, conditions which 
are similar to those at sea, and it is hoped that the new plant will 
open up opportunities for fruitful and interesting investigations. 
Incidentally, it is interesting to note that the United States Govern- 
ment is now carrying on many investigations in radiotelegraphy, 
and that the United States Civil Service Commission is announc- 
ing examinations for assistant physicist in radiotelegraphy at a 
salary of $1800 per annum. The United States Navy maintains 
a wireless laboratory, and the number of legitimate commercial 
stations is increasing rapidly. It is not unlikely that the station 
here will before long be receiving messages from some of the 
latter, as its receiving range must be several hundred miles. 

Bureau of Educa- The idea that prompted the establishment 
tional Cooperation of the Bureau of Educational Cooperation, 
namely, that of taking the University out to the people of the 
state, is being given a wide application in the extension lectures 
that are planned for this year. The list calls for something 
more than one hundred and twenty-five lectures in all, and they 
will be distributed among some fifty communities, reaching 
extreme points in all parts of the state. Twenty-four of these 
were given during the month of December. Everywhere the 
lectures are meeting with the most cordial reception. They seem 
to be the means of bringing real intellectual stimulus to the com- 
munities where they go, and themselves as members of the faculty 
are given the opportunity of getting better acquainted with people 
and with conditions in the different sections of the state. 



Announcement 

The Quarterly Journal is a publication established and main- 
tained by the University of North Dakota. Its primary function 
is to represent the varied activities of the several colleges and 
departments of the University — to serve as the medium of ex- 
change between the members of its instructional force and the 
learned world outside. Still, it is not limited to that. Its col- 
umns are open to other writers, particularly of the Northwest, in 
the discussion of topics germane to the work of higher education, 
especially to such as bring the fruitage of scientific research, 
literary inestigation or other form of constructive thought. 
Contributions will be welcomed, and, when found suitable and 
available, readily given space. Correspondence is solicited. 

The subscription price is one dollar a year, postpaid, single 
numbers, thirty cents. 

All communicatitons should be addressed, 

The Quarterly Journal. 

University, North Dakota. 



Editor's Bulletin Board 

The Quarterly Journal for July, 19 12, the last number of 
the second volume, will be devoted to a general discussion of the 
educational situation in North Dakota, treated under various 
topics. Mr. N. C. McDonald. State Inspector of Rural and 
Graded Schools, will write of rural school conditions, and 
Richard Heyward, State Inspector of High Schools, of high 
school conditions, while Professor Vernon P. Squires, of the 
University, will discuss conditions of higher education. Professor 
Kennedy, Dean of the School of Education at the University, 
will tell of the provisions for the education of teachers, and 
Professor Schmidt, also of the University, will treat the topic 
of consolidation, discussing briefly the idea itself, then showing 
the progress that has been made in North Dakota. The financial 
situation will be handled by Mr. James W. Wilkerson, Secretary 
of the University Board of Trustees. Dr. Gillette, of the De- 
partment of Sociology of the University, will conclude the discus- 
sion by trying to answer the question: "To What Extent Does 
the Present Educatitonal Situation of the State Satisfy Its 
Social and Educational Needs?" 



The University of North Dakota 

SUMMER SESSION, 1912. JUNE 17 TO JULY 26 

THE ELEMENTARY SECTION is under the management of a 
Board consisting of the State Superintendent, the President 
of the University and the County Superintendents of Grand 
Forks, Pemi^ina and Walsh counties. Professor C. C. 
Schmidt of the University is Director. It offers work of 
special interest to teachers in the rural schools, and also to 
those expecting to occupy grade positions in village and 
city systems. County Superintendents accept creditable 
work in lieu of examination in certificate subjects. 

THE COLLEGE SECTION, with Dr. A. J. Ladd as Director, 
offers instruction in seventeen college departments includ- 
ing economics, education, history, languages (ancient and 
modern), literature, philosophy and the sciences. The 
University gives credit for work done during the Summer 
Session the same as during the regular University year. 

SPECIAL FEATURES IN COLLEGE SUBJECTS: 

Library Science: Thoro courses of lectures with opportuni- 
ty for much apprentice work; should equip for successful 
handling of small libraries. 

Domestic Science: Advanced courses offered in both cook- 
ing and sewing, one course especially designed for teachers 
of the subject in high schools. 

Mamial Training: Excellent facilities for prospective teach- 
ers as well as for students doing regular work. 

Course in Nttrsing: Designed to give adequate preparation 
for intelligent management of the sick room; preparation 
of foods, sanitation and ventilation especially emphasized. 

Education: The new school law requires professional equip- 
ment of all teachers; to meet the need courses are offered 
in History of Education. Secondary Education and Psy- 
chology. 

SPECIAL LECTURES of an educational and inspirational char- 
acter are offered daily without extra charge. The speakers 
include eminent authorities in various fields of thought. 

THE ENTIRE FACILITIES of the University are at the service 
of students during the six weeks of the Summer Session. 
Residence Halls for men and women. A cool climate and 
a pleasant campus. P.xpenses reduced to the minimum. 
For further information, address 

The Registrar, University, N. D. 



The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 2 APRIL, 1912 Number 3 

A Sketch of the Early Political Parties 
in the United States 

O. G. LiBBY, 

Professor of History, University of North Dakota 

In the growth of political parties in this country one can 
but be struck by the simplicity of their origin and the relative 
clarity of the issues which furnished the basis for division. 
Religious differences such as played so prominent a part at critic- 
al times in France, Germany, and England, seem to be totally 
absent here. The animosity engendered by personal ambition 
or factional jealousy appears but spasmodically and was never 
a powerful determinant in early party divisions. The obscuring 
influence of corporate wealth did not then confuse the vision of 
the leaders nor mask dangerous theories behind a semblance of 
popular principles. 

The lessons of old world experience and the demands of a 
new and untried environment prevented much immature or ideal- 
istic experimenting. Everything had to be tried by the test of 
reality and immediate usefulness. Besides this there was an 
ever present factor of buoyant optimism and hopefulness which 
arose partly from the recoil of the freedom from old time tra- 
dition and partly from the boundless opportunities open to the 
humblest newcomer on our shores. 

The first national political parties in this country, the Loy- 
alists, or Tories, and the Whigs, arose from the friction that 
naturally resulted when a more or less traditional form of gov- 
ernment attempted to impose its customary methods and long 
established precedents upon the American colonies. In England 
the principles of self government inherited from the more prim- 
itive Anglo Saxons and developed thru centuries of strife with 
a centralizing monarchy had at last taken on a form which was 



205 



206 The Quarterly Journal 

fairly satisfactory to the upper and middle classes. That profit- 
able partnership entered into as early as 1485 between the Tudors 
and the English middle class had worked well. The ill advised 
attempt to overthrow it during the rule of the Stuarts had failed 
utterly. The Hanoverian dynasty of the i8th century was a 
repetition of the Tudor without its higher qualities of statesman- 
ship, and, until 1760, with hardly a trace of autocratic self-will. 
The development of a world commerce, the securing of an im- 
mense colonial empire and the first stages of the Industrial Revo- 
lution, — these were the fruits of middle class domination in the 
English government by 1763, and certainly there could be little 
complaint of a government so well in hand. 

Quite otherwise was the case in the American colonies of 
England. In those colonies where the newcomers were largely 
of English stock, namely, in Virginia and Maryland, and in New 
England, certain favoring circumstances had given them leader- 
ship in the struggle for local self government. The principal 
New England colony, Massachusetts, was settled in the period 
of the personal rule of Charles I., when liberty loving English- 
men were turning to America for that freedom denied them at 
home. The settlers in this colony, mostly of the non-conforming 
conservative wing of the radical Puritan party of the time, ob- 
tained a charter so entirely favorable to their ideas of local self 
government and so completely at variance with the theories of 
the king that it raises a question as to the nature of the influence 
used to secure such a document. Two other New England col- 
onies, Connecticut and Rhode Island, ultimately procured very 
liberal charters from Charles II., and a later attempt to undo the 
mischief and revoke all three of these New England charters 
came to nothing on account of the expulsion of the Stuart line 
from England. The net result of this intelligent and concerted 
effort on the part of the Puritans in England was the migration 
of over 20,000 progressive Englishmen of that party to New 
England, and by 1640 the successful establishment of three self 
governing commonwealths there. The fourth, New Hampshire, 
tho later a royal colony, had been long enough under the tutelage 
of Massachusetts to be thoroly imbued with Puritan principles 
and her people belonged, of course, very largely to that party. 

In Virginia the piuxhase of a majority of the stock in the 
Virginia company by the Puritans of England resulted in the 
establishment of a system of local government in the colony in 



Early Political Parties in the United States 207 

1619 quite in harmony with their theories of government. And 
altho in 1624 their charter was declared forfeit and Virginia be- 
came a royal colony, the beginning had been made and the colony 
became a refuge for many Puritans from this time on. The 
important migration to Virginia, however, did not take place un- 
til after the victory of the Puritans in England. Between the 
years 1649 ^^id 1660, over 30,000 Englishmen of the middle class, 
who sympathized with the king and who were especially opposed 
to the military despotism of Cromwell, migrated to Virginia, 
giving this colony thereafter the leadership in America. This 
migration, far from making Virginia monarchic in tendency or 
laying the foundation for a feudal aristocracy, established at this 
focal region in America the English middle class theory of gov- 
ernment, which the Stuarts had risked everything to overthrow. 
Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 is an excellent proof of the existence 
of these ideas in Virginia at this early date and of the presence 
of a large class ready to defend them even by force of arms. 
Maryland, too, by the peculiar circumstances attending the grant- 
ing of her charter, had deemed it politic to adopt a liberal and 
conciliatory policy and by the invasion of Puritans and the con- 
stant aggressions of her stronger neighbor, Virginia, she had be- 
come in the course of time quite affiliated with the rest of the 
liberal self-governing colonies of pure English stock already 
described. 

The English revolution of 1688 gave a great impetus to the 
development of colonial self government. This impulse was not 
immediately counteracted by any checks imposed by the English 
government in the interests of central control. For the next 
three generations, owing to external pressure and internal weak- 
ness and dissension, England had quite enough to do in maintain- 
ing the new dynasty secure on the throne, and the colonies con- 
tinued to expand into fuller realization of their own capacity for 
self rule. By 1760, when George III. came to the throne, every 
one of the English colonies had some form of representative as- 
sembly and the process of holding an irresponsible executive in 
check by legislative control over taxation had been quite com- 
pletely worked out and was being applied with marked effect in 
such representative colonies as Massachusetts, New York, Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia.* At many points on the Atlantic sea- 

*An exceHent presentation of the later phases of this development 
has recently come to hand, see McCormac, Colonial Opposition to Imperial 
Authority during the French and Indian War. University of California 
Publications in History, Vol. I., No. 1, Nov. 23, 1911. 



2o8 The. Quarterly Journal 

board, physiography had a specially noticeable influence in the 
direction of colonial growth. New England was a physiograph- 
ic unit isolated from the rest of the English colonies, having its 
peculiar people, institutions, and modes of thought. The soil 
was, as a rule, poor, making agriculture almost from the be- 
ginning a subsidiary occupation. Its sea frontage and excellent 
harbors, abundant pine forests and the presence of exhaustless 
fisheries pointed the way to sea faring occupations, for which 
originally the people seem to have been but poorly prepared. 
Fishing and commerce led to manufacturing, and all three were 
helped rather than hindered by the prevailing restrictive theory 
of national commerce, while the lax enforcement of the naviga- 
tion acts, a policy which Walpole favored, prevented the applica- 
tion of even the ordinary hindrances to independent commercial 
development on the part of these American colonies. It followed 
naturally enough that by the middle of the eighteenth century 
the New England colonies had begun to be serious industrial 
rivals of the mother country, and were, besides, in full possession 
of well understood English precedents to support the various 
stages of their growth. 

Virginia, on the other hand, a purely agricultural colony, 
had little clash with England's restrictive trade laws. But the 
imperial size of her original land grant, which had been in no 
wise diminished by later events, had placed upon her shoulders 
the responsibility for trans-Alleghany settlement in the face of 
the opposition of France and her Indian allies. Shenandoah 
Valley, the greatest natural highway in America, and Cumber- 
land Gap opened the west to the Virginians, and the cost of 
keeping the way open fell upon them alone. The stirring events 
of the French and Indian War furnished abundant evidence that 
Virginia had men capable of leadership, and public spirited cit- 
izens fully alive to the gravity of the situation. 

When George III. summoned his Tory cohorts from their 
long retirement outside English public life and attempted to re- 
organize the government on the lines of centralized rule and 
irresponsible monarchy, he took a very natural step and one quite 
in harmony with the views of a considerable body of influential 
Englishmen. The reaction from Hanoverian helplessness had set 
in, the age of machinery had arrived, commerce was seeking to 
strengthen old markets and to find out new ones. American 
colonial affairs had been allowed to run at loose ends long 



Early Political Parties in the United States 209 

enough. This renascence of EngHsh administrative centraliza- 
tion brought on at once an industrial and political crisis in the 
English colonies. Long established colonial trade interests, vitally 
involving every one of the thirteen colonies, were clearly jeopard- 
ized. The African slave trade, the New England fisheries and her 
lucrative manufacture of rum and lumber, the export of Virginia 
tobacco and middle state food stuffs were all threatened. Equal- 
ly grave was the impending loss to English settlement of the 
whole Ohio valley which Virginia, at least, regarded as her pe- 
culiar possession. Most significant of all, there was a very evi- 
dent plan afoot to render the colonial governors independent of 
their respective legislatures and thus overturn the entire machin- 
ery of local self government which had been so long in successful 
operation in the royal and proprietary colonies. This was the 
real "critical period" in American history, industrial and terri- 
torial expansion on the one hand, and the right of local self gov- 
ernment on the other, were in serious danger of being thwarted. 
The united authority of king and parliam.ent supported the ag- 
gression and it was a matter of grave doubt whether there were 
precedents in English history for opposing this sovereign exer- 
cise of power. 

In this crisis a power was evoked which alone was capable 
of facing the formidable array of forces on the side of England, 
a call for a united front was issued, a colonial congress was held, 
and the formation of a national party began. The various co- 
lonial factions or parties, that had sprung naturally from the local 
clash of executive and legislative power, now coalesced into two 
parties. The party with a program and a fighting plan was, of 
course, the Whig. The Loyalist party lacked organization, a 
definite goal, and aggressive leaders. Moreover its members 
were taken by surprise and were hurried on from stage to stage 
of the revolt, without being able to offer any effective check to 
a movement so spontaneous and far reaching. The severity of 
the crisis may be gauged by the illogical nature of the arguments 
adduced by the Whigs in their own defense, and the constant and 
rapid shifting of the successive positions assumed by their leaders 
during the various stages of the conflict with England. But the 
objects to be defended were as clear and tangible as their argu- 
ments were hazy and indefinite. Western territory, industrial 
progress, local self government, — these main issues stand out 



210 



The Quarterly Journal 



clearly amid the chaos of mobs and assemblies and the clash of 
arms. 

The geographical distribution of the parties is very sugges- 
tive. The Whig party v^as found largely in the purely English 
colonies of Virginia, Maryland, and New England, while the 
Loyalists were distributed chiefly in the more or less non-English 
middle colonies, the Carolinas, and Georgia. The Loyalist area 
may be described, also, as including those colonies in which were 
carried on the most extensive military operations of the British 
armies, and consequently where the country suffered most from 
the devastation of war. 

It has been an unfortunate tendency of our early historians 
to minimize the size and importance of the Loyalist party, just 
as it was for the English writers of the Revolutionary era to 
decry and ridicule the Whig party. Of these two national par- 
ties, the Loyalists were unquestionably the larger up to the for- 
mal adoption of the Declaration of Independence. The shifting 
of issues that took place at that date and the adoption by the 
Whigs of a definitely national program gave them a great moral 
advantage and very soon changed their evident minority into an 
increasingly large and effective majority of the American people. 

The rise of these two parties is contemporaneous with the 
birth of the American nation and thus there will always be as- 
sociated with this portion of our political history the added in- 
terest connected with this important event. The vmrelenting 
proscription of the defeated Loyalists by their radical opponents, 
which continued even after the treaty of peace had obliterated 
the party issues, led to their elimination from all participation in 
public affairs for a considerable interval of time, depending upon 
the state of feeling in particular communities or states. The 
whole effect was to give the complete control of all governmental 
matters into the hands of those who, as a rule, were not fitted 
by nature or experience to decide wisely upon the multifarious 
details involved in the choice of future policies. Not a little of 
the very evident financial blundering and administrative weak- 
ness of the whole period came as a direct consequence of this 
complete change in ruling classes at a critical time. No one was 
better aware of this deficiency than the best of the Whig leaders 
themselves, who, nevertheless, found themselves for a time quite 
powerless to oppose any effective check on the course of popular 
fallacies. 



Early Political Parties in the United States 211 

11. 

The transition period, following the disappearance of the 
parties of the Revolutionary era, was characterized by a complete 
lack of unity and an utter demoralization of the national govern- 
ment. Our first Federal constitution, the Articles of Confeder- 
ation, shows plainly the marks of its origin. The century-long 
struggle in the colonies to break down the executive by means of 
the legislative department had given the leaders of the Whig 
party an exaggerated notion of the importance of this latter de- 
partment. There had thus come to be adopted, unconsciously 
enough, a working theory of a model state, in which the executive 
played but a minor part and the legislative department, the peo- 
ple's organ of expression, had almost the whole burden of the 
normal tripartite government. This undoubtedly explains in no 
slight degree the unreasonable opposition to Washington during 
the Revolutionary War, which manifested itself so constantly in 
Continental Congress, especially during those years when the cali- 
bre of the membership ran so low. Washington was so well 
equipped for the position of an efficient and responsible executive, 
he so completely overtopped the feeble legislative department up- 
on whom, theoretically, the burden of the war rested, that it was 
apparent to the dullest minds among its members that the Whig 
theory of legislative preponderance was in real peril. They rea- 
soned that Lee, Gates, or almost any other general would play a 
far less commanding role and would therefore be no such menace 
to the feeble, newly born nation. This feeling was still further 
intensified, and apparently justified by the injudicious sugges- 
tions of certain of the disaffected in the army that Washington 
should assume in form the position he was already filling in 
reality, that of the supreme headship of the state. 

The colonial conflict between legislative and executive func- 
tions had been focused by the British policy after 1760 into a 
conflict of arms with the supreme executive, and this found 
expression in the two permanent documents of the Revolution, 
the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confedera- 
tion. It became painfully apparent, however, after 1781, that 
neither of these documents contained the constructive principles 
for national growth. The commanding influence of Virginia at 
this critical time has been somewhat slurred over by the advo- 
cates of rival sections. It should always be borne in mind that 
up to 1825, Virginian presidents held place thirty-two years out 



212 The Quarterly Journal 

of thirty-six years of national life, that the commander-in-chief 
during the Revolution, the author of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and one of the most important contributors to the 
Federalist were all Virginians, and that a Virginian chief justice 
laid the constitutional foundations for our national growth. This 
was the result of no mere party intrigue, nor was it the outcome 
of fortuitous circumstances. Virginia had an unequalled Eng- 
lish stock which it received in the 17th century, and, from the 
opportunities afforded by its central position between north and 
south and east and west, it was the first of the colonies to ex- 
emplify in its broad policy and far-sighted men of affairs, the 
nascent national aspirations and possibilities in colonial life. 

On the other hand, the individualistic tendencies and the 
early development of local government in New England offered 
the strongest possible contrast to the direction of political evolu- 
tion in Virginia. This section contributed nothing which will at 
all compare in breadth of vision or comprehensive statesmanship 
with the work of the Virginia leaders. Its genius lay in other 
fields and along lines quite divergent from those of its English 
compatriot at the south. The political tendencies and principles 
of the majority of its people during the period following the 
Revolution are perhaps best exprest in what is commonly known 
as Shays' Rebellion. Unfortunately there is at present no ade- 
quate account of this most significant and characteristic New 
England movement. Even the publication of the manuscript 
material in the records of the Archives department at the state 
house in Boston, including a most interesting list of the rebels, 
would serve to illustrate some unexpected phases of the subject. 
Local pride and traditional view-point seem to have been effec- 
tive in postponing an impartial and scholarly discussion of this 
portion of our national history. Connecticut alone remained 
largely unaffected by the outbreak. In New Hampshire there 
was much disorder; Rhode Island declared itself in sympathy 
with the revolt in a neighboring state and went so far as to elect 
a fugitive rebel as a member of her legislature. In Massachu- 
setts the state legislature was apparently indifferent to the be- 
havior of the rioters, who were interrupting court sessions and 
freeing prisoners from county jails, and in the fall of 1786 they 
actually adjourned without making any provision for the enforce- 
ment of the state law. The rebellion was supprest the following 



Early Political Parties in the United States 213 

winter by the governor of the state upon his own initiative, the 
necessary funds being privately subscribed in Boston. 

It is interesting to notice the expression of views put forth 
by various local gatherings in sympathy with this rebellion. 
Paper money was to be issued in abundance merely as an exer- 
cise of state sovereignty, and this money was to be legal tender 
for all debts, public and private. State laws were demanded 
whereby the law of debt should be suspended during certain 
specified times and all interest was to lapse. Tender laws were 
actually past in some instances, which admitted of legal can- 
cellation of debt on the tender of certain specified produce and 
the refusal of the creditor to accept the hay, wood, grain, or other 
articles of value in lieu of the gold previously loaned. These 
laws, which were undoubtedly intended to facilitate partial or 
complete repudiation of debts, indicate the primitive political 
philosophy of large numbers of American voters. The average 
New England town, according to the original Puritan ideas of 
government, was absolutely self governing, and every question of 
local or general importance came within the scope of its au- 
thority. In considerable areas in this section the towns were 
quite isolated from the larger movements of political and busi- 
ness life. Hence arose a confusion in the minds of these pro- 
vincial voters as to the limits of their authority. Recognizing no 
power greater than their own, ignorant of the natural laws of 
commerce and finance, having participated in the overthrow of 
the power of England, these petty local groups made most unex- 
pected applications of their individualistic theories and revolu- 
tionary ideas. The outcome of Shays' Rebellion dispelled many 
of these illusions, economic as well as political, and New England 
added the weight of her influence on the side of Virginia for a 
restatement of the constitutional principles upon which to rest 
the national future. 

The consolidation of state factions and the realignment of 
the American voters in the ranks of the new national parties 
was hastened by the pressing nature of the demand for stronger 
Federal government. The issues were relatively simple and 
clear. The lack of an executive, the need of a national judicial 
tribunal, the necessity for national revenues, all these had de- 
veloped since the Declaration of Independence and each year's 
experience reinforced the sober judgment of leaders in every 
section of the country. On the opposite side, in the ranks of the 



214 The Quarterly Journal 

Anti-Federalists, were ranged all those to whom the colonial point 
of view represented the fixt and ultimate political goal, beyond 
which it was not safe to venture. Democracy was a rule by all 
the people, whose judgments alone were infallible, the legislative 
department was the only trustworthy form of popular repre- 
sentation, all else savored of despotism and irresponsible mon- 
archy. In the membership of the Federal and Anti-Federal par- 
ties we look in vain for evidence of the former clear cut political 
divisions. Samuel Adams and John Hancock opposed John 
Adams, the Federalist; George Clinton, the leading Anti-Fed- 
eralist of New York, joined with Patrick Henry of Virginia to 
uphold that party in opposition to Hamilton, Madison, and Wash- 
ington. In Pennsylvania the conservative and property interests 
formerly ranked as Loyalist and represented by the Germans and 
Quakers of the eastern part of the state, joined a number of 
leading Whigs to make up the Federal party and overthrew the 
faction that had earlier supported the Whig party in the Revo- 
lution. In New York an element of commercial selfishness aided 
the Anti-Federalists, while in North Carolina this party was vic- 
torious, largely from a general lack of intelligence as to what was 
going on in other states. Rhode Island ignored the lessons of 
Shays' Rebellion and held to the individualistic attitude, which had 
dominated New England politics previous to 1786-87. 

As in the case of the earlier political parties already discust, 
the minority party, the Federalists, defeated their more numerous 
opponents because of better organization, more definite aims, and 
superior leadership. The minority parties in both cases won the 
struggle by successful attacks on a constantly diminishing ma- 
jority of opponents. In 1788 it was a campaign of education 
toward a better appreciation of national possibilities, the pro- 
longation of the campaign meant certain victory, while a speedy 
termination of the conflict would just as certainly have meant 
defeat. The Whig-Loyalist campaign was different from that 
which occurred in 1787-88 in one essential respect. At that 
earlier time every one knew the issues and took an intelligent 
stand on the question. In the discussions over the second Fed- 
eral constitution, a minority of Federalists in the state conven- 
tions of Virginia, New York, Massachusetts, and New Hamp- 
shire postponed immediate vote and gained time for valuable dis- 
cussion, and in two cases, the Federalists secured a timely recess, 
during which interval, wavering or uninformed constituencies 



Early Political Parties in the United States 215 

were converted to support of the Federalist party. Against such 
convictions, and leadership so sure of itself, little effective oppo- 
sition could be made. The Anti-Federalists, as a rule, were 
characteristically blind to the meaning and import of the new in- 
strument. Much was said by them as to the danger of executive 
despotism and legislative corruption, but it is not a matter of 
surprise that none of the Anti-Federalists, not even those in Vir- 
ginia, discerned the menace to their theories of government in 
the opportunity for constructive interpretation, inherent in the 
powers given to the supreme court. The doctrine of implied 
powers, so soon to be evoked to strengthen the central govern- 
ment, is, naturally enough, hardly hinted at in the published de- 
bates of the time. Judging from all available sources for exam- 
ination and study of the debates, the Anti-Federalists were an 
insignificant minority, and the full range of their arguments and 
views, and the strong hold they had upon the great mass of voters, 
is not at once apparent from the evidence ordinarily used by the 
student of the subject. 

Physiography plays a significant part in the distribution of 
the vote on the new constitution. The Anti-Federalists, being 
poorly informed as to the general views and arguments in the 
case, and holding to older and more provincial theories of gov- 
ernment, are to be found in those interior and isolated regions 
where public opinion was traditional and unprogressive and 
where the currents of active life had not yet penetrated. Where- 
ever men were in contact with wider areas of business and po- 
litical activity, the Federalist party was in the majority. Striking 
instances of the influence of commercial intercourse, and of the 
movement of population and travel can be seen in the case of the 
interior Connecticut valley in New England, and the Shenandoah 
valley of interior Virginia. In these regions the support accord- 
ed to the Federalist party was of decisive influence in the im- 
portant state conventions of New Hampshire, Massachusetts and 
Virginia. 

III. 

During the period 1789-97, that covered by Washington's 
two administrations, there was nothing which can be called a 
clear cut issue sufficient to produce national parties. Of faction- 
al division there was no lack, and sectional differences and per- 
sonal animosities supplied abundant excuse for disagreement. 
But if one attempts to sift the evidence and examine the proof 



2i6 The. Quarterly Journal 

offered for the claims of party existence, he will in the end aban- 
don the task as a profitless one. No two historians agree as to 
party names or divisions. One writer begins in 1790 by calling 
one of the factions the Anti-Federalist party and changes the 
name in 1793 to Republican. Another historian calls the same 
faction Constitutional Republican in 1792; by another its sup- 
porters are termed Democrats, while a fourth writer calls them 
Federal Republicans. The difficulty seems to have been that 
each historian has assumed the existence of clear party divisions 
for a given period of history just as we assume any other neces- 
sary condition of human existence. To these writers it is as 
difficult to conceive of Washington's two terms without party 
divisions as it is to think of this period as having no elections 
or appointments to office. If, on the other hand, we bear in mind 
that as a nation we had already passed thru a very considerable 
period between the disappearance of our first political parties 
and the rise of others, the recurrence of a similar transitional 
period will not seem so improbable. Another very common error 
has arisen from an entire confusion of terms ; opposition to a 
mesure has been taken as meaning exactly the same as political 
party. There has been little attempt at logical analysis of the 
underlying principles of the opposition to the administration 
mesures during Washington's two terms, nor has the Con.o"res- 
sional vote been examined carefully for evidence of party organ- 
ization and cohesion. We might excuse an amateur for mistak- 
ing a mob for an army, but if a military expert should make the 
same blunder it would not be overlooked. Nor will there be any 
difficulty in detecting the entire absence of party organization or 
leadership in this period if we proceed according to the rules of 
evidence accepted by historians in the examination of a new 
problem. 

The first fallacy that has been accorded considerable support 
is that the divisions obtaining during the struggle over the adop- 
tion of the second constitution were continued on into Wash- 
ington's administration. It is, to be sure, hardly clear why Ham- 
ilton and his supporters should lay claim to the name Federal, 
and Madison and his followers be denied the use of the name 
of a party, successful in no small part by Madison's own efforts. 
The adoption of the name Federal was after all little more than 
a clever device of an adroit leader, and it certainly furnishes no 
clue as to the fundamental diff'erences that early forced apart these 



Early Political Parties in the United States 217 

two main contributors to that masterly production, the Federalist. 

Another position very commonly held is that two parties de- 
veloped from the contest over the mesures of Hamilton, the op- 
position being led by Jefferson. The principal contests arose in 
the first congress over the funding and assumption mesures of 
the first session and the national bank bill of the second 
session. That the funding and assumption mesures did 
not produce parties is fairly clear from the undisputed evidence 
that during the final phase of this contest, Jefferson joined with 
Hamilton in securing their passage thru the House. As a party 
leader Jefferson certainly would have incurred the charge of hav- 
ing betrayed his party and sold out to the opposition, but as head 
of a mere faction, willing to gain local advantage in any bargain 
or exchange of votes, he felt amply justified for his course. In 
the struggle for the adoption of his funding and assumption 
schemes, Hamilton at first met with success, the committee of the 
whole House reporting in its favor on March 9, 1790, by a vote 
of 31 to 26. On March 29, however, the House turned against 
state assumption by a vote of 29 to 27. This early defeat of a 
part of Hamilton's mesure has been commonly ascribed to the 
arrival of the North Carolina delegation and their opposition to 
the plan, but this was obviously impossible since only two mem- 
bers of the delegation had arrived by March 29 and but three by 
April 12. 1 

Hamilton's defeat was only a temporary check. He well 
knew the lack of cohesion in the ranks of the opposition and by 
combining his funding and assumption mesures with the still 
unsettled question of the location of a Federal capital, he de- 
moralized his opponents and carried his point on July 24 by a 
vote of 32 to 29. It has long been the accepted version of this af- 
fair that Jefferson delivered to Hamilton two Virginia votes in 
exchange for his support of the Potomac capital site. On this 
theory representatives were merely pawns in the game of pol- 
itics played by the leaders. This is neither just to the members of 
the House of Representatives nor in accordance with the facts. 
Not two but nine representatives changed their votes between 
April and July from opposition to support of assumption of state 
debts. Two of these were from New Jersey, three from eastern 



1 For this erroneous view see Lodg^e, Life of Hamilton. Boston, 
18X2 'dd 122 ff.; McMaster, History of the People of the United States. 
^°°y' 1885, I., p. 579; Schouler, History of the United States. N. Y., 1894, 
I.' p." 151. ' 



2i8 The Quarterly Journal 

Pennsylvania, two from Maryland, and two from the upper 
Potomac region of Virginia. Since the temporary residence was 
secured for Philadelphia for ten years and the permanent resi- 
dence on the upper Potomac, it is hardly fair to say that these 
representatives changed their votes solely at the behest of either 
Jefferson or Hamilton, and without reference to their interested 
constituencies. 

In the second session one of the principal contests was waged 
over the chartering of a national bank. Hamilton again surprised 
the opposition by bringing forward the new theory of implied 
powers in defense of the proposed corporation, and Jefferson and 
Madison found it impossible to make effective headway against 
the well reasoned plans of the Secretary of Treasury. Here for 
the first time the direction of cleavage was along the line of con- 
stitutional interpretation, and to Jefferson this undoubtedly seem- 
ed to afford an excellent basis for the formation of a group of 
followers sufficiently coherent to develop into a party. In this 
he was grievously disappointed, the New England and middle 
sections gave him but a single vote, that of Grout from a former 
Shays' stronghold in central Massachusetts. In the South he lost 
two votes in Maryland, two in western North Carolina and one 
from the Charleston district of South Carolina. The almost im- 
mediate success of the new bank and the general satisfaction it 
gave to the tax payers as well as to the moneyed interests put it 
out of reach as a party issue for the future. All that there re- 
mained for Jefferson to do was to watch for his opponent's fur- 
ther plans and to thwart them. This decidedly opportunistic poli- 
cy was well suited to the uncertain nature of his support and the 
constantly shifting delegations that came from most of the states. 
The petty warfare against Hamilton culminated in a House in- 
vestigation of the Department of Treasury and his complete vin- 
dication December 31, 1792. 

Thus, during the whole of Washington's first administra- 
tion, Jefferson had made vain efforts to built up a party organiza- 
tion. Possibly a consciousness of his failure lay at the bottom of 
his earnest request that Washington stand for reelection. The 
outcome of his contests with Hamilton had not given him that 
assured sense of leadership necessary for success and none know 
so well as he what little progress had yet been made toward con- 
solidating the hitherto factious opposition into a definitely or- 
ganized party. The retirement of Jefferson from the cabinet in 



Early Political Parties in the United States 219 

1793 and Hamilton's resignation somewhat more than a year later 
afforded the former very little advantage in his opposition to 
what he considered the monarchic tendencies in the present ad- 
ministration. Nor did the heated discussion upon the neutrality 
proclamation of 1793 and the excitement over the Genet mission 
afford him the long looked for opportunity. Jay's treaty aroused 
the most violent opposition in the House of Representatives as 
well as in the country at large; but in the last analysis it failed 
to consolidate the opponents of the administration into anything 
like a permanent body. A French party or a British party was 
in itself a transitory affair at best and could hardly be expected 
to represent the views of any considerable body of American vot- 
ers for a definite period of time. Those who cite contemporary 
opinions as a proof of real party divisions at this time forget that 
the mere use of a name signifies little. If one group called them- 
selves Federalists, their opponents called them Tories, aristocrats, 
or monocrats, according to the mood of the hour. Self-styled 
Republicans likewise appear as Jacobins, Democrats, Genetines, 
Galileans, or mobocrats. 

To a man of Washington's judicial temperament and first 
rate administrative ability, factional disputes were especially dis- 
tasteful. His purpose in calling both Jefferson and Hamilton to 
the cabinet and his refusal to release them from their places in 
spite of their wishes came in no small mesure from the desire 
to harmonize the divergent views they represented, and by his 
personal influence to mollify and soften the harshness of fac- 
tional animosity. He was so far successful that no national par- 
ties were able to take shape as long as he was president. The 
immediate success of Hamilton's initial revenue and financial 
mesures and the wise caution of Washington's foreign policy left 
no room for party organization. 

In characterizing this period, therefore, we may call it a 
purely transitional one as far as party organization is concerned. 
It was fruitful in private jealousies and factional and sectional 
animosities. Men were intolerant of each other and the news- 
papers poured the foulest abuse upon opponents, sparing not 
even the most blameless. The experiment of administering a 
national government under the new instrument had proved a suc- 
cess. It remained now to discover if the constitution could be 
made to harmonize with the larger national life upon which we 
were about to enter. 



220 The Quarterly Journal 

IV. 

No greater contrast between two presidents can well be im- 
agined than existed between John Adams and his illustrious pre- 
decessor. Unlike Washington, he had enjoyed no especially re- 
sponsible administrative position previous to his election. Per- 
sonally he was honest and patriotic, but neither politic nor tactful. 
He disliked Jefferson and Hamilton and he possest neither the 
administrative capacity nor the balance of mind to select and 
control able assistants. Like his son in 1825, he had the mis- 
fortune to hold the presidency at the particular point in time 
when a great political party was just coming into existence, — a 
fact of which neither father nor son appeared in the slightest 
degree to be aware. John Adams had the bad judgment, also, to 
take over the cabinet of his predecessor, whose members were de- 
voted to Hamilton, who, for his part, sought in every way to 
hamper and cripple the new president. 

A second entanglement with France, this time with the cor- 
rupt Directory, in which Adams maintained the national honor 
with dignity and firmness, gave him a brief moment of popular- 
ity and seemingly promised for his administration an indefinite 
continuance of public favor. The disclosure of the disgraceful 
efforts on the part of Talleyrand to bribe and bully our ambas- 
sadors, which was made by Adams to the House of Representa- 
tives at their own request in April, 1798, gave the friends of the 
administration such unexpected and overwhelming strength that 
they carried everything before them. Calling themselves Federal 
Americans, this anti-French faction proceeded not merely to pre- 
pare for war with France, but to initiate legislation having in 
view the punishment or expulsion from the country of the in- 
creasing class of aliens who had constantly allied themselves with 
the opposite faction. In June, 1798, were passed two acts di- 
rected against aliens, one extending the time of naturalization 
from five to fourteen years, the other giving the President dis- 
cretionary power to expel, imprison, or place under bonds any 
aliens he might consider dangerous to the country. The follow- 
ing month the Alien Enemies act finished the proscription by pro- 
viding for the expulsion of all aliens who were subjects of a 
country with which we were engaged in war. The well known 
Sedition act completed this remarkable series of enactments. 
That these laws were exceedingly unwise, because of their ob- 
viously partisan intent and from their more than doubtful consti- 



Early Political Parties in the United States 221 

tutionality, was apparent to all not blinded by party madness. But 
from the larger point of view they betray a lack of statesmanship 
and even of ordinary political foresight, which was to cost their 
authors the confidence of the nation. The populations of Europe 
were just coming to believe in America as a refuge and as a 
future home. The alien laws would stir deeply the thousands of 
partly or wholly naturalized foreigners in this country, and would 
operate powerfully upon many times that number of their rela- 
tives and friends in Europe. The excellent quality of the immi- 
grants made them extremely desirable here. Their numbers were 
at first not large, for the movement to America was as yet hardly 
started. Bromwell gives the number as averaging 4,000 annually 
from 1784 to 1794, and 6,000 annually from 1790 to 1810. ^ 

JefTerson, alone, of all the public men in America, grasped 
the full significance of the mistake made by Adams and his sup- 
porters. He saw as clearly as did Hamilton the storm of denun- 
ciation which would descend upon them for their unwarranted 
severity toward our alien residents and for the inexcusable blun- 
der of the Sedition laws, that menaced freedom of speech and of 
the press. But beyond the inevitable defeat of a band 
of office holders and hangers-on, there rose before his mind the 
splendid vision of a great national party, which should emerge 
from the conflict, and of the issues upon which it was to make 
its stand. From his long residence in Europe and his travels in 
several countries, he was conversant with industrial and social 
conditions there as was no one else in America. The French 
Revolution had opened his eyes to the grievances of the down 
trodden masses. He was aware how their thoughts had been 
turning toward America, as the land where liberty and equality 
were more than a theory and where there was land and a home 
for all. He had watched the diplomatic situation of France 
carefully and had sensed the meaning of that long and exhaust- 
ing war which had already begun to rage in Europe. The inter- 
ruption of peaceful occupations and the devastation wrought by 
hostile invasion would inevitably turn adrift numberless artisans, 
farmers, and day laborers. Their natural goal was America. 
Here was abundant free land which they were capable of turning 
into farms and homes under the stimulus of our liberal institu- 
tions. As a typical Virginian he had unbounded faith in the po- 
tentialities of the new West and he realized how vitally important 

2. Bromwell. History of Immigration. N. Y., 185G, p- 13. 



222 The Quarterly Journal 

it was that every possible stream of population should be made 
to flow into these vacant lands. With prophetic insight he saw 
the forward sweep of population farther and farther westward, 
and he saw appear one after the other the thriving common- 
wealths which were to replace an untrodden wilderness. Thus 
he launched the new Republican party on the ample platform of 
national expansion. The French Revolution had proclaimed lib- 
erty and equality for all mankind. Jefferson now made concrete 
application of the principle by announcing as the surest basis of 
national well being the free citizens living under its laws, the men 
of many nations, assembled under our flag to enjoy the blessings 
of a free state. In the march of events having a world-wide im- 
port, Jefferson had seized the psychological moment to offer 
himself as a leader with a message of deepest moment for the 
humble and opprest of every land. 

In remarkable contrast to this wise prevision of Jefferson, 
his opponents show an inconsiderate rashness and a narrow pro- 
vincialism wholly unworthy of their constituencies. In the de- 
bate over these laws in the House of Representatives, Mr. Smith 
of Connecticut said: "If they (the aliens) chose to leave the 
country, he believed it would be a blessing to it. He believed 
we have persons and property enough without them." ^ Mr. 
Harper of South Carolina said, in his remarks on the naturaliza- 
tion bill : "It was high time we should recover from the mistake 
which this country fell into when it first began to form its consti- 
tutions, of admitting foreigners to citizenship. This mistake, he 
believed, had been productive of very great evils to this country 
and unless corrected, he was apprehensive those evils would 
greatly increase. He believed the time was now come when it 
would be proper to declare that nothing but birth should entitle a 
man to citizenship in this country. He thought this was the 
proper season for making the declaration. "^ 

The defense of the aliens is best given by a speech of Gal- 
latin, himself a naturalized foreigner. He strikes the keynote 
of the whole discussion when he refers to the laws as intended 
deliberately "to prevent immigration." Speaking for Pennsyl- 
vania, a state whose prosperity was always closely linked with her 
foreign immigrants, he said : "Those states whose population is 
full and to which few migrations take place are little concerned 



3. Annals of Congrress, 5th Congress, II., 2000. 

4. Ibid.. II., 1567. 



Early Political Parties in the United States 223 

in this question, unless, indeed, to check the population of other 
states and to keep a preponderance in their hands be an object 
with them. It was of consequence only to those states whose 
population is thin, and whose policy it has always been to encour- 
age emigration."^ 

Mr. Livingston of New York said : "An unfortunate 
stranger, disgusted with tyranny at home, thinks he shall find 
freedom here; he accepts our conditions; he puts faith in our 
promises ; he vests his whole property in our hands ; he has dis- 
solved his former connexions and made your country his own. 
But, while he is patiently waiting the expiration of the period 
that is to crown the work, and entitle him to all the rights of a 
citizen, the tale of a domestic spy or the calumny of a secret 
enemy draws on him the suspicions of the President, and, un- 
heard, he is ordered to quit the spot which he has selected for 
his retreat, the country which he had chosen for his own."^ 

The votes on the general policy involved in the Alien and 
Sedition laws were taken in the House of Representatives four 
times, June 21 and July 10, 1798, and on February 12 and 25, 
1799. The distribution of the support and opposition is very 
significant and furnishes valuable clues as to the nature of the 
influences at work inside and outside of Congress. In New Eng- 
land there were but four votes cast against the mesures, one in 
New Hampshire, two in Massachusetts, (in the districts of Mid- 
dlesex and Berkshire counties), and one in Vermont, in the 
western half of the state. In the middle section the vote was 
quite evenly balanced. Delaware and New Jersey supported the 
mesures. In New York four votes were cast in opposition by 
the members from that part of the state having the greater pro- 
portion of wealth and population, namely, the regions immediately 
adjoining New York city and also the region west of Hudson 
River and just north of New Jersey. In Pennsylvania the op- 
position included the larger part of the state. Philadelphia and 
the counties of Delaware, Lancaster, and York, all in the south- 
eastern part of the state, supported the mesures. In the south- 
ern states the support was scanty and consisted of the members 
from the eastern shore of Maryland and the adjoining counties of 
Virginia, and also the western part of Maryland. There was 
support also from eastern and northern South Carolina with one 



5. Annals of Congress, 5th Ckjngress. 11., 1982 

6. Ibid., II., 2011. 



224 The Quarterly Journal 

adjoining county of North Carolina. The opposing members 
came from a continuous southern area made up of the larger part 
of Virginia and North Carolina and the entire states of Kentucky, 
Tennessee, and Georgia. As a whole the vote showed New Eng- 
land the only section supporting the mesures by a majority. Of 
the five large cities, Boston and Philadelphia supported and New 
York, Charleston, and Baltimore opposed the laws. Outside of 
New England the most progressive and wealthy regions of the 
country stood opposed to these laws. In the state legislatures 
of New York and Maryland, where the mesures were up for de- 
bate, the vote shows that the members from the two cities of 
Baltimore and New York as well as those from adjoining regions 
voted against the laws. "^ 

It has been the fashion for many years to describe the new 
Republican party of 1798 as a particularistic and states rights 
party. This position has been taken from the wholly unwarrant- 
ed assumption that the new party adopted the Kentucky and Vir- 
ginia resolutions as embodying its fundamental principles of gov- 
ernment. Whatever Jefferson may have meant by the term 
"nullification" in his first draft of the Kentucky resolutions, it is 
cerain that neither he nor Madison intended by their resolutions 
anything more than to protest against certain legislation by Con- 
gress as dangerous and pernicious. Theories of state sovereignty 
and of a compact of states were too universally held at this time 
to arouse any special comment. The doctrine, however, that the 
states were the judges of the constitutionality of Federal laws was 
one that met with no support from the states. Tho every state 
received copies of the resolutions and were invited to take action 
upon them, but seven of the sixteen responded at all, and these 
were a unit in their disapproval — Delaware, Rhode Island, Mas- 
sachusetts, New York, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont. Three other states placed themselves on record as op- 
posed to the position taken in the resolutions : Maryland, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania. North Carolina was also reported as 
adverse, tho no formal action seems to have been recorded. ^ 

The Republican party of 1798 is therefore hardly to be held 
responsible for the unauthorized utterances of Madison and Jef- 
ferson in the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions, regarding the 



7. New York Assembly, votes of February 16, 1799; Maryland 
Legislature, votes of December 28, 1798, and .January 16, 1799. 

8. Warfield, The Kentucky Resolutions of 1798, N. Y., 1894, pp. 112 ff. 



Early Political Parties in the United States 225 

authority of a state to nullify Federal laws or to pass on their 
constitutionality. ^ While these resolutions were so universally 
ignored at the time of their first announcement, they did receive 
tacit endorsement in the resolutions adopted by Jefferson's bit- 
terest opponents in the Hartford Convention of 1814. So that 
altogether, it is difficult to discover any good grounds for re- 
garding them as a part of the platform of the party that came 
into existence on an issue of such national importance for the 
future as to win for it overwhelming support within two years of 
its rise. It has been quite overlooked by those who have thus 
misread the Kentucky resolutions, that Jefferson put into them 
many references to the aliens in whose defense he had entered 
the lists as a party leader. Such significant phrases as these 
occur: "That alien friends are under the jurisdiction and pro- 
tection of the laws of the state wherein they are;" "to remove 
them when migrated is equivalent to a prohibition of their mi- 
gration ;" "the friendless alien has indeed been selected as the 
safest subject of a first experiment;" "the friendly strangers, to 
whom the mild spirit of our country and its laws had pledged 
hospitality and protection ;" "that a very numerous and valuable 
description of the inhabitants of these states being by this pre- 
cedent reduced as outlaws to the absolute dominion of one 
man." '^^ But if we must reject the Kentucky and Virginia 
Resolutions as the accepted platform of the new party, they are 
nevertheless of considerable constitutional significance. With 
the first and second Federal constitutions these resolutions form 
a series of public documents of first rank as showing the political 
and constitutional evolution of the American voter. As already 
pointed out, the first Federal constitution, the Articles of Con- 
federation, sums up the experience of the colonies in their initial 
essay at self government. Our second constitution has a bal- 
ance in all its parts, a breadth of view, and wise provisions for 
future growth wholly lacking in the first. The Kentucky and 
Virginia Resolutions state clearly and forcibly the theory of 
coordinate sovereignties of state and nation and the mutual ob- 
ligations that confine them to their own proper spheres of action. 
This theory was no new thing to the framers of our present con- 
stitution, who undoubtedly accepted without question the belief 



9. See F. M. Anderson, Contemporary Opinion of the Virginia and 
Kentucky Resolutions, American Historical Review, January. 1900. 

10 Macclonald, Documentary Source Book of American History, N. Y., 
1908, pp. 270, 272-3. 



226 The Quarterly Journal 

in the persistence of state sovereignty under any form of govern- 
ment which could at this time be conceived of. It was not until 
after the decisions of John Marshall had begun to be understood 
(.hat the old fallacy of coordinate sovereignties was finally aban- 
doned. This is what gives a national significance to the Webster- 
Hayne debate. So clear and simple were Webster's arguments 
for national sovereignty that only the most pressing sectional 
need for defense of special interests could serve to keep alive any 
longer the outworn tradition of state sovereignty. The theory of 
coordinate sovereignty was, therefore, no mere party tenet, but a 
widespread belief, irrespective of party affiliations, for a genera- 
tion after Jefferson and Madison gave it universal currency in 
what we recognize now as its classic form. 

V. 

