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18 45. 








Elected February 1845, 

Leonard Horner, Esq. F. R. S., L. & E. 

Very Rev. W. Buckland, D.D., F.R.S. Dean of Westminster. 
Robert Hutton, Esq. M.R.I.A. 
R. I. Murchison, Esq. F.R.S. & L.S. 
Prof. Owen, F.R.S. & L.S. 

William John Hamilton, Esq. M.P. 

Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S. & H.S. 

John Lewis Prevost, Esq. 


Robert A. C. Austen, Esq. B.A. 
Charles Darwin, Esq. M.A., F.R.S. 
Sir P. Grey Egerton, Bart. M.P., F.R.S. 
Lieut-Col. Everest, F.R.S. 
Hugh Falconer, M.D. F.R.S. & L.S. 
W. H. Fitton, M.D., F.R.S. & L.S. 
Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S. & L.S. 
J. H. Green, Esq. F.R.S. 

G. B. Greenough, Esq. F. R. S. & L. S. 
Chas. Ly ell, Jun. Esq. M. A ., F. R. S. &L. S- 
Marquess of Northampton, Pres. R. S. 
Samuel Peace Pratt, Esq. F. R. S. & L.S. 
Lieut- Col. Sabine, R.A., F.R.S. 
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A. F.R.S. 
Henry Warburton, Esq. IMP., F.R.S. 

Prof. Ansted, M.A., F.R.S. 




Austen, R. A. C, Esq. On a supposed iErolite said to have fallen near 

Lymington, Hants - - - - 450 

Bain, Andrew Geddes, Esq. On the discovery of the fossil remains of bi- 

dental and other reptiles in South Africa - - - 317 

Bayfield, Capt., R.N. On the junction of the transition and primary 

rocks of Canada and Labrador - - 450 

Beckett, Mr. Henry. On a fossil forest in the Parkfield Colliery near 

Wolverhampton - - - - 41 

Bell, Thomas, Esq. On the Thalassina JEmerii, a fossil Crustacean, for- 
warded by Mr. Macleay from New Holland - - - 93 

Brodie, Rev. P. B., and Mr. J. Buckman. On the Stonesfield slate of 
the Cotteswold Hills - - 220 

Brown, John, Esq. On certain conditions and appearances of the strata 

on the coast of Essex, near Walton - - - 341 

Brown, Richard, Esq. On the geology of Cape Breton - - 23, 207 

Buckman, J., Esq., and Rev. P. B. Brolie. On the Stonesfield slate of 
the Cotteswold Hills - - 220 

Byres, Robert W., Esq. On the traces of the action of glaciers at Porth 

Treiddyn, Caernarvonshire - - - - 153 

Charlesworth, Edward, Esq. On the occurrence of the genus Physeter 

(sperm whale) in the Red Crag of Felixstow - - 40 

Clarke, Rev. W. B. On dykes of marble and quartz in connection with 
Plutonic rock on the Upper Wollondilly in Argyle County, New South 
Wales ._...-_. 342 

Daubenev, Charles, M. D., and Capt. Wlddrington, R. N. On the oc- 
currence of Phosphorite in Estremadura - - - 52 

Dawes, John S., Esq. Some account of a fossil tree found in the coal 

grit near Darlaston, S. Staffordshire - - - - - 46 

Remarks upon Sternbergice - - - - 91 

Dawson, John William, Esq. On the lower Carboniferous rocks, or gypsi- 

ferous formation of Nova Scotia - - - - -26 

On the newer coal formation of the eastern part of Nova Scotia - 322 

Egerton, Sir Philip Malpas de Grey, Bart., M. P. On the remains of 

fishes found by Mr. Kaye and Mr. Cunliffe in the Pondicherry beds - 164 

Description of the mouth ofaHybodus (H. basanus) found by Capt. 

Ibbetson in the Isle of Wight - - - - - 197 

Description of a fossil Ray from Mount Lebanon (Cyclobatis oligo- 

dactylus) - -_..___ 225 

On some new species of fossil fish from the Oxford clay of Christian 

Malford ___-.. 229 

Falconer, H. , M. D. Description of some fossil remains of JDinotherium, 

Giraffe, and other mammalia from the gulf of Cambay in India - 356 

Fitton, W. H. , M. D. Comparative remarks on the sections below the 
chalk on the coast near Hythe in Kent and Atherfield in the Isle of 
Wight - - - - - - - - 179 

Forbes, Prof. Edward. On the fossil shells collected by Mr. Lyell from 

the Cretaceous formations of New Jersey - - - - 61 

Report on the Lower Green Sand fossils in the possession of the Geo- 
logical Society - » - - - - ...78 

a 3 


Forbes, Prof. Edward. Report on the collection of ( Cretaceous) fossils 
from Southern India,presented by C. J. Kaye, Esq., and the Rev.W. H. 
Egerton ---.-__ -79 

On two fossil species of Creseis (?) collected by Prof. Sedgwick - 145 

- On the fossils collected by Lieut. Spratt in the Freshwater Tertiary 

formation of the gulf of Smyrna - - - - - 162 

■ ■ Report on the ( Cretaceous) fossils from Santa Fe de Bogota, pre- 

sented to the Geological Society by Evan Hopkins, Esq. - - - 174 

Catalogue of Lower Green Sand fossils in the museum of the Geo- 
logical Society, with notices of species new to Britain contained in other 
collections ------- 237, 345 

and Capt. Ibbetson. On the section between Black- Gang- Chine and 

Atherfield Point, Isle of Wight - - - - - 190 

Hamilton, W. J., Esq., M. P. Observations on the geology of some parts 

of Tuscany - - - - - 273 

Harkness, Robert, Esq. On the occurrence of fossils in the boulder clay - 152 

Hen slow, Rev. J. S. On concretions in the Red Crag at Felixstow, 

Suffolk -------- 35 

Ibbetson, Capt. L. L. B., and Prof. Edw. Forbes. On the- section 

between Black- Gang- Chine and Atherfield Point, Isle of Wight - 190 

Ick, William, Esq. Description of the remains of numerous fossil dico- 
tyledonous trees in an outcrop of the bottom coal at Parkfield colliery 
near Bilston .___._ - 43 

On some crustaeeous remains in Carboniferous rock - - - 199 

Jeffreys, J. G., Esq. Notice of the raised beaches on the western coast 

of Ross-shire - - - - - - -217 

Lonsdale, William, Esq. Account of six species of Polyparia obtained 

from Timber Creek, New Jersey - - - 65 

Account of ten species of Polyparia obtained from the Miocene ter- 
tiary formations of North America - - - - 495 

Account of twenty-six species of Polyparia obtained from the 

Eocene tertiary formations of North America - - - ' 509 

Lyell, Charles, Esq. On the Cretaceous strata of New Jersey and other 

parts of the United States bordering the Atlantic - - -55 

— — On the probable age and origin of a bed of plumbago and anthracite 

occurring in mica-schist near Worcester, Massachussetts, U. S. - 199 

On the Miocene tertiary strata of Maryland, Virginia, and North 

and South Carolina, U.S. - - - - - 413 

On the white limestone and other Eocene or older tertiary formations 

of Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia, U.S. - - - 429 

Macintosh, Angus Friend, Esq. On the supposed evidences of the former 

existence of glaciers in North Wales - - 460 

Middleton, J., Esq. On fluorine in bones, its source, and its application 

to the determination of the geological age of fossil bones - 214 

Murchison, R. I., Esq. On the Pala;ozoic deposits of Scandinavia . 
and the Baltic provinces of Russia, and their relations to Azoic or 
more ancient crystalline rocks; with an account of some great features of 
dislocation and metamorphism along their northern frontiers - - 467 

Murchison, R. I., Esq., and M. de Verneuil. On the Permian system 
as developed in Russia and other parts of Europe - - - 81 

Owen, Richard, Esq. Description of the fossil tympanic bones referable 

to four distinct species of Balcena - - - - - 37 

— — . Description of certain fossil crania discovered by A. G. Bain, Esq., 
in sandstone rocks at the south-eastern extremity of Africa, referable 
to different species of an extinct genus of Reptilia ( Dicynodon), and 
indicative of a new tribe or sub-order of Sauria - - - 318 

Percy, John, M. D. Letter to Mr. Lyell, containing an analysis of 
specimens of bituminous and anthracitic coal from Worcester, Massa- 
chussetts, U. S., and of the plumbaginous anthracite from the same 
locality -,._-.----.- 202 


Portlock, Capt., R. E. Remarks on the white limestone of Corfu and 

Vido - _ - - - - - - -87 

Rees, G. Owen, M. D. On the existence of fluoric acid in recent bones 156 
Schomburgk, Sir Robert. Remarks on the geology of British Guiana - 298 
Sedgwick, Rev. Prof. On the older Palaeozoic rocks of North Wales - 5 

- On the comparative classification of the fossiliferous strata of North 
Wales with the corresponding deposits of Cumberland, Westmoreland, 

and Lancashire ---____ 442 

Simms, F. W., Esq. On the thickness of the Lower Green Sand beds of 
the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight - - - 76 

Account of the strata observed in the excavation of the Bletchingley 

tunnel -----_-_ 90 

■ On the junction of the Lower Green Sand and the Wealden at the 

Teston cutting - - - - - - -189 

Smith, James, Esq. (of Jordan Hill). Notice concerning the Tertiary 

deposits in the South of Spain - _ 235 

On the geology of Gibraltar - 298 

Smyth, Warington, W., Esq. Geological features of the country round 

the mines of the Taurus in the pashalic of Diarbekr, described from 

observations made in the year 1 843 - 330 

Spratt, Lieut. T., R. N. Observations on the geology of the southern 

part of the gulf of Smyrna and the promontory of Karabournoo - 156 

Strickland, H. E., Esq. On certain calcareo-corneous bodies found in 

the outer chambers of ammonites - 232 

Trevelyan, W. C, Esq. On fractured boulders found at Auchmithie, 

near Arbroath (North Britain) - - - _ - 147 

Trimmer, Joshua, Esq. On the cliffs of northern drift on the coast of 

Norfolk, between Weybourne and Happisburgh - _ - 218 

On the pipes or sand-galls in the chalk and chalk-rubble of Norfolk 300 

Verneuil, M. Edouard de, and Mr. Murchison. On the Permian sys- 
tem as developed in Russia and other parts of Europe - - - 81 

Warburton, Henry, Esq., M.P. On the occurrence of a bed of Septaria 
containing freshwater shells in the series of plastic clay at New Cross, 
Kent - - - - - - - - 172 

Widdrington, Capt., R. N. , and Dr. Daubeney. On the occurrence of 

Phosphorite in Estremadura - - - 52 

Williams, Rev. David. On the trap-rock of Bleadon Hill in Somersetshire 47 

On the origin of the gypseous and saliferous marls of the New Red 

Sandstone - - - - - - --148 



Bravais, A. On the lines of ancient level of the sea in Finmark - 534 

Buch, Baron Leopold Von. On the form of granitic rocks and the struc- 
ture of granite - - - - - - - 126 

Collegno, M. de. On the stratified rocks of the Lombardic Alps - 115 

Desha yes, M. On the fossils of the Pyrenees - - - 1 1 1 

Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfried. On the muddy deposits at the mouths 
and deltas of various rivers in Northern Europe, and the infusorial 
animalcules found in these deposits - - - - - 251 

Forghhammer, G. On the boulder formation and on diluvial scratches 

in Denmark and part of Sweden - 262-373 

Owen, Richard, Esq. A description of certain Belemnites preserved with 
a great proportion of their soft parts in the Oxford clay at Christian 
Malford, Wilts - - - • - - - - 119 

a 4 


Owen, Richard, Esq. Account of various portions of the Glyptodon, an 
extinct quadruped allied to the Armadillo, recently obtained from the 
Tertiary deposits in the neighbourhood of Buenos Ayres - - 257 

Philippi, Dr. A. Remarks on the molluscous animals of South Italy, 
in reference to the geographical extension of the mollusca, and to the 
mollusca of the tertiary period - -95 

Tchihatcheff, M. de. On the geology of the Altai mountains = 550 

Thorent, M. On the geological structure of the neighbourhood of 
Bavonne - - - - - - 114 


Brodie, Rev. Peter Bellinger. A history of the Fossil Insects in the 
secondary rocks of England, accompanied by a particular account of the 
strata in which they occur, and of the circumstances connected with 
their preservation - - - - •• •'• -399 

Burat, Amedee. Geologie appliquee ----- 133 

Burmeister, Hermann. Die organisation der Trilobiten aus ihren leb- 
enden Verwandten entwickelt ; nebst einer systematischen Uebersicht 
aller zeither beschriebenen Arten - - - - - 129 

Darwin, Charles. The structure and distribution of Coral reefs ; being 
the first part of the geology of the Beagle under the command of Cap- 
tain Fitzroy, R.N., during the years 1832 to 1836 - - - 381 

Geological observations on the Volcanic Islands visited during the 

voyage of H. M. S. Beagle, together with some brief notices on the geo- 
logy of Australia and the Cape of Good Hope ; being the second part 
of the geology of the voyage of the Beagle under the command of Cap- 
tain Fitzroy, R.N , during the years 1832 to 1836 - 556 

Humboldt, Alexander Von, Kosmos. Entwurf einer physischen Welt- 

beschreibung - - ■. - - 402 

Lyell, Charles. Travels in North America, with geological observations 

on the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia - - 389 

Manteix, G. A., LL. D. The Medals of Creation - - - 136 

Nicol, James. Guide to the Geology of Scotland - - - 139 

Strzelecki, P. E. de. Physical description of New South Wales and 
Van Diemen's Land, accompanied by a geological map, sections, and dia- 
grams, and figures of the organic remains -'--■- 558 


Cardium concentricum. Description of, by Prof. E. Forbes - - 408 

Coprolites and footprints of birds - - - - 141 

Earthquakes in Upper Assam from Jan. 1839 to Sept. 1843 - - 142 

Fossil plants. Distribution and number of known species of - 566 

Gold mines of Siberia. Account of their produce from 1830 to 1842, - 409 

Mastodon. Notice of the perfect remains of, recently found - - 566 

Mud-torrent in the plain of the Lagunilla, New Granada - ' - 410 

Ornithichnites, and the Coprolites of birds ~ - - - 1 41 

Osseous centres of the vertebras of cartilaginous fishes - 143 

Palaeozoic fossils from Hobart's Town and New South Wales - - 407 

Palaeozoic fossils. Localities of, in Cornwall - 567 




In the present List those fossils, the names of which are printed in Roman 
type, are described only and not figured, while those in Italics are figured and 
described; those against which an asterisk is placed (*) are not here figured and 
described for the first time; and the rest (105 in number) are species figured 
and described for the first time at the pages referred to. The author's name is 
given only when the species is new. 

Name of Species. 

Formation. +• 




LANTS. (1.) 

Sternbergia ? (fragment of stem) 1 


Carb. - - 1 
fparia. (42/ 

Oldbury, near 




? Anthophyllum lineatum - 


Virginia, U. S. 



*Astrea hirtolamellata ? - 


Virginia, U. S. 



Caryophyllia subdichotoma. Lons. 


Georgia, U. S. 



Cellepora informata. Lonsdale 


Virginia, U. S. 



■ quadrangularis. Lonsdale 

Miocene - 

Virginia, U. S. 



si mills Lonsdale - - 

]VIiocene ■* 

Virginia, U. S. 


— — tubulata. Lonsdale 

Cret. - - 

New Jersey, &c. 

, U.S. 

umbilicata. Lonsdale 


Virginia, U. S. 



Cladocora ? recrescens. Lonsdale 


S. Carolina, U. 

s. . 


Columnaria? sex-radiata. Lonsd. 


Virginia, U. S. 



Dendrophyllia? sp. 


S. Carolina, U. 

s. - 


. Icevis. Lonsdale 


N. Carolina, &c. 



Endopachys alatum. Lonsdale 


Alabama, U. S. 



*Eschara diyitata - 

Cret. - - 

New Jersey, U. 

s. , 



Rock's Bridge, 
Eutaw, U. S. 



linea. Lonsdale 

. petiolus. Lonsdale 


Eutaw, U. S. 



tubulata. Lonsdale 


Wilmington, U 

. s. - 


viminea. Lonsdale 


Eutaw, U.S. 



*Escharina ? sagena 

Cret. - - 

New Jersey, U 

S. - 


tumidula. Lonsdale 





Farcimia sp. - 


S. Carolina, U. S. 


Flabellum? cuneiforme. Lon«. 


N. Carolina, &c 



Heteropora ? tortilis. Lonsdale 


Virginia, U. S. 



Hippothoa tuberculum. Lonsdale 


Rock's Bridge, 



Idmonea sp. - 


Rock's Bridge, 

u. s.- 


commiscens. Lonsdale - 


Rock's Bridge, 

u.s. - 


contortilis. Lonsdale 

Cret. - - 

New Jersey, U 

s. - 


maxillaris. Lonsdale 


S. Carolina, U. 

S. - 


Lichenopora sp. - 


Eutaw, S. Carolina, U. S. 


Licnulites contigua. Lonsdale - 


Wilmington, U 

. s. - 


* denticulata 





f The following abbreviations are made use of: — Carb., Carboniferous series • 

Cret, Cretaceous; G. S., Greensand ; and L. G. S., Lower Greensand. 

Eocene, f. w. signifies Freshwater bt'ds of the older Tertiary period. 


Name of Species. 




Lunulites distans. Lonsdale - 


Wilmington, U. S. - 


sexangula. L/onsdale 


"Wilmington, U. S. 


* Madrepora tubulata ? 


Jacksonboro', U.S. - 


* Montivaltia atlantica 

Cret. - - 

New Jersey, U. S. 


Ocellaria ramosa. Lonsdale - 


Georgia, &c, U. S. - 


Porites sp. 


Jacksonboro',&c. , U. S. 


Tubulipora sp. - 


S. Carolina, U. S. 


megcera. Lonsdale 


New Jersey, U. S. 


* proboscidea ? 


Georgia, U. S. 


Vincularia sp. - - 


Rock's Bridge, U. S. - 



CristeUaria sp. 
Rotalina sp. - 


New Jersey, U. S. 
New Jersey, U. S. 

Amphidetus Vlrginianus. Edw. 

Echinus Ruffinii. Edw. Forbes 

Scutella Jonesii. Edw. Forbes 

Crustacean sp. ind. 
Thalassina Emerii. Bell 



Petersburg, Virginia, 

Williamsburg, Vir- 
ginia, U. S. 

Jacksonboro', Georgia, 

Crustacea. (2.) 

- I From carbon- 
iferous rocks. 


near Birmingham 

Genus incert. sed. (2.) 

Aptychus ? (two species) 

Lias - 



Mollusca. — Pteropoda. (2.) 

Creseis primceva. Edw. Forbes 
Sedgwicki. Edw. Forbes 

Denbigh flag 
Denbigh flag 

N. Wales 
N. Wales 

Mollusca. — Conchifera. (35.) 

*Arca exalt.ata. f PI. iii. f. 5. • 
Avicula depressa. Edw. Forbes. 
PL iii. f. 7. 

ephemera. Edw. Forbes. 

PI. iii. f. 6. 

lanceolata. Edw. Forbes. 

PI. iii. f. 8. 

Cardium {Hemicardiuni) ? Aus- 

teni. Edw. Forbes. PI. iii. f. 3. 

Benstedi. Edw. Forbes 

concentricum. Edw. Forbes 

L. G. S. 
L. G. S. 

L. G. S. 

L. G. S. 

L. G. S. 

L. G. S. 
G. S. - 



Atherfield, &c. 

Atherfield, &c. 

Halden Hill - 











■J- These references to Lower Greensand fossils allude to the five plates of 
Lower Greensand fossils separately numbered. (See list of plates.) 



Name of Species. 


Cardium Ibbetsoni. Edw. Forbes. 
PL ii. f. 9. 

sphceroideum. Edw. Forbes. 

PL ii. f. 8. 

*Corbis (Sphsera Sow. ) corrugata. 

fibrosa. Edw. Forbes - 

Cypricardia ? undidata. Edw. 

Forbes. PL iii. f. 1. 
Gervillia linguloides. Edw. 

Forbes. PL iii. f. 9. 
Gryphcea harpa. Var. y. sempli- 

cata. PL iii. f. 12. 
Inoceramus lunatus. Edw. Forbes. 
Isocardia ? omata. Edw. Forbes. 

PL ii. f. JO. 
Lima expansa. Edw. Forbes. 

PL iii. f. 11. 

lingua. Edw. Forbes. PL 

iii. f. 10. 

■ reticulata. Lyell and 

Edw. Forbes. 
Lucina ? solidula. Edw. Forbes. 

PL ii. f. 7. 
Nueula spathulata. Edw. Forbes. 

PL iii. f. 4. 
Ostrea subspatulata. Lyell and 

*Perna mulleti. PL i. f. 1 — 4. - 

* alceformis. PL iii. f. 2. - 

Pholadomya Martini. Edw. 

Forbes. PL ii. f. 3. 
Solecurtus Warburtoni. Edw. 

Forbes. PL ii. f. 1. " 
Tellina Vectiana. Edw. Forbes. 

PL ii. f. 5. 
TerebratulaSeatoniana. Portlock 

Vanuxemiana. Lyell and 

Edw. Forbes. 

Wilmingtonensis. Lyell and 

G. Sow. 
Unio ? sp. 
Venus? fenestrata. Austen and 

E. Forbes. PL ii. f. 6. 
Orbigniana. Edw. Forbes. 

PL ii. f. 5. 

■ ? [striato-costata ?] 

— . — Vectensis. Edw. Forbes. 

PL ii. f. 4. 

L. G. S. - 

L.G.S. - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S, - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

Cret. - - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

Cret. '- - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

Cret. - - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

Oolitic ? - 


Eocene, f.w. 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 

L. G. S. - 



Hythe, &c. - 

Atherfield, &c. - 



Santa Fe 


Hythe - 

New Jersey, U. S. 

Atherfield, &c. - 


N. Carolina, U. S. - 

Atherfield, &e. 
Atherfield, &c. - - 
Atherfield, &c. 




New Jersey, U. S. 

Wilmington, N. Caro- 
lina, U. S. 
New Cross, Kent 

Atherfield - 
Atherfield - 




















Mollusca. — Gasteropoda. (29.) 

Bulla Mortoni. Lyell and Edw. 

Forbes. (A cast.) 
Cerithium attenuatum. Edw. 

Forbes. Pl.iv. f. 11. 

L. G. S. 

New Jersey, U. S. 
Atherfield - 




Name of Species. 




* Cerithium Clementinum. PL iv. 
f. 9. 
Georgianum. ( Cast. ) Lyell 

L. G. S. - 




Jacksonboro', Georgia, 


and G. Sow. 


* Lallierianum. PI. iv. f. 10. 

L. G. S. - 

Atherfield* - 


* Neocomiense. PI. iv. f. 8. 

L. G. S. - 



> turriculatum. Edw. Forbes. 

L. G. S. - 

Atherfield - 


PI. iv. f. 7a, 7b. 

Melania Hamiltoniana. Edw. 

Eocene, f. w. 

Vourla, Smyrna 



sp. ( Cast) - 

Eocene, f. w. 

Jacksonboro', Georgia 


Natica sp. ( Cast) 


New Jersey, U. S. 


Oliva sp. ( Cast) 


Wilmington, N. Caro- 
lina, U. S. 


* Paludina vivipara 

Eocene, f. w. 

New Cross, Kent ' - 


. Stricklandiana. E. Forbes 

Eocene, f. w. 

Vourla, Smyrna 


sp. ( Cast) 

Eocene, f. w. 

Wilmington, N. Caro- 
lina, U. S. 


Planorbis Spratti. Edw. Forbes. 

Eocene, f. w. 

Vourla, Gulf of Smyrna 


Pleurotomaria Anstedi. Edw. 

L. G. S. - 

Nutfield, Surrey 


Forbes. PI. v. f. 1. 

Pterocera Fittoni. Edw. Forbes. 

L. G. S. - 



Pl.iv. f. 6. 

Rostellaria glabra. Edw. Forbes. 

L. G. S. - 



PI. iv. f. 5. 

Scalaria ? sp. PL iv. f. 4. 

L. G. S. - 



Solarium ? Benstedi, E. Forbes. 

L. G. S. - 



Solarium minimum. Edw. 

L. G. S. - 

Atherfield - 


Forbes. PI. iv. f. 3. 

* Tornatella marginata. PI. iv. f. 1 . 

L. G. S. - 

Atherfield, &c. 


— sp, (Cast) 


New Jersey, U. S. 


*Trochus albensis 

L. G. S. - 



*— — - decussatus - - - 

L. G. S. - 



Turbo ? munitus. Edw. Forbes. 

L. G. S. - 



PL iv. f. 2. 

Voluta. ( Casts of 3 species) 


New Jersey, U. S. - 



— Cephalopoda. 


Ammonites Bogotensis. Edw. 


Santa Fe 



— . Buchiana. Edw. Forbes - 

Cret. - - 

Santa Fe - - 


* Deshayesii. PL v. f. 2. 

L. G.S. - 

Atherfield, &c. 


Hambrovii. Edw. Forbes. 

L. G. S. - 



PL v. f. 4. 

Hopkinsi. Edw. Forbes. 


Santa Fe 


Inca. Edw. Forbes 


Santa Fe 


■ Leai. Edw. Forbes 


Santa Fe 


*.. ■ Martini. PL v. f. 3. 

L. G. S. - 



* Ancyloceras Humboldtiana 


Santa Fe - 


* Belemnites Qwenii. Pratt - 

Oxford clay 



Hamites Orbignyana. Edw. 


Santa Fe 



* Nautilus radiatus. Var. Neoco- 

L. G. S. - 

Atherfield, &c, - 



* Scaphites grandis( Hamites sp. ) 

L. G. S. - 





Name of Species. 



Fishes. (20.) 

Aspidorhynchuseuodus. Egerton. 

(Part of jaw.) 
Corax incisus. Eg. ( Tooth. ) - 

* pristodontus. (Tooth.) - 

Cyclobatis oligodactylus. Egerton. 

PL 5. f. 1. 2. 
Enchodus serratus. Egerton - 
Hybodus basanus. Egerton. 

(Mouth.) PI. 4. 
Lamna complanata. Eg. (Teeth.) 

sigmoides. Eg. (Teeth.) 

Lepidotus macrochirus. Eg. - 
Leptolepis costalis. Egerton 

macrophthalmus. Egerton 

Odontaspis constrictus. Egerton. 


oxyprion. Eg. (Tooth.) 

Otodusbasalis. Egerton. (Teeth.) 

divergens. Eg. (Tooth.) 

? marginatus. Eg. (Teeth.) 

minutus. Egerton. (Teeth.) 

nanus. Egerton. (Teeth.) 

Oxyrhina triangrdaris. Egerton. 

Sphcerodus rugulosus. 
(Palatal tooth.) 












L. G. S. 






Oxford clay- 



Oxford clay 



















Christian Malford 

Pondicherry - 

Isle of Wight 

Christian Malford 
Christian Malford 
Christian Malford 
Pondicherry - 









Reptilia. (1.) 
* Dicynodon lacerticeps. Owen | ? | S. Africa 



VIMALIA. (12. 


Balana affinis. Owen. (Petro- 

Red crag - 


tympanic bone.) 

Balasna definita. Owen 

Red crag - 


emarginata. Owen 

Red crag - 


gibbosa. Owen 

Red crag - 


Bramatherium Perimense. Fal- 


Perim Island 

coner. (Teeth.) PI. 14. f.3,4. 

* Camelopardalis Sivalensis ? Fal- 


Perim Island 

coner. (Vertebra.) PI. 14. f. 5. 

Dinotherium indicum. Falconer. 


Perim Island 

(Tooth.) PI. 14. f. 1. In. 

*Glyptodon clavipes 


Buenos Ay res 

* ornatus - 


Buenos Ayres 

* reticulatus. - 


Buenos Ayres 

* tuberculatus. 


Buenos Ayres 

*Mastodonlongirostris. (Tooth.) 


Maryland, U. S. 

























Plate 1. Geological map of part of North Wales, to illustrate a memoir 

by Professor Sedgwick - - - - to face p. 5 

2. Geological map of Nova Scotia by Dr. A. Gesner, with a 

portion of the district from Mr. Dawson's survey; and a map 
of Cape Breton, coloured from the surveys of Mr. Dawson 
and Mr. Brown - - - - - -23 

3. Geological map of the country bordering the Gulf of Smyrna 

to illustrate a memoir by Lieutenant Spratt - - - 156 

4. Mouth of Hybodus basanus • - - - - 198 

5. Cyclobatis oligodactylies - - - - . 225 

1 . The fossil of its natural size. 

2. Part of the jaw considerably magnified. 

*6, 7, 8. Lower Greensand fossils, plates i., ii., iii. - end 

9. Map of part of Tuscany, coloured geologically, to illustrate 

a memoir by Mr. Hamilton - 273 

10. Geological map of part of Nova Scotia by Mr. Dawson, to 

illustrate two memoirs by Mr. Dawson - 322 

11. Route through the Taurus and Antitaurus, to illustrate 

Mr. Smyth's memoir on the geology of the Taurus - - 340 

*12, 13. Lower Greensand fossils, plates iv., v. - - - end 

14. Fossils from Perim Island, to illustrate Dr. Falconer's memoir 

on those fossils --_-__ 372 

The binder shoidd be instructed to place these Jive plates of Lower Greensand 
fossils together at the end of the volume, with the page of description corresponding 
to them, immediately before the Alphabetical Index. 


In page 15. the whole of the last paragraph should appear in small type at the 

end of the note in the same page. 
In page 18. line 14., for the words lower, middle, and upper flags, substitute the 

words Upper Silurian Rocks. 
In the same page, line 17., for flags substitute part of the upper Silurian series. 
In page 1 9. line 1 . , dele the word lower. 
In the same page, line 11. from the bottom, instead of the sentence beginning 

with the word flags in that line, and ending with the word fossils in line 9. 

from the bottom, substitute portion of the upper series co?isists of a great thick- 
ness of Denbigh flagstone. 
In page 20., dele the first three lines, and as far as the word bed in line 4., and 

substitute A bed occurs. 
In the same page, line 10., for flags substitute parts of the upper series; and in 

line 13., after the word from insert beneath. 
In page 39. line 3. from bottom, for " British and Fossil Mammalia," read 

" British Fossil Mammalia." 
In page 234. line 2. from bottom, for " Mem. de Vlnstitut," read " Institut." 
In page 300., Title of Article 2. line 2., for South Wales, read North 

In page 347., species 114., for Amullaria read AmpuUaria. 
In page 347., species 116., line 5., for spine read spire. 
In page 347., species 121., for Dupineana read Dupiniana. 
In page 350., species 134., line 2., for seperioribus read superioribus. 
In page 352., species 138., line 5., for angustive read angustior. 
In page 352., species 138., line 10., for branch read much. 
In page 353., species 150., for Schlotteim read Schlotheim. 
In page 354., species 151., for Martinii read Martini. 
In page 360. line 25., for Dinotherum read Dinotherium. 
In page 392. line 7., for Canada read North America. 
In page 392. line 14., for Canadas read British Possessions in North 

In page 393. line 32., and in various other places throughout the article, for the 

Minudie read Minudie, Minudie being a village and not a river. 
In page 394. line 32., dele River. 

In page 402., at the end of the article on Fossil Insects, insert D.T. A. 
In page 407. title, line 1., for Silurian read Carboniferous. 
In page 407. title, line 2., insert and after the word Town. Elsewhere in the 

same page the names New South Wales and Van Diemens Land should be 

In page 450. line 8. from bottom, for Herts read Hants. 
In page 543. line 15. from top, for " Drontheim " read " Trondiem." 

• Corrigenda in the Plates. 

In the map of Nova Scotia by Dr. Gesner (Plate ii.) the gypsiferous district 
near Truro has been inadvertently left of the same colour as the Old Red 

In the same map the portion stated to be copied from Mr. Dawson's survey is 
very imperfect, but is corrected in plate x., where Mr. Dawson's map is given in 

London : 

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1st February, 1845. 

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Published in the Transactions of the Geological Society 
of London, and now on sale. 


Fellows. Public. 

s. d. s. d. 

1. Aikin, Arthur, F.G.S. Notes on the Geological Stimc- 

ture of Cader Idris, pp. 6., map and plate of sections 

[ii. 17. 2 2 6 

2. Austen, R.A.C. F.G.S. On the Geology of the South 

East of Devonshire, pp.57., coloured map, large plate 

of coloured sections, and eighteen woodcuts [vi. 28 5 7 

3. Bayfield, Capt., R.1ST., Notes on the Geology of the 

North Coast of the St. Lawrence, pp. 14., one plate 

containing map and view - - [v. 4. 2 2 6 

4. Bell, CM. M.D., Geological Notes on part of Mazun- 

deran, pp. 5. - - - - [v. 39. 10 16 

5. Bell, Thomas, F.R.S. Zoological Observations on a 

new Fossil Species of Chelydra from (Eningen, pp. 3. 

and one plate - [iv. 5 2 2 6 

6. Bowerbank, J.S. F.R.S. On the London and Plastic 

Clay Formations of the Lsle of Wight, pp. 4., wood- 
cuts ------ [vi. 14 10 16 

7. On the Siliceous Bodies of the Chalk, Green- 
sands and Oolites, pp. 14., and two plates [vi. 17 3 4 

8. Bowman, J. Eddowes, F.L.S. Notes on a small Patch of 

Silwian Rocks to the West of Abergele, on the North- 
ern Coast of Denbighshire, pp. 4. - -[vi. 18 6 10 

9. Brewster, Sir David, K.G.H. L.L.D. F.R.S. Obser- 

vations relative to the Structure and Origin of the 

Diamond, pp. 5. [iii. 24 10 16 

10. Broderip, W. J. F.R.S. Description of some Fossil 

Crustacea and JRadiata found at Lyme Regis in Dor- 
setshire, pp. 4., one plate - - [v. 12 2 2 6 

11. Brtce, James, jun., M. A. On the Geological Structure 

of the North Eastern Part of the County of Antrim, 

pp. 13., one coloured map - [v. 2 2 2 6 

12. Buckland, Rev. Professor, D.D. F.R.S. On the Form- 

ation of the Valley of Kingsclere, and other Valleys, 
by the Elevation of the Strata that enclose them; and 
on the Evidences of the original Continuity of the 
Basins of London and Hampshire, pp. 12., one co- 
loured section - [ii. 11. 3 4 

a 2 


s. d. 

13. Buckland, Rev. Professor, Geological Account of a 

Series of Animal and Vegetable Remains, and of Rocks, 
collected by J. Crawfurd, Esq., on a Voyage up the 
Irawadi to Ava in 1826 and 1827 ; and W. Clift, Esq., 
F.R.S. On the Fossil Remains of two New Species 
of Mastodon, and of other Invertebrated Animals 
found on the left bank of the Irawadi, pp. 26., one 
coloured map and eight plates - [ii. 24, 25 7 6 10 

14. On the Cycadeoidece, a Family of Fossil Plants 

found in the Oolite Quarries of the Isle of Portland, 

pp. 8., and four plates - [ii. 27. 3 6 5 

15. Observations on the Secondary Formations be- 
tween Nice and the Col di Tendi, pp. 4. [iii. 8. 10 16 

16. On the Discovery of a new Species of Ptero- 
dactyl in the Lias at Lyme Regis, pp. 6., and one 

plate .... [iii. ii 26 36 

17. On the Discovery of Coprolites or Fossil Faces 

in the Lias at Lyme Regis, and in other Formations ; 
and a Letter from Dr. Prout to Dr. Buckland re- 
specting the Analysis of the Fossil Faces of Ichthyo- 
saurus, and other Animals, pp. 16., and four plates 

[iii. 12, 13. 5 7 

18. On the Occurrence of Agates in Dolomitic 

Strata of the New Red Sandstone Formation in the 

Mendip Hills, pp. 4. [iii. 19. 6 10 

19. On the Discovery of Fossil Bones of the Igua- 

nodon in the Wealden Formation of the Isle of Wight 
and in the Isle of Purbeck, pp.8., and one plate 

[iii. 20. 2 6 3 6 

20. and Sir H. T. De la Beche, F.R.S., On the 

Geology of the Neighbourhood of Weymouth and 
the adjacent Parts of the Coast of Dorset, pp. 46., a 
large coloured map, and a series of coloured sections 
in two plates - [iv. 1. 5 7 

21. Buddle, J., F.G.S. On Subsidences produced by work- 

ing Beds of Coal, pp .4. - - [vi. 13. 6 10 

22. On the great Fault called the Horse in the 

Forest of Dean Coal Field, pp. 6., snd three wood- 
cuts -.■"■•- - - - [vi. 23. 16 2 

23. Burr, Fred., Sketch of the Geology of Aden on the Coast 

of Arabia, pp. 4. ' [vi. 30. 6 10 

24. Caldcleugh, Alex., F.G.S. On the Geology of Rio de 

Janeiro, pp. 4. - [ii. 7. 6 10 

25. Catjteey, Capt., F.G.S. On the Structure of the Sewalik 

Hills and the Organic Remains found in them, pp. 12., 

and one large plate of sections - [v. 22. 2 2 6 

26. and H. Falconer, M.D., F.G.S. Notice on 

the Remains of a Fossil Monkey from the Tertiary 
Strata of the Sewalik Hills in the North of Hindostan, 
pp. 6., and 4 woodcuts - - [v. 34. 16 2 

27. Clarke, Rev. W. B., M.A., F.G.S. On the Geological 
Structure and Phenomena of the County of Suffolk 
and its Physical Relations with Norfolk and Essex, 
pp. 25., one large plate of coloured sections [v. 28. 2 2 6 


S. d. S. d. 

28. Clift, W., F.R.S. Account of the Remains of the Me- 

gatherium sent to England from Buenos Ay res by Sir 
Woodbine Parish, F.R.S., pp. 14., map and 3 
plates - [iii. 22. 3 4 

On the Mastodon, Sfc. of the Irawadi. See 13. 

Crawfurd, J. Voyage to the Irawadi. See 13. 

29. Crichton, Sir Alex., M.D., F.R.S. Hemarhs on some 

parts of the Taunus and other Mountains of the Duchy 
of Nassau, pp. 8., 1 plate - - [ii. 16. 6 10 

D'Archiac. Palaeozoic fossils of Germany. See 10. 

30. Darwin, Chs., F.R.S. On the Formation of Mould, 

pp. 5., 1 woodcut - [v. 35. 16 2 

31. On the Connection of certain Volcanic Phe- 
nomena in South America ; and on the Formation of 
Mountain Chains and Volcanoes, as the Effect of the 
same Power by which Continents are elevated, pp. 31. 
1 map - - - - [v. 42. 4 6 6 

32. On the Distribution of Erratic Boidders, and 

on the Contemporaneous unstratified Deposits of South 

America, pp. 15., map and 3 woodcuts [vi. 27. 4 5 6 

33. De la Beche, Sir H. T., F.R.S. On the Geology of 

Southern Pembrokeshire, pp. 20., large coloured map 

and coloured sections - [ii. 1. 3 6 5 

34. On the Lias of the Coast in the vicinity of 

Lyme Regis, Dorsetshire, pp. 10., 1 plate of sections 

and 1 plate of fossils - [ii. 2. 2 6 3 6 

35. On the Chalk and Greenland in the vicinity of 

Lyme Regis, Dorsetshire, and Beer, Devonshire, 

pp. 10., and a coloured plate - - [ii. 10. 3 4 

36. Remarks on the Geology of Jamaica, pp. 52., 

coloured map, 2 sections, and 1 plate [ii. 13 7 6 10 

37. On the Geology of Tor and Babbacombe 

Bays, Devonshire, pp. 10., coloured map, coloured 

section, and 1 plate - [iii. 5. 2 6 3 6 

38. On the Geology of the Environs of Nice, and 

the Coast thence to Ventimiglia, pp. 15., coloured 
map, large section plain, and 2 coloured sections 

[iii. 6. 3 4 

Geology of the neighbourhood of Weymouth. 

See 20. 

39. Egerton, Sir P. Grey de Malpas, Bart,, M.P., F.R.S., 

On certain Peculiarities in the Cervical Vertebrae of 
the Ichthyosaurus hitherto unnoticed, pp. 7., 1 plate 

[v. 15. 2 2 6 
Falconer, Dr. On a Fossil Monkey from the Sewalik 
Hills. See 26. 

40. Fitton, W. H., M.D., F.R.S. Obse?*vations on some of 

the Strata between the Chalk and the Oxford Oolite in 
the South East of England, pp. 286., 5 coloured maps, 
3 large plates of sections, and 14 plates of fossils 

[iv. 2. 25 30 

41. Forchhammer, George, Ph.D. On some Changes of 

Level which have taken place in Denmark during the 

present Period, pp. 4. . - [vi. 11. 6 10 


s. d. s. d. 

42. Fox, Rob. Were. Notice of a Letter relative to the 

Origin of Mineral Veins, pp. 2. - [v. 33.* 6 10 

43. Franklin, Capt. James, F.RtS., Bengal Army, On the 

Geology of a portion of Bundelcund, JBoghelcund, and 
the Districts of Saugur and Jubulpore, pp. 10., co- 
loured map, and coloured section - [iii. 9. 2 6 3 6 

44. Grant, Capt. C. W., Bombay Engineers, Memoir to 

illustrate a Geological Map of Cutch, pp. 41., large 

coloured map and 6 plates of fossils - [v. 25. 5 6 7 6 

45. Griffith, Richard, F.G.S., On the Syenite Veins which 

traverse Mica Schist and Chalk at Goodland Cliff 
and Torr Eskert, to the South of Fair Head in the 
County of Antrim, pp. 7., 5 woodcuts [v. 14. 16 2 

46. Hamilton, W. J M.P., Sec. G.S. On the Geology of 

Part of Asia Minor, between the Salt Lake of Kodj- 
hissar and Casarea of Cappadocia ; including a brief 
Description of Mount Aigaius, pp. 15., large plate 
containing coloured map and sections [v. 40. 3 6 5 

47. and H. E. Strickland, F G. S. On the 

Geology of the Western Part of Asia Minor, pp. 39., 
large map and large plate of coloured sections [vi. 1. 4 5 6 
Harlan, Dr. On the Basilosaurus or Zeuglodon 

See 75. 

48. Hawkshaw, John, F. G. S. Description of the Fossil 

Trees found in the Excavations for the Manchester 
and Bolton Railway, with further Observations on the 
same, pp. 8. large plate - - [vi. 15, 16. 2 6 3 6 

49. Herschel, Sir J.F.W., K.H., F.R.S. On the Astro- 

nomical Causes which may influence Geological Phe- 
nomena, pp.7. - [iii. 17. 2 2 6 

50. Horner, Leonard, F.R.S. On the Geology of the 

Environs of Bonn, pp. 49., large plate containing 
coloured map, coloured outline, and organic re- 
mains - [iv. 8. 5 7 

51. Hunton, Louis. Remarks on the Section of the Upper 

Lias and Marlstone of Yorkshire, showing the limited 
vertical Range of the Species of Ammonites and other 
Testacea, with their Value as Geological Tests, pp. 7. 

[v. 18. 10 16 

52. Logan, W. E., F.G. S. On the Characters of the Beds 

of Clay immediately below the Coal Seams of South 
Wales, and on the Occurrence of Boulders of Coal 
in the Pennant Grit of that District, pp. 7. [vi. 29. 16 2 

53. Lonsdale, William, F. G. S. On the Oolitic District of 

Bath, pp. 36., coloured section - - [iii. 14. 5 7 

54. Notes on the Age of the Limestone of South 

Devonshire, pp. 18. - [v. 46. 2 6 3 6 

55. Ltell, Clias., F.R.S. On a recent Formation of 
Fresh-water Limestone in Forfarshire, and on some 
recent Deposits of Fresh-water Marl, with a Com- 
parison of recent with ancient Fresh-water Form- 
ations, and an Appendix on the Gyrogonite or Seed- 
vessels of the Chara, pp. 24., coloured map and plate 

[ii. 8. 6 86 


S. (1. S. (I. 

56. Lyell, Chas., F.R.S. On the Strata of the Plastic Clay 
Formation in the Cliffs between Christchurch Head, 
Hampshire, and Studland Bay, Dorsetshire ; and on 
the Freshwater Strata of Hordwell Cliff, Beacon 
Hill, and Barton Cliff, Hampshire, pp. 14., coloured 
map - - - - [ii. 18. 19. 5 7 

57. On the Cretaceous and Tertiary Strata of the 

Danish Islands of Seeland and Moen, pp. 15. plate 

and 11 woodcuts - - - - [v. 20. 3 3 6 

58. Remarks on some Fossil and recent Shells col- 
lected by Capt. Bayfield, R. N, in Canada, pp. 7. 
and plate ... - [ v i. 8. 20 26 

59. Maclauchlan, H., F. G. S. Notes to accompany a Geo- 

logical Map of the Forest of Dean Coalfield, pp. 12., 

large coloured map and 2 woodcuts - [v. 16. 16 2 

60. > Notes to accompany some Fossils collected by 

the Author and Mr. H. Still during their employment 
on the Ordnance Survey of Pembrokeshire, pp. 4., 

2 woodcuts of sections - [vi. 34. 6 10 

61. Malcolmson, J. G., F. G. S. On the Fossils of the 

Eastern Portion of the great Basaltic District of 
India, pp. 39., large coloured map, plate of sections, 
and plate of fossils - - - - [v. 38. 4 5 6 

62. Manteee, G. A., LL.D., F.R.S. A Tabular Arrange- 

ment of the Organic Remains of the County of Sussex, 

pp. 16. - - - [iii. 10. 16 2 

63. On the Bones of Birds discovered in the Strata 

of Tilgate Forest in Sussex, pp. 3. plate [v. 13, 10 16 

Description of the Fossil Fox of CEningen. 

See 68. 

64. Martin, Capt., J. B., R. N". Description of Bones of 

the Mammoth found in the deep Sea of the British 

Channel and German Ocean, pp. 3. - [vi. 12. 6 10 

65. Miller, J. S. Observations on Belemnites, and Ob- 

servations on the Genus Actinocamax, pp. 24. 3 plates 

[ii. 5,6. 4 6 6 

66. Murchison, R. L, F.R.S., P.R. Geog. S. Geological 

Sketch of the North Western Extremity of Sussex and 
adjoining Parts of Hants and Surrey, pp. 12., co- 
loured map and plate . - - - [ii. 9. 3 4 

67. On the Coal Field of Brora in Suthe?*land- 

shire and some other stratified Deposits in the North 
of Scotland, with supplementary Remarks on these 
Strata and the Rocks associated with them in Ross-shire 
and in the Hebrides, pp. 50., map and 2 plates 

[ii. 20. 23. 8 6 12 

68. On a Fossil Fox, found at CEningen, near 

Constance, with an Account of the Deposit in ivhich it 
was imbedded, and an anatomical Description of the 
Fox by Dr. Mantell, pp. 16., and 2 large plates 

[iii. 15, 16. 4 5 6 

69. and H. E. Strickland, F. G. S. On the 

upper Formations of the New Red Sandstone system 
in Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, and Warwickshire, 
showing that the Red or Saliferous Marls, including a 


5. d. s. d. 
peculiar Zone of Sandstone, represent the Keuper or 
Marries irisees ; with some Account of the underlying 
Sandstone of Ombersley, Bromsgrove, and Warwick, 
proving that it is the Bunter Sandstein or gres bi- 
garre of foreign geologists, pp. 18?, coloured map 
and large plate of fossils - - - [v. 26 2 6 3 G 

Mtjrchison, R. I., F.R.S., Geology of the Isle of Arran. 

See 98. 

On the Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. 

See 99. 

. Structure of the Eastern Alps. See 100. 

■ liaised Beach at Barnstaple. See 101. 

Physical Structure of Devonshire. See 102. 

— Palaeozoic Bocks of Germany. See 103. 

70. Nelson, Lieut. K. J. On the Geology of the Bermudas, 

pp. 21., and coloured map - - [v. 5. 2 6 3 6 

71. Owen, Richard, F. R. S., Hunterian Professor in the 

Royal College of Surgeons. Note on the Dislocation 
of the Tail at a certain Point observable in the 
Skeleton of many Ichthyosauri, pp. 4. 1 large plate 

[v. 36. 2 6 3 6 

72. Description of a Specimen of Plesiosaurus 

macrocephalus, in the Collection of the Earl of En- 

niskillen, pp. 21. 3 Plates - - [v. 37. 5 6 7 6 

73. ■ Description of some Fossil Remains of Choi' 

ropotamus, Pal&otherium, Anoplotherium, and Dicho- 
bunes, from the Eocene Formation, Isle of Wight, 
pp. 5, and one large plate - "*■ -[vi. 2. 2 6 3 6 

74. Observations on the Fossils representing the 

Thylacotherium Prevostii, with reference to the Doubts 
of its Mammalian and Marsupial Nature recently pro- 
mulgated, and on the Phascolotherium Bucklandi, 

pp. 19, 2 plates - - - [vi. 3. 5 7 

75. ■ Observations on the Basilosatirus of Dr. 

Harlan (Zeuglodon cetoides Owen), and a Letter 

from Dr. Harlan on the Discovery of the Remains 
of the Basilosaurus or Zeuglodon, pp. 13., 3 plates 

[vi. 4, 5. 4 6 6 

76. Description of a Tooth and Part of the 

Skeleton of Glyptodon clavipes, with a Consideration of 
the question whether the Megatherium possessed an 

analogous dermal Armour, pp. 26., 4 plates - [vi. 6. 7 6 10 

77. A Description of some of the soft Parts, with 

the Integument of the Hind Fin of the Ichthyosaurus, 
indicating the Shape of the Fin when recent, pp. 3., 

plate - [vi. 19. 2 6 3 6 

78 . ■ Description of the Fossil Remains of a Mammal 
(Hyracotherium leporinum), and a Bird (Lithornis 
vulturinus), frgm the London Clay, pp. 6., one plate 

[vi. 20. 3 4 

79. Description of some Ophidiolites (Palseophis 

toliapicus), from the London Clay of Sheppey, indi- 
cative of an extinct Species of Serpent, pp. 2., plate 

[vi. 21. 2 2 6 


«. (I 

80. Owen, Richard, F.R.S. Description of the Remains of 
a Bird, a Tortoise, and a Lizard from the Chalk, 
pp. 3,, plate - - - [vi. 26. 2 6 3 6 

81. On the Teeth of Species of the genus Laby- 

rinthodon (Mastodonsaurus of Jdger), common to the 
German Keuper Formations and the Lower Sandstone 
of Warwick and Leamington ; and Description of 
Parts of the Skeleton and Teeth of five Species of 
Labyrinthodon, iviih Remarks on the probable Iden- 
tity of the Chirotherium with this extinct Genus 
of Reptiles, pp. 40., 2 woodcuts and 5 plates 

[vi.31, 32. 12 6 16 

82. Pentland, J. B. Description of Fossil Remains of 

some Animals from the North East Border of Bengal, 

pp.2., and one plate - - [ii. 26. 6 10 

83. Phillips, John, F. R. S. On a Group c.f Slate Rocks 

ranging E. S. E. between the Rivers Lune and 
Wharf e, from near Kirby Lonsdale to near Malham, 
and on the attendant Phenomena, pp. 19, 1 coloured 
map and section - [iii. 1. 2 6 3 6 

84. Pratt, Samuel Peace, F. R. S. Remarks on the Ex- 

istence of Anoplotherium and Palaotherium in the 
lower Fresh-water Formations at B instead near Ryde, 
in the Isle of Wight, pp. 3. - - [iii. 23. 6 10 

85. Prestwjch, Jos., F. G. 8. On the Structure of the 

Neighbourhood of Gamrie, Banffshire, particularly 
on the Deposit containing Ichthyolites, pp. 10., one 
Plate containing map and coloured sections, and 
woodcuts - - - [v. 10. 2 6 3 6 

86. ; On the Geology of Colebrook Dale, pp. 83., 

large map, large plate of coloured sections, large 
plate of sections, and 4 plates of Organic Remains 

[v. 33. 10 13 6 
Prout, Dr. Analysis of Fossil Forces of Ichthyo- 
saurus - See 17. 

87. Richardson, William, F. G. S. Observations on the 

Locality of the Hyracotherium, pp. 4. - [vi. 22. 6 10 

88. Riley, H!, M.D. On the Squaloraria, pp.6, plate, [v. 3. 10 16 

89. and Mr. Sam. Stutchbury. A Description 

of Various Fossil Remains of three distinct Saurian 
Animals, recently discovered in the Magnesian Conglo- 
merate near Bristol, pp. 9., 2 plates of fossils [v. 27. 3 4 6 

90. Rofe, J. Observations on the geological Sfructure of the 

Neighbourhood of Reading, pp. 4. - - [v. 7. 6 10 

91. Scrope, J.Poulet, F.R.S. Notice on the Geology of the 

Ponza Islands, pp. 42., col. map, 2 plates [ii. 14. 6 6 8 6 

92. On the Volcanic District of Naples, pp. 16. 

one plate of maps, sections, and views [ii. 22. 3 .0 4 6 

93. Sedgwick, Rev. Professor, F.R.S. On the Geological 

Relations and internal Structure of the Magnesian 
Limestone, and the lower Portions of the New Red 
Sandstone Series, in their Range through Nottingham- 
shire, Derbyshire, Yorkshire, and Durham, to the 
southern Extremity of Northumberland, pp. 90. 
coloured maps and sections, and 5 plates of fossils. 

[iii. 3. 10 6 13 6 


S. (1. S. d. 

94. Sedgwick, Rev. Professor, F. R. S., Remarks on the 

Structure of large Mineral Masses, and especially on 
the Chemical Changes produced in the Aggregation 
of stratified Rocks, during different Periods after 
their Deposition, pp. 26., plate - [iii. 25. 5 7 

95. Introduction to the general Structure of the 

Cumberland Mountains, with a Description of the 
great Dislocations by which they have been separated 
from the neighbouring Carboniferous Chains, pp.22. 

coloured map, plate of coloured sections - [iv. 2. 3 6 5 

96. Description of a Series of longitudinal and 

transverse Sections through a Portion of the Car- 
boniferous Chain between Penigent and Kirby-Ste- 
phen, pp. 34. one large plate of col. sections [iv. 3. 3 6 5 

97. > On the New Red Sandstone Series of the 

Basin of the Eden, and No?*th- Western Coasts of 
Cumberland and Lancashire, pp. 25., large plate of 
coloured sections - [iv. 6. 3 6 5 

98. — — and R. I. Mubchison, Esq. F.R.S. On the 

Geological Relations of the secondary Strata of the 
Isle of Arran, pp. 16., and one long coloured sec- 
tion - - - - • - [iii. 2. 3 4 6 

99. On the Struc- 
ture and the Relations of the Deposits contained be- 
tween the primary Rocks and the Oolitic Series in the 
North of Scotland, pp. 36., coloured map, coloured 
section, and 3 plates of Organic Remains - [iii. 4. 5 7 

100. A Sketch of the 

Structure of the Eastern Alps, with Sections through 
the newer Formations on the northern Flanks of the 
Chain, and through the Tertiary Deposits of Styria, 
8fc, pp. 124., coloured map, a series of coloured sec- 
tions, and 4 plates - - - [iii. 18. 7 6 10 

101. Description of a 

7'aised Beach in Barnstaple, or Bideford Bay, on the 
North West Coast of Devonshire, with an Extract 
from a Letter on the same Subject, by the Rev. D. 
Williams, pp. 10. and 2 woodcuts - [v. 23, 24. 10 16 

102. On the Physical 

Structure of Devonshire, and on the Subdivisions and 
Geological Relations of its older stratified Deposits, 
pp. 73., large coloured map, large plate of coloured 
sections, and 7 plates of fossils - - [v. 43. 10 13 6 

103. On the Disturb- 
ances and Classification of the older or Palaeozoic De- 
posits of the North of Germany and Belgium, and their 
Comparison with Formations of the same Age in the 
British Isles. With a Memoir, by M. de Verneuil 
and the Conte d'AiiCHiAc, On the Fossils of the older 
Deposits in the Rhenish Provinces, preceded by a 
General Survey of the Fauna of the Palaeozoic Rocks, 
and followed by a Tabular List of the Organic Re- 
mains of the Devonian System in Europe, pp. 189., 
large coloured map, large plate of coloured sections, 
and 14 plates of Organic Remains - [vi. 24, 25. 27 6 35 


S. d. S. d. 

104. Sharpe, Daniel, F. L. S. On the Geology of the 

Neighbourhood of Lisbon, pp. 27., coloured map, 
large plate of coloured sections - [vi. 7. 3 6 5 

Smee, Capt. Fossils collected by . See 115. 

105. Smith, James, of Jordan Hill, F. 11. S. On the re- 

lative Ages of the Tertiary and Post-tertiary Deposits 

of the Basin of the Clyde, pp. 4. - [vi. 10. 6 10 

106. Sowerby, Jas. de C. On the Genus Crioceratites, and 

on Scaphites gigas, pp. 3., plate - - [v. 32. 16 2 

107. Stokes, Charles, F.R.S. Notice respecting a Piece of 

recent Wood partly petrified by Carbonate of Lime, 
with some Remarks on Fossil Woods, pp. 8., 2 plates 
and woodcut - - - - [v. 17. 2 6 3 6 

108. On some Species of Orthocerata, pp. 10., and 

2 plates ----- [v. 44. 26 36 

109. Strickland, H. E. On the Geology of the Thracian 

Bosphorus, pp. 7., 3 woodcuts - - [v. 29. 2 2 6 

110. On the Geology of the Neighbourhood of 

Smyrna, pp. 10., with a coloured map and sections 

[v. 30. 2 6 3 6 

111. On the Geology of the Island of Zante, pp. 7., 

coloured map and sections - - - [v. 31. 2 6 3 6 

112. On some remarkable Dykes of Calcareous 

Grit at Ethie, in Boss-shire, pp. 2. - - [v. 41. 6 10 

113. Memoir descriptive of a Series of Goloured 

Sections of the Cuttings on the Birmingham and 
Gloucester Railway, pp. 11., large plate of coloured 
sections - [vi. 33. 3 4 6 

Geology of the Western part of Asia Minor. 

See 46. 

On the Neiv Red Sandstone of the Middle of 

England. See 69. 

Stutchbury, S. Sawians of the Magnesian Conglo- 
merate. See 89. 

114. Sykes, Lieut.-Col. W. H., F.R.S. On a Portion of the 

Dukhun, East Indies, pp. 24., map and 2 large plates 

of sections ----- [iv. 7. 36 46 

115. Notice respecting some Fossils collected in 

Cutch by Capt. W. Smee, pp. 5., and plate - [v. 45. 16 2 

116. Taylor, J., F.G.S. Observations on the Strata pene- 

trated in sinking a Well at Diss, in No? folk, pp. 2. 

[v. 9. 6 10 

117. Taylor, R. C, F.G.S. Notice of Models of Part of 

the Mineral Basin of South Wales, in the Vicinity of 
Pontypool, pp. 4. - - - - [iii. 21. 6 10 

Verneuil, M. E., and Conte d'ARCHiAc. Palaeozoic 
Fossils of the Rhenish Provinces [vi. 25. See 103. 

118. Verschoyle, The Ven. Archdeacon. Notices on the 

Geology of the No?*th Coast of the Counties of Mayo 
and Sligo, in Ireland, pp. 22., large plate, containing 
coloured map and section - - - [v. 11. 2 6 3 6 

119. Weaver, Thos., F.R.S. On the Geological Relations 

of the South of Ireland, pp. 68., large coloured map 

and large plate of coloured sections - [v. 1. 4 5 G 


120. Webster, Thos. Observations on the Strata at Hast- 
ings, in Sussex, pp. 6., plate of sections and plate of 
fossils - [ii. 3. 2 2 6 

121. Observations on the Purbeck and Portland 

Beds, pp. 8., plate of fossils - - [ii. 4. 2 2 6 

122. Wetherell, N. T., F.G.S. Observations on a Well 

dug on the South Side of Hampstead Heath, pp. 6., 

and 2 plates of Organic Remains - [v. 8. 2 6 3 6 

123. Williams, Rev. David. Notes on the Discovery of a 

Mass of Trap Mock in the Mountain Limestone of 
Bleadon Hill, in the County of Somerset, pp. 2., one 
wood-cut ----- fvi. 35. 06 10 

Letter on a Raised Beach near Barnstaple. 

[v. 24. See 101. 

124. Williamson, W. C. On the Distribution of Fossil 

Remains on the Yorkshire Coast, from the Lower Lias 

to the Bath Oolite inclusive, pp. 20. - [v. 19. 2 6 3 6 

125. On the Distribution of Organic Remains in 

the Strata of the Yorkshire Coast, from the Upper 

Sandstone to the Oxford Clay inclusive, pp. 10. [vi. 9. 16 2 

126. Wright, Roiuley. Notes on the Geology of the Brown 

Clee Hill, in the County of Salop, pp. 2., plate con- 
taining coloured map and sections - [v. 6. 10 16 

127. Yates, Rev. Jas., M.A. Observations on the Structure 

of the Border Country of Salop and North Wales, 
and of some detached Groups of Transition Rocks in 
the Midland Counties, pp. 28., coloured map and 
plate - - - - [ii. 15. 2 2 6 






Apartments of the Geological Society of London, 
Somerset House, Jan. 22d 1 845. 

At the Anniversary Meeting of the Geological Society, held 
in February 1844, the Council announced in their Annual 
Report, that in consequence of the great influx of original 
papers, and the delay and expense attending the Quarto 
form of publication*, it was their intention to adopt in most 
instances one attended with more expedition, and more com- 
mensurate with the funds of the Society. 

It is in furtherance of their intention so announced, that 
the present new Publication appears, intituled lc The Quar- 
terly Journal of the Geological Society of London." 

* In order to obviate misconception, the Council beg it to be understood 
that the present Journal will not supersede the continuation of the quarto form 
of publication in cases that be judged to require it. 

VOL. I. B 


It is the result of an agreement entered into between the 
Geological Society and the Publisher, and will be edited by 
one of the officers of the Society, its Vice- Secretary, subject 
to the superintendence and control of the Council. 

The Journal will consist of two parts. The first will be 
a full Report of the original Communications read before the 
Meetings of the Society, the Authors being, as heretofore, 
held responsible for the facts and opinions stated in their 
respective papers: these Reports will be accompanied with 
figured illustrations. 

The second, or miscellaneous part, will consist of Trans- 
lations or Abstracts of Geological papers published in the 
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both English and Foreign ; but the Articles in this division 
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This second ^art will also contain announcements of Geo- 
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logical subjects. The articles in this second part, also, will, 
if necessary, be illustrated by figures. 

The account that will be given of Geological publications 
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express any opinion on the general merits of the works 
analyzed. If any omission or inaccuracy on the part of an 


Author should be noticed, such notice will be strictly limited 
to the particular matter adverted to, and will be expressed in 
guarded and courteous terms. 

The First Number appears on the 1st of February, 1845, 
and the other numbers of the present year will be published 
on the 1st of the months of May, August, and November ; 
and these will be followed, if due encouragement be given to 
this publication, by quarterly numbers appearing at corre- 
sponding periods, extending, it is hoped, for a long series of 

B 2 

Mtttit ©state. 

fo iltejtroilv Prvfafsw Sadgv/iet"'s Metnuir 
The Geology of that district / 

I — -J CowbcnKvfoiiOtA-v luiiAvlmie. 

1 Zfyper S~vbjarooa>v. 
\-*" \ lower SvluruxM l Fmtozo/&/ 
Lssi .MirvoL & Chlorite SloCfo. 

y-jl \Parpkip-vtveJiocks. *+* .AnUoknal-— FmiZk^^Aooi/oU? . 
^SyrocfonaZ ^7hp. Strike Im&rof'Seetum- l> u 7iol7 dasarbbed/. ?$$ 

■icted >t Reeve I 

Printed. Ly Reeve. Brotkers. 




November 29. 1843. 

Joseph Travis Clay, Esq., and Francis W. Jennings, Esq., 
were elected Fellows of this Society. 

The following communication, a part of which had been read at 
the previous meeting, was concluded : — 

On the Older Palaeozoic (Protozoic) Rocks of North Wales. 
By the Rev. A. Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S., Woodwardian Pro- 
fessor of Geology and Fellow of Trinity College in the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge. 

§ 1. Introduction. 

In a paper read before the Geological Society in June, 1843, 
and intituled, " An Outline of the Geological Structure of North 
Wales,"* the author gave a description of those stratified rocks 
in the northern counties of the principality which are of anterior 
date to the mountain limestone. Those rocks he separated into 
the following three principal groups : — 

1. Chlorite- slate and mica-slate. These form a band along the 
north-western side of the promontory of Carnarvonshire from Porth 
Dilleyn to Bardsea island. 

2. Greywacke and roofing slate, often containing calcareous 
bands, and alternating with Plutonic rocks of cotemporaneous 
formation : and these rocks the author terms, in his present paper, 
the Protozoic, group. They extend in an east and west direction, 
from the borders of Shropshire to the western coast of Carnarvon- 
shire ; and their north-western boundary, from the confines of 
Shropshire to Yspytty Evan, coincides nearly with the Holyhead 
road ; and from Yspytty Evan to Conway, with the Conway river. 

3. An overlying and sometimes unconformable deposit of flag- 

* Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, vol. iv. p. 212. 

b 3 


stone, &c, coterminous along the Holyhead road and Conway river 
with the last-mentioned principal group ; but bounded towards 
the north-west by an overlying range of mountain limestone. 

The present paper communicates the results of new researches 
which, in the company and with the assistance of his friend, Mr. 
J. W. Salter, the author made, during the summer of 1843, in the 
eastern portion of his former field of observation : his remarks on 
the present occasion being directed principally to the geological 
position and organic remains of the fossiliferous slates which lie 
to the east of the great Porphyry range of the Arenigs. 

During these excursions, besides correcting the north-western 
boundary line of the rocks belonging to the second principal group, 
the author determined their southern boundary. That boundary 
follows a very sinuous course from the mountain limestone of 
Llanymynech hill, on the east, to the Dyfi near Mallwydd, on the 
west ; whence it runs in a south-western direction, down the right 
or northern bank of that river for several miles. The boundary 
line of the protozoic rocks, both in the north and in the south, was 
laid down by the author and his companion on the Ordnance Map, 
from which they have been transferred to the small map annexed 
to the present Abstract. 

The author has also materially improved the details of the sec- 
tions which he formerly exhibited to the Society, and has greatly 
extended his lists of fossils. For the determining of these fossils, 
for the lists of them appended to this abstract, and for the general 
observations* which an examination of these lists has given rise 
to, he expresses himself indebted to Messrs. J. C. Sowerby and 
J. W. Salter, of whom the latter examined most of the localities 
where the fossils were obtained. 

§ 2. On the Calcareous Slates and Limestone of Glyn Dyffws on 
the Holyhead road, West of Corwen and of Mhiwlas, North 
East of Bala. 

In an endeavour to determine the position of the limestone of 
Glyn Dyffws, a series of calcareous and fossiliferous slates was 
traced from Cader Dinmael, on the north, through Glyn Dyffws 
and Pen-y-Cerrig, southward, to the hills on the left bank of the 
Merddwr brook, near Llwyn Onn. Here the strike was inter- 
rupted by enormous dislocations. 

Calcareous slates, passing into limestone, again appear, to the 
south and west, at Llwyn Jolyn, Craigian-buchan-isaf, Llwyn-y-ci, 
and again, on the same line of strike, in the high grounds of the 
Phiwlas estate N. E. of Bala, and lastly, about a mile above Bala, 
in the bed of the river Tryweryn. A part of this limestone band 
has been noticed by Mr. Sharpe, j 

* In this Abstract the observations of Messrs. Sowerby and Salter are an- 
nexed to Professor Sedgwick's description of the geological position of the 
fossils ; and, for distinction's sake, are printed in smaller type. 

f Proceadings of the Geological Society, vol, iv. p. 10. 


The above calcareous rocks, which may be termed those of Glyn 
Dyffws and Rhiwlas, might be supposed, from their proximity and 
almost uniform strike, to belong to one deposit; but no proof of 
such a connection is obtained by the evidence of sections, the in- 
terval between the above two series of localities being much 
disturbed and broken. Moreover, the fossils of the Rhiwlas beds, 
considered as a whole, appear to differ from those of Grlyn Dyffws, 
which agree with those of the limestone band, known by the name 
of the " Bala limestone," on the eastern side of the lake. It is 
clear that the Rhiwlas limestone lies far below that of Bala ; for 
the strike of the former passes a mile to the west of the western 
shore of the lake ; and in that line of strike calcareous beds are 
found, though not in the form of limestone, agreeing, in respect 
of their organic remains, with the Rhiwlas series. 

The fossils of Glyn Dyffws and Rhiwlas will be treated of in 
describing the first line of section. 

Fossiliferous bands, which occasionally pass into limestone, are 
also found at several places a little to the north-west of the locali- 
ties which afford the Rhiwlas limestone. Those places are, 1. the 
valley above Pentre Cwmda ; 2. a spot east of the mountain road 
between G-arw fynydd and Moel Emoel ; and 3. Eglws Anne in 
the forks of the Nant-y-Coegnant. Unless there be an inversion 
of the beds in all that district (and of such an inversion the 
author could perceive no indications) these last-mentioned calca- 
reous bands must lie considerably below the Rhiwlas limestone.* 

§ 3. Transverse Sections across the Southern End of the Berwyn 


Section I. 
Arenig Fawr to the Tanat River at Llangynog. 

Horizontal base 1 5 miles. 

W. 30° N. E. 30° s. 

Arenig Moel-v- Bala Rhiwae- Aher Llangy- 

Fawr. Garnedd. Lake. dog. Hirnant. nog. 

a b c d d' d" e f g h i it j 


* At a still lower level, apparently, lie the non-fossil iferous bands of lime- 
stone, which occur at the following places : — 

1. To the S.W. of Arenig Fawr, in the upper branches of the Lliw. 

2. Near Hengwrt Uchaf, on the road from Dolgelly to Bala; the limestone 
forming three bands, which were at one time worked for lime. 

3. On the east flank of Cader Idris. 

4. On the road from Dolgelly to Dinas Mowddy. 

These non-fossiliferous bands are all crystalline ; and appear to have been 
much altered by igneous rocks. 

f The lines of section, with their numbers attached, are laid down on the 
Map, which accompanies this Abstract. 

b 4 


1. Immediately to the west of Arenig Fawr slates occur (a), 
dipping eastward. They contain Asaphus Buchii, and a few other 

2. Next occur the Porphyries of Arenig (b), which are regarded 
by the author as old eruptive or recomposed trappean rocks, of 
cotemporaneous date with the slates with which they are associ- 
ated. They form, therefore, no determinate base for the protozoic 
rocks of North Wales. 

3. Upon the Porphyries rests a thick deposit of dark earthy 
slates (c) dipping eastward, and extending in that direction about 
a mile. Towards the upper limit of this bed numerous fossils 
occur ; viz. Asaphus Powisii, Trinucleus Caractaci, Leptcena 
sericea, Encrinital stems, &c. 

4. Immediately over the preceding is a still thicker bed of grey 
slate (d, d\ d"\ which, including the very fossiliferous band, df, 
supposed to be the equivalent of the Rhiwlas limestone, extends to 
the western shore of Bala lake. Measured in a direction transverse 
to the strike, the horizontal distance to the lake exceeds two miles ; 
and as the dip, with one very limited exception, is steadily towards 
the east, and at a very considerable angle, the thickness of this 
bed must be great. The whole of the bed is fossiliferous. Near 
Moel-y-Garnedd were found an Asterias, Orthis Jiabellulum, En- 
crinital stems, &c. Further eastward are the very fossiliferous 
slates, the supposed equivalent of the Rhiwlas limestone ; and 
close to the margin of the lake, still higher, fossil bands appear. 

The total thickness of these fossiliferous beds west of Bala lake, 
without including the masses of interbedded Porphyry, is estimated 
by the author at not less than 2000 feet. 

[The series of the Rhiwlas limestone, and of the fossiliferous beds west of 
Bala lake, is characterised by an abundance of Orthoceratites, and by Asaphus 
Buchii, Illcenus Bowmanni (a new species), and other Trilobites. To these add 
Asterias primceva. Notwithstanding the considerable number of species of Bra- 
chiopoda contained in the list of fossils of the Protozoic rocks of North Wales 
{vide List I.), the number of such remains in the Rhiwlas series is very small.] 

4. The breadth of the lake is supposed to be occupied by a group 
of hard quartzose slates (e) ; since further to the south such slates 
are seen to rest on the beds associated with the Rhiwlas limestone. 
Their thickness- is not less than six or seven hundred feet. 

5. The first group on the east side of the lake consists of a se- 
ries of hard grey slates (/), which contain some highly fossiliferous 
bands. Some of these are much contorted on the line of strike ; 
but their aggregate thickness is computed at not less than 500 feet. 

6. Next occurs the Bala limestone (g), a complex group about 
100 feet thick, containing two bands of impure limestone, one only 
of which, about 12 feet thick, is worked for lime. In one place it 
contains a bed of schaalstein. 

[The Bala limestone and the Glyn Dyffws beds are marked by multitudes of 
Orthides, particularly O. Actonice and O. Vespertilio, besides Leptcena tenuistriata, 
and, in some places, an abundance of Asaphus tyrannus and A. Powisii. They 
contain few species of coral, but specimens are very abundant, and these belong 


principally to the genus Favosites. (The Chcetetes petropolitana is also very 
common.) The Ophiura Salteri has been found both in the Bala limestone and 
at Cader Dinmael. The series, moreover, furnishes two or three species of 
Cypricardia, a genus not previously found in Lower Silurian rocks.] 

7. Next comes a series of slates (h), of very varied colour and 
texture, which alternate with bands of greywacke. As these beds 
dip steadily towards the east at a very high angle, and are more 
than a mile broad, their thickness must be very great. 

8. The Hirnant limestone (i) follows, and has a remarkable 
pisolitic structure ; but, as a limestone, it is very impure. This 
group is of considerable thickness. The beds are highly inclined, 
and dip to the east, a few degrees south. The group was traced by 
the author from Aber Hirnant southwards, in the direction of the 
strike, to Bwlch-y-Groes*, and was laid down on the Ordnance Map. 

[The Hirnant limestone is characterised by its containing only a few species 
of Orthis ; in which respect it differs in a remarkable degree from the limestone 
of Bala, Of those which it does contain, two or three (which are new speciesf, 
and very flat) are found in great abundance. It abounds in a new plaited 
Terebratula, and in Encrinital stems ; but contains only a few corals]. 

9. With the same easterly dip, and at a high angle of elevation, 
follows a very thick group of slate rocks (j). Some are dark and 
earthy, others grey and siliceous, others glassy and chloritic. 
They alternate with a few bands of cotemporaneous Porphyry. 

[Over the preceding, near the synclinal of the South Berwyns, fossils, resem- 
bling those of the Bala limestone, appear here and there, but in no great 
abundance ; and the peculiar species of the Hirnant limestone are lost. These 
beds seem to possess scarcely any Cor.chifera or Gasteropoda, and not any 
Orthoceratites. The fossils belong principally to Brachiopoda, and Leptcena 
sericea is abundant, but so also is Trinucleus Caractaci. Some of the sandy beds 
contain Encrinital stems, but corals are veiy rare.] 

10. More than a mile to the east of the Hirnant limestone is 
a synclinal line (a-), beyond which the beds dip towards the west. 
The lower beds, which were found to the westward, are therefore 
again brought to the surface, and the Bala limestone (k) reappears 
in two places near the top of the descent leading to Llangynog. 
Both these places are on the eastern side of the watershed of the 

* It has been stated by Mr. Sharpe, in a paper read before the Geological 
Society (see " Proceedings of the Geological Society," vol. iv. p. 13.), that the 
line of the Bala limestone, as laid down in Mr. Murchison's map of the Silurian 
formations, is composed of the Bala and the Hirnant limestones. The Bala 
limestone, along its whole line of strike, and its several quarries, were examined 
by Professor Sedgwick in the year 1832 ; and were laid down by him in 
colours on Evans's half-inch map of North Wales. The Hirnant limestone 
was seen by him in the same year, and recognised as a distinct bed. He 
supposed it to be continued to the east side of Bwlch-y-Groes, but did not 
mark its course upon any map. Mr. Murchison, in representing the course of 
the Bala limestone, merely transferred Professor Sedgwick's coloured representa- 
tion to his own map ; and in this transfer from a map in which the physical 
features of a country are very ill represented, to another map in which they are 
well represented, it is possible that some errors may have been committed. 
But for these errors Professor Sedgwick states that he is not responsible. 

f Some of these resemble the new species which were found at Cyrn-y- 
brain, N. of Llangollen. 


Berwyns ; and, consequently, on this line of traverse, the Bala 
limestone dips under the Berwyns, as Mr. Murchison * has. cor- 
rectly stated. Further northwards that is not the case. 

[The series of fossils on the line from Llanwddyn to the head of the Pennant 
valley, and thence to the top of the pass west of Langynog, is the exact counter- 
part of the list from the limestones of Bala and Glyn Dyffws. ] 

11. The limestone is followed in descending order, 1st. by fossi- 
liferous slates (I) ; 2dly, by slates without fossils alternating with 
beds of Porphyry (m). These are supposed to represent a part 
of the series between the Bala limestone and Arenig at the, 
western end of the section ; and they are cut off, near Llangynog, 
by a complicated series of faults. The author here takes occasion 
to remark on the very great aggregate thickness of the fossiliferous 
beds which are traversed by the line of section just described ; 
although, on the one hand, the section has no determinate base, 
and, on the other, does not reach to the highest of the protozoic 
rocks ; since it is impossible to tell how many hundred feet may be 
wanting to connect the highest beds which are traversed in this 
section, with the base of the Denbighshire flagstones. 

Section II. 
The Arenigs to Llanwrdyn. 

Horizontal base 20 miles. 
N.W. S.E. 


This section, like the former, commences On the west side of 
Bala lake, and with a ridge of porphyry (a a) ; but the por- 
phyry appears at a higher geological level than in the former 
section. The section passes through the grey slates (b) on the 
west side of the lake, and on the east side, through the Bala 
limestones (c c' c r/ ), which, on this line, are very much contorted. 
It then traverses the strike of the Hirnant limestone (d), and ex- 
hibits in great perfection the beds (e), above that limestone. The 
synclinal axis (<r) lies here considerably to the east of the moun- 
tain crest : and, to the west of that axis, the same beds are again 
repeated ; but they are now much faulted and broken (e'). The 
beds (/), supposed to represent the Bala limestone, reappear in 
the hills near the village of Llanwddyn ; from whence they may 
be followed northwards in the direction of their strike, through 
the head of the Pennant valley, and thence to the top of the pass 

* See "Proceedings of the Geological Society," vol. iv. parti, p. 11. 


between Llangynog and Bala, dipping westward beneath the chain 
of the southern Berwyns. 

Below the village of Llanwddyn there continues a prevailing 
Westerly dip ; but the derangements are enormous, and, at the 
great bend in the Fyrnwy river, the lower Silurian rocks (g) are 
seen resting upon the upper (K) in a reversed position. 

In this section, as in the former, the protozoic series is of great 

Section III. 

Arran Mowddy to Llaxlihangel. 

Direction of the Section, W. 10° N. to E. 10° S. 
Horizontal base 1 7 miles. 

y big. 

i i,i 

b" c d d' e e' f 

This section commences with cotemporaneous porphyries 
{a a') ; but they break out at a still higher geological level than 
in Section II. The porphyry is succeeded by grey slates (b b") 
containing the Bala series (b'), which may be followed southward 
in the direction of the strike, down the western bank of the Dyfi. 
The beds dip east by south, except to the extent of a faulted in- 
terval (c) on the east side of Carreg-y-big. We have in this line 
of section a great thickness of the fossiliferous portions of the 
protozoic series, but not the whole thickness ; since these beds are 
succeeded in the line of section by a trough of overlying and un- 
conformable Upper Silurian rocks, dd! . These rocks accord with 
the type, not of the Denbigh or Montgomery flagstones, but of the 
coarse-grained greywacke and flagstone which form the base of 
the upper system near Cernioge. 

Beyond this trough, the older beds (e e') again rise out, but with 
a reversed or northwesterly dip, and at a very high angle of incli- 
nation. At the east end of this, as of the former section, the Upper 
Silurians {/) pass under the Lower (e), owing to inversion. 

In following the fossiliferous beds of the southern Berwyns to 
the neighbourhood of Mallwycld, the author found those beds over- 
laid by Upper Silurian rocks of the Cernioge type ; a fact which 
had previously been noticed by Mr. Sharpe. Mr. Sharpe, how- 
ever, considers that these Upper Silurians rest conformably on the 
Lower, and that the entire upper part of the Lower system is here 
displayed.* The author considers that the upper system wraps 
round the southern end of the Berwyns unconformably ; and that 
the upper part of the lower system is incomplete, f 

* Proceedings of the Geological Society, vol. iv. p. 13 

t The errors committed in certain parts of Mr. Murchison's map, in the 
neighbourhood of Mallwydd, by spreading the Cambrian colour over an area 


§ 4. On the Structure of the Bemvyn Chain. 

1. This chain is cansidered as commencing, on the south, in the 
ridges above Mallwyd, to the east of the river Dyfi, and as 
stretching from thence in a north-westerly direction to the hills 
which overhang the Dee below Corwen. 

2. If a line be drawn from the summit of the mountain pass 
between Llangynog and Bala to the great bend in the valley of the 
Dee between Llandrillo and Bala, the south-western portion of the 
chain, extending as far to the north-east as that line, constitutes a 
great trough. The subordinate groups of this southern portion of 
the chain are made up of the fossiliferous rocks of Bala ; but its 
crests consist of beds far above the Bala limestone. On the 
eastern side of the trough the beds are partly vertical, and partly 
inv erted ; and on the south eastern extremity of the chain, for 
several miles along the boundary between these disturbed rocks of 
the lower system and the co-terminous upper Silurians, the in- 
version affects also the upper system of rocks.* 

3. A longitudinal fault, with a great upcast to the west, ranges, 
on the eastern side of the chain, from the vertical and inverted 
beds above-mentioned to the northern end of Cader Ferwyn ; in 
consequence of which, the Berwyn chain, for the distance of more 
than 4 miles north of the Llangynog pass, is no longer in a trough 
of rocks belonging to the Bala series ; but the crest of the chain 
consists of rocks which are lower than the Bala limestone, but not 
lower than the fossiliferous slates on the east of Bala lake. 

4. The strike of the higher ridges of the Berwyn chain varies 
from N. and S. to N. E. and S. W. ; but N. N. E. and S. S. W. is 
about the mean strike. 

which is actually covered by Upper Silurian rocks, has been pointed out by 
Mr. Sharpe. The same observation may be applied to a district extending along 
the south end of the Berwyns as far as the tributaries of the Severn. Professor 
Sedgwick observes, that since he had never either examined, or professed to have 
examined, this part of North Wales until the year 1843, he does not hold him- 
self responsible for the colouring adopted in that part of the map in question. 

* The following diagram has been prepared by the author, in illustration of 
his views respecting the structure of the North Berwyns. 

Part of the Berwyns, N. of 
Pass to Llangynog. 


■i / / /■*./. / 

/ / / /tS 

f / / / / 

A. System of the North Berwyns. C. Line of fault, North Berwyns. 

B. Line of fault, North end of the Berwyns. D. Llanrhiadr, anticlinal. 


5. The beds, on the two opposite sides of the great upcast 
fault, are in a most anomalous position. On the west side, they 
strike about N. by E. ; but on the east side, nearly E. and W. 

6. At Bwlch Maengwynnedd, above a mile north of Cader Fer- 
wyn, is another great fault or flexure. To the north of that point 
all the beds, to the further extremity of the chain, dip either N., 
or N. by E., and strike either E. and W., or E. by S., and W. by 
N. This strike is continued towards the east, as far as the 
mountain limestone on the confines of Shropshire ; and, towards 
the west, to the hills north-west of Llandrillo, on the left bank of 
the Dee, between that river and the brook, Nant Ffrauan. 

This position of the strata on the eastern side of the Berwyn 
chain gives a regular ascending section from the lower series to 
the upper, in advancing towards the Dee from south to north, 
along a meridian passing to the east of Llangynog. 

§ 5. Sections East of the Berwyns. 

Section IV. 
Welch-pool on the Severn to Llansaintfraid on the Ceiriog. 

Mean Direction of the line of Section, S. to N. 
Horizontal base 24 miles. 

S.W. | N. S. | N.W. S.E. 

e d 

1. At the southern extremity of Section IV., we have .the Upper 
Silurian flagstone of the Severn (a), which formation, after two 
intervening portions of lower Silurian rocks (b b'\ re-appears in 
the Broniarth hills (a f/ ). 

2. Then occurs a great undulating series of Caradoc sandstone 
(£", #"'), with innumerable fossils ; but among these the author dis- 
covered no trace of Asaphus Buchii, nor of some of the other cha- 
racteristic species of the lower rocks in the Bala sections. These 
beds extend as far as the Tanat river, where the strike is nearly 
east and west. 

3. From beneath the Caradoc sandstone, there rises, north of the 

* Those points where, either in the author's sections or coloured copy of the 
Ordnance Map, calcareous beds are. marked as occurring, are denoted by the 
letter A ; those points where porphyry is marked as occurring, are denoted by 
the letter it. 


Section IV. a. 

Craig-y-glyn, three miles and a half to the west of the line of Section IV. at 

the point marked 6. 

Horizontal base 2\ miles. 

S. Harnarmon N. 

Craig y Mynydd Mynydd 

Cefnyiodfa. Glyn. Mawr. Mawr. 


Tanat, a series of slates (0), not differing in their mineralogical 
character from the slates of the higher Berwyns ; and in these, at 
a great depth as measured from the Caradoc sandstone, are found 
calcareous bands, full of fossils, among which are Asaphus Buchii, 
&c. The Craig-y-GTyn limestone {vide Section IV. a.), which 
appears to the north of Llanrhaiadr, at the distance of nearly 
four miles to the west of the line of Section IV., the author regards 
as belonging to these bands. 

[The Craig-y-Glyn limestone has most of the species of the Rhiwlas lime- 
stone ; hut the abundance of Asaphus Buchii, of Orthis compressa, of a new 
species of Orthis, and of Encrinital stems, give it a peculiar character.} 

4. Still lower in the series are similar slates ; but they are 
without fossils, and, after several breaks or undulations, the beds, 
about two miles further to the north, are found to have acquired a 
steady northern dip. 

5. South of Pont Meibion, on the Ceiriog, fossils again appear, 
conforming to the types of the lower portion of the protozoic 

[The lower part of the series near Pont Meibion may be only a repetition of 
the Craig-y-Glyn series, with a reversed dip. But the higher part of the series, 
which ranges over the crest of the Berwyns by Bwlch Llandrillo, contains only 
Bellerophons, particularly a new species, B. nodosus, found also at Soadley, in 
Shropshire, by Mr. Salter. At Bwlch Llandrillo, a new Orthis, O. cambriensis, 
which is also found in the Bala series, is abundant ; and to this may be added 
many other species of Orthis, which that series contains. ] 

6. Then follows, in the ascending section, a great series of beds 
full of fossils, and these beds alternate with bands of cotempo- 
raneous porphyry, schaalstein, &c. 

7. Lastly, there is a well-defined thick group, whose width, 
measured transversely to the strike, is about a mile. It is com- 
posed of calcareous slates, and contains two bands of limestone, 
both of which have been worked for lime. It passes upwards into 
pale-coloured earthy slates (d), and these seem to pass, without a 
break, into the overlying Denbigh flagstone (c), which just appears 
on the southern bank of the Ceiriog, and extends northward from 
that river towards the vale of the Dee. The fossils both of para- 
graphs 5 and 6, are entered in the .list of the Ceiriog fossils. 


[The Llansaintfraid series, including the slates and two hands of limestone, 
lies above the porphyries of the Teirw river, and, consequently, far above the 
fossiliferous beds of Pont Meibion. It is distinct from any other part of the 
series, with the exception, perhaps, of the beds on the western bank of the 
Fyrnwy river, above Meifod. (Vide Section VI.) It is loaded with shells of 
the Wenlock limestone ; among which are Orthis sinuata and O. inflata ; 
Spirifer crispus, Terebratula crispata, Atrypa affinis, and Euomphalus funatus. 
It also contains nine or ten Wenlock corals, such as Catenipora, &c. Among 
the Orthides is a new species, which is found also at Coniston. Several of 
the corals belong to new species. Besides the above, are several well-known 
Caradoc sandstone species of shells. 

In addition to the above positive characters, the group is distinguished by the 
following negative one — that it contains apparently none of the species which 
are characteristic of the lower parts of the Protozoic series, such as Asaphus 
Buchii, Agnostus pisiformis, lllcenus Bowmanni, Spirifer crucialis, &c. 

This group, then, seems to form a kind of passage between the lower and 
upper systems. 

To judge from the fossils only, the Coniston limestone appears to be interme- 
diate between the Llansaintfraid and the Bala limestones.] 

On the evidence of this Section and of the lists of fossils which 
belong to it, the author concludes : — 

1. That the highest or Llansaintfraid group cannot be identified 
with any of the groups in Sections I., II., and III. ; and that if it 
ever be brought into comparison with any group in those Sections, 
it must be with the highest group, namely, with that which is 
found near the crest of the southern Berwyns ; and, therefore, that 
it lies far above the Bala limestone. 

2. That the rocks from Pont Meibion southwards, and those of 
Craig -y-Glyn, may be brought into comparison with the lower parts 
of the Bala series, to the west of the lake, and with the slates east 
and west of Arenig, which contain Asaphus Buchii. 

The preceding conclusions the author proposes, subject to the 
modifications which they must necessarily undergo, when his 
sections and lists of fossils come to be compared with those ob- 
tained by the gentlemen employed on the Ordnance Geological 
Survey, from an examination of the mountains of South Wales 
west of the district surveyed by Mr. Murchison. * 

They exhibit no traces of the lower beds such as occur in North 
Wales, containing Asaphus Buchii, &c. ; and they disappear when 
the Porphyries begin. The Coniston limestone appears to be very 
little lower than the limestones of the Ceiriog, and is therefore 
probably higher in the series than the Bala limestone. In North 
Wales, on the contrary, the fossiliferous series has no well-defined 
base, since fossiliferous beds of vast thickness, extending far below 
the Bala limestone, there alternate with porphyries. 

* The sections of Cumberland and Westmoreland are not of a nature, in the 
author's opinion, to throw light on questions having reference to minute points 
in the classification of the different members of the Protozoic series of rocks. 
For, in those countries, the Lower Silurian rocks, containing fossils, are of com- 
paratively small thickness, and have a well-defined base, which the author has 
formerly described. See "Proceedings of the Geol. Soc." vol. iii. p. 551. 


Section V. 

The Vyrnwy River, 1 mile S.W. of Meifod, to Hirnant, about 2 miles S. of 


Mean Direction of the line of Section, S. 40° E. to N. 40° W. 
Horizontal base 10^ miles. 

N.W. S.E. N. 25° W. S. 25° E. 

This section commences with the upper Silurian rocks (a), which 
extend southward from the Vyrnwy river to the Severn. It is fol- 
lowed by rocks of the lower series (b, b\ b"\ containing calcareous 
bands (\, X', \", X"'). The lower fossiliferous bands near Meifod 
agree generally in their fossil species with the limestone of Bala, 
and with the fossiliferous beds on the line of the Teirw river oc- 
curring below, and associated with the porphyries, as described in 
Section IV. The line of section afterwards again cuts the over- 
lying upper Silurian rocks (c, c', c"\ a little within the line of 
their northern boundary. The lower system appears to the south 
of Llangynog, alternating with beds of cotemporaneous porphyry. 

Section VI. 
Pen-y- Craig, 3 miles S.W, of Meifod, across the Bechan River to Dolo- 


Horizontal base 1 ^ miles. 

S. 150 E. a O N . U o w. 

At Pen-y-Craig, south of Mathyrafal, just at the base of the 
overlying upper Silurian flagstone (a), there is a higher fossilifer- 
ous group (ju) than any which has yet been described. The upper 
part of this passage group consists of calcareous shale, and the 
lower part of conglomerate, sandstone, and limestone. Further to 
the north we have the lower series of the ordinary type in the 
neighbourhood of Meifod, with two calcareous and fossiliferous 

[Note oil the Fossils of the Limestone of Pen-y- Craig. — Leptana tenui- 
striata, which was abundant in the lower fossiliferous group (\), is not seen in 
the limestone. Corals are very abundant, and are nearly the same with those 


of the upper limestone bands on the Ceiriog (vide Section IV.), but are very 
different from the corals of the lower group of the Meifod country. There 
are very great numbers of Turbinolopsis bina, of Favosites polymorpha and F. 
alveolaris, of Cyathophyllum, and Stromatopora. 

On the Fossils of the calcareous shale of Pen-y- Craig. — In the very remark- 
able list of fossils (List I. column 13.) obtained from this shale, we have 
Terebratula marginalis, a Wenlock shell, associated with Leptccna dvplicata, 
Atrypa undata, A. plobosa, and Orthis lata, shells which have been considered as 
characteristic of the Llandeilo flags.] 

From a review of all the preceding facts, the author concludes 
that the Protozoic series of North Wales is of enormous thickness ; 
that it has no defined base, the fossils disappearing in the de- 
scending section, not suddenly, as in Cumberland and Westmore- 
land, but gradually ; that many species are found in every sub- 
ordinate group from the top to the bottom ; and that some species, 
especially certain Trilobites, characterise the lower group. 

§ 6. Upper Silurian Rocks of Llangollen, Cernioge, S?c. 

The geological structure of this part of North Wales the author 
illustrates by three sections, which he exhibited to the Geological 
Society on a former occasion ; but which, with the help of Mr. 
Salter, he is now able to present in a more accurate shape. 

Section VII. 

Llansaintfraid, Glyn Ceiriog, across the valley of the Dee, to Cyrn-y-brain, 
near the head of the vale of the Clwyd. 

Horizontal base 12 miles. 
N. 35° W. S. 35°. E . N. 17° E. S. 17° W. 

This Section may be considered as a continuation, northwards, of 
Section IV. To render clear the position of the upper Silurian flag- 
stones of the Dee {b b'\ lying as they do in a trough which is 
bounded, both to the north and to the south, by a mass of pateozoic 
rocks (a and c c'), a- portion (a) of the older series of rocks, which 
lie to the south, and were before represented in Section IV., is here 
repeated. On the northern side of the trough, at Cyrn-y-brain, 
the existence of a mass of older rocks (c c'), which was before 
suspected by the author, has been ascertained ; with the help of 
Mr. Salter, its extent has been laid down upon the Ordnance Map; 
and it has been inserted in the section. 

In his paper, read before the Society in June, 1843, the author 
described the Upper Silurian Denbighshire Flagstone series as con- 
sisting of three subdivisions ; which may be termed the Lower, the 
Middle, and the Upper Flags. 

vol. i. c 


The lower flags consist of flagstone, passing into hard quartzose 
sandstone and earthy semi-indurated shale. Since it is only 
in the lower flags that an abundance has been found of Ortho- 
ceratites, and of the fossil found by Professor E. Forbes to be a 
Creseis, the name of 'Creseis flagstone' might serve as a good local 
name to give to this lower group. At nearly the base of the series, 
together with the Creseis, Leptcena lata has been found ; but it is 
scarce. The uppermost portion of the lower flags (which has 
sometimes been described as non-fossiliferous) contains, though 
rarely, Cardiola interrupta and Terebratula Wilsoni. 

The lowest upper Silurian rock exposed in this line of section is 
dark roofing slate, containing a few of the Graptolites ludensis. 
But this is a fossil which extends upwards, through the whole 
series of lower, middle, and upper flags. 

All the upper Silurian rocks (b) upon this line of section, from the 
Ceiriog river to Castle Dinas Bran inclusive, are now considered by 
the author to belong to the lower flags. The character of the 
Llangollen fossils, taken as a whole (see list of them, Proc. Geol. 
Soc. vol. iv. p. 221.), and particularly the abundance they contain 
of Terebratula ?iavicula, have led the author to come to this con- 

These upper Silurian rocks are overlaid by unconformable and 
nearly horizontal beds of mountain limestone (d d") ; and these are 
crowned at Cefn Fedw by a capping of millstone grit (e e'). At 
the north-western base of Cefn Fedw, the upper Silurian rocks 
(b r ) again appear, and are succeeded by the palaeozoic mass of 
Cyrn-y -Brain, full of Caradoc sandstone fossils. On the north- 
western flank of this mass the mountain limestone, crowned by 
millstone grit, again appears, and in an inclined position. 

Section VIII. 

The Teirw River, across the valley of the Dee, to Cricor Mawr, near the 
head of the Vale of the Clwyd, 

Mean direction of the line of section, S. 20° E. to N. 20° W. 
Horizontal base 1 1 \ miles. 

W. 30° W. S. 30° E. N. 5° W. S. 5° E. 

5J Llansaintfraid, -ft 

Cricor Mawr. Moel y Gamelyn. Q Glyn Ceiriog. B 

This Section is nearly the counterpart of Section VII., and runs 
nearly parallel to it : it passes the Dee about 3 miles W". of Llan- 
gollen. At the southern extremity, on the Teirw river, we have 
the limestones (X X'), and porphyries of the Pakeozoic series («). 
Then follows a trough containing the dark roofing slate and the 

* In this view the author differs in opinion from the late Mr. Bowman, who 
separated this part of the upper series into subdivisions, which he compared 
with those of the entire Ludlow series of Mr. Murchison. 


lower flags (b b'\ of the upper Silurian series. Towards the 
northern extremity of the trough, a mass of the older rocks (c), 
abounding, like the similar mass of Cyrn-y -brain, in fossils of the 
Caradoc sandstone, breaks out at Cricor Mawr. This mass is 
covered, on its north-western flank, by upper Silurian rocks ; and 
these are overlaid by mountain limestone (d\ a range of which 
bounding the vale of Clwydd on the S. E. runs from the point 
represented in the Section, beyond Abergele. The mountain lime- 
stone is followed by new red sandstone (/). 

Section IX. 

From Garn Brys, S. W. of Cernioge, to Abergele. 

Horizontal base 20 miles. 

S. 10° W. N. 10° E. 


Mwdwl j* 

Gam Brys. 3£g Eithin. tq Abergele. 

/ 8 

In this Section, we have, near Cernioge, first, the rocks of the 
older series (a), abounding with fossils of the Caradoc sandstone ; 
and secondly, lying unconformably on the preceding, are the con- 
glomerates and sandstones (&) which there constitute the base of 
the upper Silurian flagstones. These conglomerates, &c, the author 
compares to the coarse greywacke and flagstone which constitute 
the unconformable base of the upper series at the south-eastern 
extremity of the Berwyns. These coarse mechanical rocks do not 
appear in any distinct form in the country traversed by the two 
former lines of section. The conglomerates pass into sandstones of 
a finer structure, which alternate with bands of dark coarse slate 
having occasionally true slaty cleavage. 

In this part of the Section, the author interpolates a fault, by 
overlooking which, he was led, when he first exhibited this Sec- 
tion, to estimate the conglomerates and sandstones at too great a 
thickness. To the north of this fault, the finer sandstones (c') 
are repeated. 

The lower sandstones have been already mentioned. The middle 
flags, the author formerly described as consisting of beds resem- 
bling those of the lower flags ; but these beds are more indurated, 
and contain, here and there, many fossils. In this middle division 
he now proposes to include the coarse greywacke and slates of 
Bronhaulog (e) ; whereupon he takes occasion to remark that, in 
North "Wales, slates arising from transverse cleavage extend to 
a higher geological level than they do in Westmoreland, and to a 
still higher level in Devonshire than they do in North Wales ; 
and, consequently, that such cleavage does not define the age of 
any rock, but serves only, like other peculiarities of structure, to 
mark the existence of certain physical conditions. 

c 2 


The upper flags have been described by the author in his former 
paper as composed of softer beds than the lowest and middle sub- 
divisions ; those beds being more or less slaty, and containing few 
fossils. To this subdivision the author refers a bed, near the northern 
extremity of this Section, which contains Graptolites ludensis. 
Also at the end of the Section occurs a thick mass (/) in which 
are a number of beds like those of the lower groups, but often pass- 
ing into rotten slate or mudstone. The last bed (g) in this Section 
is mountain limestone. 

On the fossils of the lower, middle, and upper flags, as a whole, 
it may be remarked, that they agree very nearly with those from 
the upper Silurian rocks of Mr. Murchison ; but that the distribu- 
tion of species is somewhat different. Thus, in the list of fossils from 
the Lower Flags (vide list of fossils from Plas Madoc, Proc. Geol. 
Soc. vol. iv. p. 221.), species are found which were once supposed 
to be characteristic of the tilestone of Shropshire, a bed above the 
upper Ludlow mudstone. This may be accounted for by the cir- 
cumstance, that both the tilestones and the Plas Madoc beds belong 
to an arenaceous deposit ; and hence, though widely separated by 
intervening slates and flagstones, they have in common some 
species not found in the intermediate beds. 

Table L -^ s , J. w. Salter and J. de Carle Sowerby. 

\e Columns are to be found in Column 4. [Ed.] 


5ec. IV. 

Ascending Order. See Sec. VI 

. Extracted from the next 

List of Fossils. 







Of the foregoing Specie 


Pen -y- Craig 

Calcareous Shale 

the following are 

found also in the Upper 

Silurian rocks of 

N. Wales. 




Agnostus pisiformis 

Illaenus Bowmani (n 


Paradoxides (n. s. ?) 

Trinucleus Caractaci 



• + 

Asaphus Buchii 







Calymene Blumenba 


(n s.) _ 


n. s. ? with 

Entomostracites puru 


Mollusca. — C 

Nautilus prima2vus 


Lituites cornu arietis 


Phragmoceras ? (n. s. 

Orthoceras, smooth a 


smooth ai 

smooth a 



Bellerophon bilobatu 




Conularia quadrisulc; 


Pleurotomaria (n.s. i 


Murchisonia (de Ver 



Turbo Pryceag 

Littorina striatella 


Euomphalus funatus 





Area Eastnori? 

Nucula ? (n. s. ) 

Cypricardia (n. s. ) 




Lingula (n. s. ?) 


Terebratula decemplit 





marginal i 


+ + 

Wenlock Lime- 


| stone. 


Atrypa affinis 




* The names mar, 


from Sw c 

■den, in the 3 

ocsscssion of Mr. 


(To face p. 20.) 

Table I. — Fossils op the Older Paleozoic (Protozoic) Rocks in North Wales. Drawn up by Messes. J. W. Salter and J. de Carle Sowerby. 

Note.— Columns I. 2. and 3. are added to this List on the authority of Professor Sedgwick's paper , other Fossils belonging to those Columns are to he found in Column 4. [Ed.] 


Localities taken in the Ascending Order. See Section I. 

Slates ' Dark earthy 

West I Slates 

of I E. of 

Arenig Arenig 

Agnostus pisiformis - 
Illsnus Bowinani (n.s.) 
paradoxides (n. s. ?) 
Tiinucleus Caractaci - 
fimbriatus - 
Asaphus Buchii 
Calymene Blumenbaohii 
(n s.) - 

n. s. ? with granulated head 
Entomostracites punctatus 

itollusca. — 'Cephalopoda. 

Nautilus primarvus 

Lituites cornu arietis - 

Phragmoceras? (n. s. ?) 

Orthoceras, smooth and distant septa 
smooth and close septa 
smooth and conical 

Bellerophon bilobatus 
nodosus - 

Conularia quadrisulcata 

Pleurotomaria (n.s. angular) 
Murchisonia (de Vern.) 

(n. s. ? large) 
Turbo Prycea? 
Littorina striatella 
Euomphalus funatus - 

(n.s.) - 

Area Eastnori ? 
Nucula ? (n. s. ) 
Cypricardia (n. s. ) 

(n.s.) - 

(n.s.) - 

Lingula (n. s. ?) - 

Terebratula decemplicata 


crispata - 

marginalis* (imbricata) . 

(n.s.) - 

(n.s.) - 

(n.s.) - 
Atrypa affinis 

Giay Ilhiwlas 

Slates and Moel- 

E. of i y-Gamedd, 
Arenig W. of 

Fawr. Ikil.i ... 



Col. 8. Hee Sec. I. 

to Pennant 

+ + 
+ + 

In the Ascending Order. See Sec. IV. 

+ + + 
+ + + 

Pont- j - 

Meiliion lo 

.'. L I. I.I -u 


+ + 

+ + 

Calcareous Shale. 

Or the foregi 
the folloi 

nd alsoii 

Silurian rocks 


found also in the Upper 

t: 'urian rocks of 

N. Wales. 

Wenlock Lime- 
I stone. 

The names marked with an asterisk are names substituted for those given in the Silurian system, in consequence of the examination of a collection from Sweden, in the possession of Mr. Murchison. 

Table I. Fossils of the Older Palaeozoic (Protozoic) Eocks in North "Wales — {continued). 


Atrypa undata 

(3 new species) 
(2 or 3 new species) - 
Spirifer crucialis 

Cyrtama* (radiatus) - 
Orthis elegantula* (canalis) - 
Cambriensis (n. s. ) 

compressa * - 

inflata (n. s.) - 
lata - - 

(2 new species) 

(n.s.) - 

(3 new species) 
Leptama sericea 

tenuistriata (rugosa Dahn. ) 
transversalis - 
Orbicula (n. s. large) 

Ophiura Salteri 
Asterias primseva 
I Encrinites (stems) 
Pentacrinites ? - - 

Stromatopora (n. s. ) 
Retepora (with large meshes) - 

Fenestella? (branched) 
(n.s.) - 
I Turbinolopsis bina 

Cyathophyllum dianthus 

Porites pyriformis 
Catenipora escharoides 
Chaetetes petropolitana 
Favosites polymorpha 
Verticillipora abnormis ? 
Tentaculites ornatus - 
scalaris - 
Many undescribed 

Localities take,-* in the Ascending Order. See Section I. 


and i\l"Cl-'l. 

E. of Bala Lake, 


From I.langynog t 

la the Ascending Order. See See. IV. Ascending Order. See Sec. VI 

( il Hit. fWt^inc. Specie, 

Limestone. Calcareous Shale 

+ + 

+ + 

+ + 
+ + 

+ + + 
+ + 

Llandillo Flags. 

Llandillo Flags. 1 

in Nokth Wales — {continued). 

i the Ascending Order. See Sec. IV. 

Ascending Order. See Sec. VI. 






Mtibion to 

Bwlch Llan- 


+ + + 

+ + 

+ + 













+ + 



+ + 


+ + 

4- + 


+ + 
+ + 




Extracted from the next 
List of Fossils. 


Pen-yCraig Pen-y-Craig 
Limestone. : Calcareous Shale 

+ + 

+ + 

+ + 

+ + 
+ + 

+ + + 

+ + 

+ + 


+ + 


+ + + 

+ + 

+ + + 

Of the foregoing Species 

the following are 

found also in the Upper 

Silurian rocks of 

N. Wales. 


Llandillo Flags. 
Llandillo Flags. 

Llandillo Flags. 

Llandillo Flags, 




Fossils of the Denbigh Flagstone and Sandstone Series, found in 
various Parts of North Wales. 

[Drawn up by Messrs. J. W. Salter and J. de Carle Sowerbt.] 

Calymene Blumenbachii. 
one or two new species. 
Asaphus caudatus. 




Serpulites longissimus. 


Lituites Ibex. 
Orthoceras striatum. 




* Creseis tenuef (Vahl). 


*a conical species. 


Bellerophon carinatus. 
n. s. 


Turritella obsoleta. 

Natica parva. 
Trochus helicites. 


* Avicula (fragments). 

Cucullasa antiqua. 

a large n. s. 

* Cardiola interrupta. 

* Cardium? 

Cypricardia (several imperfect). 


Terebratula navicula. 

t semisulcata. 
(lacunosa. Sil. Sys. p. 5.) 
Orthis lunata. 


two or tbree new species. 
Spirifer ptychodes. 

Atrypa affinis. 

two or three new species. 
Leptaena lata. 

X euglypha. 
Orbicula rugata? 


Crinoidal remains abundant. 

* Actinocrinites (n. s. highly orna- 

mented. — Llangollen). 



Cyathophyllum (several species). 
Favosites (several species, one very 

* Graptolites ludensis. 

* Denotes the species characteristic of the Denbigh flagstone series. 

-J- Names substituted for those given in the Silurian system, in consequence 
of the examination of a collection from Sweden, in the possession of Mr. Mur- 

\ Denotes the species which have hitherto been found only in the more cal- 
careous beds at Plas- Madoc, Llanrwst. 

c 3 







I W 


. & 

M O 

W S 

3 u 









p 3 


with a 
band of 
and cal- 

( Pen-y- 


S. W. of 

Meifod. ) 

Slates, with 
a few fos- 

{Crest of the 
and east 
of the 

with bands 
of lime- 

( Glyn Cei- 

Slate, and 
band of 

( Hirnant 

Coarse slate 
and por- 
( Teirw 
River, fall- 
ing into the 
Ceiriog. ) 

Slate, with a 
few trap- 
pean bands, 
and a band 
of lime- 
stone, a 

east side of 
Bala Lake. ) 

Coarse sand- 
stones and 
slates ; the 
lower part 
with the 
fossils of the 
Bala lime- 

• stone. 

(Tyrnwy R., 
above Mei- 

Earthy slates, 
with arena- 
ceous bands 
and fossils. 

(Pont- Meibion, 
Bwlch Llan- 
drillo. ) 

Slate with 
bands of 
and many 
fossils : 

( Rhiwlas, 

Soft earthy 
with are- 
and a 
mass of 
ous slate. 

