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Full text of "The Quarterly journal of agriculture"

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QUARTERLY 






JOURNAL or AGRICULTURE, 



PUBLISHED BY THE 




FOR APRIL, 1859. 



EDITED BY BEN: PERLEY POORE, 
Secretary of the Society. 



AYASHINGTO^^, D. C. 

1850. 



THE QUARTERLY 

JOURNAJ. OF AGIilC LILT LIRE, 



PPBLISHKD BY THE 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Vol. VIL APRIL, 1859. No. L 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



[The first eight pages of this volume, containing the table of contents, will be pub- 
lished with the fourth number, for Jp.nuary, I860.] 

Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting Pao-e 9 

Agriculturp.l Statistics 37 

The Domestication of the Elk 40 

Prince Albert's Model Farm at Windsor 43 

A Solution of the Problem of Inundations 44 

Northern Fruit Culture 4P 

Under-draining 47 

.American Agricultural Exliibition? in 1858. arranged by States 48 

Country and City Life 73 

THE secretary'.? TABLE. 

Introductory Editorial Remarks 1^ 

A Valuable Work. — Patent Office Report for 18.^8. — Serious Loss. — Florida Grass... 78 

The Tobacco Interest. — Agriculture in Greece.— Longwood Willow.... 79 

Publications and Diplomas. — Superintendent. — Agricultural Patents 80 

Exhibitions of 1859. — Commissioner of Patents. — Items 81 

The Cotton Crop, with statistics 82 

The Wheat Crop, with statistics. — Consumption of Sugar. — Guano Trade of Peru... 83 

Abstract of Correspondence, arranged by States 84 

Roll of Honorary and Life Members 86 

Obituary notice of the late Col. Jacques gg 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Published ai the Rooms of the United States Agricultural Society, and maikd to Life and 

Annual Member*. 

W. H. MOORE, PRINTER. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 

OP THE 

UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

FOR THE YEAR 1859— '60. 



PRESIDENT, 
TENCH TILGHMAN, Oxford, Maryland. 



VICE PRESIDENTS, 



N. B. Cloud Alabama, 

Sylvester Mowrey Arizona, 

H. A. Dyer Connecticut, 

A. W. McKke California, 

John Jones Delaware, 

W. W. Corcoran Bist. Columbia, 

A. G. Fuller Dacotah, 

S. A. Mallory Florida, 

Richard Peters Georgia, 

D. P. HoLLowAY Indiana, 

J. A. Kennicutt Illinois, 

LeGrand Byinqton Iowa, 

W. L. Underwood Kentucky, 

W. F. M. Arney Kansas, 

J. D. B. DeBow Louisiana, 

John Brooks Massachusetts, 

N. N. Harrison Mississippi, 

A. Kimmell Maryland, 

Henry Ledyard Michigan, 

EzEKiEL Holmes Maine, 



H. M. Rice Minnesota, 

J. R. Barrett Missouri, 

Henry F. French New Hampshire, 

J. H. Frazee New Jersey, 

B. P. Johnston New York, 

Manuel A. Otero New Mexico, 

AV. T. Brown Nebraska, 

H. K. Burgwyn North Carolina, 

F. G. Cary Ohio, 

J. H. Lane Oregon, 

A. Clements Pennsylvania, 

Elisha Dyer Rhode Island, 

F. W. Alston South Carolina, 

Thos. AffIiECK Texas, 

Delano R. Eckels Utah, 

Fred. Holbrook Vermont, 

W. A. Spence Virginia, 

D. S. Curtis Wisconsin, 

I. S. Stevens Washington T. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, 



T. Tilghman, (Ez-officio,) ... .Maryland, 

Horace Capron Illinois, 

J. M. Cannon Iowa, 

John McGowan Pennsylvania, 

J. Mbrryman Maryland, 



Frederic Smyth Neie Hampshire, 

Henry Wager New York, 

JosiAH W. Ware Virginia, 

B. P. PooRE, [Ex-officio,).... Massachusetts. 



TREASURER, 
Bkkjamin B. French, Washington, D. C 



SECRETARY, 

Bbk: Pbblst Poorb — Office 356 Penn. Avenue, Washington, D. C. 



OPERATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Journal of Agriculture is published quarterly, and mailed free of charge to Hono- 
rary, Life, and Annual Members of the Society. Gentlemen not connected with the So- 
ciety, who may desire to receive it, are invited to enrol themselves as Members. Life 
Members receive an elegant Diploma, all the publications of the Society, free tickets of 
admission to all exhibitions, and their share of such seeds and cuttings as may be pro- 
cured for distribution, without any additional assessment or payment beyond the admis- 
sion fee of ten dollars. Annual Members receive the publications of the Society, paying 
a fee of two dollars. County or town societies have the privilege of making their Presi- 
dent, Secretary, or Treasurer ex-officio a Life Member, in which case the society will re- 
ceive the publications, &c. Remittances for membership can be made by mail to Hon. 
B. B. French, Treasurer U. S. Agricultural Society, Washington, D. C. 

A Secretari/s Office, lAbrary, and Reading Room has been established at No. 356 Penn- 
sylvania avenue, Washington City, where the members of the Society, and others inter- 
ested in agricultural improvement meet as brothers at a common home, and find a col- 
lection of objects in which they have a common interest. Many State and County societies 
have contributed their published transactions, premium-lists, the names of their officers, 
and other information, which has been duly registered, and they have received the pub- 
lications of the Society in return. A majority of the agricultural and numerous other 
publishers have contributed their periodicals and newspapers, and thus aided in forming 
a Free Agricultural Library at the National Metropolis. Donations of models, specimens 
of fertilisers, and engravings of cattle or agricultural implements, are also solicited. 

Annual Exhibitio7is.~-ThQse have been held at Springfield, Mass. ; Springfield, Ohio ; 
Boston, Mass. ; Philadelphia, Pa. ; Louisville, Ky., and Richmond, Va., each exhibition 
distinguished by some national feature. They have been self-sustaining, the receipts 
meeting the disbursements of upwnrds of one hundred and twelve thousand dollars for 
premiums and e.xpenses ; and they have not only increased the efficiency of State and 
Local Associations, but have called together larger assemblages of people than have ever 
been convened upon other occasions, embracing not only our most intelligent yeomanry, 
but gentlemen of every art and profession from every portion of the wide-spread Union, 
evincing that the national pulse beats in unison with our own, and that the public voice 
is responsive to the call. 

Annual Meetings. — Seven of these have been held at Washington city, and they consti- 
tute in reality the central "Board of Agriculture,'' recommended by the Farmer of Mount 
Vernon. Gentlemen from almost every State in the Union, (many of them delegates 
from Agricultural Associations,) have annually assembled to discuss such topics as have 
been presented, calculated to advance the cause of agricultural improvement ; interest- 
ing and valuable lectures have been delivered by practical and scientific farmers; reports 
have been submitted by committees specially appointed to examine new inventions and 
theories, and by delegates who have been accredited to the agriculturalists of other land ; 
and there has been a general interchange of opinion. 

The United States Agricultural Society was founded in June, 1852, by a national Agri- 
cultural Convention, (called by the direction of twelve State Agricultural Associations,) 
at which there were present one hundred and fifty-two delegates, representing twenty- 
three States and Territories. It has since been in active operation, receiving the confi- 
dence, patronage, and favor of American agriculturists, and co-operating with State and 
Local Associations. If it has not accomplished all which its founders anticipated, or 
which its present officers desire, it has furnished pleasing evidence of its growing pros- 
perity and usefulness. All who wish to aid in awakening an extended and general in- 
terest in the cultivation of the soil, are respectfully invited to enrol their names with 
those who have founded this National Agricultural Organization, and who desire to 
make it worthy of the great interest upon which the prosperity and happiness of our 
country is dependant. 

Washington, D. C, April, 1859. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The Seventh Annual Meeting of the United States Agricultural 
Society was held at the Smithsonian Institution, in Washington 
city, on the 12th, 13th, and 14th days of January, 1859. The 
meeting was called to order at 11 o'clock, a. ni., on the first day, 
by President Tilghman. Ex-President "Wilder was invited to take 
a seat on the platform. 

On motion of Vice President J3yington, of Iowa, the Secretary 
called the States and Territories, and gentlemen responded from 
twenty States, two Territories, and the District of Columbia. Many 
of these gentlemen presented credentials as delegates from State or 
county Agricultural Boards or Societies, and a cjuorum of the United 
States Society was present. 

PRESIDE]S^T TILGHMAN'S ADDRESS. 

G-entlemen of the United States Agricultural Society: You are now 
assembled for the seventh time, to review the events of the past 
season, and to make arrangements for that which is to follow. In 
several respects this period has been the most eventful in the his- 
tory of the Society. 

CHANGE OP OFFICERS. 

First among these in order of time, as well as in importance, was 
the retirement from oifice of the President, the Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder, whose energetic participation in the formation of the So- 
ciety, and whose enlightened administration of its affairs, have con- 
tributed so largely to its usefulness and success. Although no 

•2 



10 President Tilghman's Address, 

longer at the helm, he is still in our midst to aid by his counsel, 
and encourage by his example ; and I am sure I represent the feel- 
ings of every member of the Society when I express the pleasure 
afforded hy his^presence on this occasion. The change in the head 
of the Society was accompanied by a similar one in the entire 
Executive Committee ; and for the first time were its destinies en- 
trusted to new and untried hands. 

An opportunity has thus been afforded to test the stability of the 
Society ;'!'and the wisdom of the arrangement by which the Secre- 
tary and Treasurer, as the officers to whom the details of its busi- 
ness are specially committed, are exempted from that rotation 
which in similar institutions, has been found advisable in the other 
departments, it will be for you, gentlemen, to decide how faith- 
fully the duties have been performed by those into whose hands 
you committed them. 

OFFICE OF THE SOCIETY. 

Believing that the time had arrived when the Society should as- 
sume a more definite form, one of the first acts of the new Board 
was the establishment of a permanent office at Washington, under 
the charge of the Secretary, and where all the business of the 
Society (except during its exhibitions) should be transacted. 

The location of the office is on Pennsylvania avenue, immediately 
adjoining Brown's Hotel. 

MONTHLY BULLETIN. 

The opening of the office was followed by the publication of a 
periodical under the title of the "Monthly Bulletin," edited by the 
Secretary, under the supervision of the Executive Committee, and 
furnished gratuitously to the members of the Society. 

By this*" means, a regular communication has been maintained 
with all its members ; with the various Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Societies in this country' and in Canada ; and also with the 
principal Societies in Europe.^ 

Exchano-es are also made w^ith the various Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural journals, beside many others of a general character. A 
monthly abstract is published of the Agricultural operations of the 
Patent Office, and correct information disseminated in regard to the 
objects of the Society. 

If the members of Agricultural Societies and farmers generally 
would become contributors to the columns of the Bulletin on sub- 
jects to which they have devoted particular attention, and matters 
pertaining to their respective localities, a large mass of information 
would be obtained with a small amount of individual labor, and 
yet possessing great value from its reliability and the extent of the 
area 'from which it was collected. 

A monthly report of the condition of the crops in every part of 
the country would be the best safeguard against the operations of 
speculators, and the amount thus saved to the farmer would, in 
many instances, be equivalent to a large proportion of his income. 
I earnestly invoke the attention of farmers to a subject of such vast 
importance to their interest, the benefits of which can be secured 



Seventh Annual 3Ieetmg. 11 

at so trifling an outlay as the subscription of two dollars, which 
constitutes an annual membership in the Society. 

Our acknowledgements are due to the press of the country, for 
the manner in which the proceedings and publications of the So- 
ciety have been noticed and received, and the liberal contributions 
which have been made in return. 

The office has thus become a de[)Ository of the current informa- 
tion of the day, wdiere farmers when visiting the city can obtain 
facilities not otherwise accessible. 

A commencement has also been made in the formation of a 
library and a collection of models and other articles of interest, 
which it is hoped will result in rendering the rooms of the Society 
an object of attraction to all persons connected with the business 
of agriculture. 

From a desire to confine the expenses of the Society to the 
smallest limits consistent with its efficiency, it was determined that 
the office should be kept open only during the forenoon of each 
day, which includes (in Washington) the hours usuall}- devoted to 
general business. The Secretary is thus engaged during a portion 
of his time in some other occupation, and his attention divided be- 
tween difierent duties, which may or may not be congenial. It is 
obvious that the prosperity of the Society would be very much pro- 
moted by the devotion of his entire time and attention to its inter- 
ests. As this would involve a considerable addition to its expenses, 
the views of the Society are respectfully solicited in regard to it. 

SIXTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

The previous annual Fairs of the Society had been held in each 
of the principal divisions of the Union, except the South. It was, 
therefore, deemed peculiarly appropriate to give a preference to that 
section of the country. An invitation was accepted from the Vir- 
ginia Central Agricultural Society, under an arrangement with 
which association a Fair was held in the city of Richmond, com- 
mencing on the 25th of October, and continuing through the week. 

The unexampled drought which prevailed during the entire sum- 
mer, threatening in many places almost a total destruction of the 
crops, (and which must have caused extensive losses among the 
live stock, but for the remaining influence upon the springs of the 
rains which prevailed during the early part of the season,) aftbrded 
cause for serious apprehension in regard to the success of the Fair; 
and there have been few more gratifying evidences of the energies 
of our people, and the resources of the country, than those afforded 
by the success of this and other Fairs held during the past season, 
under circumstances so ver}'' disadvantageous. 

The Stock exhibited at Richmond were equally remarkable for 
their condition and quality ; and the high character acquired by the 
Society for the superiority of the articles exhibited at its previous 
Fairs, was fully sustained in all the various departments on that 
occasion. 

The number and character of the delegates from other States 
and from Canada, and the variety and remoteness of the points 



\ ' 



12 Prendent Tilghman s Address, 

from which articles were brought, (inchiding a collection of very 
tine vegetables from Lake Superior,) aftbrd gratifying evidence of 
an increasing interest in the exhibitions. For a list of the various 
delegations, I beg leave to refer to the ofiicial report of the Fair, 
in the Transactions of 1858. Another proof of the interest felt in 
our exhibitions is afforded by tlie receipts of the Fair at Richmond, 
compared with those previously held in that city, notwithstanding 
the occurence of the State Fair on the following week at a point 
only twenty miles distant, and the impression on the part of many 
of the citizens of the State who could not attend both, that duty to 
their own Fair required them to give it a preference over ours. Had 
the Fair been entirely under the control of the United States So- 
ciety, the net profits could have been considerably augmented by 
the'experience of the Society in the management of such exhibi- 
tions. I recommend that in future the Fairs shall not be held in 
connexion with other societies, except on condition that the United 
States Society shall have the exclusive management, and shall em- 
ploy its own officers and agents. 

In makin«: this recommendation, I desire to express my sense of 
the uniformcourtesy of the officers of the Virginia Central Agricul- 
tural Society, and suggest that a resolution expressive of this senti- 
ment be adopted and communicated to that society. 

A new and interesting feature in the proceedings was the intro- 
duction of addresses from distinguished gentlemen, on each day 
upon the grounds. The discussion of agricultural subjects during 
the evenings also elicited much useful information, which, owing 
to the absence of a reporter, could not be preserved. I recommend 
that, in future, more prominence be given to these discussions, and 
a competent reporter employed to record them for publication. I 
also recommend the appointment of an additional officer, to be 
called the " Superintendent," who shall bo entrusted with the man- 
agement of the exhibitions, under the direction of the President 
and Executive Committee, and who shall also have charge of all 
the preliminary arrangements. His compensation to be a per diem 
whilst employed in duties of his office, besides his traveling and 
other necessary expenses. 

MEDALS AiS"D PREMIUMS. 

The medals awarded at the recent Fair have been prepared for de- 
livery, in accordance with the notice to that effect in the Bulletin ; 
and I have now the honor to present them for your inspection, be- 
lieving that they will be found in all respects worthy of the Society. 

I would also recommend that in special cases exclusively the 
premiums for machinery and implements should be paid partly in 
money, and partly in medals or plate, instead of being confined to 
the latter. This course would secure a larger number of contribu- 
tions, whilst it would diminish the number of medals to be awarded, 
and thus give them an increased degree of importance. 

TRUE OBJECTS OF FAIRS. 

It is very im})ortant that the true objects of the Fairs of the United 



Seventh Annual Meeting. 18 

States Society sliould be correctly understood. They are intended 
to elevate the standard of excellence in agricultural productions and 
processes, and increase the amount of agricultural information in 
the various parts of the countrj-, by carrying into each, successively, 
articles of a superior quality, and in some instances of a different 
kind from those previously exhibited at the local fairs ; and, secondly, 
to disseminate correct information in regard to the institutions of 
each portion of the country among the people of the other portions, 
by inducing individuals and delegations from remote sections to 
congregate in a degree which the local fairs, however important, do 
not seem to effect. 

It not to be expected in a country so extensive as ours, that every 
part of it can be represented at a fair at any one point, however ac- 
cessible; or even that the attendance on a JSTational Fair, at points 
not the most accessible, would be as large as that at a State exhibi- 
tion in a more favorable locality. If they present a decided im- 
provement on the best fairs which have been previously held at the 
same points, then the object has been effected for which they were 
}>rincipally instituted. 

A summary of the Exhibitions held by all the principal State and 
local Societies during the past year (not heretofore presented in any 
other publication) has been prepared by the Secretary, and will be 
submitted to this meeting for correction, preparatory to its insertion 
in the Transactions for 1858. A few specimen copies of the Trans- 
actions for 1858 will be found on the table of the Secretary. The 
publication of the full edition could not be made until after the action 
of the Society upon the paper above mentioned and on the essaya 
which have been offered for premiums. 

PATENT OFFICE REPORT. 

The uninterrupted harmony which has heretofore prevailed be- 
tween the United States Agricultural Society and all the other Ag^ 
ricultural institutions in the country, has been as highly gratifying 
as it was calculated to advance the interests of the great cause in 
which we are engaged as fellow-laborers. It is, therefore, with a 
feeling of the deepest regret that I have seen for the first time dur- 
ing the past season an evidence of a contrary disposition, and that 
too in a quarter where I should least have expected and have most re- 
gretted it. In the annual report of the Agricultural Division of the 
Patent Office for 1857, (recently issued,) the first article is upon the 
" Progress of Agriculture," and purports to give a history of all the 
principal Agricultural Societies in the country. The author of that 
article is Mr. D. J. Browne, who is the Superintendent of the Di- 
vision, and who was a "member of the Executive Committee of the 
United States Agricultural Society for that year. The entire omis- 
sion of the United States Agricultural Society from such an article, 
can scarcely be regarded as accidental; more especially as the same 
volume contains a report entitled "Report of the United States Ag- 
ricultural Society" on the Chinese sugar-cane, made by Mr. Browne, 
as chairman of a committee of the Society. This report contains 



14 l^resident Tilghmans Address, 

accounts of experiments made under his direction with seed which 
were imported from France hy him at the expense and on account 
of the LTnited States Agricultural Society; and is accompanied by 
an extended correspondence on the subject, which is presumed to 
be that referred to in the report; and yet no credit is given to the 
Society for either the appropriation or the correspondence. 

The records of the Society aiibrd numerous instances in which it 
has co-operated wnth the Department; and in no instance has it 
either declined to do so when requested, or failed to give the De- 
partment its full share of the credit. It is, therefore, a cause of 
profound regret to have experienced such a want of courtesy from 
an officer of the Government, connected with a Department for 
which this Society entertains the highest respect, and with wdiicli it 
desires to cherish the most friendly relations. 

The fact, however, that such an omission has been made, and the 
frequent inquiries in regard to the history of the Society, would 
seem to justify the introduction of a brief synopsis of its organiza- 
tion and proceedings. 

HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY. 

On the 14th of June, 1851, a national Agricultural convention 
was held at the Smithsonian Institute, in Washington, under a call 
issued by the following Agricultural Societies, at the instance of 
the Massachusetts Board ot Agriculture: 

The Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture ; Pennsylvania 
State Agricultural Society; Maryland State Agricultural Society ; 
iSTew York State Agricultural Society; Southern Central Agricul- 
tural Society: Ohio State Board of Agriculture ; American Insti- 
tute, New York ; Massachusetts Society for the promotion of Agricul- 
ture ; Indiana State Board of Agriculture ; New Hampshire Agri- 
cultural Society ; Vermont Agricultural Society ; and the Rhode 
Island Society for the encouragement of American Industry. 

The convention was composed of 153 delegates, representing 23 
States and Territories. Among those who were present during its 
sessions, were the Hon. Millard Fillmore, President of the United 
States, and the Hon. Daniel Webster, Secretary of State. 

The following gentlemen composed the committee Avho drafted 
the constitution of the United States Agricultural Society: Messrs. 
Holcomb of Delaware; Douglas of Iltinois ; J. A.King of New 
York; Steele of New Hampshire; Thurston of Rhode Island; 
Hubbard of Connecticut; Stevens of Vermont; Elwyn of Pennsyl- 
vania; Calvert of Maryland ; Campbell of Ohio ; Hancock of New 
Jersey; Callan of the District of Columbia; G. W. P. Custis of 
Virginia; Burgwyn of North Carolina; Taylor of Alabama; De 
"Bow of Louisiana; Spencer of Indiana; Mallory of Kentucky ; 
Bell of Tennessee; Weston of Wisconsin; McLane of California; 
Pickhard of Maine; Dawson of Georgia; French of Massachu- 
setts; and Seaman of Michigan. 

The objects of the Society, as declared by the preamble to its 
constitution, are to " improve the agriculture of the country, by 
attracting attention, eliciting the views, and confirming the eftbrts 



Seventh Annual Meeting. 15 

of that great class coniposiiig the agricultural commuinty, and to 
secure the advantages of a better organization, and more extended 
usefulness among all State, county, and other Agricultural So- 
cieties. 

On the lists of its members are to be found the names of many 
of the most distinguished men in the nation,, and it will compare 
favorably in this respect with any institution in the country. 

The first annual meeting was held on the 2d of February, 1853 ; 
since which they have been regularly continued. The first number 
of the Transactions was issued in August, 1852, and was continued 
quarterly for the first year; since which time their issue has been 
annual. The first Fair was held on the 17th of October, 1853, at 
Springfield, Massachusetts. Annual exhibitions have also been 
held in Ohio, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Vir- 
ginia; at which there have been expended upwards of $100,000. 
In July, 1857, it held a ISTational Trial of Reapers and Mowers at 
Syracuse, New York, unequalled by any similar exhibition that has 
ever been made — the illustrated report of which, together with the 
other operations of the Society, have given it a high position among 
the National Agricultural Societies of the world. 

It has already been stated that the first extended experiments in 
tlie culture of Chinese sugar-cane in this country, were made at the 
expense and under the direction of the Society ; for which purpose 
seed were imported from France, suflicient to plant one hundred 
acres, and results obtained from ninety locations, extending from 
the Province of New Brunswick to Mexico, and from Florida to 
Washington Territory. 

It will thus be seen that the Society has its distinct sphere of 
operations, within which its proceedings have been steadily con- 
ducted ; and that it aftbrds a common ground on which those of 
every shade of opinion can meet as brethren in the prosecution of 
a common interest. 

AID FROM GOVERNMENT. 

In every other country which has attained a high degree of in- 
telligence and prosperity, National Agricultural Societies are to be 
found, fostered by government and cherished among their most valued 
institutions. In the United States alone has no such aid been ex- 
tended, although agriculture is universally admitted to be the most 
important interest in the nation. To say that this is a reproach to 
the Government would be unfair; for under our representative in- 
stitutions the people are expected to petition for what they want, 
and no such petition has ever been made. Believing that the Society- 
has given suflicient evidence that such assistance would not be uu- 
worthily bestowed, and that a disposition to foster it exists at the 
present time both among the people of the country and the members 
of the national legislature, I earnestly recommend that an early ap- 
plication be made to Congress for this purpose, in such manner as 
the Society may deem most advisable. An application for an act 
of incorporation has already been made to the present Congress, 
and is still before that honorable l)ody. 



16 President Tilghman » Address^ 

DECEASED MEMBEllS. 

The tenderest relations by which we are united are to be found 
in the hallowed recollections of the past, and the memory of those 
who in former years have cheered us by their presence and example. 
During the past season the fell destrojer has dealt more leniently 
than heretofore with our band of reapers ; but among those now as- 
sembled I look in vain for the familiar face of one who was ever at 
the post of duty, and who was as unassuming in his deportment and 
modest in the performance of his duties as he was warm in his af- 
fections and patriotic in all his impulses. To those who were well 
acquainted with the Hon. Moses IS^ewell, of Massachusetts, it would 
be unnecessary to utter a syllable in his praise ; but it is due to the 
memory of a good man and one of the earliest and firmest friends 
of this Society and of agriculture in his own State, to make this 
passing tribute to his memory, 

MOUNT VERNOX FUND. 

There is one other topic to wdiich I desire to call your attention, 
and which cannot be omitted without neglecting a sacred duty. 
Among those who participated in our earliest proceedings and whose 
labors in behalf of the Society only terminated with his life, was the 
venerable farmer of Arlington, or, as he himself preferred to be 
known, the Child of Mount Vernon. This association with a mem- 
ber of the family of Wasliington, together with the relation which 
our Society occupies to the farmers of the country, would seem to 
impose on us a peculiar obligation in regard to the attempt which is 
now making to secure as the properly of the nation the residence 
and resting place of the Father of his Country. Amid the turmoils 
of war and the cares of State, the avocations of the farmer were never 
forgotten by him ; and in his messages to Congress are to be found 
the earliest and strongest recommendations for the protection and 
promotion of Agriculture. I respectfully suggest that an appeal be 
made to the farmers of America, to raise a subscription to the fund 
for the purchase of Mount Vernon, by contributions of ^1 each, to 
be sent to the Hon. B. B. French, Treasurer of the United States 
Agricultural Society, at Washington, and transmitted by him to the 
Treasurer of the Mount Vernon Association ; and that a certificate 
of payment be sent to each contributor, bearing the vignette used 
by the Society in its official correspondence, which represents the 
agricultural devices on the beautiful mantel at Mount Vernon. 

And now, gentlemen, that you are about to proceed to the trans- 
action of business, and the discussion of such subjects as may be 
brought before you, I hope I shall not be regarded as overstepping 
the bounds of propriety, if I urge upon you the adoption of such rules 
for the management of 3'our business as shall secure to subjects of 
the highest value a preference over those of less moment ; and shall 
prevent an undue portion of our limited sessions from being occu- 
pied by a few members, or by particular subjects, to the exclusion 
of others which have equal claims to consideration. 

Allow me, in conclusion, to express the hope that your delibera- 



Seventh Annual Meeting. 17 

tious may redound to the credit of the Society, and that their bene- 
ficial iirfliionce may be felt b^' the country when all those who shared 
them shall have ceased from their labors. 

On motion of Mr. 11. S. Olcott, of jSTew York, the President's 
Annual Address was referred to a committee of three, viz : Messrs. 
B. V. French, of Massachusetts; Erastus Corning, of New York; 
and John Jones, of Delaware. 

Major B. B. French, Treasurer of the Society, submitted his 
annual report, which, on motion of Mr. A. Hawes, of Alabama, 
was referred to a committee of three, viz : Messrs. "William Sutton, 
of Massachusetts; A. B. Conger, of New York; and S. S. Brad- 
ford, of Virginia. 

On motion of Hon. Henry Wager, of New York, the third sec- 
tion of the constitution of the Society was so amended as to read: 

Sect. III. The officers of tliis Society sliall be a Presiilcnt, a Vice President from each State and Territory 
in the Union, and from the District of Columbia; a Treasurer, a Secretary, and an Executive Committee, con- 
^^istins; of seven members. The President of the Society, the Secretary, and Ex-Presidents for five years from 
and alter the expiration of their terms of office, shall be ex-officio membei's of the Executive Committee. 

Ben: Perley Poore, of Massachusetts, Secretary of the Society, 
read a letter from David Landreth, Esq., declining a re-election as 
Vice President from Pennsylvania ; also a letter from John Mc- 
GowAN, Esq., a member of the Executive Committee, regretting 
that an accident would prevent his attendance. 

The Secretar}- then presented a report, in accordance with the 
eighth section of the constitution, which makes it his duty "to cor- 
respond with persons interested in Agriculture," and "at each 
stated meeting to read such portion of this correspondence as may 
be of general interest." He had, from his correspondence, selected 
such portions as would give a general idea of the Agricultural Ex- 
hibitions held in America during the year 1858 ; and after reading 
a portion of this, he asked for a special committee, to whom the 
report might be referred. 

On motion of Hon. Henry Wager, the report was referred to a 
committee of three, viz : Messrs. Henry Wager ; John Merryman, 
of Maryland ; and George M. Atwater, of Massachusetts. 