The presidential election of 1800 marks a turning point in 
our national history no less important than does the adoption of 
our present constitution. It signalized the initial victory of the 
first political party which profest to represent the American peo- 
ple. The career of this party is in complete contrast with the 
vacillating course of the shifting factions described in the admin- 
istrations of Washington and Adams. Nevertheless, it has been 
popular to refer to the Republican party as one wholly given over 
to the support of states rights and compact theories of govern- 
ment, and to quite ignore the broader and more permanent fea- 
tures of its platform and organization. This has been especially 
noticeable in the election of 1800. By contemporaries the elec- 
tion was called the triumph of the masses over the intelligent 
minority, a victory for an unthinking mob led by a reckless in- 
triguer (Burr) and a cold blooded atheist (Jefferson). ^^ His- 
torians have not always descriminated between the Anti-Federal- 
ist of 1788, the Jacobin of 1793, and the Republican of 1800. 
Hildreth writes: "The Federalists had their strength in those 
narrow districts, where a concentrated population had produced 
and contributed to maintain that complexity of institutions and 
that reverence for social order, which, in proportion as men are 
brought into contiguity, become more absolutely necessaries of 
existence." ^^ 

11. For a characteristic .specimen of a pamphlet attack on Jefferson 
as an atheist see Serious Considerations on the Election of a President — 
Addressed to the Citizens of the United States, N. Y., 1800, 36 pp. 
(Anonymous). 

12. Hildreth, History of the United States of America, N. Y.. 1879, V., 
415. 



Early Political Parties in the United States 227 

Schouler is especially explicit in his remarks : "No political 
party in a time of popular commotion could ever boast in Ameri- 
ca a more splendid body of voters ; social rank, talent, wealth, 
learning, supported Federalism in New England more especial- 
ly." 1^ Henry Adams makes a careful analysis of the Federal 
election of 1800 in New England and comes to the following con- 
clusion : "In 1800 one half the population, represented under 
property qualifications by only some twenty thousand voters, was 
Republican. The other half, which cast about twenty-five thou- 
sand votes, included nearly every one in the professional and 
mercantile classes, and represented the wealth, social position, 
and education of the Commonwealth (Massachusetts)." ^^ The 
facts regarding the election of 1800 do not in the least bear out 
the statements above quoted. From the returns of the vote by 
towns in the election for governor in 1800 in Massachusetts, it 
can be seen from a town map of the state that the Republicans 
carried Boston and practically the entire eastern half of the state 
except Essex county. In the presidential election of 1804 the 
same part of the state except Boston, besides a group of towns in 
Berkshire county, voted for Jefiferson. ^^ The Massachusetts 
Federalists in 1800 are from precisely the same general region as 
the Anti- Federalists in 1788 and the Shays' rebels of 1786. If 
the opinions just quoted above are correct, then the wealth, tal- 
ent, learning and social rank of Massachusetts must have migrat- 
ed wholesale into the back country districts of the state since 
1788. But if we keep clearly in mind the policies and methods of 
the supporters of Adams in their reckless assault on the rights of 
citizens and aliens in 1798, it will be easy to reconcile such un- 
wisdom with the constituencies who are their strongest support- 
ers in 1800. Such a temper is not at all incompatible with that 
which inspired the attempted overthrow of law and order in 1786 
and resisted the establishment of central government in 1788. 
On the other hand, voters in eastern Massachusetts were far too 
intelligent and progressive to support the un-American course of 
the Federalists. Even John Adams did not wholly escape re- 
buke for his home town, Quincy, cast a considerable vote against 

his party in 1800 and was carried for Jefiferson in 1804. 



13. Schouler, History of the United States, I., 513. 

See also, McMaster in Cambridge Modern History, VII., 316, 324, 
Von Hoist, Constitutional and Politiciil History of the United States, Chicago, 1877, I., 
179, and Morse, Life of Jefferson, p. 19S. 

14. Henry Adams, History of the United States, N. Y., 1898, I., 76. 

15. Original Records, State Archives, Boston, Mass. 



228 The Quarterly Journal 

The situation in Massachusetts may be taken as fairly typi- 
cal for New England. In the middle section, Pennsylvania was 
so clearly with Jefferson in spite of the conservatism of her up- 
.per house, that we must turn to New York for a comparison of 
the two parties in this election. The vote of the New York legis- 
lature for presidential electors, November 6, 1800, shows approx- 
imately the location of the parties at that date. Thirty-nine 
votes, representing twelve counties, were cast for the Federal can- 
didates and sixty-one votes, representing fourteen counties, were 
cast for the Republican candidates. An examination of the re- 
spective areas controlled by the two parties shows that the Fed- 
eral area had a per capita population of 9.9 per square mile, and 
the Republican area a per capita population of 20.9 per square 
mile." ^^ A similar comparison for the value of the real estate 
for 1799 shows that the Federal area, omitting the very extensive 
and thinly populated western county of Ontario (Federal), had 
a per capita valuation of $134, and the Republican area a per 
capita valuation of $179.2. It is clear that we have here a sim- 
ilar situation to that ascertained for Massachusetts. The Fed- 
eral party in New York represented country constituencies in 
sparsely settled regions remote from the activity of business life 
and out of touch with national progress along every line. 

The source of the misapprehension concerning the election 
of 1800 has been twofold, first the confusing of issues with party 
names, so that the Federal party of 1788 is assumed to be the 
same ten years later; second the entire omission of any tran- 
sitional period following the adoption of the second constitution, 
during the administration of Washington. Added to this has 
been the faulty method of investigation upon which rested the 
conclusions reached. Apparently, no effort has been made by 
the historians cited to examine such returns of the election as are 
available and to determine the geographical location of the con- 
stituencies supporting the opposing parties. 

The repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801 by the Republicans 
in the 7th Congress was a natural consequence of the unwarrant- 
ed extension of the judiciary to accomodate party placemen. 
This early use of the Federal Judiciary by a discredited minority 



16. Compendium 11th Census, 1890, Part I. Population, W^ashington, 
1892 

Gordon's Gazetteer of New York supplied the information concerning 
the areas of the counties in 1800 and those derived from them up to the 
date of the publication of the gazetteer. 



Early Political Parties in the United States 229 

is a most interesting phenomenon. It was the first projection ol 
this department upon the stage of factional pohtics and the con- 
sequences were far from happy. Again and again during the de- 
bate in the House of Representatives upon this question was the 
power of the Supreme Court to pass on the constitutionaHty of a 
Congressional act questioned by members who, up to this time, 
had hardly been aware of the existence of such a tribunal. The 
grounds for repeal are perhaps put most concisely by Randolph 
of Virginia in the House debate. He said to his opponents : 
"Do you not concede that a desperate faction, finding themselves 
about to be dismissed from the confidence of this country, may 
pervert the power of erecting courts, to provide to an extent for 
their adherents and themselves ? Is not an abuse of power more 
to be dreaded from those who have lost the confidence than from 
those whose interest it will be to cultivate and retain it?.... 
Does it not involve the absurdity that, in spite of all constitutional 
prohibitions, Congress may exercise the power of creating an in- 
definite number of placemen, who are to be maintained thru 
life at the expense of the community. . . .We assert that we are 
not clothed with the tremendous power of erecting, in defiance of 
the whole spirit and express letter of the constitution, a vast 
judicial aristocracy over the heads of our fellow citizens, on 
whose labor it is to prey." ^'^ Smilie of Pennsylvania made some 
characteristic remarks, he said : "The people are now of some 
consequence. How often had he heard in that House the terms 

'sovereign people' pronounced with a sneer He had always 

thought the public opinion should be attended to." ^^ 

Luckily for the integrity of our Federal Judiciary at this 
early stage, the repeal of this partisan law satisfied the popular de- 
mand. The heated debates in Congress awoke little response out- 
side ; the ruin predicted by the disgruntled Federalists as certain 
to ensue aroused no alarm in the ranks of their opponents. The 
Supreme Court entered upon the second stage of its career under 
the guidance of John Marshall and did not come prominently 
forward again into national politics for nearly a generation. It 
is to be ranked not the least among the results of Jefferson's 
work as a leader of the new Repviblican party, entirely aside from 
any personal view he held, that this great department suffered so 
little from the undesirable prominence forced upon it in the heat 



17. Annals of Congress, 7th Congress, 1st Session, 659-60. 
18. Ibid., p. 515. 



230 The Quarterly Journal 

of party strife over legislation vitally affecting its independence. 

The Republican party faced two grave national crises dur- 
ing its period of control of the government and by the mesures 
adopted to meet these crises it proved its right to its position of 
power. The unsatisfactory nature of our arrangements with 
Spain for an outlet thru the Mississippi for our western produce 
was a chronic source of discontent to an increasing population in 
this region. The transfer of Louisiana to France and consequent 
stoppage of all transit by this highway of commerce aroused the 
greatest excitement. To prevent this discontent from develop- 
ing into rebellion, which Jefferson from his close touch with the 
west knew was not unlikely, the project of purchasing a portion 
of this territory was promptly entered upon. How the first prop- 
osition developed unexpectedly into an offer of the entire terri- 
tory is too well known to need repetition. Convinced in his own 
mind that the constitution did not allow of the purchase of new 
territory, Jefferson nevertheless completed the transaction rather 
than assume the more serious risk of losing the opportunity. 
The seemingly unconstitutional purchase of a territory so ex- 
tensive as to lie quite beyond the range of geographical knowledge 
called for qualities of character possessed by few men at this 
time in America. Jefferson proved adequate to the occasion ; 
where a lesser man would have delayed, he acted with that bold- 
ness and farsighted wisdom which he had displayed on previous 
occasions. It is difficult at the present time to estimate the im- 
portance of this purchase which gave us so large a part of our 
present territory. A hostile power or at best a doubtful friend 
with which to divide the Mississippi would have fatally retarded 
the westward movement of native and foreign born population. 
The successive acquisitions of Texas, California, and of Oregon, 
of Alaska, and of Samoa and the Philippines, with all the mo- 
mentous consequences arising from this extension of our posses- 
sions, followed naturally from Jefferson's far reaching policy. 
His consumate leadership at this point in our history saved us 
from making the almost inevitable blunders of a new and inex- 
perienced nation face to face with its first world problem. 

That not all the public men were as wise or as fearless as 
Jefferson can be seen from the debates in Congress over the 
Louisiana purchase treaty. In the Senate the Federalists opposed 
the ratification of the treaty stubbornly and their arguments 
are characteristic of a party out of touch with national progress. 



Early Political Parties in the United States 231 

Timothy Pickering of Essex Co., Massachusetts, said with ref- 
erence to the provision of the treaty relative to the incorporation 
of Louisiana into the Union : "He believed the assent of each 
individual state to be necessary for the admission of a foreign 
country as an associate in the Union." ^^ Senator Tracy of Con- 
necticut thus refers to the theory of state sovereignty as bearing 
on the case in hand : "A number of states or independent sov- 
ereignties, entered into a voluntary association,. .. .and the con- 
stitution was agreed to as the measure of power delegated by them 
to the Federal Constitution. .. .The object of the original sov- 
ereignties, or partners to the compact, is obvious from the Con- 
stitution itself. They united as equals in power to promote the 

political welfare of all The principle of the admission of 

Louisiana is the same as if it contained ten millions of inhabi- 
tants; and the principles of the people are probably as hostile to 
our government in its true construction as they can be, and the 
relative strength which this admission gives to a Southern and 
Western interest is contradictory to the principles of our original 
Union." 20 White of Delaware makes a gloomy prediction as to 
the future of the proposed acquisition, thoroly characteristic of 
the timid conservatism of the eastern section: "But as to Louisi- 
ana, this new, immense, unbounded world, if it should ever be 
incorporated into this Union, which I have no idea can be done 
but by altering the Constitution, I believe it will be the greatest 

curse that could at present befall us Louisiana must and 

will become settled if we hold it, and with the very population 
that would otherwise occupy part of our present territory. Thus 
our citizens will be removed to the immense distance of two or 
three thousand miles from the capitol of the Union, where they 
will scarcely ever feel the rays of the General Government ; their 
affections will become alienated, they will gradually begin to view 
us as strangers ; they will form other commercial connexions and 
our interests will become distinct." ^i In a similar strain did the 
opponents of the treaty in the House of Representatives continue 
the discussion. Griswold of New York, from a district in the 
northwestern part of the state, said : "It was not consistent with 
the spirit of the constitution that territory other than that attach- 
ed to the United States at the time of the adoption of the Con- 



19. Annals of Congress, 8th Congress, 1st Session, p. 45. 

20. Ibid. p. 55-56. 

21. Ibid. p. 33-34. 



232 The Quarterly Journal 

stitution should be admitted." ^^ Griffin of Virginia, said: "He 
feared the effects of the vast extent of our empire ; he feared the 
effects of the increased value of labor, the decrease in the value 
of lands, and the influence of the climate upon our citizens who 
should migrate thither. He did fear (though this land was repre- 
sented as flowing with milk and honey) that the Eden of the New 
World would prove a cemetery for the bodies of our citizens." ^3 
The opinions of the opposition are given thus fully, not because 
the number of those voting against the proposed acquisition was 
ever more than an insignificant minority, but because it serves 
well to vindicate the judgment of the American voters when they 
refused any longer to support a party made up of men holding 
such petty and sectional views. The language just quoted is not 
that of a party of broadminded, intelligent, progressive men, fit to 
lead a developing nation to its goal. Those who ascribe to the 
Federal party such qualities of leadership can hardly have in 
mind what its members actually said and did during these critical 
years of our history. On the other hand the Republican leaders 
in Congress had no such misgivings to make them hesitate, their 
language is confident and hopeful and leaves no one in doubt of 
their full appreciation of the importance of the policy they are up- 
holding. Senator Breckenridge of Kentucky expresses their 
point of view in a vigorous speech, and his robust handling of 
the whole question makes an excellent foil for the traditional ar- 
guments and timid counsels of the opposition. He said : "So 
far from believing in a doctrine that a Republic ought to be con- 
fined within narrow limits, I believe, on the contrary, that the 
more extensive its dominion the more safe and durable it will be. 
In proportion to the number of lands you intrust the precious 
blessings of a free government to, in the same proportion do you 
multiply the chances for their preservation. I entertain, there- 
fore, no fears for the Confederacy on account of its extent. The 
American people too well know the art of governing and being 
governed, to become the victims of party factions or of domestic 
tyranny. They not only understand the theory of a free gov- 
ernment, but as well understand a much rarer thing, the true art 

of practicing it It is enough for us to make the acquisition, 

the time and manner disposing of it must be left to posterity. If 
they do not improve the means of national prosperity and great- 



22. Annals of Congress, 8th Congress, 1st Sess., p. 433. 

23. Ibid. p. 443. 



Early Political Parties in the United States 233 

ness which we have placed in their hands, the fault or the folly 

will lie with them The question, then, would simply be, Is 

the Confederacy more in danger when colonized by American 
people under American jurisdiction, than when populated by 
Americans under the control of some foreign, powerful and rival 
nation? Or in other words, whether it would be safer for the 
United States to populate this country when and how she pleased, 
or permit some foreign nation to do it at her expense ?"24 

The purchase of Louisiana having been completed, Jefiferson 
proceeded promptly to take the utmost advantage of the new ex- 
tension of territory. The carefully drawn instructions which he 
prepared for the Lewis and Clark expedition furnish an interest- 
ing example of Jefferson's many sided character. The leaders 
of the expedition were to make treaties with the Indian tribes 
they met, take careful records for use in mapping the region 
later on. and they were to reach the Pacific coast ahead of the 
British expedition already on the way, so as to secure valid 
claims to the Oregon country. The ultimate development of a 
Pacific trade seems to have been in Jefiferson's mind as a future 
policy. Besides these important duties, Lewis and Clark were 
instructed to make scientific observations of the fauna and flora, 
the climate, the geographical formations and natural resources 
wherever found. 

But already the foreign complications arising from the con- 
tinental system of Napoleon and the European conflict had begun 
to make the leadership of a dominant party no easy task. Be- 
sides this, the overwhelming victory of the Republican party had 
so weakened the Federalists as to practically leave but a single 
party in the field. By the splitting off of successive factions of 
the Republican party new vitality was imparted to the party of the 
opposition and the impending war gave to these isolated opposi- 
tion groups an appearance of solidarity as deceptive as it was 
transient. Considerably before the end of his second term Jeffer- 
son's leadership was waning, nor were there wanting earlier 
signs of his lack of control. His well known reluctance to pur- 
chase Louisiana on account of his constitutional scruples and his 
insistence on an amendment to the constitution providing for fu- 
ture acquisitions serve to show how far behind his party he stood 
in his theories of the constitution. Jefferson disliked war but 

24. Annals of Congress, 8th Congress, lit Sess., p. 60. 



234 The Quarterly Journal 

before his second term expired he was facing an ultimate con- 
flict of arms. The war of 1812 was a national war forced upon 
the reluctant successor of Jefferson. Madison had the same 
aversion for war as did Jefferson but he was compelled to give 
way before the popular demand voiced by the new party leaders, 
Clay, Calhoun and Crawford for the west and south, DeWitt 
Clinton of New York and John Ouincy Adams and Webster of 
New England. In the vote on the declaration of war in the 
House of Representatives we have a very interesting and sugges- 
tive division. New England was divided. New Hampshire and 
Vermont supporting the war, with Massachusetts divided and 
Connecticut and Rhode Island opposed. In the middle section 
New York, New Jersey and Delaware opposed the war, but far 
from unanimously, while Pennsylvania suported it with two dis- 
tricts divided on the question. The sovith and west favored the 
war with considerable opposition, mostly in \^irginia and Mary- 
land. The only continuous area of opposition seems to have been 
in western New England and eastern New York. From the 
town votes of Massachusetts in the elections of 1808 and 1812, 
we can see that the Republican party held its control over the 
eastern part of the state as it did in the first election of Jeffer- 
son. 2^ 

The Federalist opposition to the war in Massachusetts is of 
the same nature as that with which we are already familiar. 
This spirit grew stronger as the war progressed, helped on, as it 
was, by British favor until in 1814 it took the extreme form to 
be found in the resolutions of the Hartford Convention. The 
ignominious defeat of the Federal party and its subsequent dis- 
appearance as an organization after the war followed as a natural 
consequence of its purely sectional opposition to a national war. 
Whatever may be said of Madison's motives in seeking re-elec- 
tion in 1812 and his abilities as a war president, the Republican 
party had committed the nation to a patriotic war, and property 
interests and constitutional theories alike had to give way. The 
Federal party, with consistent lack of foresight, sought by every 
means short of outright treason to cause this war policy of their 
opponents to fail, and their defeat was hardly less ignominious 
than it was well deserved. 



25. Original records, State Archives, Boston, Mass. 



Early Political Parties in the United States 235 

VI. 

The third transitional period in the history of our poHtical 
parties occurs in the period so unfeHcitously called the "era of 
good feeling," 1815-28. Party divisions disappear with the end 
of the War of 1812, and no new issues emerge to recrystallize 
public opinion along party lines until the era of Jacksonian de- 
mocracy. But party disintegration had already begun as early 
as 181 1. This can be seen in the discussions in Congress over 
the recharter of the National Bank during that year. The lead- 
ing Republican, Gallatin, as Secretary of Treasury, defended its 
recharter as a necessity, while his party adherents were much di- 
vided. The distribution of the vote in the House of Representa- 
tives, by which the recharter was defeated, January 24, 181 1, is 
very significant. Hardly a state does not show a divided delega- 
tion. Support and opposition are inextricably mingled in such a 
way as to leave no hint of that party cohesion which is so evident 
in the vote on the declaration of war a year later. 

The appearance of such new questions as protective tariflF 
and internal improvements and the revival of the old Federal 
bank question did not result in the division of the nation into 
clearly defined political parties. As in Washington's administra- 
tions there is plenty of evidence of factional divisions on the great 
questions before Congress, but party lines do not appear. The 
question of chartering the United States Bank of 1816 furnishes 
us the best illustration of absence of party lines. In the vote of 
the House of Representatives the distribution of the opposition 
and support by Congressional districts is entirely lacking in sec- 
tional or state groupings. The members of the House apparent- 
ly voted at random, with no thought of a program or previous 
understanding. The passage of our first protective tarifif, 1816, 
seems to have been carried out in the same haphazard fashion ; 
support was sought where possible, opposition developed without 
plan or arrangement in advance and after much loose debate and 
many futile attempts to subordinate local interests to a general 
scheme, the mesure was passed largely by the united support from 
the middle and western states. The entire debate and vote is an 
excellent illustration of the confusion of mind in constituent and 
representative alike over the real issues involved in these epoch- 



236 The Quarterly Journal 

making mesures. -^ The Bonus bill of 1817, with its laudable 
plan of combining in its support the friends of the United State= 
Bank and the supporters of internal improvements, is chiefly re- 
markable for bringing into play the greatest number of factional 
combinations on each side of the question. 

As the country recovered from the war, industrial progress 
in the East and the spread of population into the West called for 
a further extension of the principle of protection and larger ex- 
penditures for internal improvements. President Monroe follow- 
ed Madison in a conservative yielding to pressure from these two 
sections. Leaders in Congress shifted ground continually, aban- 
doning now one and now the other of the positions they had at 
first assumed on these questions Calhoun ceases to advocate pro- 
tective tariff, while Webster begins to see its advantages and this 
change of leaders is followed by a host of lesser men. Internal 
improvements by Federal appropriation is urged by DeWitt 
Clinton and the New York delegation, and then is as violently 
opposed by them after the state has decided to undertake the Erie 
canal for herself. The so-called American system, therefore, 
which Clay claimed as his own, but which he neither expounded at 
its inception nor defended in its time of greatest peril, did not fun- 
damentally divide the American voters into permanent opposing 
groups. The changing industrial situation and the rapid growth 
of new markets made it impossible, except in the South with its 
static labor situation, for political parties to form along these lines. 
Constituencies fluctuated rapidly, their representatives were re- 
quired to take such a stand on each question when it came up as 
would best favor the immediate local needs of their districts. 
Nor were there other questions sufficiently important to furnish a 
permanent basis for party division. The President promulgated 
the Monroe doctrine, thus completing the evolution of the policy 
begun by W'ashington's neutrality proclamation of 1793. Florida 
was purchased and our northern boundary fixt by a treaty with 
Great Britain. Important as these mesures undoubtedly were, 
political parties were as far from taking shape as ever. 

The election of 1824 gives us the first glimpse of sharp di- 
viding lines, tho these at first merely separated personal factions 



26. A curious illustration of the confusion of mind as reflected in an 
historical discu.ssion of the mesure may be seen in McMaster's analysis 
of the argument and the distribution of the vote in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. McMaster, History of the People of the United States, Vol. IV., 
p. 339. 



Early Political Parties in the United States 237 

supporting presidential candidates. Curiously enough, the par- 
ticular factor in decisively crystallizing political parties out of the 
mass was the charge of "bribery and corruption" made by the 
supporters of Jackson against Adams and Clay in connection with 
the election of the former as president by the House of Represent- 
atives in 1824. This charge has been proved to be utterly base- 
less, yet its extraordinary vitality is evinced by the fact that it 
continued to plague Clay thruout the twenty years when he was a 
candidate for the presidency. The explanation of this unusual 
circumstance lies in the meaning of Jackson's candidacy for the 
position as president. Among all his rivals he was the only one 
conspicuous for not having a public career at Washington as 
member of Congress and cabinet officer. His great popularity in 
1824 and the large vote he received were proof that he had been 
recognized as the sole representative of the hitherto silent, unin- 
fluential but formidable democracy of the West. Up to 1824 not 
a single president had been nominated by even a representative 
vote of those who were later to elect him. The western section 
had been filling up with the descendants of those who had thus 
far controlled the government from east of the AUeghanies. 
Manhood suffrage was quite universally established in the new 
states and was winning its way rapidly eastward. Thus a great 
constituency was coming into existence both in the East and in 
the West that as yet had never exercised the predominance 
which the more daring and restless of its number felt was due 
them from the possession of an undoubted majority of voters. 
The critical moment came in 1824, when this democracy dis- 
covered the qualities for a candidate in the formidable personality 
of Andrew Jackson. His opponents apparently possest the qual- 
ifications and character which had recommended other similar 
candidates to the ruling minority. They were educated and in- 
fluential, had held public office for many years and had every 
conventional quality to recommend them as available candidates 
to those who had up to this time assumed the prescriptive right 
to offer presidential candidates to the suffrage of the uninformed 
voter. But the people's candidate had led by a vote quite as- 
tounding to those who had persisted in believing that Jackson's 
support would be a negligible quantity. In fact the aid given to 
Adams by Clay and the latter's appointment as secretary of state, 
the position generally understood at the time as leading directly 
to the presidency, seems to indicate conclusively that both these 



238 The Quarterly Journal 

gentlemen regarded the Jackson vote as a passing ebullition of 
popular frenzy, as unaccountable as it was to be transitory. 
John Quincy Adams had, in common with his father, the same 
lack of power to deal with men of varied points of view, and a 
conservatism which prevented him from realizing the impending 
change. He had not enjoyed Jackson's opportunity to become ac- 
quainted with the claims and point of view of the lower strata 
of society and he was therefore ignorant of the democratic up- 
heaval, which had taken place west of the Alleghanies. Accus- 
tomed as he was all his life to mingle with men of culture and 
wealth, and having served abroad many years as foreign minister, 
where he had come in contact only with the upper classes, he was 
peculiarly ill fitted by temperament or training to outride the 
storm that was soon to break upon his administration. Nor was 
Clay, tho a western man, any better fitted to descry the impending 
disaster. During his whole public career he displayed not a trace 
of that statesmanlike grasp of affairs so early shown by Cal- 
houn, nor of that profound intellectual power of Webster. His 
long association with political leaders from every part of the 
country had given him a certain facility in the manipulation of 
men and an easy complacency and good natured tolerance for 
those less favored mortals outside the charmed circle of political 
leaders among whom his lot was cast. That he should aid 
Adams in securing the presidency and accept a place in his offi- 
cial household as principal adviser, and thereby give formal no- 
tice of his claim to the highest office in the land, seemed to him 
as much a part of a well ordered universe as any other similar 
arrangement in our political past. Neither Adams nor Clay had 
the faintest conception of the deep moral convictions at that time 
agitating the new democracy and they had consequently no hint 
of that dawning sense of public outrage with which the whole 
affair was viewed by the democratic voters in America. The un- 
checked violence of the attacks upon the administration and the 
constant accessions to the opposition factions were certainly in- 
explicable political phenomena quite beyond any conventional 
prognostication to foresee or anticipate. To his dismay, Adams 
soon began to realize that the virulence of the attack in no wise 
tended to diminish with time, and that his laudable ambition to 
serve his nation by a well planned program of mesures for public 
improvement was being most unreasonably thwarted. Worst of 
all, it was becoming plainer every day that the perverse faction 



Early Political Parties in the United States 239 

of an ignorant and comparatively unknown opponent was begin- 
ning to assume the unmistakable proportions of an organized 
party, capable of working untold mischief for the future and even 
tending to threaten the established regime itself. 

Some of the demands of the new party may be seen from the 
utterances of their members. One program of new and desir- 
able laws which appears anonymously in 1834 is very suggestive 
indeed. It contains such points as the following: 

"i. A law to retail the public lands to poor people in such 
quantities as they are able to buy, 

"2. A law limiting the quantity of land to be purchased. . . . 
(to 160 acres.) 

"4. A law extending the right and liberty of suffrage to all 
sane persons twenty-one years of age. 

"5. A law putting an end to all banking and usury as a re- 
source of profit and as a trade affording a livelihood to individuals 
and companies. 

"12. A law appointing the election of the President to be 
made by a majority of the direct votes of the people 

"15. A lien law giving to laborers the first right of attach- 
ment and sale on all products of their hands, when necessary to 
secure their wages. 

"17. A law prohibiting the jobbing of labor 

"18. A law limiting the hours of all labor done by men or 
women 

"19. A law abolishing the profession of Lawyers as 

a trade having any immunities more than an occasional agency 
or factorship with which any competent person may be invested. 

"20. A law annihilating money, prohibiting its use, and ex- 
cluding from being a tender for the payment of debts or taxes, 
everyhing but real wealth or labor." 27 

The transformation of the personal faction of 1824 into a 
party victorious in a presidential election only four years later 
was no new thing in our history. The Republican party, which 
took definite shape in 1798, won its first election in half this time. 
But the violence and unreason displayed by the supporters of 
Jackson in the formative period of the party can be matched in 
bitterness only in the contest between the Whigs and the Loyal- 
ists. There was here, too, the same lack of coherent argument, 

27. The Radical and Advocate of Equality. Addrest to the People of 
the United States, Albany, N. Y., 1834, p. 76. 



240 The Quarterly Journal 

and the same compelling convictions imparting an earnestness to 
the conflict altogether new at this time. The Democratic party of 
1828 was making the first political contest in our history for re- 
sponsibility to popular will on the part of Federal office-holders, 
particularly in the Executive department. As leader in this mo- 
mentous conflict, Andrew Jackson performed the one service 
which entitles him to rank with the few greatest Americans. By 
his signal victory he was placed at the head of a party which was 
to give this vital principle of popular government a permanent 
place in public consciousness. It is difficult at this time to state 
precisely how far the nature of the issue upon which the Demo- 
cratic party was established was understood by the leaders and 
by the rank and file of its supporters. Their opponents claimed 
that the appearance of the Democratic majority in 1828 was a 
fact defying explanation. "^ It was pointed out, also, that there 
was no logical cohesion discoverable among the heterogeneous 
elements of this party. ^^ 

Another view, still, shows us how at a loss the opponents of 
this party were to explain why no argument could avail to change 
a single Democratic vote, since, as they said, "Hurrah for Jack- 
son" was the only reply to all that reason and experience could 
urge against their mistaken course. 

Jackson's supporters were under no embarassment, however, 
from lack of adequate explanation of their victory. Said one: 
"It is a triumph of the People over an intriguing, dishonest, man- 
aging, dictatorial junto of office-seekers. It is a triumph of truth 
and reason and common sense, over arts and deception and false- 

28. State .Tournal (Ohio), Nov. 13, 1828. " It is not so much 

because our friends have failed us in the hour of trial, as because our 
opponents have proved to be so much more numerous than we had 
supposed possible. Where the Jackson voters came from is, in sober 
truth, a perfect mystery. The ancient fable of the drag-on's teeth seems 
to have been realized on this occasion; and it requires but a slight stretch 
of the imagination to fancy that thirty thousand Jacksonians have been 
suddenly ushered into existence by the joint labors of some modern 
Deucalion and Pyrrha." 

National Intelligencer (Washington), Nov. 20, 1828. "General Jackson's 

election to be President of the United States is to me a dream 

If Napoleon Bonaparte had come to this country after his downfall in 
Europe and now been elected for our President, I should not be more 
astonished " 

29. National Intelligencer (Washington), July 19, 1828. From the 
Columbus, Ohio, Inquirer. "Never, perhaps, since the institution of civil 
government, was a party formed of materials so incongruous and combus- 
tible as the present regularly organized opposition to the Administration. 

The presnt era of our national history presents the paradox of 

men whose interests are the antipodes to each other; whose habits are 
formed of contraries, and whose characters and talents and feelings are 
composed of opposites, assimilating together in one common cause and 
commingling to effect certain purposes not the most useful for themselves 

or their country A kind of political millenium has been compassed 

by the followers and retainers of the chieftain; the most inveterate 
enemies have become yokefellows in his cause." 



Early Political Parties in the United States 241 

hood." 30 From another source we read : "Corruption trembles 

at his name That great abuses have been suffered to creep 

into the bureaus of the different departments at Washington, no 

one at all acquainted with the state of things there can deny 

Never will they cease to exist until the people shall place at the 

head of affairs a man taken directly from their own bosom 

Already is his elevation anticipated and his terrible scrutiny 
dreaded by the swarm of officers at Washington." ^^ 

To the South Jackson's election was a golden opportunity to 
bring forward their favorite doctrine of state rights in opposi- 
tion to the obnoxious northern tariff. Their inability to use him 
to compass their nullification plans was as unlocked for as was 
Webster's defeat of their champion in the United States Senate. 

It is commonly stated that one of the prominent issues in 
the presidential election of 1828 was the tariff, but those who 
hold this view forget the fact that Jackson was supported not 
only by a free trade South but by Pennsylvania, the state where 
protective tariff at that time had its stronghold. It is much sim- 
pler and more susceptible of proof to state that Jackson con- 
scientiously held to his one principle, the carrying out of the peo- 
ple's will. From this position he never wavered, he remained 
consistently an advocate of majority rule as long as he held the 
presidency. For this reason he refused to take sides on many 
hotly debated questions during his administration, such as slavery, 
annexation of Texas, tariff, and internal improvements. His po- 
sition with reference to the United States Bank was not definitely 
decided until the presidential election of 1832, when his luckless 
opponent, Clay, was rash enough to select this as the campaign 
issue. Jackson's decisive action immediately following the elec- 
tion illustrates his interpretation of the event and the relentless 
energy with which he overrode all opposition in carrying out what 
he considered was the people's will. The most conspicuous fea- 
ture of Jackson's presidency was his wholesale removals from of- 
fice. Contemporary opinion seems to center upon this as the tar- 
get for every shaft of ridicule and misrepresentation. Later his- 
torians appear to find it hard to be impartial on this point. By 
common consent the phrase, "the spoils system" has been allowed 
to stand as a valid criticism of Jackson's exercise of appointive 



30. National Intelligencer (Washington), Oct. 2, 1828. Rxtract from 
Bangor, (Me.), Register. 

31. Address of the RepuV>lican General Committee of Young Men to 
the Republican Electors of New York, N. Y., 1828, p. 38. 



242 The Quarterly Journal 

power. It is difficult to justify so obvious a distortion of the 
plain facts of history. His removals from office was not a party 
device to pay for votes nor a bribe for future support. Neither 
were these removals a mere revenge upon personal enemies for 
real or fancied attacks. Jackson honestly believed that ever since 
the establishment of our government, responsibility to the people 
had been sacrificed to secure efficiency in public office. It was his 
peculiar gift of political insight that enabled him to discover the 
popular demand for so radical a mesure of reform. Once in 
office as the people's choice, few presidents have more consistently 
and fearlessly carried into effect what was clearly the verdict of 
the majority. It was, however, far from a political millenium 
which he had been able to brfng about. Public officials were 
still to be corrupt and incompetent for more than a generation. 
The destruction of the United States Bank and the distribution 
of the surplus were to have their pernicious influence on the state 
banks and upon reckless and ambitious legislators for many years 
to come. The leaders of the Democratic party were soon to for- 
get their early principles and take up instead the hopeless defense 
of the institution of slavery. Only in the recent agitation for 
primary election, initiative and referendum and other kindred 
mesures do we see a revival of the earlier principle which fur- 
nishes us a clue to Jackson's remarkable career as president, and 
upon which rests the familiar claim that the whole people is the 
ultimate arbiter in national affairs. 



The Remaking of Egypt — The Nile 
Irrigation Project 

Wallace Nelson Stearns, 
Assistant Professor of History, University of North Dakota 

A bird's-eye view of Egypt shows us a stream skirted on 
either side by a narrow belt of green, then a strip of half barren 
soil; rows of rocky cliffs, hill ranges whose varying proximity 
determines the extent of Egypt ; then boundless stretches of sand. 
Egypt was an oasis, 13,000 square miles of arable soil, girt round 
by the desert. 13,000 square miles as compared with England's 
50,000, or the 8,000 of Massachusetts. ^ 

The Nile cut a large figure in the life and religion of the 
people. 2 A moving, mysterious thing, ^ it gradually became per- 
sonified, later deified, and in its latter guise became the recipient 
of offerings and sacrifices. 

To the Egyptian the annual appearance of the water about 
his homestead promising fertility and plenty, and the association 
of the failure of the waters with famine, were unfathomable 
mysteries. The failure of the waters meant the invasion of the 
desert, the failure of crops, starvation, and death. Accordingly, 
the Nile became in the thought of the people a living thing, some- 
thing divine, the divine agent, the abode of a divinity. 

The river was not only the life-giver; it was the great central 
highway, roads leading from it east or west, and canals being 
cut straight out from it across the country. On the Nile went 
commerce, war, pleasure, and funerals. It was the great boule- 
vard of the country. 

The seasons are marked by the rise and fall of the Nile. 
The White Nile, or western branch, is a clear stream continuous 
thruout the year. The eastern branch. Blue Nile, is a turbid 

1. Under the reg-ime of the Mamelukes (c. 1797) the acreage of arable 
land became reduced to less than 6.000 square miles. 

2. It is difficult rightly to estimate the magnitude of the Nile. From 
the sea to Aswan, the site of the modern great dam, is 750 miles; from 
Aswan to Khartum, where Gordon fell, is 1,150 miles; from Khartum to 
Lake Victoria, the largest and highest fresh water lake on the globe, 
(over 32,00 square miles) 2,185 miles. This gives a total of 4,115 miles, 
the longest river in the world. 

3. Cf. Amos 8:8 " - - - it shall be troubled and sink again like 
the River of Egypt." 

243 




FELUCCAS— NILE, THE FAR-SPREAD1\(; NILE 

Courtesy of tlie Esrypt Exploration Fiin.l 



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The Remaking of Egypt 247 

stream, swelling with the snows of the Abyssinian Mountains. * 
The rise would begin in Egypt late in June, increase thruout 
July, and begin to subside in October, leaving a layer of Nile 
mud, of which there has now accumulated a deposit of from 
thirty to forty feet. 

The inundation is due to the rainfall in the Lake Nyanza 
and Abyssinian countries. Thus, September to November 
would mark flood tide when Sobat, Blue Nile and Atbara, the 
Abyssinian Mountain streams, are at their highest. White Nile 
from Lake Victoria is the standby for the rest of the year. 
21 feet maximum means famine; 25 feet, inadequate; 26 
to 28, adequate ; above 28 feet, disaster. After all deposits in 
course, all shrinkage due to evaporation and other sources, 65,- 
000,000,000 cubic metres of water, it is estimated, and 36,600,000 
tons of earth enter the Mediterranean each year. The seven out- 
lets of the Delta have become reduced to two and a network of 
marshes and petty streams. 

Under the hand of the modern engineer this historic stream 
now assumes a new and increased importance in the making of 
Egypt. The problem is to conserve this prodigal waste for use 
during the dry season of the year. So far back as the XIL 
dynasty it entered the mind of man to "bridle the Nile" and to 
regulate its outflow to meet the needs of Egypt's long dry sum- 
mer. Some sixty-five miles south of the point of the Delta a 
break in the highlands west of the river brings one to a great 
depression in the desert, known as the Fayum. Here once were 
famous cities. ^ The present lake, Birket el-Kurun, once at high 
Nile filled the entire basin. Retention walls and irrigation 
canals controlled the inflow and outflow and stored the pent-up 
water where it would best serve the needs of agriculture. Under 
Amenemhet IIL this wall, some twenty-seven miles in length, 
formed the ancient lake Moeris, and water sufficient, it is estimated, 
was thus accumulated to double the stream below the Fayum dur- 
ing the hundred days of low Nile from April first to next flood 
time. At the second cataract this same Pharaoh maintained a 
Nilometer, whose sculptured records show a high-water line 
twenty-five to thirty feet above the present high-water level. 



4. The Blue Nile and Atbara bringing- volcanic soil from Abyssinia 
are really the makers of Egypt. The western branch is broader and deeper 
and carries down more water. Its whitish color is due to the white clay 
brought from the great central plains of the continent. 

5. Fayum Towns and Their Papyri: Egypt Exploration Fund, Graeco- 
Roman Branch, 1900. 



248 The Quarterly Journal 

In 1798-9 Napoleon visited Egypt, and to his genius is attri- 
buted the idea — among moderns — of conserving by dams and 
reservoirs the flood waters of the Nile. This dam was to stand 
where the Nile branches to form the Delta, and it was this latter 
tract that was to receive the benefits of the project. In 1805 
Mehemet Ali became Viceroy to Egypt. This bold, brilliant, 
ambitious, unscrupulous despot promoted Egyptian agriculture 
and industry, but laid the foundation of an overwhelming public 
debt. For the construction of the Mahmoudieh canal he imprest 
a quarter of a million men, one-tenth of whom died within the 
year required for its construction. Taking up Napoleon's idea, 
he set out to dam the lower course of the Nile. French engineers 
were summoned. The Viceroy even proposed to use the material 
of the pryamids for the purpose, but the engineers were wiser. 
The work begun in 1833 was stopt by the havoc of the plague. 
Incompetent workmen — the weak, half -starved fellaheen — hin- 
dered progress. The foundations were shallow and unreliable. 
In 1861 the work was declared finished, but two years later when 
full use of the dam was attempted, the wall cracked in several 
places and threatened to move from its foundations. In 1882 the 
British came in, and among other improvements took up the 
Cairo dam. First the Damietta branch was saved and then the 
Rosetta section, and by 1890 the barrage was in working order. 
In 1899 a weir was constructed above the dam, thus adding to 
resources and making further irrigation canals possible further 
up the stream. The productiveness of the Delta has been at least 
doubled. 

The now famous Assouan dam, nearly two miles long, is 
located about seven hundred and fifty miles from the Mediter- 
ranean. Its object is to form a vast reservoir to store up the 
Nile water at flood-time to be released as needed. 

The combination for checking and distributing the Nile 
waters is really threefold: (i) The dam (north of Philae and 
crossing the first cataract at the first rapids) and navigation 
channel at Assouan ; (2) a barrage and lock at Assiout (200 miles 
north of Assouan) ; (3) a regulator and lock at the head of the 
Ibrahimieh canal at Assiout. 

Work was commenced in 1899. The contractors were Sir 
John Aird and Co. of London. Sir Benjamin Baker, Sir William 
Garstin, Sir William Willcocks, Messrs. G. H. Stephens and 
Fitzmaurice, with their corps of expert engineers directed the 



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The Remaking of Egypt 251 

work. To the progressive spirit and diplomacy of Earl Cromer 
must be credited the carrying thru of the project. The cost, 
some $15,000,000 or more, was provided by capitalists and by 
open subscription. Public response was hearty; the first call in 
1899 for £400,000 brought in London alone £11,000,000 sterling 
on a four per cent loan. At the bottom of this most stupendous 
enterprise has been faith, — faith in Cromer, in the promoters, in 
the engineers, and last but chiefest, faith in Egypt. 

Located at a point where the river narrows to a width of a 
mile or more, the dam connects with the granite cliffs on 
the east and the limestone rock on the west. The dam is a wall 
estimated at 2,150 yards in length, rising 130 feet above its 
foundation and varying in thickness from 98 feet at the bottom 
to 23 feet at top. The original plan was for a head of 83 feet 
of water. Recent plans add 23 feet to this, increasing the volume 
to 23^ times its present capacity. The original cost of some fif- 
teen and a half million dollars will thus be increased it is esti- 
mated by about seven and a quarter millions. Massive stone 
buttresses, inclined up-stream, support the mass of stone and the 
floods pent up behind it. 180 sluice gates provide for letting out 
the water. In the lower tier are 140 large gates for regulating 
the river flow. Above are 40 smaller gates for surplus and over- 
flow. The structure is down to bed-rock. Wherever pockets of 
softer material were found, the river-bed was dug out and said 
pockets were filled in with more solid material. The misfortunes 
of earlier undertakings were not forgotten. 

The sliding gates (Stoney patent) are closed by electric 
winches placed above. At the beginning of high Nile the gates 
are left open and the floods of water with their load of soil pass 
thru. By December i the water is comparatively clear and the 
gates are closed. The lake, estimated capacity c. 234,000,000,- 
000 gallons, altho this can not be a fixt statement, and is at best 
an estimate — fills up by the first of February, and by the latter 
part of April is put in requisition. 

Some idea of the benefit accruing from the building of the 
dam may be derived from a comparison of statistics. In 1877, 
in which year a low Nile occurred, over 1,030,000 acres of till- 
able ground were left without water supply. The filling of the 
Assouan dam commenced November 26, 1906, eight weeks being 
consumed in the task. The emptying of the great reservoir, 
supplementing the flow of the river, lasted from April i to 



252 The Quarterly Journal 

August I. In 1907 the Xile reached its lowest mark since 1877, 
yet the land deprived of water in this year was onh- 115,756 
acres, ten per cent of that so left in 1877. ^ The raising of the 
dam i6^< feet and the water level 23.1 feet doubles the capacity 
of the dam. and adds i.ooo.cxx) acres to the tillable area of Eg^-pt 
that is, a summer supply of water is assured at the season when 
most needed. " The face of nature has been appreciably changed 
by the erection of the great dam with dykes a hundred and fifty 
feet high in parts, and equipped with most modern and complete 
sluice-gates. The lower cataracts, with their roaring swirling 
rapids, as Bab-el-Kibir and the ^lahommed Ali Channel, will be 
in part lost in a huge inland lake. Indeed, there are two lakes ; 
one at Assouan and a second at the subsidiary dam at Assiout. 
Navigation will be made possible — as never before — by a canal 
fitted with four locks, each thirty feet wide and two hundred feet 
long. 

The rising floods that are to redeem Eg}'pt and preserve the 
land for future generations, bring with them consternation for 
the archeologists. Beautiful Philae is gone. The Temple of Isis 
with its glorious hall and pylon, the Temple of Hathor, the grace- 
ful colonnade of Xectanebo, "Pharaoh's Bed." built for Augustus 
and completed by Trajan, the arch of Diocletian. — all will be 
submerged many feet under water. Konosso will be an island 
and many of the inscriptions from 4.000 years ago will be lost. 
The Xilometer is gone. A full dozen temples and three fort- 
resses lie buried a whole or a part of the year. Already founda- 
tions — too often laid on sand — are giving way and walls are 
cracking. The sites of ancient civilizations are to be displaced by 
inland seas. But the loss to the archeologist is far outweighed 
by the economic necessity. The future of Eg}-pt rests on agri- 
culture. The date-palm and the grape are common, the latter in 
two or three varieties. Besides, there are oranges, lemons, 
pomegranates, figs, apricots, peaches, bananas, melons, mulber- 
ries, and olives. \'egetables are grown, as tomatoes, asparagus, 
lettuce, and cucumbers. The heavier crops are the chief staples, 
of which the leading one is cotton. The third in rank, tho far 



6. Final completion is announced for 1912. Archeological Report of 
Eg-ypt Exploration Fund. 1910 — 11. P. 20. 

7. From the Pall Mall Gazette for .Tuly 26. 1911, we quote: "Con- 
sidering the certainty of the low Xile. which, thanks to the Assouan dam, 
does not cause the same trouble as formerly, news of the Egyptian out- 
look is encouraging. Indeed, today there comes to hand a telegram speak- 
ing verv confidently of the crop position, and within the next week or two 
its prospects should be almost beyond question. 



The Remaking of Egypt 253 

below United States and India, Egypt produced in 1905 over six 
and a half million pounds of cotton, and the average value esti- 
mated for eight years was about $70,000,000. In upper Egypt 
sugar-cane is cultivated, and the estimated annual value is as high 
as $4,000,000. Rice is a crop in the northern part of the Delta. 
Corn, wheat, and barley are grown, the acreage of the last aggre- 
gating 2,000,000 acres. The annual crop values in the staples 
have totaled as high as $15,000,000. ^ 

The fisheries also produce a possible million a year, and there 
are rice and flour mills, silk-looms, potteries, soap-factories, and 
tanneries ; cotton, woolen, and linen goods are produced ; cabinet 
and jewelry manufacturing is carried on. But the basis of it all 
is the land, and upon the reclamation of the soil by bringing the 
waters of the Nile to the arid wastes that border the narrow belt 
of perennial overflow now rests the question of Egypt's future. 
Improved agriculture and improved machinery will, under Eng- 
lish rule, transform the land of the Pharaohs into a land of 
homes and farms. To the traveler steeped in the lore of an- 
tiquity the invasion of modern life in such lands as Greece, 
Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and even such countries as lie beyond 
the roof of the world brings a feeling of regret. Where passed 
Pharaoh's chariots and horsemen, the plow and the reaper are 
now to win the victories, and subdue the desert in the new and 
greater conquest of peace. 



8. Brig-ham: Commercial Geog^raphy, pp. 414 ff. 



Nature of the Rural Social Problem* 

John Morris Gillette, 
Professor of Sociology, University of North Dakota 

There seems to be a consensus of opinion among writers of 
books and papers relative to country life that there is a rural 
problem. How far the farmers of the nation participate in this 
belief is, of course, undemonstrable. Unless they believe that 
there is something wrong with their estate it will be of no im- 
mediate benefit to the country for writers to agree. In this case 
a beneficial change could be produced only by a long and ele- 
mentary process of education. 

That the farmers are of the opinion that there may be some- 
thing wrong with country districts there are some indications. 
There is a growing interest on their part in the discussion of 
rural matters. These pertain to more than the consideration of 
improvement of soil, crops and machinery. "The schools and 
neighborhood conditions are discust with interest. This is noted 
not only in the frequency with which educational subjects ap- 
pear on the programs of farmers' meetings but in the marked 
attention and interest farmers manifest toward the papers and 
discussions on social subjects. 