( Craig -y^- 











with a 
few bands 
of slate. 
( Arenig 
Fawr. ) 








Slate and 
with crys- 
and a few 
fossils, e.g. 

(W. of Are- 
nig Fawr.) 

Slate and 

(No fossils 
yet dis- 
covered. ) 


to Bard- 
sea Island, 
in the 
S.W. of 

i . j 

t i 

t ) 

West of the 

East side of 
the South< 

East side of 
the Norths 


(dfjtCogmt( ifep 

.er./: w daws on, esq- 

broken l,ines indix/ite 
£/te prwazlisiq strike. 



^x^TV) q Cranberry J" 
■'' q} Capo Co,tu°o 

Geological Map 


^ J> 

Portion of Nova Scotia-, 

■Strike, =r[=rj=- ^~ 

Caft, SoXU 

I Icrnwuj Rocks. 

I ^We^amxirphic & Silwricovi. 

i I flldredscQi<istcm^£Gypsift,rowstrm 

b J Coal M&a>svwe>s. 

Cape Breton, 

Printed kvReev 





Geological Map 


Icfnoom Rocks. 

01<L red scQicLsfrone £ (^ypsiferoiis jwow. 
Coal tMeouswretf. 

Cape Breton, 
from, Mefo Z s Bourn otl ABrowrw. Sim* 

Irantei 1>y Reeve Br other J 


December 13. 1843. 

The Rev. Thomas Image, M.A., was elected a Fellow of this 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On the Geology of Cape Breton. By Richard Brown, Esq.* 

In a letter to Mr. Lyell, dated Sydney Mines, Cape Breton, Oct. 
20. 1843, the author stated — 

" I have made a survey of some forty miles of coast on the 
eastern side of our coal-field ; and have since devoted a few days 
to the examination of the shores of the Island of Boularderie, which 
is four miles wide, and twenty- six miles long, and exhibits natural 
sections on both sides from end to end. Nothing can be more defi- 
nite than the position of the masses of gypsum in this island. I 
have examined them this summer in four different places, scores of 
miles apart, and find the following, with little variation, to be a 
section of the accompanying strata : 

Section I. (Ideal). 

General sequence of the Coal Measures and Gypsiferous Formations near 

[Sydney, Cape Breton. 

S.W. ?K\ N.E. 

c d e f g 

f ff. Coal measures. c. Soft red shale. 

f. Coarse sandstone with coal plants b. Coarse concretionary limestone 

— Shale. and shales. 

e. Limestone in thin beds — Fossils. a. Coarse conglomerate, highly 

d. Gypsum. inclined. 

" Wherever I have had an opportunity of making observations, 
they have confirmed your views as to the relative age of the 

Subjoined is the Memoir received from Mr. Brown. 

The following is a sketch of the north-western end of the 
Sydney coal-field. On the W. side of Sydney Harbour, the coal- 
measures can be traced transversely, without interruption, for 5200 
yards, dipping to the N. E. at an angle of 7°, which gives a thick- 
ness of 1900 feet. The coal measures, generally speaking, are 
very free from faults. 

* This paper and the next (Mr. Dawson's on Nova Scotia) are both illus- 
trated by the map of Nova Scotia appended ; but the map was originally prepared 
by Dr. A. Gesner to illustrate the paper of which a notice has already appeared 
in the " Proceedings," vol. iv. p. 186. One portion of the map is repeated, and 
coloured according to Mr. Brown's survey. 

f These references are continued throughout the paper in the other Sections. 

c 4 



The coal-measures are underlaid by a series of sandstone beds, 
with some beds of shale. The thickness of the sandstone, in some 
places, exceeds 2000 feet ; but to the west of the Little Entrance 
it is much thinner ; and, finally, when it approaches the granite 
ridge that lies between the Great Entrance and St. Anne's Harbour, 
it has thinned out. The sandstones, with their superincumbent 
coal-measures, are very uniform in their dip to the north-east. 

Next to the sandstone is the limestone ; and this accompanies 
the sandstone very uniformly, along the whole course of its out- 
crop, from the southern branch of Sydney Harbour to the Granite 
ridge west of the Great Entrance. On both branches of Sydney 
Harbour, and at George's River, the limestone dips distinctly be- 
neath the sandstone. The shore, from George's River to Long Island, 
gives the following Section, 

Section II. 
Long Island to the Coal Measures East of George's River. 

Long Island. Round Island. 


Micaceous Beds. 


First we have the limestone (e) ; then a low, flat space of half a 
mile, where the stratification cannot be observed ; then beds of a 
red and brown micaceous slaty rock, dipping at high angles in 
various directions between south and west. - 

The base of Round Island is of the same kind of rock ; but the 
Isle is capped with a limestone which, to judge from its fossils, 
is quite different from the limestone * above described beneath the 
sandstone. Long Island, on its eastern side, is 200 feet high, and 
very precipitous ; but, in a westerly direction, it slopes gradually 
to the water. It is composed principally of Porphyritic rocks. 

On the opposite side of the channel, the shore exhibits the 
following section : — 

Section HI. 

First, the sandstone (/) which underlies the coal-measures, and 
can be traced to within a few hundred yards of Roe's Point. 

At Roe's Point the limestone (containing here Productus Lyelli) 
shows itself, having an easterly dip. This limestone, both in its 
local position, dip, and general appearance, corresponds with the 
limestone on the other side of the channel, at George's River ; 

* This limestone contains Terebratula dongata, and a Modiola. 


and these circumstances lead to the supposition that in both in- 
stances it dips under the sandstone. Between Roe's Point and 
Campbell's Cove, on the western shore of the Island of Boularderie, 
the strata are very much broken and disturbed by faults. It would 
be difficult to describe these disturbances by words ; but the Section 
will give the most distinct idea of them. Gypsum appears along 
this line in two places, which are shown in the Section. 

First, to the N. "VV. of Roe's Point, we have solitary pinnacles of 
gypsum appearing on the beach. Next, three beds of limestone, 
with two of sandstone interposed, these beds all dipping in an 
opposite direction to those at Roe's Point. The middle bed of 
limestone contains Productus spinosus. The third and upper of 
these limestones is cut off by a vertical fault, which is succeeded 
by a flat arch of limestone, resting upon sandstone. This again 
is cut off by a vertical fault, which is succeeded by a horizontal 
bed of limestone. 

This is followed by a level space ; and beyond that we have a series 
of beds dipping in the same direction with those of Roe's Point. 

1. A thin bed of limestone. 5. Rich marl, 6 feet. 

2. A bed of sandstone. 6. Green sandstone, with veins of gyp- 

3. A thick bed of coarse limestone. sum, 2 feet. 

4. Gypsum, 18 feet thick. 7. Red marl, with grains of gypsum, 12 


This is followed by a level space, when no beds are seen, and 
beyond that we have limestone, dipping in the same direction with 
the gypsiferous marls. 

Section IV. 
Campbell's Cove, near Lime Point. 

N.N.W. S.S.E 

Proceeding from Campbell's Cove along the shore of the Island 
of Boularderie in a south-westerly direction, we have similar lime- 
stones, lying in a horizontal position, for the space of two miles, 
until we arrive at Lime Point, where a small cove exhibits three 
beds of limestone with two interposed beds of sandstone dipping 
to the S. vS. E., and apparently underlying the sandstone with coal- 
plants ; but separated from it by a space which affords no section. 
The lowest of the three beds of limestone contains Spirifer glaber 
(Lyell) ; the middle bed contains shells. 

The writer mentions in his letter to Mr. Lyell that, " on the 
eastern side of the Sydney coal-field, he has found below the coal- 
seams, in every instance, beds of fire-clay, containing the long 
fibrous leaves of Stigmaria, matted together. 

" In the black bituminous Shale, which lies about twenty yards 


above the Main Coal at Sydney, he has found the scales of dif- 
ferent kinds of fishes, as hard and bright as enamel ; one tooth, and 
a number of Coprolites ; also the Cypris in great abundance, and a 

2. On the Lower Carboniferous Eocks, or Gypsiferous Form- 
ation of Nova Scotia. By John William Dawson, Esq., of 
Pictou, Nova Scotia.* 

The coal formation of the eastern part of Nova Scotia consists of 
a great thickness of sandstones, shales, and conglomerates, of va- 
rious reddish and grey colours, the former being most prevalent. 
The lower part of the series is distinguished by the presence of 
limestones with marine shells and gypsum. Its central portion is 
characterised by a greater prevalence of grey and dark colours, 
and by containing an abundance of vegetable fossils and beds of 
bituminous coal. The upper portion of these productive coal 
measures appears to pass into a thick deposit of reddish sandstones 
and shales, containing few fossils, either animal or vegetable. To 
examine the structure and relations of the lower, or gypsiferous 
part of this series, is the object of the present paper : it will, how- 
ever, be proper in the first place to notice the general disposition 
of the rocks of the Carboniferous system, in the region more par- 
ticularly observed, which extends along the shores of the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, from Tatmagouche to Antigonish Harbour. 

The coast section between these points cuts at acute angles 
across two great coal troughs, the one beginning at Pictou, and 
thence stretching to the west along the northern shore of the 
Basin of Mines ; the other beginning at Antigonish, and thence 
extending westward to the Stewiacke and Shubenacadie Rivers. 
These two troughs are separated by a hilly range composed of 
igneous rocks and of disturbed lower-carboniferous and Silurian 
strata. This range beginning at Cape St. George extends west- 
ward to the East River of Pictou ; and beyond this it is continued 
along the outcrops of the oldest carboniferous rocks in the di- 
rection of Truro. 

The southern boundary of the Antigonish trough is formed by 
the region of Palaeozoic, metamorphic, and Plutonic rocks which 
occupy the southern side of the province. A chain of hills, similar 
in structure to the range of Cape St. George, but of greater eleva- 
tion, separates the Pictou trough from a region belonging to the 
coal strata which extends beyond Tatmagouche in a northerly di- 

The chain in question commences at the New Annan Hills, and 
extends westward through the Cobequid Mountains f to the Bay of 

* See the map of Nova Scotia. 
f t Dr. Gesner, many years since, described the Cobequid chain as forming a 
ridge separating the coal-formation of the north side of the Basin of Mines from 
that of Cumberland county. Mr. Logan first noticed the existence of a trough 
of carboniferous strata between Antigonish and Windsor. 



Section I. 
Tatmagouche to Truro, 24 miles. 

, N. Tatmagouche. 

New Annan Hills. 

Pictou Trough. 

Truro. S. 

c a b d 

d. Horizontal red sandstone. 

c. Red and grey sandstones and shale, with concretionary limestone, con- 
taining copper ore, lignite, Endogenites, and footmarks of birds • dip near the hills, 
30° ; at Tatmagouche only 10°. 

b. Sandstone and coal — coal-plants. 

a. Limestone, dark slate, 'shale, and grits, with shells and encrinites — In- 
truding bands of granite, syenite, amygdaloid, &c. 

Fundy, To the eastward it does not reach the coast of Nor- 
thumberland Strait, though its underground continuation in that 
direction is indicated by an Anticlinal line which traverses the 
newer members of the coal formation that lap round the eastern 
extremity of the Annan Hills. 

These trough-shaped arrangements of the strata are subject to 
many irregularities. The hilly region of Mount Thorn is placed 
nearly transverse to the Pictou trough. In consequence of the 
separating ridges and anticlinal lines having been elevated, either 
during the carboniferous period, or at a still later epoch, the car- 
boniferous strata are traversed by numerous faults and minor lines 
of disturbance, the prevailing direction of which is from east to 
west. In spite of these disturbances, however, the strata in the 
troughs have a general synclinal arrangement which can be traced 
in the hilly regions, such as that of Mount Thorn. This will be 
seen by examining the accompanying map. 

East River. 



Pictou Trough. 

Section II. The gypsiferous formation ap- 

Valley of the eastern branch of East pears in several places on the south 

side of the Pictou coal trough. In 
s , noticing its appearance at these 
points, I may begin by stating some 
facts respecting the section on the 
■3 East River of Pictou in addition 
to those already described by Mr. 
Lyell. The members of the gyp- 
siferous formation seen in that sec- 
tion consist of hard, brownish-red 
shales and sandstones (c), with beds 
of marine limestone and masses of 
gypsum (b). These latter are seen in the valley of the river between 
the sandstones and the Silurian strata (a) ; but there are no good 

c. Hard sandstone. 

b. Gypsiferous formation, with beds 
of limestone and gypsum alternating, 
and drifts overlying. 

a. Silurian slate. 


sections to be found in the neighbourhood. With the view o£ ascer- 
taining their true relations, I examined two gypsum rocks, within 
three miles of that seen by Mr. Lyell. The first of these consisted 
of white granular gypsum, containing, like most similar beds in 
this province, minute disseminated grains of carbonate of lime, 
and having, in one part, large rounded masses of anhydrous 
gypsum, enclosed in the common species, an appearance which 
I have not elsewhere observed. No other rock was seen in 
connection with this bed, which appeared to be upwards of 
100 feet thick, and to have a strike corresponding with that of 
the nearest visible sandstones and limestones. The other bed 
examined was on Lime Brook, a tributary of the East River. 
Here there is no good section, but the gypsum may be seen in 
connection with soft sandstones mostly white, and having lime- 
stones both below and above, separated, however, by intervals 
without section, which have probably once been occupied by soft 
sandstones removed by denudation. The limestone, underlying 
the gypsum at Lime Brook, is without fossils, and rests uncon- 
formable on the edges of slates with Silurian fossils, angular 
fragments of the slate being included in its lower portion. The 
limestone above the gypsum is of a lighter colour, and more pure 
than any other limestone on the East River, and is also distin- 
guished by containing a species of coral, not found in the other 
beds. These limestones are seen at several other points, appa- 
rently resting on the older slates ; and in some places appear to be 
penetrated by fissures containing haematite and other ores of iron, 
peroxide of manganese, and sulphate of barytes. * 

The limestones and gypsums thus resting on the Silurian strata 
at the East River are separated from the productive coal measures 
by hard reddish sandstones and shales, apparently of great thickness, 
and containing (especially in their lower part) beds of marine 
limestone. Where they approach the coal measures, however, 
the sandstones are very much disturbed, and for this reason I was 
anxious to obtain some additional evidence of the actual super- 
position of the coal measures. I therefore examined the section 
shown by the Middle River, and found there a series of beds 
dipping in the same direction with those at the Albion mines, 
though at a higher angle, and beginning at about 5000 feet below 
the main coal at the Albion mines. The uppermost of these rocks 
is a thick bed of hard grey sandstone ; underlying this are alter- 
nations of grey and reddish sandstones and shales, containing in 
one place a bed of bituminous shale, with Calamites above, and 
cylindrical leaves or roots, perhaps of Stigmaria, below. Beneath 
these are several hundred feet of red and variegated sandstone, 
with shale and conglomerate. Here there is a break in the section, 

* The balls of haematite scattered over the country, near the gypsums of the 
East River, have been derived from these fissures in the gypsiferous rocks ; 
and their abundance is an additional evidence of the denudation which these 
rocks have suffered. 


and these rocks are succeeded, farther up the river, by disturbed 
sandstones and limestones, which I was unable to examine, but 
which I believe to correspond with those of the East River. 

From these observations, in connection with those formerly 
made by Mr. Logan and Mr. Lyell, it is apparent that the lowest 
members of the Carboniferous series seen on the East River consist 
of limestones, gypsum, and soft sandstones, above which are hard 
reddish sandstones and shales, with limestone ; and lastly, red and 
grey sandstone, shells, and conglomerate, with carboniferous plants, 
and probably these beds pass into the productive coal measures. 

On the south side of the West River of Pictou, limestones, having 
the same fossils with those found on the East River, are seen in 
several places, and are associated with reddish sandstones, hard 
grey shales, and white and purple sandstones. Farther westward, 
near the Salmon River, there are sandstones, limestones, and 
gypsum, identical in fossils and mineral character with those of the 
East River, and like them connected with productive coal measures, 
which they appear to underlie. Still farther westward, the gyp- 
siferous formations of Onslow and the De Bert River probably 
form a continuation of the Pictou lower carboniferous deposits, 
being, like them, succeeded to the northward by the middle and 
newer members of the coal formation. * 


Section III. 
Merigonish to Malignant Cove, 20 miles. 

W. M'Cara's Brook. Arisaig. E. 

e. Coloured sandstones and shales, with occasional hands of ironstone and 
concretionary limestone in the upper part — Catamites and other coal plants. 
Coal ?. 

d. Limestone and conglomerate — fossil shells. 

c. Amygdaloid and conglomerate overlying sandstones and containing plants. 

b. Dark shales with thin beds of limestone, a little conglomerate, and reddish 
grits — marine shells, Encrinites, Trilobites, §*c. 

a. Altered red sandstone and conglomerate with dark shales, beds of amyg- 
daloid, and intruding masses of greenstone. 

Eastward of the East River, the band of carboniferous rocks 
included between the shores of the gulf and the hills to the south- 
ward, shows a series of beds, amounting to 10,000 or 12,000 feet in 
thickness, and dipping to the north-west at an angle of 20 degrees. 
The upper part of this section, beginning at the entrance of Meri- 

* The salt springs of the West River rise from lower carboniferous rocks, 
those of Salmon River from the productive coal measures. In both instances 
they rise from vertical strata on lines of fault. 


gonish harbour, shows grey and brownish-red sandstones and 
shales, buff-coloured sandstones, impure iron-stone, and coarse con- 
cretionary limestone, these beds containing Calamites, coniferous 
wood, and one or two small beds of coal. This part of the section 
is, however, very imperfect, though, wherever the rocks can be 
seen, there is a perfect conformity of dip. Their general aspect 
and fossils correspond with those of the middle part of the coal- 
formation, and they occupy about six miles of the coast section. 

Eastward of the rocks last described, the section is better, and 
shows a great thickness of brownish-red sandstones and shales, 
with some grey beds, in which I could not find any fossils, except 
some carbonised fragments of plants. These strata occupy about 
three miles of the section, and are underlaid by reddish conglo- 
merates, containing two beds of dark grey limestone, having an 
aggregate thickness of about 80 feet. These limestones contain 
numerous fossils, among which are Productus Martini, Spirifer 
glabra, and other shells, all common to these beds and the lime- 
stones of the East River. These conglomerates and limestones 
are succeeded by a few hundred feet of thinly stratified, reddish 
and grey sandstones, with a few fragments of fossil plants in bad 
preservation. Beneath these, red conglomerates again appear, 
associated with amygdaloidal trap. The latter is of a grey colour 
and earthy aspect, and has its cells filled with white carbonate of 
lime. It constitutes two conformable beds, whose lower sides are 
more compact than their upper. Their upper surfaces are also 
partially broken up and intermixed with conglomerate. At this 
point the carboniferous rocks are cut off on the coast section ; 
some hard brownish grits, however, seen in a neighbouring brook, 
called M'Cara's brook, probably underlie the rocks last mentioned. 

The section between M'Cara's brook and Arisaig is occupied 
by dark shales and thin layers of limestone, with a few beds of 
reddish shale and conglomerate. These rocks dip S. W., but 
become much fractured as they approach Arisaig. They contain 
numerous fossils, including species of the genera Tentaculites, 
Graptolites, Trilobites, Orthoceratites, Modiola, Productus and 
Conularia, and remains of Pncrinites. Though mostly Silurian, 
a few of these species appear to be the same with those of the slates 
of the East River. Rocks having the appearance and fossils of 
the latter are, however, found a short distance inland, to the 
southward of the shales. 

There can be little doubt that, in the sandstones, limestones, 
and conglomerates of this section, we have the representatives of 
at least a part of the Gypsiferous formation of the East River, 
and, resting conformably upon these, an equivalent of the coal- 


At Arisaig, 15 miles from Merigonish harbour, we enter on 
the disturbed district, separating the coal-trough of Pictou from 
that of Antigonish. From Arisaig to Malignant Cove, the shore 


displays hard brownish-red quartzose and jaspery rocks, with 
thick beds of hard grey shales, red conglomerates, and coarse pur- 
plish grits. Associated with these, are beds of amygdaloid, which 
are evidently interstratified with the accompanying rocks, and are 
probably, like those of M'Cara's brook, of contemporaneous origin. 
The whole of these beds are vertical, and are, without doubt, 
lower carboniferous rocks (perhaps a little lower in the series 
than those last seen at M'Cara's brook), but in a much altered 
condition. Beyond Malignant Cove, syenitic greenstone is seen 
on the shore, and, is said to appear in different places as far as 
Cape St. George. Eastward and southward of Malignant Cove, 
the hills, in many places, show masses of compact felspar and 
other igneous rocks, accompanied by altered and disturbed grits. 
After passing this disturbed region, we enter on the Gypsiferous 
rocks of the northern side of Antigonish harbour, having a ge- 
neral dip to the southward. Of these rocks, I examined two in- 
teresting sections. 


Section IV. 

Right's River, Antigonish. 


li ~^ — ^^ 


d. Gypsiferous beds — gypsum, limestone, and sandstone. 

c. Limestone. 

6. Red conglomerate and coarse red sandstone, dark sandstone and shale. 

a. Dark and grey sandstones and shales, reddish sandstone : — plants. 

The first of these sections is that represented above, and is 
seen extending about five miles. Near the mouth of this river, 
at the head of Antigonish harbour, is a thick bed of white 
gypsum, dij>ping to the south-west. Succeeding this, in de- 
scending order, after a small interval (which appears to have 
been occupied by sandstones, now nearly removed by denuda- 
tion), is a bed of dark-coloured limestone, in which, at different 
points where it appears, I found Productus Martini with other 
shells also occurring on the East River ; and Productus Lyelli, 
a shell not yet met with in the East River limestones, but very 
characteristic of the gypsiferous formation in other parts of the 
province. Below this limestone there is another break, also show- 
ing traces of sandstones and a bed of gypsum, and then a thick bed 
of dar*k limestone, partly laminated and partly brecciated without 
fossils, and containing in its fissures thin plates of copper ore. 
Beneath this limestone is a great thickness of reddish conglomerate, 
composed of pebbles of igneous and metamorphic rocks, and vary- 
ing in texture from a very coarse conglomerate to a coarse-grained 
sandstone . In one place it contains a few beds of dark sandstones 
and shales. These are succeeded by red, grey, and dark sandstone 
and dark shales, in a disturbed condition, but probably underlying 


the conglomerate ; they contain a few fossil plants. This section 
on Right's River includes a thickness of probably 8000 feet. 

Section V. 
Ogden's Lake to South Lake, near Antigonish (4 miles). 

d. Grey sandstone, and red conglomerate. 

c. Soft red sandstones and clays ; lignite, catamites, &c. 

a. Altered dark sandstones and shales; intruded greenstone. 

b. Grey and soft red sandstones and shales. 

e. Limestone. 
/. Gypsum. 

Another section, near the mouth of Antigonish harbour, displays 
a series somewhat similar. At the north side of the outlet of 
Ogden's Lake, about eight miles from Antigonish, is a bed of gyp- 
sum, probably nearly 200 feet in thickness. Its upper part is 
composed of white granular gypsum, in thick laminae, and with 
disseminated particles of carbonate of lime. Beneath this is a con- 
siderable thickness of foliated red gypsum, in its lower part alter- 
nating with layers of a grey argillaceous non -crystalline limestone, 
on which it rests, and which is penetrated by small veins of white 
fibrous gypsum in its upper portion, while below it becomes brec- 
ciated, and then laminated. It is probably 100 feet thick, and ap- 
pears to contain no fossils. These great beds of gypsum and lime- 
stone dip to the S. S. E. at an angle of 25°, and rest unconformably 
on soft red sandstones and shales, with some grey sandstones and 
reddish conglomerate, dipping nearly in the same direction, but at 
an angle of 50°. Following this underlying series in the descend- 
ing direction, it becomes more highly inclined, and is finally ver- 
tical, resting against a mass of altered and contorted dark shales 
and sandstones, with veins of greenstone containing much epidote. 
This part of the section is connected with a ridge of igneous 
rocks running in an east and west direction, and which a few miles 
farther inland attains a considerable elevation. It consists of a 
reddish syenite, quartz, compact felspar, and greenstone. After 
passing these disturbed rocks, there is a break in the section, which 
is next occupied by thick beds of brownish-red sandstone and clay, 
supporting a thin bed of conglomerate and some thick beds of grey 
sandstone, containing Catamites, Sternbergia, Endogenites, Carpo- 
lites, and pieces of lignite. The relations of these beds to the other 
parts of the section I could not determine. They dip to the north- 
east, and probably belong, either to the upper part of the gypsi- 
ferous formation, or to some newer member of the coal series. 

These sections differ from that of the East River of Pictou, chiefly 
in the presence of large masses of sandstone and conglomerate be- 
neath the limestones, and in the non-appearance of the thick series 
of sandstones above the gypsum, so conspicuous in the Pictou 



Having thus described the Lower Carboniferous rocks, as they 
appear in some of the best sections near the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
it may be interesting to compare their arrangement and lithological 
character with those of the Gypsiferous formations of the central 
part of the province, formerly supposed to be newer than the coal- 
formation, but referred by Mr. Lyell, principally on the ground of 
its fossils, to the lower part of the Carboniferous system. The 
rocks seen on the estuary of the Shubenacadie furnish a good spe- 
cimen of these deposits for the purpose of comparison. The sec- 
tions on this estuary show several extensive masses of stratified 
deposits, differing considerably in their mineral character, and 
separated by faults in such a manner that their true relations do 
not appear. Most of these masses consist of Red sandstones and 
marls, with beds of gypsum and limestone. These, when compared 
with the corresponding rocks in the Pictou and Antigonish sec- 
tions, appear to differ only in their apparently greater mass, and 
especially in the thickness of the deposits of red sandstone and 
marl. The upper bed of gypsum on Right's River is succeeded by 
a level tract affording no section ; and from the two sections, repre- 
senting the outline of the surface near the gypsum of Ogden's 
lake and the East River, it will be seen that the present outline of 
the surface is caused by a great removal of the softer beds. 

Section VI. 
Near Ogden's Lake, Antigonish (showing denudation). 

N. S. 

c. Gypsum and limestone. 

6. Grey and soft red sandstones. 

a. Syenite and greenstone. 

One of the most remarkable rocks on the banks of the Shubena- 
cadie is a great bed of compact and laminated non-fossiliferous 
limestone, near the mouth of the estuary. This bed has its upper 
surface broken up into a kind of breccia, and supports a great 
thickness of soft red sandstone and conglomerate, with beds of 
gypsum. It is also traversed by fissures filled with haematite and 
ores of manganese. It rests upon a great thickness of hard, 
brownish grits and shales, which appear in different places on the 
road from Shubenacadie to Truro. The horizontal red sandstone 
of Truro rests on the edges of these grits, which, near Truro, be- 
come either vertical or dip rapidly to the north-east, and perhaps 
also underlie some of the gypsiferous rocks of the Onslow hills. 
From a consideration of all these circumstances, it appears probable 
that these hard grits are the equivalents of the lower grits and 
conglomerates of Antigonish ; and that the bed of limestone which 

VOL. I. D 



they support is a representative of the lower limestone at Anti- 
gonish and Pictou. To the lower grits I would also refer the 
mass of dark red sandstones and shales at Eagle's Nest, three miles 
from the mouth of the estuary of the Shubenacadie. The mass of 
contorted dark sandstones and shales at Five-mile River resembles 
some parts of the productive coal formation more nearly than any 
of the lower carboniferous rocks : and the horizontal red sandstone, 
a few miles farther up, is analogous to many of the beds both 
above and below the gypsum at Antigonish and Pictou. 

From a comparison of the appearances of the lower carboniferous 
rocks in the various sections which I have examined, I have drawn 
out the following table, which, I think, exhibits very nearly their 
general arrangement. It commences with the productive coal 

Lower Carboniferous or Gypsiferous Formation. 


1. Brownish-red, mottled and 
grey sandstones ; brownish-red 
shales ; some conglomerates ; 
the beds containing small quan- 
tities of copper ores. 

2. Brownish-red hard sandstones 
and shales, often rippled ; some 
grey sandstones, conglomerates, 
and limestones ; copper ores in 
small quantity. 

3. Reddish and white sandstones 
and marls, usually soft ; beds 
of gypsum and limestone (the 
lowest bed usually a non-fossi- 
liferous limestone) ; veins and 
fissures with ores of iron, man- 
ganese, copper, &c. 

4. Reddish-brown conglomerates 
and hard grits ; some dark and 
grey sandstones, and brown and 
dark shales. 


Endogenites, Cala- 
mites, Lepidoden- 

Fragments of plants 
and fucoidal mark- 
ings ; Productus 
(especially P.Mar- 
tini), Terebratula, 
Spirifer, and other 

Productus (espe- 
cially P. Lyelli), 
Terebratula, En- 
crinites, Corals, 
Spirifer, Pecten, 
Avicula, &c. &c. 

Various plants. 

Where seen. 

Merigonish, East 
River, Middle R., 
Shubenacadie ? 

East River, Merigo- 
nish, West River, 
Middle River, 

Economy, Ward- 
robe's, on Shube- 
nacadie ? 

East River, Antigo- 
nish, Shubenaca- 
die, Onslow Moun- 
tain, De Bert R., 
Windsor, Pugwash, 
Wallace, &c. 

Antigonish, Shube- 
nacadie, Truro, 
Salmon R. 

Newer Coal Formation, Sandstones, fyc. 

In several parts of the eastern section of Nova Scotia, there are 
extensive deposits of sandstones and shales, principally of a 
brownish-red colour, and including some thin beds of concretionary 
limestone and grey sandstone. They contain a few calamites and 
other carboniferous plants. These beds constitute, I believe, the 
newest member of the carboniferous series, and are connected with 
the productive coal measures by a thick series of reddish-brown 
and grey sandstones, shales, and conglomerates, often abounding in 


fossil plants. As these upper red sandstones have, however, been 
confounded with the gypsiferous formation, some of whose sand- 
stones they often much resemble, I may shortly describe a section 
on the Waugh's and French rivers of Tatmagouche, exhibiting a 
portion of them, and at the same time illustrating the structure of 
a part of the Cobequid chain. 

At the mouth of the French river are grey sandstones and 
shales, containing a few endogenites, calamites, and pieces of lignite, 
impregnated with copper ores. Beneath these appears a series of 
brownish-red sandstones and shales, with a few grey beds, occu- 
pying, in a regular descending series, about six miles of the river 
section. They contain, in a few places, nodules of copper glance, 
they are often rippled, and contain branching fucoidal marks. On one 
of the rippled slabs I found marks consisting of four foot-prints of 
an animal. These were three inches and a-half apart, and each 
exhibited three straight marks, as if of claws. * 

The dips of these sandstones gradually increase in approaching 
the hills, and the lowest seen is a bed of grey sandstone, dipping 
at an angle Of 30°. There is then a small break in the sections, 
succeeded by hard dark shales and slates, and hard brown grits, 
with a bed of limestone in which I could find no fossils, except 
a fragment of a Productus and a few fragments of encrinital stems 
in bad preservation. These rocks are much disturbed, but gene- 
rally appear to dip at high angles to the northward. They are 
associated with masses of greenstone, amygdaloid, reddish syenite, 
and other igneous rocks. They appear to rise unconformably from 
beneath the sandstones of the low country ; but whether they 
belong to the lower carboniferous or to some older system, I cannot 
at present determine. 

I hope, at some future time, to be able more particularly to state 
the structure and relations of the newer members of the coal 
formation, but have not yet collected a sufficient quantity of facts 
to determine accurately their relations. 

The horizontal red sandstone of Truro, which skirts the Basin of 
Mines, has no connection with the red sandstone of Tatmagouche, 
but is probably newer than any part of the coal formation. It is 
destitute of the grey sandstones and shales, and in several sections 
of it which I have examined, I have not found any fossils. 

3. On Concretions in the Red Crag at Felixstow, Suffolk. 
By the Rev. J. S. Henslow, M.A., F.G-.S., Professor of Botany 
in the University of Cambridge. 

I place on the table a selection from a large assortment of a 
peculiar description of concretions obtained from the Red Crag at 

* These tracks resemble the marks of the claws of an animal running over a 
moderately firm surface, or climbing up an inclined plane. They are not unlike 
the marks left by the claws of small individuals of the River Tortoise on the 
sides of mud banks, but differ from them in showing traces of two feet only. 

d 2 


Felixstow, in Suffolk. In 1842 I was much puzzled to account for 
the nature of these concretions. At a cursory glance one might 
almost be inclined to pass them by as waterworn pebbles, as they 
lie abundantly interspersed among the comminuted shells which 
form the upper parts of the cliffs. I found more than one eminent 
geologist disposed to agree with me in considering them to be 
rolled masses of London clay which had been indurated subse- 
quently to their deposition in the crag. On my again visiting 
Felixstow during the summer of the present year (1843), I deter- 
mined to give them a particular examination ; and although a form- 
ation which has been so thoroughly worked as the crag is not 
likely to afford a casual visitor the opportunity of gleaning much 
of novelty, I believe I have satisfactorily ascertained the origin 
of these concretions, and have added to the list of crag fossils 
the petro-tympanic bones of at least four species of Cetaceans. 
These latter, I am persuaded, have been overlooked among the 
many concretions of this formation. They are, however, of a dif- 
ferent composition, and closely resemble, in this respect, the silici- 
fied fragments of bone so abundant in this locality. I believe the 
specimens I have procured will range under two types, each con- 
taining at least two species. I am not competent to the task of 
throwing any osteological light upon these fossils, but am happy to 
state that Professor Owen has undertaken their examination ; and 
we may therefore expect before long to be in possession of all that 
can be said about them. It seems to me not a little remarkable, 
that all these specimens should have been procured within a very 
narrow compass, for I found none beyond the limits of two con- 
tiguous indentations in the cliff, a short distance to the north of 

But, to return to the concretions to which I am more particu- 
larly desirous of directing attention. They exhibit a very great 
variety of forms. Many are more or less spheroidal, fusiform, and 
cylindrical ; many are perfectly amorphous. They appear to be 
composed of a fine-grained compact ferruginous claystone, of a 
dark chocolate brown colour ; but the surface, which is very 
smooth, and even polished, becomes pale by exposure. They often 
separate by natural flaws into three or more fragments, which are 
bounded internally by nearly plane surfaces. Many of them offer 
traces of organic association ; and the result of an extensive ex- 
amination has convinced me that they must all be considered as of 
coprolitic origin. I am not aware whether any analysis has ever 
yet been made of them. 

I will now direct attention to the following peculiarities observ- 
able in some one or other of the specimens referred to : — 

1. Two spiral masses. 

2. A large perforated one, with traces of spiral or annular transverse convo- 

3. Other smaller ones, the convolutions being longitudinal. 

4. Common character of the cylindrical and fusiform ones, seen, by fracture, 
to be formed of longitudinally coiled folds ; with a perforated axis. 


5. Containing more or less distinct traces of fossils, apparently from macerated 

Ex. gr. Vertebrae of cartilaginous fish. 

Ex. gr. Crustacea, very numerous. N. B. Their remains in the Crag are 

never thus fossilised unless under coprolitic associations. 
Ex. gr. Two echiniform masses. 

6. Various forms, more or less amorphous. 

7. With vermicular -like traces (Algae?), as in the nodules from Green 
sand and Gault. 

8. With pitted surfaces, as if from the escape of bubbles of gas. 

9. Ditto on fragments of cetaceous (?) bones highly polished, and perhaps 
half digested. 

10. Another description of nodule, less common, larger and more gritty, often 
containing organic matter, as shells, &c. 

4. Appendix to Professor Hensloitfs Paper, consisting of a \ De- 
scription of the Fossil Tympanic Bones referable to four 
distinct Species o/*Bal^ena. By Richard Owen, Esq., F.R.S., 
Hunterian Professor in the Royal College of Surgeons. 

The fossils from the Crag at Felixstow, which have been sub- 
mitted to my inspection by Professor Henslow, are the tympanic 
portions of the petro-tympanic bones of large Cetacea. 

The tympanic adhering to the petrous portion by only two small 
surfaces is easily detached, and may be recognised by its con- 
choidal shape and peculiarly dense texture ; the recent bone break- 
ing with almost as sharp a fracture as the petrified fossils. 

None of these are entire : the thin brittle outer plate which 
bends over the thick, rounded, and, as it were, involuted part, like 
the outer lip of such simple univalves as the Bullce and Lepto- 
conchi, is broken or worn away in the best specimens, all of which 
are rolled and waterworn. 

We are led by the size of the specimens to the largest of the 
existing Cetacea for the subjects of comparison, as the Grampus, 
the Hyperoodon, the Cachalots {Physeter\ and the true whales 
{BalcEnoptera and Balcend). 

Two or three of the specimens are fortunately sufficiently entire 
to show the form of the tympanic cavity bounded by the over- 
arching plate, with the proportion and direction of its anterior or 
Eustachian outlet, and most of them have the opposite or hinder 
extremity entire. We are thus enabled to determine that the 
majority differ from the tympanic bones of the Delphinida?, includ- 
ing the Grampus and Hyperoodon, in having the hinder extremity 
of the bone simple and not bilobed ; and some of them, in having 
the anterior outlet of the cavity partially enclosed by the extension 
of the outer plate around that end. 

With regard to the Cachalot (PJn/seter), I regret that I have had 
no opportunity of comparing the Felixstow fossils with the tym- 
panic bone in that genus, which I know only by the figures given 

D 3 


by Camper* in his usual sketchy style. Cuvier, who founds his 
notice of the tympanic bones of the Cachalot on the same figures, 
states that they most resemble those of the Delphinidce ; but are 
less elongated and less bilobed posteriorly. The figures show still 
more clearly that the tympanic cavity is continued freely forward 
out of the anterior end of the bone, and terminates by a rela- 
tively wider outlet than in the Delphinidce. 

If the idea thus given of the form of the tympanic bone of the 
Cachalot be correct and conformable to nature, the comparison of 
the Cetacean fossils becomes limited to the true whales (Salcenidce), 
in the few known species of which the distinctive characters of 
the tympanic bones are afforded by their relative size and the shape 
of their inferior surface. 

In Balcenoptera the tympanic bones, according to Cuvier, are 
very small in proportion to the head, and are equally convex at 
their inferior surface. 

As none of the fossils in question have been found in situ, with 
any part of the cranium, their size in proportion to that of the 
animal cannot be judged of; but in the specimens that have been 
least injured and water-worn, the inferior surface shows the flat- 
tened or gently concavo-convex undulation which characterises the 
tympanic bone in true Balcence. 

In regard to the differences which are observable in the tym- 
panic bones of the two known species of Bahena (Sal. mysticetus, 
and Sal. australis, capensis, or antarctica) Cuvier f merely ob- 
serves that " though slight they add to the motives which led him 
to believe the Arctic whale and that of the Cape to be specifically 
distinct." This remark at least encourages us to regard the cha- 
racters derivable from the tympanic bone as sufficiently deter- 
minate to be a guide in the distinguishing of species ; and with this 
conviction I have proceeded to compare the fossils in question 
with the recent tympanic bones of the two existing species of 

In them the thick convex involuted portion of the tympanic 
bone is slightly and unequally raised above the level of the cavity 
formed by the over-arching wall, but in the Sal. antarctica it 
gradually decreases in thickness to the anterior or Eustachian 
angle ; while in the Sal. mysticetus the thicker posterior part is 
defined by an indentation from the thinner anterior part. In both 
species the thinner part of the convex border is distinctly continued 
to the anterior limit of the cavity ; in both the extent of the invo- 
luted convexity, inwards, is not well defined, but it gradually sub- 
sides, and the convexity is exchanged for the concave curve of the 
overarching wall. I purposely omit the mention of the slight 
difference in other parts of the tympanic bone of the Balcena 
mysticetus and antarctica, since the condition of the fossils would 
not admit of the application of those differences in the determina- 
tion of their affinities. 

* Anatomie des Cetaces, Pis. xxiii. xxv. 
t Ossemens Fossiles, 4to., v. pt. i. p. 376. 


Petro-tympanic bone of Balsena affinis.* 

One of the most complete of the fossil tympanic bones, which 
measures five inches in length, resembles the Bal. antarctica in the 
slight elevation of the posterior part of the involuted convexity and its 
gradual diminution to the Eustachian end of the cavity: it resembles 
both Balance in its traceable continuation to that end, and in the 
gradual continuation of the concave outer wall from the involuted 
convexity ; this convexity is indented also, as in both recent Ba- 
lenae, by vertical fissures narrower than the marked indentation 
which distinguishes the Bal. mysticetas : these fissures are almost 
worn out by friction in some of the specimens. The more perfect 
one under consideration is not, however, identical with the Bal. 

The upper surface of the bone maintains a more equable breadth 
from the posterior to the anterior end, the outer angle of which, 
being well marked in the fossil, is rounded off in the recent speci- 
men ; the under and outer surfaces of the tympanic bone meet at 
an acute angle. The above characters are sufficiently marked in 
the specimens of the fossil tympanic bones to justify their being 
regarded as belonging to a species distinct from the known exist- 
ing Balance, but nearest allied to the Bal. antarctica, and which 
I propose to call Balama affinis. *► 

A second species is more unequivocally indicated by the distinct 
definition of the involuted convexity ; and the extent of the slightly 
concave surface extending from it to the commencement of the 
overarching wall ; the anterior extremity of the involuted convexity 
is equally well defined, and a wide concavity divides it from the 
anterior extremity of the Eustachian cavity. The thickest part of 
the involuted convexity is not very prominent. The under and 
outer surfaces of the bone meet at a right angle. 

The species indicated by the tympanic bones of this form may be 
termed Balcena dejinita. 

A third form of tympanic bone differs from the first in the 
shorter and more convex form of the involuted part, the anterior 

* This engraving is one of a series (illustrating each of the four species) 
prepared for Prof. Owen's work on the " British and Fossil Mammalia and 
Birds" now in course of publication. The cut was very kindly lent by the 
publisher (Mr. Van Voorst) to illustrate this paper in the " Proceedings." — En. 

n 4 


end of which is divided from the anterior end of the cavity by a 
concave border one inch in extent ; the internal border of the in- 
voluted convexity is also better defined than in Bal. afflnis ; but 
the overarching wall begins to rise close to it, divided from it only 
by a deep and narrow rugged fissure instead of by a broad and 
gently concave tract, as in Bal. definita. 

Both the outer and under surfaces of these specimens are more 
rounded than in the two preceding species ; but being more muti- 
lated and water-worn, the characters derivable from the external 
parts of the bone are of less value. The characters above specified, 
which are furnished by the involuted convexity, are decisive as to 
the specific distinction of the present fossils, which therefore indi- 
cate a third species of extinct whale, which I propose to call Balcena 

There is a fourth form, which differs from the last in the less 
degree of convexity of the involuted part, but more particularly in 
its outer border being notched or indented, as in Balcena mysti- 
cetus, by a vertical angular impression deeper and wider than the 
smaller vertical fissures. 

The comparative shortness of the involuted convexity distin- 
guishes this species from the existing Balance and the Bal. affinis, 
the notched and less convex involution from Bal. gibbosa, and the 
immediate rising of the overarching wall beyond the inner bound- 
ary of the involution from the Bal. definita. I propose for this 
species the name of Balcena emarginata. 

January 3d, 1844. 

Major Thomas Austin, of Bristol, and George Harcourt, Esq., 
M. P., of Newnham Court, Oxfordshire, were elected Fellows of this 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On the Occurrence of the Genus Physeter {or Sperm Whale) 
in the Red Crag of Felixstow. By Edward Charlesworth, 
Esq., F. G. S. 

Some years since, whilst looking over a collection of fossils in the 
possession of Mr. Brown of Stanway, I was struck by the appear- 
ance of a cylindrical nodule from the Red Crag of Felixstow, which 
seemed to me to exhibit indications of an organic structure unlike 
that of any fossil body which had previously come under my notice. 
With the permission of its owner I had a section made of this fossil ; 
but the characters which it presented upon being cut did not en- 
able me to arrive at any determination respecting its real nature. 

At a subsequent period, I learned from Mr. Brown that the 
nodule in question had been submitted by Professor Owen to mi- 
croscopical examination, and identified as the tooth of a Cachalot. 


In the reports of the British Association for 1842, this tooth is 
included in the list of British Fossil Mammalia ; but Mr. Owen, 
through mistake, has there assigned it to the " Diluvium of Essex." 
I am informed by Mr. Brown, that he procured the specimen from 
a man at Felixstow,, who stated that he picked it up on the beach ; 
and as several of the rarest known Crag fossils have been obtained 
at this spot under similar circumstances, there is no room to doubt 
its being a genuine fossil of the Crag formation. The mineral 
condition of the tooth is likewise so very remarkable, and so totally 
unlike that of the Mammalian remains which occur in the diluvial 
or lacustrine deposits, that this alone, in the absence of all other 
evidence, would have sufficed to determine its geological antiquity. 

The valuable communication submitted to the last meeting of the 
Geological Society by Professor Henslow, upon the discovery of 
Cetacean remains in the Red Crag of Felixstow, immediately 
brought to my recollection the existence of tins Cachalot's tooth in the 
cabinet of Mr. Brown ; and that gentleman having, within the last 
few days, been so good as to forward the specimen to me, I am now 
enabled to submit it to inspection. Through the kindness of Mr. 
Nasmyth I have had the opportunity, upon this occasion, of com- 
paring the structure presented by the fossil with sections of recent 
Cachalot's teeth, and the result has been to satisfy me of the cor- 
rectness of Professor Owen's determination. 

A species of the genus Physeter may therefore now be added to 
the four species of Red Crag Balance already enumerated by Pro- 
fessor Owen, and the occurrence of this genus must, I think, be 
regarded as a very interesting addition to the list of Cetaceans dis- 
covered by Professor Henslow in the Felixstow cliff. 

2. On a Fossil Forest in the Parhfield Colliery near Wolver- 
hampton. By Mr. Henry Beckett. 

The fossils alluded to in the following notice, occur in an open 
work, that is, the superincumbent strata have been pared off, and 
we find the coal (which belongs to what is called the " bottom 
coal,") well exposed to view. The bed has been bared for upwards of 
two years, but the fossils do not appear to have attracted attention, 
till Mr. William Sparrow and myself, whilst tracing the great 
faults of the South Staffordshire coal-field, accidentally stumbled 
upon them, and were struck with their number and their evident 
resemblance to trunks of trees. 

Since that time, by the kind permission of the Parkfield Com- 
pany, and with the assistance of Professor Orlebar, of the Royal 
Bengal College in Bombay, I have carefully removed the coal at- 
tached to the roots of one of the trees. *. 

We found the stump to be perfectly bituminized, but broken off 
about two inches above the level of the coal measure, the inner 


part being somewhat hollowed to about the level of the coal itself : 
the surface and edges of the broken part were smoothed or pro- 
bably water -worn. The tree bared was not flattened, but pre- 
served precisely the same appearance which I have noticed with 
peat timber in Ireland, and was 4 feet in circumference. The 
principal root extended southwards 22 inches, terminating ab- 
ruptly. The other roots spread out in a similar manner, — not in 
separate forks, but in an apparently continuous mass, showing that 
the plant required a broad base for its support. There were no 
appearances of a tap root ; in fact, the nature of the tree would 
not require it ; neither were any fibrous filaments visible. The 
trunk and roots were covered with a bark about half an inch 
thick, the coaly matter of which being more brittle, though con- 
siderably more compact in its texture than either the body of the 
tree or the circumjacent bed, also possessed a more smooth and 
bright surface, when broken. 

The bark externally was either perfectly smooth, or marked by 
irregular longitudinal striae, differing altogether from Calamites 
or Sigillariae. Within the bark was the hollow cylindrical trunk, 
about 2 inches across the cylinder, the coal composing which was, 
as before observed, more earthy in its character, but was concen- 
trically lamellar in its structure ; some thin laminae being of a 
brighter and better quality than the mass. 

The interior of the plant was filled with a blended mass of coal 
and shale. 

The trees are all upright and bear undoubted evidence of having 
grown on the spot. 

The thickness of coal in which the stumps are found is only 
5 inches. On breaking the coal with the grai?i, we met with 
impressions (very faint however) of reed-like plants and Stigmariae. 

Beneath the coal was the bed in which the trees must have 
grown, and this (as now compressed and indurated) is 3-| inches 
thick. It is composed, at the top and bottom, of a dark -brown or 
brown-black bituminous shale, inclosing a band of fire clay, half 
an inch thick. 

The shale bed contains impressions of the Lepidodendron, Ulo- 
de?idron, Stigmaria, and probably other species of plants, and I 
discovered one fragment proving the existence of animal life — a 
solitary scale of Megalichthys Hibberti. 

It is remarkable that, though our field in general abounds with 
the bivalve shells often described as Unios, I have only found one 
specimen in the open work, and that in an upper bed. 

There were no appearances of the roots passing into the shale ; 
but from the peculiar arrangement of the central part of the trees, 
I am induced to suspect that the shale may have occupied an in- 
ternal position considerably above the level of that in the bed. 

On breaking through the shale, we discovered in a second seam 
of coal what at first struck us as being a prolongation of the 
roots ; but, on further search, another forest was found below 
the first. In the upper bed we counted seventy-three trees in 


O °o ° 

'o ° o 

about a quarter of an acre (as shown in exact position on the 
accompanying sketch), and in the second they appeared equally 
abundant, as we laid bare three trees in as many yards square. 
The characters of the lower trees were similar to those described, 
but longer portions of the trunks were developed, the thickness of 
coal being seventeen inches in the spot opened ; but this varies in 
other parts of the bed. These trees do not pass through the upper 
shale, but the trunks occupy the whole thickness of this second 
coal-bed, and we found the substratum to consist of a shale, similar 
to that above, and 5 inches thick ; while below this was a bed of 
fire clay, seven inches thick, reposing upon a third bed of coal in 
which trees were not found. 

I should perhaps add that the upper coal is capped with fire 
clay, in which no traces of the trees have been observed. 

3. Description of the Remains of numerous Fossil Dicotyle- 
donous Trees in an Outcrop of the Bottom Coal at Parkfield 
Colliery, near Bilston. By William Ick, Esq., F. G. S. 

At a depth varying from forty to fifty yards below the Ten-yard 
stratum of the South Staffordshire coal-field, there are usually 
found three deposits of coal, called the Top, the New Mine, and 
the Bottom Coal. When these beds can be readily worked, they 
are scarcely inferior in value to the Ten-yard coal, the Top and 
New Mine deposit, with the intervening shales and partings, often 
forming a series of strata eight yards in thickness. Below this a 
few beds of ironstone occur ; then a bed of fire clay about three 
yards in thickness, and immediately under this the Bottom Coal. 

At Parkfield Colliery, 1^ miles west of Bilston, and at about 
the same distance south of Wolverhampton, there is a fine outcrop 
of this Bottom Coal, which is now being got in open work. In 


one part the overlying fire clay has been removed, and the surface 
of the coal exposed, over an area of a somewhat triangular shape, 
for about 2,700 square yards. 

This terrace of coal exhibits on its surface one of the most re- 
markable accumulations of the fossil remains of the vegetation of 
the coal period ever exposed to view.* There are upwards of 
seventy trunks of trees, apparently dicotyledonous, broken off close 
to the root, and several of them are more than 8 feet in circum- 
ference ; the prostrate trunks lying across each other in every 
direction. One of these measured 30 feet, another 15 feet in 
length, and several others a few feet less. They are invariably 
flattened to the thickness of from one to two inches, yet both upper 
and under side preserve a distinct trace of bark. The stumps, also, 
exhibit a distinct ring of bark, which, as usual, has become a 
bright coal, with a crystalline fracture ; while the interior or 
woody part is a dead-looking coal, nearly approaching to cannel 

These stumps seldom rise much above the surface. Many of 
them are surrounded by a circular ridge, formed by the materials 
of the bed accumulating round them. In a few cases the place of 
a trunk is marked by a circular depression in the coal, the trunk 
having been probably removed with the overlying fire clay. In 
some of the stumps the thick diverging roots may be traced by 
clearing off the coal, nearly a yard from the circle of bark ; and I 
was enabled to clear away from one of the trees the surrounding 
coal and shale, down to the substratum of fire clay ; but no trace 
of stems or of the long radicles or leaves of stigmaria were found, 
either in the shale or fire clay. Impressions, more or less distinct, 
of stems of Stigmaria Jicoides, are found in the shale in some 
parts of the deposit ; but in no case, so far as we could discover, 
could any connection be traced with the adjacent trunks. Many spots 
between the trunks are almost covered with impressions of Cala- 
mites, two or three distinct species of which may be recognised, in 
some places forming groups of six or eight square feet. The stems 
of Lepidodendra with the impressions of the scales finely pre- 
served, and Lepidostrobi, are also scattered in profusion over the 
surface ; and mingled with these vegetable remains are occasionally 
found the teeth and other fragments of fishes. There are also 
found ring-shaped bodies, sometimes in pairs, which appear to me 
to be identical with the bodies figured in Plates 8 and 10 of 
Dr. Hibbert's Paper on the Fresh-water Limestone of Burdie 
House, in the 10th Vol. of the Trans, of Roy. Soc. of Edinburgh, 
p. 169. ; and said to be the scales of Megalichthys Hibberti, which 
have lost their external lamellar structure. 

Not the least curious circumstance, in connection with this 
deposit, is, that although the whole is not more than 12 feet in 
thickness, there are at least three distinct beds of coal, each of 
which exhibits on its surface the remains of an ancient forest of 

* See diagram, p. 43. .. 


large trees. A reference to the an- 
nexed section will show the position 
of these beds. The upper growth 
of vegetation is on a stratum of coal 
10 inches thick, under which is a 
band of clay 2 inches thick ; this 
lies undisturbed on the south end 

of the platform, but is removed from Section of the fault and fossil trees in 

a few yards south of the centre to the Parkfield Coliiery ' 

the northern extremity ; and the second bed is there exposed, 
covered, like the upper, with trunks, &c. The coal is here about 
2 feet thick, and rests on a band consisting of 4 inches of shale and 
8 of fire-clay. Five feet below this grew the third forest ; the 
surface, where the upper beds have been removed, exhibiting 
similar large stumps of trees, Lepidodendra, Calamites, &c. 

At Millfields colliery, one mile to the east, the same beds are 
found at a depth of 126 yards. 

In several points of view, the deposit at Parkfield must be inte- 
resting to geologists. The position of the trees, in each bed of 
coal, seems almost to preclude all doubt of their having grown and 
perished on the spot where their remains are now found, and the 
roots are apparently fixed in the coal and shale, which was the 
original humus in which they grew. 

As is generally the case with stems found prostrate in coal, these 
stems are flattened. The woody tissue perished before the super- 
incumbent strata were deposited, leaving nothing but a tube of 
bark, which readily yielded to pressure. This is well seen in a 
specimen, in which the bark is preserved, as well on the under as 
on the upper side, while no woody tissue lies between ; the liber, 
or inner side of the bark, from each side of the stem being crushed 
into contact. It is from this cause that the ligneous structure of 
coal fossils is so rarely preserved. The large trunks, in nearly all 
cases, have been reduced to mere cylinders of bark, probably by a 
process similar to that pointed out by Mr. Hawkshaw, and now to 
be seen in tropical forests, where, by a combination of causes, a 
large tree is reduced, in a few months, to a hollow tube which 
yields to the slightest pressure. In this state, if a stem fall, it is 
flattened ; if it remain erect, the interior becomes filled up with 
the ferruginous or carbonaceous materials of the surrounding bed, 
which occupy the place of the rings of woody tissue. 

Whatever may be our success in discovering the botanical cha- 
racter of these trees by microscopic aid, the evidence is not slight 
that they were most of them allied to Conifera? ; and few who have 
carefully compared the Lepidodendra with the leaf-bearing stems 
of the yew, spruce-fir, or various species of pine, can have much 
doubt of the fossil plants being allied to these recent ones. 

In conclusion, I may observe that I have been induced to make 
this communication to the Geological Society, because it is one of 
the very rare instances of the surface of a bed of coal being ex- 
posed over a large area. It is very probable that similar interest- 


ing glimpses of the vegetation of a former world would be' fre- 
quently seen, if, instead of working in the dark and cutting down 
the edges of the strata, we could remove at once the upper cover- 
ing, as at Parkfield, and expose to the day the face of coal on which 
the ancient forests grew. 

4. Some Account of a Fossil Tree found in the Coal Grit near 
Darlaston, South Staffordshire. By John S. Dawes, Esq. 

Within the last few days (Jan. 1844), an exceedingly well-preserved 
and extraordinary specimen of a fossil tree has been discovered in 
a stone quarry near the town of Darlaston. The rock, which 
also contains Calamites and other drifted coal fossils, is the White 
Grit, which overlies the thin carboniferous measures, on the north- 
eastern side of the South Staffordshire coal field ; the fossil, 39 feet 
in length, lies in the ripple-marked stone, at a depth of 16 yards 
from the surface, the nearest bed of coal being ten yards below it. 
The root end is towards the deep, and in a westerly direction. 
Its angle of inclination is about 6°, which also corresponds with 
the dip of the strata ; distinct traces of four branches may be ob- 
served upon the stem, three of which, when it was found, were 
still attached, and apparently in the position in which they grew, 
but one of them was moved aside from its original direction. 
They extended in length from 6 to 8 or 9 feet, having a diameter 
varying from 6 to about 4 inches, and the upper one yet re- 
mains attached, and shows a remarkable uniformity in its thick- 
ness. The others were in part broken to pieces, and some of them 
lost before I was aware of the specimen being in the quarry ; but 
I understand that each appeared to terminate abruptly, having a 
small portion of coaly matter adhering to the end. There is also 
some appearance of a fifth branch projecting in a contrary di- 
rection, but possibly this may belong to another specimen, still 
imbedded lower in the quarry. The following are the dimensions 
as nearly as can be ascertained while it remains in situ : — diameters 
of stem, at the lowest part, 14 inches and 6 inches ; distance to the 
first branch 11 feet 6 inches ; diameters at this point 16 inches and 
6 inches ; distance from this to the second branch 5 feet 6 inches ; 
diameters 18 inches and 6 inches; distance to third knot 7 feet; 
diameters 16 inches and 12 inches ; distance again to the upper 
branch 6 feet 6 inches; diameters 17 inches and 10 inches.- From 
this part to the top, the distance is 8 feet 6 inches, where the 
breadth is suddenly contracted to less than 8 inches, and imme- 
diately beyond the fossil is converted into a thin narrow layer of 
coal, showing in a remarkable manner a gradual change from the 
stony mineral into that substance. This upper part, which has been 
traced about 18 inches further, still continues to penetrate the 
solid rock, and the lower end has been uncovered to the further 


extent of 3 feet 9 inches, where this part also is found to enter 
the side of the quarry ; so that the whole length of this splendid 
fossil, so far as it is yet traced, is upwards of 44 feet, and its 
greatest breadth is not more than 20 inches. At this point it has 
evidently been the most compressed, being here only about 4 
inches in depth ; but from the second branch to within 3 or 4 feet 
of the top, the tree maintains, in a remarkable manner, almost its 
original proportions. It will at first sight appear extraordinary 
that the breadth within 6 feet of the lower end should not exceed 
12 inches ; this however, without doubt, arises from the greater 
degree of carbonisation which is evident at this part, and indeed 
marks of the original exterior may be traced upon the adjoining 
stone to the extent of 19 inches. The substance of the tree, 
though not silicified, is hard and fine-grained, differing entirely 
in appearance from the rock which surrounds it, having become 
more highly impregnated with iron, to which probably its present 
state of preservation is to be attributed. It is evident that the 
mineralising process must have commenced prior to any extensive 
decay, for in all probability the structure has been well preserved. 
Microscopic sections, which I have not yet been enabled to obtain, 
will of course afford the best evidence as to its affinity with other 
fossils, and with recent wood ; but I may observe that there is an 
appearance of concentric rings, and, moreover, a large develop- 
ment of pith, but differing probably from every other described 
fossil stem. The bark, in general, has been converted into a thin 
layer of bright coal, which becomes fractured, and in part sepa- 
rates, on removing the overlying rock ; but no trace of leaf-scars 
or punctures have yet been detected either upon the stem or its 
branches ; the decorticated exterior, particularly of the latter, 
which presents a smooth surface with broad irregular stria?, hav- 
ing a waved and somewhat twisted appearance. These branches 
show indications of cicatrices, as though other lesser ones had 
formerly been attached to them ; and it may be remarked that 
small branches exhibiting this peculiar exterior have repeat- 
edly been met with in the South Staffordshire coal district. I may 
mention, in conclusion, that I have obtained some excellent sec- 
tions of the wood, which show that the structure is remarkably 
perfect, and prove the tree to have been coniferous. 

5. On the Trap-rock of Bleadon-hill, in Somersetshire. By 
the Rev. D. Williams, F. G. S. 

Since the author's last communication on this subject*, the com- 
pletion of the Railway cutting through the western point of 
Bleadon Hill has disclosed several new and remarkable facts ; and 
these have so materially changed his views respecting the origin 

* Geological Transactions, 2d ser. vol. vi. p. 561. 



of trap and other rocks, that he has been led to draw up a sup- 
plement to his former papers. 

The Mountain Limestone of Bleadon Hill and that of Uphill 
have been disconnected by two great downcast faults since the 
lias was deposited, that on the Bleadon side ranging E. by N. and 
W. by S., and that on the Uphill side N. E. and S. W. In the 
space between them, which is about a quarter of a mile broad, the 
surface consists of lias and new red sandstone. 

In the cutting the Bleadon fault is finely exposed, and its 
southern side presents a great slickenside wall of limestone and 
trap, which dips to the south at an angle of 70°. On the northern 
side of the fault, the lias is seen, curiously faulted, to some little 
distance ; it then dips considerably towards . the fault, the in- 
clination increasing, and the beds at last going down with the 
fault, the lias inclining towards it at an. angle of 45°. The lias, 
where abutting against the trap, has no appearance of having 
been altered by it. 

Section I. 
Western side of Railway. 

p a 

a. Mountain limestone. 
a'. Altered mountain limestone. 

On the western side of the Railway, not far from its northern 
end, an insulated mass of Mountain limestone is seen standing 
several feet in advance of the vertical cutting. Though much 
altered and deprived of the usual planes of bedding, it may readily 
be identified by its nodules of chert and crinoidal stems and plates. 

Little doubt can be entertained that it was once the continuation 
of four thick beds, which rest on its southern flank, and in the 
process of quarrying have separated from its surface. Nearly half 
the base of this insulated mass of limestone has been removed, and 
replaced by trap, the surface of contact between the two being 
very rough and unequal ; and a foot or two further towards the 
north there rises from beneath this altered limestone a mass of 
trap, 9 feet thick at its base, which, as it ascends, gradually tapers, 
and at the height of from 20 to 25 feet is reduced to a thin striug, 
or enters into joints of the limestone. The limestone is highly 
altered, and the limestone walls of the joint are singularly rough 
and rugged throughout. The limestone is traversed by a long, 
narrow, irregular crack, in which are found thin seams and plates 
of trap and trappean matter. 

Fifty-four feet to the south of the first mass of trap, another 
irregular mass of the same rock shows itself, and ascends through 



the beds of limestone diagonally, overhanging on its southern side. 
Close to the northern side of this mass, a well-defined joint 
cuts the limestone from its base to its summit, so that between 
this joint and the trap there is a thin strip of limestone which, on 
its side next the trap, is very irregularly indented. 

Section II. 
Eastern side. 

Proceeding next to the eastern side of the cutting, and beginning 
at its northern end, the lias (b) is first seen, dipping towards 
the wall of limestone and trap. On the opposite side of the 
fault, and at the base of the limestone is seen a mass of trap (p'), 
the upper surface of which runs nearly parallel to the calcareous 
beds above it. Further southward, however, that surface becomes 
irregular, and descends more rapidly than the beds of limestone ; 
and near its southern end the mass of trap descends at an acute 
angle below the level of the cuttings. Further southward, a 
second mass of trap appears, and at a short distance a third, and 
then finally a fourth. 

The author next describes the alterations produced in the lime- 
stone on the eastern side of the cutting. 

At the northern fault, the face of the wall of limestone that lies 
above the trap is eroded in places into broad shallow cavities 
filled with trap and trappean matter, the trap having generally 
selected the joints and fissures in the limestone, and being therefore 
variable and unequal in thickness here, as on the other side of the 

Three of the beds of limestone have been affected by the in- 
trusion of the trap : the lowest varies much in thickness, and is 
reduced where the trap appears. The second bed is affected and 
sometimes cut off by the trap, and sometimes becomes blended 
with the superior bed of limestone, and towards the fault dips 
down towards it. This latter bed abuts against the fourth mass 
of trap (towards the south), the contact being rough and rugged. 

The curvilinear fault above noticed has shifted the beds of 
limestone. On the southern side of this fault, we find resting on 
the southern flank of the fourth mound of trap a mass of altered 
limestone, which, as it approaches the summit of the trap, tapers 
upwards and disappears. The surface of this wedge of lime- 
stone, where in contact with the trap, presents the same pitted and 
irregularly eroded appearance which has been before noticed in 
limestone similarly situated. 

VOL. I. E 


Near the middle of the first or northernmost mass of trap, and 
entirely insulated by it, a patch of limestone was found. This 
was in some parts attenuated to a thin lamina, and in others ter- 
minated in long and slender strings. It was imbedded in the 
trap to the depth of about a foot. 

As to the mineralogical character of the Bleadon trap, it is of a 
reddish-brown, or greenish-grey colour, and is usually traversed 
by veins and strings of calcareous spar, which often pass into 
yellow crystalline limestone. It contains, in abundance, small 
spherical kernels of calcareous matter, which are usually coated by 
red oxide . of iron. Less frequently it contains steatite, and still 
more rarely glassy felspar. The rock is rather tough than hard, 
and decomposes so freely, that specimens of it adhering to the 
limestone are not readily procured. 

The altered limestone has lost its original blue tint, and, in pro- 
portion to the alteration it has undergone, has become, first, light- 
red; secondly, buff; thirdly, bright deep yellow; and lastly, deep- 
red. In all its bright and deep-red stages, it is crystallised into 
obtuse rhomboids, like calcareous spar, into which it passes. All 
the above gradations are frequently seen in the same bed. From 
its original state of extraordinary hardness the altered limestone 
has become very crisp and brittle. 

The distance from the trap to which the alteration of the lime- 
stone extends, is from 5 to 25 feet. 

The author is of opinion that the principal shifts, faults, and 
dislocations which are observable in the limestone beds at Blea- 
don, took place prior to the intrusion of the trap, and are not 
attributable to. that intrusion. In two instances, however, joints 
are observable which run through the limestone and the trap con- 
tinuously; though they are more obscure in the latter than in the 
limestone. * 

Reasoning on the preceding facts, the author states his inability 
to account for them, on the supposition that the trap was injected 
or forcibly intruded into its present position. 

Referring to the southernmost mass of trap, visible on the west 
side of the cutting, it will be seen that the outlines of the limestone 
on the southern and northern margins of the trap do not corre- 
spond ; so that it cannot be supposed that the beds have been 
parted asunder ; nor do the beds adjacent announce anything of the 
sort. If it be supposed that the limestone, which filled the space 
now occupied by the trap, has been forcibly removed, the over- 
lying beds bear no evidence of any displacement at all ; the deep 
acute-angular indentations of the mass would be very unfavourable 
to such removal ; and there is no mass of limestone visible above 
or elsewhere, which in any way agrees in form with the mass of 

If it be supposed that the trap was injected into some previously 
existing cavities, into the hollows and inequalities of which it be- 
came moulded, that would not account for the extent to which 


alteration is manifested in all the rocks around, nor for their un- 
equally altered condition, amounting in some instances to indica- 
tions of active fusion ; nor will it explain the occasional spots and 
irregular forms of trap which are insulated in the limestone. 

Referring to the patch of limestone entangled in the northern- 
most mass of trap, on the eastern side of the cutting, the author 
states his conviction that no fragment of a similar limestone, of 
like forms and dimension to that in question, could be separated 
from its parent rock by mechanical agency of any kind, unless 
by the most elaborate design ; so thin are the plates and so slender 
are the strings of this limestone patch, which is insulated in the 

The explanation of these phenomena which the author has to 
offer is, that the lime-rocks have been reduced in situ by tranquil 
fusion, and have been converted by subsequent cooling and crys- 
tallising into the trap which now replaces them, occupying the 
very position before occupied by the limestone. 

The patch of limestone insulated in the trap, the author con- 
ceives to have been a calcareous fragment, which had escaped 
entire fusion ; and he can imagine no process in nature to account 
for the spots of trap, insulated in the limestone, except that of 
intense heat. 

The author notices that there is nowhere to be met with, in the 
proximity of the trap, any extraneous matter which might be 
referred to the action of liquid lava on the limestone ; but it is all 
limestone, or all trap. What, he asks, can have befallen the 
portions of the limestone beds which have disappeared, unless they 
have been melted up, and converted into trap ? 

The author does not mean to question the fact that, in certain 
instances, trap and other volcanic rocks have been forcibly intro- 
duced among sedimentary and other rocks ; but only wishes to show 
that, in other instances, there is evidence that the presence of trap 
is attributable to the reduction of pre-existing rocks by volcanic 

These views led the author to arrange Volcanic Products under 
two heads, the immediate and the intermediate ; the former consisting 
of such products as have been fused down and crystallized in situ, 
or have been ejected from submarine vomitories, or subaerial 
craters ; the latter, of such rocks as have been acted upon more or 
less extensively, and only partially reduced by active fusion, and 
were therefore in different states of reduction when the temperature 
was finally withdrawn. In the former he comprises granite, 
porphyry, the several varieties of trap, tufaceous ash, breccia, 
grit, flinty chlorite, talcose and clay slates ; in the latter head he 
comprises gneiss and mica-, chlorite-, and hornblende- schist. 

E 2 

52 proceedings of the geological society. 

January 17. 1844. 

Eaton Hodgkinson, Esq., F.R.S., of Manchester, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sabine, R.A., F.R.S., were elected Fellows of this Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On certain Crustaceans found at Atherfield by Dr.Fitton. By 
T. Bell, Esq., F. R. S., Professor of Zoology in King's College, 

[The notice of this paper in the " Proceedings " is postponed.] 

2. On the Occurrence of Phosphorite in Estremadura. By 
Charles Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry in 
the University of Oxford ; and Captain Wtddrington, R. N., 

A statement having frequently been made by mineralogical writers, 
that there exists in the Spanish province of Estremadura an ex- 
tensive formation of Phosphate of Lime, it was considered by 
some leading Members of the Royal Agricultural Society of Eng- 
land an object of importance to learn the truth of these state- 
ments ; and the authors were, therefore, commissioned to ascertain 
where and under what circumstances the substance in question was 
found ; what facilities existed in the country for procuring it and 
conveying it to the coast ; and whether, if used as a manure, it 
was of a nature to serve as a substitute for the bone earth, now 
employed extensively in husbandry. 

The original authority for the statement, that there occurs in 
Estremadura a certain mineral which, when thrown upon live coals, 
becomes phosphorescent, was found to be William Bowles, who, in 
his introduction * to the Natural History and Physical Geography 
of Spain (2d edit. 4to. Madrid, 1782, p. 6.), relates, that, at the foot 
of a range of mountains running E. and ~W\, and called the Moun- 
tains of G-uadaloupe, and in the immediate vicinity of a place called 
Logrosan, the royal road is traversed obliquely, from N. to S., by a 
vein of Phosphoric stone. This stone was said to be of a pale 
colour, and without taste ; and, when sprinkled upon live coals, to 
emit a blue flame, but no smell. 

Proust, the distinguished chemist, in a letter to the French 
chemist, D'Arcet, dated Madrid, 12th of September, 1787 (which 
letter is published in the Journal de Physique for April, 1788), 
communicates the important information, that the mineral in 
question, of which he had received specimens from an apothecary 
at Madrid, gives off phosphorus when heated with charcoal in a 
retort. He quotes from the work of Bowles the passage above 
referred to ; states that he has not been able to visit the spot where 
the mineral is found ; and, from information which he has re- 

* 1st edit. 4to. Madrid, 1775. — French translation of do. 8vo. Paris, 1776. 

— 2d edit, of the original, 4to., Madrid, 1782 Italian trans, of 2d edit., with 

notes, by Don J. N. D'Azara, 2 vols. 4to. Parma. 1783. 


ceived, gives the following account, varying from that of Bowles 
in several particulars. 

" This stone is found near Logrosan, a village in the jurisdiction 
of Truxillo, in the province of Estremadura. It occurs, not in 
veins, but forms entire hills. The houses and the walled en- 
closures of the fields are built of it." 

On reaching Madrid, the authors were informed by the head of 
the Department of Mines, that the mineral formed a vein in granite. 

The authors, after this introductory notice, then proceed to give 
an account of their researches. 

Between the tertiary table-land of the two Castiles, and the 
descent of the south-eastern escarpment of the Sierra Morena, as 
you enter on the plains of Andalusia, a district of country inter- 
venes, over a large portion of which a formation of clay-slate, with 
occasional masses of quartzite, forms the fundamental rock. In 
proceeding from Madrid, it was to the south of Talavera de la 
Reyna, at the village of Calzada de Oropesa, that this formation 
first appeared. In the steep ravine through which the TagUs 
flows near the broken bridge of Almaraz, dark blue slate appears 
in vertical strata. Puerto di Miravete is the culminating point of 
this formation, from which a vast table-land is seen intersected by 
low flat-topped ridges, rising from three to four hundred feet 
above the plain, and studded over with conical hills. The above 
ridges, according to Le Play, are occasioned by beds of quartz ; 
and this statement agrees with the observations made by the 
authors above Almaden. The quartzite is either compact, gra- 
nular, or brecciated, or constitutes a fine-grained sandstone. The 
conical hills consist of granite, which has forced its way through 
the slate. Examples of this occur at Truxillo, and a league on- 
wards on the road to Logrosan. Then slate re-appears, then 
granite for the space of a mile ; then slate again ; which continues 
to Logrosan. To the south of that village, granite again appears, 
rising to the height of four or five hundred feet. With this ex- 
ception, all the rocks around Logrosan, and thence as far as the 
Monastery of Guadaloupe, consist of the clay-slate and quartzite. 

The granite is much decomposed, and divides into blocks, which 
strongly resemble Cyclopean walls. 

Near Logrosan the following section is seen : — 

La Conquista. 

Granite. Slate. Granite. Slate. a Granite. 

a. Phosphorite beds of Logrosan. * 

* The slaty beds are grouped according to the following order : — 

1 . Dark blue, homogeneous, and excessively hard and compact fissile slate, 
intersected by veins of quartz. This is the common building-stone at Logrosan. 

2. A soft and talcose slate. 

3. A micaceous slate. 

4. Alternating layers of talc and granular quartz. 

5. Brecciated and slaty beds. 

e 3 


The authors could not learn that, in the neighbourhood of Lo- 
grosan, the slate contains any fossils, although, according to Le Play, 
it contains near Almaden an abundance of Spirifer attenuatus 
and of a Terebratula ; and, according to the miners of Almaden, 
Trilobites had been found in it. These slates are referred to the 
Silurian period. 

Between the granite and the slate there occurs a more crys- 
talline rock, resembling mica slate, and said by Le Play to contain 
chiastolite. The authors met with this rock between Almaden 
and Cordova, near the granite of Viso. . 

Logrosan is a considerable village, about seven Spanish leagues 
S. E. of Truxillo. In the neighbourhood of the village the surface 
of the slate is undulated, the difference of level between the heights 
and depressions being about fifty feet. It is in the clay-slate that 
the Phosphorite occurs. See the section in the last page. 

It may be traced on the surface or immediately beneath the 
soil, running in the direction* of the rocks themselves, that is, 
from N. N. E. to S. S. W., for the distance of nearly two miles. 
It terminates southwards not far from the base, and a little to the 
east of the granite hill. The summit of the hill and its north- 
eastern declivity consist of granite ; but the side nearest the phos- 
phorite consists of clay-slate. At this point the phosphorite is 
16 feet wide, and extends to an unknown depth. It has been 
penetrated to the depth of only 10 feet. 

As was noticed by Bowles, the seam crosses the road leading 
from Logrosan to Guadaloupe, and it forms an inconvenient rise 
in the road where it crosses. To level this, the seam had been 
broken down, and its fragments had been used to repair the 
neighbouring walls, and in the construction of a fence that se- 
parates the road from an olive plantation, and it seemed here to be 
very little altered by exposure to the weather. The rock is a 
compact clay-slate, of indistinct slaty cleavage, and is disposed in 
beds inclining from the granite, but nearly vertical. The seam of 
phosphorite is only 7 feet thick, and it is only the middle portion, 
to the width of 3 feet, that is in a state of purity. The rest con- 
sists of phosphorite, alternating with layers of hornstone, con- 
taining iron and a trace of phosphate of lime. Other small 
seams of phosphorite proceed obliquely from the main seam, and 
penetrate the clay-slate to some distance. 

The mineral is disposed in zones, after the manner of agate, 
round centres of crystallisation, each zone being an assemblage of 
converging crystalline spiculae. Pure white zones of the mineral 
are often separated, one from .the other, by their dark -brown 
layers, tinged with oxide of iron. Between contiguous zones, 
having different centres, void spaces often occur, and when this is 
the case, the surface of the mineral next the cavity is mammillary. 
Crystals of quartz also occasionally line these cavities. 

From the point where it crosses the road, the deposit was traced 

* Le Play speaks of the Phosphorite as intersecting the clay-slate. 


in a S. S. W. direction, across the olive plantation, and down a 
gentle declivity, until it was lost sight of. 

The following is the mean of two analyses that were made of 
the purest specimens of phosphorite that could be selected : — 

Silica - 

Peroxide of iron 
Fluoride of calcium 
Phosphate of lime 






The authors take occasion to remark that, in seven varieties of 
Apatite which were analysed by Grustavus Rose, from 4*59 to 7*69 
of fluoride of calcium were detected ; and they call the attention 
of chemists to the association of the elements of Fluorine and 
Phosphorus which takes place in the Phosphorite of Estremadura, 
as it does in recent and fossil bones and teeth. 

The only practicable route at present for conveying this mineral 
to the coast is by a six-days' journey in bullock cars, or on the 
backs of mules, to Seville. 

3. Notes on the Cretaceous Strata of New Jersey, and other 
Parts of the United States bordering the Atlantic. By C. 
Lyell, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

The cretaceous and tertiary deposits of America, which inter 
vene between the Alleghany mountains and the Atlantic, bear a 
great resemblance in mineral character to the sandy and argil- 
laceous portion of the formations of the same age in the south-east 
of England. If all the white chalk, with its flints, together with 
the cherty beds of the green sand, were omitted, the remaining 
cretaceous strata in our island would consist of loose incoherent 
sand with green particles, red and highly ferruginous sandstones, 
white sands, and (in some places) beds of lignite ; the overlying 
tertiary deposits, consisting of marls, clays, and variously coloured 
sands occasionally exhibiting green particles, like those of the 
green sand below the chalk ; and as in the bottom of the London 
basin near Reading. Such, for the most part, is the succession of 
the beds in New Jersey ; and, further south, in Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, the Eocene strata are often as full of green particles as the 
cretaceous, so that they are only distinguishable by their fossils and 
relative position. Even the Miocene strata are sometimes, as in 
Virginia, of a blueish-green colour, and contain green particles of 
a similar kind. This fact alone of the identity in lithological cha- 
racter of the secondary and tertiary strata of the United States is 
calculated to put us on our guard against inferring that the green 
and ferruginous sands of New Jersey correspond in age to the 
lower rather than the upper part of the European cretaceous 

E 4 


system. It is scarcely possible, on recognising so many of the 
common organic forms which are familiar to us in connection with 
the cretaceous rocks on this side of the Atlantic, and seeing them 
occur in beds which have the exact mineral type of the beds below 
the G-ault, not to feel a strong inclination to regard them as the 
equivalents of our greensand, and to consider the white chalk as 
wanting. But when we dismiss from our minds, as we ought to 
do, the bias derived from the consideration of the mineral aspect 
of the beds, and compare the fossils of New Jersey with those de- 
rived from the European chalk, we find the agreement upon the 
whole to be far greater with the beds occurring in Europe above 
the Gault, than with those which are found below it. We are 
indebted to Dr. Morton for having pointed out, in 1834, the general 
agreement of the organic remains of the American and European 
cretaceous fossils, while, and at the same time, he and Mr. Conrad 
correctly observed that almost all the species were different. He 
divided the strata of New Jersey into the ferruginous sand, which 
he compared to our green sand formation, and the calcareous strata, 
which he identified with the white chalk of Europe. Prof. H. D. 
Rogers has since divided the New Jersey cretaceous beds into five 
formations, which are very useful, topographically considered, but 
which may be overlooked in the present paper, because only two 
of them, namely, those alluded to by Dr. Morton, have as yet 
yielded a sufficient number of fossils to entitle them to rank as 
palaeontologically distinct. 

In an excursion which I made in New Jersey, in September, 
1841, in company with Mr. Conrad, we went first to Bristol, on 
the Delaware, next, by Bordentown, to New Egypt, and returned 
by the Timber Creek, recrossing the Delaware at Camden. On 
this occasion I had an opportunity of examining the strata of both 
these formations, and I collected nearly all the fossil species de- 
scribed by Dr. Morton, together with some few additional ones. 
I shall now, therefore, briefly notice these two deposits and their 
fossils, and consider them in reference to their European equi- 

Although in this part of New Jersey there is no white chalk 
with flints, so characteristic of rocks of the same age in Europe, it 
is still impossible to glance at the fossils and not be convinced that 
Dr. Morton was right, as before hinted, when in 1834 he referred 
the New Jersey deposits to the European Cretaceous era, and re- 
marked that the American species of shells were nearly all new 
or distinct from those before described, and yet very analogous to 
those of the chalk already known. Of the two well-marked sub- 
divisions of the Cretaceous system the lower consists in great part 
of green sand and green marl, and was supposed by Dr. Morton, as 
already mentioned, to be the equivalent of the English green sand, 
while an upper or calcareous rock, composed chiefly of a soft 
straw-coloured limestone with corals, was thought to correspond 
with the white chalk of Europe. But after carefully comparing 
my collection, comprising about sixty species of shells, besides 


many corals and other remains, I have arrived at the conclusion 
that the whole of the New Jersey series agrees in its chronological 
relations with the European white chalk, or, to speak more pre- 
cisely, with the formations ranging from the Gault to the Maes- 
tricht beds inclusive. Among the shells, in determining which I 
have been assisted by Professor E. Forbes, not more than five out 
of sixty seem to be quite identical with European species ; but 
several others approach very near to, and may be the same as 
Europeans ; and at least fifteen may be regarded as good geo- 
graphical representations of well-known chalk fossils belonging for 
the most part to beds above the Gault in Europe. There are a 
few very peculiar forms among the American testacea, such as 
Terebratula Sayii Morton ; and I found among the univalves a 
Bulla, but casts of the genus had previously been mentioned by 
Dr. Morton, and although not yet known in the European chalk 
a species occurs on the Continent in beds of the Jurassic system. 

In the upper or straw-coloured limestones, I found on the banks 
of the Timber Creek, twelve miles south-east of Philadelphia, six 
species of corals* and several echinoderms, chiefly allied to upper 
cretaceous forms. The same calcareous formation also abounds in 
Foraminifera characteristic of the chalk, comprising, among others, 
the genera Cristellaria, Rotalina, and Nodosaria. Besides the 
shells there are also several remains of fishes, and of the series ob- 
tained by myself all those referred to the genus Lamna resembled 
species occurring in our chalk. They have been examined for me 
by Sir P. Egerton. One of them seems to approach very closely 
to Lamna appendiculata, and another comes very near to Galeus 
pristodontus ; and indeed, if we may judge by so few specimens, 
seem identical. These are fossils of our upper chalk in Europe. 
There are also several forms of Carcharias not very unlike some 
tertiary species given me from the New Jersey chalk, several of 
which are figured by Dr. Morton ; I will not dwell upon these 
however, since in Europe also there are many of the cretaceous 
Squalidae which can scarcely, when the teeth alone are con- 
sidered, be distinguished specifically from tertiary fossils. 

There are three Saurian vertebrae in the New Jersey green sand 
in the collection of the Geological Society, which I have submitted 
to Mr. Owen's inspection. One of these, from the green sand of 
Mullica Hill, is the anterior dorsal vertebra of the Mosasaurus. 
Another is the posterior cervical vertebra of a Pliosaurus, a genus 
which Mr. Owen has constituted to include a portion of the Ple- 
siosauri, and which approach still more nearly to the true Saurians. 
The vertebra in question resembles very closely that of Pliosaurus 
brachydeirus of the Kimmeridge clay. Until very lately, the Ple- 
siosaurian type was not known higher in the series than in the 
Oolites ; but it has now been shown to ascend to the chalk of Eu- 
rope, so thai its occurrence in the New Jersey strata is in strict 
accordance with European analogies. The third specimen (pre- 

* These have been described by Mr. Lonsdale, and the description and figures 
will be given at the end of the present paper. 


sented, I believe, by Professor H. D. Rogers) is labelled, " Woods- 
town, New Jersey ; " a locality where those beds occur to which 
the great mass of shells before alluded to belong. It is a vertebra, 
penetrated by the green particles of the sand. Mr. Owen refers 
this to the dorsal vertebra of a crocodile of his Proccelian division, 
or those which, like the recent crocodiles, have the concavity in 
the forepart, and the convexity behind. This fact is important, as 
hitherto the Procoelian crocodiles in Europe have not been found 
in beds older than the eocene. 

In concluding these remarks on the ferruginous and green sand 
formation of New Jersey, I may observe that the identification 
of four or five species out of sixty fossil shells with European 
cretaceous fossils would give an agreement of about, seven per 
cent., which is by no means a small amount of correspondence, 
when we consider that the part of the United States above alluded 
to is distant between 3000 and 4000 miles from the chalk of 
Central and Northern Europe, and that there is more than 10° 
difference in the latitudes of the two districts compared, on the 
opposite sides of the Atlantic. It may doubtless be true, that the 
influence of temperature during the Cretaceous period was less 
powerful in limiting the range of species than it is now ; and that 
the same forms prevailed more uniformly from India to Sweden, than 
they do at present. Nevertheless; the cretaceous fossils of Northern 
and Southern Europe differ sufficiently to show that the climate 
had then no small influence in causing distinct geographical pro- 
vinces of species ; and it seems natural that those species which 
are very abundant in Europe, such as Belemnites mucronatus, or 
those which have a great vertical range, such as Pecten quinque- 
costatus, should be the fossils found, if any, to recur in a distant 
part of the globe. 

In the next place I proceed to give some account of the upper 
fossiliferous division of the New Jersey cretaceous deposit, which is 
for the most part arenaceous, but contains, in many places, layers 
of limestone and calcareous sand, with corals slightly aggregated 
together. It has been traced by Mr. Rogers to a distance of about 
60 miles in a north-east and south-west direction, from Prosper 
Town to near Salem, having rarely a breadth of half a mile, and 
the thickness being from 6 to 20 feet. Its importance is derived, 
geologically speaking, from its fossils, and, in an economical point 
of view, from its affording the only lime procurable in this district. 
I saw the formation in question, on the banks of Timber Creek, a 
stream- which flows into the Delaware, three miles below Phila- 
delphia. The principal locality is twelve miles S. E. of Philadel- 
phia, about a mile and a half south of the village of White Horse, 
in Gloucester County, New Jersey. Here a bed of soft calcareous 
stone, about 20 feet thick, is seen made up, in great part, of corals 
of the genera Eschar a, Escharina, Cellepora, Tubulipora, and 
others *, together with the remains of echinoderms, such as Cidaris 
and Spatangus. It contains also some shells, as Scalaria annu- 

* See the description of these corals by Mr. Lonsdale, in the Appendix. 


lata, Gastrochcena, and Teredo, the whole indicating the sandy 
bottom of a shallow sea. I was so strongly reminded of the 
coralline crag of Sudbourn, and other places in Suffolk, when 
examining this rock, that I had some difficulty at first in per- 
suading myself that it was not a tertiary deposit. It is, in a great 
part, a mass of white calcareous sand, more or less aggregated 
together, and the upper surface has been irregularly scooped out 
and rendered undulating, and is covered with a newer deposit of 
red clay and gravel, without fossils, the surface of which is even 
and level. This white sand and limestone pass downwards into 
light-green and ferruginous sand, with quartzose grains. 

Near Hornerstown, I saw, on a branch of the Timber Creek, to 
which Mr. Conrad conducted me, a bed of this coralline aggregate, 
8 feet thick, resting on the green sand or lower deposit before 
mentioned, with its characteristic fossils. 

We have now to consider whether the calcareous or upper 
formation has been referred with propriety to the chalk. Mr. 
Forbes has examined the Echinoderms, and is of opinion that they 
are decidedly analogous to cretaceous forms. One of the species 
of Spatangus belongs to the same group as S. subglobosus of 
Goldfuss, a group which forms the genus Holaster of Agassiz, and 
which that naturalist regards as very characteristic of the upper 
part of the Cretaceous system. 

One also of two species of Cidaris is allied to C. vesiculosus, and 
to other upper cretaceous species of Europe. 

Dr. Morton had already observed, in regard to the corals, that 
some of the species resemble a Maestricht fossil, figured by Gold- 
fuss ; and the reader is referred to Mr. Lonsdale's comments on 
this subject in the Appendix. 

The fossil called by Dr. Morton " Belemnites ambiguus" though 
probably not related to the Belemnite, is ' closely allied to a fossil 
which I have collected myself in the chalk of Sweden, associated 
with Belemnites mucronatus. 

The last-mentioned, or upper of the two fossiliferous formations 
of New Jersey, has been called by Dr. Morton and Mr. Conrad the 
Medial Cretaceous, because there are others still higher in position 
in the Southern States, which they refer to the chalk period. One 
member of these, a white limestone, seen extensively on the Santee 
canal, and in other parts of South Carolina, as well as at Jackson- 
borough and Shell Bluff in Georgia, I have shown, in a former 
communication to the Society, to be Eocene tertiary. Another 
portion, called the Nummulite limestone of Alabama, I have not 
examined, and can therefore offer no opinion respecting it. 

Upon the whole, the collection of fossils which I made in New 
Jersey confirms the principal conclusion to which Dr. Morton 
arrived, that there is a remarkable generic accordance between the 
fossil mollusca, corals, echinoderms, fish, and saurians of the cre- 
taceous group, in New Jersey and in Europe. But the general 
analogy of the generic, and the identity of some specific, forms, 
which Mr. Forbes and Mr. Lonsdale have assisted me in comparing, 


has led me to refer all the fossiliferous formations of New Jersey 
to that part of the European series which ranges from the Maes- 
tricht beds to the gault inclusive. 

North Carolina. 

Of the same age are certain strata in North Carolina, at a place 
called Lewis's Creek near South Washington, forty miles north of 
Wilmington, and 340 geographical miles south-west of New Jersey, 
where I found Belemnites mucronatus, Ostrea vesicular is, 0. sub- 
spatulata (a remarkable and new species figured in the Appendix), 
Cellepora tubulata, and other fossils. 

The association of Cellepora tubulata, which abounds in the 
upper cretaceous formation of New Jersey at Timber Creek with 
Belemnites mucronatus in this locality of South Carolina, is import- 
ant, as helping to show the near relation of the coralline limestone 
of New Jersey to the green sand containing Belemnites. 


Some fossils have been communicated to me by Dr. Cotting, from 
Georgia, which make it probable that there are cretaceous strata 
there, lower than those of New Jersey ; as among them are a Pho- 
ladomya and an Ammonite; both of which Mr. Forbes finds to be 
closely allied to certain Neocomien species from Neuchatel. 

In the collection of Mr. Conrad, from Alabama, I saw a species 
of Hippurite, derived from the cretaceous strata of that State, which 
I believe is the only example of any fossil of the Rudist family de- 
rived from the cretaceous rocks of North America. It affords an- 
other point of analogy between the cretaceous fauna co-existing on 
opposite sides of the Atlantic. 

It is interesting to find, as the result of this investigation, that 
the marine fauna, whether vertebrate or invertebrate, testaceous 
or zoophytic, was divided at the remote epoch under consideration, 
as it is now, into distinct geographical provinces, although the 
geologist may every where recognise the cretaceous type, whether 
in Europe or America (and I might add India). This peculiar type 
exhibits the preponderating influence of a vast combination of cir- 
cumstances prevailing at one period throughout the globe, circum- 
stances dependent on the state of the physical geography, climate, 
and organic world, in the period immediately preceding, together 
with a variety of other conditions. 



Appendix I. — On the Fossil Shells collected by Mr. Ltell 
from the Cretaceous Formations of New Jersey. 

1. Description of New Species. By Professor Edward Forbes. 

Most of the fossil shells (amounting to sixty species) collected in 
New Jersey during Mr. Lyell's excursion with Mr. Conrad have 
been already described in Dr. Morton's excellent work. The fol- 
lowing, however, are new species : — 

Ostrea subspatulata L. §• S. 

Interior of the Loicer Valve. 
[ Two thirds the natural size.~\ . 

1. Ostrea subspatulata.* Lyell and Sowerby. Shell obovate ; 
somewhat trapeziform ; generally thick ; higher than wide ; nar- 
rower at the dorsal than at the ventral or basal end, which is 
turned downwards at an obtuse angle ; somewhat foliaceous ex- 
ternally; muscular impression placed very near the base. Lo- 
cality, Lewis's Creek, South Washington, North Carolina. 

* Ostrea obovata, spatulata; valva inferiore, convex a, arcuata, postice cras- 
sissima. ; superiore subdepressa. 



Ostrea subspatulata L. §■ S. 

Side View of Lower Valve. 
[ Two thirds the natural size.] 

2. Lima reticulata. Lyell and Forbes. 
L. testa ovata, obliqua, inflata, tenui, longi- 
tudinaliter sulcata, sulcis reticularis, nume- 
rosis. Habitat, Nov. Jersey. 

Lima reticulata L. §• F. 

3. Terebratula Vanuxemiana. Lyell and Forbes. T. testa 
suborbiculare, valvis bicarinatis, longitudinaliter costatis, costis 

Terebratula Vanuxemiana L. §• F. 

intermediis minoribus, valva superiori convexa, area late triangu- 
lare, foramine magno, valva inferiori convexiuscula, margine fron- 
tali subbisinuata. Habitat, Nov. Jersey. 



a. Bulla Mortoni. 

b. Natica. 

c. Tornatella. 

4. Bulla Mortoni (a). (Cast.) Ovate, inflated, resembling in 
form B. hydatis, spire concealed, surface spirally furrowed, the 
furrows bearing traces of punctation. 

5. Natica (b). (Cast.) Of a small globular species with a deeply 
channelled suture, spirally sulcated, and obsoletely reticulated 
whorls and depressed spire. Locality, New Jersey. 

6. Tornatella (c). (Cast.) Oblong, bearing traces of spiral 
strise ; spire exserted, subdepressed ; sides of body-whorl some- 
what flattened ; columella perforate ; aperture lanceolate. Locality, 
New Jersey. Allied to T. bullata of Morton, which, however, is 
a much more ventricose species. 

Casts of Voluta. 

7. Voluta. (Casts.) a, Shell linear, lanceolate, whorls smooth. 
b, Shell ovate, whorls smooth, c, Shell ovate, whorls angular 
above, distant ribs. 

Note. — The figures are all of the natural size, except the Ostrea, which is 
two-thirds in linear dimensions. ^ • 

2. List of Species common to the American and European Cre- 
taceous Systems. 

Ostrea larva (O. falcata M.) 


Gryphoea costata 

Pecten quinque-costatus 
Belemnites mucronatus 



3. List of New Jersey Species, Representatives of which occur in 
the European Cretaceous Beds. 

New Jersey Species. Probable representative European Species. 

Spatangus n.s. 


Terebratula fragilis M. 

floridana M. 

Plicatula urticosa M. 
Inoceramus Barabini M. 
Cucullea vulgaris M. 
Trigonia thoracica M. 
Pholadomya oceidentalis M. 
Phorus leprosus 
Scalaria annulata 
Natica petrosa M. 

Hamites arcuatus 
Ammonites placenta 
Baculites ovatus 

Geological locality 
in Europe. 

S. subglobosus 
C. vesiculosus 
T. biplicata ( Upper green sand) 

T. Defrancii et striatula ( Upper chalk) 

P. inflata ( Chalk marl and upper green sand) 
I. Crippsii ( Chalk and green sand) 

alaeformis ( Green sand) 

gigantea (Lower green sand) 


N. excavata 

Several lower chalk species. 

A. clypeiformis 

B. anceps. 

(Lower chalk) 
( Gault) 
( Gault) 

4. List of Peculiar Forms found in the New Jersey Cretaceous 


Terebratula Sayii M. 
Ostrea subspatulata n. s. 

Crassatella vadosa M. 
Venilia Conradi 

Notice of the Foraminifera. By Mr. Lyell. 

1 1 

a. Rotalina. (d. nat. size.) 

b. Cristellaria. (c. nat. size.) 

The above are figures of the two genera of Foraminifera from 
the upper beds at Timber Creek, alluded to in the paper. 

I am not aware that any attention has hitherto been paid to the 
fossil foraminifera of the American cretaceous strata, to which I 
find no allusion in Dr. Morton's works. They are very abundant 
in the coralline rock of Timber Creek.' Mr. Forbes has examined 
some of them for me, and these belong to the genera Cristellaria, 
Rotalina, and Nodosaria. All these genera occur in the chalk of 
Europe. One of my American species of fossil Cristellaria is 
specifically identified by Mr. Forbes with C. rotulata of D'Or- 
bigny > which occurs in England, France, and Germany, ranging 
from the upper greensand to the white chalk. It is another in- 
stance of species found most abundantly in Europe, recurring in 
the American chalk. There are two other species of the same 
genus at Timber Creek, one of them very large. There are two 
species of Nodosaria. The Rotalina, which is very abundant, is 
closely allied to a species of our chalk. 


Appendix II. — Account of six species of Polyparia obtained 
from Timber Creek, Neiv Jersey, and described by William 
Lonsdale, Esq. F. Gr. S. 

The following is a list of the species : — 

1. Montivaltia atlantica Lonsdale (Anthophyllum atlanticum Morton). 

2. Idmonea contortilis Lonsdale. 

3. Tubulipora Megaera Lonsdale. 

4. Cellepora tubulata Lonsdale. 

5. Escharina ? sagena Lonsdale (Flustra sagena Morton). 

6. Eschara digitata Morton. 

1. Montivaltia atlantica. 

a. Nearly perfect specimen, exhibiting the lamelliferous or upper portion in its 
true position, and the inferior hollow cone. 

b. Portion of the upper surface slightly worn down, to show the characters of 
the lamellae. 

Inversely conical; lower or non-lamelliferous portion nearly 
equal in length to the upper or lamelliferous ; enveloping crust 
extending nearly to the superior termination of the cone ; lamel- 
liferous portion variable inform; lamellce very numerous; centre, 
contorted plates terminating inferiorly in a distinct umbilicus or 
boss ; superior termination of the cone nearly flat. 

This coral is described by Dr. Morton under the name of An- 
thophyllum atlanticum. (Silliman's Journ. vol. xviii. pi. 1. f. 9, 

10. Essays on Org. Rem. &c, p. 61. 1829. . Journal Acad. Nat. 
Sc. Philadelphia, vol. vu pi. viii. f. 9, 10. pp_L£&r*34 1830. Sy- 
nopsis Org. Rem. &c. plY f. 9, 10. p. 80. 1834.) 

Dr. Morton states (Essays, pp. 61, 62. Synopsis, p. 80.) that he 
derived his characters of the genus Anthophyllum from Goldfuss ; 
and the lamelliferous portion of the coral under consideration, as 
represented in Dr. Morton's excellent figures, bears a strong general 
resemblance to some of Ooldfuss's species (Petref. pi. xiii. f. 10, 

11. pi. xxxvii. f. 15.). The fossil is probably generically identical 
with that represented in pi. xxxvii. f. 15. There is also a general 

VOL. I. F 



agreement in Dr. Morton's figure 10. (pi. i. Synopsis) with 
Schweigger's Anthophyllum cyathus (Beobachtungen, Tabular 
Arrangement, vi.), particularly as given in Esper (Pflanzenthiere, 
Madrep. tab. xxiv.) ; but the American fossil, when preserved in 
its true position, clearly differs from the generic characters pro- 
posed by Schweigger, and adopted with various modifications by 
succeeding authors, including Goldfuss. The Anthophyllum cya- 
thus, as well as the corals typical of the four other divisions of 
Schweigger's comprehensive genus, are lamelliferous throughout, 
whereas the American fossil, as beautifully shown in one of the 
Timber Creek specimens («), consists of an upper lamelliferous por- 
tion or nucleus, and an inferior non-lamelliferous portion or hollow 
inverted cone. 

This great peculiarity of structure apparently agrees with La- 
mouroux's characters of his genus Montivaltia : " Polypier .... 
presque pyriforme, compose de deux parties distinctes, l'inferieure 
ridee transversalement ; la superieure presque aussi longue que 
l'inferieure, . . . presque plane au sommet, legerement ombiliquee 
et lamelleuse" (Exposition Methodique, p. 78.) ; and in his ob- 
servations on the Caen specimens of Montivaltia he says, " elles 
sont geodiques" (ibid.). This peculiar structure would agree 
perfectly with the hollow inverted cone of the American coral, 
and the characters of the " partie superieure legerement om- 
biliquee et lamelleuse" accord well with the structure of the 
lamelliferous portion. De Blainville (Man. d'Actinologie, p. 336.) 
says, Lamouroux's figures are " forte inexacte" but there is enough 
of resemblance in them, particularly in figure 9. (Plate 79.) to 
support a generic agreement with the Timber Creek fossil, the 
" partie inferieure, ridee transversalement," being represented in 
the American specimens by the cast of the hollow cone, and the 
higher extension of the envelope being considered only a specific 
difference. Lamouroux's coral figured by Guettard (Mem. iii. 
p. 466. pi. 26. f. 4, 5.), but named by De Blainville Montivaltia 
Guettardi (De Bl. Man. d'Actihol. p. 336. ; see also Anthophyllum 
Guettardi, p. 340.), bears even a closer resemblance to the Timber 
Creek specimens. Guettard graphically compares it to a " cupule 
de gland de chene." 

Dr. Morton, in his careful researches for analogous cretaceous 
fossils, refers to Faujas St. Fonds's figures of Maestricht corals, 
particularly to PI. xxxviii. f. 1. 5. (Hist. Nat. de la Mont, de St. 
Pierre de Maestricht). Between those figures and the American 
coral there is a great general similarity ; but a rigid comparison 
will show that there are important differences in the structural 
details, particularly in the centre of the apparently lamelliferous 
portion. The Maestricht fossils, or casts, are moreover wholly 
siliceous ; and therefore, as they do not exhibit any traces of the 
original lamellae, they cannot lead to the inference that the original 
coral consisted of two distinct structures. It is most probable that 
those casts represent only the terminal cup of an ordinary lamel- 
liferous polypidom. It was the preservation of the lamellae in the 


upper part, and the total want of any trace of them in the lower, 
which led to the belief that the Timber Creek specimens belong 
to the genus Montivaltia. 

The total length of the finest specimen {a, see figure), is about 
1^- inches, and the greatest breadth nearly |- of an inch ; the two 
portions, as before stated, are of about equal length. The whole 
form of the coral is an inverted cone, terminating downwards in a 
bent point. The lamelliferous portion is cylindrical, or slightly 
contracted towards the base, and there is often a tendency to bend 
to one side. The lamellae are very numerous, amounting probably 
to eighty ; and are represented in well-preserved specimens by 
layers of calcareous spar. They were apparently of unequal 
dimensions ; and their lower terminations are distinctly rounded or 
semicircular without any signs of fracture, and, consequently, of 
having extended downwards into the existing hollow cone. The 
sides of the lamellae were apparently hispid, rows of indentations 
occurring in the earthy matter, which filled the intervening spaces 
of the original coral. The superior terminations of the lamellae 
were unequal, certain of them, probably twenty in all, protruding 
above the others ; and these range inwards, uniting with the 
central contorted plates. The characters exhibited in a slightly 
worn-down specimen prove also that the upper termination of the 
coral was not cup-shaped, but flat, with possibly a slight central 
depression (b). 

The centre of the lamelliferous portion consists of plates more or 
less horizontally contorted in the body of the cylindrical mass, and 
vertically at the superior and inferior terminations, forming in the 
latter position either a marked central rugose depression as shown 
in Dr. Morton's figures {loc. cit.), or a subordinate projecting 
cone (a). 

The interspaces between the original lamellae are occupied by 
earthy casts, constituting a very conspicuous portion of the coral ; 
and from their well-defined rounded edge, as well as their decided 
termination downwards, they might be considered as the true 
lamellae. It is clear, however, from their bearing the impression 
of hispid surfaces, that they are mere casts, formed while the 
original lamellae existed. The material of which they consist is 
more or less argillaceous, and includes numerous foraminiferae. 

Of the nature of the portion represented by the hollow cone, no 
opinion can be offered. That it possessed a certain amount of 
solidity, and had structural details which resisted, for a time, 
decomposition, is evident from the earthy matter which filled the 
spaces between the lamellae not having penetrated downwards into 
the cone, and from the marked characters of these casts. It is 
clear, also, from the preserved vestiges of the crust which en- 
veloped the lamelliferous portion, as well as from the surrounding 
cavities mentioned by Dr. Morton, that the external wall or in- 
tegument must have been thin. 

Locality. Timber Creek. 

r 2 



2. Idmonea contortilis Lonsdale. Sp. n. 

a. Branches natural size. 

b. Portion of the same magnified, and exhibiting the contorted mode of growth. 

c. Part of a branch more highly magnified, to show the pores in the surface. 

d. Magnified portion of the reverse side (e. nat. size), exhibiting the range of 
the tubes, exposed by fracture. 

Branches compressed, bifurcated, contorted and anastomosed ; 
tubular openings projecting, variously grouped ; no marked, con- 
tinuous, central line between the groups ; reverse surface slightly 
convex, furroived transversely, and streaked faintly by the separat- 
ing walls of the tubes. 

In the absence of the central line or medial ridge, and of a 
regular bilateral arrangement of the tubular openings, this coral 
differs from the generic characters of Idmonea as given by Lamou- 
roux (Exp. Methodique, p. 80.), and repeated by Milne Edwards 
(Ann. Sc. Nat., 2d series, vol. ix. Zool.) ; but it agrees in the 
general distribution of the openings with the latter author's en- 
larged figure of Idmonea transversa (loc. cit. PI. ix. fig. 3. ; like- 
wise Recherches sur les Polypes ; Memoire sur les Crisies, &c.) ; 
De Blainville also, in his description of the genus, says, the open- 
ings are disposed "en demi-anneau ou en lignes brisees" (Man. 
d'Actinol., p. 419.). There is a slight resemblance between the 
Timber Creek coral and the Cellepora echinata of Goldfuss (Pe- 
tref. xxxvi. f. 14.), an Astrupp tertiary fossil, but which is said 
to be attached to a Terebratula. 

The branches are slightly convex on both sides (see figures), and 
so greatly contorted that the reverse surface of some portions of a 
specimen are completely turned round. The tubular openings 


project more or less, and are variously grouped, but with a ten- 
dency to a transverse linear arrangement. The furrows between 
the openings are smooth, or but faintly traversed by longitudinal 
lines, marking the range of the tubes ; they are, moreover, minutely 
porous (c). On the reverse side very small pores may also be 
detected, though not generally, in consequence, probably, of the 
thickening of the external layer by matter secreted through them. 
This remark applies likewise to those between the tubular open- 
ings. On the inner surface of the layer, forming the reverse side, 
the pores are very distinct and numerous. 

The tubes are angular (d), and have a considerable range, bend- 
ing conformably to the contortions of the branches. The substance 
of their walls is not often well preserved, but where it is retained 
microscopic foramina may be also detected. 

No changes, incident upon age, have been noticed, except the 
probable thickening of the outer layers on both surfaces : no cases 
of young tubes have been observed. 

Locality. Timber Creek, New Jersey. 

3. Tubulipora Meg^ra Lonsdale. Sp. n. 


a. The coral of the natural size, to exhibit the general resemblance to the 
smaller species of Alecto. 

b. Portion magnified, showing the characters of the attached fasciculi and the 
tubercular openings. 

Dichotomous, fasciculi of tubes slightly conical ; mouths of the 
tubes united in a round, slightly projecting tubercle. 

To the unassisted eye this coral presents a perfect agreement 
with Lamouroux's genus Alecto, consisting apparently of simple 
tubes, and not of fasciculi of 2 to 5 tubuli. 

The fasciculi or branches gradually increase in breadth between 
the points of bifurcation, the broadest part being adjacent to the 
mouths. Externally they are round, but the outline of the surface 
is apparently modified by the papilke of the Echinite to which they 
are attached. The tubuli, where they have been accidentally 
exposed, are arranged laterally. The tubercle, composed of the 
mouths, or probably the abraded base of the vertical portion of the 
tubuli, is reflected vertically upwards, or is inclined at a consider- 

F 3 


able angle : it is cylindrical, and much less in diameter than the 
adjacent portion of the fasciculus. The mouths themselves are not 
arranged in a line, or in the same manner as the tubuli, but grouped 
so as to occupy the least possible breadth ; they are small, rounded 
on the exterior side, but flattened or angular at the points of contact. 
Locality. Timber Creek. 

4. Cellepora tubulata Lonsdale. Sp. n. 

a. Portion of a branch of the natural size. 

b. The same magnified, to show the elongated characters of the central cells. 

c. Magnified, elongated cells from the interior of the branch, with a perfect 
mouth and foramen under the proximal lip. The microscopic pores in the walls 
of the cells are likewise given. 