On motion of Hon. William Kelley, of New York, a nomina- 
ting committee of twenty-one was appointed, viz ; Messrs. Wm. 
Kelley of New York; Ezekiel Holmes of Maine; Frederick 
Smythe of New Hampshire ; E. P. Waller of Vermont ; Marshall 
P. Wilder of Massachusetts ; George H. Penfield of Connecticut ; 
John Jones of Delaware ; Anthony Kimmell of Maryland ; Ben- 
jamin Ogle Tayloe of the District of Columbia ; William H. Spence 
of Virginia ; H. K. Burgwyn of North Carolina ; Benjamin Fitz- 



18 Fii'st Bay's Froeeedings, 

patrick of Alabama; Warner L. Underwood of Kentucky; F. 
G. Carey of Ohio ; D. P. Curtis of Wisconsin ; D, P. Halloway 
of Indiana ; J. R. Barret of Missouri ; Legrand Byington of Iowa ; 
W. T. Brown of I**[ebraska ; W. T. M. Arney of Kansas; and 
Sylvester Mowry of Arizona. 

Professor Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 
presented a communication from the Academy of Sciences at Phila- 
delphia, asking co-operation in obtaining facts as to the physical 
condition of citizens of various portions of the United States. On 
motion of Mr. Byington, seconded by Mr. Case, the request was 
complied with, and during the session a large number of the mem- 
bers of the Society gave written answers to questions proposed as to 
their native State, age, weight, height, complexion, &c. 

John Jones, Esq., of Delaware, inquired if the committee ap- 
pointed at the annual meeting of 1857, to present a memorial to 
Congress asking the establishment of an Agricultural Department, 
presided over by a Secretary having a seat in the Cabinet, had taken 
any steps to secure this desirable result. 

Charles B. Calvert, Esq., of Maryland, chairman of this com- 
mittee, replied that the committee had made no progress. It was 
certain that Congress, as now organized, would refuse the request, 
and the agitation of the subject might endanger the success of the 
''Morrill Land Bill," in which many of the agriculturalists of the 
country took a deep interest. 

Mr. Jones urged the necessity of having a Department of Agri- 
culture established, and the subject, with the general action of Con- 
gress upon Agricultural matters, was informally discussed by 
Messrs. Calvert; T. C. Connolly of the District of Columbia; Case; 
Arney; Burgwyn; Wilder; Holloway; and Olcott. On motion of 
the last named gentleman, the subject was laid on the table, that 
"Agricultural Education," which was the assigned question for dis- 
cussion, might be taken up. 

Hon. Marshall P. Willer, Ex-President of the Society, stated 
that he was happy to notice among the delegates present Professor 
Francis G. Carey, of Ohio. The Professor had been a most inde- 
fatigable worker in the great cause of Agricultural Education, and 
had given instruction to upwards of two thousand agricultural pupils 
at the College near Cincinnati, over which he so ably presides. He 
hoped that he would now favor the Society with his views upon the 
question before them. [Applause.] 

Professor Carey complied with the request, and favored the So- 



Seventh Annual Meeting. 19 

ciety with an eloquent and practical address, which he will fur- 
nish — it is to he hoped — for publication in the July number of the 
Journal of Agriculture. He showed conclusively that the Anglo- 
Saxon system of rapacity in the management of farms was con- 
tinually tending to exhaustion of our soil. The falling off in aver- 
age yield per acre, which commenced on the borders of the Atlantic, 
spreading from New England down to Florida, was creeping in- 
siduously towards the West. It had been unmistakably shown in 
Ohio, and if we madly pursued our present depletive tillage, the 
fertile prairies of the West would ultimately rank with the poor 
soils of the earlier settled East, from which the people had of late 
been rushing towards the setting sun like armies of locusts, des- 
troying as they passed along. Agriculturists were straining every 
energ}' in the production of labor-saving tools, which enabled us to 
hasten the end so much more rapidly, as the implements were per- 
fect. This idea should be well pondered. To avert the impending 
calamity there was one and only one resource. To apply the teach- 
ings of Science to our regular farm management, we must not only 
call in Chemistry, but Natural Philosophy, Physiology, Botany, and 
all the kindred branches. To do this, we must have Schools and 
Colleges of Agriculture, and that speedily. 

On motion of Mr. Johnson, of Tennessee, the thanks of the So- 
ciety were voted to Professor Carey, and he was requested to fur- 
nish a copy of his remarks for publication. 

President Tilghman asked the attention of the Society for a few 
moments. The son of Mr. Philip Eahm, of Kichmond, to whom 
was awarded the Grand Gold Medal of the United States Aofricul- 
tural Society at the recent Exhibition at Richmond, for the best 
Locomotive Farm Engine, was present, but desired to leave by the 
Southern boat. He would therefore present the medal at this stage 
of the proceedings. Young Mr. Rahm came forward, and in giving 
him the medal, the President paid an eloquent tribute to the suc- 
cessful competitor. Coming here twenty years since as ajourneyman 
mechanic, Mr. Rahm had by his unaided industry and skill placed 
himself at the head of a large manufacturing establishment, and this 
medal was a high testimonial of his ability to plan and to construct. 
The excellent remarks of the President were received with applause. 

On motion of Hon. D. P. Hollowat, of Indiana, the following 
resolutions were adopted : 

Remlved, That, as the judgment of this Society, among the most philanthropic and patriotic efforts now 
being made in this country, are those to educate youth in the principles and practice of agriculture and the 
useful arts ; and that these efforts eminently deserve the aid of legislation. 

Bcsolvcd, That the bill now pending in the Senate of the United States, which provides for the donatioH of 



^ First Day's Proceedings, 

a portion of the public doniain tor the endowment and maintenance of one college at least in each of the 
several States of this Union, whose leading object it shall be to impart instruction on the subject of agricul- 
ture and the mechanic arts, is heartily approved by the people of this countrj', and that its passage into a 
law will be hailed with feelings of great satisfaction. 

Resolved. That the foregoing resolution be signed by the President and Secretary of this Society, and be 
by them presented to the Vice President of the United States and to the Speaker of the United States House 
of Representatives, and they each be respectfully requested to lay them before that branch of Congress over 
which they respectively preside. 

The subject of "Agricultural Education" was then discussed at 
length. Mr. Olcott, of New York, in his remarks, expressed doubts 
as to the propriety of the provisions of the " Morrill Bill," and he 
suggested that more time should be given to the several States to 
found their colleges than was provided for in that measure. He 
feared that if it was attempted to erect the thirty institutions, and fill 
their chairs with professors within five years, it would be found that 
a large proportion of incompetent men would necessarily be admitted, 
and not only money wasted in fruitless experiment and mismanage- 
ment, but a check given to the progress of agricultural education. 

Mr. Calvert, of Maryland, combatted the arguments of Mr. 
Olcott. He felt confident that whenever and wherever Agricul- 
tural Colleges might be founded, competent Professors would not 
be wanting. 

Messrs. Clemens of the District of Columbia, and Brown of IS'ew 
York, sustained Mr. Calvert. Other gentlemen joined in the dis- 
cussion, which was prolonged until the hour for adjournment, when, 
on motion of Mr. Arney of Kansas, the question was laid on the 
table until the next day at noon. 

Prior to the adjournment, the Secretary presented a communica- 
tion from the Rev. Francis Capen of Massachusetts, in which he 
announced his discovery of the principles which control the winds 
and weather, and the meteorological system of the globe. This was 
referred for investigation to the following committee : Professor 
Henry, Hon. Marshall P. "Wilder, and Dr. George B. Loring, of 
Massachusetts. 

The Secretary presented the Essays received on the following 
subjects, for which premiums had been oficred, and they were re- 
ferred to a committee of judges, consisting of Messrs. Conger of 
New York, Carey of Ohio, and Kelley of New York: 

1. Agricultural Education, including the details of a system for an Agricultural College and Experimental 
Farm. 

2. The best proportions between the value of land and other capital, and between the amount invested in 
the different departments ofa farm, viz: land, labor, stock, implements, and manures. 

3. Meteorology, in reference to its connection with droughts and floods, with suggestions for anticipating 
them and guarding against their effects. 

4. Concentrated manures, in reference to economy, improvement of land, injurious tendencies, preparation, 
application, &c. 

&. Depth of culture for different soils. 

6. On the development of latent properties in soils. 

7. New crops, with their relative profit and the extent to which they should be cultivatsd. 

5. TVie cultivation of Forest Trees. 

9. The construction of Ice-houses for domestic use. 
10. Farm Gardens and Orchards, 
n. On Agricultural Kxhibitionn. 



Seventh Annual Meeting. 21 

And, on motion of Mr. Penfield of Connecticut, the Society ad- 
journed, to meet as^ain the next morning. 

The ditierent committees met in the evening, and there was a 
general meeting of the Society at its rooms on Pennsylvania 
Avenue, for an informal discussion on agricultural implements. 



SECO"^rD DAY'S SESSION. 

President Tilgiiman took the chair at ten o'clock, a. m., and 
called the meeting to order. Delegates who had not been present 
on the day previous, presented their credentials and were enrolled. 

Judge Kellogg, of Illinois, presented an application from the 
Peoria Agricultural Society to make that city the place of holding 
the next annual fair of this Society, which he supported by endors- 
ing the high character of the parties making the application. He 
moved the reference of the application to the Executive Committee. 

Mr. Calvert, of Maryland, expressed his disapproval of national 
exhibitions, and thought the time had now come when they could 
be dispensed with, and the Society's attention more directed to 
practical agiiculture. The Society should determine whether any 
more exhibitions ought to be had; for himself he was against hold- 
ing them at any place. 

Mr. Wilder was certain there was no warmer friend of agricul- 
ture than his friend from Maryland, but upon this question of ex- 
hibitions he must beg to differ with him. The fairs of the Society 
had been its chief resource and support, as well as a powerful agent 
in disseminating agricultural knowledge among the people at large. 
They had been the most interesting occasions at which he had been 
present for five or six years past. He could not doubt but that the 
interests of agriculture were subserved by bringing together the 
various products and farmers of the different sections and regions 
of the country. 

Mr. Kellogg appealed to gentlemen of the North and South to 
come together on the common ground of the West, who know noth- 
ing that was sectional, but only what is national. It was desired 
that the exhibition should be held in the West, that men of all sec- 
tions might be brought together to the plough-handle. When the 
different parts of the country were thus brought together face to 
face the cry of sectionalism heard so much at the Capitol would be 
less and less heard. 

After further discussion as to the propriety of holding National 



22 Second Day's Proceedvigs, 

Agricultural Fairs, by the United States Agricultural Society, in 
whicli they were recommended by Messrs. Gilman, of Maine, and 
Wilder, of Massachusetts, and were opposed by Mr. Calvert, of Mary- 
land, Mr, Byington. of Iowa, offered the following resolution : 

Resolved That the Expcutive Committee be instructed to provide for the holding; of our Annual Fair for 
1859 at some eligible point in tlie valley of the Mississippi river or of the Great Lakes and west of the State 
of Ohio; provided the usual guarantee of indemnity to the Society can be obtained from such point; and 
provided further, that in arranging the time of such Fair, it be so fixed as not to confiict with any of the 
State Fairs of the Western States. 

Mr. Conger, of New York, thought the committee should not 
be too much restricted, but should enjoy a considerable discretionary 
power. The closing proviso of the resolution was objectionable, as 
tending to prevent the holding of any fair at all ; for it would be 
impossible to fix a time such as it proposes. In his judgment, the 
State societies ought to arrange the time of their fairs in subordi- 
nation to the time chosen by this Society for its fair; and he be- 
lieved that the last fair would have been better if such regulation 
had been in operation then. He differed with the gentleman from 
Maryland in his opposition to holding fairs, and thought the imita- 
tion of the lioyal Agricultural Society of England, which in several 
respects had been deemed to furnish a proper example for this So- 
ciety, was also in this matter desirable. He was opposed to re- 
solving this into merel}' a scientific association, and could not believe 
that any local jealousies would intervene to produce conflict with 
the appointments of this Society. 

Mr. Calvert believed that the by-laws had already provided for 
this whole subject. 

President Tilghman corrected the gentleman last up, and said the 
by-laws he referred to had been repealed. 

Dr. Kennicutt considered Illinois the most central and easily ac- 
cessible of the Western States, and therefore eminently lit for hold- 
ing the fair. Though not instructed, he had been requested to 
present Cooke county, Illinois, as a candidate for the place of hold- 
ing the next fair. He thought, however, if the Society took Peoria. 
they would be doing exceedingly well. 

Mr. Byington, in moving his resolution, disclaimed all intention 
of producing collision ; his direct object was to prevent it. The 
Western people would do their utmost to accommodate and render 
the circumstances attending the fair satisfactory and pleasant. 

Col. Ben. Allston, of South Carolina, understood that most of 
the State Societies had, in their constitutions, set special days for 
holding fairs, and thought this Society should accommodate itself to 
the arrangements of the State societies. 



Seventh Annual 3Ieeting. 23 

Professor Carey stated that he considered Cincinnati an excellent 
location for a National Fair, and that he knew there was a desire 
there to have the United States Society hold one, although he had 
no definite proposition to ofi:er. 

Ex-President Wilder presented an application from citizens of 
Pittsburg, grounded on the centrality of the place, its being a great 
thoroughfare, in a populous region, and had shown itself by the ex- 
perience of local fairs to be a good money-making point for such 
purposes. 

Mr. Olcott spoke of the paramount necessity of the Society to 
acquire means. In this respect its circumstances vary widely from 
those of the Eoyal Agricultural Society of England, where private 
donations in so large a degree assist the funds. Thus, from the late 
fair of the Royal Society at Chester there w^as a surplus of £3,500, 
even after the presentation of services of plate to several of the local 
officers. The income of those fairs is large ; such is their import- 
ance in the view of mechanics and implement makers and dealers 
of all sorts for the exhibition of their wares and products, that thej 
gather from great distances and greatly aid the income of the fair. 
Our Society must get means in one of three ways — either di- 
rectly from the Government, through the donations of members, or 
by means of its fiiirs. Unless some other means can be devised and 
put into operation, nothing is left but to depend upon the fairs for 
necessary funds. 

Gen. KiMMELL inquired of the ex-President what had been the 
past custom of the Society with respect to guarantees from citizens 
of places at which Exhibitions had been held. 

Ex-President Wilder replied that the amount of premiums and 
the necessary expenses of the Society had been guaranteed by the 
citizens of the locality, in case that there should be a deficiency. 
Guarantors were to be assessed, ^J^o rata, on their subscriptions, but 
fortunately it had never been necessary to make any such assess- 
ment. Before the Exhibition recently held at Richmond, there had 
never been any alliance with a local Society. 

Mr. Case did not care where the fair would be held, but thought 
it ought to be in the valley of the Mississippi, now the great grain- 
growing region of the United States. He therefore proposed In- 
dianapolis, where there is already fenced and prepared a space of 
fifteen acres in extent for this specific purpose. 

Professor Carey was opposed to connecting this Society with State 
or local Societies, with which politics are almost always more or less 



24 Second Bay's Proceedings^ 

mixed up. In the selection of a place for the next fair the element 
of money is a principal one ; money is the sinews of our success. He 
thought the local Societies should accommodate their times of hold- 
ing fairs to that of this Society. 

Dr. Kennicutt saw the Society was going "West, it mattered little 
to him where. He hoped that no determination of the locality 
would be made till all the applications were handed in. 

Mr. Barrett, of Missouri, proposed St. Louis as combining all 
the qualities of centrality, accessibility, and remunerativeness. At 
a fair held there, after paying $21,000 in premiums, a net profit of 
$16,000 accrued. 

Mr. Byington could trust the Executive Committee, notwithstand- 
ing the smallness of the minority in which the West stands upon it. 
He believed the committee would do justice. No matter where in 
the West the fair might be held it would pay. Ohio had had it, 
either within her own border or close upon it, two or three times; 
she therefore should consider herself out of the ring. 

Mr. Case eulogized the accommodations for a fair at Indianapolis, 
and thought $10,000 profits might be realized by holding it there. 

After a prolouged discussion, on motion of Mr. Conger, the 
various propositions for holding the next Exhibition were referred — 
in accordance with the custom of previous years — to the Executive 
Committee, with full powers. Subsequently, on motion of Mr. 
Byington, of Iowa, the following resolutions were unanimously 
passed : 

Resolved, As the sense of thif? meeting, that tlie region of tbe great Northwest and valley of the Missis- 
sippi is entitled to the holding of the next exhibition of the United Stiites Agricultural Society in its midst, 
and it recommends that the said exhibition be held in that region, provided the inducements offered by it 
are equally advantageous with those offered by any other place or section of the country. 

liesolftd, That a copy of the foregoing resolution be presented by the Secretary to each member of the 
Executive Committee. 

President Tilghman read a communication from the agricultural 
section of the New York City American Geographical and Statis- 
tical Society, soliciting the reference to a select committee of the 
Agricultural Association of a series of questions vitally momentous 
to the welfare of agriculture in the United States, such as the causes 
and remedy for the rapid deterioration of our soils and the diminu- 
tion of the number of persons undertaking agriculture as a means of 
livelihood. These matters were also intended to have a bearing on 
the preparation of schedules for the next census. 

The Secretary said that the New York City American Geographi- 
cal and Statistical Society was entitled to the respectful attention of 
this body, with which its officers had always co-operated in a ready 
and liberal spirit. 



Seventh Annual Meeting. 25 

Gen. KiMMELL hoped the communication would be referred to a 
ffipecial committee, and, without wishing to invade the prerogative 
of the Chair, would suggest the name of his friend, Mr. Clemson, 
for a place on it. He would make the motion that the communica- 
tion be so referred. The motion was unanimously passed, and the 
committee was appointed, viz: Mr. Clemson, of the District of 
Columbia; Col. Alston, of South Carolina; and Mr. Oilman, of 
Maine. 

The Secretary then reported the receipt of a bushel of " Whit- 
man" corn from Mr. Horace Collamore, of Plymouth county, Mass., 
and offered the following resolution, which was passed unanimously : 

Jiesolved. That the thanks of the United States Agricultural Society be presented to Mr. Horace Collamore, 
tor the bushel of "Whitniiin '" or -'Old Colony Improved Premium Corn," and that it be presented in equal 
ijuantities to tlio Experimental Farm of the Kssex county (Massachusetts) Society, to the Iowa State Agri- 
cultural College, to the New York State Agricultural Faim, to the Peiiiisylvauia Farm Uigh School, and to 
the Maryland Agricultural College, (leserving a sample for the Cabinet,) and that reports on it be requeHted 
from the otlicers of these institutions. 

Mr. Curtis, of Wisconsin, corroborated in glowing terras the ex- 
cellence of this variety of corn, as evidenced by last year's growth 
in his vicinity. 

Mr. T. C. Connolly, of the District of Columbia, rose to a ques- 
tion of privilege. He desired to comment upon that portion of the 
annual address of the President, pronounced on the preceding day, 
which related to the Agricultural Division of the Patent Office. 
The remarks of the President embraced a statement of facts and a 
declaration of inferences from those facts. Of these inferences he 
should have nothing to say. He would submit to a true statement 
of facts, and then cheerfully acquiesce in the decisions of a presi- 
ding officer whose life and character so justly entitled him to uni- 
versal respect and confidence, and who so truly adorned the posi- 
tion he occupied. 

In the address alluded to, high and just encomiums were ex- 
pressed in relation to the Secretary of the Interior and the Com- 
missioner of Patents, each of whom was capable of defending himself 
in his official position; and denunciations were uttered in relation 
to the gentleman in charge of the Agricultural Division, who en- 
joyed no such legal recognition as would entitle him to unsheath a 
sword in his own defence. And upon what charges ? One of them 
is that Mr. Browne, as the chairman of a committee of this Society, 
had in 1857 imported seeds for an extended experiment, and had 
distributed them, and obtained reports in relation to the experi- 
ments, but had not given due credit to the Society for the seeds 
imported nor for the correspondence thereon, which the President 
presumed had been presented to the public in the report of the 



26 Second Jjay'n Proceedings, 

Patent Office as a part of its correspondence. Mr. Connolly stated 
that Mr. D. Jay Browne had in 1857 imported for this Society 
three bushels of seeds, and as chairman of its committee had dis- 
tributed them; that he had made a full report thereof, which he 
had copied into the Patent Office report; that he had received 
written reports from recipients of those seeds, from six of which re- 
ports he had made extracts and published with forty-nine condensed 
statements received by the Patent Office itself, refraining from 
giving credit therefor only because the occasion did not seem to de- 
mand or warrant this degree of formality. In the year in which 
the Society had thus contributed three bushels the Patent Office 
had dispensed seeds sufficient to plant thirty-two acres to each of 
the State and Territorial Societies in the Union, and two hundred 
bushels besides, one-half of which had been imported from France 
in that year, the other half being the result of importations in 1854, 
1855, and 1856, by the Patent Office. 

It was stated in the President's address, that in the Patent Office 
report for 1857 Mr. Browne had published a paper purporting to 
give a history of all the agricultural societies in the United States, 
but had totally ignored this Society. Mr. Connolly said that on the 
24th and preceding pages of the agricultural report of the Patent 
Office for 1857 there was given, as far as was then known to that 
office, a brief history of the leading agricultural associations in the 
United States organized prior to the year 1842, chronologically ar- 
ranged. The United States Agricultural Society — formed ten years 
later — would have been therein noticed, with many others, had the 
dates and circumstances of their organization been known, but was 
deferred for a subsequent paper, which is now in course of prepara- 
tion; in evidence of which fact Mr. Connolly exhibited a printed 
circular to societies calling for the requisite information. 

He had thus presented facts full and complete in refutation of all 
the allegations in the address. He regarded it as impossible for the 
President to have familiar cognizance of the class of subjects al- 
luded to, and regretted that deception had been practiced by any 
one in whom that officer had been obliged to confide for informa- 
tion relative to such affiiirs. It was a matter of notoriety that the 
Secretary of this Society had always received every facility he de- 
sired, and every favor he could have asked of the Agricultural Di- 
vision of the Patent Office. Books, papers, and all information had 
been constantly granted him in his almost daily visits. Not only 
this in evidence of a friendly disposition towards this Society, but 



Seventh Annual Meeting. 27 

in convoking the late Advisory Board a point of time had been 
selected with special reference to tlie assembling of this Society, 
that in one visit to the capital gentlemen might be enabled to serve 
in both bodies. 

In the course of his remarks Mr. Connolly was twice interrupted by 

Mr. Conger, of Xew York, who thought the whole subject would 
be more strictly in order before the committee to whom the Presi- 
dent's address had been referred ; but 

Mr. Connolly replied that he would not take advantage of an 
appearance of being silenced before this Society. The respect he 
entertained for the President would alone be suthcient to forbid the 
adoption of such a course. 

Mr. PooiiE, of Massachusetts, did not desire to enter into any 
personal controversy with the gentleman from the Patent Office, 
fMr. Connolly,] but would read for the information of the Society 
the first paragraph of the report made by Mr. D. J. Browne, at the 
last annual meeting of tlie Society: 

•■ AgreeKbly to tlie requii-emcnts of the sucond resolution, (page 01 Journal of the Society for 1S57,) there 
"as imported from France sullicient Sors^ho seed to plant one hundred acres of land. This seed was placed 
in the hands of a requisite iiuinber of individuals in different sections of the country, who cultivated it under 
various conditions of soil, climate, &c. From the results of their experiments in ninety localities, between 
\ew Urunswiclc, in the British dominions, and Mexiro on the one hand, and between Florida and Washing- 
ton Territory on the other, though contr.adictory or contticting; with each in some instances, the committee 
arrived at the following conclusions." 

Although a desire had been expressed during the discussion on 
this report (which was only accepted by the casting vote of the Pres- 
ident) to have the reports from the "ninety localities" where the 
seed paid for bv the Society had been tested, they had never been 
placed in the archives of the Society. The gentleman associated 
with Mr. Browne had stated that six of these reports had been pub- 
lished in the annual report of the Patent Office, without credit, and 
it was to be hoped that the original reports of the results of the 
other eighty-four experiments would be transmitted to the officers 
of the Society. Having paid for " sufficient Sorgho seed to plant 
one hundred acres of land," the Society had certainly a right to 
have the evidences of the '"experiments in ninety localities" made 
with this seed, nor (in his humble opinion) should the results of 
even six of those experiments have been published, without due 
credit having been given. He had merely stated the facts, as shown 
in the report of Mr. Browne. 

Mr. Connolly replied that Mr. Browne had doubtless received 
many communications, but had made use of only six of them; and 
that, if the Secretary were skilled in agriculture, he would know 
that a quart will plant an acre: and if he were arithmetician enough 



28 Second Jjay^ Fruceedirigs, 

for the position he held here he would know how many quarts are 
contained in three bushels and a peck, the precise quantity distrib- 
uted by Mr. Browne for this Society. 

Ex-President Wilder obtained a further postponement of the 
order of the day, to introduce a resolution that Prof. Joseph Henry, 
of the Smithsonian Institution, be invited to deliver a lecture upon 
the subject of " Meteorology as applied to Agriculture," the next 
day at noon. Seconded and carried unanimously. 

The question of "Agricultural Education'' was then discussed 
at length by Messrs. Browne, (of the People's College, New York,) 
Case, Arney, Byington, Clerasen, Calvert, Gary, Curtis, and other 
gentlemen. All were in favor ot the extension of agricultural edu- 
cation more widely, deeply, and perfectly among the whole people 
of the land. 

On motion of Mr. Byington, of Iowa, the following resolutions, 
seconded by Mr. Young, of Massachusetts, were unanimously 
adopted : 

Jiesnlved, That the subject of agricultural education is recognised by this Society as one of paramount im- 
portance to the prosperity of the whole country, and commends itself to the unremitting exertions of this 
a«d all other agricultural societies of the Unicm. 

Besolved. That the most available means for its promotion and general diffusion are the establishment and 
liberal support of public schools and colleges by and within the States of the Union, which are wholly or 
essentially dedicated to practical instruction in the principles and processes of agriculture aud the mechanic 

Resolved. That, in addition to aid of such institutions by Congress which we have heretofore recommended, 
this Society pledges its best energies in the promotion of the great objects of their establishment, and invites 
from their managing boards correspondence and interchange of publications, acts, and opinions. 

Lorenzo Stratton, Esq., of Little Valley, Cattaraugus county, 
New York, was then introduced by President Tilghman, and re- 
quested to give his views on the subject of the domestication of the 
American elk. Mr. Stratton said that he had paid great attention 
to this important topic for several years, and had prepared a paper 
giving the result of his experiments. The elk is fast disappearing, 
and will shortly become extinct if something be not done to pre- 
serve it. He had found that the elk will thrive on almost all barren 
hillsides, and by kind treatment can be tamed. The flesh of this 
animal is superior to venison, and something like good beef. It is 
in this that the animal's value consists, and not in its capability for 
work, like horses or oxen. Elk can be raised more cheaply than 
cattle. Mr. Stratton's paper on this subject was then accepted by 
the Society, and referred to the Executive Committee. 

The Society then adjourned. 

In the evening Professor Clemsen favored the Society with an 
interesting lecture on "Nitrogen," illustrated by successful experi- 
ments. The various committees appointed were in session. 



/Seventh Amnfal Meeting. 2© 

THIRD DAYS SESSION. 

President Tilghman, after calling the meeting to order, said that 
before commencing the current business of the da}^ he desired to 
make a remark or two in justice to the Society and himself, in ref- 
erence to what was said the day before by a gentleman (Mr. T. C. 
Connolly) connected with the Patent OtRce, on the subject of a par- 
agraph in his [the President's] annual address. He [Mr. Tilghman] 
Avas glad to hear the gentleman state that the omission by Mr. D. 
J. Browne to include in the Patent Office report a history of the 
United States Agricultural Society with that of other societies was 
not an intentional omission, and that Mr. Browne had no desire to 
do any injustice to the Society. It was also gratifying to learn that 
Mr. Browne had refrained from giving credit to this Society for the 
use of the results of its experiments with the Sorgho seed, "only 
because the occasion did not seem to demand or warrant this de- 
gree of formality." 

The reason given by Mr. Connolly for the omission of any notice 
of the United States Agricultural Society in the historical sketch of 
the leading agricultural associations in the United States, was the 
sketch only mentioned societies " organized prior to 1842, chrono- 
logically arranged:'" but this was a mistake. The article on the 
" encourasiement of ao;riculture in the United States," sificned ''d. 
J. B.," makes a distinct mention of "State Agricultural Societies" 
whicli have been incorporated since the United States Agricultural 
Society was organized. It also describes in detail agricultural col- 
leges which have also been organized since 1852, when the United 
States Society was established, and since when it has been in oper- 
ation. The " date and circumstances of its organization" could 
easily have been ascertained, but no information on the subject has 
up to this time been solicited by "circular," or in any other way. 

It was due to the Society and to himself (said President Tilgh- 
man in conclusion) to be placed right upon the record. In justice, 
too, to the Secretary, Mr, Poore, he would further say that the in- 
formation on which he relied in the preparation of the annual ad- 
dress w^as derived from no other person, but was original with him- 
self. It was not his (the President's) habit to depend upon others 
in obtaining information on which to act. He was himself respon- 
sible for his own statements. 

Mr. Connolly briefly replied, saying that the remarks of the Chair 
did itself justice, and that he would not trespass on the courtesy of 
the Society by making a lengthy reply. 