THE PROBLEM AS AN INTELLECTUAL PRODUCT. 

Before seeking to discover in what the rural social problem 
consists it may be well to consider in what sense there is such a 
problem. 

It would be an error to think that the problem exists be- 
cause of rural deterioration. There has been no such deteriora- 
tion in the United States in any general sense. In fact there 
has been conspicuous progress made by our agriculturists in 
several directions. We have but to compare the present con- 
ditions of life on the farm with those of pre-Revolutionary 
times to see this. Indeed a comparison with more recent times 
will prove sufficient. Our contemporaries who were born in the 
earlier third of the nineteenth century well remember the hard- 



♦Chapter VII. of Dr. Gillette's forthcoming book on "Constructive 
Rural Sociology." All rights reserved. 



a54 



The Rural Social Problem 255 

ships, privations and primitive methods of farming and farm 
life which prevailed in their youth. It is one of the glories of 
the average well-settled community of today that it is better 
fed, housed, and clothed, and does its work more easily and 
rapidly than was possible in the earlier period. 

It is true there has been retrogression in some respects in 
certain communities. It is also true that many communities 
have failed to make the advance sustained by the agricultural 
regions generally. Those communities constitute special path- 
ological studies. They are to be located and mapped out in all 
their conditions just as the sore spots in the cities are now under- 
going study with a view to improvement. 

It is also true that certain communities have shown a very 
recent tendency to deterioration in general social matters. This 
is particularly true of those regions of such fertility and pros- 
perity that the farmers have retired into the neighboring villages 
or cities, leaving the conduct of the farms and the leadership of 
the neighborhood in the hands of renters, who may or may not 
be inferior to the owners in ability and ambition but who, if 
would hardly be expected, would show the same interest in the 
up-keep and the upbuilding of the community as the permanent 
owners. 

The rural problem is in reality a product of the intellectual 
faculties and has come into existence because we have certain 
ideals of life which we want to impose on the country. There 
was no rural problem a matter of ten years ago. Conditions in 
the country have not grown worse since then. Country life was 
regarded as alright and as perfectly suited to the needs of the 
farming classes. Then a few people got to thinking about rural 
conditions. Rural education was subjected to a fierce criticism. 
The few persons who had pursued courses in rural sociology 
in universities began to agitate for improvement. The press of 
the country took up the discussion, agricultural schools respond- 
ed, farmers' institutes were infected, and the President of the 
United States took the important step of appointing the Country 
Life Commission. This move itself had an enormous effect. 
The whole country from Maine to California and from North 
Dakota to Texas was filled with opinions about rural decline. 
It would not have been astonishing if the farmers had decided 
they were a bad lot and should have abdicated for a more likely 
generation. The origin of the problem lay in the discovery that 



256 The Quarterly Journal 

conditions in the country might be improved, that they are not 
as good as the people Hving there deserve, that the majority of 
the owners of farms could well afford better things in the home 
and in education than they support, and that there is no inherent 
reason why the farming class may not and should not live as 
well as people of equal financial ability who dwell in the cities. 

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM. 

In coming to the consideration of the nature of the problem 
of the country we face the fact that the farmer cannot escape being 
wrapt up with the destiny of the rest of the nation and the world. 
The discovery of this interdependence and relatedness of farming 
life to all other kinds of life and to farming life all over the 
world is a part of the location of the problem. It is in the 
nature of a revelation to the nation and to the farming class 
that there is something to do. To put clearly before the farm- 
ers that they are on a competitive basis with others of their class 
in this country and outside, and that they also compete with 
other classes in given particulars is to state conditions which they 
must meet. We are coming to a recognition that the farmers 
as such are a distinct and organic class in the national and inter- 
national social mechanism, occupying a distinct place, having 
specific functions, with rights to obtain and defend, possessing 
characteristics by which they may be defined, and holding certain 
interests in common which constitutes a basis on which they may 
rise to class-consciousness. The farmers form an economic and 
social class having such separate interests and characteristics that 
they cannot be identified with any other part of the nation. 

It is no reflection upon the farmer to state that in his out- 
look he has been an intense individualist. His philosophy of 
life has been developed from his contact with nature in a direct 
manner and from his apparent aloofness from the social mechan- 
ism. His crops and his stock, his income and his prosperity 
have seemed to come by the application of his own individual 
effort to the conditions which the physical environment afforded. 
Occasionally it has been preached to him by party politicians that 
it was his duty to vote for certain party men so that they might 
carry out the traditional policy of protection, the realization of 
the opposing policy meaning disaster. Occasionally he has asked 
that the government should assist him by means of agricultural 
schools, or by putting a curb on railways and on other corpora- 
tions. But these appeals, or approaches toward an appreciation 



The Rural Social Problem 257 

of his relationship to society at large, dependence on social con- 
ditions, and of a control of his destinies thru the social organiza- 
tion have been spasmodic and incidental. They have only ap- 
preciably changed his philosophy from intense individualism to 
one of cooperative effort. He has generally believed that he and 
nature would prove sufficient to take care of things and that any 
constant organized cooperative effort was unnecessary. Of late 
years he has been getting a larger view of matters but it cannot 
be said that he has, as yet, come into the possession of an ade- 
quate and comprehensive view of his social relatedness so that 
he is able to put it into effect. 

That the farmers constitute an important and distinct eco- 
nomic and social class, and that they fail to exercise the power 
and influence for their own and the nation's good which a class 
of their importance should, may be made apparent by a few con- 
siderations. 

Farmers form a very large part of the nation's population. 
In 1900 there were 10,381,765 farmers and farm laborers. The 
next largest occupational group comprised a little over seven 
million workers. By classification of population 51.9 per cent 
of all persons in 1900 were rated as rural, that is, as dwellers in 
the country or in cities of 2500 or less inhabitants. 

Mesured in terms of wealth agriculturists are one of the most 
important classes. In 1900 their wealth was estimated at twenty 
and one-fourth billion dollars out of a total national wealth of 
107 billion. The thirteenth census will doubtless show a de- 
cidedly large increase. Reports thus far state that the value of 
farm lands has grown from $13,051,033,000 in 1900 to $28,- 
$384,821,000 in 1910, an increase of 118 per cent. It is ques- 
tionable if any other kinds of property values can show any such 
growth. There are smaller numbers of people belonging to the 
commercial and industrial classes who by controling the machin- 
ery of distribution of wealth have come into the legal possession 
of the greater portion of the wealth of the entire nation. In 
1888 there were 25,000,000 acres more in cultivation in the 
United States than there were in 1880. The farmers produced 
from their land 491,000,000 bushels of cereals above their prev- 
ious yield. But they received S541. 000,000 less for the 1888 crop 
than for that of 1880. This additional wealth flowed into the 
coffers of the industrial classes. The short sighted policy of 



258 The Quarterly Journal 

farmers relative to political matters has been largely accountable 
for these unequal conditions. 

Since a class is known by its characteristics and the interests 
which it holds in common as well as by the function it performs 
in society, the agriculturists must be reckoned as a distinct class. 
To them is assigned the specific task of supplying the raw ma- 
terials of food, and, to an extent, of other commodities for the 
support of society. They extract it from the earth in a char- 
acteristic manner which separates them from the vocations of 
other workers. They also have interests which are in common, 
whether they recognize and respond to them or not, and which 
are peculiar to them as a class. These common interests in 
agriculture in its broadest sense, in its methods and processes, 
in its appliances, in its conditions and betterment serve to dif- 
ferentiate them from the rest of society. Not that others may 
not also be interested in these things but only in a remote way. 
The farmers must know these things thru and thru, are responsi- 
ble for their continuance, and in their ordering and conduct find 
their well-being and satisfaction in life. Their associations, their 
organized efforts, their cooperative undertakings must be built 
on the recognition of these common interests. 

Socially the farmer has not been rated as the equal of city 
residents. He is backward as a social class as mesured by class 
status or social rating. This has long been recognized in the 
caricatures of "country Rubes" which have appeared in the press 
and funny papers of the nation. He is represented as uncouth 
and primitive in his dress, as slow and stolid like the ox, as a 
"gawk," and as generally inferior to and an easy prey for the 
city dwellers. He has been caricatured and depicted also in the 
terms which have been applied to him, the names by which he is 
called. Not only is it "Reuben" or "Rube," but it is "hay- 
seed," "spinach," "clod-hopper," and like epithets. These are 
the sobriquets which are hurled at the agricultural fraternity 
when they happen into the precincts of the disrespectful gangs 
of city urchins, and these youth merely voice the point of view 
of their elders of the urban community. Among the more adult 
population of the cities a frequent term of reproach and innuendo 
applied to other urbanites is "hayseed !" It is meant to express 
the utter greenness and inferiority of the object in the given 
respect. 

It would be interesting to know just how far this somewhat 



The Rural Social Problem 259 

make-believe rating is applied by the farmers to themselves. 
Personal experience and observation has led the writer to believe 
that it is largely accepted and that it is also resented, indicating 
a certain class consciousness. As a farmer boy it is vividly re- 
membered with what dread I entered town, how all the people 
were looked upon as superior to country people, how I was 
swelled with importance when I received my first notice from 
city boys, how there was a state of hostility between the country 
and city boys, a hostility based on a consciousness of certain dis- 
tinct differences in the mode of life. While rivalry and neigh- 
borhood pride existed in the relationships of country communi- 
ties to each other it was of a different sort than that between 
town and country. 

It has been a matter of observation in a large number of 
states that social recognition is sought of urbanites by rural peo- 
ple and that it is never the reverse. In my own neighborhood in 
Kansas where I was reared, this was decidedly the case. Coun- 
try people ever felt a condescension had been made when they 
were given recognition by the people of the town. Country 
women often almost bankrupted the home treasury to make 
things good enough for the guests from the county seat. The 
remark could be heard of those in touch with social life of the 
town, "O, she thinks she is above us now since she is running 
with the town people !" The same phenomenon has come to 
notice in other communities of other states. It seems to the 
writer to be general. 

The leadership of the rural regions is undeveloped or is 
largely lacking as compared with what would be expected of such 
a populous and wealthy portion of the nation. This backwardness 
in leadership is noticeable in several directions. In the national 
governmental affairs it would be difficult to mention a member of 
the farming fraternity in any branch of the government who 
stands out as a leader in the real sense. But certainly the farm- 
ing class has something at stake in the conduct of the national 
government. Its interests in agricultural education, in the price 
of its products, in the adjustment of the tariff on farm products, 
in its interest as consumers of imported goods on which rates 
are levied, in its interests in the adjustment of freight rates plac- 
ed on its output and on the goods it consumes, — these certainly 
are of the greatest importance. Yet it has rested complacently 
on the old theory that the interests of one class may and will be 



26o The Quarterly Journal 

properly cared for by the representatives of another class. The 
labor class of the world gave itself up to the same fallacious 
theory until just recently. It trusted its affairs to the mercies 
of the classes which made use of it. In European nations and 
in Great Britain this notion has been superceded by the belief 
that its own representatives will best serve it in legislative and 
general governmental matters. The numerous members who sit 
in national legislatures are a standing testimonial to the changed 
attitude. 

In state matters the farmers have a larger membership in 
the legislatures, tho their influence is not in proportion to the 
number of seats they occupy. Too frequently they simply reg- 
ister votes under the leadership of members of other classes. In 
executive and administrative matters they possess little power. 

One of the great problems confronting the country, there- 
fore, is to create the leadership which the economic importance 
and the populousness of the farmers warrant, to develop the or- 
ganization and cooperative ability which the age necessitates, and 
to learn to respect itself and to esteem itself as a social class 
equal to other classes. For there is no reason to think that in 
natural ability, often in solidity of understanding, and in com- 
mon sense the farmers are inferior to members of other occu- 
pations. 

Connected with the economic side of farm life is the matter 
of conducting the farm as a business undertaking is conducted. 
This is seldom done. Farmers are accustomed to let things take 
care of themselves, to undertake the year's work, the putting in 
of crops, the breeding of stock, the support of a dairy herd on 
general principles. Little or no record is kept of the items of 
expense. Memory is trusted to connect the present undertaking 
with the past experience in the same line. The whole under- 
taking is not looked at as an investment of so much capital and 
labor which should bring such and such returns, of which an 
exact forecast should be made relative to the conditions of cost 
so that the expediency of the undertaking might be ascertained. 
The average agricultural undertaking is very similar to sailing the 
ocean without any knowledge of the charts, depending entirely 
upon the compass hour by hour and day by day to get the ship 
across safely. If the ship gets there, so much ahead. If it does 
not, it is all in the matter of course. 

Since the farmers are today competing with all parts of the 



The Rural Social Problem 261 

world in the production of their crops, stock, and dairy and 
poultry products they are amenable to the laws of supply and 
demand and the setting of prices in the markets of the world. 
They are also competing with other lines of business to get the 
largest returns out of a given amount of capital. To consider it 
as a business, to know its ins and outs, to have a complete record 
of it so as to ascertain its value as a business proposition consti- 
tutes a necessity of farming. It also makes a problem in its 
realization. 

MOVEMENT TO THE CITIES. 

The drift to the cities has been thought to be the rural 
problem. The press frequently reports meetings which have 
been called to combat the urban tendency or to promote 
the "back to the farm movement." We have noticed this 
so-called evil in a previous article.* It was there ascertained 
that the cities of the United States, in keeping with a world- 
wide tendency, are absorbing larger and larger propor- 
tions of the population of the nation. We investigated the 
source of the growth of cities and discovered that only about ten 
to fifteen per cent of their increase is derived from country dis- 
tricts while from sixty-five to seventy per cent is of foreign ori- 
gin. The movement of population from one farming section to 
another, especially to regions in process of settlement, largely 

accounts for the actual and seeming loss of country inhabitants 
in general. 

It is proper to recognize that there is a considerable move- 
ment of persons away from farm life. It has been shown, how- 
ever, that we must expect more of this movement rather than 
less of it. It is a world tendency, or a civilization tendency, 
which is based largely on economic laws. Sometimes economic 
conditions may be regulated by means of collective action. In 
this case, however, back of the economic conditions lie certain 
factors, such as the increase of specialization, the growth of 
science and of the application of science to the production of 
utilities, and the invention of machines which displace labor, es- 
pecially in the case of generalized machines such as apply in 
agriculture. These factors are the springs of action, the dy- 
namic which makes the conditions. We cannot hope to subvert 
these tendencies for to do so would be to check social develop- 
ment. We must regard the subordination of the country to the 
city in matters of population as largely inevitable. This takes 

*The Quarterly Journal of the University of North Dakota, October, 
1910, and .January, 1911. 



262 The Quarterly Journal 

it outside the range of being a problem which is pressing on us 
for consideration. 

The point of view to be supported relative to farm life is not 
that which undertakes to improve conditions in order to keep 
people from moving to the cities. It is rather that which seeks 
to better the rural situation for the sake of those who are to re- 
main in it, to secure for them what of right should be theirs. 
Rural people are as good as urban people. What civilization has 
matured should be theirs to use because they are its heirs and 
participants along with city dwellers. We need to make up our 
minds that many persons will leave the country for the city and 
that it is well that they go. The great undertaking is to give 
country dwellers an insight into the possibilities of rural life and 
an understanding of conditions which will enable them to secure 
for themselves all the blessings and satisfactions which civiliza- 
tion embraces. And this should be carried out by right of their 
humanity, not to keep them on the farm. 

SOCIAL STAGNATION AND SOCIAL POVERTY. 

1. Importance of social life and the situation. It is a safe 
position to assume that the sociability or social intercourse phases 
of rural life are of even more importance than the material 
phases. They are related to the latter somewhat as end to 
means. Without social intercourse the life of the average person 
would be considered empty notwithstanding the possible large- 
ness of the farm, the great yield of produce, the beauty and fat- 
ness of the stock, and the extensiveness of the bank account. If 
the country is deficient in sociability matters we shall have to 
regard it as constituting an evil. 

There are some indications that country life is more nearly 
stagnant and impoverished in respect to social intercourse than 
in other directions. Stagnation means that, relatively speaking, 
rural life does not keep pace with corresponding grades of life 
in the city. Social poverty involves the thought that the country 
is really backward in view of the demands and ideals of modern 
life. It may be well to notice briefly the more important as- 
pects of these deficiencies. We shall have occasion to refer to 
them at more length in another connection. 

2. Lack of intellectual outlook. The intellectual side of 
country life is in abeyance in most communities. There is a 
lack of intellectual problems or issues and hence there exists very 
little stimulus to rational effort. The great modern means of 



The Rural Social Problem 263 

creating mental ferment, namely reading, is not elevated into a 
sustained habit. The food for a larger, more stimulating spirit- 
ual existence is, therefore, largely wanting. Until the rational 
and intellectual capacities are improved and fed social intercourse 
must remain undesirable or empty and the larger social problems 
be hidden under a veil of oblivion. 

3. Dearth of amusements and recreation. As compared 
with the cities rural existence must seem barren and unattractive. 
Amusements and recreation of an elevating and wholesome sort 
are almost confined to urban communities. In the economy of 
racial and of social evolution play and games have exercised a 
stimulating and necessary function. We are living in the period 
of the discovery of the desirability of the cultivation and utiliza- 
tion of the play, amusement, and recreation agencies for civiliz- 
ing and developmental purposes. The satisfactions in life have 
a right to be considered by promoters of social welfare. Nothing 
conduces to the joy of living more than the above factors. Life 
is just as large as its satisfactions and no larger. All valid 
agencies and stimulations must be regarded in the light of ne- 
cessities. Play is the right of child life, games the salvation of 
youth, and recreation the necessity of maturity. To give to 
country children play, to the youth organized and directed games, 
and to mature people amusements and recreative stimuli is an 
undertaking which must be regarded as highly desirable. 

4. Deficiencies of social contact and cooperative stimulus. 
Where houses line the street, where churches, clubs, theaters, 
fraternities and all the diverse organizations and agencies which 
promote and stir up social intercourse exist, contact of person 
with person is not a general problem. Even the daily business 
pursuits of urban existence, — commerce, industry, transportation, 
printing, and the professional occupations take the individuals of 
those callings into contact with other persons. In country re- 
gions there is found a great difficulty in bringing about this so- 
cial contact. Homes are widely separated. Institutions and or- 
ganizations which are the means of bringing people together 
hardly exist and seldom flourish. The occupation of farming is 
not a promoter of contact between individuals. Farming inhab- 
itants are prone to think in terms of individuals and to be sat- 
isfied with the existence of no larger social circle than the family. 
Hence there is likely to abound riotous individualism, the deaden- 
ing of the broader sympathies and altruistic promptings, and a 



264 The Quarterly Journal 

prejudice against or disqualification for cooperative undertakings 
which so largely depend on social and altruistic motives. A 
narrow and exclusive familism is apt to satisfy the social appe- 
tite and to foster a social "in-breeding" process. 

5. Deficiencies in comforts and conveniences. In respect 
to what may be called comforts and conveniences of life the 
country home and country life are relatively deficient. The av- 
erage home of the well-to-do farmer does not compare favorably 
in these respects with that of an equally competent citizen of the 
city. Many inconveniences or a lack of conveniences exist in the 
operation of the domestic establishment which make the lives of 
country women unduly arduous and irksome. Matters of heat- 
ing, lighting, toilet, bath, arrangement of rooms and appliances 
deserve the careful attention of those interested in the advance- 
ment of farm life as these items enter so largely into the lives 
of home-keepers, and burden or lighten their activities according 
as a backward or modern system is in use. 

In like manner there appear to be unnecessary drawbacks 
in connection with the work of the men. Arrangement of farm 
buildings relative to each other, arrangement of the parts and 
functions of the barn, installation of motor power and of me- 
chanical devices where possible, the lightening or curtailing of 
"chores" are considerations of great importance in the attempt 
to make farm life as comfortable and convenient as that of non- 
rural inhabitants. 

RURAL EDUCATION, 

The subject of rural education is so extensive that large vol- 
umes have been devoted to its consideration. It is commonly ad- 
mitted by progressive and thoughtful students of educational con- 
ditions that the schools of our non-urban districts are more back- 
ward and incompetent in view of their real function than perhaps 
any other agency of those districts. The little red school house 
is what it was fifty years ago, while other things have changed. 
School buildings and grounds, equipment, teachers, subject-matter 
taught, and school organization are some of the topics which are 
being discust by progressive educators and communities. 

The chief points of criticism to be directed against the rural 
schools are that they are poorer than the schools of the cities 
and are, therefore, inequitably inferior, that they are not adapted 
to the needs of agricultural regions in the sense of offering the 
vocational training such communities stand in need of, and that 



The Rural Social Problem 265 

they are not suited in point of view, spirit, and methods to ac- 
complish the task which a modern, ethical society is demanding 
of educational agencies. The public schools are the most im- 
portant and crucial device collective society has adopted thus far 
for the purpose of socializing the coming citizen. It is the great 
public and state agency for adapting and equipping the develop- 
ing youth for fitting into the social organization and for assum- 
ing the tasks and duties that the modern social process is requiring. 
The progress rural life is to make is dependent in a very large 
mesure on the effectiveness with which the schools take up and 
carry out their great work. The problem of rural education, 
consequently, stands at the very center of country life improve- 
ment and is of most serious import. 

If, in conclusion, I were to seek to epitomize, in a sentence 
what the rural problem is I would say that it consists in the 
existence of a backward and ineffective point of view among 
farmers relative to the social nature of their undertaking and 
life, and to the possibility and means of enjoying life; and along 
with this the consequent demand for a transformation of their 
outlook in these respects in order that they shall work to secure 
the realization of the larger and richer opportunities of rural 
living. Given the social outlook and the farming population may 
be trusted to devise and to put into effect the remedies. In like 
manner if farmers perceive the desirability of improved homes 
for living purposes they will become possest of a working dis- 
content with their lot until they are improved and made equit- 
able. The leaven is already at work among thoughtful farmers 
in these directions. A conversation with an intelligent agricul- 
turist in Kansas recently revealed the fact that he believed he and 
others of his kind had a right to all of the social, cultural and 
home equipment privileges the city dwellers enjoy. It is remark- 
able how alert and interested some country people are in the im- 
provement of the neighborhoods and of conditions of existence. 
To have discovered the ideal and to have obtained the outlook 
is more than half accomplishing the next step in advance. The 
point of view, the ideal, constitutes the first and fundamental 
stage in the actualization of any undertaking because it involves 
the emotional nature of man, the factor which furnishes the mo- 
tor power of all individual and collective activities. 



Government in the Panama Canal 

Zone 

Andrew Franklin Hunsaker, 
Instructor in History, University of North Dakota 

The Panama Canal Zone holds a strategic position as a 
gateway to the world's commerce. It is a small possession ex- 
tending from ocean to ocean, ten miles wide and about fifty miles 
long. To build a ship canal across the Isthmus has been the am- 
bition of almost every European king and emperor. As early 
as 1529 Charles V. of Spain ordered the Isthmus surveyed. 
Philip II., his successor, carried out a survey which was report- 
ed unfavorably by the surveyors. Unwilling to abandon the 
project, he laid the matter before the Dominican Friars, who, 
desirous of pleasing the King but equally unsuccessful in their 
efforts, piously concluded, "What God hath joined together let 
no man put asunder." 

Few decades have passed since these early attempts without 
some organized effort toward building a canal across the Isth- 
mus. Nineteen different routes have been suggested but the one 
now under way is the only one on which any constructive work 
has been done. The French were the first to do any actual 
building; but thru poor management the French project failed, 
and the United States purchased their interests and rights in 1903 
for $40,ooo,cxDO. Permission to construct and operate a canal 
across the Isthmus of Panama was granted the United States 
in November, 1903, by the State of Panama. In return for the 
concession the United States Government paid to Panama 
$10,000,000 in gold, with $250,000 annually thereafter beginning 
nine years after the Treaty of 1903.^ 

Upon taking possession of the Canal Zone the United States 
organized it into a territory, but it has never been incorporated. 
In 1904 provision was made for establishing a government under 
the authority of the President, who selected a commission of 
seven men, expert in their several fields, to carry on the canal 

1. Hay-Varilla Treaty. 

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268 The Quarterly Journal 

project and meanwhile to establish and maintain a stable gov- 
ernment. 

Legislation 

The commission was given full legislative authority.^ All 
laws, however, were to be consistent with the laws of the 
United States. One of the first acts of the Commission as a 
legislative body was to establish a stable government. This gov- 
ernment consists of the three branches — legislative, executive and 
judicial — each separate and distinct from the other. The organi- 
zation was not final, but it formed a working basis. Additions 
have been made from time to time as conditions demanded. Some 
of the more important provisions have to do with land taxes, in- 
ternal revenue, registration of land titles, and amendments. The 
original legislation is published under the title, "The Laws of the 
Canal Zone."^ 

The general plan of government is after that of the munici- 
pality in the States. The Zone as a whole constitutes one unit 
for both the municipal and other general governmental func- 
tions. The four divisions, Ancon, Emperador, Gorgona and 
Cristobal, will correspond to that of wards in the city for po- 
lice purposes. The executive of the Zone is also executive of 
each town and village. The offtces of mayor and council are dis- 
continued and all executive functions centered in one head, the 
head of the department of civil administration. The same is true 
of the legislative branch. The President of the United States, 
acting with the Canal Commission as an advisory council, legis- 
lates for the Zone. The supreme and circuit courts are separate, 
but the district courts are grouped under the head of the depart- 
ment of civil administration. 

The President's Legislation 

Legislative authority has been vested in the President since 
March, 1906,'* and several important orders have been issued by 
him changing materially the local government. The United 
States patent, trade-mark and copyright laws have been extended 
to the Zone ; the penal laws have been amended, giving the right 
of trial by jury in criminal cases ; an entirely new code of civil 
procedure was put into force ; the Chinese exclusion law of Pan- 



2. 32nd Stat., Pt. I., p. 480. 

3. Washington, D. C. 1906. 

4. Isthmian (anal t'cmmissioner's Report. l'.X)7, p. Ml. 



GoTcrnnicnt in the Panama Canal Zone 269 

ama was adopted ; an employe's liability act and an act provid- 
ing for compensation of Government employes injured while on 
duty was enforced.^ 

Department of Civil Administration 

For convenience of administration the Canal Zone is divided 
into four civil districts known as Ancon, Emperador, Gorgona, 
and Cristobal. All local affairs of the districts, however, are in 
the hands of the executive officers. The work of the executive 
branch of the Government is under the immediate supervision of 
the head of the department of civil administration. This depart- 
ment comprises the division of posts, customs and revenues; po- 
lice and prisons ; schools ; fire protection and public works ; and 
the offices of treasurer and auditor.^ 

Posts, Customs, and Revenues 

This department comprises the postal, customs and internal 
revenue service, rental of public lands, and the administration of 
estates of Americans dying within the Zone in the service of the 
Government. There are seventeen post-offices. The annual sale 
of stamps is about $83,475.60, and the money orders issued each 
year amount to more than $5,228,562. The domestic rate of post- 
age for letters applies between the Zone and the Republic of Pana- 
ma to and from the United States."^ The postmasters are appoint- 
ed by the head of the department of civil administration, who may 
establish new offices or discontinue those already in operation, as 
the service requires. A director of posts inspects all post-offices 
and the accounts of postmasters. 

There are two customs districts, or ports of entrance : An- 
con on the Pacific side, and Cristobal on the Atlantic side. No 
custom duties are collected, as no goods enter the Zone except 
those necessary for the construction of the canal and the use of 
employes. The customs service includes the entrance and clear- 
ance of vessels, filing manifests and enforcing the laws against 
smuggling and the immigration of Chinese, Turks and Syrians. 

The internal revenue service includes the collection of a tax 
on the distillation of liquor, the issuance of saloon and other li- 
censes, and the collection of taxes provided for by local ordi- 



5. Executive Order, Circular No. 32, 1907. 

6. Hearings Concerning Estimates for Construction of the Isthmian 
Canal, 1912, P. 128. 

7. Ibid, P. 135. 



270 The Quarterly Journal 

nances. The revenues are collected by the collector of revenues 
and his four assistants, one of whom is assigned to each admin- 
istrative district. No tax is levied on personal property. Mer- 
chants are taxed one half of one per cent, of their stock each 
month, the minimum tax being one dollar per month. Groceries 
and other food stuffs are exempt from taxes. 

Revenues of Government of Canal Zone, 1910-118 

Collections 

Miscellaneous licenses and taxes $ 6,000.00 

Slaughter tax _ 15,000.00 

Building rentals _ 4,000.00 

Land rentals _ _ 23,000.00 

Market rentals _ _ 4,000.00 

Water tax 13,000.00 

Circuit court fines and fees _ 7,500.00 

District court fines and fees 30,000.00 

Marshal fees _ 500.00 

Police fines , _ 400.00 

Pound fees _ 500.00 

Distillation licenses 3,000.00 

Real estate taxes 33,000.00 

Merchandise and drug taxes , 9,500.00 

Peddling licenses 10,000.00 

Poll tax 1 ,500.00 

Retail sale of liquor 64,200.00 

Retail sale of tobacco 9,000.00 

Aerated waters _ 7,000.00 

Burial permits i ,000.00 

Hunting permits i ,500.00 

Interest on deposits 25,000.00 

Restaurants 1,400.00 

Sale of postage stamps _ 80,000.00 

Money-order fees _ 20,000.00 

Total $370,000.00 

The revenues collected annually go far toward meeting con- 
tingent expenses of the administration. This income would meet 
their needs were it not for the large amount required for build- 

8. Hearin&s. 1912. P. 176. 



Government in the Panama Canal Zone 271 

ing and general development. The appropriation for the fiscal 
year ending July i, 1910, was $600,000. 

The Canal territory covers an area of approximately 448 
square miles. Of this something like 244 square miles is owned 
by the United States and the remainder by private individuals and 
the Panama Railroad Company. Public lands are leased both for 
agricultural purposes and building lots. No one person may lease 
more than 124 acres or for a longer period than 25 years. Agri- 
cultural lands may be leased for $1.20 an acre per year and 
building lots in town vary from 5 cents to 30 cents a square meter 
per year. There are 2,783 leases in force, of which 1,892 are for 
building lots and 884, comprising 3,816 acres, are for agricultural 
lands. ^ 

The estates of Americans dying within the Zone are admin- 
istered upon in the same manner as those in the States. The 
collector of revenues, in the absence of judicial administration, 
may settle all estates which do not exceed in value the sum of 
$1,000. 

Police and Pensions 

The police department plays a prominent role in the Zone 
Government. It is made up of one chief, thirty-five officers and 
two hundred and thirty-one policemen. Most of the members of 
the police force are colored — for the most part natives of the 
West Indies. For police purposes, the territory is divided into 
four districts coextensive with the administrative districts. In 
each of these divisions there is a central station at the place where 
the district court is located.^*' A member of the force at each 
central station acts as marshal of the circuit court of that circuit 
in which the station is located. The salaries for service in the de- 
partment range from $40 a month for policemen to $333.33 per 
month for the chief of police. 

The chief of police, in addition to his police duties, acts as 
marshal of the upper courts, warden of the penitentiary, and 
coroner. Prisons are connected with the various police depart- 
ments. A penitentiary is located at Culebra. Recent legislation 
prohibits public gambling and houses of prostitution. 

Schools 

The school system is modeled after that in the States. There 

9. A Trip-Panama Canal. P. 161. 
10. Hearings, 1912, P. 127. 



272 The Quarterly Journal 

are 10 schools for white children with an enrollment of 931, and 
15 schools for colored children with an enrollment of 906 
pupils. The school facilities are excellent. Of this Frank A. 
Gause, Superintendent of Schools, writes : 

"The schools are well organized, well taught, and well 
equipped ; both pupils and patrons are above the average in point 
of culture and intelligence. The buildings are well adapted, con- 
structed strictly on sanitary principles, and all rooms seated with 
single adjustable steel desks. The schools compare favorably 
with any in the States in communities of from fifty to sixty 
thousand people.''^^ 

Free text books are provided, and free medical inspection 
and treatment in the hospitals for all defectives is furnished by 
the Government. The general tendency is toward consolidation. 
Three high schools have been established, but these have recently 
consolidated. The pupils are carried by rail free of charge to 
Gatum and return — the seat of the high school. A special school 
coach is provided for this purpose, and the pupils are transported 
under the supervision of a teacher especially appointed for that 
office. Where possible, the elementary schools are being con- 
solidated with good results. 

There are 40 white teachers and 25 colored teachers in all. 
These are divided into four general classes ; the white teachers 
receiving $90, who may be promoted to receive $110 a month; 
and the colored teachers — usually secured from Jamaica — receiv- 
ing $40 to $50, who may be promoted to receive $65 per month. 
Teachers are required to have the equivalent of a high school 
education and two years of college work, together with two 
years' experience in the schools of the States. The high school 
teachers, five in number, are college graduates with two years' 
experience in the States. In addition to these the department em- 
ploys a superintendent of schools, two supervisors, one high 
school principal, a clerk and a messenger.^^ 

Besides the introduction of manual training and domestic 
science, the organization of school gardens for the colored chil- 
dren is a feature of the work. A horticulturist is employed who 
gives his entire time to this work. One plot, three-quarters of an 
acre, yielded $350 worth of garden products last year. Of this 
the Superintendent says, "At first the pupils showed but little 



11. Circular of Information, January, 1910. 

12. Hearings, 1912, P. 128. 



Government in the Panama Canal Zone 273 

interest, but now the question is how to control their enthusiasm 
rather than to arouse it." 

Fire Protection and Public Works 

There are seven paid fire stations with a force of about 
sixty-two men. These stations are located in the principal busi- 
ness centers. Electrical fire alarm telegraph systems are in- 
stalled.i3 The duties of the department include the inspection of 
all buildings and recommendations regarding the construction and 
arrangement of buildings, as well as the location of water mains 
and hydrants. 

There are also sixteen volunteer companies, with a strength 
of about three hundred and twelve men who are drilled twice a 
month by the skilled firemen. The laws controlling fire insur- 
ance are such that few insurance companies have interested them- 
selves in the Zone. This makes fire protection most imperative. 

The superintendent of public works recommends and con- 
structs roads and trails. Most of this work is done by prisoners. 
He also superintends the water and sewer systems of Colon and 
Panama and of the native towns. The control of the public mar- 
ket and slaughter houses belongs to this department. 

The tendency is ever toward a more centralized government, 
so that all municipal functions are being placed under one head. 
President Taft recommends that Zone affairs be more complete- 
ly centralized, thus facilitating matters greatly. At the comple- 
tion of the canal and the exodus of the thirty or thirty-five 
thousand employes, the government will doubtless be reorganized 
and even more completely centralized. 

A bill is pending in Congress which, if enacted into law, will 
completely rearrange the local government in the Canal Zone as 
soon as the canal is finished. The bill covers the following 
problems : The determining of rates of toll ; creation of a per- 
manent organization ; future occupation of the Zone ; control of 
vessels passing thru the canal ; status of the Panama Railroad 
Company. The second and third divisions have to do with the fu- 
ture government. Provision is made here for an organization 
under a single head, appointed and removed by the President. 
All officers and functions within the Zone are to be subordinated 
to the operation of the canal in time of peace, and in case of war 
the military power will have supreme control. With such an ar- 



13. Hearings, 1912, P. 128. 



274 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

rangement the administration of the Zone will involve only the 
police supervision and sanitation. The bill also provides for the 
exclusion and removal from the territory of all persons not in- 
cluded in the military and operating forces, thus effecting a large 
saving in administration. 

The Judicial Department 

The judicial power consists of a supreme court, three cir- 
cuit courts, and four district courts.^^ A supreme judge and two 
associates appointed by the Commission comprise the supreme 
court. Its jurisdiction extends to issuing writs of mandamus, 
certiorari, prohibition, habeas corpus, quo warranto, and the like. 
It also has appellate authority over all cases brought from the 
circuit courts. A clerk of the court acts as reporter, recording 
officer, interpreter and translator. 

Each of the circuit courts is presided over by one of the 
supreme justices. The original jurisdiction of the circuit court 
extends to all criminal cases wherein a fine exceeding $ioo or 
imprisonment for more than thirty days may be imposed ; in 
civil cases where the amount in dispute is $ioo or more. This 
court also has power over all probate matters, divorce cases and 
so forth. Each court may also issue the several writs mentioned 
under the supreme court's jurisdiction in its own district. 

Each of the district courts is presided over by a district 
judge. There is also a fifth judge known as senior judge, who 
sits whenever required. The district judges are also appointed 
and their province includes both civil and criminal cases of mi- 
nor importance and preliminary action in felony cases. The 
duties of the judges are numerous and very important. They 
try from six hundred to seven hundred cases a month and upon 
them depends largely the enforcement of the laws. They com- 
bine the functions of the country justice of the peace in the Unit- 
ed States with those of the city recorder. Since the increasing 
tendency of the administration is to centralize the government, 
the district courts have become the most vital force of justice in 
the local government. 

Money and Banking 

A dual monetary system is maintained. The white men in 
the employ of the Government are paid in gold or other specie of 

« 

14, Laws of the Canal Zone, P. 3. 



Government in the Panama Canal Zone 275 

the United States ; the colored laborers are paid in Panama silver 
worth only half as much. The ratio of two to one is sustained 
by an agreement between the United States and the banks of 
Panama. There is but one banking firm in the territory — the In- 
ternational Banking Corporation. Interest is very high. Eight 
to twelve per cent., and often much more, is charged. Two per 
cent, is paid on deposits of $500 or more. Practically all of the 
finances are cared for by the Government. 

Citizenship 

When the United States took charge of the Canal Zone there 
were numerous citizens of Panama residing in the territory who 
came directly under the power of the Government. These have 
not become citizens of the United States, nor may they become 
such. The right of suffrage has never been exercised, for no 
elections have been held.^^ Many inhabitants of the Zone still 
hold the right of suffrage elsewhere. All power and authority 
exercised is delegated. Congress is supreme and may enact such 
laws as pertain to the benefit of the people. 

Inhabitants and Their Occupations 

There are nearly a hundred different nationalities represent- 
ed. These come from every part of the world seeking employ- 
ment, in numbers varying from one native of Tunis to some ten 
thousand Jamaicans. At the time of occupation by our Gov- 
ernment there were fewer than 12,000 inhabitants in the Zone, 
and these were mostly natives of Panama. The natives are a mix- 
ed race of Spanish, Indian and negro origin. 

As are most tropical peoples, they are less progressive than 
the races of temperate climates. Formerly sanitary conditions 
were such that it was next to impossible for white people to live 
here long without succumbing to fevers. The French found it 
out of the question to carry on their work here during certain por- 
tions of the year. Since our Government has drained the swamps, 
however, established sewer systems, and in many other ways 
improved the situation, health on the Isthmus is as good as, and 
mortality lower than, in any community of the States.^^ The en- 
tire population, including Colon and Panama, is about 155,000. 



15. Thru agreement between the United States and Panama citizens 
of Panama residing- within the Zone may vote for candidates for office 
in Panama at the time of the general elections. 

16. Report of the Isthmian Canal Commission, Department of Sanita- 
tion. July, 1911. 



2/6 The Quarterly Journal 

These two cities are excluded from the Zone except for sani- 
tary purposes. The pay roll for the past year numbers about 
35,000 employes engaged in the construction of the canal and the 
Panama railroad. Only a few of these are natives ; the majority 
come from the West Indies. 

Militia 

From the beginning our Government has had a military force 
stationed in the Zone territory. The present enlisted strength is 
444 marines. The State of Panama is under the protection of the 
United States and the militia is kept here to preserve order and 
peace. The service of the marines has ben required three or 
four times to put down attempts against the administration and 
riots at elections. ^'^ 

Social Organizations Maintained by the Government 

Amusement and recreation are provided for the workmen by 
the Canal Commission. Several large club houses have been erect- 
ed. The Government employs secretaries to take charge of these 
houses as Young Men's Christian Associations. A corps of chap- 
lains representing almost every denomination conducts religious 
services regularly. These are also supplied by the Government. 
A number of buildings have been constructed in the various towns 
for religious and lodge purposes. Free lecture courses, band 
concerts, and many other social functions furnish ample opportun- 
ity for recreation. Thus Uncle Cam cooperates with his em- 
ployes and the satisfaction evidenced in their work more than 
compensates for his efforts. 

The operation and maintenance of the canal is the big prob- 
lem in the Canal Zone — a task which will require a most careful 
judgment for its accomplishment. Few nations have undertaken 
greater tasks, and none have built canals of such large propor- 
tions. The largest nine canals in the world will not total in cost 
and labor that of the Panama Canal. Its operation, together with 
the supply of dry docks, coal, oil, and other necessaries to ships 
passing thru it will be an enormous undertaking and especially 
since it is not a national canal but an international highway. 

Most of the immediate problems in the Canal Zone, such as 
sanitation, administration and canal construction, are practically 
solved, but the future has in store more weighty problems to be 

17. a Trip-Panama Canal, P. 167. 



Government in the Panama Canal Zone 277 

met. If the purpose of the present administration is carried out, 
i. e., to exclude from the Zone all persons except those engaged in 
military duty or in operating the canal or railroad, the problem 
of government will be reduced to a minimum ; but our Go\ ern- 
ment's example in establishing a firm and permanent organization 
in the midst of revolutionary Spanish-American governments 
will doubtless have a wholesome influence in the future of Cen- 
tral American affairs. 



Book Reviews 



Sociology and Modern Social Problems: Charles A. Ell- 
wood, Ph. D., Professor of Sociology, University of Mis- 
souri. American Book Company, 1910. Pp. 331. 

This volume by Professor Ellwood is a serious and able 
attempt to meet the need of colleges and other advanced institu- 
tions for a text-book of sociology. As the author writes in the 
preface, it is designed for the use of schools which give but a 
small amount of time to sociology, probably supporting but a 
single course. It is in the nature of a combination of some fun- 
damental sociological conceptions and generalizations and a sur- 
vey of certain of the more important of our current social prob- 
lems. 

In reality the work is an illustration of Professor Ellwood's 
philosophy of how sociology in its beginning stage should be 
presented. Of the several ideas about what a beginning course 
should be, whether an ethnological study of society, a presenta- 
tion of the elementary aspects of the subject, or a presentation 
of certain practical problems of a concrete nature, the author 
supports the latter. He believes that the beginning student is 
able to discover the essential nature of society and to understand 
its process and tendencies best by means of such a concrete pre- 
sentation. This is the method he uses in the University of 
Missouri and this work is the result of his teaching experience. 

This statement will explain why the first eight chapters of 
the book are given over to the consideration of matters which 
are chiefly of general sociological import rather than of particular 
pertinency to current social problems. One of these chapters 
is devoted to the study of society, one to the bearing of the theory 
of evolution upon sociology, five to the family, four of which 
are historical and general, and one to the growth of population. 
Seven of these chapters actually belong to general sociology, 
emphasizing that phase which concerns itself with social develop- 
ment. Thus, Professor Ellwood so far concedes the truth of 
the contention of those sociologists who believe that the best 
propaedeutic for the study of sociology is an introductory course 
in social evolution. 

278 



Book Reviews 279 

Seven chapters of the work may be assigned to the discussion 
of contemporaneous social problems, namely, those on the modern 
family, immigration, negro, city, pauperism, crime, and socialism. 
The latter is not really presented as a "problem," but attention 
is given to its consideration in order to discover how much it con- 
tains of fundamental sociological principles. Professor Ellwood 
is generally sympathetic with the aims of socialism and recognizes 
the worth of its ethical character. He disallows some of its 
claims, however. He rejects its claim that society is always 
determined by the economic factor and marshals some facts to 
show how other factors may act as the determining factor and 
how the economic is at times subservient. 

An interesting chapter is given to education and social 
progress. On this he is in line with the progressive intelligence 
of the times in recognizing that it is thru the educatitonal agency 
that democratic society is to be maintained and promoted. He 
gives a place for the vocational factor in education altho he 
holds it is subordinate to the cultural and ethical. 

It is impossible, in a short review, to discuss his position on 
all the problems he studies. He is thoro in his treatment and 
always inductive in his method. He has a great mesure of 
common sense as well as of scientific balance in his treatment. 
He is always sane and never captious or superficial. I use the 
book as a text in a course on social problems, altho we have 
many courses in sociology, supplementing it with such material 
and other problems as one's needs and point of view require. 
I find it exceedingly satisfactory as an outline or syllabus and 
my students find it definite and interesting. While differing with 
the author on some of his positions I so generally agree with 
him that the differences sink into insignificance. 

J. M. Gillette 

Department of Sociology, 

University of North Dakota 



Universities OF THE World: Charles Franklin Thwing, 
President Western Reserve University. The Macmillan 
Company, New York, 191 1. Pp. xv-l-284. Price, $2.25 net. 

In "Universities of the World" President Thwing has added 
another volume, and a very interesting one, to his already long 
list dealing with the problems of higher education, with colleges 
and with college life. 



28o The Quarterly Journal 

"The book was written." he says in the preface, "to give 
some idea, however imperfectly outlined, or inadequately pre- 
sented, of the higher education of the world." He adds, also in 
the preface, that the universities of the world "easily fall into 
four classes." (i) One class "has for its purpose the dis- 
covery and the publication of truth ;" such, for example, as the 
German Universities. (2) Another class, just as distinctly 
seeks "the development of character through the power of 
thinking." The best type is found in Scotland and the United 
States. (3) "A third type has for its real, though seldom 
spoken of, purpose the making of gentlemen." Oxford and 
Cambridge are given as the finest examples, tho we are told that 
"certain American colleges are also emphasizing the worth of 
this type more deeply than in the early time." (4) The last 
type mentioned is the one that "seeks to train men for efficiency 
- - - to make graduates who are able to make their living." 
As best examples, he mentions those of India, China and Japan. 
After this slight attempt at grouping, nor does he locate all 
the twenty — merely naming a few as types, he handles his sub- 
ject thru a descriptive and historical essay of each of twenty 
institutions located in nearly as many different countries of the 
world, tho he does treat both Oxford and London. No American 
institution is included in the list. Each essay is complete in itself 
with few or no cross references. The writer has visited in person 
each of these twenty institutions with the single exception of 
Melbourne. His knowledge, therefore, has been gained at first 
hand. He knows whereof he speaks. 

President Thwing has had a long and successful experience 
in the field of higher educatiton. He has traveled extensively, 
always as a sympathetic student of educational conditions. He 
is thus eminently fitted — probably no man in the entire world 
more so — for doing well the work outlined. He has seen clearly, 
evidently judged wisely and estimated fairly and thru the use of 
a vivid, vigorous style, been able to paint a series of pictures that 
stand out with great distinctness. Tho four classes, as he says, 
there are clearly twenty institutions, and no intelligent reader 
need confuse any two. In this difficult task the writer is some- 
what assisted by more than fifty fine half-tone pictures of repre- 
sentatitve scenes, buildings, rooms and men, but yet these, fine 
as they are, are merely supplementary to the descriptive word 
painting which they accompany. 



Book Reviews 281 

Thus has the writer handled the following institutions, giving 
as well as clear pictures of the same, much information about the 
peoples, their attitude toward higher education, their modes of 
living and of thought, likewise the stages of development reach- 
ed : the Universities of Oxford, London, Paris, Leiden, Upsala, 
Madrid, Geneva, Rome, Athens, Berlin, Vienna, Budapest, St. 
Petersburg, Bucharest, Cairo, Calcutta, Melbourne, Peking, 
Tokyo and Robert College on the Bosphorus. 

All in all, the book is an exceptionally interesting one to ev- 
ery student of higher education. It is strongly and attractively 
bound, and well printed in large type on a good quality of paper, 
making its reading a real pleasure. We are all under obligation 
to both writer and printer. 

A. J. Ladd 

Department of Education, 
University of North Dakota 



A History oe the President's Cabinet: Mary L. Hinsdale. 
The Lord Baltimore Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1911. 
Pp. ix+355. Price, $2.00. 

This study appears as the first of a series of historical 
studies published by the LTniversity of Michigan. It represents 
the painstaking labor of years in a field of history hitherto neg- 
lected by scholars, and will be exceedingly useful to the student 
of American history. In the massing of facts and in her choice 
of material Miss Hinsdale has shown unusual discriminatiton. 
A careful bibliography and the lists of cabinet officers of each 
administration add greatly to the value of the book for reference 
purposes. 

It may be questioned, however, whether a presentation of 
cabinet development chronologically by administrations does not 
lack something in clearness. In the recent work on the Presi- 
dent's Cabinet by H. B. Larned, the whole subject is discust in a 
more logical fashion by dealing with many of the cabinet offices 
separately, devoting a chapter to each one. This method is 
especially advantageous in avoiding repetition and in enabling the 
student to follow the lines of cabinet evolution. Each Cabinet 
]X)sition has a distinct place of its own in our political and ad- 
ministrative history. This is the natural unit, rather than the 
presidential term, around which the scholar can more logically 
arrange the details of cabinet history. It is to be regretted also, 



282 The Quarterly Journal 

that Miss Hinsdals has omitted a discussion of cabinet origins 
as related to English and Continental experience. It is in such 
chapters that one seeks those mature judgments which are 
reached only by long and special study, for which no chronology 
or tabular statement can ever be a substitute. 