Branched; branches round, dichotomous ; cells irregularly ag- 
gregated, ovoid elongated or tubular ; mouth semicircular, large ; 
proximal lip straight with a minute foramen in the centre. 

The external surface of the branches rarely presents cases of 
perfect cells. Where they occur, they exhibit the usual ovoid 
form, and the mouth is well defined, being bounded completely 
by the distal arched covering of the cell ; there is also a foramen 
under the proximal lip. More generally the surface presents a 
confused congeries of circular or angular openings, leading into 
ovoid cells. Internally, the branches exhibit, when fractured 
transversely or longitudinally, a perfectly tubular character in the 
cells comprising the axis of the branch (o), the cells being of great 
length and angular from lateral interference or compression ; but 
towards the distal termination, as displayed in one instance, the 
ovoid form of the ordinary condition is assumed, by a swelling 
outwards, and the mouth is bounded by a regularly curved surface, 
the proximal lip being also supplied with a minute foramen (c). The 
prevailing form of the cells composing the mass of the branches is, 
however, ovoid, but variable in outline as well as in size and position. 
The cells are also much more numerous than is represented in fig. b. 

The minute foramen on the proximal lip was probably con- 
nected with the base of the spinous process, so frequently exhibited 
in recent and fossil species of Cellepora. On the surface of the 
sides of the tubular cells, and also on those of the ovoid, minute 
connecting foramina may be detected, well defined, and occasionally 
bounded by an opaque, or thickened, circular line. 

Localities. Lewis's Creek (South Washington, North Carolina), 
and Timber Creek. 



a, General mode of growth, the exposed surface being the reverse side of a 
layer of cells. 

b, Cells composing portion of an inner layer ; also reverse side of the opposite 

c, Cells forming part of an outer layer; one of them with a gemmuliferous 

Foliaceous, cells in two or more opposite layers, successively 
encrusting, but separable ; cells oblong or hexagonal, defined by a 
slightly depressed line, arranged in alternate rows, but not con- 
formably in succeeding layers ; outer surface of cell nearly flat, 
ribbed; mouth at the distal extremity ', small, round ; gemmuliferous 
vesicle large, hemispherical ; accessory foraminated vesicles two, 
over the mouth. 

In the notice of this coral (Synopsis, &c. p. 79., pi. xiii. f. 7.), 
Dr. Morton describes it under the name of Flustra sagena, but 
adds, " perhaps it is an Eschara." 

This polypidoni differs from described species of Escharina in its 
free, foliaceous mode of growth, in being composed of several 
opposite, enveloping layers, and in the facility with which the 
dorsal surfaces may be detached ; but it has been thought ad 
visable not to propose a new generic name for this and analogous 
fossil corals, the characters of Escharinae beiug considered to be 
not fully ascertained. The Cellepora nobilis of Esper (Pflanzen- 
thiere, Cellep. tab. vii.) exhibits similar consecutive layers of cells, 
but arranged around a cylindrical nucleus and not in free plates. 

The foliations arc of considerable dimensions, and are variously 
contorted (a), and sometimes anastomosed. The layers are thin, but 
when numerous the foliations exhibit considerable thickness. 
Specimens presenting the opposite layers in their original position 
are not common, in consequence of the facility with which 
they separate along the medial plane. Portions only of successive 
layers are also to be detected, and not very frequently. The per- 
fect outer layer was noticed in only one instance, (c) 

* Escharina Milne Edwards ; Lepralia Johnston. 
f 4 


Of the earliest state of the cells no positive information has been 
obtained* ; but it is inferred from the ribs, more or less distinctly- 
traceable on the outer covering, that they were in the young stage 
entirely open, and that the outer surface was produced by a uni- 
form development of rib-like processes from the side-walls of the 
cells, in the same manner as in certain species of recent Escharina. 

In the only observed case of a perfect outer layer (c), the cells 
were oblong and slightly hexagonal, and separated by a faint, 
depressed line. The external surface was, to a small extent, convex ; 
and ribs, though they were not prominent, could be detected, con- 
verging from the proximal and lateral walls towards the centre ; 
and the medial line of junction might also be discovered. The 
perfect mouth, placed in the middle of the distal extremity, was 
small and round, and in the same plane with the outer surface, but the 
lips projected slightly. The hemispherical gemmuliferous vesicles 
were relatively large, and comparatively numerous. They were si- 
tuated immediately over the mouth, and they altered the position of 
that orifice from a horizontal to an inclined position. The accessory 
foraminated vesicles were variable in outline but constant in occur- 
rence and situation, springing from the sides of the mouth, and 
increasing in size as they ranged upwards and outwards. The 
foramen was often well denned. From the position of these ve- 
sicles, the breadth of the distal extremity was apparently much 

In subjacent or older layers (b) the substance of the coral was not 
often preserved, having been detached with the overlying series, 
and leaving only calcareous casts of the interior of the cells ; but 
where it is retained, there were no marked differences of cha- 
racters, as far as observation extended, except in the absence of 
gemmuliferous vesicles. The mouths did not appear to have been 
filled up by the animal, and the foramina of the accessory vesicles 
were occasionally open : the depressed lines between the cells were 
also preserved. 

In fragments which exhibited only casts of the cells, the indi- 
cations of the ribs were sometimes as strong as on the outer 
surface, and the form of the mouth was well shown ; but there 
were only very slight indications of the accessory vesicles. 

Of the lateral connecting foramina nothing decided was ob- 
served in consequence of the perishable state of the layers ; but if 
the imperfect cells mentioned in the note * belonged to Escha- 
rina (?) sagena, the foramina were numerous. 

The dorsal surface along the medial plane of separation (a) 
very much resembled that of Flustra foliacea, when artificially 

Locality. — Timber Creek. 

* On the surface of one specimen, some immature cells, consisting of only the 
dorsal and side walls, were observed, occupying the exact position of an ordinary 
layer of Escharina sagena, but there were no proofs that they belonged to that 
species ; and all attempts to connect their structural details with those of the 
coral under consideration failed. 



a. b. Bifurcated branch, natural size and magnified, consisting of immature 
cells with the outer surface almost wholly open, and with no indications of a 
distinct mouth. 

c. d. Portion of a bifurcated branch, with mature cells. To the right of 
figure d is a cell with an uniformly depressed surface, and conjectured to have 
performed the office of a gemmuhferous vesicle : to the left are irregularly 
foraminated cells. 

e. f. Portion of an aged branch, with the characters of the mature cells 
obliterated by external additions and the production of irregular tubercles. 

g. Magnified side view of a branch, to show the position of the lateral con- 
necting foramina within the cells ; and of the small or defective cells exhibited 
also in the edge of figure d. 

Branched, branches compressed, dichotomosed ; cells hexagonally 
pyriform, separated by a fine lineal groove ; surface sloped inwards 
from the periphery ; mouth semicircular or semi-oval ; no accessory 

or gemmuliferous vesicles observed; lateral connecting foramina 

two, terminal one. 

See Dr. Morton's Synopsis Org. Rem., Cretaceous Group, United 
States, p. 79. pi. xiii. f. 8. 1834. 

Dr. Morton states that this fossil strongly resembles Eschara 
dichotoma of Goldfuss (Petref. tab. viii. f. 15.), a Maestricht 
coral, and there is a perfect agreement in the mode of growth, as 
well as a general resemblance in the form of the cell ; but a con- 
siderable difference, in structural details, is visible when the two 
fossils are compared. The cells in both cases are hexagonal, but 
the sides of those composing the Maestricht Eschara, as given by 
Goldfuss, are very nearly, if not quite equal, and they are slightly 
but uniformly curved ; whereas, in the Timber Creek specimens, the 
sides are almost invariably unequal, the proximal and distal being 
considerably smaller than the lateral, and the curvature is variable 
in amount and direction, giving the cell a pyriform aspect. The 
relatively broad grooves between the cells in Eschara dichotoma 
are represented in the American species by a fine line : the mouth 
of both fossils is semi-circular, but more completely so in the 
Maestricht than the Timber Creek coral ; in Goldfuss's species, 


moreover, it is bounded, at the distal extremity, by a broad flat 
band which is extended around the whole periphery of the cell ; 
while in Dr. Morton's coral the surface slopes inwards from the 
very edge of the cell. 

These differences are not pointed out under the supposition that 
Dr. Morton conceived the two corals might be identical, for he was 
clearly aware of their distinction, but because both the Maestricht 
and Timber Creek deposits are members of the Cretaceous series, 
and the perfect agreement in generic outline with Goldfuss's figure 
(14 a), might lead a less careful observer than Dr. Morton to the 
inference, that the fossils are specifically the same. 

The branches preserve a considerable uniformity of breadth, 
expanding only towards their bifurcation, and there very slightly, 
in consequence of the addition of one or more lateral rows. They 
diminish in thickness towards the edges, where they are rounded. 

The cells on the opposite side of the medial line agree generally 
in position, and those forming the surface of the branches have a 
great regularity in size and relative proportions ; but, at the point 
of bifurcation, and along the edges of the branches, small and im- 
perfect cells may very frequently be observed, the latter exhibiting 
sometimes irregular pores in the external covering. 

Of the earliest state of the cells no evidence was obtained ; and 
of the condition after the formation of the side-walls only one case 
was noticed. It consisted (a, b) of a portion of a main branch, 
with part of another springing from a bifurcation. The surface 
of the greater number of the cells was wholly open, indicating 
considerable rapidity of development, or slowness in the formation 
of the exterior ; and in only a few instances was there a commence- 
ment at the proximal extremity of the outer surface. The walls 
of the latest produced cells, or those at the superior extremity of 
the bifurcated branches, had a sharp edge without any line of 
separation ; but in the cells of the undivided branch, and where 
the development of the external covering had commenced, fine 
grooves were perfectly visible. This great production of imma- 
ture cells is analogous to many well-known recent examples. 

In what was believed to be another step towards maturity, the 
surface of the cells was considerably developed, but the mouth was 
not regularly defined, the open part being large and circular. The 
structure of the mature cells is given in figure d, and in the 
specific characters. 

The passages from maturity to what may be termed a state of 
decrepitude afforded some interesting structural details. In the 
first steps, the fine separating grooves between the cells were par- 
tially or completely obliterated, and a general thickening of the 
parietes was noticed ; but these changes were not always most 
decidedly shown in the oldest cells of the branch, depending, ap- 
parently, in part upon the individual polype. In a specimen in 
which the above alterations were not so complete as in other 
cases, there appeared upon the surface of the cells several minute 
prominences, and one or two fractured vesicles. Some of the 


intermediate stages were not noticed ; but in specimens believed to 
be far advanced towards extreme age (e, f) the surface of the cells 
was convex, instead of being concave ; all traces of lines of separa- 
tion were obliterated, the mouth was irregularly shaped, sometimes 
with a tooth -like projection on the proximal lip, and the whole 
surface of the branch was beset with perforated or abraded ve- 
sicles.* No instance of a perfect filling up of the mouth, which 
would characterise perhaps the oldest condition of the coral, was 
noticed. A due preservation of the specimens, which exhibited 
these stages, forbade any attempt to trace a connection between the 
vesicles and the polype cells ; but a transverse section of a mature 
branch exposed clearly capillary tubes, passing through the sub- 
stance of the thick external covering of the cell. 

The lateral and terminal foramina in the walls of the cells were 
well exhibited. The former, two in number (see figure g\ were 
relatively large, situated near the extremities of the cell, and 
close to the dorsal wall. In one beautifully exposed specimen, the 
presumed use of these foramina in the formation of cells was 
instructively shown. The specimen (figure g) displayed the sec- 
tions of a series of cells with thickened parietes, and the lateral 
foramina, also the rounded edge of the branch composed of a 
regular double row of small cells, divided longitudinally by the usual 
middle or dorsal layer of separation. The mouths of these cells 
were small and round, and might be mistaken for lateral foramina ; 
but the boundaries of the diminutive cells, to which they were the 
regular openings, were clearly to be traced. The length of these 
imperfectly developed cells was about half that of the full-grown ; 
and the mouths accorded in position with the situation of the lateral 
foramina. It is, therefore, inferred, that each minor cell was pro- 
duced by means of one lateral foramen, the perfect development 
not having taken place, owing to the absence, in the same longi- 
tudinal row, of a full-grown anterior cell. In consequence of the 
quincuncial arrangement of the perfect cells, each polype had, by 
means of the lateral and terminal foramina, immediate connection 
with six other cells. 

Cases of monstrosity or deviation from the normal form occur, 
as before mentioned, near the edges and at the bifurcation of the 
branches ; but it is believed that some entire branches were com- 
posed of irregularly-shaped cells, and might, without care, have 
been assigned to a distinct species. 

No traces of accessory vesicles were observed, nor any satisfac- 
tory signs of a gemmuliferous vesicle. In one case the whole sur- 
face of a cell was deeply depressed (fig. d), and might have formed 
a receptacle for the development of gemmules. 

Locality. Timber Creek, New Jersey. 

* These vesicles or bladders must not lead to the inference that there is any 
resemblance between Eschara digilata and the recent coral Cellepora cervicornis. 
In the former case the bladder .has no regular cellular structures, while in the 
latter there is always a perfectly developed mouth, with accessory vesicles. 


January 31. 1844. 

Seymour Tremenheere, Esq., was elected a Fellow of this Society. 
The following communications were read : — 

1. On the Thickness of the Lower Green sand Beds of the 
South East Coast of the Isle of Wight. By F. W. Simms, 
Esq., F.G.S. 

The last time the Green sand beds below the Chalk were the sub- 
ject of discussion before the Society, great diversity of opinion was 
expressed concerning the thickness of the group of beds denominated 
" The Lower Green sand." To remove all doubt on this point, 
Dr. Fitton proposed revisiting the south-east coast of the Isle of 
Wight, and requested my co-operation in determining their thick- 
ness. The following vertical section of the strata, seen in the 
cliffs of the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, and including 
the three entire groups, viz : — 

i. The Upper Green Sand, 

2. The Gault, 

3. The Lower Green Sand, 

was made in company with Dr. Fitton, Mr. Mackeson of Hythe, 
and the President of our Society, during a visit we made to that 
coast in July last 

The horizontal line over which these measurements extended, 
that is, from Atherfield point to the Cliff on the south of St. Ca- 
therine's Down, is about three miles in length. Along nearly the 
whole of this line, the coast is bounded by mural cliffs, except 
where slips have taken place (and these are often of considerable 
extent), and except where "Chines" (as they are called), that is to 
say, deep precipitous gullies, worn by the action of brooks in the 
argillaceous sands, open into the sea. 

Where the cliff was mural, and direct measurement was prac- 
ticable, the thickness of a bed was taken by the tape or graduated 
rod. Where direct vertical measurement was not practicable, as, 
for instance, where the fall of the cliff had obscured the continuity 
of the beds, the spirit-level was employed, as in ordinary engineer- 
ing operations. Without the aid of that instrument it would have 
been difficult, if not impossible, to carry on a connected series of 
measurement over so long a base line with any tolerable degree of 
accuracy. By the means employed, however, a series of vertical 
measures was obtained, which I consider to be a near approxima- 
tion to the truth. 

The apparent dip of the strata, as seen in the cliffs, and as 
resulting from actual measurement, near Atherfield, was to the 
east 2° ; but the true dip, as determined by the spirit-level at 
Atherfield Point, where the rocks were bare at low -water, was 
nearly south-east ; and its amount was found to be 2°. 

The junction of the Weald Clay with the Lower Green Sand is 



exceedingly well defined at Atherfield Point. That of the lower 
green sand with the gault, though not quite so obvious as the 
last-mentioned junction, is yet very satisfactorily ascertained — 
1st, Below the Hotel at Black-gang-Chine, where the green sand 
forms a line of terrace projecting beyond the gault ; 2dly, On the 
cliff eastward and immediately above Black-gang-Chine, where 
gault fossils occur at the very point of junction with the lower 
green sand. The junction of the gault with the upper green 
sand is well defined on the face of the cliff south of St. Cathe- 
rine's Down, east of the Sand-Rock Spring, and above the road 
leading from Black-gang-Chine to Ventnor. The junction of the 
upper green sand with the white chalk marl is very well marked, 
near the summit of the same cliff. 

The author stated that in the section, drawn according to scale, 
which accompanied this notice, he had given, not only the three 
principal groups, but also their more remarkable and best defined 
subdivisions, without pretending to describe, in needless detail, all 
the strata of which they are composed. From the particulars 
which he subjoins respecting these subdivisions, the following 
table is extracted : — 

Chalk Marl. 

Parallel layers of a soft rock, " hassock," which rapidly ft. in. 
disintegrates by exposure ; and of hard cherty sand- 
stone, which, after weathering, stands out in high 
relief - - . - - -37 

Sand, with beds of stone and chert - - -67 






Light-coloured gault, becoming gradually bluer 
Beds of decided blue colour. No fossils have 
found, except in the very lowest beds 


Lower green sand. No notice required 

Bed containing oysters and Gryphoea - 

Various beds not noticed - 

A bed of argillaceous sand, containing large lenticular, 
concretionary masses of very hard calcareous sand- 
stone, locally termed " the crackers." These masses, 
when broken, are found to contain numerous fossils - 

Blue argillaceous beds, the lowest of which approach 
in their character to fullers-earth. The upper of these 
beds contain Crustacea ; the lower contain remains 
of Pinna. In the latter respect, these beds agree 
with the clay that lies beneath the sand and stone at 
Hythe in Kent, described in the paper read before the 
Society in June last. If this bed be the equivalent 
of the clay bed at Hythe, the crackers will represent 
the stone- beds at Hythe, decribed in the same paper. 
They also agree with the Hythe stone-beds, in being 
very nearly at the same vertical distance above the 
Wealden. For the purpose of comparison, the Hythe 
section has been drawn to the same scale as that of 
the Isle of Wight- - 

Atherfield rock, containing many fossils 

Dark greenish sandy clay, looking black when wet, 
containing many of the same fossils as the rocky bed 






ft. in. 





2 2 


- 752 i I 


2. Report on the Lower Green sand Fossils in the Possession of 
the Geological Society. By Professor Edward Forbes, F.L.S. 

The collection of Lower Green Sand fossils at present in the 
cabinets of the Society contains 131 species of Mollusca. Of these 
82 are Lamellibranchiate Bivalves, 12 Brachiopoda, 23 Gastero- 
poda, and 14 Cephalopoda. Besides these, all well-marked species, 
there are a number of casts and fragments of species as yet unde- 

Of the 131 Mollusca, 60 are additions to the list of Lower Green 
sand Fossils, published by Dr. Fitton in the " Geological Transac- 
tions." Of these 60 additional species, between 30 and 40 are unde- 
scribed forms. The remainder are species described in the memoirs 
of Leymerie, D'Orbigny, Roemer, and other continental authors, 
but which have been hitherto unrecorded as British, with the ex- 
ception of a few included in Mr. Morris's catalogue. 

All the species have been critically examined, and characters 
drawn up of such as are new. 

The collection can by no means be regarded as complete, numer- 
ous additrons, including several very beautiful species, having been 
very lately presented to the Society ; and these there has not as 
yet been time to examine and place in the cabinets. 

Of the lower green sand Mollusca in the collection, 35 agree 
with Neocomien species recorded by M. Leymerie, and about 30 
with species from the Hillsthon and Hillsconglomerat of M. Yon 
Roemer. Many species, which had received new names from those 
geologists, have proved, on examination, to be well-known British 
species, figured in the Mineral Conchology or elsewhere. . Among 
these are several which are regarded on the Continent as charac- 
teristic of the so-called Neocomien beds. . 

Of Radiata, there are in the collection about 12 speeies of 
Polyparia and Amorphozoa, and 9 Echinodermata ; of Annelida 
8 or 9 species, and several Crustacea. Additions to this part of 
the collection are very desirable, especially better specimens of 

To complete the collection, fossils from the Speeton Clay, of 
which there are none in the Society's possession, are much wanted. 
The table now drawn up exhibits the species at present in the col- 
lection, and their relation to the French lower green sand fauna, 
and to that of Germany, as well as the British localities in which 
they have occurred. It appears from this table that the greater 
number of species are as yet only known as fossils of British 

[Note. It has been thought advisable to publish this report in its present form 
in the " Proceedings," as a record of what was done at the time. The catalogue 
referred to, enriched by many additions, and accompanied by figures of new 
species, will, it is hoped, be shortly placed in the possession of the Fellows 
of the Geological Society. — Ed.] 


3. Report on the Collection of Fossils from Southern India, 
presented by C. J. Kaye, Esq., F.Gr.S., and the Rev. W. H. 
Egerton, F.G-.S. By Professor Edward Forbes, F.L.S. 

In the descriptive catalogue accompanying this report, and re- 
ferring to the remains of invertebrate animals in the valuable 
collection of fossils from the South of India, presented to the 
Society by Mr. Kaye, and increased by an extensive series of 
specimens collected in the same localities by Mr. Egerton, 168 
species of Mollusca are enumerated, 156 of which, as far as can be 
ascertained, are undescribed forms. There are also a number of 
species of Radiata. 

The results of their examination may be briefly stated as fol- 
lows : — 

1st. The three deposits, viz. Pondicherry, Verdachellum, and 
Trinconopoly, described by Mr. Kaye, are Cretaceous, inasmuch as 
there are characteristic known cretaceous fossils in the collections 
from all of them, whilst no fossils of any other system occur. The 
nearest allies of the majority of the new species are cretaceous ; 
and among the genera and subgenera are many which, as far as 
we know, are confined to or have their chief development in the Cre- 
taceous system. The three deposits are connected with each other 
zoologically by the associations of certain species common to two 
of them, with others found in the third. 

2d. Two of the three deposits, viz. Verdachellum and Trinco- 
nopoly, are of a different epoch of the Cretaceous era from the 
third, Pondicherry. The two former have several species in com- 
mon (and those species among the most prolific in individuals), 
which are not found in the third. In them are found almost all 
the species identical with European forms. In several of the 
genera, of which there are many species, the forms are altogether 
distinct ; although, judging from the evidence afforded by mineral 
character and association of species, the conditions of depth and 
sea-bottom at the time of the deposition of the strata seem to have 
been the same. The difference therefore must have depended on 
a representation of species by species in time and not in depth. 

3d. The beds, apparently contemporaneous, viz. Trinconopoly 
and Verdachellum, may be regarded as equivalent to the upper 
green sand and gault ; the European species they include being 
either characteristic upper green sand and gault forms, or else 
such as occur in those strata. The neAv species they contain are 
either closely allied to known upper green sand or gault species, 
or peculiar to the Indian beds. 

4th. The Pondicherry deposit may be regarded as belonging 
to the lowest part of the Cretaceous system. In it almost all 
the fossils are new. Such as are analogous to known species 
are allied to fossils of the lower green sand of English geolo- 
gists and Neocomien of the French. In the genus most developed 
in this deposit, viz. Ammonites, three fourths of the species be- 


long to those subgenera especially characteristic of the " Lower 
Neocomien " of the Mediterranean basin ; whilst, of the remain- 
der, as many representatives of Oolitic fossils occur as of upper 
green sand. The resemblance between the Ammonites of this 
part of the collection and those of Castellane, in the south of 
France, is very remarkable, though the specific identity of any of 
them is doubtful. Having seen no account of the Conchifera of 
the Castellane beds, I cannot say how far the analogy is borne out 
among the bivalve Mollusca among the Indian species, of which 
there are many very peculiar forms. 

5th. Considered in regard to the distribution of animal life 
during the Cretaceous era, this collection is of the highest interest. 
It shows, that during two successive stages of that era the climatal 
influence, as affecting marine animals, did not vary in intensity in 
the Indian, European, and American regions, whilst the later of the 
two had specific relations with the seas of Europe, which are ab- 
sent from the earlier. The cause of this remarkable fact is not to 
be sought for in a more general distribution of animal life at one 
time than at another, but rather in some great change in the dis- 
tribution of land and sea, and in a greater connection of the Indian 
and European seas during the epoch of the deposition of the upper 
greensand, than during that of the lower. To this cause must 
also be attributed the peculiar tertiary aspect of the Indian col- 
lections, depending on the presence of a number of forms usually 
regarded as characteristic of tertiary formations, such as Cypraea, 
Oliva, Triton, Pyrula, Nerita, and numerous species of Voluta, 
the inference from which, since not one of the species is identical 
with any known tertiary form, should not be that the deposits con- 
taining them are either tertiary or necessarily connected with 
tertiary, but that the genera in question commenced their appear- 
ance earliest in the Eastern seas, which, when we recollect that in 
those very seas at the present day, are found the great specific 
assemblages or capitals of those genera, whilst they have either 
disappeared or have few representatives in the seas of other geo- 
graphical regions, is exactly what we should expect, a priori, to 
find. This fact would go far to support the theory, that genera, 
like species, have geographical birth-places as well as geographical 

The fact, that of the few species found in the Indian cretaceous 
beds which are common to the same beds in distant regions, the 
majority are such as range through several deposits of different 
ages, supports the probability of a law which I have elsewhere 
indicated, viz. that the range of the geographical distribution of 
species is usually correspondent to the range of their distribution 
in time. 

The probability of the proposed law, that the marine faunas of 
distant localities, under similar conditions of climate, depth, and 
sea-bottom, maintain their relations rather by the representation 
of forms by similar forms, than by identity of species, is also 
borne out by the examination of these collections. 


These inferences can be only put forth as provisional, until a 
thorough examination of the deposits described by Mr. Kaye in 
their stratigraphical relations be made, and the fossils of those 
localities which he did not visit have,' been still further examined 
on the spot. To the palaeontologist his collections are invaluable, 
as the specimens are in so fine a state of preservation, as to permit 
of an examination of their minute structure. 

The descriptions of fifteen of the Trinconopoly species in the 
catalogues were furnished to Mr. Kaye by Mr. George Sowerby. 

[Note. With regard to this report, it was also intended that it should 
have been accompanied by a descriptive catalogue of the fossils, and by figures 
of new species, and it is in so far, therefore, incomplete. It is published in this 
place as an indication of the important results actually arrived at by the study of 
these interesting fossils. — Ed.] 

4. On the Permian System as developed in Russia and other 
Parts of Europe. By Roderick Impey Murchison, Esq., 
F.G.S., V.P.R.S., and M. E. de Verneuil, Hon. Mem. Geo. 
Soc. of London. 

On the part of his associates, M. de Verneuil and Count Key- 
serling, and himself, Mr. Murchison has previously explained in the 
Proceedings of the Geol. Soc. the nature of the various deposits 
which constitute the subsoil of European Russia. As in all other 
parts of the world which have been adequately examined, the 
Silurian rocks are those which contain the earliest forms of animal 
life, and in Russia they are overlaid by Devonian and carboni- 
ferous deposits, each of which is there singularly well defined by 
its organic remains and regular superposition. 

In common with many other geologists, Mr. Murchison was 
formerly of opinion * that the above-mentioned three systems con- 
stituted the whole Palaeozoic series, but the examination of Russia 
and Germany has led him to include also therein the next group 
in ascending order, or that to which he had assigned "j* the name of 

When two or more conterminous formations are shown to have 
a community of fossils, it has recently been deemed essential to 
group them under one name ; and following the practice of as- 
signing to any such newly classed group a geographical name 

* See " Silurian System," p. 46. et seq. In England Professor Phillips has, 
however, sOYne time maintained that the fossils of the magnesian limestone 
ought to be grouped with the inferior strata. 

f See "Letter to M. Fischer Von Waldheim, Sept. 1841"; Leonhard's 
" Jahr Buch," part i. p. 91 1842 ; " Phil. Magazine," vol. xix. p. 418. 

VOL. I. G 


derived from the region where the strata are best developed, the 
term " Permian " was employed. This system was first proposed 
to embrace the deposits known in Germany as the Rothe-todte- 
liegende, Zechstein, Kupferschiefer, &c, and in England as Lower 
New Red Sandstone, Magnesian limestone, &c. 

In communicating some of the results of a journey in Poland 
and Germany during last summer, Mr. Murchison, one of the 
authors of the present memoir, states that his object is to show 
that his first view concerning the inferior limit of this system is 
correct — to extend its upper limits, and from the distribution 
and character of its organic remains to demonstrate that it is of 
palaeozoic age. 

Near Zwickau in Saxony, and Waldenburg in Upper Silesia, 
productive coal-fields (in the latter country recumbent on carbo- 
niferous limestone) are unconformably surmounted by red conglo- 
merate, sandstone and shale (the rothe-todte-liegende), which in 
those countries, as in Thuringia and Hesse Cassel, pass con- 
formably upwards into the Zechstein or its equivalents. The 
same relations of a lower sandstone to the Magnesian limestone 
are, indeed, well known in England, and have been pointed out in 
detail by Professor Sedgwick. Seeing that these two deposits are 
so intimately associated, few, if any, geologists would wish to dis- 
unite them ; but the question arises, what is the uppermost limit 
of this group. In Russia, beds of limestone identified with the 
Zechstein and Magnesian limestone by their organic remains are 
overlaid by a great thickness of marls, sands, and conglomerates, 
containing some of the same types of life as the lower members, 
particularly the plants which are very closely allied to and are 
in some instances identical with the vegetables of the carboniferous 
era. It became therefore desirable to ascertain whether similar 
palaeozoic features were to be found in other parts of Europe. 
Now in Thuringia and Hesse Cassel, the Zechstein is, in numerous 
localities, conformably surmounted by red and spotted sandstones, 
in which no traces of fossils distinct from those of the Permian 
era are observable, the only land plant found in them (the Cala- 
mites arenarius) being inseparable from well-known carboniferous 
forms. This overlying sandstone being perfectly conformable to 
the Zechstein, may, it is conceived (like the overlying sandstones 
of Russia), be classed with that rock. In making this suggestion, 
the authors disavow the intention of derogating in any respect 
from the Trias of German geologists, also a tripartite system, and 
of which the muschelkalk is the centre, with certain red and 
mottled marls and sands beneath, and the keuper sandstone above. 
The Triassic system does not contain a single Palaeozoic form, 
whether animal or vegetable, whilst the fauna and flora of the 
Permian are both so connected with the carboniferous and 
inferior systems, that they evidently constitute the last remnant of 
the same era. In the whole geological series, therefore, no two 
systems are more completely separated than the Permian and the 


Trias, the one forming the uppermost Palaeozoic stage, the other 
the base of the secondary deposits. 

After showing that the " Gres de Vosges," as described by 
M. Elie de Beaumont, is one of the arenaceous equivalents of the 
Permian system, and after alluding to its development in the 
neighbourhood of Strasburg and in other parts of Europe, where 
it is well separated from the Trias, attention is directed to the fact, 
that as far as researches had yet gone, the Trias is always con- 
formable to the Permian, whilst the " rothe-todte-liegende," or base 
of the latter, is frequently unconformable to the carboniferous 
rocks, on which it rests, and out of whose detritus it has often been 
formed. These phenomena, say the authors, prove that the most 
marked distinctions between the fossils of succeeding formations 
cannot be referred to physical revolutions of the surface ; for in 
the examples cited there is a sequence of congeneric remains, 
where the succession of the strata has been powerfully inter- 
rupted (Carboniferous to Permian), and a total change of fossils 
where the contiguous formations are conformable (Permian to 

These relations are expressed in this diagram : — 

r \ Keuper ..,.•[ 

..,,..;■. .;!■■■;..;,' , ry. \ ■', '. ',', V ^\ Muschelkalk • j. TRIAS. 

Upper Bunter | 
(Oris bigarm) J 

Lower Bunter . . . . ~\ 
Zechstein }• PERMIAN. 



The Permian fauna is then considered, and is said to exhibit the 
last of the successive alterations which the Palaeozoic animals un- 
derwent before their final disappearance. The total number of 
Permian species known to the authors in different parts of Europe 
(without reckoning certain ichthyolites not yet named, and a few 
doubtful forms of shells) is 166, of which 148 are characteristic of 
the system, 18 only being found in the subjacent Palaeozoic 
rocks. The Brachiopods being viewed as the shells of most value 
in determining the durations of the ancient rocks, it is stated, that 
10 out of the 30 Permian species are common to this system 
and the carboniferous. After some observations on the species of 
Productus, Spirifer, Orthis, Terebratula, Leptasna (Chonetes), 
which have lived on from earlier periods, it is remarked that no 
form of the Pentamerus, a genus peculiarly characteristic of the 
Silurian strata, has yet been found in the Permian strata, whilst 
the Brachiopod most frequent in the latter is the Productus, a 
genus very abundant in the carboniferous or conterminous de- 
posits, but unknown in the Silurian. Among the Conchifers 

G 2 


(26 in number) the Modiola is very characteristic of the Permian 
system, both in Russia and England ; and though the large species 
of Axinus so well known in England has not yet been found in 
Russia, its place is there taken by two other species of the same 
genus. The Avicula is also a good Permian shell, the A. Kaza- 
nensis being the best type in Russia, whilst the A. antiqua is 
there common to this deposit and the carboniferous. 

The Gasteropods, so abundant in the carboniferous era, have un- 
dergone great diminution before the formation of the Permian 
strata, and have had great difficulty in accommodating themselves 
to new conditions ; still more so the Cephalopods, for the forms of 
Goniatites, Nautili, and Orthoceratites, so very common in the pre- . 
ceding epoch, are almost unknown in this system, a fragment or 
two of one genus (Nautilus ?) alone having been found in all parts 
of Europe. This scarcity of Cephalopods at the close of the Pa- 
laeozoic series has a remarkable parallel in a subsequent geological 
period ; for as these animals were reproduced in vast abundance and 
under many new forms in the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous sys- 
tems, so towards the termination of the last of these we perceive a 
second and similar disappearance of the greater number of the shelly 
Cephalopods. The extreme reduction of the Gasteropods at the 
close of the cretaceous period, as indicated by M. Alcide D'Orbigny, 
is also pointed out as an additional feature of analogy to the Per- 
mian changes. Trilobites, so eminently characteristic of the Si- 
lurian system, and which dwindle away to a few small species in 
the carboniferous system, are unknown in the Permian of Western 
Europe and in Russia, and are only represented by a species of 
Limulus. Fishes, on the other hand, are numerous in proportion 
to the other Permian classes, 43 or 44 species being named, and 
several from Russia being yet undescribed ; these are all, with 
one exception, absolutely peculiar to the stratum in which they 
occur, thus confirming the truth of the generalisation of Agassiz, 
that these vertebrata mark with great precision the age of the 
stratum in which they are found. Lastly, the Permian beds of 
Russia, like the Dolomitic conglomerate of England and the 
Kupferschiefer of Germany, contain bones of thecodont Sau- 
rians, indicating the earliest appearance of animals of that high 
organisation, and their direct association with Palaeozoic shells and 
plants, some of which are undistinguishable from true carboni- 
ferous species. 

After thus following it back in time, the Permian fauna is next 
considered in horizontal extension or distance, the fossils of Russia 
being compared with those of similar age in western Europe. The 
number of species collected by the authors in Russia is 53 or about 
one third of the total number of the whole European fauna of the 
period, and of these 32 are peculiar to Russia, a large number 
when the recency and rapidity of the survey of the authors is ad- 
verted to ; and when it is considered that 33 species only were found 
by Professor Sedgwick in deposits of this age in England, and 41 


according to the recent tabular view of Geinitz is the total number 
known in Saxony where the Zechstein is very fully elaborated. 
Like other formations of synchronous age when at great distances 
from each other, the Russian succession of Permian strata cannot 
be brought into a detailed analogy with that of western Europe. 
Instead of occupying a fixed place like the calcareous beds which 
represent the Zechstein, they inosculate with great thicknesses of 
fossiliferous grit, whilst Saurians and fishes with certain Producti 
and Modiolce, as well as most of the plants, unquestionably occur in 
conglomerates, tufaceous limestones, and marls, which overlie the 
beds which contain Zechstein or Magnesian limestone fossils. In 
Germany, the Protorosaurus belongs to the Kupfer-schiefer which 
is below the Zechstein, whereas in Russia all the cupriferous and 
sauroid beds are above that rock. 

In analysing the species common to the Permian system of 
Russia and the rest of Europe (by stating the number which have 
lived on from the carboniferous to the Permian, and the diminished 
proportion of the latter), Russia alone is appealed to, and three only 
of the Permian species of that country are found to descend into 
the Palaeozoic rocks. The authors, therefore, infer that these 
results necessarily prove the existence of a relation between the 
greater or less duration of species and their propagation or ex- 
tension to distant parts, thus confirming a law previously an- 
nounced by one of them. 

Some detailed observations then follow on the species in each 
class found in Russia, and Mr. Lonsdale is cited as having as- 
sured them that although the Permian corals are evidently Palaeo- 
zoic in their generic characters, there is not a single species which 
is identical with a carboniferous form ; and it is also remarked 
that of 20 species of Brachiopods found in Russia 8 are peculiar 
to that country. 

Lastly, deriving their knowledge of the specific character of the 
plants from the examination of M. Adolphe Brongniart, aided by 
Mr. Morris, who had previously examined them, it appears certain, 
that whilst all the forms indicate a continuation of vegetable life 
of the same nature as that which prevailed during the carbo- 
niferous era, there are a few species (JVeuropteris tenuifolia, 
Lepidodendron elongatum, and Calamites Suckovii) which are 
identical with carboniferous plants, and not one which can be 
compared with a triassic plant.* 

The results of the inquiries of the botanist, the authors conclude 
by remarking, are therefore completely in accordance with those 

* The species of plants, ten or twelve in number, which have been found in 
the Kupfer-schiefer or the sandy beds associated with the Zechstein in Germany, 
are chiefly marine fucoids, and have been termed Caulerpites. According to 
M. Adolphe Brongniart, the only terrestrial plants of these German strata are 
the Teniopteris Echardi ( Germar), and a Neuropteris mentioned by Naumann, 
which not being determined must be considered doubtful. 

g 3 


of the palaeontologist. They clearly prove that the Permian system 
is the uppermost stage of that long Palaeozoic series, which, com- 
mencing with the lowest Silurian rocks, presents a connected suc- 
cession of animal and vegetable life, the last traces of which passed 
away with the termination of the strata under review. Until 
Russia was explored, the upper member of these ancient rocks 
had scarcely afforded a trace of terrestrial plants. Neither in the 
British Isles nor in Germany had there been found more than one 
or two species of land plants in deposits of this age, not one of 
which has yet been fully identified or described. Now in reference 
to the Russian species, such of them as had been previously al- 
luded to by other writers were placed by some in the carboniferous 
rocks, by others in the New Red Sandstone.* Our sections, how- 
ever, have shown that neither of these views is correct ; and as 
the Russian plants to which we have called attention, occur for 
the most part in strata distinctly overlying beds containing the 
fossils of the Zechstein, it is clear that certain red sandstones, 
marls and conglomerates, above that rock, belong to our Permian 
group, are wholly distinct from the Trias, and are truly Pa- 

We repeat, therefore, that we have now adduced ample botanical 
as well as zoological and stratigraphical evidence to vindicate the 
application of the collective word Permian to a succession of strata 
which had not been previously united through their geological 
relations and organic contents. 

These proofs will, we trust, be considered as still more strongly 
borne out by the grandeur of the phenomena to which we have 
appealed ; for the Permian deposits of Russia repose upon carbo- 
niferous strata throughout more than two thirds of a basin which 
has a circumference of not less than 4000 English miles. 

A detailed tabular list of the animal remains of the Permian 
system in Europe was also given, mentioning the names of the 
authors who have described each species, the localities at which 
it has been found, and its vertical range in the Palaeozoic series. 
This table will appear " in extenso " in the forthcoming work 
.upon Russia, and in the meantime the following recapitulation is 
subjoined; but the authors express their regret that their table 
was drawn up without the benefit of the long-promised assistance 
of Professor Agassiz. His observations on a few of the Permian 
ichthyolites which were submitted to him will increase the number 
of that class of fossils. 

* See a very recent memoir by M. Yasikoff, " Bull, de Moskou," 1843, part ii. 
p. 237., in which he refers an interesting portion of the Permian rocks described 
by us upon the Kama, and between that river and the Sok, either to the New 
Red Sandstone or the Carboniferous Limestone. 



Recapitulation of the Fauna of the Permian System in Europe. 



Species found in Russia. 


3 S 


• s! 




— x 

Previouslyfound elsewhere. 






3 la 
£ S 


5 L 
'E-° • 

s ex- 


» s 

to that 


r for 



o O rt 

„«T3 « 

« „.2 



OJ o 



In th< 


In old 


Polyparia - 








Echinodermata - 





Conchifera, Ord. Brachiopoda 









Ord. Dimyaria - 






Ord. Monomyaria 







Mollusca, Ord. Gasteropoda 






Ord. Cephalopoda 





Annelida - 




Crustacea - 





Pisces - 






Reptilia - 

Total - 









32 3 or 4 



February 21. 1844. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. Some Remarks on the White Limestone of Corfu and Vido. 
By Captain Portlock, R.E., F.G.S. 

As I have reason to expect that I shall hereafter be able to pre- 
pare a detailed account of the Geology of the Ionian Islands, and 
have at present but few data for a description of even the limited 
portion of the country as yet examined, 1 now only offer a few 
remarks on that portion of the white limestone which is adjacent 
to the city of Corfu, and occupies the whole of the Island of Vido, 
and on the more recent strata connected with it. 

On approaching Corfu the physical aspect of the country is very 
striking. Monte Decca on the south, and San Salvador on the 
north, the former with its sharp, broken, rugged outline, the latter 
with its conical peak rising from a long ridge, and both exhibiting 
steep faces marked by numerous deep furrows, by no means recal 
the ordinary forms of limestones in our more northern countries ; 

G 4 


but the type they present will, I think, be found to have a con- 
siderable geological range. 

In the Venetian harbour of Govino a singular variety of this 
limestone may be seen, and is thence traceable in rough knolls 
running in a westerly direction to the north of the village of Po- 
tamo. Its dark, rugged and often ochreous aspect, its sonorous 
fracture, and its impurities, are strong features of distinction be- 
tween it and the ordinary white limestone. It is traversed by 
numerous crystalline veins of a yellow saccharoid carbonate of lime 
which I have little doubt is highly dolomitic ; and it is full in- 
ternally of small bubble-shaped cavities, some of which are empty, 
and others contain a fine powder, the nature of which I have not 
yet determined. I believe this limestone to be of volcanic origin, 
or at least much changed, although no ordinary volcanic or other 
igneous rocks have as yet been discovered in the island. 

Returning now to the white limestone of Vido and the vicinity 
of Corfu, it will be necessary first to consider whether the geo- 
logical age of any part of it can be determined, and this is im- 
portant since, according to Dr. Davy, it belongs to the carboniferous 
limestone and a conglomerate associated with it represents the 
Old red sandstone, while, according to other accounts, the white 
limestone is oolitic, and the conglomerate tertiary. 

The adjacent mainland with which these Corfu and Vido beds 
must be associated contains secondary strata, considered to be 
oolitic, and much resembling in mineral character the hardened 
chalk of England and Ireland ; and Mr. Strickland, in describing 
the Geology of Smyrna, mentions that the more compact beds of 
yellowish limestone of that neighbourhood resemble the secondary 
limestones of the Ionian Islands. The former, however, are known 
by their fossils to be of lacustrine and tertiary origin. Mr. Strick- 
land also, in alluding to the Geology of Zante, considers the lower 
beds as Apennine limestone, and the upper ones as tertiary ; and 
the presence of Hippurites renders it probable that the former at 
least is of the Cretaceous period. 

Restricting myself to the description of the limestone of Vido 
and the opposite shore of Corfu, I may first observe that the greater 
portion, such as for example that of the citadel rock, the height of 
Fort Neuf and of Fort Abraham, is very indistinctly bedded, and 
vertical cleavage is visible on a large scale, more particularly at 
the citadel. I have as yet in vain sought for fossils at either of 
these localities, though the rock of Fort Abraham strongly re- 
sembles that of Vido, which contains a considerable quantity of 
them. Immediately below the citadel rock, forming its base, and 
dipping under it, is the limestone of Cape Sidero which is com- 
posed of numerous and often minutely laminated beds, from half 
an inch to several inches in thickness. These beds are associated 
with layers and nodules of flint, and very often present a highly 
curious and interesting character, being made up of angular frag- 
ments of the limestone, with occasional flints slightly displaced and 
re-cemented together : and this brecciated structure is sometimes so 


minute that it can only be detected by a lens, whilst in other cases 
it is coarser, and then readily disintegrates. At Cape Sidero the 
surface of the brecciated beds appears to me to have suffered 
erosion prior to the deposition of the other rock, portions of which 
are found in hollows on its surface. The same brecciated beds are 
seen more to the south, and may therefore underlie the massive beds 
of Monte Decca, just as they here do those of Cape Sidero. Similar 
alternating and highly laminated beds of white limestone and flints 
occur at the base of Fort Neuf, and again in Vido, at the base of 
the Tower Hill. Up to this geological point, I have as yet found 
no fossils, but in the massive limestone of Yido the case is dif- 
ferent, and having fortunately noticed a fragment on the face of 
one of our quarries, I directed the attention of the workmen to 
the fact, and they were not -long in discovering more. As the sur- 
face of Vido is only gently undulated, and there is no marked 
section, I have not yet been quite able to satisfy myself whether 
this limestone should, like that of the Corfu citadel, be considered to 
lie above the laminated beds, or below them. If the latter, the case 
is rendered easier. This limestone, like that of Fort Abraham, is 
full of fissures which are often filled up with ochreous matter, and 
even in the finer fissures traces may be noticed of oxide of iron. 

The fossils are very locally distributed : at the first fossil lo- 
cality Terebratulce only were discovered ; but at another, not 
many hundred yards from it, Ammonites are in abundance : these 
latter are, however, always in such a condition, from the splintery 
character of the bed containing them, that specific identification 
is almost impossible, although I am inclined to think that they 
belong to. Von Buch's division, Planulati, and therefore may be 
oolitic. Portions also of Univalves occur. Returning to the Te- 
rebratulse, some of the first specimens resembled those of the chalk ; 
but more perfect specimens presented the character of one of Von 
Buch's divisions, Acutce, which as yet appears to go no further 
upwards than the oolites. 

From a careful comparison of these fossils with the species most 
nearly allied, ( T. pala and a species from the lower oolites of 
Dim dry), I am induced to believe that the species which I ob- 
tained is new, and I propose to name it provisionally T. Seaton- 
iana, in honour of the present Lord High Commissioner, who 
has expressed himself anxious to promote a geological survey of 
the islands. I think also the character of the species affords strong 
ground for believing that the strata here belong to rocks as low in 
the series as the oolites. 

With respect to the tertiary strata, I can at present ' only state 
that in Corfu I believe that we have all the varieties (including 
the gypsum), mentioned by Mr. Strickland as occurring at Zante ; 
and I consider there is little doubt that the range of strata extends 
from the newer Pliocene to Miocene, if not Eocene. In an extensive 
excavation in the citadel, a yellow indurated calcareous sand was 
cut into, and a beautiful, though small section exposed ; dark lami- 
nated clays Avere interstratified with the sand, and associated with 


them was a seam of lignite (5 inches thick), which along the line of 
the excavation (450 feet in extent) exhibited numerous small faults 
at which the clay was always curiously contorted. Under the 
seam of coal was a more indurated portion of the calcareous sand, 
approaching to the character of hardened marl, and in this nu- 
merous examples of a Univalve were found, strongly resembling a 
Buccinum from Touraine. 

2. Account of the Strata observed in the Excavation of the 
Bletchingley Tunnel. By Frederick Walter Simms, 
F.G.S. M. Ins. C.E. 

A few months ago I had the pleasure of presenting to the Geo- 
logical Society some fossils collected by me in the course of the 
construction of the Bletchingley Tunnel, upon the line of the South 
Eastern Railway. These fossils consisted of bones of the Igua- 
nodon, Lepidotus Mantelli, and five specimens of the plant Cla- 
thraria Lyellii. I now request the Society's acceptance of a fine 
specimen of the Lepidotus Mantelli, which was found in the exca- 
vation about two hundred yards from the western extremity of the 

The range of hills formed by the escarpment of the lower green 
sand extends between Red Hill and Tilburstow Hill, and its direction 
is nearly from west to east. Between Bletchingley and Tilburstow 
Hill, this range sends off a spur in a southerly direction. It was 
through this spur, in a line nearly parallel to the sand range, and 
about a mile to the south of it, that the railway tunnel, and the 
excavation at each end, were carried. The spur, in the line of 
the cuttings, consisted chiefly of Weald clay. 

It was proved by the railway cuttings that this spur formed 
part of an anticlinal axis, which, as far as I can judge, extends 
across the Weald from the chalk of the North Downs in Surrey, 
between Merstham and Godstone, to the chalk of the South Downs 
in Sussex, near Ditchling. The surface waters that fall on the 
western side of this axis form feeders to the rivers Mole and 
Adur ; those that fall on the eastern side feed the sources of the 
Medway and the Ouse. 

In the excavation, at the east end of the tunnel, the beds were 
parallel to each other, and also to the surface of the ground, rising 
westward at an angle of about two degrees. The only organic 
remains, worthy of note, found in this part of the work, were a 
number of vertebras of the Iguanodon, which I presented to the 
Museum of the College of Surgeons. Many remains had been 
thrown away, although I had given orders to the contrary. 

As the work advanced towards the anticlinal axis, the strata 
showed symptoms of considerable disturbance, having numerous 
faults and displacements which occasioned much trouble and dif- 
ficulty in the construction of the tunnel. On the west of the axis, 
near the level of the roof of the tunnel, a detached mass of sand- 
rock, about fifty feet in length, lay across our path. From this a 



great body of water was discharged into the workings. The rock 
disappeared abruptly. The chief fossil remains which were found 
in the course of the tunnel works, were those before named, which 
are now in the possession of the Society. 

The excavation at the western end of the tunnel, from whence 
the specimen of Lepidotus Mantelli was obtained, was full of 
faults and displacements, the strata dipping in various directions 
from W. by N. to E., and at almost every angle from 5° to 60°. 
This state of things caused much trouble on the south side of the 
excavation, by the continual slipping in of the earth ; but on the 
north side no slip took place, and the slope stands apparently well. 
At the western end of the excavation, the ordinary dip was about 
13° N. 

In this cutting there were beds of sandstone, bearing a very 
strong ripple mark ; these beds partook of the general disturbance. 

The well-known displacement of the beds of the lower green 
sand, exposed on the road-side near the top of Tilburstow Hill, is 
about one mile and a quarter north-east of the excavation I have 
been describing. 

3. Remarks upon Sternbergije. By John S. Dawes, Esq., F.G.S. 

a. Fragment of Sternbergia, showing the internal central structure apparently 

b. Portion of the branch of a walnut tree, showing somewhat similar structure. 

In the autumn of 1838 certain specimens of vegetable remains 
were discovered in the coal grit at Oldbury, near Birmingham, 
which appeared to show, very distinctly, the internal structure of 
those remarkable fossils, the Sternbergise. The circumstance was 


considered, at the time, completely to corroborate the opinion 
that they were distinct plants, but having recently examined 
these specimens with more attention, and having had an oppor- 
tunity to compare them with others, since discovered, I am 
enabled, I believe, to point out that these curious columnar forms 
are merely casts of the medullary cavities of stems or branches of 
trees, similar to that at Darlaston, lately described ; for, upon one 
of the fossils alluded to, the interior of which is composed of a 
series of horizontal plates, we find that a part of the woody tissue 
of the tree is still attached to the column, and another specimen 
which shows, upon its exterior, traces of the characteristic rings, 
exhibits also a considerable portion of adhering wood. But more 
direct evidence is afforded by a branch, now converted into iron- 
stone (see fig. a), down the centre of which a distinct arrangement of 
similar plates may be observed, occasionally anastomosing or rather 
merging one into the other, exactly as the external forms of 
Sternbergias would lead us to expect ; and a smaller specimen from 
another district (North Staffordshire) appears still more clearly to 
show this connection. I may also mention that the pith of recent 
wood (Juglandacece), on losing its moisture, has occasionally been 
found to separate, after a manner somewhat similar (b). It is rare, 
however, that specimens in the fossil state, retaining this structure, 
have been met with, the plates having only been preserved when 
mineral matter has atomically replaced the cellular tissue, the 
plants having previously been in a dry or partially decayed state. 
In general, the material has filtered into and filled up the inter- 
stices, producing the usual cross-barred or ringed appearance of 
these fossils. Sometimes, cylindrical casts may be found which 
are marked externally by sharp, longitudinal, irregular strias, re- 
presenting probably a portion of the medullary sheath. The 
whole of the cellular tissue, in such cases, has previously been 
carried away ; but a fine tree at Darlaston has afforded proof that 
under peculiar circumstances the mineralizing process may com- 
mence soon after the fall of the plant. Thus, in all probability, 
the central column of that specimen will retain the cellular struc- 
ture. In conclusion, I may allude to the isolated and peculiar 
fragmentary state in which these cylindrical bodies occur. We 
find no attached branches, no roots, no leaves or leaf-scars ; 
indeed, there is a total want of every part of a vegetable, by which 
these fossils might be identified as distinct plants : for the car- 
bonaceous covering, now and then met with, and supposed to have 
been the bark, being sometimes very irregular is most likely acci- 
dental, or in some cases may arise from portions of attached wood 
having become converted into coal. Should the discovery of 
further specimens more completely prove these views respecting 
Sternbergiae to be correct, we may perceive from their occurrence 
in, I believe, all our coal fields, how frequently a small cylindrical 
column alone remains when every other vestige of the magnificent 
plant from which it originated has been lost. 



4. On the Thalassina Emefji, a fossil Crustacean, fonvarded by 
Mr. W. S. Macleay, from New Holland. By T. Bell, F.R.S., 

Professor of Zoology in King's College, London. 

Thalassina Emerii Bdl. 

a. View of the under side, showing the tail turned over upon the belly. 

b. Side view. 

c. End view, showing the rostrum only. 

This fossil, forwarded from Mr. Macleay and brought by Lieu- 
tenant Emery from Australia, belongs to the typical genus of a 
very remarkable family of decapod Crustacea, the Thalassinidce 
( Thalassiniens of Milne Edwards), as Mr. W. S. Macleay has sur- 
mised. Of the genus in question, Thalassina, but a single recent 
species is known, and little has been ascertained respecting its 
habits. There is, however, reason to believe, that in this respect 
it agrees with the species most nearly allied to it in structure, 
several of which being found on our own coasts have afforded 
opportunities for more accurate observation. These, as far as 
their habits have hitherto been traced, are all of them burrowers, 
making their way to a considerable depth in the sand at various dis- 
tances from the shore. The species 'of the genus Gebia, which is 
very nearly allied to the present, are all to be obtained by digging 
in the mud or sand at low tide ; and the Gebia stellata, as stated 
by Dr. Leach, form subterranean, horizontal, and winding passages, 
" often of a hundred feet or more in length." The same habit is 
also known to belong to Callianassa, another nearly allied genus. * 

* The structure of these animals is adapted only for this mode of life, and is 
exhibited typically in the present genus. The narrow semicylindrical abdomen, 


The recent species of the genus to which the fossil belongs, 
Thalassina scorpioides, is stated by Leach*, Desmarest f, and others, 
to be a native of the Indian seas. Milne Edwards on the other 
hand gives the coast of Chili as its habitat. It is not impossible 
that it may have been found in both these localities ; a specimen 
which I have in my possession was said to have been brought from 
India, but of this I have no positive evidence. 

The fossil, which I propose to designate, after its discoverer, 
Thalassina Emerii, consists of the sides of the carapace, in toler- 
able preservation, the dorsal portion being quite lost ; the first four 
joints of the first and second pairs of legs are tolerably perfect ; of 
the third and fourth pairs the basal joints alone remain, and the 
fifth pair is lost. The whole of the abdomen, with the exception of 
the third segment, is very perfect ; it is abruptly bent forward upon 
itself, the terminal joint resting beneath the thorax, between the third 
and fourth pairs of legs {Jig- a). The rostrum also is very perfect, 
broken off from the carapace, and lying vertically between the an- 
terior legs (Jig. c). It is prolonged into a grooved triangular tooth, 
and there is a small prominent tubercle on each side, at a short dis- 
tance from it. The raised lines, circumscribing the rostral tooth, 
are continued backwards to some distance, as is also its deep me- 
dian groove. A second raised line is continued backwards from 
the small denticle, or tubercle, on each side. 

The similarity between this species, as far as the state of the 
fossil will allow of the comparison, and the recent one, is so great, 
that there is some difficulty in fixing upon valid distinguishing 
characters. It differs, however, in the proportion of the epimeral 
or lateral portions of the abdominal segments, which are somewhat 
less developed in the fossil than in the recent species, and in the 
form of its terminal segment, or middle lobe of the tail, the length 
of which is to its breadth in the fossil as 8 to 6, and in the recent 
species as 11 to 6. The sides of the carapace are, in the former, 
somewhat more uniformly covered with minute raised points, 
which, in both species, render the surface bistinctly scabrous. 

This specimen derives additional interest from its being the 
only fossil Crustacea which has yet been found in New Holland. 

the attenuated lateral lobes of the tail, and the filiform appendages of all the 
abdominal segments, evidently unfit them for swimming ; whilst their fossorial 
habits are amply provided for by the strength and flatness of the two anterior 
pairs of thoracic limbs, which are admirably adapted for excavating the sand or 
hardened mud in which they reside. 

* Zool. Miscell. iii. Mai. Brit. 

f Consid. Gener. Crust. Diet, des Sc. Nat. 





I. Remarks on the Molluscous Animals of South Italy, 
in reference to the Geographical Extension of the Mollusca, 
and to the Mollusca of the Tertiary Period. By Dr. A. Phi- 

[From the Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, vol. x.] 

During my last two years' residence in Naples and Sicily, in 
the years 1838 and 1839, I have had an opportunity greatly to 
extend my earlier researches on the mollusca of Sicily, and the 
fossils of that tribe of animals whose remains are there so ex- 
ceedingly abundant. Amongst other things, I have been enabled 
to bring within the sphere of my observation the group of tertiary 
fossils of South Calabria, which district I have traversed in 
several directions, from Cape delle Armi to the ancient Crotona, 
and have now published a second volume of my " Enumeratio 
Molluscorum Sicilian," in which I enumerate 814 species of living 
mollusca, and 589 fossil ; whilst in the first only 540 living, and 
367 fossil species appear ; so that the additional volume contains 
274 living and 222 fossil species, which are wanting in the first. 
In this new work 258 species are figured in 16 plates. Among 
the 274 newly described species, there are, however, .about 95 
which I have not myself seen, or of which I have some doubt 
whether they really are indigenous in South Italy ; and many of 
these may require to be struck out of the list, especially several 
of the numerous Helices, described as Sicilian by Messrs. Aradas, 
Calcara, Testa, and other naturalists. Since, however, the descrip- 
tions of these new species are often unsatisfactory, I have avoided 
offering an opinion concerning them, and have contented myself 
with giving an account of them in the words of the author. 
Owing to this, I have felt myself obliged to relinquish the com- 
parison of the land and fresh-water mollusca of Sicily with those 
of other countries, but I have done so the rather, and confined myself 
to the marine mollusca, because these latter alone have reference 
to the fossils of the tertiary period. Unfortunately we possess, 
from very few districts, even tolerably complete lists of the mol- 
lusca, and can rarely rely on the general works, such as those of 


Gmelin and Lamarck, for the accurate statement of localities, so 
that the results obtained and recorded in this memoir concerning 
the geographical extension of the Mediterranean mollusca are 
necessarily very incomplete. Notwithstanding this, the publication 
of them will not, I hope, be thought superfluous ; since a know- 
ledge of the geographical extension of the mollusca is a matter far 
more important in reference to Geology than a similar knowledge 
concerning other classes of animals. 

The fossil remains of mollusca must always be the main ob- 
jects of investigation in researches concerning the age and history 
of the crust of our earth ; and on their authority must be deter- 
mined a multitude of important geological questions. It can hardly 
require proof that an acquaintance with the geographical extension 
of these animals at present, affords the only safe foundation for 
such researches concerning fossils ; and I turn now at once to the 
results obtained by my own labours. 

1. Comparison of the Fauna of Greenland with that of South Italy. 

The " Fauna Groenlandiae " of Otto Fabricius was long the only 
work on Greenland I could avail myself of ; and up to the publica- 
tion of my second volume of the " Enumeratio," I should have been 
obliged to limit myself to this as the only authority. Fabricius gives 
(from No. 381 to 427.) only forty-six species of shell-bearing mol- 
lusca, to which must be added two Cephalopoda, a Doris, an .ZEoris, 
and the Clio borealis (the Ascidia, which I have also omitted in the 
" Enumeratio," not being counted). Very lately, however, a com- 
plete catalogue of the Greenland mollusca has appeared from M. 
H. P. C. Moller (Index Molluscorum Groenlandiaeu Hafniae, 1842). 
Of the mollusca there enumerated, the following species are met 
with in the Mediterranean : 

Octopus granulatus. Tellina fragilis L. 

Area minuta. Saxicava arctica L. 

Mytilus edulis L. Teredo navalis. 

2. Comparison of the Fauna of Great Britain with that of South 


Of no country is the fauna generally, and that of the mollusca 
in particular, better known than of Great Britain, although the 
hitherto standard works of Donovan, Montague, &c, are almost un- 
known on the Continent ; and neither Lamarck nor Deshayes have 
generally used them. A very good outline of the English mollusc- 
fauna will be found in Fleming's " History of British Animals," 
Edin. 1828 ; and, although this author has often, and as if inten- 
tionally, made use of generic names in a sense quite different from 
that of the founder of the genus, I have found it easy, with the 
help of Montague, to identify the names. 

The list enumerated by Fleming, compared with that which I 
have obtained from South Italy, stands as follows, according to the 


rather curious arrangement which I have taken as the most con- 
venient in making the comparison with fossil species. 

Marine Bivalves 
Fresh- water ditto 
Brachiopoda - 
Pteropoda * - - 

Naked marine Gasteropoda 
Conchiferous ditto ditto 
Land and fresh-water ditto 
Heteropoda - 
Cephalopoda - 
Cirrhopoda * - 


South Italy 























Or, abstracting from the Italian list the groups not given in 
Fleming, we have 

British. South Italy. 
Marine mollusca ~ 422 573 

Land and fresh-water ditto - 103 197 



It appears from this result* that South Italy is, as might 
indeed have been expected, richer in point of species than the 
British Isles, and that the proportion is nearly 147 to 100. 
This proportion of course does not hold with respect to separate 
groups, and the bivalves are actually more numerous in Great 
Britain than in South Italy. 

The following species are common to Great Britain and 
South Italy, namely — 

Marine Bivalves. 

Teredo navalis /,. 
Pholas dactylus L. 
Candida L. 
Solen vagina L. 

siliqua L. 

ensis L. 

legumen L. 

coarctatus L. 
Solecurtus strigilatus L. 
Panopasa Aldrovandi Men. 
Lutraria elliptica Lain. 
Scrobicularia piperata Gm. 
Mactra solida L. 

stultorum L. ? 
Bornia seminulum Ph. ? 

(Kellia rubra Flem. ?) 
Corbula nucleus Lam. 

Pandora obtusa Leach. 
Osteodesma corrmcans Scac. 

(norvegicum ?) 
Thracia pubeseens Leach. 
Gal comma Turtoni Sow. 
Saxicava arctica L. 
Yenerupis Irus L. 
Psammobia vespertina L. 
costulata Turt. 
feroensis L. 
Tellina doiiacina L. 

fabula Gm. 

tenuis Mat. ct Rack. 

fragilis L. 

baltica L. 
Diplodonta rotundata Mont. 
Lucina spinifera Mont. 

* It is remarkable that Fleming omits entirely Pteropoda, Cirrhopodaj 
and the genus Dentalium, and inserts the Pteropod Odontidium rugidostan, 
describing it as an Orthocera. The addition of the Pteropod makes the 
complete British list given by Fleming include 525 species. 
VOL. I. H 



Lucina commutata Ph. 
radula Lam. 
lactea Poli non L. 
Donax complanata Don. * 
Mesodesma donacilla Desk. 
Cytherea Chione L. 
exoleta L. 
lincta L. 
Venus casina L. 

verrucosa L. 
fasciata Don. 
gallina L. 
undata Penn. 
radiata Broc. 
decussata L. 
aurea Matt, et Rack. 
laeta Poli. 
Cardium echinatum L. 
aculeatum L. 
tuberculatum L. 
laevigatum L. 
exiguum Cm. 
edule L. 
parvum Ph. 

(fasciatum Mont. ?) 
Isocardia cor L. 
Area Noa? L. 

navicularis Brg. 

Area lactea L. 

barbata L. 
Pectunculus pilosus L. 

violacescens ? 
(P. nummarius Ang. ?) 
Nucula margaritacea Lam. 

minuta L. 
Modiola discrepans Lam. 
barbata L. 
lithophaga L. 
Mytilus edulis L. 
Pinna rudis L. 

pectinata L. 
Avicula tarentina Lam. 
Lima subauricula Mont. 

tenera Turt. 
Pecten jacobaeus L. 
opercularis L. 
varius L. 
pusio Lam, 
Ostrea depressa Ph.? 

(parasitica Flem. ?) 
Anomia Ephippium L. 
polymorpha Ph. 
margaritacea Poli. ? 

(squamula. ) 
aculeata Mont. 

Fresh-water Bivalves. 

Cyclas cornea L. 

lacustris Mull. 
calyculata Drap. 

Terebratula vitrea L. 

Pisidium obliquum Lam 
fontinale Drap. 
Anadonta anatina L. 


Terebratula caput serpentis L. 

Naked Marine Gasteropoda. 

Doris verrucosa L. 
argus L. 

reticulata Schultz. ? 

Aplysia depilans L. 

punctata Cuv. 

Elysia viridis Mont. ? 

(identical with Aphlysiopterus 
neapolitanus D. Ch., accord- 
ing to Cautraine). 

Conchiferous Marine Gasteropoda. 

Chiton laevis Penn. Bulla hydatis L. 

fascicularis L. truncatula Brg. 

Patella vulgata 1,. ? truncata Adams. 

Tissurella grasca L. Bulla?a planciana Ph. 
Emarginula cancellata Ph. punctata Ad. 

Pileopsis ungarica L. Truncatella truncatula Drap. 

Calyptraea vulgaris L. Rissoa exigua Mich. 
Bulla lignaria L. fulva Mich. 

* This is described as D. trunculus L., but those I have seen from the 
North Sea under this name are of a different species. 



Rissoa alcathiscus Mont. 
ventricosa Desm. ? 
(labiosa Flem. ?) 
Eulima polita L. 

subulata Don. 
Chemnitzia elegantissima Mont. 
Chemnitzia pallida Ph. ? 

(unica Angl. ?) 
scalaris Ph. ? 

(simillima Angl. ?) 
Natica intricata Don. 

subcarinata Walk. 
Ianthina bicolor Menke. 
Coriocella perspicua L. 
Haliotis tuberculata L. 
Tornatella tornatilis L. 
Scalaria communis Lam. 
Trochus granulatus Born. 
conulus L. 
crenulatus Broc. 
striatus L. 

rugosus L. (Turbo). * 
magus L. 

Phasianella pulla L. 
Turritella communis Bis. 
Cerithium fuscatum Costa. ? 
Cerithium perversum Lam. 

lima Brg. 
Pleurotoma gracile Mont. 

attenuatum Mont. 
septangulare Mont. 
purpureum Mont. 
linear e Mont. 
Fusus echinatus Sow. ? 

(muricatus Flem. ?) 
Murex erinaceus L. 
Chenopus pes pelecani L. 
Cassis undulata L. 
Buccinum reticulatum L 
ascanias Brg. 
minimum Mont. 
variabile Ph. ? 
(Nassa ambigua Flem. ?) 
Marginella lasvis Donov. 
Cypraea coccinella I^am. 

Land and Fresh-water Gasteropoda. 

Limax rufus L. 
Testacella haliotidea F. B. 
Vitrina pellucida Mull. 
Succinea amphibia Drap. 
Helix Pomatia L. 

pisana Mull. 

elegans L. 

ericetorum Mull. 

variabilis Drap. 

carthusiana Drap. 

aculeata Mull. 

nitida M'dll. 

rupestris Drap. 

crystallina M'dll. 

striata Drap. 

rotundata Mull. 

aspersa Mull 

arbustorum L. 

nemoralis L. 

hortensis Mull. 
Bulimus acutus Brg. 

obscurus Mull. 
pupa L. 

Achatina acicula Mull. 
lubrica Miill. 
Pupa muscorum Mull. 
a vena Drap. 
antivertigo Drap. 
pygma?a Drap. 
pusilla Mull. 
Balea perversa L. 
Clausilia bidens Miill. 
Cyclostoma elegans Miill. 
Limnams palustris Miill. 
ovatus Miill. 
minutus Drap. 
Physa fontinalis L. 
Planorbis marginatus Drap. 

spirorbis M'dll. 
Valvata piscinalis Mull. 

cristata Mull. 
Paludina tentaculata L. 

thermalis L. 
Ancylus fluviatilis Drap. 
lacustris L. 

Octopus vulgaris Lam. 
Loligo vulgaris Lam. 
sagittata Lam. 


Sepiola Rondeleti Leach. 
Sepia officinalis L. 

* Dephinula calcar of English naturalists, which is found very rarely on 
the English coast, appears to me to be the young of Turbo rugosus. 

h 2 


Great Britain therefore, compared with Sicily, gives — 

Marine Bivalves 

Absolute No. of 

No. of Species 

Proportion of Species 




or 42 per ct. Brit. 

45 Sicil. 

Fresh-water do. 





54 „ 

Naked marine Gas- "1 
teropoda J 
Conchiferous do. do. 










13 „ 

18 „ 

Land and fresh- "1 
water do. J 





^5 „ 





It appears from the above table that (with the exception 
of the less numerous and therefore for purposes of com- 
parison more doubtful Cephalopoda) the Bivalves exhibit the 
maximum analogy between this part of the faunas of the two 
countries ; that next to them come the land and fresh-water 
Gasteropoda, and last of all the marine Gasteropoda. It results 
therefore that the geographical extension of the Mollusca, bears 
an inverse ratio to their powers of locomotioti, and this is con- 
firmed by the other comparisons and analogies about to be 
given. But I must not omit to remark that in the above com- 
parison of the land and fresh- water Gasteropoda, there appear 
several species which I have not myself seen, but have included 
on the authority of the Sicilian conchologists, and that Professor 
Maravigna reproaches his countrymen with often giving foreign for 
indigenous species. 

It is however to be observed, that not only is the number of 
Mediterranean species absolutely greater than that of Great 
Britain, but that the number of the genera, and also the extent and 
variety of types, is also much more considerable ; and although, 
in my opinion, the boundary lines defining many genera are still 
vague and unphilosophical, I may, notwithstanding, give as sufficient 
proof of this difference the following tables : — 

List of South Italia?i Genera not represented in Great Britain. 











Sigaretus Lam. non 

Cuv. Ranella 



*"Haliotis L. 


















* Haliotis is not met with on the actual coast of Great Britain, but belongs 
rather to the Channel Islands. 



List of British Genera not represented in South Italy. 

















If we now look to the Habitus or the Physiognomy of the 
fauna, if I may so express myself, with reference to the species 
common to both, we find the difference between the two faunae to 
be much more considerable than when we only judge from the 
mere number of the identical species. We see, for instance, that 
the commonest and most abundant of the British species are either 
entirely absent or extremely rare in South Italy, and the converse. 
As an instance, I may quote the following species belonging to the 
former class : — ■ 

Patella vulgata 
Turbo littoreus 
Trochus cinerarius 
Purpura lapillus 
Buccinuin undatum 

Of Marine Mollusca. 

Buccinum glaciale Mactra (several) 

Fusus antiquus Tellina punicea 

despectus bimaculata 

turricula crassa 

(Harpula Mencke) Astarte (several) 
Pleurotoma (several spe- Cyprina islandica 

cies) Pholas crispata 

Pec ten maximus Mya arenaria 

obsoletus &c. &c. 

Of Land and Fresh-ivater Species. 

Limax agrestis 
Helix pomatia 




Clausilia rugosa 

Lymnams auricularius 
Physa hypnorum 
Planorbis corncus 

Planorbis con tortus 

Paludina vivipara 
Unio batavus 

On the other hand, the following common South Italian species 
are either quite absent or very rare in Great Britain : — 

Tellina pulchella 


Lucina pecten 
Donax trunculus 

Venus geographica 
Cardium erinaceum 
Cardita (all the species) 
Chama gryphoides 

Of Marine Species. 

Lima inflata 

Pecten jacobaeus 


Spondylus grederopus 
Chiton siculus 
Patella (almost every sp.) 
Bulla striata 
Nerita viridis 
Natica olla 

h 3 

Trochus fragarioides 
Adansoni, &c 
Monodonta Vieilloti 
Phasianella speciosa 
Turbo neritoides L. 

(caerulescens Lamk.) 



Cerithium vulgatum 
Fasciolaria lignaria L. 

(tarentina Lamk. ) 
Fuscus corneus L. 

(lignarius Lamk.) 

Murex brandaris 

Triton (every species) 


Buccinum mutabile 
pusio L. 

Columbella rustica, &c. 

Of Land and Fresh-water Species. 

Helix aperta 




Helix strigata 




Bulimus decollatus 
Achatina folliculus 
Paludina rubens, &c. 

3. Comparison of the Fauna of the Canary Islands with that of 

South Italy. 

In the work by "Webb and Berthelot on the Canary Islands 
(concerning which it is only to be lamented that the book is too 
luxurious and expensive for private persons to be able to purchase 
it, and that thus a great part of its value in a scientific sense is lost), 
we find only 196 species of Mollusca enumerated, of which the fol- 
lowing occur in South Italy. 

Marine Bivalves. 

Saxicava arctica L. 
Psammobia vespertina L. 
Lucina lactea Poli. 

pecten Lam. 
Donax trunculus L. 
Venus verrucosa L. 
Cardium tuberculatum L. 

edule L, 
Cardita calyculata Brg. 

corbis Ph. 
Area Noee L. 

imbricata Poli. 

Pectunculus pilosus L. 
Modiola costulata Piss. 
Chama grypboides L. 
Pinna rudis L. 
Avicula tarentina Lamk. 
Lima inflata Lamk. 

squamosa Lam. 
Pecten jacobams L. 

pusio Lam. 
Spondylus Gaederopus L. 
Ostrea cochlear Poli. 

Fresh-water Bivalves. 


Terebratula truncata L. 

Hyalaea tridentata Lam. 
gibbosa Rang. 
trispinosa Lesuevr. 


Cleodora cuspidata Q. et C. 
acicula Rang, 

Naked Marine Gasteropoda. 




Conchiferous Marine Gasteropoda. 

Chiton fascicularis L. 
Patella casrulea L. 
E margin ula elongata Costa 
Chemnitzia elegantissima Mont. 
Eulima distorta Desk. 
Ianthina bicolor Menke. 
nitens Menke. 
Haliotis tuberculata L. 
Scalaria pseudo-scalaria Broc. 
Trochus fragarioides Lam. 

Richardi Payr. 

Magus L. 

rugosus L. (Tui'bo) 
Phasianella pulla L. 
Turritella triplicata Broc. 
Cerithium vulgatum Brg. 
Lima Brg. 

Cerithium perversum Lam. 
Murex brandaris L. 
trunculus L. 
Tritonium nodiferum L. 

scrobiculator L. 

cutaceum L. 
Cassis undulata L. 
Dolium galea L. 
Purpura hsemastoma L. 
Buccinum mutabile L. 

reticulatum L. 
Columbella rustica L. 
Mitra Ebenus Lam. 
Ringicula auriculata Men. 
Cypra^a lurida L. 
pyrum L. 
spurca L. 

Land and Fresh-water Mollusca. 

Testacella haliotidea F. B. 
Helix pisana Mull. 

cellaria Mull. 

maritima Drap. 

lenticula Fer. 

Octopus vulgaris Lam^ 
ruber Rap. 

Bulimus ventricosus Drap. 

pupa L. 

decollatus L. 
Cyclostoma elegans Mull. 
Physa fontinalis L 


Loligo vulgaris Lam. 
Sepia officinalis L. 

The following table shows the number of species of Mollusca 
in the different groups of the fauna of the Canary Islands, and the 
number and proportion of species found also in Sicily : — 

Absolute No. of 

Spec, common 
to the two 

Proportion of species common 



to both. 



Marine Bivalves 




68 per ct. Canaries 13 Sicil. 









34 „ 38 „ 

Naked marine Gas- "1 

teropoda J 



Conchiferous do. do. 




461 „ u u 

Land and fresh- "1 

water do. J 




17 „ 5 „ 





26 „ 

Among the groups of Mollusca represented by the largest number 
of species, the bivalves again exhibit more species in common than 
the marine Gasteropoda. The resemblance between the land and 
fresh-water Gasteropoda of the two districts is very slight, most of 
the Canary Island species being confined to that locality, obeying 
the same law according to which the plants of islands far removed 
from any continent are generally peculiar and elsewhere unknown. 
Since the number of land mollusca in the Canary Islands is so 

H 4 


limited, and that of the fresh-water tribes is almost entirely absent, 
we ought not to wonder, although it appears scarcely credible, 
that the list of the marine inhabitants is so small as we find it 

There are, comparatively, but few genera adorning the shores of 
the Canary Islands which are absent in South Italy : among them, 
however, are Voluta, Terebra, and Crassatella, and the tropical 
genus Conus is already represented by four species out of seventy- 
three (the whole number of marine Gasteropoda), although other 
tropical genera Nerita (in its limited sense), Strombus, Pterocera, 
Tridacna, &c, are not yet met with. 

It may be remarked, that many of the commonest South Italian 
species are absent in the Canaries ; as, for instance, all the Solens, 
all the Tellince, Cythercea Chione and exoleta (the latter re-ap- 
pearing in Senegal) ; Venus decussata, geographica, gallina ; Car- 
dium echi?iatum, aculeatum, erinace?im, papillosum ; almost all the 
Pectens, all the Anomias (not a single species described); every 
species of Fissurella, Calyptrcea, Crepidula, and Rissoa (one 
species of Rissoa is described) ; all the Natieas and Vermetus (not 
one of this latter being known) ; Trochus granulatus, Conulus, 
crenidatus, striatus, divaricatus,fanulum, umbilicaris ; Phasianella 
speciosa ; Turbo neritoides (L. non auct.); Pleurotoma ; Fusus 
(not one species of either mentioned) ; Murex erinaceus, cristatus, 
Edivardsii ; Tritonium corrugatum ; Chenopas pes pelicani ; 
Cassidaria ; Buvcinum variabiles d 'Orbignyi, corniculum, neri- 
teum, pusio L., scriptum L. ; Cyprcca coccinella ; Conus mediter- 
raneus; Helix naticoides, aspersa, vermiculata, strigata, variabilis ; 
Clausilia (not one species appearing to inhabit the islands). 

4. Comparison of the Fauna of Senegal ivith that of South Italy. 

Adanson has given a list of the mollusca of Senegal in his ad- 
mirable and well-known work, but this list is very incomplete and 
enumerates only 196 species, the same number, it will be observed, 
as that obtained from the Canary Islands. This incompleteness 
is the more to be lamented, because a number of the species enu- 
merated by him are new and still without systematic names, not- 
withstanding that his countrymen have remained for a century in 
undisturbed possession of the district traversed by him. It ap- 
peared to me of great consequence, however, to determine which 
of the Mediterranean species extended to Senegal, and I have 
therefore myself endeavoured to make out this so far as the figures 
and descriptions would enable me to do it. The following tables 
are the result of this endeavour to attain my object : — 

Marine Bivalves. 

Teredo navalis L., Taret. Cytberea exoleta I.., Cutan. 

Solen legumen L.,Molau. Venus verrucosa L., Clonisse. 
Solecurtus strigilatus L., Golar. decussata L., Liinot. 

Donax truneulus L., Gafct. Pectunculus pilcsus L. ? Vovan. 

Lutraria piperita Gm , CalcineUe. Spondylus Gajderopus L., Guron. 



Conchiferous Marine Gasteropoda. 

Bulla striata Brg., Gosso?i. 
Fissurella graeca L. ?, Gival. 
Crepidula unguiformis Lam., Gam. 
Haliotis tuberculata L., Ormier. 
Sigaretus haliotideus L., Sigaret. 
Natica millepunctata Lam., Fanel. 
Fossarus Adansoni Ph., Fossar. 
Trochus magus L., Dalat. 

umbilicaris L., Lonier. 

Trochus fragarioides Lam., Osilin. 
Monodonta corallina L., Fuget. 
Cerithium vulgatum Brg., Goumier. 
Cancellaria cancellata L., Bivet. 
Purpura hajmastoma L., Sukem. 
Cassis Saburon Lam., Saburon. 
Columbella rustica L., Siger. 
Mitra lutescens Lam., Gousol. 
Cypraea lurida L., Fucelage D. 

Adanson does not mention any naked mollusca, and only two 
species of land and fresh-water shells. 

Of 58 marine Bivalves of Senegal there are in South Italy 10 or 17 percent. 
131 conchiferous Gasteropoda - - - 18 or 14 - 

Here also, therefore, it is observable that a greater analogy 
holds between the Bivalves of the two regions than between the 

The fauna of Senegal is much more different than that of the 
Canary Islands from the fauna of the Mediterranean. This last 
has 68 per cent, of its bivalves common to both, and the Senegal 
only 17, while the Canaries have 47 per cent, of the gasteropoda, 
and Senegal only 14 per cent, common. In the latter region, 
we find several species of Voluta, Terebra, Strombus, Nerita (in 
its limited sense) ; and still more numerous are the examples of 
Conus, Cyprcea, Marginella, Ostrea, &c, and it is especially re- 
markable that one solitary and very small species of Pecten is 
enumerated by Esson, but is yet undescribed. 

5. Comparison of the Fauna of the Red Sea with that of South 

In the year 1834 I arranged and described, at the request of 
Professor Ehrenberg, the shells collected in the Red Sea and its 
vicinity by Messrs. Von Hemprich and Ehrenberg, but the publi- 
cation of the results has been, up to this time, delayed. The 
information thus derived has served as the groundwork of the 
following comparative tables. The Red Sea has in common with 
South Italy : — 


Sol en vagina L. 
legumen L. 
Mactra stultorum L. 

inflata Bronn. 
Corbula revoluta Broc. 
Diplodonta rotundata Mont. 
Lucina lactea Pali. 

pecten Lain. 
Mesodesma donacilla Desk. 
Donax trunculus L. 
Venus verrucosa L. 
decussata L. 
Cytherea exoleta L„ 

lincta Lam. 
Cardita calyculata Brg. 


Area Noa? L. 

tetragona Poli. 
barbata L. 
diluvii Lam. 
Pectunculus violacescens Lam. 
Nucula margaritacea Lam. 
Ghama gryphoides L. 
Modiola discrepans Lam. 
Petagna? Scac. 
lithophaga L. 
Pinna squamosa L. 

nobilis L. 
Spondylus aculcatus Chemn, 
Ostrea cristata Burn. 



There are, from the Red Sea and its neighbourhood, no fresh- 
water Bivalves, no Brachiopoda, only one Pteropod is mentioned 
(Odontidium rugulosum), although I possess Hyalcea quadri- 
dentata and H. longirostris from the same locality, and no naked 
marine gasteropoda. 

Land and Fresh-water Gasteropoda. 
Succinea Pfeifferi Ross. Helix lenticula Fer. 

Helix pisana Mull. 
striata Drap. 

Patella casrulea L. 

lusitanica Gm. 
tarentina Lam. 
fragilis Ph. 
Fissurella graeca L. 

costaria Desk. 
rosea Lam. 
Bulla striata Brg. 

truncata Adams. 
Eulima polita L. 
Chemnitzia elegantissima Mont. 
Truncatella truncatula Drap. 
Rissoa glabrata V. M'dhlf. 
Natica olla M. de Serr. 

millepunctata Lam. 
Nerita viridis L. 
Ianthina bicolor Menke. 
Haliotis tuberculata L. 
Tornatella tornatilis L. 
Trochus crenulatus Broc. 
striatus L. 
Adansonii Pay. 


Octopus vulgaris. 

Paludina rubens Menke. 
thermalis L. 

Marine Gasteropoda. 

Trochus varius Gm. 
Cerithium vulgatum Brg. 

mammillatum Riss. 

Lima Brg. 

perversum Brg. 
Fasciolaria lignaria L. 
Fusus corneus L. 

syracusanus L. 
rostratus Olivi. 
Murex trunculus L. 
Tritonium variegatum Lam. 
Ranella lanceolata Mke. 
Dolium Galea L, 
Buccinum variabile Ph. 

mutabile L. 

gibbosulum L. 
Mitra lutescens Lam. 
Marginella clandestina Broc. 

miliacea L. 

minuta P. S. 
Cyprsea moneta L. 
erosa L. 

On the whole, the following table exhibits the relative state of 
the Red Sea and South Italian fauna. 

Red Sea 


No. of Species 

Proportion of 





common to both. 

Marine Bivalves 




or 23 per ct. of 

16 perct. 

Fresh- water do. 



Red Sea spec. 

of Sicil. 






Naked marine ^ 



Gasteropoda J 

Conchiferous do. do. 





14 „ 

Land and fresh- "1 
water do. J 





2 „ 









16 „ 

This result shows that the Red Sea fauna has a greater analogy 
with that of the Mediterranean than the Senegal fauna. The 
latter has 17, and the former 23 species of marine bivalves common 



to both, and 18 instead of 14 per cent, of marine Gasteropoda 
marks a similar approximation. But here also the general law 
still holds, of the Bivalves being more widely distributed than the 

If we glance at the physiognomy of the fauna as before, the 
difference is found to be even greater than could be supposed from 
the numbers. The following Sicilian genera, for instance, are 
absent in the Red Sea : — 















And, on the other hand, the following found in the Red Sea do 
not appear in the Mediterranean ; namely — 

Aspergillum Crenatula Nerita (in its Ancillaria 

Sanguinolaria Perna limited sense) Harpa 

Anatina Vulsella Ampullaria Ricinula 

Cyrene Malleus Melania Terebra 

Tridacna Plicatula Melanopsis Turbinella 

Crassatella Pedum Pyramidella Strombus 

Aetheria Siphonaria Oliva Pterocera 

It is also universally the case, that the genera which in Sicily 
are rich in number of species, in the Red Sea have very few and 
the converse. 

In the Red Sea are — 





















In Sicily — 


It will not now seem extraordinary that the species which in 
Sicily are most common are absent in the Red Sea. As examples, 
we have 

Solen siliqua 
Tellina pulchella 
Donax venusta 
Cytherea chione 
Venus gallina 

Cardium (all) 
Cardita sulcata 
Isocardia cor 
Pectunculus pilosus 
Modiola barbata 
Myrtilus edulis 
Lima inflata 

Pectens (all) 
Anomia (all) 
Pileopsis hungarica 
Crepidula unguiformis 
Bulla hydatis 
Rissoa (almost all) 
Natica millepunctata 

Scalaria communis 
Trochus granulatus 
magus * 
Monodonta Vieilloti 

Turbo neritoides L. 
Murex brandaris. 
Buccinum d'Orbignyi 
pusio L. 
scriptum L. 
Columbella rustica 
Cypraea lurida 
coccinella, &c. 

* The shell that has been thought to be this is the very different Troclins 
erythrceus Broc. 


Of the Bivalves, the greater number of the Red Sea species 
belong to the division unimusculosa. 

6. Comparison of the Fauna of the Sechelle and Admiralty 
Islands ivith that of South Italy. 

M. Dufo has given (in the Ann. des Sc. Nat. 2d Ser. vol. xiv. 
for 1840.) a list of the mollusca of these islands, enumerating 276 
species, namely, 220 conchiferous marine gasteropoda, 1 1 land gas- 
teropoda, 2 fresh-water gasteropoda, and 43 marine bivalves. Since 
the smaller species throughout, and all the cephalopoda, pteropoda, 
brachiopoda, and naked gasteropoda are omitted, this catalogue 
can of course give but a very imperfect view of the fauna, but 
notwithstanding this I have thought it better to bring it within 
the sphere of my observations. Of the 276 species, we find the 
following nine in the Mediterranean : — 

Modiola lithophaga L. Cypraea annulus L. 
Lima squamosa Lam. moneta L. 

Bulla ampulla L. helvola L. 

Ianthina fragilis Lam. Dolium Galea L. 
Tornatella tornatilis L. 

But of these the Bulla ampulla and all the Cyprsese belong to 
the very rarest of the mollusca, indigenous in the Mediterranean, 
and they must even be considered doubtful. 

7. Comparison of the Fauna of the United States with that of 

South Italy. 

It is unquestionably a very important point to discover how far 
the Atlantic Sea, as it separates the Flora and Fauna of the land, 
nourishes different mollusca on its eastern and western shores. 
Unfortunately, however, I have found it impossible to obtain even 
the most necessary materials for such comparison. 

My only authorities have been the " Journal of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia," vols. i. ii. and v. ; and " Say's 
American Conchology," as far as plate 50. The American edition 
of Nicholson's Encyclopaedia and the remaining volumes of the 
Philadelphian Journal I have not been able to obtain ; and, un- 
luckily, the collections of shells which I have received from my 
North American friends, Messrs. Lee, Morris, and Griffith, are very 
poor in marine species. The following European species are, how- 
ever, found in the United States : — 

*Mya arenaria L. (M. mercenaria Say) 

Scrobicularia piperata Gm. (Amphidesma transversum Say) 

*Cyprina islandica L. 

Achatina lubrica L. 

Helix fulva Mull. (H. chersina Say) 

pulchelia Mull. (H. minuta Say) 
*Paludina vivipara L. 
porata Say 



* Paludina thermalis L. (I have received two different species under the 

name Turbo minuius Say, the smaller of which I cannot distinguish 

from P. thermalis.) 
Crepidula unguiformis Lam. (C. plana Say) 

Scalaria communis Lam. ? (In North America appears a small white va- 
riety, which may be another species) 
*Buccinum undatum L. 

* Purpura lapillus L. 

Of these species, those marked (*') are not found in the Mediter- 
ranean. The above list contains, however, certainly but a small 
part of the species common to the two hemispheres ; for Say, in 
his American Conchology, in speaking of Paludina vivipara, ob- 
serves, " this appears to be one of several species common to North 
America and Europe." 

8. Comparison of the Cuba Fauna with that of South Italy. 

For obtaining this comparison I have availed myself partly of 
Pfeiffer's Catalogues, containing 289 species (Archiv. for 1839, 
p. 346., and 1840, p. 250.), and partly of D'Orbigny's, in Ramon 
de la Sagra's " Hist. Physique, &c, de ITsle de Cuba," which 
latter, however, I have only been able to refer to as far as 
No. 293. Two or three species I have been able to add which 
my brother, E. B. Philippi, collected at Matanzas in 1835. 

The species in the following list, whose presence in the Mediter- 
ranean is doubtful, are marked thus (f) : — 

Lucina pecten Lam. ? 
Area Nca? L. 

Pectunculus marmoratus L. 
Chama gryphoides L. 
Modiola tulipa Lam. 

discrepans Lam. 
lithophaga L. 
Pinna pectinata L. 
Lima squamosa Lam. 
Pecten gibbus L. 
Hyalasa tridentata Gm. 
trispinosa Les. 
Cleodora lanceolata Peron, 

cuspidata Rang. 

spinifera Rang. 

striata Rang. 

acicula Rang. 
Odontidium rugulosum Ph. 
Fissurella gra?ca L. 

costaria Desk.? 
Crepidula unguiformis Lam. 
Bulla striata Big. 
Physa acuta Drop. 

Truncatella truncatula Drop. 
Chemnitzia elegantissima Mont. 
-f-Nerita versicolor Gm. 

viridis L. 
Ianthina bicolor Menke. 

nitens Mke. 
Sigaretus haliotideus L. ? 
f Trochus carneolus Lam. 
f hippocastanum Lam. 

f Turbo muricatus L. 
Phasianella speciosa V. Milhff. 
Cerithium vulgatum Brg. 

perversum Brg. 

trilineatum Ph. 
Tritonium variegatum Lam. 
Pleurotoma attenuatum Mont. 

cinctellum Pf. ? 
Marginella minuta Pf. 
Cyprasa annulus L. 
Octopus ruber Raf. 

vulgaris Lam. 
Atlanta Peronii Les. 

The materials here are too incomplete to admit of any accurate 
proportion being deduced ; but I would observe that the number of 


species common to the Antilles and the Mediterranean is unex- 
pectedly large. 

I will take this opportunity of correcting an error into which 
D'Orbigny has fallen, before the mischief spreads further. M. 
d'Orbigny observes, " Nous reunissons dans la famille des Tro- 
choides les Mollusques gasteropodes, dont le principal caractere est, 
d'avoir le dessus du pied pourvu lateralement des filets tentaculi- 
formes plus ou moins nombreux. Nous les divisons ainsi qu'il 
suit : — 

Phorus ? 
Des appendices a la base interne des tentacules, un f Turbo 

opercule pierreux |_ Phasianella" 

The truth of the matter is, that Trochus and the other genera 
with a horny operculum exhibit the " appendices a la base in- 
terne des tentacules" quite as well, and of as large a size, as 
Turbo and Phasianella ; and if M. d'Orbigny thinks this is not the 
case, he cannot have observed the animal properly. I have found 
it very beautifully shown in all the fifteen species of Trochus of 
which I have either drawn the living animal, or preserved it in 
spirits ; and I can, therefore, only conclude that this statement of 
D'Orbigny, and Quoy and Gaimard, is the result of imperfect ob- 

9. Comparison of the Fauna of the West Coast of New Holland 
with that of South Italy. 

If we refer to the catalogue of 260 species of Mollusca collected 
by Preiss on the west coast of New Holland, and described by 
Menke in the " Specimen Molluscorum Novse Hollandise," we 
shall find the following species, which also appear in the Medi- 

Lutraria solenoides Lam. Succinea oblonga Drap. 

Mactra helvacea Chemn. Paludina thermalis L. 

Area tetragona Poll. Mitra lutescens Lam. 

Modiola lithophaga L. Cyprasa annulus L. 
Lima squamosa Lam. moneta L. 

Bulla striata Brg. J 



I append in conclusion a table of those Mediterranean species 
which, according to my researches, have very wide geographical 















W. Coast 


New Holland. 







— and 



— and 
N. Zealand. 

— Do. 

— and 

— Do. 

Solecurtus strigilatus L. ... 
Scrobicularia piperata Gm. 

Psammobia vespertina L. ... 
Diplodcmta rotunda Montf. 

Pcctunculus pilosus L 

Spondylus gasderopus L. ... 
Fissurella graeca L 

Crepidula unguiformis Lam 

Paludina thermalis L 

Chemnitziaelegantissima j 

Ianthina bicolor Mke 

perversum Brg. 

D. T. A. 

II. On the Fossils of the Pyrenees. By M. Deshayes, Vice- 
President of the Geological Society of France. 

[Read before the French Geological Society, June 17. 1844.] 

It has been established since the year 1830, as one of the 
results of my investigations on the distribution of fossils in the 
tertiary formations of Europe, that there exists no one species 
common to the cretaceous and tertiary rocks, and at the period 
alluded to I had already arrived at the opinion that all the cre- 
taceous species were destroyed before the commencement of the 
tertiary period. I have since defended this view, although it is 
opposed to that held by many geologists, and particularly to 
certain observations offered in the memoirs of the authors of 


the beautiful geological map of France. These geologists ob- 
served in the South of France beds of considerable thickness, 
in which they have professed to find tertiary fossils mingled 
with cretaceous species, and this supposed mixture occurs, not 
between the newest cretaceous bed and the oldest tertiaries, 
but between these last and comparatively ancient beds of the 
cretaceous group. Being in possession of a very considerable 
number of facts, which satisfied me that there were no species 
common to the chalk and the tertiary strata, and knowing also 
the observations of Messrs. Dufresnoy and Elie de Beaumont, I 
waited till further investigations should throw some light on 
the question. I further objected that it was not in the Py- 
renees, where the upper member of the cretaceous group is 
wanting, that the problem could be solved, but rather in those 
districts where the chalk, in its most complete form, is in imme- 
diate contact with the most ancient tertiary beds. Now it is at 
Maestricht that this sequence is found, and it has long been affirmed 
positively that in this well-known locality no species occurs 
common to the newest cretaceous rocks and the oldest tertiaries 
of the period of the Paris Basin. If the mixture of species is 
not to be found there, where the nearest approach is made to a 
perfect sequence, then, a fortiori, we can still less expect to find it 
in a district where the chronological order of the formations is 
interrupted by the absence of the upper cretaceous beds of 

Till lately, however, the question has been left undetermined 
in geology, and it was necessary to examine afresh the form- 
ations in which the mixture of species had been observed. Our 
colleague, M. Leymerie, has already given to the Society the 
result of his conscientious and laborious researches : he has 
submitted for your examination collections of fossils richer than 
any hitherto known, and among all the species he has collected, he 
has not found one common to the tertiaries and the cretaceous 
rocks. Mr. Pratt, a careful observer, who is known to you by 
his papers on geological subjects, and who is fully aware of the 
importance of this matter, not being satisfied with the result of a 
first journey to Biaritz, has undertaken another this year, and it 
is the result of this second excursion that our excellent colleague 
has charged me to communicate to the Society. Before his 
departure, Mr. Pratt was impressed with the necessity of observing 
with the greatest attention the boundary line between the ter- 
tiary beds and the chalk : he knew also that it would not be 
sufficient to collect the fossils at the foot of the escarpments, 
but that he must take them from the beds themselves, and that he 
must keep his collections distinct. The groups of fossils procured 
by Mr. Pratt under these circumstances seem to me to possess 
great importance, and I have examined them with the most careful 
attention : the result of this examination has been, first, that the 
whole of the nummulitic system belongs to the tertiary series, 
which confirms the observations of M. Leymerie in the Corbieres 


and of M. Bertrand Geslin in the Alps ; and next, that the species 
collected by Mr. Pratt, although, belonging to the lower tertiary 
strata, are, for the most part, different from those of M. Ley- 
merie. It appears indeed that the analogues of the species col- 
lected by the latter gentleman occur in the beds of the Soissonnais, 
while those of Mr. Pratt are most nearly analogous to the cal- 
eaire grossier species properly so called ; and it results from the 
comparison of Mr. Pratt's fossils with those of the cretaceous rocks, 
that there are two species perfectly identical. One of these belongs 
to the genus Spondylus, and has been described under the name 
of Plagiostoma spinosa. It occurs, as is well known, in the upper 
chalk, and it is worthy of remark that it appears to be absent in 
the more recent cretaceous rock of Maestricht. The other species, 
common to the chalk and the tertiaries, is a singular coral which 
M. Michelin, in his work on fossil corals, has referred to the genus 
Guettardia. It is the G. stellata, the sixth variety in plate 30 
of the work just quoted. This coral appears in the chloritic 
(lower) chalk, and in the upper or white chalk, but, like the Pla- 
giostoma, appears to be absent in the uppermost chalk of Maes- 
tricht. Thus, it is now determined that there are in a tertiary 
bed two fossil species which existed during the cretaceous period, 
and both of them present the singular phenomenon of passing at 
once from an inferior J cretaceous rock to the tertiaries without 
occurring in the intermediate formations. 

My object at present is not to consider whether the two species 
in question lived at the same time as the tertiary species. To de- 
cide this, it would be necessary to examine them in their relation 
to the beds with which they are associated, to estimate their abun- 
dance, and to see, by the state of preservation of all the specimens, 
whether they are actually in situ, — matters impossible to judge 
of from the small number of specimens collected by Mr. Pratt.* 
One might fairly enquire whether the mixture may not have been 
made in the same manner as that which operates daily in the 
Channel, where the fossil species washed into the sea by the de- 
gradation of the cliffs become associated with the remains of the 
species actually living in the neighbouring sea. 

The facts which I have just communicated to the Society 
naturally afford an opportunity of answering certain objections 
made by those geologists who reject the conclusions of zoologists 
as applied to their science. These objections consist in the pre- 

* I am informed by Mr. Pratt, with reference to the doubts thrown by M. 
Deshayes on the two fossils common to the cretaceous and tertiary beds, that 
they were found in great abundance — that the specimens exhibited every stage of 
growth — and that they occurred in several of the tertiary beds throughout a 
thickness of 400 or 500 feet (the whole thickness of the tertiary deposit being 
above 2000 feet). It is remarkable also that the Spondylus (Plagiostoma 
spinosa) is found in the newer and the coral in the middle part of the tertiaries. 
Besides the two species alluded to by M. Deshayes, the Terebratula striata 
, of the chalk and greensand has also been found by Mr.Pratt, and this fossil, like 
the others, is extremely abundant. — Ed. 
VOL. I. I 


tending that when certain species are troublesome to zoologists, 
they unite them as varieties, separate them into distinct species, 
or declare them new, in order to make their distribution agree 
with a pre-established division of formations ; so that, acting in 
this way, (it is said) the Palaeontologists turn their science into a 
convenient system, always ready to adapt itself to all phases of 
observations, since the determination of fossil species, on which the 
most important results of the application of Zoology depend, is 
guided by no fixed principles, and seems exposed to the caprice 
of every observer. 

If the works of some Palaeontologists have deserved these ob- 
jections, no such reflection can be cast on the general application of 
Zoology to Geology ; and I may safely say, that my own works, 
known to the Society, are exempt from this reproach of uncertainty 
which is frequently applied to Palaeontology ; and I believe that 
all the comparisons I have made of species from different formations 
have been unprejudiced. 

I would add in conclusion, that it is highly desirable that a col- 
lection, as carefully made as that of Mr. Pratt, should be put in 
the hands of a skilful zoologist, who might carefully determine the 
species and give a complete list of them ; and I would have under- 
taken this work myself if the stay of Mr. Pratt had been pro- 
longed. I will only now say, that, besides a number of new species, 
I have found a considerable number also of which the analogues are 
met with at Chaumont, Parnes, Grignon, and the calcaire grossier 
of Paris ; and it is worthy of remark that Mr. Pratt has found at 
Biaritz several new species of encrinites which remind one of those 
of the cretaceous period, and even of some found in the lias, as 
well by their large size, as by their external characters. It is to be 
hoped, notwithstanding the accuracy of Mr. Pratt's observations, 
that they may not be the last; and no doubt our colleague, M. 
Leymerie, will communicate to us before long the facts he has dis- 
covered with reference to this subject in the course of the present 

D. T. A. 

III. On the Geological Structure of the Neighbourhood of 
Bayonne. By M. Thorent. 

[As having reference to the above, I insert a notice of a paper read by M. 
Thorent before the French Geological Society on the same day as M. Deshayes' 
" Memoir," and referring to the geological evidence on the same subject. Some 
of the more important results however have been already given in a paper by 
Mr. Pratt, of which a notice appears in the " Proceedings of the Geological 
Society," vol. iii. p. 157. En.] 

The opinions of authors on the geology of the neighbourhood of 
Bayonne have been very various and discordant ; some affirming 
that the sandy calcareous beds of Biaritz belonged to the cretaceous 


formation, and others considering the lenticulite limestone of 
Bayonne as tertiary, without pronouncing on the Biaritz strata.. 
It appears on first examining these localities that the limestones 
forming cliffs between la Chambre oV Amour and Bidart are con- 
temporaneous, although a closer examination proves that there 
are two distinct series of different ages, so that the almost con- 
tinuous bed which forms the cliff between la Chambre d' Amour to 
about 1000 yards beyond the rock of Goulet, are newer than 
those which next make their appearance, and from which they are 
separated by a gap in the cliff. At this place it would seem there 
has been considerable disturbance, the beds displaced being no- 
where conformable to the limestones, like those of Bidart, however 
nearly they resemble them ; but the nummulitic limestone observed 
on the road from St. Pierre to Briscons is conformable to another 
compact and crystalline limestone which is made up of fragments 
of corals. These limestones are not found in the cliff, and they 
ought perhaps to appear in the spot where the fracture has pro- 
duced a gap. 

The nummulitic limestones of the Biaritz lighthouse, and of the 
neighbourhood of Bayonne, have, however, no relation with those 
of Bidart, for they differ from them both in structure and com- 
position, besides being unconformable. The cretaceous strata of 
Bidart and of the whole district west of the Pyrenees have a 
general uniform inclination, due to the elevation of the mountain 
chain ; but after this other disturbances have taken place, accom- 
panied by the protrusion of igneous rock. The cretaceous beds of 
Bidart, St. Jean de Luz, and of the whole western Pyrenees, thus 
offer clear marks of a general elevation succeeded by partial dis- 
turbances ; and the dislocations are most considerable where the 
limestones are nearest the volcanic centre. The case is quite 
different with respect to the beds of Bayonne and Biaritz. These 
are conformable to one another, and they are very nearly hori- 
zontal, except in the recently disturbed districts. 

It results from these geological observations that all the beds of 
coarse sandy and marly limestone of Bayonne and Biaritz, as far as 
the mill of Sopite, following the line of cliff, belong to a lower 
tertiary group ; and that those occurring a little further on, as far 
as and beyond Bidart, are of the cretaceous period. 

D. T. A. 

IV. On the Stratified Rocks of the Lombardic Alps. By 


[Read before the French Geological Society, Jan. 22. 1844.] 

This memoir on the structure of the Lombardic Alps presents a 
minute detail of the geology of the district, and is accompanied by 
sections illustrating some of the more important points. The subject 

i 2 


is one of much interest as connected with the disturbances of the 
older and middle secondary period, and the elevation of the Alpine 
chain ; and, as M. de Collegno spent three summers in the country, 
and has been a careful and minute observer, an account of his 
paper will be of value to the English geologist, and more espe- 
cially to the traveller crossing any of the principal passes of the 
Alps to visit the Italian lakes. 

The sedimentary rocks appearing in the Lombardic Alps are of 
three geological periods ; viz. the Oolitic (including the Lias), the 
Cretaceous, and the newer Tertiary. On crossing the Simplon or 
the Splugen passes the stratified rocks may be seen near the axis 
of the Alpine chain, apparently conformable, and even alternating 
with crystalline rock; and the fossils (Belemnites, &c.) found in 
the beds thus associated with gneiss, show the oolitic origin of the 
formation, although there can be little doubt that the modifications 
of the oolites attain their greatest extent in this part of the chain. 
To the north of the Lake of Como, saccharoid limestones dip away 
at an angle of 60° or 70° to the south, and repose on, or even pass 
into the gneiss, the limestone containing a quantity of mica at the 
junction. Towards the west the appearance changes, and the 
dolomite becomes fossiliferous ; but here also the rocks in imme- 
diate contact with those sometimes called primitive (granite, gneiss, 
&c.) are unquestionably of the oolitic period. 

1. Oolitic Rocks {including Lias). 

The oolites of the district we are considering may be sub- 
divided into five groups, the lowest of which (l.)is a red sand- 
stone, passing into a conglomerate, and sometimes into a breccia, 
of the same colour : its thickness is very variable, and it often con- 
tains quartz flints and fragments of gneiss and granite, but no 
mark of organic remains. 

(2.) A black bituminous limestone, more or less schistose, and 
often so compact as to be used for marble, rests on the red con- 
glomerate. It has been greatly disturbed and cracked since its 
deposition, and its thickness cannot be well ascertained, but it 
appears to be considerable. This bed is sometimes dolomitic, 
sometimes so bituminous as to give out a strong odour when struck, 
and sometimes so argillaceous as to become fissile, and even slaty. 
It contains fossils, the remains of fishes having been found in it, 
and even fragments of reptiles allied to Plesiosaurus. Univalve 
shells, resembling Melania, have also been met with in great 
abundance near Esino. 

(3.) A greyish limestone overlies the black limestone, and is 
much more uniform in its character. It is remarkable for gener- 
ally containing siliceous or cherty bands and thin beds of sandy 
marl. The colour of the limestone rarely varies, except on ex- 
posure, when it sometimes changes to a decided white. It does 
not seem to attain a greater thickness than about 200 yards, but it 


extends along the whole district, and may be seen in the suburbs 
of Como dipping S. 20° E., and covered up with diluvium. 

(4.) The bed next succeeding is a marly limestone of a brick-red 
colour, deposited in very even layers, four or five inches thick, and 
remarkably uniform in its colour and general appearance, more 
especially in the lower part. Notwithstanding this, the bed in 
question occasionally passes into a mere calcareous marl containing 
silex, which is, however, sometimes fossiliferous, and in this way 
is determined to be of the age of the inferior oolite. It is perfectly 
conformable to the underlying grey limestone, and passes by in- 
sensible gradations into the overlying bed, locally called majolica. 
This is strikingly seen on the road between Solzago and Ponzate. 

(5.) The bed which forms the upper part of the oolitic series, as 
exhibited in the Lombardic Alps, has been distinguished by con- 
tinental geologists by the Italian names majolica, scaglia, &c. It 
is a white compact limestone, exhibiting conchoidal fracture, and 
often full of large cavities partly filled up with crystalline car- 
bonate of lime. This rock is often traversed by very narrow 
blackish-coloured veins, and is marked throughout its entire thick- 
ness by the occasional presence of silex. The brilliant whiteness 
of this limestone is such that it can usually be seen from a great 
distance ; but it is sometimes coloured, and occasionally converted 
into dolomite. It has been often mistaken for chalk. 