•30 Third Days Proceedings, 

Major French, of the District of Columbia, presented some papers 
and a seal placed in his hands by John F. Callan, Esq., to be handed 
over to the Society. These papers were the records of the Agricul- 
tural Society of the United States, organized in this city in the year 
1841, and showing among the originators and officers thereof the 
names of the present President of the United States, Hon. R. M. T. 
Hunter, Mr. John Jones, of Delaware. B. V. French, of Massachu- 
setts, and B. B. French, the last three members of this Society. 

The following resolution was then otiered and passed unani- 
mousl}^ : 

Resolved. Tluit the tliiiiik-) of tlm United Status Agricultural Society ure hereby given to John F. Cnllan, 
Ks(| , of WiisliinfTton. the .Secretary of tlie Agricultural Society of the United States, formerl in this city in 
1841. for preservins many of the original papers of saiil Society and its seal, and presenting them to this 
^ooiety, by which tkey have been accepted and ordered to be carefully preserved in its archives. 

Mr. GiLMAN, of Maine, from the committee to which was referred 
the communication from the iSTew York American Geographical 
and Statistical Society, reported it back for reference to the next 
Statistical Bureau for taking the census of the United States, with 
the endorsement of this Society. The report was accepted, and it 
was so ordered. 

Mr. B. V. French, of Massachusetts, from the committee to whom 
was referred the President's Annual Address, reported as follows: 

The committee to whom was referred the Annual Address of Tench Tiloiimajj, Esq., President of the 
United States Afrriciiltural Society, take pleasure in expressing their opinion that its author exhibits a high 
order of talent and a thorough knowledge of agricultural wants, and that its recommendations and suggeN- 
tioiis, evincing careful consideration of the subjects menntioned. are entitled to the early action of the So- 
ciety. Your committee, therefore, respectfully iirge the adoption of the address, with a rei|uest that the 
President will furnish a copy for publication, with the proceedings, in the Journal of Agriculture. 

Mr. Wager, from the committee on the Secretary's report, recom- 
mended its adoption, and also that it be printed in the Journal of 
Agriculture. 

Mr. Conger, from the committee to whom had been referred 
essays [)reseuted for premiums, reported and recommended that 
none came up to the high standard of excellence which a national 
Society should sustain. There were, however, valuable sugges- 
tions in several of them, well worthy of publication, and he moved 
their reference to the Executive Committee. The report was 
adopted, and the reference was ordered. 

Mr. Kelly submitted the report of the Committee on Nomina- 
tions, and asked its adoption by the Society. 

Mr. Conger moved for the acceptance and adoption of the report, 
which was then adopted accordingly. The association proceeded 
to act upon the recommendations, and Hon. Messrs. Underwood and 
Kelly were appointed to receive the ballots. The President vacated 
the chair, which was taken by Vice President Byingtou, of Iowa. 

Ex-President Wilder, as chairman of a committee appointed to 



Seventh Anniud Meetiiig. 31 

sort, count, and declare tlie ballots, declared the following ticket 
elected unanimously: 

KLECTION OF OFFICERS. 

President. — Gen. Tench Tilghman, Oxford, Maryland. 

Vice Presidents. — Ezekiel Holmes, Ale.; II. F. French, N. IL; F. 
Holbrook, Vt.; J. Brooks, Mass.; E. Dyer, K. L; II. A. Dyer, 
Conn.; B. P. Johnson, aST. Y.; J. H. Frazee, K J.; A. Clements, 
Penn.; John Jones, Del.; A. Kimmell, Md.; W. A. Spence. Va.; 
H. R. Burgwvn, N. C: F. W. Allston. S. C; R. Peters, Ga.; N. 
B. Cloud, Ala*.; 2s". X. Harrison, Miss.; J. D. B. De Bow, La.; F. 
G. Gary, Ohio; W. L. Underwood, Ky.; D. P. Holloway, Ind.; D. 
S. Curtis, Wis.; J. A. Kennicott, 111.: J. R. Barrett, Mo.; H. Led- 
yard, Mich.; S. A. Mallory, Fla.; Thos. Affleck, Texas; Le Grand 
Byington, Iowa.; A. W. McKee, Cal.; II. M. Rice, Minn.; W. W. 
Corcoran, D. C; II. M. Otero, New Mexico; J. II. Lane, C^gon ; 
I. S. Stevens, Washington Territory; Delano R. Eckels, Utal ;" W. 
T. Brown, Nebraska: W. F. McArny, Kansas; Sylvester Mowrey, 
Arizona; A. G. Fuller, Dacotah. 

Executive Committee. — II. Wager, N. Y.; J. McGowan, Pa.; J. W. 
Ware, Va.; F. Smyth, N. H.; J. Merrymau, Md.; II. Capron. 111.; 
J. M. Cannon, Iowa. 

Treasurer. — B. B. French, D. C. 

Secretary. — Ben : Perley Poore, Massachusetts. 

The President-elect, Gen. Tilghman, on taking the chair, made 
the following remarks : 

THE president's ADDRESS. 

Gentlemen: In expressing my acknowledgments for the honor 
you have just conferred on me hy a unanimous and unsolicited re- 
election to the Presidency of your Society, I desire to give some 
practical evidence of my disposition to promote the prosperity of 
our association. The infancy of an institution, like than of an in- 
dividual, requires a uniformity of management and a fostering care 
which forbid the withdrawal of the guiding hand to whom its des- 
tinies were first committed, until it has attained a proper degree of 
maturity. Then, however, it becomes no less important that a dif- 
ferent course should be pursued, and periodical changes in those 
who are charged with its direction are found productive of increased 
vitality and etficiency. To my distinguished predecessor belonged 
the honorable task of performing the first of these duties. 

It is my privilege to inaugurate the second era by setting an ex- 
ample which I hope may be regarded as not unworthy of imitation. 
My views in regard to the policy of rotation in the executive office 
have long been known to many of the members. Immediately after 
the first election with which I was honored, I informed the Executive 
Committee of my desire to make these sentiments known to the 
Society, and was only prevented from doing so by a proper defer- 
ence to their wishes. On the present occasion I desired the nomina- 
ting committee to take the subject under consideration, and not to 
permit individual interests to interfere with the good of the Society. 



S2 Third Day's Proceedings, 

And now, gentlemen, that you have seen fit to express your ap- 
probation of my administration by a continuance of your confidence, 
you have placed it in my power to recommend a change at the close 
of the present year, without the slightest embarrassment either to 
you or to mj'self. 

I cannot omit an opportunity so favorable to the performance of a 
duty which I regard as so important, and I therefore respectfully in- 
form you of my intention to decline a re-election at the next annual 
meeting, that 3'ou may have ample time to make provision for the 
selection of my successor. 

It only remains for me, gentlemen, again to express my sincere 
appreciation of this renewed evidence of j^our confidence, and to 
assure you that it will prove an additional incentive to my efforts 
in behalf of the Society, 

Mr^^YiNGTON said that a subject to which the President had al- 
luded, had been considered the previous evening by the Executive 
Committee, and then moved, as an amendment to the constitution, 
''that after the term of the present President shall expire no Presi- 
dent shall be eligible to re-election." 

Mr. Calvert opposed the change as unnecessary and unadvisable. 
He did not favor innovations made for innovation's sake. 

Professor Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, then addressed the Societj- on the subject of " Meteorology as 
connected with Agriculture," illustrating his interesting and learned 
remarks by references to charts and diagrams. After having stated 
his views on the necessary conditions of improvement and advance- 
ment in science, he took up the meteorology of the Western Con- 
tinent, showing the effect of the winds, ocean streams, mountains, 
and plains on temperature and the distribution of rains. It is a 
science of o;i"eat value to the ao'ricultural interest, as furnishino^ data 
for the determination of what latitudes and situations will or will 
not suit certain plants and growths. Its improvement necessarily 
demands many observers, and in fact the Smithsonian, in connec- 
tion with the Patent Office, (each bearing half the expense,) have a 
corps of three hundred observers spread over the continent in con- 
stant communication. Their returns are sent to Prof. Coffin, of 
Lafayette College, who works them up for publication. A gentle- 
man well skilled in climatolog}- was in the far West in the pay of 
the Institution gathering information on the subject of extending 
the growth of timber in our territory. At the close of this address, 
which was loudlj^ applauded — 

Mr, Conger moved the following resolution, which was unani- 
mously passed : 



Seventh Annual Meeting. 88 

Eesolve-d, That the tlianks of the United States ARriciiUural Society are presented to Prof. Henrt. Secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution, for his inteiestinK and valuable account of the meteorological operations 
of the Inatitution, and that ho be requested to furnish a report of it for publication in tko Bulletin of the 
Society: a sutticient number of copies being placed at his disposal for distribution among his scientific cor- 
respondents and corps of observers. 

Dr. Spence, of Virginia, in seconding this resolution, paid his 
tribute of testimony to the high value of these meteorological ob- 
servations, and the resolution was passed. 

Mr. Byington moved the resolution following, which was carried 
unanimously : 

Hesnlvfd. That the thanks of the United States Agricultural Society are presented to the Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution for their attention to the subject of meteorology, which is of such great importance 
to the agricultural intere.-t of this country. 

Resolved, further, That the thanks of the United States Agricultural Society are also presented to the Re- 
gents of the Smithsonian Institution for their hospitable provision of accommodations for this meeting, and 
for the courteous attention shown by their officers. 

Mr. Byington then called up his resolution on the subject of lim- 
iting the President's term of office, laid aside by the order of the 
day, and spoke in its support. 

Mr. Conger opposed at considerable length the movement, as not 
called for by any exigency. 

Mr. Olcott asked Mr. Wager and Mr. Kelly to give their opin- 
ions on this subject as derived from their experience iu the New 
York Agricultural Society. 

Hon. Mr. Gilman, of Maine, opposed the resolution, as tending 
to deprive the Society of the benefits derivable from the experience 
of officers in the performance of their duties. 

Mr. Kelly thought changes in office produced an increase of in- 
terest in the affiiirs of the Society, but on other accounts he opposed 
the amendment presented. 

Mr. Wager confirmed the views of Mr. Kelly. 

The Chair thought there were not members enough present to 
authorize a change iu the constitution according to the provisions 
of that instrument. 

Mr. Case moved to lay the whole subject on the table ; which mo- 
tion was carried. 

Mr. Calvert offiared the following series of resolutions, which he 
supported by some pertinent remarks, showing the great difference 
between the amounts of encouragement exhibited by the British 
Government towards the farming interest, and the American Gov- 
ernment, to the disadvantage of the latter. It was just this differ- 
ence, said Mr. Calvert, that causes the difference between the con- 
ditions of the soil of the two countries ; England's soil, which has 
been 2,000 years in tillage, is better now than it ever was before, 
whereas the soils of the United States are daily becoming more and 
more impoverished. 



34 Third Day's Proceedings^ 

VF/ic7-eas largo appropriations aro ainmally mailc by CoujjrcsH I'ortlio onibcllisliniRnt of tlio piil)lic groniids 
of tliis city by jilaiitatioris of trees and slirubs; and wliereas tliose iniprovemonts, if conducted aocordinp: to 
a systematic an aii};i'im'nt, would conduce greatly to tlie public taste, without iniposingany additional burden 
on the Government : therefore 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the proper department that a systematic plan may be adopted by 
which all the valuable forest trees of thn dilTerenl sections of the Union may be collected and planted iu 
the public grounds of the National Capital. 

Kesolred, That there should be at the National Capital a garden of plants enibracine; at least every valu- 
able plant of our own country. 

Dr. Spence said the Government had already set on foot an enter- 
prise of the same nature as that contemplated in these resolutions. 

Mr. Kennicutt thought tliat in the matter of preserving the tim- 
ber trees of the West and country generally the chemists and 
geologists were at fault; something was wanting in point of knowl- 
edge of the proper means to preserve our native trees, and he there- 
fore requested Mr. Calvert to allow him to add a resolution to that 
effect to the foregoing. 

Mr. Calvert willingly complied. Mr. Kennicutt's additional 
resolution was as follows: 

Ee.solve.d, That this Society advise the appointment, by the Secretary of the Interior, of a suitable person 
to make observations on our native forest growths, and suggest means lor their increase and preservation. 

Mr. Ballance wished to include in this last amendment a pro- 
vision looking also to the preservation of the native animals of 
America. 

Mr. Olcott suggested that this last subject could be referred to 
the committee on the elk. 

Prof. Henry said that the subject as regarded the trees was by no 
means a new one, and that it had been made a topic in some of the 
Smithsonian reports. He then gave the history of the manner in 
which the Smithsonian grounds had been placed in the hands of 
the lamented Downing for arrangement and planting; whatever had 
been done was done on his plan and under his direction. Professor 
Heur}'^ hoped that when the water comes to be brought into the 
city, and the United States Treasury is something fuller, the grounds 
might be improved and made what they ought to be. 

Mr. Arney thought the Government could have all the trees of 
all parts of the country sent here almost without expense if it would 
set about attempting it. It ought to be that the citizen of every 
part of the whole country could see here in Washington some trees 
of his own section ; it would pleasantly remind him of home. 

Mr. Penfield had understood that a systematic plan for collect- 
ing the valuable forest trees of this and other countries had been 
adopted at the Botanic Garden in this city, sustained by Congress. 
He had noticed there, about a year since, an admirable method of 
labelling the trees and shrubs planted, and while he should vote for 
;the reBolutions offered by the gentlemen froni Maryland and from 



Seventh Annual Meeting. 35 

Illinois, ho hoped that tlio Secretar}? of the Society would ascertain 
if such a " pUintatiou " as was recommended ah^eady existed at the 
government Botanic Garden. If it does, he woukl like to have an 
account of what is being done there prepared and published for the 
information of tlic Society. 

The Secretaey believed that the gentleman from Connecticut 
was correct, and would, if not objectionable to Mr. Smith, (who is 
in charge of the Botanic Garden,) give an account of it in the Jour- 
nal of Ayriculture. It was very desirable that the people should 
knovv what is being done by government for the promotion of agri- 
culture and its kindred pursuits, and he had, in the 3Ionthly Bul- 
letin., taken ])ains to publish statements of what was done in the 
ao;ricultural division of the Patent Office and elsewhere. To obtain 
this information, it had been necessary for him to call upon the 
clerks employed, who had extended towards him no favors, to hi« 
knowledge, that they did not give the reporters of newspapers gen- 
erally. 

Mr. Calvert's resolutions, with Mr. Kennicutt's addition, were 
then adopted. 

President Tilghman offered a communication from Mr. James S. 
Uitchie, of Superior City, Douglas county, Wisconsin, describing a 
collection of wheat and other grains, vegetables and products of the 
shores of Lake Superior, which he had exhibited at the Richmond 
Fair of the Society, and for which a diploma had been awarded to 
him. The communication was received and referred to the Execu- 
tive Committee. 

Mr. A, G. Fuller, delegate from the proposed Territory of Da- 
cotah, presented a paper on the agricultural resources of that region 
which was, on motion of Mr. Underwood, of Kentucky, ordered to 
be published. 

Mr. B. V. French gave a history of the organization of an "Agri- 
cultural Society of the United States" in 1841, and expressed a desire 
to have all the facts connected with it collected by the Secretary of 
this Society, and published in the Journal of Agriculture. 

Ex-President Wilder was unwilling to admit the identity of this 
Society with that sought to be established in 1841 ; he did not even 
admit that Society to he the father of this, which in fact, he said, 
had a different origin. He nevertheless hoped that the facts con- 
nected with that, and with all other unsuccessful attemps to form 
National Societies, might be collected, and placed in a permanent 
shape. Due credit should be given to all who strive to promote the 



88 Seventh Annual Meeting. 

prosperity of agriculture, and to elevate it to its proper national 
position. 

Mr. Lewis, of the District of Columbia, entered upon a series of 
remarks on the means to produce rain, and cited a number of in- 
stances to show that the firing of ordnace had been speedily followed 
by showers of rain. He introduced the following resolution, which 
was adopted: 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to inquire whetlier any practical remedy can be proposed for our 
Bummer droughts, and report to the next meeting. 

President Tilghman informed Mr. Lewis that a premium had 
been oiFered by the Society for the best paper on the subject of 
remedying the effects of droughts ; it would be well for him to give 
the matter his attention. 

Mr. B. Jenks, of Alexandria county, Virginia, offered the Society 
a sample of cider made from the juice of the sorgho, of which he 
manufactured three hundred and fifty gallons, and from the produce 
of a quarter of an acre of the plant. This cider is brisk, of good 
taste, and considerable strength. The thanks of the Society were 
voted to Mr. Jenks, and he was requested to furnish his receipt for 
publication in the Journal of Agriculture. 

President Tilghman announced that he had just received a note 
from the Secretary of the Interior, stating that although public busi- 
ness had thus far prevented the President of the United States and 
himself from attending the meetings of the association, they hoped 
to be able to be present on Saturday. Much regret was expressed 
by members that the adjournment to day would preclude the oppor- 
tunity of thus seeing the Chief Magistrate. 

Mr. Ray, of California, submitted the following resolution, which 
was adopted: 

Resolved, That the Secretary of the United States Agricultural Society be instructed to acknowledge, in the 
Journal of Agriculture, all Seed-i. Books, Pamphlets, Kngravings. Specimens for the Cabinet, or other dona- 
tions from Societies or Individuals, and that such contributions be solicited. 

The President then vacated the chair, which was taken by Vice 
President Underwood, of Kentucky. 

Mr. Byington moved a vote of thanks to the President for his 
able and impartial administration of the meeting of the Society. 
Passed unanimously. 

Mr. "Ware, of Maryland, then moved that the Society adjourn, 
which was seconded and carried, and the Vice President announced 
the Society adjournd sine die. 



Communicatio7i from American Statistical Society. 37 

AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. 



{Published by order of and Endorsed by the U. S. Agricultural Society.) 

American Geographical and Statistical Society, 

Clinton Hall, New York, Jun. 11, 1859. 

Agricultural Section. 
To the Hon. Tench Tilghman, 

President of the U. S. Agricultural Society : 
Sir: On behalf of the American Geographical and Statistical So- 
ciet3% I beg leave to bring to the attention of the LTnited States Agri- 
cultural Society, at their ensuing annual meeting, the following 
resolutions, which were unanimously passed by the former body, in 
reference to the agricultural schedules of the approaching federal 
census: 

Resolved, That in the opinion of the Society, the increasing magnitudo of the agricultural interest in the 
United Slates renders it a matter of national importance, tliat tlie agricultural schedules for the census of 
1S60 should be made as complete as jiossible, with the view of maiking accurately its progress, its capabili- 
ties, and the profits of agricultural labor; and with the further view of discovering where, and to what ex- 
tent, tlie arable soil of the country is deteriorating in fertility under existing modes of cultivation. 

Hesolved, That the agricultural section of this be instructed to invite suggestions from gentlemeu through- 
out the Union, in regard to the topics which should be embraced in the new schedule. 

The national character of your Society representing the agricul- 
tural interest in all sections of our country, its annual convention at 
this time at the seat of Government, its just influence with the ad- 
ministration, and the opportunities enjoyed by its members for 
conferring directly with Congress and the Departments, combine to 
enable the United States Agricultural Society wisely to consider and 
effectively to recommend, whatever changes may seem to them 
expedient in agricultural schedules. 

I trust, therefore, that the resolutions of the American Geographi- 
cal and Statistical Society, which I have now the honor to transmit, 
may be referred to a Special Committee, for their careful and im- 
mediate action. 

I beg leave further, on behalf of the Agricultural Section of this 
body, to offer for the consideration of such a committee the follow- 
ing brief suggestions: 

That inasmuch as there is reason to believe from a comparison of 
the returns of previous census, that the proportion of our male popu- 
lation engaged in agricultural pursuits is diminishing, and that such 
diminution is owing in part to the superior attractiveness of city 
life, and. in part, to the common impression that agricultural profits 
are usually less than those which may be reasonably expected from 
trade, manufactures, and the professions, this diversion of an undue 
proportion of American industry from the culture of the soil, may 
be, perhaps, corrected by facts going to prove, /rs^, that the average 
of human life is far greater in the countr}^ than in cities ; and sec- 
ondly, that the profits of enlightened agricultural toil, if not indeed 
equal in amount, are far more certain than those of mercantile spec- 
ulation. 

These facts and others of direct interest to the American farmer, 
it is believed, may be easily collected from the returns of the census 



38 Agricultural Statistics. 

of 1860, if to the questions uskecl iu the schedules of 1850 are added 
inquiries on these points, to wit : 

1. As regards persons employed in farming ; the proportion of 
the population thus emplo3'ed of both sexes; their average life, as 
compared with that of persons living in towns, and of other trades. 

2. As regards capital employed in agriculture ; not only the 
proportion invested in land, stock, and implements, but the profit 
thereon received during the year immediately preceding the census. 

3. As regards the farms, not only the improved and unimproved 
lands, and the proportion in meadow, pasture or tillage, and the num- 
ber of acres of each farm that have been drained ; the number re- 
quiring draining: the number drained during the last year; the 
cost of draining, and the value of the land before and after. 

4. In regard to the improvement or deterioration of the soil; the 
average of each crop and cost of each per acre ; the average of bushels 
or tons to the acre, and the cash value of each on the spot. 

5. In regard to manures; the amount, variet}^, and cost of those 
applied during the last year, and the rate of cost per acre. 

Other suggestions will doubtless occur to the Special Committee 
to whom, on behalf of the American Geographical and Statistical 
Society, I respectfully ask that this subject be referred. 

I have the honor to be, sir. with great regard, vour ob't serv't, 

JOHN JAY, 

Chairman of the Agricultural Section of the Am. Greog. ^ Stat. Soc. 

P. S. — I send by mail an address bearing on the subject. 



Note by the Editor. — Agriculturalists have long been aware that husbandry, the first of 
all interests, is the least known and the most neglected- During the reign of Louis XVI, 
of France, the proprietors of landed estates induced him to, confide to Vauban the 
task of making " Vinventaire de larkhesse agricole,^' a task which was bnt imperfectly per- 
formed, although it was the initial step of the present excellent and thorough method of 
ascertaining the agricultural statistics of France. Sir John Sinclair's circular letter to 
the minister of each parish in Scotland, not only enabled him to give an accurate statis- 
tical account of that country, but gave an a,cknowledged impetus to agricultural im- 
provement there, and was the basis of the plan for obtaining statistical information on 
agriculture since so successfully carried out. Nor have there, in late years, been more 
interesting debates in the British Parliament than those upon the organization of a 
thorough scheme of agricultural statistics. The Lords, the Commons, the Board of Trade, 
and the Royal Agricultural Society agree as to the great value of the information to be 
obtained, although they differ as to the means of obtaining it. 

The first agricultural statistics obtained on this continent, were those sent to France 
every year by the Intendants of Canada, who (from 1689 until the conquest of the colony) 
obtained the number of acres cultivated, the amount of crops raised, the number Of 
horses, cows, sheep, and swine, and the success which attended the cultivation of new 
crops introduced by order of the home government. These interesting agricultural sta- 
tistics, with the exception of a few missing years, are now in the archives of France. 

In ItOO, the Massachusetts Society for promoting agriculture, issued a list of forty-nine 
queries, of which twelve hundred copies were printed and distributed in that common- 
wealth. The next year a second printed list of questions, amounting to fifty, was printed 
and circulated. 



Agricultural Statistics. 89 

Other societies have followed this example, and in June, 1820, Dr. Richard Field, 
President ol'the Agricultural Society of Petersburg, Virginia, addressed a circular to the 
Marshals' Assistants for taking the census of that State, accompanied by a set of blanks. 
He said in his circular: 

" From such returns as you will be able to make, without incurring any great addi- 
tional trouble or expense, statistical tables m.ay be completed, which may be consulted 
by every class, on many important occasions with advantage ; and will present, at a single 
glance, a mass of f icts to the attention of tlie agriculturalists, from a knowledge of which 
the most interesting results may be expected. 

" The happy effects produced by such reports on the state of agriculture, have been ac- 
knowledged in every country in which they have been made. The interrogatories ad- 
dressed to them will stimulate to serious reflection thousands of farmers who have 
adopted without inciuiry the destructive system forced upon their ancestors by neces- 
sity, and the peculiar circumstances of a newly settled country ; the bad husbandry which 
has produced the alarming sterilitj' of soil in some districts, maj- be exposed, and the 
several improvements in the art of cultivation may be discovered from these rejjorts, and 
finally recommended to other counties, in which that art is in a more languishing con- 
dition. 

"The zeal with which this plan has been received and encouraged in several of the ad- 
joining counties which are not expected to exhibit any thing splendid in an agricultural 
survey, warrants the hope that it will meet with general approbation. 

"This request is not dictated by hostility to the manufacturer, nor can any part of it 
be construed into a murmur against the government of the United States; we are well 
aware that every aid in their power would have been extended to agriculture, by a body 
taken from, and representing a population of which nine-tenths are agriculturists. The 
request is made with reluctance, as the compensation is barely equal to the duties im- 
posed by the act under which you are appointed. But when it is recollected, that agri- 
culture relies almost solely on individual exertion ; that this opportunity of collecting 
facts rarely occurs, and that the task of attending to the manufactures of this section of 
the Union will be very inconsiderable, it is confidently expected that this appeal to your 
patriotism will not be made in vain, and that this opportunity of enlisting yourself among 
the benefactors of your native State, will not be suffered to pass off unimproved. 

••The list has been abridged as much as possible; where, however, no wish to avoid 
labor is felt, it may be extended to the number of sheep, cattle, horses, and mules; of 
the quantit}' of wine, maple sugar, tobacco, corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, peas, potatoes, 
and turnips, flax and hay made on each farm ; to the profits of orchards, fisheries, and of 
hunting; to the number of yards of ditches, of stone fences, and hedges; and to the number 
of wheat ihreshing machines, chaff cutters, wagons and carts. Where wheat from a 
fault in the soil or climate, or from the distance from market, ceases to be a staple crop, 
the product per acre of some other small grain should l)e noticed, to enable the inquirer 
to form some idea of the quality of tiie soil and rate of improvement. The list requires 
very little explanation — a number added to the name of the tenant will show the term of 
years for which he has taken the lease, and when the overseer resides on the same farm 
with the proprietor or tenant, the name of the overseer may be omitted, inserting in every 
instance the letter S or W, to show that he is employed on shares or on wages. A number 
in the column assigned to the rotation of crops, will show that each field is cultivated 
once in that number of years in corn. 

"Remarks by yourself or by others more conversant with the farming, planting, or 
grazing systems, on the character of the soil, on the state of agriculture in your county, 
on the progress made in improving it, and on the obstacles which may have retarded that 
progress, will add much to the value of the report and will be thankfully received." 

The propriety of having accurate agricultural information collected every ten years, 
as an important part of the National Census, has since been advocated by many Agricul- 
tural Societies and publications. In some instances, schedules have been prepared, but 
thej' have generally been mere copies of those used in the old world, with ill arranged 
additions. It was, therefore, eminently proper for the agricultural section of the Ameri- 
can Statistical Society, to invite suggestions from gentlemen throughout the Union, — in 
March, 1858, — in regard to the topics which should be embraced in the new schedule. 
The United States Agricultural Society has endorsed their project, and it is to be hoped 
that the next census may be so comprehensive, that (to use the words of Mr. Jay,) "its 



40 Domestication of the Elk. 

returns shall teach us not simply lessons in political economy, but lessons of daily duty, 
the benefits of which shall be reaped alike by the present and future generations." 

In France (by the decree of 1852) a series of questions are sent every October to 
commissions in each of the 2,846 •' communes," vs-ho in turn transmit them to sub-com- 
missions. These questions are sent back to the commissions answered in the latter 
part of October, that is, Avhen all the crops are got in. The commissions carefully 
verify the truth of the answers given, and send in a general return for the whole canton 
to the sub-prefect of the arrondissement, who also causes it to be examined. The sub- 
prefect, in his turn, sends in tables for his arrondissement to the prefect of the depart- 
ment, and the prefect has them examined by a central commission and by the chamber 
of agriculture, after which thej' are forwarded to the Ministry of Agriculture, where their 
principal points are summed up and classified; but, previous to this, the Ministry, in the 
first fortnight of October, receives from the presidents of commissions general details 
which enable it to estimate the state of the harvest. A late report on the subject states 
that the commissions are now beginning to work well, and that the prejudices of the 
farmers against giving returns, are beginning to wear away; and it recommends to the 
Emperor a long list of members of the commissions in all of the departments of the em- 
pire as deserving of medals or "honorable mention" for their services. The official 
journal declares that the Emperor approves the report, and the grant of recompenses re- 
commended. 



THE DOMESTICATION OF THE ELK 



BY LORENZO STRATTON, 

{Of Little Valley, Cattaraugus county, Neiv York.) 