The party names are used rather loosely thruout the early 
part of the discussion. Thus the terms Federal and Republican 
occur as designating parties at the end of Washington's first 
administration, whereas the Federal party of the Constitution 
ceased to exist in 1789 and the later Federalists as a distinct 
party, came into existence with the Republicans not earlier than 
the struggle over the Alien and Sedition laws of 1798-9. This 
confusion of party names is not confined to present day his- 
torians, the contemporary accounts are full of inconsistencies, 
but it is for our special investigators to clear up this question 
and repeat as few as possible of the current errors. 

Both of these monographs represent advance ground and 
are welcome additions in the field of special research. 

O. G. LiBBY 

Department of History, 

University of North Dakota 



The American Year Book, a Record of Events and Progress, 
191 1. D. Appleton & Co., 1912. Pp. xx-l-863. 

This volume is the second in the series and is a notable ad- 
dition to the list of scientific compilations of its class. From 
the table of contents one can see its range and method. The 
general classes of subjects treated are: Comparative Statistics, 
History and Politics, Government, Economic and Social Ques- 
tions, Public Works and National Defense, Industries and Occu- 
pations, Science and Engineering, The Humanities, and Cur- 
rent Record. Of the foregoing nine divisions, those dealing with 
science and engineering, economics and social questions and 
government take up more than one-half the entire space. These 
general titles are treated under appropriate sub heads and each 
subdivision contains an excellent bibliography covering works in 
every language. Under the heading of science and engineering 
are given some of the more notable achievements for the cur- 
rnt year in mathematics and astronomy, geology, meteorology, 
chemistry and physics, biolog)% medicine and surgery and in en- 
gineering. History and politics include discussions, summaries 



Book Reviews 283 

and tables upon such topics as foreign history by countries, 
Federal and State constitutional law, law and jurisprudence, 
popular government and current politics, and municipal gov- 
ernment. Under the chapter on the Humanities is to be found 
a valuable resume of the literary progress in a wide range of 
departments of research and creative activity. There is also an 
exceedingly useful set of tables covering various phases of edu- 
cational progress. The scope of the material in this division can 
be indicated from a few of the titles taken at random : Village 
and Rural School Improvement, Race Education, New College 
Presidents, Industrial Education, Standardizing Agencies, etc. 

The work is a veritable storehouse of well organized 
material, prepared with special reference to the present time 
and to American conditions. As a reference work for con- 
venient desk use it is indispensible for all who need exact and 
detailed information in the multiplying fields of human activity. 

O. G. LiBBY 

Department of History, 

University of North Dakota 



The Land of the Hittites: John Garstang, D. Sc, B. Litt., 
M. A., Professor in the University of Liverpool, with an in- 
troduction by Rev. Professor A. H. Sayce, D. D., D. Litt., 
M. A. Pp. xxiv 4-415- 99 photographs, 3 plans, 3 maps. 
E. P. Dutton & Co., New York, 1910. Price $3.00 (12s. 6). 

What Professor Sayce once called "The Forgotten Empire 
of the Hittites" is again emerging from the shadows of the past. 
Mentioned in the annals of Sargon II. (721-705), the Hittites 
disappear from history for more than 2000 years. Yet, as stated 
here in the Introduction, it was the Hittites who overthrew the 
Amorite dynasty of Babylonia, who brought to an end the 
Egyptian Empire in Asia, who for years checked the western 
advance of Assyria and held absolute sway in Palestine. It was 
the Hittites who founded the Heraklid dynasty in Asia, con- 
trolled the mines of Asia and with them the markets of the old 
world. They carried the culture of the East to the Greeks, and 
profoundly influenced the culture of Western Asia and Eastern 
Europe. Our previous knowledge was derived from such wit- 
nesses as the el-Amarna tablets, reliefs, and inscriptions from 
Egyptian tombs, Babylonian and Assyrian records, and scat- 
tered references (22 in all) in Hebrew literature. 



284 The Quarterly Journal 

Professor Garstang begins his task with a full and vivid 
description of the country as the arena wherein Hittite events 
transpired. The effect of mountain and stream is shown as 
determining routes and travel. The method employed is to 
collate the evidence and in the light of its interpretation to de- 
termine the character and custome of that people. Further 
light is found, also, in resemblance of present-day folk to the 
people depicted in the ancient sculptures. We may sum up his 
method as a three-fold process : ancient references, monumen- 
tal evidence, and current racial resemblances. For this we have 
been prepared in part by Professor Ramsay's studies (e. g., Hist. 
Geog. of Asia Minor 1890. "Thousand and One Churches," 
1910, Part IV), a field in which there is a growing interest, as 
witness Professor Sterrett's "Call for Research in Asia Minor 
and Syria." As the meeting-ground between East and West, as 
the highway by which ancient culture was transmitted to later 
civilizations, as a land dotted with obvious remains of great 
peoples, as a land where exist side by side many types and 
stages of development, Asia Minor compels attention. Judging 
from the startling discoveries of recent years, ancient history 
is a modern study. 

After making the circuit of the country once Hittite, (cf. 
also Hogarth in Journal Royal Anthropological Institute, etc., 
July, 1910., pp. 408 ff.), and having reviewed more recent his- 
toric phases, the writer proceeds to sum up the discovered monu- 
ments, and to trace the ancient Hittite people (See pp. 81 f. — 
classified list). "Our southern frontier," he says, "reaches to 
Hamath on the Orontes. Eastward our boundary is the Euphra- 
tes, flowing past Malatia, Samsat, and Jerablus. Westward 
the monuments follow the river edge of Jaurus as far as the 
Kara Dagh, with not a single site under the southern slope of 
these mountains. In the north we have no clear boundary." In- 
dications point to the regions so far west as Sardis and Smyrna. 

Interest centers at Pteria within the circle of the Halys, 
the site of the ancient Boghaz-Keui, capital of the Hittite Em- 
pire, "the organizing center of the Hatti power" in the four- 
teenth and thirteenth centuries before our era. From the Aegean 
on the one hand to Syria on the other marked the extent of 
Hittite sway. Here huge outer walls, the famous lion gate com- 
bining in a rare degree boldness of design and finish in detail, 
the remains of great palace walls, the colossal sculptures, the 



Book Reviews 285 

symbolic, religious sculptures of nearby lasily Kaya, and the 
extent of the ruins all attest the greatness of the Hittite power. 
A tentative chronology of the site dates back to c. 1350 B. C, 
the period of the so-called lower palace, the period of Hittite 
expansion under the great King Subbi-luliuma. 

A final chapter "relates the material evidences of the Hittite 
handiwork to the story of their doings." From Sakje-Geuzi 
at the southern foot of Taurus, come remains of the Neolithic 
period, beginning prior to 3000 B. C, and visions arise of com- 
parisons with the finds of Evans in Crete, de Morgan at Susa, 
Pumpelly in Turkestan and Petrie at Abydos. 

Abundant foot-notes and references aid the readers and the 
volume closes with a full bibliography, an index of Hittite 
monuments carefully summarized, with references, author and 
general indices. 

W. N. Stearns 

Department of History, 

University of North Dakota 



The Cambridge Medieval History: Planned by J. B. Bury 
and edited by H. M. Gwatkin and J. P. Whitney. Vol. 
I., The Christian Roman Empire and the Foundation of the 
Teutonic Kingdoms. The Macmillan Company, New York, 
191 1. Pp. xxii-|-754, 14 maps (8 double page, 3 colored). 
Price, $5. 

It is quite fitting that the great university that accomplished 
the new Britannica and the Cambridge Modern History should 
now bring out what students of Medieval history have so long 
coveted — a comprehensive, authoritative, encyclopedic record of 
this fascinating but troublous period. In the first place the 
editors have wisely recognized human limitations and called to 
their aid a large staff of experts, and to each has been assigned 
a special period or subject. Even single chapters have been 
divided in the interest of expert work. The time is past when 
any one man can compass any considerable interval : cooperation 
is absolutely necessary if we are to get beyond the text-book 
stage of book-making. Thus twenty-one chapters, covering the 
period from 284 to 597 A. D., are the work of twenty scholars, 
numbering seven universities and including professors, clergy- 
men and barristers. Unity is insured by the central editorial 
staff. 



286 The Quarterly Journal 

Such works we have long had in German, as Oncken 
Allgemeine Geschichte (Mittelalters, 15 Bande), and in French, 
as Lavisse and Ramband (Hist, generale, 12 vols.). The present 
work, complete in eight royal octavo volumes, will come down 
to the Renaissance: ii., The Rise of the Saracens and the Foun- 
dation of the Western Empire; iii., Germany and the Western 
Empire: iv., The Eastern Roman Empire; v., The Crusades; 
vi., The Roman Theocracy; vii., Decline of the Empire and 
Papacy; viii., Growth of the Western Kingdoms. The editors 
state as their purpose that the book is intended partly for the 
general reader, as a clear and, as far as possible, interesting 
narrative; partly for the student, as a summary of ascertained 
facts, with indications (not discussions) of disputed points; 
partly as a book of reference, containing all that can reasonably be 
required in a comprehensive work of general history." To the 
end that studies commenced may be continued, each chapter is 
equipped with a special bibliography, and there is a general 
bibliography besides. Works occasionally quoted appear in the 
notes. 

The reader is attracted by the scope of the term history. 
To articulate history, or to tell, rather, where the articulations 
come, is as difficult as to tell at what point youth passes over 
into manhood. The present work begins with Constantine. 
There is, of course, no visible line of separation even here, yet 
this was the last union of East and West before the final division 
at the close of the reign of Theodosius the Great. Important 
changes, too, followed on the adoption of Christianity, medieval 
elements are not strongly marked before the fourth century, and 
governmental forms took on a stamp that continued for cen- 
turies. Further, the student is given a survey of the principles 
that underlay and shaped the history of the medieval period. 

The book is of the nature of an encyclopedia, and any 
attempt at adequate review would involve another volume. A 
few points may be noted. The advent of Christianity and its 
progress to supremacy is treated by Principal Lindsay, whose 
work on the Reformation period has already marked him as an 
authority in church history. We have here a graphic account 
of the activity of the ancient cults. The oracles were not 
dumb, the poet to the contrary. "It may almost be said that 
Paganism was never so active, so assertive, so combative, as 
in the third century." The cosmopolitan universities, with their 



Book Reviews 287 

heterogeneous concourse of faculties and students, the peri- 
patetic advocates of various cults, and the restless passings to 
and fro of the peoples all tended toward the great amalgama- 
tion of races and temperaments that was to lay the foundations 
of a new empire. Among the competing cults are Cybele, Isis, 
Mithras, Sol Invictus, Dea Svra, the Great Mother — many of 
them colored by contact with Hellenism. Greek philosophy, too, 
made a last stand. "Neoplatonism, the last birth of Hellenic 
thought, not without traces of Oriental expectancy. It had lost 
the firm tread of Plato and Aristotle." 

Equally interesting is Doctor Bang's discussion of the 
Gothic invasions. After summing up the too brief evidence at 
hand he concludes that "the expansion of the Indo-Germanic 
race and its division into various nations and groups of nations 
had in the main been completed during the Neolithic Period." 
By 200 B. C. Teuton settlements extended from the Rhine to 
the Main on the south. When in the third century these wild 
tribes appeared on the north shores of the Black Sea, and later 
gradually extended westward to the Atlantic, Southern Europe 
awoke to a realization of the peril that lurked behind the forests 
of Germany and Dacia. Not until the wastes of Central Asia 
shall have been explored will historians know the full meaning 
of that epochal vdlkcrivanderung. 

Under the title "The Asiatic Background," Dr. Peisker 
brings us to the consideration of the Turkestan question (Cf. 
King, Sumer and Akkad, App. I., Pp. 351 ff.). "How did the 
Nomads originate?" "On the theory of a progressive dessication 
it is assumed that the Aryan peasantry of Turkestan were com- 
pelled to take to a nomad life thru the degeneration of their 
fields to steppes and wastes." Tracing the home of man from 
earliest prehistoric times to the delta oases of Turkestan and 
Northern Persia, the settlers of the first Culture raised wheat and 
barley, lived in rectangular houses of air-dried bricks, and 
possessed only wild animals at first from which were domesti- 
cated locally the long-horned ox, pig, horse and sheep. Culti- 
vation of cereals in Asia antedates 8000 B. C, and the domes- 
tication of animals 8000 to 6800 B. C. (Cf. Pumpelly, Explora- 
tions in Turkestan, 1908, vol. I., ch. 5.) "The skulls of the 
first and second cultures," says Dr. Peisker, "are all dolicho- 
cephalic or Mesocephalic, without a trace of the round-headed 
element." 



288 The Quarterly Journal 

The book is particularly rich in what the Germans have 
aptly styles "kultiirgeschichte," as evidence such titles as "Social 
and Economic Conditions of the Roman Empire in the Fourth 
Century," "Thoughts and Ideas of the Period," "Early Christian 
Art." History is life and is as diverse and varied as human 
life itself. Not only have thtse writers given us a record of 
events, they have erected a stage whereon we see the past 
go on before us expressed not in statistics but in actual living 
personalities. 

As the consummation of the life described, the chapter on 
"Early Christian Art" closes the volume. The tone of the age 
was theological, the art could not be other than ecclesiastical. 
There is no longer a distance between Greek and Roman or be- 
tween Roman and Christian art. Archaeology has filled up the 
gaps and made the account a continuous process. "Early Chris- 
tian art is Roman art in the widest sense, purified, orientalised, 
and informed with a new and epical content which held as seed 
the possibilities of the mighty cycle of Byzantine and Medieval 
art." Nor does the book deal in generalities. The catacombs, 
sarcophagi, gems, ivories, gilt glasses, terra cotta objects, and 
mosaics are all dealt with fully and in order. The writer accepts 
the recent theory of the derivation of the basilica from the 
private house. "More true it is that the greater private houses 
had triclinia and halls which were themselves called basilicas, 
and it is probable that these were actually used for assemblies 
of Christians. It is possible, further," he adds, "that there 
may be some sympathetic relation retween the developed church 
plan and the basilica of justice (Cf. Kraus, Gesch. d. Christ. 
Kunst, I., pp. 272 fif.). 

The makeup of the volume is sumptuous and well comports 
with the dignity of the subject treated. The use of non-bibulous 
paper might — while less attractive in appearance — have rendered 
the ample margins more available for notes. The full and 
carefully selected bibliographies at the close of each volume 
constitute by no means the least merit of the work. Scientific 
accuracy with clarity of statement, comprehensiveness with brev- 
ity, order and due proportion mark the volume thruout. 

"Nihil est in historia pura et illustri brevitate dulcius." 

W. N. Stearns 

Department of History, 

University of North Dakota 



Book Reviews 289 

A History oe Sumer and Akkad: Leonard W. King, M. A., 
F. S. A., Assistant in the Department of Egyptian and 
Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. Pp. xxiii-l-380. 34 
plates, 69 ilkistrations, 12 maps and plans. Frederick A. 
Stokes Company, N. Y., 19 10. Price, $5. 

The author of this regal volume has already made a repu- 
tation for comprehensive knowledge, judicious criticism, and 
clear, convincing manner of putting results obtained. The 
fragments of research and discovery hitherto scattered thru the 
journals and magazines are here collected and set in order; 
tablets, statues, the stray bits of pottery are fitted into their 
proper niches. Inscriptions are interpreted and sculptures are 
made to tell their story. The wealth of the British Museum 
is ransacked, as are also the Imperial Ottoman Museum and 
those of Western Europe. To the scholar the volume is a wel- 
come summary of a mass of journals, bulletins, and memoirs ; 
for the student with limited resources this book is priceless ; for 
the general reader it is not only a historical record but a fas- 
cinating story. 

The man whose mind is settled and lecture notes written 
will feel a jar. In the light of these new books, others not yet 
old seem puerile, so great have been the changes, tho so quietly 
made. It was common knowledge that the two rivers of 
Mesopotamia both entered the Persian Gulf which once extended 
about a hundred and thirty miles further north. Now we have 
the old channels of the Euphrates traced and we find the 
ancient boundaries of Sumer and Akkad much more limited than 
the Babylonia of later times. This twin title, Sumer and Akkad 
was first regularly used of the entire lower valley by the kings 
of Ur, c. B. C. 2400 (Ur-Engur). Especially clear is the in- 
fluence of the low, level plain country on the people and the 
contrast of these people with the wild mountain tribes around 
them. 

The volume affords an excellent view of the rise of city 
states, including Lagash, Erech, Larsa, Ur, Eridu, Sippar, 
Nippur, Agade, Cutha, Kish, Opis, and Babylon. The excava- 
tions of Germans, French, English, and Americans are dealt 
with at length, and the results then interpreted and woven into 
the narrative. Helpful, too, are the accompanying small maps, 
illustrating the several groups of mounds and the excavating of 



290 The Quarterly Journal 

the ancient sites. It is the story of the valley from primitive 
culture to the supremacy of the old Babylonian monarchy. 

A further step is the influence of Sumerian culture on the 
succeeding Babylonian. The code of Hammurabi sums up 
Sumerian legislation and counts Urukagina's work as its fore- 
runner. Sumerian originals underlie much of Babylonian and 
Assyrian literature, Sumerian cults lived on in the later temple 
rituals. "Sumer, in fact, was the principal source of Babylonian 
civilizatiton, and a study of its culture supplies a key to many 
subsequent developments in Western Asia." Not the least was 
the adoption of the Sumerian cuneiform script by the Babylonians 
and Assyrians, and its influence on later systems. 

Not the least of the changes is in the chronology. Thus 
Dynasty II. of early Babylon has been shown to be synchronous 
with Dynasties I. and III. Synchronisms are traced within the 
Sumerian period, and successive rulers and even houses are now 
believed to have been contemporaneous. Thus Shar-Gani- 
sharri (Sargon I.) has been differentiated from Sharru-Gi and 
his date changed from 3800 B. C. to 2650 B. C., almost 1200 
years. With due allowance for future excavations, our author 
sets down the first date as 3000 B. C., tho several more or less 
shadowy names must be counted before this. In practical agree- 
ment with this author is Meyer (Gesch. d. Altertums, I., ii., 
§§323. 2>^Z A) : "Die dltestcn hekanntere Konige und Denkrndler 
von Tello Konnen also fruhestens um 2900-2800 v. Chr. 
angesetat werden." 

A hint of what ancient history is yet to be, appears in the 
first appendix on recent explorations in Turkestan. We have 
thus far studied only the western half of the development of 
the ancient world. What ancient history is to become is still 
hidden in the deserts and mountains of Central Asia. 

A full chronological outline and an excellent map close the 
volume. 

W. N. Stearns 

Department of History, 

University of North Dakota 



Book Reviews 291 

Beginner's Civics for North Dakota: James E. Boyle, 
Professor of Economics and Political Science, University 
of North Dakota. American Book Company, Chicago, 1911. 
Pp. 285. Price, $1.00. 

This book is written to meet the needs of pupils in the 
grammar grades of our public schools. The language is simple 
and direct, the illustrations many and appropriate, and the 
subject matter wisely selected and well arranged. This subject 
matter is treated under four heads: (i) "Government," largely 
introductory, dealing for the most part with definitions, needs and 
kinds of government; (2) "Framework of our Government," 
giving the constitutions of the United States and of the State 
in their entirety; (3) "Workings of the Federal Government," 
and (4) "Workings of the State Government." These latter 
treat of the three coordinate branches of government under each 
of the two divisions. In each division is found a chapter on 
finances written in an instructive manner. Chapters on railroads, 
public health, and educatiton add interest and value, as also do 
the lists of references found at the close of many of the chapters. 

Looking at the book from a pedagogical point of view, a 
few features are worthy of notice ; the printing of the two con- 
stitutions in the body of the work instead of at the close, as tho 
an afterthought, and the parallel outline that accompanies them 
greatly aid the pupil in gaining a clear perspective. And the 
apt quotations that introduce the several chapters together with 
the lists of searching questions that close the same add both 
dignity and clearness. The book maker, too, has done his part 
equally well. The book is printed in good sized type, on a good 
quality of paper, and well bound. Dr. Boyle has made a note- 
worthy contribution to the literature of elementary civics. 

N. C. McDonald 

State Inspector of Graded and 
Rural Schools, North Dakota 



University Notes 



Commons [n the coiirse of the last two months a number 

Speakers ^£ well-known men, among them Dr. Gordon of 

Winnipeg and Dr. Lansing of the Men and Religion Forward 
Movement, have spoken at noon in the great dining-hall of the 
Commons. This feature of University life has really added a 
new forum, where the members of the University body can come 
to know somewhat informally the men who are worth hearing. 
Added to the more formal addresses of the Saturday Convo- 
cation hour, the noon-time talks make an ideal opportunity to 
hear present-day messages. Little by little the "Round-table" 
idea suggested by President McVey some time ago is making 
headway. Two efforts to bring together those interested in 
special lines of work have been met with fair success. As yet 
the informality of a round-table is not understood ; in time there 
will be in the center of the dining hall at noon on each day a 
group engaged in lively discussion, and as this becomes true 
the University Commons will carry out the larger functions in- 
cluded in the original purpose in its erection. 

Freshman The guiding hand of fate is supposed to rest 

Engineering heavily on the shoulders of freshmen, and as 

Curriculum , . , . , . , 

a consequence their conduct is not determined 

by reason but by because. Particularly is this said to be true of 
students entering the engineering courses. We are asked how 
can they know whether they should be sanitary engineers (let 
us hope they all are!), electric, mining, mechanical, civil, or 
engage in the many specialties in the engineering field? They 
should at any rate have an opportunity to look around and pass 
their original purpose thru thoro inspection before determining 
finally the field of the profession they will occupy. To this end 
the curriculum of the first year in all engineering courses has, 
by vote of the University Council, been made the same, so that 
after a year of preliminary work, the student is still in a position 
to determine what he will do without prejudice to the course he 
may follow. This is good ; it should go farther and attempt 
to give the freshman engineering student a larger background 
of language, literature, history and social science before plung- 

292 



University Notes 293 

ing him into the technic of his profession. Twenty years after 
graduation he will realize his shortcomings in these respects and 
wonder how he is to take off the sharp edge of materialism. 
This provision would mean another year, but well spent now, 
it might mean larger vision and better judgment in dealing with 
men and things later on. 

The Exchange Less than one hundred and fifty miles to 

Lectureships ^|^g ^qj-^j^ ^f ^^g University of North 

Dakota is the University of Manitoba. For several years the 
students of the two institutions have met in debate and athletic 
contests, but little intercourse existed between the faculty groups. 
In the fall of 191 1 arrangements were made for inaugurating a 
unique plan of exchange lectureships. The usual plan of such 
exchanges takes men away from their work several months at a 
time ; neither university was in a position to engage in such an 
arrangement, but an exchange of men for a three-day period 
would bring acquaintance, interchange of ideas and enlargement 
of view without serious interference with the regular work of 
the departments. 

The preliminaries having been arranged, lists of men were 
exchanged and selections made for the year 1912. The Uni- 
versity of North Dakota selected Robert C. Wallace, M. A., 
B. Sc. (Edinburg), Ph. D. (Gottingen), Professor of Geology, 
and Swale Vincent, M. D. (London), D. Sc. (Edinburg), 
L. R. C. P., M. R. C. S., F. R. S. C, F. R. S. E., Professor 
of Physiology, as lecturers, while the University of Manitoba 
invited A. Hoyt Taylor, Ph. D. (Gottingen), Professor of 
Physics, and John M. Gillette, Ph. D. (Chicago) Professor of 
Sociology. The program of the meetings include a conference 
and round-table discussion with the departments especially inter- 
ested and a formal lecture of more general nature, with such 
additional discussions as might arise. Both North Dakota men 
have visited Manitoba and report a most interesting and helpful 
occasion. They seemed to feel, to use the words of one of them, 
that the "visit in Winnipeg was almost as good as a short trip 
abroad. So varied, so broad, so international is the training, 
experience and ideals of the Manitoba faculty, that even a brief 
contact with them is an intellectual stimulus and an inspiration." 
And somewhat of the atmosphere they experienced and f(;lt, and 
of the appreciation they formed, they brought back to their col- 



294 The Quarteerly Journal 

leagues. This was deepened and made more general in our own 
group a little later by the visits and the messages of the Mani- 
toba men. Dr. Wallace spoke at the University on February 
24, taking as his topic, "Ideals in University Cooperation," and 
Dr. Vincent visited us March 22-23, speaking upon "Science 
and Culture: the University and Modern Life." 

This exchange of men between the universities has much 
to commend it, and is a plan that might well be followed in many 
places. It is anticipated that each year of its continuance will 
add to the helpful results obtained from this relationship. 

The School By recent action of the University Council 

of Education ^^ |.j^g recommendation of Dean Kennedy 

and his colleagues, what has been known as "Teachers College" 
has been slightly reorganized and is hereafter to be called "The 
School of Education." This is in line with the best thought 
and practice of the time, and in accordance with the recommen- 
dation of the Association of American Universities and the 
Association of State Universities. Several of the leading uni- 
versities of the country, including Missouri, Minnesota and 
Kansas, have gone to this form of organization in their depart- 
ments whose function it is to prepare teachers. This is coming 
to be the practice in regard to other departments, also, such as 
Medicine, Law, etc. 

A School, in higher education, now usually means the junior 
and senior years, and possibly a year of graduate work, organized 
for a specific aim or vocation, requiring regularly two years of 
work in the College of Liberal Arts for entrance, and leading to 
a degree and a professional diploma. A College, on the other 
hand, means a curriculum requiring for entrance a high school 
education or its equivalent. 

Applied at the University of North Dakota, it means that 
hereafter those who regularly enter the School of Education 
must have had their freshman and sophomore years in the Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts, thus reserving their professional preparation 
and their further concentration on major lines for their junior 
and senior years in the School of Education. 

When those intending to prepare for teaching enroll, at the 
beginning of their junior year, with the Dean of the School of 
Education, they will still remain members of the College of 
Liberal Arts also; for when they complete the School of Educa- 



University Notes 295 

tion they will, de facto, have completed the work required for 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts. They will, as now, receive 
also the Bachelor's Diploma in Teaching which is accredited as 
a first grade professional certificate in North Dakota. Those 
who are now candidates for the "Teacher's Certificate" after 
two years of college work, academic and professional, will con- 
tinue as heretofore, to enroll with the Dean of the School of 
Education, who will direct their work, but they will also be 
members of the College of liberal Arts. In view of this arrange- 
ment, the sole power of professional certification for teaching 
is delegated, by the University, to The School of Education. 

The School of Education, then, includes: (i) The two 
years of junior and senior work having a professional bent, 
and requiring for entrance two years of work in the College of 
Liberal Arts; (2) A year of graduate work for those wishing 
to study and investigate further the problems of Education, 
making this their major; (3) Curricula including two years of 
college work, academic and professional, requiring for entrance 
a high school education or equivalent, and leading to the "Teach- 
er's Certificate;" (4) Special curricula of two years leading to 
special certificates in music, drawing, manual training, house- 
hold economics and business ; these will be enrolled as special 
students; (5) The Model High School for observation and 
practice by the seniors in the School of Education. 

Decorations in The building constructed for the School of 

School of Education Education is one of the finest on the cam- 
pus. While architecturally complete and 
modern m all its appointments and furnishings, it remained, dur- 
ing the year 1910-11, almost entirely without artistic adornment. 
The walls were untouched by finer art, and the corridors and 
landings imprest all as bare and uninviting. The legislature of 
191 1 made an appropriation for this purpose, and during the 
summer Mr. Harrington Beard of the Beard Art Galleries of 
Minneapolis was asked to make a personal visit of inspection 
and to recommend a scheme of simple but becoming decoration. 
The University believes that a reasonable amount of money thus 
spent is put to the very best use. Probably next to great living 
teachers there are no more potent influences than great pictures. 
The articles thus provided for, together with a few pieces of 
statuary and some pictures already on hand, mainly gifts of for- 



296 The Quarterly Journal 

mer classes, complete the work. And there is heard on every 
hand expressions of appreciation from those who visit the build- 
ing and linger in the corridors. 

On entering the building attention is first attracted by the 
commanding Nike, the Winged Victory of Samothrace, which 
stands in the central square, on the first floor. This was a gift 
to the university by the class of 1904. On either side of the 
Victory, on the corridor walls, are photographs of the two mural 
decorations by Charles Sprague Pearce, in the Congressional 
Library, known as "Study and Labor." At the ends of the 
corridor on the first floor and at other convenient places have 
been placed oak tables and settles, making excellent places for 
rest and reflection. On the walls around these tables are to 
be found pictures appropriate to the occasion and the place. 

On the stair walls between the first and second floors, are 
fine pictures of "Philosophy," representing Plato and his disciples, 
"Pastoral Poetry," representing Virgil as the chief poet, 
and two large pictures of the Milan and Cologne Cathedrals. On 
the second floor stands the Venus de Milo, presented to the Uni- 
versity by Teachers College Class of 1905 ; and on each side of 
the Venus, on the corridor walls, are large photographs of Can- 
terbury Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. Between the Venus 
and the young women's parlors is John Alexander's long panel 
picture of "The Evolution of the Book." On either side of the 
stairs, going to the third floor, are two exquisite reproductions 
of Edwin Abbey's "Art," and "Religion." On the landing be- 
tween the second and third floors, stands a cast of the "Flying 
Mercury," presented to the University br the Normal Class of 
1904; and on the corridor wall of the third floor hangs a large 
and beautiful picture of Guido Reni's "Aurora," originally a 
fresco on the ceiling of Rospigliosi Palace in Rome. 

In the Auditorium, on the second floor, the decorative 
scheme consists of reproductions of Luca Delia Robbia's Can- 
toria Frieze, or Singing Galleries — groups of boys and girls in 
various natural attitudes and poses singing, playing and dancing. 
Two medallions, reproductions of Thorwaldsen's "Night" and 
"Morning," adorn the east wall, while the stage is hung in drap- 
eries with a background of rich velure. 

In the young women's parlors and rest rooms have been 
placed, besides appropriate furnishings, six fine well known 
pictures peculiarly appropriate to the place: "Madonna of the 



University Notes 297 

Grotto," "Fame," "Hope," "Autumn," "An Oak Walk" and 
"Moods of Music." Equally appropriate for the young men's 
rooms are "Sir Gallahad," "The Horses of Achilles" and "The 
Education of an Athenian Youth." 

Some of the offices, the reading rooms and class rooms are 
likewise rendered more attractive and each given a suitable per- 
sonality by the presence of a few choice pieces of appropriate 
statuary and some fine pictures of historical scenes and charac- 
ters. All settles and tables, likewise the framing of the pictures 
have been done in oak, and finished in harmony with the wood 
work of the building. 

All in all, these decorations have much to do in creating an 
atmosphere of culture and refinement that has a distinct educa- 
tional value peculiarly in keeping with the character of the work 
being done in the building — the fitting of men and women to 
become teachers of the young. 

Conservation of The Department of Physics has in press a 

Wind Power bulletin on the "Development, Storage and 

Utilization of Wind Power." The treatment is semi-technical 
in its nature, and is intended as a preliminary outline of the 
possibilities in this field of conservation of natural resources. 
The author. Dr. A. Hoyt Taylor, outlines a feasible system 
which it is hoped may be put into practical operation in the 
shape of an experimental plant at the University in the near 
future. Some very conservative figures on the power which 
could be developed by a 12 ft. wind-mill for January and Feb- 
ruary, are based on recent experimental researches in aerody- 
namics applied to the data of the University Weather Station 
for these months. The results are surprising, and at the same 
time very encouraging. There is little doubt that the University 
can be of great service to the State if it can equip and operate 
for a considerable period of time a small wind-power station 
where various controlling devices, electrical valves and accumu- 
lators can be tested out and developed. The cost of such a plant 
will not be excessive. 

This, bulletin will be followed up later on by another one of 
a more technical nature, dealing with the design and operation 
of the new features of the proposed system, in particular with 
the storage battery installation, the charging dynamo, the regu- 
lating devices, etc. 



298 The Quarterly Journal 

Founders* The University of North Dakota is a young insti- 

^^y '■ution. It is scarcely more than beginning to 

count its years in decades. It therefore lacks the host of tradi- 
tions and time-honored customs that, in the older institutions, 
count for so much in loyalty and esprit de corps.- Yet the few 
that are found are as vital and as clearly in evidence as tho 
hoary with age. Beginnings are as eagerly scrutinized and the 
historic pathway as enthusiastically retraced by undergraduates, 
friends and alumni as ever could be the case with even Harvard 
or Yale. Had any doubt existed as to the fact, one needed only 
to attend the celebration of Founders' Day observed on the 
twenty-second of February. 

This was a unique celebration in many ways. It may be said 
to have consisted of three features of which the first was a 
Basket Ball game in the afternoon in which the University de- 
feated by a decisive score its old-time athletic rival, the State 
Agricultural College, thereby effectively clinching its title to the 
state championship. This victory gave zest and appetite for the 
second feature, the banquet in the large dining hall of the new 
Commons building. At this feast were gathered in large num- 
bers and in the finest spirits, trustees, alumni, friends and well- 
wishers, student body and faculty members, all of whom vied 
with one another in expressions of enthusiasm and loyalty. So 
joyous was the atmosphere and so contagious the spirit of good 
fellowship that it broke out again and again in jolly song and 
happy cheer. Scarcely were the viands disposed of when Presi- 
dent McVey, as toastmaster, instituted a still more interesting 
feature of the banquet. Representatives from the Boards of 
Trustees, first and last, from the student body, from the alumni, 
and from the faculty responded, some with reminiscence, some 
with wit, and still others with prophecy, but all with loyalty. It 
was, indeed, a happy affair. 

But the culminating feature of the celebratiton was the 
illustrated lecture in the gymnasium that followed the banquet. 
The theme was the history of the University from the very begin- 
ning. It was told in picture and in running comment. More 
than a hundred photographs had been collected and from them 
slides made. These represented every phase of the history of the 
institution from the original corner-stone laying to the present 
time. They included campus scenes from the time that the cam- 
pus was used mainly as a pasture for the Janitor's cow to the 



University Notes 299 

present when it is a real beauty spot on the monotonous prairie; 
buildings, also, former trustees and teachers, individual students 
who have already achieved marked success, and many student 
groups were thrown upon the screen to the great enjoyment and 
appreciation of all. These group pictures proved especially in- 
teresting — athletic and debating teams, literary societies and 
musical clubs. But all were interesting and made all the more 
so since the lecturer was able out of the storehouse of his own 
memory to add so much in the way of personal touches here 
and there. They almost seemed to be standing before the 
audience and once more to be engaged in' their old-time activities. 
The historian of the evening was Professor Vernon P. Squires. 
His long connection with the University and his extended ac- 
quaintance with University doings and with University people en- 
abled him to supplement the illustrations in a lecture replete with 
interest and humor. Many an incident of the institution's history, 
well-nigh forgotten or wholly unknown by the many, was brought 
out and given appropriate location. It was seen that, tho 
young, the University has a past and has traditions worthy of 
holding. 

Two features of the address are worthy of special mention : 
the explanation of the date fixt upon for the celebration of 
Founders' Day, and the apt outline of the history of the Uni- 
versity into the four periods. These follow in the historian's 
own words. 

"There are several reasons why it is peculiarly appropriate 
to celebrate February twenty-second as Founders' Day. In the 
first place, it is the eve of the anniversary of the day on which 
the bill creating the University was passed in its final form, that 
bill bearing the date of February twenty-third, 1883. Again, it 
is the anniversary of the day in 1889 when President Cleveland 
signed the enabling act which empowered the people of this terri- 
tory to adopt a constitution. Finally, it is the anniversary of the 
birth of two of the greatest of Americans, Washington and 
Lowell, men who in a conspicuous way suggest the ideas of Law 
and Light, the key words of our great University seal." 

"The history of the University readily divides itself into 
four periods. The first or "ancient" period extended from the 
founding in 1883 to the year 1895. It was a time of beginnings. 
It included the administrations of President Blackburn, Acting- 



30O The Quarterly Journal 

President Montgomery, and President Sprague, and the first four 
years of President Merrifield's administration. It witnessed the 
erection of Old Main, Davis Hall and the older portion of Macnie 
Hall. The next four years may well be called the "medieval" 
period or the "dark ages." This period began with the vetoing of 
the appropriation bill by Governor Allen in 1895 and continued to 
the passage of the mill-tax bill in 1899. It was a time of discour- 
agement and uncertainty. No new buildings were erected. In- 
deed, during the first half of the period the institution was kept 
open only by the generous contributions of public-spirited citi- 
zens and by the heroic devotion and self-sacrifice of the faculty. 
"The "modern" period or period of active growth began 
with the passage of the mill-tax bill in 1899. This gave the 
University an assured income, thus making development possible. 
During this period all the Colleges of the University — save the 
College of Arts, the original college — were organized ; several 
new buildings were erected ; the faculty was largely augmented ; 
and the attendance grew by leaps and bounds. It was a memor- 
able decade. The final or "contemporary" period began with the 
resignation of President Merrifield and the coming of President 
McVey in 1909. During these years the steady growth has con- 
tinued and the organization of the institution has been materially 
strengthened. The University has shaken ofif many of its child- 
hood characteristics and assumed the dignity and stability of an 
adult." 

Annual Under a lectureship begun two years ago in 

University bringing Dr. Kent from Yale, for a service 

of three days and continued last year thru 
the visit of Dr. Griffis of Ithaca, N. Y., Dr. Edward A. Ross of 
the University of Wisconsin has just spent three days at the 
University. Dr. Ross treated two general topics, China and The 
Chinese and present social conditions in the United States, giving 
three addresses on each. The specific topics of the first series 
were, "China and the Chinese, "The Struggle for Existence in 
China," and "The Transformation in China." Those who had 
read Dr. Ross' recent book on "The Changing Chinese," the out- 
come of recent travels in and thru China, recognized much of 
the material presented, but were none the less pleased to have the 
opportunity of hearing the gifted author put his personality into 
it. The larger part of his auditors had not read the book, and 
so had a great new vista, remarkably different from conditions 



University Notes 301 

in our own land, opened up to them. Perhaps the most impres- 
sive address on the great oriental nation was the second, since 
in this land of opportunity we see so little of the real struggle 
for existence, and because it showed us that there is still good 
scientific doctrine ultimately in the Malthusian position. 

The particular subjects of the second series were, "Sectionalism 
and Class Conflict in Contemporary Society," "The Moulding In- 
fluence of the Family" and "Tendencies in the Higher Life." All 
of these proved of great interest, the first and second especially 
provoking much discussion later on. The last of the three was 
given on Saturday morning, March 30, as the weekly Convocation 
address. 

Besides the events noted above, Dr. Ross kindly gave of 
himself in other ways. On Friday morning he addressed a union 
of several classes on the subject of "Current Democracy," and 
at noon joined a large number of the University faculty at lun- 
cheon the most enjoyable feature of which was a discussion led 
by the distinguished visitor. In the evening he appeared before 
the Grand Forks Commercial Club as the speaker of the occasion. 
Saturday evening he spoke before the University Civics Club. His 
visit was greatly enjoyed thruout. The University counts itself 
fortunate to be able to profit by the broadening influence of con- 
tact with men of the type of Professor Ross and of getting the 
stimulus which their investigations in new fields bring. Professor 
Ross has come to be almost a national institution, his personality 
is wholesome and stimulating, and his messages are important 
contributions on the subjects they treat. 

The For many years a Summer School has been 

Summer maintained at the University, under the joint 

management of the University and the State De- 
partment of Education. It was mainly for the convenience of 
rural and graded teachers of Grand Forks, Pembina and Walsh 
counties, relatively little work of strictly college grade being 
offered. Two years ago, however, in response to a growing de- 
mand, a College Section was organized and several of the regu- 
lar departments of the University were open. A larger number 
than was anticipated availed themselves of the opportunity of- 
fered to use the summer season for study, and the experiment 
was voted a success. A year later the work was planned on still 
broader lines and proved a very material assistance to many am- 
bitious students as well as to several teachers of the state who are, 



302 The Quarterly Journal 

of course, fully engaged during the regular sessions. The session 
of 1912 promises to be the most satisfactory thus far held. In 
addition to the regular lines of work formerly offered, several 
new features are planned that can not but satisfy a decided need. 
A glance thru the advertising pages of this number of the Quar- 
terly Journal will find the work in outline. With North Dakota's 
proverbially cool summer weather, with the campus at its best, 
and with these interesting special features at hand, the session 
bids fair to be a very profitable one. 

Presentation One of the most ambitious and worthy of 

*»' the organizations connected with the Uni- 

" "° " * versity is the Sock and Buskin Society. Its 

membership, limited to forty, is made up of students and members 
of the faculty, the former greatly predominating. Membership, 
awarded solely on merit, is highly prized. The general purposes 
of the society are the improvement and the greater appreciation 
of the drama. One feature of the work looking in that direction 
is the annual presentation of a play of merit before a Grand 
Forks and a University audience. The third performance of this 
character took place on the evening of April third at the Metro- 
politan Theater in Grand Forks when the Revolutionary drama, 
Nathan Hale, was presented before a large and highly appreciative 
audience. So high a standard had the society set in its previous 
renderings of Twelfth Night and Everyman that many somewhat 
feared the outcome. But no one was disappointed. The work was 
of high grade in every respect. Indeed, very many theater goers 
rank the work as the finest performance of the year at a local 
theater. 



Announcement 

THE Quarterly Journal is a publication established and main- 
tained by the University of North Dakota. Its primary func- 
tion is to represent the varied activities of the several colleges and 
departments of the University — to serve as the medium of exchange 
between the members of its instructional force and the learned world 
outside. Still, it is not limited to that. Its columns are open to other 
writers, particularly of the Northwest, in the discussion of topics ger- 
mane to the work of higher education, especially to such as bring the 
fruitage of scientific research, literary investigation or other forms of 
constructive thought. Contributions will be welcomed and, when 
found suitable and available, readily given space. Correspondence is 
solicited. 

The subscription price is one dollar a year, postpaid, single num- 
bers, thirty cents. 

All communications should be addressed. 

The Quarterly Journal, 

University, North Dakota. 



Editor's Bulletin Board 

WITH this, the July number. Volume II of the Quarterly 
Journal closes. As announced in the April number, it is 
given over to a discussion of the educational situation in North 
Dakota. Practically all phases of the subject are treated, and by men 
well equipped for such discussion. The time has been somewhat 
limited for the investigation needed in some cases, nevertheless the 
presentation is reliable and as nearly accurate as one could hope. An 
attempt has been made to present things as they are even tho not 
always just what they should be, since the first step toward improve- 
ment is a clear recognition of the need of such improvement. Such a 
study, presenting a bird's-eye view of the educational situation of the 
state, can not fail of being of real interest and permanent value. 

The Quarterly Journal trusts that all errors in statistics and 
inaccuracies in statement will be brought to its attention, and that 
comment and suggestion will be freely offered. 

The issue for October, 19 12, the first number of the third 
volume, may be expected, as usual, the latter part of September. An 
interesting number is assured tho space does not permit a more 
detailed mention of it here. 



The University of North Dakota 

SUMMER SESSION, 1912. JUNE 17 TO JULY 26 

THE ELEMENTARY SECTION is under the management of a 
Board consisting of the State Superintendent, the President 
of the University and the County Superintendents of Grand 
Forks, Pembina and Walsh counties. Professor C. C. 
Schmidt of the University is Director. It offers work of 
special interest to teachers in the rural schools, and also to 
those expecting to occupy grade positions in village and 
city systems. County Superintendents accept creditable 
work in lieu of examination in certificate subjects. 

THE COLLEGE SECTION, with Dr. A. J. Ladd as Director, 
offers instruction in seventeen college departments includ- 
ing economics, education, history, languages (ancient and 
modern), literature, philosophy and the sciences. The 
University gives credit for work done during the Summer 
Session the same as during the regular University year. 

SPECIAL FEATURES IN COLLEGE SUBJECTS: 

Library Science: Thoro courses of lectures with opportuni- 
ty for much apprentice work; should equip for successful 
handling of small libraries. 

Domestic Science: Advanced courses offered in both cook- 
ing and sewing, one course especially designed for teachers 
of the subject in high schools. 

Manual Training: Excellent facilities for prospective teach- 
ers as well as for students doing regular work. 

Course in Nursing: Designed to give adequate preparation 
for intelligent management of the sick room; preparation 
of foods, sanitation and ventilation especially emphasized. 

Edtication: The new school law requires professional equip- 
ment of all teachers; to meet the need courses are offered 
in History of Education, Secondary Education and Psy- 
chology. 

SPECIAL LPXTURES of an educational and inspirational char- 
acter are offered daily without extra charge. The speakers 
include eminent authorities in various fields of thought. 

THE ENTIRE FACILITIES of the University are at the service 
of students during the six weeks of the Summer Session. 
Residence Halls for men and women. A cool climate and 
a pleasant campus. PLxpenses reduced to the minimum. 
For further information, address 

The Registr.\r, University, N. D. 



3^^ 



t>^ 



The Quarterly Journal 

Volume 2 JULY, 1912 Number 4 

The Rural School Situation 
in North Dakota 

N. C. McDonald, 
State Inspector of Rural and Graded Schools, North Dakota 

THE rural school situation in North Dakota is one that presents 
a large problem pressing for solution. It is not a local prob- 
lem, being found in all the states. Nor is it unsolvable, solutions 
already being made in many places. But the situation is one that 
demands a greater efHciency on the part of the rural schools than we 
now have. It seems to be conceded by thinking schoolmen everywhere 
that the rural school situation is one that needs to be improved, and 
that, greatly and speedily. At the 191 1 session of the National 
Educational Association, a committee of eleven was appointed "to 
investigate the condition of the rural schools and make recommenda- 
tions for their improvement." This committee made a preliminary 
report to the National Council of Education at the recent St. Louis 
meeting. Deplorable is the word that describes the conditions as 
found by the committee up to this time. This, of course, was to be 
expected. At the 191 1 meeting of the North Dakota Educational 
Association, provision was made by resolution to appoint a State 
Rural School Commission. The resolution states: "It will be the 
duty of this commission to recommend effective measures for the 
permanent uplift of the rural schools of the state." This commission 
has been appointed and is already at work. Similar commissions are 
at work in other states, the movement for rural school improvement 
being really nation-wide. 

In discussing the rural school situation in North Dakota I shall 
do so under the following heads : ( i ) Some undesirable conditions 
that make for a lower efficiency; and (2) some desirable condi- 
tions that are making for a higher efficiency. 



3o6 The Quarterly Journal 

I. SOME UNDESIRABLE CONDITIONS 

At a recent meeting of the State Rural School Commission it 
was agreed that the following are some of the things that make up 
some undesirable conditions that obtain in our rural school situation: 
(i) Short terms and low attendance; 2) poorly qualified teachers; 
(3) insufficient financial support; (4) unsuitable school buildings 
and school grounds; (5) insufficient supervision; (6) lack of social 
life centers; and (7) lack of a proper adjustment of text-books and 
course of study. 

TERMS AND ATTENDANCE 

As an introduction to this topic it may be said here that practi- 
cally all statistical data given in this paper have been compiled from 
an analysis of the State Superintendent's Eleventh Biennial Report 
— the last one published, County and City Superintendent's reports 
and of data collected directly and by questionnaires; also that the 
term "rural school" will here mean the one-room school, tho 
reference will have to be made to the other classes for the purposes 
of comparison. The average term for the year 1909- 19 10 for rural 
schools including the village graded schools was 136 days. For the 
rural schools alone it was 130 days; while for the city schools, that 
is, schools having a state high school as a part of the system, it was 
180 days. For rural schools in the province of Manitoba it was 212 
days. 

In the matter of attendance about the same deplorable condi- 
tions obtained. The average number of days attendance for 1909- 
19 10 for each pupil enrolled in the rural schools including the 
village graded schools was 83 days. For the rural schools alone it 
was 77 days, while for the city schools it was 138 days. The actual 
per cent of attendance which is now generally determined by counting 
in non-membership absence with the nominal absence, for all schools 
was sixty-five per cent. For the rural schools including the village 
graded schools it was sixty-one per cent. For the rural schools alone 
it was fifty-nine per cent, while for the city schools alone it was 
seventy-six and five tenths per cent. The enrollment for all schools 
for this year was 139,802 pupils, and the average daily attendance, 
90,149. Therefore the actual average daily absence was 49,653. 
Of this number the rural and village graded schools furnished 42,556 
or eighty-five per cent, while they furnished only seventy-eight per 
cent of the total enrollment. The rural schools alone furnished 
more than 38,000 pupils or seventy-six per cent while furnishing less 
than sixty-seven per cent of the total enrollment. There were also 



The Rural School Situation 307 

16,705 persons on the census list who did not enroll in any school, 
public or private, and who had not completed the eighth grade. An 
analysis of this number will show that the greater part comes from 
the rural school non-enrollment, and that it furnishes a larger pro 
rata share than do the city and village graded schools. 