Of these beds, the red marly limestone (4.) contains in some 
places a number of remains of Ammonites ; and the bed thus cha- 
racterised is very easily recognised in the Italian Alps, being found 
at several points in the Apennines of Tuscany and in the Papal 
States ; so that it appears to mark throughout Italy a geological 
horizon of which it is important to fix the exact date. M. Ale. 
d'Orbigny has recognised the following Ammonites from one locality 
in which this bed appears ; and it will be seen from this list how 
low down in the oolitic series it must be placed: — Ammonites 
heterophyllus, Sow. A. elegans, Sow. A. jibulatus, Sow. A. 
Walcoti, Sow. A. insignis, Zieten. A. radians, Schlott. A. 
scipionianus, D'Orb. A. thouarensis, D'Orb. ; and A. comejisis, 
described by M. Von Buch, is from the same locality. 

2. Cretaceous Rocks. 

There are four subdivisions of the cretaceous system developed 
on the south of the Alps, some of them agreeing with beds pro- 
bably contemporaneous in the south of France, and others almost 
peculiar to the district. They are thus arranged in order of 
superposition : 

4. Variegated red and blue marls. 

8. Nummulitic limestone. 

2. Sandstone, more or less argillaceous, with numerous impressions of 

1. A conglomerate, sometimes used for millstones, and containing occa- 
sionally remains of Hippurites. 

i 3 


(1.) The conglomerate which forms the lowest member of the 
cretaceous formation is generally composed of greyish flints, and 
black or greyish fragments of limestone, and seems entirely derived 
from the degradation of the oolitic rocks. There are 80 or 100 
yards of these conglomerates. 

(2.) Immediately overlying the conglomerate is a fine grained 
sandstone containing mica, cemented by argillaceous and calcareous 
marls, the sandy beds being separated by thin marls. The whole 
thickness of the sandy group probably exceeds 100 yards, but the 
different beds are thin. The colour varies from bluish grey to 
yellowish, and rounded lumps of easily decomposing pyrites are 
found occasionally in it. 

(3.) The Nummulite limestone is often compact, and its fracture 
sometimes conchoidal ; but it more frequently contains marly frag- 
ments, and even becomes a breccia. Fossils abound in this lime- 
stone, but are not easily recognised, with the exception of the 
Nummulites, which are distinctly seen on the weathered surfaces. 
The thickness of the nummulite beds varies from half a yard to 
two or three yards, and the whole thickness of the series is about 
80 yards. 

(4.) The marls, which in Lombardy form the uppermost beds of 
the cretaceous series, are of a red or blue colour, and either very 
fissile and slaty, or more compact and solid, passing in the latter 
case into a red marly limestone, of which the mineralogical cha- 
racter resembles that of the red limestone of the oolitic series. 
The total thickness of these variegated marls is between fifty and 
sixty yards. 

It is worthy of notice, with regard to the subdivisions of the 
cretaceous formation in Lombardy, that the Hippurite beds, and 
those containing fucoicls, which in the south of France belong 
especially to the lower part of the series, are in Brianza intimately 
united with the nummulitic limestones, which in the maritime 
Alps are upper cretaceous rocks. It may hence be concluded, that 
the Monte Viso system of disturbances of M. E. de Beaumont has 
not extended to the meridian of Milan, so that the deposition has 
therefore been uninterrupted from the Hippurite to the Nummulite 
period ; and M. Constant Prevot has already noticed this con- 
temporaneity of Hippurites and Nummulites in Sicily. It is also 
to be remarked, that since the Nummulitic limestone of the south- 
ern Alps has suffered the dislocations of the Apennine system, 
there is this additional proof of the bed being of the true cretaceous 
period. The cretaceous beds above described exhibit amongst 
themselves no strongly marked separations, but seem to pass in- 
sensibly into one another. 

3. Tertiary Rocks. 

The only indications of marine tertiaries in Northern Lom- 
bardy consist of small patches of blue marl in the neighbourhood 
of Varesc. The best known of these is exhibited in horizontal 


layers on the banks of the Olona, and contains numerous well- 
preserved sub-apennioe species of fossil shells and large fragments 
of semi-carbonised wood. The fossils mark the pliocene origin of 
the strata. Besides these marine beds there is one of fresh-water 
origin, found on the banks of the Lake of Como and consisting 
chiefly of clay used in the manufacture of tiles and pottery, and 
others of the same date are found in the neighbourhood. Fossils 
are very rare throughout these strata. 

The existence of small patches of tertiary marls in these localities 
is interesting, as marking points on the northern shores of the an- 
cient pliocene ^sea, traces of which shores had been previously in- 
dicated by several geologists. They prove also that the general 
configuration of the Lake of Como was not much unlike what we 
now see, before the last^disturbances took place, which have affected 
some of the lacustrine marls of Villa. 

In conclusion, it is interesting to notice the general direction of 
the successive dislocations which have produced the actual contour 
of this district. These appear to be two in number, one of them 
having for its mean the direction of E.S.E., the general strike of 
the conglomerate and black limestones of the Val Sasina, of the 
dolomitic limestones of Menaggio, and of the cretaceous beds be- 
tween the Lago Maggiore and the Adda. The other is exhibited 
in the oolitic formations west of the Lake of Como, and runs almost 
constantly E. 16° N. 

D. T. A. 

V. A Description of certain Belemnites, preserved, with a great 
Proportion of their Soft Paints, in the Oxford Clay at Christian 
Malford, Wilts. By Richard Owen, Esq. F. R. S. &c. 

[Read before the Royal Society, March 21. 1844.] 

The fossil shell called Belemnite has long exercised the ingenuity 
and research of the interpreters of ancient nature ; and although 
sufficient evidence has, for some time, been obtained to determine 
both the ordinal and family affinities of the organisation of the 
animal constructing this singular compound shell, many additional 
and important facts have been arrived at by the examination of 
the well-preserved specimens from the Oxford clay, described in 
this paper. 

In the compound shell of these specimens, the following parts 
are recognisable : — 

1st. The terminal guard or sheath, resembling the head of a 
dart or javelin, whence the name Belemnite was first given to this 
part (which alone is generally well preserved), although it is now 
extended to the animal. 

2d. The chambered or siphonated part of the shell called the 

I 4 


phragmocone, lodged in the conical cavity at the base of the 

3d. The conical, thin, but dense corneo-nacreous case, which 
immediately invests the phragmocone and lines the alveolus of the 
guard, commencing at the bottom or apex of that cavity, and con- 
tinued beyond 'the last septum of the phragmocone to form the 
large anterior chamber of the Belemnite, containing the ink-bag 
and some other viscera. 

The Belemnites have been classified according to the modifi- 
cations of the sheath, and the species described is characterised by 
a rounded elongated conical guard, with a short terminal, ventral, 
longitudinal impression. It is called B. Owenii Pratt, and ap- 
proximates in general form to B. elongatus and B. longissimus 
Miller, from the lias. The excavated part of the guard becomes 
very thin as it expands, and its thin and brittle margin may be 
traced nearly half way towards the base of the phragmocone, 
which is there invested only by the thinner and more yielding 
corneo-nacreous sheath. With respect to the guard, the most im- 
portant additional information obtained by these specimens is an 
account of its microscopic structure. It consists of numerous thin, 
for the most part concentric, layers of minute prismatic trihedral 
fibres, placed at right angles, or nearly so, to the planes of the 
layers ; the crystalline fibres are indicated by lines, which radiate 
from the central axis and cross the lines of growth ; the lines 
which define the fibres run in pairs with a minutely and gently 
undulating course, resembling the tubes of dentine, but differing 
in the transparency of the intercepted calcareous matter, which is 
like that in the wider spaces separating the pairs of lines. 

These differences in the intervals of the radiating fibres may 
depend on the different parts of the prismatic fibres, divided in 
preparing the sections made parallel to their course. 

The exterior surface of the guard of the Belemnites is minutely 
granular, and occasionally presents faint traces of vascular im- 
pressions, proving it to have been invested by an organised mem- 
brane of the living Cephalopod ; and in two specimens from the 
Oxford clay there have been detected remains of the more imme- 
diate investment of a thin friable layer of white calcareous matter, 
analogous to that of the outer layer of the sheath of the phragmo- 
cone. It is only necessary to add, with reference to the spathose 
calcareous constituent, that its microscopic structure proves it to 
be an original formation, deposited in membranous cellular moulds 
under the influence of the vital organising forces, and not the 
result of post-mortem infiltration of mineral substance into an 
originally light and porous or cellular texture. 

As respects the phragmocone and its investing sheath, it is clear 
from the Oxford clay specimens, that the sheath is continued 
backward to line the alveolar cavity of the guard, as well as for- 
ward from its basal outlet to form the visceral chamber anterior to 
the phragmocone. The phragmocone appears broader than it actually 
was, on account of the compression which its frail walls were 


unable to resist ; its basal part is usually squeezed flat, but some- 
times one of the septa has slipped forwards so as to present its 
surfaces to the plane of pressure, and so retain its original form. 

The septa are composed chiefly of nacre, with a thinner layer of 
white friable calcareous matter on both surfaces, which is seldom 
preserved. I have found twenty septa in an extent of two inches 
from the base of the phragmocone ; about an equal number of 
septa dividing chambers progressively diminishing in depth, and 
more rapidly in width, are indicated by detached phragmocones to 
have extended to the apex of the socket of the guard. The cap- 
sule of the phragmocone consists of a thin layer of mixed albu- 
minous and opaque Calcareous matter lined with nacre, but with a 
yellowish smooth outer surface. 

The entire phragmocone, with its capsule, of these Belemnites 
from the Oxford clay, has been found not unfrequently isolated and 
detached, having slipt out of the alveolar cavity of the guard, and 
such specimens are squeezed flatter than those which have re- 
mained in, and been protected by, the guard. The yielding texture 
of the phragmoconic capsule has commonly caused it to fall into 
longitudinal folds when compressed after having become detached 
from the alveolus ; and if the change of form caused by compression 
were not borne in mind, the piles of concave plates would seem not 
to have been adapted to the alveolus. 

It was long ago suggested (by Piatt, in 1764,) that the shell of 
the Belemnite was due to the formative forces of the mantle of a 
molluscous animal, and the subsequent discovery of two grades of 
organization in the class of Cephalopoda* (the only mollusca to which 
it seemed possible to refer this fossil) called for a closer investi- 
gation, and led to the definite approximation of these with the 
other families of siphoniferous Cephalopods, now ranked under two 
distinct orders. 

The first evidence that bore directly on the question of the po- 
sition of the Belemnite in this class was the discovery of the fossil 
ink-bag preserved in the basal chamber of the phragmocone of 
one of these animals. 

The importance of this discovery depended chiefly on the facts 
that the secreting gland and reservoir of the inky secretion common 
to all the naked Cephalopods do not exist in the recent Nautilus 
pompilius, and that no trace of them has ever been met with 
in connection with any of the simple or typical forms of fossil- 
chambered shells, as Orthoceratites, Baculites, Ammonites, &c. 
It appeared, on consideration, that the Nautilus might derive suf- 
ficient protection from its strong external shell, while, on the other 
hand, the active and highly organized naked Cephalopods might 
well require a compensatory endowment, enabling them to escape 
from danger. The presence of an ink-bladder therefore, since the 
branchial character of the naked Cephalapods is an essential con- 

* Owen, " Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus." 


dition of their muscular powers, would alone have implied an 
internal shell, the presence of muscular forces for rapid swimming, 
and the concomitant conditions of the respiratory, the vascular, and 
the nervous systems. The reference of the Belemnite to the Di- 
branchiate order, and the separation of their genus from NoMtilus 
and Ammonites^, was the conclusion arrived at by these consider- 
ations ; and the specimen lately presented to the Hunterian museum 
by the Marquis of Northampton exhibits a proof of the correct- 
ness of this view, since, besides the phragmocone, it shows the 
muscular mantle, a small part of the head, and a greater or less 
proportion of six of the cephalic tentacula, which are armed with 
horny hooks in a double alternate series, as in the Onychoteuthis 
gigas. It is evident also from this specimen, that in the proportion 
of the body, and in its elongated form, the Belemnite resembled the 
Onychoteuthis and most of the modern Decapoda. 

Another specimen in the possession of Mr. Pratt exhibits, to- 
gether with a portion of the muscular mantle and other parts, the 
ink-bag and duct, and the two fins. The reservoir of ink is situ- 
ated two lines within the aperture of the phragmoconic capsule ; it 
is of an oval form and jet-black colour ; the inspissated ink is very 
hard, brittle, and splintering, but when reduced to a fine powder it 
presents a dark brown hue; and used as a pigment, works as 
smoothly as Roman Sepia, but with a deeper tint. The parts re- 
garded as fins are flattened fibrous bodies, with well-defined semi- 
oval, external, and, apparently, free margins. The large end of the 
border is the anterior one, where the fin is broadest, and it gradu- 
ally becomes narrow posteriorly. 

It is interesting to find a rounded contour associated with an 
advanced position of the lateral fins in the ancient Belemnites, the 
rhomboidal form being most common in those fins placed at the 
end of the body ; the only exception, indeed, to this being presented 
by the Loligopsis, which has terminal and rounded fins. 

hi Mr. Pratt's specimen, at the middle of the visceral mass, be- 
tween the two lateral fins, there lies a compressed body of a horny 
texture and sub-bilobed form, on which may be clearly distin- 
guished strias passing outwards in opposite directions from a 
middle line, and diverging from each other in their course. It 
resembles the fibres of the digestive muscle in the gizzard of 
the Nautilus and other Cephalopods ; and this apparent remnant 
of the stomach lies about half an inch in advance of the ink- 
bladder, in a position corresponding with that of the gastric organ 
in naked Cephalopods. 

There is strong negative evidence that the Belemnite possessed 
horny mandibles like the other naked Cephalopods, since no cal- 
careous beaks or Rhyncholites have been discovered associated 
with the specimens from the Oxford clay, or with those from the 

The thickness of the layer of dried and compressed grey fibrous 
matter to which the mantle is reduced is half a line, and we may 
hence infer that in its soft and recent state, when permeated by its 


sanguiferous vessels, it must have equalled in thickness that of a 
Calaniary of the same size ; and this indeed is evident, since the 
mantle of true Calamaries with horny pens ( Teuthidce) preserved 
in the same matrix is reduced to a compact fibrous layer of the 
same thinness. 

The specimen now alluded to (Mr. Pratt's) is chiefly remarkable 
and valuable for the perfect conservation of the complex muscular 
structures of the head and its uncinated arms. Eight of these latter, 
forming the normal series of cephalic arms, may be defined, radi- 
ating from a contracted base. In this base may be observed two 
decussating groups of curved fibres ; the posterior one, with its 
concavity turned towards the mantle ; the anterior one, with its 
concavity directed forwards, and its horns continued into the bases 
of the arms. A similar decussated arrangement of fibres exists in 
the Onychoteuthis, and is described and figured by Cuvier in the 
corresponding part of the head of Octopus. 

Almost the whole extent of five of the cephalic arms is pre- 
served ; they are rather longer, in comparison with the mantle, 
than in the modern Onychoteuthis, but not as compared with the 
entire body of the Belemnite, when this is lengthened out by the 
terminal guard : the longitudinal arrangement of the fasciculi of 
muscular fibres of the arms is very distinct. 

Each of the arms seems to have been provided with from fifteen 
to twenty pairs of hooks, which were doubtless developed from the 
horny hoops which encircled the caruncles of the acetabula, as in 
the modern Onychoteuthis. 

Two small protuberances at the origin of the normal brachia are 
the only parts which represent the bases of the pair of long ten- 
tacula superadded to the eight shorter arms of the existing 

On each side of the head, behind the bases of the arms, there is 
a convex protuberance formed by a well-defined semicircular band, 
about a line in thickness, of grey fibrous matter, the fibres or layers 
being parallel with the curve of the band. In another specimen 
these parts are regularly placed in reference to each other, being 
on the same transverse line, with their concavities towards each 
other, and their convexities turned outwards : each body is a line 
in breadth, and does not diminish at either extremity, which is lost 
in, or hidden by, the surrounding muscular tissue ; their structure 
is more minutely, but more definitively, fibrous than in the muscles, 
the fibres following the curve of the band. The parts in existing 
Cephalopods, which first suggest themselves for comparison with 
these, are the beak, the cartilage of the head, the cornea, or the 
crystalline lens. The position of the curved fibrous bodies is pos- 
terior to that in which the beak should be placed agreeably to exist- 
ing analogies ; the texture of the beak also in Onychoteuthis is the 
same as that of the hooks, whilst the texture of the parts in question 
is very different from the black horny matter of the preserved 
hooks. The position of the parts corresponds with that of large 
sessile eyes, only that they are more nearly approximated towards 


each other. In reference to the large crystalline lens which cha- 
racterises the eye in naked Cephalopods, the parts in question can 
only be compared, from their size, with the exterior laminae of the 
outer division of the lens, in which case the larger and denser 
inner division of the lens has not at all been preserved ; which is 
by no means a probable occurrence, and induces me to reject this 
analogy. If we compare them to the strong external tunic of the 
eye, their outward convexity would lead to their being referred to 
the cornea. But this part, in all existing Cephalopods, is a modi- 
fication of the integument, and continuous with it, presenting a less 
degree of convexity than in the fossils, less thickness, and a less 
definite extent. Viewing, however, the relative position/ form, and 
structure of the parts under consideration, the most probable con- 
clusion respecting their nature appears to me to be that which 
refers them to the anterior or external tunic of the eye-ball, in 
which case they indicate a thicker, stronger, more distinct, more 
extensive, and more convex cornea in the Belemnite than in any 
known existing Cephalopods. 

The evidence afforded by the above described specimens of the 
paucity in number, and superiority in size and complication, of the 
cephalic tentacles of the Belemnite, as compared with the Nautilus, 
yields another proof of the constancy of the laws of organic cor- 
relation ; the very numerous, small, and comparatively simple ten- 
tacula of the Nautilus which illustrate the principle of vegetative 
or irrelative repetition, being associated with an essentially inferior 
type of Cephalopodal organization, into which an internal shell, a 
thick muscular mantle, pallial fins, and an ink-secreting apparatus 
do not enter. 

In comparing the different forms of Cephalopods that have suc- 
cessively appeared and perished since the deposition of the Lias to 
the present time, we do not find that the highly complex organisa- 
tion of the cephalic arms exhibited in the Onychoteuthis has been 
attained by or through progressive gradations, typified by the 
organisation of intermediate forms, for the ancient Belemnites 
manifested the uncinated armature as perfectly as the most formi- 
dable of the existing Onychoteuthides. Nor were true Calamaries 
with uncinated arms absent in those primaeval seas which were 
tenanted by living Belemnites, Ammonites, and other extinct 
forms of Cephalopoda. The existence of naked Cephalopods of 
the family Teuihidce in the oolitic secondary formations has been 
for some years demonstrated by the well-preserved and recog- 
nisable remains of the ink-bag, the gladius or horny pen, and the 
horny hooks developed from the acetabula of the cephalic arms. 

In conclusion, if we compare the Belemnite as now restored, 
not conjecturally, but by observation of phenomena, with the 
known existing forms of the Dibranchiate or higher order of 
Cephalopods, in which its right of place can no longer be disputed, 
we shall first recognise in the outwardly concave plates and margino- 
ventral siphon of the chambered shell of the Spirula, the analogue 
of the hydrostatic part of the shell or phragmocone of the Belem- 


nite : next, in reference to the entire shell we must admit that the 
Sepia, or common cuttle-fish, most nearly resembles the Belemnite 
in the general structure and position of its complex calcareous 
plate. The nucleus or terminal spine of the sepium or cuttle- 
bone corresponds with the terminal spathose guard of the Belem- 
nite ; the convex posterior broad plate of horny with friable cal- 
careous matter is analogous to the capsule of the phragmocone ; 
but its margins, instead of being approximated and soldered to- 
gether, are free and lateral in position ; the congeries of trans- 
verse plates lodged in the concavity of the nucleus and of the 
foregoing semi-capsule of the cuttle-bone answer to the chambered 
phragmocone of the Belemnite ; but instead of being perforated 
by one or many siphons, they are entire, and connected with each 
other by a series of minute undulating lamellae perpendicular to 
their plane. 

The lateral fins of the Sepia are narrow, and extend, as is well 
known, from the apex of the mantle to near its base, while the 
fins of the Belemnite were relatively shorter and broader, and 
situated a little in advance of the middle of the body. In the re- 
lative size, shape, and position of the fins, the Belemnite must 
have most nearly resembled the species of the existing Rossia and 
Sepiola ; but it differed in the more elongated and slender body. 

The character of the formidable hooks supported by the aceta- 
bula of the arms is now exclusively manifested by the genus 

Thus the extinct Belemnite combined characters at present di- 
vided amongst four distinct genera of Dibranchiate Cephalopods, — 
Spirula, Sepia, Sepiola, and Onychoteuthis. 

But notwithanding the uncinated character of the arms the 
balance of the natural affinities seems still to preponderate in 
favour of its position as a transitional link between Spirula and 
Sepia ; and the additional facts which we have now unexpectedly 
gained, while they show new and unsuspected radiations of af- 
finity, tending to complete the reticular inter-dependencies of the 
Cephalopods, do not disturb, but confirm, the position of the Be- 
lemnite in the linear series of the genera of that class proposed 
in 1836. 

The Belemnite, with the advantage of its dart-shaped and well- 
balanced shell, must have enjoyed the power of swimming back- 
wards and forwards by the action of its cephalic and pallial fins 
with greater vigour and precision than the modern Decapod 
Dibranchiata. The position of the animal was most probably 
more habitually vertical than that of its recent congeners. Thus 
placed, the Belemnite, in quest of prey, would rise swiftly or 
stealthily to infix its claws in the belly of a supernatant fish, and 
then dart down and drag its prey to the bottom and devour it. And 
we cannot doubt but that, like the uncinated Calamaries of the 
present seas, the ancient Belemnites were in their day the most 
formidable and predaceous of Cephalopods. 

D. T. A. 


VI. On the Form of Granitic Rocks, and the Structure of 
Granite. By L. Von Buch, &c. 

[Read before the Berlin Academy of Science, Dec. 15. 1842.] 

[The paper read by M. Von Buch on this occasion involves two 
subjects, namely, an expression of opinion and a record of ob- 
servations concerning the structure of granitic masses, affording 
an explanation of the frequently described phenomenon of strati- 
fication in granite, and an account of a journey into Sweden, in 
which he pursued other investigations on the granite and gneiss of 
that country. The present notice is confined to the former 

No object can be more striking than the beautiful bell- shaped 
form of the Brocken, as this noble mountain, towering above all 
that surround it, presents itself to the traveller who is approaching 
it from Elbingerode by way of Schierke. Nothing disturbs the 
perfect regularity of its parabolic surface, and a small house at the 
top, that would be undistinguishable on other mountains, is here a 
prominent object, standing out like a little wart from the surface. 
From other sides also, the same appearance is preserved, and the 
dome is so perfect, that during the ascent the actual summit cannot 
be seen until it is attained. 

So completely is this dome-like shape preserved that, if the 
mountain were not accessible, it would be thought smooth and 
almost polished, and that therefore it could not be ascended. 
It is then with no little astonishment that we find, on actually 
reaching it, a wild and desolate waste rather than a smooth mirror 
surface. The whole is covered with innumerable blocks in such a 
manner that the spaces between them require constant attention 
from the climber lest he should fall into them, and these blocks 
are heaped upon another, especially near the foot of the mountain, 
without the slightest appearance of order. 

This great covering with blocks is common to all ellipsoidal 
granite which, like the Brocken, has been lifted above the 
neighbouring formations. At Ramberg — a spur of the Brocken, 
they are so abundant and assume such fantastic forms as to be 
called " The DeviVs Mills" in the ancient legends of the country. 
In other places, as the Sturmhaube in Silesia, in the Odenwald, 
and in the Schwartzwald, they are called seas of rocks (Felsen- 
Meere), and at Mount Parnassus they are known as Daimonotona, 
or " DeviVs Floors." 

These two extremely general phenomena, the regularly circular 
form of granitic mountains, and the breaking up of the surface 
into millions of blocks, appear to depend on one another in some 
necessary relation. That the granite must be looked upon as a 
great bubble, even where most extended and far less beautifully 
exhibited than in the Brocken, is generally admitted by geologists ; 


and it follows from this view that the granite thus lifted up from 
below cannot be considered as any kind of lava, or as a fluid 
substance filling up fissures from above, but that it possessed a 
certain consistency which in most cases was far removed from the 
condition of fluidity ; and indeed the beautiful and regular external 
form which the rock assumes, renders any other assumption impos- 
sible. This degree of hardness or consistency, however, which the 
Plutonic rocks must generally have possessed at the time of their 
elevation into mountain- chains, does not exclude a certain degree 
of plasticity, a condition without which this kind of elevation can 
scarcely be conceived. 

If, however, granitic masses are forced upwards in thick ellip- 
soidal bubbles by forces acting from beneath, it is also conceivable 
that such masses should neither appear in a fluid state nor break 
through the surface in detached fragments and needles, but present 
themselves in an arched or vaulted condition, the vault being 
larger and more perfect in proportion to the force acting and the 
extent of the surface acted on. 

Now on examining the " sea of rocks" upon the Brocken some- 
what more carefully, we shall observe a striking relation of the 
blocks amongst each other. They readily arrange themselves into 
a widely-extended cover of the granitic vault, and the separate 
blocks seem as if their projecting and re-entering angles might be- 
long to one another. Unless, indeed, this were the case, one cannot 
imagine how the distant view of the Brocken could be so perfectly 
regular that a small house upon the top should be a conspicuous 
object. The blocks remain in their original position, for they cer- 
tainly have not been brought here from a distance, nor can any 
decay of the surface have produced them, for a decay that could 
have effected this would have destroyed the marks of any relation 
which the blocks bear to one another ; nor, lastly, can any violent 
disruption have acted, since such a disturbance must have altered 
the regular form of the mountain. The phenomenon is, I maintain, 
the inevitable result of the contraction of the upper dome-shaped 
surface, and the circumstances under which it was pushed up from 
below. If this is the case, we may understand how these seas of 
rocks may be common with regard to granite, and rare in other 
formations, since the granite, when it appears, offers a fresh sur- 
face ; while other rocks, elevated by it, have had their surface long 

If the existence of a similar contraction to this in the interior of 
granitic ellipsoids is admitted, an internal structure becomes un- 
veiled, which demands great attention. That which we discover in 
the apparently disconnected blocks of the sea of rocks, a splitting up, 
namely, into conchoidal surfaces, exists also in the interior, and 
appears in a very singular manner. Large and compact concentric 
layers are seen, and the form of the circumference of the moun- 
tain is repeated by such concentric layers, gradually diminishing 
in size, until, at last, the innermost nucleus appears to be cylindrical, 
a singular arrangement, which may be seen in granitic bosses of 


small circumference, but which, of course, cannot be followed in a 
large mountain, such as the Brocken. This remarkable concentric 
arrangement has often been mistaken for stratification ; and this is 
not extraordinary, since we can generally see so little below the 
surface of the actual structure. 

It is not, however, the case that every great granitic mass is a 
single ellipsoid in concentric layers. More frequently, and, indeed, 
generally, when the extent of the granite is considerable, several 
such systems run into one another, and smaller ones are included 
within the larger. Near the Brocken several surrounding hills ex- 
hibit each one its own vault-like dome, while all are united with 
the central ellipsoid of the Brocken itself; and in many other coun- 
tries the same phenomenon may be observed, not only in northern 
Europe, but even in the southern part of India. In this latter 
country, Mr. Newbold informs us (Asiatic Journal, May, 1842), 
that the table land of Mysore exhibits similar spheroidal masses 
of granite, and observes, that the well-known experiments of Mr. 
Gregory Watt might have led us to expect such a result, as con- 
sequent upon the cooling of the rock after its elevation. 

It thus appears that vaulted cavities, noticed in ellipsoidal 
granite, cannot be looked upon as the result of decay, but are, like 
the myriads of blocks described, the natural results consequent 
upon the elevation of the whole mass of the granite and the cir- 
cumstances under which it was forced through the surface, like a 
bubble, from the interior of the earth. 

D. T. A. 



I. Die Organisation der Trilobiten aus ihren lebenden ver- 
wandten entwickelt ; nebst einer systematischen Uebersicht alter 
zeither beschriebenen Arten. Von Hermann Burmeister, &c. 
&c. Mit 6 Kupfertafeln. Berlin, 1843.* 

The European reputation of M. Burmeister, who is known as one 
of the most philosophical of all living Naturalists of the articulated 
tribes, would be sufficient to render any work prepared by him in- 
teresting and valuable, even if it related to a subject of less obscurity 
and difficulty than that he has now undertaken, namely, a descrip- 
tion of the structure and analogies of the Trilobites. The pro- 
bability that a complete English translation will soon appear f, 
renders unnecessary any very extended notice of this valuable work. 

The introductory part of Dr. Burmeister's book is chiefly oc- 
cupied with a history of the literature of Trilobites ; and his re- 
searches, if one may judge by a list of upwards of a hundred 
memoirs on the subject, can hardly fail of being tolerably complete. 
His first chapter includes an account of the general external struc- 
ture of the Trilobite, as deduced from the examination of the 
fossils. He considers, that since the remains of Trilobites are 
confined to the shell and casts of the shell, no soft part of the body 
either is or could be preserved, and that all the parts under the 
shell, of at least all those actually covered by it, are exhibited in 
the casts ; while, on the other hand, those parts probably once ex- 
siting, but which we miss in the casts, were not covered with a 
hard horny or shelly armour, and for that reason were not pre- 
served. When, therefore, we find that the whole of the under 
part of the body, with whatever may have been attached, is absent 
in these fragments, it follows that these parts must have been 
soft and merely covered with skin, not by any means that they did 
not exist. 

In the minute anatomical description of these singular crea- 

* " The organisation of Trilobites, developed by means of their analogies 
with existing species, together with a systematic notice of all the species hitherto 
described ; " with six copper plates. 

f This translation will be one of the early volumes printed by the Ray 
Society, recently established (on the principle of the Camden, Parker, Sydenham, 
and other publishing societies) for the purpose of providing the subscribers 
with such valuable works on Natural History as are not likely to be undertaken 
by any publisher. 

VOL. I. K 



tures, the structure and form of the eye is naturally a subject 
of special notice, and the author combats the notion that two dif- 
ferent types of structure are admitted in the eyes of dhTerent ge- 
nera of Trilobites (Calymene and Olenus), expressing his opinion 
that all of them were provided with compound eyes covered with 
a smooth horny membrane, and that the appearance of facets in 
certain genera is only the consequence of the absence of this mem- 
brane. He also states that so long as eight years ago he had dis- 
covered the type of these eyes in a living species (Branchipus 
stagnalis), and that they were made up of four membranous coats 
of different kinds, the outer one being horny, smooth, homogeneous 
and transparent ; and under this another existing of a 
different kind marked into facets and containing on 
a clear substance little, circular, equal-sized divisions, 
of a somewhat darker and harder material. The 
third coat of the eye consists of egg-shaped clear 
and very hard lenses, one of which is behind each of 
the window-like apertures j ust described. The fourth 
coat consists of an oblong crystalline body with a 
tuberculated surface, which with its upper thicker 
end embraces the pointed end of the egg-shaped 
lenses, and is covered by a thin circumscribing mem- 
brane. A continuation of this membrane envelopes 
also the lenses, and is attached to the thickened border 
of the little apertures before every lens. Behind the 
crystalline body comes a dark pigment, the chief 
mass of the whole eye, through which the nerves 
pass to go to the separate ocelli and touch the base 
of the crystalline body, so that their separation or 
forking encloses the before -mentioned separation of the crys- 
talline substance and the lenses, and through these passes on in 
the same manner to the facetted membrane next in order. 

It would appear that this description is perfectly applicable to 
those Trilobites having a smooth, horny membrane on the eye ; 
and as in the living Articulata the number of the separate ocelli 
rather increases than diminishes as the whole eye is smaller, while 
the horny membrane is thinner as the eye is larger, we may un- 
derstand that in these extinct genera the species with large, pro- 
minent, numerously facetted eyes may not in reality possess 
differently constituted organs of vision from those whose eyes are 
exceedingly flat and covered with a thick horny film. 

In this short notice it is not possible to do more than allude to 
the greater number of Dr. Burmeister's researches on the different 
parts of the body of the Trilobite. He considers that the pro- 
minence in the middle anterior part of the horny helmet is the 
region of the mouth as it is in Phyllopoda, and that all affinity to 
the Isopoda is thus widely departed from. He also alludes to 
the number of the rings or divisions of the horny shield as a matter 
of considerable importance in determining the position of these 
animals in classification. 


In considering this latter important question — that of classifi- 
cation, there seems no doubt as to the fact that the Trilobites are 
Crustaceans, although whereabouts in that group they are to be 
placed is not so clear. Dr. Burmeister subdivides the Crustacea 
into two divisions — the Malacostraca, which are well known, and 
the Ostracodermata, these latter having compound eyes with 
simple horny membranes, all of them passing through various 
metamorphoses, and exhibiting more striking contrasts at different 
periods than the animals of the other division. These Ostracoder- 
mata consist of two groups, each comprising three families, the 
animals of the first group not having a distinct head with true 
antennas and eyes, while those of the second are distinguished by 
the presence of very large and often enormous eyes and antennae, 
which are most fully developed when the eyes are smaller. The 
two groups differ also in the nature of the metamorphosis which 
the species undergo. A table is given of the principal characters 
of these groups, and the author proceeds to consider to which of 
them the Trilobites are most nearly allied. 

In the first place, he argues that they cannot belong to the 
Malacostraca, and that therefore all the apparent analogies with 
Isopoda at once cease to possess any value. * This conclusion he 
grounds upon the fact that they neither have true facetted eyes 
nor an ordinarily formed thorax, nor the constant number of from 
five to seven thoracic rings. The want also of large antennae, of 
the broad shield-shaped head, and of visible articulated feet, and 
the unequal number of abdominal rings, all oppose such a view. 

The resemblance of the Trilobites to Limulus is another analogy 
which Dr. Burmeister does not admit. The absence of detached 
head and thorax in this genus renders it impossible that there 
should be a close aflinity ; while the structure of the feet here also 
is dissimilar, these being perfectly well preserved in the Limuli of 
the Jura formation, so that they must have been covered with a 
hard or horny coat. For these and other reasons, the author con- 
siders Limulus to be still more widely removed from the ancient 
Trilobites than the Isopoda are. 

Since then the Trilobites, from their analogies, seem to belong to 
the Ostracodermata rather than the Malacostraca, we have next to 
consider to which of the two principal groups of Ostracodermata 
they must be referred. The presence of large eyes sufficiently deter- 
mines this question, and they fall therefore among the Aspidostraca 
or Entomostraca, with all the principal characters of which groups 
they are shown to agree (p. 40.). It appears, also, on more minute 
examination and comparison, that of the three families of this 
group, the Trilobites most nearly resemble the members of the 

* The singular species Serolis paradoxa is referred by Burmeister to the 
Phyllopoda, the second family of the second division, as alluded to above. He 
denies the close affinity of this species to the Trilobites. 

K 2 


Having determined this, the author proceeds to trace the ana- 
logies between the Trilobites and the genera Apus and Branchipus, 
and others of the Phyllopoda, with a view of working out more 
accurately the affinities and the true place of the group. He 
concludes, that the Trilobites form a family nearly allied to the 
Phyllopoda, approaching this latter family most nearly in the 
genus Branchipus ; and, therefore, forming a link between the 
Phyllopoda and the JPcecilopoda. 

The Trilobites having been articulated animals, must necessarily 
have cast their shell from time to time ; and it has been already sug- 
gested by other naturalists that many fossils of this tribe, apparently 
new, are only the exuviae of known species. It becomes important, 
however, with reference to the habit of the animal, to determine 
what transformations it underwent, since all the Phyllopoda to 
which they seem so nearly allied undergo metamorphosis chiefly in 
the anterior part of the body. They leave the egg as unarticulated 
pyriform animalcules, and change considerably in appearance as 
they pass through their course of existence. It is the opinion of 
Dr. Burmeister, that a similar series of changes was undergone by 
the Trilobites, and that the so-called genera Battus and Agnostus 
represent only the shells of the young individuals of different 
species ; and he explains at some length the reasons which have 
induced him to arrive at this conclusion. He also alludes to some 
other genera of the Palaeozoic period presenting analogies with 
these singular Crustaceans ; and concludes by stating, that we 
are perfectly justified, from the present state of the evidence, in 
forming an opinion concerning the habits of the animal. He 
states : — 

1. That they moved by swimming, and inhabited deep water; 
but by no means crept on the ground at the bottom of the sea. 

2. That in the natural position of swimming the belly was above 
and the back undermost ; and that the power of rolling itself into 
a ball served the animal as defence against injury. 

3. That its food was the smaller marine animalcules ; or, in the 
absence of other prey, that it 'devoured the young of its own 

4. That it probably did not inhabit the depths of the sea, but 
dwelt near the coast in shallows, and in innumerable multitudes ; 
the individuals of one species herding together. 

5. That in spite of the incredible multitude of individuals, the 
total number of species seems to have been small ; and that in this 
respect Trilobites resemble the Phyllopoda, which, in spite of their 
individual abundance, belong to not more than a dozen species, 
although these are referred to as many as six genera. 

6. The great difference in size observable in existing Phyllopoda 
renders probable a similar difference among the ancient Trilobites, 
so that very unusually large individuals do not necessarily require 
the introduction of a new specific name. 

D. T. A. 

burat's geologie appliquee. 133 

II. Geologie appliquee, par M. Am:edee Bukat, Professeur 
d'Exploitation des Mines a l'Ecole centrale des Arts et Manu- 
factures, &c. 1 vol. 8vo. pp. 504. Paris. * 

This treatise, by M. Burat, contains a large amount of useful in- 
formation on subjects connected with mining, although it is chiefly 
valuable in reference to the mineral resources and the mining ope- 
rations of France. The author introduces his subject by a state- 
ment of the relative importance of the various minerals in different 
countries, and states that, with regard to France, although in the 
eighteenth century there was a period of great activity, nothing was 
then undertaken with a view to the future, so that as soon as the 
stores existing near the surface were worked out, the competition 
with other countries threw a check upon these operations, and a 
large number, especially of the lead mines, were abandoned. 

The first part of the " Geologie Appliquee " relates to the geo- 
logical position of the useful minerals, and commences with a general 
view of the different geological formations. An arrangement is 
adopted, previously suggested by Werner, which groups all rocks 
that contain mineral produce into two classes, the first of which are 
characterized by being found stratified, or massive, while the latter 
occur only in veins, or are otherwise disseminated in comparatively 
small quantities. 

This arrangement is convenient, especially in practical descrip- 
tions, as very distinct methods of working are adopted in the two 

It is unnecessary to dwell on the notices given concerning the 
sedimentary and igneous rocks ; but a very useful chapter is written 
by M. Burat, defining the relative economic value of these and their 
usual mineral produce, and mentioning those parts of France in 
which they occur. A table is given also at p. 29. containing a sta- 
tistical account of the results of quarry-work of all kinds, and the 
nature and value of the produce in the different departments of 
France, and to this are appended a number of notes, marking the 
limits of supply in the more important cases. The date of the 
table is probably 1840, and the total value of the supply is stated at 
somewhat more than forty millions of francs (1,600,000/.). 

Continuing the description of the gites generaux, or instances of 
entire strata possessing economic value, M. Burat, having alluded 
to building-stones and other cases in which the rocks are quarried 
at the surface, proceeds to the subject of coal and other combustible 
minerals ; and in this the application of Geology to economic pur- 
poses is ingeniously shown, and suggestions are given of great 
practical utility. Among these is one derived from the trials for 

* This book appears without a date, an omission of some importance in a 
work which professes to give accurate statistical tables on subjects constantly 
changing. The editor obtained it in Paris in the autumn of 1843, and had 
reason to believe that it was then recently published. 

k 3 


coal at Mons, near Valenciennes, and thence to Douai, where, so 
long ago as in 1734, mines were opened, though unsuccessfully. 
The proprietors, in after years, followed the known direction of the 
axis of the basin in which the coal was lying ; and although the cre- 
taceous rocks covered up and hid the coal measures, yet as there 
appeared from the structure and condition of the associated old 
rocks that no great disturbance was to be feared, the search was 
pursued, and at length rewarded by the discovery of the mines of 
Anzin, after an expense of about three millions of francs (120,000Z.) 
had been incurred. M. Burat then remarks : 

' Guided by the principle of the direction of the beds of coal and the strata 
containing them, as in this example, we may advance in our explorings of the 
carboniferous formation, if not with certainty, at least with a high degree of pro- 
bability afforded by Geology ; but in searching a priori for the carboniferous 
rocks, under the vast superficial area covered up by secondary and tertiary rocks 
which may happen to rest upon them, science can furnish no more than very 
indirect indications.' 

The curious position of the coal in some of the Continental 
localities is next alluded to, and the structure of coal, the varieties 
of its appearance and inclination, and the occurrence of faults, are 
dwelt upon practically and usefully. 

The origin of coal had already formed the subject of a Memoir 
by the author ; and he here again alludes to the proof of its being 
due to the accumulation of large masses of decomposing vegetables, 
and that the leaves and stems preserved in the accompanying 
shales and sandstones are the only records remaining of the kind of 
vegetation at that early period. 

The extraction of coal in France is greatly limited for want of 
ready and cheap communication ; and this is so much the case, that 
five-eighths of the whole quantity extracted is obtained from four 
of the very numerous basins (not less than seventy) in different 
parts of the country. A large quantity of lignite and turf is an- 
nually obtained from different parts of France, and foreign coal is 
imported to a very considerable extent. 

The supplies of rock-salt and of gypsum extracted from the 
earth are from very different geological formations in different 
countries. In England, as is well known, the beds of the New 
red sandstone contain rock-salt in great abundance ; and so also do 
the variegated marls of cotemporaneous origin in the east of 
France. At Bex, in Switzerland, the same mineral occurs in the 
lias ; in the Austrian Alps and the Carpathians it is found in the 
upper oolites and greensand ; and in Poland in tertiary rocks ; 
while in Catalonia and the Pyrenees it is sometimes in the cre- 
taceous, and at others in the tertiary, beds that the salt-springs and 
salt occur. The presence of gypsum is almost invariably asso- 
ciated with the salt in some form or other ; and coloured clays or 
marls are also so generally met with, that they seem to be almost 
necessary conditions for the presence of large masses of salt. 

In the east of France the most common rock-salt is generally of 
a dirty-grey or blue colour, and when mixed with salzthon is occa- 

burat's geologie appliquee. 135 

sionally bituminous. The beds are numerous (amounting to 13 in 
number), and the total thickness is as much as 60 yards. The 
district of the Pyrenees, however, is more remarkable in this 
respect than Eastern France ; and in the valley of Cardona there 
are two extensive and thick masses of rock-salt, united at their 
bases, one of which is worked as a quarry on the steep face of a 
hill. It is composed of eight beds, separated by red marls, and 
extends for about 130 yards by 250, with an unknown depth. 
The other is not worked. M. Bur at, referring to the saliferous 
gypsum of Yolterra in Tuscany, offers a few speculations with re- 
gard to the possible origin of these singular masses, and considers 
the latter to be connected with the lagoni, which are eruptions of 
aqueous vapour at a considerable temperature (105° to 120°), 
mixed with sulphuretted hydrogen gas. The singular beds of 
Seyssel and elsewhere, so remarkable for the quantity of bitumen 
they contain, are considered by M. Burat to be due to a similar 

The subject of iron ore bedded among stratified rocks next occu- 
pies our author's attention. Few of the French coal basins contain 
the carbonate of iron (the common ore of England) in any abun- 
dance, although small quantities, in nodules, are not rare. The 
basin of Aubin (Aveyron) is that which contains the most valuable 
seams of this mineral. Pisolitic ores of iron are common, and 
sometimes valuable, in some of the Oolitic beds of the Jura ; and in 
several places they have been found worth working. 

Having thus considered the various circumstances under which 
valuable mineral produce occurs in masses in stratified rocks, or 
actually embedded and alternating with the regular strata, the 
next subject introduced is that of the metallic ores contained in 
mineral veins. The meaning of the term vein, the nature of the 
cracks and fissures that contain ores, the particular appearances 
observable in, and the composition of, veins, occupy, as might be 
expected, a considerable space, and are very carefully and instruc- 
tively shown. Nowhere, perhaps, is this difficult subject more 
simply explained and better illustrated than in these pages ; and 
some beautiful engravings speak to the eye in a manner which can- 
not fail to be highly useful. A description of metalliferous districts 
next follows, from which it appears that in France there are four 
principal mining regions — that of Brittany, resembling the opposite 
coast of Cornwall, that of the Vosges, rich in argentiferous lead ore, 
the plateau of Central France, abounding in the same valuable 
mineral, and the chain of the Pyrenees, in which the ores of iron 
are of chief importance. Much valuable local and statistical inform- 
ation concerning these districts is given in the chapter now under 

The mechanical contrivances made use of in actually obtaining 
the discovered ore, and reducing it to a state in which it is saleable 
to advantage, are next treated of, and occupy a considerable space ; 
and a very detailed account is given of the contrivances by which 
the whole mineral produce may be best obtained with safety to 

K 4 


those employed, and without injury to the mine, or interference 
with subsequent operations. In this department the ventilation of 
mines is considered, and the safety lamps used in different districts 
described. Then follows an account of the mechanical preparation 
of ores, and the book concludes with a chapter on the general con- 
ditions of the working of mines. The remarks in this chapter are 
extremely pertinent, and well worthy of notice. 

It appears, from the observations here made, that in France the 
proportion of miners killed or seriously injured annually in coal 
mines, has amounted to 1 in 144, while, in other mines, it is only 
on an average of 1 in 425. In the basin of S. Etienne, 698 miners 
have been killed or wounded in 15 years, and the general annual, 
average of deaths in France, occasioned by mine accidents, is be- 
tween 90 and 100, for an extraction of coal equal to that of Belgium, 
where the average is as much as 112. 

The work of M. Burat is full of valuable information, and what 
is more, in a subject abounding so much with technical and statis- 
tical detail, is very readable. It is neatly illustrated, and contains 
a good index-geological map of France, marking all the carboni- 
ferous basins and the localities in which iron ore is found. 

D. T. A. 

III. The Medals of Creation. By G. A. Mantell, LL.D., F.R.S. 
2 vols. pp. 1016. London, 1844. 

The object of the author in this work was three-fold, namely, 
first, to give an epitome of Palaeontology ; secondly, to assist the 
collector in his search for organic remains ; and, thirdly, to place 
before the reader an exposition of the elementary principles of 
Palaeontology. The book is illustrated with numerous wood-cuts, 
and several zincographic plates, some of which are coloured. 

The first few chapters of the work are occupied with preliminary 
remarks, and an account of the arrangement and nomenclature of 
the British strata, the author including in his secondary series the 
Devonian system. He also considers the Cambrian series as dis- 
tinct from the Lower Silurian, and omits noticing the presence of 
Silurian strata extensively developed in the Lake district of Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland. 

After these preliminary notices, the nature of fossils is explained, 
and many important hints given by which collectors of fossils may 
learn how to obtain and preserve specimens under difficult circum- 
stances. To this succeeds a general account of vegetable remains, 
and a notice of the structure of coal, serving as an introduction to 
fossil botany. 

In the chapter on this subject (Fossil Botany), the arrangement 
of Brongniart is chiefly followed, and most of the generic forms are 
illustrated by figures of characteristic species. With regard to the 



interesting question of the relation between Sigillaria and Stig- 
maria, and the nature of the trees so called, several figures are 
given, and, amongst the rest, one in which roots, which are true 
Stigmaria, are seen attached to the trunk of a Sigillaria recently 
discovered (in 1843) near Liverpool, and the well-known paper of 
Mr. Brongniart, in the Archives du Museum, is quoted in support 
of the opinion previously entertained of the identity of the two 
genera. At the close of this chapter are some accounts of the 
occurrence of fossil flowers in the Monte Bolca tertiary limestone, 
and elsewhere, and fossil fruits and leaves of dicotyledonous trees 
in secondary and tertiary strata. 

The second part of Dr. Mantell's work is devoted to the con- 
sideration of the fossil remains of animals, considered under dif- 
ferent sections, namely, 1. Infusoria. 2. Zoophytes. 3. Echino- 

TILES. 8. Birds. 9. Mammalia. 

Under the first head are included the Infusorial animalcules, 
which have of late years been the object of careful examination by 
Ehrenberg and many English microscopists, and the Foraminifera, 
the species of the latter group found in the Cretaceous rocks, 
being those most recently brought under examination, are chiefly 
alluded to. Among the next group, the Zoophytes, the remains 
of sponges and spongiform bodies so universal in flint are described 
and illustrated, and an account is given of some of the more re- 
markable corals in each of the different geological formations. 

The fossil remains of Echinodermata are described at consider- 
able length, the various Crinoidece being alluded to, and figures 
given of those parts most commonly found fossil. In alluding to 
the elegant little Eugeniacrinite or clove encrinite, the author has 
not adverted to the actual structure and probable appearance of the 
animal, a very good idea of which may be deduced from the spe- 
cimens found abundantly in several of the continental oolites (of 
the middle period), exhibiting an appearance very different from 
that of the Lily Encrinite. Several extremely perfect specimens 
of fossil star-fish (Goniaster^, from the chalk are figured in this 
part of the work. 

The chapter on the Mollusca contains much information on this 
subject likely to be generally useful, and many excellent illustra- 
tions. In speaking, however, of the Hippurites, Dr. Mantell seems 
not to be aware that they occur in England, although fragments 
of them are not extremely uncommon in the lower beds of the 
upper part of the cretaceous series (G-ault and Upper Greensand), 
and in the Cambridge Museum there is one specimen from the 
Gault, remarkably perfect and exceedingly instructive. The chapter 
concludes with a notice of the remains of the soft parts of mollusca, 
called by the author Molluskite. 

The Cephalopoda are not considered with the other molluscous 
animals, but occupy a separate chapter. With regard to the Be- 
lemnite, Dr. Mantell has figured the suggested restoration of 
M. d'Orbigny, as well as that which subsequent observation has 


confirmed, and which was proposed by Professor Owen. The 
Bellerophon is figured as allied to the Argonaut. It is worthy of 
remark that the Aptychus, well known in the Kimmeridge clay, 
and much more abundant in the somewhat newer Solnhofen beds 
of Germany, is spoken of under the name of Pseudo-Ammonites, 
and it is mentioned that the great desideratum is to find these 
fossils in natural connection with the shells or other parts of the 
Cephalopoda. It is, however, very frequently the case that they 
occur within the shell in the last chamber of Ammonites ; and so 
many specimens exist in which this is the case, that we are natu- 
rally led to conclude that some relation between the two existed. 
The matter, however, is still doubtful. 

The Articulata succeed the Mollusca in Dr. Mantell's arrange- 
ment, and amongst them the Crustacea are very fully described, 
the Trilobites occupying a large, but not an undue share of atten- 
tion. The chapter concludes with a notice of the fossil insects 
and spiders that have from time to time been discovered in the 
various strata. 

The notice of fossil fishes is naturally derived, for the most part, 
from the admirable researches of M. Agassiz, the latter pages of 
whose " Mecherches," however, had not reached England at the 
time when Dr. Mantell's work was passing through the press. 
The chapter contains a short notice of such species (chiefly 
British), as exhibit most remarkably the peculiarities of structure 
of their class. 

An account of the Reptiles — some of the most remarkable 
amongst which were collected under the author's own eye, and first 
described by himself — next follows ; but it is professedly very 
brief, since the Reptiles, as well as the Mammals and Birds, have 
been the subjects of extended notice in Professor Owen's Reports, 
published in the volume of Reports of the Meetings of the British 
Association. The Iguanodon and the other Wealden species are 
chiefly dwelt upon, but a notice is given of each of the groups of 
fossil Reptiles in order. 

In his account of birds, the author alludes to those of the chalk 
and Wealden district, and proposes the name Palceornis, to dis- 
tinguish the species (allied, it would seem, to the Heron) found 
throughout the Wealden strata. He then gives a detailed account 
of the fossil footsteps of birds found in North America, and con- 
cludes with a notice of the New Zealand species Dinornis. A 
short notice of some of the more remarkable fossil quadrupeds 
concludes this portion of the work. 

The third part of " the Medals " consists of notes of excursions, 
in illustration of the mode of investigating geological phenomena 
and of collecting organic remains, and it commences with some 
instructions to the young geologist before starting on such trips. 
The first excursion is abridged from a paper by Mr. Bowerbank, 
on the Isle of Sheppey, and the next is also by the same gentle- 
man, and refers to Bracklesham Bay, a well-known locality for 
a peculiar fossiliferous sand belonging to the London clay, and 


the chapter concludes with a few notes concerning the Isle of 

The next chapter gives a geological account of the road from 
London to Brighton, and the structure of the Brighton Cliffs ; we 
then have a few notes concerning the Great Western Railway and 
the neighbourhood of Bath, and next, a series of excursions in 
Derbyshire, commencing with a notice of that portion of the Bir- 
mingham and Midland Counties Railway between London and the 
station at Amber Gate, by way of Leicester. This latter trip is 
illustrated by a number of engravings and is given in some detail, 
and the chapter concludes with a short notice of the vicinity of 
Charnwood Forest. 

A few names of dealers in fossils in several towns in England 
are added as useful to the collector, when hurriedly passing through 
a district interesting for its fossils. 

This work is very neatly got up, and the illustrations, although 
unequal, are for the most part sufficient. Some of them are ex- 
tremely beautiful in point of drawing and engraving. 

D. T. A. 

IV. Guide to the Geology of Scotland, with a Geological Map 
and Plates. By James Nicol. 1 vol. pp. 272. Edinburgh, 

This work is principally intended to exhibit in a systematic form 
the knowledge already attained and published on the subject of 
the Geology of Scotland. It is therefore entirely descriptive, and 
mentions in detail many phenomena chiefly of local interest. The 
author commences with an account of the Physical Geography 
of Scotland, and then states in very considerable detail and in 
regular order the Geology of the three districts of the country : — 
the southern district as marked by the rounded oblong hills with 
flat tabular summits composed of rocks for the most part altered 
and referable to the older Palaeozoic period (for which the author 
retains the name transition) ; the central district containing the 
great carboniferous deposits ; and the northern district consisting 
chiefly of gneiss, quartz rock, and clay slate, fringed along the line 
of coast by the Old red sandstone. To the accounts of these di- 
visions is appended a notice of the Scottish Islands and a general 
summary of the whole subject ; and the work concludes with a 
list of Scottish fossils, imperfect, no doubt, as the author acknow- 
ledges, but valuable as the first catalogue, and affording the means 
of correction and improvement. 

By far the most important in an economical sense of the dif- 
ferent formations developed in Scotland is the carboniferous series 
in the central district, occupying on the whole about 1750 square 
miles ; but the most persistent and in some respects the most in- 
teresting bed is the Old red sandstone, of which there are nearly 
5000 square miles. But the unusually large proportion of granite 


and trap rock, and the enormous preponderance of the metamor- 
phic rocks (occupying nearly 75 per cent, of the whole area of the 
country) give at once a distinctive geological character, and have 
principally influenced the general physical features of North 

The speculations of the author concerning the Geological age 
of these extensive metamorphic rocks seem to point to the Silurian 
period as that during which they were deposited in a sedimentary 
slate ; and since they underwent their great changes and probably 
became metamorphic before the Old red sandstone was accumulated 
in unconformable layers upon them, a more modern date is not 
at all probable. It is a remarkable fact, however, that while 
in Scotland large fragments of the more distinctly metamorphic 
rocks are frequently found, those of granite, gneiss, and mica slate 
are nowhere met with. 

The Old red sandstone of Scotland has been the subject of 
special description by Mr. Hugh Miller, and the present work 
does not appear to add to our knowledge concerning it. The 
author indeed retains as Old Red the beds of Red sandstone con- 
taining footsteps at Corncockle Muir, respecting which Pro- 
fessor Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison arrived at the conclusion 
that it is New red ; and he considers that the Old red passes 
into the red sandstones of the coal measures by imperceptible 
gradations. With regard to the latter series Mr. Nicol leans 
to the opinion of the coal having been formed in a shallow marshy 
lake, alternately submerged and lifted to receive the deposits of 
sand and clayey mud. The proportional superficial extent of the 
coal measures in Scotland is stated as amounting to one-seven- 
teenth of the whole area (in the whole of Britain it is calculated 
at one-twentieth), and as being greater in actual extent than that 
of all the coalfields of France together. 

The author offers a few observations concerning the alterations 
of level during the most recent geological period, the marks of 
which are evident in Scotland ; and he alludes also to the earth- 
quakes still occasionally felt. These latter are indeed more nu- 
merous than would be supposed, since Mr. Milne informs us that 
within the last century (from 1732 to 1839) not less than 139 have 
been noticed, although it would appear from the extreme irregu- 
larity of their direction and the difference they exhibit in the ex- 
tent to which they reach, that they are in a great measure local, 
and depend therefore on partial causes. This is not always the 
case however, as appears from the fact that the great earthquake of 
Lisbon in 1755 was felt at Loclmess, and that in 1839 a shock took 
place which was felt simultaneously over two thirds of Scotland. 

This work by Mr. Nicol appears to contain a good summary of 
the main facts recorded concerning the Geology of his country, his 
principal object having been to describe the mineralogical pecu- 
liarities and the details of the structure of the older rocks. 

D. T. A. 



I. Ornithichnites, and the Coprolites of Birds. 

Some remarkably fine and perfect slabs, impressed with the foot- 
marks of birds, have lately been discovered in the sandstone of 
Turner's Falls, Massachusetts, by Dr. Deane ; and are described in 
the number of Silliman's Journal for January, 1844. The finest of 
these impressions are upon shales with a smooth glossy surface, and 
one bed has been described containing more than a hundred foot- 
marks belonging to four or five varieties of birds, the entire surface 
being pitted by a shower of fossil rain-drops. The true characters 
of the foot of the ancient birds — the rows of joints, the claws, and 
the integuments — are all preserved in this interesting spot. 

Of the various marks, the largest indicates a length of stride of 
about 12 inches ; but the middle size, only one fourth as large, has 
a stride of 20 to 23 inches. It appears that the zigzag direction 
of the former indicates a heavy short-legged bird, while the other 
must have had long legs ; it is also feebly impressed, and therefore 
probably belonged to a much lighter animal. 

One of the slabs obtained is about 6 by 8 feet in dimensions, 
and contains upwards of seventy -five impressions ; consisting of 
five sets and a half of the larger species, four sets of the smaller, 
and several others. They are all remarkably distinct. Another 
slab contains several of the larger steps, and a row of two im- 
pressions of an immense bird with a short broad foot, five inches 
by six, apparently palmated. The stride is twenty -nine inches, and 
the stratum seems to have bent beneath the great weight of the 
animal, impressing the bed next below. — Silliman's Journal, 
January, 1844. 

In Silliman's Journal for Oct. will be found a paper by Professor 
Hitchcock on the subject of Ichnolithology, in the course of which 
he alludes to the recent discovery of the coprolites of birds in hard 
calcareous rock, associated with Ornithichnites. The spot in which 
they (the Coprolites) were found, seems to have been a resort of 
the bird, for numerous tracks here met with interfere with one 
another, and occur in successive layers. In the midst of them 
were found a few egg-shaped flattened bodies, about an inch in 
diameter and two inches long, of a dark colour, and considerably 
softer than the enclosing rock, which is very hard and compact. 
When broken crosswise, they usually exhibit a more or less perfect 
concentric arrangement, and are sometimes a little convoluted. 


They adhere so strongly to the rock, that their precise external 
appearance has not been determined. In the inside of this mass 
small black grains may be seen resembling small seeds, the black 
matter of which is carbonaceous. When this is burnt off, the re- 
mainder of the fossil has been found on analysing it to consist of 
phosphate and carbonate of lime. It is supposed that the black 
grains are seeds which have passed undigested through the intes- 
tines, and have assumed in the passage such positions as these 
foreign bodies would and often do in the faeces. 

A remarkable and beautiful result has been obtained by the 
application of the power of chemical analysis to these fragments. 
These are found to contain uric acid in the proportion of about 
one-half per cent., and from the circumstances under which it 
occurs it is concluded that the coprolite must have been dropped 
by a bird rather than any other animal. It also appears that the 
animal was in all probability omnivorous, a conclusion suggested 
by the analysis of the coprolite, and confirmed by the probable 
presence of seeds, as above alluded to. 

II. Memoranda of Earthquakes in Upper Assam from January 
1839 to September 1843. By Capt. Hannay, B.N. I. 

[From the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 58.] 

1839. January 14th, 9 p. m. Shock of an earthquake felt at 
Suddeeah. Direction apparently from S. W. to N. E., preceded 
some days by rain and heavy snow in the mountains, air very cold. 
June 3d, 8 p. m. At Suddeeah, apparently from S. to N., strong 
N. E. wind. Burrumpooter high, wet and disagreeable weather. 
Season unusually rainy from March up to this date. Small-pox 

1840. March 4th, 1 p. m. A total eclipse of the sun. When the 
sun was obscured the air-was unusually cold and disagreeable to the 
feelings, even to nausea. About an hour after the eclipse (about 
1 p. M.) a smart shock of an earthquake, and about ten minutes 
afterwards another ; both shocks appeared to have come from the 
south. Sky cloudless, but atmosphere hazy. 

1841. Feb. 9th or 11th. Felt at Gowhatty. This earthquake 
was different to those above mentioned ; it was accompanied by a 
low rumbling noise ; was sharp and stunning, as if a blow had been 
struck under the jaw ; the others alluded to appeared, on the con- 
trary, to have more of a trembling or rocking motion. 

N.B. In February, 1841, at night, a splendid meteor was seen at 
Seebsagur *, and in other stations in Upper Assam. It passed from 

* Most of the shocks felt at Seebsagur do not appear to be felt lower down 
the valley, but at Fezpoor earthquakes are said to be very frequent. There are 
no volcanoes in the neighbourhood, but the line of the Naga hills (nearer 
ranges) abound in iron and coal and numerous Petroleum springs, and in the 
Singpho country are springs of white mud. 


east to west of the heavens, and burst with a loud report, the first 
like the firing of several large guns, and ending exactly like 
musketry file firing. Individuals on the frontier, who had not 
seen the meteor, imagined that some of the outposts had been 

1842. January 4th, 7-| p. m. A smart shock felt at Seebsagur ; 
the weather gloomy, cold, and threatening rain ; cannot speak as 
to direction ; shock similar in motion to those already noticed. 

October 29th, 8 p. m. A smart shock, direction apparently from 
S. W. to N. E., trembling motion. 

1843. April 6th, 8 p. m. After a very hot and close sultry even- 
ing, a severe shock of an eathquake at Dibrooghur lasted several 
minutes. The motion, however, was only trembling, affecting those 
houses which had posts built up by walls ; direction appeared to 
be from W. or S.W. 

1843. April 7th, Midnight. Slight shock felt at Dibrooghur. 
N. B. Both these earthquakes felt at Seebsagur, Jeypoor, and all 
over Upper Assam. 

June loth, 11 a.m. Smart shock; motion vertical. 

17th, 8 p. m. A very smart shock ; at first slight, and followed 
by a severer one ; motion undulating, and, from the position of a 
clock which was stopped, must have come from S. W. or W. ; 
lasted altogether about a minute. Weather rainy, with occasional 
light squalls from S.W. These shocks felt at Dibroo, Jeypoor, 
and Sakenah ; that of this date at a few minutes past eight reported 
by the officer to have thrown down a portion of the bank of the 
Burrumpooter. An earthquake on this day at Ceylon. 

September 3d, 2\ a. m. After as hot and sultry a day (the 2d) 
as I ever felt, the clouds gathered to S. W., indicating rain, but 
passed off without any ; night very close and sultry ; awoke by a 
smart shock of an earthquake; cannot speak as to duration. 

7^ p.m. After a very hot day, clouds gathered at S. E., very 
close and sultry ; squall came on a little before sun-set ; vivid 
lightning all round the heavens previous to squall, making an ex- 
traordinary noise in the heavens over head, like the falling of heavy 
rain on distant jungle, or like the rushing of wind through a funnel ; 
with this noise you heard an occasional growl like distant thunder. 

When the rain fell, this noise, which had continued for some 
time, ceased ; thunder very high in the heavens, but the lightning 
one blaze all round. While at dinner, smart shock from the S. 

III. Osseous Centres of the Vertebrae of Cartilaginous 


It is not generally known, although alluded to by M. Agassiz in 
the introduction to his great work on fossil fishes, that many if not 
all cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, &c), have true bony nuclei 


forming a solid frame-work actually capable of being preserved, 
so far as the union of one vertebra to another is concerned, after 
the removal of the whole external cartilaginous covering. 

This being the case, the vertebrae of such fishes maybe looked for in 
a fossil state, and there is as much probability of finding them as the 
teeth and bony spines which are generally supposed to be the only 
hard parts. This is the more important, since it appears that the teeth 
and bony spines alone afford no sufficient measure of the dimensions 
and proportions of the animal. Thus, from the size of the dorsal 
spine of a shark figured by M. Agassiz, it was concluded that the 
animal must have been of very large size, whereas it appears from 
the comparison of some vertebrae evidently belonging to the same 
individual, that it could not have exceeded two feet in length. 
Other instances of the same kind might be mentioned, so that the 
attention of collectors ought to be carefully directed to every ap- 
pearance of vertebrae in localities where the remains of carti- 
laginous fishes occur, and specimens compared even when there 
would appear scarcely a possibility of the teeth and spines being 
referable to the same species as these rarer fossils. — See Trans- 
actions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. xv. p. 643. et 








March 6. 1844. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On Two Fossil Species of Creseis (?) collected by Professor 
Sedgwick. By E. Forbes, Esq., F.R. S. F.L. S., Profes'sor of 
Botany in King's College, London. 

Creseis is a genus of Pteropodous Mollusca established by M. 
Sander Rang to include several species of simple, more or less aci- 
cular shells. Their surface is smooth or transversely striated, 
rounded, and sometimes presenting a longitudinal groove. The 
animal resembles that of Byalcea, but is not furnished with the 
two caudiform lateral appendages with which the Hyalcea is pro- 
vided. All the species are small, none being more than an inch in 
length. They are oceanic animals, free swimmers, and their re- 
mains are found in abundance in the fine mud of great depths. 

VOL. I. L 



Certain Palaeozoic fossils, 
which have hitherto been con- 
founded with Orthoceras, but 
which present no traces of 
chambers, and in other re- 
spects bear a close resem- 
blance to the shells of Ptero- 
poda, appear to belong to the 
genus Creseis, though gigantic 
in comparison with existing 
forms. Both the species now 
described and figured were ob- 
tained from the Denbighshire 

1. Creseis primceva. 

Very long, linear, dilated 
towards the oral extremity, 
smooth or with indistinct traces 
of longitudinal grooves. 

Length of specimen (nearly entire) 

8 inches. 
Breadth at the aperture \§ in. 
Medium breadth ^ in. 

2. Creseis Sedgwicki. 

Shell cylindric, tapering, 
linear, marked with very nu- 
merous fine, regular, transverse 
striae. Aperture dorsally an- 

Length of fragment || in. [Probable 
length of specimen, 4^ inches. ] 

Breadth at aperture ^ in. 

Medium breadth ^ in. 

Breadth at the aperture of another 
fragment T 8 5 in. 

1. Creseis primaeva E. Forbes. 

2. Creseis Sedgwicki E. Forbes. 


2. On the Geology of North Wales. By Daniel Sharpe, 

Esq., F.G.S. 

[The notice of this memoir is postponed.] 

March 20. 1844. 

William Pole, Esq., A.C.E., Professor of Engineering at 
Elphinstone College, Bombay, and Frederic Joseph Sloane, Esq., 
of Florence, were elected Fellows of this Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

l o 

1. On Fractured Boulders found at Auchmithie near Ar- 
broath. By W. C. Trevelyan, Esq., F. Gr. S. 

In a visit paid to the coast of Forfarshire in the summer of 
1840, I observed, for the first time, at Auchmithie, near Arbroath, 
at the foot of a cliff consisting of old red conglomerate, some 
pebbles and boulders which had fallen from the rock above, and 
which, from their remarkable fractures and contortions, attracted 
my attention, and being in the same neighbourhood in the autumn 
of 1843, I found in the same spot many more specimens of the 
pebbles, some lying at the foot of the cliff and others remaining in 
their matrix. 

Subsequently, in the picturesque conglomerate rocks at Dunottar 
Castle, near Stonehaven, I discovered similar appearances ; but, 
in this instance, the pebbles were much larger, and the fractured 
ones even more abundant than in Forfarshire. 

At Auchmithie, the pebbles which predominate in the con- 
glomerate consist of granite, porphyry, gneiss, jasper, and reddish 
quartz — those of the quartz being chiefly abundant. Of most 
of these different kinds of pebbles, fractured specimens may be 

The conglomerate is traversed by veins of carbonate of lime and 
sulphate of barytes ; and it is in the neighbourhood, or in the 
actual course of these veins, that the -fractured pebbles in many 
instances occur. Sometimes the parts of a pebble traversed by 
one of these fissures are faulted by it, and have their levels dis- 
placed to the distance of several inches. Thus it appears that the 
formation of the fissures and the fracturing of the pebbles have' 
been contemporaneous. 

It is to the bent appearance of some of these pebbles, and the 
appearance of their having been softened and the broken parts 
re-united as if by pressure, that I am desirous more especially to 

t 2 


direct attention. These fractures, contortions, and adhesions, 
appear to be the effect of violent mechanical action and of heat. 

2. On the Origin of the Gypseous and Saliferous Marls of 
the New Red Sandstone. By the Rev. D. Williams, M. A., 

For years past I have had great difficulty in accounting for the 
marls of the new red sandstone, and as none of the explanations 
yet given appear to me sufficient, or satisfactorily account for the 
absence of molluscous and zoophytous remains in these beds, and 
still less for that of the numerous plants entombed above and 
below them, I propose in the following observations to attempt to 
explain these phenomena, in the hope, to use the words of Sir 
H. Delabeche, of arriving at the " knowledge of the true causes 
which have produced" the remarkable aggregates in question. In 
examining the district of Bleadon with a view to account for the 
phenomena of trap rocks presented in the railway cutting*, I 
observed in the superficial coating of soil on the northern flank 
of the hill above Weston-super-Mare, such abundant fragments 
of vesicular *trap, some of them having the aspect of recent volcanic 
scoriae, others containing spherical kernels of decomposing cal- 
careous spar and haematitic iron, that I entertained no doubt 
whatever that I was standing on a dyke of ancient lava. The 
occurrence of these fragments for about seventy-five yards, in an 
east and west direction, indicated its strike, and rendered [it 
probable that the same appearance would recur in the neigh- 
bouring coast cliffs. Those brown, strange-looking rocks, therefore, 
with whose aspect I had been long familiar, were volcanic ag- 
gregates, and were, in fact, two of the most interesting and in- 
structive of the large number which had fallen under my notice. 

These trap rocks are perfectly distinct from each other, and the 
nether one abuts so closely upon the road which forms the common 
approach to the coast below the cliffs, that no geologist passing could 
fail to see it, — indeed, could scarcely avoid touching it ; though, like 
myself, every one had hitherto failed to remark upon it. In truth, 
the lower trap so intimately resembles a brown sandstone, and the 
upper one has so much the aspect of a mass of the ordinary red 
marl with imbedded pebbles, and, at the most accessible approach, 
is for the most part so truly a red marl, that the circumstance of 
its having hitherto escaped notice is not surprising. 

Every bed in the series is, however, so unequivocally disclosed, 
and so readily accessible along the shore, that no doubt whatever 
can be entertained of their several positions. I propose to describe 
them briefly in ascending order, as seen in the subjoined section. 

* See ante, p. 47. 



Section through the Western Extremity of Worle Hill. 
Horizontal base, \ mile. 


No. 1. is tlie ordinary grey mountain limestone, dipping S. S.W. 
at an angle of 35°. 

Resting upon this, and dipping at the same angle and in the 
same direction, are the lower beds of No. 2., consisting of an 
indurated, red, fine-grained marl, which is succeeded by softer 
and more marly shales. The harder varieties contain the Tur- 
binolia ( Cyaihophyllwn) fungitis. Overlying these are beds which 
have the appearance of a dull brown sandstone ; but which the 
eye, assisted by a magnifying lens, discovers to be a congeries of 
minute, red and brown, concretionary, oolitic granules, loosely 
cemented together by a green, filmy substance, imperfectly filling 
up the interstices. It acts like a file on the nail, but yields, when 
triturated, a fine red powder. It effervesces briskly with acids ; 
and near the overlying bed No. 3., it contains shining facets of 
plates of a minute encrinite. This series, so far as I could measure 
it, is from 20 to 25 feet thick. 

No. 3. lies conformably to No. 2., and commonly consists of a 
pale red, crystalline limestone, sometimes of a bright flesh colour, 
with small crinoidal plates and stems. Its upper surface is often 
grey and crystalline, and shows but little alteration from the 
trappean mass, No. 4., which rests immediately upon it. It dips 
S. S.W. 35°, towards its outcrop, but not so much below. 

No. 4. is an amorphous mass of red trappean marl, about 30 feet 
thick, containing numerous globular, angular, and irregularly- 
shaped concretions, many of them standing in high relief out of it. 
They are of very varying forms and dimensions, from the size of 
a pullet's egg to four or more feet in diameter ; and all of them 
attest their volcanic origin, more or less, by the greater or less 
abundance of air cells, now filled sometimes by spherical crystals 
of calcareous spar, and more rarely by red hasmatitic or steel grey 
iron ore. Sometimes these concretions are slightly vesicular, but 
at others they are more abundantly so than any trap rock I 
remember ; and where the original air cells have been left void 
by the decomposition of the lime and iron, the matrix cannot be 
distinguished from a recent volcanic scoria. These lump-looking, 

L 3 


angular, and concentric spheroidal concretions, are distributed 
irregularly through the softer marly mass. They all have a 
variegated or red-marl-like basis, and pass insensibly from the 
most indurated and tough varieties into a friable red marl. The 
more typical marly variety is often of a globular, concretionary 
structure, and is composed of concentric layers, which are 
variegated red, buff, and pale green in colour, and are so friable 
that, under a slight blow of the hammer, they crumble into small 
cuboidal or polygonal fragments. The intermediate varieties are 
characterised by different degrees of induration. Most of them 
are rather tough than hard, and towards the western extremity of 
the trap have the aspect (but evidently not the mineral structure) 
of some of the Lizard serpentines ; and throughout the exposed 
range of this ledge for about a hundred yards, both the hardest 
and most friable varieties are traversed by numerous veins of 
red and white fibrous gypsum, or of fibrous gypsum and cal- 
careous spar. 

The softer and more friable variety is best seen at the Dripping 
Well (a broad chasm in the neighbourhood), where it has been 
raised beyond the reach of the sea. It is there intersected by 
numerous fine lines of fibrous gypsum and calcareous spar. A 
little to the west the entire bed has been exposed to the action of 
the waves ; but a prominent serrated ledge, in advance of the 
cliffs, marks the continuation of the harder and more crystalline 
variety further westward, for the distance of about a hundred 

No. 5., which rests conformably upon the last bed, is a pale red 
quartz rock, exactly like the red quartz rock of the Hotwells and 
Brandon Hill, near Bristol, which has been supposed to represent 
the millstone grit of the northern counties. 

No. 6. is much the same as the last ; but is more calcareous. 
No. 7. is the ordinary grey mountain limestone. Some of its 
beds, on the shore, are parted by a red marly substance, similar to 
that of the trap rock, No. 4. 

No. 8. is apparently a raised beach. It consists of sea sand, 
aggregated together into a tough compact mass by calcareous in- 
filtration, and rests on an accumulation of stones so imperfectly 
rounded as to be neither a conglomerate nor a breccia. The sand 
itself has the character rather of the sea sand of Cornwall than of 
the sand of Uphill and of the other adjacent bays, containing, as it 
does, a considerable proportion of highly comminuted shells. 

With regard to the trap rocks, there can be no doubt that they 
were ancient lavas, erupted, at two distant periods, over the floor 
of the sea, while the mountain limestone was in process of forma- 
tion ; the interval of duration between them being indicated by 
the interposed bed of limestone, No. 3., of which duration it is 
the measure. But where did the trap come from, and how was it 
generated ? If I could not appeal to the case of the Bleadon 
cutting, as sufficient proof of its having originated in the fusion 
and conversion of mountain limestone and other underlying de- 


posits, there is a natural section close at hand which might help 
us to the solution of the problem. The effects of exposure have 
here considerably effaced the evidences which the cutting through 
the rocks at Bleadon disclosed so admirably ; but I found no diffi- 
culty in at once recognising them. 

In the memoir already referred to, I mentioned that the cracks 
or joints and irregular hollows were filled with a variegated marly 
substance ; and at Weston I noticed the face and joint walls of 
the limestone bed to be deeply eroded by many of the same deep 
cavities, in all kinds of positions ; and, in several cases, the joint 
walls are even now red and discoloured. In two instances, one of 
an open joint, the other a cavity, they were filled by the same 
variegated red, buff, and grey laminated marls that I had met 
with at Bleadon. Several of the cavities show, internally and on 
their edges, a strikingly rough and irregular outline. They are 
all of them many feet above the highest spring-tide level, and are 
often so overhanging or highly inclined that stones could by no 
possibility be contained in them ; and the other limestone beds 
exposed along the coast exhibit nothing of the kind. The lower 
portion of the bed is hidden by an artificial platform of stones ; 
but evidences enough remain, within the space of a few feet, to 
indicate the circumstances under which these trappean marl rocks 
were generated, and of the date when they were erupted. A 
north and south fissure, which has riven asunder the beds marked 
2, 3, and 4. on the section, and which is partly filled at the 
bottom with a hard red marl, was probably the vomitory through 
which the upper trap was ejected. 

Two instances of trap rocks, of the same mineral composition, 
one generated in situ, the other erupted, with the effects produced 
by both on the immediately adjacent rocks, are rarely perhaps to 
be met with so well disclosed and in so short a distance as in the 
case between the Bleadon cutting and the cliffs of Weston. 

In using the terms fusion and conversion, I wish it to be dis- 
tinctly understood that I never supposed that any one elementary 
earth or substance could be converted into another : such as that 
lime, for example, could become silex. I contend, only, that the 
limestone has been converted into trap, volcanic mud, or marl, as 
the case may be ; and I entertain little doubt that a chemical ana- 
lysis of these would show that the mineral constituents of the 
former existed in the latter ; though, no doubt, in different, and, 
perhaps, very varying proportions. 

I will conclude with one more remark on the immediate subject 
of this communication. The association of variegated marls, salt, 
gypsum, and magnesian limestone in various places at different 
geological levels appears assignable to some one cause which has 
been common to all. When, therefore, we mark the close analogy, 
the identity in many respects, of these peculiar aggregates with 
a variegated, gypseous and apparently magnesian marl, which is in- 
controvertibly a volcanic product, we may be supposed to have as- 
certained the common origin of both ; and instead of multiplying 

L 4 


causes, we ought rather to class them among the formations which 
owe their origin to volcanic action. 

These gypseous marls, more or less adjacent to, and (as I con- 
sider) derived chiefly from the elevated and dislocated mountain 
limestone, are, in many respects, analogous to the crystalline and 
clay slates among the more disturbed grauwacke and other dis- 
tricts ; and I entertain no doubt that other rocks referable to the 
same origin will be found accompanying such dislocated strata as 
are traversed by igneous rocks, to a greater or less amount, what- 
ever the age of the strata may be. 

April 3. 1844. 

John Wilson, Esq., of St. John's Wood ; Andrew C. Ramsay, 
Esq., of the Ordnance Geological Survey; and Charles Pope, 
Esq., of Temple Cloud, Somerset, were elected Fellows of this 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On the Occurrence of Fossils in the Boulder Clay. By 
Robert Harkness, Esq., of Ormskirk. 

There can be no doubt that the presence or absence of fossils in 
different formations is owing to other causes than the actual exist- 
ence of animals and vegetables on the spot and at the time of 
deposition, and is, indeed, generally the result of local circum- 
stances ; but the " boulder clay," the formation of which the author 
of the present paper endeavours to explain the cause, presents 
similar characters in districts widely distant, and is also remark- 
able for the paucity of its organic remains. 

The deposit in question belongs to the geological period imme- 
diately antecedent to the existing epoch, and consists of clay con- 
taining boulders of various kinds of rock, scattered without order 
through its whole mass. It occurs on various parts of the coast 
both of Great Britain and Ireland, but appears to be most fully 
developed in the basin of the Clyde, where it overlies a series of 
beds of fine clay containing numerous remains of shells. Similar 
remains have been found in many elevated sea beaches ; and it has 
been concluded from the examination of them by competent natu- 
ralists, that the climate must have been more arctic at the time of 
their deposition than it is now in the places where they are found. 

The author of this communication, referring to the known in- 
crease of temperature of the earth at increasing depths, and the law 
of change of temperature in the ocean at certain depths, thinks it 
possible that, although the land was exposed to intense cold, the sea 
might yet have contained certain animals requiring greater warmth 
which may have lived at considerable distance from the surface ; 



and he thinks it probable, for this and other reasons, that the 
deposit of the boulder clay was formed in a deep sea. 

2. On the Traces of the Action of Glaciers at Porth-Treiddyn, 
in Carnarvonshire. By Robert W. Byres, Esq. 

Map of the supposed Path of the Glaciers from Snowdon. 

a. Moel Hebog. /. Tremadoc. 

b. Moel Wyn. g. Portmadoc. 

c. Bedd Gelert. h, h. Traeth Mawr. 

d. Pont Aber-glas-lyn. i. Traeth Bach. 

e. Brynteg. 

The following notice, bearing date the 16th of October, 1841, 
appeared in the Visitors' book at the Goat-Hotel, Beddgellert : — 
" Notice to Geologists. — At Pont-aber-glas-llyn, 100 yards below 
the bridge, on the right bank of the river, and 20 feet above the 
road, see a good example of the furrows, flutings, and striae on 
rounded and polished surfaces of the rock, which Agassiz refers to 
the action of glaciers. See many similar effects on the left, or 
south-west, side of the pass of Llanberris. William Buckland." 

This notice led me to search for the same effects in other places 
in the same neighbourhood, and I found similar traces on many of 
the rocks between Aber-glas-llyn bridge and Tremadoc. In 
February last curiosity led me into the Flag-quarry, which lies 
about 300 yards from the mail-coach road, at Porth-Treiddyn ; and 
for the purpose of examining the joints and split of the rock, I 


ascended from the quarry to the top, where a space of ground had 
been cleared of the soil and detritus, preparatory to further quarry- 
ing. Here I was much struck by the polish and undulations of 
the surface of the rock ; and a detail of my examination of these 
phenomena will leave no doubt, I think, that they are attributable 
to the action of glaciers. 

The slope of the mountain at Porth-Treiddyn is to the north 
and north-east ; and the dip of the rocks is in the same direction, 
at an inclination of from 17° to 22°, but the angle increases as you 

At the spot which had been cleared, above the quarry, the de- 
tritus lying on the surface of the rock was from five to twelve feet 
thick. It consisted of various soils and gravel, of blocks of rock 
similar to the flags, and of boulders of porphyry and greenstone, 
in some of which the felspar crystals were very distinct. Some 
of these boulders were from three to four feet long, and from two 
to three feet in diameter.* 

It is here, especially, that we have presented to us a perfect 
type of the glacier action. The surface of the uncovered portion 
of the rock, when it has not been disturbed by the workmen's 
tools, is rounded and polished in the most extraordinary manner. 
The surface is furrowed ; and the furrows, where the rock is 
uneven, are from 1 to 2 feet deep, with their edges beautifully 
rounded off. On the broader slopes, strias are very distinct. With 
a few exceptions, which I shall presently take occasion to notice, 
the furrows, striae, scoops, grooves, and undulations, all shape their 
course, not in the direction which water would take, that is to say, 
in the direction in which the mountain slopes, northwards ; but in 
a diagonal or slanting direction, towards the valley of the Glas- 
llyn, that is to say, towards the east or north-east. 

There are a few channels, from 1 to 2 feet deep, which run 
in a north-westerly direction ; these channels appear to have 
arisen from the form of the rock compelling the superincumbent 
glacier, with its included blocks, to move that way, until the 
obstacle was overcome, when the moving mass resumed its original 

With this example of glacier action for our guide, other places 
where, from lapse of time combined with other causes, the 
traces of that action have become somewhat obscure, and might 
consequently appear doubtful, will be regarded as affording clear 
evidence that there also the same cause has been in operation. 

The same phenomena are traceable from Porth-Treiddyn higher 
up the mountain, to the very top, which is rather more than half 
a mile from the spot where these effects are first visible. In 
cutting the new road to the quarry, many rocks have been ex- 
posed, which show, by their polished faces, that the whole side of 
the mountain has been acted on. 

* On the southern side of this mountain, and very much below the level of 
the quarry, may be seen broken and but seldom rounded masses of these rocks, 
in which felspar, hornblende, and shorl are disseminated. 


"Where light and air have acted, much of the delicacy of the 
cutting has been obliterated ; besides which the surface is covered, 
in part, with heath and lichens. Notwithstanding these disad- 
vantages, the most beautiful example of the power of a loaded 
mass, when making its way in a slanting direction, is to be seen 
on the high road, at the commencement of the new road to the 
quarry, exactly within the gate-posts. In this place, the more 
delicate striae are visible, with the flutings and furrows ; and these 
are cut in such a manner as to show that the pressure was down- 
wards, the action slow, and the motion irregular ; and in places 
where I have removed the moss and heath, the surface has a 
tolerable polish, readily perceived by any one who has seen the upper 
quarry. In this spot occurs an example in proof of slow action, 
in the work of grooving the rock. Two semicircular grooves, 
about an inch deep, and about a foot apart, proceed parallel to 
one another for some distance, when they gradually curve round 
and then meet, and one of the grooves proceeds onwards from the 
centre downwards. The form of the grooves may be represented 
by the letter Y. Here, as in other places, it is evident that the 
cutting substance changed its position, and for a time remained 
stationary, though still continuing its grinding action, since a cup 
or cell has been formed to a greater depth than the fluting above 
or below. 

With so perfect a type as that of Porth-Treiddyn, of what 
Agassiz refers to glacier action, I have been enabled to trace that 
action at various other . points in Carnarvonshire between Tre- 
madoc and Aber-glas-llyn bridge, and also on the other side of the 
Glas-llyn river in Merionethshire ; but the furrows and other 
striking peculiarities are not so evident in these other localities as 
they are at Porth-Treiddyn. 

In the space represented in the drawing, glacier action may be 
observed, — 

1st, at the town rock, immediately above the village of Tre- 
madoe : 

2dly, at the farm-yard : 

3dly, at Porth-Treiddyn, already noticed : 

4thly, at a point by the road side, where there occurs a perfect 
sample of polished rock. This lies a little beyond the rock-crystal 
quarry, where tabular crystals of titanite, called brookite (if I 
remember rightly) were procured. 

5thly, at a point near Brynteg. 

Beyond Brynteg, towards Aber-glas-llyn bridge, many other 
examples of glacier action may be seen, which are those referred 
to by Dr. Buckland. 

In the foregoing remarks, I have confined myself to an extent 
of 6 or 7 miles ; but I know that there are other cases, which at 
some future day I may explore ; and I will now conclude by say- 
ing that I have attempted to describe one of the greatest curiosities 
in the country, which will amply reward, by its inspection, alt 
lovers of geology. 


3. On the Existence of Fluoric Acid in recent Bones. By G. 
Owen Rees, Esq., M.D. 

The author in this communication wished to direct the atten- 
tion of geologists to the experiments connected with the presence 
of fluoric acid in bones that have undergone no change consequent 
upon fossilisation. He states that in the experiments he made, 
the bones were tested both before and after calcination, but that 
there was nowhere the slightest indication of fluoric acid in recent 
human bones, although immediate evidence of its presence was 
obtained when fossil ivory was submitted to examination. 

The analyses of fossil bones have, according to Dr. Rees' state- 
ment, shown the existence of a very large proportion of fluoride, 
in some cases as much as 10 or 15 per cent., which is an enormous 
increase on the largest proportion ever declared to exist in recent 
specimens. He argues, therefore, that since so much of the 
fluoride of calcium is introduced in fossilisation, the whole may 
have been. 

He concludes by alluding to the unsatisfactory state of the 
question at issue, namely, whether the bone and ivory while under- 
going the process of fossilisation have their phosphoric acid 
transmuted, or whether a fluoride exists undetected in the soft 
parts of animals, which during their decay decomposes the earthy 
salts of the bones. 

April 17. 1844. 

H. B. Mackeson, Esq., of Hythe, and Sir Thomas Edward 
Colebrooke, Bart., of Colebrooke Park, were elected Fellows of 
this Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. Observations on the Geology of the Southern Part of the 
Gulf op Smyrna and the Promontory of Karabournou. By 
Lieut. T. Spratt, R.N. 

The observations contained in this paper continue the subject 
from the point at which it was left by Messrs. Strickland and 
Hamilton in their memoir on the geology of the neighbourhood of 
Smyrna*, and relate to the western boundary of the lacustrine 
deposits which lie to the south of the town of Smyrna, forming 
and in part surrounding the plain of Sedi-kieui ; so called from a 
village of that name situated on its western margin. 

Immediately over the village there rises a series of ridges, flank- 
ing a high mountain that forms one of the principal features in 
the arm of land which separates the two gulfs of Smyrna and 

* Geol. Trans. 2d ser. vol. v. p. 393. 

PrintediyReeve Brothers 

Printed LyReeve Brother: 


Ephesus. This mountain was the Corax of the ancients, and 
attains a height of nearly 4000 feet, stretching from shore to shore 
on both sides of the peninsula. 

The north face of this mountain is channelled by deep ravines, 
and the intervening ridges attain a very considerable elevation, 
almost to their terminations ; so that the whole mass rises abruptly 
out of the plains and from the shore at its base. 

In lithological structure these ridges consist of dark-coloured 
shales and schists, which dip at high angles (from 30 to 50 degrees) 
round the central and most elevated part of the mountain, but the 
rocks which compose this central nucleus I had no opportunity of 

At the mouth of one of the deep valleys, descending from the 
summit of the mountain, is a hot bath, the position of which is 
marked on the map.* Besides the spring which supplies this bath, 
several hot jets of water rise through the sand in the bed of the 
torrent in the ravine, in one of which the thermometer stood at 
150° Fahr. ; and very lately in an attempt to sink a well through 
the alluvium of the adjoining plain at the base of the mountain, 
springs of hot water were met with at about 10 feet below the 
surface, so that there appears to be a considerable supply of heated 
water which deposits some mineral (apparently sulphur), and 
escapes by a subterranean course. 

As the schists and shales appeared to be best developed in the 
sides of the deep valley which opens behind the hot springs, I 
ascended it for about four miles. Its sides were steep and pre- 
cipitous, and I observed that the rocks consisted of a series of 
brown and greenish shales and schists, interstratified with 
quartzose grit and a hard sandstone, composed of particles of 
quartz and mica. Sometimes compact siliceous strata occur ; and 
not unfrequently beds and nodular masses of jasper, as well as 
crystalline limestone. At the mouth of the ravine the dip was 
35°; about a mile above increased to 50°, and two miles further, in 
contact with some igneous protrusions, the schists, &c, are nearly 
vertical. The volcanic productions in this neighbourhood appear 
to be of three kinds, and occur near each other, within the space 
of 200 or 300 yards, in the form of dykes, from 10 to 20 feet broad. 
In contact with the igneous rocks the shales were much more 
indurated than usual, and of a redder appearance on the exposed 
surfaces. Beyond the dykes the beds assume their former dip of 
50° to the N.N. W. 

These shaly and schistose deposits must be of very considerable 
thickness ; at least a thousand yards of them being exposed be- 
tween the mouth of the valley and the point to which I ascended ; 
and, from what I was able to judge, they appeared to extend as 
far again, but I could nowhere discover a single trace of organic 

The next part I examined was a ridge about three miles to the 

* See the map accompanying this memoir. 


west of the Hot Bath Valley, on the summit of which stand two 
remarkable peaks, known by the name of the Two Brothers. 
These peaks, although separated only by a few hundred yards, 
consist of detached masses of a grey semi-crystalline limestone, of 
about 300 feet in thickness. A chain of calcareous matter, of 
variable thickness, may be traced through the whole mountain to 
the south-west, following the line of stratification ; and being more 
durable than the associated shales, the harder rocks stand up in 
isolated points above the wasted strata in which they are embedded, 
and with which the stratification of the limestone is always con- 

They are, however, split and shattered by numerous transverse 
fissures, which at a short distance appear like lines of stratification. 
In the shales which underlie these rocks occur calcareous lamina? 
as well as calcareous nodules, varying in size from that of a nut 
to that of an orange. The shales are here very friable, and of a 
pale chocolate or cream colour, like those at the foot of Mount 
Pagus, near the Caravan Bridge (mentioned in the memoir of 
Messrs. Strickland and Hamilton), and they contain crystals of a 
mineral which appears to be garnet. These shales are 300 or 
400 feet in thickness, and below them others which are indurated 
are found in the valley above the hot baths. 

At the western base of Mount Corax is a low isthmus crossing 
between the gulf of Smyrna and the bay of Sighajik, which sepa- 
rates the mountain from the district of Vourla. The greater 
part of the isthmus is an alluvium of gravel, covering the schist and 
shales ; but on the opposite side of the isthmus these latter rocks 
reappear, dipping at the same angle as in the foot of Mount 
Corax (45° to W.N.W.), passing into a ridge of limestone, semi- 
crystalline, and greatly resembling the limestone of the Two 
Brothers ; the crystalline condition, however, being in neither case 
due to any immediate contact with volcanic eruptions. The lime- 
stone now continues throughout the promontory in peaks and ridges, 
whose height varies from 1000 to nearly 4000 feet. Near the 
shore, on the west side of the isthmus, rises one of these peaks, which 
is sharp and conical, and crowned by an ancient fortress. On its 
western base repose, in a horizontal position, compact white cal- 
careous strata and greenish marls, identical with the fresh-water 
deposits described by Messrs. Hamilton and Strickland as existing 
in the vicinity of Smyrna. These deposits occupy a considerable 
district round the modern town of Vourla, as well as in other parts 
of the Promontory of Karabournou and the islands within the 
gulf, and they are indicated in the map by the yellow colouring. 
Of the lacustrine origin of this formation there is the fullest evi- 
dence, from the number and variety of fresh-water shells which 
are found imbedded in the different strata, and in the probably 
contemporaneous fresh- water basins of the interior of Asia Minor. 
In some localities the fossils are very abundant, as on the road to 
Vourla, about two miles to the east of the town, and in the small 
islands which form the anchorage of Vourla. 


Section from the Vouria Basin to the foot of Mount Corax.* 
Vourla. Sevri Tepeh. Mt. Corax. 

The lacustrine deposits surrounding Vourla extend to the head 
of the Gulf of Gul-bagtcheh on the west, but the promontory 
jutting out towards the Vourla Islands is divided across by a hill 
of brown trachyte, which separates the fresh-water formations at 
the extremity of the promontory from those in the Vourla basin, 
and has evidently overflowed the intermediate portion of the bed 
of this ancient lake. The adjacent islands present phenomena 
resembling those observed in the neighbourhood of Smyrna, and 
Originated, most probably, at the same period. A vast eruption 
of volcanic matter seems here to have burst through the bed of the 
ancient lake, uplifting the sedimentary matter deposited in it into 
hills and islands, which vary from 100 to 600 feet in height. 

The two northern islands, Long Island and Keelsali, consist 
almost entirely of porphyritic trachyte and of a white tufa ; but 
the small islands to the south are principally composed of the 
fresh-water deposits in contact with, and frequently disturbed by, 
similar igneous productions, offering clear evidence of their later 
origin. These volcanic ejections form part only of a chain of 
similar eruptions which extends to the north, nearly in a straight 
line, as far as the Gulf of Adramitti. 

The fossils from the Vourla Islands have been examined by 
Professor Edward Forbes, and arc described in a note appended to 
this memoir. 

The Karabournou promontory consists of a high central table 
mountain of grey limestone, along the east and north base of which 
runs a narrow strip of the calcareous and marly series, the bed, no 
doubt, of an ancient lake which formerly occupied the whole 
Gulf of Smyrna, and, perhaps, the whole archipelago. The limits 
of this lake are indeed as yet undefined, but there are indications 
of it in the Scio and Mitylene channels, where it ranges at the 
foot of the higher hills along the present sea-coast, as on the east 
side of Karabournou. I obtained fossils (Paludina) proving its 
fresh-water origin at the very northern extremity of Cape Kara- 
bournou, and a few yards only from the sea. 

On the western flank of the high central table of limestone lies 
a broad chain of hills, composed of shales and schists, which corre- 
spond with those of Mount Corax. They dip to the east and 

* The references both to this and the other sections are as follow : — 
4. Fresh-water beds. 2. Shales and schist. 

3. Limestone. 1. Erupted trap and serpentine. 



E. S.E., at an angle of from 45° to 60°, and, in both cases, pass be- 
neath the intermediate mass of limestone which occupies the entire 
district between them. The limestone is, in general, a grey compact 
rock, but is sometimes crystalline, as, for instance, near Eitri, anc. 
Erythrae, at a spot noticed by Mr. Hamilton. The crystalline con- 
dition is probably due in this spot to the proximity of recent vol- 
canic ejections of trachyte, &c, which occur abundantly in the 

In the western part of the Karabournou promontory are found 
also igneous rocks of two periods, the one antecedent and the other 
subsequent to the date of the lacustrine formations. The former 
is presented in a hill of serpentine, several hundred feet in height, 
near Cape Koumour Baba, the northern extremity of the promontory, 
and upon its sides rest in undisturbed succession the parallel layers 
of the several calcareous strata and marls deposited at the bottom 
of the lake ; the shales in contact have been much disturbed and 
altered, and are indurated into slate hardly distinguishable from 
slates of the older rocks. The trap rocks of the latter period occur 
in four localities, in each of which they differ in their mineral 
composition : the first is found on the shore opposite to the Island 
of Sahib, and its intrusion has evidently accompanied the disturb- 
ance indicated by the considerable dip of the adjacent lacustrine 
deposits. The trap contains numerous small drusy cavities, in 
which is always found a singular fibrous mineral. 

The lacustrine deposits correspond exactly with those of Vourla 
and of Smyrna, both in colour and mineral arrangement. In the 
island of Sahib there are some good specimens of pisolite, inter- 
stratified with the calcareous. portion of the deposit. 

Sahib Island. 


The above section exhibits portions of the whole series of rocks 
noticed in this paper. It illustrates the different ages of eruption 
and deposition ; and commencing near the coast, about two miles 
to the west of Cape Koumour Baba (marked A on the map), it 
terminates at Sahib Island (marked B). 

The next trappean rock is a peaked mass protruding from 
beneath the tertiary sediments at Cape Koumour Baba. These 
rocks are much contorted at the point of contact, but with the ex- 
ception of appearing a little more indurated, they are not other- 
wise altered. 

The above diagram exhibits a section presented in the cliffs that 
extend from the Cape about a mile to the westward, where their 

height is about 140 feet. 




This section is exhibited in a line, drawn north and south, from 
the Cape to the serpentine hill, and goes through the fresh-water 
deposits. In this locality I procured one of the Paludinae. 

Following the coast down on the west side of the promontory, 
good sections of the shales and schists continue to be presented 
at every headland ; but a few feet above the shore, under the 
village of Kutchuk Baghcheh, a small detached portion of the 
lacustrine deposit is again met with, extending for about half a 
mile in length and overlaid by a stream of brown trachyte, shown 
in the subjoined section. 

This trachyte is similar to that which Mr. Strickland has re- 
marked as occurring near Bournabat, and at Mount Pagus, above 
Smyrna. The trachyte contains fragments of an older basaltic 
rock imbedded in it. 

The fourth example of the eruption of trappean matter is near 
the N.W. point of the bay of Erythrae, and is shown in the annexed 
section, which also indicates the relative superposition of the 
shales and limestone. The only difference between the former 
and those of Mount Corax is, that in the Karabournou district 
there is a larger proportion of jasper interstratined with the shales 
and schists. In every other respect it seems impossible to distin- 
guish the rocks of the two localities. 

Some time after making the observations in the Gulf of Smyrna 
above recorded, I had an opportunity of examining a portion of 
the coast opposite to Mitylene, near the islands of Adjano, where 
phenomena occur similar to those in the Gulf of Smyrna, viz. ex- 
tensive trappean eruptions overlying portions of the lacustrine de- 
posits, corresponding with those of Smyrna, Vourla, and Kara- 
bournou, and containing also black flints, as in all those localities, 
the identity being in every respect perfect. These beds, therefore, 
formed part of the great lake, although here the fossils were want- 
ing. The trap forms a range of hills varying from 1000 to 2500 feet 
in height, extending from the Gulf of Sandarlic to the Mosco-nisi 
islands, at the bases of which the lacustrine deposits are occasion- 
ally visible. The largest portion of these is at Adjano, where the 
deposits dip under a high mountain of trachyte at an angle of 30°, 

VOL. I. M 


the trachyte being stratified like that found near Smyrna. The 
tertiary hills on the margin of the Scio channel, near the town of 
Tchesmeh, and in the island of Scio opposite to it, seem also to be 
of fresh-water origin, as they closely resemble those of the Gulf of 

The facts made out from these investigations tend to prove the 
former existence of a large lake in the eastern part of the Archi- 
pelago, where the sea now attains a very considerable depth*, 
and that subsequently a succession of volcanic eruptions on a 
grand scale took place over the bed of the lake. A long period of 
tranquillity must, however, have preceded these eruptions, during 
which 500 or 600 feet of a vertical series of beds had been depo- 
sited throughout the lake. By this sudden outburst of igneous 
matter, parts of the deposit were raised into hills of considerable 
elevation, whilst the accumulations of the heated and melted fluids 
poured over the bottom, formed mountains and high ridges of con- 
siderable extent round each focus of eruption. In the tertiary hills 
there is evidence of a denuding power at elevations above the 
present sea level. 

Having carried this ancient lake into the depths of the Archi- 
pelago, the question then arises as to its former boundary, a ques- 
tion which extended observations only can determine. 

2. Note on the Fossils collected by Lieut. Spratt in the Fresh- 
water Tertiary Formation of the Gulf of Smyrna. By Pro- 
fessor Edward Forbes, F.L. S. 

Lieutenant Spratt has found eleven species of fresh- water shells 
(all univalves) and a cast, apparently of a Helix, in the fresh-water 
limestone of Vourla. 

Of these, two belong to the genus Limneus, one of which agrees 
with the Limneus longiscatus of the Paris basin and the Isle of 
Wight fresh-water bed, and the other is apparently the Limneus 
ventricosus of Brongniart ; also a Paris basin shell. 

Five species belong to the genus Planorbis. One of these 
is Planorbis rotundatus, a well-known eocene fresh-water fossil. 
Three are closely allied to, if not identical with, Paris basin fossils, 
and one is new. 

Two belong to the genus Paludina. One of these appears to be 
the Paludina atomus of the Paris basin. The other is new. 

One belongs to the genus Melanopsis. It is the Melanopsis 
buccinoidea, a species which, commencing its range in the oldest 
tertiary strata, has lived on to the present day, and is now a 
common inhabitant of western Asia, northern Africa, and the 
southern parts of Europe. 

* At about five miles off the north extremity of Karabournou the depth is 
100 fathoms, and continues to increase beyond. 


One belongs to the genus Melania, and appears to be a new- 

On the whole, the evidence afforded by the fossils tends to show 
that the great fresh-water formation which skirts the Gulf of 
Smyrna and the coasts of many islands in the neighbouring por- 
tion of the Archipelago is of the age of the Paris basin and London 
clay. Whether the fresh-water tertiary basins of the interior of 
Asia Minor and of the valley of the Xanthus, and the islands of 
Cos and Rhodes, are of the same age, is very doubtful. Judging 
from the numerous fossils collected by Mr. Spratt and myself in 
those tertiaries, I am inclined to pronounce them of a different 
age and of later origin ; anterior, however, to the pliocene marine 
formations of Asia Minor and the Sporades. 

I may add that Mr. Strickland, in his Memoir on the Geology 
of Smyrna, mentions a Unio, a Cyclas, a Helix, and a Cypris in 
the tertiaries of Bournabat which have not been met with by 
Lieutenant Spratt. 

Impressions of the leaves of vegetables, too imperfect for deter- 
mination, accompany the specimens laid before the Society. 

List of the Fossils. 

a. Planorbis Spratti E. Forbes. 

b. Paludina Stricklandiana E. Forbes. 

c. Melania Hamiltoniana E. Forbes. 

1. Limneus longiscatus Brongniart. 

Many casts, not distinguishable from French and English examples. 

2. Limneus ventricosus Brongniart ? 

The specimens closely resemble the recent L. auricularius. The spire 
appears rather shorter that it is represented in the figures of the French 
fossil, to which I have referred it. 

3. Planorbis rotundatus Brong. 

Such specimens as retain the shell exhibit transverse sulcations of growth. 

4. Planorbis cornu Brong. ? 

Specimens with the shell are spirally striated, like the recent Planorbis 
similis. Not having compared it with authentic French examples, I have 
marked this species with a query, though it closely agrees with the figures. 

5. Planorbis prevostinus Brong. ? 

Too imperfect a specimen for certain identification. 

6. Planorbis planulatus Desh. ? 

The inner whorls do not occupy so much space as they are represented 
to do in the French figures. It is closely allied to the recent Planorbis 

7. Planorbis Spratti, nov. sp. (woodcut, Jig. a). 

M 2 


P. testa discoided (laevigata), superne plana, inferne profunde umbilicaid / 
anfractibus crassis, superne angustis, quints, subangulatis. 
Lat. T 2 g . Crass, -fa unc. 

Closely resembling the recent Planorbis contortus, which represents this 
species in miniature. It is allied to the Planorbis cyllndricus of Sowerby, 
from the fresh-water tertiaries of the Isle of Wight, but differs in the 
greater number of whorls, and their narrowness on the upper disk, which is 
very slightly concave. 

8. Paludina atomus Brong. 

A little Paludina, which appears to be identical with the Paris basin 
shell described by Brongniart under the name of Bidimus atomus, and rightly 
referred by Deshayes to the genus Paludina. 

9. Paludina Stricklandiana, nov. sp. (woodcut, Jig. 6). 

P. testa globulosd, laevigata, politd, umbilicatd ; spird depressd, obtusd ; 
anfractibus 3 — 4 ; aperturd ovatd, superne angulatd, marginibus crassis. 

Lon. Jq unc. 

A very minute but beautiful and distinct species, in form somewhat ap- 
proaching Ampullaria. Its nearest ally is the Paludina globulus of Des- 
hayes, a Paris basin shell, which is, however, imperforate, and not nearly so 
globose as the Asiatic species. 

10. Melanopsis buccinoidea Auct. 

A single specimen from the burying-ground in the island of Vourla. 

11. Melania Hamiltoniana, nov. sp. (woodcut, fig. c). 

M. testd ovato-turritd, anfractibus septem, lavigatis, longitudinaliter mullo* 
costatis, costis subsinuatis. 

Lon. \ unc. 

Apparently a very fragile shell, of which visually only the impressions 
remain. In sculpture it bears a close resemblance to a marine Chemnitzia. 

3. On the Remains of Fishes found by Mr. Kaye and Mr, 
Cunliffe, in the Pondicherry Beds. By Sir Philip 
de Malpas Grey Egerton, M. P. 

The fish remains collected by Mr. Kaye and Mr. Cunliffe in the 
neighbourhood of Pondicherry having been placed in my hands 
for examination, I have endeavoured to discharge the task com- 
mitted to me to the best of my ability, by comparing the Indian 
fossils with analogous forms from other localities, and with the 
figures and descriptions given by Agassiz in the "PoissonsFossiles." 
The collection consists wholly of teeth ; they are, generally speak- 
ing, in bad condition, few of the placoid teeth retaining their bases, 
a very essential element in the identification and description of 
species. Before proceeding to detail the characters of the several 
specimens, it may be advisable briefly to relate the results at which 
I have arrived from the study of these ichthyolites. With the 
exception of two specimens, the collection is entirely composed of 
teeth of squaloid fishes. Of these two exceptions one belongs to 
the Ganoid order and to the family of Pycnodonts, and it is pro- 
bably a Sphcerodus ; the other is referred to the Cycloid genus 
Enchodus, the teeth very closely resembling those of Enchodus 


kalocyon, a species common to the chalk of England, continental 
Europe, and North America. Of the Placoid remains, two species 
only belong to the section of the Squaloid family with serrated 
teeth, and both of them are referable to the genus Cor ax, which 
Agassiz informs us is restricted to the chalk. One species is not 
distinguishable from Corax pristodontus of the Maestricht beds. 
The other is undescribed. The Squaloid teeth with cutting edges 
compose the bulk of the collection. They are referable to at least 
a dozen species, all corresponding in the absence of plaits or strias 
on the surfaces of the enamel. Although there are close approxi- 
mations amongst them to the species both of the Cretaceous and 
Miocene period, yet it is somewhat remarkable that I have not 
seen a feature nor a character which recals in the remotest degree 
the forms of the Eocene period. They belong principally to the 
Odontaspid type ; one species being closely allied to, if not identi- 
cal with, the Odontaspis rhaphiodon of the chalk of Europe. Two 
or three species are referable to the genus Otodus, one approach- 
ing Otodus appendiculatus ; also from the chalk. Of the genera 
found in the Pondicherry beds, the following is the stratigraphical 
distribution assigned by Agassiz. The genera Lamna, Odontaspis, 
and Oxyrhina extend from the recent period to the Greensand 
inclusive, the Jurassic species being now separated from Lamna 
under the generic title of Sphenodus, and from Oxyrhina under that 
of Meristodon, Otodus extends from the Crag to the Greensand, and 
Corax is restricted to the true chalk. The Ganoid genus Sphce- 
rodus ranges from the Tertiary beds to the Oolite, and the Cycloid 
Enchodus is restricted to the chalk. The distribution of species is as 
follows : — Lamna, 5 tertiary and 1 cretaceous ; Odontaspis, 5 
tertiary, 4 cretaceous ; Oxyrhina, 1 1 tertiary, 2 cretaceous ; Otodus, 
8 tertiary, and 5 cretaceous ; and Corax, 5 cretaceous. Of the 
five Placoid genera we have twenty-nine species occurring in the 
Supercretaceous, and seventeen in the cretaceous deposits ; but 
not a single species has yet been found anterior to the latter period. 
The evidence, then, afforded by the Pondicherry fishes appears to 
yield strong corroborative testimony to the accuracy of Mr. Forbes's 
views, derived from the study of the invertebrate remains of the 
same locality ; and I fully coincide with him in assigning these 
strata to the cretaceous period. I am, however, inclined, consider- 
ing the number of species collected which must be referred to 
genera which we know decrease in species as they descend in the 
stratigraphical scale, from the occurrence also of Maestricht species, 
and from the presence of the genera Corax and Enchodus not yet 
found so low as the Neocomian, to place this deposit higher in the 
system than Mr. Forbes is inclined to do from his investigations. 
As I have above stated, the Placoid teeth are for the most part 
mutilated, rendering the generic identification a matter of much 
difficulty and uncertainty, although the specific characters are 
good and distinct. Agassiz says*, "It frequently happens that 

* Poissons Fossiles, vol. iii. p. 266. 