I desire to call the attention of the United States Agricultural 
Society to the importance of more systematic eflbrts in domestica- 
ting some of the native wild animals of our prairies and forests. 
While, of late years, great spirit and energy have been manifested, 
and large suras of money expended in hunting up and importing 
foreign animals, which can never become acclimated to ourcountrj-, 
and whose utility, if they could be, is very questionable, compara- 
tively little has been done in exploring our own ample tields for 
such operations at home; and many of our native wild animals, 
which, if domesticated and cultivated with half the care and atten- 
tion bestowed on foreigners, would yield a profitable return. Among 
these I would name the American elk or "Wapiti deer." This 
noble animal, notwithstanding all its claims to our attention, is fast 
disappearing from the earth, and there has been scarcely an intelli- 
gent effort made to save it from destruction by domesticating it. 
By domestication I do not mean simply taming, but a course of in- 
telligent and systematic breeding, with a view of multiplying, im- 
proving, and rendering it useful to us. A series of experiments 
conducted by me with the American elk, for this purpose, during 
the last six years, furnished me with sufticient evidence to enable 
me to say, with great confidence, that this business may be, at com- 
paratively little labor and expense, one of vast importance to our 



Domestication of the Elk. 41 

country. To substantiate these facts to your entire satisfaction, 
wonld probably take longer time than would be proper to spend at 
present. I therefore propose to give you only some results of my 
experiments in this business, and to state the causes which induced 
me to undertake them. 

Some years since, in the course of trade, I came into possession 
of a pair of fawiis of this species of deer. To me these beautiful 
animals had an additional interest, from the fact that they were in- 
deed the remnants of a race that had formerly roamed in countless 
numbers over these hills, where they found, of spontaneous growth, 
every thing necessary for their subsistence. My intense desire to 
keep and breed these animals, without their becoming a tax upon 
me beyond any profit, led me to make very diligent inquiries in 
relation to what had, at that time, been done in the way of their do- 
mestication. I promised to read every paper, book, and document 
that could throw" any light upon the subject. I wrote letters to 
every part of the country where I thought any information could 
be obtained, and opened a correspondence with every one whom I 
found to have done any thing in this business. The result of my 
inquiries, in general, amounted to this, viz: nearl}- every one who 
had owned elk were gentlemen amateurs, who had left the care and 
direction of the whole matter to their man Pat or Cuff, and the 
consequence was, that the bucks, not having been castrated at the 
proper time, became vicious and unmanageable, and after the nov- 
elty of the affair had worn off, the domestication of the elk was, in 
most cases, abandoned. 

But, what with my inquiries of others and my own close personal 
observations of the habits of the animal, I became convinced that 
the pursuit of a different course w^ould lead to successful results. It 
was evident that the first thing required was a suitable place to keep 
them in. I considered that they had always lived in the woods 
summer and winter. Why should they not be continued in that 
mode of life ? I immediately set to work and enclosed with a com- 
mon fence a tract of hilly land, which was covered with brushwood, 
and so steep and rocky as to render it entirely useless for agricul- 
tural purposes. In this lot I turned my elk, and here they have 
lived and multiplied for the last six years. In the mean time I have 
purchased two more does, and have raised eight fawns. I castrate 
the oldest bucks as fast as the younger ones get old enough for serv- 
ice ; this renders them quiet and docile. My elk are now so gentle 
and docile, that, were you to visit the park with me, you would 
hardly realize that their ancestors, only three generations back, 
were brought wild from the forests. This domestication has been 
done merely by visiting the park some two or three times per week, 
always carrying to them salt, an ear of corn, or some little delicacy 
of the kind that I could carry in my pocket, and always treating 
them kindly. Now, the curiosity as well as the interesting practi- 
cal fact in this, is, that my elk occupy only about 150 acres of land, 
that is useless for any other purpose. I have been often surprised 
to see my whole herd in better condition than any twelve animals 
6 



42 



Dome8tieatio7i of th& Elk. 



that could be selected froiii all the common cattle on the farm ; 
these cattle, too, having the advantages of good pastures and all the 
attentions necessary to raise first class Devons, while the elk- have 
lived on that which, for any thing else, is worthless. 

The tacility of extending this business may be easily seen. The 
State of New York alone might support a hundred thousand elks 
on lands where common cattle could not subsist, thereb}- furnishing 
an amount of venison almost incredible; Pennsylvania could do the 
same, and indeed every State in the Union could rear more or less 
of them at a cost of material now worthless. 

What I sa}' of the elk I think might apply equally well to the 
moose, in parts of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. I do not 
speak of this last idea from any personal experience, but from in- 
formation derived from others. 

I should be vqvj glad to hear from any one who can speak in 
regard to the domestication of the buffalo. In connection and cor- 
roboration of my remarks, I might refer j^ou to the successful do- 
mestication of the wild turkey, made years ago, of which the whole 
country has derived a benefit of incalculable importance. This 
single fact should stimulate us to further exertions in this wav. 




Note by the Editor. — The remarks of Mr. Striittoii aro corroborated by Audubou, Bach- 
man, Baird, and other writers, who agree as to the capability of the American Elk for 
economical domestication. "This species," (says Professor Baird.) "is next to the 
caribon and moose, the one to Avhich we are most entitled to look for an increase of our 
stock of domestic animals. The great size of the horns of the male, and his fierceness 
during the rutting season, are certainly obstacles in the way of reducing the Elk to the 
rank of a servant to man; nevertheless, they are not insurmountable after all. No quad- 
ruped is more to be dreaded than a wild or irritated buck ; yet, by the simple operation 
of castrating, his temper is subdued, his size greatly increased, and his whole nature en- 
tirely changed. The flesh, too, from being unpalatable, and, indeed, almost uneatable, is 
converted into the crowning dish of the epicure. There is no reason to doubt that the 
same results will follow in the case of the Elk, and the inconvenience of the large horns 



Prince Albert's Model Farm. 4S 

can also be overcome by the same openition, for if it is performed when the iiorna aro 
shed, these will never be reproduced. If the social instinct be a (Condition to the com- 
plete domestication of an animal, no deer possesses it in a higher degree than the Elk, 
which is sometimes found in herds oi thousands." 

The domestication of the Caribou, the Moose, the Elk, the Deer, the Mountain Goat, 
the Buffalo, and other ruminating animals of North America, was ably advocated in 1852, 
in a paper communicated by Professor Baird to lion. Tliomas Ewbank, Commissioner of 
Patents, for publication in his Annual Report. "It is a little singular," (says the Profes- 
sor,) '-that in the man}' years during which the ruminating animals of North America 
have been known, so little etfort has been made to render them subservient to the uses 
of man. The experiments, when tried, have yielded satisfactory results, even in the first 
and second generations; but unfortunately, the continued training of one species for a 
long succession of years has not been accomplished. It is not too much to suppose that 
the time may come when much of this continent, now desolate, and supporting a scanty 
and half-starved population, may become a populous region, filled with towns and vil- 
lages, and owing much of its prosperity to the employment of some of our own native 
animals in a state of domestication." 

See Audubon's Quadrupeds of North America, vol. ii, p. 83; Hearne's Journal, p. 360; 
Ray's Quadrupeds, p. 84; Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, p. 77; Lewis and Clark's Expe- 
dition, vol. ii, p. 167; Smith's Medical Reports, vol. ii, p. 157; GrifBth's Cuvier, p. 776; 
Godman, vol. ii, ]>. 294; De Kay's New York Fauna, p. 118; House Executive Document, 
No. 102, XXXII ('ongress, 1st session, p. 116. 



PRINCE ALBERT'S MODEL FARM AT WINDSOR. 

[Condensed from the London News of March 5th.) 
The Prince Consort of England, has "'model farms" at Osborne 
and at Windsor. At the latter, known as the "Flemish Farm," 
new buildings have just been completed, and although all the most 
improved principles in connection with an English farm "home- 
stead" have been introduced, without regard to expense, the strictest 
care and economy have been observed. The buildings embrace 
stables, cow-houses, bull-houses and yards, calve-houses, feeding- 
houses, covered yard for fattening cattle, piggeries, spacious sheds 
for carts and implements, a cottage for the carters and other laborers, 
steam-boiler, engine and mill-rooms, with granaries overhead, chaft- 
cutting room, root-house, &c. 

The cow-house and covered yard, which are spanned by an ele- 
gant roof, from one large compartment of about 100 feet by 60 feet, 
divided in the centre by a feeding-passage 12 feet wide, communi- 
cating at one end with the stable yard, and at the other with the 
piggeries, cattle yards, &c. 

The barn-machinery, supplied by Messrs. Clayton and Shuttle- 
worth, of Lincoln, consists of an eight-horse power steam engine 
and cornish boiler; a thrashing machine, with winnowing and 
sacking machine attached, capable of thrashing, cleaning, weighing, 
and sacking upwards of 400 bushels of wheat per diem; a mill for 
grinding meal; mills for bruising oats, beans, oil-cake, &c.; root 



44 The Problem of Itiundations. 

cutters and pulpers, Smith's patent chaff and litter cutter, and other 
late inventions. 

The buildings are of brick, made on the ground by the contrac- 
tors, and those used for the doorways, piers, &c., against which 
cattle may be likely to come in contact, are rounded on the exposed 
edge. The roof is covered with baked clay tiles, which are warm 
in winter and cool in summer, and glass tiles are used where light 
is needed. The cow-house and other floors are laid with English 
asphalte, which has had several 3-ears test in different farm build- 
ings, and is found to be very durable. "Water is supplied by pipes 
to the yards and feeding-boxes. 

All of the liquid manure, from the buildings and from the open 
yards, is collected in gutters, and conveyed by iron pipes to a large 
tank, so arranged that its contents can be spread over the adjacent 
fields. In short, every modern improvement has been introduced, 
and the practical utility of each can be witnessed, 



"A SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THE INUNDATIONS." 

This is the title of a recently published French work by Monsieur 
Dausse, one of the many which have appeared since the inunda- 
tion of the Rhone in 1836. Much, however, as France has suffered, 
we have a home-record parallel in distress, and the ravages of the 
Connecticut, the Hudson, the Lehigh, the Ohio, and above all the 
Mississippi, makes the topic of inundations a most important one, 
especially to agriculturalists. An anonymous writer, (to whom the 
Journal of Agriculture is indebted for this sketch of the pamphlet of 
Monsieur Dausse.) predicts that we are to witness more of this deso- 
lation, and that the inundations will have an increasing power of 
destructiou as the country grows barer and barer every year under 
the axe of the farmers. 

M. Dausse treats his subject under two heads : The least possible 
disturbance of the sources of rivers, and the lowest possible leveling 
of their beds. These find equivalent expressions in the counter- 
clearing or re-wooding of the hill country, and in the construction of 
lake or reservoirs. Every traveler in the Alps and Pyrenees has 
noticed the chains of lakes which make so great a beauty in the 
scene; and how the lower ones are clear and the upper ones muddy, 
and how above the uppermost are flat plains which have once 
been lakes, filled up with glacial mud. A range of reservoirs upon 
the heads of our western rivers would cut off" the very genesis of 
their sandbanks, as well as of their occasional or periodical freshets. 
Add to these the bibulous covering of forest, underbrush and prairie 
8od, ready to soak up every drop of rain that falls and turn it gently 
downward through the rocks, and jealously retaining all the mold 
and disintegrated surface of the earth in the embraces of their my- 
riad roots, and we have a picture of eternal rivers with banks and 
beds eternally at rest. 



A Practical Solution. 45 

M. Dausse says that natural lakes are rare in France. They arc 
so in most countries, and in all hilly countries. But it is just in 
hilly countries that the conditions for artificial reservoirs abound — 
in ridges, with narrow gorges or ravines, in front of branching val- 
leys. The higher the barriers thrown across these deliles, the 
greater the volume of waters contained behind them, the safer 
becomes the river bed below ; but the more carefully and costly 
must they be constructed, for the more terrible will be their acci- 
dental rupture. When the sixty-foot dam on the Lehigh, in the 
ravine of the Pokomo mountain, broke, its solid wave swept ever}' 
bridge and dam below it, with canal banks, locks, mills, and vil- 
lages, away in indiscriminate ruin to its mouth. And when, fifty 
3'ears ago, the high mill-dam on the Codorus broke away, a similar 
wave followed the windings of the stream for a dozen miles ; and 
although there was time for the miller's son to saddle his horse and 
gallop across to York to warn the village folks, yet, while they 
talked over the event and laughed at the danger, it approached 
with a breasting like the Bore of the Ganges, and swept off half 
their property. 

The re-wooding of naked soils is not so important in the New as 
in the Old World yet, nor will it ever be on the eastern side of the 
continent, as it is fast becoming to the inhabitants of the Great 
Valley. But if every year a single affluent of a destructive river 
basin were re-wooded, the change would soon be apparent, especi- 
ally since trees but three years old have a marked efficacy. Here 
it is not national wealth or science so much as national perseverance 
that is wanted, and that we know to be a rarest virtue. 

The embankment or leveeing of rivers has not yet become a 
science, but is in its rude state of local chance construction. When 
the fall of a river exceeds eight feet to the mile, its levees should be 
continuous and double; that is, one line of baidc outside or behind 
the other, on each side, for the strength of the flood and the weak- 
ness of the barrier increase together when a single levee is used, 
which is an irrational arrangement. And yet this is the very ar- 
rangement hitherto universally adopted. This is an important 
point, to which we call the attention of all western men and civil 
engineers. The flrst bank should be low, to meet the ordinary 
stage of water. Let every freshet override this quietly, as it would 
at first, and spend its volume, and of course its strength, over a cer- 
tain space behind, and then find a second and consequently much 
stronger barrier, over wdiich it could never break. And then, 
wherever this intermediate and overflowed country is cultivated, 
instead of attempting to protect it against overflow, (a vain attempt,) 
and at the same time robbing it of its natural right to the enriching 
deposit of the overflow, let a surer way be taken. Let strong trans- 
verse dykes be projected across it, at proper intervals, not to keep 
out the water, but to stop the current and protect the soil while it 
is thus submerged. 

M. Dausse shows also the best form of bank to be the normal 
gently sloping talus of a natural river-shore deposit, and not the 



46 Northern Fruit Culture. 

abrupt slope of artificial masonry. It is, however, not by any means 
alwaj's that this form can be obtained, as for instance, where a river 
sweeps round a sharp bend; but even there some approximation 
can be made to it. The disasters of the present year, and of late 
years, in Louisiana, were distinctly prophesied by an able United 
States engineer, while superintending the construction of the public 
works in that city some years ago, at the time when so many bends 
of the Mississippi were cut through to shorten its channel for the 
convenience of commerce, and, as it was alleged, to add security to 
the delta against inundations, by straightening the river and allow- 
ing it to scour out its bed by increasing its tall. This gentleman 
was \^'ise enough to see and bold enough to say that these awkward 
and tedious horseshoe bends were so much uatural reservoir to 
take and hold the surplus of the annual flow, and that to cut them 
off was not only an unnatural, but a suicidal polic}^ the conse- 
quences of which have at length been recognized and lamented by 
many who scouted his theory as a silly dream. 

The history of Holland and of Lombardy is a history of single 
dykes and terrible disasters. The delta of the Mississippi is no 
more subject to the ruinous consequences of man's interference 
with nature's arrangements than the deltas of the Hoang-ho or of 
the Danube. 



NORTHERN FRUIT-CLTLTURE. 

At a Massachusetts legislative agricultural meeting, held at the 
State House in Boston in February, 1859, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder 
presided, and addressed the meeting upon the subject of fruit-cul- 
ture. In commencing, he alluded to the peculiar adaptability of the 
American soil and climate to fruitgrowing, and expressed the opin- 
ion that this branch of agriculture would yet be the most remunera- 
tive. He was of the opinion that the census of 1860 would show 
that the last fruit crop of Massachusetts would exceed $2,000,000 in 
value, or more than that of our wheat, rye, oats and barley. What 
was already known of the prospective value of this crop, rendered 
it of great importance to ascertain what sorts were of most value to 
cultivate. Thorough draining of the soil, upland as well as low- 
land, was of primary importance in this culture. As a general prin- 
ciple, trees and plants thrive best on their native soil, and he knew 
no way of producing the best fruit so good as that of planting the 
choicest seeds of our choicest fruits. For profit, a small number of 
varieties were best, and it was generally conceded the William, 
the Early Bough, the Gravstien, the Franceuse, the Hubbardston 
Nonesuch, and the Baldwin, were the best. To these six might be 
added the Red Astrachan, the Rhode Island Greening, the Ladies' 
Sweet, the Roxbury Russet, the Porter, and the Tolmau Sweet. 
For exportation, the three best were the Baldwin, the Rhode Island 
Greening, and the Russet. 

The best six varieties of pears on their own roots were the Bart- 



Under Draining. 47 

lett, the Url)aniste. the Flemish Beauty, the Belle Lucrative, the 
Onondaga, and the Doyenne Boussock. On quince roots the hest 
six were the Louise bonne de Jersey, Urbaniste, Duchess de An- 
gouleme, Vicar of Wakefield, Beurre de Aujou and GloutMorceau. 

The speaker also alluded to the currant and blackberry crop as 
very profitable to cultivate. lie also alluded to the remarkable 
facilities of the soil of the Pacific coast for fruit-growing, citing let- 
ters and statements in proof of its remarkable adaptability to the 
growth of apples, pears, and grapes. One apple grown in Oregon 
weighed forty ounces, and a pear raised in the Willamette Valley 
weighed four pounds. 

The meeting was also addressed by Hon. B. V. French, of Brain- 
tree, who recommended high culture as necessary to insure the 
raising of good fruit. 

Mr. E. W. Bull, of Concord, believed we should have, within the 
time of gentlemen present, as fine native grapes as are eaten in any 
country."^ In speaking of the culture of this fruit, Mr. Bull recom- 
mended the use of sulphur as a preventive of mildew and blight. 
The Concord would bear more neglect and bad treatment than any 
other grape he knew. It would grow if you would only let it severel}- 
alone. It was likely to be injured by over-culture. The soil should 
be deep and light, and enriched with bone dust and plaster, and 
soap suds was the universal pabulum of the grape. He was not in 
favor of hj'bridizing, having thoroughly tried the experiment, find- 
ing the fruit of the native stock less subject to disease. He had 
raised at least two thousand seedlings, and had but thirteen remaining. 

A. G. Sheldon, of Wilmington, thought the spring was the time 
for trimming apple trees, but he was not in favor of greatly thinning 
the branches, believing that the sun sometimes injured the bark on 
the limbs, and that the weight of the fruit on the horizontal limbs 
was sometimes injurious to the tree. He would not have trees more 
than thirty feet apart, and would not recommend cultivating orchard 
soil to much extent for other crops, but thought favorably of planting 
squashes between the trees. Of all apples he preferred the Baldwin for 
general use. In the past twenty years it had brought more money into 
the State than all the other varieties. He remarked that the locality 
of the first Baldwin apple tree in Massachusetts was very nearly 
identified, aiid that efforts were making to keep in memory the spot 
by the erection of a monument. The place is in Wilmington. 



Under Draining — the Dawn of Draining. — The first field 
drained on the four-feet system, was on a farm near Bolton. In 
1843, at the Derby show of the Royal Agricultural Society, John 
Reade, a gardener by trade, a self-taught mechanic, well known as 
the inventor of the stomach pump, exhibited cylindrical clay pipes, 
with which he had been in the habit of draining the hot-beds of his 
master. His mode of constructing them was to wrap a lump of 
clay round a mandril, and rub it smooth with a piece of flannel. 



48 Secretary s Report on the 

Mr. Parks showed one of these pipes to Earl Spencer, saying, " Mr. 
Lord, with this pipe 1 will drain all England." The Council, on 
his lordship's motion, gave John Reade a silver medal for his idea, 
and in the year following oflered a premium for a tile-making ma- 
chine. A great deal of money was wasted in attempts, and many 
patents were taken out for the purpose with indifferent success; but 
in 1845, at Shrewsbury, Thomas Scragg received a prize for a ma- 
chine which triumphed over the difficulties, and pipes can now be 
made cpiite as fast as kilns can take them. The work from that 
hour went rapidly forward. — Quarterly Review. 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITIONS IN 1858. 
[^Note. by the Editor. — This article, or rather report, was compiled from the correspond- 
ence of the Secretary of the United States Agricultural Society, and presented by him at 
the Sixth Annual Meeting, where it was referred to a committee. Upon the recommend- 
ation in their report, the Society ordered it to be published. It is necessarily imperfect, 
but it is to be hoped that Exhibitions of the present year can be more fully and accu- 
rately chronicled (from original or newspaper accounts, which are respectfully solicited 
from Secretaries) in the Journal of Agriculture for January, 1860. The varied " amuse- 
ments"' of the exhibitions of 1858 have been given as furnishing information for those 
whose attention is directed to the proper manner of conducting agricultural exhibitions. 
It will also be seen, by reference to the orators, that comparatively few of those who ad- 
dressed the agriculturists were either scientific or practical farmers.] 

ALABAMA. 

The fourth annual exhibition of the State Agricultural Society 
was held at Montgomery, November 1-6, at the spacious grounds 
located on the bank of the Alabama river, to the north of the city. 
There is a spacious amphitheatre, in which stock is examined, and 
for hippodromic performances ; a horse track : stalls and pens ; a 
two-story building for the mechanical display; a gin-house, for test- 
ing improvements in the southern staple, together with fixtures for 
pressing and baling cotton already ginned. The land cost $2,100; 
the erection of buddings and fences $12,200 ; and the grading and 
gravelling of the track $2,135. 

The display of stock was large, comprising Durhams, Devous, 
Ayrshires, and grade cattle ; Cotswold and native sheep ; Berkshire, 
Black Essex, Suffolk, and common hogs; fine blooded and trotting 
horses ; and good mules. There were not many machines or im- 
plements, except those used by the planters, but the ladies' depart- 
ment was creditably filled. A new disinfecting agent, discovered 
by Professor John I)arby, took a prize before a committee of scien- 
tific men. Premiums were awarded for the best locomotives and 
steamboats, which were exhibited on the railroad and on the river, 
which run past the grounds. 

In addition to "trials of speed," there was a "Tournament" 
within the amphitheatre, the competitors riding around in succes- 
sion at full speed, and endeavoring to bear off a suspended ring 



Agricultural Exhibitions of 1858. 49 

npon thoir lances. Tlierc wore three competitors, and Master Wil- 
liam Baldwin was declared the victor, having borne off the ring 
three times ont of five, and knocked it otl' the remaining two 
" tiltings." A sketcli of the tonrnament, with another of the amphi- 
theatre, and a portrait of Dr. ]^. B. Clond, the indefatigable Secre- 
tary of the Society, were published in Harper s Weeldy of November 
27th. The premiums awarded amounted to $2,213.64 ; the expenses 
to i^l,742.91 ; the receipts from all sources to ^5,270.15. 

Local Exhibitions. — Mobile county, lifth exhibition at Mobile, 
May 5-7 ; North Alabama Association; Decatur county, at Decatur. 
A ''West Alabama Agricultural and Horticultural Association" 
has just been formed, to embrace the counties on the Tombigbee 
and Warrior rivers. F. T. Lyon, of Marengo, is President, and a 
Fair is to be held at Demopolis in May, 1859. Societies have also 
been organized in Madison and Franklin counties. 

ARKANSAS. 

This is one of the few States in which there is no State agricul- 
tural organization, and no information been received that an exhi- 
bition was held by either of the two local societies — that of Union 
county, which is located at El Dorado, or that of Clark county, 
which is located at Terre Noir. Arkansas is nevertheless a pros- 
perous agricultural State, and the Auditor's reports show that her 
farmers produced in 1857, 172,092 bales of cotton ; 16,880,952 
bushels of corn; 1,139,096 bushels of wheat, and 2,035,730 bushels 
of oats. In such a fertile region, agricultural exhibitions could not 
but be attractive and benchcial. 

CALIFORNIA. 

The fifth annual exhibition of the State Agricultural Society was 
held at Marysville, Yuba county, August 23-28. A square was 
enclosed, and in the centre a brick structure was erected, as an 
exhibition hall for manufactured articles, products, &c. — the main 
portion one hundred and forty feet long, by fifty wide — the cross 
wings one hundred and twenty feet long, by forty wide, with a 
dome over their intersection. The cattle show was about half a 
mile distant, near the river. There was a large gathering, the 
people turning out in great numbers, "from Los Augelos and San 
Angelo, to the heacl-w^aters of the swifty flow^ing Willamette." The 
display of stock was good, including several blooded animals, and 
there was a profusion of the mammoth vegetable products of the 
western slope of the Eocky mountains. Hon. Wilson Flint, iu his 
address, urged the more extended culture of the vine. He said: 
" One man will easil}^ plant, tend, prune, and ship to the wine manu- 
facturer, five acres of grapes. Now, five acres of grapes, at prices 
which undoubted authority has shown will yield one thousand dol- 
lars to the acre, gives five thousand dollars as the results of the 
year's labor, making a sum total on forty thousand laborers of the 
astounding sum of two hundred millions of dollars annually ! — de- 
throning your cotton and gold kings combined, and twining around 
the temples of laughter-loving Bacchus the imperial diadem." 
7 



50 Secretary' s Report on the 

There were " trials of speed " and displays of female equestriaiiisni 
at the race course, a shooting tournament, and a contest of fire- 
engines. The first firemens' prize was ^400. 

Rev. 0. C. "Wheeler, the able Secretary of the California State 
Agricultural Society, forwarded samples of the premium grains to 
the Cabinet of the United States Societ}^ but no detailed account 
of the exhibition has been received. 

Local ExJdhitions. — The California Horticultural Society presented 
a display of fruit, which good judges said could not be surpassed in 
any Atlantic State. The Santa Clara agricultural exhibition was 
very successful, and there was a thorough field trial of implements. 
Exhibitions at Los Angelos and Napa are favorably alluded to b\' 
correspondents. 

CANADA. 

The thirteenth annual exhibition of the Provincial Agricultural 
Association of Upper Canada, was held in the environs of the city 
of Toronto, near the shore of Lake Ontario. The Canadian gov- 
ernment have granted a sufficient tract of land to the Provincial 
Agricultural Society for their show grounds, in perpetuity, and the 
city of Toronto have given $20,000 for the erection of a "crystal 
palace" upon the premises, to be used by the society whenever 
required, and at other times to be occupied by other industrial as- 
sociations for exhibitions of art and taste — the whole property, with 
its erections and other improvements, probably worth at least 
$50,000. A similar donation, excepting the crystal palace, has 
been made at Kingston, at the foot of Lake Ontario ;. and another 
is solicited at London, in the heart of the fertile western district, 
which, if obtained, the annual Provincial shows will alternate be- 
tween the three places. 

The exhibition was opened on the 29th of September, by Sir 
Edmund Walker Plead, her Majesty's Governor General of Canada, 
who came in state, with a military guard of honor. After he had 
entered the "crystal palace" on the grounds. God Save the Queen 
was loyally sung, and a prayer was made by the Lord Bishop of 
Toronto. Vice President Wm. Thompson then read an address of 
welcome in behalf of the Agricultural Association, to which the 
Governor General replied at some length, congratulating the people 
of Canada on their rapid advancement in agriculture and the me- 
chanical arts. Among other interesting facts worthy of note, he 
stated "that the Grand Trunk railroad alone, between the 1st of De- 
cember, 1857, and the 30th of April, 1858, carried over its line 
upwards of 178,000 barrels of flour and 81,000 bushels of wheat ; 
of that quantity, 47,000 barrels of flour and 35,000 bushels of wheat 
were for shipment to Portland." 

The show of Short-horn, Devon, and Grade cattle was pronounced 
excellent, and there were some fine Galloways, admirably adapted 
for the Canadian climate, which their owners asserted were good 
for the dairy as well as for beef-making. The horses were not re- 
markable, except some fine Clydesdale draft horses, and some 
crosses of stallions of this breed with native Canadian mares ; for 



Agricultural Exhibitions of 1858. 51 

one pair of these the owner refused $1,000. The Cotswold and 
Leicester long-woolcd sheep, have not probably been equalled at 
any other show this year out of England, some weighing over 300 
pounds; the Southdowns and Cheviots were not as fine. The show 
of pure-blooded Essex and Suttblk pigs was fine, as were the fowl — 
the exhibitor of one cock ofi:ering to tight him for {$50 a side. There 
was a fair display of implements, domestic manufactures, flowers, 
dairy products, and farm products, especially of winter-wheat. The 
''Canadian Land Company" ofier an annual prize of one hundred 
dollars for the best twenty-five bushels, and there were upwards of 
twenty lots exhibited, amounting in the aggregate to some 600 
bushels of a fine, plump wheat. The fruit was excellent, especially 
some mammoth clusters of Isabella, Catawba, and Black Hamburg 
grapes. The miscellaneous articles for which premiums were 
awarded were of almost every description, and there were prizes 
for tlie bead and the bark work of the Indians. 

The premiums were awarded in monej^, and (with the exception 
of that for wheat above alluded to) varied from $100 up to $3,600. 
A thunder-storm on Thursday injured the receipts of the exhibition, 
but it was eminentl}^ successful. 

The peculiar features of the exhibition were the "crystal pal- 
ace," which held about ten thousand persons ; a gathering of "fire 
brigades" from difterent parts of Canada, with their engines, ban- 
ners, and bands, and a musical contest among the military bands 
of the province. There were seven bands, each one playing twenty 
minutes, and $180 was divided in premiums among them. The 
exhibition closed with " God save the Queen," sang by a " har- 
monic choir." 