In connection with these short terms and low attendance there 
are the questions of the non-use of invested money and of law viola- 
tion. The average cost of tuition per month per pupil enrolled for 
1 909- 1 9 10 was more than four dollars. This would mean that the 
non-use of invested money for rural schools for the average term of 
130 days amounted approximately to the enormous sum of $988,- 
000.00. The teachers, the buildings and equipments, all representing 
invested money, were there; but an average of forty-one per cent 
of the pupils enrolled were not there each day. For this year the 
report also shows that there were 920 schools in which the school 
term taught was less than six months. The law required six months. 
It will be noticed that the average term taught is more than the six 
months, which is surely noteworthy in this rather dark page of 
educational history. But this non-use of invested money, and this 
law violation cannot all be condoned, or even passed over without 
mention and condemnation. The best that one can say for it is that 
it is a disgrace to any state. Back of it all, and back of all similar 
school conditions is ignorance, greed, indifference, or petty politics, 
or all combined. And back of this unholy combination is the 
ignoble sentiment that "money makes the man." 

In the year 1903 there were enrolled in the first grade approx- 
imately 23,000 pupils, while in the year 1910 there were only 8,279 
enrolled in the eighth grade. When one remembers that this last 
number was increased by immigration during this period, and that 
the city schools furnish the largest pro-rata share of it, it can be 
seen that the grade mortality is very heavy in the rural schools. From 
data collected at different times it has been found that the number of 
country children completing the eighth grade is less than fifteen per 
cent of the total available number. In this matter the country boy 
who furnishes the largest per cent of any age-group of school chil- 
dren, furnishes the lowest per cent compelting the eighth grade. 
Later he must furnish the most money to support the family, church, 
school, and state, despite the fact that he receives the least education. 
It also appears that the minor fraction of the country children enroll 
in sixth and seventh grades. When the high school facilities are 
considered for the rural child, the conditions are still more deplorable. 
It has been ascertained that the number of country children enrolled 



3o8 The Quarterly Journal 

in the classified high schools is less than twenty per cent of the total 
enrollment tho the number of country children was about seventy- 
five per cent of the total available number. The city school shows 
a higher per cent entering and completing the higher grades than do 
the rural schools. 

In this matter of attendance it is not to be expected that the 
rural schools would make as good a showing as the city schools. 
However, the attendance can be greatly improved. There are 
counties, districts, and individual schools that make as good a showing 
as some of our best city schools. Thus, what several can do, many 
more under practically the same conditions ought also to do. And 
there is certainly no reason whatever why the term should not be 
as long. The children need it and there is money to pay for it. It 
is largely a matter of public spirit and civic pride. Of course this 
large daily absence cannot be entirely eliminated, for there are cases 
of sickness, removals from districts and so forth, that furnish some 
of this absence, tho a very small fraction. The city schools suffer 
the most in this respect. And yet they make a much better showing 
than the rural schools. There is also the question of child labor 
involved in the relatively small attendance in the rural schools. This 
shows very plainly in the small number and small per cent of boys 
that complete the eighth grade. Most of them have been kept out 
to assist on the farms, and so falling behind their grades drop out as 
soon as the compulsory law cannot reach them. Anyone even slightly 
familiar with North Dakota farming conditions in connection with 
rural school attendance needs no lengthy argument to convince him 
that the country boj's are deprived of school in large numbers during 
the fall and spring months. Any analysis of the state's statistics or 
investigation of teachers' registers, clerks' or superintendents' records, 
or somewhat extended travel and observation, will convince the 
most skeptical that in this respect at least, the rural school situation 
is North Dakota is truly deplorable. The causes, efFects, and results 
of these undesirable conditions would make a paper many pages in 
length. Here the principal cause is the mad scramble after the 
American dollar. And so we have many thousand fields, broad and 
well-tilled, as the result of many thousand boys with narrow and ill- 
trained minds. 

POORLY QUALIFIED TEACHERS 

The majority of teachers in the rural schools hold only the 
county second, or elementary second grade certificate. This is about 
the equivalent of the completion of the eighth grade in the average 



The Rural School Situation 309 

city schools. Some do not mesure up to this standard, and only a 
very few above it. Not only are they deficient in academic training, 
but their professional training is still more deficient. Seldom do 
they possess the elements of leadership tho they always have abundant 
opportunity to use it in the rural school community. Lacking 
knowledge and professional skill, they generally lack leadership, and 
lacking these they must fail to render that larger service needed in 
the rural communities. 

INSUFFICIENT FINANCIAL SUPPORT 

The rural school community is notorious for the niggardly 
manner in which it supports the rural schools. This is so in many 
ways. The rural school teacher averages less salary per month and 
a shorter school year than does the city teacher, or the rural teacher 
in the Province of Manitoba. There is a difference from both 
sources of more than $225.00 in the school year. For the school 
year 1910-1911 the average tax rate in the districts supporting state 
high schools was more than twenty-one mills on the dollar; while in 
those supporting rural schools it was less than ten mills on the 
dollar. In many cases it was less than five. Until the rural school 
patron makes up his mind to pay more taxes he must be content with 
a much inferior school when compared with the city school. The 
per capita wealth for those living in the rural school communities is 
greater than for those living in city school communities. This would 
mean that the rural school patron can well afford to pay the taxes 
if he will. When he does he will get the teachers and the schools 
that his children are entitled to get, and not until then. Of course 
there are a few school districts that pay more than ten, and the schools 
show it. 

SCHOOL BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS 

As a rule the building is of the chalk-box type, much as it was 
twenty-five to thirty years ago. It has double cross lighting, the 
unjacketed stove, window and door ventilation. The grounds are 
small, unfenced, and without trees. The picture is of the weather- 
beaten, un-painted schoolhouse set out upon the wind-swept prairies 
— an appropriate, but an ugly monument to man's cupidity or 
thoughtlessness. Many times you will find a country barn in better 
shape to serve its purpose than the country schoolhouse to serve its 
purpose. 

INSUFFICIENT SUPERVISION 

The schools do not get the supervision that they need. The 



3IO The Quarterly Journal 

superintendents work hard and long, and yet they cannot supervise 
with the same care and effectiveness as do the city superintendents. 
The distances are too great and the help is not sufficient. During 
the year 1909-1910 the county superintendents made 7588 visits. 
There were 4390 rural schools. This would mean an average of 
one and seven-tenths visits per school during the year. In the 
average city school where the teacher is better trained, with a better 
equipment at hand than you will find in the average rural school, it 
wnll average more than this per month. This is truly significant. 

SOCIAL LIFE CENTERS 

Rural life is often seclusive and often filled with endless drudg- 
ery. The young people of these communities are demanding oppor- 
tunity for social enjoyment, and since these demands are not being 
satisfied are hastening in large numbers to the towns and cities. The 
rural school is in a position to make country life more congenial by 
the establishment of social centers. The school building could and 
should be made the logical meeting place for all legitimate social 
interests. Here is the opportunity for the school to teach co-operation 
and toleration, to foster love for good music and good lectures, and. 
to furnish more ideas and higher ideals concerning country life. 

TEXT-BOOKS AND COURSE OF STUDY 

Heretofore, the course of study in a few particulars has not 
been such as to make it the best course of study for the rural schools. 
Not enough space has been given to topics and subjects that bear 
directly on country life. The text-books have given some trouble. 
They are so largely city-focused that they lead away from the country 
to the city. If we had skillful teachers in each and every school, 
these deficiencies would not be serious; but lacking these they are. 

From this formidable array of things that mean inefficiency, it 
might appear that there is nothing whatever of value in our rural 
schools. This, however, is not the case. There is much that is good, 
and much is being done that is good. 

II. SOME DESIRABLE CONDITIONS 

Within the past five years, and notably within the past two 
years, much interest has been taken in the welfare of the rural school. 
Social centers have been established in several rural communities and 
consolidation has been effected in several different counties. More 
attention has been paid to the enforcement of the compulsory attend- 
ance law than heretofore, and in many districts an earnest effort 
has been made to secure better qualified teachers than are generally 



The Rural School Situation 31 1 

employed. A thoro revision of the rural school course of study has 
been undertaken, and is now nearly complete. Courses of study in 
our Normal schools have been organized and modified to meet the 
new demands. The Twelfth Legislative Assembly (1911) made a 
noteworthy record in supporting progressive rural school legislation. 
The school term was increased from six months to seven. The com- 
pulsory age limit was extended to include the fifteenth year, reading 
now "of or between the ages of eight and fifteen." Hereafter school 
buildings erected must conform to modern standards and demands 
as to size, lighting and ventilation. Medical inspection may be 
required by the local school board. A board of examiners for 
teachers' certificates was provided for. Agriculture must now be 
taught as one of the required subjects. 

The most important contribution to school legislation affecting 
directly the rural schools was the passage of the bill known as House 
Bill No. 210. It is thought by many to be by far the most important 
that has ever passed up to this time. It provides state aid to rural 
and smaller graded schools meeting certain requirements. For some 
years many of the state's most prominent educators had tried to get 
such a law on the statute books, but without avail. It was felt that 
a similar law having done much for the improvement of the high 
schools this law would surely do likewise for the rural and village 
graded schools. But not until 191 1 did such a bill become a law. 
It has been in operation now for nearly a year, and the testimony 
seems to be that its operation has already increased the efficiency of 
many schools in many districts. As far as the rural schools are 
concerned, this law provides for two classes, viz: first and second 
class rural. The principal requirements for classification are: in 
each, agriculture must be taught, the work must be of a high order, 
the library must contain at least fifty volumes, the building must be 
commodious, must be heated, lighted, and ventilated according to 
moderen standards. In the second class, the term must be at least 
eight months, and the teacher must hold a second grade certificate. 
In the first class, there must be a term of nine months, and a first 
grade teacher. In the graded schools (village and small town 
schools), that is, schools with more than one teacher and below high 
school grade, two classes are provided for. The term in each must 
be nine months, agriculture, manual training, and domestic science 
must be taught, the principal must hold a state certificate or be a 
graduate of a higher institution of learning, the assistant teachers 
must hold first grade certificates or better, and the library must 
contain at least one hundred volumes. In these four classes the per 



312 The Quarterly Journal 

cent of attendance must not be less than ninety. The money appro- 
priated for each school varies from fifty dollars annually for a second 
class rural to $150.00 for a first class graded. In all an annual 
appropriation of fifteen thousand dollars was made. The state high 
schools receive forty-five thousand dollars annually. Where any 
school consolidates, or has consolidated, the state aid is increased frorrv 
fifty to sixty-six and two-thirds per cent. The State Superintendent 
is empowered to make such rules and regulations as he sees fit and 
proper, also to appoint an officer known as the State Inspector of 
Rural and Graded Schools. Both have been done. It is the duty 
of the inspector to visit and inspect schools applying for state aid. 
It will be noticed that the provisions of this bill aim to meet or 
overcome the deficiencies now found in our rural schools. It aims 
to make them more efficient. In a definite way its purpose is to 
secure the hiring of better trained teachers, the providing of longer 
terms, and the equipping of schools more extensively with better 
library and laboratory facilities. It also aims to encourage better 
attendance and the introducing and teaching of subjects such as 
agriculture. It also puts a premium upon consolidation. In a general 
way the purpose of this bill as stated in its first section is "to aid, 
encourage, stimulate, and standardize the rural and smaller graded 
schools of this state and thereby increase the efficiency of the whole 
educational system of the state." 

It will be noticed that the requirements are not very stringent ; 
in fact they are quite lenient. It will be noticed also that the require- 
ments for first class rural schools are not so high as those required 
for any department in any well organized city school. But when it 
is known that less than one hundred of the five thousand rural schools 
will meet these requirements, it can readily be seen that the require- 
ments are of a progressive nature and that the rural schools do not 
begin to be as efficient as they can and ought to be. In other words, 
these requirements substantiate the general charge of low efficiency 
now made against the rural schools. The city schools within the 
past twenty-five years in every important line of improvement have 
gone forward rapidly, while the rural schools have gone forward 
slowly. Forty-five years ago in this state the principal means of 
transportation was the "Red River Ox-Cart." That has now been 
supplanted for several decades by the Overland Express. The city 
school progress has kept pace with that of the means of transportation 
in this state, but the progress of the rural school is not far removed 
from that of the ox-hauled lumber wagon. Some claim that no 
appreciable progress has been made. 



The Rural School Situation 313 

However, the situation is not hopeless. There are surely signs 
of an awakening on every hand. School boards and patrons are 
asking questions, and here and there are making progress. Consoli- 
dation of schools which is the principal factor in the improvement 
in the rural school situation is rapidly growing in favor. 

In conclusion it may not be out of place here to suggest some 
things that would add greatly to the efficiency of the rural schools. 
A more aggressive and comprehensive scheme of rural school legis- 
lation and educational policy should be organized and carried out. 
This would embrace among other things, the following: A larger 
state aid or subsidy to those districts that vote for consolidation. As 
it is now, the aid ranges from twenty-five to one hundred dollars 
for each school. This is too small. Were this increased to at least 
five hundred dollars for each consolidated school, and were it suffi- 
cient in amount to provide for three or four consolidated schools in 
each county, a very important beginning in the matter of rural school 
improvement would be made ; for consolidation means a more efficient 
school in every way. Then the compulsory attendance law ought to 
be made more effective by eliminating some of its provisions and 
adding others. This would mean a weekly report of the absentees 
to the parents, board, and superintendent. The enforcement should 
be in the hands of a truant officer appointed for a term of years; and 
no excuse should be taken for absence except physical disability, the 
completion of a course, or a limited attendance at some approved 
private school. No one should be permitted to teach unless he has 
had some professional training in connection with the completion of 
a high school course or its equivalent. This would eliminate the 
second grade elementary certificate. The term should be increased 
to nine months at least. The requirements in both these cases for 
the prairie Province of Manitoba are as high as here suggested ; and 
they are required and met by a people engaged in the same business 
as they are in this state, and under practically the same conditions. 
And what they can do, surely the progressive people of our own 
commonwealth can also do. The income from the permanent school 
fund should be apportioned on the average daily attendance basis of 
at least one hundred twenty (120) days in connection with a nine 
month term. This would surely increase the average daily attend- 
ance. The superintendents should be appointed or elected for a term 
of five or six years, and they should have double the number of 
deputies they now have to assist in the work of supervision. There 
should be a minimum monthly wage of at least sixty dollars for a 
term of nine months. This in connection with increased academic 



314 The Quarterly Journal 

and professional training would soon find us with a suflFicient supply 
of better qualified teachers than we now have. With a campaign, 
aggressive and comprehensive, these and other things can be secured. 
But it will take knowledge and wisdom, honesty and courage, enthus- 
iasm and loyalty on the part of all employed in the system to win the 
contest, to carry on the campaign to a successful end. As long as 
we tolerate things as they are, because they once were thought suffi- 
cient, just so long will we have rural schools much inferior in many 
essential respects to the average city schools, or the rural schools in 
the prairie province of Manitoba and several American common- 
wealths. When the statement that the country child deserves and 
needs just as good schools as his city cousin, is contended for every 
day in every year by those high and low in authority, and is made a 
part of our educational policy in fact as well as in name; when the 
rural schol institution is looked upon as the most important educa- 
tional institution in the system by all teachers and school officials, 
and that for the good reason that it gives scholastic training to the 
greatest number ; then the rural school situation will be one of the 
greatest hope and the greatest promise. 



Secondary Education in 
North Dakota 

Richard Heyward, 
State Inspector of High Schools, North Dakota 

NORTH Dakota has a high school system that in its plan is 
second to none. Charles W. Eliot, formerly President of 
Harvard University, said some years ago, speaking of the Minnesota 
State High School Plan, "This high school legislation seems the 
wisest v^^hich has ever been adopted in the United States." North 
Dakota has adapted the "Minnesota Plan." Its essential features 
are, first, the grading of the high schools of the state on the basis of 
length of course of study, material equipment, and number of students, 
and, second, an annual appropriation from the state, the amount 
appropriated to each school being determined by the grade. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH 

In October, 1891, a conference of representative high school 
principals, county superintendents, and men having to do with 
higher education in the state, met at Fargo for the purpose of 
formulating a more uniform curriculum for high schools and pro- 
viding a more intimate connection in the state between schools of 
secondary and of higher grades. A three-year curriculum was 
adopted with the recommendation that each school be left free to 
oflfer such other subjects as local conditions might render possible 
or desirable. Schools whose pupils completed the three-year 
curriculum were to be designated as high schools of the first class; 
those in which only two-thirds of the curriculum was covered, 
second class; and those doing but one-third, third class. 

At this conference, it was resolved unanimously that the Min- 
nesota plan of organization and management should be adopted with 
such modifications as local conditions might make desirable, and a 
committee, consisting of the president of the state university, the 
state superintendent of public instruction and the superintendent of 
the Fargo city schools, was appointed to put the plan into operation, 
pending legislation which should make it a part of the legal school 
system of the state. A committee on legislation was also appointed 
by this conference. 

At a meeting of the State Teachers Association, December, 1891, 
the association unanimously endorsed the action of the Fargo con- 
ference and, that the work might be begun at once, appointed the 



3i6 The Quarterly Journal 

president of the state university to act as state examiner in antici- 
pation of action by the state legislature. 

A bill embodying the essential features of the Minnesota plan 
passed both houses of the legisalture by practically a unanimous vote 
at the session of 1893. It carried with it an appropriation of $8,000 
annually for the purpose of meeting necessary expenses connected 
with the working out of the plan and of providing state aid to the 
amount of $400 each annually, to such schools, not exceeding two 
in any one county, as should consent to work under its provisions. 
This bill was vetoed on the ground of lack of funds. In the 
legislative session of 1895, the same bill was introduced without 
the appropriation and became a law. Not until 1899 was the first 
appropriation secured, the amount being $4000 annually. This 
amount was to defray the expenses of operating the plan and to 
provide financial aid from the state to the schools working under 
the same. 

The following table shows the amounts appropriated, the 
amounts apportioned and the number and class of schools partic- 
ipating to date : 

THE SYSTEM AND ITS AGENCIES 

But the Act could not be self-operative. The proposed system 
to be successful had to have a responsible head, and that head, 
certain agencies for carrying its programs into effect. Hence the 
creation of the State High School Board. This was provided for 
in the high school aid bill, as it came to be called. It was to consist 
of the governor, the state superintendent of public instruction, and 
the president of the state university — all ex-officio members. This 
was the Board called into being by the law of 1895. It remained 
thus until 1911 when by legislative action it was enlarged and made 
to consist of the superintendent of public instruction, the president 
of the state university and the president of the state agricultural 
college, as ex-officio members, with one layman and one superin- 
tendent of a city high school of the first class appointed by the 
governor. 

The most important agencies employed by the State High 
School Board are a High School Inspector, who has been the Field 
Agent making the connection with the individual school with its 
needs and its problems, a state-wide system of examinations, which 
perhaps more than anything else has tended to unify the system, and 
a series of manuals and syllabi which has proved a needed and effi- 
cient pedagogical factor. Thru these agencies, the state has been 



Secondary Education 



317 



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3l8 The Quarterly Journal 

able to develop the system along the general lines contemplated, 
keeping approximately even pace with the state in its own develop- 
ment, setting up and maintaining standards, achieving ever- increasing 
efficiency and, at the same time, satisfying present-day needs. 

Until June, 1907, the work of inspection was done by the state 
superintendent of public instruction or the president of the state 
university. With the increasing number of schools, however, and 
the growing complexity of the work, it was seen that more attention 
must be given to this phase of the work and in June, 1907, an 
assistant to the superintendent of public instruction was appointed 
whose entire time was to be given to the matter of inspection. This 
form of appointment, how^ever, was but a temporary expedient. The 
legislature of 191 1 made the office a permanent one, wisely placing 
the appointment in the hands of the State High School Board. 

The system of examinations has, from the first, covered both 
grade and high school subjects. At first, the high school subjects 
included were foreign languages, English, mathematics, natural 
science, history and a few commercial subjects. Within the last few 
years agriculture, manual training, domestic science and art, and 
more commercial subjects have been added until now the list is 
quite extended. 

These examinations are conducted from the state university 
under the direction of the president who is designated "Examiner" 
of the state high school board. Questions for examinations are 
written by the high school teachers of the state and edited by the ex- 
aminer. They are then printed and mailed to the schools and the ex- 
aminees write on them under an extensive and specifically stated set 
of rules. The manuscripts are sent to the examiner who has them 
read by competent readers whom he selects. Each examinee who 
does creditable work receives a certificate, which is a part of his cre- 
dentials for entrance to one of the state institutions of higher learning. 

Time is an element in the preparation the examinee makes to 
meet this examination ; that is, the examinee must have pursued in 
school a half-unit subject about eighteen weeks and a unit subject 
about thirty-six weeks, before his manuscript will be accepted by the 
examiner. The purpose in making time an element in these tests is 
to avoid making the written test so severe as it should be were the 
time spent on the subject by the examinee not considered. 

The first of these examinations was offered to the pupils of the 
state in 1892. The records show that at that time seventeen schools 
applied for questions, that 610 manuscripts were submitted to the 
examiner, and that 508 certificates were issued. In contrast with 



Secondary Education 3^9 

this small beginning, it might be noted that in May, 191 1, 227 
schools applied for question sheets, 14,486 manuscripts were sub- 
mitted and 13,098 certificates were issued. 

These examinations have been effective in standardizing schol- 
arship and training in the secondary schools. Scholarship and 
training, especially training — that which gives power to accomplish 
intellectually — are the results for which, primarily, the people pay 
their money and that for which the pupil spends his time in school. 
Two of the chief questions now asked of a youth entering college 
or entering upon life's work are has he learned how to work, and 
has he the power of accomplishing that which he attempts. Both of 
these qualities are the result of training; hence, the desirability of 
maintaining as high a standard as may be maintained reasonably. 

At somewhat irregular intervals, the State High School Board 
publishes a manual. The later volumes have been those of 1904, 
1907, 1909, and 191 1. This manual contains the state high school 
aid law, a statement of the standards set up by the Board, a statement 
of the rules of the examiner, and synopses and outlines of secondary 
school courses. A beginning is being made, also, in compiling and 
publishing syllabi of a number of the subjects of study in secondary 
schools. These syllabi are proving to be of much assistance to the 
inexperienced teacher and, in fact, to all. The syllabi and the 
synopses and outlines in the Manual make it possible for the examiner, 
and teachers in the schools to know what to expect of each other. 
These, together with the rules of the examiner, as well as the 
examinations themselves, are large factors in the standardization of 
the schools. The tendency has been generally to set very creditable 
standards. 

PRESENT CONDITIONS 

The state aid to high schools mentioned above has had and is 
having a very positive and beneficial influence in stimulating sec- 
ondary education in North Dakota. One who travels over the state 
meeting principals and boards of education can not help noticing 
the interest manifested in trying to meet the requirements for a place 
on the list of classified high schools, and as high a place as possible. 
The amount of money that each school receives is small but the 
interest is not in the financial aid alone, the prestige secured by 
being on one of these lists, and being as high up as possible, is very 
much desired in most cases. It is an excellent thing for the citizen- 
ship of North Dakota that a standardized school in almost any 
community is looked upon with so much local pride. Boards of 



320 The Quarterly Journal 

education spend district funds for many desirable things about a 
school that they would not spend if there were no means of knowing 
what standard was reached as a result. Then the money received 
as state aid has often been nearly sufficient to purchase necessary 
library and laboratory equipment, and boards of education will 
spend state-aid money for such things for which they would not 
spend money collected locally. 

As the number of schools has increased about 33^/^ per cent 
since the $45,000 was first appropriated, the amount received now 
by each school is considerably reduced as may be seen by referring 
to the table, and as most of the schools have been growing rapidly 
in size, it is by comparison still more reduced until some schools now 
are losing interest in it. Some writers have recently discust the 
advisability of raising more of the funds for local school purposes 
by a general state tax. As the state high school aid has been of 
great benefit in setting up standards, as additional aid is needed to 
insure continued interest and as this is a way of raising funds by 
general taxation for local school purposes, it is probably true that 
the appropriation for state high school aid should be materially 
increased by the next session of the legislature. 

There are now one hundred and eight state high schools, thirty- 
nine on the first class list, nineteen on the second and fifty on the 
third. In these schools there were last year 5331 high school pupils, 
about 700 of whom were seniors. There are 136 other schools 
located in the smaller villages doing one and two years of high 
school work and having an enrollment of 1224 in the aggregate, or 
an average of about nine. The Model High School at the Uni- 
versity, the high school at the Agricultural College, eight or ten 
academies, the normal schools, the state science school and the state 
school of forestry are other institutions that do more or less sec- 
ondary school work. 

Twenty-eight of the state high schools are housed in practically 
new buildings. Many of the smaller unclassified schools are in 
new buildings. Twelve of the state high schools are in old and 
unsatisfactory buildings which should be replaced by new ones. The 
other fifty-six are in good buildings but some of them are crowded. 
Fourteen of the state high school buildings are very satisfactorily 
ventilated by means of the fan system. Those tested within the 
past winter with the anemometer proved to be working up to 100 per 
cent and some a much larger per cent of efficiency on the basis of 
the requirement of the statute enacted at the legislative session of 
191 1. This requirement is 30 cubic feet of fresh air per minute 



Secondary Education 321 

per pupii. Some of the state high school buildings have no ventilating 
system worthy of the name and others having a system are very 
poorly ventilated. The gravity or convection systems of ventilation 
tested during the winter with the anemometer showed efficiency 
varying from 5% to 100%. Only two such systems showed iOO% 
of efficiency. The great majority ran from 35% to 50% of efficiency. 
During January and February, Lloyd's Hygrodeik standing in school 
rooms indicated about 28% to 31% of relative humidity. For comfort 
and good health, the relative humidity should be about 62%. But 
with few exceptions, these conditions as to lack of room, poor light, 
and poor ventilation are being rapidly remedied. 

The libraries of the state high schools are, in the main, highly 
prized and excellent use is being made of them. The number of 
volumes runs all the way from 200 to 2500, approximately one-half 
of which are reference works. While some of the schools are a 
little behind, the most of them have the books well classified and the 
library is really a very efficient facU)r in the equipment of the school. 
Valuable additions are being made each year, and increased interest 
shown. 

The state high schools of the first and second classes are, with 
some exceptions, well equipped for laboratory work in physics. The 
equipment for chemistry is not so general, while that for botany is 
general but in many cases insufficient. During the last three or four 
years, much equipment has been added for manual training, domestic 
science and in some cases for commercial work and for physiography. 

The new courses, manual training, domestic science, agriculture 
and physical education, need to be organized and unified so that while 
they afford useful information they may afford training quite as 
truly as any other courses in the curriculum. The path of the 
student of Latin and mathematics is pretty well marked out; not 
so the course to be pursued by the student in these new courses. 
Most teachers of these new courses are more students of them than 
teachers. The whole matter lacks both definiteness and clearness in 
the minds of teacher and pupil. 

All of this is not to be wondered at when one remembers that 
a general pursuit of these new subjects or courses is only beginning 
to exist. These subjects were not in the schools when most of the 
experienced teachers received their training. This matter of unity 
and organization need not be mentioned were it not that some evi- 
dently think that superficial work in these courses is acceptable ; for 
in others we are bringing about better things pretty rapidly. These 
subjects can be made and are being made truly educational ; but they 



322 The Quarterly Journal 

are not what is necessary until they have organization, exactness and 
thoroness. 

A decided encouragement and great stimulus to these lines of 
work in the state are now operative thru the provisions of a bill 
passed at the 191 1 session of the state legislature. It is called, "An 
Act to Provide for the Establishment and Maintenance of a Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Manual Training and Domestic Economy in 
State, High, Graded and Consolidated Schools." 

The Act contemplates the selection of five schools each second 
year in which such work shall be done. The requirements to be met 
on the part of the designated schools include the employment of 
specially trained instructors in the three lines of work mentioned and 
the possession of a tract of land of not less than ten acres located 
within one mile of the school buildings. The state aids each desig- 
nated school by an annual appropriation of $2500.00. The execution 
of this law, also, was placed in the hands of the State High School 
Board. 

At a recent meeting of the Board, applications were received 
and the first selection of five schools made. The schools designated 
are the high schools of LaMoure, Velva, Grafton, Beach and Car- 
rington. These schools are to have in addition to their present high 
school work, three rooms equipped and devoted respectively to the 
three subjects named. Besides the superintendent and two high 
school assistants, they are to have a special teacher in each one of 
these subjects. Tuition is to be free and pupils are to have accom- 
modations, as board and lodging, at reasonable rates. These schools 
will also offer short courses and do extension work. Much for 
training and vocation is expected of these departments. A circular 
setting standards for these departments has been published. 

Some high schools are giving attention to the preparation of 
teachers for the elementary and rural schools. This is done by 
offering a few special subjects such as psychology, pedagogy, senior- 
review grammar, high school arithmetic, etc., and a little practice 
teaching in the grades. More and better trained teachers are 
needed in the field to which these young people go. It would seem, 
therefore, that more schools should of?er opportunities for prepara- 
tion, also that more systematic and thoro courses should be oflEered. 
A special teacher might in some cases be provided. 

One of the very potent influences for the betterment of high 
school conditions in the state during the last decade has been the High 
School Conference. This organization, made up of all the super- 
intendents and high school principals together with the members of 



Secondary Education 323 

the high school board, met for the first time in the spring of 1901 at 
the call of the high school examiner. Its object is the study and 
discussion of questions pertaining to the good of secondary education 
a? it affects North Dakota. Already the Conference has been of 
great service in the improvement of conditions, and it is confidently 
expected to be increasingly useful as the years pass. 

SUGGESTIONS 

Unless one is to make a colorless report of the conditions of 
the secondary schools, he could scarcely close such a discussion 
without making some added comments and giving- some rather 
specific suggestions. There seems to be no doubt that usable equip- 
ment for biology should be largely increased. Much attention is 
being asked for agriculture, and rightly so. Biological science is one 
of the two or three fundamental sciences on which the science and 
art of agriculture rests. Other very practical subjects as well as 
agriculture and horticulture are domestic science and physical edu- 
cation and to these, also, biological science is fundamental. What 
has been said of biological science as a fundamental subject can be 
said with almost equal force of chemical science. The study of foreign 
language should not be eliminated from the schools; but the time 
given to it should in general be greatly reduced and the time thus 
saved given to these fundamental sciences, the vocational subjects to 
which they are fundamental and to economic and social sciences. 

The great majority of pupils enroll when school opens in 
September; but many who have farm work to do can not until 
from four to eight weeks later. Some, because they can not enter 
earlier, do not enroll at all. For these, some provision should be 
made; for they need what the school has to offer and could make 
most excellent use of it. A short course seems to be the proper 
provision. If those who wish to enter school in November and leave 
in March could enter a class of their own and pursue such studies 
as are suited to their needs, they would be greatly benefited. This 
might be done by employing an additional teacher for those months. 

We have said much in this article about what to teach. Within 
the past decade, what to teach has been the burden of the papers and 
addresses at teachers' meetings. This seems to be necessary; but how 
to teach needs attention also. Attention must be given to the method 
by which the subject is to be presened to the pupil. He who comes 
from college to teach in high school and who has not had experience 
as a teacher or pedagogical training usually teaches in high school as 
he was taught in college. In this way, we have college courses in 



324 The Quarterly Journal 

high school in English, in Latin, in physics, etc. He who comes 
from the high school or normal school usually knows so little about 
his subject that he is unable to interest any one in it. The teacher 
of high academic, vocational and pedagogical training is much needed. 
Salaries that will command people with such training are, of course, 
quite as much needed. 

The untrained or inexperienced teacher fails to aid the pupils 
in making generalizations. The steps in education are perception, 
conception, apperception and assimilation. The last does not take 
place without generalization. To be concrete: the untrained teacher 
of algebra is concerned almost wholly with getting the answer to the 
problem. He has not tried, after some progress is made in getting 
answers, to have the pupil see that algebra is essentially the science 
of number, that algebra differs from arithmetic chiefly in being more 
general. He does not lead his pupils to see that multiplying or 
dividing both dividend and divisor by the same number does not 
change the value of the quotient, and that this general principle 
applies in fractions, percentage, and ratio. If such generalizations 
were made, the student's memory would be aided, he would acquire 
better habits of work and he would more rapidly gain the power of 
accomplishment. 

RECAPITULATION 

1. North Dakota has an excellent high school system which had 
its beginnings in the Fargo Conference. This Conference convened 
at the call of former President Merrifield, of the State University', in 

1891. 

2. The Legislature helped to make the plan efiFective by an 

appropriation which has been apportioned among the high schools 
by the state high school board. 

3. The state high school board, the high school inspector, the 
high school conference, the manual of the high school board and 
the state examinations have set up standards that have influenced 
the effectiveness of the schools for good in a very positive manner. 

4. The material progress of the schools has been very satisfactory 
as evidenced by the number of new and substantial buildings, the 
efficient ventilating systems and the usually well equipped libraries 
and laboratories; but in some cases, additional equipment, better 
sanitary conditions and better buildings are necessary. 

5. The growth of the schools as evidenced by enrollment has 
been large and their effectiveness in training has been gratifying. 

6. More attention should be given to the organization of the 



Secondary Education 325 

newer subjects, such as manual training, domestic science, agriculture 
and others, and, as preliminary, added emphasis should be thrown 
upon the fundamental sciences. 

7. Short courses should be provided for pupils who can attend 
school only during the winter months; likewise the courses offered 
in a few schools for the preparation of teachers for the rural districts 
should be strengthened and offered in a larger number of schools. 

8. Much attention has of late been given to what to teach ; 
attention should be turned to how to teach. High standards should 
be maintained. 



The Provisions for Higher Education 
in North Dakota 

Vernon P. Squires, 
Professor of English, University of North Dakota 

PROVISIONS for higher education in this state were made very 
early, even before the state, as such, came into existence. The 
date of our admission to the Union w^as November 2, 1889. The 
University was then six years old and five months before had grad- 
uated its first class. Jamestown College and Fargo College were also 
in operation at this time. Statehood gave an immediate impulse to 
the cause. By the enabling act passed by Congress and signed by 
President Cleveland on February 22, 1889, the federal government, 
in addition to various other grants, set aside for a state university 
80,000 acres of land; for an agricultural college, 130,000 acres; 
and for a school of mines, 40,000 acres. It was further provided 
that none of this land should ever be sold for less than ten dollars 
an acre. The constitution adopted in pursuance of this act accepted 
these gifts, adopted the North Dakota University at Grand Forks, 
assumed its bonded indebtedness of $96,700.00 and located the School 
of Mines with it. It also named Fargo as the site of the Agricultural 
College, and declared an intention to found at Wahpeton with an 
endowment of 40,000 acres a state scientific school. The founding 
of the older institutions in territorial days, at a time when the entire 
population of the region was scarcely one hundred thousand cer- 
tainly shows foresight and faith on the part of the early pioneers; 
and the establishment of the others mentioned, with two normal 
schools and various other special institutions, at the very beginning 
of statehood is indicative of the same fine spirit. 

The interest in higher education thus auspiciously shown in the 
early days has continued down to the present. Each of the public 
and private institutions has had a gratifying growth and is today in 
a prosperous condition. 

Of the private institutions, the oldest is Jamestown College, 
founded by members of the Presbyterian Church at Jamestown, 
Dakota Territory, Nov. 19, 1883. For ten years, the school strug- 
gled on against great difficulties. In 1893, long to be remembered 
as a "panic year," its income was cut off and it was obliged for a 
time to close its doors. But in September, 1909, under the enthus- 
iastic leadership of President B. H. Kroeze, it was again opened and 
has since made excellent progress. At the present time, it has five 



Provisions For Higher Education 327 

buildings, valued, with equipment, at $126,000 and an endowment 
of $141,000. It has a faculty of sixteen, and maintains, besides a 
college and a preparatory department, special departments of music, 
expression and business. According to most recent report, it has 
sixty-nine students in the college, forty-one in the academy, and in 
the allied departments sixty-four, a total of 174. 

Fargo College, the next oldest of the church institutions, is just 
celebrating its twenty-fifth anniversary. It was founded by the Con- 
gregationalists of the state in 1887 with the special idea of training 
Christian workers. A few years ago, the original by-laws were 
changed so as to admit to the governing board representatives of 
other churches. At the present time, seven denominations are rep- 
resented among the trustees, and the college wishes to be known as 
an interdenominational Christian college rather than as a distinctly 
Congregational institution. It maintains, besides the college depart- 
ment with 124 students, an academy (100 students), a conservatory 
of music (211 students), and an art department (32 students). It 
owns a fine campus of ten acres in the residence district of Fargo, 
overlooking Island Park. It has four buildings valued at $150,000 
and an endowment of $200,000. It has graduated eighty-seven 
young men and women, many of whom have gone into teaching or 
some active form of Christian work. Four have gone to the foreign 
field as missionaries. Two of its graduates have represented the 
state at Oxford University in England as holders of Rhodes scholar- 
ships. The faculty numbers twenty-four, at the head of whom is 
President Charles C. Creegan. Because of its high standards of 
scholarship and its broad interests consistently maintained for a 
quarter of a century, Fargo College has won an enviable place 
among the colleges of the Northwest. 

The Methodists of North Dakota early felt the need of an 
institution of higher learning but did not found one until 1 89 1, when 
the Red River Valley University was incorporated (Feb. 25). The 
location selected was Wahpeton. Work actually began in the fall 
of 1892, the attendance the first year in all departments being eighty. 
The institution grew, but grew slowly, and its progress did not 
wholly satisfy its friends. In 1 905, under the leadership of President 
E. P. Robertson, it was decided to change the location, to accept the 
invitation extended by President Webster Merrifield of the State 
University, and to affiliate with that institution. The so-called. 
"Memorandum" which has ever since served as a basis of co-operation 
was drawn up and signed by both presidents in January, 1905. As 
a result of this arrangement, the Red River Valley University sold 



328 The Quarterly Journal 

its property at Wahpeton to the recently established Science School, 
and moved to Grand Forks, where on a campus of ten acres just 
across University Avenue from the State University it now has three 
fine fire-proof buildings valued at $1 10,000. Its other property and 
funds are valued at $140,000. The position of Wesley College — as 
the institution is now called — is unique among American colleges. It 
cooperates in the fullest way with the University. Its college students 
are, in the main, students of the University also. From the state 
they receive their science, history, language, etc. ; from Wesley 
College, their New Testament Greek, church history, Christian ethics, 
Biblical literature and similar studies. The plan inaugurated seven 
years ago as an experiment has more than justified the wisdom of its 
advocates. By many impartial judges it is believed that in this plan 
of affiliation has been found an ideal way for church and state to 
join in providing for the youth of the land a well rounded education. 
In addition to the regular collegiate courses mentioned above, Wesley 
College maintains a conservatory of music, the largest in the state — 
having during the present year an enrollment of 347. 

Turning now to the institutions supported by public funds, we 
shall first consider the State Science School at Wahpeton to which 
reference was just made. This school, as already suggested, was 
promised in the constitution in 1889, but was not actually put into 
operation until 1903. In 1905, the building of the Red River Valley 
University was purchased, and four other buildings have since been 
erected. Its endowment of 40,000 acres of land gives it at the lowest 
estimate ($10 per acre) a potential endowment of $400,000. Added 
to the income received from this land endowment is its regular 
allowance from the state of four hundredths of a mill on all taxable 
property in the commonwealth. The total income from all sources 
amounts at present to something over $30,000 a year and is bound 
to increase. The school ranks as a junior college and carries students 
thru the first two years of the work usually done by a regularly 
organized technical school or college of engineering. In addition, it 
maintains a preparatory department with special courses in agricul- 
ture, domestic science, and commercial subjects. It had in 191 2 an 
enrollment of 250 and a faculty of seventeen with President Fred 
E. Smith at their head. 

As the normal schools are treated elsewhere in this issue, the 
next institution to discuss is the State Agricultural College at Fargo, 
founded in 1890. From its extensive land grant, and from the appro- 
priations of the state and federal governments, the college enjoys an 
annual income of over $300,000. It has, besides barns and various 



Provisions For Higher Education 3^9 

auxiliary buildings, sixteen substantial brick buildings used for in- 
structional purposes, and a regular faculty of fifty-seven with seventeen 
special assistants. It has 194 students of college grade, 453 of high 
school grade, and 470 in short winter courses. In connection with 
the campus at Fargo is a large tract for experimental purposes, and 
it also directs several sub-stations in various parts of the state. It 
is active in the work of farmers' institutes, and issues frequent 
bulletins for the benefit of the agricultural interests of North Dakota. 
The Agricultural College has always had liberal support and has 
graduated 140 students, many of whom have engaged in teaching. 
It has also aided in countless ways in developing the resources of our 
prairies. Its efficient president is Dr. John H. Worst. 

The oldest institution of higher learning in this state, is, as 
already suggested, the University, located at Grand Forks. Estab- 
lished by the territorial legislature in 1883 for the benefit of the 
northern half of the territory, it has had twenty-nine years of honor- 
able history and has developed from a mere preparatory school into a 
university in fact as well as in name. Six colleges. Arts, Education, 
Law, Medicine, Mining Engineering, and Mechanical and Electrical 
Engineering, have been organized with a dean at the head of each. 
In connection with Teachers College — or the School of Education, 
as it is to be called hereafter — a model high school is maintained for 
practice and observation. In connection with the School of Mines, 
the University has in charge a sub-station at Hebron where exper- 
iments are being carried on looking to the developmnt of North 
Dakota's vast deposits of clay and coal. In connection with the 
College of Medicine, the state has placed at the University a Public 
Health Laboratory for safeguarding the health of the state, branch 
laboratories being located at Minot and Bismarck. In connection 
with the departments of biology, the University carries on a Biolog- 
ical Laboratory at Devils Lake. The Division of Engineering 
offers work in civil engineering as well as in the other branches named. 
The University also maintains a well organized Extension Depart- 
ment under whose auspices 130 lectures were this year given in 
various parts of the state. It also maintains a high class summer 
school with regular college courses for the special benefit of teachers. 

The inventory of its property shows that the financial assets of 
the University, aside from the good will of the state, amount to 
$2,340,721, including the campus of 120 acres with its fourteen 
buildings, the two substations and all lands and equipments. The 
regular income of the institution from all sources is about $300,000 
per annum. It has a faculty of eighty-three with Dr. Frank L. 



330 The Quarterly Journal 

McVey as President. The list includes twenty-four regular profes- 
sors, eleven assistant professors, thirty-five instructors, and thirteen 
special lecturers, besides an executive staff of twenty-one. The 
enrollment for the past year reaches a total of 995 divided as follows : 
In the colleges, including thirteen in the graduate department, 527 ; 
in the model high school, 133; in the summer school, 308; corres- 
pondence students, 27. Since sending out its first class of eight in 
1889, the University has graduated nearly 1000 alumni, many of 
whom are now prominent in business and professional life, and very 
few of whom have failed to do credit to their Alma Mater and 
their state. 

This hurried summary gives one a birdseye view of the provi- 
sions, private and public, which the commonwealth has made for the 
higher education of her youth. It indicates that our citizens in the 
midst of the hard work of subduing a new region, building cities 
and towns, and securing a livelihood, have been true to the pledge 
made by the founders of the Northwest Territory in the famous 
Ordinance of 1787, over a century before the organization of this 
State: "Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good 
government, and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of 
education shall forever be encouraged." 



The Preparation and Certification of 
Teachers in North Dakota 

Joseph Kennedy, 

Dean of The School of Education, 
University of North Dakota. 

I. THE PREPARATION 

THE THREE ESSENTIALS 

AS ffood teachers are the great desideratum of our schools there 
must be some standard by which teachers are adjudged good. I 
would say by way of preface, that there are two great essentials 
presumed and pre-supposed as a foundation for professional prepara- 
tion as a third, and without which, such preparation will be but a 
surface show, a mere white-wash. 

( 1 ) The first of these in order and importance is a good, strong, 
vivacious personality, either inherited, or developed in childhood 
under the encouraging influences of a home and companions that 
were stimulating. Such a personality has initiative, versatility and 
push ; it will be a "live wire" ; where you find it things that are worth 
while are being done; it assumes leadership and others "sit up and 
take notice." History gives us some examples of persons who became 
great teachers on account of this characteristic alone, so compen- 
satory is it. This was the dominant trait of Socrates and Pestalozzi. 

(2) The second fundamental pre-requisite is a thoro and gen- 
erous scholarship, a mastery of the things to be taught, reinforced by 
a surplus of knowledge, insight and experience on supplementary 
and subsidiary matters. 

(3) While the extraordinary person, the genius, would, no 
doubt, make a success at teaching, on the basis of personality and 
knowledge of subject-matter, or would, at least, attain success after 
some experience, it is now universally conceded that for the average 
young person, professional preparation is a third essential, if society 
and childhood are to be saved from much blundering experimentation 
by those attempting a most complex art without any previous prepa- 
ration. This was recognized by Socrates twenty-three centuries ago 
when he said that whatever a man intends to do he should learn 
something of, before attempting the doing of it. 

There are still a few persons — the number grows beautifully 
fewer, year by year — who think, in regard to teaching, what the boy 
thought, who had a wooden leg from a time to which his memory 



332 The Quarterly Journal 

did not run back; and as his father and grandfather happened to be 
thus unfortunate also, he said he believed he got it because it ran in 
the blood! In the olden time they used to think that many things 
were inherited which we know now to have been acquired. 

That conscious and systematized professional preparation for 
teaching is educationally and sociologically essential is the foundation 
for the establishment and maintenance of normal schools and schools 
of education in all civilized countries. 

In North Dakota the following agencies are doing what they 
can toward the professional preparation of teachers: 

THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION AT THE UNIVERSITY 

When the University of North Dakota was established by the 
Territorial Assembly, in 1883, a distinct provision was made in the 
charter for "The Normal College, or Department," whose function 
was to be "the instruction and training of persons in the theory and 
art of teaching." This department was a charter member in the 
University organization, and was the first agency in what is now the 
state of North Dakota for the professional preparation of teachers. 
It remained the only normal school in the northern part of the 
territory till statehood, in 1889. 

Thus early in our history the territorial assembly manifested 
both wisdom and foresight in thus providing preparation for the 
great calling of the teacher ; the marvellous development since in the 
establishment and growth of departments and schools of education 
in colleges and universities, and of normal schools thruout the country 
has demonstrated their sagacity. They realized then, in a mesure, 
the importance of the work and the demands of the on-coming future. 

This department of the University continued, and shared in all 
the struggles and vicissitudes of the University in general, up to the 
year 1905, when it was extended to a full four-year college course 
and named "Teachers College." In 1905 the "Preparatory Normal" 
was discontinued and thereafter a full four-year high school course 
or its equivalent was required for admission to Teachers College. 

In 1909 the general preparatory department of the University 
was transformed into the "Model High School" and transferred to 
Teachers College to be used for observation and practice and for the 
study at first hand of the problems of secondary education. A full 
corps of specially prepared teachers was secured to serve the double 
function of regular and of critic teaching. The Model high school 
is under the superintendency of Professor C. C. Schmidt, and is 
housed in the new building erected for the School of Education 
and recently named Woodtvorth Hall in honor of Professor H. B. 



Preparation and Certification of Teachers 333 

Woodworth, the first principal of the Normal department and later 
Professor of Philosophy and History till his death in 1906. 

In 19 1 2 Teachers College was slightly reorganized along the 
lines recommended by the associations of American and state univer- 
sities and called "The School of Education." Two years of work 
in the College of Liberal Arts are regularly required now for 
admission to the School of Education. The student thus reserves 
for his junior and senior years his professional study, including his 
observation and practice, and also his concentration on major lines 
of work in which he is specially preparing to teach. 

To accommodate those who can not take the full four-year 
curriculum, the last two of which are in the School of Education, 
as well as to help supply the demands of the schools of the state, 
two-year curricula are offered by the School of Education in com- 
mercial training, drawing, domestic science and art, manual training, 
and music. In every such case, however, at least a high school 
education is required for admission. 

THE NORMAL SCHOOLS 

By constitutional provision in 1889 two normal schools were 
established, one at Valley City and one at Mayville. These of5er 
courses as follows : 

( 1 ) A five-year course above the grades and its equivalent, a 
two- year course for high school graduates. 

(2) A four-year course above the grades and its equivalent, a 
one-year course for high school graduates. 

(3) A course of ten and one-half months for those who have 
completed the eight grade or its equivalent. The chief purpose of 
this short course is to help supply the rural schools with teachers 
with even a modicum of education and professional preparation under 
expert teachers and in a professional atmosphere. The law provides 
that those who successfully complete this course and are otherwise 
qualified are entitled to a second grade elementary certificate. 

(4) The normal schools also provide courses for the preparation 
of special teachers in primary work, drawing, music, domestic science 
and art, and commercial and manual training. 