M 3 


the root and the lateral cusps are detached from the dental cone, 
and in this case it is very difficult to distinguish Otodus from 
Oxyrhina. I shall describe hereafter several species very well 
characterised, but of which the genus is doubtful, because the 
perfect root is not known." Again, in prefacing the genus Oxy- 
rhina, he says, " When the base of the root is mutilated, it some- 
times happens that one is in doubt whether the species belongs to 
the genus Oxyrhina, Lamna, or Otodus." He also remarks, after 
comparing the genus Lamna with Oxyrhina, " The steps from 
Otodus to Lamna are more gradual, and here we find some species 
which are actually on the limits between the two genera." Some 
of the Indian species are in this category, for we find the principal 
dental cone of the form and aspect of an Otodus associated with 
the long pointed cylindrical lateral cusps of an Odontaspis, and the 
flattened cultriform tooth of an Oxyrhina furnished with smooth 
lateral cusps which exclude it from that genus. It is with much 
hesitation that I have ventured to draw up the following descrip- 
tions of the more perfect specimens of the Pondicherry collections, 
from a consciousness of my own inability to grapple with this most 
difficult branch of fossil Ichthyology, not unmixed with doubts of 
the stability of the generic and specific characters as at present 
acknowledged in the " Poissons Fossiles." Agassiz has himself 
complained of the paucity of materials for arriving at any very 
definite conclusions as to the variations of form in the teeth occur- 
ring in the various positions in the mouth of the same species. 
Those naturalists who have studied the recent sharks are well 
aware of the extent of those variations in a single individual, and 
can, therefore, appreciate the difficulties under which Agassiz has 
laboured in attempting a systematic arrangement of the fossil 
Squaloids. As I am in hopes this distinguished Ichthyologist will 
shortly have an opportunity of examining the Indian collections, I 
offer the following descriptions as provisional rather than final ; or, 
at all events, as giving the characters of forms in themselves 
distinct, but which may hereafter be grouped together under legi- 
timate generic and specific denominations. 

Cycloid Order. 

Scomberoid Family. 

Enchodus serratus Eg. — Three teeth from the Pondicherry 
beds, evidently belonging to the genus Enchodus. As I have 
before stated, they bear a very close resemblance to the species 
figured by Agassiz as Enchodus halocyon ; at the same time 
(although the materials are too defective to warrant any definite 
conclusion), there are appreciable discrepancies of sufficient im- 
portance to induce me to abstain from identifying the Indian teeth 
with the species alluded to. The most perfect specimen, as com- 
pared with teeth of similar size of E. halocyon, presents the follow- 


ing distinctive characters. The surface of the enamel is more 
smooth and even, in consequence of the fineness of the longitudinal 
striae, which in E. lialocyon are coarse and strongly marked. The 
transverse bands are broader, and the form of the teeth is less 
attenuated. The most important feature it presents is in the finely 
serrate cutting edge, which in all the specimens I have seen of 
E. halocyon is smooth and entire. A second fragment corresponds 
in all these points. The third specimen is a smaller tooth, and 
only differs from E. halocyon in the smooth and highly polished 
surface of the enamel. None of these teeth are perfect. The 
length of the largest is half an inch, of the smallest two lines. 

Ganoid Order. 
Pycnodont Family. 

Speuerodus rugulosus Eg. — All the tritoral teeth in the Indian 
collections appear to belong to one species of the 
genus Sphaerodus. A pretty group in Mr. Kaye's SSSn O 

series shows nine teeth in situ of those in use, and 
underneath there are the germs of several of their 
successors. Three detached teeth appear to have belonged to the 
same specimen. In Mr. Cunliffe's collection I have found two 
tritores, considerably larger than the specimens alluded to above, 
but evidently belonging to the same species. In size these teeth 
resemble those of Sphcerodus Lens, the smallest species figured by 
Agassiz ; in regularity of form they approach nearer to Sphcerodus 
parvus ; but they are distinguished from these species and all others 
figured by Agassiz by the wrinkled or shrivelled appearance of the 
superficies of the teeth. This is visible even in the smallest speci- 
mens, and forms a well-marked and easily appreciable specific 

Placoid Order. 

Squaloid Family. 

Corax pristodontus Agass. Poiss. Foss. vol. iii. p. 224. — A 
single fragment is the only evidence upon which rests 
the supposition that this species enjoyed the extended 
geographical range indicated by its occurrence in the 
Cretaceous system of Europe and India. This speci- 
men shows the outer surface of the hinder portion of 
a sinistral tooth. The base is wanting. It corre- 
sponds in minutest detail with the analogous portions of a tooth 
received from Professor Goldfuss, named by Agassiz Galeus (now 
Corax) pristodontus, apparently from the Maestricht beds. A 
comparison with the figures given in the " Poissons Fossiles " yields 
a like result. Some specimens in Mr. Lyell's cabinet, from the 

M 4 


chalk of North America, approximate very closely to this species. 
Should they be identical, it will prove this to be one of the most 
widely distributed fossil forms of fishes with which we are ac- 

Corax incisus Eg. — A second species of Corax occurs in the 
Indian collection sent over by Mr. Cunliffe, of small size 
and very distinct character. It is rather smaller than 
the species of this genus generally are, corresponding in 
this respect with Corax planus, of which some imper- 
fect specimens are figured in the "Poissons Fossiles" from an 
unknown locality. Our specimens are not perfect, but they are 
sufficiently so to prove them to be specifically distinct from all 
those figured and described by Agassiz. The principal cusp is 
conical, rather slender, and pointed. It is more upright and less 
falcate than usual. The antero -posterior diameter of the tooth is 
small, in this respect resembling Corax planus. The character of 
the marginal armature is peculiar. It is rather notched or crenu- 
lated than serrate, the subdivisions of the edge being blunt and 
irregular. The lateral. cusp is smooth, and corresponds with its 
principal in the character of its dentelures. 

Otodus ? marginatus Eg. — Several of the Indian squaloids 
are apparently referable to the genus 
Otodus. Of these, two have some re- 
semblance to the common Otodus ap- 
pendiculatus of the chalk formation ; 
and although the characters of this 
species, as at present recognised, are 
wide enough to embrace an extensive 
variety of forms, yet they are suffi- 
ciently defined to exclude the Indian 
specimens. The larger species, of 
which I have found four specimens, is 

remarkable for the rapid increase of the antero -posterior diameter 
of the shaft as it approaches the base. The latter is thick and 
massive, with a deep depression on the outer surface. The cone 
in profile is regularly and distinctly incurved from the apex to the 
junction with the base. It is narrower than in most specimens of 
O. appendiculatus. The outer surface is smooth and rounded ; 
the inner one is also smooth, and more arched than in any species I 
am acquainted with. A section, taken one third distant from the 
base, would represent the inner face of the tooth as nearly semi- 
circular. The cutting edge is sharp, and so distinct as to have the 
appearance of a border, separated from the remainder of the shaft 
by a shallow groove. The lateral cusp is large, conical, and sharp, 
having more resemblance in these respects to this feature in the 
odontaspid teeth. The corresponding cusp is broken ; but the 
fracture shows that, in all probability, the tooth was symmetrical. 

Otodus basalts Eg. — A tooth sent to England by Mr. Cunliffe 
has a closer resemblance to 0. appendiculatus than the species last 


described. Of the various forms com- 
prehended in this species, one fossil 
most nearly approximates a tooth from 
the Maestricht quarries. Its peculiar 
distinctive features are, the larger size 
of the lateral cusp, the greater breadth 
and obliquity of the base, and the smaller 
proportions of the principal cone com- 
pared with the other dimensions of the 

tooth. When viewed in profile, the principal cone is straight and 
narrow, and the cusp from its inward slope forms an acute angle 
with the principal cone. Both surfaces are smooth and rounded ; 
the inner are, as usual, rather more so than the outer. The tooth 
is slightly oblique, but not so much so as the Maestricht specimen. 
As this feature varies according to the position of the tooth on the 
jaw, it is of little value. 

Otodus nanus Eg. — A single tooth in Mr. Kaye's collection, 
referable to the genus Otodus, differs from the other 
species of the same genus in its diminutive size. /? A 
The central cusp is triangular, equalling in height K^? 
the breadth of the base. It has a thick and 
stunted aspect, being equally convex on either surface. It is in- 
curved, and slightly obtuse at the apex. The lateral cusps are 
short, wide, and blunted. 

Otodus divergens Eg. — An unique specimen in Mr. Cunliffe's 
collection, although differing in some respects from the 
general characters of the genus Otodus, has notwith- 
standing more resemblance to this than to the squaloids 
of any other genus. The central cusp, from its sharp, 
flattened, and lanceolate form, resembles an Oxyrhina or 
Lamna ; but the large development of the lateral cusps must ex- 
clude it from those genera. From Odontaspis it differs in the 
width and general character of the lateral cusps. The latter are 
exact miniature representations of the principal cusp, and are so 
placed upon the base as to slope outwards on either side. They 
have each a small supernumerary point on the outer shoulder. 
The tooth is slightly convex on both sides ; the point is somewhat 
recurved ; and the edges of all the cusps are remarkably sharp. 
This is a perfect and very interesting specimen. 

Otodus minutus Eg. — The, last specimen I refer to this genus is 
of small size, not exceeding the dimensions of Otodus 
nanus described above, yet of different form. The A | \ 
principal cusp is more lanceolate, and the antero- L^g jj) v 
posterior diameter is infinitely smaller, compared 
with the height of the tooth. The profile is straight, not incurved 
as in 0. nanus. The lateral cusp is small and blunt. A promi- 
nent ridge borders the enamel at its junction with the base. 

Oxyrhina triangularis Eg. — It requires specimens of unusual 
perfectness to enable the palaeontologist to dis- 
criminate between the species of the genera Oxy- /[ 
rhina, Lamna, and Otodus. The Indian teeth, ^-^ 


being for the most part imperfect, it is a matter of great difficulty 
and uncertainty to decide to which genus many of them belong. 
The proposed arrangement of species must, therefore, be considered 
as a mere approximation, or rather, perhaps, as provisional, until 
more perfect specimens, or one more skilled in Fossil Ichthyology, 
shall clear up the obscurity. Several smooth teeth in the Indian 
collections are remarkable for their regular triangular form. They 
appear to have been destitute of lateral appendages. The base 
in this species is broad, equalling the total height of the tooth. 
The cone is flattened on the outer surface, and rounded on the 
inner. The enamel of the latter descends lower on the base at the 
sides than at the centre : the line of boundary thus represents an 
ascending obtuse angle. The teeth are more or less oblique ac- 
cording to the position they hold on the jaw. It is one of the 
smallest species of the genus. 

Lamna complanata Eg. — The occurrence of a small lateral cusp 
in some of the specimens of this species marks it 
as belonging to the genus Lamna, although in 
other respects it would more properly be con- 
sidered as an Oxyrhina. Its nearest analogies 
are with Oxyrhina xiphodon and hastalis. It 
differs from the former in having the outer sur- 
face more prominent, and the inner one more 
evenly rounded without the flattened character of the basal portion 
of the enamel. From the latter it differs in the less prominent 
contour of the inner surface. It is distinguished from both by the 
presence of the lateral cusp, in being, infinitely smaller, and in its 
slender and elegant proportions. The transverse section shows 
the antero-posterior diameter to be exceedingly narrow — more so, 
indeed, than in any other species of the genus. 

Lamna sigmoides — It is difficult in a mere verbal description 
to make intelligible the minute distinctions which, 
in considering the characters of the fossil squaloid 
teeth, are the elements on which the species are 
eliminated. A single tooth sent home by Mr. Cun- 
liffe recals at first sight the well-known Lamna 
acuminata of the British chalk. It approaches also 
that species in size, being one of the largest of the 
Indian specimens, which, generally speaking, are 
of unusually small dimensions. In form it is inter- 
mediate between L. acuminata and L. cuspidata. 
It differs, however, from both in the sigmoid flexure of the cutting 
edge. There are no lateral cusps visible. In front it varies from 
the form of L. cuspidata in the greater breadth of the apex, and 
from L. acuminata in the parallelism of the sides in the middle 
region of the tooth. The outer surface is flattened until near the 
point, where it is slightly rounded. The inner surface is convex 
and prominent. Seen in profile, the cutting edge conceals the back 
of the tooth for two-thirds of its length ; it then verges inwards 
until near the point where it again tends slightly outwards, The 


base is partially concealed by the matrix ; but it appears to have 
been furcate, and of rather small size. 

Odontaspis constrictus Eg. — A very large proportion of the 
Indian odontolites belong to the species now under 
consideration. Out of some dozen of specimens I 
have not, however, found one having the base suf- 
ficiently perfect to show whether it supported lateral 
cusps or not. If they were present, they must 
have been of very small size. Under this uncer- 
tainty it is impossible to determine whether this species should be 
placed under the genus Lamna or Odontaspis ; but I am inclined, 
from the slender subulate aspect of the teeth, to refer it to the 
latter. At the time of writing this, I have not been able to com- 
pare the Indian specimens with figures of 0. gracilis from the 
chalk and 0. subulata from the lower greensand of Neufchatel ; 
but the descriptions given of these species lead me to infer a con- 
siderable resemblance in size and form with the Indian species, 
although the latter has a very distinctive feature in the cessation 
of the cutting edges before they reach the base, giving a con- 
stricted appearance to the shaft of the tooth. This character is well 
marked in Odontaspis contortidens of the Molasse ; indeed our 
Pondicherry fossils are only distinguishable from this species by 
the absence of the striae on the inner surface of the teeth. 

Odontaspis oxyprion Eg. — The last species I propose to 
describe in this memoir is also frequent in the Indian collec- 
tions. It belongs without doubt to the genus Odontaspis, and is 
very nearly allied to 0. rhaphiodon. The comparison, how- 
ever, is less accurate than I could wish, owing to my not being able 
to refer to Agassiz's plate on the subject ; but one character esta- 
blishes at once the distinctness of the Indian species, viz. the absence 
of striae on the inner surface of the tooth. Some of the specimens 
of this species are in a good state of preservation, showing the form 
of the base and the lateral cusps. It is not impossible that more 
than one species may be included in this description, as some of the 
specimens are more convex than others on the outer surface, and 
less recurved at the point. The number and form of the lateral 
cusps also vary considerably ; but there is a general resemblance 
which induces me for the present to include all under one denomi- 
nation. In the form of the central cone they agree very closely 
with Odontaspis rhaphiodon; but the lateral cusps are larger, 
more elongated, and sharper at the points, and in these respects 
they exceed even the recent Odontaspis fer ox. They are some- 
times single, sometimes double, on each side, and occasionally 
single on one side and double on the other. The base is broader 
and less deeply notched than in 0. rhaphiodon. 

A considerable number of specimens remain to be examined ; 
but most of them will probably belong to one or other of the species 
described above. Should any distinct forms be found, they will 
be treated of in a future memoir. 


4. On the occurrence of a Bed of Septaria, containing fresh-water 
Shells, in the series of Plastic Clay, at New Cross, Kent. By 
Henry Warburton, Esq. M. P. F. R. S. 

Having occasion, in the Spring of 1843, to travel along the South 
Eastern Railway, I observed at the distance of about 200 yards 
to the south of the New Cross Station, on the western side of the 
cutting which there lays bare the junction of the London and 
Plastic Clays, and at the very foot of that cutting, what seemed to 
be a continuous bed of stone, forming a part of the Plastic Clay 

I applied, in consequence, to Mr. Simms, a Fellow of our Society, 
(who, as one of the resident engineers, had ready access to every 
part of the line), to procure for me specimens of this bed ; and he 
not only complied with this request, but also made a vertical sec- 
tion of the beds exposed in the cutting, extending from the base of 
the London Clay to the bed of stone in question. 

The specimens which Mr. Simms procured contain, imbedded in 
the substance of the stone, two fresh-water shells, a Paludina and a 
Unio, which Professor E. Forbes has examined and described. 
The stone proved, on examination, not to form a continuous stra- 
tum extending to any distance, but to occur at intervals only ; and 
to be, in fact, a bed of Septaria, of a texture considerably more 
earthy than the Septaria of the London clay usually are. These 
Septaria may be traced along the base of the railway cutting from 
the point already mentioned, south of the New Cross Station, to, 
beyond the first bridge which crosses the railway south of that 
station, and rising, like the railway itself, at an inclination of 1 
in 100. 

The position of this bed of fresh-water Septaria, in relation to the 
London clay, will be best understood from the following section by 
Mr. Simms : — 

Ft. In. 

1. London clay, the lowest bed of which, from 10 to 15 feet thick, is 

of a blue colour. 

2. Rolled flint pebbles 110 

3. Fine fawn-coloured sand - - - - - - - -03 

4. Lignite 0^ 

5. Fine fawn-coloured sand - - - - - - - -20 

6. Ferruginous sand, with fragments of oyster shells, and Cerithia - 4 

7. Grey sand, with fragments of Cerithia - - - - - 8 

8. Strong black clay - - - - - - - - -0 10 

9. Black clay and sand, with fragments of oysters and Cerithia - 9 

10. Black sand 04 

11. Dark sand, with oyster shells - - - - - - -06 

12. Calcareous stone, with fresh- water shells 

13. Sand and stone in a rotten state, with oysters 






.5 4 


The following is the description of the shells, by Mr. E. Forbes : 

1. Paludina. 

A species with 5 ventricose whorls which appear to have been 
slightly striated by lines of growth; the largest perfect specimen 
measuring 1 inch in height by half an inch in greatest breadth of 
the body whorl. 

I can find no character by which to separate this fossil from the 
existing Paludina vivipara ; some of the southern varieties of which 
it closely resembles in external form. That species is very widely 
distributed, at present being common to a great part of Europe and 
Asia. I am not aware of its ever having been previously noticed 
as an older tertiary shell, but its allies, P. achatina and P. unicolor, 
are both recorded tertiary species, having a wide range both geolo- 
gically and geographically; the identity of the living species with the 
fossils discovered by Mr. Warburton and Mr. Simms is thus rendered 
the more probable. I regard this species as quite distinct from the 
Paludina fiuviorum of the Wealden, which was confounded with 
P. vivipara, a confusion which has led to several erroneous state- 
ments and reasonings. 

2. Unio. 

An ovate, very inequilateral, depressed species, wrinkled trans- 
versely, growing to a length of between 2 and 3 inches. 

The extreme difficulty of determining living species of Unio 
must render us very cautious in giving an opinion on a fossil. The 
remains, though not imperfect of their kind, and certainly those of 
Unios, are not sufficient to warrant the bestowal of a specific ap- 
pellation on them. They are, however, probably distinct from any 
of the recorded British tertiary species. E. F. 

I have only to add in conclusion, that in the Paris basin, which 
lies to the north of Paris, in the Departement de l'Aisne, fresh-water 
shells belonging to the same genera occur in the plastic clay series, 
accompanied by lignite ; and among the fossils of one of these 
beds, M. D'Archiac enumerates four species of Paludina, and an 
undetermined species of Unio. Mons. Charles d'Orbigny also, in a 
section of the beds in the Paris basin, intermediate between the 
calcaire grossier and the chalk, near Meudon, enumerates plastic 
clay, lignite with Paludinae and Anodontas, and a conglomerate 
containing fresh-water shells. 

This point of correspondence between the plastic clays of Eng- 
land and France, viz. their containing several of the same genera, 
at least of fresh-water shells, besides Cyclades, which have been be- 
fore noticed as common to the two, and Cerithia, and other shells, 
inhabitants of brackish water, I have thought of sufficient interest 
to make the subject of a notice to the Society. 


May 1. 1844. 

1. Report on the Fossils from Santa Fe de Bogota, presented to 
the Geological Society by Evan Hopkins, Esq. F.G.S. By 
Professor Edward Forbes, F.L.S. 

The fossils from Bogota presented by Mr. Hopkins are all remains 
of Mollusca. They are embedded in a very dark and compact 
limestone ; and are all, apparently, from the same formation. They 
include 17 species, most of which are in very good preservation. 
Of these, 9 are described species, and are identical with fossils 
from the same neighbourhood, described in the memoir by M. 
Von Buch, " On the Fossils collected in America by MM. Hum- 
boldt and Degenhardt," in the paper entitled " Notice of the 
Oolitic Formations in America," by Mr. Isaac Lea, printed in the 
" Transactions of the American Philosophical Society for 1841," 
and in the account of the fossils collected in Columbia by M. 
Boussingault, given by M. Alcide d'Orbigny, in the Palaeontology 
of his South American Voyage, published in 1843. All these 
papers have been consulted in the preparation of this Report. 

The formation in which these fossils were found has been re- 
ferred by M. Von Buch to the Cretaceous era, by Mr. Lea to 
the Oolitic period, and by M. d'Orbigny to the Neocomian epoch 
of the Cretaceous era. The result of an examination of Mr. Hop- 
kins's specimens, more especially of such as are new, bears out the 
view of their cretaceous origin first taken by M. Von Buch, and 
afterwards adopted by M. d'Orbigny. It is probable, however, 
from the number of forms approximating Gault species, that the 
last-named palaeontologist has placed them too low in the Creta- 
ceous series, when he refers them to the Neocomian, or, in other 
terms, the lower part of the lower greensand strata. 

Accompanying the shells is a specimen of coal, stated by Mr. 
Hopkins to be found in the same formation. The species in the 
Society's collection are mostly Cephalopoda ; they consist of 10 
Ammonites, 1 Ancyloceras, and 2 Hamites ; these are accompanied 
by 1 Rostellaria, 1 Venus, 1 Lucina, and 1 Inoceramus. 

Descriptive List. 

Ancyloceras Humboldtiana. (Orthocera Humboldtiana Lea, loc. cit. p. 253. 
pi. viii. f. i.) 

This is apparently a good (though not quite perfect) specimen of the 
fossil described by Mr. Lea as an Orthoceras, from a fragment. The turns 
of both extremities are seen in Mr. Hopkins's specimen. 



a. Side view, the outline completed by a dotted line. 

b. View of the back, to show the form of the septa. 

2. ? Hamites Degenhardtii Von Buch. 1. c. f. 23, 24, 25. 

3. Hamites D* Orbignyana. Nov. sp. 




H. testa tereti, transversim sulcata ; sw/m numerosissimis, cequalibus, regit- 
laribus • interstitiis elevatis, angustioribus, acutiusculis. 

Length of anterior portion • 
posterior portion 
Breadth of widest part 

1-^5 unc. 
1 4 
o 4 

Of this Hamite there is a single specimen which exhibits most of the 
essential parts of the shell. It is cylindrical and tapering ; the oral extre- 
mity appears to have been somewhat inflated. The surface is furrowed by 
numerous transverse sulcations, which are continuous to the back, though 
not in all cases equal ; they are separated from each other by somewhat 
acute ribs. The shell bends with a sudden curve, and is then produced 
into a rapidly diminishing posterior extremity, running nearly straight and 
parallel with the oral portion. 

Ammonites Dumasianus D'Orbigny, 1. c. p. 69. t. ii. f. 1 — 2. 
galeatus Von Buch. 1. c. pi. 2. f. 20. 

Alexandrinus ? D'Orbigny, p. 75. pi. xvii. f. 8 — II, 


Vanuxemensis Lea ? pi. viii. f. 5. 

Rhotomagensis Sow. (Noticed also in the memoir by M. Von 



9. Ammonites Hopkinsi. Nov. sp. 

a. Side view, showing the outline complete and a portion of the shell. 
6. View showing the lobes in the septa. 

A. testa crassd, umbilicatd, transversim sulcata, costatdque ; suleis 6, subundu- 
latis, marginatis ; dorso rotundato, transverse* costato ; costis inter sulcos 5 — 8, 
rotundatis, lateraliter obsoletis ; aperturd ovato-lunatd ; septis — . 




1 6 

This fine Ammonite has an inflated shell, which appears to have been of 
considerable thickness. The outer whorl does not entirely conceal the 
others, but leaves a deep umbilicus which in the perfect shell probably ex- 
posed several of the inner volutions. The sides of the whorls forming the 
boundary of the umbilicus are steep, in consequence of sudden inflections 
of the shell. The middle of the whorls is flat and nearly smooth ; the back 
is rounded, and transversely sulcated, with rather broad, slightly undulated 
shallow furrows, which are separated into groups of from five to eight by 
distant, wider, and deeper furrows, which run in a curved manner entirely 
across the whorls. These sulcations, marking stages of growth, are very 
strong on the cast, but comparatively slightly marked on the external sur- 
face of the shell, showing that they are the marks of internal ribs. The 
mouth appears to have been lunate, and slightly elongate. It belongs to the 
section Ligati. It is very nearly allied to an Ammonite from the lower 
greensand of Southern India. 

10. Ammonites Inca. Nov. 


A. testa crassd, umbilicatd, radiato- striata, sulcata; suleis undulatis 6 ; dorso 
rotundato ; aperturd lunatd, lata ; septis pinnatis, multilobatis. 

Med. semi-diam. 1^. Ult. anf. 1^. Crass. 1-^ unc. 

This species is nearly allied to the last, and resembles it in form, but 
differs in the absence of smaller sulcations between the greater furrows, 
which divide the cast of the outer whorl into six wide divisions, and which 
on the external surface of the shell were marked by raised ribs. These 
furrows and ribs proceed in an undulate and rotate manner from the umbi- 
licus, which appears to have partially exposed the inner whorls. The sur- 




Ammonites Inca. 

a. View of the side, showing the shell and the septa. 

b. View showing the lobes of the septa. 

face of the shell was finely, though irregularly, striated in an undulated 
manner, - indicating fine lines of growth. The sides of the umbilicus are 
steep ; the mouth is lunate, and broader than long. 

The sutures of the chambers are well seen on a small specimen. The 
lateral lobes, of which four appear on the lateral portion of the outer whorl, 
are bilobate and pinnate, the pinnse being denticulate. The dorsal lobe is 
short, linguiform, and denticulate at the sides. 

Nearly allied to Ammonites latidorsatus Michelin, a gault species. Be- 
longs to the section Ligati. 

Ammonites Buchiana. Nov. sp. 

a. Side view. 

b. View of the back. 

A. testa subdepressd, subumbilicatd, involutd, dorso rotundato, costis transversis 
nnmerosissimis subundulatis, ad lateras obsoletis ; circa umbilicum laevigata. 

Aperturd lunata. Septis 

Med. semi-diam. 1 T 6 5 unc. Crass. l T 3 g unc. 
The Ammonites Buchiana is a very beautiful species. The outer whorl 
almost completely envelopes the others so as to leave only a small but deep 
VOL. I. N 




umbilicus. The surface around the umbilicus is smooth for about halfway 
across the whorl, where very numerous, regulai*, rather shallow, somewhat 
undulated striae, or narrow sulcations, commence, with narrower inter- 
stices, and continue across the rounded back. The mouth is ovato-iunate ; 
the septa appear to have been arranged in numerous phylliform lobes, the 
terminal divisions of which were ovate and large. Belongs to the section 
Heterophylli, but is rather an abnormal form. 
Ammonites Leai. Nov. sp. 

a. Side view. 

b. View showing the form of the aperture, and the back of the whorls. 

A. testa compressd, subumbilicatd, involutd, semicostatd, costis numerosis, 
prope aperturam obsoletis, sulcis undulatis substitutis ; dorso excavato-sulcato, 

sulco Icevi, marginibus carinatis, dentatis. Aperturd subtriangulari. Septis 

Med. semi-diam. 0^ ; m. crass. 4± ; lat. sule. dors. 0| unc. 

A very beautiful little Ammonite, quite perfect, and apparently full- 
grown. It is compressed at the sides, and flattened and furrowed at the 
back. The last whorl envelopes the others, and becomes somewhat dilated 
at the mouth. That half of it nearest the umbilicus is smooth, the re- 
mainder marked by numerous well-defined undulated sulcations, which be- 
come obsolete towards the mouth, where they are replaced by deeper and 
wider sulci, separated by flattened elevations of equal breadth. The angles 
of the dorsal furrow are rather acute, and are tuberculated by the raised 
oblique extremities of the costae between the lateral sulcations. The centre 
of the back is slightly hollowed out, and quite smooth. The mouth is wide 
and triangular, though truncated at the top. The septa are not visible. 
Belongs to the section Dentati, and is nearly allied to several gault Am- 

13. Ammonites bogotensis. Nov. sp. 

a. Side view ; the outline of the complete shell restored. 

b. View of the back. 

A. testa compressd (subumbilicata ?) radiato-striatd, subsulcatd, dorso piano 
subexcavato, sulco dorsali lato, Icevi. 

Lat. frag. 1 7 2 2 . Crass. 0-^ unc. 


There is only a fragment of this Ammonite in the collection. It pre- 
sents, however, excellent distinctive characters in the outer whorl, which 
is compressed, and so large as apparently to have enveloped, or nearly enve- 
loped, the others. It is marked with radiating strias or rather furrows, 
which are unequal and slightly undulated. These are separated into 
groups by wider, distant, shallow sulcations. The back is flattened, slightly 
excavated, and bounded by an obsolete keel or angle at each side, over which 
the lateral stria? turn obliquely, but become obsolete before they reach the 
hollow of the centre, which appears to have been smooth. The aperture 
was probably ovato-lunate in form. Belongs to section Dentati, and is 
nearly allied to several gault species. 

14. Rostellaria angulosa D'Orbigny, 1. c. pi. xviii. f. 4. 

15. Lucina plicaio-costata D'Orbigny, 1. c. p. 83. pi. xviii. f. b. 4. 

16. Venus chia D'Orbigny, 1. c. p. 82. pi. xviii. £ 9, 10. 

17. Inoceramus lunatus. Nov. sp. 

/. testa suborbiculari, obliqud, plana, sulcis concentricis regularibus latis, in- 
terstertiis angustis elevatis acutiusculis. 

The only specimen of this well-marked Inoceramus is imperfect. The 
characters of the surface are, however, well displayed, and a portion of the 
hinge is shown. The sulcations of the surface are lunate, broad in the cen- 
tre, narrow at the sides, and very regularly formed. The intermediate ribs 
are narrow, and slightly or obsoletely ridged ; they slope away into the fur- 
rows more suddenly anteriorly than posteriorly. The fragment measures 1 \ 
inch in length, by 1^ in breadth. 

2. Comparative Remarks on the Sections beloio the Chalk on the 
Coast near Hythe, in Kent, and Atherfield, in the Isle of 
Wight. By W. H. Fitton, M.D., F.R.S. 

My objects in this paper are to illustrate, 1st, two sectional 
elevations, showing the proportional thickness of the principal 
divisions of the strata at Hythe and Atherfield ; 2dly, an approx- 
imate sketch of the cliffs from Atherfield to the East of Black - 
gang-Chine ; and 3dly, a corresponding sketch of the section from 
the chalk hills above Folkstone, to the level of the sea at Hythe. 
§. The Atherfield Section is a copy of a drawing made by Sir John 
Herschel, referred to in the fourth volume of the Geological Trans- 
actions * : I have engrafted upon it such farther information as has 

* Second Series, vol. iv. p. 186. 
n 2 


been recently obtained, as well as the result of Mr. Simms's measure- 
ment ; and shall now mention some of these additions, beginning at 
the junction of the Lower Green Sand with the Wealden, and 
referring for an account of the junction itself to the abstract pub- 
lished in the " Geological Proceedings," vol. iv. p. 198. The sub- 
division of the strata into groups is, of course, in a great measure 
arbitrary, and would, in all cases, probably vary, according to the 
views of different observers, and to the temporary condition of the 
cliffs, which are in a constant state of degradation and change. 

§. Although the two lower beds immediately over the Wealden are 
not together more than 5 feet in thickness, it will be expedient 
to consider them separately, both on account of the great number 
of very remarkable fossils which they contain, and of their 
difference, both in composition and fossils, from the beds of clay 
immediately above, — which nearly resembles fullers' earth, and 
differs much in its characters from the sandy clay or mud imme- 
diately in contact with the Wealden. It is not improbable that 
these two lower beds at Atherfield may be the representatives of 
some more largely developed group at the bottom of the Green 
Sand in other countries. 

The absence of strata corresponding to these lowest beds, in the 
clay immediately above the Wealden at Hythe, is remarkable ; but 
the bottom of the series in Kent is hitherto known only from 
the specimens obtained from Mr. Simms's shaft. It is much to be 
wished that this part of the section may be brought into view by 
an open cutting, for which the vicinity of the town of Hythe 
affords many promising positions. 

The list of fossils from the coast at Atherfield has received 
several additions since my last communication ; among others many 
excellent specimens of Perna Mulleti have been obtained, by which 
some new points in the structure of that remarkable fossil are 
supplied. The whole collection of fossils from this place has been 
examined and named by Mr. Forbes. 

§. With respect to the clay to which the name of " fullers'-earth" 
has here been assigned, I wish to correct a statement in my former 
paper (Geol. Trans. 2d ser. vol. iv. p. 196.), where it is said that "the 
" lowest stratum of clay immediately above the fossiliferous stone at 
" Atherfield appears to be the equivalent of the fuller £ -earth of Sur- 
" rey," and that the stone itself, about 2 feet in thickness, " is appa- 
" rently the equivalent of the limestone very near the bottom of the 
" Lower Green Sand at Hythe" This clay, though it has many of the 
properties of fullers'-earth, is certainly not the representative of the 
substance which bears that name at Nutfield and Reigate,in Surrey; 
and the stone beneath is quite distinct from the Kentish Rag of the 
Hythe quarries. I was led into both these errors by an imperfect 
acquaintance with the bottom of the section at Hythe ; by the (sup- 
posed) absence there of fullers' earth above the limestone ; and by 
finding at Atherfield Nautilus radiatus (?), with Trigoniae and other 
fossils of frequent occurrence in the Hythe stone quarries. The true 
place of the fullers'-earth, at Nutfield itself, is above the Kentish 
Rag, and considerably above the bottom of the Lower Green Sand. 


The junction of the Lower Green Sand with the Wealden on 
the south of Nutfield was disclosed by the cutting for the railway 
near Robert's Hole Farm, as mentioned in my last paper. On the 
N. W. of this farm, a flexure or depression of the strata brings 
down one of the principal beds of fullers' earth to the level of the 
railroad, near the Redhills (or Reygate) station ; and this was ex- 
posed, some months ago, in a bank immediately behind the original 
Station House* of the South Eastern Company. 

I have hitherto seen no traces of this upper fullers' earth at 
Hythe ; but at two intermediate points, viz. Tilburstow Hill, near 
Godstone, and the top of Mrs. Bensted's principal quarry, near 
Maidstone, fullers' earth appears with somewhat peculiar characters, 
above the mass of stone, which has been considerably disturbed at 
both places. A few feet (10 or 12) below this fullers' earth at 
Tilburstow f, portions of white or yellowish sand in a stemlike 
arrangement occur, precisely resembling what I shall presently 
mention as fallen from the upper part of the cliffs on the east of 
Whale-Chine near Atherfield. If these appearances in Kent and 
Surrey mark the top of the limestone, they may possibly indicate 
a corresponding point in the Atherfield section. 

§. A continued search has brought to light many specimens of 
fossils, among which are several new species, in a bed which 
seems to be immediately above the fullers' earth of Atherfield 
Point. They were described to me as occurring in detached masses 
or lumps in the sandy clay immediately under the lowest range of 
larger concretional masses which form the prominence of the eoast 
at the " Crackers." The fossils are united by a medium which 
varies from a loose sand to a somewhat calciferous stone, or indurated 
fullers' earth. These lumps may, possibly, be the representative of 
the masses which are mentioned by M. Leymerie as occurring in 
the " Argiles Ostreennes," of the department of the Aube. 

§. The " Crackers" is the name given to a projecting part of the 
coast, which owes its prominence to the presence above the level 
of the sea of two ranges of nodular masses, occurring in a bed of 
sandy clay about 18 or 20 feet in thickness, and at the junction of 
which with the sandy stratum next below the Ammonites Des- 
hayesii was frequent. These nodules of sand and calciferous 
sand-rock are the only stone upon the coast which can be con- 
sidered as representing the (Kentish) limestone of Hythe and 
Maidstone, &c. ; and their distance from the bottom of the Lower 
Green Sand accords with this identification. 

The vertical distance from the bottom of the Crackers to the 

* This Station has since been removed to the Junction with the Brighton 

I find from the Railway Plan of the country near Redhills and Nutfield that 
Mr. Simms has estimated the height of two of the fullers' earth pits nearest to 
Robert's Hole Farm at 140 and 160 feet above the junction of the Lower Green 
Sand and Weald clay, which has afforded the Perna Mulleti and other remarkable 
fossils of Feasmarsh and Atherfield. 

f See Account of Tilburstow. Geol. Trans, vol. iv. p. 138. 

N 3 


Wealden is about 59 feet, according to Mr. Simms ; nearly the same 
thickness as of the corresponding portion of the section at Hythe. 

§. The aspect of the shore from the Crackers eastward is diversified 
only by the presence of an undercliff, which varies in extent from 
the rapid destruction to which every part of this coast is subject. 
At Atherjield-high-cliff, between 500 and 600 paces from the 
Crackers, is a fossiliferous group, the top of which descends thence 
to the shore at a distance of more than 250 paces ; and includes 
several remarkable ranges of Gryphcea sinuata, among which are 
very fine specimens with large Ostreas ; the lowest bed of this 
group also consists of a similar range, and immediately beneath 
are masses composed for the greater part of agglutinated shells of 
Terebratula sella, with another (plicated) species. 

To compare the two sections at this point, let us suppose a lime- 
stone as thick as that of Hythe (about 130 feet), to be introduced in 
the place of the Crackers. This, from the inclination of the strata, 
would extend along the coast to a point about 300 paces east of 
Whale's Chine ; and would include the fossiliferous nodules of the 
Crackers at the bottom, and also, near the top, another nodular mass 
of strata which rises to the summit of Atherfield-high-cliff. The 
contents of this latter group are, as yet, imperfectly known ; but 
the fossils hitherto found on this part of the coast are nearly the 
same with those of the quarries at Hythe. 

The strata from hence to Whale's Chine consist, generally, of a 
greenish sandy mud, including several ranges of Exogyra, with 
other fossils, one of which crosses the mouth of that chine, and is 
visible within the chasm itself, descending to the shore at a point 
very near the mouth of the next chasm on the east called Ladder 

Another group, containing nodular concretions, is visible on the 
east of Walpen Chine, beneath what is called Walpen high-cliff ' : 
it first rises on the east about 350 paces from the chine, and ex- 
tends to a distance answering to about 200 paces eastward. A second 
remarkable group containing Gryphaea rises between Walpen high- 
cliff and Cliff-end. 

The beds above Cliff-end to the top of Black-Gang-Chine have 
hitherto afforded few fossils ; but in the corresponding part of the 
section, from Bonchurch to Shanklin, the upper beds are much 
better displayed, and deserve a new examination. They contain 
numerous casts, chiefly those of Gervillia aviculoides, Natica, 
Rostellaria, Thetis minor, Terebratula, Trigonia alceformis, Turbo, 
and Venus ; and the shore immediately on the east of Shanklin- 
Chine exhibits, at low water, an extensive surface of a lower bed, 
almost entirely composed of large Gryphasa sinuata. 

§. The distinction between the first and second subdivisions of 
the Lower Green Sand, pointed out in my description of the coast 
near Folkstone, is much less prominent near Atherfield than in 
Kent : but a group corresponding to the upper or ferruginous 
division (which Mr. Austen mentions as conspicuous also in Sur- 
rey) is clearly distinguishable at the farm of Walpen, where a 
continuous ridge of sand impends over the lower ground between 


that place and the coast. A great portion of the two promontories 
at Black-Gang-Chine belongs to this upper division ; and if the 
interval between the bottom of the Gault within the chine and the 
retentive stratum over which the streamlet runs to the waterfall, 
be assigned to it, the thickness will be rather more than 200 feet, 
including some remarkable beds — one 12 feet, and two others 
about 17 feet each, in thickness — of fawn-coloured, or nearly white, 
sand, not in itself distinguishable from that of Hastings. No fossils 
from this division in the Isle of Wight have yet come to my know- 
ledge. Its junction with the more retentive mass below appears 
to be marked by the breaking out of springs, as in the correspond- 
ing place near Hythe. The subdivisions of this group are detailed 
in the drawings. 

On the coast of Kent, between Folkstone and Sandgate, this 
upper division of the Lower Green Sand contains more calcareous 
matter than at Black-Gang-Chine, and even some concretions of 
compact limestone, with spongy siliciferous masses, very like the 
whetstone of Blackdown. [Geol. Trans. 2d Ser. iv. p. 118, 119.] 

§. The Gault, hitherto estimated as no more than 70 feet in 
thickness throughout the back of the Isle of Wight, appears from 
Mr. Simms's measurement to be 146 feet thick near Black-Gang- 
Chine. The lower part is at first view not easily distinguished, 
from its change of colour after exposure ; but the lower line of 
boundary was accurately traced, on the east of the hotel, by Mr. 
Warburton, and on the west of it by myself, within the upper part 
of the chine on both sides. On the west of the hotel, just within 
the ravine, at the top, some of the characteristic Gault fossils, 
including Ammonites, have been found close to the bottom of the 
deposit ; and similar remains have been obtained, as I am informed, 
at Puckaster. 

The much greater prominence of the Upper Green Sand, which 
has here a thickness of 104 feet, is a very remarkable point of 
difference from the Folkstone section. This group in the Isle of 
Wight consists apparently of two divisions, as in Western Sussex, 
and contains fossils in great numbers. 

§. On a general comparison of the sections of the Kentish coast 
and the Isle of Wight, the most prominent points of difference are, 
1st, the almost total absence of limestone at Atherfield ; and 2d, 
the great excess, at the latter place, in the thickness, especially of 
the Lower Green Sand. — 

Thickness of Upper Green Sand 
„ Gault - 

„ Lower Green Sand 

Total - 

So that, while the Gault in the two situations differs only 20 feet 
in thickness, the Lower Green Sand at Atherfield exceeds that of 
Hythe by 346 feet. There is also throughout considerable variation 
in mineral composition, and in aspect ; but not greater than what 

N 4 

752 11 


406 6 

1002 11 

547 6 


appears, even in the Isle of Wight itself, between the nearly hori- 
zontal strata at Atherfield and Shanklin, and their continuation in 
the vertical strata at the Red- Cliff between Sanddown and Culver. 
The distance in a direct line of the two sections we have just com- 
pared, from Atherfield to Hvthe, is less than 95 miles ; while that 
of their foreign equivalents is, — in the case of the Aube, about 285 
English miles ; from Atherfield to Neufchatel is about 440 miles ; 
to Hanover the distance is not less than 450 miles ; and to the 
Crimea is 1650 miles. From the Neufchatel deposit, which M. 
Dubois has emphatically identified with that of the Crimea, the 
distance is not less than 1300 miles. 

§. Such being the strata in the two principal sections of our coast, 
let us next enquire what are their equivalents in other parts of the 
globe. This question has of late acquired new importance, from 
the proofs of the wide diffusion of the cretaceous system, and the 
almost surprising agreement of its fossils in very distant places, 

A brief general statement concerning the Terrain Neocomien 
has been given by Mr. Murchison in his Address to the Geolo- 
gical Society at the Anniversary of 1843. It may be useful to 
bring together some of the descriptions of those distant deposits, 
though it would be difficult in a small compass to give even an 
abstract of the various papers on the subject published during the 
last ten years. I have therefore given some of the principal 
characteristics of the groups, following as authorities, — 1st, the 
original memoir of M. Montmollin, on the cretaceous deposit of 
Neufchatel, from whence the term " Neocomien " has been de- 
rived ; 2dly, that of M. Leymerie on the department of the Aube 
in France, accompanied by a series of plates ; 3dly, M. Roemer's 
elaborate work, on the fossils of the chalk formation in the 
North of Germany ; 4thly, the account given in M. Dubois de 
Montpereux's work on the Crimea, of the cretaceous series in that 

The deposit since called " Neocomien " on the Continent was first 
described by M. Auguste de Montmollin, in a paper published in 
1835. * The author states that he first learned at Paris in 1828 
that fossils collected by him in the vicinity of Neufchatel belonged 
to the lower part of the chalk formation, " the green sand," al- 
though previously considered as a part of the Jura formation. The 
term " Neocomien " was applied to these strata by M. Thurmann, 
and subsequently recognised by M. de Montmollin, who had pre- 
viously designated his discovery merely as the " Terrain cretace de 

The strata described by M. De Montmollin were unconnected 
with any superior groups ; but M. Dubois subsequently discovered 
at Souaillon, traces of green-sand above the yellow limestone. 
The list of fossils from Neufchatel was unaccompanied by plates ; 
and it was not till those of M. Leymerie appeared, that any figured 
Neocomian fossils were known in this country, although many of 

* Mem. de la Societe de Neufchatel, vol. i. p. 47, 


those named by M. Montmollin belong to our green sand. M. 
Leymerie, though he regards the aspect of the Neufchatel series as 
quite distinct from that of the Aube, considers the two deposits as 
perfectly identified by their fossils. The limestone below the 
" Marie bleu " of Neufchatel either does not appear in England, or 
is represented by the two lowest beds at Atherfield, so remark- 
ably abundant in fossils. If this be the case, our fullers' earth at 
Atherfield and Hythe may represent the blue marl (30 feet in 
thickness), and our Kentish limestone (129 feet), at Hythe, may 
be the equivalent of the upper "yellow limestones," from 120 to 
160 feet thick. 

§. A very important extension of the tract occupied by the Neuf- 
chatel deposit has since been made known by M. Jules Itier, in a 
memoir read before the Institute of France * ; from the report on 
which it appears that the Neocomian strata in the department of 
the Aisne have a maximum thickness of 300 metres ; which, the re- 
porter adds, is far inferior to that of the same formation in the 
department of the Isere, and of the South of France. Among the 
fossils of this department, the most remarkable and characteristic 
is the Chama ammonia (Caprotina of D'Orbigny), from whence, 
or rather from its synonyme Dicer as, the term " calcaire a dice- 
rates " has been applied to some lower members of the chalk series, 
in what has been called the " bassin mediterranean." 

§. To any one familiar with the chalk districts of England, and 
those of France near the coast of the English channel, it would 
be surprising if the series of beds below the chalk on the east of 
Paris were very different from that of the west. M. Leymerie's 
map of the department of the Aube appears to indicate the same 
series as that of England ; yet it is difficult to identify his sub- 
divisions at the upper part of the series with ours. His general 
divisions of the subcretacean groups are, Argile-teguline and gres 
vert, about 150 metres (about 490 feet) ; and Terrain neocomien, 
50 metres (164 feet) ; the latter including three subdivisions, which 
seem to be the equivalents of part of our green sands, — viz. a. 
Argiles et sables bigarrees, containing much iron ore ; b. Argiles 
ostreennes, (about 25 metres) ; c. Calcaire a spatangus, about 13 
metres (about 42 feet). 

§. In confirmation of the evidence which proves the superposition 
of our English equivalent of the Neocomian to the Wealden 
group, it may be remarked, that the fishes of the latter deposit are 
considered by M. Agassiz as more intimately allied with the oolitic 
than with the cretaceous series ; and a similar observation has been 
made by Professor Owen with regard to the Wealden reptiles. 
If, therefore, a ?narine equivalent of our Wealden should be dis- 
covered, analogy would lead us to expect in its fossils a character 
approaching to that of the Oolites, from which M. D'Orbigny re- 
gards the whole of the cretaceous species as perfectly distinct: — and 
for such a deposit the best name would probably be that of " Ma- 

* Comptes rendus, &c. de l'Acad. 22 Aout, 1842. 


rine Wealden " ( Veldien Marin) which would at once indicate its 
position, and its peculiar relations.* 

§. The lower cretaceous series on the Continent, which probably 
bears the greatest analogy to ours, is that of Hanover, described by 
M. Roemer. Though differing at the upper part from ours by the 
absence of the G-ault, the cretaceous series at the bottom is well 
defined, reposing on a complete equivalent of our Wealden, with 
nearly all the characteristic fossils of Surrey and Sussex. It is not 
easy to identify the upper member, which M. Roemer supposes to 
be the same as the upper part of our Lower Green Sand, but which 
contains a great variety of fossils, and possibly may include some 
higher portions of the chalk. 

The " Hils-conglomerat " of Roemer contains some fossils identical 
with those of our Lower Green Sand, and some with the Neocomian, 
which he distinguishes from that division. It is supposed to rest 
upon the lower clay of Hils (Hils-thon), but has not been seen in 
apposition with it. Lastly, the Hils-thon is identified by its fossils 
with the Speeton clay -f, and seems to correspond exactly with the 
clay of Atherfield, Hythe, and Surrey. Having had the pleasure 
of seeing M. Roemer in his own country during the progress of his 
work, and having mentioned to him the probable identity of our 
Atherfield clay with that of " Hils," lam glad to find (p. 132.) J 
that he has adopted this identification. He has shown that the 
Hils-conglomerat and this clay are in Hanover distinctly superior 
to the Wealden ( Walder-thon) ; a fact of importance, coinciding 
with our own sections in proving that the Neocomian (or that part 
of it at least which is identical with the Hils deposits), cannot be 
contemporaneous with the Wealden, upon which it is found to 

The Hanoverian series is farther interesting to the English 
geologist, as demonstrating that the fresh-water deposits contem- 
poraneous with our Wealden were not quite of such limited extent 
as has been supposed. § 

No limestone like that of Kent has been found in Hanover ; and 

* It may be worth while to ascertain by exact search in the department of 
the Aube,'whether traces of the Wealden itself do not exist there below the Neo- 
comian strata of M. Leymerie. It is stated by M. Dufresnoy that he had 
seen such indications near Angouleme ; and they exist, according to M. Passy, 
in the vicinity of Beauvais, Pays de Bray. See Bulletin de la Soc. Geol. de 
France ; and Geol. Trans, vol. iv. p. 327. 

•f- Mr. Austen has recently expressed the same view respecting this clay, on dif- 
ferent and independent evidence. — See Proceedings of Geol. Soc. June, 1843, 
vol. iv. p. 196. ; but Professor Agassiz had previously assigned its correct place 
to the Speeton clay, having stated its identity with the Neocomian clay of Neuf- 
chatel, at a meeting of the Geol. Soc. of France, April 16. 1838. Bulletin, &c. 
ix. p. 262. 

\ The work of M. Rcemer here referred to, " Die Versteinerungen des nord- 
deutschlichen Kreide Gebirges," was published in Hanover in 1841. 

§ In the work of M. Geinitz, on the Fossils of the Saxon Cretaceous Hills, 
(Dresden, 1839 to 1842,) it is intimated that the Wealden occurs below the 
cretaceous series in that country. 


M. Roemer considers the " yellow (Neocomian) limestone " as in- 
ferior to his Hils-conglomerate and Hils-clay, which, however, 
contain, like our Atherfield strata, many of the characteristic 
Neocomian fossils. 

§. The Neocomian of the Crimea was described in the Letters 
of M. Dubois, published in 1837 in the Bulletin of the French 
Geological Society * : the writer having been the first, as he 
states, to discover an analogue of the Neufchatel Neocomian in 
the Crimea, which presents fossil species so much alike in form that 
it was impossible to distinguish them ; the general aspect of the 
beds also being perfectly the same. The lower bed, however, 
(which M. Dubois calls Neocomien in his section,) may well be a 
calciferous expansion of the lowest beds at Atherfield. It is cha- 
racterised by the Terebratula biplicata and Exogyra Couloni (which 
Professor Edw. Forbes considers as identical with E. Icevigata 
of Sowerby), two of the most characteristic shells of the lowest 
limestone of Kent. Above this, and next in succession, are about 
40 feet of schist, which may represent our gault ; and between this 
and the " etage superieur de la craie," is a series like the Upper 
Green Sand. 

Beyond the Caucasus another Neocomian deposit exists at Kou- 
tais and at Kereite, with fossils including small Nerinaea and 
Diceras like those of Mont Venteux, Grenoble, but accom- 
panied by many other of the more usual Neocomian species. 

It is not surprising that a statement by a naturalist and traveller 
of such authority as M. Dubois, should have fixed the attention 
of the French Geologists, who had previously been occupied with 
the Terrain Neocomien. Nor was it unnatural that M. Dubois 
himself, in recurring to his native country, should have looked 
no farther; even if he had been acquainted with the English 
works concerning the beds below the Chalk, where he might have 
found other evidence of a striking affinity to what he has described. 

§. On a general view of the strata beneath the Chalk as they 
exist upon our own coast, it is evident, that, notwithstanding the 
local variations, the Lower Green Sand has a definite and distinct 
character ; extending throughout from the Wealden to the Gault, 
and bounded naturally by those two groups, with their distinct 
and peculiar fossils : and it is apparent, also, that there is no 
natural connection between the Upper and the Lower Green Sand. 
The distribution of the fossils in the lower sands is very un- 
equal ; they are numerous at the lower part, rapidly diminish up- 
wards, and (at present) seem to be nearly wanting at the top j ; the 
same species, however, are carried through the whole, the upper 
fossils being a selection, as it were, from those below. It is in- 

* Bulletin, vol. viii. p. 385—389. 

f Among the fossils of these beds near Folkstone, where phosphate of lime 
occurs in detached masses, are the remains of an Astacus, a plicated Terebratula, 
stem-like concretions of Siphonaria, and fragments of an oyster or Gryphcea. 
(See Geol. Trans, vol. iv. pp. 117, 118.) 


deed not improbable that this absence of fossils may be local, or 
apparent, arising only from imperfect search.* 

It may be observed of all the supposed equivalents of the Neo- 
comian beds, that while some species are very generally diffused, 
others (and apparently the greater number) are peculiar to each 
place. So that although some remarkable continental forms are 
wanting in this country, we have in return many which do not 
occur elsewhere. The recent examination of the Isle of Wight 
has brought to light several species new to the continental faunas 
as well as our own. f 

§. There can now be no reasonable doubt that the Terrain JVeo- 
comien of Central France, illustrated by M. Leymerie, as well as 
that of Neufchatel, represent the lower and middle portions of 
our sections at Hythe and in the Isle of Wight. We want, pro- 
bably, many species of the Aube ; — but we have long possessed 
a great number of the characteristic Neocomian forms, and are 
daily adding to the list. The great difference consists in the 
absence of calcareous strata below the clay of Atherfield — (the 
Argiles Ostreennes of M. Leymerie) ; and the general question 
seems to be reduced to this : — Whether the presence of a certain 
number of characteristic fossils in two distant places is sufficient to 
establish geological identity — where not only the species, and the 
numbers of the fossils, and the mineral composition of the strata is 
varied, but where one of the two objects compared is so very much 
superior in thickness and extent to the other, as the deposits of the 
south of Europe are said to be with respect to that of central 
France, — of England, — of northern Germany, — and even, it 
would seem, of Neufchatel itself. I believe that Geologists gene- 
rally will be in favour of the identification by fossils — even in this 
extreme case — and will be disposed to regard the greatest diversity 
of mass and composition as nothing more than accidents — so called 
perhaps because we are not able to account for them. 

If, on the other hand, it be found that, in the south or elsewhere, 
the lower members of the so-called Neocomian (for the true Neo- 
comian and the Lower Green Sand are unquestionably the same) 
become distinguished notably by fossils new in form and in great 
numbers, it would seem that the name of that portion of the deposit 
so distinguished ought to be changed ; the upper strata remaining 
with the cretaceous groups, and the lower being regarded as some- 
thing new and different from the Cretaceous system. Whether 

* The place in the series of the Blackdown beds of Devonshire is still a sub- 
ject of doubt. But if (which is not wholly improbable) they belong to the 
upper part of the lower green sand, the fossils in that division will then be nearly 
as abundant as they are in the lower members at Atherfield, &c. The siliceous 
casts are so remarkable, that if a similar deposit exists in many other parts of 
this country, it is unlikely that they should have remained unknown. In the 
upper part of the sands near Folkstone and Sandgate there are spongy siliceous 
concretions very like the Devonshire whetstone, but in which shells are very rare. 

f Ammonites asper is one of the species generally diffused on the Continent, 
which has never yet been discovered here. 


the new deposit thus supposed to exist shall be considered as the 
representative of our Wealden is still another question, which it 
is not necessary to enter into at present. 

§. In the mean time, every Geologist who doubts the possibility of 
any part of our Lower Green Sand assuming the form of limestone, 
and, in that condition, acquiring great development and import- 
ance, will do well to examine the quarries of the Kentish Rag on 
the south-east of Maidstone * ; where the stone which in other 
portions of this tract is concretional, and irregularly distributed 
through masses of soft calcareous tuff, assumes the form of uni- 
form and continuous strata of compact limestone, ranging horizon- 
tally through large spaces, and adapted, by its firmness and 
durability, to all the purposes of the architect and mason. In these 
same quarries, it is probable, abundant proofs of identity with 
the Neocomian beds will be found : and this within twenty miles 
of a tract where nearly the whole deposit is composed of sand. 

The Boughton Group, like that of Hythe and Kent in general, 
may answer to the Upper Neocomian limestone ; as the fullers' 
earth and other clays of Atherfield correspond to the blue marl of 
Neufchatel. It is useless to press exact identification between 
such distant deposits to an extreme, since we constantly find 
diversity even in the adjoining quarries of a continuous country, 
while on the other hand, Geologists are frequently surprised by 
minute points of empirical resemblance in very distant places. 

§. The author of this paper had long since stated the objections 
to which the name of Lower Green Sand is exposed f, but thought 
it expedient in 1835 to adopt that term, on the ground of its uni- 
versal employment in England, and its very general reception on 
the Continent. J On this ground he still thinks that this name 
ought, for the present, to be retained. If hereafter a change be 
thought desirable, he conceives that the new denomination should 
be taken from the Isle of Wight, where this portion of the sub- 
cretaceous groups was first distinguished, and where the sections 
on the coast are remarkable for their distinctness ; and if such a 
case should arise, he suggests the name of Vectine for the strata 
now called Lower Green Sand, from the ancient name of that 
island, — Insula Vectis of the Romans. 

3. On the Junction of the Lower Green Sand and the 
Wealden, at the Teston Cutting. By F. W. Simms, Esq. 
The Author in this communication mentions that the beds rest- 
ing on the Wealden in this locality (near Teston turnpike, on the 

* Especially at Boughton. 

f Annals of Philosophy, London, 1824. 

\ Geol. Trans. 2d Ser. iv. p. 105. 


Maidstone junction of the South-Eastern Railway), seem to be 
identical with the marine clays found at Hythe and at Atherfield 
in the Isle of Wight. He adds, " There is also a bed of stone, 
not a continuous bed, but in concretionary masses, just above the 
junction, from which I obtained fossils, and which, I consider, re- 
presents the Atherfield rocks. This bed is also similar to the blocks 
taken from the cutting in the vicinity of Red Hill, near Reigate." 
He adds, that the same junction can be traced from the Teston 
Cutting in the direction of Maidstone, to near the Farley Cutting 
through the Kentish Rag. The junction of the Wealden and 
greensand clays is at the bottom of the valley, near the banks of 
the river Medway. 

4. On the Section between Black-Gang-Chine and Ather- 
field Point. By Capt. L. L. B. Ibbetson, and Prof. Edw. 
Forbes, F.R.S. 

The accompanying Table exhibits the succession of strata pre- 
sented in ascending order from the Wealden to the top of the 
Upper Green Sand in the Isle of Wight between Atherfield Point 
and St. Catherine's Down. The measurements of the upper portion 
were ascertained by trigonometrical survey, by Capt. Ibbetson, 
during the years 1833 — 38, those of the lower portion during the 
winter of 1842-3. 

The following observations refer to that portion of the section 
which includes the Lower Green Sand strata, visited by Capt. 
Ibbetson and Prof. Forbes in March, 1844. 

Between the Gault, as seen near Black-Gang-Chine, and the 
Wealden at Atherfield Point, there are sixty-three distinct strata, 
the total thickness of which is 843 feet. 

§ 1. Description of the Strata. 

The lowest of these is a brown clay 3 feet thick, the base of 
which, at the junction with the Wealden, abounds in remains of 
fish. Through this clay are scattered many fossils, none of which 
are peculiar to this lowest bed, but mostly such as run on through 
the fossiliferous clays of the Lower Green Sand. This is suc- 
ceeded by a harder bed or rock of a sandy texture, 2 feet thick, 
characterised by the presence of numerous fossils, among which 
the most remarkable is the Perna Mulleti, peculiar to this bed. 

The clays which succeed are fossiliferous at the lower part, but 
very slightly so in the middle, where they contain numerous crys- 
tals of sulphate of lime. The uppermost of these clay strata, called 
the Lower Lobster-bed, is an impure fullers' earth, abounding with 
fossils, the most characteristic of which are numerous remains of 
Astacus scattered here and there, and found in so perfect a state 
that no time could have elapsed between the death of the animal 
and its entombment in the strata, sufficient to permit decomposi- 
tion to take place. These clays present a thickness of 99 feet. 

The hard noduliferous bed which succeeds, termed the Lower 


Crackers, is full of Gervillia aviculoides and other fossils, and a 
similar stratum immediately above (the Upper Crackers) abounds 
in fossils peculiar to itself ; indeed it is in this bed that most of 
such of the species as are limited in their distribution, occur. The 
Crackers occupy a thickness of 18 feet. 

A clay bed, 20 feet thick, having the properties of fullers' earth, 
and similar in appearance to that preceding the Crackers, succeeds : 
it is very fossiliferous, and, like the other, abounds in Crustacea, 
mostly of species identical with those in the Lower Lobster Bed. 
This is termed in the section the Upper Lobster Bed. Am- 
monites and several bivalves accompany these Crustacea. 

A dark sandy clay succeeds, and is very fossiliferous ; the cha- 
racters of the fossils do not for the most part differ from those in 
the lowest clays. It is 20 feet thick. 

This is capped by a band of Terebratulae (mostly T. Gibbsii) 
imbedded in the stratum of dark sand, 22 feet thick. The Tere- 
bratulas are in immense abundance and accompanied by Serpulae. 

A series of beds containing zones of Gryphcea sinuata imbedded 
in dark sand succeed. The Gryphasa zones mostly alternate with 
rows of large nodules containing Crioceras and Scaphites. This 
assemblage of Gryphaea zones is interrupted in the centre by a 
bed of sandy clay, 34 feet thick, very fossiliferous, and in which a 
great many of the fossils of the lower clays reappear. These 
Gryphcea and Crioceras beds, with the included clays, have a 
thickness of 155 feet. 

Thirty feet of dark sand, containing prolific zones of Terebratulas, 
chiefly T. biplicata, succeed, and form the base of a new succession 
of Gryphasa bands imbedded in dark sand; but the Crioceras 
nodules are absent. Twenty-four feet is the extent of this upper- 
most series of Gryphaea zones. 

Above this the beds become ferruginous, and are occasionally, 
though rarely, mixed with dark blue clay. Fossils in some parts 
are abundant, but mostly in the state of casts, and no new forms 
appear. A lignite bed occurs in the lower part of these ferrugi- 
nous beds, the lignites being arranged in zones. There are also 
here and there rows of calcareous concretions, usually of an oblong 
shape, and mostly having a direction towards the S.E., like the 
lines of oblique bedding occasionally presented in this part of 
the series. 

At the top of Black-Gang-Chine waterfall, a series of indurated 
ferruginous sand rocks alternating with dark sandy clays appear. 
The sand rocks are composed of quartz grains, and exhibit lines of 
oblique bedding. They contain no fossils. 

At the uppermost part of the Lower Green Sand is a series of 
thin beds, alternately ferruginous and sand, lying immediately 
below the gault. Casts of a Solarium (species unknown), and of 
an Ammonite, were found in these bands. 

§ 2. Grouping of the Strata. 

The 63 strata enumerated may be grouped under three divisions, 
from their general mineral character. 


A. The lower assemblage of clays, mostly fullers' earth, abound- 
ing in fossils, and in which the Perna sand-rock and the Cracker 
nodules are exceptional strata indicating temporary conditions, 

B. The region of Gryphcea sinuata sands in which the Tere- 
bratula bands and upper clays are exceptional strata. This region 
may be subdivided into three portions, the two lower containing 
Crioceras nodules separated by the clay, and the upper containing 
no nodules. The noduliferous part of the series, and that which is 
free from the nodules, have each a zone of Terebratulce for a base. 

C. The region of ferruginous sands, which may itself be divided 
into two or three sections, the lowest of which is fossiliferous. 

§ 3. Chemical Peculiarities of the Beds. 

A chemical analysis of the composition of the several strata was 
next given ; the principal results of which, affecting the distri= 
bution of the organic remains, are the following : — 

The beds which are most fossiliferous are those containing most 
carbonate of lime. In the ferruginous beds, whether upper or 
lower, there are no traces of lime ; but large quantities of peroxide 
of iron. This is true as well of the fossiliferous as the non-fos- 
siliferous parts. The gault which caps the iron bands at Black- 
Gang- Chine contains but few fossils, and those occur rarely. On 
analysis it was found to exhibit no trace of carbonate of lime, but 
a little gypsum ; whereas the fossiliferous gault of Folkstone and 
other places abounds in carbonate of lime. 

§ 4. Indications of Conditions under which these Beds iu ere deposited. 

At the close of the deposition of the Wealden, there appears to 
have been a sudden depression of the bed of the great freshwater 
estuary, and an influx of the sea. The first effect of such an 
influx would be the destruction of the animals in the estuary not 
adapted for living in salt water ; hence we find a total destruction 
of the Wealden animals, the remains of which accumulate towards 
the point of the junction of that formation with the Lower Green 
Sand ; a fact which indicates the nature of the change. Even the 
Cerithium, although belonging to a genus many species of which 
are capable of living in the depths of the sea, was destroyed — not- 
withstanding that its appearance, only in the uppermost beds of the 
Wealden, indicates that its presence there was due to the com- 
mencement of the very state of things which eventually destroyed it. 
That the depression was of some extent, though not, perhaps, of very 
many fathoms, is indicated by the nature of the animals which lived 
in the first-formed sea-bed, and which, when they died, were often 
imbedded in the fine and, probably, fast depositing mud, in the 
vertical position which it is the habit of the animals of such genera 
as Pinna and Panopcea to assume when alive. After this, a tem- 
porary change followed, when an influx of sand, mingling with 
the calcareous mud, caused a state of sea-bottom peculiarly fa- 
vourable to the presence of animal life. In this way were called 


into existence a multitude of species which were added to those 
which had appeared before them. This was, in fact, such a state 
of sea-bottom as is now presented by great shell banks ; but it 
does not seem to have lasted long, and new depositions of mud 
appear to have extinguished some forms, whilst others suffered by 
the change only in the diminution of their numbers. In the midst 
of this muddy epoch, a temporary and peculiar condition of sea- 
bottom, forming what are now called the Crackers, called forth the 
presence of numerous mollusca, at first of various species of the 
genus Gervillia, and afterwards of Auricula, Cerithium, Dentalium, 
and other univalves, which appear to have enjoyed but a brief 
existence (as species) in this locality, since similar conditions were 
never afterwards repeated. The greater number of the Gastero- 
podous mollusca of the English Lower Green Sand are found 
within this very limited range. At the close of the deposition of 
this great mass of clay there was for a time a great multiplication 
of the individuals of certain Brachiopoda which had commenced 
their existence in the lowest beds. Thus Terebratula Gibsi 
suddenly appears in immense abundance, covering the bottom of 
the sea, and predominating over the animals among which it had 
previously been but thinly scattered. 

This lowest zone of Terebratulce marks the commencement of a 
new state of sea-bottom where sands predominated over the clays, 
each interval of deposition being usually marked by the presence 
of a layer of Gryphcea sinuata, the period of rest being almost 
always sufficient to enable the Gryphcea to attain its full growth. 
Other bivalves are found with it, but in comparatively small num- 
bers, and not such as are of gregarious habits. During the whole 
of this period enormous Cephalopoda including species of Crioceras 
and Scaphites frequented these seas, and when dead formed the 
nuclei round which calcareous and sandy matter collected and formed 
nodules. The death of these animals seems to have been con- 
nected with the periodical charging of the sea with sediment ; 
hence we find them usually alternating with the zones of Gryphcea, 
and forming irregular bands in the intervening sedimentary 

In the midst of this epoch of Gryphcea, there is a sudden re- 
appearance of the muddy deposits, during the predominance of 
which those animals adapted for such a sea-bottom, and which 
had survived the cessation of the deposition of the fullers' earth, 
again multiplied, but the species which had become extinguished 
were not replaced by representative forms. This, however, did 
not last long, the sand again predominating with its zones of 
Gryphcea and lines of Crioceras nodules. 

A temporary multiplication of Terebratida sella suddenly marks 
a change in the zoological conditions — for the Cephalopoda dis- 
appear, although the zones of Gryphcea, which animal does not 
appear to have been affected by the change, (probably a change in 
the depth of the sea,) go on as before, there being, however, no 
alternating lines of nodules. It would seem that the sea began to 

VOL. i. o 


shallow, probably from elevation of the sea-bottom, until at last 
the Gryphcea itself disappears, the bands exhibit traces of the in- 
fluence of currents, and become more gravelly ; lignites, indicating 
a shallow sea, become common, form belts in the ferruginous sand, 
and in one place a bed in the wavy blue sand, at a time when much 
iron was deposited. The deposition of the peroxide of iron appears 
to have been connected with the disappearance of the majority of 
mollusca, though Trigonia, Thetis, and Venus occasionally occur 
in considerable numbers. In the uppermost strata scarcely any 
animal remains are found, and every thing appears to indicate a 
shallow and barren sea, previous to a new state of things, when a 
fresh series of clays (forming the Gault) being deposited, the 
majority of the animal forms which characterise the clays of the 
Lower Green Sand disappear, and are replaced by distinct species, 
representative in time. 

§ Bearing of these Observations on the Neocomian Question. 

These statements regarding the distribution of organic remains 
and indications of mineral conditions, presented by the Atherfield 
section, lead to a few considerations which bear importantly on the 
question which has been agitated respecting the separation of the 
lower part of the Lower Green Sand as a separate bed under the 
name of " Neocomien. n 

1st. It would appear that there is but one system of organic re- 
mains throughout the series of beds, entitled Lower Green Sand, 
in this locality, and that whenever similar conditions are repeated, 
the same species reappear. 

2d. Throughout the series of beds examined, we find that when 
a species is extinguished by a change of mineral conditions, it is 
not replaced by a representative species. 

3d. That the influences which determine the distribution of 
species throughout are mineral and local, and that these mineral 
— in a great measure, chemical — conditions enable us to divide 
the strata into groups, which groups, being from their very nature 
local, cannot be regarded as other than artificial, and have no 
claim to be numbered as subdivisions in time of the great series of 
cretaceous deposits. 

A change of mineral conditions may determine the absence of 
certain species ; but, unless when, under a repetition of similar 
mineral conditions, such species are replaced by representative 
species, or the general assemblage of species is replaced by repre- 
sentative and distinct forms, the change cannot be considered as 
indicating a great sectional division. 

It appears to us, therefore, that the evidence of the Atherfield 
section maintains the unity of the Lower Green Sand ; and that 
the accumulation of clays at its base can be regarded only as a 
local phenomenon. 


Thickness and Description of Strata, 

[Gault, with Fossils.] 

No. in feet. 

64. Iron band, fragments of fossils - - - - I 

63. Dark sand - - - - - -2 

62. Iron band --*.*"'_- --1 

61. Dark sand - - - - - - 2 

60. Iron band - - - - - - -1 

59. Dark sand - - - - - - -2 

58. Iron band - - - - - - -1 

57. Iron clay and sand - - - - - -12 

56. At the top, white sand ; at the bottom, black sand and clay - 11 

55. Iron at the top, and sand - - - 3 

54. Iron at the top, and dark yellow sand - - - 4 

53. Yellow sand and clay - - - - - 6 

52. Blue clay ----- - - 2 

51. Yellow and white sand, very quartzose - - - - 15 

50. Above, white sand, tolerably solid at the top, clay and sand in the 

middle, and white sand at the bottom - - - - 19 

49. Black clay (perhaps lignite) with brown sand in thin lamina?, tolera- 
bly even, but in some parts wavy - - - - 17 

48. Yellow sand and blue clay, thinly laminated in some parts, wavy at 

the bottom, the sand white - - - - 31 

47. A second white sand, tolerably solid - ■» - - 13 

(No. 31. crops out on the shore, a little to the west of Blackgang 

46. Blue sand and some clay - - - - - - 32 

45. A line of nodules at the top, and blue sand and some clay below - 33 
44. Third white sand, with tolerably solid yellow at the bottom. This 

stratum runs up from Rocken End - - - - 22 

43. Three sorts of black clay and sand - - - - 40 

42. Iron, fossiliferous, top of Blackgang- Chine Waterfall - - 1 

(No. 24, (the Terebratula zone) crops out on the shore.) 

41. Sand and clay varying from brown to black - - - 4 

40. Iron, fossiliferous ----- . i 

39. White sand, tolerably solid, yellow on the surface ; near the top there 
are laminae of pebbles ; the bottom of it is in thin laminae, divided 
by blue sand and clay - - - - - -11 

38. Iron, fossiliferous -- - - - - ' - 1 

37. White sand - - - - - - -10 

36. Blue clay and sand, the blue very conspicuous - - 1 

35. Iron at the top, with fossils ; dark sand below - - - 26 

(Nos. 22. and 23. nodules crop out on the shore.) 

34. Iron at the top, fossiliferous, and dark sand below - - - 18 

33. Iron, fossiliferous, and grey sand below, much used for making mor- 
tar. Bottom of Blackgang - - - - - 28 

(No. 21. nodules crop out on the shore.) 

32. Iron, fossiliferous, and white sand below - - - - 9 

31. Thin very wavy laminae of black clay (or lignite) full of pyrites, 

with a layer of spongiform nodules near the bottom - - 25 

( No. 20. nodules crop out on the shore. ) 

30. Iron at the top, fossiliferous, with dark sand - - 2 

o 2 


Thickness and Description of Strata. 

No. in feet. 

29. Iron, fossiliferous, with dark sand. Above the boat-houses, Ladder 

Chine - ...___ 3 

(No. 19a crops out on the shore.) 

28. Gryphcece at the top, with dark sand - - - 8 

27. Gryphs.ce at the top, with dark sand - - - 3 

26. Gryphcece at the top, with dark sand containing Terebratula?, Echini, 

&c. &c. &c. - - - - - 4 

25. Gryphcece at the top, with dark sand ■• - - - 9 

(Nos. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. Gryphcea and Crioceras nodules crop out 
on the shore. ) 

24. Terebratulce at the top, with dark sand - - - - 30 

23. Nodules containing Crioceratites, a layer of Gryphcea under them, 

with dark sand - - - - - - -7 

(No. 14. or Scaphite nodules crop out on the shore.) 

22. Crioceras nodules; a zone of Gryphcea, with dark sand - 13 

21. Crioceras nodules, a zone of Gryphcea, with dark sand containing 

Gryphcea irregularly placed - - - - 3 

20. Crioceras nodules with Ammonites - - - - - 26 

1 9 a At the top black sand and clay, a zone of Gryphcea in the centre, 

with clay under, very fossiliferous - - - - 34 


f Crioceras nodules with zones of Gryphcece, dark sand between them 38 

(Nos. 13. 12. 11. 10. crop out on the shore below these zones.) 
14. Nodules containing Scaphites ; Gryphcea zone under; Ostrea cari- 
nata, &c. at the top of dark sand ; at the bottom layers of Serpulce, 
Terebratulce, &c. &c. - - - - - -16 

(No. 8 crops out on the shore below.) 

13. Zone of Gryphcea ; below red sand and clay, full of Gryphcece, Ostrece, 
Terebratulce, Pectens, Serpulce, &c. &c. &c. very fossiliferous, and in 
some places divided into four zones of Gryphcece - - 22 

(No. 7. crops out on the shore.) 

12. Layer of Terebratulce, dark sand at the top, and a layer of small no- 
dules and yellow sand at the bottom - - - - 22 
1 1 . Dark clay, red at the top, and very fossiliferous - - - 20 

(No. 6. crops out on the shore.) 

10. Upper lobster bed, dark sand at the top, fullers' earth in the middle, 

and sand at the bottom, very fossiliferous - - - 45 

9. Upper Crackers ; nodules at the top, clay and sand, very fossiliferous 6 
8. Lower Crackers; nodules at the top, full of Gervilliae, &c. &c, with 

brown sand and clay, fossiliferous - - - - 1 2 

(No. 4., or Perna Mulleti bed, crops out on the shore.) 

7. Lower lobster bed, fullers' earth, very fossiliferous - - - 29 

6. The best fullers' earth with clay at the bottom, some fossils, but not 
very plentiful, and in some parts full of large crystals of sulphate 
of lime - - - - - - - -64 

5. Layer of small nodules, clay at the bottom containing fossils - 6 

To face page 197. 



The object of this table lce tne * r ran § e * n the lower beds of that formation, and that 
>f the Cretaceous Series. 

Note — * ons a ^ ove or below the Lower Green Sand. 



19 a. 


Lowest Clay. 



Middle Clay. 


Middle Gryphaea 


Upper Clay. 


Panopsea mandibula - 

3— U.G.S 


Cypricardia un- 


Crioceras Bower- 


Cardium ? 


Panopjea plicata 


i 2 

Nucula spatulata 


Scaphites gigan- 



Hemicardium Austeni - 



Gervillia solen- 



Anomia ra- 


Venus ? parva - 




Nautilus radiatus 


Area securis 


Venus ? fenestrata 


Lima elongata - 

14— Git. 


Area Raulini 

3— 19a 


Spatangus re- 




Nucula (scapha) 


Trigonia caudata 


Perna Mulleti 


Gervillia aviculoides 

3— U.G. 

Ostrea carinata - 

3— Ch.1V 

Pecten 5-costatus 


Pecten obliquus - 

3— U.G. 

Pecten orbicularis 

3— U.G. 

Rostellaria Parkinsoni 

3— Git 

Rostellaria bicarinata - 


Xo.cepase.07. TABLE 



The object of this table is to show that the majority of species composing the Lower Green Sand Fauna, as observed in the Isle of Wight, commence their range in the lower beds of that formation and tl 
the species assembled in the lowest beds include many common to the Lower Green Sand and other divisions of the Cretaceous Series. ' '" 

Note. — The Figures refer to the Beds as numbered in the Table of Strata ; the Roman Letters in the second columns to Formations above or below the Lower Green Sand. 

Names of Species within brackets have been applied since the Paper was read. 

In the beds above 19 a no species were observed to commence their range. 










Lowest Clay. 


Perna Band. 


Lower Lobster Clay. 




Upper Lobster Clay. 


Lower Gryphaja 


Middle Clay. 


Middle Gryphsa 


Upper Clay. 


Panopsamandibula - 

3— U.G.S. 

Solen Warburtoni 


Corbula atriatula 


Cardium Ibbetsoni - 


Astacus. No. 2. - 


Modiola asqualis 


Cypricardia un- 


Crioceras Bower- 


Cardium ? 

1 9a 

Panopsa plicata 

3— U.G.S. 

Panopaa ( Neocomiensis) 


Gervillia lingu- 

G— 10 

Venus Orbignyana - 




Gryphzea conica 





Hemicardium Austeni - 


Astarte obovata - 



Nucula obtusa 

8— U.G.S. 


Terebratula ob- 


Nucula spatulata 


Scaphites gtgan- 


Anomia ra- 


Ammonites Des- 


Cardium pere- 



Gervillia solen- 

14— 5G 

Venus ? parva - 


Venus striato-costata - 




Tellina vectiana 


grinosum. , 

Ammonites Mar- 



Nautilus radiatus 


leasee ■ 

Venus ? fenestrata 


Corbis corrugate 


Astucus. No. 1. - 


Grypha;a harpa , - 


Serpula Sp. 



Lima elongata - 

14— Git. 

Area Raulini 


Cyprina angulata 


Dentalium cylindri- 

8— U.G.S. 

Serputa Sp. 


Crinoidal stems 


Spatangus re- 



1 9a 

Nucula (scapha) 


Cardium ( Cora uelianum) 


Rostellaria glabra - 


Trigonia caudate 


Thetis minor 

4— U.G.S. 

Rostellaria Fittoni - 


Perna Mulleti 


Lithodomus (oblongus) 


Tornatella marginata 


Gervillia aviculoides 

3— U.G.S. 

Trigonia aliformis 
Trigonia dedalsea 

4— U.G.S. 

Tornatella albensls - 


Ostrea carinata - 


Gryphrea sinuate - 


Cerithium (Lallieri- 


Pecten 5-costatus 


Hinnites ? Leymerii - 


Cerithium Phillipsii 


Pecten obliquus - 

3— U.G.S. 

Ostrea Leymerii 


Cerithium turricu- 


Pecten orbicularis 

3— U.G.S. 

Plicatula placunsea 



Rostellaria Parkinson: 

3— Git. 

Terebratula Sella 

4 41 

Cerithium ( Neocomi- 


Rostellaria bicarinata - 


Terebratula Gibsii 
Lingula truncata 
Natica rotundata 
Cidaris Sp. - 
Astrsea Sp. ... 




Solarium sp, - 
Natica (Cornueliana) 
Ammonites Hambrovii 




Thickness and Description of Strata. 

No. in feet. 

4. Perna Mulleti bed, with numerous Gryphcece, Ostrece, &c. &c. very 

fossiliferous - - - - - - -3 

3. Clay, very fossiliferous, containing layers offish-bones, teeth, &c. but 

regular --------3 


In the accompanying Table are given the ranges of such of the 
fossils of the above strata as were collected and noted by the au- 
thors on the spot. 

5. Description of the Mouth of a Hybodus found by Mr. Bos- 
cawen Ibbetson in the Isle op Wight. By Sir Philip 
Malpas de Grey Egerton, Bart. M.P. F.R.S. F.G.S. 

The present memoir is the result of the examination of an Ich- 
thyolite discovered by Mr. Boscawen Ibbetson in the Isle of 
Wight, near the junction of the Lower Green Sand with the 
Wealden, and sent to me in the hopes that it might tend to show 
to which of the two formations this bed should be assigned. The 
evidence it affords on this question is neither direct nor conclusive, 
inasmuch as it is an undescribed species, and consequently any 
deductions beyond those based upon general affinities would be 
unwarrantable. In another point of view, however, this specimen 
is of high scientific value, as it sets at rest the long-mooted ques- 
tions of the relative characters of the upper and lower teeth, and 
their general contour in the individuals composing the genus Hy- 
bodus so extensively occurring in the secondary strata. Mr. Ibbet- 
son has had the rare fortune to bring to light the entire mouth of 
a fish of this genus. The left side is slightly crushed, but the 
other retains its natural form, and the greater portion of the teeth 
in both the upper and the lower jaw. The former measures lOinches, 
and appears to have carried twenty -four teeth in the front series ; 
the latter measures 1\ inches, and has nineteen teeth in series, one 
on the symphysis and nine on either side. Two rows of succession 
teeth are traceable behind the front series. The mouth is slightly 
open, and when seen in profile is more aVcuate than in the recent 
sharks. The upper jaw has a broad notch for the reception of the 
thickened symphysis of the lower mandible. The teeth have a 
central cusp, rather hooked, and two secondary cusps on either 
side ; the enamel is strongly plicated ; the teeth only recently 
brought into use have the plicae extending to the apex. The bases 
are wide, and have the rugose character so generally found in this 
genus. The lateral teeth present the same characters as the more 
central ones, but are rather smaller near the angle of the jaw, 

o 3 


The central teeth, also, are rather smaller than those immediately 
flanking them. The teeth of the upper jaw are precisely similar 
to those in the lower. In neither do we find any material increase 
of obliquity in the cusps as they recede from the centre. The 
cartilaginous alee of the mouth are distinctly traceable ; they in- 
crease in width rapidly from the symphysis of the lower jaw, and 
attain their maximum expanse at the angle of the mouth. Behind 
these are some traces of the hyoidal arch. It is probable from the 
appearance of the matrix which envelopes it, that with a little care- 
ful cleaning a considerable portion of the head might be disclosed. 
In its present condition, the only part of the cranial cartilages to 
be distinguished is a section of the prosencephalic cavity. 

The geological inferences afforded by this specimen are briefly 
told. The species is new. The genus is undoubtedly Hybodus., 
This genus attains its maximum expansion in the Oolitic series., 
but it ranges from the Muschelkalk to the Chalk inclusive. The 
only evidence of its occurrence in the latter formation is a frag- 
ment of an Ichthyodorulite in the Mantell collection. The teeth 
have not yet been found in any strata more recent than the 
Wealden. As far therefore as the evidence goes, it leads to the 
supposition that a bed containing teeth of the genus Hybodus is 
most likely to be of an age anterior to the cretaceous system. In a 
zoological point of view, this specimen is of more importance, in- 
asmuch as it fully corroborates the views advanced by Agassiz, 
" that most probably the Hybodonts differed little from the recent 
sharks in general aspect." It also authenticates the numerous 
species established by that distinguished naturalist from the cha- 
racters of isolated teeth. We find in many of the recent sharks, 
in Carcharias for example, the discrepancy between the teeth of 
the upper and lower jaw so great, that it would be considered 
quite warrantable to describe them, if found detached, as different 
species. It was from a just appreciation of these difficulties that 
Agassiz has always professed his names and characters of the 
placoid teeth to be descriptive of specimens, and to be considered 
provisional as regards specific arrangement, until evidence should 
be found authorising or annulling the continuance of the titles 
as applicable to species. Mr. Ibbetson's specimen shows that in 
the genus Hybodus there was no difference between the teeth of 
the upper and lower jaw, and less variation, according to position, 
than in the recent sharks ; consequently the descriptive characters 
given in the Poissons Fossiles will hold good as specific distinctions. 
The Hybodonts, then, of the secondary strata differed only from 
the sharks of the recent period in those modifications which adapted 
them to the circumstances under which they existed. The form 
of the mouth was nearly similar ; from this we may argue a simi- 
larity of shape and an analogous arrangement of the fins to enable 
them to seize their prey. If they subsisted upon fish, which is 
most probable from the form of the teeth, we find in the denser 
structure and hard enamel coating of these organs, provisions to 
enable them to grapple with the Ganoid fishes of that period ; 
while in the powerful fin bones with which they were armed, we 



C.JtkffwiccrvcleZj- yaZm^IibhoimXr /ram . 


famtliMdBttfim, MAvriJy G-.Jchmf; 

ffyicdvus BcLsamos s#m 


see weapons of defence against the aggressions of the Piscivorous 
Saurians with which they were destined to coexist, I propose to 
name this species Hybodus basanus.* 

6. Extracts were read from letters of M. Dubois de Montpereux 
to Mr. L. L. Boscawen Ibbetson, on the comparison of the jSFeoco- 
mian beds of the Caucasus and the Crimea with those of Neuf- 
chatel, and from Professor Agassiz to Mr. Ibbetson, on the age of 
the Neocomian beds of Neufchatel. 

May 15th, 1844, 

W. J. Blake, Esq., of Danesbury, was elected a Fellow of this 

The following communications were made : — 

1. On some Crustaceous Remains in Carboniferous Rocks. 

By W. Ick, Esq., F.G.S. 
This communication accompanied two electrotype casts of the 
specimens alluded to. The one was found in the white ironstone 
measures atRidgeacre Colliery, and the author states, — "I at first 
thought it might be the head and carapace of a new species of 
Eryon except that the known species from the Solenhofen slate are 
much more deeply notched on the edges of the carapace, and the 
apparently spinous prolongation of the head and some other de- 
tails do not agree. The white ironstone in which it was found is 
a bed in the lower part of the field below what is called the New 
Mine coal. It is the bed in which the finest remains of Megal- 
ichthys have been found." 

" The other fossil is in an ironstone nodule. The form is not so 
well defined as in the first, and I dare not venture to guess to what 
it may be referred." 

2. On the probable Age and Origin of a Bed of Plumbago 
and Anthracite occurring in mica-schist near Worcester, Mas- 
sachusetts. By C. Lyell, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., &c. 

A bed of plumbago and impure anthracite described by Professor 
Hitchcock in his " Geology of Massachusetts " is found inter- 
stratified with mica-schist near Worcester, forty-five miles due 
west of Boston. It is about two feet in thickness, and has been 
made use of both as fuel and in the manufacture of lead-pencils. 
It is much mixed up with the associated rock, has the touch and 
somewhat of the lustre of plumbago, and gives a streak on paper. 
It is occasionally iridescent like coal, contains pyrites, which is also 
found in the associated clay slate and garnetiferous mica-schist, 

* The accompanying plate exhibits the appearance of the fossil embedded in 
the rock, and partially cleared. 

o 4 


both of which are impregnated with carbonaceous matter. This 
plumbaginous rock presents numerous polished surfaces or slicken- 
sides, on some of which are delicate parallel strige, which reminded 
me so strongly of the finely striated leaves common in coal, that 
I had first supposed them to be of the same nature ; and was thus 
induced to search very diligently, but in vain, for vegetable im- 
pressions. In the old mine of plumbaginous anthracite about two 
miles to the north-east of Worcester, the accompanying clay-slate 
and mica-schist, (the latter containing garnets and veins of asbes- 
tus), dip towards the north at an angle of between 30 and 40 
degrees, and a railway cutting east of Worcester, and to the south 
of the old mine above mentioned, has finely exposed to view the 
mica-slate and clay-slate with some layers of quartz inclosing a 
bed of similar plumbaginous anthracite ; some of which has the 
iridescence of peacock coal. Professor Hitchcock has traced this 
group of strata in a north-easterly direction 50 miles, to the Mer- 
rimac river, and the beds are continued with the same strike* in a 
south-westerly direction, for many miles. In their course they 
exhibit a great variety of crystalline strata, and the mica-slate 
sometimes alternates with gneiss. 

The schists including plumbago, at Worcester, as above men- 
tioned, are separated from the anthracite occurring on the borders 
of Rhode Island and Massachusetts, by a district of gneiss and 
hornblende slate about thirty miles wide. The anthracite of those 
slates is impure and earthy, but has been worked for coal at 
Wrentham, Cumberland, Mansfield, and other places, where, in the 
accompanying carbonaceous and pyritiferous slates, I collected 
numerous impressions of the most common coal plants, such asPe- 
copteris plumosa, Neuropteris flexuosa, Sphenophyllum, Calamites, 
&c. This earthy anthracitic coal, as well as the accompanying 
slates, contain pyrites, as at Worcester ; and the anthracite ex- 
hibits the same glazed surfaces and slickensides ; but it does not 
soil the finger like that of Worcester, and its specific gravity has 
been shown by Dr. Jackson and Professor Hitchcock to be less 
than that of Worcester, but greater than that of the anthracite of 
Pennsylvania. There are layers and veins of quartz in the slates 
and micaceous sandstones forming the roof of this anthracite, 
affording another point of analogy between this series and the 
quartziferous rocks at Worcester. I have also seen numerous 
specimens from the anthracite and bituminous slate of the neigh- 
bouring district of Mansfield, in which the usual coal plants were 
imbedded ; but the slate was more crystalline. I was presented 
by Professor Hitchcock with a specimen of distinct mica slate 
from this neighbourhood, in which rounded nodules of granite and 
quartz rock are included ; and in the contiguous parts of Rhode 
Island a conglomerate belonging to what has been called the grey- 
wacke formation has been observed by Dr. C. T. Jackson (Survey 
of Rhode Island, p. 70.) to pass downwards into mica slate. The 
rocks of the coal measures now under consideration are accom- 
panied by a red sandstone, which I examined at Attleborough, a 
few miles from Wrentham before mentioned. There is a con- 


glomerate subordinate to it, and it may, with all probability, be 
referred to the old red sandstone which occurs beneath the coal 
in Pennsylvania ; although, in the absence of fossils, the dis- 
turbed state of the strata, and the frequent concealment of their 
outcroppings by a thick covering of drift, it is usually difficult to 
determine the exact order of succession. It is, however, important 
to observe that the whole of this series, which Professor Hitchcock 
now inclines to refer to the coal and old red sandstone, was for- 
merly called greywacke, and styled the transition formation, in 
consequence of the semi-metamorphic condition of several of the 
rocks. Their conversion into crystalline strata, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of masses of granite and syenite, is often complete. 
But besides this kind of alteration, resembling the effect of dykes 
and veins of intrusive igneous rocks, there is evidence here, as in 
the Alps of the Canton of Berne and elsewhere, of a more exten- 
sive and general change by chemical or plutonic action, affecting, 
with greater or less degrees of intensity, dense masses of stratified 

Although many impressions of plants have been found in this 
anthracite formation, on the southern borders of Massachussetts and 
Rhode Island no traces of shells or corals have been discovered. 
In like manner we find an absence of all fossils except vegetable 
remains, in the anthracite coal district of Pennsylvania, and no 
fossils of any kind in the subjacent conglomerates and red sand- 

The strata of conglomerate at Brooklyn, near Boston, and the 
greywacke slates and sandstones of that neighbourhood, some of 
which pass into metamorphic rocks, and in which no plants or 
other organic remains have as yet been found, are doubtless refer- 
able to the same carboniferous and Devonian formations as those 
above described. 

After traversing this region in several directions, it appeared to 
me very probable that the stratified rocks, containing the plumba- 
ginous anthracite of Worcester, consisted originally of similar 
sedimentary strata, which have been so altered by heat and other 
plutonic causes as to assume a crystalline and metamorphic texture, 
by which the grits and shales of the coal have been turned into 
quartzite, clay-slate, and mica-schist, and the anthracite into that 
state of carbon which is called plumbago or graphite. 

The progressive debituminisation of the coal of the United 
States, as we proceed from Pittsburgh to the eastern and more dis- 
turbed axes of the Alleghany mountains, as pointed out by Pro- 
fessor H. D. Rogers, lend support to this conjecture.* In the 
Rhode Island anthracite, which is less combustible than that of 
Potsville, Pennsylvania, the change seems to have been carried far- 
ther ; the volatile ingredients of the original coal having been still 
more completely expelled. In the impure plumbago of Worcester, 
we may have the last step in the series of transmutation, where only 
3 per cent, of gaseous matter remains, where all traces of fossil plants 

* See Appendix. 


and vegetable structure have been obliterated, and where the litho 
logical character of the accompanying sedimentary rocks has been 
entirely altered. I may remark that the Silurian and Devonian 
formations, which are so largely developed in the United States, 
yield no beds of coal or anthracite which could by metamorphosis 
be supposed to become turned into such a carbonaceous stratum as 
that of Worcester. 

I shall conclude by observing that the difference of strike be- 
tween the mica- schist containing plumbago at Worcester, and the 
nearest carboniferous rocks of Rhode Island and Massachusetts, 
affords no argument against the theory of both having belonged 
originally to the same group of sedimentary strata. In New 
England, and in Nova Scotia, the coal-measures frequently deviate 
widely from the same strike in continuous districts, and the direc- 
tion of continuous anticlinal axes in the Alleghany mountains, 
composed throughout of similar silurian and carboniferous rocks, 
has been shown by Professors W. B. and H. D. Rogers, to vary 
more than 40° in different sections of that chain. 

Appendix. — Analysis of Specimens of Bituminous and Anthra- 
citic Coal of the United States, and of the Plumbaginous 
Anthracite alluded to in the foregoing Paper. 

In the Transactions of the Association of American Geologists, 
1840-42, p. 470., Professor H. D. Rogers traces the gradation in 
the proportion of volatile matter m the coal, as we cross the Appa- 
lachian basin from the S. E. towards the N. W. In the most 
southeasterly basins, where the coal is a genuine anthracite, he 
states that the quantity of gaseous matter, chiefly hydrogen, varies 
from 6 to 14 per cent., as, for example, in the anthracite coal 
fields of Pennsylvania. 

Secondly, further towards the N. W., in the Alleghany moun- 
tain of Pennsylvania, and the Potomac basin and others in Virginia, 
the proportion of volatile matter varies from 16 to 22 per cent. 

Thirdly, westward of the Appalachian mountains, in the wide 
coal-field watered by the Ohio river and its tributary, the amount 
of volatile matter is from 30 to 40, and even 50 per cent. With 
a view of testing these results, I submitted to my friend Dr. J. 
Percy, of Birmingham, for examination, specimens of coal, first, 
from the Pennsylvanian anthracite of Lehigh and Mauch Chunk, 
in which the proportion of gaseous matter, (hydrogen, oxygen, and 
nitrogen) proved to be about 5 per cent. ; secondly, from Frost- 
burgh in Maryland, a part of the Appalachian mountains further 
west, where the strata have only undergone a moderate degree of 
disturbance. In this coal, the proportion of volatile matter to the 
carbon and ash was found to be about 9^ per cent. ; and, thirdly, in 
the horizontal and bituminous coal of Pomeroy, on the Ohio, the pro- 
portion of gaseous matter was determined to be about 19 per cent. 


The theory of Professor Rogers is borne out by these analyses, but, 
as the chemical results are exceedingly different, the proportion of 
volatile matter being only half that cited by the American geolo- 
gist, I think it right to append a letter which I have received 
from Dr. Percy, in order to show the details of his manipulations, 
and the pains bestowed by him on an analysis which, in the case 
of anthracite, is exceedingly difficult. 

Letter from John Percy, M. D. to C. Lyell, Esq. 

Birmingham, Feb. 17. 1S45. 
My dear Sir, 

I have now much pleasure in transmitting to. you, in a complete form, the 
analyses of the specimens of coal which you sent me. The ultimate analysis of 
coal requires considerable care, as it is difficult, by the ordinary method of com- 
bustion with an oxidising body, to effect completely the oxidation of all the car- 
bon. In every instance I have used chromate of lead as the oxidising body, 
and have employed a degree of heat sufficient partially to melt the Bohemian- 
glass combustion tube, although defended by inclosing it in thin sheet copper. 
I have been particularly careful not only to mix, but to triturate, the coal pow- 
der and the chromate of lead intimately together. The coal powder has been 
dried in the oil-bath at a temperature ranging between 110° and 120° Centig. 
The analysis of coal consists of three parts, viz. 

1 . Of the determination of the carbon and hydrogen. 

2. Of the determination of the nitrogen. 

3. Of the determination of the ash. 

The oxygen, of course, is found by deducting the sum of these from the 
weight of coal employed in analysis. As I have already stated, the carbon and 
hydrogen were found in the usual way by burning with chromate of lead, as in 
an ordinary organic analysis. The nitrogen was ascertained by Will's method, 
which consists in heating the coal with the mixture of soda-lime in a combustion 
tube ; all the nitrogen is evolved in the form of ammonia, which is retained in 
the receiver, containing hydrochloric acid ; the hydrochlorate of ammonia thus 
formed is converted into ammonio-ehloride of platinum, from which the quantity 
of nitrogen is estimated. Lastly, the ash was found by incinerating in a plati- 
num crucible until every speck of carbonaceous matter had disappeared. 

I shall now proceed to give you all the data obtained by analysis : — 

1. Pomeroy Coal, Ohio. Colour of the powder, deep snuff-brown. 

1st Analysis. 
4*878 grs. gave 

Water, 2*46 = Hydrogen, 0*273, or 5*59 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 1 3 -74 = Carbon, 3 '747, or 76*81 do. 

2nd Analysis. 
5*686 grs. gave 

Water, 2'96 = Hydrogen, 0*328, or 5*76 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 15*97 = Carbon, 4*355, or 76*59 do. 

Nitrogen Analysis. 
6*90 grs. gave 

Metallic Platinum, 0*836 = Nitrogen, 0*118, or 1*71 per 100. 



6-44 grs. gave of Ash, 0-28, or 4*34 per 100. 
2-26 grs. do. 0*11, or 4-86 do. 

Mean - - - 4 60 do. 

2. Mauch Chunk, or Pennsylvanian Anthracite. Lustre somewhat 
glistening ; powder much blacker than that of the preceding variety. 

1st Analysis. 
6 '92 grs. gave 

Water, 1-50 = Hydrogen, 0-166, or 2-398 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 21 -44= Carbon, 5*847, or 84-49 do. 

2d Analysis. 
6*02 grs. gave 

Water, 1*33 = Hydrogen, 0-147, or 2-441 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 18 -75 = Carbon, 5'113, or 84-93 do. 

3c? Analysis. 
6*127 grs. gave 

Water, 1*41 = Hydrogen, 0-156, or 2*546 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 19-11 = Carbon, 5'211, or 85-04 do. 

Nitrogen Analysis. 

I heated some of the coal on a test-tube with soda-lime. Red litmus paper 
was immediately turned blue ; and, on holding the stopper of the hydrochloric 
acid bottle over the tube, dense white fumes appeared. The coal, therefore, con- 
tained nitrogen. 

7*18 grs. gave 

Metallic Platinum, 0*616 = Nitrogen, 0*0874, or 1*217 per 100. 


18-17 grains gave of Ash, 1*85, or 10*18 per 100. 
6*75 do. 0*69, or 10*22 do. 

Mean - 10-20 

3. Frostburgh, Maryland. Colour of powder, brownish black, 

1st Analysis. 
4*85 grs. gave 

Water, 2*10= Hydrogen, 0*233, or 4*804 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 13*91 = Carbon, 3*793, or 78*20 do. 

2c? Analysis. 
6*54 grs. gave 

Water, 2*92 = Hydrogen, 0*324, or 4*954 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 18*89= Carbon, 5 151, or 78*76 do. 

3c? Analysis. 
5-889 grs. gave 

Water, 2*45 = Hydrogen, 0*272, or 4*618 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 17 *03 = Carbon, 4*644, or 78*85 do. 

Nitrogen Analysis. 
6*83 grs. gave of 

Metallic Platinum, 1*1 45 = Nitrogen, 0'162, or 2*37 per 100. 


Incineration : 

14-27 grains gave of Ash, 1*66, or 11-63 per cent. 
2-28 do. 0-27, or 11-84 do. 



In the first analysis, both of the Mauch Chunk and the Frostburgh Coal, 
there is a very decided error in the determination of the carbon ; and the differ- 
ence in the per centage of hydrogen in the analyses of the last-mentioned coal 
is much greater than I should wish. In the following table, therefore, we will 
take the mean of the second and third analyses only of the two varieties of coal 
in estimating the per centage of carbon ; and the mean of the three of each 
variety in estimating the per centage of hydrogen. We shall not then, I 
am sure, commit any serious error : — 



M. Chunk. 

Oxygen - 
Nitrogen - 







Total - 



100 00 

4. Worcester Plumbaginous Anthracite. 

I selected for analysis those small fragments which appeared to be most free 
from the associated rock. It had the touch and somewhat of the lustre of 
plumbago ; it gave a streak on paper, and the mortar in which it was triturated 
became coated and polished, as if from common plumbago. Dried at 120° 

8-00 grs. gave of 

Water, 0-670 = Hydrogen, 0744, or 0-926 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 8 -316 = Carbon, 2-268, or 28-350 do. 


I found I had not sufficient of the same specimen to make a nitrogen analysis. 
I ascertained, however, that what remained of the other fragments contained 
nitrogen. On heating in a test-tube with the soda-lime mixture, ammonia was 
evolved, as proved by 

1. Red litmus-paper being turned blue ; 

2. By the appearance of dense white fumes on holding the stopper of the 

hydrochloric acid bottle near the mouth of the tube ; 

3. And, also, characteristically by the smell. 

6-745 grains gave of Ash, 4-625, or 68-569 per 100. 


We have, then, 

Carbon - - - - - • - - 28*350 

Hydrogen ---_-._ 0*926 

.Oxygen*?! _ 

Nitrogen J 

Ash 68-569 


I also incinerated another portion, which evidently contained a much larger 
quantity of rock. Dried at 120° Centig. 

28*70 grains gave of Ash, 24*21, or 84-35 per 100. 

We have, then, 15*65 per 100 of carbon, etc. The incineration was conducted 
during 21 hours. The colour of the ash was reddish-brown, due evidently to 
oxide of iron. 

In the combustion I employed as much heat as I could obtain by wafting 
the charcoal with a piece of paste-board, The gas ceased to be disengaged 
completely, and the caustic ley rose rapidly in the bulb, and continued to rise 
after breaking off the drawn-out extremity of the combustion-tube. I imme- 
diately removed the charcoal. On cooling, the tube, as I expected, cracked 
slightly, the ley in the large bulb descended, and I was enabled to draw air 
through effectually in the usual way. After removing the sheet of copper, with 
which the tube had been enveloped, I found the glass melted in several places, 
and in one spot, about two inches from the drawn-out end, the glass had sunk 
down to the chromate of lead, and so intercepted the passage of air from the 
drawn-out point. Only a very minute quantity of carbonic acid could possibly 
have escaped absorption. I am thus particular in relating details, that you may 
exactly know what value to attach to the analysis, which I think must be very 
near the truth. 

Postscript. — Feb. 26. 1845. 

1 subjoin the following analysis of Anthracite from the Lehigh Summit Mine, 
Pennsylvania. The ash is in very small proportion : — 

1st Analysis. 
6*93 grains gave of 

Water, 1 -717 = 0*1907 Hydrogen, or 2*75 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 23*57 =6*428 Carbon, or 92*756 do. 

2c? Analysis. 
6*854 grains of coal gave of 

Water, 1*55 = 0*172 Hydrogen, or 2*509 per 100. 

Carbonic Acid, 23*23 = 6*335 Carbon, or 92*427 do. 

Nitrogen Analysis. 
7 '01 4 grains gave of 

Metallic Platinum, 0*46=0*0652 Nitrogen, or 0*921 per 100. 


33*73 grains gave of Ash, 0*75, or 2*223 per 100. 
16*89 do. 0*385, or 2*280 do. 

Mean - 2*251. 

* I presume oxygen to have been present. Its presence, however, could only 
have been demonstrated by determining the proportion of nitrogen. 



Carbon - - - 92*591 

Hydrogen 2 '629 

Oxygen - 1 -608 

Nitrogen 0-921 

Ash - - - - - - - 2-251 


The heat employed was sufficient to melt the Bohemian combustion-tubes in 
several places, although protected by sheet copper. 

3. On the Geology of Cape Breton.* By Richard Brown, Esq. 
Communicated by Charles Lyell, Esq. F.R.S., F.G.S., &c. 

I propose, in the following pages, to give a slight general sketch 
of the geology of Cape Breton, from notes made at various times, 
some so far as 15 years back, and collected more with a view to 
professional pursuits, than for the purposes of geological research. 

The island of Cape Breton is separated from Nova Scotia by 
the Gut of Canso, and is about 120 miles in length from north 
to south, and 90 miles wide from Scatari on the Atlantic shore to 
Port Hood on the Gulf of St. Lawrence. A range of highlands, 
commencing at Cape North, continues to St. Ann's on the east 
shore, and to Margarie on the west shore, both distant from Cape 
North about 60 miles, and presents, with few interruptions, bold 
and precipitate cliffs to the ocean. These highlands attain their 
greatest elevation near the shore, constituting a table-land from 
15 to 20 miles in breadth, and 600 to 1000 feet in height, in most 
places incapable of cultivation. Part of this table-land is covered 
with a stunted growth of spruce and fir trees, and the remainder 
is principally rocky and barren moorland, which affords a scanty 
supply of moss for a few herds of wild deer. 

From Margarie to Port Hood the country is elevated, but un- 
dulating, being intersected by several small rivers running through 
valleys of great fertility. From Port Hood another chain of hills 
stretches towards Ship Harbour, the water shedding from the 
eastern declivity into the rich alluvial valley 'of the river ' In- 
habitants,' which runs parallel with the Gut of Canso from north 
to south. These hills decline gently to the west, and from Port 
Hood to Bear Island, at the southern end of the Gut, form a low 
shore, which seems to suffer less than might be expected from the 

* The memoir, by the same author, accompanied by a map, and published 
under this title in the previous pages of this volume (see ante, p. 23. ), was chiefly 
intended to have reference to Mr. Lyell's observations concerning the age of the 
gypsum in Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. — Ed. 


action of a tide running, in many places, at the rate of from 6 to 
8 miles per hour. In the northern part of the Gut, the strong 
eddies have deposited long narrow beaches of coarse gravel, ponds 
or lagoons lying between them and the shore, which is thus pro- 
tected from further abrasion ; whilst to the southward, where the 
strait is narrower and the tides are more rapid, the position of the 
strata, consisting of strong compact shales and hard sandstones, 
has contributed greatly to their preservation, the strike being E. 
and W., or directly across the course of the current. 