There was an exhibition held by the Association of Canada East, 
at Montreal, and several minor exhibitions, but as they do not prop- 
erly come within the jurisdiction of the United States Society, the 
Secretary only gives the above as a specimen of the manner in 
which our northern neighbors conduct their exhibitions. He would 
also respectfully suggest, that as the United States Society's exhi- 
bitions have almost invariably been honored by the attendance of 
a Delegate from the Canadian Board, we should exercise a " recip- 
rocity" of good feeling, and accredit a Delegate to the next Pro- 
vincial Exhibition. 

CONNECTICUT. 

The fifth annual exhibition of the State Agricultural Society was 
held at the grounds near Hartford, on the 12-16 of October, having 
been kept open one day longer than had been intended on account 
of a storm on the third day. The grounds are thirty-five acres in 
extent, and were admirably fitted up, and supplied with every con- 
venience. There were two exhibition halls, large tents, marquees, 
and one thousand stalls, which proved inadequate to the numlDer of 
horses and cattle entered. A daily paper called the " Fair Ground 
Bulletin" was published on the grounds. 

The display of cattle was pronounced in the Homestead to be 
the best ever made in Connecticut. Durhams, Devons, Ayrshires, 



52 Secretanj s Report on the 

and especially Alderneys, were all represented, and there was a 
uoblo display of working oxen. There were nearly 300 horses, 
some of them capital trotters. Cotswold, Leicester, Southdown, 
Merino, and grade sheep, line Suffolk and Berkshire swine, a good 
show of poultry, and a fair display of farm products, tilled every 
department. The fruit was superior, and on this we have the tes- 
timony of such men as Mr. Berckman, the great pomologist of New 
Jersey, Charles Downing, of Newburgh, and Dr. Grant, of lona, 
near Peekskill, the greatest propagator of the wonderful Delaware 
grape, all of whom declare that this is the hnest fruit show that 
they have ever attended. The apples were exhibited by the bushel 
and half bushel. 

The half-mile track on these grounds was that on which Flora 
Temple and Lancet made, in 1857, the best time on record. There 
was of course some fast trotting, and some running, varied by the 
appearance of an Lidian, with feathers and paint, mounted on a 
shaggy little pony, who created much amusement. The expenses 
of the exhibition were ^6,524 83 ; premiums, $3,363 ; salaries, 
$1.200 : the receipts for admission, $6,931 86 ; State appropriation, 
$2^500 ; city of Hartford, $1,555 50 ; all other sources, $754 53. 
Henry A. Dyer, Esq., the Secretary of the Connecticut State Soci- 
ety, enjoys a high reputation as an executive officer, in addition to 
his practical knowledge of agriculture, and his literarj' ability. It 
is to be hoped that at the next fair he and his indefatigable associ- 
ates will be favored with fair weather. 

The features of the exhibition were tests of working oxen and the 
ploughing match. The last named, which was within the enclo- 
sure, was instructive, from the fact that there were two new ploughs. 
One of them really has no beam, the draft being from an iron rod 
projecting from the share, to the point of which two strips of ash 
are attached, and extend back in the form of a harrow, the back 
ends being the handles of the plough. These strips are supported by 
two wooden standards, and braces of iron, making a plough light, 
strong, and cheap. Another plough, of somewhat similar form, is 
rigged to raise or depress the handles, and with them the forward 
end of the rod that serves for a beam, and thus make the plough 
run deep or shallow, at the will of the holder. The plough — the 
work of which was most generally approved — was the Michigan 
plough, with two shares upon one beam; the first cutting and turn- 
ing the sod, and the second bringing up dirt from the bottom of the 
furrow and burying the first furrow. 

Solon Robinson, Esq., of Kew York, delivered an address, the 
published report of which does not indicate that the speaker was in 
pursuit of popularity, for he told the people of Connecticut some 
of their errors in very plain language. He urged farmers to drain 
their land, improve their old fields, and grow more fruit and less 
rye and buckwheat. He also told them of some of the short com- 
ings of common schools, which teach nothing of the science of ag- 
riculture, and his remarks have provoked no small discussion since. 

At evening meetings there were interesting discussions upon the 
deterioration of Connecticut pastures and other valuable subjects. 



Agricultural Exhibitions of 1858. 53 

The Local Exhihitioiis were generally of a superior order, and were 
held as follows : Windham countj^, at Brooklyn, Sept. 29-Oct. 1 ; 
Kew London county, at Norwich, Sept. 22-24, ^1,250 paid as pre- 
miums and $2,730 taken as admission and membership fees; Mid- 
dlesex county, Middletown, Oct. 6-8; Litchfield county, Litchfield, 
address by Rev. D. Eichards; Tolland county, near liockville, Oct. 
6-7, address by Alvan P. Hyde; Fairfield county, Danbury, eigh- 
teenth annual exhibition, Sept. 21-24; New Haven count}^, Water- 
bury, Oct. — , an old fashioned New England county show, with 
"town teams" of picked working oxen; the Waterbury team num- 
bered 119 yoke, the Watertown 94 yoke, the Wolcott 83, the Ches- 
ter 78, the Pomfret 61, the Naugatuck 55, and the Middleburg 47, 
making in all 537 yoke, or over 1,000 head of fine working oxen. 
At this Xew Haven fair there was a balloon ascension. 

DELAWARE. 

There is no State agricultural organization in Delaware. The 
Agricultural Society of Newcastle county, is in active operation, 
and its Secretar}^ Geo. Pepper Norris, M. D., has recently compiled 
from the records its proceedings since its organization in 1836. An 
agricultural society was established in Kent county in 1856. 

GEORGIA. 

The State society was organized in 1846, and chartered in 1853, 
as the '"Southern Central Agricultural Society," but recently State 
societies have been formed in the adjacent States. This has not 
only impaired the revenue and diminished the contributions to the 
Society, (now dependent upon Georgia alone,) but it injured it in 
the estimation of the public. The annual exhibition was neverthe- 
less held at Atlanta, where the Society has fair grounds perma- 
nently located. They comprise about thirty acres, with suitable 
buildings, and are valued at six thousand dollars. The exhibition 
occupied the week ending October 23d, and about two thousand 
dollars were awarded as premiums, in silver plate. The display of 
horses and cattle was not large, but there was a fine collection of 
the varied products of the State, from the mountains to the sea 
islands. The yield of premium wheat was 43|- bushels to the acre; 
of corn, 73 bushels to the acre ; of cotton, 6,274 lbs. grown on two 
acres; of rice, 281 bushels grown on two acres: and there was also 
tobacco, potatoes, peas, oats, barley, rye, Chinese sugar-cane syrup, 
wines, cordials, vegetables, apples, pears, peaches, basket-willow, 
&c. The Governor of the State and other distinguished gentlemen 
were present. Col. David W. Lewis, of Sparta, Hancock county, 
was elected President, and the South Countryman speaks of him as 
a gentleman of high character, intelligence, and influence. He w^as 
the Secretary of the State society for ten years, and is now the 
Secretary of the Hancock County Planters' Club, a successful and 
long established local organization. 

Local Exhibitions. — The Hancock county exhibitions w^as very 
successful, an amphitheatre and other buildings having been erected. 
At the Cass county exhibition there was a "Mount Vernon Tent," 



54 Secretary' s Report on the 

in which the ladies had a fair of their own, the proceeds of wdiich 
went tow^ards the fund which is to rescue the grave and home of 
the Farmer of Mount Vernon from desecration. The Chatham and 
Effingham counties' exhibition was held Oct. 26, at the Tenbroeck 
race-course, near Savannah. Col. Lewis, President of the State 
society, delivered an address, and. the display of farm-stock, imple- 
ments, and domestic manufactures w^asgood, especially the culinary 
productions. There was a trotting-match. 

ILLINOIS. 

The State exhibition w^as held near Centralia, on the Central 
railroad, where an area of about twenty-five acres was enclosed and 
temporary structures were erected. There was a fine grove, good 
water, a horse-track, and no lack of accommodation. The premium 
list amounted to ^16,000, and there was a good display of horses, 
cattle, sheep, mules, and implements. " Young Barnton," an Eng- 
lish thorough-bred horse, imported at a cost of $7,000 by Mr. Sanga, 
of Sangamon county, took a first premium, as did "Admirable," a 
Durham bull, imported by S. Dunlap, of Morgan county, at a cost 
of $2,500. The show of fruits, fiowers, and vegetables was not 
equal to the general expectation. A feature of the exhibition was 
Fawkes' steam-plow, the only one entered to compete for the prize 
of §5,000 ottered, but that was only partially successful. It was 
afterwards more fully tested at Decatur — see Monthly Bulletin for 
December, 1858. 

The trotting-sports are described as "generally interesting, and 
creditable to the contestants." 

Evening discussions embraced many matters of great practical 
value, but more especially the subjects of deep-ploughing and under- 
draining. The testimony of scores of farmers, who have experi- 
mented more or less thoroughly, w^as unanimous as to the import- 
ance and pecuniary value of under-draining, almost the entire extent 
of the Illinois prairies. In regard to the best w^ay of doing this, 
there was of course some diflference of optinion ; but the testimony 
of several was decidedly for the "underground ditcher" that has 
been used in the central portion of the State for tw^o or three years, 
and some of whose work is now perfect after a trial of seven years. 
Some parties urged in favor of tile drains as most durable and 
cheaper in the end, and claimed that wnth a "tile machine" every 
large farmer can make his own, and b}'' using the spare time of 
winter, soon accomplish the most important achievement of the age 
in the way of successful farming. The conclusion of all w^as that 
every man must go home and try draining in some way, and then 
come next year with the results of his experiments, the method 
adopted, and its costs, for the benefit of all. 

Local Exhibitions were doubtless held by many of the eighty-one 
county and town societies on the register of the United States So- 
ciety, but very few^ accounts have been received. Among those 
chronicled are: Seventh exhibition of the Eandolph county society 
at their new fair grounds, Sparta, Oct. 6-7 ; Mercer count}^ over 
600 entries, and $1,000 added to the treasury; Rock Island county, 



Agricultural Exhibitions of 1858. 55 

two days, and a very fine show ; Hancock county, at Carthage, 
Sept. 22-21; Fayette county, near Vandalia, Sept. 1-2; Woodford 
county, new fairgrounds near Mctamora, Oct. 13-15; Winnebago 
county, at Rockford, Sept. 21-24; Bureau county, at Princeton, 
Sept. 29-Oct. 1 ; Jo. Davis county, at Galena, Oct. 6-8. " The Chi- 
nese sugar-cane growers liad several meetings, at which samples of 
sugar and syrup from cane and impliee were exhibited. The Ex- 
ecutive Board of State society had a meeting to examine specimens 
for which they had offered premiums. An interesting and valuable 
tliree days session was held by the State Horticultural Society at 
Bloomingtou. Three varieties of apples w^ere recommended with- 
out objection, (Fulton, Fameuse, and Winesap,) for general culti- 
vation, and Keswick Codlin for cooking purposes. 

INDIANA, 

The seventh annual State exhibition was held at Indianapolis, 
and was in e^■ery way a success, the receipts amounting to $10,500, 
and 3,220 entries tilling every department creditably. Among the 
cattle were Durhams, (including Col. Meredith's herd, at the head 
of which is his bull "•Benton," recognised as the "Monarch of the 
West,") Devons, Alderneys, and Holsteins ; there were 200 entries 
of sheep, some of them full-blooded Saxony; the horses were supe- 
rior to the previous exhibitions; and among the swine were some 
weighing 600 to 700 pounds. In the fine arts and floral hall the 
display was equally good ; there was an abundance of cereals, vege- 
tables, and fruit, and a goodly number of "boys and girls" con- 
tested for the premiums specially offered for specimens of their 
industry. Portable engines, reapers, threshers, sugar-mills, and 
other machines and implements that tend to lighten the labor of 
the farmer, were exhibited in goodly number. 

A field trial of reapers and mowers had been held at Laporte, on 
the 7th of July. A silver pitcher was awarded to a farmer from 
Vanderburg county for the best^ve acres of corn. The award was 
made upon the decision of three disinterested men in each town, 
who examined the corn growing in the fields, and measured one 
acre of each plot. They then made oath to the yield of the single 
acre, and of the whole five estimated from the acre actually meas- 
ured. The award made, under oath, was for 857^ bushels of shelled 
corn on five acres, or 171J bushels to the acre. 

Local Exhibitions. — Indiana has registered seventy-two county so- 
cieties, but comparatively few made returns of their exliibitions for 
1858, viz : Fayette county, at Connersville, Sept. 7-10, address by 
Horace Greeley ; Floyd county, at New Albany, a fine display of 
horses, Kentuckians taking a large proportion of premiums ; Rush 
county, at Rushville, Sept. 14-17 ; Jennings county, at Vernon, 
Sept. 15-16 ; Washington county, at Salem,"Sept. 20-23 ; Marion 
county, at Indianapolis, Sept. 22-24 ; Clark county, at Charlestown, 
Sept. 22-24 ; Henry county, at New Castle, Sept. 22-24 ; Shelby 
county, at Shelbyville, Sept. 7-10; Wayne county, Richmond, Sept. 
28-Oct. 1 ; Delaware county, at Muncie, Sept. 29-Oct. 1; Ohio 



56 Secretary" s Report on the 

county, at Enterprise, Sept. 28-30 ; Greene county, fourth annual 
exhibition, at Bloomtield, in October. 

IOWA. 

The State exhibition was held at Oskaioosa Oct. 4-0. There 
was a good show of cattle, Durhams especially; some line trotting 
horses ; good sheep and swine ; a fair collection of apples, and as 
good a display of implements and machinery as could be expected 
at a locality so far distant from railroads. The ploughs were notice- 
able, and there was every variety, from the prairie breaking-up 
plough and the Michigan double-plough, down to the small corn 
ploughs, yet all had the steel mould boards. We regret that we 
have not received fuller reports of this exhibition, especially those 
two for which premiums were awarded. 

Local Exhibitions. — Scott county, at Davenport, Sept. 15-17, a 
practical address by Charles Stearns; Johnson county, at Iowa city, 
Sept. 15-16; Polk county, at Des Moines, Sept. 14-16; Lee county, 
at West Point, September 15-17; Poweshiek county, at Montezu- 
ma, Sept. 23-24 ; Decatur county, at Leon, Sept. 29-30 ; Jefferson 
county, at Fairfield, Sept. 29-30 ; Hamilton, at Webster city, Sept. 
29-30 ; Cedar Valley, at Cedar Falls, Sept. 28-30 ; Sac county, at 
Sac city, Oct. 4 ; Butler county, at Clarkesville, Oct. 5 ; Webster 
county, at Fort Dodge, Oct. 6-7 ; Washington county, at AYashing- 
ton, Oct. 6-8 ; Henry county, at Mount Pleasant, Oct. 5-6 ; Louisa 
county, at Waupello, Oct. 6 ; Black Hawk county, at Waterloo, Oct. 
6-7; Madison county, at Winterset, Oct. 8-9; Van Buren county, 
at Keosauqua, Oct. 14-15; Patawatame county, at Council Bluffs, 
Oct. 14-15; Marion county, at Knoxville, Oct. 21-22: Wapello 
county, at Ottumwa, Oct. 22-24. 

KENTUCKY. 

The third annual exhibition of the State society was held near 
Louisville, Sept. 28-Oct. 2, on the grounds of the Southwestern 
Agricultural Association, which were used for the ISTational Exhibi- 
tion of 1857. The receipts Avere stated at about $9,000, and there 
was that display of private hospitality at '"dinner hour" on the 
grounds, which the members of the United States so well remem- 
ber. Hon. Gibson Mallory was of course pre-eminent in his atten- 
tions to friends and to strangers. The display of cattle was of course 
magnificent. Robert A, Alexander, of Woodford, and Brutus J. 
Clay, (President of the State society,) taking herd premiums. The 
long-wooled sheep excited universal commendation, and the display 
of good hogs was large, but onl}' five or six coops of poultry were 
exhibited. The horses were numerous and excellent ; R. A. Alex- 
ander's "Scythian," A.M.Hardin's "Jordan, jr.," F. M. Black- 
burn's "Lannes," Capt. A. Buford's "Charles Harris," Samuel 
Brengman's "Tiberius," John Lewis's "Japhet," Dr. Nesbitt's 
"Bourbon," J. C. Montague's " Woodhouse" and "Bellamira," G. 
Mallory's "Wallace" and "Ehza," Joseph Hall's "Maria Hamp- 
ton," George Hugby's "Hortense," and other blooded horses took 
premiums ; nor were the saddle and harness-horses less remarkable — 



Agricultural Exhibitions of 1858. 67 

of geldings over four j'cars old alone there were eighteen entries. 
There was a large display of implements and machines; and, al- 
though the weather had heen disastrous, there were fine samples of 
fruit and grapes. Vice President Breckinridge, Gov. Willard, of 
Indiana, and other distinguished gentlemen were present. 

In addition to the fast horses, there was an abundance of "amuse- 
ment" provided by private exhibitors. A correspondent speaks of 
the fat Brobdignian woman and the doll-like LilHputian woman; 
one or two of the Chinese jugglers, the remnant of the company- 
brought from San Francisco by Dr. Gihon, who did the feats of im- 
palement and fire-eating ; a gang of English gipsies, ballad-singers, 
flying horses; Young's Museum: the man that peddles gilt watches, 
and blind and mute beggars, all huddled together — while there was 
the most perfect order every where preserved. If one wishes to 
see fine, healthy-looking people enjoying themselves, let him visit 
a Kentucky exhibition. 

Local Exhibitions. — The first cattle-show west of the Alleghany 
mountains was held at Lexington in 1816, under the direction of 
Col. Lewis Sanders, and the exhibition there in 1858 fully sustained 
the reputation of " the blue-grass region," which now boasts of Mr. 
Alexander's fine horses and cattle. The exhibitions at Bourbon 
county, Kenton county, Hancock county, Henderson <^ounty, and 
other localities, are highly spoken of. At the Christian county ex- 
hibition, there was a noticeable feature. " Ten brothers, named 
Brown, all fine-looking fellows, with a very strongly marked family 
likeness, with long, flowing beards, dressed in similar apparal, and 
mounted on ten superb grey chargers, with which they rode in fine 
style, entered the amphitheatre, and dashed around the arena as 
fearlessly as a cavalcade of brave Bedouins chasing a retreating 
enemy over a desert. They twined and intertwined in every variety 
of graceful evolutions. Now in lengthened line, now whirling in 
intersecting circles, now thundering all abreast in one unbroken 
line, whose front seemed as impregnable as a Macedonian phalanx, 
and whose advance was as steady and imposing as an approaching 
billow of the ocean. The excitement was intense, unbounded, and 
universal, and the spectators cheered long and loudl}', while showers 
of bouquets rained from the hands of beauty on the gallant horse- 
men. At the call of the marshal, they reined up in presence of 
their venerable mother, who was looking with tears of joy and pride 
on her array of gallant sons, and on behalf of the association, Major 
N. E. Gray presented her with a silver goblet, accompanied by some 
very beautiful, touching, fine, and appropriate remarks. The eldest 
Brown is aged 40, and the youngest 20 years. All but three live 
in the county, and all but one in Kentucky. They are all farmers 
and traders, and steady, thrifty, respectable men. That day was 
the first time for fifteen years since they had all met, and an affect- 
ing meeting it was, both to them and all who beheld it." 

MARYLAND. 

The eleventh exhibition of the Maryland State society was held 
at their fair grounds, at Baltimore, Oct. 19-22, the time having been 

8 



68 Secretary'' 8 Report on the 

generously changed from the following week, that the exhibition 
might not conflict with that of the United States Society at Kich- 
mond. Although the State legislature had denied the prayer of 
the society, that it might be placed upon an equality with the 
Maryland Institute, for the promotion of the mechanic arts, and re- 
ceive from the State the same annual appropriation awarded to that 
meritorious organization, with the payment to it also of the amount 
received by the Maryland Institute since 1840, and it had conse- 
quently been "a matter of speculation with many, whether there 
would or would not be an eleventh annual exhibition," there was a 
most creditable display. This was attributable to the exertions of 
John Merryman, Esq., president of the society, and he must have 
felt proud at being able to say, in his opening address, that he found 
the fiirmers of Maryland determined to continue the association, 
without regard to drawbacks. 

There was a good display of Durhams, Ayrshires, Natives, and 
Grade cattle, some superior Devons, fine Alderneys, and a fine 
specimen of Holsteins, an excellent show of sheep, some good 
hogs, a fine lot of poultry, and large assortments of machines, im- 
plements, farm products, vegetables, household manufactures, and 
fruits. "Trials of speed" enlivened each day's exercises, and in 
the evening there were meetings of the society at Carroll Hall, for 
business and discussion. Many able agriculturalists from different 
sections of the Union were present at the exhibition. The receipts 
more than paid the expenses, and it was considered that the occa- 
sion, "on the whole, will contribute quite as much as any preceding 
exhibition to the marked progress which is apparent everywhere in 
agricultural improvement. ' ' 

Local Exliihitions. — Montgomery county, at Eockville, Sept. 9-10, 
addresses by Z. Collins Lee, Robert Quid, and Charles B. Calvert, 
President of the State Agricultural College ; Washington county, 
at Hagerstown, Oct. 12-13, addresses by C. J. Faulkner, M. C, and 
Charles B. Calvert ; Frederick county, at Frederick city, Oct. 12-15, 
addresses by Col. Geo. W. Hughes and Charles B. Calvert. " The 
spot selected was admirably chosen, being that used during the war 
of the revolution as a military post, and where the Hessians and 
other prisoners were detained, commanding a beautiful view of the 
highl}'' cultivated farms that cover the valley in which Frederick is 
situated, and the lofty mountains that encompass it. The flag 
floating from the stafl'in the centre of the ancient parade, the mili- 
tary band, and the venerable stone barracks, recalled vividly the 
warlike • memories of the past ; whilst the peaceful purposes and 
harmless uses to which the present had applied them, showed how 
truly the sword had been beaten into the plough-share." 

MAINE. 

The State exhibition was held at Augusta, Sept. 21-24, on grounds 
which had been put in complete order for the occasion. The man- 
ufactured articles were on exhibition at the State House, and the 
entire exhibition is described as in the highest degree creditable to 
all who were concerned in it. There was a fine show of Durham, 



Agricultural Exhibitions of 1858. 59 

Devon, and Ayrshire cattle ; noble working oxen, and many ira-^ 
plements, with a goodly display of farm products and articles of 
industrial skill. Upwards of two hundred horses were exhibited, 
principally of the Messenger and Eaton breeds. 

On Thursday, four purses of $40, 80, 20, and 10 were offered to the 
most accoraplifehed female equestrians; and on Friday, three purses 
of |200, 100, and 50 to the fastest Maine foaled trottiug-horses. In 
the evening there w^as a promenade concert. 

Local Exhibitions. — Somerset county, at Skowhegan, Sept. 28-30 ; 
Androscoggin county, at Lewiston, Oct. 5-7, very successful, espe- 
cially in the show of Durhams and Devons ; Oxford county, at South 
Paris, address by T. F. Chapman, a volunteer militia encampment 
in the next iield ; East Somerset county, at Hartford, Oct. 6-7 ; 
Arostook county, atPresqu' Isle, Oct. 6-7. This is the most northern 
society in the United States, and the show testified to the fertility 
of the region, especially for raising wheat; West Somerset county, 
at Anson, Oct. 6-7 ; York county, at Saco, Oct. 12-13 ; Hancock 
county, at Elsworth, Oct. 12-13 ; Kennebec county, at Readfield, 
Oct. 12-14 ; Lincoln county, at Jefferson, Oct. 12-14 ; North Penob- 
scot county, at Lee, Oct. 13-14 ; North Somerset county, at Solon, 
Oct. 13-14 ; Cumberland county, at Standish, Oct. 13-15, address 
by Rev. Cyril Pearl, the published report a very valuable one. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

There was no exhibition either by the State Board of Agricul- 
ture or the Massachusetts Society for the promotion of agriculture. 
The "National Horse Show," held at Springfield, Sept."]4-17, at- 
tracted many distinguished agriculturalists from all parts of the 
Union. It was held in a park of sixty acres, which belongs to the 
Hampden County Agricultural Society, and wdiich has cost very 
nearly $30,000; the premium list amounted to $3,195, and the 
entries embraced a large number of the most celebrated hoi'ses in 
the countr}', the whole numbering about five hundred. The general 
cavalcade of horses entered for the exhibition made the circuit of 
the grounds in the morning, several times, representing one of the 
most magnificent equestrian spectacles ever witnessed. A storm 
interrupted the show on Thursday, but the last day was very suc- 
cessful. It was estimated that no less than twenty thousand per- 
sons entered the enclosure, and seven thousand dollars were taken 
at the gates. Four or five hundred animals passed around the ring, 
beside innumerable vehicles, some of which were driven by. ladies, 
and at the close of this part of the exhibition the various classes of 
horses were brought up to the judges' stand for award of premiums. 
Mr. Rarey, brother of the horse-tamer, who gained so much noto- 
riety in England, performed some remarkable feats during the course 
of the day, and displayed a talent in subjugating horses approach- 
ing that which his brother is reported as possessing. Speeches were 
made during the show by Gov. Banks, Edward Everett, Richard 
Yeadon of South Carolina, W. H. Ladd of Ohio, Solon Robinson 
of New York, and other distinguished gentlemen. 

Local Exhibitions. — Gov. Banks, in his message, said that in 1858, 



60 Secretary'^ Report on the 

nearly $12,000 was paid from the treasury of Massachusetts, to 
twentj^-one local societies. "But," (said he,) " of twenty-one exhi- 
bitions, the principal part were in the same week; two agricultural 
exhibitions within seven miles of each other, on the same day, in 
a county with a population of 32,000, and an estate valuation of 
less than $12,000,000— that sufficiently illustrates our system. We 
spend no small amount of time in discussions in Avhich caprice 
overthrows opinion, and an emotion is mistaken for principle, and 
thus lose the opportunity of presenting in substantial aggregates 
the accumulations of industry and intelligence, which never failed, 
and never can fail, to impress the world with a sense of power, 
whenever presented. The State is the unit of our industrial 
system, and nothing should be disregarded which enlarges its re- 
sources, develops its wealth, or concentrates and controls its trade, 
in which lie the secrets of its power and prosperity." This argu- 
ment is worthy of consideration in other States. 

The exhibitions were: Middlesex county north, at Lowell, Sept. 
15-17; Middlesex county south, at Framingham, Sept. 21-22 ; Hou- 
satonic county, at Great Barrington, Sept. 22-24; Bristol county, 
at Taunton, Sept. 22-23 ; Worcester county north, at Fitchburg, 
Sept. 24; Hampden county, at Springfield, Sept. 28-30; Essex 
county, (which has never been subdivided,) at Danvers, Sept. 29-30, 
address by Dr. Geo. B. Loring; Middlesex county, at Concord, 
Sept. 29, sixty-fifth anniversary, address by Ealph Waldo Emerson : 
Norfolk county, at Dedham, Sept. 28-29 ; Plymouth county, at 
Bridgewater, Sept. 29-30; Worcester county south, at Stnrbridge, 
Sept. 30 ; Worcester county west, at Barre, Sept. 30 ; Hampden 
county east, at Palmer, Oct. b-Q ; Franklin county, at Greenfield, 
Oct. 6-7 ; Berkshire county, at Pitsfield, Oct. 6-8, an address by 
Charles L. Flint, Esq., the erudite and efficient Secretary of the 
State Board ; Barnstable county, at Barnstable, Oct. 6-7, an address 
by Judge Emory Washburn, a speech by Gov. Banks, militarj' 
escort by the Ancient and Honorable Artillery of Boston, and a dis- 
play of female equestrianism ; Worcester county, at Worcester, 
Oct. 6-7 ; 1,069 entries, contrasting strongly with the 135 entries 
at the first show of the society, in 1819; Franklin and Hampden 
counties, at ISTorthampton, Oct. 13-14, address by Dr. Geo. B. 
Loring; IsTantucket, Oct. 13-14. There were town-shows at Ams- 
bury, Middlefield, and other places, and an exhibition of trotting 
stallions for a $1,000 prize at Boston, Oct. 15, where Ethan Allen, 
Columbus, jr., and Hiram Drew were the contestants. The condi- 
tions of the '" trial of speed " were mile heats, best three in five, to 
harness, and Ethan Allen won in three straight heats. Time : 2.37, 
2.35, 2.35. Ethan received $700, Columbus, jr., $200, and Hiram 
Drew $100. Over ten thousand people were present. 

MICHIGAN. 

The tenth annual exhibition of the State society was held at De- 
troit, Sept. 28-Oct. 1. The attendance was larger, and the display 
of horses and cattle were greater than at any previous fair. The 
machines and implements were especially interesting and numer- 



Agricultural Exhibitions of 1858. 61 

ons. The rcccipty were $4,854.80, which was $1,300 more than 
were the receipts of 1858. 

Local Exhibitions. — Hillsdale county, at Hillsdale, Oct. 7, an ad- 
dress by D. L. Pratt; Ingham county, an address by Professor L. 
R. Pisk; Montcalm county, at Greenville, Oct. 0-7. 