NEW NORMAL SCHOOL AT MINOT 

After the passage of a resolution by two previous legislatures a 
constiutional amendment became operative by a vote of the people 
in 1910, thus establishing a new normal school at Minot. The 
legislative assembly of 191 1 made an appropriation for the school, and 



334 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

the board has the construction of the building now under consider- 
ation. Superintendent A. G. Crane of the Jamestown, N. D., schools 
has been chosen president of the Minot Normal. 

THE NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL 

The constitutional convention located the Manual and Industrial 
school at Ellendale. The legislature of 1907 changed the name to 
"The Normal and Industrial School," and impliedly authorized that 
institution to engage in the training of teachers as well as to specialize 
in the manual and industrial arts. Since that time regular courses 
have been offered similar to those in the regular normal schools. 

THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

As provision has been made by congressional acts for the prepa- 
ration of teachers of the various industrial lines in agricultural 
colleges, the North Dakota Agricultural College at Fargo has estab- 
lished a department of education, and also departments of household 
economics and manual training. Its facilities and special equipment 
for the training of teachers in these lines and in agriculture and its 
allied fields are unexcelled. 

THE SCHOOL OF SCIENCES 

The School of Sciences at Wahpeton also offers courses for 
teachers. Those who complete the curriculum for teachers in this 
institution have about the equivalent of two years of college work, 
academic and professional, above the high school. 

FARGO COLLEGE 

Fargo College has had for some time an efficient department 
of Education under the able management of Dr. P. G. Knowlton ; 
and their college students who aim at teaching have a good oppor- 
tunity for preparation for their profession. 

SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR TEACHERS 

Summer Schools for teachers are held at most of the educa- 
tional institutions and at other points thruout the State, under the 
legal auspices of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. These 
are usually about six weeks duration. The best instructors available 
are secured, and teachers in attendance have an excellent opportunity 
for review, for deeper study, and for professional inspiration. 
Successful work done at summer school is a factor in the receiving 
and the renewal of elementary certificates. 

HIGH SCHOOLS 

Many high schools in the State, under encouragement of law, 



Preparation and Certification of Teachers 335 

give their students who intend to engage in teaching a modicum of 
professional preparation. The law provides that a diploma from a 
full four-year high school course entitles the holder to a second grade 
elementary certificate if the holder has chosen as part of his high 
school course, psychology, pedagogj' and two "senior reviews," These 
are common school subjects like arithmetic and grammar, pursued 
for a semester each and implying a comprehensive treatment from 
the teacher's point of view. While this may be a somewhat meager 
professional preparation it is more than the great majority of rural 
teachers have, and implies along with this small amount of profes- 
sional preparation, at least a full high school education. 

OTHER AGENCIES NEEDED 

The whole output of professionally prepared teachers is absorbed 
at once by the city and graded schools, thus leaving the rural schools 
to take what they can get. This is the case in other states as well, 
and makes the very serious "rural school problem." The great 
problem in these schools, as in all schools, is the problem of good 
teachers. All of our agencies together do not furnish one-tenth of 
the prepared teachers needed. It is desirable, as soon as the State 
can do so, to establish another normal school for the southwestern 
section, and also to devise some plan for providing trained teachers 
for the rural schools. At present practically all of the normal school 
graduates go to the cities, 

II. STANDARDS OF CERTIFICATION 

HISTORICAL 

From 1889 to 191 1, a period of twenty-two years, the school 
laws of North Dakota, like those of all other states, had been added 
to, subtracted from and amended in every conceivable way, until 
lawyers themselves were puzzled to know what the school law was. 
The legislature of 1909 provided for the School Law Compilation 
Commission to simplify, harmonize and formulate a school code to 
be presented to the twelfth legislative session of 1911. The Com- 
mission consisted of the Deputy State Superintendent, E. J. Taylor 
(now State Superintendent of Public Instruction), and the Attorney 
General, Andrew Miller, who were ex officio members; and three 
other persons appointed by the Governor ; these were Professor R. M. 
Black of the School of Sciences at Wahpeton, Professor A. D, 
Weeks of the Agricultural College at Fargo, and the writer. 

The Commission presented its code to the legislature of 1911 
as instructed. It was introduced simultaneously in both houses, in 



336 The Quarterly Journal 

the senate as Bill No. 6i. It was referred to the Educational Com- 
mittees and then went to a conference committee, and finally passed 
both houses almost as it left the hands of the Commission. There 
were good men on the educational committees who understood the 
details of educational problems. 

THE STATE BOARD OF EXAMINERS AND THE READING CIRCLE BOARD* 

The law creating the Board of Examiners is as follows: 
Section 247. Duties] The State Board of Examiners shall 
prepare or cause to be prepared all questions for examinations for all 
certificates to teach in this state, and shall prescribe the rules and 
regulations governing the same, shall examine, mark and file all 
answer papers for all certificates or cause the same to be done, and 
shall issue all certificates to teach in the public schools of this state. 
Section 284. Reading Circle Board.] The State Board of 
Examiners shall be the State Reading Circle Board and as such shall 
prescribe the course of reading for the teachers' reading circle of the 
counties of the state, and shall make all rules and regulations for 
conducting the reading circle work and granting of credit therefor. 

CERTIFICATES 

The part of the new educational code that is relevant to the 
general topic under discussion is that pertaining to the certification 
of teachers — it is certification that expressly puts a seal of approval 
oipon preparation. 

The law provides that all certificates shall be state certificates. 
Under the law previously in force the essence of a certificate seemed 
to be the term of its validity, or the length of time it remained in 
force ; vmder the new code its value and essence consist in the kind 
or grade of work which it authorizes one to do ; and this is as it 
should be. The length of time for which a certificate is valid is more 
or less incidental. The law may need some amending but its under- 
lying principles are correct. The following are the grades of 
certificates : 

I. The second grade elementary certificate, valid for two years. 

(a) To receive a second grade elementary certificate, the 

applicant must be eighteen years of age and must be found proficient 

in the following subjects: Reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 



♦The first and present Board is as follows: 

Term expires 

Joseph Kennedy, President, Grand Forlts 1915 

W. E. Hoover, Vice President, Far.sfo 1913 

E. J. Taylor, ex-oflicio secretary, Bismarck 1913 

R. M. Black, Wahpeton 1915 

P. S. Berg, Dickinson 1913 



Preparation and Certification of Teachers 337 

language and grammar, geography, United States history, physiology 
and hygiene, civil government, pedagogy, and any one of the following 
subjects: Music, drawing, agriculture, nature study, domestic science 
and manual training. 

(b) This certificate qualifies the holder to teach in any rural 
or graded school up to and including the eighth grade. 

(c) This certificate is renewable by the county superintendent 
under the rules and regulations of the Board of Examiners. 

2. The first grade elementary certificate, valid for three years. 

(a) To receive a first grade elementary certificate, the applicant 
must be twenty years of age, and have had eight months' experience 
in teaching, and must be found proficient in the following subjects 
in addition to those offered for a second grade elementary certificate: 
Psychology and any four of the following: Elementary algebra, 
plane geometry, physics, physical geography, botany, agriculture, nat- 
ure study, manual training, domestic science and American literature. 

(b) This certificate shall qualify the holder to teach in any 
grade in any school of the state up to and including the eighth grade, 
and in the ninth grade of schools doing not over one year of high 
school work. 

(c) This certificate is renewable by the county superintendent 
under the rules and regulations of the Board of Examiners. 

3. The second grade professional certificate, valid for five years 
or for life. 

(a) To receive a second grade professional certificate, the 
applicant must be twenty years of age, must have had nine months' 
teaching experience, must have the qualifications necessary for a first 
grade elementary certificate and must be found proficient in the 
following subjects of advanced grade: Psychology, the history of 
education, the principles of education, school administration, methods 
in elementary subjects, rhetoric and composition, American or English 
literature. Ancient, English or American history, one natural science, 
and one of the following: Higher algebra, solid geometry, manual 
training or domestic science. 

(b) This certificate qualifies the holder to teach in any common, 
graded or high school of the state except in high school departments 
doing four years of high school work. 

(c) This certificate is renewable in the discretion of the Board 
of Examiners. 

4. The first grade professional certificate, valid for five years or 
for life. 

(a) To receive the first grade professional certificate the 



338 The Quarterly Journal 

applicant must have substantially the equivalent of a college education, 
must have had eighteen months' experience in teaching, must possess 
the qualifications necessary for a second grade professional certificate, 
and in addition thereto must be found proficient in the following 
subjects: (i) a foreign language, (2) a natural science (not the 
one presented for a second grade professional certificate, (3) ethics, 
logic, or sociology, (4) political science, economics, or domestic 
science, (5) any two subjects of college grade listed for the second 
grade professional certificate, and not previously offered by the 
applicant. 

(b) This certificate qualifies the holder to teach in any common, 
graded or high school in the state. 

5. The special certificate. 

(a) To obtain a special certificate, the applicant must satisfy 
the Board of Examiners by examination or otherwise, of proficiency 
in the subject to be taught. 

(b) A special certificate qualifies the holder to teach the subject 
or subjects specified therein in any common, graded or high school in 
the state. 

(c) Teachers holding at least second grade elementary certifi- 
cates may be granted special certificates in drawing, music, kinder- 
garten or primary subjects, provided the applicants satisfy the Board 
of Examiners of their proficiency in the special subjects named in the 
certificates. To receive the primary certificate the applicant must 
also be found proficient in psychology, music, drawing, primary 
reading, primary language, number work and nature study. 

(d) Special certificates to teach agriculture, commercial subjects, 
domestic science or manual and industrial training in the common, 
graded or high schools of the state may be issued to applicants who 
possess qualifications equivalent to those required for a second grade 
professional certificate, and are found proficient in the special subject. 

(e) Special certificates are valid for such a term of years as the 
Board shall prescribe, and are renewable in the discretion of the 
Board. 

PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION 

The School Law Compilation Commission, the legislature, and 
the Board of Examiners have assumed that any person on becoming 
a teacher should make a reasonable preparation for it; and hence 
the law provides that at least sixteen semester-hours of professional 
preparation are requisite for a professional certificate of either grade. 



Preparation and Certification of Teachers 339 

DIPLOMAS ACCREDITED 

The diplomas from the professional schools — the School of 
Education at the University and the Normal Schools — are accredited 
as professional certificates of first and second grade respectively ; and 
the diplomas from similar institutions anywhere, if they imply at 
least sixteen semester hours of professional preparation, are accepted 
in lieu of examination, and professional certificates of corresponding 
grades are issued thereon. 

STANDINGS ACCEPTED 

Standings in individual subjects from accredited sources w^ithin 
the State are accepted by the Board of Examiners under guarded 
conditions: (a) they must be 75 per cent or over; (b) they must 
be on the entire subject; (c) they must not be over three years old. 

NORTH DAKOTA IN THE VAN 

Many states have failed in their attempts to re-codify their 
school laws and bring them up to date, and few states can boast of 
as high a standard for teachers, of as simple and efficient a school 
code, and of a certificate law as standardizing and as just as that of 
the state of North Dakota. 



T 



Consolidation of Rural Schools 
in North Dakota* 

C. C. Schmidt, 

Professor of Education, University of North Dakota 

HE Country Life Commission uppointed by President Roosevelt 
declared in its report that "the schools are held to be largely 
responsible for ineffective farming, lack of ideals, and the drift to 
town. This is not because the rural schools are as a whole declining 
but because they are in a state of arrested development and have not 
yet put themselves in consonance with all the recently changed con- 
ditions of life." 

The justice of this criticism is generally admitted but the mag- 
nitude of the rural school problem is so great that advance in effi- 
ciency is almost hopeless. The solution is thought to lie in consol- 
idation. In his last biennial report former State Superintendent 
Stockwell says, "The rural school ought to be a township school, a 
central, consolidated school with three or four departments housed 
in a commodious, attractive building located on a plot of ground 
which will lend itself to some adornment and likewise afford sufficient 
ground for experiment in elementary agriculture. The small one- 
room school will never prove effective." 

No attempt can be made in the brief space allowed here to cover 
the whole problem indicated in the title of the article. We must even 
omit a statement of the benefits that are claimed for the new type of 
school, and we shall merely set forth a few facts showing the present 
condition of the movement for consolidation in North Dakota. 

SCHOOL ATTENDANCE UNDER THE PRESENT SYSTEM 

One of the strongest indictments against the present rural school 
is the low ratio of attendance. The census of June, 1910, showed 
156,044 persons of school age in the state. This, however, counts all 
from 6 to 20 years old, and it may be considered fairly satisfactory 
that 90 per cent of them applied for admission to the schools. But 
of those actually enrolled during the j^ear only an average of 65 per 
cent were in school at any one time. Now, it should be borne in 
mind that in these statistics the cities and towns are included where 

*The investigation of this subject was beg-un about eig-hteen months 
ago by Mr. N. C. Abbott, Field Organizer of the University Bureau of 
Educational Cooperation, and the data embodied in Table II he collected 
in December, 1910. The other statistics contained in this paper were 
secured by the writer, during the last few months, from county superin- 
tendents of schools. 



Consolidation of Rural Schools 341 

the attendance is notably better than in rural sections. Bear in mind 
also that the term in rural schools was usually only six or seven 
months and that a good portion of the children attended the whole 
of this term, and we must conclude that the average attendance is 
so low because thousands of others enrolled attended only a few 
weeks during the entire year. That this is the fact is abundantly 
attested by competent observers, and it may also be seen by an inspec- 
tion of teachers' registers and reports. 

The following statistics should be of interest in this connection: 

TABLE I 

Enumeration, Enrollment and Attendance for the Years Covered 
by the nth Biennial Report of the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. 

1908-09 1909-10 

Enumeration (School Census) at the end of year 148,626 156,044 

Enrollment for the year 135,302 139,802 

Average attendance 88,139 90,149 

Percent of enrollment on Enumeration 91 go 

Percent of Average Attendance on Enrollment. . 65 65 

Percent of Average Attendance on Enumeration 59 58 

The friends of consolidation entertain the hope that the large 
central school will, on account of its greater efficiency, attract and 
retain the older pupils and secure vastly better attendance, and they 
are encouraged in this belief by the experience of the consolidated 
schools already in operation in this state and in older states. 

THE SIZE OF OUR RURAL SCHOOLS 

The ideal, one-teacher, rural school still has many strong friends 
among experienced educators, but they generally admit that a reason- 
able number of pupils is necessary to infuse life into the routine of 
the daily work and to prevent the per capita cost of tuition from 
rising far above the cost of better advantages to be secured in other 
schools. 

Table II shows that during the year ending June 30, 1910, 131 
schools had an average of four pupils or less, 166 had only five, 217 
had six, 269 had seven, 328 had eight, 350 had nine, and 396 had 
ten, making 47 per cent of our schools with an average attendance of 
ten pupils or less. 



342 



The Quarterly Journal 



TABLE II 

Size of Our Rural Schools 



COUNTY 



n a 
"o a 

0) 91 

■e'o 

s o 

3 -a 



Number of rural schools with an average 
daily attendance of: 



3 .. 
O *i 



O 



O = 



Adams _ _ _ 

Barnes , 

Benson _ _ _ 
Billings _ _ _ 

Bowman . 

Burleigh 

Cass _ _ _ _ 

Cavalier . 

Dickey . 

Dunn _ _ _ _ 

Eddy 

Emmons _ _ 

Foster 

Grand Forks 

Griggs 

Hettinger _ _ 

Kidder 

LaMoure _ _ 
Logan _ _ _ 
McHenry _ . 
McKenzie _ _ 
Mercer _ _ _ 

Morton 

Mountrail 

Nelson _ _ _ 

Pembina . 

Pierce 

Ramsey _ _ _ 

Ransom 

Renville _ _ _ 
Richland _ _ 

Rolette 

Sargent _ _ _ 
Sheridan _ _ 

Steele 

Stutsman _ _ 
Towner _ _ _ 

Traill 

Walsh 

Ward 

Williams _ _ 



66 

117 

92 

IIS 
27 

92 

139 
99 
96 
66 

47 
151 

45 
122 

64 
81 
70 

105 
82 

155 
75 
58 

193 
35 
65 
92 

85 
72 
80 
70 
187 
47 
86 

83 

65 

138 

55 
116 

125 
178 

174 



5 
6 
2 

3 
o 
o 
6 
I 

10 
I 
2 
6 
2 
3 
3 

10 
6 
I 
o 
I 
I 


3 
2 
o 
I 
I 

9 
o 
o 

5 
o 
2 

3 
o 
2 
4 
7 
3 
7 
13 



8 
6 
3 

5 



9 
2 

7 
o 
2 
13 
4 
7 
4 
8 
6 

9 

2 

3 
o 
o 

4 
I 
2 
o 
2 
o 

3 

10 

2 

4 
2 
O 

3 

I 

4 

4 

7 

16 



9 

7 
3 
7 
o 
2 

4 

2 

10 

6 

3 

14 

2 

5 

II 

8 

4 
8 

I 

5 
o 

3 
2 

3 

5 
3 
4 
o 

4 

5 
3 
4 
5 
o 

4 
6 
6 
4 
14 
31 



8 

5 
5 
o 


13 

8 
2 

10 
7 
7 

13 
7 

10 

7 
8 

13 
9 
I 
6 

10 


5 
2 

5 
7 
4 

12 
o 
4 

17 
I 
I 
5 
3 
I 
6 
8 
3 

13 

23 



5 
9 

7 
o 
8 

7 
16 

4 
7 
6 

7 
15 
10 

13 
9 
8 

4 
13 
13 

8 

5 
6 

9 
3 
6 
8 
6 

4 
8 

3 

15 
5 
8 

5 
7 
9 
5 
7 
3 
23 
14 



7 
8 
8 
o 
o 
5 

15 
5 

10 
I 
5 

17 
4 
9 
8 
6 
8 

17 
10 
II 

15 
2 

12 
4 
4 
7 
8 

7 
8 

4 
20 
2 
8 
6 

4 
II 

5 

16 
8 

19 
26 



7 
10 

9 

40 

3 
14 
14 
9 
9 
2 

4 
14 

5 
8 

3 

II 

6 

14 

25 

14 

8 

10 

24 

3 

4 

7 

5 

6 

18 

6 

14 
I 

5 
8 

3 

II 

I 

7 

9 

17 

8 



4 
16 

9 

5 

4 

II 

8 

5 
2 
I 

4 
6 

4 
12 
2 
5 
3 
2 

20 
12 

7 
o 
21 
2 
8 
6 

7 
8 
o 

7 
12 

2 
10 

6 
II 

5 

3 
15 

4 
17 

9 



3 
12 
II 
10 

o 

8 
10 
16 



3 
o 

9 
I 

5 
2 

5 
4 
3 
8 

13 
10 

5 

21 

2 

9 
6 
o 

4 
15 

7 
20 

5 
6 
2 
o 

9 
o 

9 

7 


2 



5 

16 
16 
30 

3 
14 
21 

14 
20 

14 
4 

17 
5 

19 
6 

7 
8 
8 
2 

40 

5 
5 

57 
3 
8 

12 

23 
6 

9 
13 
34 

6 
16 
12 
18 
19 

7 
II 
12 

35 
18 



5 

15 
12 

o 

2 
12 
20 
22 

8 
14 

4 
17 

I 

25 
7 
5 
4 

17 
I 

32 
o 

15 
21 

3 
10 
20 

17 
6 
18 
12 
30 
II 

7 
16 

19 
36 

7 
20 

30 
22 

14 



o 

7 
7 
15 
5 
5 
8 

17 

3 

n 

5 

10 
o 
6 
2 

4 
4 
2 

15 
6 

15 

17 

5 

7 

II 

II 

4 

4 

7 

5 

9 

15 

13 



28 

10 

6 

38 

4 
o 



Totals _ _ I3910 



131 



166I217I269 



328I350 



3961295 



262 



598 



557I341 



THE COST OF SMALL SCHOOLS 



The greatest disadvantage of these small schools is no doubt the 
absence of the stimulus that pupils should receive from each other. 
But this weakness we shall not dwell upon here. Let us notice what 
is the expense of operating such schools. In Table III we give the 



Consolidation of Rural Schools 



343 



cost of tuition in some of the smaller schools in Barnes and Grand 
Forks counties. In these counties the district system is found so that 
the expenditures of the individual schools are itemized. In a town- 
ship-district, where there are usually several schools, some of which 
have a larger attendance than others, the expenses of any one school 
do not show separately on the records. The cost of tuition, as given 
here, does not include money paid for permanent improvements, such 
as the school house and site, bonds, and interest; it might be added, 
of course, that the permanent improvements also represent an outlay 
that is greatly out of proportion to the small number of pupils bene- 
fited. 

TABLE III 

Cost of Tuition in Small Schools 



COUNTY 



TOWNSHIP 



s 

9 

z 



.. o 



H- 



si 



S So 

(3«s 



o 
U 



BARNES 



i3g T 58 R 

Edna ______ 

Meadow Lake _ . 

Svea 

Mansfield _ _ _ . 
Stewart _ _ _ _ . 
Lake Town _ _ . 
Rogers and L. T. 
Meadow Lake _ . 

Svea - 

Getchell _ _ _ _ . 
Sibley --___. 

Brenna 

Swant -____. 
Rye 

Brenna _ 

Inkster 

Elm Grove _ _ _ 
Falconer _ _ _ _ 
Washington _ _ . 
Washington _ _ . 

Niagara _ 

Plymouth _ _ _ . 
Agnes -____. 
Mekinock _ _ _ . 
Michigan _ _ _ _ 
Grand Forks _ _ 

Swant 

Sakville _ _ _ _ . 



3 

21 

23 

24 

53 

57 
59 
64 
66 

74 
77 
87 



$308.80 
70270 

459.45 
627.90 

533.65 
355.65 

509.14 
404.84 

540.71 
650.03 

318.95 
453.15 



$12.86 
13.01 
12.76 

14.95 
9.88 

12.70 
7.95 
9.64 

15.02 

15.47 

12.75 

7.08 



64 
65 
64 

75 
50 

63 
40 

48 
75 
77 
64 
35 



GRAND 
FORKS 



13 
17 
25 

27 

39 
43 
59 
69 
71 
81 

85 
102 

105 
107 
109 
112 
113 



440.85 
516.78 
570.80 
437.90 
556.06 
537.07 
661.87 
375.18 
382.80 

483.55 
536.09 

379.01 
498.24 

552.77 
549.15 
618.42 
441.02 



7 
9 

m 

6 

8 

7V4 

9 

6 

6 

7H 

7 

6 

7 
9 
8 

61/4 



8.99 

9.57 

10.87 

8.1 1 

8.69 

8.67 

14.70 

10.42 

10.63 

8.06 

10.94 

10.52 

8.89 

10.23 

8.58 

19.02 

21.00 



45 
48 
54 
40 

43 
43 
73 

52 
53 
40 
55 
52 
44 
51 
42 
95 
05 



344 



The Quarterly Journal 



TABLE IV 
Fluctuation of Attendance In the Ordinary Rural School 



1 

M 
•5 

c 

« 

a> 

j= 

3. 

9i 
U 

c 
rt 
•O 

c 

OJ 
rt 

'rt 

■a 

A) 

&e 

M 

> 
< 


o 

o 
o^ 

o^ 

o 

CO 




1>.0\0NN0 On" w 00 00 O- 00 00 00 NO 00 MD 00 'n 00 

HH 1—1 


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•^ Ov lONO NO NO ro ONOO t^NO 00 


1 

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pooioiroTj-oidooto t^vd \Q NO 


HUhHl-ll-l l-ll-( hHl-H 


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o 


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o 

o 

O 


t^ N 00 N \0 00 Tj- O\oo 00 0\ <r>^ <*5 on O "00 ■* 


t>. Lo ^ 01 '9 >-c t^ — 01 

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00 1-1 Noooo^vo OO r^oo r^vo ^i- « cv) m ►-, ^r 

C^H-l H 1-1 l-«l-ll-|l-(l-( 


I^ lO 00 "? ir, -^-^ ro 
•^ O 01 NO t^NO' ^NO 00 NO NO ^ 00 

*~^ *^ 1-1 


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o 


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NO -: 01 " rt— 

r^ o K. w in on'O 00 no no d (-^ -^ 


o 

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•-ll-lC^ 1-|0< 1-1 hHh-l 1-1 M M 


w po m i> 0) ~ 

NO 00 ^NO 'tmt^OO ON NO On ri ^ 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


rooo TOO IN. lo inoo 00 •T ro d oi 


1 1 1 1 J 1 J 1 1 J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


■-■ ir, lo COOO IT) 1-1 rt 

00 t^ K.Nd ONrt-tONl-'NO d OMO 


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o 
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a- 

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00 
00 

o 

00 

o 

so 

o^ 

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1-1 00 •"TOO CN» O "OOI^On>-iOO 01 r^ I^no 00 t^ l'^ 


1-1 NO lo OO tx. r>. 01 

ONONiOiitN.ir) OOnTtiOON'^ 


1 

CO 1 r^ O On 0) PO On >J"<00 '^OnCnOI -^ O t^iO" 

»-l]l-lP< «*5l-l MM 1-1 1-1 1-11-1 


01 NO 00 ro iJ"< rO 
O 00 ro u-> w rt IN. food On d 00 


cOnO 0\ fO (s lONO rOvO ^ ^ f^OO 01 -^ O mOO On 
01 -"tOlOlMi-ii-i >-ii-i M 1-1 


ro 01 U-) NO 00 
PO ir; 1-1 d On rj- t^ 0\\0 "", On 
I— 1 1—1 1—1 *H 


Tj-\0 fO >ONO On On 01 NO tx fO r^NO irjNO i-i t^ In. i-i 
01 TfOlOli-i " i-ii-i >-i i-i i-ii-i 


00 moo 01 1-^ 00 
OO lO " d IN. lO JN. O i/s >o o 

1-1 1-H 1-1 t-l 1— M 


NO 01 01 t^ O CO l^ lOOO VO 1^ 01 VO On NO i-i On O <*5 

wcoi-ii-ii-oOi-iHi t-i01i-if-iVO>-i 01>-i 


>-< Jod ONOd vd NO ts« rt ro On 


'JSip 

JO -ON 


rOTfONmi^ONO On oonO iN.ON'-'OliOt^ONOlf*; 
„H:ii_Mf^Oiroro-*T}-t^ t^OO O O O O 1-1 1- 


1— I H-* 
t^TT" rOTtOl oot^Oi— -l-NO t^ 

" 01 01 01 rt >0 "0 li-)NO NO NO 00 


5 
C 


r 
> 


05 

1-. 
O 

c 
ca 
u 

O 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 in 1 1 

1 1 ^ 1 1 1 " 1 W 1 1 g 1 1 ' " 1- 1 1 

|g:s ;gf ;s5|»i|s.i|-g|| 

OCSC CI' tor-G^CbOji.v-CCrt'U 


Barnes 
County : 

Names of towns 
not given the 
writer. 



Consolidation of Rural Schools 345 

FLUCTUATION OF ATTENDANCE 

An important consideration affecting the movement for consol- 
idation is the variation of the school population in the small district. 
A school that has an attendance of twenty pupils this year may a 
few years hence have less than half that number. When only about 
a dozen families, or even fewer, are served by the school and a good 
portion of them have no children this rapid fluctuation is a very 
common occurrence. It may be on account of removal from the 
district or because the children now in school grow up and there 
are no others to take their place. The larger the group the less the 
liability to this variation. If the attendance of the school embraces 
the children of an entire town it will usually be comparatively stable, 
except perhaps for a gradual increase in case of new territory. 

WHAT IS BEING DONE ABOUT IT 

The movement for consolidation is comparatively new in North 
Dakota. Our oldest consolidated schools were formed only nine or 
ten years ago. The first time the North Dakota Educational Associ- 
ation went on record with a resolution in favor of this change in our 
common school system was the Grand Forks meeting in December, 
1905. Our attitude toward the question has not even yet advanced 
very far beyond the vacillating stage. While the majority of our 
school men advocate the movement, it is generally done only in an 
academic manner, and very few of them make an earnest effort for 
concrete results even when they have the opportunity. What may 
be accomplished in the space of seven or eight years when an active 
superintendent champions the cause may be seen in the counties of 
Rolette, Ramsey, McHenry, Cavalier, and perhaps a few others. 

Our policy upon the subject as embodied in our school laws still 
lacks comprehensiveness and consistency. We touch the problem only 
in spots, and continue in full force the opposite movement, namely 
the establishment of more schools of the old type. During the year 
ending June 30, 19 10, the number of ungraded schools in the state 
increased from 4335 to 4470. Most of the 135 additional schools 
were established in the newer parts of the state and many of them 
were undoubtedly necessary, but it is safe to assume that for every 
small school that was discontinued thru consolidation several new 
ones were opened that are no more necessary and will be just as feeble 
and inefficient. Section 82 of the school laws requires that a school 
shall be organized and a school house built when a petition is signed 
on behalf of nine persons of school age living two and one-half miles 
from the nearest school. Section 44, Article 3, even provides for 



346 The Quarterly Journal 

the organization of a new district for twelve persons of school age 
living two and one-half miles from an established school. The 
required assessed valuation is only $20,000, and no minimum area 
requirement is specified. Both of these provisions contemplate a 
very small territory and a very small school, for it should be borne 
in mind that according to the prevailing ratio nine persons of school 
age (from six to twenty years) would probably give a school with 
an average attendance of five or six, and twelve persons of school 
age would give an average attendance of about seven, and in a few 
years, with the fluctuation of the school population, these numbers 
may be even less. But after the district is organized and the building 
erected the error is hard to rectify. If we are committed to the con- 
solidation of the rural schools it is hard to see why new districts 
should be formed with less territory than about thirty-six square 
miles, except for special reasons; and it seems that the establishment 
of more than one school for such districts should be discouraged. It is 
far easier to prevent the organization of schools of the old type than 
to bring about their consolidation after they are established. 

Again, according to Section 83, a school term may not be discon- 
tinued, and school facilities provided in some other school until the 
average attendance has been less than four, for ten consecutive days. 
Compare the policy embodied in these provisions with the Indiana 
law which closes every school with an average attendance of twelve 
or less, and compels it to consolidate with other schools. If this 
plan were followed in North Dakota 62 per cent of the schools of 
the state would be closed. 

WHAT A CONSOLIDATED SCHOOL IS IN NORTH DAKOTA 

Chapter 35 of the General School Laws of 1911, granting state 
aid to consolidated schools, provides that "A Consolidated School, 
within the meaning of this act shall be one organized in accordance 
with section 832 of the revised Codes of 1 905." This section reads 
as follows: "The district board may call, and, if petitioned by one- 
third of the voters of the district, shall call an election to determine 
the question of conveying pupils at the expense of said district to and 
from schools already established, or of consolidating two or more 
schools, and of selecting a site and erecting a suitable building, or of 
making suitable additions to buildings already erected to accommodate 
the pupils of schools to be vacated." A majority of the votes cast 
at such election decides the question affirmatively, and it then becomes 
incumbent on the board to make all necessary arrangements to carry 
out the decision of the district. 



Consolidation of Rural Schools 



347 



TABLE V 

Consolidated Schools and Other Schools Serving a Large Territory 





School 


s con- 










Towns 


with les' 


than 4 schools. 




solidated by 


Other scnoois 


having pupils 


not counting districts consoli- 




popular vote 


that live over 2 


]4 miles 


distant 


dated by popular vote 


COUNTY 


1 


o 
o 

u 


u 

a 


trans- 
s at 

pense 


0. V 
a 
0, 0, 


of these 
n of as 
ated" 


town- 
ng only 

ouses 


.2 
> S 







c 

> s 




2^ 


5 S, 

«-* O Sk 


o 


c a Of 


° 2 






.31 


-s 


2j 




sf 


Ssl 


So 


S §..H 


ft> i; 


« 
ESS 


s^l 


£<^ S 


S 


tt> "o 




" « 


w -G a 


■D O 


*rf "^ 


^ w 


j3 « J=i 


^ >, S 


■0 >. 


•^ 




5.S 




1" 


u & 


11 


S £ S 
«: 


a-l'" 

3-Sm 


3 jq 


^1 


il 




H 


f- 


2 


X 


z 


S 


Z 


Z 


z 


z 


Adams — _ _ 





I 


6 


6 


30 


2 


8 


II 


6 





Barnes 


I 


3 


14 


3 


87 


3 


13 





I 





Benson _ _ _ _ 





3 


30 


10 


35 


2 


7 


8 


5 





Billings _ _ _ 


o 





I 


I 


12 


4 


7 


40 


30 


4 


Bottineau _ _ 


2 


2 


II 


6 


II 





5 


2 








Bowman _ _ _ 








II 


10 


60 


2 


6 


II 


8 


55 


Burke 








15 


„„ 


25 


_ — 


13 


4 








Burleigh _ _ _ 


I 





45 


17 







6 


27 


12 





Cass _____ 


2 


2 








5 


__ 








Cavalier _ _ _ 


4 


5 


2 


2 


36 





4 


I 








Dickey _ _ _ _ 


o 







__ 















Divide _ _ _ _ 





I 












12 


8 


5 


I 


Dunn 








30 













18 


34 




Eddy 








6 


3 


7 





6 


8 








Emmons _ _ _ 








70 


7 


27 


5 


6 





I 





Foster _ _ _ _ 


I 





6 


3 


20 





7 


2 








Grand Forks _ 


o 


I 


21 


9 


97 


5 


9 


6 


2 





Griggs 








7 


2 


10 





4 


I 


I 





Hettinger _ _ 


o 


I 


18 


6 


15 


2 


II 


12 


6 





Kidder 





I 


60 


60 


175 


__ 


3 


21 


9 





LaMoure _ _ _ 








2 


2 


6 





10 


3 








Logan _ _ 




— • 









2 


— — 




__ 


__ 


McHenry _ _ 


~6 


4 


23 


__ 








20 


II 


6 





Mcintosh 






















McKenzie _ _ 


I 





30 


10 


30 













McLean _ _ _ 


I 


I 


70 


8 


40 





17 


7 


~6 





Mercer _ 


I 





3 


I 


14 








2 


I 





Morton 








13 








I 


II 


23 


9 


3 


Mountrail _ _ 


2 


I 


6 


6 


20 





12 


18 


3 





Nelson _ _ _ _ 


2 


I 


__ 


__ 


120 


2 


7 


7 


2 





Oliver _ _ _ _ 








6 


3 


20 





3 


12 


3 





Pembina _ _ _ 












__ 


__ 


I 


— — 




__ 


Pierce _ _ _ _ 





I 


I 











12 


2 








Ramsey _ _ _ 


4 


4 


10 


5 


20 





15 


18 


II 





Ransom _ _ _ 





I 


10 


3 


13 


I 


6 


2 


I 





Renville _ _ _ 


I 


3 


















Richland _ _ _ 


2 


I 


7 


7 


18 





7 





I 





Rolette 


3 


7 


22 


II 


444 


7 


I 


3 


II 





Sargent 








7 


2 


24 





6 


2 


3 





Sheridan _ _ _ 


I 




















Stark 





o 


85 


2 


'8 


3 


14 


10 


4 


2 


Steele 


2 


o 


3 


I 


6 


I 


5 


3 


I 





Stutsman 





2 


26 


21 


145 


3 


24 


16 


8 





Towner _ _ _ 


I 


3 


8 


8 


352 


4 


16 


4 


8 





Traill 


I 


o 






no 


I 


4 


2 


I 





Walsh 


2 





6 


6 


36 


I 


4 


I 


I 





Ward 


2 





18 


18 


200 


2 


8 


8 


I 





Wells 








__ 


__ 


__ 


__ 


— — 


— — 


__ 


__ 


Williams _ _ _ 


I 


2 


27 


15 


70 


I 


21 


21 


i6 


I 




44 


51 


736 


274 


2343! 


59 


351 


355 


217 


66 



348 The Quarterly Journal 

There are ninety-five schools in the state as shown in Table V 
that have been formed by combining two or more schools into one, 
or that transport pupils at public expense, and where at least one of 
these features has been adopted by popular vote as here provided. 
These are the schools that are recognized in law as consolidated 
schools. 

ANOTHER WAY BY WHICH WE ARE SECURING THE SAME END 

Fortunately all of the state except the five counties of Pembina, 
Walsh, Grand Forks, Cass and Barnes are organized on the township 
system, and it will be seen that when the whole township constitutes 
one district there is no necessity for much formality about consolida- 
tion. In fact the term is hardly applicable, for all that is needed 
is to maintain fewer schools and send pupils greater distances than 
is usually done. Such a policy has been followed in hundreds of 
cases from the time the first schools were established, and as a result 
there are many townships now where more than one of two schools 
have never been opened tho they have children enough for five or six 
of the usual type. 

Art. XV., section 232 of the General School Laws of 191 1, 
requires that in districts where children live beyond the two and one- 
half mile limit, and school facilities are not otherwise provided the 
district board shall provide transportation for such children to and 
from school, and whenever transportation is furnished by the district 
then the compulsory attendance law shall apply to pupils residing 
within five miles of such school. 

Again, where the township system prevails, if the board become 
convinced that it would be wise to close certain small schools and 
transport the pupils to more distant schools they may act upon this 
judgment at once. 

The Sheldon school in Ransom County is a good example of 
this type of school. In this district there were several school houses 
besides that in the village of Sheldon but the district board discon- 
tinued the rural schools one after another, and for several years now 
only the Sheldon school has been in operation. Transportation is 
provided for some of the pupils from outlying parts of the district. 
The plan being satisfactory to all concerned, no further steps have 
been deemed necessary. 

As shown in Table V. there are 274 schools in the state where 
pupils are transported at public expense in accordance with the pro- 
visions of this clause. Fifty-nine of them are often called "Consol- 
idated" schools, as in the case of Lakota and McVille in Nelson 



Consolidation of Rural Schools 349 

County, the former paying $709 for the transportation of pupils 
last year. These and many others serve a larger territory and more 
pupils than certain other schools where people have taken a formal 
vote and that are recognized in law as the only genuine article in 
the way of consolidation. 

THE PARTNERSHIP DISTRICT 

A method of bringing about the consolidation of schools without 
consolidating the districts is authorized in Article VI, Section 88, of 
our General School Laws. This act was passed by the legislature to 
fit the needs of such cases as the Webster school. Here two town- 
ships proposed to consolidate, but the Webster district was bonded 
and wished the other to assume its share of the debt. The other 
district declined to do this because it had only half as many children. 
The mesure referred to solved the difficulty, and both districts 
retained their separate corporate existence, but entered into a part- 
nership to support a central school. This mesure provides that two 
or more adjacent school districts may join in the establishment and 
maintenance of a district high school or a graded school, or both, 
when empowered so to do by a majority of the voters of each district. 
The building and furniture used shall belong to the districts so 
uniting, maintenance shall be paid by such districts in proportion to 
the assessed valuation of the property of each, and the management 
fs vested in the joint boards of such districts. 

As far as the writer has been able to learn, the Webster school 
in Ramsey county and the Egeland school in Towner county are 
the only ones in the state operating under this act. In each of these 
cases the partnership district embraces two townships. 

The Webster school has been organized under this law since 
1904, so that it has passed the experimental stage. The following 
interesting details have been supplied by Mr. J. C. West, superin- 
tendent of this school: 

"Under the provisions of the law, the school is governed by the 
boards of the separate districts, acting jointly. In practice, this does 
not work out well. The board is unwieldy and the members live 
too far apart to make an active board. It now meets four times a 
year, and acts as an auditing board. The superintendent of the 
high and graded schools makes a report, submits bills, and gives such 
information as is needed for making appropriations, calling for bids, 
and concerning other business of a nature which makes it necessary 
that it be brought before the board. In a word, the management is 
left to a superintendent, who is paid more than an ordinary principal 



oro The Quarterly Journal 

of schools, and whose duties make it impossible for him to do much 

teaching. 

"The school is supported, as required by law, by both districts 
each paying amounts corresponding to their assessed valuation. 

"We began by employing the bus system for drawing pupils, 
but discarded it at the end of the second year. Each district decides 
as to how the children shall get to school: in this case both districts 
have found it best to let each family draw its own children without 
pay. Where the farms are so large, it seems better. Horses are 
plentiful and where the children are to small to drive, there is always 
a large boy who will take care of this for his board. 

"At present, we have children coming in four miles. We have 
had them come farther. When a horse is once hitched up, one or 
two miles, more or less, makes little difference. We still hold two 
rural schools, but these will gradually disappear. There are few 
attending them, and we have families who drive past the rural 
school in order to attend the central school. We wish to demonstrate 
the efficiency of the new system, and have pupils come here because 
they are convinced that it is a better and quicker way to secure an 
education, rather than because the majority of voters force them to 
come. These rural schools are supported by the district in which 
they are located. They are under the control of the Superintendent, 
to a great extent. 

"The high school is a classified school, under the inspection of the 
State, and drawing state aid. The enrollment is between twenty-five 
and thirty-five. Since the beginning, a number have graduated from 
the full four year course. Last spring we graduated a class of six. 
All of these are now in attendance at higher institutions of learning. 
We have five in the senior class this year. Our percent of graduates 
entering college is lOO, and their records there are a credit to the 
school. You have some of them at the State University, 

"We are equipped for Botany, Physics, Chemistry, and Physi- 
ology. These subjects are not all given each year, but during the 
four years, each pupil has a chance to elect one or all. We have 312 
reference books, 105 1 volumes of supplementary reading, and a total 
of 2242 volumes. 

"In the grades, we have five sets of supplementary reading. The 
school subscribes to the leading periodicals, including two daily papers, 
and two educational journals. 

"Our attendance compares favorably with the city systems. 
The moral atmosphere is far more desirable than that of the city 
can be. 



Consolidation of Rural Schools 35i 

"We take part in state athletics, having the winning basket ball 
team of this section." 

ASSOCIATED SCHOOLS 

Another species of consolidation is provided for in sections 6 to 
II of Chapter 40, General School Laws of 191 1. "For the purpose 
of extending the teaching of agriculture, home economics and manual 
training to pupils in rural schools, and for the purpose of extending 
the influence and supervision of state high or graded schools over 
rural schools, one or more rural schools may become associated with 
jny state high or graded school maintaining a department of agri- 
culture." The associated schools contribute to the support of the 
instruction in agriculture, home economics and manual training, take 
part in its administration, and their children share in its benefits. 

The writer is not aware that steps have as yet been taken any- 
where in the state to put this act into operation, but in our neigh- 
boring state of Minnesota where a similar mesure was adopted but 
a few years ago there are now thirty central schools, each with one 
or more associated rural schools. The number thus associated with 
one school is as high as fifteen at Spring Valley, and fourteen at 
Cokato. Many of the leading school men of the state are most 
enthusiastic over the results. It is to be hoped that the friends of a 
more efficient system of rural schools in North Dakota will not allow 
this piece of legislation to remain a dead letter for a great length of 
time. It ought to be especially useful where the district system pre- 
vails and where it is difficult to effect a complete consolidation. 

CONSOLIDATION IN ROLETTE COUNTY 

Rolette is probably the banner county in the state as regards 
consolidation of rural schools, and the following items, furnished by 
County Superintendent E. M. Sherry, are of such interest that they 
are given here in his own words. 

"We have ten consolidated schools in Rolette County, the last 
district coming in last summer. I would estimate that about thirty 
per cent of the county is within the consolidated territory. 

"All our districts are one township in extent, with few excep- 
tions. One of these is a district in the "fraction" territory, and is 
1 5^2x6 miles. A few districts take this fraction in, making them 
7j/2x6 miles. 

"As to the methods pursued by which consolidation is brought 
about, would say, to take one instance, there were petitions prepared 
at this office, in fact, three different petitions; all were presented to 



352 The Quarterly Journal 

the elector at the same time, "and he was given an opportunity to sign 
the one that appealed to him the strongest. One petition called for 
a vote on consolidation with the proviso that there be no public expense 
for transportation ; the second provided that each family should fur- 
nish its own transportation, themselves or by proxy, but should be paid 
by the district; the third provided for school rigs or busses. The 
family plan received the strongest support, and the election was or- 
dered accordingly. But after the favorable vote was counted, the 
board ignored the wishes of the people as expressed by the petition 
(which they had a right to do) and provided rigs, owned by the 
district. 

"In a few instances, perhaps three or four, districts have taken 
a formal vote on the question, and it failed to carry. One district 
made two efforts, both unsuccessful. However, the sentiment is 
changing up there, and I believe if it were put before the people now, 
it would carry. This being campaign year, no one cares to take the 
initiative. 

"As to the cost of schooling in the districts that are consolidated, 
as compared with those not consolidated, the difference in the daily 
cost for each child is but two cents. In consolidated districts, it 
costs 36 cents per day. 

"How satisfactory is consolidation with us? Eminently so, with 
two exceptions. In one of these, there is a great part of the territory 
that is of low valuation, yet thickly populated ; so that part, while it 
costs a good portion of the entire amount, contributes but little. The 
district would like to segregate this portion, which, of course, would 
nullify an important advantage of consolidation. The other dissat- 
isfied district is one where there has been, until recently, a great deal 
of state land, which yields no revenue. So the taxes were very heavy. 
"We have two districts that use family transportation, exclus- 
ively. In one of these, the board pays a uniform rate of ten cents 
per day to each child for attending school. In the other, there is a 
schedule varying from 5 cents to 25, according to distance. This 
latter is entirely satisfactory and the former is almost as satisfactory. 
These two districts give us less trouble than any of the other consol- 
idated schools, and their experience leads me to believe that this is 
The system. The advantages over rigs are : ( i ) no child must 
ride very far to get to school; (2) no child need start from home 
till a long time after the rig would have gone, had it been in use; (3) 
the expense is less; (4) the pay is distributed thruout the district. 
"Two of our consolidated school buildings have living rooms 
up-stairs for the teachers to use, if they desire." 



Consolidation of Rural Schools 353 

TRANSPORTATION 

The transportation of pupils to the central school presents the 
greatest problem in connection with our subject. In all cases, the 
children residing more than a reasonable distance from the school 
must be transported bj' proper conveyance and returned to their 
homes at the end of the session in the same manner. This usually en- 
tails a large item of expense which is at once objected to by those who 
favor the continuance of the old system. However, when we con- 
sider how very small most of our schools are, and how inefficient, it 
may well be claimed that they are even more expensive and certainly 
far more wasteful than the new type. 

There are many methods of dealing with the transportation 
problem that prevail in the state, and we shall treat them very 
briefly under two heads: 

I. Public Transportation. Pupils are transported by public 
conveyance, usually a covered bus, at the expense of the district. It 
generally requires four or five rigs for a fairly well settled township, 
and the payment ranges from $25 to $60 a month for each. A good 
illustration of this system is found in Logan Center, Grand Forks 
County, where five busses are employed at a cost of $40 a month for 
each. In Logan Center and many other cases the busses are owned 
by the districts and only the drivers and liorses are hired, but in still 
others instances the wagons as well as the horses are furnished by the 
drivers. 

2. Family Transportation. Parents are made responsible for 
the transportation of pupils, and may be paid by the district or not. 
Family transportation is practiced in North Dakota under four forms, 
namely : 

(a) All pupils in the district receive a fixf amount for each 
day's attendance ranging from ten cents a day in some districts to 
twenty-five cents in others. 

(b) The allowance for transportation is graduated according 
to distance from school and varies from five cents to twenty-five 
cents per pupil for each day's attendance. 

Methods (a) and (b) are described elsewhere by Superintendent 
Sherry of Rolette county who has found them more satisfactory than 
any other system. 

(c) In some districts the parents that live very far from the 
school are paid a stipulated sum for all the children in the family. 
In the Sheldon district. Ransom County, one family is paid $5 per 
month and another is paid $2, and all others bring their children 
free of charge. 



354 The Quarterly Journal 

(d) All parents transport their children free of charge to the 
district. This is, no doubt, done in many districts and it is now the 
practice in the Webster School, of which Superintendent J. C. West 
writes as follows: "We do not pay people for having their children 
educated. The merchant does not pay patrons living more than two 
miles away to come in. If their farms are far from school it is 
unfortunate, the same as if they are far from the elevator. Besides, 
there are no farmers vi^ho do not have an idle horse that can be put 
to this use with very little expense to them, but a sj'stem of pay 
increases taxes greatly. These are the arguments we use and they 
have worked, but they would not work everywhere. We at first 
ran busses at public expense also, and if any person now insisted on 
enforcing the law (a poor one) and would not listen to reason, we 
would pay him." 

Altho there may be objections to any and all of these' methods 
of transportation, it is plain that the difficulties can be overcome, and 
that they will be met successfully by all except those who fail to 
recognize the shortcomings of the present type of school. 