Proceeding along the southern shore, from the Gut of Canso to 
Scatari Island, the coast is low and rocky, occasionally exhibiting 
sloping banks of clay and gravel, until we arrive at Louisbourg, 
where the rugged cliffs, composed of greenstone and metamorphic 
rocks, defy alike the abrading action of the waves of the Atlantic 
and the atmospheric influences of a climate subject to great and 
rapid changes. There is very little land fit for cultivation along 
this part of the coast for several miles inland ; but superior soils 
are found in the interior, especially on the Miray and Grand 

From Scatari to Cape Dauphin, the shore presents a continuous 
mural cliff, varying from 20 to 100 feet in height, except at the 
heads of the several bays, where low sandy beaches are invariably 
met with. This cliff, composed of the sandstones and soft shales 
of the coal formation, is subject to great waste, the rapid encroach- 
ments of the sea being noticed by the most careless observers. 
There can be no question but that Flint Island and the northern 
head of Cow Bay, now separated by a channel two miles in width, 
were, at no very distant period, united. The land along this part 
of the coast is generally low, but undulating, until we arrive at 
the Granite Ridge, lying between St. Ann's harbour and the ship 
entrance of the Bras-d'or Lakes, which ridge terminates at Cape 

Having thus sketched the appearance of the sea coast of the 
island, let us next turn our attention to the interior. In the 
very heart of the island, there exist two capacious salt-water 
lakes, with innumerable bays, creeks, and islands, each of them 
communicating with the sea by two channels, one of which is 
navigable for ships of the largest class. The Grand Lake is 40 
miles in length and 20 in width, from the narrows to St. Peter's 
Channel. In sailing; from the West towards the East Bay, we have 
a water horizon before us, although the land at the head of the 
latter bay is by no means low. The scenery of the lakes is exceed- 
ingly striking, the conglomerates constituting long ranges of undu- 
lating blue hills, rising behind one another in the distance ; whilst 
the white cliffs of gypsum stand out in bold relief on the margin 
of the water. The shores of the lakes are thickly studded with 
the cottages of thriving settlers, and a narrow belt of cultivated 
land stretches along the water's edge, backed by the dark shades 
of the forest. All the numerous creeks and channels are navigable 
by large vessels ; and some idea may be formed of the extent of 


these lakes from the fact, that there is no point in the island more 
than twelve miles distant from salt water. 

The rivers of Cape Breton, as may be supposed from an inspec- 
tion of a map of the island, are inconsiderable. The principal 
are Miray, Margarie, Mabou, Inhabitants, and Grand rivers, dis- 
charging into the sea ; and Baddeck, Wagamatcook, and Denny 
rivers, discharging into the Bras d'Or Lakes. Valuable tracts of 
alluvial land occur on the banks of all these rivers ; and in beds 
of this kind on the Baddeck, a tooth and thigh bone of some large 
animal were found some years ago and sent to England. From 
the description given to me, I conclude that they belonged to the 
mastodon. They were found in the bed of the stream after a 
heavy flood, having probably been washed out of the alluvium 
which formed the banks of the river. 

The bays and harbours of Cape Breton are numerous : many of 
the latter being surpassed by none on the whole coast of America 
in natural advantages. The principal are St. Ann's, the Great 
Bras d'Or Entrance, Sydney, Mainadieu, Louisbourg, Arichat, Ship 
Harbour, and Port Hood. Of these, Sydney is undoubtedly the 
best ; and from its situation, in the very heart of the great coal 
field, is the most important. It is easy of access ; free from rocks 
and shoals, and very capacious. After passing through the chan- 
nel between the beaches (which is one mile wide, and 9 fathoms 
deep), it separates into two arms or branches, each of which is 
five miles in length, and averages one mile in width. 

The coal formation is probably the most recent stratified group 
in the island ; and it is certainly the most important, as it furnishes 
Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward's Island, and the 
United States with an abundant supply of coal, equal in quality 
to the best of that found in the Newcastle district. The coal field 
of Sydney, situated on the N.E. coast of the island, is the only one 
that has been sufficiently explored to determine its limits, and it 
extends from Miray Bay to Cape Dauphin, averaging about seven 
miles in width, and occupying an area of 250 square miles. As 
the general dip of the strata is north-east, or seaward, this great 
area of coal measures is probably the segment only of an immense 
basin extending towards the coast of Newfoundland — a suppo- 
sition which is confirmed by the existence of coal measures at 
Niel's Harbour, 30 miles north of Cape Dauphin. The precipitous 
cliffs afford admirable opportunities for obtaining sections, but 
owing to numerous faults existing between Miray Bay and Low 
Point, the exact relations of the several seams cannot be ascer- 
tained so satisfactorily as in the district west of Sydney Harbour, 
which is free from any serious fault. The coal measures consist 
of beds of sandstone and shale, alternating with valuable seams of 
coal. In the natural section exhibited in the cliff" stretching from 
Point Aconi to the commencement of the great sandstone or mill- 
stone grit, on the N.W. shore of Boulardrie Island, we have a 
horizontal distance of six miles, measured on the direct dip and rise 
of the strata, without a single fault or break ; which, taking the 



average inclination at 10°, gives a perpendicular thickness exceed- 
ing 5400 feet. In this thickness are contained four seams of 
workable coal, ranging from 4 to 7 feet each, and several small 
seams of less than 2 feet. It may be satisfactory to the advocates 
of Mr. Logan's theory of the formation of coal, to learn that all 
the seams above mentioned, and in fact every one that I. have 
examined in other parts of this coal-field, rest upon fire-clay floors, 
containing leaves of Stigmaria. Vegetable remains, the same that 
are usually found in the coal fields of Great Britain, are also met 
with in great abundance ; and occasionally trunks of trees, from one 
to two feet *in diameter, are found both in vertical and in horizontal 
positions. Besides these, I have recently discovered fishes' scales, 
with teeth, fins, bones, and coprolites in a bed of bituminous shale, 
and in a thin seam of impure cannel coal. 

The great sandstone or millstone grit upon which the coal mea- 
sures repose may be traced along the southern border of the coal 
field of Sydney ; but its thickness is variable, for it is compressed 
within very narrow limits at the western end, where the granitic 
ridge of Cape Dauphin rises abruptly behind the carboniferous 
limestone. The belt of limestone and gypsum which crosses Bou- 
lardrie Island about two miles to the S.W. of the crop of the coal 
measures, has apparently been brought up to the surface by a 
fault, since the same beds of limestone show themselves occa- 
sionally, cropping out from under the millstone grit, on both shores 
of Boulardrie to its S.W. extremity, as is represented in the follow- 

ing section : — 

Section of the South-eastern Shore of Boulardrie Island, 26 miles 
S.W. d 

Island Point § 

N. E. 
Pt. Aconi. 

6. Coal measures. 3. Limestone. 

5. Millstone grit. 2. Limestone, gypsum, and shales. 

4. Limestone, gypsum, and marls. 1. Limestone and shales. 

On the eastern shore of the Little Bras d'Or Lake, we have a good 
section of the millstone grit, from the crop of the coal measures to 
the mountain limestone at George's River, 2000 feet in thickness. 
The sandstones are generally coarse and pebbly ; but some of the 
beds are compact and fine-grained, affording excellent building 
stone ; false bedding is of frequent occurrence. A few beds of 
shale are interstratified with the sandstones ; vegetable remains, 
such as Calamites and Lepidodendron, are abundant ; and occa- 
sionally small patches of lignite are seen. The millstone grit pre- 
serves the same characteristics from hence to Miray Bay, where it 
comes into contact with a coarse conglomerate, and is thrown into 
a vertical position. One solitary Lepidostrobus was here found in 
the sandstone, being the only one yet met with in the island. 



An extensive tract of millstone grit, with red shales and some 
thin limestones, commencing at Soldier's Cove, on the lake shore, 
seven miles to the eastward of St. Peter's, continues to the Gut of 
Canso ; but I have not had an opportunity of tracing the northern 
boundary of these, except at the head of the West Bay, where 
limestone and gypsum show themselves. A few thin seams of 
coal, of no practical value, have been found in this tract ; viz. at 
St. Peter's ; at the mouth of the River " Inhabitants ; " and at 
Carabacoo Cove, near Bear Island. It has not been ascertained 
how far the millstone grit extends up the valley of the River 
" Inhabitants ; " but workable seams of coal are said to occur 
twelve miles above its mouth. A mass of trap protrudes through 
the grits and shales on the narrow isthmus which separates St. 
Peter's Bay from the lake, and there forms a conical hill, called 
Mount Granville, 600 feet in height. On its eastern declivity, beds 
of a coarse limestone are seen nearly on edge, but quite destitute 
of fossils. This trap is soft and crumbling, of a mixed green and 
white colour, and it resembles in every respect the mass of the 
same rock which bursts through the New Red Sandstone of Truro, 
in Nova Scotia. 

On the western shore of Cape Breton, the millstone grit com- 
mences at the northern end of the Gut of Canso, and it underlies 
the coal measures which extend in a narrow belt from Port Hood 
to Chimney Corner, near Margarie. I have not visited this part 
of the island ; but am credibly informed that valuable seams of 
coal exist at both extremities of this coal field. 

One of the most characteristic features of the Cape Breton, as 
well as of the Nova Scotia coal field, is the constant association 
of extensive beds of gypsum and marls with the carboniferous 
limestone. These gypsiferous strata are nowhere more fully de- 
veloped than in the Bras d'Or Lakes, where, most fortunately, the 
numerous creeks and inlets which ramify in all directions expose 
sections on their shores ; and from these, at a future time, I trust 
I shall be able to collect a body of facts, that will clear up any 
doubts that may yet remain concerning the relative age and posi- 
tion of the gypsum and coal measures. In the vicinity of Sydney, 
gypsum appears at the head of the East Bay, and again, crossing 
the Boulardrie Island, following the course of the fault, as is shewn 
in the above section. Beyond this fault, the limestones, with the 
overlying sandstones, stretch out horizontally to the head of Bou- 
lardrie Island, the gypsum showing itself only at two places, viz. 
at Island Point and Big Harbour. The following is a section 
from Island Point to Baddeck : — 

W. Salt Springs. Baddeck Harbour. 

Red Head. 

Ship Entrance. Boulardrie Island 

4. Millstone grit. 

3. Limestone and shales.] 

2. Gypsum and marls. 

1. Coarse red conglomerate. 

p 2 


From this section, I think it is quite clear that the limestone and 
gypsum, dipping under the millstone grit of Boulardrie, emerge 
again, the former on the east, and the latter on the west side of 
the ship entrance, where we find this rock resting upon the con- 
glomerate of Red Head. Crossing the promontory of Red Head, 
the gypsum is again seen on the east side of Baddeck Harbour, 
dipping apparently under the sandstone beds on the opposite shore. 
Further up the lakes, especially on the peninsula formed by 
Patrick's Channel and the river Denny, the gypsiferous strata 
spread out in every direction, sweeping round the bases of the 
lofty hills of the conglomerate, which constitute such prominent 
objects in the scenery of the lakes. These hills rise to the height 
of 400 or 500 feet, the strata of conglomerate being highly in- 
clined, whilst the limestone and gypsum which occupy the lower 
ground, rarely rise 100 feet above the level of the lakes. 

Salt springs are frequent in the gypsum districts ; but the 
brine is generally weak, seldom yielding more than 7 per cent, 
of salt. Gypsum is also found on the shores of Aspey Bay, in 
the neighbourhood of igneous rocks, on the shores of St. Ann's 
Harbour, on the south side of Lennox's Passage, and at Plaister 
Cove in the Gut of Canso. 

Underlying the gypsum and shales of the last -mentioned locality, 
we find an extensive belt of coarse conglomerate, which probably 
crosses the river "Inhabitants," and unites with the conglomerates 
of the river Denny and Ogomah Basin. In the opposite direction, 
it crosses the Gut of Canso, being separated from the igneous 
rocks of Cape Porcupine by a series of altered shales and grits 
of the greywacke formation ; and it continues thence to the head 
of Chedabucto Bay. 

Between Miray Bay and Louisbourg, the country is chiefly 
occupied by strata of fine-grained conglomerates, passing down- 
wards into slates, and upwards, near their junction with the car- 
boniferous limestone, into compact brown sandstones and hard red 
shales, analogous to the greywacke system of Europe. From 
Scatari Island towards Gabarus Bay, these rocks occasionally as- 
sume a crystalline texture, owing apparently to the presence of 
long ridges of greenstone trap interposed between the strata, which 
are generally vertical, or nearly so. 

These parallel ridges of greenstone rise sometimes to a height 
of 20 to 30 feet above the general surface, and are frequently not 
more than 100 yards distant from one another ; although it must 
be observed, that large areas of altered strata are met with where 
none of these trap rocks are visible on the surface. On the south 
shore of the Little Bras d'Or, similar strata of greywacke with 
altered rocks are also met with ; but in this instance, the red 
granite which breaks through the limestone at George's River 
has changed the red shales and sandstones of the upper part of 
the greywacke series, and at the same time converted the limestone 
into white marble ; the following is a section of the strata : — 



N. E. 


S. \V. 

8. Coal measures. 

7. Millstone grit. 

6. Mountain limestone. 

5. White marble. 

4. Conglomerates. 

3. Greywacke slates. 

2. Altered shales. 

1. Small-grained red granite. 

(Distance'8 miles.) 

At Brack's Brook, we find the greywacke slates resting upon 
granite and porphyry, and extending to Soldier's Cove, where they 
meet the red shales and sandstones of the millstone grit series. 
Several small troughs of an apparently recent limestone may be 
here observed, lying unconformably upon the greywacke. 

The conglomerate of Isle Madame seems to pass insensibly into 
a fine-grained greywacke slate, on the south side of that island. 

Rocks of igneous origin occupy a very large proportion of the 
island of Cape Breton ; and the Jofty table-land in the northern 
part of the island is supposed to consist almost wholly of primary 
rocks. The high and narrow ridge lying between St. Ann's 
Harbour and the ship entrance of the Lake, consists of fine-grained 
red granite and syenite ; and at George's River, a similar granite 
protrudes through the limestone and greywacke as before-men- 
tioned. On the south shore of East Bay, granites and porphyries of 
various composition extend from Brack's Brook to the outcrop of 
the mountain limestone, a distance of ten miles, forming barren 
naked peaks, in some instances 800 feet in height. We find 
also here a beautiful porphyry, having a dark-green base, with 
large whitish crystals of felspar. The small island of St. Paul's, 
which lies about twelve miles east of Cape North, in the direct 
track of vessels bound up the St. Lawrence, and which has proved 
fatal to many a noble ship, consists of mica slate, gneiss, and gra- 
nitic rocks, apparently stratified in thin beds, with an E. and W. 
strike, and nearly on their edges. 

To show the connection of the strata of Cape Breton with those 
of Nova Scotia, I have continued the section across the Gut of 
Canso to the shales and sandstones of Merigomish. It will be 
seen that the conglomerates on the Nova Scotia shore, which suc- 
ceed the greywacke and igneous rocks of Cape Porcupine, dip 
under the sandstones and shales of Tracadie (including some 
trifling seams of coal at Pornket), and emerge to the westward 
from beneath the gypsiferous strata of Antigonish, reposing upon 
and passing into the greywacke rocks of Antigonish mountain. 
The conglomerate ags^ft sets in on the western flank of Antigonish 
mountain, and is follow**! by the sandstones and shales of Meri- 
gomish and Pictou. 

T 3 


Mat 29, 1844. 

W. M. Hen. Browne, Esq., of King Street, Covent Garden, and 
Geo. Loch, Esq., of Albemarle Street, were elected Fellows of this 

A communication was read by Professor Sedgwick, being in 
continuation of his Memoir " On the Geology of North Wales," 
read on the 29th Nov. 1843.* The notice of this paper is post- 
poned for the present. 

June 12, 1844. 

R. T. Atkinson, Esq., of Newcastle-on-Tyne, was elected a 
1? ellow of this Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On Fluorine in Bones, its source, and its application to the 
determination of the geological age of Fossil Bones. By J. 
Mlddleton, Esq. F.G.S., late Principal of the College at Agra. 

The accumulation of fluoride of calcium in fossil bones constitutes 
a very interesting and important subject of inquiry in reference 
to Geology, since it seems to involve the element of time, so in- 
teresting in all geological investigations. It was with a feeling of 
this importance that I some time ago commenced a series of in- 
vestigations, which are not yet completed, in order to ascertain 
the proportion of fluoride of calcium in bones that had been pre- 
served for various periods, with a view to infer, if possible, from 
the mineral condition, the relative ages of the specimens. 

The bones hitherto examined by me with this view consisted of 
some from the Sewalik Hills furnished to me by my friend 
Dr. Falconer, and some, for the permission to examine which I 
am indebted to the authorities of University College, London, in 
the chemical laboratory of which institution my investigations have 
been conducted. Among these last were the bones of a Greek, who 
had lived, it is supposed, about the time of the second Peloponne- 
sian war (a coin of that period being found under the jaw of the 
skeleton), and a part of an Egyptian mummy in a remarkably per- 
fect state of preservation. The Sewalik fossils were of the soft 
kind *|", those embedded in the clay in that locality, as they seemed 
better suited for comparison with bones of recent and known age 
and with those of early tertiary periods. 

On examining these bones, I found that those from India con- 

* See ante, p. 5. 

t So named, I believe, by the gentlemen who found them, to distinguish 
them from those largely penetrated by oxide of iron or silica. 


tained all of them nearly the same proportion of fluoride of cal- 
cium, viz. 11 per cent,, while in the bones of the Greek the 
proportion was only a little more than 5 per cent., and in the 
mummy about 2 per cent. The difference in the two latter is 
accounted for, it would seem, by the circumstances of deposition, 
this being sufficiently evident from the appearance of the speci- 
mens ; since the bone of the Greek has assumed a soft powdery 
character, tinged with peroxide of iron, the result of exposure to 
atmospheric and other influences, while that of the Egyptian ex- 
hibited all the structure of recent bone, having been preserved in 
a sarcophagus, and scarcely changed from its normal state. 

From these results, and from having ascertained the presence 
of fluorine in the recent bones both of men and reptiles, I 
was led to suppose that the presence of fluorine must be due to 
some general condition, the same in ancient times as at present, 
for I could not believe that in this matter there could be any 
alteration in the laws of organic life, implying different propor- 
tions of the mineral at different periods. I was thus led to suspect 
that water might be the agent producing this apparent change ; 
and this seemed to me to offer a ready solution of the whole 
problem. That there is a great tendency in fluoride of calcium 
to unite itself to phosphate of lime, is evident from the almost uni- 
versal association of the two in nature ; and thus, if the moisture 
constantly present at the earth's surface should contain the mineral 
in question, the bones might absorb it by simple exposure ; a 
larger proportion being obtained, according as the bones had been 
longer exposed to its influence. Bearing this in mind, I was led 
to institute a series of experiments on aqueous deposits of dif- 
ferent ages, and I found that, with one exception, — a pure but 
incompact stalactite of carbonate of lime, — fluorine exists in all, 
from the most recent deposit down to the old red sandstone, and 
that it is present in the older in larger proportion than in the 
newer beds. I think it is therefore beyond a doubt that it is pre- 
sent in water, though perhaps in very minute quantity ; what its 
solvent may be I know not, but that it is so held in solution my 
own experiments have demonstrated ; and if they had not, the 
simple fact that the blood conveys it to the bones, would, I appre- 
hend, sufficiently refute any scepticism on the subject.* 

It now remains for me to show, that the relative geological age 
of rocks may be estimated by the proportion of fluoride of cal- 
cium which they contain ; and for this purpose I append the 
following results of my analyses in the cases of recent bone, the 
bone of a Greek already alluded to, a fossil bone from the Sewalik 

* Note by the President. " I am informed by Professor Graham, that he is well 
acquainted with these researches of Mr. Middleton ; that, previous to his return 
to India, Mr. Middleton ascertained the presence of fluoride of calcium in the 
deposit obtained by boiling the ordinary pipe- water supplied to the houses in 
London ; and that there is reason to believe, from this and other observations, 
that the fluoride of calcium is held in solution by the carbonic acid usually 
present in water." — L. H., April 7. 1845. 

p 4 



Hills, and a bone of the Anoplotherium ; the latter being given by 
Lassaigne : — 

Organic matter 


Bone of 
the Greek. 

Fossil Rumi- 
nant, from the 
Sewalik Hills. 

Bone of the 




Phosphate of lime 





Carbonate of lime 



1 1 -34 

Fluoride of calcium 





Chloride of sodium - 


| 1-15 

Soda - 


1 . 

Magnesia - 


} 1-34 

>-a trace 

Phosphate of magnesia 


Silica -.'--- 





Peroxide of iron 

about -25 

Alumina - 

. — 




Oxide of iron & manganese 


In comparing together the quantities of fluoride of calcium in 
bones of different periods, we should be guided, I apprehend, by 
the proportion it bears, in each specimen, to the fixed basis of the 
bone, phosphate of lime, a substance which seems but little liable 
to variation in amount. The comparisons stand thus : — 

Phosphate of Lime. 
Recent bone - - 52-11 - 

The Greek's bone - - 70 -01 - 

The Sewalik fossil bone - 78-00 - 
The Anoplotherium bone - 37*00 - 

Fluoride of Calcium. 

- 10-65 

- 15-00 

When the animal matter, entirely obliterated in the fossil bones, 
has been suppressed in the recent bones, we have — : 

Phosphate of Lime. 
Recent bone - - 77*84 - 

The Greek's bone - - 78-55 - 

The Sewalik fossil bone - 78-00 - 
The Anoplotherium bone - 37 -00 -■ 

Fluoride of Calcium. 

- 2-97 

- 10-65 

- 15-00 

If now, for convenience of computation, we represent the phos- 
phate in each case by 100, we obtain the following ratios of the 
fluoride : — 

Recent bone - - 3*81 

The Greek's bone - - 7*15 

The Sewalik fossil bone - 13*01 

The Anoplotherium bone - 40*54 

Now, as the age of the Greek's bone is known to be 2000 years, 
we obtain, if my hypothesis be just, the following values, in time, of 
the above rations of the fossil bones : viz. the Sewalik fossil, 7700 
years ; the Anoplotherium, 24,200 years. 


2. Notice of the Raised Beaches on the Western Coast of 
Ross-shire. By J. Gr. Jeffreys, Esq. 

( Communicated by the Rev. Professor Buckland, D. D.) 

About two miles above Craig Inn, and eleven from the present 
termination of Loch. Carron, there is a level platform extending 
for some distance in a parallel line with the valley up which the 
loch at present flows, elevated about 50 feet above the present 
sea level, and sloping at an angle of 45°, and its breadth seems the 
same as that of the present beach at its foot. Sixteen miles from 
the termination of the loch is a similar platform with the same 
direction and slope, but apparently at a higher level ; and on the 
opposite side of the loch (which is about half a mile wide in that 
part) is a corresponding platform, similar in every respect to the 
other. This is outside the loch, about a mile below Strome ferry, 
which forms the entrance to it. Some miles further down the 
main channel of the sea, at a place called Plockton, the same 
appearances present themselves ; and here the elevation is about 
60 feet above high-water mark. 

On examining this latter platform, I found underneath the super- 
ficial stratum of earth a bed of coral and shells two or three feet 
thick, and precisely similar to the beds which, as I ascertained by 
dredging, exist in the adjoining sea. The depth of the sea varied 
from three to upwards of a hundred fathoms. 

At Applecross similar indications of a former beach are to be 
found, and also at Shieldaig near the mouth of Loch Torridon, and 
at Gairloch, on the same coast. In the former locality (Applecross), 
the platform or bank appeared to be almost entirely composed of 
coral and shells. In the neighbouring sea prodigious quantities of 
testaceous and calcareous mud appear to be accumulating. 

I would further remark that the platforms in question do not 
appear to have been formed by drift, or by the ordinary action of 
the winds and waves, because their base is beyond the reach of any 
tide, and at the mouth of Loch Carron they are situated on both 
sides of the channel, and are consequently exposed to different 
winds and currents of the sea. The whole appearance seems re- 
ferable to a sudden elevation of the land by means of some sub- 
terranean convulsion. 

It is worthy of remark, that on the eastern coast of Scotland, 
particularly on the Moray Frith, trunks of trees are found em- 
bedded in the sands at low water, thus showing a subsidence or 
depression of the land on that side. 


3. On the Cliffs of Northern Drift on the Coast of Norfolk, 
between Weybourne and Happisburgh. By Joshua Trimmer, 
Esq. F.G.S. 

In this paper the author proposes to describe certain changes that 
have taken place in these cliffs, comparing the appearances they 
present with those of raised beaches in North Wales. 

With regard to the former subject, he notices first, the condition 
of a pinnacle of chalk at Old Hythe Point. The cavity at the 
summit of this pinnacle is now exposed to a greater depth than in 
Mr.Lyell's drawing*, and the sand and gravel with which it was 
filled are removed. No vertical strata of sand to the N.E. of the 
pinnacle are now visible, and these must have been removed by 
denudation. Mr. Lyell's statement that this pinnacle is separated 
from the great mass of the chalk by the crag deposits, is, in the 
opinion of the author, confirmed by the position in which the 
chalk rests. 

Of the protuberances of chalk near Trimmingham, the northern 
and middle seem now little changed, but the southernmost has 
undergone some alteration. Its length is still the same as when 
visited by Mr. Lyell, but it is reduced to nearly half its height, 
and the waves have washed away a portion of the overlying gravel 
at one extremity. The next fall of the cliff will probably bury 
this end of the protuberance entirely. The chalk inland seems 
tilted, and is covered with a breccia of the crag. 

About a quarter of a mile east of Cromer, the author met with 
a bed of peat, resting on pyritous silt and gravel, and resembling a 
peat bed at Mundesly, and the stem of a small fir tree was here 
observed in a vertical position. Between Mundesly and Trim- 
mingham he observed other instances of peaty beds associated 
with the same kind of gravel, and he endeavoured to determine 
whether the till and the freshwater deposits were contemporaneous. 
This he decided in the afiirmative, at least for the upper portion 
of the freshwater beds, since at Cromer he found, at the height of 
20 feet from the beach (about 300 yards west of the jetty,) several 
bands of black peaty mud, a few inches thick, alternating with 
laminated blue clay, derived from an adjoining mass of the un- 
stratified till, which elsewhere overlies the freshwater beds. 

At Runton, near the Gap, the freshwater beds are covered by a 
regular marine deposit of the crag. A black peaty bed, about 4 
feet thick, containing shells of Cyclas, Planorbis, Helix, and frag- 
ments of Anodon, together with some vegetable remains, rests on 
a ferruginous sand, containing Anodon. The peat is covered by a 
bed of gravel about a foot thick, containing Fusus striatus, Tellina 
obliqua, Mya arenaria, and Natica helicoides, and some of the 
shells of Mya exhibit the valves united, but they are too fragile to 

* See Phil. Mag., May, 1840. 


be readily extracted. There is here no mixture of fluviatile and 
marine remains, so that this instance offers evidence of submer- 
gence and subsequent elevation. The marine gravel is covered 
by laminated blue clay, derived from adjoining till, and it passes 
upwards into yellow silt and sand, the lamination of which is 
much contorted. 

Till. The unstratified blue clay on the Norfolk coast alluded 
to under this name, resembles, in colour and composition, that 
which is found on the coast of North Wales and the east of Ire- 
land, differing only from these deposits in the nature of the im- 
bedded fragments. These seem to have been all of them trans- 
ported from the north, and they are heaped in irregular hummocks, 
the height of the cliffs depending on the amount of this material. 
The till does not seem to pass by any gradation from the fresh- 
water deposits, nor is the surface of the latter disturbed at the 
contact as if the sea-bottom had been ploughed up by the passage 
of icebergs. The contorted strata (accurately described by ~Mi\ 
Lyell) are always either above or between the masses of till. 

The transported blocks dispersed through the till consist of 
granite, gneiss, mica-slate, and trappean rocks, often in an angular 
state, and not rubbed. Some fragments, however, show scratches 
and other markings like those attributed to the grinding of a 
glacier, and the author states that he had already observed scratches 
on boulders in Caernarvonshire, and alluded to them as charac- 
teristic of the epoch, before such markings were attributed to the 
action of ice. 

Notwithstanding the distance which separates the till of the 
coast of Norfolk from that of North Wales and Ireland, the author 
recognises a common character pervading the whole, which he attri- 
butes to their having had a common origin, being derived from the 
north, and he considers that the cause of the deposit of this 
boulder clay covered with sands, loam, &c. of a yellow colour, 
seems to have acted but once, the same appearances not recurring. 
There is still, however, one striking difference observable in the 
two localities, since the Norfolk beds are much contorted, while 
this is not the case in North Wales. These contortions are referred 
by the author to the movements connected with the final upheaval 
of the coast ; but since, where the contortions are most violent, 
the underlying chalk is undisturbed, as between Sherringham and 
Weybourne, he supposes that the till has exercised some influence 
in producing these singular appearances. 

The author observes, in conclusion, that these deposits on the 
cliffs produced by the northern drift, ought to be carefully dis- 
tinguished from ordinary raised beaches, the phenomenon in the 
former case having been produced by the submergence and subse- 
quent elevation of land which had been long existing in that state. 
He does not pretend to decide the extent of the submergence. 


June 26, 1844. 

John Shaw, Esq., M.D., of Hop House, Boston, Lincolnshire, 
was elected a Fellow of this Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On the Stonesfield Slate of the Cotteswold Hills. By 
the Rev. P. B. Brodie, M. A., F. G-. S., and James Buckman, 
Esq., F.G.S. 

The district alluded to in this memoir is situated to the east of 
Cheltenham, and includes the Cotteswold Hills, which divide the 
county of Gloucester from parts of the neighbouring counties of 
Oxford, Worcester, and Warwick.* 

The formations occurring in this district are the following : — 

f 7. Clays representing the Bradford clay, or those dividing 
Great Oolite - < the beds of the great oolite in Wiltshire. 

[_ 6. Stonesfield Slate and ragstone. 
5. Fullers' earth. 
4. Inferior oolite. 
Upper lias shale. 
Lias - ■{ 2. Marlstone. 

Upper shales of the lower lias. 

Inferior Oolite 


1. Upper Shales of the Lower Lias. These consist of blue 
argillaceous deposits, sometimes, especially towards the top, inter- 
mixed with clays of an ochreous yellow colour. The following are 
amongst the most characteristic fossils : — 

Belemnites elongatus Pinna lanceolata 

Ammonites Henleyi Lima antiquata 

Crenatula ventricosa Area Buckmanni 

Cardinia (Pachyodon) attenuata Terebratula rimosa 

Modiola cuneata Trochus imbricatus 

And some un described species of Gervillia, Area, and Spirifer. The beds 
below the above present the usual lower lias fossils. 

2. Marlstone. A hard sandy stone, blue when first quarried, 
but weathering of a brown colour. It forms the terraces seen on 
the first ascent to the Cotteswold Hills. These terraces, however, 
being covered with grass, the rock is best studied in outliers, 
such as are found at Churchdown, Dumbleton, &c, where the 
stone is quarried for road-making. The following fossils are 
peculiar to the marlstone in this neighbourhood : — 

* See a paper " On the Structure of the Cotteswold Hills, and Country 
around Cheltenham," by Roderick I. Murchison, Esq., read the 14th March, 
1832, and published in the Proceedings of the Geological Society, vol. i. p. 388. 
It was afterwards printed as a separate tract. 

See also a " Report of a Survey of the Oolitic Formations of Gloucestershire," 
by William Lonsdale, Esq., read the 19th of December, 1832, and abridged in 
the same volume, p. 413. 


Ammonites heterophyllus Pinna afiinis 

spinatus Spirifer (two new species) 

Stokesi Terebratula tetraedra 

Gryphasa gigantea acuta 

Pecten asquivalvis • bidens 

Cardium truncatum 

3. Upper Lias Shale. A blue argillaceous deposit containing 
septaria. It is recognised on the hills by exhibiting a line of 
drainage ; and is traversed by a thin seam of fissile limestone, 
containing remains of fishes, insects, and shells described lately 
by one of the authors. The following are the prevailing fossils : — 

Ammonites Strangewaysi Inoceramus dubius 

Walcotti Plicatula spinosa 

annulatus Nucula claviformis. 

4. Inferior Oolite. The lowest bed of the inferior oolite in 
this district is a pisolitic rock, composed of rounded or flattened 
grains about the size of peas, cemented by a calcareous paste, and 
containing fragments of Pentacrinites, &c. Cidaris subangularis 
and C. coronata, Pecten lens and Avicula contorta, are the chief 
fossils of this bed. 

A roestone of a yellowish- white colour succeeds this pisolite, 
and it is found to exhibit numerous small shells on careful exami- 
nation under the microscope. The average thickness of this bed 
is J 5 feet ; and the following fossils are found in it, besides the 
microscopic ones : — Cardita similis, Plagiostoma duplicatum, a 
JVucula, a Cucullcea (M. C. t. 549. fig. 3.), Patella rugosa, and 
P. nana. 

Overlying the roestone is a thick bed of white freestone worked 
in large blocks. This rock is about 25 feet thick, and is a fine- 
grained oolite intermixed with comminuted fragments of shells. 
It is overlaid by about 10 feet of oolite marl, resembling chalk, 
and having an uneven fracture. At Leckhampton and other 
places it abounds with fossil shells ; but at Crickley and Birdlip, 
to the S. W. of the Cotteswold, it puts on the character of a coral- 
line rock. The following list of fossils includes those most 
characteristic : — 

Astrasa agaricites Astarte elegans 

Madrepora limbata Pinna tetragona 

Agaricia lobata Terebratula fimbria 

Meandrina explanata ? Natica macrostoma 
Tubipora ? hemispherica 

Plagiostoma laeviusculum Nerinasa fasciata 

A G-ryphite grit, a rough kind of stone, separated from the 
oolite marl by about 4 feet of flaggy oolite, next succeeds. It 
abounds with the shells of Gryphcea dilatata in its lower part, 
and the overlying beds of marl and compact stone are partly com- 
posed of immense masses of Trigonia costata and T. clavellata. 
Besides these the rock contains the following species : — 



Trigonia striata 
Mactra gibbosa 
Ampbidesma securiforme 
Pholadomya ambigua 

Modiola (four species) 
Cucullaea oblonga 
Perna mytiloides 
Pecten vimineus 
Terebratula perovalis 

Terebratula concinna 
and six others 
Cirrus carinatus 
Melania striata 
Nautilus truncatus 
Ammonites Parkinsoni 

These beds are capped with a band of sand and clay containing 
nodular masses of oolitic stone, and a great number of Clypeus 

5. Fuller's earth. This is a yellow argillaceous deposit, which 
seems to be about 10 feet thick, but it presents few points of 
interest. Its outcrop is marked by a line of springs. 

6. Stonesfield slate. This is the bed which it is the object of 
the present memoir chiefly to describe.* 

Section. No. 1. 

6. Lower lias shales. 

5. Lias marlstone. 

4. Upper lias shales. 

3. Inferior oolite. 

2a. Fuller's earth. 

2. Stonesfield slate and ragstone. 

1. Beds of clay. 

The first quarries of this flagstone described are situated on the 
top of a hill at Sevenhampton common, and the rock is generally 
very rich in organic remains. There are here three quarries at 
which the slate is worked, within the distance of half a mile from 
one another. One of them exhibits about 15 feet of coarse fissile 
ragstone, containing fossil remains of fishes and some shells, and 
passing downwards into the true Stonesfield slate. In another 
this ragstone, of about the same thickness, is occasionally inter- 
mixed with slabs of hard slate having blue centres, and there is 
then about 4 feet of true fissile Stonesfield slate, the upper slabs 
of which are used for tiling ; but the lower part is sandy. 

* The authors consider that the beds so called were only partially known to 
Mr. Murchison, and they disagree with some of Mr. Lonsdale's conclusions. 


Numerous fossils have been obtained from this quarry, and the 
most perfect remains of plants have been found. These, as far as 
can be ascertained at present, consist of Coniferce (two species, one 
of which greatly resembles the Thenytes, if it be not a new spe- 
cies); PalmcB ; Cicadece; Liliacece; and two species of ferns; besides 
leaves of plants of too anomalous a kind to be determined. Stems 
of trees, much broken, occur in considerable quantity. Silicified 
wood of a coniferous tree has also been obtained from the above 
quarry. The third quarry exhibits little difference, except in the 
better marked subdivisions of the overlying beds, but the wing 
cases of beetles, and sauroid and fishes' teeth, are more frequent. 

The next place at which the Stonesfield slate is worked seems 
to have been laid bare by a fault. It is about half a mile from 
Brockhampton Hill (see section above), and appears in a valley 
surrounded on all sides by hills which are capped with inferior 
beds. From this spot the beds of Stonesfield slate run in a N.W. 
direction ; and at Kyneton Thorns and Eyeford are many quarries 
from which the slates are extracted for roofing.* The following 
is the sequence exhibited at one of the best quarries : — 

3. Rubble and superficial detritus - - - - 3 to 4 feet. 

2. Ragstone, not very fissile - - - - - -13 „ 

1. Stonesfield slate, a compact sandy stone, very fissile, especially after"! 

exposure to frost - - - - J " 

A new species of Asterias, and a species, also new, of Pollicipes, 
were found beautifully preserved in the quarries at Eyeford. 
Belemnites canaliculatus and B. fleuriansus, some remains of 
plants, the teeth and palates of fishes, and a tooth of Megalosaurus, 
have all been obtained from this locality. 

Section. No. 2. 

N.W. S.E. 

(For a description of the strata, see Section No. 1.) 

The eastern edge of the Stonesfield slate of the Cottes wolds ex- 
hibits the ragstone much thicker, and of a coarser kind. The 
quarry at Upper Swill, near Stow on the Wold, seems to show 

* From one quarry alone 120,000 roofing slates are obtained in the course of 
a season. The work is thus conducted : — At the latter end of the year a 
quantity of stone is raised from the quarry, and spread over the surface of the 
ground. Being thus exposed, it loses the bluish tint presented when first quar- 
ried, and becomes light-coloured ; this change, the result of weathering, ren- 
dering the slate more readily separable into tiles. The best tiles are said to be 
made from the middle of the beds. 


marks of the fault already alluded to. From this quarry large 
reptilian bones and fishes' teeth have been obtained, and other 
fossils, such as Clypeus sinuatus, Plagiostoma cardiforme, Pecten 
vagans, Ostrea acuminata, a JVerita, and other shells. Not far 
from this, at a place called Wagboro' Bush, is a quarry not now 
worked, but the fossils from which are considered by the authors 
to identify the rock with the well-known beds at Ancliffe. These 
fossils are JVerita spirata, JV. minuta, Actceon cuspidatus, Nucula 
mucronata, a Corbula, and a Cerithium. 

The district described in the preceding account of strata has 
been subject to disturbances, the result of which has been the 
production of several lines of faults. One of these is represented 
in the preceding diagram. (Section No. 1.) 

The beds from Cheltenham across the hills preserve their regu- 
lar order and dip (seldom exceeding 10°) ; the upper beds of the 
inferior oolite marking the highest points of the Cotteswold range. 
From Brockhampton the higher ground proceeds about a mile and 
a half in a northerly direction to Charlton Abbotts (which is 
higher than Brockhampton Common) : it then turns suddenly to 
the east, bounding Kyneton Thorns, which is situated in a fault 
valley extending from Kyneton to Eyeford. 

The line of fault from Brockhampton is continued for about 
a mile to the south, where it takes a sudden turn, and is continued 
in irregular lines to the south-east, joining the eastern line at 

There are other minor faults in the district, but they do not 
affect the Stonesfield slate formation. 

There is evidence of denudation in the district under review, 
the upper clays being frequently absent : besides that the slopes 
of the hills are more or less covered by waterworn debris, and 
smaller deposits fill up hollows in the valleys to the depth of 20 or 
30 feet. 

The Authors conclude with the following general summary : — 

" From the foregoing examination of the upper beds of the 
Cotteswold Hills, we are led to the following conclusions : — 

1st. That the Stonesfield slate occupies a considerable extent 
in the Cotteswold range of Hills, as we have traced it over a dis- 
trict which would scarcely be enclosed within an area of fifty miles ; 
and that this formation, as it occurs in this part of the country, is 
identical with that at Stonesfield, both in its lithological and zoolo- 
gical characters ; indeed it is clearly traceable, with few interrup- 
tions, from Sevenhampton, within five miles of Cheltenham, to 
Stonesfield near Blenheim in Oxfordshire. 

2dly. That the Stonesfield slate in the district above described 
is so intermixed with the ragstone, particularly at the edges of 
the formation, as to be scarcely, if at all, separable from it, and 
(as has been shown) this ragstone presents fossils of a like charac- 
ter with those of the great oolite. We are thus led to adopt the 
conclusion, that the Stonesfield slate is part of the Great Oolite 



[\ " 

Tromlfoduri £ <m Zoic by XErxUltn 

Jf y Ji y erven . 


formation, or at least not sufficiently distinguishable from it, to 
entitle it to rank as an independent formation ; but, inasmuch as 
the Great oolite ver y much thins off where associated with Stones- 
field slate, it would appear that the Stonesfield slate and its ac- 
companying " ragstone " were deposited by the same sea which 
formed the Great oolite itself, and that it partly owed its origin to 
certain mixed conditions, arising from the influx of rivers into an 
ocean interspersed with numerous scattered islands, abounding in 
a luxuriant vegetation, and inhabited by numerous terrestrial 
animals f and this opinion seems more probable from the quantity 
of plants which occurs throughout the Stonesfield slate beds, and 
also from the relics of land animals, such as the Didelphis and 

We also find that the Great oolite thins outs towards the nor- 
thern end, whilst the Inferior oolite thins out in like manner 
towards the southern end of that long chain of hills of which the 
Cotteswolds form a part. 

3dly. If the beds just referred to belong to the Great oolite, it 
is just possible that the clays by which they are super-imposed in 
this district, may be the equivalent, or a sort of representative of 
the Bradford clay, judging at least from their position and the 
analogous fossils which they contain. Or, supposing this to be 
incorrect, we venture to conclude that these clays are the equiva- 
lent of certain clay -beds containing Apiocrinites, which in Wilt- 
shire separate the freestone from a lower stratum of freestone of 
a coarser texture. 

2. Description of a Fossil Ray from Mount Lebanon (Cy- 
clobatis oligodactyly). By Sir Philip Grey Egerton, Bart. 
M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

I am indebted to the liberality of Professor Edw. Forbes for 
many valuable specimens of fossil fishes, procured by Capt. Graves 
from the Lebanon range ; and amongst the number, for the 
subject of the present memoir, one of the most interesting and 
remarkable ichthyolites ever brought to light by paheontological 
research. The cases of the discovery of fishes belonging to the 
placoid order, in a condition at all approaching to completeness, 
are exceedingly rare. The destructible nature of the endoskeleton, 
and the loose attachment of its component members, attest the 
probability that decomposition would complete its work ere these 
records could be engrossed in imperishable characters. That this 
order was nevertheless extensively represented from the earliest 
fossiliferous period to the present time, is manifest from the fre- 
quent occurrence of the palatal tritores, teeth, and defensive fin 
bones of the Cestracionts, Hybodonts, and Squales ; and of the 
dental apparatus, caudal weapons, and dermal tubercles of the Rays. 


The specimen presented to me by Mr. Forbes is a remarkable ex- 
ception to the general rule, the parts being perfectly preserved, so 
far as they are exhibited by the fracture of the matrix. The 
fish is in its natural position ventre a terre. The dorsal integu- 
ments being removed, the skeleton is distinctly exposed as seen 
from above. The outer margins of the pectoral fins, and the 
caudal vertebrae from the termination of the ventral fins, are defi- 
cient. The preservation of the claspers proves it to have been a 
male, and (to judge from the development of these organs) of 
mature age. It corresponds in size with the unique specimen of 
Asteroderma from the Solenhofen oolite in the collection of the 
Society, but has little resemblance in other respects to that genus. 
The negative facts of the absence of all trace of dermal armature, 
as also of the caudal ribs described in the " Poissons Fossiles," 
would sufficiently distinguish it ; we have, however, the positive 
evidence of the structure of the vertebral column, which is that of 
a true ray, without any approach to the squaloid character dis- 
played in Asteroderma. As compared with the recent genera, 
the circular form of the head eliminates the Lebanon Ray from all 
save the Torpedos. From the latter family it is distinguished by 
the smaller number and greater length of the rays of the pectoral 
fins, by the smaller size of the ventral fins and the tail, as also 
by other characters, which will be sufficiently manifested in the 
sequel. The aspect of this fossil is very singular: it may not 
inaptly be compared to the figure 8, surrounded by a circular 
border of long divergent rays. The generic name of Actinobatis 
at first struck me as conveying a good idea of this peculiarity ; 
but, finding that Agassiz had already appropriated this title to a 
fossil Ray of which some dermal tubercles have been found at 
Plaisance, I have substituted the name Cyclobatis, which expresses 
equally well the most striking character of this singular fossil. 
The anterior or cephalothoracic cavity is circumscribed by the 
carpal bones carrying the fin digits, which join the rostral carti- 
lage at an obtuse inverted angle. The mouth extends nearly 
from side to side ; the teeth are only seen near the symphysis of 
the jaw, where they are small and discoid ; the tympanic pedicle, 
extending from the angle of the jaw to the cranium, is broad and 
strong. The cartilages of the head are crushed ; but the cranial 
cavity appears small, as also the orbits. Traces of the branchial 
apparatus are preserved ; but the number of the arches cannot be 
decyphered. The cartilages composing the thoracic girdle, which 
forms the fulcrum for the action of the pectoral fins, are broad and 
strong. The anterior carpal ossicles are also largely developed, 
being at least a third broader than in a recent ray of similar size. 
These dimensions are continued until they abut against the an- 
terior part of the head. The posterior prolongations of the car- 
pal apparatus diminish in size as they recede from the thoracic 
girdle, and terminate at the insertion of the last pectoral digit a 
little behind the pelvic arch. The pectoral fins are very remark- 
able, and contribute chiefly to the peculiar characters of this ray. 


They extend anteriorly to the . nasal cartilages, completely sur- 
rounding this portion of the cephalo-thorax : the distal margins 
exceed those of the ventral fins. The component digits are 47 on 
each side. They increase in length and breadth as they recede 
from the head, the terminal ray being the largest of the series. 
In the recent Rays the pectoral digits number from 80 to 100, and 
in the Torpedos nearly 60. 

The arrangement of the fin rays in Cyclobatis resembles that of 
the recent Rays, radiating in regular gradation from the centre to 
the extremities, but the smaller number of the digits causes their 
divergence to be greater, and the interspaces consequently of 
larger extent. The actinated appearance of these organs is due 
to this peculiarity, which has suggested the title of oligodactylies 
for the species. The form of the phalanges is intermediate between 
that of the Rays and that of the Torpedos, combining a greater length 
and denser structure than we find in the latter, with breadth and 
thickness exceeding the comparative dimensions of these parts in 
the former. The digital articulations are more distant and fewer 
in number than in the recent genera. The fork occurs at the 
sixth articulation, — in the recent genera not before the tenth. The 
phalangeal ossicles do not contract in diameter between the articu- 
lations ; they have a projecting longitudinal midrib, from whence 
they slope off to the margin, so that a transverse section would 
show a lozenge- shaped outline. The coarse granulated structure 
of these bones is distinctly traceable, causing a jointed appearance 
between the articulations. The abdominal cavity, or that portion 
behind the thoracic girdle, is nearly as large as the anterior or 
cephalothoracic, and in this respect differs most remarkably from 
the Torpedos, where the anterior area is at least twice as large as 
the posterior. In form it is slightly oval ; the pelvic arch differs 
from that of all the recent Rays I have had opportunities of con- 
sulting, in the developement of two elongated styloid processes, 
from the horns of the transverse pubic cartilage, and extending 
forwards over two thirds of the abdominal cavity. This structure 
recalls vividly the marsupial bones of the Australian mammals. 
The transverse cartilage of the pelvis sends out two broad processes, 
extending backwards for the attachment of the ventral fins. The 
proximal digit on either side is unusually large ; it extends laterally 
at right angles to the spinal column, and at the first articulation 
forms a second right angle ; the remaining phalanges being directed 
backwards, parallel to the spinal column. This digit is detached 
from the remainder of the ventral fin, and is inserted considerably 
nearer the transverse cartilage. The other fin rays are six in 
number on each side : the first is considerably smaller than the 
succeeding five, and curves outwards. The remainder agree in 
character with the pectoral digits. The tarsal bones which sup- 
port the ventral rays, are considerably smaller than in the recent 
Skaits, in accordance with the smaller number of these bones, 
which in the latter species range from fifteen to twenty. The 
impressions of the claspers show these organs to have been Compa- 
ct 2 


ratively large, and of complicated form. The whole of the pelvic 
apparatus, with its appendages, as compared with the rays of the 
present period, presents remarkable modifications. The small 
size of the ventral fins is conclusive evidence against the supposi- 
tion that these differences could have relation to locomotion. If 
we seek to explain them with reference to the internal structure 
of the animal, the absence of the soft parts deprives us of the 
means of arriving at any satisfactory results. Analogical consi- 
derations, however, would suggest the idea, that the peculiar fea- 
tures of these parts have some relation to the generative system. 
The vertebral column corresponds with that of the recent rays in 
the form and character of the vertebrae, and has no approximation 
to the squaloid type found in the fossil Ray from Solenhofen, in 
the Society's collection. The anteroposterior dimensions of the 
vertebrae are rather greater than in a specimen of Raia of similar 
size with the fossil : the extremity of the tail is deficient, but judg- 
ing from the rapid contraction of the caudal vertebrae preserved 
in the specimen, this organ must have been small and powerless, 
presenting a remarkable contrast to that of the torpedos. There 
is no trace of the existence of a defensive weapon ; nor, indeed, 
would the proportions and form of this part of the specimen lead 
one to infer that this fish could have been provided with such an 

To recapitulate the features of this remarkable fish, we have a 
small ray, much resembling those of the present period, but en- 
tirely surrounded by a broad flexible cartilagino-membranous fin, 
the skin smooth, the teeth and eyes small, the tail slender, and no 
trace of dermal spines, tubercles, or defensive weapons. It is impossi- 
ble to resist a speculation, as to how an animal apparently so destitute 
of the means of offence or defence could have existed. We find in the 
recent Rays various provisions adapted to these ends. Trygon and 
Myliobatis are armed with weapons so powerful and deadly, that they 
have been adopted by savage nations for the armature of their war 
spears. Other genera have the nasal cartilages prolonged in the 
form of a cut-water, to enable them both to evade by flight those 
enemies they could not encounter in single combat, and to over- 
take the smaller fishes on which they subsist ; and most of the 
recent forms have their integuments studded with spines or osseous 
plates, forming a species of defensive armour for the body, while 
a similar armature on the long and flexible tail renders this organ 
an effectual weapon for keeping intruders at a respectful distance. 
Our fossil possessed none of these advantages : the large develope- 
ment and anterior extension of the pectoral fins must have rendered 
the locomotive efforts of Cyclobatis little more effectual than the 
systole and diastole of a Medusa. The safety of the fish, then, 
could not depend upon flight. But these organs, however ill 
adapted for speed, are admirably formed for concealment, and 
when applied to the sand at the bottom of the ocean, would act 
as the leather suckers with which mischievous boys draw up the 
paving-stones in the streets, retaining the fish stationary, while 


the smoothness of the skin would present no obstacle to the passers 
by, and possibly its colour may have contributed to render the 
concealment more effectual. The position of the mouth forbids 
the idea that this Ray buried itself in mud, as the Lophius and 
other predatory fish are known to do. The difficulty of defence 
being thus surmounted, we have still to devise how this fish pro- 
cured its subsistence. It may be that it fed upon some of the 
smaller and more helpless denizens of the deep ; but at the same time 
I am inclined to believe, from a comparison of the oral apparatus 
with the recent forms, that its food was not dissimilar. Some 
of these forms, too, if found in a fossil state, would cause the zoolo- 
gical reasoner full as great embarrassment as the subject under 
discussion, from the absence of the ordinary provisions for self- 
preservation so familiar to all. Yet the Creator of the Universe 
has not formed them helpless ; so far otherwise, he has en- 
dowed them with a subtle armoury, more powerful than the dental 
chevaux-de-frise of the marauding shark, — more deadly than the 
serrated lance of the fireflare, — more effectual than the speed of 
the dolphin, or the aerial excursions of the flying-fish. I allude 
to the electric apparatus of the Torpedo. The Lebanon Ray in 
many points of structure has presented analogies with this genus ; 
and although, in the absence of all positive evidence to the fact, 
it would not be justifiable to infer that it was provided with a 
similar organ, yet I do not conceive that in drawing attention to 
this consideration in the passing allusion I have made above, I 
have overstepped those bounds of probability which ought to be 
rigidly observed by every observer in the rich and inexhaustible 
field of nature.* 

3. On some New Species of Fossil Fish, from the Oxford Clay 
at Christian Malford. By Sir Philip Grey Egerton, 
Bart., M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S.; 

Through the kindness of Lord Northampton and Mi*. Pratt I have 
had an opportunity of examining several specimens of fossil fish 
found with the beautiful Ammonites and Belemnites already de- 
scribed by Mr. Pratt and Professor Owen, in the Oxford clay, at 
Christian Malford, near Chippenham. Some of these ichthyolites 
are in an excellent state of preservation ; others are mere frag- 
ments. Those genera I have been able to identify belong to the 
Lepidoid and Sauroid families of the Ganoid order of Agassiz, viz. 
Lepidotus, Leptolepis, and 'Aspidorhynchus. These three genera 

* In the accompanying plate, fig. 1. represents this fossil of its natural size, 
and fig. 2. is a magnified view of part of the jaw. 

Q 3 


are found also associated with Ammonites and Belemnites in the 
lithographic stone quarries of Germany. The species appear all 
to be new. 

Ganoid Order. 
Lepidoid Family. 

Lepidotus macrochirus, Eg. 

I have only seen one specimen referable to the genus Lepi- 
dotus ; it is, however, the finest ichthyolite yet discovered in this 
locality. The fish reclines on its back, and presents the whole 
ventral surface to the spectator. The head bones are rather dislo- 
cated, by which accident an advantageous view of the teeth is ob- 
tained. The two large bones of the horns of the hyoid bone are 
seen in situ. The pectoral and ventral fins are well displayed ; 
the anal and caudal are crushed and indistinct. As compared 
with the species of this genus already described by Agassiz, this 
Lepidotus has the nearest affinity to Lepidotus semiserratus of the 
Whitby lias : it differs in the narrowness of the head, the larger 
size of the pectoral fins, and the marginal armature of the scales. 
The form of the lower jaw is well shown. The teeth are numer- 
ous, both in the upper and lower jaws, as also on the palate ; they 
are in the form of acute cones, on constricted pedicles. The teeth 
on the palate are larger than those on the maxillary bones. The 
pectoral fins are large and strong. The rays are twenty or twenty- 
one in each fin, single for about half their length, then articulated ; 
the articulations being frequent, and the ossicles small. The rays 
dichotomize so frequently as they recede from the base, that the 
extremity of the fin has a finely fimbriated appearance. The 
ventral fins are small, but the rays composing them are strong, 
apparently about eight in number. The scales have the thick 
enamelled surface so characteristic of the genus. The posterior 
edges of the flank scales are deeply notched or scalloped ; this 
feature is traceable in other parts, although the number of notches 
in the caudal region is reduced to two or three. The gradual 
change of outline from the oblong to the lozenge shape as the scales 
approach the belly and tail, obtains as in other species of this 
genus. The arrangement of the scales of the vent has not hitherto 
been described in this genus. Indeed, no specimen with which I 
am acquainted, exhibits these details ; and yet we can scarcely 
imagine them peculiar to the species under description, but as 
common to the genus. In front of the anal fin, we find a pair of 
scales of large size ; these are overlapped by a single scale con- 
siderably larger, and the anal orifice is situate under the middle of 
the posterior edge of the latter, coincident with the line of junc- 
tion between the former. These three scales are quadrangular, and 
deeply notched on their free margin. Having had only a brief 
opportunity of examining the specimen above described, the details 
are not so complete as I could wish ; they are, however, sufficient 


to show that this Lepidotus of the Oxford clay is not referable to 
any of those species already described by Professor Agassiz. 

Sauroid Family. 

Leptolepis macrophthalmns, Eg. 

Lord Northampton possesses a specimen, nearly perfect, from 
the same locality as the preceding, referable to the Sauroid genus 
Leptolepis. It differs from the other numerous species of this 
genus in the long, slender, and superlatively elegant form of the 
body, as also by the large size of the orbit. The length of this 
fish is 5^- inches, depth at the dorsal fin -^ of an inch. The head 
is small, and its constituent bones thin and smooth. The mouth 
also is very small, and opens upwards ; the orbit very large in 
proportion to the size of the head. The spinal column is composed 
of about 40 vertebrae, the terminal ones decreasing rapidly in size, 
and tending upwards : the ribs and vertebral spines are slender. 
The pectoral fins are composed of ten or twelve rays each ; of these 
the anterior ones are strong. The ventral fins are comparatively 
large ; they are situate nearly in the centre of the body, and have 
twelve rays in each. The dorsal fin is small, and immediately oppo- 
site the ventrals. The number of rays in this fin is not discernible. 
The anal fin is also small, and situate about half way between the 
ventral and caudal fins ; the latter organ is symmetrical : the upper 
lobe has eight rays springing from the terminal vertebra, and has 
three or four fulcral rays on its upper margin. The lower lobe has 
from eight to ten rays. The scales are small and thin, finely sculp- 
tured with concentric striae, as in Leptolepis dubius, and other species 
of this genus. This fish appears not uncommon in the Christian 
Malford deposit, as I have seen several specimens in the collec- 
tions of Lord Northampton and Mr. Pratt, to whose liberality I am 
indebted for the specimens in my own cabinet. The latter gentle- 
man has also presented me with two specimens which appear to 
constitute another species ; they are not, however, sufficiently per- 
fect to enable me to separate them definitively from the species 
already described, and the most striking differences appear to be, the 
greater size of the fish, and the stronger proportions of the ribs. 
The opercular bones are large, and the pre-operculum is sculp- 
tured with shallow radiating grooves. The fins are indistinct or 
wanting in these specimens ; and the scales are wholly absent. I 
designate this fish by the provisional appellation of Leptolepis 

Aspidorhynchus euodus, Eg. 

The evidence of the occurrence of this remarkable genus, asso- 
ciated with the forms described above, con- 
sists of a few detached scales, and two frag- 
ments of jaw, one belonging to Lord North- 
ampton, and the other to Lord Enniskillen. 
The scales present the peculiar characters 
found in the other species of the genus, and 
q 4 



leave no doubt as to the correctness of the generic identification. 
The teeth differ so far from the continental specimens as to indi- 
cate a distinct species. The jaw is furnished, as in the recent 
Lepidosteus, with teeth of various sizes, the larger ones projecting 
at intervals, the smaller ones filling the spaces between the princi- 
pal ones. These teeth are remarkable for their strength and falcate 
shape. The bases are broad, and as the shafts taper to the apices 
they incline gently backwards : the result of this arrangement is a 
most formidable array of prehensile weapons, well adapted to secure 
the prey of these destructive fish, notwithstanding the obstruction 
of the ganoid scales with which they were invested. The speci- 
mens as yet brought to light of this fish are insufficient to show 
any further details of the species ; it is to be hoped, however, that 
ere long, the riches of the Christian Malford deposit will be more 
fully explored. As far as our information extends, the association 
of forms there found is a natural one. The strong conical grinders 
of the Lepidotus are fully equal to contend with the shells of the 
Ammonites and the Mollusca, the sharp bristling teeth of the Lep- 
tolepis would find a suitable prey in the soft parts of the Belem- 
nites, while they in their turn would find it difficult to elude the 
swfft course and murderous jaws of the Aspidorhynchus. 

4. On certain Calcareo-corneous Bodies found in the outer 
chambers of Ammonites. By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S. 

a. A portion of the broken shell of an Ammonite, with the calcareo-corneous 
body in situ, reduced to one-fourth natural size. 

b. The body in (a), of the natural size. 

c. Another similar body of a different species, also of the natural size.^ 

In 1841, Miss Anning, of Lyme Regis, drew my attention to some 
black-coloured substances which she had occasionally met with in 
the interior of the Ammonites Bucklandi, and which she considered 
to indicate the presence of an ink-bag in the animal of the Ammo- 
nite, corresponding to that of the Sepiidce. From these and other 
specimens, it appeared to me evident that these substances had 
constituted, not an ink bag, but a laminar appendage to the animal, 
adapted to discharge some unascertained function. The specimens 


presented the appearance of a very thin concave shell, glossy on its 
outer surface, with irregular concentric undulations, crossed by 
longitudinal striee and fine irregular oblique wrinkles. In the 
middle of the external margin is a large undulation or sinus. The 
inner surface, as exhibited by its cast, is of a dull black, the outer 
surface of the shell being of the colour of horn. Miss Anning in- 
formed me that these bodies generally occur about the middle of 
the outer chamber of the ammonite, whence they are obtained by 
breaking the fossil ; but as this process more frequently destroyed 
than exposed the object of search, I was unable, during my stay at 
Lyme Regis, to procure any tolerably perfect specimens, or to 
arrive at any satisfactory conclusion as to their nature. 

In 1843, my attention was again called to the subject by finding 
in a bed of lias limestone, at Temple Grafton and Bickmarsh, 
near Bidford, in Warwickshire, (a bed remarkable for the variety 
of fish, plants, insects, and Crustacea which it contains,) several 
anomalous bodies whose characters were difficult to define. These 
substances are of a nearly semicircular form, very thin, slightly 
concave, presenting a small notch at the middle of the straight 
side, and having their surface covered with irregularly wrinkled 
lines of growth, concentric to the notch above mentioned. From 
the same point of departure also proceed fine radiating lines, visible 
only with the help of a lens. The colour is usually black, but they 
sometimes present a browner tint, as if from a mixture of calca- 
reous and carbonaceous matter. The usual diameter is from half 
to five-eighths of an inch. (See figure c.) 

In speculating on the nature of these bodies, although the black 
colour seemed to indicate a vegetable origin, yet the concentric 
lines of growth appeared so evidently allied to the structure of 
Molluscous shells, that I could not hesitate to seek for their affini- 
ties among the latter class of animals. Indeed, the general aspect 
is so much like that of an Orthis, that had they been found in a 
Palaeozoic rock, I should probably have referred them to the 
Brachiopoda. But on closer examination it was evident, that 
these bodies were very little, if at all, calcareous, and that though 
their mode of growth was similar to that of shells, yet their com- 
position was, in great measure, corneous, and probably elastic, like 
the plate in the genus Laplysia. It seemed, therefore, likely that 
they were part of the internal organisation of some mollusc, and 
on comparing them with the bodies before mentioned, as occurring 
in the Ammonites of Lyme Regis, it seemed not improbable that 
they were of a similar nature. Now the bed of lias in which 
these substances occur, contains two species of Ammonites, the 
A. planorbis, Sow., and another allied to A. Conybeari; and the 
dimensions of these Ammonites are such as would very well 
permit the bodies in question to be contained in their outer 
chamber. The form, too, of the bodies, is nearly that of a trans- 
verse section of the chamber of the Ammonite, so that they might 
easily close it in the manner of an operculum. From these con- 
siderations, the most probable supposition seemed to be, that the 


detached substances in the Bidford lias were portions of the 
animals of the Ammonites which occur in the same stratum. 

This conjecture has been recently verified by finding a very 
interesting specimen. It is a species of Ammonite, allied to 
A. Turneri, Sow., but, as yet, I believe, unnamed, which occurs 
in a bed of clay, at Defford, Worcestershire, near the middle 
region of the lower lias. By a fortunate fracture, this spe- 
cimen exhibits, embedded in the stone which fills the outer 
chamber, a substance evidently identical in its nature with those 
just described. It lies with the convex surface outwards, and the 
straight side turned towards the mouth of the shell. The portion 
exposed to view is the cast of the interior surface, which is some- 
what irregularly waved, but exhibits distinct concentric lines of 
growth. The whole of this inner surface is black like the Bidford 
specimens, but portions of the substance itself, which still adhere 
to the cast, are white and calcareous, showing that in this species, 
at least, the body was of a shelly nature. The slight portions 
which remain of the outer surface of this thin calcareous plate 
exhibit fine lines, radiating rather irregularly from the centre of 
the straight side, in which there is a very small but deep emar- 
gination or notch. (See the figure b.) 

Judging from the specimens thus repeatedly obtained within 
the outer chamber of several species of Ammonite, there can be 
no reasonable doubt that these bodies were appendages of the 
Cephalopodous mollusc which inhabited those shells. I leave it 
to more expert comparative anatomists to pronounce as to the pre- 
cise nature of these corneo-calcareous appendages, which were 
possibly the representatives of the horny girdle described by Pro- 
fessor Owen as occurring in the recent nautilus, and which aids 
in the attachment of the animal to the shell. They may also 
possibly be the equivalents of that " ligamento-muscular disc," 
which protects the head of the recent nautilus. 

These singular bodies may perhaps throw light on the nature 
of that much-disputed fossil the Trigonellites or Aptychus. I am 
aware that Professor Forbes has recently seen some reason for re- 
ferring the latter fossil to the existing Holothuriadae. But as this 
supposed affinity is as yet far from being demonstrated, I may be 
allowed to remark that the two valves, of Trigonellites, when ex- 
panded, closely resemble in appearance the univalve disc which 
I have been describing ; and when we recollect that Trigonellites 
have hitherto only been found in formations which also contain 
Ammonites, and that they have in several instances been found in 
the interior of Ammonites precisely as in the case of the bodies 
before us, there is, I think, a fair presumption that these singular 
bodies are allied in origin and in function to the remarkable fossils 
here described. 

On referring to a paper communicated by M. Voltz to the 
Natural History Society of Strasburg, which will be found in the 
Mem. de VInstitut for 1837, p. 48, it appears that he was ac- 
quainted with fossils similar to those before us, and that he also 


considered them to be allied to Trigonellites or Aptychus. He 
divides the Aptychi into three groups, A. cornei, imbricati, and 
cellulosi, the former of which differs from the two latter (which 
are calcareous and bivalve,) in being corneous and univalve, both 
which characters are applicable to the fossils which I have above 
described. He supposes that in the corneous species a certain 
degree of motion was effected in the two halves of the body by 
means of its own elasticity, while in the calcareous groups the 
same end was obtained by means of a bivalve structure. He 
enumerates five species of the corneous group, all of which are 
from the lias and inferior oolite, and which, like the imbricate 
and cellulous species, are occasionally found in the interior of 
Ammonites, occupying a symmetrical position, and corresponding 
in their dimensions to the shell in which they are found. From 
these and other reasons, M. Yoltz regards the whole of this group 
of fossils as appendages to the animals of Ammonites, a view 
which is confirmed by the facts adduced in the present commu- 

5. Notice concerning the Tertiary Deposits in the south of Spain. 
By James Smith, Esq., of Jordanhill, F.G.S. 

In the bay of Gibraltar, immediately to the north of the plain 
which separates the fortress from the Spanish territory, we meet 
with a series of low swelling hills of yellow rubbly sandstone, the 
beds dipping to the S.W. at an angle of 12°, and abounding in 
marine tertiary fossils. Of these fossils, there is only a small 
variety, and of many of the species I could only find casts ; but these 
were sufficient to furnish an important link, connecting distant 
deposits ; for upon comparing them with the specimens in the 
Society's Museum, illustrative of Col. Silvertop's account of the 
tertiary formation of Murcia and Grenada, and Lieut. Spratt's 
paper on the Geology of Malta, I find that the three deposits are 

I have also observed tertiary beds at Cadiz, and between Xeres 
and Seville, which, I am satisfied, belong to the same deposit ; 
and Mr. Sharpe, in his paper on the Geology of Lisbon, has as- 
signed reasons, with which I entirely agree, for considering that 
the tertiary beds of the Tagus coincide with those of the south 
of Spain.* 

In a communication respecting the age of the Lisbon tertiary 
beds, I stated the grounds which led me to conclude that it was 
nearly the same as that of the Bourdeaux deposit, and I may now 
add, that I consider it more ancient than the Touraine Faluns, 
or older crag.f It will be seen, from the report of Professor 

* Geol. Transactions, 2d series, vol. vi. p. 113. 
f Geol. Proceedings, vol. iii. p. 492. 


Forbes on the Malta fossils*, that he has arrived at the same con- 
clusion with respect to their age. 

Professor Agassiz, who examined my collection of Lisbon shells, 
considered that they were of the same age as the Molasse of 

The whole of these deposits, therefore, may be placed in the 
Miocene or middle division of the tertiary system ; a formation of 
prodigious extent, which appears to have comprehended the whole 
of the southern portion of the European continent, from the shores 
of Portugal to the Morea, and from Switzerland and Vienna to 
Malta and the Straits of Gibraltar. 

* Geol. Proceedings, vol. iv. p. 232. 







[In the following list, after the name of the founder of the species, the best 
figure in a British work, or if there be none, in a foreign work, is quoted. 
Wherever there is a possibility of doubt, a note of interrogation is affixed. The 
localities quoted are those from which there are specimens in the collection. 
Other localities are given between brackets. The donors' names will be given 
in a list'at the termination of the catalogue.] 


Acephala Lamellibranchiata. 

1. Teredo. Sp. 
Loc. Hythe. 

2. Gastrochcena. Sp. (an Gastrochaena dilatata Deshayes in 

Leymerie, t. v. pi. 3. f. 1. ?) 

Loc. Faringdon, Atherfield, Hythe, Peasemarsh. 

3. Pholas? priscus Sowerby, Min. Conch, t. 581. 
Loc. Hythe, Maidstone. 

4. Solecurtus Warburtoni. Sp. nov. PI. 2. f. 1 . 

S. testa elongato-oblonga, depressa, concentrice striata, 
postice subexpansa, antice striis subtillissimis ex umbone 
radiantibus, umbonibus submedianis. 

Lon. 0^ unc. Lat. 2^- unc. f 

Loc. Atherfield (Cracker bed). 

This species, which bears a distant resemblance to the living 
& coarctatus, presents some remarkable characters. The shell is 
depressed, nearly aequilateral, and is rather broader at one ex- 
tremity than at the other. The surface is finely striated by lines 
of growth, which are crossed at the anterior and narrower ex- 
tremity by regular very minute radiating striae, obscure traces of 
which are seen also on other parts of the shell. In a large spe- 
cimen the striae are replaced in the centre by smooth longitudinal 

* This Catalogue is referred to, and the general result given, in the previous 
number of the Geological Journal, p. 78. 

f In the measurements of bivalves in this list, by length is understood the 
distance between the cardinal and anterior margins; by breadth, the transverse 
measurement parallel to those margins. 


rays, separated by strongly marked lines of growth, thus present- 
ing a scalariform appearance. These markings become obsolete, 
and towards the broader extremity disappear altogether. 

Var. ? There is a young Solen in the collection from the same 
locality, which appears to be a variety differing in the more ex- 
centric position of the beaks. Its surface is not sufficiently perfect 
to present the characteristic markings. 

Note. The cast described and figured by M. A. D'Orbigny as Solen Robin- 
aldinus, from the Neocomian of France, and that called Solen compressus by 
Goldfuss, may be related to this species. 

5. Panopcea mandibula (Mya sp.) Sow. M. C. t. 43. 
Loc. Atherfield, Hythe, Reigate. 

Var. /3. obliqua. P. obliqua D'Orb. T. C. pi. 352. 
Loc. Atherfield. 

6. Panopcea plicata (Mya sp.). 
Var. a. Sow. M. C. t. 419. fig. 3. 

Var. (j. Pholadomya Prevosti Desh. in Leym. pi. 2. f. 7. 
Var. y. Pholadomya acutisulcata Desh. in Leym. pi. 3. f. 2. ? 
Loc. Atherfield, Culver, Hythe, Reigate, Sandgate, Stopham. 
Note. A very variable species, common to the upper and lower greensands. 

7. Panopcea elongata (Mya sp.) Roemer. Cret. Geb. t. x. f. 5. ? 
Loc. Hythe, Pulborough. 

Note. Possibly only an elongated variety of the last. 

8. Panopcea neocomiensis (Pholadomya sp.) Leym. pi. 3. f. 4. 
Loc. Atherfield. 

Note. The surface of this species is strongly granulated ; the granulations 
are arranged in lines. Identified by comparison with French specimens. 

9. Panopcea ? 

Apparently a distinct species, but not sufficiently perfect for 
certain determination. It is nearly sequilateral. 

Loc. Redhill, Reigate. 

10. Pholadomya gigantea (Pholas sp.) Sow. in Geol. Trans. 

2d ser. vol. iv. pi. 14. f. 1. 
Loc. Court-at- Street. 

11. Pholadomya Martini. Sp. nov. PI. 2. f. 3. 

P. Testa obliqua, tumida, valde inaequilaterali, costis tuber- 
culatis radiantibus ornata, sulcis transversalibus decussantibus ; 
costis posterioribus approximatis, anterioribus distantibus. 
Lon. 0|§ unc. Lat. 2^- unc. 

This species is common at Atherfield. It rarely attains larger 
dimensions than those noted. It is almost always tumid and 
oblique, with numerous longitudinal ribs, which are more or less 
tuberculated by the intersection of lines of growth. These ribs 
are widely set at the buccal extremity, and more distant at the 
anal. In the Pholadomya gigantea, the ribs are most numerous 
at the buccal end, and the shell is much broader. 

Loc. Pulborough, Atherfield. 


12. Pholadomya? Agassizi D'Orb. T. C. pi. 363. f. 1— 3? {Go- 

niomya caudata Agassiz.) 
A fragment. Loc. Hythe. 

13. Corbula striatula Sow. M. C. t. 572. f. 2, 3. 

Loc. Atherfield, Peasemarsh, Hythe, Ingoldsthorpe, Maidstone. 

14. Tellina incequalis Sow. M. C. t. 456. f. 2.? 
Loc. (Casts.) Parham, Atherfield. 

15. Tellina ? angulata Desh. in Leym. t. 5. pi. 3. ? 
Loc. (Cast.) Peasemarsh. 

16. Tellina ? vectiana. Sp. nov. PI. 2. f. 2. 

T. testa oblonga, depressa, subingequilaterali, transverse 
striata, striis regularibus, numerosis, postice rotundata, antice 
cuneata, angulata, carinata. 

Lon. Oif unc. Lat. OJ unc. 
Shell oblong, depressed, regularly and deeply striated trans- 
versely, rounded posteriorly, and angulated anteriorly, where a 
strong carination runs from the beak to the pointed extremity, 
over which the strise pass and become slightly lamellated in the 
larger specimens. Young shells have much the aspect of Venus. 
Loc. In the Cracker bed at Atherfield, not uncommon. 

17. Corbis corrugata (Sphcera sp.) Sowerby, M. C. t. 335. 

Syn. Venus cordiformis Deshayes. Corbis cordiformis D'Orb. 

Cardium galloprovinciale Matheron. (according to D'Or- 

Loc. Atherfield. 

Note. The hinge of this shell being now known, the genus Sphccra must be 
suppressed, and the species on which it was founded placed in the genus Corbis. 
This was first shown by M. d'Orbigny, and a well-preserved hinge in the 
Society's collection confirms his view. British specimens were identified by 
that palaeontologist with the French Corbis cordiformis. 

18. Corbis ? fibrosa. Sp. nov. 

C ? testa transverse ovata, depressa, transverse sulcato- 
striata, interstitiis longitudinaliter crenatis. 
Lon. 0^ unc. Lat. 0^- unc. 
I have applied this name provisionally to a species found at 
Reigate, Peasemarsh, and Atherfield, but of which the specimens are 
very imperfect, and not sufficient for the determination of their 
true generic position. 

1 9. Lucina ? solidula. Sp. nov. PI. 2. f. 7. 

L. testa convexa, suborbiculari, requilaterali, concentrice 
striata, striis regularibus ; umbonibus prominentibus. 

Lon. T 8 2- unc. Lat. nearly the same. 

Shell nearly orbicular and convex, regularly striated by lines of 
growth, apparently very constant in form ; it is nearly allied to the 
next species, and differs in being less globose and broader towards 
the beaks. An Lucina Dupiniana D'Orbigny ? 

Loc Atherfield, Redhill, Peasemarsh. 


20. Lucina globiformis Leymerie, pi. 3. f. 8. a,' b, c. ? 

Loc. Atherfield. The specimens agree well with the figures in 

21. Cyprina angvlata (Venus sp.) Sow. M. C. t. 65. 

Var. /3 rostrata. C. rostrata Soiv. in Fitton, G. T. n. s. vol. iv. 
pi. xvii. f. 1. 

Loc. Atherfield, Peasemarsh, Hythe, Reigate, Shorncliff. 

Note. Both varieties are common at Atherfield, where the species is found 
of a large size. 

22. Venus ? ( Cyiherea ?) parva Sow. M. C t. 518. 
Loc. Atherfield, Peasemarsh, Hythe, Parham. 

23. Venus \_Artemis ?~\ caper ata Sow. M. C. t. 518. f. 1. 
Loc. Pulborough. (Casts.) 

24. Venus \Pullastra f] ovalis Sow. M. C. t. 567. f. 1, 2. 
Loc. Atherfield. 

Var. /3 elongata (an Venus Brongniartina Leym. pi. 5. f. 7. ?) 
Loc Atherfield, Peasemarsh. 

25. Venus Orbigniana. Sp. nov. PI. 2. f. 5. 

V. testa rotundata, convexa, laevigata, umbonibus obtu- 

Lon. 0^ ; l at * 0t% unc. 
Allied to Venus parva, but easily distinguished by its very 
obtuse beaks, and smooth surface. 

Loc. Abundant in the Cracker beds at Atherfield. 

26. Venus vectensis. Sp. nov. PL 2. f. 4. 

V. testa orbiculari, convexa, concentrice suleato-striata, 
umbonibus parvis. 

Lon. 1^ ; lat. 1^ unc. 

This shell resembles in form Artemis exoleta. It is very 
regular, rounded and convex, smooth towards the beak, or ob- 
soletely striated concentrically, furrowed towards the margin, and 
marked at intervals by deeper sulcations. The shell is thin, and 
the margin appears to be smooth. 

Loc. In the Cracker bed at Atherfield. (In Dr. Fitton's cabinet.) 

27. Venus ? fenestrata. Sp. nov. (Austen MS S.) PI. 2. fig. 6. 

V? testa oblonga, subdepressa, valde inaequilaterali, costis 
tenuibus distantibus concentricis ornata, interspatiis forte 
longitudinaliter sulcatis ; lunula parva. 

Lon. 0-^ ; lat. 0^ unc. 

Shell ovate or oblong, depressed, much produced anteriorly, and 
subtruncate ; ornamented by regular lamellar transverse ribs, 
which are angulated towards the anterior extremity. These ribs 


are distant, and on a perfect specimen half an inch in breadth, are- 
ten in number. The furrows between them are traversed by nu- 
merous regular raised radiating ribs, so as to give the shell a fenes- 
trated aspect. 

Log. Peasemarsh. 

Note. Allied to the Astarte ( Venus ?) multistriata of Blackdown. The 
strong radiating striae and the almost lateral position of the beak, are excellent 
distinguishing characters. 

28. Venus ? [striato-costata~\. 

V. ? testa oblonga, triangulari, inaequilaterali, plus minusve 
depressa, costis elevatis, reflexis, distantibus, concentricis ornata, 
interspatiis transverse striatis, interstitiis striarum longitudi- 
naliter minutissme striatis, lunula excavata. 

Lon. 0-^z ; lat. 0^ unc. 

Shell more or less rounded, triangular or oblong, sometimes 
much depressed, sometimes almost inflated, regularly ribbed trans- 
versely, ribs usually 7 — 9 ; the ribs are acute and reflexed, the 
interspaces regularly furrowed transversely, and finely striated 
longitudinally. The anterior extremity is usually produced and 
truncated, the posterior very short. In general aspect it comes 
near Astarte {Venus ?) formosa of the Blackdown beds, but differs 
in form, convexity, and number of ribs, the more prominent of 
which are more numerous and closer set in the Blackdown species. 

Note. This shell and the last appear to me to be more nearly allied to 
certain species of Venus (as Venus fasciata of Montagu) than to any known 
Astartes. Specimens of this species were sent to M. d'Orbigny, who identified 
them with his Astarte numistnalis. If so, his figure and description of that shell 
do not notice the peculiar characters of the interspaces of the ribs. It resembles 
much more nearly his A. striato-costata, and is probably identical with that 
species. I have accordingly retained that specific name provisionally, in pre- 
ference to running the risk of creating a useless synonym. 

There are casts of apparently several other species of Venus in the Society's 
collection, but too imperfect to determine. 

29. Crassatella Robinaldina D'Orb. T. C. pi. 264. p. 10—13. 

Specimens of this remarkable shell, easily distinguished by 
the angulated diverging ribs of its surface *, are in the col- 
lections of Mrs. Smith of Tunbridge Wells (from Maidstone) 
and of Mr. Hills of Chichester (from Court-on- street). Iden- 
tified by comparison with French specimens. 

30. Astarte obovata Sow. M. C. t. 353. 

Var. a. Margin crenulated. Astarte transversa Leym. pi. 
5. f. 5. ? Certainly Astarte transversa of D'Orbigny, T. C. pi. 

Loc. Hythe. 

* We have a similar style of ribbing in the recent Crassatella Tellinoides, a 
species inhabiting the coasts of Massachusetts 



Var. (3. Margin plain. Astarte Beaumontii Leym. pi. 4. f. 1. 
a, b. (compared and identified with French specimens). 
Loc. Culver (Atherfield, Sandown, Hythe, Peasemarsh). 

31. Astarte substriata Leym. pi. 6. f. 3. (and var. A. illunata, 
pi. 6. fig. 2.) 

Loc. Reigate, Peasemarsh, Atherfield. 

32. Cardita neocomiensis D'Orb. T. C. pi. 267. f. 1 — 5. ? 
Loc. Maidstone. 

Var. /5. infiata — Cardita quadrata D'Orb. pi. 267. p. 6 — 9. ? 

Loc. Maidstone. 

The specimens agree well with the figures and descriptions of 
M. d'Orbigny. 

33. Thetis Soiverbii Roeiner. 

Yar. a. minor — Thetis minor Sow. M. C. t. 513. figs. 5, 6. 
Var. j8. major — Thetis major Sow. M. C. t. 513. f. 1 — 4. 
Loc. Atherfield, Hythe, Peasemarsh, Parham. 
Note. Distorted specimens often resemble Isocardice. 

34. Cypricardia ? undulata. Sp. nov. PI. 3. f. 1. 

C. ? testa transverse oblonga, depressa, carinata, valde in- 
sequilaterali, latere antico brevissimo, rotundato, latere postico 
expanso, truncato, carinato, transverse sulcato, sulcis regular- 
ibus, distantibus, ad carinam interruptis, reliqua testa transverse 
striata, striis minutis regularibus, umbonibus sub-margi- 

Lon. max. O^j ; lat. 1^ unc. 

The form of this shell resembles most nearly that of some recent 
Cypricardice. It is oblong, depressed, with almost marginal 
beaks, and has the larger side greatly produced and expanded. 
The shorter extremity is rounded and narrow, the other broad and 
truncate. From the beaks to the anterior angle of the truncated 
extremity runs a keel dividing the shell into two nearly equal 
parts. The posterior division is deeply and distantly sulcated, but 
otherwise smooth ; the anterior wants the sulcations, but is marked 
with very fine and regular transverse striae. 

Loc. Atherfield. 

35. Isocardia ? ornata. Sp. nov. PI. 2. f. 10. 

I. ? testa longitudinaliter ovata, angulata, infiata, bicarinata, 
postice truncata, transverse sulcato-striata, inter carinas striis 
minutis obliquis angulatis ornata (nucleo laevigato). 

Lon. 0^ ; Lat. 0^- unc. 

Shell much inflated, oblique and somewhat triangular, longer 
than broad ; two keels run divergingly from the beak to the mar- 
gin, the longer bounding the abrupt truncation of the posterior 


extremity. The anterior side is not nearly so truncate. Between 
the keels the surface is elegantly marked by oblique striae, angu- 
lated in the centre ; the angle directed forwards. Beyond the 
keels on each side there appear to be no stria?, but transverse 
sulcations of growth, which are strongest on the truncated side. 
The beak is small and incurved. The cast is smooth. 

Loc. Atherfield. The peculiar markings of this shell dis- 
tinguish it from all other known species. 

36. Cardium Cornuelianum D'Orb. T. C. pi. 256. f. 1, 2. 
Loc. Atherfield, Peasemarsh. 

Note. Identified with French specimens. 

37. Cardium subhillanum Leym. pi. 7. f. 2. a, b. 
Loc. Atherfield, Hythe. 

Note. Confounded with Cardium striatulum of the Mineral Conchology, in 
the list of fossils appended to Dr. Fitton's Memoir in the Geol. Trans., 2d 
ser. vol. iv. 

38. Cardium peregrinosum D'Orb. T. C pi. 239. f. 1, 2, 3. 
Loc. Atherfield. 

39. Cardium splicer oideum. Sp. nov. PI. 2. f. 8. 

C. testa longitudinaliter oblonga, subquadrata, tumida, 
tertia parte regulariter transverse sulcata, sulcis numerosis ; 
latere anali subhevigato, a parte sulcata sulco longitudinali 

Lon. 3i*2 ; lat. 2^- unc. 
Shell inflated, rather oblong and angulated posteriorly. The 
surface is marked by deep and regular transverse sulcations, 
which are cut off from the somewhat truncated anal side by a deep 
longitudinal furrow. The sulcations on a specimen of the above 
dimensions are about eighty in number. The shell is thick, espe- 
cially at the margins. The beak is very prominent. The cast is 

Loc Culver, Hythe, Sandgate. 

Note. The cast of this shell appears to have caused the insertion of Car- 
dium dissimile in the list of lower greensand fossils appended to Dr. Fitton's 
Memoir in the Geological Transactions, 4th vol. 2d ser. 

40. Cardium imbricatorium {Lueina sp.) Desh. in Leym. pi. 4. f. 2. 
Loc. Atherfield, Parham, Hythe. 

Note. I insert this species as a Cardium, on the authority of M. A. d'Orbigny. 
The British specimens have been identified by comparison with the French. 

41. Cardium Ibbetsoni. Sp. nov. PI. 2. f. 9. 

C. testa suborbiculari, subglobosa, postice subtruncata, 
longitudinaliter costata ; costis numerosissimis, minutis, planis, 
squamis transversis minutissimis gerentibus. (Nucleo laevi.) 

Lon. Oy^ ; lat. y 9 T unc. 

R 2 


This little Cardium is more or less rounded in outline, nearly 
^equilateral and inflated. The surface is marked by very fine 
longitudinal ribs, so small that the lens is required in order to see 
them distinctly. On these ribs are very minute transverse 
squamae. The margin is denticulated by the ribs, and the beaks 
are more or less acute and prominent. The cast is quite smooth. 

Loc. Common in the Cracker bed at Atherfield. 

42. Cardium Benstedi. Sp. nov. 

I have applied this name to a small suborbicular, subdepressed, 
longitudinally ribbed Cardium found at Maidstone by Mr. Bensted. 
It is very distinct from any other Lower Greensand species, but 
better specimens are required before it can be figured. 

43. Cardium \_Hemicardium~\ ? Austeni. Sp. nov. PI. 3. f. 3. 

C. testa, lanceolata, valde obliqua, carinata, latere anali 
truncata longitudinaliter striata ; striis in parte anali pro- 
fundioribus, reliqua testa obsoletis ; umbonibus prominentibus 
incurvis, submarginalibus. 

Lon. 0^- ; Lat. 1^ unc. 

This remarkable and beautiful fossil, which I have provisionally 
placed in the subgenus Hemic ardium of the genus Cardium^ is 
very oblique, convex, and sharply carinated obliquely, with re- 
curved submarginal beaks. The surface is marked by very fine 
longitudinal ribs, which in some specimens appear to be alter- 
nately larger and smaller. The carination bounding the abruptly 
truncated side is formed by one of these ribs, more prominent than 
the rest. 

Loc. Peasemarsh, Atherfield. 

44. Trigonia caudata Agassiz. (D'Orb. T. C. pi. 287.) Trigonia. 

scabra of British authors, not of Lamarck. 

Loc. Atherfield, Peasemarsh, Hythe, Shanklin. 

45. Trigonia carinata Agassiz. (T. harpa Desk, in Leym. 

pi. 9. f. 7.) 
Loc. Hythe, Culver. 

46. Trigonia aliformis Parkinson. (Sow. M. C. t. 44.) 
Loc. Atherfield, Parham, Shanklin, Sandgate. 

47. Trigonia spinosa Parkinson. (Sow. M. C. t. 86.) 

Syn. T. ornata of D'Orbigny. Identified by a comparison of 

Loc. Sellinge, Maidstone. 

48. Trigonia dcedalea Parkinson. (Sow. M. C. t. 88.) 
Loc. Atherfield, Reigate. 

Note. Specimens sent to M. d'Orbigny were identified by him with the 
Trigonia rudis of the Pala?ont >logie Frar^aise. 


49. Trigonia nodosa. (Sow. M. C. t. 507.) 
Loc. Hythe. 

50. Nucula scapha D'Orbigny, T. C. pi. 301. f. 1, 2. 

Loc. Hythe, Atherfield. 

Note. Identified by M. d'Orbigny. The surfaces of our specimens are 
transversely striated. The stria; are very minute, and are not represented in 
the figures of the French shell. 

51. Nucula spathulata. Sp. nov. PI. 3. f. 4. 

N. testa depressa, transverse lineari-laneeolata, valde in- 
asquilaterali, striata, striis transversis minutissimis, antice 
longe-rostrata, rostro angusto, extremitate rotundato, postice 
rotundata, angulo cardinali obsoleto. 

Lat. 0-Y2 > Lon. 0^ ; Lon. rost. -^ unc. 

A well-marked, spoon-shaped Nucula, much depressed, very in- 
equilateral and produced into a long narrow rostrum which has 
the extremity rounded, and is not at all carinated. Under the lens 
the surface is seen to be very finely striated transversely. 

Loc. Atherfield. 

52. Nucula antiquata Sow. M. C. t. 475. f. 4. 

Loc. Parham. (Casts.) 

53. Nucula impressa Sow. M. C. t. 475. f. 3. 
| >Loc. Parham, Atherfield. 

54. Nccula obtusa Sow. in Fitton, G. T., 2d ser. vol. iv. t. 17. 

f. 11.? {Nucula planata Desh. in Leym. according to D'Or- 

Loc. Atherfield. 

55. Area exaltata Nilson? (Goldfuss, pi. 122. f. 1 a, b. D'Orbigny, 

testa junior, T. C, pi. 308. f. 4, 5.) PL 3. f. 5. 

Syn. Area Gabrielis Leym. (identified by M. D'Orbigny.) 
Loc. Atherfield, Culver. 

56. Area Raulini (Cucullcea sp.) Leymerie, pi. 10. f. la, b. 

a. ribs on anterior extremity slightly developed or obsolete. 
Area Raulini D'Orb. T. C. pi. 310. f. 1—3. 

/3. ribs on anterior extremity, strongly marked. {A. Neo- 
comiensis D'Orb. T. C. pi. 310. f. 6. 8. ?) 

y. transverse striae strongly marked. A. marullensis D'Orb. 
T. C. pi. 310. f. 3. 5. 

Loc. Peasemarsh, Pulborough, Earlstoke, Atherfield, Hythe. 
The form /3 is most common, y is rare. 

r s 


57. Area securis (Cucullcea sp.) Leym. pi. 7. f. 6. (and 7.) 
Loc. Atherfield. The British specimens belong to the variety 

" A. major " of M. Leymerie. 

58. Area Dupiniana D'Orb. T. C. pi. 310. f. 9, 10. 

Loc. Peasemarsh. Excellently represented in the "Paleonto- 
logie Francaise." 

59. Area Carteroni D'Orb. T. C. pi. 309. f. 4. 
Loc. Peasemarsh, Atherfield. 

60. Area Cornueliana D'Orb. T. C. pi. 311. f. 1, 2, 3. 

Loc. Atherfield, Earlstoke, Pulborough, Hythe, Peasemarsh, 

Note. This species, which is very common in the Lower Greensand, has 
hitherto been confounded with the u Cucullcea glabra " of Parkinson and the 
Mineral Conchology, from Blackdown, which is certainly only the young of 
Area ( Cucullcea) fibrosa. 

61. Gervillia aviculoides Sow. M. C. t. 511. 

Loc. Atherfield, Pulborough. 

Var. f3. Valves very unequal. Gervillia anceps Desh. in Leym. 
pi. 10. f. 3. ? 

Loc. Peasemarsh. 

62. Gervillia solenoides Defrance. (Sow. M. C. t. 510. f. 1 — 4.) 
Loc. Shanklin. 

63. Gervillia linguloides. Sp. nov. PI. 3. f. 9. 

Gr. testa triangulari-lanceolata, obliqua, alata, carinata, con- 
centrice substriata, margine cardinali recto, margine frontali 
abrupte truncato ; umbonibus acutis, terminalibus. 

Lon. 0^ ; lat. |i unc. 

Shell triangularly lanceolate, very oblique, angularly carinate, 
with one side very abrupt and the other sloping, truncate at the 
extremity. Surface finely striated concentrically, or nearly smooth. 
Beaks terminal. Hinge resembling that of Gervillia aviculoides, 
the ligamental sulcations few and distant. A very remarkable shell 
resembling many Avicidce in form. 

Loc. Abundant and gregarious in the Cracker bed at Atherfield. 

64. Perna alceformis Sow. M. C. t. 251. 
Loc. Atherfield, Culver, Hythe. 

Note. The young shell is marked with strong radiating ribs, and is apt to 
be mistaken for an Avicula. 

65. Perna Mulleti Desh. in Leym. pi. 11. f. 1, 2, 3. 
Loc. Peasemarsh, Reigate, Atherfield. 

Note. On account of the importance of this fine species, figures of British 
specimens are given in Plate 1., showing it in a much more complete state than 
it has hitherto been represented. Fig. ]. is the exterior of the upper valve : 
j. 2. represents the hinge and interior : figs. 3. and 4. stages of growth. 


66. Avicula pectinata Sow. in Fitton, Gr. T. 2d ser. t. iv. pi. 14. 


Loc. Ingoldsthorpe, Parham, Risborough, Folkstone. 

67. Avicula lanceolata. Sp. nov. PL 3. f. 8. 

A. testa convexiuscula, subtriangulari, lanceolata, trans- 
verse undulato-substriata, ala oblique abbreviata, margine 
cardinali recto, umbonibus excentricis. 

Lon. max. 0^ ; lat. 0^ unc. 

Shell very oblique, lanceolate and depressed, tumid near the 
excentric beaks, eared at both sides. The posterior auricle does 
not extend quite to the length of the shell, and is not so strongly 
separated from the body of the shell as the anterior. The hinge 
line is not quite straight. The surface of the shell is marked with 
undulated, more or less obsolete striae ; the cast is smooth. 

Loc. Peasemarsh, Atherfield, Parham, Hythe. 

68. Avicula depressa. Sp. nov. PL 3. f. 7. 

A. testa depressa, late triangulari, alata, transverse undu- 
lato-sulcata, ala sinuata, margine cardinali recto, umbonibus 

Lon. 0^ ; lat. Ofi unc. 

A much depressed, broad, triangular shell, having the posterior 
auricle much developed and expanded, its edge being sinuated. 
The hinge margin is straight and the beaks are nearly terminal in 
consequence of the suppression or minute size of the anterior 
auricle. The surface is sulcated transversely, and the sulcations 
are undulate. 

Loc. Atherfield. 

69. Avicula ephemera. Sp. nov. PL 3. f. 6. 

A. testa depressa, lanceolata, laevigata, ala abbreviata, mar- 
gine cardinali recto, umbonibus subterminalibus. 

Lon. 0^- ; lat. 0^ unc. 

A small, delicate, lanceolate, much depressed species, with the 
posterior auricle produced into a short wing, and the anterior one 
very small. The surface appears to have been smooth. The hinge 
margin is straight, and the beaks, in consequence of the form of 
the auricles, nearly terminal. 

Loc. Atherfield. 

70. Inoeeramus eoncentricus Parkinson. (Sow. M. C. t. 305.) 

Loc. Near Blackgang Chine, Isle of Wight. (In Dr. Fitton's 

71. Inoeeramus, a species allied to Gryphoides, but much de- 

pressed. Not sufficiently perfect for certain determination. 

Loc. Pulborough. 

R 4 


72. Pinna restituta Hoeninghaus. (Goldfuss, pi. 138. f. 3.) 

Syn. Pinna tetragona Sow. M. C. t. 313. f. 1. (referred by 
mistake to P. tetragona of Brocchi.) Pinna JRobinaldina 
D'Orbigny (identified by M. d'Orbigny). Pinna sulcifera in 
Morris's Catalogue (by mistake, not P. sulcifera of Leymerie). 

Loc. Peasemarsh, Atherfield. 

73. Mytilus lanceolatus Sow. M. C. t. 439. f. 2. 
Var. M. edentulus Sow. M. C. t. 439. f. 1. 
Loc. Hythe, Atherfield, Peasemarsh, Parham. 

Note. Mytilus tridens and praelongus are both varieties of this species. (See 
G. T. 2d ser. vol. iv. p. 17. 

74. Mytilus (Modiolus) asper. (Modiola aspera Sow. M. C. t. 69. 


Syn. Modiola lineata. G. T. 2d ser. voL iv. pi. 14. f. 2. 
Loc. Hythe, Maidstone. 

75. Mytilus (Modiolus) Carteroni D'Orbigny, T. C. t. 337. f. 5, 6. 

Loc. Peasemarsh. 

76. Mytilus (Modiolus) bellus (Modiola sp.) Sow. in Fitton, G-. T. 

2d ser. vol. iv. pi. 11. f. 9. 

Syn. Mytilus Cornuelianus D'Orb. T. C. pi. 337. f. 10—12. ? 
Loc. Atherfield, Maidstone. 

77. Mytilus (Modiolus) simplex (Modiola sp.) Deshayes in 

Leymerie, pi. 7. f. 8. 

Loc. Atherfield. 

78. Mytilus (Modiolus) cequalis (Modiola sp.) Sowerby, M. C. 

t. 210. f. 2. 

Syn. Modiola Archiaci and M. bipartita Leym. 

Loc. Atherfield, Maidstone, Parham, Peasemarsh. 

Note. A very variable species, both as to degree of lobation and of striation. 

79. Lithodomus ? oblongus D'Orb. T. C. pi. 344. f. 4— 6. ? 
Loc. Atherfield, boring in the shells of Gryphcea sinuata* 

80. Lima semisulcata (Plagiostoma sp.) Nilson. (Sow. G-. T. 2d ser. 

vol. iv. t. 11. f. 10.) 

Loc. Reigate, Parham. 

81. Lima elongata (Plagiostoma sp.) Mantell. Sow. M. C. t. 559. 

f. 2. 

Syn. Modiola parallela. M. C. t. 9. Lima intercostata Du- 
jardin. Lima carinata Goldfuss. 

Loc. Atherfield, Maidstone, Hythe. 


82. Lima undata Desh. in Leym. pi. 8. f. 8. ? 

Loc. Maidstone ; and from Atherfield in Dr. Fitton's collection. 

83. Lima expansa. Sp. nov. PI. 3. f. 11. 

L. testa late ovata, convexiuscula, expansa, obliqua, radiato- 
costata, costis tenuibus distantibus. 

Lon. 1 unc. Lat. O^f unc. 

A broad, ovate, depressed shell, much expanded both above and 
below, oblique, the surface ornamented with fine distant longi- 
tudinal ribs. 

Loc. Hythe. 

84. Lima lingua. Sp. nov. PI. 3. f. 10. 

L. testa elongata, convexiuscula, subobliqua (lateribus sub- 
parallelis), radiato-costata (costis numerosis tenuibus), trans- 
verseque striata. 

Lon. 0^ unc. Lat. 0^ unc. 

Nearly allied to the last, but more elongated and narrow ; the 
surface ornamented with numerous fine longitudinal ribs crossed 
by transverse striae. It bears a close resemblance to the recent 
Lima tenera. 

Loc. Hythe. 

85. Pecten obliquus Sow. M. C. t. 370. f. 2. 
Syn. P. inter striatus Leym. pi. 13. f. 1. a, b. 
Loc. Reigate, Atherfield, Culver, Peasemarsh. 

86. Pecten quinque-costatus Sow. M. C. t. 56. f. 4 — 8. 

Loc. Hythe, Peasemarsh, Maidstone, Atherfield, Shanklin. 

87. Pecten orbicularis Sow. M. C. pi. 186. 

Loc. Risborough, Sandgate, Atherfield, Culver. 

88. Pecten circularis Goldfuss, t. 99. f. 10. ? ? 
Loc. Whale Chine, Isle of Wight. 

Note. The specimen in ihe Geological Society's museum, which T have 
referred with doubt to the species of Goldfuss, is a thick shell allied to P. orbi- 
cularis, which it resembles in form, but differs in the production, sinuation, and 
sulcation of one of the auricles of one valve. The auricles are unequal in each 
valve. The surface is worn ; but there are distinct concentric furrows and 
traces of fine regular ridges. It measures two inches and a half in length and 
the same in breadth. 

Ro'emer quotes this species from the corresponding strata of Hilsthon and 
Hilsconglomerat, but confounds it with Pecten cinctus of Sowerby, an oolitic 

89. Plicatula placuncea Lamarck. (Leym. pi. 13. f. 2.) 
Loc. Maidstone, Hythe, Atherfield. 


90. Hinnites Leymerii Desh. in Leym. pi. 14. f. 1. 
Loc. Atherfield. 

91. Ostrea carinata Lamarck. (Sow. M. C. t. 365.) 
Loc. Atherfield, Sandgate, Hythe. 

92. Ostrea prionota Goldfuss. t. 74. f. 8. 
Loc. Atherfield, Faringdon. 

93. Ostrea Leymerii Leym. pi. 13. f. 4. 
Loc. Atherfield. 

94. Gryphcea harpa {Exogyra sp.) Goldfuss, t. 87. f. 7. 

Var. (3. (Exogyra subplicata Leym. pi. 11. f. 4, 5.) 

Var. y. semiplicata. Edge of undervalve sinuated and adhering 
to other shells by a great portion of its surface. PI. 3. f. 12. 

Loc. Atherfield. 

95. Gryphcea conica (Exogyra sp.) Sow. M. C. t. 505. 
Loc. Parham, Atherfield, Peasemarsh. 

96. Gryphcea sinuata Sow. M. C. t. 336. 

Varieties. — " G. laevigata " Sow. M. C. t. 605. f. 4. 
" Exogyra subsinuata " Leym. 
" Exogyra Couloni " of Swiss geologists. 

Loc. Atherfield, Sandgate, Hythe, Boughton, Seabrook. 

97. Anomia convexa Sow. in Fitton, G. T. 2d ser. vol. iv. pi. 14. 

f. 7. 

Loc. Redhill, Atherfield, Shanklin. 

98. Anomia radiata Sow. in Fitton, G. T. 2d ser. vol. iv. pi. 14. 

f. 5. 

Loc. Atherfield, Sandgate. 

Note. Perhaps only a variety of the last species. Both are common, often 
adhering to Gryphasse and Ammonites. 

( To be continued). 





I. On the muddy deposits at the Mouths and Deltas of various 
rivers in Northern Europe, and the infusorial Animalcules 
found in those deposits. By Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. 

[From the Verhandl. der Konigl. Preuss, Ak. der Wissensehaften zu Berlin. 1843.] 

The Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin 
have, during the last two years, contained many interesting notices 
by M. Ehrenberg, on the extensive development of the skeletons 
of microscopic animalcules as a constituent part of the rocks of 
Central America and Western Asia. They are more or less 
abundant in all the limestones and cretaceous formations of these 
districts, as well as both in the Tripoli stones and blue marls of a 
more recent period, and in the oolitic limestones of an older age. 

One of the most interesting results as regards geological in- 
vestigations at which Professor Ehrenberg has arrived, is the cir- 
cumstance of having discovered in the mud now deposited at the 
mouths of large rivers, forms of microscopic life and infusoria 
identical even in species with those found in the fossil state in the 
oolitic and cretaceous formations in every quarter of the globe. 

Under these circumstances, we have thought it advisable to 
give a somewhat elaborate abstract of M. Ehrenberg's researches 
on this subject. 

On the 10th July, 1843, M. Ehrenberg read before the Roy. 
Acad, of Sciences of Berlin a paper entitled " Observations on the 
perceptible Influence of Microscopic Marine Organisation on the 
Soil of the Bed of the Elbe above Hamburgh." 

The author in this paper states, that having already, in 1839, 
remarked the influence of microscopic organic life on the marsh 
lands of Cuxhaven, he continued his examination of the humus of 
the marshes ; and amongst the numerous interesting results of 
these inquiries, none can be more important than those by which 
it appears that the microscopic animalcules of the Elbe, even at a 
considerable distance from its mouth, and as high up as Hamburgh, 
cannot be distinguished from those inhabiting the ocean. 

At the author's request, a friend at Gliickstadt had sent him in 
the preceding year several specimens of earth and soil taken from 
the Elbe district, and at various depths and distances from the 


river. Their examination produced the interesting and decided 
result, that the mud deposited by the Elbe, even at Gliickstadt, (a 
distance of upwards of forty English miles distant from the mouth 
of the river,) is completely tilled with the same microscopic marine 
animalcules, possessing siliceous or calcareous skeletons, which, ac- 
cording to a former report of the author, abound in the water at 
the mouth of the Elbe, near Cuxhaven, and many of which were 
figured in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy, in the year 
1840. Thus these organic forms, which are better preserved at a 
depth of several feet than on the surface, existed in the arable land 
of the valley of the Elbe, which has been gradually accumulating 
during many thousands of years, and in this way is explained the 
origin of this soil in a more satisfactory manner than has hitherto 
- been attempted. 

It was a matter of great interest to M. Ehrenberg to ascertain 
how far up the Elbe this appearance of the direct influence of the 
sea on recent formations of land (already known to extend as far 
as Gliickstadt,) could be traced. The author, therefore, procured 
several specimens of the mud of the river taken from three points 
near Hamburgh, and three-quarters of a league higher up the river. 
The examination of the river deposits at Gliickstadt and Ham- 
burgh has proved the existence there of fifty-eight different species 
of microscopic marine animalcules, mostly obtained in a livino- 
state, and associated with many freshwater forms. 

Of this number, twenty-three are entirely new, and chiefly of 
remarkable kinds, three of which seem to belong to new genera. 

The fifty-eight species thus obtained, consist of thirty-four 
species of siliceous-shelled Polygastrica, twenty species of calca- 
reous-shelled Polytlialamia, and four species of siliceous vegetable 
remains, Phyto lith a r ia . 

Several of the forms collected near Gliickstadt in the river mud 
still possessed their fresh ovaries, and must, therefore, have been 
taken alive. The specimens collected at Hamburgh were only the 
empty shells. 

Both series of observations give a great preponderance of marine 
life over that of freshwater, and the species inhabiting the latter 
are not described in the memoir, as they present no new forms. 
The author gives the following as the results of his observations : — 

1. The minute microscopic animals of the sea extend up the 
bed of the Elbe, (and this is probably the case, also, in all rivers 
directly connected with the ocean,) as far as the ebb and flood of 
the tide are perceptible. 

2. The flood-tide in the upper districts of the river, even where 
the salt taste is no longer perceptible, as above Hamburgh, does not 
consist merely of an accumulation of the river waters occasioned 
by checking its outflow, but is now proved to be due to the direct 
introduction of the sea water, probably under the river water, 
and extending, very distinctly, as far as eighty English miles 
above the mouth of the river. 

3. Since in the lower portion of the Elbe, the mud, consisting 
of a mass of clay and slime, which often interferes with the navi- 


gation, only accumulates so far up as the flood tide is perceptible ; 
but above this point, the bed of the river consists of pure siliceous 
and other sand, it is evident, that the cause of this singular phe- 
nomenon, which has hitherto not been sufficiently explained, is 
principally owing to organic conditions. It appears, in fact, that 
the mixture of river and sea water gradually kills vast multitudes 
of the minute organic bodies, and causes them to fall to the bottom, 
and form these accumulations. 

4. The marsh land of the lower district of the Elbe, below 
Hamburg, and, probably, of all rivers flowing into the ocean, and 
considered as humus, does not merely or even chiefly consist of 
matter brought down by the stream from distant regions ; and still 
less is it a local production of the minute animalcules existing in 
river water, but it is to a very considerable extent derived from 
organic beings existing in the ocean. 

5. If we deduct the admixture of fine sand as a matter of un- 
certain origin, we shall find, not only at Cuxhaven, near the mouth 
of the Elbe, but also at Giiickstadt, that from one quarter to one- 
third of the mass of fresh mud is owing to the influence of marine 
animalcules, and that above Hamburgh, as far as the flood tide ex- 
tends, the proportion is about half as great ; but it has been 
already shown, that what appears to be fine sand may also, in a 
great measure, be an altered state of organic siliceous shells. 

The author has obtained similar results from the examination of 
the mud of the Jahde in East Friesland and other places ; and in 
a subsequent communication read to the Berlin Academy on the 
27th November, 1843, he communicated the result of his further 
inquiries on the same subject, in the lower districts of rivers, par- 
ticularly the Elbe, the Jahde, the Ems and the Scheldt. 