MISSOURI. 

The third annual exhibition of the St. Louis Agricultural and 
Mechanical Association, was held at its fair grounds, in the vicinity 
of that city, which are the finest in America. They are forty acres 
in extent, and have been fitted up and kept in repair at an expense 
of upwards of one hundred thousand dollars. The main feature is 
an amphitheatre, capable of accommodating twelve thousand per- 
sons seated, and twonty-four thousand more standing in the prome- 
nades, while in the centre is an unequalled area for the exhibition 
of horses and of stock. There are spacious Floral, Mechanical, and 
Fine Art Halls, a Gallinarium for the exhibition of poultry, a Ma- 
chine Hall two hundred feet long, with sliafting the full length, and 
a Cottage for the convenience of lady visitors. The grounds are 
shaded with a beautiful grove of forest trees, and covered with a 
luxurious growth of blue grass. The avenues are gravelled, and 
an aqueduct from the city reservoir keeps seven ornamental foun- 
tains constantly in play, besides furnishing an ample supply of 
water to every part of the ground. Around the whole are large 
and commodious stalls for the accommodation of stock, within 
which is a track thirty-five feet wide. These magnificent grounds 
belong to a joint-stock company, who have expended since their 
orgamzation $192,178.43, of which $32,779.05 has been paid in 
premiums. In the same time, the gate-fees have been $56,639.53 ; 
the booth account, $16,181.38; the entry fees, $8,693.71; and the 
fees for stalls, $1,091. The successful management of Hon. Mr. 
Barret, the President of the Association, is so justly appreciated, 
that after the last annual meeting, he was presented with a costly 
testimonial by the stock-holders. 

The exhibition of 1859 was inaugurated by a military parade and 
review in the arena of the amphitheatre, followed by a procession 
of thorough-bred Morgan, Black Hawk, and other breeds of horses, 
of which there was a magnificent display. The show of cattle was 
good, the premiums being divided among those from Missouri, Illi- 
nois, Kentucky, and Ohio. Comparatively few sheep or swine 
were exhibited, but the display of implements, machines, and speci- 
mens of domestic manufactures was very superior. A full account 
of the entries as well as the awards, has been published in a report, 
fully illustrated. Mr. Rarey (already mentioned) gave exhibitions 
of his horse-taming powers. A large number of eminent gentle- 
men were present, including Judge Douglass and Gov. Jones of 
Tennessee. The weather was fine until Thursday afternoon, when 
it began to rain fast, and put the thousands who were eager to re- 
turn to the city to great inconvenience. 

Local Exhibitions. — Gasconade county, at Hermann, Sept. 2-3 ; 
and others in Dade, Lawrence, Newton, Jasper, and Polk counties, 
but our correspondent has not sent the dates. 



62 Secretary' s Report on the 

MISSISSIPPI. 

The second State exhibition was held at the fair grounds near 
the city of Jackson, Nov. 9-12, and was very successful, although 
the weather was unpleasant on the first day. There were Durham, 
Devon, Ayrshire, and Grade cattle ; fine displays of horses ; good 
mules and swine; excellent implements and machines, especially 
for the cultivation and packing of cotton; and an abundance of 
household productions. An opening address was delivered by Hon. 
Thomas TI. Hudson, President of the Mississippi Agricultural Bu- 
reau, which has since taken the place of the State Agricultural 
Society, and promises to be a most useful institution. The annual 
address was delivered by Hon. William Harris, of Loundes county, 
and the Legislature, which was in session, ordered six thousand 
copies of it to be printed as a "public document." The Hon. A. 
M. Clayton addressed the bureau on the evening preceding the 
exhibition, on the advancement of the agricultural interests of the 
South, especially the culture of cotton. 

In addition to the hippodromic displays, there was a tournament, 
in which nine gentlemen contended for the honors. Seven rounds 
were made and sixty-six tilts, out of which only seven rings were 
taken. Some disappointment was expressed that no "Queen of 
Love and Beaut}^" was crownied. 

Local ExJdbitions. — The Agricultural, Horticultural and Botanical 
Society of Jefferson College, held a horticultural exhibition in Au- 
gust, and a cattle show later in the fall; Monroe county, at Aber- 
deen, Oct. 19-23; Jefi'erson county, at Rodney, Nov. 3-5, address 
by the President, James S. Johnson ; a rifle company marched into 
the grounds, and encamped there ; Marshall county, at Holly Springs; 
Division Fair, at Jackson, Oct. 19-23, concluding with a masquer- 
ade, with premiums for the most amusing characters; Hinds county, 
at Allen's Springs, Nov. 17 ; Okalona, Grenada, and Bankston were 
also the localities of successful agricultural fairs. 

NEBRASKA. 

The first fair held in this Territory was at Omaha, in Douglas 
county, Oct. 1. Four or five 3-ears ago this county was in the pos- 
session of the Omaha tribe of Lidians, whom government have 
since removed to their new reservation on the Missouri, some one 
hundred miles north of this point. Within these five years the 
farmers have been busy turning over the tough prairie sod and 
taming the wild soil, which now produces corn, sorghum, oats, and 
superior garden vegetables. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

The ninth annual exhibition of the State society was held on the 
"Granite State trotting-park," near Dover, an enclosed plain of 
Ibrty-five acres, with a mile track, a pond of water, and other con- 
veniences. The shows of trotting-horses and of stock were unusu- 
ally good, especially of " town teams " of working oxen. One from 
Rollinsford consisted of twenty yoke of oxen ; a car, loaded with 
bundles of pressed hay, was attached, quite tastily adorned with 



AgncuUural Exhibitions of 1858. 68 

festoons of corn, pumpkins, and a variety of other vegetables; the 
team from Durham consisted of thirty-eight yoke of oxen drawing 
a long cart, covered with a luindsome bower of evergreen, and filled 
with "buxom girls. The fruit was excellent, one exhibitor showing 
forty-two varieties of apples. The displays of implements, domestic 
production, fancy articles. &c., were large, and the exhibition was 
pecuniarily successful, which may be attributed in no small degree 
to the labors of Frederick Smyth, Esq., of Manchester, the treasurer. 
Ex-Governor Boutwell, of Massachusetts, delivered an address, and 
there was a levee in the evening at the city hall in Dover, given by 
the citizens in honor of the strangers. 

There w^as some iiiie trotting, one race for a purse of $100, a 
steam fire-engine was on the ground, also a fire company in uniform 
from Manchester; on the last day there was a balloon ascension. 

Local Exhibitions. — Cheshire county, at Keene, Sept. 28-29, in 
fine new^ fair grounds, with a large exhibition hall, the address was 
delivered by Judge H. F. French ; Belknap county, Sept. 29-30 ; 
Sullivan county, at Charlestown, Sept. 15-16 ; Connecticut Valley 
Association, at the same place, Sept. 21-23, there were 164 entries 
of horses, the Woodbury Morgans being the most numerous. Hon. 
Caleb Cushing was prevented" by indisposition from delivering the 
address. 

NEW JERSEY. 

The fourth annual exhibition of the State Agricultural Society 
was held on commodiously arranged grounds, sixty acres in extent, 
about one mile from Trenton, A mile track, graded around the 
entire grounds, gave visitors in carriages an opportunity to view 
the stock without alighting, while a half mile track was used for 
the exhibition of animals. In the centre of the grounds were tents 
and buildings for the display of farm products, machinery, imple- 
ments, domestic manufactures, &c. The total number of entries 
was 1,079, viz : Class 1, cattle, 41; class 2, horses?, mules, and jacks, 
234; class 3, sheep, swine, and poultry, 74; class 4, dairy, grain, 
seeds, vegetables, flowers, and fruits, 194 ; class 5, home-made linen, 
woolen, and cotton goods, ladies' fancy work, &c., 47 ; class 6, 
ploughing implements, machinery, and articles for dairy and house- 
hold'use, 207 ; class 7, marble work, silver ware, cutlery, paintings, 
musical instruments, &c., 272. Of five thorough-bred stallions 
present, the Arabian horse Caliph attracted the greatest share of 
attention ; he was from the stable of the late Abbas Pasha, Viceroy 
of Egypt, and w^as imported to this country by Ex-Consul Judge 
Jones, of Philadelphia, and is silver-gray, 15 hands high, and 7 
years of age. The collection of farm implements and machinery 
is said to have been larger than usual — that of fruits and vegetables 
less than might have been anticipated in a region so well cultivated 
and largely devoted to the production of these articles. The pre- 
mium list was admirably gotten up by its able Secretary, W. M. 
Force, Esq. 

The machinery was driven by an antiquated locomotive of Eng- 
lish make, the first ever used in the State, on the Camden and 



64 Secretary's Report on the > 

Amboy railroad. There was no lack of trotting; a ploughing 
match on the grounds ; and a visit from the Trenton firemen and 
their guests. 

Local Exhibitions. — Salem count}^, at Salem, Sept. 30; Burling- 
ton county, at Mount Holly, Oct. b-Q ; Sussex count}^, at ITevvton, 
Oct. 5-9, the number of entries was upwards of twelve hundred, of 
which four hundred were horses, mares, colts, mules, and jacks; 
three hundred head of cattle of all grades, and some fine flocks of 
sheep ; swine were also well represented ; the manufacturers' tents 
were well filled by exhibitors in and out of the State. 

NEW YORK. 

The exhibition of the State society at the fair grounds near Syra- 
cuse, (occupied by the United States Society at its trial of reapers 
in 1857,) enlarged to an area of thirty-one acres, was a decided 
success and an improvement in most departments on previous ex- 
hibitions. A storm on Wednesday diminished the receipts, but 
they amounted to |10,815.81. The able editor of the Country 
Gentleman thus briefly chronicled the display : " In Cattle, which 
stands first upon the premium list, the exhibition as a whole was 
probably never excelled in this country. The only breed wholly 
or entirely wanting to complete the list was the Alderne}^ which 
had we think not a representative on the grounds ; but in Short- 
horns, Devons, Herefords and Ayrshires, the first two especially, 
the turn-out was good and large. And no one could have passed 
the stalls devoted to the Grades, without renewed conviction of the 
benefit which the importation of improved breeds has been to the 
country. The diff'erent classes of working Oxen, so far as the 
writer could ascertain, were remarkably well fillecl. Some of the 
fat cattle were of immense frame, and perfectly loaded with flesh. 
In Horses the different classes were generally full — if we except 
Thorough-breds, which were almost or entirely wanting. The show 
of stallions of all work, and of Morgans or Black Hawks, is spoken 
of as very good, and there were some excellent matched horses, 
geldings, and mares. Mules and Jacks were rather deficient. In 
Sheep, the show was very good and extensive, and this was also the 
case in Swine. In Poultry, the superintendent assured us he had 
never seen a better display, including a wide collection of diiferent 
varieties, and good competition in nearly all." The farm imple- 
ments were numerous and excellent. There were literally acres 
of them, including reaping and mowing machines, horse-powers, 
and thrashers, plows, cultivators, harrows, grain fans and separa- 
tors, broadcast and drill seed sowers, rolers, corn buskers, corn shel- 
lers, and a multitude of others, new and old, some possessing high 
merit and some no merit at all, but all going to make up a better 
collection than has ever been previously exhibited. Seven years 
ago two mowing machines were brought out, now there are dozens 
of them, all claiming superiority, some as mowers alone, and some 
as reapers and mowers combined. There has been an almost en- 
tire revolution in the manufacture and use of the implements of 
agriculture. Farm labor, like other labor, is now done to a great 



AijricuUural Exhibitions of 1858. <55 

extent by machinery; iind the farm which, a few years ago, a few 
hundred dollars sufficed to stock with tools and machinery, now 
requires a far greater outlay of capital for that purpose. 

The address was delivered by Mr. Williams, President of the 
Michigan Agricultural College; it was devoted to agricultural edu- 
cation, its necessity, its requirement, &c., and was an elibrt showing 
great research and deep thought upon the subject involved, forti- 
fying its arguments by statistics and by incontrovertible facts. 
There were meetings every evening for agricultural discussions, 
the reports of ^vhich are interesting and valuable. The splendid 
banner awarded to the State of Xew York, at the Springfield Horse 
Show, was formally presented by Solon Eobinson, Esq. Among 
the many distinguished visitors was Ex-President Martin Van Buren. 
The veteran Secretary, B. P. Johnson, Esq., was of course the direct- 
ing spirit of the occasion, and he was ably seconded by Major Patrick, 
the " model '" General Superintendent. The Xew York State So- 
ciety has never given way to the popular demand for "amusements " 
at its exhibitions, yet they are not surpassed by any in the country. 

There w^as a display of fruits at the seventh biennial session of 
the American Pomological Society, held at ISTew York, September 
14-17, and a large portion of the apples and pears were afterw^ards 
on exhibition at'the fair of the American Institute, at the crystal 
palace, where they were destroyed when the building was burned. 

Local Exhibitions. — Saratoga county, at Mechanicsville, Sept. 7- 
8 ; Madison county, at Morrisville, Sept. 8-10 ; New Haven, Sept. 
9; Brookfield; Clinton county, at Plattsburgh, Sept. 9-11 ; Belle- 
ville, Sept. 10; Monroe countA^ at Rochester, Sept. 14-17; Adams, 
Sept. 15-16 ; Lodi, Sept. 15-17 ; St. Lawrence county, at Canton, 
Sept. 15-17 ; Hemlock Lake, Sept. 16-17 ; Medina, Sept. 17-18 ; 
Chataugne county, at Fredonia, Sept. 21-23, address by A. B. Dick- 
inson, 1,400 entries, receipts |1,800, premiums ^1,000; Dutchess 
county, at Washington Hollow, Sept. 21-23; Delaware county, at 
Franklin, Sept. 22-23; Albany county, at Albany, Sept. 21-24; 
Queens county, seventeenth annual show, at Flushing, address by 
Dr. D. R. Floyd Jones ; Jefferson county, at Watertowu, Sept. 22- 
23 ; Livingston county, at Genesee, Sept. 22-24, very successful ; 
Cortland county, at grounds near Homer, Sept. 22-24 ; Oswego 
county, at Fulton, Se'pt. 22-24 ; Yates county, at Pen Yan*, Sept. 
23-24; Steuben county, at Bath, Sept. 23-24; Bergen, Sept. 23- 
24 ; Washington county, at Salem, Sept. 23-24 ; Attica, Sept. 23- 
24; Chenango countv,'at i^orwich, Sept. 23-25, address by Solon 
Robinson ; Yates, Sept. 24-25; Johnson's creek, Sept. 24-25; Rush- 
ville. Sept. 27-28 ; Clarksville, Sept. 27-28 ; Skaneateles, Sept. 28, 
a fine show of cattle ; Niagara county, at Lockport, Sept. 28-29 ; 
W^estchester county, at Purdy's Station, Sept. 28-30 ; W^yoming 
county, at Warsaw, Sept. 28-30 ; Schuyler county, at Watkins, 
Sept. 28-30 ; Oneida county, at Rome, Sept. 28-30; Putnam county, 
at Carmel, Sept. 28-30 ; Erie county, at Buffalo, Sept. 28-30 ; Tioga 
county, at Owego, Sept. 28-30 ; Broome county, at Lisle, very suc- 
cessful, paying |l,000 in premiums and expenses ; Cazenovia, Sept. 
g 



66 Secretary' s Report on the 

29-30, closed by athletic games and foot-races; Orange county, at 
Montgomery, Sept. 29-30 ; St. Lawrence International Fair, Sept. 
29-Oct. 2; Greene county, at Cairo, Sept. 29-30; Unadilla, Sept. 
29-30; Dansville, Sept. 29-30; Orleans county, at Albion, Sept. 29- 
30; Ontario county, at Canandaigua, Sept. 29-Oct. 1, was as usual 
successful, although visited by a severe storm on the last day, which 
showed the advantage of its line amphitheatre, in which thousands 
found shelter. Major Dickinson delivered the address ; Dryden, 
Sept. 30~Oct. 1 ; Rensselaer county, two first days well attended, 
but closed in a storm ; Cayuga county, at Auburn, Sept. 29-Oct. 1 ; 
Peterboro', Sept. 29-Oct. 1, address by Edwin Morton ; Elmira, 
(Horse Show,) Oct. 1 ; Livonia, Oct. 6 ; Afton, Oct. 8-9, address by 
Eiley McMaster; Seneca county, at Farmersville, Oct. 13-15; Long 
Island, (Horse Show,) Oct. 26-28 ; Montgomery county, at Fonda, 
Oct. 26. The fall exhibition of fat cattle, under the auspices of the 
American Institute, New York, was slimly attended. For fat cat- 
tle, calves, and goats, there were thirty -tliree prizes, in value $1,088, 
oftered, but there were on exhibition only twenty-seven head of cat- 
tle and one goat. A gentleman from the upper part of jSTew York 
State, showed a magniiicent Durham ox, six years old, weighing 
2,700 pounds. There were also from Duchess county some three 
and four year old Durham steers, two of them weighing 4,730, and 
two others 4,200 pounds. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

The sixth annual exhibition of the State society was held at Ra- 
leigh Oct. 10-22. The weather was fine during the whole week, 
and the average number of people in attendance was larger than at 
any previous exhibition ; last year the number of members' badges 
sold was 566 and this year the number was increased to 680 ; and 
the receipts at the gate were $3,000, $300 more than last year. 

The entries showed an increase of about sixty per cent, over the 
entries of 1857, and were : Live stock, 229 ; Planters' hall, 200 ; 
Mechanics' hall, 321 ; and Floral hall, 513— total, 1,363. The ex- 
hitions of stock and of plantation products generally, were below 
public expectation ; but the partial failure in these departments was 
doubtless, in a measure, to be attributed to the drought through 
the growing season, to the prevalence of the black-tongue disease 
among the cattle, and to the unavoidable absence, in consequence 
of domestic affliction, of some of the prominent agriculturalists of 
the State. The display of fruit has been spoken of as astonishing, 
and giving promise that I^orth Carolina will yet be the orchard of 
the Atlantic States; and the mineral productions were ably reported 
upon by Professor Emmons, the State Geologist, who ;yecommended 
that the marls exhibited from Craven county, and relied upon near 
the seaboard as a fertilizer for producing corn and cotton, be tested 
upon the red lands of the midland counties, provided the railroad 
freight be not too excessive. An address was delivered by Senator 
T. L. Clingman, in which he mentioned — in connection with the 
manufacture of wine, and the difficulty on the Atlantic slope of the 
United States of preventing its acetous fermentation — a remai:k9,b],© 



Agricultural Exhibitions of 1858. 67 

fact coneeruing a locality of tlio western part of North Carolina. 
In a district of a few miles in extent on the Tryon mountain, neither 
dew nor frost is ever known. The same district is remarkahle for 
the variety and excellence of its native grapes, and they are often 
found in tine condition in the open air as late as December. The 
dryness of the atmosphere in the locality mentioned and its equa- 
bility of temperature are most remarkable. 

Local Exhibitions. — Cuml)erland county, at Fayetteville, ISTov. 3-- 
5, the most successful exhibition held. There were Durham and 
Devon cattle, Morgan and thorough-bred horses, Cotswold and 
Southdown sheep, and a great variety of grade animals; a fine dis- 
play of domestic manufactures, and good fruit. A militia regiment 
of six uniformed companies ]:)araded one day on the fair grounds. 
The Granville county fair is highly spoken of by a correspondent, 
but no date or details are given. 

The Southern Pomological Society met at Charlotte, ISTov. 4th, 
and had an interesting session. A committee was appointed to make 
arrangements and to procure an orator for their next annual meet- 
ing of the society, which is to be held at Charlotte in August, 1859. 

OHIO. 

The ninth annual exhibition by the State society was held near 
Sandusky, and was considered the most successful fair ever held in 
Obio, although there were rain-storms on Wednesday and Thurs- 
day afternoons. There were, on the first day, 1,054 entries of live 
stock, comprising some excellent horses, both for speed and draft ; 
fine Durham, Devon, and Hereford cattle, the former largely pre- 
dominating, and a few good Ayrshires ; choice specimens of fine, 
middle-wooled, and especially excellent long-wooled sheep; good 
Suffolk and other swine. The display of farm implements and ma- 
chinery was good, (there w^ere sixty patterns of ploughs,) but there 
were comparatively fevv^ vegetables or farm products. What fruit 
was exhibited was excellent, and showed that the "lake region" 
is the most reliable fruit region in the State. 

The vast concourse of spectators, estimated on one day at 25,000, 
did not lack for amusement. There Avere frequent displays of trot- 
ting ; a regatta on lake Erie ; a review of military companies by 
Governor Chase; a parade of "Falstaft* Guards;" an exhibition of 
horse-taming by Mr. Bain ; and a ladies' equestrian display, in which 
there were fifteen competitors for the prizes: The first, a saddle and 
bridle valued at $75, was awarded to Miss Kirby Videville, Lorain 
county ; the second, a gold watch and chain, with a charm of the 
Atlantic cable attached, to Miss Wightsham ; and the third, a silver 
cup, to Miss Bennett of Woodstock, Champaign county. At the 
annual meeting of the society, held afterwards, at Columbus, two 
resolutions -u^ere then offered by Mr. Ladd of Jefferson, denouncing 
the payment of premiums for the speed of horses, simply as such 
was a perversion of the original design of agricultural societies; that 
the exhibitions of speed were demoralizing in their tendency; ex- 
pressing the determination of the society to offer no premiums in 
future for such trials, and to discourage their repetition at county 



§8 Secretary' s Report on the 

and district fairs. These resolutions, after considerable discussion, ■ 
were adopted. ^ 

Local Exhibitions. — It is certain that there were seventy-six county 
exhibitions, fifteen district exliibitions, and a score or two of town 
fairs in Ohio during the year 1858. We will only undertake to 
enumerate the county exhibitions, which appear to have been, 
generally speaking, of a high order, and well attended, showing 
the beneficial action of the State agricultural organization. Ashta- 
bula, at Jelierson, Sept. 7-9 ; Fayette, at Washington, Sept. 7-9 ; 
Brown, at Georgetown, Sept. 7-9 ; Hamilton, at Carthage, Sept. 
7-10 ; Franklin, at Columbus, Sept. 8-10, a great success, the Bell- 
founder horses took nearly all the horse premiums ; Clermont, at 
Bantam, Sept. 14-17; Portage, at Eavenna, Sept. 20-22: Colum- 
biana, at New Lisbon, Sept. 20-22 ; Medina, at Medina, Sept. 21-23; 
Clermont, at Olive Branch, Sept. 21-24: Preble, at Eaton, Sept. 
21-24; Brown, (ind.,) at Ripley, Sept. 21-24; Darke, at Green- 
ville, Sept. 22-24; Clinton, at Wilmington, Sept. 22-24; Delaware, 
Sept. 22-24; Geauga, at Burton, Sept. 22-24; Lawrence, at L'on- 
ton, Sept. 22-24; Madison, at London, Sept. 22-24, excellent dis- 
play of cattle; Guernsey, at Cambridge, Sept. 23-24; Guernsey, 
(indep..) at Washington, Sept. 23-23; Noble, at Sarahsvilie, Sept. 
23-24;' Ashland, at Ashland, Sept. 24-26; Adams, at West Union, 
Sept. 28-30; Belmont, at St. Clairsville, Sept. 28-Oct. 1: Cham- 
paign, at Urbana, Sept. 28-30; Huron, at North Fairfield, Sept. 
28-30; Geauga, (free,) at Claridon, Sept. 28-30; Greene, at Xenia, 
Sept. 28-30; Knox, at Mt. Vernon, Sept. 28-30: Warren, at Leba- , 
non, Sept. 28-30; Hardin, at Kenton, Sept. 29-30; Hocking, at 
Logan, Sept. 29-30; Lucas, at Toledo, Sept. 29-30; Muskingum, 
at Zanesville, Sept. 29-Oct. 1; Highland, at Hillsboro, Sept^ 29- 
Oct. 1; Crawford, at Buc3nnis, Sept. 29-Oct. 1; Pichland, at Mans- 
field, Sept. 29-Oct. 1; Tuscarawas, at New Philadelphia, Sept. 29- 
Oct. 1; Ross, at Chillicothe, Sept. 29-Oct. 1; Wavne, at Wooster, 
Sept. 29-Oct. 1; Miami, at Troy, Sept. 29-Oct. 1; Montgomery, 
at Dayton, Sept. 29-Oct, 1; Mahoning, at Canfield, Oct. 5-7; Van 
Wert, at Van Wert, Oct. 5-6; Ottawa, at Port Clinton, Oct. bS; 
Cuyahoga, at Cleveland, Oct. 5-7 ; Lorain, at Elyria, Oct. 5-7 ; 
Vinton, at McArthur, Oct. 5-8; Seneca, at Tiffin, Oct. 6-8; Logan, 
at Bellefontaine, Oct. 6-8; Stark, at Massillon, Oct. 5-7; Licking, 
at Newark, Oct. 6-7; Fulton, at Ottokee, Oct. 6-7; Butler, at 
Hamilton, Oct. 6-8; Clark, at Springfield, Oct. Q-^; Defiance, at 
Defiance, Oct. 6-8; Erie, at Huron, Oct. 5-7; Harrison, at Cadiz, 
Oct. 6-8; Sandusky, at Fremont, Oct. 6-8; Summit, at Akron, 
Oct. 6-8 ; Washington, at Marietta, Oct. 6-8 ; Williams, at Bryan, 
Oct. 6-8; Morgan, at McConnellsville, Oct. 6-8; Coshocton, at 
Coshocton, Oct. 6-8 ; Union, at Marysville, Oct. 6-8 ; Wood, at 
Bowling Green, Oct. 6-8 ; Patnam, at Kalida, Oct. 7-8 ; Hancock, 
at Findlay, Oct. 7-9 ; Holmes, at Millersburg, Oct. 12-14 ; Morrow, 
at Mt. Gilead, Oct. 13-15 ; Trumbull, at Warren, Oct. 13-15 ; Athens, 
at Athens, Oct. 14-15; Monroe, at Woodsfield, Oct. 14-15; Car- 
roll, at Carrollton, Oct. 14-16 ; Lake, at Painesville, Oct. 14-16 : 
Fairfield, at Lancaster, Oct. 14-16. 



Agricultural Exhibitions of 1858. 69 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

The eighth annual exhibition was held at I'ittsburg, Sept. 28-- 
Oct. 1, ami was highly successful, crowning the meritorious exer- 
tions of PresidcntTaggart. under wdiose administration the State 
society has been relieved from its pecuniary embarrassments, caused 
b}' losses at preceding exhibitions. The grounds were spacious 
and well arranged, and as the field of competition was co-extensive 
with the United States, there was a fine display of stock, some of 
the finest of the Ohio herds adding to the interest of the exhibition. 
The horses were of good stock, and excellent quality ; the sheep 
fair, and the swine very superior. As might have been expected 
at tlie "Iron City," the display of implements and machinery was 
large and of a superior order. The show^ of apples, pears, and 
peaches, (as was generally the case in 1858,) was meagre ; but 
grapes, both native and exotic, were abundant and unusually fine. 
In Domestic hall, the wives and daughters of the sturdy yeomanry 
of Pennsylvania and Ohio hung up in great profusion the labor of 
their hands, in the shape of needle work, embroidery, and house- 
hold manufactures, well adorned with rows of jars containing pre- 
serves, jellies, and confections, accompanied by delicious bread and 
butter. An address \vas delivered on the last day of the exhibition 
by AVilliam A. Stokes, Esq.. of Westmoreland. There was a plough- 
ing match, and displays of trotting-horses. 

Local Exhibitions. — Dauphin county, at Harrisburg, addresses by 
Horace Greelej', of N^ew York, and R. J. Haldeman, receipts 
$3,162.54; Chester county, at West Chester, Oct. 1-2, surpassing 
the former efl'orts of the society in the variety and extent of its 
display, while the number of visitors far exceeded the attendance 
upon any exhibitions ; address by George W. Roberts, Esq.; a 
husking match between five competitors excited much amusement, 
and the winner in this "trial of speed" husked 108 ears, clear and 
clean, in eight minutes; Bucks county, at Newtown; Schuylkill 
county, at Schuylkill Haven, Oct. 5-7 ; Montgomery county, at 
Springtown, Oct. 5-7; Lucerne county, at Wyoming, tw'o days: 
Kendall county, at Bristol, Oct. 12-14; Butler county, at Butler, 
Oct. 14-15, address by L. Z. Mitchel, Esq.; Columbian county, at 
Bloomsburg, Oct. 14-16, display of trotting and of female eques- 
trianism; Westmorland county, time not given; York county, at 
York, a most successful and creditable exhibition, held on the 
"model grounds" of the societ}^ which cost $15,000. 