Social Center Development in 
North Dakota 

N. C. Abbott, 

Field Organizer of the Bureau of Educational Cooperation, Uni- 
versity of North Dakota 

FROM whatever angle we approach the problem of constructive 
social reform and development in North Dakota we are con- 
fronted by the fact that the population with which we have to deal is 
one that is made up of many different elements. According to recent 
census, we have within our borders 156,158 white people born in 
foreign countries, and the same authority classifies them into twenty- 
five different groups as to nationality. This number represents more 
than twenty-seven per cent of our population. Add to this figure at 
least an equal number of native-born of foreign parentage and the 
foreign element in our population looms up large. Then consider 
that of the native born Americans in any community only a negligible 
fraction were born on North Dakota soil and that scarcely any two 
families have come from the same part of the United States and we 
see at once that North Dakota has indeed a peculiar and a polyglot 
population. Our new citizens from Europe are tenacious in their 
adherence to Old World traditions and our citizens from other sec- 
tions of the Union all bring with them the accretions of custom and 
tradition peculiar to the regions from whence they come. The fact 
of many races, customs and inherited traditions renders our problem 
of Americanization and assimilation a peculiar one. 

In a state as young as North Dakota, we can hardly expect to 
find for some time much evidence of permanency in the way of 
stratification of social classes or a settling down of social customs. 
Our population has hardly rooted itself firmly as yet and until it has 
had time to do so and to develop a real community of spirit and to 
realize the identity of its interests along both social and material lines 
shall we have in this state very little social life that has the perma- 
nency of custom. As yet we have not outgrown the spirit of rest- 
lessness and change so characteristic of pioneer life. The compara- 
tively slack business conditions of the past two years have not been 
a steadying influence. Facts like these point to the necessity of doing 
everything in our power to set in motion counter influences and to 
foster and build up better community life and community spirit. 

No one is more keenly alive to the need of a closer and more 
intimate social life among farmers than the farmers themselves. In 



356 The Quarterly Journal 

this particular, communities over the state vary according to the de- 
gree of progress that they have attained and according to the character 
of their citizenship, but in many of the better communities the feeling 
and desire for closer social contact is taking definite form, and organi- 
zations designed to fill this distinct need are being brought into ex- 
istence. What is lacking most of all in the advancement of this work 

is sympathetic leadership a leadership that the farmer will feel 

that he can trust. Farmers may not possess a well defined class con- 
sciousness, but they are cautious by nature and look with suspicion 
on the city man with his ready made schemes for social uplift. Above 
all, farmers will rise in revolt against the supposition that they are 
in any sense benighted and inferior. The leadership of the urban 
class may be tacitly followed, but to pity an agriculturist is to arouse 
his ire. The real leaders in farm life must themselves have come 
from the soil. It is here that the great opportunity is open for the 
rural schools and the rural school teachers. 

The school is an agency around which all elements of a com- 
munity can unite. Differences of race, creed, religion or party affilia- 
tion are laid aside in this truly American forum. It is here that the 
larger part of the work of Americanizing the foreigner is being done 
today and right here, ready at hand. Is the social machinery by means 
of which much may be done in North Dakota and in every other 
state toward the blending together of a mixed and varied population 
and its transformation into an intelligent and progressive citizenship, 
devoted to this state and confident of its future. We have been slow 
in recognizing the fact that as community property, a school plant 
belongs to the public who are responsible for its organization and may 
be used by them for any proper community purpose. In many parts 
of the state, this very practical idea is being applied and with good 
results. This Is a land of new and strange things. Old church ties 
have been severed, old family relationships have been broken off and 
satisfying old friendships have been interrupted In this process of 
being transplanted to a new land, but here in the public school Is one 
familiar landmark around which even strangers In a strange land are 
glad to rally. 

These are stirring times in North Dakota. During the past two 
years more of real, purposeful effort looking toward the development 
of the state has been put forth by our own people than at any other 
equal period of time In the state's brief history. In this connection 
it Is gratifying to note the extent of the organization work already 
set on foot by the farmers themselves. One of the facts about the 



Social Center Development 357 

Better Farming Movement that indicates its breadth and the far- 
sightedness of its promoters is that in every locality under its influence 
its experts are bringing about the formation of clubs and societies for 
mutual improvement among the farmers. The press of the state con- 
tains many favorable reports of these meetings. The spirit that 
craves closer social intercourse is strong among the farmers and all 
that is lacking is intelligent direction. It is clearly evident that there 
is no dearth of talent to carry on this organization vi^ork and, in 
many cases wide originality is displayed in the adaptation of these 
organizations and their work to the demands of the season and of 
the locality. 

Purposeful activity of this kind initiated by the members of the 
communities themselves is the kind that will count toward social 
betterment. Very satisfactory results have been attained in some 
localities, and a few quotations gleaned from the press of the state 
are worth repeating in this connection. The farmers tributary to 
the village of Niagara, in Grand Forks county, have maintained a 
very live Farmers' Club now for more than two years. This is a 
typical North Dakota community as its membership is made up of 
several races together with people from a number of different states' 
of the United States. During the winter they assemble fortnightly 
in a hall that they have rented in the village of Niagara and during 
the summer they meet for picnics and social recreation at different 
places in the neighborhood. The nature of their work, as well as the 
general interest taken by the community may be judged from the 
following clipping as well as from an occasion during the past winter 
of which the writer has personal knowledge when many of the mem- 
bers drove as far as ten miles on one of the bitterly cold days in 
December to be present at the club's regular meeting. The clipping 
follows : 

"The Niagara-Shawnee Farmers' Club held a meeting recently 
which was in the nature of a mid-winter fair. There was a fine dis- 
play of grains, grasses and vegetables, together with bread, cakes, 
pies and fancy work. There were prizes for the prettiest woman and 
the homliest man. A decidedly pleasant day was spent. Professor 
Chamberlain and Miss Donaldson of the Agricultural College, and 
Miss Marion Mercer of Larimore, were present and assisted in the 
program, which was one of the features of the day. The meetings 
of the club have been held regularly thruout the year and are of an 
educational and social nature. A feature of each meeting is a delicious 
lunch served by the ladies of the club. (The writer of this article 
can testify to its excellence.) A German band, from the neighbor- 



358 The Quarterly Journal 

hood, supplies the music and the programs are devoted to the discus- 
sion of questions relating to farm life. The club meetings are a 
means of whiling away the long winter days, and as a result the 
farmers have been brought into closer touch with each other, to the 
mutual benefit of all concerned." 

At Maxbass, in Bottineau county, the School Center Club has 
been doing good work along similar lines for over two years in the 
uniting of the community and furnishing them with diverting and 
uplifting interests. A typical announcement of one of their meetings 
reads as follows: "Next Tuesday evening, March I2th, the School 
Center Club will have as its guest George T. Sidner, county com- 
missioner of this district, who will explain what the Better Farming 
Association expects to do for Hastings township and outline the 
work of the Association. The program, which is an especially inter- 
esting one, is as follows: 

Orchestra. 

Reading of Minutes. 

Business. 

Duet — Parke Lille and Earl McBride. 

Reading — Mrs. P. H. Jones. 

Address — Commissioner Sidener. 

Song by Male Quartette. 

Debate — Resolved, That sugar beets and corn will pay better 
in Bottineau county than alfalfa and potatoes. Affirmative, Bemis and 
Getchell ; negative, Schulthies and Newman. Decision by ballot of 
club. (Orchestra while balloting.) The Maxbass orchestra will 
render selections during the evening. All are welcome." 

The noticeable fact about this program is that it is sufficiently 
varied in subject matter and that local talent is used thruout. There 
is no lack of good talent in any community. All it needs is organi- 
zation and direction. A far-sighted teacher and two ministers are 
the directing force in this community. 

A recent issue of the Lansford Journal contains a three-column 
report of a very heated debate on the question of the parcels post 
that was held between teams representing two farmers' clubs in Bot- 
tineau county. In this debate, they got down to the very bottom of 
the matter and their discussion evidently stirred up the community 
and set the people to thinking new thoughts. The University library 
force can bear good testimony to the fact that these two clubs have 
been doing some excellent work during the past winter, for a large 
number of requests have come in for material and the subjects cov- 
ered have included some of the livest topics of the day. The discus- 



Social Center Development 359 

sions themselves are valuable for they widen the mental horizon and 
increase the range of interests among a social class w^ho have alto- 
gether too few interests, but the all-important fact about these gath- 
erings is that they bring people together more frequently, help them 
to a closer and more sympathetic acquaintance and tend to unite them 
into a more homogeneous and better satisfied population. Herein 
lies the significance of all social center work whether urban or rural. 

Some communities are even going so far as to provide from the 
public pocket for the means of bringing their people into closer social 
relationship. A recent issue of one of our state dailies contains this 
interesting paragraph: "The get-together spirit is much in evidence 
in St. Andrews township in Walsh county, where the residents have 
been brought into closer touch with each other and with the business 
and pleasure of the community by means of a new township hall 
which cost the township about $1,250. The building which is rap- 
idly becoming the headquarters for the people of that district is situ- 
ated in the center of the township on a half-acre of ground purchased 
by the township for that purpose. This structure is planned with 
reference to the needs of all social gatherings as well as for the ac- 
commodation of all of the various business and public organizations 
of the township. A feature of the building is a large dance hall, 
with a splendid maple floor and excellent lighting facilities. Here 
the young people of the community have gathered for many good 
times during the past winter. In one end of the building, voting 
booths for elections are provided. The hall is rented for all occasions 
except when the churches use it. The township realized a nice little 
sum from this source during the past year, so the venture is proving 
a success in more ways than one. A short distance from the hall a 
large barn has been put up, so that the farmers will have a good place 
for their horses when they come to the meetings in unfavorable 
weather." 

The experience of this community contains a suggestion that 
might well be given application in many other places. They have 
found it worth while to provide thru public agencies for that very 
real need in every rural neighborhood, a meeting place. It is in this 
connection that the new type of school — the rural consolidated school 
— can render a great service and justify itself as a socializing agent 
as well as an efficient means toward educational uplift. Uniting as 
it does into one school community the children from a considerable 
territory, the further step of drawing together the adults from that 
same territory is not difficult. Every building put up for a consoli- 
dated school should be planned with reference to the social needs of 



360 The Quarterly Journal 

the community. Most of these buildings that have been erected re- 
cently or are now in process of construction are so planned, for when 
a community has reached the stage of progress when they demand 
this new and more efficient type of school, they are equally alive to 
the necessity of better social organization. 

A little careful thought and planning will bring within the 
reach of any community, so organized and so equipped, resources of 
entertainment and general uplift that will satisfy all of their needs. 
The extension workers of the University and the Agricultural Col- 
lege are ready and anxious to get into touch with all such well or- 
ganized communities and to serve them in every way possible. Dur- 
ing the past winter, the rural consolidated school located at Fergus, 
in Grand Forks county, carried a five-number course of University 
extension lectures and the attendance, in spite of handicaps, was very 
satisfactory. Other communities can do equally well. If several 
neighborhoods or villages were to get together and to do a little or- 
ganizing and planning, they could easily afford to invest in a moving- 
picture outfit, hire an operator, and thus secure at small cost the 
educational stimulation that there is in moving pictures of the proper 
kind. Courses of lectures and entertainments could be secured in 
the same way and many other similar undertakings could easily be 
carried out. All that is lacking is initiative and leadership. 

Here it is that the teachers and educators of the state, with their 
wider vision and better appreciation of social ends and social values 
can do their great work. Possessing an intimate knowledge of the 
life of a community, any good teacher should be able to set the wheels 
in motion and to remain the directing power behind. In communi- 
ties where the common interests are few, the beginnings may seem 
small and insignificant, but no gathering, whatever the pretext, that 
works for community solidarity should be so considered. The sig- 
nificance is not in the specific things that are done or the programs 
that are rendered. These are not in themselves an end, but only a 
means to an end. The real ends are better mutual acquaintance 
thruout the community, a clearer understanding of common prob- 
lems, a real class consciousness and an abiding enthusiasm and respect 
for their own vocation in life. These are some of the social facts 
that must be realized in North Dakota along with a greater diversi- 
fication of crops, increased fertility of the soil and the conservation 
of moisture by better methods of tillage. The human side of agri- 
culture needs to be considered along with the material side if we are 
to earn a right to a place of prominence among the leading agricult- 
ural commonwealths of the nation. 



Cost of Education in North 
Dakota 

James W. Wilkerson^ 

Secretary of the Board of Trustees, 
University of North Dakota 

A study of the writings on educational affairs shows that more 
and more attention is being brought to bear on the financial 
problems of education. The cost of education, especially in the 
higher branches, has increased very materially in the past few years, 
and the men in charge realize more than ever before, the need for 
business-like methods of handling and investing funds so that the 
greatest amount of income may be derived therefrom. The income 
of an educational institution is one of the chief factors in its successful 
administration. It is incumbent, therefore, upon the administrator 
of educational affairs to have the ability to obtain, care for, and use 
the funds for the attainment of the purpose for which his institution 
is established. Formerly an executive was chosen for his scholarship 
and special attainments along educational lines, but now a man must 
possess not only these qualifications but also the business ability to 
administer his affairs in an economical and practical way. 

The service which an institution renders to a community depends 
to a large degree upon the funds at its disposal. To what extent 
our educational institutions are financially able to cope with the 
growing demands of the state may be learned from a study of its 
financial resources. A statement, therefore, of the present income 
may be of interest. 

FEDERAL AID 

From the very beginning, the Federal Government has con- 
tributed materially to the promotion and development of the public 
schools and of other educational agencies. This aid has been ren- 
dered chiefly by granting tracts of land belonging to the nation at 
large, and in following out this policy many millions of acres of land 
have been granted to the various States and Territories for educa- 
tional purposes. The policy of granting the sixteenth section of 
each township for the support of the public schools dates back to 
1785, to one of the last acts of the old Continental Congress. This 
grant was supplemented, in 1848, by the addition of the thirty-sixth 
section, when an act was passed by Congress to establish the Terri- 
torial Government of Oregon. Since that date the United States 



362 The Quarterly Journal 

has granted to every state entering the Union, the sixteenth and 
thirty-sixth sections for such purposes.^ 

COMMON" SCHOOL LAND GRANT 

The Territorial Act of March 2, 1861,^ forming a territory, 
out of which later grew the States of North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Montana and Washington, provided for a grant of the sixteenth 
and thirty-sixth sections In each township for the common schools. 
These lands, however, could not be used until the territory was 
admitted Into the Union. When the Enabling Act of February 22, 
1889, admitting these states into the Union, was passed, the grant was 
confirmed. 

The Enabling Act provided that where the sixteenth and 
thirty-sixth sections or parts thereof were not in place on account of 
being embraced In lakes or rivers or on account of having been settled 
upon prior to survey, the state was allowed to select an equal area 
elsewhere from any public lands, to supply the loss, and such lands 
selected in lieu of the sections so disposed of are designated as 
Indemnity Lands. Any of these lands lying within Indian or mili- 
tary reservations do not come under the supervision of the state 
until such reservations are finally opened for settlement, but if the 
state desires to take Indemnity lands in lieu of that embraced within 
such reservations it may do so. 

In consequence of this grant there was given to the State of 
North Dakota, to be used in support of the common schools, 
2,543,319 acres of land. The following shows the total acreage of 
this grant on July I, 1910:^ 

Sections 16 and 36 in place, acres 2,313,099.86 

Sections 16 and 36 on reservations 89,915.32 

Indemnity lands selected 140,004.23 

Indemnity selections pending approval, about 300.00 

Acres 2,543,319.41 

MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL LANDS 

The Constitution provides that the management of these 
immense tracts of land and the investment of the funds derived 
therefrom, should be In the hands of a State Board of University 
and School Lands. This board consists of the Governor, Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, Attorney General, Secretary of State 
and State Auditor. It has direct control over the appraisement, 

1. Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1880. pp. XVII-XXX. 

2. United States Session Laws. 1859-61, p. 243. 

3. Report of Commissioner of University and Scliool Lands, July 1, 
1910, p. 15. 



Cost of Education 363 

sale, rental and disposal of all lands, and holds monthly meetings to 
act on such matters as may come before it. A Commissioner of 
University and School Lands, who is appointed by the board, has 
immediate charge of the business of the department. Before land is 
sold it is ordered appraised by the board, such appraisal being made 
as provided by law, by a board of county appraisers, consisting of 
the county auditor, county superintendent of schools and chairman 
of the county board of commissioners. If the appraisal is approved 
by the board and they deem it advisable to sell such lands, they arc 
advertised for sale at public auction. All unsold lands are subject 
to lease at public auction after having been advertised in the local 
papers of the county wherein the lands are located. In June of 
each year the county treasurers of certain counties are authorized to 
issue hay permits for the season on unleased lands, the minimum 
price for such permits being $5.00 per quarter section. 

A very wise provision of the Enabling Act and of the Consti- 
tution of the state, was that all lands granted for educational purposes 
should be disposed of at a price not less than $10.00 per acre. The 
wisdom of this provision is shown by the fact that most of the older 
states disposed of their lands at prices ranging from 50c per acre 
up, a large portion being sold at $1.25. 

On July I, 1 9 10, 964,421 acres of the common school land in 
North Dakota had been sold for a total purchase price of 
$15,351,440.73 or an average of $15.90 per acre. 

The Enabling Act of Feb. 22, 1889, also provided that five 
per cent of the proceeds of the public lands sold subsequent to the 
admission of the state to the Union, should be added to the common 
school fund. From this source has been derived $444,940.39. 
Another source of revenue to this fund is the proceeds from property 
that falls to the state by escheat. 

The following shows in detail the origin of the common school 
fund up to July i, 19 10: 

Sections 16 and 36, contracts $14,289,722.90 

Indemnity contracts 994,655.55 

Rights of way, sections 16 and 36 65,243.42 

Rights of way, Indemnity 1,818.86 

5% from sales of U. S. lands 444,940.39 

Miscellaneous receipts 432.83 

$15,797,902.91 

These funds, together with leases of unsold lands and hay 

permits, yield an annual income of approximately $903,000 which is 

apportioned among the several counties of the state in proportion 



364 The Quarterly Journal 

to the number of children of school age in each as shown by the 
last enumeration authorized by law. The following is a statement 
showing the investments on July i, 19 10: 

INVESTMENTS ANNUAL INCOME 

Deferred payments on land contracts Sections 

16 to s6, 6% per annum $9,611,366.48 $576,682.00 

Deferred payments on indemnity contracts, 

6% per annum ____ 741,184.20 44,471.05 

Bonds of school districts and municipalities 

within the state, 4% per annum 3,741,690.21 149,667.60 

Farm loans bearing 5% per annum 1,068,300.00 53,415.00 

Farm loans bearing 6% per annum 44,192.85 2,651.57 

Cash on hand 591,168.87 

$15,797,902.61 $826,887,224 

During the year 1909-10 there was an enumeration in the com- 
mon schools of 156,012 pupils. The income from these funds, 
therefore, allows a per capita apportionment of $5.80. This means 
$=5.80, not for each student attending school, but for each child of 
school age. Only ninety per cent of the children enumerated are 
attending. With 1,578,898.07 acres yet to be sold, and the price 
of the land in the state steadily increasing in value, we can some- 
what comprehend the importance of this grant. A fair estimate of 
the value of the unsold land can be placed at eighteen dollars per 
acre and it will likely average more than that when sold. Figured at 
this value, the fund will ultimately amount to forty-two million 
(!."!!r)rs and will yield an annual income of two million dollars. This, 
or course, will represent an actual saving of two million dollars to 
the ta.x'-payers annually. The liberality of the Federal Government 
is appreciated more forcibly when the fact is considered that the 
amount raised by taxation for the common schools was about 
$4,000,000 in 1910, and that in a few years the interest and income 
from this fund will amount to about one-half the amount raised in 
taxes. 

The future income from the sale of these lands and especially 
the income from the common school fund has been seriously affected 
by a recent act amending Section 158 of the Constitution.^ This act 
became a law when submitted to a vote of the people in the election 
of 1910. It provided that all deferred payments on lands sold after 
it became a law should bear interest at the rate of five per cent. 
This means a loss of one per cent on all deferred payments on 
contracts covering lands sold after 19 10. There are approximately 

4. In addition to this amount, the common school fund is credited 
with rentals and hay permits which, in 1910, amounted to $75,821.89. 

5. Session Laws, 1910. 



I 



Cost of Education 365 

1,700,000 acres of land unsold. Valuing it at $18.00 an acre, the 
total fund derived from its sale will amount to $30,600,000. One- 
fifth of this will be paid on date of sale, as provided by law. There 
will be a loss of one per cent on the remaining deferred payments on 
contracts until they are paid, the amount of loss diminishing of course, 
as the payments are made on the contracts each fifth year as pro- 
vided by law. 

The following statement gives an estimate of this loss: 



Estimate amount that will be derived 

from sale of unsold lands $30,600,000 

One-fifth paid at time of sale 6,120,000 



LOSS THRU CHANGE 
OF INTEREST RATE 



Deferred payments 24,480,000 

Loss of 1% in interest rate for 5 

years on deferred payments $1,224,000 

One-fifth paid at end of five years.- 6,120,000 



18,360,000 
Interest loss of one per cent for five 

years $ 918,000 

One-fifth paid at end of ten years-_ 6,120,000 



12,240,000 
Interest loss at one per cent for five 

years $ 612,000 

One-fifth paid at end of fifteen years 6,120,000 



6,120,000 
Interest loss at one per cent for five 
years $ 306,000 



Total loss $3,060,000 

This estimate would be diminished by the interest at one per 
cent for payments made on contracts before they are due, but it 
would also be increased by interest at one per cent for payments not 
made at the time specified in the contracts. We believe it is safe to 
say, without doubt, that there will be a loss to the school funds of 
three million dollars on account of this amendment. This loss equals 
ten per cent of the estimated value of the unsold lands. 

LAND GRANTS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION 

The generosity of the Federal Government did not stop with 
the common school grant. It had reserved seventy-two sections for 
University purposes in an act on February 18, 1881,^ and the 
Enabling Act granted this land to the state for the purpose named. 
Fifty sections were granted for the purpose of erecting public 

6. Again dating back to an act of the old Continental Congress (see 
note 1). 



366 The Quarterly Journal 

buildings at the capital for legislative, judicial and executive pur- 
poses. Ninety thousand acres were granted for the support of an 
agricultural college. 

In addition to the above grants, 500,000 acres were given 
to the state in lieu of grants as provided in the acts of Sept, 4, 
1841 and Sept. 28, 1850. The act of Sept. 4, 1841 provided that 
500,000 acres be granted for purposes of internal improvements. 
The act of Sept. 28, 1850 provided that swamp and overflow lands 
be granted to the state, the proceeds from which were to be used 
for draining them. The Enabling Act provided that this grant of 
500,000 acres should be made as follows: 



For School of Mines 40,000 Acres 

For Reform School 40,000 

For Deaf and Dumb School 40,000 

For Agricultural College 40,000 

For University 40,000 

For State Normal Schools 80,000 

For Public Buildings at the Capital 50,000 

For other Educational and Charitable purposes. 170,000 



(additional) 
(additional) 

(additional) 



Total 500,000 Acres 

The Constitution of the state provided for the distribution of 
the 170,000 acres last named as folows: 

For Hospital for Insane and Feeble Minded 20,000 Acres 

For Soldiers Home 40,000 " 

For Blind Asylum 30,000 " 

For Industrial School 40,000 " 

For Scientific School 40,000 " 



Total 170,000 Acres 

A Study of the report of sales of lands belonging to the educa- 
tional institution shows that 1,262,817.40 acres have been sold for 
$19,216,059.84. This amount is not a cash fund but represents sales 
of land on contract, and only $6,008,645.57 of it has been paid in. 
The remainder, $13,207,414.27, is yet to be paid by the purchasers, 
and these deferred payments on contracts bear interest at the rate of 
six per cent.' The Constitution of the state provides that the pur- 
chaser shall pay one-fifth of the price in cash and the remaining four- 
fifths as follows: One-fifth in five years, one-fifth in ten years, one- 
fifth in fifteen years, and one-fifth in twenty years, with interest at 
the rate of not less than six per cent,^ payable annually in advance. 
Of the amount paid on contracts, $4,634,210.39 has been invested in 
bonds of the state, of school corporations, of counties or townships 

7. Delinquent interest bears interest at seven per cent. 

8. Constitution amended in 1910. Contracts written after that date 
draw interest at five per cent. 



Cost of Education 367 

within the state, bonds of the United States, or in municipal bonds, 
all bearing interest at four per cent; $1,068,300 in first mortgages 
on farm lands in the state, with interest at 5 per cent, and $44,192.85 
on first farm mortgages with interest at 6 per cent. 

At this point we present for convenience a table showing the 
number of acres belonging to the common schools and to the insti- 
tutions of higher learning that have been sold, the selling price and 
the acres remaining unsold on July i, 1910: 

Acres Sold Price Acres Unsold 

Common Schools 964,421.00 $i5,35i,440.73 1,578,898.07 

Agricultural College 93,776.16 1,219,360.77 36,223.84 

Industrial School 28,100.67 364,403.03 11,899.33 

Normal Schools 57,833-93 743,185.25 22,166.07 

Scientific School 29,118.82 374,345.80 10,881.18 

School of Mines 27,163.45 354,901.05 12,836.55 

University 62,403.37 808,423.21 23,676.63 

1,262,817.40 $19,216,059.84 1,696,581.67 

The following statement shows in detail how these funds were 
invested on July I, 1 9 10: 

Land Contracts Bonds Rentals and 9 Annual 

6 per cent 4 per cent hay permits Income 

Common SchoolsiO $9,611,366.48 3,741,690.45 75,821.89] 

Common Schools > 902,709.11 

Idemnity Contracts _ 741,184.20 J 

Agricultural College __ 902,544.10 294,930.45 2,465.05 68,414.90 

Industrial School 269,865.17 78,627.46 692.70 20,020.70 

Normal Schools 547,903.22 153,022.96 1,576-77 40,576-77 

Scientific School 276,579.98 83,133.36 668.04 20,588.04 

School of Mines 259,931.61 86,379-44 787.58 19,838.58 

University 598,039.51 196,426.51 i,45i-5i 45,i87-5i 

$13,207,714.27 4,634,210.39 83,463.54 1,117,339.61 

STATE AID. 

The Constitution of the state provides that in order to insure the 
continuance of a high degree of intelligence, patriotism, integrity and 
morality, and the prosperity and happiness of the people, the legislat- 
ive assembly shall make provision for the establishment and mainte- 
nance of a system of public schools. For the purpose of putting into 
force and of carrying out these high ideals, the different legislative 
assemblies have passed and repealed many \zmvs bearing on the topic 
of education. Conditions change rapidly in a new state and laws 
that were adapted to our needs in the earlier days have been found 

9. All lands not sold are subject to lease. The county treasurers are 
authorized to issue hay permits for lands not leased, at a minimum price 
of $5.00 per quarter section. 

10. Common school fund also has $1,068,300. in farm mortgages at 
five per cent and $44,192.85 at six per cent. This is the only fund that 
can be invested in farm mortgages. 



368 The Quarterly Journal 

faulty and incomplete and have been discarded and replaced by laws 
that meet the new conditions. On account of limited space it is not 
possible to recount all the various laws relating to the finances of 
education that have been passed or that are now in force. The fol- 
lowing schools receive support from the state: 

Institutions of Higher Learning (including all educational in- 
stitutions wholly supported by the State). 

Rural, Graded and Consolidated Schools. 

High Schools. 

Agricultural Schools and Agricultural Departments. 

INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING 

This group comprises the State University, the Agricultural 
College, the Normal Schools, the Industrial School, the School for 
the Deaf, the State School of Science and the School of Forestry. 
These institutions receive aid from the state from two sources, 
namely, the one mill tax based on the total assessed valuation of the 
state, and special appropriations. The special appropriations are 
made biennially since our legislature meets every other year. The 
one mill tax is levied and appropriated annually and is apportioned 
as follows: 

State University ^-^/loo 

Agricultural College -•^/loo 

State Normal at Valley City '^|^/ioo 

State Normal at Mayville ^^/loo 

School for the Deaf ^/loo 

School of Forestry -/loo 

State School of Science ^/loo 

Industrial School 7/100 

The following table shows the aid appropriated by the state for 
the support of the institutions for the biennial period. A two-year 
period is taken ending June 30, 191 1, because the special appropria- 
tions are made biennially: 

Special appropria- Special appropria- 
tions for tions for equipment 
Mill Tax maintenance and improvements 

State University $165,992.25 $20,000 $149,000 

Agricultural Collegell 100,476./^ 130,000 

State Normal at Valley City 75,827.73 43.ooo 90,875 

State Normal at Mayville 65,279.32 55,500 

School for the Deaf 30,350.42 25,000 

School of Forestry 10,074.64 6,000 14,000 

State School of Science 20,095.28 2,200 57.500 

Industrial School 34-954-83 25,000 11,500 



$503,023.91 $96,200 $533,375 

11. In addition to state aid and revenue from school lands, the 
Agricultural College received in the biennial period, $129,000 from the 
Morrill, Nelson, Hatch and Adams Acts of the Federal Government. 



Cost of Education 369 

In addition to the above, state aid was rendered to the State 
University and the Agricultural College for maintenance and im- 
provements of stations established in connection with these institu- 
tions and for other special purposes as follows: 

State University — 

Biological Station 

Geological Survey 

Mining Station 

Public Health Laboratory 



Maintenance 


Improvements 


$ 6,000 


$5,000 


2,000 




10,000 


2,000 


10,000 





$28,000 $7,000 



Agricultural College — 

Pure Food $ 15,000 

Demonstration Farms 24,000 

Geological Survey 2,000 

Serum Institute 6,000 

Pure Seed 2,500 

Milling Experiments 3,ooo 

Edgeley Station 12,500 

Dickinson Station 13,500 

Williston Station 17,000 

Langdon Station 20,000 

Hettinger Station 10,000 



$125,00 

SUMMARY 

One mill tax__ $503,023.91 

Special appropriations for maintenance 96,200.00 

Special appropriations for equipment and improvement 533.375-0O 

Appropriations for stations and special purposes 160,500.00 

Total aid to institutions of higher learning for biennial period $1,293,098.91 

Dividing this sum by two we find that the state appropriates an- 
nually $646,549.00 for the support of the institutions of higher 
learning. These statements also show that of this amount $185,000 
is appropriated to the University, $178,000 to the Agricultural Col- 
lege, $165,000 to the Normal Schools and $118,000 to the other 
schools, namely, School for the Deaf, School of Forestry, State 
School of Science and Industrial School. This total annual appro- 
priation is equivalent to a tax levy of approximately two and three- 
tenths mills on the dollar of the total valuation of the state, and a 
per capita cost of $1.12 based on the total population of the state. 
In addition to the federal and state aid, each of the state institu- 
tions of higher learning has different sources of local annual income. 
These are given as follows :^^ 



12. Experiment Stations not included. 



370 The Quarterly Journal 

University — 

Fees from students $i3,537-ii 

Dormitories 8,878.82 

Miscellaneous 2,844.29 

$25,260.22 
Agricultural College — 
Sundry receipts in 

Special funds $ 1,697.75 

Beverage fund _ 27,262.81 

Farm and local station 10,555.04 

$39,51560 
State Normal at Valley City — 
Fees from stadents $ 3,421.80 

State Normal at Mayville — 

Fees from students $ 2,857.50 

Miscellaneous collections 838.20 

Dormitory 2,393.14 

$ 5,088.84 
School for the Deaf — 

Miscellaneous collections $ 638.04 

Industrial School — 

Miscellaneous collections $ 1,478.71 

$75,403-21 

RURAL^ GRADED, CONSOLIDATED AND HIGH SCHOOLS 

The state aids the common schools thru the county. It compels 
the counties to support them by providing that the county auditor of 
each county shall, at the time of making the annual assessment and 
levy of taxes, levy a tax of one dollar on each elector in the county 
for the support of the public schools and a further tax of two mills 
on the dollar on taxable property in the county. The levy is called 
the county tuition fund and is apportioned among the several school 
districts of the county, in proportion to the number of children of 
school age. In consequence of this law there was collected by the 
different counties for the year ending July i, 1910, the sum of $653,- 
222.18, an average of $14,200 per county. 

In addition to the above levy each common school board and the 
Board of Education of any city, town or village, has the power to 
levy a tax for school purposes of all kinds authorized by law, not 
exceeding in the aggregate a rate of thirty mills on the dollar in any 
one year. For various school purposes there was raised by taxation 
under the law from the county tuition fund and the special school 
tax the sum of $3,353,243-89 for the year ending July i, 1910. 

At the twelfth legislative assembly an act was passed granting 
state aid to certain rural and smaller graded schools that comply 



Cost of Education 371 

with the conditions of the act.^^ This aid is to encourage elementary 
education and to stimulate, standardize and increase the efficiency of 
the common schools of the state. For such schools that comply with 
the conditions enumerated in the act, the state superinendent appor- 
tions one hundred fifty dollars each year to state graded schools of the 
first class, one hundred dollars to state graded schools of the second 
class, one hundred dollars to state rural schools of the first class, and 
fifty dollars to state rural schools of the second class. Consolidated 
schools that meet the requirements of the schools as classified above 
receive additional aid ranging from twenty-five to one hundred dol- 
lars. Provision is made in the act for an inspector of rural and 
graded schools, who is apointed by the superintendent of public in- 
struction. The sum of seventeen thousand five hundred dollars is 
appropriated annually for carrying out the provisions of this act, 
twenty-five hundred dollars of which is to pay the salary and expenses 
of the inspector. 

SPECIAL AID TO HIGH SCHOOLS 

The state appropriates $45,000 annually for aid to the high 
schools. The law provides that the State High School Board shall 
have the authority to render state aid to high schools of the state that 
comply with certain conditions. It acts on applications in the order 
of their reception, and apportions to each of the schools whose ap- 
plications have been approved, the following sums, to-wit: Eight 
hundred dollars each year to each school maintaining a four years' 
high school curriculum ; five hundred dollars to each school having a 
three years' high school curriculum ; three hundred dollars to each 
school having a two years' high school curriculum. These appro- 
priations are made on condition that the money be used to increase 
the efficiency of the high school work, and that not less than forty 
per cent of the money appropriated be used in any one year for li- 
braries, laboratory apparatus and equipment. 

In case the appropriation is insufficient to appropriate to each 
school the amount it is entitled to receive under its classification, the 
total amount available is apportioned pro rata among the schools en- 
titled thereto. 

AGRICULTURAL SCHOOLS AND AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENTS 

An act was passed by the legislature of 191 1 making provision 
for the establishment of "County Agricultural and Training Schools." 
These schools are to receive state aid to the extent of one-half of the 

13. Session Laws, 1911, Chapter 35. 



372 The Quarterly Journal 

cost of their maintenance, such aid being limited to three thousand 
dollars annually for each school. At this date no schools have been 
established under this act. 

The same legislative assembly provided for the establishment 
and maintenance of a department of agriculture, manual training 
and domestic economy in state high schools, graded and consolidated 
schools. A special appropriation of $12,500 for the year ending June 
30, 19 1 3, was made for the purpose of carrying out the provisions 
of this law. Not more than five schools are to be aided the first year 
nor more than five to be added to the list every second year there- 
after. The High School Board, on March 5, 1912, established de- 
partments under this act in the schools at Beach, Carrington, Graf- 
ton, LaMoure and Velva. 

The following table gives a summary of county and state aid 
given to common schools and to high schools: 

County tuition fund $ 653,222.18 

Additional taxes for various school purposes 3,353.243-89 

State aid to high schools 45,000.00 

State aid to rural and graded schoolsi* 17,500.00 

State aid to schools maintaining agricultural departmentsiS-. 12,500.00 

Total $4,081,466.00 

The following table gives a summary of the amount of Federal 
and State aid for education in all branches: 

Federal Aid 

Common schools and high schools--? 902,709.11 
State University 45,i87-5i 1 

School of Minesie 19,838.58] 

Agricultural College 132,914.90 

State Normal Schools 40,576.77 

Industrial School 20,020.70 

Scientific School 20,588.04 

School for the Deaf 

School of Forestry 

$1,181,835.61 4,727.466 
Total Federal and State Aid $5,909,301.61 

COST 

The annual cost of the various branches of education in North 
Dakota for one year is $5,903,372.00 exclusive of private schools. 



17 



State Aid 


Total 


$4,081,466 


$4,984,175.11 


185,000 


250,026.09 


' 178,000 


310,914.90 


165,000 


205,576.77 


35,325 


55.345.70 


40,000 


60,588.04 


27,675 


27,675.00 


15,000 


15,000.00 



14. Appropriations were not available until July 1, 1911. 

IB Appropriations were not available until July 1, 1912. 

16. The School of Mines is located at the State University and in the 
accounting is treated as a college of the University. 

17 Includes $64,500 received from the Morrill, Nelson. Hatch and 
Adams Acts of the Federal Government for the promotion of agriculture 
in the several states. 



Cost of Education 373 

This figure is for the fiscal year ending June 30, 19 10, that being 
the date on which the last published reports were made. Of this 
sum $1,369,674.00 was for permanent improvements, $425,134.00 
for special purposes and $4,108,564.00 for maintenance. Of the 
total sum expended, eighty-two per cent was used for the common 
schools and high schools and eighteen per cent for the institutions of 
higher learning. Seventy-nine per cent of the sum was raised by 
taxation, eighteen and seven-tenths per cent was derived from the 
school land grant, one and one-tenth per cent was received by direct 
appropriation from the Federal Government and one and two-tenths 
per cent was collected in fees and other local income. 143,551 stu- 
dents were enrolled during the year, excluding those attending private 
schools. 

The following table gives the total amounts expended by the 
various schools during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910: 









Bonds 






Boarding 










redeemed 


Stat 


ions 


department 










and 


and special 


and 






Maintenance 


Improvements 


interest 


work 


special fund; 


i Total 


Common 
















schools 
















and high 
















schools-: 


$3,556,024 


$1,002,734 


$269,572 








$4,829,230 


University — 


164,842 


101,641 




26, 


785 


35,644 


328,912 


Agricultural 
















College — 


177,538 


122,655 




87, 


134 


5,999 


393,326 


State Normal 
















a t Valley 
















City 


78,280 


58,824 










137,104 


State Normal 
















at Mayville 


41,142 


59,678 










100,820 


In d u St rial 
















SchooliS 


44,000 


20,000 










64,000 


Scientific 
















SchoollS 


10,000 


1,100 










11,100 


School for the 
















Deafi8_-__ 


30,838 


42 










30,880 


School of 
















Forestryi8_ 


5,000 

$4,108,564 


3,000 










8,000 




$1,369,674 


$269,572 


$113,919 


$41,643 




Total exn 


lenditures 












$;.00.^.372 



It will be noted that of the state appropriations made to the 
institutions of higher learning in 1909 for buildings and improve- 
ments the greater part was used in the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1910. These appropriations are based on the revenue of the state 
for the biennial period, but the state auditor usually issues warrants 
against the appropriations when drawn upon, if funds are available. 

18. Estimated. Full data not given in published report. 



374 ^^^ Quarterly Journal 

Theoretically, institutions are supposed to spend each year one-half 
of their biennial appropriations for improvements ; in fact, however, 
the greater portion is expended during the first year of the biennial 
period. 

At this point it may be interesting to see how much North Da- 
kota spends on education as compared with some of the neighboring 
states. This comparative data is set forth in the following table: 

N. Dakota S. Dakota Minnesota Iowa Wisconsin 

Annual Expenditures 

Maintenance ___$3,S56,924 $3,386,490 $11,745,416 $12,575,944 $ 9.461,415 

Improvements _ 1,002,734 535,930 i,979.02i 1,135,522 1,774.356 

Bonds redeemed 72,390 145,591 



Total $4,829,231 $4,068,011 $13,724,427 $13,711,466 $11,235,771 

Enrollment 139,802 126,253 440,083 510,661 460,470 

Cost per pupil 
based on cost of 
maintenance 25.44 26.05 26.69 24.62 25.47 

Cost per capita 
based on popula- 
tion of state 6.16 5.63 5.66 5.65 4.81 

A few interesting facts may be gleaned from the above table. 
Each person in North Dakota contributes more to support education 
than does the average citizen in neighboring states. To offset this, 
however, we spend less per pupil than do our neighboring states ex- 
cept Iowa. This situation is explained by the fact that North Da- 
kota has a larger number of children attending school in proportion 
to her population than these other states. Twenty-four per cent of 
North Dakota's population attended the common schools during 
1909-10 as compared with twenty-one per cent in South Dakota and 
Minnesota, twenty per cent in Wisconsin and twenty-two and one- 
half per cent in Iowa. 

The published reports of the county superintendents as given in 
the report of the state superintendent do not show the cost per stu- 
dent in the rural, graded, consolidated and high schools. On account 
of the limited time given by the editors for the preparation of this 
article it was not possible to collect statistics from the diflferent coun- 
ties of the state. We have, however, been able to secure such data 
for Grand Forks county which is shown in the following table, in 
which is also included the cost per student in the higher institutions: 



19. Cost of transportation, $2."). 25 per student. 

20. Cost of transportation. % 7.40 per student. 

21. Includes 47b sliort term students whose attendance has been 
reduced to the nine months basis In estimating cost. 

22. Two hundred and eight students in the grades not included. 



Cost of Education 



375 











Cost 














per student 










Cost 


Cost 


per day 


Average monthly wage 






per student 


per student 


of actual 


of teachers 


SCHOOLS Enrollment 


per annum 


per month 


attendance 


Men 


Women 


First class high 














schools and grades-- 




3103 


345 


.20 


142.75 


70.92 


Second class high 














schools and grades-- 




27.81 


3.09 


.20 


100.00 


57.18 


Third class high 














schools and grades — 




27.10 


301 


.21 


100.00 


56.2s 


Graded schools doing 














high school work — 




29.38 


3-33 


•25 


82.66 


54-77 


Graded schools 




27.00 


3.00 


.22 


75.00 


52.33 


Township consolidated 














graded schoolsl^ 




62.14 


6.90 


■47 


65.00 


55.00 


Village consolidated 














graded schools20 




34.58 


3.84 


■27 


100.00 


56.25 


Rural schools 




26.58 


2.95 


•30 


52.00 


48.35 


University 


736 


223.00 


2477 








Agric'lt'ral College2l iigo 


203.13 


22.57 








Valley City Normal22 


722 


108.50 


12.00 








Mayville Normal 


216 


190.00 


21.00 








School for the Deaf 


76 


405.00 


49.00 









In studying the reports of the county superintendents to the state 
superintendent of public instruction, we note that the average of 
teachers' salaries is not reported uniformly. Some schools having 180 
days of school figure the salary in nine monthly payments and some 
in ten. In the above table the salary is figured in nine monthly pay- 
ments for 180 days, nine and one-half for 190 days, eight and one-half 
for 170 days, etc. 

One of the facts to be noted in connection with the above table 
is the excessive cost per day in the graded schools doing high school 
work. This excess is caused by low average attendance. One school 
had an average daily attendance as low as fifty-three per cent, and 
the general daily attendance was only sixty-four per cent of the 
number of students enrolled. 

For the purpose of illustrating what proportion of the taxes paid 
by a property holder in North Dakota is used for education, we pre- 
sent the following table For the sake of convenience we take the 
tax levy paid by a resident of Grand Forks and show for what each 
$100 paid in taxes was used: 

State Levy : 

3.8 mills for general expenses of the state23 $6.24 

.1 mills for state bond interest .17 

.1 mills for state bond sinking fund .17 

i.o mill for maintenance of institutions of higher learning-- 1.65 
.2 mills for wolf bounty .32 



$ 8.55 



23. Of this levy about .3 mills is appropriated from the general fund 
for educational purposes, of which the institutions of learning receive .25 
mills. 



376 The Quarterly Journal 

County Levy : 

2. mills for schools (county tuition fund) $3.28 

5.5 mills for general expenses of the county 9.02 

3.5 mills for county roads and bridges 5.75 

.6 mills for county insane asylum .99 



$19.04 



City Levy : 

13.2 mills for general expense of the city $21.67 

3.5 mills for interest on indebtedness of the city 5.75 

.7 mills for sinking fund of city 1.15 

1.2 mills for water mains and grading 1.97 

1.3 mills for hay and wood yard 2.13 

1.9 mills for park fund 3.12 

22.3 mills for city schools 36.62 

60.9 $ 72.41 

Total $100.00 

This table shows that out of each $100 paid in taxes by a resi- 
dent of Grand Forks, 25.6 mills, or $42.04, goes for education, of 
which $2.06 is used for the institutions of higher learning and $39-98 
for the city schools. Fifty-eight per cent of the taxes paid in the city 
is for the purpose of conducting the city, county and state govern- 
ment, and forty-two per cent for school purposes. 

One of the conclusions arrived at from a study of the cost of 
education in North Dakota is that the data in the reports covering 
the rural, graded, consolidated and high schools is meager and limited 
in its scope. The report of the superintendent of public instruction 
covers these branches of education as a whole but does not cover the 

t 

cost separately. A comparison, therefore, cannot be made, for in- 
stance, of the cost of maintaining high schools in different cities or 
counties of the state, or of any particular branch or department of 
the schools. Such data, if shown in the right way, would be valuable 
to boards of education in determining the proportion that should be 
spent on the high schools and on the different branches of education. 
This method of comparison would establish certain standards by 
means of which the different branches of education might be mesured 
and by which future expenditures would be guided. 

Perhaps some cities are confining their efforts within a too nar- 
row range. Others may be giving more attention than necessary to 
certain branches. By arranging in groups, different cities and towns 
having nearly equal population or pupils, certain standards might be 
developed from an average which would be helpful. 

A study of the reports of some of the older states that give this 
matter more attention, reveals the fact that as a rule about twenty- 
five to forty per cent of the total expenses of the cities go to the 



Cost of Education 377 

support of the public schools. This fact cannot be corroborated for 
the cities of North Dakota without private investigation, on account 
of the lack of information given in the published reports bearing on 
the cost of education. 

The United States Bureau of Education has recently issued a 
new standard fiscal schedule under which all items of revenue and 
expenditure are completely classified. This schedule has been adopted 
by the Department of Superintendence of the National Educational 
Association and could be adopted to good advantage by the cities in 
North Dakota. Under a national uniform system of accounting 
such as this, an intelligent comparison could be made of the city 
schools in North Dakota and with those of other states. Perhaps 
the state legislature should compel all schools in the state to adopt 
a uniform schedule similar to the United States schedule. 

In connection with these questions we would recommend the 
enactment of a law providing for the employment of a statistician in 
the office of the superintendent of public instruction, whose duty 
would be the collection of such data bearing on the cost of education 
and such other information as might be deemed advisable and helpful. 
He should have the authority to outline the classification of the ac- 
counts and to prescribe the methods of keeping records so that proper 
reports could be made therefrom. A statistician, if employed, should 
be a man specially trained in statistical and investigational work and 
should have a knowledge of this particular field. The object in ad- 
ding a statistician to the corps of the office of the superintendent of 
public instruction is that a man serving in this capacity would be free 
from the many duties devolving upon the superintendent and would 
have time to do investigational and research work under his direction. 



The Educational Situation in North 

Dakota in the Light of 

Present Needs 

John Morris Gillette, 

Professor of Sociology, University of North Dakota 

T Nunscientific days the test of the efficiency of an educational 
•■■ system or institution was subjective. It was asked if this subject 
or that, this curriculum or that gave the best discipline or the best 
culture. There was no possible means of deciding, but traditional 
pedagogs continued to make bald assertions about the efficiency of 
the subjects and curricula they had inherited as they had inherited 
their tastes and to anathematize as vulgar and materialistic the 
introduction of those things which had not the approval of centuries 
or at least generations. During the last few years progressive 
students of education have abandoned the subjective test and are 
asking what the world for which the individual is to be educated is 
demanding as qualifications. This is much more scientific as a pro- 
cedure than seeking to apply the subjective criterion because we are 
able to obtain quite definite information about what the world is and 
what its tendencies and demands are. The editors of this Journal 
have suggested that I apply the objective standard to the school 
system of North Dakota. After going over the field I have concluded 
that it is too large an undertaking for a short paper if the study were 
to have the desired value of being explicit. But it will be possible 
to treat the matter broadly and somewhat negatively. 

It will be illuminating to consider first the sociological demands 
to which all parts of the school system from bottom to top must 
conform. 

I. DEMANDS OF THE PRESENT AS 
AGAINST THE PAST 

I. Scientific Spirit and Method. The present requires a scien- 
tific spirit and method far beyond that of past epochs. Every thought- 
ful student of history or of social evolution recognizes this. Comte 
called this the positive age as distinguished from the metaphysical 
which preceded it and the theological which appeared earliest. It is 
the positive age because the course of things may be determined by 
means of the application of rigid scientific tests. This is not equally 
true of all spheres of life. The more mathematical sciences find the 



Education in the Light of Present Needs 279 

readiest application of such tests. Where they may be applied to 
matters of life conditions are marked out and determined accurately. . 
But this is the tendency everywhere. The ideal is that all ranges of 
life may be placed on the basis of complete information and accurate 
determination. Industrial matters are getting on this foundation 
very rapidly. The great producing concerns maintain large corps 
of trained specialists to test and to make advances in their processes. 
Business in which coUossal sums of money are invested want no 
guesses. The sanitation of cities and of homes depends upon exact 
knowledge of the facts, the application of rigorous methods, and the 
establishment of conditions known in advance to be adequate to 
obtain health and safety. Many social matters are responding 
to demands for exact information and treatment. Statistical methods 
are entering many fields and reducing what was previously guess 
work and haze to ordered knowledge. Generalization also further 
reduces vast fields of phenomena to order and rationality and paves 
the way to the positive aspect of things. 