In pursuance of his former investigations, the author proceeded 
to Hamburgh and Cuxhaven, for the purpose of personally ascer- 
taining the limits and extent of these phenomena. The river 
bed of the Elbe at Magdeburg, both on the shore and islands, 
consists of mere siliceous sand. Mud deposits of very slight 
extent are first seen in the neighbourhood of Hamburgh, where the 
river is divided by numerous islands into the Haasburg and Ham- 
burgh Elbe. 

At Hamburgh, the author satisfied himself that these masses, 
specimens of which supplied the groundwork of his former commu- 
nications respecting marine organic life in the Elbe, formed the 
chief integral mass of the islands known by the names of Reiher- 
stieg and Kohlbrand. The channel has a depth of 7 — 8 feet at 
the ebb, and rises at the flood 5 — 6 feet higher. The surface of 
the islands is, generally, on a level with high-water mark, but in 
many places it is about 5 feet higher. This gives a positive height 
of the accumulated mud in the neighbourhood of Hamburgh, of 15 
or 16 feet. The middle channel has a sandy bottom. 

Microscopic investigations have repeatedly shown, that in the 
very smallest portions of this mud the siliceous skeletons of 
marine animalcules are found, and that independently of all traces 
of organisation, which may, and even must, have become obliterated 


after death, a proportional mixture of organic and chiefly solid 
elements may be approximatively, if not quite accurately, ascer- 
tained. This mixture may be assumed as amounting to not less 
than aVth of the volume, so that in 20 cubic feet of matter from 
the Hamburgh islands, there exists not less than 1 cubic foot of 
animalcules, chiefly of marine origin, and provided with siliceous 

Another remarkable fact has resulted from these inquiries ; that 
whereas during the month of July only the dead empty shells were 
found near Hamburgh, the more recent researches have produced 
many living marine animalcules, preserving their yellow-brown 
and green ovaries in the natural healthy form and colour. The 
author mentions Coscinodiscus radiatus, Actinoptychus senarius, 
and Gallionella sulcata, as amongst the existing species found at 
the Reiherstieg near Hamburgh ; but he states that he has never 
found their forms in fresh water, either in the Elbe or in the Saale, 
and of the two first genera, which contain upwards of twenty 
species, none have ever yet been found in fresh water. 

M. Ehrenberg has ascertained by numerous inquiries, and from 
various experiments, that no trace of salt could be detected in the 
Elbe water, even at high tides, at Hamburgh, although such is the 
case at Gliickstadt. Consequently as, notwithstanding this perfect 
purity of the upper portion of the river water at Hamburgh, there 
can be no doubt as to a considerable deposition, and even con- 
tinued existence, of marine animalcules in this district, the author 
can only explain the phenomena by assuming, that at high tides 
the salt water not only drives back the fresh water, but that the 
brackish water from the mouth of the Elbe also forces itself up the 
stream with great power, in the manner of a wedge beneath 
the fresh water, only stopping there where the tide ceases to flow, 
probably near Zollenspieker or Lauenburg. 

Below Hamburgh, the influence of these minute animalcules in- 
creases, and it even appears that the alluvial soil owes its greatest 
fertility to their presence. The thickness of the bed in which 
they there occur seldom exceeds 5 or 6 feet, and in this there 
is much drift sand included ; but it remains still uncertain whether 
this so-called drift sand may not. itself sometimes be derived from 
the decay of siliceous -shelled animalcules and the siliceous portions 
of plants. 

The examination of other specimens from the Scheldt, near 
Antwerp, proved that there also existed in that river a similar 
relation between the sea and river formations. There were here 
found nine species of siliceous-shelled Potygastrica, and two species 
of calcareous -shelled Polythalamia. With the exception of three 
species, two of which were new, all these forms had been already 
observed in the Elbe, near Cuxhaven, and afterwards near Gluck- 
stadt and Hamburgh. 

It also appears from the examination of numerous specimens 
from East Friesland, the districts of the Jahde and the Ems, and 
the neighbourhood of Nordeney and other points of the coast, that 


the mud formation, deposited at the mouth of the Jahde, and the 
other localities, contains innumerable multitudes of the same cal- 
careous and siliceous -shelled animalcules as those existing in the 
Elbe ; and further, that the Ems as far as the strong flood tide rises 
(which, according to Dr. Pressel, extends to Halte and Weener), 
is like the Elbe, extremely rich in calcareous and siliceous- shelled 
microscopic marine animalcules, and that the rich slimy deposit is 
only observed so far as the flood tide rises. 

The author found in the mud taken out of the Ems, three- 
quarters of a league below Weener, and about forty miles from the 
North Sea, thirty-seven species of siliceous-shelled Polygastrica, 
and nineteen species of calcareous-shelled Polythalamia, most of 
which are the same as those found in the Elbe. The list, how- 
ever, contains nine new species of Polygastrica, and eight of 
Polythalamia. One of the Polygastrica constitutes, indeed, a new 
genus, and is particularly interesting as illustrating the nature of 
fragments found in the chalk marl of iEgina, and described in a 
former paper. In the mud of the Dollart from the harbour of 
Emden, most of these forms also occurred together with Miliola 
ovum and Rotalia egena. 

In the pure sea mud from Nordeney, the above described species 
of the Elbe, the Scheldt, and the Ems were most abundant, and 
were associated with a few peculiar and partly new forms. On 
the whole, there were twenty-eight species of Polygastrica, and 
nine of Polythalamia. Almost the same species occur again in 
the mud of the Jahde, near Hocksiel in Jeverland. 

All these mud deposits are quite superficial, and form the upper 
bed of the bottom of the sea, and, like drift sand, sometimes form 
islands above the action of the tides. The observations which have 
been made to a greater depth had, however, produced very in- 
teresting results, similar to those which have been already obtained 
near Gliickstadt. 

In Jeverland, at a depth varying from 15 to 29 feet under layers 
of earth called Watt-sand and Kiel (wet or quick sand, and clay), 
there is often found a black elastic bed 1 or 2 feet thick, known 
by the name of Darg. Piles driven 28 or 29 feet deep into the 
sand are checked on this elastic layer, but on breaking through 
it, are easily driven 12 or 18 feet deeper, Avithout further check. 
This formation, according to Herr von Thiinen, occurs in almost 
all the marsh lands between Jutland and Friesland, as well as in the 
English marshes far outside the present dikes, and a more accurate 
knowledge of this substance is greatly wanted, and is necessary 
for the proper understanding of the earliest formation of these 
marshes. The author had, in former years, observed a similar 
condition in the Baltic, near Wismar, where on the island Lang- 
Ort, near Pohl, a turf-like submarine substance in cakes of the size 
of a hand, is broken off and thrown on the north shore of the 
island, and is easily recognised as a half-dried mass, containing 
numerous microscopic marine animalcules. 

The Darg of East Friesland, taken from a depth of 15 feet, ex- 


hibits, when examined by the microscope, many vegetable remains, 
chiefly Fuci and Zostera, and with them are found twenty species 
of Polygastrica and one of Polythalamia, forming principal con- 
stituent parts. This Darg is, therefore, decidedly a marine, and 
not a freshwater formation, and contains the same forms of animal 
life as those which now inhabit the North Sea. 

Moreover, M. v. Thiinen has found at a depth of 4 and 8 feet 
in Jeverland, along the borders of an old island, a blue sand of great 
fertility, which is collected and mixed with the arable soil. The 
examination of this sand has proved that it also contains micro- 
scopic organised beings, with calcareous and siliceous shells in 
great abundance, and of the same genera and species which have 
been above described. Thus it is no freshwater formation, but a 
decided product of the sea. 

The author has also had an opportunity of examining specimens 
from the Holstein marshes, chiefly from Brunsbiittel on the Elbe, 
and partly from Wohrden, near the Eyder. At the latter spot, 
the marsh soil 3 feet below the surface contains twenty-seven 
species of siliceous-shelled Polygastrica, six species of siliceous 
vegetable fragments (Phytolitharia), and one species of Poly- 
thalamia, all of which, with two exceptions, Actwocyclus sol and 
Surirella linea, are identical with species now living in the North 
Sea at the mouth of the Elbe, near Cuxhaven, and most of which 
extend as far as Antwerp. 

The author has lately found many of the above-mentioned North 
Sea forms in the mud of the sea, and of the rivers near Liverpool 
and Dublin, and many of them are also found in the Mediterra- 
nean, where, however, the forms are, in general, very distinct. 

In conclusion, the author feels bound to remark that many of 
the very numerous forms which are found so extensively distributed 
along the coasts, and in the arable and marsh soils on the shores 
of the North Sea as well as in the bottom of the North Sea itself, 
are entirely wanting in the Baltic and along its coasts. Thus the 
Tripodisci, the Tetrapodisci, the Nonionina germanica, Auliscus 
and Cerataulus, together with Zygoceros and Geoponus Stella, 
borealis, have not been found any where in the Baltic, nor in any 
deposit along its flat shores, although most careful inquiries were 
made throughout the whole basin of the Baltic, in Mecklenburg, 
Pomerania, East Prussia, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. 

The author believes that, if these observations should, when 
further carried out, prove any local distinction of forms, in conse- 
quence of the greater extent to which most of the other species 
can be traced, it will also appear less probable that the basin of 
the Baltic Sea could ever have been in more direct communication 
with the North Sea than it is at present ; and, likewise, that the 
extensive beds of Infusoria at Kliecken, near Dessau, and at 
Oberohe in Luneburg, which overlie the brown coal sand, cannot 
by any possibility belong to the marine formations of the North 
Sea, and that the greater deposits of the Spree and the Havel at 
Berlin and Spandau, and on the banks of the Oder, near Freien- 


walde, are equally unconnected therewith, the latter only bearing 
comparison with the forms of the Baltic. 

The marshy grounds and extensive cultivated lands at river 
mouths near the ocean are therefore not entirely, and perhaps not 
even principally, B&pov rov irorafiov (a river gift). 

W. J. H. 

II. Account of various portions of the Glyptodon, an extinct 
Quadruped, allied to the Armadillo, and recently obtained from 
the tertiary deposits in the neighbourhood of Buenos Ayres. 

[Extracted by permission from the last, volume of the Descriptive Catalogue 
of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London.] 

Several portions, including the nearly entire skeleton of the hind 
foot of a singular edentate animal, were described by Professor 
Owen in a paper printed in the sixth volume of the " Transactions 
of the Geological Society " (p. 88. et seq.), and were referred by 
him to a new genus, called Glyptodon. Since the publication of 
this memoir the complete carapace of the animal has been obtained, 
and more lately a number of other remains, referred to three other 
species of the same genus from which the whole anatomy of this 
animal has been determined. The account given in the present 
article is taken, with scarcely any alteration, from a detailed 
description of such specimens of the Glyptodon as are now in the 
possession of the Royal College of Surgeons, recently published 
in the descriptive catalogue of the Museum of that institution by 
Professor Owen. 

The specimens in the Museum of the College consist of the 
cranium, the carapace, the tail, and the bones of the hind leg and 
foot of the Glyptodon clavipes, and of some fragments of the cara- 
pace of three other species. 

At least three species are also known by specimens now in the 
British Museum, one or two of which are identical with the species 
here described. The species described by Professor Owen are 
named respectively, Glyptodon clavipes, G. tuberadatus, G. or- 
natus, and G. reticulatus. 


1. Glyptodon clavipes. 

1. The cranium. The occipital condyle presents a convexity 
in the vertical direction, which describes more than a semicircle, 
and is slightly convex transversely, but is narrower in that direc- 
tion than it is in the Mylodon : it is directed in the Glyptodon 
backwards and obliquely outwards. The occipital foramen is very 
large and transversely elliptical ; its plane is inclined from below 


upwards and backwards 20° beyond the vertical line. The anterior 
condyloid foramen, though large, is relatively smaller than in the 
Mylodon, and is situated close to the anterior border of the condyle. 
The depression for the digastric muscle is perforated and separated 
from the condyle by a wider tract of the par-occipital than in the 
Mylodon, and the petro-mastoid below the digastric depression 
presents a rough convexity, bounded posteriorly by a transverse 
ridge of the par-occipital, instead of the hemispherical depression 
for the articulation of the stylo-hyoid bone, which characterises 
the skull of the Mylodon. The basi-occipital presents a median 
smooth concavity and two lateral rough depressions which are 
continued on to the basi-sphenoid, and indicate the insertions of 
very powerful " recti capitis antici majores : " the obliterated 
suture between the basi-occipital and basi-sphenoid forms a rough 
transverse ridge : the inequalities of this part of the basal region 
of the skull present a striking contrast to the broad, smooth, and 
even tract which the same part forms in the Mylodon.* The sides 
of the concave under surface of the basi-sphenoid are bounded by 
longitudinal ridges, which have been broken off in the specimen. 
The petrous bone terminates by a prismatic pointed process in the 
foramen lacerum, which here gives passage both to the jugular 
vein and internal carotid. The foramen ovale is circular, and of 
the same size as the anterior condyloid foramen. The foramen 
rotundum is one inch and a half in advance of the foramen ovale, 
and opens into the commencement of a deep and long groove 
which traverses the base of the pterygoid processes in the direction 
towards the ant-orbital foramen. The base of the zygomatic pro- 
cess supporting the articulation of the lower jaw is brought much 
nearer the occiput than in the Mylodon, and is separated from the 
petro-mastoid by a deep excavation perforated by wide apertures 
that seem to communicate with the tympanic cavity. The articular 
surface for the lower jaw is well-defined, narrow in the axis of the 
skull, much extended transversely, gently convex in both direc- 
tions. In the skull of a recent Armadillo {JDasypus octocinctus), 
the articulation for the lower jaw is almost flat and on a level with 
the roof of the posterior perforated cavity : in the Prionodon 
(Dasypus gig as Cuv.), the articular surface is slightly concave 
and extends longitudinally forwards from the posterior cavity : 
the zygomatic process of the malar bone bounds the outer and 
fore part of the surface, and extends forwards in the form of a 
laterally compressed plate of bone, and in the Das. sexcinctus 
forms a slight angular projection below the ant-orbital perforation. 
In the Grlyptodon the articulation for the lower jaw more resembles 
that in the ordinary Pachyderms, and is thus conformable with the 
deviation from the Edentate structure manifested by the bones of 
the foot. But the most remarkable characteristic of the skull of 
the Glyptodon, by which it differs from the existing Armadillos 
and approaches the Megatherioids, is the long and strong process 

* See Memoir on the Mylodon, 4to, pi. iv. 


which descends from the base or origin of the zygomatic process 
of the maxillary bone. This process is compressed, but in the 
opposite direction to that in the Mylodon, viz. from before back- 
wards, instead of from side to side : it measures five inches in 
length from the ant-orbital perforation ; one inch and three-fourths 
in breadth across the middle : the outer margin is entire, and as if 
folded back ; the lower half of the inner margin is slightly notched, 
the extremity of the process curves backwards. Both anterior and 
posterior surfaces bear strong marks of the attachment of muscular 
fibres. The small remaining portion of the maxillary bone on the 
inner side of this process shows portions of three deep sockets of 
the same diameter throughout, indicating the implantation of molar 
teeth by a single excavated base ; and showing two longitudinal 
ridges on both the outer and the inner side, which proves the 
teeth to have had the same fluted exterior which they present in 
the lower jaw, and of which the generic name of Glyptodon is 
expressive. The fractured anterior part of the " basis cranii " 
shows the large cavities for the olfactory bulbs and the remains of 
a very extensive cribriform plate, the organ of smell being very 
largely developed. 

The posterior or occipital surface of the skull slopes forward 
from the plane of the occipital foramen at an angle of 45° : in the 
small existing Armadillos it is vertical : in the Glyptodon it is 
divided by a strong median vertical ridge, and separated by a 
sinuous, thicker, transverse ridge from the upper surface of the 
skull. The posterior half of this region of the cranium is marked 
by the ridges bounding the origins of the temporal muscles, which 
almost meet along the middle or sagittal line. Part of the lamb- 
doidal suture is seen ; the other cranial sutures are obliterated. 
The temporal fossae are pierced by numerous large vascular fora- 
mina. The anterior parts of the temporal ridges diverge to the 
posterior angles of the supra-orbital ridges. The frontal or inter- 
orbital part of the upper surface of the cranium is broad, and 
nearly flat, smooth and slightly concave at its posterior half, 
slightly convex, rough and perforated by vascular foramina at its 
anterior half. The most prominent parts, above the orbits, are 
most rugose and indicate a more intimate adhesion to the super- 
incumbent osseous dermal helmet. The lacrymal foramen is 
pierced immediately in front of the anterior border of the orbit. 

The difference in the development of the temporal muscles 
manifested by the Glyptodon and Mylodon, in the position of the 
ridges on the fossil cranium, indicates a corresponding difference 
in the power of mastication and in the density of the alimentary 
substances habitually selected by each species : the greater pro- 
portion of hard dentine in the teeth of the Glyptodon, and the 
greater number of the teeth, which appears to have been thirty- 
two, eight on each side of both jaws, coincide with the characters 
of the cranium and support the inferences thence deducible. 

2. The Carapace. It is composed of thick, pentagonal ossicles 

s 2 











Z 4 


united together at their margins by sutures : smooth on the inner 
surface where the sutures are most conspicuous, rough and sculp- 
tured on the external surface according to a definite pattern 
characteristic of the species, the whole forming a symmetrical, 
oval, convex, bony case or shell which covered and defended the 
upper and lateral parts of the entire trunk of the animal. 
The following are the dimensions of this carapace : — 

Length, following the curve of the back - 

Ditto in a straight line, or the chord of the arc 
Breadth, following the curve of the middle of the back 
Ditto in a straight line, or the chord of the arc 

Ditto of the anterior outlet or arched margin at the base of") 1 _ 

the arch - - - - - - -J 

Ditto of the posterior outlet, at do. - - - 1 8 

The component ossicles support on their outer surface a central, 
large, subpentagonal or subcircular flattened eminence, surrounded 
generally by five or six smaller discs ; both being rough, but espe- 
cially the peripheral ones. In the ossicles near the margins of the 
carapace the middle eminence increases, whilst the peripheral 
tubercles diminish or disappear. At the anterior margin the 
middle eminence extends outwards and forwards as a transversely 
oblong obtuse projection ; at the lower margins near the posterior 
part of the carapace it extends outwards in the form of an angular 
process : the ossicles at the posterior margin are the largest, and 
have a pentagonal shield-shaped figure ; the two smaller sides 
being wedged into the interspace of the two ossicles of the penulti- 
mate row. 

None of the ossicles are modified, as in the smaller Armadillos, 
to form transverse bands connected together by moveable joints, 
and allowing the carapace to be closed over the retracted head and 
legs : such a defensive modification of the bony armour was not 
required for the gigantic G-lyptodon. 

There are forty-four transverse series of ossicles in the present 
carapace which extend from above, downwards and obliquely back- 
wards : the longest series at the middle and broadest part of the 
carapace contain each seventy ossicles ; the number gradually 
decreasing, as the carapace contracts in width towards the two 
extremities, the anterior margin being composed of sixteen ossicles, 
the posterior one of twenty -five ossicles : the total number of these 
dermal bones may be estimated at above two thousand in the cara- 
pace of the trunk of the Glyptodon clavipes. To these, in the 
consideration of the dermo-skeleton of the extinct species, must 
be added the casque defending the head and the verticillate armour 
of the short and thick tail. 

3. The tail. The fossil tail of this animal measures one foot 
six inches in length, is almost circular at its base, and becomes 
slightly depressed towards its apex ; it is gently curved with the 
concavity upwards through its whole extent, and consists of a 


series of caudal vertebrae inclosed in an inflexible sheath composed 
of closely united dermal ossicles of various forms and sizes, but 
disposed in a regular and beautiful pattern. The osseous substance 
of the sheath increases in thickness from half an inch near its 
base to one inch and three quarters near its obtuse apex. The 
dermal ossicles are united to the internal skeleton of the tail, and 
defended from outward pressure by processes which radiate from 
the bodies of the caudal vertebrae. The dermal armour consists 
of central, large, or principal ossicles, and peripheral, small, or 
accessory pieces, the latter occupying the interspaces of most of 
the larger ossicles in a single series. The larger ossicles differ in 
size, increasing as they approach the end of the tail, and with 
great regularity, where they form the two lateral series, which 
terminate by a pair of large, sub-elliptic, thick, hollow ossicles, 
which inclose the end of the tail like a bivalve shell, defending 
this part when dragged along the earth and even enabling it to 
pierce the soil like an implement sheathed with iron. The number 
of the lateral plates on each side of the considerable portion of the 
tail preserved is nine ; from the first of these to the fourth the 
number of intermediate principal ossicles below each pair of 
lateral plates is six of nearly equal size ; beyond this they decrease 
to four and three in number. At the superior interspace of the 
two lateral series there are six sub-equal principal ossicles between 
each pair of lateral plates as far as the fourth ; they then decrease 
to five and four in number, those at the centre being of smallest 

The circumference of the base of the tail is fourteen inches, that 
of the apex at the interspace of the penultimate and last lateral 
plates ten inches. The length of the last lateral plate is three 
inches and a half, its breadth is three inches. 

An anterior caudal vertebra is another interesting fossil with 
reference to this part. The specimen exhibits part of the anterior 
border of the verticillate bony dermal covering or sheath of the 
tail. This covering was attached to the vertebra by a close syn- 
desmosis connecting the extremities of the processes which radiated, 
like the spokes of a wheel, from the centrum or body ; the muscular 
and ligamentous tissues, Avhich occupied the interspaces now filled 
by the matrix or soil formation in which the fossil was imbedded, 
would also form a medium of attachment between the endo- and 
exo-skeletons of the tail. The length of the body of this vertebra 
is two inches and a half : the diameter of the articular surface of 
the body is one inch and a half. 

2. Glyptodon ornatus, Owen. . 

This species is indicated by a portion of a carapace, including 
four or five dermal ossicles of a smaller species of Glyptodon than 
the one already described. The outer surface of the ossicles is 
relatively smoother, and the central disc smaller as compared with 

s 3 


the peripheral discs, which are seven in number in each ossicle, 
and give its exterior surface the figure of a rosette. 

This specimen was obtained from the tertiary deposits near the 
Rio Matanza, about twenty miles to the south of the city of 
Buenos Ayres. 

3. Glyptodon reticulatus, Owen. 

This animal must have been a gigantic Armadillo, as large as 
the G. clavipes, but differing in the sculpturing of the external 
surface of the component ossicles, in which the peripheral raised 
portions are of equal size with the central one, making the whole 
exterior appear to be impressed by channels in the form of a net- 
work. Hence the name by which the species is indicated. 

4. Glyptodon tuberculatus, Owen. 

This species is determined from a fragment of the carapace of 
a gigantic extinct Armadillo, nearly equalling in thickness the 
preceding specimen, but having the outer surface of the ossicles 
divided into much more numerous elevations, separated by nar- 
rower channels which unite to form a closer net-work : each emi- 
nence or tubercle, of which there are between forty and fifty on 
each ossicle, has a punctate surface. 

There is also a fragment of the carapace of the Glyptodon 
tuberculatus, in which the component ossicles are square -shaped, 
and, although the sutures are close on the smooth internal surface, 
yet the tuberculated external surfaces of the ossicles are divided 
by deep channels. The size and shape of the tubercles are so 
similar to those in the foregoing specimen as to lead to the sus- 
picion that the different form of the ossicles may have depended 
on a modification of a particular part of the carapace. The ana- 
logy, however, of the Glyptodon clavipes, in which species the 
specimen in the Museum of the College affords the opportunity 
of studying the extent of modification to which the constituent 
ossicles are subject in the entire carapace, militates strongly against 
the supposition that the various sculpturing exhibited in this and 
the other specimens above described could have characterised par- 
ticular parts of the carapace of the same species. 

This specimen was obtained from the tertiary deposits in the 
Pampas of Buenos Ayres. 

III. On the Boulder Formation and on Diluvial Scratches in 
Denmark and part of Sweden. By Gr. Forchhammer. 

[From Poggendorf's Annalen, bd. 58. s. 609.] 

The several formations of clay, sand, and boulders, all compre- 
hended under the general term " Boulder formation," have lately 
occupied the attention of geologists. For the study of the Scandi- 


navian boulders, it would be difficult to find a country which 
affords so much assistance in solving the most difficult problems on 
the subject as Denmark, where an extensive line of coast offers 
numerous opportunities of obtaining an insight into all the circum- 
stances relating to the rocks of that country. I have occupied 
myself for many years in endeavouring to make out the geological 
relations of Denmark with regard to this matter, and I may be 
allowed to state at the outset, that the notion of this boulder form- 
ation being a mere surface phenomenon is quite incorrect, since 
it has reference to the whole tertiary period, even reaching so far 
back as the time of the deposit of the newer cretaceous beds. It 
will be necessary therefore to recapitulate briefly the relations of 
the cretaceous rocks in Scandinavia. 

The carbonaceous deposits of Schonen and Bornholm, which 
contain a great number of iron-stone bands, and which from their 
fossils might be referred either to the Lias or the Jurassic period, 
are succeeded at Bornholm by another carbonaceous deposit with- 
out iron-stone, and containing no other fossil than Fucus intri- 
catus. This newer deposit seems identical with the Carpathian 
sandstone and other fucoid sandstones of the Alpine chain, and 
does not belong to the lower part of the cretaceous series ; but 
upon this bed, which has not yet been found in Schonen or in Den- 
mark proper, the upper greensand is superimposed unconformably, 
the lower series being frequently inclined at high angles (50° or 
70°) towards the old rocks in the vicinity, while the overlying 
rocks dip only at an angle of about 10°, and that in the opposite 

The upper greensand appears on the south-west coast of Born- 
holm and in Schonen, where it has been described by Nilson. It 
consists partly of sandy and partly of marly beds, whose fossils are 
the same in both of these districts. The greensand is succeeded 
at Bornholm in regular development and conformable stratification 
by the marly limestone of Arnager, resembling very closely the 
Saxon Planer. In Schonen there only appear in detached por- 
tions masses of limestone consisting of fragments of shells and 
corals, and these are probably referable to the upper greensand. 

During the past winter I have been so fortunate as to discover 
in the neighbourhood of Kjoge in Seeland a greensand, which 
most probably belongs to this part of the cretaceous period. The 
presence of the easily worn schists of this formation explains the 
deep intersection of the Kjoger Bay, between the hard Saltholm 
limestone of Amack and the fire-stone bands of Stevens Klint. The 
abundant springs of Brondkilde, Rothschild, &c, belong to the 
same formation, and all of them strike S.E. and N.W. 

In the south-western part of Schonen, on the island of Saltholm, 
in Sunde, below Copenhagen, and in Jutland, in the neighbour- 
hood of Greenaae, a band of limestone appears which may be 
traced by detached fragments and reefs in the Cattegat, between 
the points before mentioned. This limestone, which is hard and 
compact, seems, according to its geographical position, to underlie 

s 4 


the white chalk, but it has not yet been found in direct association 
with any member of the cretaceous group, although its fossils show 
it to belong to that period. 

The white chalk forms a considerable part of the south of See- 
land and of Moen, the chalk of Stevens Klint dipping away in 
those localities at a very small angle to the south-west, while the 
chalk of Moen is considerably upheaved. The second principal 
part of the white chalk may be traced from Mariagerfjord, across 
the Liimfjord to the western sea. The south-eastern part of this 
portion of the chalk at Mariagerfjord and eastern Liimfjord is 
regularly interstratified with horizontal layers of fire-stone, whilst 
the north-western part at the western Liimfjord, and at the North 
Sea, are very irregularly elevated, and, as at Moen, the boulder 
formation is made up of its fragments. In this most northerly part 
of the chalk formation numerous landslips occur, and sorne^ years 
ago the Norr-See in this neighbourhood was completely emptied 
by one of these slips occurring in its bed without any apparent 
outlet being discovered for the swallowed up waters. The whole 
district must be completely undermined with subterraneous canals, 
and the inhabitants conduct the drainage of their fields into the 
funnel-shaped hollows of the landslips, where the torrents poured 
down during the most tremendous storms, and the sudden melting 
of the snows in spring, all instantly disappear. Besides these prin- 
cipal portions, the chalk is also seen in detached points near Steen- 
lose in north Seeland and near Itzehoe in Holstein ; and these facts 
considered in connection with its re-appearance at Heligoland and 
Liineburg, prove that the whole country rests upon a cretaceous 
basis, although it is only brought to the surface by local distur- 

In the cliff of Stevens Klint, the sequence of the newer rocks of 
the cretaceous formations is very clearly seen. It is as follows : — 
On the white chalk there reposes a formation of slaty clay, only 
a few inches thick, but extending over the whole country so far 
as can be judged by considering the places at which these newer 
cretaceous rocks are exposed. It is characterised by a vast mul- 
titude of the fragments' of fishes, which, however, are too imperfect 
to allow of their being very distinctly made out. Next follows a 
limestone which is from 1 to 2 feet thick only in this spot (Stevens 
Klint), but at least 40 feet thick in the hill of Faxoe, a few miles 
distant, where it is exhibited as a perfect coral reef. In the 
north-west of Jutland, this bed re-appears in the form of a thin 

Another limestone succeeds this at Stevens Klint, which is made 
up of calcareous sand, almost exclusively composed of fragments of 
corals together with fragments and well-preserved individuals of 
other fossils of the chalk. This, which is called in Jutland Liimsteen, 
and which I propose to call " coralline chalk," is quite different 
from the underlying strata of the cretaceous group ; and the sepa- 
rate strata may be traced in undulating beds through the whole 
thickness of the formation in such a way that the same unfractured 


stratum, which in one place is the uppermost, in another, at no 
great distance, is the lowermost. 

This kind of false stratification is seen in recent accumulations 
on our own coast, under certain circumstances. 

View of thk Cuff at Stevens Klint. 

The annexed diagram represents a portion of the cliff of Stevens 
Klint. Here (a) represents the white chalk, with nearly horizontal 
thick layers of firestone ; (b) is the slaty clay and Faxoe lime- 
stone ; (c) the coralline chalk with its curious contortions of strata ; 
and (d) a conglomerate made up of great angular lumps of the 
coralline chalk and firestone, cemented by a calcareous paste. 

As there is no mark of disturbance of the subjacent rocks in 
that cliff, I suppose that the undulating stratification arises from 
the material having been deposited in a very much agitated sea, 
in the condition of pounded fragments, derived from the degrada- 
tion of rows of coral reef parallel to the direction of the mountain 
chain, or rather of its axis of old rocks. This view is rendered 
more probable by examining a formation of the same age as the 
coralline chalk, which forms a zone parallel to it to the south-west 
of the chain. This bed is a limestone resembling chalk in colour, 
but which cannot be used to write with ; it seldom contains fossils ; 
and though not horizontal, is by no means so strongly undulating 
as the coralline chalk, and is often intermediate in position between 
this latter rock and the white chalk. 

I look upon it as formed out of the finer particles of the pounded 
reef, and deposited at a greater distance than the coralline chalk 
from the spot where the degradation of the coral reef was going on. 
It has the same relation to the coralline chalk as the marshes on 
our western coast have to the sandy sea-shore ; and it seems clear 
that the disturbing force proceeding from the Scandinavian moun- 
tains in one place aid in the formation of the coral reefs, but 
tend also in another quarter to destroy these solid masses of 

* M. Forchhammer considers that the dependence of the existence of coral 
reefs on volcanic operations going on beneath the sea is an established fact, and 
that the coral polyps could only obtain the necessary supply of carbonate of 
lime to continue their operations by means of a considerable evolution of carbo- 
nic acid. He also thinks that the forces which elevated Scandinavia first exhi- 


The formation resting immediately on the cretaceous beds is one 
which covers by far the greater part of Denmark. It is the im- 
portant Brown coal series, of which there are three great deposits. 
The one of these farthest from the mountains, and that which is 
the most regularly stratified, extends from Nissumfjord to the 
south of Liimfjord, on the ridge of the land, and on the west coast 
as far as the Elbe ; it re-appears through the gypsum upheaved 
near Liineburg, and unquestionably forms a large part of the 
Luneburg common. The uppermost bed consists of ferruginous 
sand and a loose sandstone ; and below this are thick beds of clay 
and marl, occasionally including unusually hard marly limestone. 

Alum earth is. also very common, and in detached spots there is 
found a snow-white sand with mingled white clay, abounding with 
glimmering particles ; while in the middle of Jutland by Them, 
beds of brown coal appear in sand. The great abundance of brown 
coal in this formation is best shown, however, by the fact that the 
"Western Sea throws up this substance along the whole line of coast 
from Liimfjord as far as the Elbe. There can be no doubt also, 
that the amber belongs to this formation, since the amber is thrown 
up in the same places in which the brown coal appears, and to 
such an extent, that about 3000 pounds weight are annually pro- 
cured. The clay and limestone of this formation, and sometimes 
also the sandstone, contain fossils which mark the age of the de- 
posits to be identical with that of the sub-Apennine group. Among 
the most important of these are, — 

Cassis testa, Pleurotoma cataphracta, 

Cassidaria echinophora, Dentalium striatum, 

Nucula comta, Trochus agglutinans, 

glaberrima, Triton anus, 

Fusus corneus, Isocardia cor, 

together with another Isocardia somewhat different, and a Rostella- 
ria very much resembling R. pes pelicani. There are also found 
crabs overgrown with species of Balanus,&ji& the bones and vertebra 
of Cetaceans. The fossils are, however, on the whole not very com- 
mon, and chiefly appear heaped together on the south-eastern side 
of the island of Sylt. On this island the members of the formation 
before described are seen upheaved by an elevation corresponding 
to that of the island of Heligoland, and striking N. N.W. and 
S. S. E., the beds dipping towards the E. at angles varying from 

bited themselves by a liberation of carbonic acid providing material for the coral 
reefs. Afterwards, however, the forces increased and elevated the mountain 
chain, the powerful waves thus produced destroying the coral reefs and depositing 
the coarser fragments, as coralline chalk and the finer mud, at a greater distance 
from the centre of disturbance as newer chalk. 

This he supposes to be the first result produced by the elevation of the Scan- 
dinavian mountains in the way of filling up the bed of the sea from the sub- 
sequent elevation of which Denmark was formed. Rolled Scandinavian rocks 
are not found in the coralline chalk, where we rarely find any thing larger than 
grains of sand and very small stones, (p. 614.) 


15° to 80° This whole western part contains only small boulders, 
and consists almost entirely of fine-grained sandstone, made up of 
the quartz rock which so greatly abounds in the transition rocks. 
Firestone also occurs. 

The case is quite different on the coast of the Cattegat. On 
the island of Seeland the Brown coal formation appears in the 
north-west at Cape Refsnaes, and on the north-western side of the 
island of Fuhnen, on the north-eastern side of the duchy of 
Schleswig, and on the eastern side of Jutland in the island of 
Samsoe, and again on the south-western shore of the Cattegat. 
The arenaceous members of the formation are here entirely absent, 
and the rock consists of clay, which is sometimes of fine lami- 
nated texture, and of variegated colours (blue, green, and red), 
and sometimes of a black and brown colour, and glimmery appear- 
ance, forming an excellent alum shale, and containing imbedded 
pyrites. Below this are limestones, and here and there kidney- 
shaped masses of radiating heavy spar, very much like Bologna 
spar, and not seldom including masses of corals. Carbonate of 
iron and thick brown spar likewise appear, and many crystals of 
aragonite are distributed through the hard strata. The beds of 
this series are variously elevated, but always by local elevations, 
so that no general law of the disturbances can be discovered. 

I now proceed to give an example of the different contents of 
the strata of this interesting group, as they appear in the neigh- 
bourhood of Fredericia. 

The finely laminated clay is here curved and bent in the way 
which one sometimes observes in gneiss. A little hill, near the 
town, is capped by a bed of newer date (the boulder clay), which 
appears to have suffered no change, and it is clear that the prin- 
cipal disturbance must have occurred between the deposit of the 
Brown coal and that of the boulder sand. It is worthy of remark 
that the relative proportion of fragments of the cretaceous rocks 
is always very small, varying from eighteen per cent, in northern 
Fuhnen to twenty-five per cent, in other places ; the rest is made 
up of about fifty per cent, of the old rocks ( Urgebirge), and thirty 
per cent, of transition rocks ( Uebergangsgebirge). This is singular, 
since the Brown coal formation rests immediately upon the rocks 
of the cretaceous group, and one might therefore have expected 
that many fragments of the latter would be included, but such is 
not the case; and the newer deposit of the boulder clay is much 
richer in this respect, containing fifty per cent, of cretaceous rocks. 
It is also worthy of notice that only that part of the Brown coal 
formation, which flanks the western edge of the Scandinavian 
mountains, contains these boulders, and also that while not one 
single specimen of Pecten is found in the whole of the western 
Brown coal system of Jutland, fossils of this genus are very com- 
mon in the Cattegat system, other species of shells however (e. g. 
Nucula laevigata, JV. comta, and Pleurotoma oblong a) belonging to 
both, and apparently proving the contemporaneity of the two 
deposits. The cause of this peculiarity, viz. the absence of the 


Pectens, may have some connection with the abundance of amber 
and brown coal in these localities, the cause being that the western 
part of the formation was deposited on the nearly level shores of a 
sandy country, while the brown coal of the Cattegat was derived 
from a district occupied by the old rocks, which formed the im- 
mediate shores of a deep sea. 

The third system of the Brown coal formation is exhibited on 
the islands of Mors and Fuur, in Liimfjord, and at several places 
on the western shores of the fjord. The deposits of this part con- 
sist of black clay and black unconsolidated sandstone, resting on 
black limestone, these beds being overlaid by a very thick bed of 
white infusorial siliceous earth, with subordinate layers of ferru- 
ginous limestone, the whole being finally covered up by a yelloAv 
sandstone and conglomerate. The stratification of the whole is 
greatly disturbed. 

This formation is of freshwater origin, and contains insects, 
fragments of freshwater fishes, and an immense multitude of a 
small species of Spirorbis; but its relation to the marine beds of 
western Jutland is evident in several places, strata of brown 
coal, containing Cassidaria echinophora, appearing in the island of 
Mors, and a black limestone, with Nucula glaberrima, in Thye. 
Boulders are only found in the uppermost or sandy member of 
this series, and are there very rare. 

The next great division of the boulder formation of Denmark I 
have called " Boulder clay." It includes clays of yellow and blue 
colour, and marls and sand, and throughout the whole, boulders 
are distributed whose dimensions vary from the size of several 
hundred cubic feet to that of a grain of sand. This formation has 
been traced to the depth of several hundred feet, and the boulders 
are distributed throughout the entire mass, their occurrence being 
unquestionably not merely a surface phenomenon, but extending to 
the deepest part of the series ; and the more common appearance of 
the boulders at the surface is owing to the fact that the finer por- 
tions have been washed away by a more recent denudation, which 
however was not sufficiently powerful to remove the larger 

Of the series now under consideration, the yellow and blue clay 
with boulders is very rarely stratified, but here and there a slaty 
clay appears without boulders, and the sandy portions generally, 
although by no means always, exhibit stratification. 

The irregularity of the interior of this deposit shows itself in 
the external surface, — the whole forming a much intersected, hilly 
district, without any regular chain being traceable, and the fertile 
soil of the trough-like valleys is thickly covered with beech trees, 
or the land is turned into corn-fields or used for pasture. This 
formation is distributed here and there over most parts of Den- 
mark, but covers entirely the southern part of the island of Seeland, 

* On the cliffs of Visborg in the island of Samsoe this alternation of finer 
with coarser boulders is clearly seen repeated as many as four times. 


almost the whole of Fiihnen, most of the Danish islands of the 
Eastern Sea, except Bornholm and the east coast of the peninsula 
of Randers as far as Lubeck. In the duchy of Schleswig, the 
beds of it so alternate with those of the Brown coal formation, that 
no distinct limit can be traced, and I should thence conclude that 
its oldest part is of the sub-Apennine date ; although, on the other 
hand, a blue clay, sometimes with and sometimes without boulders, 
is found also in the duchy of Schleswig and in other places, which 
contains, in great abundance, fossils of a much newer period ; 
among which are Cyprina islandica, Corbula nucleus, and the 
vertebras of fishes. This blue clay is much used for brick-making, 
and, in some of the pits in which it is dug for this purpose, it is 
found to alternate with a boulder clay, the beds being inclined at 
a high angle, but dipping in various directions and at various 
degrees of inclination. Deep wells sunk in some of these pits 
near Apenrade, in the duchy of Schleswig, have sometimes given 
off suddenly large quantities of carbonic acid gas ; and, on one 
occasion, in 1841, three men lost their lives from this cause in a 
well they were digging, and which they had left the night before 
free from gas. The gas remained from April to August in this 
well, and rose and fell according to the state of the barometer, rising 
as the mercury in the barometer sank. 

The distribution of the boulders in the boulder clay formation 
is very important. Blocks, several cubic feet in content, abound 
throughout : but none are so large as the remarkable boulder on 
the east coast of Fiihnen which, in 1840, was standing 11 feet 
above the ground, and measured 105 feet in circumference, but 
which has since been shown to be embedded in the earth to a 
considerable depth, 10 feet more having been now exposed, and the 
circumference continuing to increase. 

All the larger blocks are of granite, granitic gneiss, porphyry, 
syenite, greenstone, and quartz rock. Among the boulders of 
smaller size firestone and fragments of the chalk formation begin 
to appear and constantly form a larger proportion of the whole as 
the size of the boulders diminishes. In order to compare the con- 
tents of the boulders of different formations at different places, 
I assumed, as mean sizes, those between the dimensions of the 
closed single hand and the two hands together ; and I have now 
made calculations with regard to several hundred from different 
parts of the country which have conducted me to unexpected 

In the line of junction between the limestone of Saltholm and 
that very similar limestone which appears in the neighbourhood of 
Greenaae in Jutland the boulders of the Saltholm limestone are 
so common that upwards of 20,000 tons of them are annually 
burnt for lime. The moment, however, that the line of junction 
is passed, the boulders of this rock become rare, and soon dis- 
appear ; so that since we cannot but assume that this bed continues 
in the same direction beneath the other, it results that these boul- 
ders have been very little removed from their parent rock. On 


the island of Langeland, especially on its southern part, fragments 
of the transition rocks average 35 to 40 per cent., taking those 
which have the dimensions before alluded to, and this proportion 
continues as far as South-eastern Holstein, but towards the north 
it diminishes rapidly, and in South Fuhnen it is hardly 20 per 
cent., while still farther to the north it is yet smaller. 

In middle and northern Seeland, in part of Fuhnen, and the 
northern part of Jutland, the rocks of the chalk formation form 
about one half of the whole number, and in some places increase 
to 70 per cent. ; while in two spots, in looking for these boulders, 
I have found the cretaceous rocks in situ where their presence had 
not before been suspected. On the western banks of the Liimfjord 
the transition rocks again appear, and reach to a proportion of 
40 per cent, or more'; but there are here porphyry, syenite, and 
transition sandstone evidently belonging to the northern Christiania 

Advancing southwards from the Liimfjord towards the Brown 
coal formation, the porphyry is seen to disappear gradually, while 
the transition sandstone increases so much that 76 per cent, of the 
whole number of boulders are of this material, and the rocks of 
the cretaceous series are either totally absent or are reduced to a 
very small proportion. In the western part of Schleswig the former 
(the sandstone) diminish rapidly, while the latter (the cretaceous 
boulders) increase, and in the middle of Holstein, near Itzehoe, the 
chalk comes out to the day. 

If we consider these relations more closely we shall find that the 
cretaceous rocks and limestone of this series cannot have been 
transported from the Scandinavian peninsula, but are derived 
from the actual rocks of the country ; and that they cannot have 
been drifted from any great distance is proved by the enormous 
increase in the proportion of cretaceous boulders near the outcrop 
of the chalk. Of the innumerable local disturbances which have 
thus broken into fragments the various fundamental rocks of the 
country, there have been however many examples already given, 
and many more might easily be added, and they have taken place 
exactly at the period of the boulder clay, which, of all parts of the 
boulder formation, is the richest in large blocks. It is therefore 
highly probable that these boulders of the old rocks have not 
travelled from Sweden, but have been broken and torn off from a 
great mass of granite which was actually in situ, and this result is the 
more probable if it is considered in what way the Scandinavian gra- 
nitic chain disappears in Swedenbeneath the newer formations, being 
first partially capped with fragments of chalk and afterwards lost 
sight of entirely under the boulder clay towards the S. W. ; the 
granitic gneiss, however, re-appearing at intervals, and generally 
at a lower level. It is worthy of notice also that this boulder clay 
with large blocks only appears extensively in the eastern part of 
the country, in connection with the Brown coal formation just in 
that spot in which the strata of this latter series are often vertical, 
and seldom less inclined than at an angle of 45°, whilst the more re- 


gularly lying Brown coal series of Western Jutland is seldom 
covered with the boulder clay, and then only at intervals. Now, 
since also in the only place in the western system where we know 
of the existence of greatly inclined strata of the Brown coal 
series, namely, on the island of Sylt, it is also covered with a thick 
bed of boulder clay : it appears clearly made out that the cause 
of the deposit of this bed was identical with that which has 
disturbed the strata of the Brown coal series. With reference to 
this point it is also not unimportant to notice that the boulder clay 
of Sylt contains so many fragments of true lava, that the in- 
habitants of the island have remarked it, and designated it by the 
name of Bimmstein (pumice). Carrying out this view, the presence 
of calcareous and schistose fragments of the old rocks, in several 
spots where they are so common that attempts have been made to 
reach the supposed subjacent rocks themselves, is an important 
fact, since it would seem to point to a possible continuation of the 
silurian rocks, which we are enabled to trace from the lake of 
Ladoga as far as Bornholm. 

The last member of the boulder formation consists of sand and 
rolled fragments, and I have called it the " boulder-sand-formation." 
Sometimes the sand is argillaceous, but I have not observed true 
argillaceous bands in the formation itself, although it is sometimes 
overlaid by a brown clay without calcareous matter which formed 
the last precipitate, if I may so say, after the greatly disturbed 
ocean had at length become calm. This formation (the boulder- 
sand) is always stratified, but the strata are generally highly in- 
clined, much curved, sharply broken off, and in a word resemble 
those strata which the greatly disturbed waves now deposit on 
our coast. The surface of the country where this formation pre- 
vails is much varied, and consists sometimes of complete chains of 
hilly ground greatly inclined on both sides, and perfectly resembling 
in that respect the Swedish Aosar, but analogous also to the so- 
called Bevler on the west coast of Jutland, where parallel banks 
of sand and stones are separated from one another by the sea at 
high water. Another form in which this formation presents 
itself (seen in North Seeland and North Jutland), is that of a hilly 
sandy district, without the hills having any distinct direction ; and 
a third form exhibits hemispherical hills, some a hundred feet high 
and near together, the valleys being merely the spaces between 
several of these segments of spheres. This latter form is seen 
on the Cape, at the Cattegat, and in the island of Samsoe, and a 
fourth form is observable on the peninsula, where a thin covering 
of this part of the series rests on the level expanse of the Brown 
coal formation. 

Large boulders are not found in this formation ; the solid content 
of those that occur being seldom so great as two cubic feet, while 
all of them are completely rounded, and they are sometimes so nu- 
merous that the sand only fills up the interstices between them ; 
while on the other hand, the sand occasionally forms so large a 
proportion of the whole mass, that there are only a few boulders to 


be seen, sparingly distributed through it. It appears in many- 
places that the boulders of this sand are only the result of the dis- 
integration of the boulder clay, the proportion of rocks of different 
kinds being almost exactly the same ; and hence it results that the 
current which formed this newer bed brought few or no materials 
with it, merely reconstructing in a somewhat different form the 
rocks over which it passed. 

The boulder sand contains, here and there, fossil remains of several 
species, all of which are still common on the coast of the North 
Sea. Near Svendborg in South Fuhnen, I met with Buccinum 
reticulatum, and near Tarbeck in middle Holstein there is an 
oyster bank where with Ostrea edulis are associated Cardium 
edule, Littorina littorea, and Buccinum undatum. 

Just as the sandy plains and ranges of sand hills appear in 
Denmark, they are also found in middle and southern Sweden, 
and there they sometimes appear as thick horizontal layers of sand, 
which by subsequent marine action have become converted into 
chains of low hills ; and sometimes they form more decided and 
higher hills, of which the great Aos, which extends from above Up- 
sala to Stockholm, nearly parallel to the coast of the Gulf of 
Bothnia, is an instance sufficiently remarkable from the undulating 
appearance of the strata of which it is composed. 

Many sections, both on the coast and in the interior of Sweden, 
exhibit the sequence of these beds. The clay, the base of these 
sections, contains the Mytilus edulis, indicating the presence of the 
sea at the time when the formation of the Aos commenced. Upon 
the clay there rests a bed of sand exhibiting false undulating strati- 
fication in layers 25° E., and then succeeds a horizontal layer of 
small stones washed from other beds ; and lastly, vegetable mould. 
Ibelieve there will be found sufficient proof that the Swedish Aosar 
were all formed in the same manner as the Danish, and without 
doubt, at the same period, and by similar agency. 

D. T. A. 

[M. Forchbammer then enters on the consideration of the various theories 
that have been suggested to account for these phenomena. A notice of this 
part of the paper will be given in the next number of the Journal. — Ed.] 

(Journal Vol i /'[_:) 

Heeve firuo .-■?. ! . . 

f Journal Volj..J J i^ 

;i§lfe- V fl 








November 6. 1844. 
The following communication was read : — 

Observations on the Geology of some parts of Tuscany. By 
W. J. Hamilton, Esq. M.P., Sec. G. S. 

One of the principal physical features of the district under con- 
sideration in the present memoir, is the existence of three distinct 
mountain ridges, extending from N.W. by N. to S.E. by S., and 
parallel to the direction of the main chain of the Apennines. All 
these ranges belong to the Scaglia, a representative of the cretaceous 
series which is known to prevail extensively throughout Greece, the 
Morea, the Ionian Islands, Asia Minor, and the South of France. 

I cannot pretend to define the limits of these different ranges, or 
even to point out their exact number and geological contents, 
having only been able to visit a small portion of them ; but the 
following are the principal lines occurring in the district which 
came under my consideration. 

VOL. i. t 


1st. The first line, commencing between Pistoja and Prato, 
passes through Castello and Fiesoli, and keeping to the N.E. of 
Florence, descends in a S. E. direction to Arezzo. Castiglion 
Fiorentino, Cortona, &c, when it passes to the N.E. of the Lake of 

2d. Commencing to the S. of Pistoja in the Monte Albano, the 
second line crosses the Arno, between Signe and Empoli, and 
passing through Galluzzo and L'Impruneta, extends through San 
Martino, San Donato, Incisa, Levane, to the hills of Chianti, and 
thence to Monte Cetona. 

3d. The third line, more to the S.W., may be said to commence 
with the hills of Monte Pisani, near Pisa ; thence crossing the 
Arno, it continues along the line of hills which separates the valleys 
of the Era and the Elsa, passing between Volterra and Poggibonzi 
until it reaches the mountainous district, in which are the quarries 
of Sienna marble, ten or fifteen miles S.W. of that city. 

Perhaps a 4th parallel line may be traced further to the S.W., 
commencing with the hills of Monte Rotondo, near Leghorn, and 
passing through Monte Catini and Monte Cerboli, until it loses 
itself in the complicated system of the Maremme.* 

It is still a question for further investigation how far the 
crystalline limestone near Sienna, and in which, to the W. and 
S. W. of that town, are the quarries of Sienna marble, is to be con- 
sidered as a district of older formation. It is probable that a 
transverse chain of elevation, marked by rocks of a more crystalline 
character, will hereafter be distinguished extending from N.E. to 
S.W., i. e. from the Monte di Chianti, through Monte Maggio, N. of 
Sienna, to the district in which the quarries occur. 

The valleys between these different ranges are generally filled with 
tertiary deposits of various characters, some of a mere local nature, 
while others extend over a considerable tract of country, to which 
they impart a singularly dreary appearance, being almost entirely 
devoid of vegetation and altogether unsuited for cultivation. 

The various formations of Tuscany may be described in the fol- 
lowing ascending order : — 

A. Stratified Rocks. 
I. Secondary formation. 

C 1. Tertiary marine. 
II. Tertiary formation -2 2. Tertiary freshwater. 

(_ 3. Post-tertiary formations. 

B. Metamorphic Rocks 

Red Gabbro. 

C. Igneous Eocks. 

1 . Serpentine — secondary period. 

2. Selagite — tertiary period. 

3. Basalt of Radicofani, &c. 

* Since writing the above, I find that the same features of three parallel 
ranges have been described by M. A. Burat, in a paper lately read before the 
Tnstitut de France. See Comptes Bendus, 1843 (p. 1279.). 


A. Stratified Rocks. 

I. Secondary Formation. 

These rocks, which constitute by far the greatest portion of the 
mountainous districts of Tuscany, forming the parallel ranges 
extending from N.W. to S. E., consist of various beds of sandstone, 
indurated marls and shales, and compact grey lithographic lime- 
stone or scaglia, either alternating with each other or more or less 
developed in different localities. 

The sandstone consists of three different varieties, viz., — 

(a) Hard grit (?nacigno), considerably developed near Florence, 
particularly to the W. and S. W., where it forms large mountain 
masses, and is extensively quarried along the banks of the Arno, 
and at various other points, for building-stone and for the slabs em- 
ployed in paving the streets of Florence. A very considerable 
quarry, affording an excellent section of thin beds of this rock, 
alternating with a soft bluish shale, occurs on the banks of the Ema, 
near Ponte d'Ema, about two or three miles S. E. from Florence. 
Many of the slabs show slight appearances of fucoidal stems. It 
generally occurs alternating with thin bands of shale of a dark 
blue or reddish colour. It varies considerably in dip, although 
most frequently inclined to the N., N. E., and N. W. The grain 
of this stone is generally coarse and compact, and it is often tra- 
versed by thin veins of calcareous spar. 

(b) A fine-grained greenish sandstone (pietra serena), exten- 
sively quarried near Fiesoli, where the beds dip to the N. W., and 
used for architectural purposes in Florence. It also occurs at 
Monte Catini, ^ust above the village of that name, dipping S. 
and S. E. 

(c) A soft friable sandstone, of a yellowish brown colour, slightly 
micaceous. It is broken by numerous fissures into rhomboidal 
masses of various sizes and shapes. It forms hills of considerable 
height and extent in the Yal d'Arno di sopra, above Levane and 
Arezzo. I only met with one locality producing anything re- 
sembling organic remains, and these consisted of a few vegetable 

The indurated marls and shales are generally associated with 
the hard grits and sandstones ; but the former are sometimes de- 
veloped to a great thickness, forming masses of considerable extent, 
and consisting of numerous strata. This formation came under 
my notice in the vicinity of Castiglion Fiorentino, between Arezzo 
and Cortona, and in the neighbourhood of the mines of Monte 
Catini. In the former locality it is traversed by several thick 
veins of calcareous spar ; and in the latter it consists of a great 
variety of thin strata, dipping from the region of the copper mines 
to the S. and S. W., and underlying a thick formation of secondary 
lithographic limestone. Numerous beds of indurated shales also 

T 2 


occur in the neighbourhood of Florence, in the hills above the 
Certosa, where it is overlaid by thick beds of macigno.* 

The limestone called in the country alberese, and often associated 
with the above-described sandstones and indurated argillaceous 
shales, is very compact, varying in colour from a bluish to a yel- 
lowish white, and resembles lithographic limestone and the scaglia 
of the N. of Italy and Greece, which is generally referred to the 
Cretaceous period. The principal localities at which I had an op- 
portunity of observing it were : 1, near the Impruneta, six or seven 
miles S. of Florence, where it is extensively quarried. Not far 
from hence, at a place called Mugnano nummulites are said to 
have been found in great abundance in one of the limestone 
beds ; 2, at San Donato, 9 miles S. E. of Florence, on the road to 
Arezzo, where it forms hills of considerable height. It is either 
horizontally stratified or dips slightly to the E. It may be traced 
for several miles to the S. in the bottom of all the ravines, overlaid 
by tertiary sands and gravels, as far as Incisa, on the banks of the 
Arno ; 3, at Monte Catini ; the alberese here overlies the sandstone 
and indurated marls which have been upheaved and tilted by the 
protrusion of the igneous rocks with which the copper mines of La 
Cava are connected. It laps round the uplifted masses of Monte 
Massi and Poggio alia Croce, and not possessing the same elas- 
ticity as the schistose beds, has been much more shattered and 
broken up by the elevatory action to which it was exposed. It 
also occurs in the same chain of hills further westward, towards 
Monte Miemo, where, not being in such immediate contact with 
igneous rocks, it still preserves its compact and stratified character. 
Proceeding westward, towards Castellina, it is found in several 
places near Monte Vaso, where attempts are now making to obtain 
copper on the strength of indications similar to those of Monte 

To the S. of the Cecina, in the midst of a wild and wooded 
mountain district, consisting chiefly of serpentine or ophiolitic 
rocks, the same scaglia limestone also occurs, forming elevated 
plateaux and ridges, on which, notwithstanding the enormous 
fragments by which the ground is encumbered, the industry of 
the inhabitants is constantly directed to the raising of crops of 
corn. My attention not having been so particularly directed to 
these secondary formations, I regret that I cannot more clearly 
describe the different groups into which they are subdivided. 

II. Tertiary Formation. 

The tertiary formations of Tuscany may, for the purposes of 
arrangement, be subdivided into three groups, as already men- 
tioned : — 

* Captain Portlock's paper has been communicated since this was written. 


1. Tertiary Marine Formation. 

The principal localities in which I observed this formation may- 
be referred geographically to the following districts : — 

a. The basin of Volterra and its neighbourhood, with the valley of the Era. 

b. Leghorn. 

c. Poggibonzi. including the country from Colle to S. Casciano, with a 

great portion of the valley of the Elsa. 

d. Sienna, and the country watered by the Ombrone, extending to Buon 

Convento, S. Quirico, and Pienza. 

e. The upper portion of the Val di Chiana, and the basin containing the 

lakes of Chiusi and Monte Pulciano. 

a. The Basin of Volterra and its neighbourhood, with the Valley 
of the Era. — This district commences on the north with the hills 
which form the southern boundary of the Val d'Arno, near Ponte 
d'Era, and extends S.S.E. as far as the Cecina, where it consti- 
tutes a range of hills on the south bank of that river, resting against 
a confused district of serpentine and scaglia limestone. On the 
east it is bounded by the hills which separate the valleys of the 
Era and the Elsa, and which, where I had an opportunity of 
seeing them, consist of secondary limestone ; and on the west by 
the hills to the S. E. of Leghorn, of which the highest point is 
known by the name of M. Nero. In the S. portion of this region 
rises the insulated mass of hills extending from E. to W., from 
M. Catini to Castellina, and which is thence prolonged north- 
wards to M. Vaso. These hills consist of the secondary formation 
already described, lapping round masses of gabbro rosso and ser- 
pentine ; this latter rock has protruded itself in many instances, 
and with it the metalliferous deposits of this district are mainly 

The beds of winch this tertiary formation consists rise gradually 
from the N.W., from under the alluvial formation of the Val 
d'Arno, towards Volterra, where they attain a height of nearly 
1800 feet. By far the greater portion of the whole thickness is a 
stiff blue clay, called by the inhabitants matajone, throughout 
which are disseminated many small crystals of selenite. It first 
appears at the foot of a lofty cliff on the right bank of the Era, 
called Ripa Bianca, under the village of Peccioli. It is overlaid 
by a thick bed of sands, limestone, and arenaceous tuffs, varying 
in thickness from 20 to 100 feet, the lower portions of which are 
very friable, and contain many small calcareous nodules, arranged 
in parallel layers. On the left bank of the Era, near Capannoli, 
I observed in the sand several parallel beds of oysters, thickly 
matted together, and associated with a few broken Pectens. 

The summit of the lofty hill of Volterra, affording one of the 
most commanding positions in the country, and remarkable as 
being the site of an old Etruscan city, gives another interesting 
section of the limestone and arenaceous beds, which cap the ter- 

T 3 



tiary blue marls ; the total thickness of this capping is about 80 or 
100 feet. This elevated plateau is nearly 2000 feet above the 
level of the sea. To the W. and N.W. it presents a long extent 
of steep escarpment, 80 or 100 feet high, near the northern extre- 
mity of which is a deep and precipitous ravine, called Le Baize, in 
which extensive land-slips are constantly taking place, and where, 
during the last 150 years, many houses and churches have been 
engulphed by the gradual working back of the cliff. A spring of 
water issues at its foot, between the sandstone and the blue marl, 
which, acting on the lower arenaceous beds, combined with the 
effect of weathering and heavy rains on the blue marl itself, has 
undermined the cliff, and caused its fall into the hollow below. 
The following is a section of this part of the formation : — 

Shelly limestone. 


Sandy limestone. 

Sand, limestone concretions. 

Arenaceous tuff. 
• Blue marl and sand. 

Blue marl. 

The upper bed of shelly limestone is full of Cardium, Pecten, 
Ostrea, &c, but in a very comminuted state. In the arenaceous 
beds they are less abundant, but the nodules or calcareous concre- 
tions are full, and in fact are sometimes quite composed of them. 
In some places the separation of the limestone from the sand is 
not complete, and the whole bed consists of an arenaceous lime- 
stone. At a short distance from Volterra to the E. S. E. is another 
hill called Poggio alia Rocca, consisting, like the former, of blue 
marl capped with limestone and arenaceous beds, but not rising to 
the same height. Marine fossil shells are very abundant in many 
parts of this formation. 

This upper formation or capping is evidently a portion of that 
which, occurring on the summit of many hills in this district, has 
received from Savi the name of Panchina, and which he considers 
as the result of local submarine springs depositing calcareous mat- 
ter in the neighbourhood of their sources. But it is of so general 
a character, and occurs in so many districts under the same cir- 
cumstances, that I cannot agree to such a partial explanation. 
Many of the hills S. of the Cecina, and particularly in the neigh- 


bourhood of Pomerance, are capped with thick beds of this same 
calcareo -arenaceous deposit. Pomerance itself is built on a mass 
of it, and it closely resembles that which I shall hereafter describe 
in the Sienna district, and on which the towns of S. Quirico, 
Pienza, and Sienna are also built ; although here it is perhaps 
rather more calcareous. It also occurs to the S. E. of Leghorn, 
where it forms the substratum of the plain and the beach. It is, 
however, certainly a remarkable feature that it is seldom quite 
horizontal, but appears to follow the slope of the hills, lapping 
over them like a covering. It everywhere contains numerous 
marine shells, chiefly Pecten and Ostrea ; the latter sometimes con- 
stituting whole beds, while the material is in many places sand 
and pebbles, with a hard calcareous matrix. Although this form- 
ation is always found as a capping of the hills, and never occurs 
in the valleys, it is not seen on the high hills of Monte Catini and 
Monte Vaso, which were probably already elevated into islands 
before it was deposited ; but it may, I think, be traced in a few 
places circling round the eastern portion of these hills, opposite 
Volterra. Of these the localities most worthy of observation 
are where the new road leading to M. Catini and La Cava has been 
cut through thick beds of conglomerated pebbles, sand, and cal- 
careous bands containing large Ostrea and Pectens, and evidently 
resting against the unconformable beds of the secondary formation, 
and of the gabbro rosso. 

But the most extensively developed feature in this marine ter- 
tiary formation is the blue marl which immediately underlies the 
last-mentioned beds, and has in the great basin of Volterra a 
thickness of nearly a thousand feet. It may, however, be a ques- 
tion whether this blue marl does not belong to an older tertiary 
period, — Eocene, perhaps, instead of Miocene, as the limestone 
capping, instead of being almost horizontal, generally follows the 
slopes and undulations of the hills, as if deposited after the valleys 
had been scooped out. 

At Volterra fossil shells are of rare occurrence in the blue marl ; 
but as we approach the borders of the formation towards the north, 
they become more abundant, and in some cases, as near the junction 
of the Sterza and the Era, may be said to constitute nearly one 
half of the whole mass of the formation. They are, however, so 
broken and fragile, that it was difficult to extract entire speci- 
mens. Dentalium, Cardium, Venus, Cerithium, Pleurotoma, 
Turritella, and large Ostrece, were most numerous. With them 
were associated small crystals of selenite, which, abounding in 
many portions of the blue marl, give it a glittering and sparkling 

Below the borgo of Monte Catini is found a singular spotted 
argillaceous rock, resting against the erupted mass of igneous 
rock on which Monte Catini is built. Its appearance is that of a 
trap rock ; but, on further search, it proved to be full of shells, 
chiefly Cardium. It is of a greenish grey colour, and at first shows 

T 4 


a few light-coloured spots, which, by degrees, become more nu- 
merous, and occur even in the shells themselves. Other specimens, 
in which decomposition or alteration is more advanced, show larger 
spots ; until at length they assume an entirely pisolitic character, 
the grains being perfectly detached, whether they occur in the 
mass of the rock itself, or in the shells. I believe it to be the blue 
marl altered by the eruption of the igneous rock. 

But if the blue marl near the centre of the basin is deficient in 
organic remains, it abounds in numerous productions of mineral- 
ogical importance, which, both from their own intrinsic value, 
and from their connection with other phenomena still occurring 
in the same vicinity, deserve to be particularly noticed. 

About five miles S. S. E. from Volterra, in the deep valley of 
S. Giovanni, situated in the blue marl, and watered by a small 
stream, are extensive salt-works, now the property of the Govern- 
ment, but from which, in former times, the inhabitants of Volterra 
chiefly derived those riches by which their town flourished and 
preserved its independence and importance. These salt-works are 
fed by springs of brine collected from nine different spots where 
the saturated water is pumped up from deep pits. It has been 
ascertained by sinking wells and by Artesian borings that this 
brine is derived from beds of rock salt, which, at different depths 
below the surface, varying from 50 to 100 feet, are found alterna- 
ting with the blue marl, in the same manner as the alabaster 
occurs in other parts of the same formation ; and in the boilers, 
during the process of evaporation, much sulphate of lime is depo- 
sited. The average annual production of salt is stated to be from 
18,000,000 to 19,000,000 Tuscan pounds :— about 140,000 cwt., 
or 7000 tons per annum. 

The other productions found in the blue marl are gypsum, 
alabaster, and selenite, — the various forms in which the sulphate 
of lime so abundant in this district has been deposited. They are 
particularly met with in the neighbourhood of Volterra, where, 
however, all the varieties of gypsum do not occur. The pure 
white quality known as alabaster, and in such demand at Florence, 
is only found in the neighbourhood of Castellina, about twenty 
miles W. N. W. from Volterra, at the western extremity of the 
hills of Monte Catini. It may, however, be observed that the 
great developement of gypseous matter appears to be confined to a 
narrow line extending from W. N. W. to E. S. E., in which direc- 
tion a band of only a few miles in width drawn from Castel- 
lina to somewhere near Monte Miccioli would comprise all the 
gypsum and alabaster quarries in the country, as well as the salt- 
works already alluded to. 

The deposits of Volterra, Picchiaiola, S. Lorenzo, and Castellina 
may be described as giving the best types of the different forms in 
which the gypsum of this country occurs. 1. That of Volterra, 
which is called the variegated alabaster, is most frequently found in 
detached irregular masses of greater or less size, penetrated by red 


and green and yellow veins. It is frequently much shattered, and 
sometimes mixed up with the blue clay : it is harder than the 
other varieties, and is used principally in the manufacture of vases, 
candelabra, &c It occurs chiefly from four to six miles S. E. and 
E. of Volterra, on the road to Florence. 

2. In the immediate vicinity of the little village of Picchiaiola, 
five miles on the road from Yolterra to Florence, is a very consi- 
derable mass of gypsum of peculiar character, rising above the 
surface of the ground. It consists of irregularly compacted masses 
of crystals of selenite easily detached from one another, and called 
by the people of the country specchio (fasino, or the " ass's look- 
ing-glass." On breaking off the outer crystallised crust, an earthy 
crystalline substance is perceived full of cavities and botryoidal 
concretions, precisely resembling the substance formed round the 
vents of the vapours of Monte Cerboli ; at once suggesting the 
idea that some at least of these gypseous deposits may have been 
produced by similar vapours or soffioni. 

3. The third form in which the gypsum occurs in this district 
is that of an irregular broken stratification. The blocks occur at 
intervals more or less distant, extending in long lines through the 
marls in which it is found, sometimes occurring as detached 
masses, and at others in continuous beds. In the neighbourhood 
of S. Lorenzo, near the suspension bridge over the Cecina, this 
formation is seen on both sides of the river, but is not of any great 
thickness. Near Buviano, on the north bank of the Cecina, to- 
wards Monte Catini, the gypsum beds occur sloping at a very 
considerable angle down the hill sides, and apparently following 
their inclination. Wherever this variety of gypsum occurs it is 
almost invariably of an opaque white saccharine character. It 
is found in many detached spots in the Volterra district. 

4. By far the most interesting and important of the different 
varieties of gypsum is the fine white alabaster found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Castellina, where it is regularly stratified, and is 
worked in properly constructed mining galleries. The little town 
of Castellina, distant about twenty or twenty-four miles from Vol- 
terra, is reached by a rocky road over wild and rugged mountains. 
It is situated on the TV. N. TV", slope of the hills of Monte Taso, 
overlooking in that direction an extensive and slightly undulating 
plain of tertiary marls, which there can be no doubt extend round 
the north point of the Monte Vaso chain, and are connected with 
those of the Val d' Era and the Volterra district. 

The mines are situated three miles TV". X. W. from Castellina, 
near the edge of the tertiary marls, where they rest against the 
secondary rocks. They occur on a slightly rising ground between 
two streams, the Pescera on the south, which flows between it and 
the hills, against which the blue marls probably once rested before 
the river bed was washed out, and the Marmolaio on the north, 
which flows through the marl itself. (See Section, No. 2.) 


S.S.E. J N.N.W. 

Pescera R. S Marmolaio R. 

Gabbro rosso. Marls and gypsum. 

The beds have, at the mines, an inclination of about 5 degrees to 
the N. W. or N. N. W., and consist of regularly alternating strata 
of blue clay or matajone and grey gypsum, the latter containing 
in regular layers nodules or spheroidal blocks of the pure white 
alabaster. In the shaft of the mine I observed five distinct beds 
of gypsum alternating with the blue clay, and varying in thickness 
from five to twenty feet ; but as the owner, Signor Mazzoni, had no 
measurements, and I had no means of obtaining perfect accuracy, 
the numbers are probably understated. The only known mea- 
surement was, that the whole depth of the shaft to the fifth bed 
of gypsum was 1 10 braccie, or 200 feet, and in another mine the 
fourth bed, which was here 20 feet thick, was there said to have a 
thickness of 30 feet. 

The range of low hills in which the alabaster is found, is about 
four miles in length along the strike of the beds from N. E. to 
S. W., but the pure alabaster is only found near the centre of this 
line, and three of the four mines now worked are on the small 
property of Signor Mazzoni : nor does it extend far in the trans- 
verse direction from S. E. to N. W., for about half a mile N. W. 
the gypsum is of a very inferior quality, and dips under the blue 
marl ; and the mines, though sunk to the depth of nearly 200 feet, 
are rendered useless by the water having got in. 

We entered the mine by an inclined path, and, passing under 
ground, soon reached an open well or large inverted cone, round 
which the inclined path is carried, and where the section of marls 
and gypsum is well exposed. As the descending road passes 
through the third and fourth gypsum beds, galleries are seen 
striking into the rock in all directions. The first and second 
gypsum beds are of a uniform character and grey colour, and do 
not contain any alabaster blocks. These are found principally in 
the third and fourth beds, and occur as irregular isolated spherical 
masses imbedded in the gypsum, from which they are, mineralo- 
gically speaking, distinctly separated by a thin black crust, which 
indicates to the workman the existence of the finer nodules. 
These nodules are most frequent in the lower part of the stratum, 
and occur in regular layers, never touching, although varying 
much in their distances from each other. In bed No. 3. there are 
two layers of these nodules, and in No. 4. there are three. They 
vary much in size, weighing from 20 or 30 lbs. to upwards of 20001bs. 
When the workman discovers the black crust, he is at once aware 


that he is near a block of alabaster, and by following the direction of 
the crust, he removes the gypsum all round until he has nearly de- 
tached the whole nodule, which is at last carefully separated from 
the parent rock. Gunpowder is occasionally used to blast the 
rock when no black crust indicates the existence of the alabaster. 
This crust in connection with the pure alabaster is perhaps one of 
the most curious features of the mine. On close examination it 
appears to be laminar and concentric, and to consist of layers of 
blue clay and gypsum. Now the whole formation of gypsum 
contains a small portion of clay which gives it the greyish colour, 
and it is probable that, when that peculiar principle, whether crys- 
tallisation, attraction or electricity, which caused the aggregation 
of the particles of gypsum in greater purity and in a more crystal- 
line state was in operation, one of its chief effects was to expel 
to the circumference all the particles of argillaceous matter pre- 
viously mixed up with the gypsum ; a process which would continue 
until either the crust itself opposed a resistance to the further 
action of this principle, or until two opposing spheres nearly came 
in contact with each other. Very fine crystals of selenite, and some- 
times of a large size, are not unfrequently found in the fissures of 
the gypsum. They are used for the purpose of making the fine 
Scagliola cement, and are consequently sold at a much higher 
price than the more ordinary gypsum. The price of the fine ala- 
baster is 5 Tuscan lire the 100 lb. Tuscan at the quarry, or 8 if 
delivered in Leghorn. 

b. Leghorn. — The plain immediately to the S. E. of Leghorn 
consists of a hard calcareous rock in horizontal beds extending from 
the mountains to the sea-shore and even into the sea, forming some- 
times the low flat beach, and at others the broken cliff above. It is 
generally very compact and hard, and not unfrequently contains 
pebbles of alberese and other secondary rocks, and also a few 
marine shells. It appears to belong to the formation of areno- 
calcareous rocks, which caps the summit of the Volterra and other 
hills, and has received from some of the Italian geologists the 
name of Panchina. 

c. Poggibonzi. — The third district in which marine tertiary de- 
posits are found is that of Poggibonzi, including the country from 
Colle to San Casciano, with a portion of the valley of the Elsa and of 
the Pesa. I have made this a distinct district from that of Volterra ; 
because it appears to be entirely cut off from it by a chain of hills of 
secondary formation : geologically speaking, it is probably a por- 
tion of the same district. It consists, in its western portion, of 
thick beds of yellow sand ; while towards the N. E., and particu- 
larly towards the north, and near San Casciano, it becomes gradually 
more gravelly, and, at length, consists almost entirely of thick 
banks of pebbles, increasing in size towards the north as they 
approach the rocks of the secondary age against which they rest, 
and from the breaking up or wearing away of which they were, in 


all probability, derived. On most of the hill tops, oyster beds 
and pectens of large size are found. In some of the deep ravines 
and glens, beds of blue marl are perceived underlying the sands 
and gravels, but not developed to any great extent or thickness. 
Near the 21st mile from Florence, extensive beds of blue marl are 
seen in the ravines N. W. of the road, with a perfectly horizontal 
line of separation between them and the overlying sandstones. In 
general, however, the whole surface of the hills, the summits, and 
the valleys are covered with the sands and conglomerates ; and it 
is still doubtful whether or not the valleys were already hollowed 
out in the blue marl previous to the deposition of the sands and 
gravels on its undulating surface. I am rather inclined to adopt 
this view, as in the deep valley of the Pesa the great masses of 
overlying gravel and conglomerate reach to the bottom of the 
valley, and much lower than where the blue marl occurs in other 
places. At all events, we may trace from San Casciano to Poggi- 
bonzi, and perhaps even to Volterra itself, a gradual change in the 
form of the various elements deposited during the tertiary epoch ; 
indicating a greater facility of being held in suspension and trans- 
ported by water : although, perhaps, this will only apply to that 
portion of the formation which overlies the blue marls. Near San 
Casciano, beds of conglomerate abound. As we proceed S., the 
pebbles become smaller, and gradually disappear, being replaced 
by a fine compact arenaceous tuff, which occurs in the neighbour- 
hood of Poggibonzi and Colle ; and further S. and S. W., the 
upper beds become still finer and of a more comminuted character. 

d. Sienna District. — The fourth district of the tertiary marine 
formation commences a little to the north of Sienna, and extends, in 
a S. E. direction, through the country watered by the Arbia and 
the Ombrone by Buon Convento to beyond San Quirico and Pienza. 
Its southern limits 1 did not ascertain ; but to the N.E. it is bounded 
by the secondary hills which separate it from the Yal di Chiana 
and the district of Monte Pulciano. It consists, for the most part, 
of blue clay or marl, remarkable for its sterility and bleak appear- 
ance. It contains, here and there, a few crystals of selenite, but 
a most careful search, in numerous localities, did not produce a 
single fossil shell. In many places it is capped by beds, varying 
in thickness, of yellow arenaceous limestone and sand, some of 
which are full of marine testacea, constituting entire masses of 
Ostrea and Pecten. 

These elevated table lands, wherever I observed them, have in 
early ages been invariably made use of by the inhabitants, as 
affording safe foundations for their cities, which would be sought 
for in vain on the soft and yielding masses of the subjacent marl. 
On such table lands are built the towns of Pienza, San Quirico, 
Montalcino, Sienna, and probably many others. Pienza is situated 
near the extremity of a narrow, rocky, peninsula, of which the 
upper bed consists of a compact, agglomerated, calcareous sand- 
stone, having a slight inclination to the S. W. Immediately below 


it, and overlying the blue marl, is a more sandy bed, of no great 
thickness, full of broken shells, chiefly two species of Ostrea. 

San Quirico stands upon a similar table land, the only difference 
being that several beds and layers of conglomerated pebbles, 
chiefly consisting of the white alberese or Scaglia limestone, are 
associated with the sandstone tuff. 

e. Vol di Chiana. — The fifth district is the upper or southern 
portion of the Val di Chiana, and the basin, containing the lakes of 
Chiusi and Monte Pulciano, extending to the frontiers of the papal 
dominions, near Citta della Pieve. A portion of this district, low as 
it is, is remarkable, as constituting, since the great hydraulic opera- 
tions undertaken by the Tuscan Government, the watershed between 
the drainage flowing into the Arno and the Tiber. Two miles 
to the south-east of the town is the Pi an della Biffa, formerly a 
marshy lake, across the centre of which is a dyke called L'Argine 
della separazione, on the respective sides of which the waters 
flow to the Tiber and to the Arno, sluice-gates being placed at 
each end to regulate the escape of the water in the spring, and 
to prevent the plains below, particularly on the banks of the Tiber, 
from being flooded. 

My geological observations in this plain were chiefly confined to 
the neighbourhood of Chiusi and the north-east flanks of the range 
of hills on the west side of the plain, from Cetona to Monte 
Pulciano. The hills round Chiusi, on one of the highest points 
of which the town is built, consist of numerous alternating beds of 
gravel, conglomerate, sandstone and blue marl ; some of these 
beds, particularly the latter, and occasionally the sandstone, con- 
tain numerous marine tertiary shells. In some, complete oyster 
beds are still preserved, forming large masses of shells of con- 
siderable thickness, which are particularly developed near the lake 
to the east of the town. Here I observed, in an ascending order, 
the following section : — 

1. Sandy tuff, or friable sandstone, of very great thickness, 
sometimes containing intercalated beds of gravel. In the so-called 
tomb of Porsenna, two or three miles north-east from the town, is 
a band of gravelly conglomerate in this sandstone tuff, which has 
been made use of to form the flooring or separation between two 
tiers of excavated tombs or chambers. Most of the well-known 
Etruscan tombs in this neighbourhood are. excavated in this rock, 
which does not contain any fossils. 

2. Blue clay, a few feet in thickness ; organic contents un- 

3. Reposing on the blue clay is a very thick, solid bed of oyster 
shells, in which are some of a most diminutive size. 

4. A thick bed of gravel and conglomerate, strongly cemented 
together by a calcareous paste. This is, in many places, of very 
considerable thickness, forming the capping of the hill on which 
the town of Chiusi is built, as well as of several other eminences 
in the neighbourhood. On an estate belonging to the bishop, near 


the tomb called " tomba della vigna grande," the series of beds was 
rather different. 

In a ravine, one mile north-west of the town, the blue clay is well 
exposed, and is of considerable thickness. In it numerous shells are 
found — Cerithium, Serpula, Dentalium (2 sp.), Venus, Cardium, 
Area, Pecten, Natica, Pleurotoma, Cancellaria, JVassa, and 
others. The same clay beds are well exposed on the road to 
Cetona ; and, again in the neighbourhood of Sarteano, equally 
rich in marine testacea. Between Sarteano and Chianciano, 
Cardium is found in the sandstone tuff. Chianciano is celebrated, 
in the annals of Italian Geology, for the great abundance and 
variety of its tertiary marine shells, which occur in one or two 
localities near the town. 

From Chianciano the same tertiary formation extends to Monte 
Pulciano, offering sections of gravels and sands, containing beds 
of oysters. Monte Pulciano itself stands on a lofty insulated hill 
of sandstone and gravel. In the sand are many large Ostrese, and 
a few Cerithia occur in the nodular calcareous concretions. The 
formation is traversed by a few almost horizontal beds of very 
hard sandstone. To the north of Monte Pulciano is the commence- 
ment of a bleak and arid blue marl district, resembling that 
so remarkably developed in the neighbourhood of Pienza and 
S. Quirico, and with which the district of Monte Pulciano and 
Chiusi was, in all probability, formerly connected. 

2. Tertiary Freshwater Formation. 

I now proceed to describe those localities in which tertiary 
freshwater formations came under my observation. 

On the range of hills which I have been just describing, between 
Cetona and Sarteano, the road crosses a spur of limestone rocks, 
which, from its compact character, colour, and honeycombed ap- 
pearance, I at first attributed to the Scaglia formation of the se- 
condary or cretaceous period. But, on reaching the summit of an 
elevated table land, I found in it numerous tertiary freshwater 
shells, as Planorbis and Limncea. It rests against the secondary 
rocks, and appears to be overlaid by the blue marls containing 
marine shells. 

Another locality, where the same rock occurs, is in the valley 
of the Bultino, two or three miles south-east of Colle, on each side 
of which are extensive remains of a tertiary lacustrine formation, 
through which the valley has been cut, and a large plain has 
been excavated. The lower beds are very arenaceous, and contain 
calcareous nodules. Near the village of Campigliano is a good 
section, where some of the upper beds are of a slightly reddish 
colour ; but, in general, they have the dull grey appearance of an 
earthy alberese, sometimes assuming a concretionary character. 
The upper beds contain Limncea and Planorbis. This formation 
extends to Colle, forming a flat, level plain covered with barely a 
foot of soil. 


It would require a longer examination than I was enabled to 
bestow on it, to ascertain the exact age of this formation ; from its 
position it seems to form an intermediate link between the arena- 
ceous deposits of the marine beds already described, and the post- 
tertiary beds to which I am about to allude, being connected 
with the former by the arenaceous beds containing concretionary 
calcareous nodules, and with the latter by its immediate juxta- 
position in the vicinity of Colle. On the other hand, both in its 
mineralogical character, and in the appearance of its fossils, it 
closely resembles the freshwater limestone of Cetona, which is 
supposed to underlie the blue marl formation. 

3. Post- Tertiary Formations. 

The principal rocks which come under this denomination, are the 
deposits of calcareous tuff, assuming a concretionary and at times 
a spongy and tubular appearance, extending for several miles on 
both sides of the valleys of the Staggia and the Elsa. This form- 
ation has been alluded to by Mr. Lyell.* It is best developed 
in the valley of the Staggia. Near the town of that name is a 
horizontal formation of travertine, filling up the valley between the 
two ranges of sand hills, and forming a narrow lacustrine plain, 
through which the river has subsequently washed itself a bed, ex- 
posing the horizontal layers of tuff in the bed of the river. The ex- 
tent of this deposit, probably derived from one spring or source, is 
very considerable, and may be traced from the town of Staggia to 
within a mile of Poggibonzi, a distance of nearly seven or eight 
miles. It is, however, so modern, that the shells found in it 
appear to be quite recent, and the stems of plants and roots, round 
which the calcareous tuff has been deposited, still retain, however 
slightly rotten, their wooden fibre. Impressions of leaves are very 
abundant in it. 

The beds are more than 100 feet thick in some places ; they are 
both calcareous and arenaceous, sometimes mixed. The variety of 
form resembles what Mr. Lyell has said "f respecting the travertine 
deposited from the spring near the baths of San Vignone, and is 
probably owing to a similar cause. At times the calcareous particles 
are collected in concretionary and botryoidal masses, sometimes 
almost stalactitic. Occasionally the beds are soft and friable, while 
others acquire the hardness and compactness of Scaglia limestone. 
Some of them are slightly ferruginous, and sometimes they present 
a strange conglomeration of cylindrical tubes. In places they are 
much contorted ; in others, horizontal or slightly undulating. 
Species of Paludina and Valvata abound in some of the softer and 
more friable beds. This singular formation must have been de- 
posited by a stream highly charged with calcareous matter, which, 
at no very distant geological period, flowed down the valley of the 
Staggia. A similar formation occurs in the adjacent valley of the 

* Principles of Geol. vol. i., p. 398., 6th ed. f lb. p. 400. 


Elsa near Colle. Other formations, referable to this same recent 
epoch, are the extensive alluvial and the now drained lacus- 
trine deposits of the Val d'Arno, particularly that portion known 
as the Val d'Arno di sopra, extending from the rocky defiles of 
Incisa, once evidently the barrier of these inland lakes, through 
S. Giovanni, Montevarchi, and Levane, to Arezzo. This forma- 
tion consists chiefly of denuded hills of gravel, sand, and yellow 
marl, resting against the secondary sandstones, and in which have 
been found the abundant fossil remains, chiefly of mammalia, 
which now form the riches of the inuseums of Montevarchi and of 
Arezzo. They include two varieties of Elephant, two species of 
Mastodon, remains of Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Felis, Cervus, Bos, 
Antilope, Equus, Ursus, and also some long plates of a Tortoise. 
They are so abundant in places, that the peasants have used them 
to mark the boundaries of their property, or to line the banks of the 
streams. The tusks of the elephant are enormous ; the fragment 
of one at Montevarchi is 12 feet long, and nearly 2 feet in circum- 

Another recent deposit remains to be described in the neigh- 
bourhood of Chianciano. This place is famous for its hot baths, 
which are visited by strangers from all parts of Italy ; near the 
source of the thermal spring is a curious natural basin of tra- 
vertine, about 8 or 10 feet deep, and of an oblong shape. The 
natives believe it to have been excavated in the travertine, and then 
crusted over ; but it is clearly the result of a natural deposit, formed 
by some abundantly calcareous spring, which has successively raised 
the walls of the basin or reservoir in which it rose. It has thus 
formed a perfectly level bank all round, on which circular lines or 
ripple marks are distinctly visible, showing the process of the 
formation. An irregular mass of the same 'matter extends some 
way down the hill where the water escaped, deposited by the 
overflowing of the pool : it is rather remarkable that no deposit 
whatever is left by the present hot spring, in which the ther- 
mometer rises to 31° Reaumur. 

B. Metamorphic Rocks. 

I now proceed to describe the metamorphic rocks which came 
under my notice in those portions of Tuscany which I visited. 

The only rock of this character is that called gabbro rosso 
by Savi. The origin and nature of this rock has been a matter 
of great uncertainty and dispute amongst geologists, both as to the 
period to which it belongs, and as to the source from whence it 
has been derived. It is here almost invariably of a reddish- 
brown colour, and is found in immediate contact with the ser- 
pentine or ophiolitic rocks, which abound in some districts. 

The definition of this rock given by Savi in his memoir on the 
physical constitution of Tuscany is so correct, that I cannot do 
better than give an English version of his statement : — 

" We understand by gabbro rosso, or red gabbro, a class of 
" rocks produced by a particular alteration of the soil of the macigno, 


" and particularly of its strata of schistose clay and limestone ; an 
" alteration caused by the ophiolitic rocks, and consisting not only 
" in the induration and liver-red colouring of the strata, and in 
" their contortions, but often in a perfect fusion or amalgamation of 
"the neptunian with the plutonic rocks ; by these means, many 
"rocks of an ambiguous and varied appearance were produced, in 
"which, at one time, the elements of the neptunian rocks pre- 
" dominate, and at others, those of the plutonic, so that in former 
" times they were said to belong to the transition formations. We 
" have adopted for this class of products the generic name of 
" gabbro rosso, being that which is usually given to it in Tuscany." 

The principal points where this rock is exposed are the copper 
mines of Monte Catini, and the mountain range extending thence 
to Castellina, besides a few spots on the south side of the Cecina, 
such as Libbiano, Monte Castelli, and, I believe, Rocca Sillana. The 
works at La Cava, the spot where the mining operations of Monte 
Catini are carried on, are all built on it, and very interesting sections 
are developed round the western extremity of this chain of hills. 
This rock has all the characters of being of igneous origin ; but 
from careful examination there can be no doubt that it is an 
altered rock. The principal condition of its appearance is that of 
large irregular spherical masses, consisting of a darkish red argillo- 
siliceous substance, at first very hard, but becoming brittle and 
friable after a short exposure to the air. It is traversed by nu- 
merous small veins and filaments of calcareous spar, which faci- 
litates its breaking in various directions. In some of these veins 
has been discovered a peculiar mineral which has received the 
name of Caporcianite, from the Chapel of La Madonna di Capor- 
ciano in the immediate neighbourhood. The centre of the veins of 
calc spar is sometimes more opaque and of a slightly redder hue ; 
this has been analysed and found to contain a small proportion of 
manganese. It is said to be peculiar to these mines, and thence it 
has derived its name, these mines being under the peculiar care of 
La Madonna di Caporciano. The outer crust of these spherical 
masses shows after short exposure to the air a small mammillary ap- 
pearance, which becomes larger as the exposure continues. It is 
evidently the result of decomposition, acting upon the surface of a 
body hardened under circumstances which produced a tendency 
to spherical or concretionary form, a tendency proved not only by 
this peculiarity of the surface, but by the fact of the whole of the 
rock consisting of these spherical masses ; for not only does this 
condition appear in sections and surfaces where the rock has been 
long exposed, but it also occurs in fresh sections opened in the 
very heart of the mountain, many hundred fathoms below the sur- 
face, where the nodules or spheroidal masses, called nuoccioli by 
the workmen, and averaging 2 or 3 feet in diameter, are dis- 
tinctly visible in the sides of the recently opened galleries. The 
intervening substance is generally very soft, and consists of green, 
red, and white earths, the red being generally in contact with the 
round masses, and the green and white more in the interior. 

vol. l. u 



Although this is the general character of the rock, it frequently 
assumes other appearances. It is either compact and silicious, or 
it is argillaceous and soft ; it has sometimes the appearance of 
hornstone or of quartz-rock, and it is at times altered into a mass 
resembling porphyry. This porphyritic appearance is well seen 
in the ravine behind the -workshops of La Cava, where a portion 
of it has assumed a quartzose or hornstone character — if indeed 
this is not the result of veins of serpentine penetrating the meta- 
morphic rock. 

Notwithstanding various opinions which have been advanced, 
I have no doubt that the spheroidal forms assumed by this rock 
are the result of the conditions under which the cooling and 
induration of the mass took place, after it had been reduced 
by plutonic agency to a fused and liquid state. It bears an ana- 
logy to the formation of basaltic columns, indicating certain 
isolated points in which the cooling process, accompanied by cer- 
tain principles of aggregation, commenced, extending its influence 
in all directions until interrupted by similar efforts proceeding 
from other points. 


Gabbro rosso. 


I have said above that this red gabbro is an altered rock ; let us 
consider from what parent rock it has been derived. In the ravine 
to the south of the workshops and the mine of La Cava, is a good 
section of the gabbro rosso and true superincumbent beds, showing 
a gradual passage from the spheroidal masses into thin stratified 
highly contorted beds, dipping off at an angle of 50° or 60° to the 
south as represented in the above diagram. These beds are of the 
same dark liver-red colour, and break into similar small brittle 
masses, which at first cannot be distinguished from broken hand spe- 
cimens. As we recede from the central mass of gabbro, the difference 
becomes more perceptible. Some of the beds are harder than others ; 
and, on obtaining a real fracture, exhibit the appearance of a quart- 
zose grit. Others are friable and gritty, and easily crumble to 
pieces, with the appearance of a half-baked brick. By degrees as- 
cending the series, a few patches of grey colour occur in them, and 
this gradually increases. They are twisted and contorted in a 
most extraordinary manner, being turned completely over in some 
places like the mica schists and indurated marls of the primary 
and palaeozoic formations, indicating the violence of the actions by 
which they were upheaved. As we get further from this sup- 


posed igneous influence, the beds lose their former character ; the 
shales become more marly and laminated, and the harder beds 
have a less cherty appearance. It is remarkable, considering the 
intensity of the agent which must have caused the change, to what 
a short distance it seems to have extended ; for on descending the 
ravine, about 100 yards further, I came upon the secondary indu- 
rated marls, perfectly unaltered, of a grey white colour, resembling 
those near the Certosa at Florence and at Castiglion Fiorentino on 
the road to Cortona ; and a little way further, the alberese or 
scaglia limestone is also seen unaltered, but dipping considerably 
to the S. S. AY. Here then we have a key to the whole metamor- 
phic formation, which is derived from the altered marls and sand- 
stones (macigno) of the secondary or Apennine formation, acted 
on by the protrusion of the igneous rocks of the ophiolitic or 
serpentine class, which are found in the immediate neighbourhood. 
The passage of the red gabbro into the half altered beds of 
stratified sandstone and marl, I subsequently found in several 
other localities round this central mass, particularly on the road 
from La Cava to Monte Catini, where the contortions of the strata 
are well exposed, and are really deserving of notice from their 
extraordinary convolutions. Here, too, in a direct line from the 
summit of the Poggio alia Croce to Monte Catini, a gradual passage 
may be traced to the unaltered shales, limestone, and macigno. 

C. Igneous Rocks. 
These appear to me to belong to three distinct periods : : 

1. Serpentine, or ophiolitic rocks (Trap of secondary period),. 

2. Selagite of Monte Catini (Trachyte of tertiary period). 

3. Basalt of Radicofani (Recent). 

1 . Serpentine. 

This rock is developed in many parts of the western portion of 
the Tuscan States. The principal localities where I had an oppor- 
tunity of observing it, are at the copper mines of La Cava, and along 
the chain of hills extending from Monte Catini to Castellina, includ- 
ing Monte Miemo. To the south of the Cecina, it bursts forth 
at Monte Libbiano, where it rises to a considerable height — at 
Monte Rufoli, where it covers an extent of many miles — at Monte 
Cerboli — Rocca Sillana and Monte Castelli — all belonging to the 
same system. Near Florence it also shows itself in two spots, LTm- 
pruneta and Prato, the latter of which I did not visit. It varies 
considerably in its appearance, character, and hardness, its chief 
permanent characteristics being its green colour and its soapy feel. 

At Monte Catini the rock is soft and soapy, occasionally contain- 
ing portions of a harder nature. It is of a uniform greyish-green 
colour, without the white spots which give to that of Psato, LTm- 
pruneta, and Monte Rufoli its peculiar character, resembling the 
serpentine of antiquity. It here derives its principal interest 
from the copper mines with which it is associated. The copper 
ore, which is exceedingly rich, occurs in irregular veins and 

u 2 



nodules, following the line of junction between the serpentine and 
the gabbro rosso. Not that any distinct formation exists between 
these two rocks ; but the copper ore itself generally lies between 
them ; sometimes extending itself into the gabbro, and more fre- 
quently into the serpentine, in which it forms large deposits, near 
the junction of the two rocks. 

a. Gabbro rosso. 

b. Serpentine. 

c. Vein of Serpentine. 

When this mine was opened, a narrow vein of soft talcose ser- 
pentine appeared on the surface, penetrating the gabbro rosso. 
(See diagram.) This was followed down in a N. E. direction in 
search of copper ; and at /the depth of 66 metres, the miners 
found what appeared to be another vein rising up from the oppo- 
site side, and forming a conjunction, as they call it ; and at this 
spot a very rich deposit of ore was discovered. The main shaft has 
been sunk so as to strike on this spot, which is, as it were, the apex 
of a dome of serpentine, over which metallic deposits are found in 
all directions, following the line of junction between the serpentine 
and the overlying gabbro rosso. Below this junction point, 
the shaft, to the depth of some hundred feet, passes through solid 
serpentine only ; which, although soft at first, becomes so hard as 
to require to be blasted with powder. The ore is a sulphuret (?). 
The richest portions, which are of a blue-iron colour, produce 
from 60 to 65 per cent., the poorest about 25 to 30 per cent. 
The ore is generally in the form of irregular nodular masses, here 
called ore stones, varying in size from a man's hand to masses 
several feet in diameter. Sometimes it occurs in large deposits 
several feet in length and height, and at others it forms a con- 
tinuous band of a regular thickness, extending some distance 
along the line of junction of the two rocks. Large masses have 
also occasionally been met with in the cross galleries, at a distance 
of 25 feet from the red gabbro, and, on one or two occasions, 
nodular masses have even been found in the gabbro rosso itself 
close to the serpentine, which must be considered as the principal 


agent in the formation of the ore. The amount raised in the year 
ending September, 1843, was 1,894,765 Tuscan pounds. 

In the vicinity of the j unction of the serpentine and gabbro, a 
rather remarkable substance is occasionally found, called Losima. 
It is generally of a bright red colour, extremely shining and bril- 
liant, soft and soapy to the touch, and apparently argillaceous. 
It is perhaps the result of friction. In carrying a gallery to the 
N.E., for the purpose of communicating with a new shaft, the 
miners have traversed another mass of serpentine ; but very slight 
indications of ore have as yet been perceived in it. The strike of 
these masses of serpentine, or dykes as they may perhaps be called, 
is from N. W. to S. E., which coincides with the direction of ano- 
ther serpentine dyke which I traced some way over the hills to 
the S.W. of La Cava. It may be observed, too, that their direc- 
tion is parallel to that of the principal mountain chain in this 
part of Italy. 

Veins of steatite (or soap-stone, Pagoda stone, pietra di sarto, 
as it is here called), which sometimes assumes a very asbestos form, 
occur frequently in the serpentine ; and this is a considerable 
object of export commerce. One of the localities where this 
steatite is found, is remarkable from the occurrence of numerous 
veins or layers of carbonate of lime, perhaps deposited by cal- 
careous springs rising up through the serpentine, or it may be 
the result of chemical segregation, by which the steatitic particles 
were separated from the lime, and formed into distinct nodules. 
Perhaps the different appearances would justify both suppositions. 
At Monte Rufoli, the serpentine extends over a considerable 
tract of country, covered with magnificent forests of ilex, which 
render its examination almost impossible. Here, however, the 
rock is remarkable for being the seat of the quarries of chalcedony, 
which supply the beautiful agates used in the Royal and other 
manufactures of pietra dura at Florence. 

About two miles east of Monte Rufoli, and on the slope of the 
hills facing the valley of the Sterza, are the chalcedony quarries. 
At first their appearance resembles that of quartz dykes, rising 
up through the serpentine, and forming a low wall, a few feet 
above the ground. Wherever they have been worked, however, 
they appear to cease about eight or ten feet below the surface, thus 
leaving a kind of ditch on the hill side, about three or four feet 
wide, and varying in depth from eight to ten feet. Besides tlfese 
principal dykes or masses, of which there are said to be several, 
although I only saw two, the serpentine is traversed in various 
directions by small, irregular veins of chalcedony, generally of a 
reddish colour : other similar masses of siliceous substances overlie 
the serpentine, as if spread over the surface from the larger 
dykes, differing both in character and appearance, and representing 
every possible variety of chalcedonic and agate bodies. They 
contain numerous cavities, the inner coats of which are covered with 
botryoidal and mammillary chalcedony ; also masses of concretion- 
ary, whitish -grey, earthy chalcedony, with a gradual shading from 

u 3 


light to dark yellow near the edges. These are the parts most 
sought after by the lapidaries of Florence, on account of their 
beautiful shadings, and the effect they produce in the " pietra 
dura " works : other portions are more transparent, consisting of 
agates, cornelians, and opalines of various colours. 

These silicious masses, as I observed, are situated in the soft, 
decomposing serpentine, in which, on each side of the principal 
dyke, are several thin, narrow filaments of silicious matter 
(chalcedony), generally of a reddish colour, and parallel to the 
principal mass. 

With regard to the origin of this curious variety of chalcedonic 
formation, my first impression was, that it must have been a quartz 
dyke, rising up through the serpentine ; but the variety of colour 
and character which the rock exhibits, incline me rather to at- 
tribute it to an aqueous origin. It might be considered as the 
result : -pf a thermal spring, charged with silicious matter which has 
been deposited in fissures of the serpentine, unless the occurrence 
of the remarkable sojfioni or vapours of Monte Cerboli, in such 
close vicinity, and that of other similar phenomena in the same 
district, render it more probable that it is owing to the escape 
of vapours charged with silicious and other matters ; when the 
silex, as the least soluble, would be first deposited on any 
sensible diminution of temperature. The subject is one of con- 
siderable interest, as connected with other geological phaenomena 
in the country. 

Between the village of Monte Gemoii and the high and lofty 
position of Libbiano, the river Trossa has forced its way through 
a narrow pass between two masses of serpentine of the same 
character as that of Monte Rufoli. At Libbiano itself, the ser- 
pentine and greenstone rocks have been elevated to a considerable 
height, carrying with them to the summit a conglomerate of the 
pre-existing j rocks, gabbro rosso and Apennine limestone, min- 
gled with masses of serpentine ; these cover the north-east flank of 
the hill, and give a remarkable appearance to the elevated narrow 
ridge on which this desolate village has been perched. 

Another interesting locality where the serpentine occurs is 
near the village of LTmpruneta, about six miles south of Florence. 
The village stands on a hill of green serpentine which crops out 
even in the market-place, though the principal mass of it is about 
half a mile further south. It rises up through the secondary 
rocks, which dip off from it on all sides, more or less altered, and 
in some places reduced to the metamorphic state of red gabbro, 
in which all traces of stratification are obliterated. 

A new road has been cut through the solid serpentine, leaving 
a cliff fifty or sixty feet high on each side. Here the rock appears 
darker and blacker than on the surface, but equally susceptible of 
decomposition on exposure to the air. Besides the numerous 
crystals of a pale green colour, which distinguish the serpentine 
of LTmpruneta, many portions are traversed by thin veins of 
calcareous spar ; others are beautifully marked with red veins, and 


are much, sought after by the statuaries of Florence for orna- 
mental works ; others contain veins and masses of a fibrous 
substance, which sometimes closely resembles the fibrous asbestos ; 
the latter becomes harder by exposure, exactly the reverse of the 
serpentine itself. Near the south end the serpentine assumes a 
more scoriaceous character : here the asbestos is more abundant, 
and in some places penetrates the serpentine with many branch- 
ing veins ; the people called it " pietra alberisata," from its 
resemblance to the fibres of a tree fossilized. 

On the south-east side, near the junction of the serpentine with 
the stratified rocks, altered into red earthy jasper, and either 
perpendicular, or inclined at an angle of 80°, with a north and 
south strike, the igneous rock is much decomposed and softened. 
It is traversed in every direction by numerous veins of carbonate 
of lime, which, not decomposing so rapidly as the rock itself, stand 
some inches above the ground, presenting a curious reticulated 

I did not visit the other spot in the vicinity of Florence in the 
mountains above Prato, ten miles north-west, where the serpen- 
tine is also quarried, and is worked up in Florence for ornaments 
under the name of Verde di Prato. 

2. Selagite of Monte Cat'uii. 

This name of Selagite is given to a quasi-trachitic rock, the 
only instance I observed of such formations, rising up through 
the blue marls at the western extremity of the chain of hills on 
which is situated La Cava and its copper-mines, and on the upper 
portion of which stands the ancient village, or Borgo of Monte 
Catini. Its sides present an almost perpendicular face, in which 
the columnar structure is very visible, but the columns, though of 
considerable length, are irregular both in size and form. It is of 
a bluish-grey colour, gritty to the touch, and full of small crys- 
tallized plates of hornblende or amphibole. It is considerably 
quarried for building-stones, much used in the neighbourhood. 
Although apparently unconnected with the serpentine rocks, it is 
remarkable that this trachitic outburst has taken place almost on 
the direct axis or line of prolongation of the strike of the ser- 
pentine masses, which appear to have caused the elevation of 
Monte Massi and Poggio alia Croce. From the altered appearance 
of the shelly bed, already described on its north flank, its protrusion 
probably took place during the early part of the tertiary period. 

3. Basalt of Radlcofani. 

The other igneous rocks to be noticed are the basalts of 
Radicofani, of which, however, I only introduce the name here, to 
complete the series, as I had no opportunity of visiting them. 

I cannot conclude this imperfect notice of the geology of Tus- 
cany without calling attention to the boracic acid works at Monte 

u 4 


Cerboli, and the remarkable phenomena therewith connected ; for 
I have no doubt but that many of the actual geological features 
of Tuscany must be referred to agencies and to causes similar to 
those which are now exhibited in this locality. The works have 
been already in some degree described by Mr. Babbage in Murray's 
Handbook of Central Italy, p. 178., and by Dr. Bowring in his 
Report on the Commercial Relations of Tuscany, laid before Par- 
liament in 1837. I shall therefore confine my observations to a 
few of the principal phenomena. 

The numerous and violent jets of vapour from which the 
boracic acid is extracted, rise, with considerable noise and in large 
volumes, from a narrow rocky valley in the secondary cretaceous 
limestone, about 15 miles S.W. of Volterra. Huge blocks of this 
rock and its associated indurated marls cover the surrounding hills, 
and add to the desolation of the scene. The vapour naturally 
leaves a considerable deposit ; but this is much increased in con- 
sequence of its being compelled by artificial means to pass through 
water collected into numerous reservoirs. By this process, the 
water is impregnated with the boracic acid previously held in 
solution in the vapour ; while the greater part of the sulphur, 
lime, and carbonic acid gas, which it also contains, is deposited in 
the muddy bottoms of the pools, and assumes, when dry, a crys- 
talline form, being, from time to time, thrown out in the course of 
the operations : sulphate and carbonate of lime are also deposited in 
the cauldrons and cooling pans where the boracic acid is obtained 
by evaporation from the saturated water. Amongst the neigh- 
bouring rocks, I saw a remarkable instance, where a large fissure 
or crack, with several smaller ramifications, had been completely 
filled up by the matter deposited by the vapour which must once 
have escaped through it. The sides were coated with a hard 
compact calc-sinter, while the central portions were filled with a 
more porous substance, so that the passage of the vapour had been 
obstructed before the central parts had become so densely consoli- 
dated as the sides, thereby explaining at least one of the causes 
by which these vents are constantly changing their positions, and 
how the jets of vapour escape sometimes in one place and some- 
times in another. 

The simple mode by which the boracic acid is obtained is as 
follows. Small reservoirs, from 15 to 30 feet in diameter, are dug 
round the most convenient and powerful of the many steam vents ; 
and into these reservoirs a small- stream of water is conducted 
from the mountain side. After being for some time exposed to 
the action of the rising vapour the water is let off from one 
reservoir into another, until it has passed through five or six, in 
each of which it remains about 24 hours, the vapour boiling and 
bubbling up through it the whole time with much noise and vio- 
lence. By this time the water is sufficiently impregnated with 
the boracic acid; and after being allowed to settle in another 
reservoir to deposit the mud, it is led off into the evaporating 
houses, where, after undergoing a slow and gradual process of 


evaporation, the boracic acid is at length obtained in numerous 
vats, where it crystallises with great facility. 

The great difficulty formerly experienced in this process was 
the expense of fuel required for the process of evaporation ; until 
the happy idea at length suggested itself to the proprietor of 
availing himself of the almost inexhaustible supply of heat pre- 
pared by Nature herself in the numerous vents from which the 
streams of boiling vapours were constantly emitted. Acting on 
this suggestion, he built a sort of chamber over some of the vents, 
and conducting the vapour by subterranean channels into the 
evaporating houses, obtained without a farthing of additional out- 
lay all the heat he could require. The consequence of this simple 
application of natural power was, that the value of the works rose, 
in one year, from a capital of one thousand pounds, for which the 
fee simple was offered, to a rental of twenty thousand pounds per 

Similar vapours or " soffioni," as they are called, occur in several 
other localities in the same district, or within a distance of 12 or 
14 miles, as at Sarrezano, Castel Nuovo, Monte Rotondo, and 
others ; and it is impossible not to be struck with the manner in 
which they throw light on many of the geological phenomena in 
this and other countries ; particularly with regard to the filling up 
of cracks and fissures in rocks, and the local deposits of various 
substances, such as calc spar, gypsum, sulphate of lime, sulphate 
of soda, &c, many of which occur in this very neighbourhood. 
It is highly probable that such emissions of gases and vapours 
may have produced many of those local phenomena, which have 
been so frequently attributed to the effect of springs, and are con- 
sidered as aqueous deposits. That great connection exists between 
them cannot be doubted, as the soffioni of Monte Cerboli do un- 
questionably deposit much sulphate and carbonate of lime, and if 
supposed to rise through water would most certainly deposit much 
more. On the whole, therefore, whether we consider the remark- 
able and almost terrific appearance of these vents, from hundreds 
of which the vapours escape with the noise of a steam-boiler 
blowing off its steam, or the importance they have in connection 
with other geological problems to which they may offer a solution, 
they must be considered as presenting to us some of the most 
interesting, if not important geological phenomena which the 
Tuscan States can afford to the pursuer of geological investi- 

November 20, 1844. 