The Philadelphia society for promoting agriculture, off"ered ten 
silver medals for the best fields of w^heat, rye, oats, corn, potatoes, 
sugar beets, ruta-bagas, flat or field turnips, carrots, and turnips : 
for the second best of each of these crops, the society's diploma. 
The nature of the soil, the rotation of crops, the tillage, and other 
expenses of cultivation, as well as the largest yield, was jointly con- 
sidered by the judges in making the a^vards of both the first and 
second premiums of the society. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

The " Rhode Island Society for the Encouragement of Domestic 



70 Secretary' s Report on the 

Industry," (which was incorporated in 1820, and has some $18,000 
permanent fund,) held a " cattle show and industrial exhibition " 
at Providence, September 14--18. The premium list included $784 
for stock, 1200 for fruits, $200 for flowers, $100 for vegetables, $150 
for gratuities, $750 for the mechanic arts, $300 for the fine arts, 
and $100 for miscellaneous objects — all judiciously subdivided. 
The premium list and expenses of the cattle show and exhibition, 
(not including printing, office rent, and the expenses of the society,) 
were $3,709.98 ; the sale of tickets and rent of refreshment room 
at cattle show was $3,833.15. The cattle show was not large, but 
there were some excellent cows and swine, with more horses than 
had been exhibited in previous years. The industrial and horticul- 
tural exhibitions were held in the spacious rooms over the railroad 
depot. There were fine specimens of the manufactures of cotton, 
woolen, and India rubber goods ; a fire-engine made for Columbia, 
S. C. ; and a remarkable display of peaches, exotic grapes, Zante 
currants, figs, strawberries, and other rare products of the greenhouse. 
A Local Exhibition was held by the Aquidneck Society, at Ports- 
mouth, (where it owns grounds and buildings,) Sept. 21. The 
Bristol County Agricultural and Horticultural Society was incor- 
porated in May of 1858. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

The third annual exhibition of the State society was held near 
Columbia, iSTov. 9~11, and the excellent programme was success- 
fully carried out by Col. P. J. Gage, the efficient secretary. There 
was a fine display of horses, including some good Morgan stock. 
The Durham, Devon, Brahmin, Grade, and Xative breeds of cattle 
were well represented. There were Merino, Leicester, Cotswold, 
and African or Broad-tailed sheep; Cashmere goats ; Suflblk, Essex, 
Berkshire, Frazier, Chester, Yorkshire, and l!^ative swine ; fancy 
fowl; the varied farm and garden products of the State; a large 
pomological display; farm implements and domestic manufactures 
in abundance, and a tempting household department, surpassing 
those of all other State exhibitions in the number and the variety 
of the good things exhibited. Gov. Alston was present. 

Each evening there was meeting of the society for profitable dis- 
cussions of topics relating to the agriculture of the State. The first 
one was opened by an eloquent address from Col. Andrew P. Cal- 
houn, the president of the society, who successfullj^ cultivates the 
estate of his revered father, near Pendleton. A resolution was 
passed, authorizing the executive committee to have published in 
pamphlet form, under the direction of the secretary, one thousand 
copies of the act of incorporation, of the constitution and by-laws 
of the society, a tabular statement of its annual income since its 
organization, and an appended list of the officers and life members, 
with the district in which they reside, and the post offices of their 
address. 

Local Exhibitions. — Pendleton Farmers' Society, an old and useful 
association, at Pendleton, Oct. 7-8 ; the Walhalla fair, second 
week in October; Lexington district, at Lexington court-house, 



Agricultural Exiiihitions of 1858, 71 

Oct. 21--22, so successful that a sufiiciciit sum of mone}' was sub- 
scribed to warrant the purchase of ground and the erection of build- 
ings for the next fair; the address was delivered bv Rev. Adam 
Etird. 

TENNESSEE. 

The State exhibition was hchl at Nashville, and well sustained 
the agricultural reputation of Tennessee. No detailed report has 
been received, but the address of Hon. A. V. Brown, delivered on 
the occasion, was a beautiful and appropriate eifort, abounding in 
happy illustrations of themes suggested b}' the occasion. 

Local Exhibitions. — The Eastern Division fair was held at Knox- 
ville, in connection with the Knox county Societ3''s fair, Oct. 20-22; 
the Shelby count;^- fair was held at Memphis, Oct. 12-17; Mr. S. 
Richards was thrown from his horse in a tournament and seriously 
injured. 

UTAH. 

An agricultural exhibition was held at Salt Lake city the first 
week in October, at which fine specimens of fruit and vegetables 
were exhibited. 

VERMONT. 

The eighth annual exhibition was held by the State society. Sept. 
14-17, at the grounds near Burlington, which were occupied in 
1856. They are twenty -five acres in extent, with a half mile track, 
commodious buildings, and other conveniences for the farmers' 
festival. The display and the attendance is said to have been 
creditable, the horses predominating among the stock exhibited. 
At a "trial of speed," on the last day, prizes of ^300, $200, and 
$100 were offered, and some fine horses competed for them. Hon. 
Jacob Collamer, U. S. Senator from Vermont, delivered the address. 

Local Exhibitions. — Third annual fair of the Poultney society, at 
West Poultney, Oct. 14, address by Hon. Jacob Collamer; Addison 
county society; Franklin county, at St. Albans, Sept, 30 ; AVilming- 
ton, Sept. 23. 

VIRGINIA. 

The sixth annual exhibition of the Virginia State Society was 
held at Petersburg Nov. 2-5, the citizens of the "Cockade," with 
the Union Agricultural Society of Virginia and North Carolina, 
having offered the free use of grounds, and $4,000, with such addi- 
tional sum as might be necessary to meet any deficiency at the close 
of the exhibition. The better portion of the stock and implements 
exhibited at the exhibition of the United States Agricultural Soci- 
ety at Richmond, the previous week, graced the grounds, and many 
of the exhibitors at Richmond also took premiums at Petersburg. 
The display of horses, cattle, and sheep was remarkably good, and 
the "trials of speed" showed that good time was made by some of 
the trotters. A severe storm interfered with the success of the ex- 
hibition. In the evenings there were meetings for discussion, and 
on Thursday evening Professor Holcomb delivered the annual ad- 
dress, taking as a subject: "The right of the State to establish Sla- 



72 Secretary' s Report on the 

verj^, considered as a question of Natural Law, with special refer- 
ence to African Slavery as it exists in the United States." The 
valedictory address was delivered by Ex-President Tyler. 

Local Exiiihitions. — The A'irginia JSTortliwestern Agricnltural So- 
ciety held its first fair on fine gronds on an island near AVhecling, 
Sept. 14-17. London county fair, at Leesburg, Oct. 14-15, Lynch- 
burg fair, a fine display, Oct. 15-18, receipts $11,714, and net profits 
over $2,000 — an address by Hon. \Y . L. Goggin, Seaboard Agri- 
cultural Society of Virginia and North Carolina, at Norfolk, Nov. 
9-12, an attractive exhibition, with a good show of cattle, and a 
superior display of implements; at an evening's meeting, Ex-Presi- 
dent Tyler and Edmund Riiflin, sr., were among the speakers; a 
storm interfered with the success of a tournament on the second 
day, but sunshine lit up the closing scenes, among which a mule 
race was prominent, the slowest mule winning, and no servant 
riding his master's mule, so of course each rider belabors his beast, 
that his master's may be left in the rear. Pappahanuock county, 
at Fredericksburg, Nov. 16-18, a fair show of stock, and a tourna- 
ment; Valley Society, at Winchester, addresses by Hon. Henry 
Bedinger (since deceased) and Hon. C.J. Faulkner; Tobacco Grow- 
ers' show at Floyd county court-house, Dec. 10, numerous samples 
were exhibited, the fine yellowMvrappers meriting particularnotice; 
three premiums were awarded. 

WISCONSIN. 

The eighth annual exhibition of the State Agricultural Society 
was held at Madison, about a mile from the capifol, Oct. 4-8. The 
grounds were fifty-three acres in extent, with a fine level for a 
track on one side, and shaded highlands on the other, where the 
buildings and tents were erected, a Hall of Fine Arts, (some sixty 
feet in diameter,) crowning an eminence which commands a view 
of the fair grounds, and many of the public and private buildings 
of the city. There was an abundance of good water, and an ad- 
joining timothy and clover grass field had been secured for the 
free use of stock exhibitors — a great benefit for those who had 
animals taken from pastures, as the change to dry feed would not 
only make them look quant, but would be very apt to afl:ect their 
health. Mankind was also provided for by the erection of sleeping 
and eating accommodations for a thousand men, on the grounds, 
and even the editorial fraternity, (usually foigotten, unless "the 
press" is lugged in among the last toasts at a dinner,) had an 
"Editorial Hall and Reading Poom" fitted up for their accommo- 
dation. Over one hundred editors and correspondents availed 
themselves of this wise provision for their comfort. Of course, 
where such excellent arrangements had been made, the exhibition 
was a success, for which President Wiliard and Secretary Powers 
were duly complimented, as they well deserved to be. 

The Durhams, Devons, and Grades made a fine display of cattle, 
and those residing at a distance will be pleased to learn that por- 
traits of the best animals will appear in the next volume of the 
State society's transactions. Blooded, Black Hawk, and Morgan 



Agricultural Exldhitions of 1858. 73 

stock was well represeutccl, with a fine lot of horses for general 
.utility. The sheep and swine were good, as was the poultry. The 
show of agricultural machinery and implements was large, and 
many improvements were exhibited, very valuable in a new coun- 
try, where labor-saving contrivances are prized. The Fruit and 
Floral Hall was creditably filled, (one exhibitor presenting seventy- 
five varieties of Wisconsin apples,) and decorated with flowers, and 
the display of farm products was greatly admired. Vegetables 
were fine ; potatoes and sweet potatoes especially so. In the exhi- 
bition of bread, butter, cakes, jellies, preserves, and pickles, there 
was brisk competition. The department of domestic manufactures 
not ver}' extensive. Fancy work abundant. One "entry" of "owe 
pair darned old stockings,'" created much amusement till the truth 
of the exhibition was proved to correspond with the entry, and the 
old stockings darned bore off the prize. The St. Croix County 
Society pitched their tent within the enclosure, and exhibited the 
varied products of their locality, a new yet excellent idea. There 
was also a " sugar camp," where sorgho syrup was grained into 
pretty good brown sugar. The address was delivered by Hon. Cas- 
sius M. Clay, of Kentucky. 

There were trotting-matches, in single and double harness, a 
ladies equestrian display, for which |75 in five premiums was 
awarded ; Professor Rarey's horse taming exhibition ; a firemen's 
muster ; a military parade ; and an editorial convention. ISTo wonder 
that all were pleased. 

Local Exhibitions. — Grant county, at Boscobel, Sept. 22-23, ad- 
dress by Professor J. W. Hoyt ; Jefferson county, at Fort Atkinson, 
Sept. 24-25, address by Hon. L. R. Harvey ; Waukesha county, 
address by Thomas P. Turner, Esq., the president of the society ; 
Winnebago conuty, at Oskosh, Sept. 25-26; Racine county, at 
Union Grove, Sept. 28-29, address by C. W. Bennet, of Burling- 
ton ; Walworth county, at Elkhorn, Sept. 29-Oct. 1, address by 
Professor J. W. Hoyt ; Richland county, at Richland Centre, Oct. 
12-13 ; Crawford county, at Seneca, Oct. 12-13. 



COUNTRY AND CITY LIFE. 

[From an Address delivered at the Tennessee State Exhibition, 1858.) 

BY THE LATE POSTMASTER GENERAL BROWN. 

In this country the farmer generally holds an indefeasible title to 
the broad acres he cultivates. He moves proudly over his fields, 
and surveys with satisfaction the crops which are growing upon 
them. But he will not stop in his money making career to build 
his neat cottage, or his more costly mansion, according to his cir- 
cumstances. He will not adorn his grounds, nor plant his orchards 
of delicious fruits. He will waste no time on shrubbery and flowers. 
He will prepare no healthful cistern, nor lead the gushing fountain 
to his door. All is left rude, inconvenient and uncomfortable 
around him, with nothing to lure either himself or his family awav 
10 



74 Country and City Life, 

from the blandishments of some neighboring town or cit}'. Every 
farmer and planter should make his home to himself or his house-, 
hold the dearest and loveliest spot on earth. Though he may have 
no marble palace, no rich and costly furniture, no liveried servants, 
still, there is his homestead beautified and adorned with every em- 
bellishment of taste and fancy. AVho would be willing to leave 
such a home, with its Arcadian bowers and its pure and sparkling 
waters, for the dust and smoke of the crowded city ? 

And how" strange is this passion for city over country life which 
we so often encounter ! It cannot spring from any inordinate de- 
sire to grow rich, for agriculture rewards her followers more boun- 
tifull}'' than any other pursuit. It is a passion for pleasure and dis- 
play more than for riches. Some men desire to live in palaces built 
in the city, that they may be seen and admired. They desire costly 
equipages, but the}^ must glitter in the city, attracting the admira- 
tion of thousands who would never behold them in the solitude of 
the country. The theatre, the ball, and the masquerade present 
their nightly attractions, whilst they are seldom heard of in rural 
life. The devotee of more questionable pleasures finds in the city 
ready facilities of indulgence, v/hich are entirely removed in the 
plain and virtuous organization of country society. Whatever the 
motive, this preference given by so many to city life, is productive 
of some of the greatest evils of the present age. In the fondness of 
hope that something may chance to turn up in their favor, hundreds 
and thousands precipitate themselves into towns and cities without 
preconcerted arrangements for regular and permanent emplojmient. 
It is the great law of our being, that if we would be either happy 
or prosperous, we must have employment, physical or intellectual. 
This is emphatically true of city life. But this disproportionate 
rush to the city renders such employment impossible ; no demands 
of commerce, manufactures, or the mechanic arts can farnish it to 
the redundant crowds that pour themselves into our cities. Hence, 
that mass of poverty and sufiering — for shelter, for fuel, for raijnent, 
for bread — which no city ordinances can relieve. Hence, also, those 
great mobs and processions through the streets in times of scarcity, 
demanding employment and subsistence, which oftentimes nothing 
but martial law can subdue ; and hence, too, that foul and festering 
mass of corruption and vice, which too often afilict and disgrace 
our over-crow^ded cities. 

How delightful it is to turn from the contemplation of these 
scenes to the calm, contented, and virtuous life of the country, with 
its comfortable, and sometimes its magnificent mansions ; with its 
outstretched lawns and landscapes, its churches and school-houses, 
its abundant supply of raiment, and almost boundless store of sub- 
sistence for man and all the animals that minister to either his ne- 
cessities or pleasures ! 

Still, I must remind you that the great law of employment and 
labor applies equally to country and city life. It is by labor that 
man must work out the great problem of his existence — labor of 
the head, labor of the heart, and labor of the hand. 



by the late A. V. Brown. 75 

Wherever man has failed to labor he has remained a savage ; 
where he has labored most he has risen highest in the scale of his 
physical, moral, and intellectual being. If one Angel Avith his 
flaming sword drove Adam from his Eden, another Angel, though 
disguised in the humble form of Labor, will gently lead his descend- 
ants back to their native paradise. Look at the progress they have 
already made in that celestial and glorious direction. Look back- 
ward to the dark ages of man's existence, when he was a mere bar- 
barian. Look at him now, how noble and majestic he stands, with 
all his temples dedicated to learning and piety, and good govern- 
ment around him. Once a savage, now almost a God. 

Be not startled at the boldness of these words. The grandeur of 
what man has already done and is now achieving, must plead apol- 
ogetic for the apparent impiet}-. He has scanned the Heavens, and 
almost numbered the stars ; he has gently stolen away its light- 
nings, and sent them over the land and through the deep waters, 
to convey his thoughts and wishes around the world ; he has laid 
hold on another of the elements, and dispatched his huge ships in 
a few days over the widest oceans ; he has levelled the mountains 
of the earth that impeded his pathway, and brought forth from their 
deep and hidden recesses the rich treasures they contained. 

Li the majesty of man's civilization and progress, the earth, the 
seas, and the winds, all stand subdued and conquered by his pres- 
ence and power; and how animating is the reflection, my country- 
men, that in all this improvement and progress, America, our young 
and vigorous America, holds so proud a pre-eminence. Her glori- 
ous form of government, stretching like the rainbow of hope and 
promise from ocean to ocean, gives shelter and protection to nearly 
thirty millions of the sons and daughters of freedom. Her luxuriant 
valleys, reposing in every climate, yield in superabundance every 
fruit and grain suited to the subsistence of man. Her mountains, 
teeming with ores and the precious metals, give employment to 
millions of artisans, and can furnish the long desired currency of 
gold and silver, the most stable and unerring standard of values 
and exchanges ever devised by the wit of man. 

These great advantages of good government — of climate and 
soil — of mineral production — have stimulated the zeal and quick- 
ened the capacities of the American people, until they stand unsur- 
passed in agriculture, in manufactures, in the mechanic arts, in sci- 
entific pursuits, in the learned professions, and, indeed, unsurpassed 
in all the elements of national greatness. 

But what avails our national greatness if we have not national 
and individual virtue to inspire us with obedience to law and a rev- 
erence for the glorious Constitution and Union under which we 
live ! These are the sources of our unexampled growth and pros- 
perity, and with his last breath every true patriot should fervently 
pray that they might last and endure forever : 

" Our union of lakes and union of lands, 
Our union of States, none shall sever. 
Our union of hearts and union of hands, 
And the Flag of our Union forever." 



76 Iiiti-oductory Editorial Remarks^ 



C|e ^antarji's Cable. 



Rooms ov the Unitkd States Agricultural Society, 
356 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C, April, 1859. 



TO THE READERS OF THE "JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE." 
The first number of the "Journal" Mas published vvithin two months after the organi- 
zation of the United States Agricultural Society in 1852, by Daniel Lee, Esq., then Cor- 
responding Secretary. It was originally a quarterly publication, but as the gentlemen who 
in turn acted as Secretaries could not devote to it the time requisite to edit and publish 
a periodical, it was — after 1854 — issued annually. During the year 1858, a "Monthly- 
Bulletin " was also issued, and was favorably received ; but as the two publications 
necessarily conflicted, it was determined by the Executive Committee chosen at the an- 
nual meeting of 1859, to issue a "Quarterly Journal of Agriculture," combining the 
features of the Journal and of the Bulletin. The editorial supervision, hitherto exercised 
by the Executive Committee, has been vested in the Secretary of the Society, and he de- 
sires, in assuming an individual responsibility, to state briefly what he considers to be 
the object of the publication, and the plan upon which he proposes to conduct it, in ac- 
cordance with what he believes to be the desire of the Society under whose auspices it 
appears. 

The "Journal of Agriculture," published by the United States Agricultural Society, 
will give an accurate record of the proceedings of that body, and of the action of its 
Executive and other committees, that every officer and member may know what is being 
done. Meetings, Trials, and Exhibitions will be announced and chronicled ; the opera- 
tions of the ofBce at Washington will be detailed; correspondence will be acknowledged, 
and such portions of it published as may be deemed worthy ; donations to the library 
and to the cabinet will be mentioned with thanks ; the receipt and the distribution of 
seeds will be stated ; the names of new annual and life members will be enrolled ; in 
short, the ofiicers, the members, and the public will have full information of what is 
done each quarter, for the acquisition and difl'usion of agricultural knowledge by the 
United States Agricultural Society. 

The "Journal of Agriculture " will seek to make known the progress of the agricul- 
ture of the United States to the people of other lands, and to show them how a country, 
where Heaven has showered down its richest natural gifts, is cultivated. In return, it 
is hoped that much valuable information will be obtained, and at once disseminated 
among the members of the United States and other home Agricultural Societies. The 
publication not being dependent upon official action, no time will be lost in communi- 
cating what may be received of value and of interest. 

The Agricultural and Horticultural Press of the United States will find in the "Journal 
of Agriculture" an ally — not a rival. It will not interfere with their various spheres of 
action, but will seek in every way to promote their interests, and to make each one 
known throughout the country. The action of Congress upon Agricultural matters, and 
every step taken by Government officials, which is of direct and practical utility, will be 



Appeal to American Agriculturalists. 77 

published without delay — neither will the Editor be at all Ijackward in speaking plainly 
of the manner in which appropriations from the Public Treasury for the advancement of 
agriculture may be expended. 

Appropriate statistics will be sought for and published in the "Journal of Agricul- 
ture." The first number of the "Journal" published in August, 1852, contained an 
advance copy of the official returns of the Seventh Census, so far as they related to the 
agricultural industry' of the Republic. Full and complete, (although in a condensed 
form,) it was a highl-y interesting and instructive document ; and it has been extensively 
copied. As agriculture is confessedly the basis of all trades, all commerce, and all manu- 
factures, facts and figures which show the agricultural resources, improvements and 
wealih of the United States, are in fact the land-marks of our country's progress. 

The "Journal of Agriculture" will earnestly and cordially seek to unite and to pro- 
mote the interests of all auxiliary societies in the United States, and it asks the co-opera- 
tion of all, Avith a view to the general advancement of the great cause. Experience has 
proved that no one institution, however distinguished, of any one State, can bring to its 
aid the combined efforts and support of the whole Union — neither can it be expected 
that volunteer associations will cordially and unanimously rally around a minor office 
of the Federal Government. The United States Agricultural Society was established by 
the State Societies — delegates from those Societies, with citizens of the different States, 
unite annually in electing its officers and in prescribing its course of action — and it takes 
a position above all political or sectional differences of opinion. Yet while a central 
institution, it does not assume a superior position over the Society of any State or even 
county; it does not pretend to direct veteran laborers in the field, who have in so 
many instances not confined their usefulness within the geographical bounds of their 
respective institutions, as the cultivators of the entire Republic will bear grateful testi- 
mony ; but it asks their countenance, their aid, and their co-operation. It invites them 
to come forward, and to make the "Journal of Agriculture" a chronicle of their good 
works — a common focus to which the now scattered lights of American agriculture can be 
conveyed, and from which they can be without loss of time radiated throughout the 
Union. Labor may toil, and science may experiment, and art may invent, but practical 
results, and profitable conceptions, and useful invention may remain unknown foryear.s, 
if there is not a general medium through which they can be made public. Neither will 
agriculture take its proper position, until by union and a concentration of interests, 
those who cultivate this continent make themselves known to their fellow-citizens. 

The subscriber is well aware that he is not qualified to properly occupy the position 
in the United States Agricultural Society to which his brother farmers have (against his 
earnestly expressed wishes) this year re-elected him — a position as laborious as it is un- 
remunerative. Nor would he undertake the new responsibility of conducting this peri- 
odical, had not practical and scientific agriculturalists of acknowledged position, in 
different sections of the country, promised to become contributors. With their aid — 
with the countenance of the agricultural press — and with the co-operation of the officers 
of the Boards and Societies organized in the various States, the "Journal of Agriculture" 
can be made a useful reservoir for the immediate reception and for the speedy diffusion of 
valuable information — the depository and the exemplar of those truths and discoveries 
upon which the agricultural progress of our country depends. Its value, either as an 
auxiliary to the United States Society, or as an expounder and advocate of the agricul- 
tural interest of the country, will be in proportion to the exertions of those who have 
the ability to contribute to its columns, and those who should extend its influence by 
increasing the list of its recipients. Ben : Perley Poore, 

Sec. U. S. Ag. Society. 



78 From the Secretary b Tahle^ 

A VALUABLE WORK. 

Mr. Townend Glover, of Wcashington, who is well known to the Agriculturalists and 
Horticulturalists of the country, and whose labors have been commended by the United 
States Agricultural Society in resolutions passed at two of its annual meetings, is now 
engaged in perfecting a most valuable work, which he proposes to publish next winter. 
It will be a Dictionary of the names of Agricultural, Horticultural, Pomological and 
Sylvan products of the United States, with the insects which injure and destroy them, 
copiously illustrated from nature, by etchings on copper. 

Mr. Glover commenced his investigations on these important subjects in 1854, and has 
since visited nearly every section of the Republic, in the pursuance of his investigations. 
The proposed work will embody the results of his observations on the Southern as well 
as the Northern insects, and in its preparation he will be untrammeled, and at liberty to 
follow his own inclinations. 

We cannot better give an idea of this valuable contribution to the original agricultural 

literature of the country, than hj opening Mr. Glover's manuscript field-book of notes, 

from which the volume is to be prepared, and making an extract. At the head of the 

page which we accidentally have selected, is the letter P., and we find : 

Plum. Fruit. Injured by the Plum Weevil, or Curculio, or Cherry Worm. Conotrachdui 2\'enuphar, eco 
page — . 

Turning to page — , we find : 

Plum Weevil, Curculio, or Cheiiry Worm. Conotrachelus Xenuphar. 

Synonymes. Rliynchceyius Argula,F<ihv. Rhynchcenus Cerasi,^ec^. Curculio Xenuptiar, llevhst. Conotra- 
chelus Variegatus. De Jean, etc. 

Egg. Deposited singly in a ciesent-shaped cut or incision, made by the probocis of the insect. 

Larva. Burrows obliquely into the fruit, penetrating to the stone, causing the fruit to fall. 

Pupa. Formed under the earth. 

Insect. Appears about three weeks after the larva enters the ground. The late broods hybejinate as larvse 
under the ground. It feigns death when disturbed. 

Nate. Dr. Fitch states that late broods deposite their eggs in the tender bark. The worms from which 
hibernate in, not under the bark during the winter, and produce the spring brood of weevils, which lay their 
eggs iu the fruit. 

General description. — Color, dark brown, with a whitish band on the posterior part of elytra. Head, furn- 
shed with a trunk, having jaws at its end. with which it cuts the incisions wherein to deposit egg. etc. 

Beferences. Fitch's New York Keport,'p p. 340, .3-iO, 305. 3-59,360, .3C5.3S7; Harris' Massachusetts Keport, 
p. G6; New England Farmer, vol. IS, p. 304, vol. 22, p. 40; llovey's Magazine, vol. 9. p.281, vol.14, p. 527, etc.. etc. 

Destroys. Apple, Apricot, Cherry, Peach, Pear, Plum, Nectarines. Quince, and [according to Say.] Walnut. 

These, it must be remembered, are but Mr. Glover's rough memoranda, selected at 
random from his well filled note-book. Opposite every page will be plates illustrating 
the text, engraved after nature. 



Patent Office Report for 1858. — On the 2d of March, the Committee on Printing of 
the House of Representatives, passed the following resolution, by a vote of 124 yeas — 
56 nays : 

Resolved, That there be printed, in addition to the usual number, two hundred and ten 
thousand extra copies of the report of the Commissioner of Patents on agriculture for 
the year 1858 ; ten thousand copies of which shall be for distribution by the Interior 
Department, provided that the aggregate number of pages in spid report shall not exceed 
568, including ten pages of illustrated matter ; and provided further that the entire 
amount of copy, including the drawings on paper, be placed in the hands of the Super- 
intendent of Public Printing on or before the first day of June next. 

Serious Loss. — The Charlottesville (Va.) Advocate says: "Dr. John R. Woods has, we 
regret to learn, experienced a heavy loss by the death of his splendid Cleveland bay 
stallion, "Napier,'" which died a few weeks since, at sea, just two days out from Liver- 
pool. This was the second Cleveland horse that Dr. Wood had purchased in England 
within the last eighteen months; and is said to have been the finest horse in the British 
kingdom. The loss is between $3000 and $4000. 



Florida Grass. — Mr. S. S. Mills, of Charleston, S. C, has invented and patented a 
machine which prepares the grass of the Florida Keys for rope-making. 



United States Agricultural Society. 79 

THE TOBACCO INTEREST. 

Instructions have been sent by the State Department to the ministers of the Uni- 
ted States in Europe, informing them that Congress has, by resolution, protested against 
the restrictions and limitations with Avhich our tobacco trade is clogged, and demanded 
the immediate commencement of dii)Iomatic negotiations, "with the view of obtaining a 
modification of the existing systems of revenue and taxation of those nations in respect 
to American tobacco." 

A committee of the Kentucky State Agricultural Society recommends a convention of 
the producers and buyers of tobacco, to be held in Louisville, Kentucky, on the 25th of 
May next, which is the day fixed for awarding premiums to the growers of the best to- 
bacco, under the auspices of the State Agricultural Society. The design is to bring the 
producers and purchasers together, in order to interchange opinions. The agriculturists 
may learn what grades are best suited to the market, and will meet the most ready sale. 
The Louisville Journal^ speaking of the great commercial importance of this staple, says 
that the value of the raw tobacco exported from the United States to Great Britain, was 
over three 'and a half million of dollars in 1855, and during the first half of the present 
century that country collected import duties on it to the enormous aggregate of over 
$750,000,000. The total value of our exports of tobacco in 1857 was $20,662,772, and 
in 1858 amounted to $19,409,882. During the first nine months of 1857 the import 
revenue derived by France from it was over $25,000,000, four-fifths of which were ex- 
ported from this countrj'. The Cyclopedia of Commerce says tobacco, next to salt, is 
probably the article most consumed by men. In one form or another, but most gener- 
ally in the form of fume or smoke, there is no climate in which it is not consumed, and 
no nationality that has not adopted it. To put down its use has equally baffled legisla- 
tors and moralists, and in the words of Pope, on a higher subject, it may be said to be 
partaken of "by saint, by savage, and by sage." The average consumption per head of 
male population over eighteen years of age, in some countries, seems almost fabulous. 
In the German States, included in the operations of the ZoUverein and the Steuerverein, 
it reaches from 9f to 12 J pounds ; in Holland and Belgium and Denmark to 8 or 9 pounds. 
The advance cost of tobacco is shown from the fact that in 1842 we exported 150,710 
hhds. at an average value of $60.11, and in 1857 only 156,848, at the average value per 
hhd. of $132.40. 