Every individual who is worth training has to meet the tight- 
ening grip of scientific demands. He still w^orks under competition 
in various ways. If he is not armed for the conflict as are others 
with whom he is to compete, he stands a lessened chance. The ele- 
mentary grades of our public schools are not absolved. They have 
the great masses of people to train. A heavy responsibility is placed 
on them to give what is needed now and to give it adequately. Anti- 
quated methods, traditional points of view, and poorly equipped 
teachers are great obstacles to success in the lower schools of the 
state. When the most of our educational leaders, superintendents, 
and teachers know neither science nor the demands the world is mak- 
ing for scientifically equipped men and women, the outlook is not 
particularly hopeful of speedy improvement. 

2. Definite Vocational Efficiency. Increasing specialization in 
social structure and function is making the requirement for individ- 
uals equipped to do something definite and positive more imperative. 
We are passing the age when it pays to be the casual worker. 
Untrained men and women are at a disadvantage all along the line. 
This is true because social evolution, like biological evolution, brings 
more and more differentiation of structural organs into the social 
organism as agencies of adjustment to the environment. The rate 
at which specialiatzion proceeds in industry, education, politics, 
medicine, religious organization, etc., is marked. It is characteristic 
of the age of science and invention. It is the result of differentiations 
in those lines. Society is becoming more definite in its structural 



380 The Quarterly Journal 

organization. Social life is getting more definitely organized. Greater 
numbers of persons are called on to have specialized knowledge and 
skill. The tendency is increasing and there are no signs of diminution. 
If education has anything to do with life, with social demands, if k 
is to be anything more than a passing spectator of life's panorama, it 
must take cognizance of this fact and tendency. 

The results of being unspecialized, of lacking a definite vocation 
are many. Inefficiency in life and in work; unproductivity ; being 
forced to be an unskilled, floating, irregular worker, the last to be 
employed and the first to be discharged ; proneness to recruit the 
ranks of the unemployed, the impoverished, and the paupers; conse- 
quently a proneness to join the ranks of the criminals and vagrants, 
and in either case to become parasitical, having to be carried by those 
who are qualified for life; condemnation to live a socially functionless 
life because not able to get hold of and enter into the social processes ; 
lacking discipline w^hich work brings and having a dearth of moral 
determination which organized labor or knowledge yield ; these are 
some of the well known results of a vocationless training. Social 
workers of all kinds have come to recognize these as well as other 
things as the legitimate results of lack of vocation, and they are 
righteously indignant at the hide-bound system which perpetuates 
such conditions. 

In this North Dakota is not exempt from criticism. Both city 
and rural schools are great sinners. Some of the largest towns of 
the state are stupidly backward. Their superintendents, in place of 
being wide awake leaders, sit on their jobs, draw their salaries, play 
politics to elect directors favorable to them, repel suggestions of 
improvement, and never respond to new demands and community 
needs till a revolution promises to blow them from their position. 
Anything which seems to them to disturb the soporific sleep of their 
"traditional system" is like a red rag waved in the face of a bull. The 
result is that likely pupils are driven from the schools early in life 
because they do not secure the practical training their estate in life 
requires. Others who are slow or backward are kept in the same 
grade for years, repeating the same academic subjects which mean 
so little for them, while being deprived of the privilege of manual 
and practical work which in progressive cities does so much to 
redeem such pupils. Certain of the larger city schools ofier pitiable 
examples of such pupils. I have a case in mind of a boy who is slow 
mentally but "handy" with tools. He spends two or three years in a 
grade in exclusively academic studies, and has stopped his education 
with the fourth grade. There is no opportunity given him in the 



Education in the Light of Present Needs 381 

lower grades to develop his manual ability and as a consequence his 
youth is being largely wasted and his maturity will be rendered 
ineffectual. The school system, by reason of its inertness, is con- 
demning this and other pupils to fruitless, if not to anti-social, careers. 
The rural schools are even more backward than the city schools. 
They are located in agricultural regions yet, estimating them accord- 
ing to the pertinency of their course of study and subject matter, they 
might be located in the greatest industrial and commercial cities of 
the earth, save as they inculcate some second-hand agriculture. The 
doctrine of community interest, namely, that the nature of the interest 
or interests of a community shall decide what kind of education the 
schools of a community are to give, is widely accepted. Yet most 
of our country schools, and those of the small towns which might 
be classed as rural, are innocent of any thought of community ad- 
justment. Unfortunately, also, the state course of study is little 
better and it might have been written by men of the dark ages, so 
little is the community interest recognized. It is to be hoped that 
the recommendations made by the Committee of Seven, which are 
certainly not radical, will be adopted and put into effect. The com- 
mittee recognizes that the children of the country have some local 
rights which should be respected, in conducting their education. 

3. Recognition of Economic Activities. The importance of the 
economic activities in society are coming to consciousness and are 
making a demand for recognition on the part of education. The 
larger share of the average life is spent on the work of making a 
living. Only the empty-handed leisure class is able to avoid this, 
with barely the exception of the other parasitical classes, criminals, 
paupers, and hoboes. Of the total social energ}- which comes into 
existence day by day to be expended, over ninety-five per cent is laid 
out in productive enterprise. Governments are largely concerned 
with regulations of industrial relations, military plants are kept up 
at enormous expense with a view to commercial exigencies, science 
and invention are rapidly being harnessed to draw the wheels of 
industry and trade, and city growth is the consequence of industry. 
Whether we like it or not the times testify to this and the schools 
must train men and w^omen to meet the demands of the present 
epoch. This means that they must give attention to making citizens 
who are competent to take care of the growing volume of society's 
economic needs and who are able to make their own support. 

This is just and good also. Even material wants are useful 
and proper. They are psychical in nature and they make up the 
body of the great stream of civilization. Civilization grows by the 



382 The Quarterly Journal 

multiplication of wants. The average man is coming to possess 
more wants. He has a right to satisfy them. To satisfy them he 
must be enabled to become productive so as to earn the right or the 
ability to do so. Further, the so-called higher wants are conditioned 
by the appearance and prosperity of the economic phases of life. Art, 
literature, music, and other cultural matters cost in terms of wealth. 
Where wealth abounds these wants find highest expression and 
satisfaction. Occidental civilization as compared with oriental society 
is a standing testimony to this. 

Looked at as a whole the educational system of North Dakota 
has relatively ignored the economic requirements. It has been engi- 
neered chiefly by men who have had a literary training, whose eyes 
have been beholden only to the things in which they were trained, 
and who did not have the modern outlook. It there were world 
tendencies they did not know it, and what they were they had no 
ability to find out. It was much easier to enthuse over "culture" 
than to make a scientific study of the times. Hence both the common 
schools and the higher institutions have maintained the conventional 
programs at the expense of legitimate modern courses. 

II. UNIVERSAL DEMANDS 

I. Training for Cooperative Activity. Society has always de- 
pended on cooperative activities. There would be no collective life 
without them. But conscious cooperation holds a larger place in 
life now than formerly. We engage more largely in making plans 
for the common life than previous ages have done and this brings a 
larger requirement on the average man. Government, industry, re- 
ligion, education, are making requisition in divers new ways for team 
work. The unsympathetic, unintelligent individual enters but indif- 
ferently into such joint actions. In childhood is the time to bring 
to the front the activities which breed the temper, the sympathy, the 
ability, and the discipline which make possible the higher and more 
fruitful kinds of cooperation. 

Our state school system is relatively undeveloped in this di- 
rection. There are certain agencies which are particularly effective 
in securing the cooperative spirit and attitude. Organized play is 
one of the most adequate means for the younger pupils. Yet organ- 
ized play is in its infancy in our elementary schools, or has received 
little or no recognition. Making use of the various school activities 
to breed the social spirit is another good device. Permitting the 
pupils to engage in a large amount of direction of their affairs as 
student bodies or as classes is an example. The majority of our 



Education in the Light of Present Needs 383 

schools are backward in this. The teachers exercise almost entire 
and absolute control. Autocracy is easier to exercise than democracy 
when the ruler is vested with entire and full authority. But it is not 
the best thing for the future of the growing citizens nor for the 
society they will have to conduct. Cooperative ability means f,tU- 
control before all else. This is not begotten of exclusive cc itrol 
from the top all the time. Our higher institutions of learning are 
quite as backward in the matter of government as elementary schools. 
Hardly any have worked out any mesure of student self-control. 
Yet the age and dignity of the students would prove productive of 
the best results. 

2. Training for Social Activity. This is somewhat akin to 
cooperation yet cooperation may be given thru training in and thru 
organizations while social training goes still farther. It depends 
upon information and outlook quite as much as on the cooperative 
attitude. Cooperative training is social training, but we must go 
further and give a knowledge of the conditions in society which 
have to be met and controlled. Modern social life calls for many 
kinds of adjustments. Many agencies are at work about us which 
touch our interests. Unless we have some knov^ledge of the nature 
of the community, some sympathy with its welfare, some pride in its 
progress, our actions are likely to be harmful. Our citizenship is 
needy of the social spirit, the ethical outlook, which desires to see 
society make advance, and has a profound interest in the thought of 
race-improvement. It is needy of the information and principles 
which indicate how these desires and ideals for society may be 
obtained. 

Up to the present time the subjects in the common schools, and 
even in the high schools which are calculated to bestow this spirit 
and information are wanting or poorly taught. History and civics 
of the conventionalized sort have been in the schools. The civics 
has not been the working sort. Society at work thru government 
and political parties has not crept in to the school room. Memorizing 
constitutions or their provisions, dates of election, and names of of- 
ficers has been the chief work. The history has lacked meaning. It 
has had little to do with real life. It has dealt with the events of the 
past without relating them to problems of today. Hence there is a 
special need for a kind of study which deals with the community and 
gives a working knowledge of its nature and import. 

3. Education for Enjoyment. The satisfaction side of life is 
the greatest. Life is principally satisfaction or it is next to nothing. 
We have looked at life in many ways in times past but we are 



384 The Quarterly Journal 

beginning to regard it as a thing for obtaining the largest amount of 
satisfaction. It is not merely for work. Work should be necessary 
but it should also be a means of enjoyment. Otherwise it is mere 
drudgery and since it makes up the major portion of the life of the 
average man, that life is rendered relatively empty. Leisure should 
come to all. The masses of people have some leisure. But leisure 
may be ennui unless it is filled with that which is the source of new 
inspiration and strength. Satisfaction is to be regarded as the end 
of existence and all other things as means. Work, leisure, and all 
else should be used as agencies to obtain a larger satisfaction, 

The thoughtful observer must see that our education in many 
of its phases is not of the plesure economy sort. It is based on a pain 
economy. It views nature as an administrator of pain and penalty 
— rather than as a kind and indulgent mother who stands ready to 
satisfy every desire of the human heart. Our school administration 
is more than likely to be of a privative nature. It deals in terms of 
"thou shalt not," rather than in those of solicitation and develop- 
ment. 

One of the greatest functions of education is to create wants 
and desires to be satisfied and to teach the best methods to use in 
their satisfaction. It is worth while to train young people to be 
able to find a supreme satisfaction in m.usic, art, or literature. 
Satisfaction is the only thing that cannot be considered as a means 
to some other end. It has the distinct advantage of being the end 
relative to which all other things are means. Hence music, reading, 
and so on are favored in being cheap and universal means of contrib- 
uting to life in so far as life is satisfaction. 

III. REFERENCE TO THE EDUCATIONAL 
SYSTEM OF THE STATE 

We have found it quite difHcult to appraise our educational 
system in general terms. An illustration frequently ended in bringing 
us to consider some special range of education. Perhaps a more 
particular reference to the various grades of public schools may prove 
serviceable. 

I. The Elementary Schools. The elementary schools are the 
most important of the public school system. They form the basis 
on which all other educational institutions rest, contributing the 
elements of learning and the tools of further knowledge, therefore 
affecting the higher as their work is well or poorly done. A still 
more important consideration is the fact that they furnish all the 
public school education which eighty per cent of our citizens receive 



Education in the Light of Present Needs 385 

and if their functions are poorly performed they strike at the vitals 
of society. If they do not properly lay stress on the right things, if 
their methods are inefficient or their teachers backward they fail to 
attain the end for which society acting as the state established them. 

If we seek to discover the educational end by means of applying 
the evolutionary test we can hardly miss it. Moreover it will have 
the same scientific basis as other matters of life which are viewed in 
that way. Adjustment is the prime conception in evolution. The 
organism lives to the degree of its adjustment to the factors of its 
environment. Its efficiency is mesured by the success with which it 
uses, masters, or avoids various surrounding conditions. Adjustment 
is therefore to be regarded as the means the organism uses to secure 
its perpetuity. Life is the end, life in the fullest sense, and adjust- 
ment is the agency. And this is true all the way up and down the 
evolutionary gamut. 

Transfer this conception to education. It covers all degrees 
and institutions of training. The perpetuity of the individual in the 
largest fulness of life together with that of the society which has 
become his chief environment and whose continuance and validity 
condition his existence in essential respects is dependent on an effective 
adjustment. Society is the essential environment. It dictates the terms 
of the adjustment. Its conditions are supreme in the long run and 
must be well known. Of the schools it is required to make good 
citizens of the youth committed to them in the shortest possible time 
inasmuch as the majority of the children are eliminated before the 
elementary grades are finished. This citizenship is one of community, 
state, and nation. Certain principles of adjustment are identical for 
these various segments of life, but the matter of the closer community 
is likely to be different and certainly much more immediately imper- 
ative than that of state and nation. 

The social end of education involves the bestowal of several 
attributes on the individual in training: productivity, so as to be 
self-supporting; moralization, so that the rights of others and of 
the collective life shall be preserved ; information, in order that the 
essential conditions of social and individual success and progress may 
be conceived and used. 

The program of study for our elementary schools is not clearly 
defined to meet the demands of the social end of education. The 
social object was not dominant when the course of study was made 
nor is it probable many educators as yet conceive it sufficiently well 
to work out a balanced, organized course to meet it. The state course 
probably contains too many subjects, assuming that they are to be 



386 The Quarterly Journal 

retained in their present volume and also that the present opaque 
methods and inefficiency are to be continued indefinitely. A social- 
ization of the program would eliminate one subject, cut down the 
volume of some others, introduce some new material which the 
times demand, and reorganize the whole on an efficient and direct 
attack basis. I would hold that formal grammar as a discipline 
should be dropt, leaving the productive parts of it for use in con- 
structive language work. New matter which is much needed lies 
in the direction of community studies, and in vocational processes. 
The socialization of several subjects by the elimination of matter 
which is extraneous, remote and irrelevant to the times and 
community, the supplementing by new and vital things, and the 
organization of the whole into a living body is demanded. Arith- 
metic, geography, physiology, history, and in many communities 
reading, stand in need of the transforming process. 

Too much time is required to obtain a skillful use of the tools 
of learning, reading, writing, and numbers. Backward and unintel- 
ligent methods largely account for the waste of time in obtaining a 
mastery of these. It boots nothing to say that men are deficient in 
reading and numbers even after they have gone thru the schools. 
Progressive schools working under experiments have shown the 
time may be reduced enormously. The time element is important 
since we have the majority of the children in school so short a time. 
Social efficiency is crippled because needless time is consumed on the 
tools of learning which other useful matters are demanding. 

The social efficiency of the schools and that of the individuals 
who are being trained in them is seriously hindered by the failure to 
properly adjust the schools to the differences of capacity and ability 
of the pupils. Some children are slow by reason of capacity imposed 
at birth, others because they are the products of dull, lifeless homes 
and neighborhoods. Others are forward by reason of birth and 
superior advantages. The extremes tend to pull far apart. Yet 
our schools pay little attention to the situation. Both classes of 
children are crippled in their work, — the able sacrificing interest and 
losing time in the marking time process, the backward suffering 
because they are not able to assimilate what they are forced over 
as they herd behind the others. 

Since teachers are a vital part of the school machinery, their 
training and their grasp of their work are fundamental mat- 
ters in the undertaking of the schools. Organization, program 
of studies, and subject matter of training may all be next 
to perfect but if the teachers are lacking in knowledge and skill 



Education in the Light of Present Needs 387 

the situation is about hopeless. If any great number in any school 
are dull and lacking in insight the results are bad. A dull teacher 
cripples every child who passes up the line, and is more responsible 
for elimination of children and the making of delinquents than we 
are likely to think. The poorer districts of our cities and the rural 
schools quite generally are afflicted with poorly equipped teachers. 
How could we expect our schools to be socially effective as long as 
these conditions are maintained ? 

One item appears which is of particular pertinency to our rural 
schools. We have just spoken of their large quota of backward 
teachers. But in matters of equipment, buildings, and in the subject- 
matter taught they are likewise deficient. Those who have made 
anything like a thoro study of the rural situation understand that 
the schools of the country are almost completely incapable of per- 
forming the services the country needs, constituted as they are. The 
country must educate its own leadership for neither high schools nor 
colleges are doing this. It must have a leadership which not only 
understands grain and stock raising in a scientific manner but also 
knows the even more important item of associational work. The 
country must have a place for social center undertakings and the 
school houses are the only logical, neutral, and democratic places 
for these important matters. The subject matter of the schools is 
very largely urban in nature. Farm life is not reflected in it, the 
heroes and great men of history and story are of other lines of life, 
the reading lessons and literature are non-rural. Even the arith- 
metic is little directed towards agricultural things. As a conse- 
quence the ideals and pictures of life are of non-rural callings and 
much of the unrest among young men and women has been bred 
because the knowledge and interests they obtained in the schools impel 
away from the farm. The equipment of the schools is not sufficient, 
nor with the present buildings is it possible to make it sufficient to 
meet the demands for agriculture, household economics, manual 
training, organized play in winter, and various other items. Efficient 
teachers and effectively graded schools await larger buildings and 
better provisions for work, such as consolidated school buildings 
would bring. 

2. The Secondary Schools. Our high school, save in a few of 
the larger places, tend to follow traditional lines. The premium is 
still placed on training men and women for college and university 
rather than on giving them some adequate conception of life and 
making them fit to meet the conditions which the locality imposes. 
Only a very few of the graduates of these schools go to college. To 



388 The Quarterly Journal 

train all pupils in the high schools to meet the entrance require- 
ments of institutions which anachronistically persist in demanding 
that all who enter must have studied language and mathematics 
above all else, is most unintelligent and unjust. In a scientific age 
. very few get an insight into the ordinary processes of nature or an 
acquaintance with the important social concerns surrounding them. 
Recently I have asked a number of high school principals and 
teachers of some of our smaller towns what they were doing to 
articulate the high school with the community interests. It illumi- 
nated the situation significantly to know that to most of them the 
question meant nothing, while none of them could give an intelligent 
answer. Only a few of our advanced city schools have made any 
considerable advance in this direction. To visit a consolidated rural 
school where two years of high school work is given and to discover 
that the course of instruction is exactly the same in those two years 
as in urban high schools so far as requirements go and that Latin 
and mathematics are receiving the chief stress, is a help towards 
realizing how inadequately and unintelligently many of our schools 
are administered. 

3. The Higher Institutions. The higher institutions of learn- 
ing are a part of the public school system but they have to be viewed 
from a different angle than the lower grades of school work. While 
the lower schools must be regarded as ministering chiefly to the 
interests of the people who live in the immediate community the 
higher institutions are established to serve the interests of special 
groups and thru them to meet the needs of the state at large. The 
division of labor which seems to have been established for the normal 
schools, the agricultural college, and the university is that the former 
shall train teachers for the elementary schools, the second shall 
minister to agricultural needs, and the latter shall equip men and 
women to carry on higher professions of various kinds. 

Relative to the normal schools there are two points in which 
at present they appear to be remiss. They do not seem to be reaching 
the rural situation as they should, and they fail to give that attention 
to the sociological training of their teachers which conditions demand. 
Our rural schools constitute the preponderating part of the ele- 
mentary school system. Well trained teachers are requisite for 
them if they are to meet the requirements of the state. Relatively 
few normal school graduates enter the service of the country' dis- 
tricts. It is not the fault in the intention of the normals that their 
graduates do not desire to teach in the country. But so long as the 
normals train all their graduates alike their graduates will seek the 



Education in the Light of Present Needs 389 

town and city schools as a matter of course. Only by a differentiation 
of courses so that a large part of the students of the normals will be 
trained for rural school teaching, will be specialized and effectively 
equipped to do that important work, may those institutions remedy 
the situation. It is known, of course, that some attention is being 
paid to rural matters. But the situation is hardly touched as yet. 

That our teachers have a special demand for sociological training 
requires little proof, it might be thought. Yet the fact that our 
normal schools give so little attention to the social sciences indicate 
that their managements have not perceived the changed basis or 
emphasis relative to the foundations of education and the importance 
of an understanding of community social conditions on the part of 
the teaching profession. Economics throws immense light on many 
of the fundamental problems with which our governments, from 
nation to city and county, are grappling. To think of teaching 
civics without the background of economics is shortsighted. In like 
manner sociology probably furnishes the best foundation the teacher 
can have for a philosophy of life and of education. The teacher's 
work touches society at almost every point. It is hardly credible 
that her work can be done well without understanding the nature 
of the larger surroundings. Ex-president Harvey of the National 
Educational Association says: "I have always believed that there 
should be such a course in our normal schools. Our students need 
a little outlook in this field. It will make them better men and 
women, and put them closer in touch with the social problems of 
the community in which they live." (Quoted by Clow in his article 
"Sociolog}- in Normal Schools," American Journal of Sociology', 
16:256). 

It is my opinion, in which I find much concurrence on the part 
of writers on education, that sociology along with psychology- ofifers 
the legitimate foundation for the philosophy of education. The 
philosophy regulative of the subject matter which is to enter into 
the educational courses should come from the sociological direction 
since society and its demands afford the only rational and workable 
criteria we have for the choice of that matter. On the other hand, 
it is the function of psychology to determine how this material shall 
be taught and how it shall be apportioned in the successive grades 
of school work. Neither is competent to undertake and to do the 
work of the other. The omission of either from the training course 
of teachers would seem to be unfortunate. 

Professor Clow says: "My correspondence with normal school 
presidents shows that they do not shy at the scientific character of 



390 The Quarterly Journal 

sociology. They are no more purists in science than in etymology; 
they do not question the possibility of a science of society any more 
than they question the legitimacy of the word sociology. They 
almost unanimously admit the importance of sociology. Their ques- 
tions are these : ( i ) Can normal school students grasp sociology ? 
(2) How can room be made for it in the curriculum? (Same, p. 
262). Professor Clow, on the basis of his own experience in teaching 
both economics and sociology in normal schools, answers the first 
question emphatically in the affirmative. I have taught both these 
subjects, and also history, and psychology in a normal school and 
found no greater difficulty in teaching sociology than the other sub- 
jects. In fact I think it is easier for the average student than psy- 
chology, because it is more objective. 

But, as Professor Clow remarks, the subject must have a skillful 
pilot. And here is where the normal schools are weak. Sociology 
and economics are given to any one to teach. Seldom is the instructor 
trained in the subject of sociology. Not being master of the field he 
can not choose the points of importance for emphasis and his work 
is likely to be a failure. Well equipped teachers are as imperative 
in this as in psychology. 

In my estimation our agricultural college, along with many 
others, elsewhere, fails to meet the present situation adequately, first, 
in not having given more exclusive attention to the work of farm 
husbandry, and second, in not perceiving the larger social situation 
involved in the improvement of farm life. As an institution it has 
received its funds in order to train men for country work. Yet almost 
the chief part of its emphasis has been laid on engineering and 
academic work. Consequently farm life has not been reached to the 
degree it should be reached. Unless the work of the agricultural 
college is supplemented by an enormous extension of the teaching of 
agriculture in rural as well as in high schools, the state can not be 
adequately, that is, universally, reached. It should confine its atten- 
tion to husbandry and be satisfied that that is the greatest work in 
the state. 

Until very recently no attention has been paid to the general 
social phase of country life. However, it is evident that country 
people are generally well to do and that what they need above all 
else is to know how to improve their homes and neighborhoods, how 
to live to obtain the greatest satisfaction in life, how to create insti- 
tutions for cooperative work and for associational privileges which 
will conduce to both business and pleasure. Like the normal schools 
the agricultural college has had no one to teach this side of farm life 



Education in the Light of Present Needs 391 

who had a special training for the work. Not much may be ex- 
pected in this direction until such qualified men as the Kansas 
agricultural college maintains are emplojed to do the work. 

The state university is to reach the people's needs by giving 
professional training, along with courses for purposes of general 
culture. The former is growing relative to the latter. The univer- 
sity, like most other institutions, remains, to a considerable degree, 
traditional and conventional in its entrance requirements. It has 
liberalized these but is still behind the logical demands. Save in the 
case of those who expect to become research men for whom special 
requirements are justified, a state university is not warranted in 
requiring other than quantitative qualifications for entrance to its 
classes. The state high schools have a right to establish and conduct 
such courses as their communities see fit. If at the close of a high 
school career students from any such courses desire a university 
course it is the business of the university to accept such students, 
only with the provision that the work shall have been thoroly done. 
It has a right to prescribe the quality of thoroness, establish the 
amount of credit to be allowed for untried or experimental courses, 
but it works a social injustice when it excludes those who may not 
have taken the conventional requirements. It is unfortunate that 
state universities have awaited the initiative of a privately endowed 
university to establish really liberal standards of entrance require- 
ments. 

In the matter of professional training the state university errs 
in the rigidly technical nature of the courses. These rigid courses 
exclude some very necessary items of instruction for the development 
of a safe social outlook. Mining, civil, and electrical engineers who 
are not instructed in matters of labor and its rights and in the basis 
of conduct of business essential to secure that social justice towards 
which our ideals point are quite as likely to be a curse to the state and 
society as a benefit. The same is true in the training of lawyers. 
An understanding of the constitution of society and of the social 
problems of the age is imperative as a safeguard against technical 
procedure, the "sporting theory of justice," and the manufacture of 
men who are quite willing to serve corporation interests as against 
public interest. 

No doubt other instiutions such as the school of forestry and 
the school of science deserve attention. Space prevents further treat- 
ment and probably the principles of treatment accorded the above 
schools, in so far as they have emerged, will be sufficient to cover 
those institutions. 



Book Reviews 

Social Adjustment: Scott Nearing, Ph. D., Wharton School, 

University of Pennsylvania. The Macmillan Company, New 

York, 191 1. XVI + 377 pp. 

The author of this work states that it is written to prove : "first, 
that maladjustment is prevalent in many forms; second, that in each 
of these forms it is remediable; and third, that adjustment is attain- 
able only after maladjustment has been eliminated." (p. 28.) 

Maladjustment is a departure from the normal. The normal in 
society is to be attained by means of social adjustment. The fact 
of maladjustment is obvious, but Professor Nearing devotes many 
chapters to treating such cases of maladjustment as are to be found 
in the instances of education, congestion of population, low wages, 
dependence of women, families which are too large, decadent home, 
over work, dangerous trades, industrial accidents, child labor, and 
unemployment. A chapter is devoted to presenting the evidence in 
each of these cases. That evidence is quite sufficient to convince the 
reader who is not already informed and convinced that maladjujst- 
ment is a huge fact in the modern world. Also in each of these 
treatments suggestions are made as to the nature and application of 
remedies fof each special kind of maladjujstment. 

Maladjustment is not inherent in society. It comes as a result 
of "misdirected or undirected human activity, and may be due either 
to the faulty construction of social institutions or to the inability of 
individuals to conform to institutional requirements." (pp. 29-30.) 
Normal society or "adjustment may be secured either by changing 
men to suit the demands of the environment, or by changing the en- 
vironment to suit the needs of men." Primitive and medieval society 
attempted to change men to meet the demands of this or another 
society. The modern scientific world undertakes to make society 
over to meet the requirements of human beings. "The old view was 
hopeless and led to despondent resignation to the divine will. The 
new view is full of inspiration and promise." (pp. 9-1 1.) 

The facts to prove that maladjustment is removable and that a 
normal society is possible of construction are chiefly taken from 
Ward's Applied Sociology. His doctrine of the "equalization of 
opportunity" is used. The fact that some are immensely rich while 
multitudes are in bitter poverty, that a few are happy and cultured 
while the many are unhappy and ignorant, is to be explained by the 
differences in opportunities which society held out to them far more 



Book Reviews 393 

than by any inherent difference in ability. He regards, quite correctly, 
Ward's presentation as unanswerable. At least his proofs have not 
been met up to the present time. If individuals could be developed 
and opportunities could be placed at the door of all, providing society 
could, at the same time, be controlled, which of course Dr. Nearing 
maintains; the foundations would be laid for securing a normal ad- 
justment, which would mean a thoroly good competent social system. 

For the removal of maladjustment our author depends on two 
kinds of eflFort, namely, educational and legislative. Two of the later 
chapters of the volume are given to a detailed consideration of these 
general remedial processes. Certain forms of maladjustment, such as 
"uniformity in education, low wages and standards, congestion, and 
the dependence of women," upon which no sentiment has been devel- 
oped yet must await the educational process. An awakened public 
opinion must exist before those maladjustments can be reached. Other 
maladjustments are ripe for legislative effort because agitation relative 
to them has proceeded for a long time and public opinion is sufficiently 
educated to become effective in securing the requisite laws and their 
enforcement, (pp. 31-34.) 

Social Adjustment is well written, well organized and well bal- 
anced. Its simplicity and directness make it very serviceable for 
general purposes. It should result in stimulating a better informed 
citizenship. 

Department of Sociology, 

University of North Dakota 

John M. Gillette 



Attitude of American Courts in Labor Cases: George Gor- 
HAM Groat, Ph. D., Professor of Economics and Sociologj', 
Ohio Wesleyan University. Loncmans, Green and Company. 
New York, 1911. Price, $3.00 (cloth) ; $2.50 (paper). 

This work altho called by the author, "A Study in Social Legis- 
lation" is devoted almost entirely to the factory labor problem and 
to a discussion of the decisions of the American courts in relation 
thereto. Its main thesis is that in deciding social questions, the 
courts are altogether too unwilling to take advice and have relied alto- 
gether upon the laissez faire and individualistic precedents of the past, 
rather than upon the actual social and economic facts of today. "One 
will search in vain," the author says, "through the almost unending 
pages of court opinions in questions which involve social and industrial 
interests, to find references to economics or sociology that are given 



394 ^^^^ Quarterly Journal 

weight. There have come to some of our courts most recently, men 
who begin to realize this fault. From these men more may be 
expected. Their opinions are often dissenting, yet they have in them 

germs of development that will bear fruit in the future 

The more one reads the decisions the more he must necessarily be 
impressed with the fact that a number of opinions all too large are 
given over to the repetition of those time-honored phrases of an 
extreme individualism. Discussions often unnecessarily elaborate are 
to be found ringing the changes on 'life, liberty and property,' the 
'trinity of rights,' the sacred right of 'freedom of contract.' Even 
granted these views are obiter, their injection into the opinion reveals 
the attitude of the judge and further shows to what extent these 
obstructions loom up to obscure the real conditions out of which the 
case grows. They assume the appearance of an effort more or less 
blind to compel conformity of present conditions to past ideals 
through the persistent use of expressions brought forward from a 
former age. Liberty does not mean the same to-day that it did in 
1809. The idea that the term carries with it is, if possible, of greater 
import than ever before. Read any of such general statements in the 
abstract and they have a ring of truth of Americanism that appeals to 
us. But read them in the light of present conditions with which they 
undertake to deal and take into consideration the conclusions to which 
they lead and one must confess that after all the ring that before 
seems true comes to have a hollow sound. If such use of these 
phrases were merely to no purpose at all, the situation would not be 
so seriou'^. The courts are in fact so using them as to defeat the very 
purposes for which they exist. Liberty is so interpreted as to deprive 
of liberty those who stand in greatest need of real liberty." And 
again he says: "In this conclusion appears the whole difficulty of 
abiding in the hope that our judges will see the legal reasonableness 
of legislation even when its economic necessity is made to appear. In 
the first place it is often extremely difficult and even impossible to 
make an economic necessity real to a judge who in such a mental 
attitude as to be able to see only the legal phases of a question. In 
the second place, even when the economic necessity is made so real to 
the court that they admit it, there is then no assurance that they will 
feel in any sense bound to be governed by that necessity. To have 
to amend a state constitution in order to secure laws made necessary 
by industrial changes would necessitate a constant amending process 
and the amendment of state constitutions is slow and difficult." 

There is in this thesis nothing that is new, and which has not 
been expressed before in scores of magazine articles. The cases, how- 



Book Reineivs 395 

ever, have been well analyzed and compiled by the author and his 
reasoning, in the main, is clear and convincing. It is well that the 
compilation has been made, and that the criticisms have been iterated 
in this new form. The real trouble with legal progress and the 
reform of the law lies in the fact that the public as a whole will take 
no real and practical interest in the matter. They will criticise, but 
they will not construct. They rarely even read the opinions that 
they criticise. The fact is that tho the courts have been individualistic, 
the public themselves have been even more so. That is to say, if the 
voting majority constitute the public. There have indeed been few 
cases in which the courts have set aside labor laws, where those labor 
laws were not lobbied thru in the first instance, and where the public 
as a whole was really behind them. It took the people of Illinois 
fifteen years to see the social unwisdom of the first of the Ritchie 
cases, so that even a small portion of the press was willing to criticise 
them. The first Richie case indeed, tho in our opinion socially un- 
wise, was by no means unpopular. We do not share with the writer 
in his pessimism in regard to the courts. For ourselves we notice a 
remarkable change in their attitude within the last few years. We 
agree with him thoroly in his criticisms of the "Lochner," the first 
"Richie," and the "New York Tenement House" cases, but we 
believe that the era of these cases is over. The former at any rate 
has been practically repudiated by the Supreme Court of the United 
States and the first Ritchie case has been superseded by the second. 
We do not indeed share with the author in the belief in that 
"the difficulty is insurmountable, of abiding in the hope that our 
judges will see the reasonableness of legislation, even when its eco- 
nomic necessity is made clear." The judges, as a matter of fact, 
have not been behind the progress of the popular intelligence upon 
these questions. It is only recently indeed that any of us have been 
able to break away from what we might also term the laissez faire 
barbarism of the past and have come in any mesure to believe in the 
solidarity of mankind. We should remember that in spite of the 
popular criticisms of the United States Supreme Court, there is 
practically only one case, the Lochner case, in which that body has 
opposed itself to enlightened state legislation, and that it was that 
court that uttered the enlightened but self-evident sentiment of modern 
law, that: "The whole is no greater than the sum of all the parts, 
and when the individual health, safety and welfare are sacrificed, or 
neglected, the state must suffer." Before, indeed, we mercilessly 
criticise the courts, we should ask ourselves, if the public as a whole 
have overcome the individualistic ideas of the past. How thoroly and 



396 The Quarterly Journal 

to what extent are the factory laws and inspection laws of any of 
our states really enforced? How active and earnest is the public 
sentiment in regard to these matters? Are we not all more or less 
individualistic at heart and tho we are at all willing to regulate the 
affairs of thers, do we not hesitate and rebel when that regulation is 
imposed upon ourselves? 

A. A. Bruce 
Bismarck, North Dakota 



High School Texts 



WHEN this state educational number was first planned, it was 
thought that the department of book reviews could be made 
to serve a good purpose in the same general connection. Accordingly, 
a letter was sent to all the leading publishers of high school text- 
books calling attention to the character of the issue, and saying that 
a plan was on foot to make a comparative study of all the leading 
texts dealing with certain high school subjects, especially the newer 
ones. The publishers were invited to send in copies of such texts as 
they were willing to submit for such study. The subjects that were 
selected for such handling were Sociology, Political Economy, Ele- 
mentary Psychology, Pedagogy, Domestic Science, Manual Training, 
besides Civil Government and First Year Latin. 

It was thought that such a comparative study and impartial pres- 
entation might prove helpful to teachers interested in the difficult 
matter of selecting text-books. 

The response on the part of the publishers was very curteous and 
generous. Some of the books did not arrive in time for adequate 
treatment, however, and since our limit of space had been practically 
reached without this feature, it was decided to postpone the issue of 
the reviews. They will be printed in pamphlet form and mailed on 
request at any time after August 15th. In addition to that, they 
will appear as the regular book review department of the October 
number of the Quarterly Journal. 

Editor 



University Notes 

University It is to be conceded that statistics of the number 

Statistics ^f students and faculty are no real test of what 

a University is doing, yet they do in a mesure indicate the confidence 
of the public in the institution and the willingness of the legislature 
to provide funds to meet expenditures. 

In the year just closing the University had the largest attendance 
in its history. The total aggregate was not greatly in advance of the 
previous year, but the important fact was that the attendence upon 
the colleges of the University increased materially over what it was 
the year before. In figures the attendance for the year was 995. Of 
this number, 530 were registered in the six different colleges and the 
graduate department of the University. There were fourteen students 
engaged in advanced work beyond the senior year. The faculties and 
administrative officers of the University numbered 136. Of this 
number, 24 were full professors, 14 assistant professors, 42 instructors, 
6 assistants, 15 lecturers, and 7 fellows and scholars; the remaining 
number, 28, were employed in the different administrative offices. 

The coming year points to an increased attendance, to the policy 
of emphasizing particularly the college work of the University, and 
the fuller recognition of the importance of the graduate work. 

When one contrasts this record with that of the year 1900, 
when there were but four buildings, 122 students in the colleges, and 
a faculty of 25, the progress made seems certainly phenomenal. And 
while this progress has been made in numbers and equipment, there 
has also been growth in the intellectual work of the University, as is 
evidenced by the increasing number of public lectures, the publication 
of the Quarterly Journal, and the issue of an increasing number of 
departmental bulletins upon matters of scholarly interest. 

Fellowships sad Following the custom of the last two years the 
Scholarships Board of Trustees has provided for a few grad- 

uate fellowships and scholarships for the year 1912-1913. The fel- 
lowships are of three classes: i. One teaching fellowship yielding 
an income of $200, available in the School of Education and in the 
College of Liberal Arts; 2. One industrial fellowship yielding an 
income of $400, available in the School of Mines; 3. Three general 
fellowships yielding an income of $300 each, available in any of the 
colleges of the University. The scholarships are two, one for $200 



398 The Quarterly Journal 

and the other for $100, available in any of the colleges of the 
University. 

From many applications that w^ere received from graduates of 
our own and other institutions, the follovi^ing appointments vi^ere 
recently made by the Board of Trustees: 

George R. Davies, M. A. (Des Moines College, 1907), Teaching 
Fellow in Sociology and Education. 

Freeman B. Farrow, B. A. (University of North Dakota. 191 2), 
Industrial Fellow in the School of Mines. 

Theodore A. Gustafson, B. A., (University of North Dakota, 
191 1 ), Fellow in Education and Sociology. 

Terence T. Quirke, B. A. (University of North Dakota. 1912), 
Fellow in Geology and Physics. 

George L. Koehn, B. A. (Lawrence University, 191 2), Fellow 

in History. 

Mabel P. Olson, B. A. (University of North Dakota, 19"). 
Scholar in Biology and Chemistry. 

Allie R. Dickson, (University of North Dakota) Scholar in 
English and History. 

Commencement The return of Commencement week brings again 
"Week the close of the school year. Last year com- 

mencement day was changed from Thursday to Wednesday with such 
satisfactory results that it was permanently adopted. In general, the 
program of last year was carried out this year with but few changes. 
The only important changes were in the time of the commencement 
dinner and the time of the meeting of the Alumni Association. The 
week was ushered in by the baccalaureate service Sunday evening. Dr. 
L. A. Crandall, pastor of the Trinity Baptist Church of Minneapolis, 
gave the address to the graduating class. His subject was "The 
Making of a Life." On Monday, Class Day, the senior class pre- 
sented "The Professor's Love Story" as this year's class play. The 
commencement exercises of Wesley College took place on Tuesday 
morning and to afford an opportunity for all to attend, no University 
exercises were scheduled for that time. In the afternoon the Univer- 
sity Address was delivered by Justice Andrew A. Bruce of the 
North Dakota Supreme Court, speaking on "The New Individual- 
ism." From four to six o'clock the buildings, libraries and labora- 
tories were open to inspection by alumni and friends, after which 
came the commencement dinner from six to eight o'clock. The change 
of the time of the dinner from one o'clock Wednesday to six o'clock 
Tuesday necessitated the change in the time of meeting of the Alumni 



University Notes 399 

Association from seven to eight o'clock. At nine President McVey 
held a reception to alumni and friends in the parlor of Davis Hall. 
The academic procession and the commencement day program, includ- 
ing the conferring of degrees on Wednesday, brought the exercises 
and the year to a fitting close. 

The New Dean of Since the appointment of Justice Bruce in Octo- 
the College of Law ^er as a member of the Supreme Court of the 
State, the law school has been under the direction of the President 
of the University as acting dean. The trustees felt that a man of 
wide scholarship and broad training should be secured to be at the 
head of this important college. As a result of their investigations 
the position was offered to Dr. Robert L. Henry Jr. of Urbana, 111. 

Dr. Henry lived as a boy in Chicago, attended the College of 
Arts of the University of Chicago, receiving the degree of A. B., and 
later took a course in the College of Law of that University, from 
which he graduated with the degree of Doctor of Jurisprudence. He 
was appointed Rhodes scholar from Illinois and attended Oxford 
University for a period of three years, receiving from that institution 
the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law. Upon his return to this 
country, Dr. Henry was appointed professor of law at the University 
of Louisiana; he remained there for four years, acting as dean during 
the last two years of his stay. Last year he accepted an appointment 
in the College of Law of the University of Illinois. 

Dean Henry has an attractive personality, and is able in scholar- 
ship and efficient in administration. Under his guidance it is expected 
that the College of Law will continue to make progress and become 
an increasingly important factor in the growth of the state. 

President McVey's During the summer President McVey goes to 
Sammer Trip Europe for three months of travel and investi- 

gation. The results of this trip promise to be of unusual interest to 
himself, the University, and the State. He has been appointed rep- 
resentative of the United States Bureau of Education at the Inter- 
national Meeting of Teachers, in London, July 15; he will also be 
in attendance upon the sessions of the International Association for 
the Interchange of Students, and has been promised an opportunity to 
be present at the meetings of the Congress of English Imperial 
Universities. 

In Germany President McVey will visit many of the cities and 
smaller towns of northern Germany, expecting to come in contact 
with the changes and improvements that are being made in sewage and 



400 The Quarterly Journal 

water systems and in the planning of towns. It is also his expectation 
to visit Denmark with a view to securing information upon the de- 
velopment of cooperation there. Early in September the President 
goes to Norway, where he will deliver two lectures before the Royal 
University of Frederick at Christiania. He will return to the United 
States about the 20th of September and be at the University when 
the first semester opens in the fall. 

Hi^h School The Eleventh Annual Conference of the High 

Conferance 3^,^00! Superintendents and Principals of the 

State was held at the University on May 17 and 18. The attendance 
upon the conference was larger than at any previous meeting, fifty- 
four different schools being represented. The discussions related to 
important matters connected with high school regulation and in par- 
ticular to the examinations offered by the High School Board. In 
the opinion of the majority of the superintendents larger freedom 
should be made possible in the conduct of the examinations, and the 
second class schools should be placed upon the same basis as the 
first. This matter was referred to the High School Board for their 
consideration. 

The reports of the committees on syllabi were heard and action 
taken in the matter of the permanent publication of the syllabi. Also 
the committee upon the success and failure of high school graduates 
made a preliminary report which indicated that they were entering 
upon a very interesting study of importance to the high school men 
of the state. 

This meeting of the Conference, coupled with the final debate in 
the High School League, the High School Declamation Contests, 
and the Interscholastic Athletic Meet made a full two day's program 
which seemingly was enjoyed by all who attended. The conference 
adjourned to meet next year at about the same date. 

Inter-Scholastic The tenth annual Interscholastic Track Meet for 
**••* the high schools of North Dakota was held at the 

University on May 17 and 18, in conjunction with the High School 
Conference. Twenty-one schools were represented by one hundred 
contestants, the largest number both of schools and of contestants yet 
coming together, showing conclusively that the interest and the en- 
thusiasm in the Meet conducted by the University are increasing. 
The University is host, not only as to the place of meeting but as 
well as to the matter of entertainment. From other points of view, 



University Azotes 401 

also, it was the most successful of the meets thus far held. Several 
new records were made and many of the old ones equalled, 

A fact of considerable interest and one that should encourage 
the students of the smaller schools of the state is that the coveted 
honors were won by schools from the smaller towns, Langdon winning 
the Meet, and Drayton the Handicap Banner. This clearly dispels 
the somewhat common notion that the schools from the smaller 
towns have no chance to make a good showing because of lack of 
material. 

New interscholastic records were made as follows: pole vault, 
by Manning of Bathgate, 10 ft. 4^ in.; 220 yard dash, by Boyd of 
Langdon, 22 4-5 sec. ; shot put, by Burns of Cavalier, 43 ft. 1 1-2 in. ; 
and discus throw by Moore of Velva, 103 ft. 2 3-4 in. The records 
in the 100 yard dash and in the half mile run, were equalled by Boyd 
of Langdon and Maid of Drayton, respectively. 

University Men The Quarterly Journal has frequently mentioned, 
Away From Home either by Convocation reference or by special note, 
the appearance before our University audiences of noted men from 
other institutions and from other places. Such men as Dr. Ross of 
the University of Wisconsin, Dean Allen of the University of Win- 
nipeg, Professor Sveinbjornson of the University of Edinburg, Scot- 
land, and many others too numerous to mention here, have been 
more than welcome because they have brought each a message. It is 
gratifying to be able to record that even as these and other men have 
given us here an uplift, so have many of our men been called upon to 
serve other communities and other institutions. 

President McVey, besides lecturing extensively thruout the state, 
has been called frequently to address meetings of national importance. 
Last October he attended the conference of the National Association 
of State Universities at Minneapolis and presented a paper on 
"Entrance Requirements to State Universities." In November he 
delivered an address in Duluth on "Standards of Social Worth," and 
in January spoke at a banquet of the University Club of Minneapolis. 
At the annual meeting of the North Central Association of Schools 
and colleges, recently held at Chicago, he addressed the gathering on 
"The Relation of High School to College." In April, under the 
auspices of the National Citizens' League, he lectured in Nebraska, 
speaking in five cities on the theme: "Adaptation of Money and 
Banking to American Needs." 

In January Dr. O. G. Libby, head of the Department of 
History, was invited to Washington, D. C, to assist the Carnegie 



402 The Quarterly Journal 

Institute in its work of issuing an atlas of the United States. Dr. 
Libby was consulted, specifically, about the development of political 
parties with special reference to votes in Congress and the presidential 
elections up to 1840. Dr. Libby also attended the annual meeting of 
the Mississippi Valley Historical Association at Bloomington, Indiana, 
and presented a paper on "Our New Northwest." 

At the National Child Labor Convention, held in Louisville, 
Kentucky, in January, Dr. John M. Gillette, Professor of Sociology, 
spoke on "Rural Child Labor." Dr. Gillette was also called, as 
one of the exchange lecturers, to the University of Manitoba, where 
he gave two addresses: "The Conservation and Utilization of 
Talent," and "Some Important Issues in the United States." Dr. A. 
Hoyt Taylor, head of the Department of Physics, was the other 
exchange lecturer at the University of Manitoba. He discust "Recent 
Developments in Radiotelegraphy." 

Dr. Gustav F. Ruediger, Director of the State Public Health 
Laboratory, has the distinction of having traveled farthest to attend 
a convention. In December he went to Cuba to attend the annual 
meeting of the American Public Health Association, speaking upon 
the subject, "The Sanitary Significance of Streptococci in Milk." 
Later in the year he attended a meeting of the Minnesota State Med- 
ical Association, at Minneapolis, speaking on "Sporotrichosis in North 
Dakota." 

Dr. Wallace N. Stearns, of the Department of History, attended 
the meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America, at Pittsburg, 
during the Christmas holidays, and read a paper on "Deir el-Bahari 
and Abydos." A few days later when the American Society of 
Biblical Literature convened in New York City, one number of the 
program was his paper, "Collation of Papyrus Texts." Another 
address was given recently at Minneapolis under the auspices of the 
Archaeological Institute of Minneapolis and St. Paul, his subject 
being, "The Story of the Papyri." 

A very important conference of English teachers was held at 
Chicago last November, when the National Council of Teachers of 
English was formed. Professor Squires, head of the Department of 
English, was present as delegate from North Dakota. He took part 
In several discussions and was made a member of the executive 
committee, and also contributing editor of the new English Journal 
then established. 

The Drama League of America held its second annual convention 
at Chicago in April. Professor Koch, of the Department of English, 
attended the conference as a representative of the Sock and Buskin 
Society, speaking on the topic, "The Theater and the University." 





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