Charles Faulkener, Esq., and John Bravender, Esq. of Ciren- 
cester, were elected Fellows of this Society. 


The following communication was read : — 

On the Geology of Gibraltar. By James Smith, Esq. of 

Jordan Hill, F.G.S. 

In the absence of the author of this paper from England it has 
been considered advisable not to publish more at present than a 
mere announcement of the nature of the conclusions arrived at. 
After stating briefly the appearance and character of the funda- 
mental rock at Gibraltar (which is of the oolitic period), the 
author mentions indications of recent marine action, extending up 
to the very summit of the mountain, and proceeds to describe his 
reason for concluding that great and repeated elevations have taken 
place in the district in comparatively modern periods, three being 
more especially remarkable, since each one of these has elevated 
the strata through an angle of about 20°. Several interesting 
phenomena of the tertiary period are alluded to as affording 
evidence in favour of this view. The author concludes by direct- 
ing attention to some superficial deposits of sand, covering the 
flanks of the mountain, and to the bone breccia, some parts of 
which he considers to be of great age. 

December 4, 1844. 

Henry Coles, Esq., of Cheltenham, Dr. Travers Cox, Pro- 
fessor Edward Forbes, and I. K. Brunei, Esq., were elected Fel- 
lows of this Society. 

The following communications were read : — 
1. Remarks on the Geology of British Guiana. By Sir Robert 


The district alluded to by the author in this paper extends along 
the shore of the Atlantic from the mouth of the Amazons river 
to the embouchure of the Orinoco, its greatest length (between 
Cape North and the confluence of the Rio Xie with the Rio 
Negro) being about 1090 geographical miles, and its breadth 
(from the mouth of the Orinoco to the confluence of the Rio 
Negro with the Amazons) 710 miles. Throughout this tract no 
organic remains have yet been discovered, the whole being occu- 
pied by primitive rocks. 

The banks and low lands near the chief rivers of Guiana are 
described as consisting at the surface of a bluish clay, impregnated 
with salt and mixed with decayed vegetable matter, forming a 
very productive soil. The delta of the Orinoco, and the em- 
bouchure of the Essequibo, present the same appearance. 

The blue clay just described is usually succeeded by other clays 
of variegated colour, and these again by sands, composed of trans- 
parent white quartz. Water has been frequently obtained by 


boring through the clay to these sands, and in such cases the depth 
from the surface to which it has been necessary to sink varies from 
120 to 230 feet.* 

The clay extends for a considerable distance inland, and is 
then terminated by a range of sand hills from 30 to 120 feet high, 
parallel to which may be traced a number of detached groups 
of hillocks, seldom more than 200 feet high, and consisting of 
red iron ochre with occasional layers of silicate of zinc. This is 
succeeded by a quartzose sandstone resembling the flexible sand- 
stone of Brazil. 

The first unstratified rocks occur near Itaka, and consist of dif- 
ferent varieties of granite with numerous greenstone dykes, and 
of porphyry, while in the surrounding mountains, at no great dis- 
tance, clay iron-stone was observed in small detached nodules. 
This rock is repeated again towards the south, and occupies the 
extensive plains or districts of table land, called " Savannahs," 
which are about 300 feet above the sea, and from the midst of 
which rise isolated hilly groups from 1800 to 2300 feet above that 
level. These plains are covered by a conglomerate, containing 
rounded fragments of quartz, and vast quantities of bog iron ore, 
while blocks of granite, some of them of large size and much 
rounded, also abound. The hills are porphyritic, and exhibit also a 
considerable quantity of mica in foliated masses. 

A sandstone resting upon the small-grained gneiss and coarse 
granite of the Savannahs is next described by the author as form- 
ing the mountains of Pacaraima which extend from the upper 
Orinoko, eastward, to the banks of the river Essequibo. Towards 
the north, felspar-porphyry, and jasper, are also mentioned, and 
then succeed lofty escarpments of sandstone rising almost per- 
pendicularly from the plain, and forming the commencement of an 
extensive range of high table land. This sandstone is described as 
entirely destitute of organic remains. 

Having alluded to these rocks, the author next describes some 
of the appearances presented by the clay, and other materials in 
the bed of the river Cukenam, near which on both sides rise loftv 
mountains, on whose declivities nodules and large blocks of 
pisiform bog iron ore are found. After this follows an account of 
another region on the right or western bank of the Cukenam, in 
which jasper is so abundant as to form the prevailing rock. The 
mountains are described as rising in a highly picturesque and 
striking manner to the north of this locality, and are said to be 
composed of compact sandstone, whence it appears that this rock 
occupies the highest summits from the banks of the Orinoco to- 
wards the south-west, and a similar ridge has also been traced by 
the author considerably to the west and south. Large blocks of 
granite are also mentioned by the author as abounding on the 
flanks of the highest mountains, one of which " Roraima " is espe- 

* Ten or twelve feet below the upper surface an irregular stratum of fallen 
trees (Avicennia nitida of botanists) is met with, and a similar bed, 12 feet 
thick, has also been found at a depth of 50 feet. 


cially alluded to as exhibiting much grandeur and great picturesque 
beauty. Northward of this mountain clay slate is described as 
being present, and near it, by the banks of the Carimani, black 
quartz, while in the basin of the river Cuyuni large blocks of 
coarse conglomerate were seen, although near the junction of that 
river with the Mazaruni the rocks were basaltic. The rocks at the 
great falls of Ematupa are said to consist of ^granite and dark in- 
durated clay slate. 

The author next directs attention to various rocks of grotesque 
form, found in the granitic district of Guiana ; some of these, 
called the ' pyramids,' being of granite and other porphyritic rock, 
and forming very striking objects in the landscape. 

In conclusion, the author states that the geological features of 
Guiana in some districts render it most probable that gold is pre- 
sent, and that he found specimens in the river sand of the Takutu, 
which, judging from the tests he was able to employ, he had no 
doubt were fragments of this precious metal. These specimens, 
however, with many others, were lost in the course of his journey ; 
but Fray Jose, the catholic missionary, showed him a piece of 
massive gold partly embedded in quartz, which had been found on 
the banks of the Rio Branco where the Takutu enters that river, s 

The presence of Itakolumite, of mica slate, and of what in Brazil 
is called the Diamond matrix, proves the existence of a structure 
in the Savannah regions of Guiana similar to that of the Serra 
do Espinhaco in the province of Minas Geraes in Brazil. 

2. A Letter to Dr. Buckland on the subject of Glacier Marks 
in South Wales. By W. C. Trevelyan, Esq. 

The object of this letter was to direct attention to certain polished 
and scratched surfaces in the valley of the Conway on the ascent 
of Moel Siabod and in other places near Snowdon. The author 
considered that these and other markings he had observed were in- 
dications of the former presence of glaciers in these localities. 

December 18, 1844. 

The following gentlemen were elected Fellows of this Society : 
— Robert Chambers, Esq., of Edinburgh ; James Simpson, Esq., 
of Chelsea ; William Lewellyn, Esq. of Pont-y-Pool ; and James 
Bandinel, Esq. of Westminster. 

The following communication was read : — 

On the Pipes or Sand-galls in the Chalk and Chalk-rubble of 
Norfolk. By Joshua Trimmer, Esq., F. G. S. 

In a paper read before the Society in the Session of 1842-3, and 


intitled "On Pipes or Sand-galls in Chalk*," I have shown that, - 
in the county of Kent, these cavities in the chalk have, in their 
upper part, a longitudinal extension, and are connected with fur- 
rows which traverse the upper surface of the chalk, and which 
widen and deepen as they approach the pipes. From the nature 
of the materials with which these cavities are filled, I inferred 
that, in that county, they were formed before the deposit of the 
oldest Eocene strata. From the fact, also noticed by me in the 
same county, that similar furrows and pipes, though of smaller 
dimensions, occur in the blocks of siliceous sandstone which are 
dispersed through the superficial deposits, and are derived from 
the sands of the plastic clay, I concluded that these cavities were 
caused, not so much by the chemical as by the mechanical action 
of water ; and, from the further observations I made, that still 
smaller furrows and pipes are actually in the course of formation 
on the surface of similar siliceous blocks on the coast of Kent, I 
judged that the mode of this mechanical action was by the flux 
and reflux of waves breaking on the shore. 

Having now extended my observations to the chalk in the vici- 
nity of Norwich, I find that in that district also the pipes consti- 
tute the termination of longitudinal furrows ; and in this paper I 
shall adduce evidence, from the phenomena observable in the 
superincumbent strata of sand and gravel, that these hollows were 
excavated in the chalk just before the deposit of the Norwich Crag, 
and that, like the pipes in the chalk of Kent, they owe their origin 
to the mechanical action of water. 

I will first offer some general remarks on the chalk, and on the 
strata overlying the chalk, in the vicinity of Norwich. 

The chalk which bounds the continuous valley watered by the 
rivers "Wensum and Yare, rises to the height of from 60 to 80 feet 
above the river level. It is covered by the sands and gravel be- 
longing to the Norwich Crag and the Northern Drift. These 
form a nearly level plateau, intersected by many inosculating val- 
leys, some containing streams, others dry. To judge from the 
sections laid open around Norwich, the greatest thickness of the 
supra- cretaceous deposits, at the highest points of this plateau, is 
about 60 feet : towards the valleys these deposits thin off. 

Immediately upon the chalk rests a ferruginous breccia, locally 
termed " the pan," from one to two feet thick, and composed of 
large unabraded or slightly water-worn flints ; and these are some- 
times mixed with marine shells, unbroken and in fragments. It 
is in this, the most constant member of the crag series in this part 
of Norfolk, that the bones of terrestrial mammalia are found. | 

Above the breccia are beds of sand and silt, containing, in some 
places, considerable accumulations of unbroken marine shells. 
These accumulations sometimes occur in drifted masses from one 
to four feet thick ; sometimes they consist of groups of two or three 

* Vide " Proceedings," vol. iv. p. 6. 

+ Mr. Wigham, who has been in the habit of purchasing bones of the work- 
men for many years, informs me that each pit yields about one bone a year. 


species of shells, imbedded in silt, the bivalves having their two 
valves united, and lying evidently on the spot where the inhabit- 
ants of the shells lived. Both of these modes of association may 
occasionally be seen in the same pit ; and they are very different 
from the arrangement of the shelly remains in the till and in the 
stratified drift. The greatest height from the surface of the chalk 
at which I have met with these shells, is less than ten feet. 

The rest of the deposit consists of alternating beds and bands of 
gravel and laminated clay, which, in their upper part, where the 
stratification is less regular than in the lower, are occasionally 
associated with unstratified masses of yellow loam. The beds, 
particularly in their lower part, are often obliquely laminated ; 
and in a cutting of the Yarmouth K ail way, between Thorpe and 
Crostwick, the shelly beds of the crag, which are there seen in 
contact with a mass of unstratified blue till, exhibit contortions 
like those which occur in the Cromer Cliffs. 

The epoch of the Norwich Crag was of considerable duration. 
On the coast of Norfolk, at Mundesley, we see the lowest member 
of that formation, the pan, overlaid by a fluviatile deposit ; and at 
Runcton Gap * a similar fluviatile deposit is overlaid by a bed con- 
taining shells of the same species that belong to the pan of Mun- 
desley and Happisburgh. 

At Happisburgh the pan is overlaid by a bed of large fossil 
trees ; and these are buried beneath stratified and unstratified drift. 
Near Norwich there is no trace of the intervening period vvhen 
the crag became dry land. Moreover, the only instance I have 
seen of blue till in that neighbourhood, is in the cutting of the 
Yarmouth Railway above noticed ; and in the general absence of 
this unstratified detritus, there is nothing in the district to define 
the limits between the crag and the stratified drift, which might 
pass together for one continuous deposit. 

I will now proceed to describe, in the first instance, the appear- 
ances I observed in two pits worked in the solid undisturbed chalk, 
situate within five miles of Norwich. In these pits, twice or thrice 
a week for several months, I made measurements and drawings of 
the surface of the chalk and of the cavities in it, as, during the 
progress of the works, they became cleared of the overlying 

In describing these and the other pits referred to in the present 
paper, I shall adopt the following local terms, used by the work- 
men. Cavities in the chalk, of greater breadth than depth, they 
call " drops " ; deep conical or cylindrical pipes in the chalk, they 
call "pots "; the overlying gravel, sand, &c. they call " uncallow." 

* The bed of shells at Runcton occurred to the east of the Gap ; but on a 
visit I made to the spot in the spring of 1 845, a fall of the cliff had covered up 
the bed. To the west of the Gap, however, I found a bed of marine shells, 
lying, like that to the east of it, above the freshwater deposit. The frozen state 
of the cliff prevented my obtaining specimens. The shells I found to the east 
of the Gap were, Natica helicoides, Mya (a large species), Fusus striatus? The 
shells I observed to the west of the Gap were all of the same species, viz. a 
large truncated gaping bivalve, and had both valves united. 



The first of these two pits is situate in the village of Thorpe, 
about a mile to the east of Norwich, at the junction of the great 
east and west valley of the Yare with a small north and south 
valley. The works are prosecuted in the direction of both valleys. 

Owing to the great thickness of the uncallow (from 15 to 70 
feet), it is removed only to a small extent at a time ; and when 
the chalk has been worked away to that extent, a fresh space is 
cleared for working. 

Fig. 1. Thorpe Chalk Pit. 
(Ground Plan.*') 

West *. 




The diagram (fig. 1.) is a ground plan of so much of this pit 
as I propose to describe. On the left hand, outside of the curved 
line C A f G, the chalk had been worked away long before my first 
visit to the pit, and the outer space was filled with refuse from 
other parts of the works. At the surface of the chalk, over part 
of this space, to the left of a line drawn from h to f, there had 
occurred, as the workmen stated, a large " drop" When I first 
visited the pit, the chalk had been worked away in the excavation 
B c e d (of which a portion only is represented) to the depth, 
measured from the surface of the rock, of about 50 feet ; and sub- 
sequently, in the course of the season, it was removed to a further 
depth of 5 or 6 feet, when the workings were interrupted by water. 

c a b is a triangular surface of chalk, of which the length c b is 
about 18 feet, and the breadth at the further side a b, about 15 
feet. On my first visit to the pit, it had been recently cleared of 
uncallow ; and a clean vertical section, about 60 feet deep, of 

* In this diagram certain furrows which ought to have been indicated, and 
which proceed towards the west and south-west, from near the round marks on 
the left-hand side of the middle of the diagram, have been accidentally omitted. 



deposits of that description, then presented itself above the chalk, 
along the whole of the line a b d. 

Subsequently, the uncallow was removed also from the space 
b a g m (about 15 feet by 9 feet) ; and afterwards, to the whole 
extent of that space, and of the triangular space cab, the chalk 
was worked away, and a vertical section of the uncallow was then 
exposed above the lines G m and m b. 

At c was a large conical pot. At I and k, in the floor of the 
excavation b c e d, were horizontal sections of two cylindrical 
pots, each about 2\ feet in diameter ; and, as the workmen stated, 
these pots had been of the same diameter throughout their whole 
lengths of 55 feet ; and at that depth from the surface of the 
chalk there was no appearance of their terminating. Most of the 
pipes in this pit extended, as the workmen stated, to the very 
bottom ; though occasionally a pipe, on its meeting with a layer 
of flints, would stop abruptly. At l was another large pot. 

On the surface of the chalk, in the triangular space cab, were 
several circular basins, about 10 inches in diameter, and 2 or 3 
inches deep in the centre : there were also several very shallow 
irregular furrows. 

On the outer margin of this space, extending from the pot c to 
a, were the remains of a deep curvilinear furrow ; from a to b 
was a straight deep furrow, communicating at b with the pipe l ; 
and parallel to a b was another deep furrow, extending from 

G tO M. 

Fig. 2. Thorpe Chalk Pit. 

(Cross Section of the two Furrows G M and A B, from OfoN.) 

W. E. 

'". """" 

/-. - 

r I .. " 1 .' \\ 




V 5 \ 


1. The solid chalk. 

2. The bottom of the furrows G M and A B, filled with sand, umber, and 
yellow ochre, and sometimes containing thin layers of chalk. 

3. Layer of reconstructed chalk. 

4. Sand (a.) represents a projection filled with umber. 

A cross-section of these two furrows, on a line n o, nearly 
midway between the points a and b, is represented in fig. 2.; 
and fig. 4. is another transverse section of the same two fur- 
rows, drawn through the points a and G. On each of the above 



lines of section, the furrows are excavated in solid chalk, and 
they are separated from one another by an intervening ridge of 
solid undisturbed chalk. 

Fig. 3. Thorpe Chalk Pit. 

( Cross Section of the bottom of the furrow G M. ) 

W. E. 


Solid chalk. 


Yellow ochre. 






Sand mixed with umber. 


Layer of reconstructed chalk 

On the line of section n o, each of the furrows is from 7 to 8 
feet deep, and, at the surface of the solid chalk, is about 4 feet 
wide ; but on the line of section a g, both the furrows are wider 
and shallower. At and near the line of section n o, the width of 
the furrows on a level with the surface of the solid chalk, is some- 
times less than it is about a foot and a half below that level ; but 
at a greater depth the width again diminishes, and it then tapers 
downwards to the bottom. Sometimes, however, the transverse 
section is nearly that of a wedge. 

Near the line of section n o, the lower part of the furrow G m, 
to the height of about a foot from the bottom, was irregular in 
shape, and, at that height, was from 1^ to 2 feet wide. This part 
was sometimes filled with a mixture of yellow ochre and umber, of 
a blackish or brown colour, and very low specific gravity : some- 
times the umber lay above and the ochre below, a thin layer of 
fine sand separating the two ; sometimes a layer of fine ferruginous 
sand lay beneath the ochre and umber, and sometimes, as in Fig. 
3., thin irregular layers of chalk were mixed with the other 
contents of this lower part of the furrow. At the bottom of the 
furrow A B, near the point A in the ground plan, was an accumu- 
lation of water-worn pebbles, which was covered by sand. (See 
Fig. 4.) 

VOL. I. X 



Fig. 4. Thorpe Chalk Pit. 
( Cross Section of the two furrows G M and A B from G to A. ) 
S.W. S.E. 

1. Solid chalk. 

o. Yellow ochre. 

u. Umber. 

S. Sand. 

p. rounded pebbles. 

3. reconstructed chalk. 

4. Sand. 

Near the line of section no in each of the furrows, at the 
height of about a foot from the bottom, was a layer of chalk about 
4 feet thick, but thicker towards the sides of the furrow than 
towards the middle. The chalk bore evident marks of reconstruction 
in some of its parts, but in other parts was apparently so solid as 
to render it difficult for the observer to believe that it had ever 
been disturbed. The upper surface of the reconstructed chalk in 
each of the two furrows appeared to have been exposed to the same 
kind of furrowing action which the solid chalk has undergone at the 
base of the furrows. From the top of this layer of reconstructed 
chalk to the level of the surface of solid chalk, upon this line of sec- 
tion, was a perpendicular height of 3 or 4 feet. This space in the 
furrow A b was filled with fine sand, intermixed frequently with 
much umber, less frequently with yellow ochre, and sometimes 
with a mixture of the two ; and in one part, where the surface of 
the layer of reconstructed chalk was depressed below its ordinary 
level, a layer of rounded gravel occurred beneath the sand. Above 
the layer of reconstructed chalk, in the furrow A b, small conical 
protuberances, about 4 inches in length and diameter, projected 
from the sides of the furrow into the solid chalk, in which they 
formed cavities, and these cavities were filled with umber. (See 
fig. 2.) 

It is probably from the decomposition of the iron pyrites in the 
chalk, that the yellow ochre in these furrows has resulted ; for it is 
often seen forming small lumps in the solid chalk, near the surface of 



the latter. The umber is of frequent occurrence, in connection with 
the pipes in the chalk, both in Kent and Norfolk. In the former 
county I have found pipes 6 inches in diameter, and 2 feet in 
depth, nearly filled with this substance ; and I have frequently 
observed it mixed with the clay which lies between the chalk and 
the overlying loam, and which also forms the lining to the pipes. 
In Norfolk it enters largely into the composition of the pan, and 
occurs as well in the pipes as in the furrows ; but I have nowhere 
met with it so pure, nor in such large masses, as in the lower part 
of the furrow G m, above described. 

The reconstructed chalk, which, in the line of section n o, lay 
within the furrows at the depth of 3 or 4 feet below the surface of 
the solid chalk, completely fills up and overtops the furrows and 
the ridge of solid chalk which divides them, on the line of section 
A g. Over this layer of reconstructed chalk, extending continuously 
from furrow to furrow, lies a bed of sand. 

The following figure (5.) is a vertical section, passing north 

Fig. 5. Thorpe Chalk Pit. 


G <-_-■— '-^ 

1. The solid chalk. 

2. The bottom of the furrow A B, filled with sand, umber, and yellow ochre, 

and occasionally containing thin layers of chalk. 

3. Layer of re-constructed chalk. 

4. Sand. 

5. S' General surface of the solid chalk, at the sides of the furrow. 

5. Sand, alternating, in the lower part, with seams of clay and gravel. From 

S, S' to the top of 5, the height is about five yards. 

6. Loam, sand, and gravel. From the bottom of 6 to the surface is about 

eighteen yards. 
L. The sand-pipe, so marked in the ground-plan, fig. 1 . 

and south along the middle of the furrow ab. It shows the con- 
nection of that furrow with the pipe l, and the manner in 
which the lower strata of crag bend down into the broader and 
deeper pipes, such as l appears to be. Since the disturbance of 
the strata does not extend more than 15 feet above the general 
level of the surface of the solid chalk, the upper horizontal strata 
of loam, sand, and gravel, of the aggregate thickness of about 

x 2 



18 yards, which, lie above the disturbed strata, are omitted in the 

The strata overlying the chalk, as exhibited in vertical section 
over the line G M in the ground plan, were the following, in de- 
scending order : — 




Feet In 

Loam, with patches of gravel 






Sand, with seams of gravel 









Clay - 






Sand - 






Dark brown gravel, about 







Ferruginous sand 






Yellow sand, about 







Ferruginous sand, about 






Whitish sand, about - 







Clay - 






Yellow sand, about 







Clay, whitish towards the bottom 




Solid chalk 





I met with no crag shells in these strata at the pit at Thorpe. 

About midway between the points G and m, and near the point 
o, in the ground plan, some of the lower of the above super- 
cretaceous strata were faulted in the manner represented in 
Fig 6., the greatest perpendicular displacement being about 2 feet : 

Fig. 6.* 

but those strata in that section, whose vertical distance from the 
chalk exceeded 16 feet, remained undisturbed and horizontal. 
From the sequel it will appear probable that this displacement is 
owing to the occurrence of a sandpipe in the chalk, to the west of 
the line g m ; but the existence of such a cavity was not proved 
in this instance ; for, during my visits to the chalkpit, the clearing 
of the chalk had not proceeded beyond the line in question. 

* The references to this diagram are given in the above table of the strata 
overlying the chalk. 



The second of the two pits above referred to, worked in the solid 
chalk, lies about 4 miles N. E. of Norwich, a little to the north of 
Rackheath church. It is on the east side of a north and south 
valley, which terminates northwards in the east and west valley of 
the Bure. 

The surface of the chalk is marked by broad undulations, 3 or 4 
yards asunder, and about a yard deep, the prevailing direction of 
these undulations, drawn lengthwise, being north and south ; but 
this direction is liable to exception. The chalk is worked to a 
depth of from 12 to 18 feet below its own surface, the depth in- 
creasing with the distance from the valley. Paramondras, which 
are generally abundant in the chalk of this part of Norfolk, are 
particularly so in this pit ; and I noticed one of them, having its 
lower part fixed in the chalk, and its upper enveloped in the sand 
of the crag, which here covers the chalk. 

The crag is from 10 to 18 feet thick ; but it thins off towards 
the valley. The Pan rests immediately on the chalk ; and above 
the pan are beds of yellow and white sand, alternating with bands, 

2 or 3 inches thick, of gravel and laminated clay. In the spring 
of 1844, in the progress of the workings, a bed of crag-shells was 
exposed, about 3 feet long and 2 feet thick, at the height of about 

3 feet above the surface of the chalk ; and another thin layer of 
crag shells may be seen in the bank of an adjoining road. The 
above lower crag strata conform to the irregularities in the surface 
of the chalk, both where it sinks towards the valley and where it 
rises above the ordinary level. The valley therefore appears to 
have been partially excavated in the chalk, before the supra- 
cretaceous beds were deposited. The upper beds consist of less 
regularly stratified sand and gravel. 

In the beginning of May, 1843, a space, abcd (see Fig. 7.), 
bordering on the edge of the valley, 19 yards by 14, was cleared 
of the sand and gravel, which were here from 10 to 12 feet 
thick. The surface of the chalk thus exposed was traversed 
by numerous shallow and nearly parallel furrows, which had a 

Fig. 7. 
( Ground Plan of the cleared Surface of Chalk at Blackheath.) 


r.-. E 



, 1 

Sg §f Hf 1= ^J \k < :«* 1 ^ « '* * ►* < 

iH £§ 1^ jf 


• ; -^"-Y-Vv : -': T£:~,: '^'-iv » 


The shaded parts represent the ridge, and the blank ports the furrow. 

x 3 


prevailing direction from N. to S., agreeing with that of the valley ; 
but such a parallelism between the furrows in the surface of the 
chalk and the nearest valley does not hold as a general rule ; for 
in a space that was subsequently cleared, less than 20 yards from 
that shown in the diagram, the direction of the furrows was E. 
and W. Upon the whole, however, the north and south furrows 
seem to be the deepest. 

The deepest of the furrows shown in the diagram, which was 
p, was about 3 feet wide, and 1 foot deep : the next furrow, q, 
was 6 inches wide and 3 deep ; and, for the length of 2 or 3 yards, 
was as clean cut as a gutter-tile. It led to a circular cavity, r, 
3 feet in diameter, which looked like the mouth of a pipe ; but, 
on removing the sand, it was found to be only 1 foot deep in the 
centre. The rest of the furrows were broader, shallower, and less 
regular than the two former, and were lost in a large irregular 
cavity, not visible at my first visit to the pit, but afterwards ex- 
posed to view in a vertical section, passing through the line e p, 
about 12 feet to the south of the line ab. 

The hollow (see Fig. 8.) thus laid open was about 11 yards 

Fig. 8. 


1. Solid chalk. 

p. Pan, or ferruginous breccia. 

2. Sand, black towards the bottom, yellow towards the top. 

3. Whitish sand. 

wide, and was divided by a ridge of chalk into two cavities, which 
were respectively 21 and 12 feet wide., and 3 and 7 feet deep. 
The bottom of this hollow, like the surface of the chalk generally, 
was lined with the pan ; above this, within the hollow, was sand, 
blackish towards the bottom, but yellow towards the top. Over 
this and over the Pan beyond the limits of the cavity, was a whitish 

In other parts of the Rackheath pit, several sections of deep 
pots were visible ; and one of the most remarkable of these is 
represented in Fig 9. 

" Core" is the term given by the workmen to the column of un- 
stratified, tenacious, gravelly loam, which is sometimes found over 
a "pot" in the chalk, rising through and traversing the regularly 
stratified and alternating bands of sand, gravel, and clay, belonging 
to the crag and overlying the chalk. One of these cores, pro- 
jecting in relief above the strata of the crag, is represented in the 
annexed diagram. On one side, the laminae of stratification bend 


Fig. 9. 

1. Solid Chalk. 

2. Sand, gravel, and clay, 

a. Pot in the chalk. 

b. Core above the pot. 

down towards the core ; on the other, they abut abruptly, in a 
horizontal position, against it. 

Over the larger sandpipes in this pit generally, the stratification 
of the lower beds of crag is disturbed, and, in some places, quite 

From the state of the strata of the uncallow above, the work- 
men profess to be able to determine the nature of the cavity in 
the chalk below. It may be stated, as a general rule, that over 
" drops," or other irregularities in the surface of the chalk, of 
greater width than depth, the alternating beds of sand and clay 
are disposed in gently curving flexures, which are evidently ori- 
ginal conditions of deposit : that over deep pipes, not exceeding a 
foot in diameter, the laminae of the sand and gravel are undis- 
turbed ; that over pipes of greater diameter the laminae usually 
suffer disturbance ; but that even over the widest pipes, the dis- 
turbance does not extend to the height of 20 feet from the surface 
of the chalk. When the Uncallow exceeds that thickness, the 
disturbed strata are overlaid by others which are horizontal. 

Among the contents of the sand-pipes in the solid chalk near 
Norwich, I have not met with any fragments of chalk ; though in 
two instances I have seen rounded pebbles of chalk, lying near the 
clay which usually lines the sides of these cavities. The flints in 
the pipes are rarely waterworn, and appear to have been rarely 
detached from the chalk. In Kent, on the contrary (particularly 
in a pit near Canterbury, described by me in a former communi- 
cation) a large portion of the flints in the pipes have undergone 
considerable attrition ; but the form of the pebbles is not orbi- 
cular nor ellipsoidal, but rather that of two cones, placed base to 

As a general fact, crag-shells have not been found in the pipes 
in the solid chalk near Norwich, even in cases where such shells 
are abundant in the overlying crag strata. Neither have I dis- 

X 4 



covered in these pipes any mammalian bones, nor have I learned 
that any such discovery has been made by others. 

I have now to describe some sand-pipes near Norwich, not in 
solid chalk, but in reconstructed chalk or chalk-rubble. 

The pit in which these occur is at Crostwick, about five miles 
N. E. of Norwich, on the western side of Rackheath Valley, and 
at its point of confluence with the valley of the Bure. The di- 
mensions of the pit are about 35 yards by 48 and the sections of 
its southern, eastern, and western sides, are represented in the 
three following diagrams : — 

Fiff. 10. Crostwick Pit. 


South. - 


Fig. 11, 






Note. — The references to the ahove three diagrams are as follows : — 
a, b, c, d. Various layers or seams of flint in the gravel and sand overlying 
the chalk ( Uncallow'). 

e. A pipe which divides into two cylinders. 

f. A flint protruding from the chalk into asandpipe. 

g. Various flints (not in layers) in the uncallow. 

Various irregular seams of clay also occur in different parts of the uncallow, as 
near e in fig. 10. (to the right of that letter); to the left of/ in fig. 11. ; and 
where lines are represented in fig. 12. 

Seams of crag shells also occur at two or three points near b in fig. 10. and 
ahove /in 11. 

The lowest line of flints, marked a, a, runs with great regu- 
larity all round the pit ; and must, I think, be in solid undisturbed 
chalk. The next line (b, b) is less regular and continuous ; but it 


contains two Paramoudras, in their proper vertical position. The 
third line (c, c) is more irregular, and some of its tabular masses 
of flint lie horizontally, while others stand up vertically ; and a lit- 
tle below this line, on the southern side, are some irregular lines 
of gray clay, with a ferruginous tinge. Above the fourth line of 
flints (d, d) to the west of the middle point of same side, a seam of 
similar clay is continuous for several feet. 

On the eastern side, towards the north end, similar seams of 
clay occur above the lowest line of flints (a, a), at intervals of from 
6 inches to 2 feet in perpendicular height. They are rarely more 
than 6 inches long, and an inch thick. Several seams also occur 
about the middle of the same side, below the level of the third line 
of flints (c, c). Irregular seams of clay and sand appear also 
about the middle of the western side of the pit ; and these occa- 
sionally expand into masses of sand, 6 inches long and 2 or 3 
inches thick. The seams of clay dip, on the south side toward the 
north, on the east side toward the east, and on the west side to- 
ward the west. In the north-east corner of the pit, the recon- 
structed chalk rises to the height of 12 feet above the level of the 
lowest line of flints (a, a). 

Near the middle of the eastern side of the pit, at the depth of 
about 5 feet below the surface of the reconstructed chalk, a layer 
of crag shells occurs, about 10 feet long, dipping eastward. The 
general thickness of this layer is from 1 to 3 inches ; but in one 
part, for the length of 2 feet, it swells' out to the thickness of 1 
foot ; and the shells are here mixed with sand and a few pebbles. 
Among the shells, which are chiefly in large fragments, Mr. 
Wigham recognized Astarte plena, Tellina obliqua, and Cyprina 
islandica, the last shell being the most abundant.* I have before 
stated that the pan which underlies the fluviatile deposit of Mun- 
desley, and the bed which overlies the fluviatile deposit at Rimcton 
Gap, agree as to the species of shells which they contain ; and it 
becomes a question with which of these two beds the crag of 
Crostwick was contemporaneous. 

So solid in appearance is the reconstructed chalk of this pit, 
that, until I discovered the above described layer of crag shells, I 
had no suspicion that it was any thing but solid chalk ; and even 
now, when I am convinced that a large portion of the matter in 
which this pit is excavated is chalk-rubble, I am unable to assign, 
with any degree of precision, the limits between the reconstructed 
and the solid chalk. The fragments of chalk in the rubble of 
Crostwick do not exhibit the slightest appearance of attrition. 

As to the deposits above the reconstructed chalk, they rise to 
the height of about 4 feet above the general level of the latter. 
Of the Pan there are no distinct traces. The lower of these over- 
lying deposits are more regularly stratified than the upper. 

* The entire skeleton of an elephant was found some years ago, as Mr. 
Wigham informs me, in a pit of chalk-rubble in the neighhourhood of Crost- 
wick ; and, as he believe?, in this very pit. In this part of Norfolk, " marl" is 
the name which the farmers give in common hoth to chalk and to chalk-ruhble. 



One of the most remarkable phenomena in this "pit is to be ob- 
served on its southern side. A cylindrical pipe (e), of small 
diameter, divides into two smaller cylinders, two or three inches 
in diameter each. They are separated one from the other by an 
interval of 2 or 3 inches, and each holds an uninterrupted course 
through the chalk to the depth of several feet. In this and in 
other instances of the same kind that I have met with in Norfolk, 
the division of the pipe into two branches appeared to have been 
caused by a flint obstructing nearly the whole area of the pipe » 

Fig. 13. 
South side. 

Chalk, rubble, and Chalk. 

Lowest line of Flints. 

Overlying sand. 


&tcS=&Ct .&3<&$9d 

Floor of the pit. 

and- the diameters of the smaller cylinders into which it divided 
appeared to be influenced by the size of the apertures left in the 
mass of flint. 

In another pipe on the east side of the Crostwick pit, a flint (/), 
is seen, one part of which remains imbedded in the chalk, while 
the other part projects into the cavity of the pipe. The upper 
surface of the projecting part has indications of wear, while its 
under surface retains the original chalky coating. 

In another part of the same pit I observed fissures radiating 
from one of the pipes ; and these fissures were filled with the same 
fine clay with which the pipes are usually lined. I have since met 
with similar fissures, similarly lined, in pipes traversing the solid 
chalk : they occur in pits in this part of Norfolk. 

In a paper on the detrital deposits of part of West Norfolk, 
(Proceedings of the Geol. Soc. vol. iii. p. 185.), I showed that the 
chalk is there covered by two deposits of very variable thickness. 
The upper consists of ferruginous sand or loam, and of numerous 
chalk flints, which have undergone scarcely any abrasion, together 
with a few fragments of other rocks, such as trap, porphyry, &c, 
which indicate distant transport : and with these ingredients, beds 
of rolled chalk-pebbles are occasionally associated. The lower 
deposit consists mainly of fragmentary chalk, which has undergone 



very little attrition ; and sometimes this constitutes almost the 
sole material ; sometimes there is an admixture of a variable 
proportion of sand and clay. The lower deposit, though very 
generally distributed, is more local than the upper. There can 
be no doubt that both belong to the northern drift. 

The surface of the lower deposit is often very much eroded with 
conical and cylindrical pipes, and with irregular furrows from a 
few inches to a foot or two in width, and rarely more than 3 or 
4 feet in depth. I gave in the same paper an instance of this 
at Gallows Hill, near Burnham Market, on the side of a valley 
which opens to the sea, and is excavated in the solid chalk. This 

Fig. 14. Burnham Market. 

Y 10 feet. 

' 20 feet. 


Ferruginous sand, with unabraded flints, and pebbles of trap and porphyry. 
Lighter-coloured gravel, with angular flints, rounded pebbles of chalk, and 

pebbles of trap and porphyry. 
Where the lining is darker, is a lining of clay. This lining extends also 

round the sand-pipe p. 
Comminuted chalk, mixed with clay and sand, and with rounded and par- 
tially waterworn fragments of chalk. 
Large tabular unabraded masses of flint. 
A bed of gravel. 
Solid chalk. 

mass (r, r) was 20 feet thick, and consisted of finely-comminuted 
chalk detritus, mingled with clay and sand, and containing rounded 
and slightly waterworn fragments of chalk, and large tabular 
flints, not in the least abraded. It had seams of sand, several 
inches thick, in its lower part ; and one of these expanded into a 
bed of gravel 2 feet thick. It was traversed by a sand-pipe (p), 
which appeared to extend through its entire thickness. 

In a recent communication I mentioned a bed of chalk-rubble 
near Trimmingham, which occurs enveloped in drift, and is so 
pure as to be burned for lime. I have since met with another 
such deposit near the Thorpe entrance to Gunton Park, which is 
also burned for lime : it consist of fragments of chalk which have 
undergone some little attrition. This bed is from 12 to 15 feet 
thick ; rests upon sand ; and is covered by from 2 to 4 feet of 


sandy loam. In an area from which the uncallow had been re- 
cently cleared, 15 yards long, and from 3 to 5 yards broad, I 
found the surface of this bed honeycombed with sand-pipes, which 
were from 1 to 3 feet deep, and scarcely 2 feet apart. They were 
connected by furrows running in various directions. 

From the phenomena above recorded as occurring in Norfolk, 
combined with those which I formerly observed in Kent, it may 
be concluded, that the surface both of the solid and reconstructed 
chalk in those counties has been exposed to the action of which 
sand-pipes are the result ; and this at various epochs, extending 
from a period prior to the deposit of the sands of the plastic 
clay, to the close of the period of the stratified drift. 

The phenomena, observable in Norfolk, of the horizontal strata 
of sand and gravel, superincumbent on the chalk, bending down 
into the cavities of the larger sand-pipes as they approach those 
cavities, led Mr. Lyell to attribute these irregularities to the 
gradual removal of the chalk after the sand and gravel had been 
deposited ; and the agent by which he supposed the chalk to have 
been removed, was acidulated water, percolating the overlying 
deposits, which deposits subsided into the hollows beneath, on 
their losing their support. 

That a certain amount of subsidence has, in many instances, 
taken place, I am by no means disposed to deny ; and we have 
evidence of this in the vertical strise which I have often observed 
on the walls of pipes, and which I find, from the paper of Mr. Rose 
on the geology of West Norfolk, that he has also noticed. The 
faulted state of the bands of sand and clay at Thorpe, represented 
in Diagram 6. (supposing that fault to be attributable to some 
. neighbouring sand-pipe), may also be adduced in proof of the sub- 
sidence of the strata into those cavities. 

I believe these cavities to have been formed before the super- 
incumbent strata were deposited. The shallow circular basins 
observed on the surface of the chalk at Thorpe and Rackheath, 
and formerly also in Kent, I consider as incipient pipes. The 
formation of such hollows in siliceous blocks on the sea-shore, by 
the rotation of sand and water, I formerly pointed out in my paper 
on the sand-pipes of Kent. I have also observed minature furrows, 
and conical and cylindrical cavities, now forming on chalk, by the 
action of sand and water, on the coast of Norfolk, between high 
and low water mark. These cylindrical cavities are 2 inches in 
diameter, and 4 inches in depth. 

I beg to compare the sand-pipes in the chalk with the rock- 
basins worn in the river-beds of gneiss and granite in Southern 
India, of which Lieut. Newbold has given an account. (Proceed- 
ings of the Geol. Soc, vol. iii. p. 702.) These cavities are from 
4 inches to 4 feet in diameter, and 4 feet deep ; and they are 
connected one with another by shallow channels. For the further 
details on this subject, I beg to refer to the abstract of his paper. 

The effect of cavities, when once formed in the bed of a rapid 
river or tide, is to occasion whirlpools, which set in rotation the 


matters within the cavity, the heavier bodies remaining within it, 
while the lighter are ejected. In this way, it appears to me that 
pits in the chalk may have been kept open for some time after the 
deposit of the crag had commenced. 

The bending down of the lower strata of the crag into the 
hollows of the larger and deeper pipes, may be regarded as an 
extreme case of the stratification conforming itself to pre-existing 
irregularities of surface, a conformity which is so apparent in the 
same strata when extending over the broad and shallow hollows in 
the chalk. A subsidence to a limited extent in matters so de- 
posited is not incompatible with the mode and circumstances of 
their deposition. 

January 8. 1845. 

George Dawson, Esq. of Birmingham, was elected a Fellow of 
this Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On the Discovery of the Fossil Remains o/'Bidental and other 
Reptiles in South Africa. By Andrew Geddes Bain, 
Esq.* Surveyor of Military Roads under the Corps of Royal 

The district in which these fossils were found is on the eastern 
frontier of the Cape Colony in South Africa, about 500 miles 
east of Cape Town. No granite has been observed here, and the 
lowest rocks are stratified, and in consequence of the dip, though 
variable, tending on the whole towards the interior of the country, 
the lower members of them are those nearest the coast. 

A red quartzose crystalline sandstone is described by the author 
as the fundamental rock, and as alt ernatingj with a talcose slate. 
This sandstone is assumed to be of the carboniferous period, 
vegetable impressions, apparently of a Lepidodendron, having 
been found in it, and it is traced by the author towards the west, 
parallel to the coast to within 50 miles of the Cape. 

Over this there occurs a rock, called by the author a claystone 
porphyry, containing fragments of the sandstone ; next an ar- 
gillaceous slate, alternating with sandstone and containing thin 
laminae of limestone, and at a little distance is a stratum full 
of vegetable remains. 

Further to the north is a ferruginous sandstone with argillo- 
calcareous nodules, in which nodules were found the remains of 
reptiles characterised by the author as Bidental, and described by 

* This and the succeeding memoir are published in extenso in the Transac- 
tions of the Geological Society, 2d series, vol. vii. p. 53. 


Professor Owen in the subsequent memoir. From the basin of 
Fort Beaufort to near the southern foot of the Winterberg range 
(which is about 90 miles inland) the same beds appear to be con- 
tinuous, but they are inter stratified with beds of greenstone which 
also occasionally intersect them. 

The Winterberg peak (between 5,000 and 6,000 feet high) is a 
flat tabular mass of basalt. Several hundred miles to the west- 
ward of the peak a region extends of horizontal sandstone capped 
on the eminences by basalt and intersected by numerous basaltic 
dykes. A similar region extends to the north of the peak. Here 
again reptilian fossils have been discovered, and they have also 
been brought from the country far to the north beyond the Orange 
River. Ammonites have been found at the summit of the 
Compass-berg 150 miles N.W. of the Winterberg. 

The author does not venture to decide on the geological age of 
the formations he thus describes, but proceeds in conclusion to 
allude to some overlying deposits found near the southern coast of 
Albany, one of which is a red sandstone conglomerate, entirely 
without fossils and resting unconformably on the supposed car- 
boniferous sandstone : others are distinctly tertiary, and abound 
in [shells resembling those of animals still living on the South 
African coast. A thick diluvial deposit is found near Fort Beau- 
fort, and from the plains far to the northward beyond the Orange 
river the fossil skull of a kind of buffalo has been obtained. 

2. Description of certain Fossil Crania, discovered by A. Gr. Bain, 
Esq., in Sandstone Rocks at the South-eastern Extremity of 
Africa, referable to different Species of an extinct Genus 
of Reptilia (Dicynodon), and indicative of a neio Tribe or 
Sub-order of Sauria. By Richard Owen, Esq., F.R.S., 
F.G.S., &c* 

The most remarkable character in these fossils is the presence of 
two long curved and sharp-pointed tusks, which, like those of the 
Walrus, descend one from each superior maxillary bone, and pass 
on the outside of the fore part of the lower jaw, a character rare 
even in Mammals, and hitherto only met with in that class ; 
but in these specimens combined with a structure of the cranium, 
proving that the animals belonged to the class Reptilia, but were 
members neither of the Crocodilian nor Chelonian orders. The 
Lacertine Sauria offer characters for comparison, but the minor 
deviations from the ordinary Lacertian structure are so numerous, 
the mode in which Crocodilian and Chelonian characters are in- 
terwoven upon an essentially Lacertian base is so interesting, and 
the individual and distinctive characters of the Dicynodons so 
striking and peculiar as to require a detailed osteological descrip- 
tion for their complete illustration. 

* Transactions of the Geological Society of London, 2d series, vol. vii. p. 59. 


In these animals, the Crocodilian structure is chiefly manifested 
in the occipital region of the skull, and gives place to the Lacer- 
tian characters in the upper and fore part ; but in regard to these 
deviations it must be remembered, that the distinctive features of 
the Crocodilian type are most broadly manifested in the existing 
representatives of the order, and are modified and rendered less 
salient in the more numerous and varied extinct members. 

It is necessary to bear in mind this tendency to the amalgama- 
tion of Crocodilian and Lacertian characters in the older Loricata, 
in order to- form a right estimate of the value of those cor- 
respondences with the cranial peculiarities of the existing La- 

Nevertheless, various characters justify the conclusion, that the 
general type of cranial organisation manifested by modern lizards 
was that in which the peculiar modifications of the Dicynodon have 
been superinduced. It is not, however, amongst the modern 
lizards that we find the nearest approximation to the Dicynodon. 
For this we must go as far back into the period of Reptilian life 
on this planet as the epoch of the new red sandstone, when the 
Rhynchosaurus manifested the Lacertian type of skull, combined 
with toothless jaws, which were most probably sheathed with 
horn. What concerns us most in the present inquiry is the 
anomalous edentulous sharp edge of the upper and lower jaws in 
the ancient Rhynchosaur, and the Chelonian form of the deep 
lower jaw, the same anomaly having been repeated in the extinct 
African lizard of apparently as remote a period, with the super- 
addition of Mammalian canine tusks. For the rest, much dif- 
ference of form is manifested in the two extinct genera ; but it 
is interesting to remark the same peculiar contraction of the 
cranial cavity, indicating an arrested developement of brain in 
both of them. The dental peculiarity of the African Saurian forms 
its chief distinction from the Rhynchosaurus, as from all other 
Sauria : but with the strange superaddition of its two canine 
tusks, we must bear in mind that the affinities linking the Dicy- 
nodon to Crocodilians and Chelonian s are much more strongly 
manifested than they are in the Rhynchosaurus. 

The author, in concluding his account of the Dicynodon, ad- 
verts to the analogy of structure, which radiates from this genus 
in the direction of the Ophidian division of existing Reptilia, 
although it is unsupported by any other concordances of 
cranial or dental organisation than those about to be cited. 
In the poisonous serpents, the rattle-snakes for example, the 
intermaxillary bone is single and edentulous ; the maxillary 
bone supports a long, curved, pointed tooth, which, when ad- 
vanced, descends outside the lower jaw. Apart from all the 
other peculiarities of the maxillary and dental systems of the 
poison-snakes, they alone, of all existing Reptilia, repeat, in the 
above-cited structures, the characters of the Dicynodon. But, in ad- 
dition to the two large maxillary teeth, the rattle-snake has smaller 


teetli in rows upon the palatine, pterygoid and mandibular bones. 
To complete the resemblance between the tasks of the Dicynodon 
and the venom fangs of the snake, you must deeply groove their 
fore-part, or bore a canal through their centre ; you must remove 
those strong columns of bone which converge to, abut against, and 
strengthen the fixed socket of the tusk, and you must suspend the 
maxillary bone by a moveable pedicle to the pre-frontal and malar 
bones. Besides, the perforated tusk of the poisonous serpent is 
always followed by one or more similar teeth, in various stages of 
growth, ready to supply its place, according to the general law of 
the maintenance in serviceable state of the dental armature of the 
jaws throughout the Reptilian class. 

The canine tusk of the Dicynodon consists of a simple body of 
compact unvascular dentine, with a very thin outer coat of 
enamel, which may be traced into the alveolus for a short dis- 
tance. Rather more than one-third of the tusk is lodged in the 
socket, the basal conical pulp-cavity is continued from the base 
about one-half down the implanted part of the tusk, and a linear 
continuation extends along the centre of the rest of the tusk, 
from which the dentinal tubes of the solid body of the tusk radiate. 
They present gentle parallel secondary curves or undulations 
throughout their course, divide dichotomously twice or thrice near 
their beginnings, and send off numerous small lateral branches, 
chiefly, but not exclusively, from the side next the apex. 

The principal difference in the microscopic texture of the tusks 
of the Dicynodon, as compared with the teeth of the croco- 
dile, consists in the closer and more compact arrangement of the 
calcigerous tubes of the dentine ; by which character it makes a 
closer approach to the intimate texture of that tissue in the canine 
teeth of the carnivorous Mammalia. 

In the other Reptilia, recent or extinct, which most nearly 
approach the Mammalia in the structure of their teeth, the dif- 
ference characteristic of the inferior and cold-blooded class is ma- 
nifested in the shape, and in the system of shedding and succession 
of the teeth. The dental armature of the jaws is kept in ser- 
viceable order by uninterrupted change and succession ; but the 
matrix of the individual tooth is soon exhausted, and the life of 
the tooth itself may be said to be comparatively short. Evidence 
of this low organised dental condition, common to fishes, has 
been obtained in every reptile, in which the implanted base of 
the teeth has been examined by the author. 

The existing Lacertians superadd to this endless shedding and 
succession of teeth, the ichthyic character of anchylosis of the 
base of the teetli in use to the osseous substance of the jaw ; so 
that in the Rhynchocephalus and other acrodont lizards, the teeth 
appear like small enamelled processes of the alveolar border. The 
Dicynodons not only manifest the higher type of free implantation 
of the base of the tooth in a deep and complete socket, common to 
Crocodilians, Megalosaurs, and Thecodonts, but make an additional 


and much more important step towards the Mammalian type of 
dentition by maintaining the serviceable state of the tusk by virtue 
of constant renovation of the substance of one and the same matrix, 
according to the principle manifested in the long-lived and ever- 
growing tusks and scalpriform incisors of the Mammalia. This 
endowment of the teeth of a reptile is far more remarkable and 
unexpected than the more obvious character of the size and shape 
of the long exserted tusks themselves, superadded as they are, and 
in such strange combination, with the otherwise edentulous jaws 
of a bird or turtle. Yet if we consider the fact in its relations to 
the exigencies and convenience of the living animal, the wisdom 
and beneficence of the principle is apparent, and the departure 
from the ordinary rule manifests a power transcending the 
trammels of scientific system. The teeth of the Dicynodon being 
but two in number, and their use to the animal indicated by their 
unusual size to be of unusual importance, the inconvenience and 
detriment that must have ensued from frequent shedding and re- 
placement is very obvious ; we may readily conceive it to have 
been incompatible with their functions, and therefore abrogated in 
favour of another mode of renovation which is abnormal in rep- 
tiles, simply, perhaps, because the form, proportions, and function 
of such tusks were unique, and are now no longer manifested in a 
cold-blooded class. 

Some observations may be naturally expected in reference to 
the probable use of the tusks to the Dicynodons, and the mode of 
life of those ancient and most remarkable saurians. In the Mam- 
malian class, where alone we now find the analogous instruments, 
tusks are usually given as weapons of offence and defence, — an 
office exemplified in the hornless musk-deer, the boar, and in the 
large canine teeth of the Carnivora The elephants use their tusks 
chiefly, though not exclusively, as lethal weapons : the Walrus is 
said to apply his tusks to aid in clambering over icebergs, as well 
as in combat and defence : the Dugong is supposed to wear the 
exserted points of the tusks in detaching fuci for food. Such an 
office at first suggests itself as a very probable one in regard to 
tusks descending, like those of the Dugong, from the upper jaw, 
and combined with edentulous and probably horny mandibles 
like those of a fucivorous turtle. 

On inspecting the remains and the impressions of the tusks in the 
fossils under consideration, and especially in the almost entire skull 
of one species, the Dicynodon lacerticeps, we perceive that these 
weapons are sharp-pointed, and present no trace of that obliquely 
bevelled or chisel-shaped extremity which is produced by habitual 
application in acts of obtaining daily food, as, for example, in the 
protruded extremities of the tusks of the Dugong and the incisors of 
the Rodents. The tusks of the Dicynodon, though similar, in their 
origin from maxillary bones and downward direction, to the tusks 
of the Walrus, are so much shorter, at least in the single specimen 
in which their entire length is shown, that they could not be avail- 
able in locomotion. I conclude therefore from their shape, pro- 

VOL. I. Y 


portional length, sharp points and dense texture, that the tusks of 
the Dicynodon were applied by the living animal either for the 
purpose of killing its prey, or of defending itself from its foes, or 
in both acts ; and that they were offensive and defensive arms. 

A further insight into the habits and mode of life of the 
Dicynodons may reasonably be expected to follow the examination 
of the skeleton of the trunk and the organs of locomotion. This 
will form the subject of a subsequent memoir ; but the vertebras 
of the Dicynodon present the sub-biconcave structure common to 
most of the older extinct saurians, which structure, in comparison 
with the ball and socket vertebras of the modern species, indicates 
a more aquatic and perhaps marine theatre of life for the amphibia 
which swarmed in such plenitude of development and diversity of 
forms during the ancient secondary periods of the geological 
history of this planet. 

January 22. 1845. 

David Walter, Esq., of Colchester, was elected a Fellow of this 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On the Newer Coal Formation of the Eastern Part of Nova 
Scotia. By John Dawson, Esq. 

In some notes communicated last year to the Geological Society, I 
stated the results of observations on the gypsiferous formation of 
Nova Scotia, tending to confirm the views of Mr. Lyell respecting 
the age of that series of rocks. In introducing those notes, it was 
stated that the carboniferous strata of this province may be included 
in three groups ; first, the gypsiferous or mountain limestone forma- 
tion ; secondly, the older coal formation ; and thirdly, the newer 
coal formation : of these the two former have almost exclusively at- 
tracted the attention of geologists, the latter having been in a great 
measure neglected. In connection with the Pictou coal field, how- 
ever, and probably also in other parts of this and the neighbouring 
colonies, the newer coal formation is an extensively distributed 
deposit, often attaining considerable thickness, and, though not 
containing valuable beds of coal, ironstone, or gypsum, yet so asso- 
ciated with the rocks including these minerals, that a knowledge 
of its structure and relations is essential to their satisfactory inves- 
tigation. In a palasontological point of view also it possesses con- 
siderable interest ; as its fossils show the continuance of the coal 
flora during the deposition of a series of red sandstones newer than 
the great coal measures ; and also the co-existence of that flora 
with terrestrial vertebrated animals. 

The coal measures of the Albion mines, on the banks of the 


East River of Pictou, a series of beds, estimated by Mr. Logan at 
5000 feet in thickness, and constituting our older coal formation, 
are succeeded, in ascending order, by a great bed of coarse con- 
glomerate, which, as it marks a violent interruption of the pro- 
cesses which had accumulated the great beds of coal, shale, and 
ironstone beneath, and as it is succeeded by rocks of a character 
very different from that of these older coal measures, forms a well- 
marked boundary, which we may consider as the commencement 
of the newer coal formation. 

This conglomerate appears in the East River section, at New 
G-lasgow, where it dips to the north. From this place its outcrop, 
rising above the neighbouring softer rocks, may be traced, in a 
western direction, as far as the West river, nine miles distant, and 
eastward for a few miles, when it either disappears beneath the 
surface, or passes into red sandstones, which appear in the same 
direction, as far as Merigomish Harbour, six miles distant. 

On the East River the conglomerate is accompanied and over- 
laid by soft reddish sandstones. Northward of New Glasgow, 
however, the banks of the river are covered with detritus, and the 
only rocks which appear are grey sandstones and grey and reddish 
shales, which are seen in a few places. In one part of the section 
numerous fragments of black shale, with coprolites and scales of 
ganoid fishes, appear to indicate the presence, in this series, of a 
bed of that description. Wherever the dips of the rocks, on this 
section, can be ascertained they are northerly, but usually at a very 
small angle. 

Eastward of the Ewer section, and in geological position pro- 
bably a few hundred feet above the conglomerate, there is a bed of 
grey limestone, twelve feet or more in thickness, containing a few 
minute univalves, and having in one part of its thickness a pecu- 
liar laminated and concretionary structure. Above this limestone, 
and separated from it only by a few inches of underclay, is a small 
bed of coal. The outcrop of these beds can be traced across the 
country, parallel with that of the conglomerate, as far as Merigo- 
mish Harbour, where they are seen dipping to the north at an angle 
of about 25°, and are accompanied by reddish and grey sandstones 
and shales. The latter rocks form a series of at least 2000 feet in 
thickness, portions of which appear at various places on the shores 
of Merigomish and Little Harbours. Red sandstones prevail in 
the lower part of this series, but in its upper portion there are 
thick beds of grey sandstones, accompanied by grey shales ; and, 
in one place, by a bed of coal 1 1 inches thick, with an underclay. 
They also include a thin bed of dark grey limestone, in concre- 
tionary balls, separated by clay. Near Merigomish, these beds dip 
to the north at an angle of about 20°, but further westward the 
dip becomes very small, and they spread over a greater surface, so 
as to occupy the shore nearly as far as the entrance of Pictou Har- 
bour. In the grey sandstones on this shore, coniferous wood, fos- 
silized by carbonate of lime, is very abundant; and Calamites, Endo- 

y 2 


genites, Lepidodendron, and carbonized vegetable fragments are fre- 

Northward and westward of Pictou Harbour, is a series of rocks, 
nearly resembling those just described, and generally dipping to 
the south-east, at angles of 15° to 25°. In Rogers Hill, six miles 
westward of Pictou, are thick beds of coarse conglomerate, consi- 
derably disturbed, associated with greenstone and hard claystone, 
and showing, in one part, a thick vein of crystalline sulphate of 
barytes. This conglomerate I believe to be geologically identical 
with that of New Glasgow. It is succeeded by a great series of 
deposits, chiefly consisting of reddish sandstones and shales ; but 
including several thick beds of grey sandstone, affording quarries 
of valuable grindstone and freestone, and accompanied by grey 
shales, conglomerates, thin beds of coarse limestone, and a thin bed 
of coal. As there are no very good natural sections in this part of 
the country, it would be difficult to ascertain the aggregate thick- 
ness of these deposits ; it must, however, be great, since they oc- 
cupy, with general south-east dips, the whole country from the 
hills last named to the entrance of Pictou Harbour. The princi- 
pal fossils found near Pictou, are Catamites, Lepidodendron, Endo- 
genites, coniferous wood, ferns, Sternbergia, and carbonized frag- 
ments of wood impregnated with iron pyrites and with sulphuret 
and carbonate of copper. In this series, also, and near the town 
of Pictou, is the bed of sandstone containing erect calamites, no- 
ticed by Mr. Lyell in his papers on the fossil trees of the Joggins. 
A section of the rocks accompanying this bed is annexed. 

Section of rocks of the Newer Coal Formation at Dickson's Mills 
near the town of Pictou (330 yards). 

5. Coarse reddish sandstones with finer reddish and grey beds and shales, 
especially in the lower part. Ferns and Stigmarm. 

4. Brown conglomerate not coarse. 

3. Reddish sandstones and shales. 

2. Grey sandstone coarse above and finer below (thickness 50 ft. ), in upper 
part prostrate Calamites and Lepidodendron ; lower part erect Calamites, concre- 
tions of impure limestone with calamites and endogenites succeeding the sand- 

1. Reddish sandstones and shales with fucoid marks and impressions of ferns. 

The coast section, westward of the entrance of Pictou Harbour, 
is for some distance very imperfect. Much red sandstone, how- 
ever, appears ; and a bed of limestone from two to three feet thick, 
and a small bed of coal, have been discovered. Some grey sand- 
stones also appear : in one of which, of a coarse pebbly texture, 
there are numerous fragments of carbonized wood, containing sul- 
phuret and carbonate of copper. This deposit and others of a 
similar nature, found in this series at various places, have given 


origin to hopes, probably delusive, that valuable deposits of that 
metal might be found in our newer coal formation. 

Beyond Fowey River, ten miles north-westward of Pictou, the 
coast affords a good section, exposing reddish sandstones and shales, 
containing some grey beds in their upper part, and including a 
thin bed of dark grey limestone. Some of the red shales contain 
leaves of ferns and fucoidal marks. The dip of these rocks is to the 
S.S.E., at a very small angle : on approaching Cape John, how- 
ever, the angle of inclination becomes greater, and grey beds again 
become numerous, some of them being thick-bedded and coarse- 
grained sandstones, and containing calamites and carbonized wood. 
At the extremity of the Cape the strata becomes vertical, and here 
(but below low-water mark) is a bed of white granular gypsum, 
about three feet in thickness. The rocks in which this small bed 
is situated, must belong to the newer coal formation, and probably 
to its lower part ; and it is the only instance with which I am ac- 
quainted, of the occurrence of gypsum in that part of the carboni- 
ferous system. As it appears in none of the other sections which 
I have examined, the range of this bed is probably small, and it is 
too unimportant in thickness, to invalidate the claim of the older 
carboniferous deposits to the title of gypsiferous series. 

Coast Section of the Newer Co^l Formation from Cape John, 
8 miles to the Southward. 

2. Reddish sandstone and shale with grey beds and limestone, containing 
ferns, Sphenophylhim and Lycopodium. 

1 . Grey and reddish sandstones and shales with conglomerate and gypsum. 
Lignite and Calamites. 

Beyond Cape John, a band of comparatively level country, 
skirting the shores of the Gulph of St. Lawrence, and extending 
as far as Wallace Harbour, is occupied by the newer coal formation, 
which here contains a greater proportionate abundance of red 
sandstones than near Pictou ; and instead of being bounded on the 
inland side by carboniferous rocks, is met by, and seems to overlie 
unconformably, a series of hard grits, slates, and limestones, with 
scales of Holoptycliius, Encrinites, and fragments of bivalve shells, 
and which are probably of Newer Silurian or Devonian age. The 
last mentioned rocks, with various kinds of trap, form an elevated 
ridge belonging to the Cobequid chain of hills. A copy of the 
section exposed by the French river of Tatmagouche, which was 
described in my paper of last winter, and well illustrates the struc- 
ture of this region, is annexed. 

Y 3 


Section of French River of Tatmagouche (6^ miles). 

5. Grey and red sandstone and shale. Calamites, &c. 

4. Red sandstones and shales with a few grey beds. 

3. Light grey and red sandstone and shale. 

2. Slate, limestone and grit with scales of Holoptychius. 

1. Trappean rocks. 

When examining the red sandstones, near Tatmagouche, last 
summer, I found in one of the beds a few footmarks of an unknown 
animal, specimens of which were sent to this society. They were 
mere scratches made by the points of the toes or claws, and there- 
fore could give few indications of the form of the feet which pro- 
duced them. Their arrangement, however, appeared to indicate 
that the animal was a biped, and their form is quite analogous to 
that of the marks left by our common sandpiper, when running 
over a firm sandy shore. On a subsequent examination of the 
same place, I found a series of footmarks of another animal, and 
obtained a slab with casts of eight impressions, which I send with 
this paper. In this specimen the tracks are somewhat injured by 
the rain-marks which cover the slab, and the clay in which they 
were made was probably too soft to give good impressions ; it has, 
however, preserved a furrow which must have been caused by the 
body or tail of the animal trailing over it. Many of the beds in 
the neighbourhood of that containing these footmarks are rippled, 
rain-marked, or covered with worm tracks ; and as such indications 
of a littoral origin are not infrequent in other parts of the newer 
coal formation, it may be anticipated that many interesting relics 
of terrestrial animals will in future be discovered. At present, 
however, as no quarrying operations are carried on in the red beds, 
it is difficult to obtain access to the surfaces on which tracks might 
be expected to occur. The only vegetable remains found in the red 
sandstones of Tatmagouche are some of those irregular branching 
stains which have been considered as fucoidal marks ; but in a bed 
of grey sandstones above the strata containing tracks, I found 
Calamites, JEndogenites, Stigmariajicoides, and fragments of carbon- 
ized wood. In a fragment from a dark calcareous bed near this 
place, I found a portion of a fossil plant covered with shells of a 
species of Spirorbis, and a few small scales of ganoid fishes. A 
bed of limestone, similar to that of Cape John, has been observed 
in the sandstones of Tatmagouche, but no coal, gypsum, or conglo- 
merate have been seen. It is probable that most of the sandstones 
and shales, seen in the French river section, are equivalent to the 
newest of the strata seen near Pictou. 

To give more precise views of the composition and appearance 
of the newer coal formation, and of the differences between it and 


the lower carboniferous series, it may be useful shortly to describe 
the various rocks of which it is composed. 

The red sandstones are of various shades, from brick red (which 
is not common) to reddish brown. They scarcely differ, in their 
range of colours, from those of the gypsiferous formation, except 
that in the latter purplish tints are more frequent. They are often 
flaggy and micaceous, and obliquely laminated, and there is every 
gradation, from very coarse sandstone to shale. 

The red shales are generally laminated, but not finely ; occasion- 
ally, but rarely, they want lamination and then can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from the fine sandstones and mudstones which, in the 
gypsiferous formation, have been named marls. They often have 
greyish fucoidal marks, and sometimes remains of land plants. 
The red sandstones and shales are usually soft, and I have no- 
where seen them attain the hardness so often found in the similar 
rocks of the gypsiferous formation. 

The grey sandstones vary in colour from neutral grey to brown- 
ish and yellowish tints ; the latter owing to the decomposition of 
iron pyrites. The sandstones are sometimes coarse, and full of 
white quartz pebbles, but are more frequently of finer texture. 
They are accompanied by greyish shales and clays, and the groups 
of grey sandstone and shale, occurring in the newer coal formation, 
are much more important than those of the gypsiferous series 
These groups of grey beds are always accompanied by thin layers 
of coarse grey limestone, usually wedge-shaped, and consisting of a 
basis of sand cemented by lime, containing concretions and small 
fragments of argillaceous limestone. These coarse limestones, and 
the sandstones with which they are associated, are always much 
harder than the red-coloured beds. 

From the constant existence, in the grey sandstones, of carbo- 
nized plants with sulphuret of iron, it may be inferred that this 
sulphuret has been produced by the decomposition of the sulphates 
in sea water, in consequence of the action of decaying vegetable 
matter, and the combination of their sulphur with iron derived 
from the surrounding deposits (a process now taking place in many 
estuaries). By supposing the bleaching of red sands and clays to 
have been effected in this way, we should, perhaps, account for the 
connection of fossil remains with grey beds, and for the com- 
parative absence of red tints from the highly carboniferous rocks 
of the older coal formation. 

There are at least two beds of limestone in the newer coal form- 
ation, quite distinct from the impure sandy layers before noticed. 
The principal stratum, that seen near New Glasgow, is of a grey 
colour, in some places very dark ; its structure varies in different 
parts of its thickness, being flaggy above, concretionary below and 
in the middle, showing a peculiar combination of concretionary 
and laminated structure, unique among our limestones, and pre- 
served by "this bed as far as it can be traced. The limestones 
seen at Little Harbour, Pictou Island, Cariboo and Cape John 
are of a dark grey colour, caused by carbonaceous matter; 

y 4 


they have a tendency to concretionary structure, and sometimes 
degenerate into beds of marly clay with large balls of limestone. 
The limestones appearing at the four last mentioned places are, 
perhaps, portions of one bed. 

The two small beds of coal are similar in appearance to those of 
the older coal formation. One of them, with its under clay, is 
included in coarse grey sandstones ; the other rests on limestone, 
and is succeeded by some grey clay and dark shale. 

The conglomerates cannot be distinguished from those of the 
lower carboniferous series. Both are of reddish-brown colours, 
and composed of fragments of various hard rocks, usually united 
by a calcareous cement. 

It appears from the foregoing descriptions that, in lithological 
character, the newer coal formation of Pictou strongly resembles 
the lower carboniferous series ; the chief differences being that, in 
the former, the beds of grey sandstone are of greater comparative 
thickness, and that, in the latter, there are great beds of gypsum 
and of limestone with marine shells. Our coal measures may thus, 
in one point of view, be regarded as a subordinate group, included 
in a great thickness of sandstones and shales, mostly of red colours. 

The sections which I have described are included in a district 
extending about fifty miles along the shores of the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, from Merigomish to Wallace ; forming, I believe, the 
largest continuous tract of rocks of the newer coal formation in 
Nova Scotia. Along the coast, between these extreme points, the 
strata are arranged in an undulatory manner, so that the beds seen 
at Little Harbour probably re-appear at Cariboo, Cape John, and 
Tatmagouche. Notwithstanding these undulations, however, the 
general strike of the formation nearly corresponds with the general 
direction of the coast. This arrangement is due to the circum- 
stance that the great anticlinal line of the Cobequid Hills, instead 
of being continued to the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, turns 
to the southward, and appears to be continued by a group of hills 
extending across the Pictou coal formation trough, and greatly 
complicating its arrangement. This group, however, being com- 
posed of stratified rocks of the older and newer coal formation, 
must have owed its elevation to disturbances much more recent 
than those which determined the main direction of the Cobequid 
Hills, and that of the great anticlinal line, southward of the Pictou 
coal field. 

The greater part of the rocks composing the newer coal form- 
ation of Pictou, were formerly confounded, under the name of New 
Red Sandstone, with a part of thegypsiferous series, and with a deposit 
of non-fossiliferous red sandstones skirting the shores of the Bay of 
Funday, and unconformably superimposed on the older car- 
boniferous strata. I have no doubt, however, that in other parts 
of Nova Scotia the newer coal formation will be found to be a 
well-marked carboniferous group. To facilitate comparison with 
the equivalent rocks of this and other countries, I annex the 
following synopsis of our Carboniferous series. 


Synopsis of the Carboniferous Rocks of Pictou. 

1. Newer Coal Formation. — The prevailing rocks are alternations of 

reddish and grey sandstones and shales, with some coarse conglomerates, 
especially in the lower part. Subordinate to these, are dark grey con- 
cretionary limestone, thin beds of coarse sandy limestone, two thin beds of 
coal and one of g-ypsum. Thickness, 5000 feet or more. 

Fossils. — Coniferous wood, Calamites. ferns, fyc. Ganoid fish, tracks of land 

2. Older Coal Formation. — The prevailing rocks are dark shales and clays, 

grey and brown sandstones ; and subordinate to these are coal, ironstone, 
dark limestone. Thickness, 5000 feet. 

Fossils. — Ferns, Stigmaria, Calamites, Lepidodendra, fyc, Cypris. 

3. Mountain Limestone, or Gypsiferous Formation. — The prevailing 

rocks are reddish sandstones, shales, and clays, with some grey beds ; con- 
glomerates, especially in lower part ; and subordinate to these, thick beds 
of limestone, thick beds of gypsum with anhydrite. Thickness, 6000 feet 
or more. 

Fossils. — Calamites, fragments of carbonized plants. Producta, Terebratula, 
Encrinites, Madrepores, 8fc. 

Small quantities of copper ores are found in the sandstones of 
the gypsiferous and newer coal formations, especially in the latter. 
Salt springs rise from the older coal and gypsiferous formations 
in a few places. Veins of hematitic iron ore occur in the gyp- 
siferous rocks of the East River. The strata of the two older 
members of the carboniferous system are more disturbed and 
hardened than the newer series, and contain inter stratified and 
intrusive traps, which appear in no part of the newer coal form- 
ation, except the conglomerate at its base. 

Appendix. — On the Junction of the Carboniferous and Silurian 
System at 31accara's Brook. 

Silurian and Lower Carboniferous Rocks as seen in the Coast Section 

at Maccara's Brook. 

8. Sandstone and shale of a red and grey colour. 
2. Conglomerate. 

I. Hard shales and impure limestone (Silurian) of a dark grey colour. 
Fossil shells. 

In my notes on the lower carboniferous rocks, I described this 
place ; but from want of time, and owing to the state of the tide, 
when I examined it last summer, I was unable to ascertain the 
exact nature of the junction of the two formations. Having re- 
examined the section under more favourable circumstances, I have 
been enabled to observe distinctly the unconformable superposition 
of the carboniferous system on the Silurian rocks. As I formerly 
noticed, the gypsiferous system at this place, in consequence of 
the absence of gypsum, and the presence of great beds of horn- 
blendic trap, presents a very unusual appearance, and could 


scarcely be recognised, were it not for the presence of limestone 
with its characteristic fossils. Of the beds of trap there are four, 
one of them about 200 feet thick ; and that they are true beds 
which have been poured out over the bottom of an ancient sea is 
proved, not only by their regular interstratification among aqueous 
deposits, and by the earthy texture and amygdaloidal structure of 
their upper parts, but by the quantity of trap fragments included 
in the conglomerates which alternate with them. The lower part 
of one of these beds of conglomerates is, by the admixture of these 
fragments, converted into a kind of tufa. One of the beds of trap 
forms the bottom of the carboniferous series, and rests on the 
edges of hard shales and thin bedded limestones, filled with 
Silurian fossils. The edges of the Silurian rocks are slightly 
altered at the point of contact. 

These rocks being on the margin of the great line of ancient 
disturbed strata, which extend from Cape St. George along the 
southern edge of the Pictou coal trough, have been subjected to 
more than one igneous convulsion. A few miles further along the 
shore, the same beds of conglomerate and sandstone, with inter- 
stratified amygdaloid, are seen in a vertical position, with their 
sandstones changed into quartz rock and jasper. This is, ap- 
parently, in consequence of the eruption of the crystalline green- 
stone and other igneous rocks which appear in their neighbour- 
hood, and we are thus informed that the igneous action along the 
above-named anticlinal line, which continued to the close of the 
carboniferous period, was exerted also at the commencement of 
that period, and no doubt influenced the deposition of its strata in 
a manner as yet very imperfectly understood. 

2. Geological Features of the Country round the Mines of the 
Taurus in the Pashalic of Diarbekr described from Observa- 
tions made in the Year 1843. By Warington W. Smyth, 
Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

In that part of Asiatic Turkey, where the provinces of Anatolia, 
Armenia, Kurdistan, and Mesopotamia unite, the chain of the 
Taurus is bounded on the one side by the Euphrates and on the 
other by the Tigris, and this district, being now out of the way of 
the main roads of commerce, has until within a few years been 
almost entirely neglected. 

The interest, however, attached to these regions in the present 
precarious state of the Ottoman empire, and the difficulty of ob- 
taining information concerning them, will excuse the imperfect 
condition of the sketch now offered of the geographical and geolo- 
gical configuration of the country ; but I have to regret that my 
absence during some years from England prevented my being ac- 


quainted with the valuable information to be obtained from the 
published routes of Messrs. Brant and Ainsworth.* 

The line of road which I took enabled me to complete the sec- 
tion of the country in a direct line from the Euphrates to the town 
of Sivas, and a stay of some weeks put it in my power to obtain 
some interesting details concerning the important mines of copper 
at Arghaneh Maden, and of silver at Kebban Maden, as well as 
others more or less neglected, which lie in various parts of Ar- 
menia and the N. E. of Asia Minor. 

The great mountain chain called the Taurus by the ancients, 
runs from the province of Cilicia (now Adana) in a north-easterly 
direction, and often forms large irregular elevated groups ; on 
the eastern side of the Euphrates it spreads in various directions 
around the great lake of Van, and merges into the high land of 
northern Kurdistan and the volcanic plateaux of Armenia. At 
the point where the Euphrates cuts through the Taurus the chain 
appears to consist of one main ridge, and this afterwards branches 
off into elevated tracts of very irregular form, one portion ex- 
tending eastward from the river, and another commencing consi- 
derably to the west of it and stretching away towards the north, f 
The division of the Taurus with which we have to deal, is 
separated into two parts by the valley of Kharput, the waters of 
which flow to the north-east and join the eastern Euphrates. 
The first of these two portions, in which the river Tigris takes its 
rise, contains the most elevated points, varying from 6000 to 8000 
feet above the sea, and then, proceeding towards the north-east, 
it joins another range called the Darkush Dagh (Niphates) some of 
whose peaks are estimated at from 8000 to 10,000 feet high. 

The second portion from Kharput to the Euphrates does not 
attain an elevation of more than 5000 feet, and on the north sinks 
gradually towards the valley of the Murad Tchai. 

The eastern or main ridge, whose breadth between Arghaneh 
and Kharput may be estimated at nearly 50 English miles, pre- 
sents us with a series of limestones and marly slates belonging to 
the cretaceous period, and resembling the formations of various 
countries bordering on the Mediterranean. 

« The higher portions generally consist of calcareous strata, abound- 
ing in nummulites ; whilst the marls, which for the most part 
occupy a lower position, are highly metamorphic, being changed 
in colour and frequently hardened to the consistency of silicious 
slate. Below both, although sometimes occurring in dykes high up 
the mountain sides, appear rocks of diallage and actinolite in great 

To the west of Kharput, the mountains exhibit a different cha- 

* See " Journal of Royal Geographical Society " for 1841. 

f The lesser ridge of the Karajah Dagh (Masius) which strikes off from 
hence to the south-east, should not be considered, as it is represented on the 
maps, as a branch of the Taurus, being almost wholly unconnected with the 
greater range, and composed of rocks not seen again nearer than forty miles to 
the westward. 


racter. Their chief mass is composed of limestones and slates of 
an older period ; the limestones of a darker colour than that 
around Arghaneh ; the slate chiefly talcose, and connected with 
the mica-slates and other primary rocks, described by Russegger 
as forming the nucleus of the Taurus in the district of Adana. 
The eruptive rocks, occurring in juxtaposition with these, are 
syenite, diallage rock, basalt, similar to that of the plateau of 
Diarbekr, and lastly, at Kebban Maden, a felspar -porphyry. 

Such are the rocks presented in this transverse section of the 
chain, and the determining of their boundaries is much assisted by 
the nature of the ground ; for the Taurus is, in this part, so 
totally bare, that it seldom happens that its geological features 
are obscured by trees, grass, or even vegetable earth. That 
forests, however, have once existed, and that at no very distant 
period, is evident from the oak brushwood which is occasionally 
met with ; though the inhabitants, in order to supply the furnaces, 
cut away with unsparing vigour the shoots as fast as they spring 

The city of Diarbekr is built on an extensive plain, covered 
with rough fragments of basalt, resting upon more compact 
masses of the same rock ; and through these the river Tigris has 
cut for itself a valley about a hundred feet in depth. On the 
south of the city, the hills of the Karajah Dagh exhibit varieties 
of the same rock, which is sometimes amygdaloidal, sometimes 
scoriaceous. These hills often rise up in strongly marked cones, 
which bear exactly the type of the ancient secondary cones of 
Etna ; and are covered by various accumulations, and in some 
cases overgrown with trees. On the south-west, this igneous 
formation extends beyond the town of Siverek, a distance of sixty 
miles from the Tigris ; and in approaching the mountains to the 
north-west, we find the same series continued for twenty miles. At 
Arghaneh the southern outposts of the Taurus present their most 
remarkable features. The celebrated Armenian monastery of this 
name is built on the summit of a calcareous mountain, which 
attains a height of 2000 feet above the plain, or 4000 feet above 
the sea, and is conspicuous from a great distance, owing to its two 
sharp peaks. Hence we find the place designated in some ojd 
maps as Arx bicornis. The chief component rock of this and the 
neighbouring elevations, on the north and east, is a compact light 
coloured limestone, generally abounding in nummulites, and some- 
times exhibiting fragments of pecten and ostrea. Against its 
flanks, on the east and west, rest beds of porphyritic conglomerate, 
of which the rolled fragments consist chiefly of greenstones with 
imbedded large crystals of hornblende. The stratification of the 
limestone is not very distinct at this spot ; but, on the road to the 
north-west, the beds become remarkable, being exhibited in long 
denuded parallel lines, generally tilted from the southward. The 
limestone is accompanied by slates of a highly metamorphic cha- 
racter : they are black, grey, ferruginous, or green in colour ; and 
from beneath them there appears a greenstone porphyry, which, 


in some parts having its hornblende replaced by diallage, or its 
felspar paste by a magnesian one, passes gradually into diallage 
rock and serpentine, and rises in dykes, or is laid bare in the 
bottom of deep valleys, at several points between this and a Koord 
village about five miles to the north-east. 

The elevated peninsula formed by the Tigris, which is crossed 
by the road to Arghaneh Maden, is composed almost entirely of 
ophiolite, or of a variety of serpentine and diallage rock. These 
are seen immediately on the western side of the river, which is 
here crossed by a stone bridge. The colour of the rocks is com- 
monly bottle green ; but hardly a square yard of it is homogeneous, 
so frequent are the changes in the material. The cracks and 
fissures are filled with precious serpentine, with asbestos, and 
other minerals, chiefly of silicates of magnesia. The greater por- 
tion of the rock, however, is characterised by interspersed foliated 
crystals of diallage, sometimes as large as the palm of the hand, 
which reflects so brightly the sun's rays as to be generally taken by 
the natives for a species of silver. About a mile further to the 

north, at the opening of a valley which 
runs up from the Tigris in the direction 
of Maden, are found some very singular 
conical mounds and hills, which render 
probable the eruptive origin of the ser- 
pentines. Their summits are formed by 
a crest of tilted strata of limestone or shale, supported by a mass 
of serpentine or diallage rock, which has been much decomposed 
by exposure, and is even sometimes so much worn that the cap of 
harder stone projects from its base, as if nicely balanced upon it 
by art. 

On the road to the mines, are passed strata of finely laminated 
shales, which are, here and there, interrupted by dykes or masses 
of diallage rock, and frequently become allied to jasper. 

The serpentine is laid bare at Arghaneh Maden, in the valley of 

Mining District of Arghaneh-Maden. 

The dotted parts in this diagram represent diallage rock, the crossed lines an 
irregular mass of sulphuret of iron and copper in which the mines are situated, and 
the remainder of the marks, limestones, and metamorphic slates of various periods. 

the Tigris, and in the ravine formed by a rivulet which pours in 
its tribute close below the town. The rock is generally full of 
diallage, and contains the other magnesian minerals before de- 
scribed. From its being intersected in all directions by fissures 


and joints of separation, it is not applicable to the purposes of 
building. Between the rivulet and the Tigris, or to the north of 
the main portion of the town, the serpentine does not rise high 
above the level of the valley, but, at a few feet above it, is capped 
by slates and marls, partly crumbling and partly jaspery; the 
former being of a dark grey colour, and the latter having a 
brownish red tint. 

The steep south side of the ravine is of a different character. 
In contact with the serpentine appears a ferruginous breccia, con- 
sisting of angular fragments of ochreous marls and sandstone, and, 
more rarely, pieces of porphyry, cemented together by hydrous 
oxide of iron, and forming a bed of considerable thickness. This 
is used as a building material, being easily worked, and tolerably 
durable, but its dull rusty appearance, combined with the total 
absence of herbage and the strangely coloured sterile slopes of the 
surrounding mountains, give the place a character of unequalled 

Higher on the mountain there rise up, from beneath beds of 
marl, rugged masses of diallage rock, and these extend in the form 
of a powerful dyke over the shoulder of the height towards the 
south. In the portions where it is friable this dyke is deeply fur- 
rowed by the rains and the tracks of the animals, which are con- 
stantly passing and repassing with charcoal for the furnaces. Its 
position in this form and at this elevation is important, as tending 
to prove that the limestone was not deposited upon it, as might 
have been argued, from seeing the diallage rock constantly laid 
bare in the deep valleys, where the superincumbent limestones 
and marls have been removed. On the summit of the mountain, 
to the west of the town, marls and limestone are again found ; and 
the limestone incloses numerous nodules of serpentine projecting 
from the weathered face of the rock, and thus exhibiting a greater 
degree of hardness. 

It is to its copper mines that Arghaneh Maden owes all its im- 
portance. The breccia before mentioned appears to constitute the 
outer wall of the cupriferous mass. This mass, though it con- 
tinues in depth to the level of the waters of the Tigris, has not 
hitherto been opened anywhere except on the surface of the 
mountain above the town. 

It appears to be but one huge lump of ore, consisting of the 
double sulphurets of copper and iron, planted amid the serpentine, 
or perhaps between it -and the marls. In the mines which I 
entered, not the slightest character of a vein or bed was to be seen, 
but floor, and roof, and walls consisted entirely of solid pyrites, 
diversified only by stalactitic coatings of blue and green vitriol. 
This extended to a depth of 10 or 12 fathoms ; but the additional 
20 or 30 feet which had been excavated, were filled with water, 
which had for upwards of a year kept the works almost at a stand- 
still. It is only by waiting patiently until the month of July or 
August, that access is gained to the lower parts of the mine. The 
accumulated rains of the winter and spring at that time gradually 


find their way out through crevices into the valley below, and 
leave the mines dry for a few weeks. 

The shafts, which belong to different individuals, are scattered 
irregularly over a part of the mountain, which is almost level, and 
is about fifty fathoms in diameter ; and since in all of these shafts 
the same appearances are presented, we may be justified in con- 
sidering the ore as forming rather an insulated .mass, than as 
belonging either to a bed or lode. 

The pyrites varies so much in quality, that a large proportion is 
left untouched by the miners, not repaying them for working ; the 
generality of ore contains from 10 to 12 per cent of copper, whilst 
the better sorts rise to 20 or 24 per cent ; and occasionally a little 
vitreous copper, or pure sulphuret occurs, when the per centage is 
much higher. The boundary of this mass of ore is hitherto un- 
explored, but judging, as before, from the area occupied by the 
mine entrances, it cannot be less than fifty fathoms in diameter ; 
and since the ore is again met with, and even of better quality, in 
an adit now driving from the valley of the Tigris, it appears that 
it continues also thus far in depth, perhaps 50 or 60 fathoms. 

The workings are conducted on a miserable plan, adopted indeed 
in all the Turkish mines, but which will soon bring the present 
undertaking to an end, and entail difficulty on future enterprise. 
A shaft is sunk from the surface at an angle of 45° with the 
horizon ; and it is secured, somewhat insufficiently, by timbering, 
and provided with rough wooden steps for ingress and egress. As 
soon as a good portion of the ore is thus reached, the miners work 
off in different directions, digging out in the most irregular 
manner only that which pays them best, and leaving the rest to 
stand or break down as accident shall determine. 

The road to Kharput or Palu ascends steeply, to the west of 
Maden, across a ridge through which the Tigris rushes, in a 
narrow glen many hundred feet below. The first part of the 
acclivity, after leaving the diallage rocks, is composed of very 
thin marly slates, easily separating into rhomboidal fragments. 
Then follow various amygdaloidal rocks, exhibiting spicular 
crystals of felspar in a paste, composed partly of felspar, and 
partly of carbonate of lime, — a continuation, in short, of the 
metamorphic rocks which generally accompany the near ap- 
proach of the serpentines to the secondary limestones and shales. 
The crest of the mountain is composed of powerful banks of lime- 
stone, tilted towards the north-east, to which succeeds, about a 
hundred feet lower down, serving as a base to the rugged cliffs 
presented by the stratified rocks, the hornblende-porphyry which 
we before had in conjunction with the serpentines. After this 
steep descent, the road ascends by a very gentle rise the course of 
a stream to the west, in a valley bounded sometimes by mountains 
whose lower parts are porphyritic, and sometimes by limestone hills 
inclining to the north-west. It then crosses a water-shed, and, 
after passing a third isolated khan, enters a perfectly level plain 
of about six miles in length and two in breadth, through which the 


main feeder of the Tigris flows from some peaks on the south-west. 
Judging from the quantity of snow which still lay there in the month 
of June, the elevation of these peaks must be considerable. After 
ascending from this plain, a narrow and low ridge of limestone 
strata, inclining to the north-east, separates the waters of the 
Tigris from those of the Euphrates. On its western side is a lake, 
the direction of which is nearly east and west, its length being 
ten or twelve miles, and its breadth three or four ; and this lake 
is said to give off its surplus water to the Euphrates. In the 
valley, at its eastern end, through which flows a small tributary 
stream, occur numerous instances of diallage rock, in which the 
foliated crystals are remarkably large and beautiful. The ascent 
westwards is again over porphyry and greenstone. The summits 
of the high ridge we then cross are formed principally of limestone, 
and the descent to the broad valley which lies on its other side, 
offers steep slopes, on which are exposed, at intervals only, rocks 
of actinolitic porphyry and diallage, which appear to be intimately 
connected with each other. 

This fertile valley, through which a stream takes its course to 
the Murad Tchai, near the town of Palu, is entirely covered by 
alluvial soil ; and being carefully irrigated by the inhabitants of 
its numerous villages, presents a great contrast to the sterility of 
the mountains. Its height above the sea, from the observations of 
Ains worth and Brant, is about 2500 feet. The hills which project 
into it towards the town of Kharput consist mainly of marls and 
sands, much decomposed and deeply furrowed by rains. 

At Kharput, a fine natural section is presented to the steep face 
of rocks opposed to the east. This lower portion is composed of 
a greenstone porphyry, disintegrated and rounded by the action of 
the weather, whilst the upper part consists of thick massive strata 
of compact limestone, having an inclination to the north-west, of 
about 30°, and split by numerous fissures at right angles to the 
plane of inclination. The contact of the two rocks may easily be 
observed ; but the limestone appears to have undergone no change, 
whilst the porphyry has become so friable that it is generally 
eaten away by the air and rain to a depth of several feet below 
the bed of limestone. 

To the west of Kharput, the country assumes a very broken 
aspect, and exhibits confused groups of lower elevations, extending 
towards the valley of the Murad Tchai, beyond which is now seen 
a magnificent range of mountains, the Dujik Dagh, running about 
east by north, and west by south, and in the month of June still 
capped with* snow. The hills nearest to Kharput consist of lime- 
stone and shale, but about three miles to the north-west appears 
a grey syenite, with large and well-formed crystals of black horn- 
blende, yielding very readily to the action of the atmosphere. The 
mounds thus composed open out into a plain which is divided into 
natural terraces, and which in its geological features presents a re- 
petition of the plateau of Diarbekr on a small scale, the whole sur- 
face being strewed with blocks of basalt of every size, which are so 



numerous as to render the road very difficult for the horses, and 
make it necessary for the inhabitants to form huge piles of stones 
in preparing a small piece of ground for cultivation ; though the 
quality of the black soil, then sparingly occurring, is good enough 
to repay them for their labour. The low ridge which bounds this 
plain on the west consists of a grey limestone, associated with 
thin marls, the strata inclining to the south-east ; and on its opposite 
side, where the road winds among some narrow gullies previous to 
entering among higher mountains, syenite, diallage rock, and horn- 
blende porphyry are found in close connection with each other. 

About eighteen miles west-north-west from Kharput, a group 
of limestone mountains fills up all the space intervening between 
this point and the Euphrates to the north and west ; and through 
these a deeply-cut valley runs to the north-west, extending for 
six or eight miles to the Euphrates, where, for some distance around 
the point of confluence, are worked the silver mines of Kebban 

Mining District of Kebban Maden. 

The dotted parts indicate the presence of felspar porphyry, the small crosses 
metalliferous threads and nodules ; two of the hills are capped with limestone, 
chiefly of the cretaceous period, and the rest of the diagram represents older 
limestones and talcose slates. 

The mountains around the silver mines exhibit, in general, 
bare surfaces of grey compact limestone, or of argillaceous and 
chloritic slates, both of which appear to be without fossils. On 
both sides of the valley in which the town is situated, rise sharp 
peaks of a hard felspathic porphyry, containing large crystals of 
pink common felspar, and sometimes exhibiting a slaty texture, 
with the crystallised parts so ill defined, that where it occurs in 
contact with the clay slates, it is difficult to assign to each its 
proper boundary. This eruptive rock also makes its appearance 
more frequently in the bottom of the neighbouring valleys ; as, for 
instance, below the furnaces, and at the lower parts of the slopes 
which border the Euphrates. A sharp ridge of the same rock 
runs along the back of the east side of the town, and there forms 
bold precipices facing the river which flows almost beneath. A 
little further to the north, the porphyry is interrupted by a band 
of ochreous matter, which, probably before the formation of the 

vol. i. z 


valley of Kebban, communicated with a similar patch on the 
opposite side, forming a lode or dyke. The surfaces of the hills, 
as well here as on the opposite side of the Euphrates, are covered 
with innumerable rubbish heaps, formed in attempts to open mines 
which have rarely been pushed more than two or three feet into 
the ground. The mines at present worked (which are three in 
number) lie beyond the ridge on the west of the town, and are even 
more miserably directed than those of Arghaneh. The adit mouths 
are driven through shale and limestone, which, here and there, 
shows on the surface small strings and lumps of galena ; but so 
irregular and dirty are the jvorks, that little can be seen under- 
ground to inform us how the ore occurs. The lower mine exhibited 
some rich portions of nearly pure argentiferous sulphuret of lead, 
but it nowhere had the appearance of occurring in veins, and I 
could not hear of crystallisations or druses. In the upper mine, a 
large quantity of soft iron ochre, a sort of gossan mingled with 
threads of gypsum, is excavated as ore, being found to contain, 
like the galena, from an ounce to an ounce and a half of silver 
in 100 lbs. 

The miners told me that near the junction of two species of 
rock, whether limestone or shale, or of one of these with porphyry, 
they find the ore more plentifully disseminated than elsewhere. 

Dressing or preparing the ores is not understood, so that all 
which is not rich enough to go at once to the furnace is wasted. 

Between the Euphrates, at Kebban Maden, and the Kizil Irmak, 
or Halys, at Siwas, extends a broken and neglected high land, in 
which the traveller meets with no habitations, except in villages 
fifteen or twenty miles apart, and these are inhabited by koords of 
a somewhat lawless character. 

On leaving the felspar porphyry which is found in peaks, or 
below the sedimentary rocks at Kebban, a high land of limestone 
and shales is reached. This high land extends up the course of 
the Western Euphrates, above Eghin, and towards Kamak, where 
the limestone forms the sides of a magnificent gorge through 
which the river flows. Superimposed on the older grey limestone, 
occur beds of a white calcareous rock of softer character, which 
mineralogically has a strong resemblance to the calcaire grossier, 
or Grobkalk of the Vienna basin, and contains the shells of oysters. 
About twelve miles from Kebban, the almost level country is 
strewed with basalt blocks, like those of the plateau of Diarbekr, 
which continue beyond the village of Ergavan. An hour's dis- 
tance from hence, a long valley running up towards the north- 
east, exhibits porphyries frequently trachytic in character, and 
containing hornblende crystals in a felspar paste ; and also banks 
of a conglomerate, containing fragments of the same porphyry. 
Then, after passing the water shed, about ten miles before reaching 
Hakim Khan, rise on the right hand precipitous heights of com- 
pact limestone in beds inclining to the west ; and in some places 
porphyry comes up from beneath them. The country on the 
south-west, towards the Euphrates, is composed of low undu- 
lations of sand and marls. 


Around Hakirn Khan are crumbling marls, in vertical or highly 
inclined positions, running N. E. and S. W. ; above which rise a 
few remarkable peaks of bare white limestone. 

Towards Hassan Tchelebi, on the road side for six miles, diorites 
and serpentine rocks appear, the heights above which, often 
wooded, and said to be tenanted by wild goats and deer, are of 
limestone. These calcareous strata, having a moderate inclination 
to the westward, continue visible as far as the village last mentioned. 

From Hassan Tchelebi, for about twenty miles, the rocks are 
hidden' by vegetable mould and grass ; though fragments of por- 
phyry, limestones, and marls are found. 

From Alajah Khan, for a distance of four or five miles, diallage 
rocks, often much discoloured by iron, are found ; and after this 
appears limestone, tilted towards the west, then for some distance 
before reaching Kangal, and from thence as far as Delikli 
Tash, the slopes are covered with thin grass. 

The chain of the Anti-Taurus (Itschitchegi Dagh), attaining an 
elevation of 5800 feet, runs in a very marked line from W. 8.W. to 
E.N. E. The limestones of which the higher part is formed, rest 
on serpentine ; which appears to have coloured and hardened the 
beds of shale, near the surface of contact. Immediately on the 
west, towards which side the beds incline, granular gypsum ap- 
pears in beds of considerable thickness on both sides of the road ; 
and on this lies salt, the presence of which is betrayed by a lake, 
whose waters evaporate in summer. Eighteen miles from Delikli 
Tash is found a quartzose sandstone in strata from 2 to 6 feet 
thick, inclining gently towards the west, and between this and 
the deeply cut valley of the Kizil Irmak (Halys), that rock con- 
tinues without interruption. 

The preceding observations collected in the course of a single 
traverse are not a sufficient foundation on which to base general 
conclusions as to the constancy of the order in which the rocks 
occur ; but since the mere enumeration of the rocks in geogra- 
phical order is, in general, but a dry repetition, and, for want 
of comparison with some known scale, is not easily kept in mind, 
it may be of advantage to conclude with a sketch of the probable 
order of the formations above mentioned, which may serve as a 
guide to future travellers in these districts. 

The oldest stratified rocks of the series are unquestionably the 
limestones and chloritic slates of Kebban Maden, which appear to 
be in connection with the mica slate, forming the nucleus of the 
Taurus at Adanah : they overlie a felspar porphyry, which seems 
to have pierced them in dykes, and near the contact affords ores of 
argentiferous lead. 

The second deposit may be the quartzose sandstone which oc- 
curs between the range of An ti- Taurus and Siwas ; and this 
deposit, no doubt, belongs to the system observed by Hamilton 
near Eregli *, to the south of Kaisariyeh, towards the head of the 

* These saliferous deposits are probably more recent than the Scaglia Lime- 
stones. W. J. H. 

z 2 


river Melas, and mentioned by him as stretching across from 
Galatia to Cappadocia. In both places, it is a hard red grit, asso- 
ciated with strata of gypsum, and with red and grey marls ; and, in 
the first case, also with salt. 

The grey limestone of Arghaneh, Kharput, and the Anti- 
Taurus, must be referred to the vast calcareous deposit, which, 
cotemporary with our green sand, occupies an enormous extent of 
country in Italy, Dalmatia, Albania, Greece, and Syria, on the one 
hand ; and in South France, Spain, the Balearic islands, Sardinia 
and Sicily on the other, a zone in fact which, from what we find of 
it again in Egypt and Algiers, appears to encircle the whole 
Mediterranean. In the Taurus, as in many of those countries, it 
has been upheaved and pierced by serpentine and diallage rock ; 
and these are the circumstances which in the country I have en- 
deavoured to describe, as well as in the Maremme of Tuscany, at 
Monte Castelli, Rocca Tederighi, Monte Catini, &c, are associated 
with the presence of the sulphuret of iron and of the sulphuret 
and other ores of copper. The lower beds of this limestone, often 
described under the name of scaglia, are not yet very definitely 
referred to their place in the geological scale ; since they differ 
much among each other, and are often poor in characteristic 
fossils ; but the upper portion, with its nummulites and the marls 
associated with it, retains more nearly the same type throughout. 

The date of the eruption of the serpentines, which are asso- 
ciated with the cretaceous beds, has been referred by most ob- 
servers to the tertiary epoch ; nor would it appear that those of 
the Taurus are an exception, since their occurrence in dykes near 
Arghaneh proves their outburst to have been subsequent to the 
deposition of the limestones. 

I should be inclined to refer to the tertiary period also those 
limestones which occur on the summit of the mountain west of 
Arghaneh Maden, and contain imbedded fragments of serpentine ; 
and also those which cap the mountains near the junction of the 
Murad and Frat ; but the line of distinction, from the difficulty 
of procuring fossils, is not easily drawn. It is however very 
possible that a more accurate examination may show them to be 
secondary, and thus prove the outburst of the serpentines to be of 
remoter date than is generally supposed ; or, what is more likely, 
to have happened not all at once, but at several successive periods. 

To the deposition of these calcareous strata have succeeded the 
further elevation of the chain, and the formation of the existing 
valleys ; phenomena probably contemporaneous with and due to 
the same cause as those which produced the protrusion of the 
igneous rock occupying several large tracts in the district under con- 
sideration. A further study would doubtless prove these rocks to be 
connected with the vast series of volcanic rocks, of the same general 
character, which extend at intervals from the Katake kaumene of 
Asia Minor to the Taurus, and thence to Mesopotamia on the one 
hand, and through the north of Syria to Galilee on the other. The 
protrusion of these rocks is one of the principal agents to which the 
present configuration of this important tract of country is due. 

i. / nil n n 


February 5. 1845. 

Thomas Longman, Esq., J. Durance George, Esq., and Captain 
Barham Livius, were elected Fellows of this Society. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. On certain Conditions and Appearances of the Strata on the 
Coast of Essex near Walton. By John Brown, Esq. of 

In this paper the author first alludes to the information that has 
been obtained, of late years, respecting changes of elevation that 
have taken place on many parts of the earth's surface, at compara- 
tively recent geological periods, and refers to the memoir by 
Mr. Smith, of Jordan Hill, on this subject, as illustrating the 
nature of the evidence to be sought for. He then endeavours to 
show that such evidence exists with regard to certain beds contain- 
ing shells, on the Essex coast, which beds he had been able to 
examine in consequence of their having been laid bare by an un- 
usually high tide, and by the gradually wasting action of the sea on 
that coast. He mentions three places in particular, namely, Walton, 
Clacton, and the valley of the Colne, near Colchester, at each of 
which he has obtained marine shells from heights to which the sea 
does not now reach. 

At the first of these, Walton Gap, the author describes a bed 
to which he gives the name of the till (assuming it to be identical 
with the beds so denominated on the banks of the Clyde), composed 
of clay, with boulders of various kinds and sizes, the surface of 
which is about 5 or 6 feet above high water mark. The beds con- 
taining shells, and supposed to form a raised beach, are seen to rest 
r immediately on this till, or boulder clay, and the shells consist 
chiefly of those of the common oyster (Ostrea edulis) associated 
with the common muscle (Mytilus edulis), and cockle ( Cardium 
edule), and other abundant coast shells, such as Venus decussata, 
Buccinum undatum, and Turbo littoreus. These shells are de- 
scribed as being for the most part quite perfect, and they are 
generally covered with sand, or with a freshwater bed, about 5 
feet thick. The author also alludes to a bed of Turbo littoreus, 
on the spot now occupied by the terrace at Walton. 

The next spot described is at Clacton, on the same line of 
coast, and about eight miles to the south of Walton. A consider- 
able number of marine shells are stated to have been here collected 
at various heights above high water mark, the highest bed being 8 
feet. In this case the marine shells are of the same species as those 
found on the coast and in the adjacent sea, and they are asso- 
ciated with freshwater species also common in the neighbourhood. 

On the western side of the valley of the Colne, and at a distance 
of about 600 yards from the river, similar beds of shells are de- 


scribed as occurring at a height of about 5 feet above high water 
mark. The shells are numerous and broken, and they are associated 
with concretions of carbonate of lime. The author considers that 
this deposit may have been formed at a time when the valley of 
the Colne was an estuary of the neighbouring sea. The shells are 
all those of the common recent species found on the coast, but 
the bed is now ten miles distant from the sea. 

The author considers that the perfect state of the shells in these 
cases precludes the possibility of their having been drifted, and 
that they therefore afford sufficient proof of the general level of 
this part of the British coast having undergone a small elevation at 
a recent geological epoch. 

2. On Dykes of Marble and Quartz in connection with Plutonic 
Rock on the Upper Wollondilly in Argyle County, New 
South Wales. By the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S. 

The tract of country described by the author in this memoir is 
situated not far from Sydney and Port Jackson, the river Wollon- 
dilly, whose gorge lays bare the geological structure of the district, 
taking its rise in latitude 34° 26' $., longitude 149° 23' E., and 
after receiving the waters of several streams running into the 
Nepean river, and emptying itself into the Ocean considerably to 
the south of Sydney.] 

The stratified rocks traversed by the remarkable defiles through 
which these rivers flow, belong to the sterile upper portions of the 
carboniferous formation so widely spread in Australia ; and these 
carboniferous rocks are traceable (with occasional interruptions 
from basaltic dykes) from the district in question to the borders 
of the Illawarra region, where they present a lofty mural escarp- 

The Wollondilly, however, from its source to its junction with 
the Uringalla (except near Towrang), is described by the author 
as running through igneous and metamorphic rocks, which are 
laid bare over a considerable area between the Cockburndoon, the 
Derra, and the Uringalla rivers, where recent volcanic outbursts 
have disturbed the older rocks. The sedimentary rocks wrap 
round the margin of this area, the beds dipping at a considerable 

On the north banks of the river, at a place called Jaoramin, 
beds of conglomerate are described containing fragments appa-* 
rently of transition rock ; and the author considers, from the con- 
dition and appearance of the river banks, and the fact that a wide 
space, at a considerable height above the water, is covered with 
the debris of these conglomerates, that a considerable change of 
level has taken place in the district producing elevation. 

Having given a general account of the districts, the author then 


proceeds to describe the different plutonic rocks found in it, and 
states that they consist of syenite, syenitic granite, protogine and 
porphyritic rocks of various kinds, and of greenstones, basalt, and 
trachyte, all, with the exception of the three latter, passing by 
regular gradations from one to another. The syenites are said to 
resemble those of Skiddaw, and the syenitic granite that of Guern- 
sey, while a protogine is described greatly resembling a beautiful 
rock of the same kind in St. John's Vale, near Keswick. 

At Arthursleigh, the author describes a spot where the face of 
an exposed cliff exhibits a net-work of quartz veins with dykes of 
syenitic rock and hornstone ; and not far off a dyke of ironstone, 
and others of basaltic rocks, amongst which are some in ected 
trachytes that have been much used for building purposes. 

Having described the position and mineral character of these 
igneous rocks as they appear en masse, the author then proceeds 
to allude to some singular instances of intrusive dykes of lime- 
stone and marble, at a spot known as " Campbells," or " Shepherds," 
situated on the estate of Arthursleigh just alluded to. These 
dykes occur in contact with hard large-grained grey syenite, and 
were seen on the right bank of the river Wollondilly. 

In the first instance mentioned, the width of the dyke is stated 
to be nearly 47 yards, its dip 50° S.W., and its strike S. 22° E. 
" Alternations of quartz rock and crystalline white and grey 
marble compose this dyke ; innumerable lines and scratches mark 
the edges and face of the marble ; and the quartz has also been 
subject to a semi-crystalline action, the surface being crumpled or 
doubled up into parallel anticlinal ridges." There appears to be 
no line of demarcation traceable between the quartz and marble ; 
and the two together, after descending into the bed of the river, 
suddenly curve round and re-enter the granite as a second dyke. 
Traces of green carbonate of copper are found associated with the 
other minerals of this dyke. 

The author considers that the scratches and furrows which he 
has observed, and other phenomena in the line of dip, could not 
have been in existence before the formation of the present river 

A second dyke is then described in a place where the rocks are 
thrown into great disorder, and the author details some changes 
which have produced singular conditions of mineral structure. 
He also supposes that they exhibit marks of a gradation existing 
between limestone and quartz. A third dyke of the same cha- 
racter is then mentioned, in which the constituents of the granite 
are mixed up with the calcareous rock ; and the author states that 
near these dykes the granite assumes a distinct character, a 
greater proportion of felspar and less mica being present. 

At Jaoramin, higher up the river than the spot just alluded to, 
the structure of the rocks is described as somewhat different, the 
felspar being less completely mingled with the other minerals, but 
the rock occasionally passing into porphyry. Where it is not 
denuded, the rock, however, is here overlaid by a mass of conglo- 

z 4 


merate, from 200 to 300 feet thick, through which the river makes 
its way. At St. Peters are low hills more decidedly granitic. 
Near Stuckeys farm are numerous fragments of crystalline rock, 
the surface of which is much worn, as is the case with other cal- 
careous rocks all over New South Wales. No traces of fossils 
have been found in these limestones. 

The author remarks that the greenstone becomes compact near 
the marble, and assumes a bottle-green colour, traces of limestone 
being common in it ; whilst on the other hand, the marble near the 
greenstone is also changed, so that a passage may be traced from 
one to the other. 

The author concludes by referring to other instances in New 
South Wales, in which similar phenomena have been produced. He 
mentions one case in lat. 32° 6' S., and long, about 151° E., where, 
in the neighbourhood of the river Page, veins of marble intersect a 
lava-like trap ; and another about 16 miles north of Arthursleigh, 
where a magnificent tunnel in white crystalline marble occurs in 
the bed of a creek surrounded by basaltic rocks. On a branch of 
the Abercrombie river, west of the Dividing Range, and about 40 
miles south of Bathurst, a similar tunnel of gigantic dimensions, 
nearly 800 feet long and 80 feet high, also passes through a mass 
of white crystalline marble at the bottom of a ravine in the middle 
of a country of volcanic rocks and blocks of snow-white quartz. 

The author hopes to be able, at a future time, to describe 
these examples more fully ; he alludes to them now to show that 
there is reason to believe that these connections of limestone, plu- 
tonic rocks, and quartz dykes, are not without their application to 
a condition of geological phenomena, to the elucidation of which 
the banks of the Wollondilly have exhibited a clue. 

3. On the Atherfield Section of the Lower Greensand, in 
the Isle of Wight. By W. H. Fitton, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. 

[This paper is postponed, not having been received from the 
author in time for notice in the present number of the Journal.] 







{Continued from p. 250.) 

Acephala Palliobranchiata. 

99. Terebratula sella Sow. M. C. t. 437. f. 1. 
Loc. Atherfield, Reigate, Hythe, Faringdon. 

Note. On the continent this species appears to be confounded with 
T. elongata, from which it is very distinct, and by which it is replaced in the 
Upper Greensand. In the young state it is broad and depressed, and presents 
scarcely a trace of the two plications afterwards so prominent. 

100. Terebratula praelonga Sow. in Fitton, G. T. 2d ser. vol. iv. 

t. 14. f. 14. 

Loc. Maidstone, Sandgate. 

101. Terebratula. 
Loc. Isle of W