Tobacco is now a staple product in Connecticut and central Massachusetts, and accord- 
ing to the Springfield Republican, it is the most remunerative crop grown, taking its average 
product and price for the past twenty years. Fifteen hundred pounds to the acre is the 
average yield in Connecticut, and ten to twelve cents a pound the average price. The 
Northern tobacco is used generally for cigars. For cigar-wrappers a large handsome leaf 
is the desirable thing, and strength of flavor less important. The most highly flavored 
tobacco, used for filling the best cigars, comes from Cuba. The Virginian is next best in 
esteem for this purpose. 



Greece. — It was stated in a report on Modern Greece, recently presented to the Cor- 
poration of Harvard College, that an agricultural paper ably edited has been established 
at Athens. " The first number has a description of McCormick's reaping machine, with 
illustrations, and it is hoped that ere long some subsequent number will contain an ac- 
count of the successful operation of this American patent reaper on that parcel of ground 
near Eleusis, called the Rharium, where Ceres, the goddess of corn and harvests, taught 
Triptolemus to plough, to sow and to reap." 



A " LoNGWooD " Willow graces the capitol grounds at Columbia, S. 0. It has grown 
from a slip, brought from St. Helena, by a ship captain, about forty years ago. 



80 From the Secretarif s Tahle^ 

■ PUBLICATIONS AND DIPLOMAS. 

Life Members are entitled to all the publications of the Society, from the date of their 
membership, but were the volumes to be sent post-paid a heavy expense would thereby 
be incurred. Every exertion has been used to have the volumes containing' the Trans- 
actions of the Society in 1857 and 1858 sent to life-members under congressional franks 
or by private hands. If any members have not received them, duplicate copies will be 
sent on receipt of the postage stamps which have to be placed on them, viz : seventeen 
cents for the transactions of 1857 and thirteen cents for the Transactions of 1858. 

Diplomas of membership are delivered at the ofHee of the Society. They will be sent 
by mail, on wooden rollers, on receipt of seventy-five cents in postage stamps. 

The fee for life-membership is so small that it will not generally defray the cost of the 
publications and Diploma furnished, and if the postages were paid from the Society's 
treasury, the membership fund would soon be exhausted. The amount of postage is a 
small matter for each individual, but would amount to a large sum if paid by the Society. 



A Superintendent will have the management of the next Exhibition of the United 
States Agricultural Society, in accordance with the recommendation of President Tilgh- 
man, in his annual address, which was adopted. It will not be an easy task to find a 
gentleman possessing all the qualifications for this arduous task. The preliminary ar- 
rangements will require experience and habits of organization — he must be patient and 
forbearing — and during the exhibition he must exercise no small degree of authority to 
insure a punctual performance of the programme. The "right man for the right place" 
will however be found, and the appointment will add greatly to the success of the Exhi- 
bition. 



Medals and Diplomas awarded at the exhibitions of the United States Agricultural 
Society, are delivered at the next succeeding annual meeting. Several medals and 
diplomas, awarded at the Louisville and the Richmond exhibitions are as yet unclaimed, 
and the owners of them are requested to send for them without further delay. They 
will be delivered at the office of the Society, or forwarded by express. The Diplomas 
can be sent by mail, in which case those recipients must forward seventy-five cents in 
stamps to defray the postal charge. 



The Office of the United States Agricultural Society at Washington, is open for the 
transaction of business every day during the summer months, from ten until twelve 
o'clock. The Secretary will be absent during the month of May, attending to his farm, 
but letters addressed to him at Washington, will be attended to. 



Contributors are requested to forward articles intended for the July number, before 
the first of June. 



Agricultural Patents. — Of the 3,710 patents issued by the United States office last 
year, 561 were for implements relating to agricultural implements and processes, of which 
152 were for improvements in reaping and mowing machines, and 42 were for improve- 
ments in cotton gins and presses and in packing cotton. 

From a recent article in the London Quarterly Review, we learn that the first patent for 
drain pipes was granted in January, 1619, to John Ethrington, for " a certain engine to 
make and cast all sorts of earthen pipes for conveyance of water in the earth." For up- 
wards of two centuries afterwards, the number of English patents in this department 
was only 16, while from August, 1830, to August, 1855, the number granted is 104. LTp 
to 1840 only 10 patents had been taken out for manures. From 1840 to 1855 there 
were issued 128. Nothing can mark more plainly the period of agricultural progress. 



United States Agricultural Society. 81 

THE NATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR 1859. 

It will be seen by reference to the twenty-second page of this number of the " Journal," 
that the Executive Committee were instructed to give the preference — in fixing upon the 
location of the Seventh Annual Exhibition of the United States Agricultural Society — 
to " some eligible point in the valley of the Mississippi, or of the Great Lakes, and west 
of the State of Ohio." This narrowed down the choice among the cities and towns from 
which formal applications have been received, to St. Louis, Missouri ; and Peoria and 
Chicago, Illinois — the propositions from the two last named places having been followed 
by sufficient guarantees — but the Sub-committee to which the matter was referred have 
not yet made a selection. 

The place, the time, the premium list, and the roll of judges, will be published in the 
July number of the "Journal of Agriculture." 



AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITIONS FOR 1859. 
In the "Monthly Bulletin" for March, 1858, the Secretary of the United States Agri- 
cultural Society solicited from State Boards of Agriculture, State and County Agricul- 
tural Societies and Farmers' Clubs, notices of their annual exhibitions. Their responses 
have been condensed into the report published in the present number of this Journal, 
with such information as could be obtained from other sources. It is, as the initial of 
every such undertaking is apt to be, imperfect, and perhaps errors may be detected, but 
the committee of the Society to whom it was referred ordered its publication, in the hope 
that it might inspire those secretaries who did not last year respond, to send this year 
the desired information. See page 48. 



Commissioner of Patents. — As yet, President Buchanan has not intimated who he in- 
tends to appoint " Commissioner of Patents," in place of Mr. Holt, now Postmaster Gen- 
eral. Agriculturalists are of course much interested in this appointment, and it is to 
be hoped that it will be conferred upon some gentleman practically and theoretically 
acquainted with agriculture. 



Royal Society of England. — It is announced in the London Illustrated News of March 
5th, that the sum of £4,200, say $20,000, has already been collected in furtherance of 
the ensuing annual exhibition, at Wai'wick. 



Prices op Wheat. — A carefully prepared article in a recent number of the London 
Times states : " From 1827, the price of wheat has moved up four years and down four 
years, as regular as the seasons. This is proved by the figures on record. The lowest 
rate in that period was in 1851. The variation is from 38 to 74 per quarter. 

Cuba.- — A company called the ^^ Sociedad Algodonera" has been formed in London and 
Havana for the purpose of encouraging the culture of cotton in the island of Cuba. The 
plant grows wild in districts adjacent to the south slope of the island, where the com- 
pany has received donations of wild lands, and expects to produce a superior article. 



Africa. — Dr. David Livingston, in a letter dated at Tete, on the river Zambesi, seventy 
miles from its mouth, states that in that region, " fine cotton grows wild, after it has 
once been sown. One kind is long in staple. Another is short and strong, clings to the 
seed, and feels to the touch more like wool than cotton." 



A New Idea for a "track" for the exhibition of horses has been suggested by a gentle- 
man in Hartford, Conn. It is an elongated figure 8 — and as the track crosses at the inter- 
section, or middle of the figure, neither horse can get the advantage of the shorter or 
inside track. 

11 



82 From the Seeretary's Table, 

The Cotton Crop of 1858 is estimated at 3,900,000 bales, and there is every reason to 
believe that the crop of the present year will be larger. Recent advices from the Euro- 
pean markets are of a favorable tenor, and present prices will probably be sustained- 
During the six months ending April 1, the increase of receipts at American ports, com- 
pared with 1856, was 34T,000 bales. Exports — increase to Great Britain, compared with 
1856, 6,000 bales ; decrease to France, 14,000 ; increase to other foreign ports, 47,000. 
Total increase in exports, 29,000 bales. 

The following table shows the imports of raw cotton into the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain for a series of years, with the amount re-exported, and the stock in the country 
on the 31st of December of each year : 

, Imports. > , Stock. Dec. 31. , 

Years. United States, Other Countries, Total, Exports, U. States, All kinds, 

pounds. pounds. pounds. pounds. bales. bales. 

1840 487,856,504 104,631,506 592,488,010 38,673,229 403,000 584,000 

1841 358,240,964 129,751,391 487,992,355 37,673,586 344,600 619,400 

1842 414,030,779 117,719,307 531,750,086 45,251,248 373,400 674,400 

1843 574,783,520 98,409,596 673,193,116 39,620,000 593,200 920,700 

1844 517,218,622 128,892,682 646,111,304 47,222,560 654,900 1,036,900 

1845 626,650,412 95,329,541 721,979,953 42,916,384 808,100 1,195,400 

1846 401,949,393 65,906,881 467,856,274 65,930,704 397,800 658,800 

1847 364,599,291 110,108,324 474,707,015 74,954,320 286,200 511,900 

1848 600,247,488 112,772,673 713,020,161 74,019,792 348,300 598,600 

1849 634,504,050 120,964,962 755,469,012 98,893,536 389,900 659,400 

1850 493,153,112 170,323,749 663,576,861 102,469,696 343,900 622,400 

1851 596,638,962 160,740,787 757,570,749 111,980,400 320,800 594,000 

1852 765,630,544 164,151,904 929,782,448 ^11,894,303 474,800 807,400 

1853 658,451,796 236,826,953 895,278,749 148,569,680 380,900 817,500 

1854 722,151,346 165,181,803 887,333,149 123,326,112 367,800 706,300 

1855 681,629,424 210,122,528 891,751,952 124,368,100 296,300 566,500 

1856 780,040,016 243,846,288 1,023,886,304 141,660,864 298,100 492,700 

1857 654,758,048 314,560,848 969,318,896 131,928,720 265,600 542,600 

1858 732,403,840 199,443,216 931,847,056 153,035,680 269,050 461,980 

Although large amounts of English capital have been expended by the British " Cotton 
Supply Association," in encouraging the culture 'of the great staple in India, it is now 
admitted that the experiment is unsuccessful. The Loiidon Athenceum, in reviewing a 
recent publication called "A Hand Book of the Cotton Trade," takes this ground, and 
disposes summarily of the desires of the friends of the movement to attribute such failure 
to temporary or removable causes. The real cause, it contends, is the unfitness of the 
climate, which is subject to great extremes of heat, dryness, and moisture. In support 
of this conclusion, it cites the high authority of Dr. Royle and Mr. Ellison, and further 
argues that any artificial means — such as irrigation, for instance — by which some of the 
difficulties referred to might be partially obviated, are too costly for practical applica- 
tion. It is disposed therefore to regard the association — in its direction towards India 
at all events — as likely to waste a good deal of money, without any other result than 
that of illustrating the folly of meddling with the laws of supply. The " East India 
Cotton Company," organized in London, in January last, petitioned the court of Bank- 
ruptcy, on the 23d of February, to have its affairs closed, as the Directors could not 
agree as to how it should be managed. 

The " Cotton Supply Association " do not, however, confine their exertions in increas- 
ing the fields of cotton culture to India. They have also sent thousands of bushels of 
seed to the chief towns of the various countries bordering upon the Mediterranean and 
the Black sea, and to different sections of South Africa. They regard the American seed 
as the best, and have had prepared an " essay upon the most improved system of culti- 
vation of cotton, as practiced in the United States." The essay, with suitable drawings 
of the tools and the implements necessary for the cultivator, has been printed and ex- 
tensively circulated over the world. 



United States Agricultural Society. 88 

The Wheat Crop of 1859. — Letters from dilTerent sections of the United States, gen- 
erally represent the prospects of the growing wheat crop as very flattering, and confirm 
the opinion of Hon. B. P. Johnson, of New York, (based upon a careful estimate,) tha* 
the crop of 1859 will exceed that of 1858 some eight millions of bushels. The best ac- 
counts come from Texas — the worst from Georgia. 

The London Mark Lane Express has an article speculating upon the quantity of bread- 
stuffs England will need the present year, and from whom she expects to obtain the 
supply. Here are the figures : 

Countries. Quarters. 

Northern Russia 135,000 

Denmark and the Duchies, Prussia, the HanseTowns, and other parts of Germany 1,000,000 

Spain, say .' 50,000 

Italian States and Sicily 150,000 

Turkey proper 150, (00 

Egypt 500,000 

Wallachia and Moldavia 150 000 

Southern Russia 700,000 

United States and Canada 1,500,000 

Other countries , 265,000 

Total Quarters, [a Quarter is eight bushels] 4,600.000 



Consumption of Sdgar. — The following table, showing the consumption of foreign and 
domestic sugar in the United States for the past nine years, with the average yearly rate 
of increase, is not without its interest: 

Foreign. 

1858 244,758 

1857 241,765 

1856 255,292 

1855 192,604 

1854 150,854 

1853 200,610 

1852 196,558 

1851 : 181,047 

1850 143,045 

Average yearly increase for the above nine years, 5 J per cent. 



Domestic. 


Total. 


143,634 


388,492 


39,000 


280,765 


123,468 


378,760 


185,148 


377,752 


234,444 


385,298 


172,379 


372,989 


118,659 


315,217 


107,438 


288,485 


126,421 


269,466 



The Guano Trade op Peru. — The government of Peru sold from the Chincha islands, 
during the year 1858, guano to the amount of 266,709 tons. This sold at the ports in 
Europe and America where it was delivered for Bbout fifteen million dollars, and deducting 
$3,000 for the freight, this leaves $12,000,000 received by the Peruvian government and 
their agents from the sales. The freight the last year has averaged about $11 a ton. It 
is now $10 or less. At one time the freight was as high as $30 a ton. 

The annexed statement, from the Lima Comercia, gives the amount of guano shipped 
during the year 1858 : 

Ships. Guano. 

England and Continent. 190 151,333 

Spain 37 27,160 

France 45 25,545 

Australia 3 1,523 

Barbadoes 6 2,667 



United States. 
Mauritius 



Ships. 


Guano. 


52 


51,253 


13 


7,228 



Total 346 266,709 



In the British House of Commons, on the 21st of March, Major Edwards begged to ask 
the under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether the announcement he made last 
session, that the Peruvian government had arranged that the price of guano should be 
uniform here and in the United States, had been justified by the result; and if not, what 
steps her Majesty's government proposed to take? In reply, Mr. S. Fitzgerald said that 
if such a difference in the price of guano as was stated to exist in England and America 
were perpetuated, it would be the duty of the government to bring the matter seriously 
under the consideration of the Peruvian government. 



84 From the Secretary's Table, 

ABSTRACT OF CORRESPONDENCE. 
[Quarter ending March 31, 1859.] 

Alabama. — The fifth fair of the State Agricultural Society, will beheld at Montgomery, 
on the lf)th, 16th, 17th, and 18th days of November. A liberal and excellent arranged 
premium list has been published in the Southern Rural Magazine and American Cotton 
Planter, which is edited by Dr. N. B. Cloud, the efficient Secretary of the Society. Mr. 
F. S. Lyon, of Marengo county, will deliver the address. 

Arkansas. — The oldest agricultural society in the State is that in Washington county, 
adjoining the Cherokee nation. The present officers are : David Walker, PreszVfewi ; J. 
W. Washbourne, Vice President; P. P. Vanhoose, Secretary ; and the next exhibition will 
be at Faj'etteville, in the month of October. 

California. — We learn from the message of Gov. Weller that five thousand dollars 
have been annually appropriated by the Legislature towards defraying the expenses of 
the State Agricultural Society', and the " money has been nsefully expended." Vast 
quantities of rich and fertile lands are being rapidl}' reduced to cultivation. In the cul- 
tivation of the grape and the manufiicture of wine, California already stands foremost 
among the States. In 1860, it is thought the manufactures of wines and brandies will 
reach the high figure of a million of gallons. In 1858, wool was exported to the amount 
of 1,351,107 pounds, valued at $189,634. The Governor thinks the time has come to 
manufacture coarse woolens at liome. The number of sheep now in tlie State is not less 
than 650,000, donble the number in 1856. The increase of horses during that period 
w^as' 43,000, and in cattle 120,000. Hides were exported last year to the amount of 
$516,712. The increase of land put in cultivation since 1856, exclusive of land fenced 
in for grazing purposes, is put down at 244,771 acres. The wheat crop of 1858 was 
3,568,669 bushels, and that of barley 5,382,717, being 218,798 more bushels than the 
amount of barley raised in the whole Union in 1850, according to the census. 

Illinois. — The biennial meeting of the State Agricultural Society was held at Spring- 
field, January 5th, when the following officers were elected: Lewis Ellsworth, President; 
C. B. Denio, Win. H. Van Epps, John Girard, A. Dunlap, J. W. Singleton, Stephen Dunlap, 
Wm. Kile, Samuel B. Chandler, H. S. Osborn, Vice Preside7its; John Cook, Recording 
Secretary; S. Francis, Corresponding Secretary ; John W. Bunn, Treasurer. 

The Governor of the State, in his annual message, said that the fairs of the State soci- 
ety, lield within the last two years at Peoria and Centralia, where were exhibited spe- 
cimens of the agricultural wealth and mechanical genius of Illinois, and which drew 
together for their examination large numbers of our people, have had a powerful influ- 
ence in giving an impetus to agricultural industry, which will be felt in all time to come. 
There are now in this State ninety-two legallj^ organized county .agricultural societies, 
which are doing good service in this work of agricultural improvement. 

Indiana. — The Board of Agriculture met at Indianapolis on the 6th of January, and 
decided, after a spirited discussion, to hold the next State fair at New Albany, from Sept. 
26 to Oct. 1. 

Iowa. — The Executive Board of the State Agricultural Society, held its annual meet- 
ing at Des Moines, and decided to hold the next State fair at Oskaloosa, the place at 
which it was held last year. The following gentlemen were elected officers for this year: 
Z. T. Fisher, of Oskaloosa, President; W. W. Hamilton, of Dubuque, Vice President; J. 
H. Wallace, of Muscatine, Secretary; and E. K. Seebers, of Oskaloosa, Treasurer. 

The State Agricultural College Board also met at Des Moines, to receive proposals for 
the " State Experimental Farm," Dr. Bowen, President, but postponed a decision until 
the 1st of June. Proposals for this farm will be received until the 1st of May. Wm. 
Duane Wilson, Esq., was elected Secretary of the Board. 

Kansas. — Gov. Medary, in his annual message, said : " As agriculture must always be 
the predominating interest in the Territory, I would suggest a law encouraging the or- 
ganization of County Agricultural Societies." 

Louisiana. — The rise of the Mississippi has done much damage, and disastrous cre- 
vasses are proving very destructive to some of the finest plantations. 

Maine. — The State Board of Agriculture, composed of twenty-five gentlemen of prac- 
tical ability, with S. L. Goodall, Esq., as their efficient secretary, had a session of ten 
days in January. It was evident, after a. comparison of facts, that the entire agricul- 
tural interest of the State is coming up ; that neat-stock, horses, sheep, swine, are rapidly 
improving in grade; that the yield and quality of grain, hay, roots, and fruit are increas- 
ing • that fertilizers are procured in greater abundance than ever ; that farms arc grow- 
inf' in fertility ; that information is rapidly being extended ; and that, in a word, Maine 
is fast becoming an agricultural State. 



United States Agricultural Society. 85 

Maryland. — We have learned, (although not from an official source,) that the next 
State exhibition will be held at Frederick city. A portion of the buildings of the State 
Agricultural College, near Bladensburg, will soon be ready for occupation. 

Massachusetts. — The published " Transactions of the Massachusetts Society for Pro- 
moting Agriculture," during the year 1858, is prefaced by an interesting al)stract of the 
records of the society from the period of its formation, prepared by Mr. Richard S. Fay, 
the secretary, to show what the society has been doing from that time to the present. 
The record is a noble one, and shows tlmt no efforts have been spared to improve the 
modes of agriculture in this Commonwealth. 

MiOHiGAN. — The next fair of the Macomb County Agricultural Society will be held at 
Utica, upon grounds now in course of preparation by the citizens of that place. 

Minnesota. — The farmers of Hennepin county, the banner agricultural county of the 
State, are determined to hold a county fair in Minneapolis the coming autumn. 

Missouri. — The stockholders of the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Association, 
elected the following officers for the present year: J. R. B&vvai, President; Henry T. 
Blow, H. Clay Hart, and Benj. O'Fallon, Vice Presidents ; Henry S. Turner, Treasurer; 
G. O'Kalb, General A/jent and Recordiiig Secretary; Norman J. Colman, Corresponding 
Secretary. 

New Jersey. — At the annual meeting of the State Agricultural Society, held at Tren- 
ton, Jan. 18th, Gov. Wm. A. Newell was elected President; Jeptha Abbott, N. S. Rue, H. 
Hilliard, and Lowell Mason, jr.. Vice Presidents; Wm. M. Force, Secretary, and C. M. 
Saxton, Treasurer. The report of the treasurer showed that the old debt of the society, 
amounting to $1,500, had been entirely paid off, leaving a balance of $829.44. 

New York. — At the annual meeting of the State Agricultural Society, the following 
officers were elected: A. B. Cruger, President; E. G. Faile, G. S. Wainwright, Herman 
Wendell, H. \Y. Bcckwith, B. N. Huntington, S. A. Law, J. 0. Sheldon, and T. C. Peters. 
Vice Presidents; B. P. Johnson, Correspondiny Secretary; E. Corning, jr.. Recording Secre- 
tary; and Luther H. Tucker, Treasurer. The next exhibition will be held at Albany. 

Ohio. — At the tenth annual meeting of the Ohio State Agricultural Society, a State 
Board was chosen, which subsequently organized by electing Norton G. Townshend, of 
Lorain, President; Lucien Buttles, of Franklin, Treasurer; D. E. Gardner, of Lucas, Cor- 
responding Secretary. The next State exhibition will be held at Zanesville, Sept. 20-23. 

Pennsylvania. — The annual meeting of the State society was held at Harrisburg, on 
the 18th of January. David Taggart, of Northumberland county, was elected President; 
« twenty-five gentlemen from different sections. Vice Presidents ; A. Boyd Hamilton, Sec- 
retary; Prof. S. S. Haldeman, Geologist and Chemist; and Henry Gillert, Librarian. 

The Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture, elected at their annual meeting 
Craig Biddle, President; A. T. Newbold, 0. W. Harrison, Vice Presidents; George Blight, 
Treasurer; S. G. Fisher, Corresponding Secretary ; A. L. Kennedy, M. D., Recording Secre- 
tary; P. R. Freas, Assistant Recording Secretary; John Lardner, Samuel Williams, D. 
Landrcth, A. T. Newbold, John S. Haines, Craig Biddle, Executive Committee. 

Texas. — The first annual exhibition of the Goliad Stock and Agricultural Association, 
was to be held at Goliad, commencing on the first Monday of April. A recent census 
gives as the total of acres under cultivation 1,948,215, of which 581,808 are in cotton, 
15,965 in sugar, 977,34*? in corn, and 208,097 in wheat. 

Wisconsin. — At the winter session of the Executive Committee of the State Agricul- 
tural Society, held at Madison in February, it was resolved to hold the next State fair 
during the week succeeding Sunday, the 25th of September. It was also resolved to hold 
a trial of reapers and mowers, during the next harvest, the premiums to be gold medals, 
worth $50 each. 

Vermont. — Gen. E. B. Chase, of Lyndon, has been elected President of the State Ag- 
ricultural Society, in place of Frederick Holbrook, declined. It was voted to hold the 
next annual exhibition at Burlington, Sept. 13-16. 

Virginia — The Executive Committee of the State Society have invited propositions 
from different localities for holding their exhibition for 1859. They resolved " that 
whilst it is desirable that the fairs should be held at the city of Richmond, the Consti- 
tution of the society and imperative obligations of duty in the administration of the 
funds of the society require that wherever the fiair shall be held, it shall be done without 
loss to the society ; and, upon this principle alone, therefore, can the permanent useful- 
ness of the society be secured." 

The Central Agricultural Society has purchased, and will fit up as exhibition grounds, 
the " Hermitage " track, on the western suburbs of Richmond. 



86 Honorary and Life Members.) 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

*Hon. Samuel Appleton Boston, Massachusetts. 

Millard Fillmore, Ex-Pres. U. S Buffalo, Neiv York. 

Franklin Pierce, Ex-Pres. U. S Concord, New Hampshire. 

*IIon. Thomas H. Perkins Boston, Massachusetts. 

Hon. Jonathan Phillips Boston, Massachusetts. 

Hon. JosiAH QuiNCY Boston, Massachusetts. 

Edmund Ruffin, esq Marlbourne, Virghiia. 

*RoBERT G. Shaw Boston, Massachusetts. 

*George Washington Parke Custis Arlington House, Virginia. 

George Peabody London, England. 

Marshall P. Wilder Boston, Massachusetts. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



Aycrigg, Thomas G... Passaic, New Jersey. 
Adams, Jonathan \i...Bordcnt.ow7i. " 

Adams, Daniel Neichuryport, Mass. 

Adams, William Boston, " 

Amory, Thomas Boston, " 

Alston, Benjamin Georgetown, S. C. 

Arny, W. F. M Hyatt, Kansas. 

Affleck, Thos , Texas. 

Brooks, DeLorma Beloit, Wis. 

Beekman, J. S Kinderhooh, N. Y. 

Baldwin, Harvey Syracuse, " 

Baker, S. C Blair co., Fa. 

Bolman, A West Chester, Fa. 

Buckley, J. L., jr JVeiv York. 

Butman, George F Boston, Mass. 

Baker, Abijah R West Needham, Mass. 

Balch, Wesley P., jr...i?osiora, 3Iass. 

Ballou, Jlaturiu M Boston, " 

Bayley, Dudley H Boston, " 

*Becar, NoelJ Nexv York, N. Y. 

Berckmans, Emile C.Flainfield, N. J. 
Berckmans, Louis E...FlainfieId, '* 
Berckmans, Prosp'r J.Flainfield, " 

Burgwyn, H. K North Carolina. 

Bancroft, James Charleston, S. C. 

Billings, Hammett Boston, 3Iass. 

Billings, Joseph H West Roxbury, Mass. 

Brewer, Francis Springfield, " 

Brinckle, W. D Philadelphia, Fa. 

Brooks, John Princeton, Mass. 

Blake, George B Boston, " 

Blake, John R Boston, " 

Browne, D. J Washington, D. C. 

Brown, Lewis B New York. 

Brown, Simon Concord, Mass. 

Burgess. Edward P....Dedham, " 

Becker, Barney S Syracuse, N. Y. 

Brand, A. II Lexington, Ky. 

Bridges, R. R Edgecomb, N. C. 

Buckeleu, James Jamesburg, N. J. 

Burnet, J. B Syracuse, N. Y. 

Bowie, W. W. W Governor's Bridge, 3Id. 

Conklin, E. K Philadelphia, Fa. 



Clement, Aaron Philadelphia, Pa. 

Coleman, Thomas M... Philadelphia, " 

Calvert, Charles B Washington, D. C. 

Clapp, Henry W Greenfield, 3Iass. 

Cook, George Lewis... Warren, K. I. 

Cooke, Joseph J Providence, R. I. 

Copeland, R. 'isloms... Boston, diass. 
Copenhagen, A. W.... Dorchester, iMass. 

Crockett, Selden Boston, " 

Chamberlain, Duniel.. Boston, " 

Corcoran, W. W Washington, D. C. 

Cornell, Isaac R Weston, N. J. 

Colman, N. J St. Louis, 3Io. 

Cunningham, C. L Boston, Mass. 

Curtis, Thomas B Boston, " 

Cushman, Henry W ...Bernardston, Mass. 
Cawthar, Benjamin F.Louisville, Ky. 

Colvin, B. F Syracuse, N. Y. 

Cook, A. P Brookline, 3Iich. 

Cook, John L Syracuse, N. Y. 

Cooper, S Boston, 3Iass. 

Cobb, Moses G Dorchester, 3Iass. 

Cocke, John H Bremo Bluff, Va. 

Cocke, P. St.George.../fjf(?rsort, " 

Crenshaw, John B Richmond, " 

Davis, Isaac Worcester, 3Iass. 

Davis, James Boston, " 

Denny, Reuben S Leicester, " 

DeMott, M Neiv York. 

Dodge, Harvey Sutton, 3Iass. 

Dodge, J. H Boston, " 

Dana, J. B Syracuse, N'. Y. 

Darlington, J. L West Chester. Pa. 

Durfee, Nathan Fall River, 3Iass. 

Dyer, Elisha Providence, R. I. 

Ellison, Thomas Newburgh, N. Y. 

Ellis, James M Syracuse, " 

Emerson, Ralph, jr.... , Illinois. 

Evans, David 

Flint, Charles L Boston, 3Iass. 

Faile, Edward G Woodside, N. Y. 

Fletcher, Gardner Chelmsford, Mass. 



United States Agricultural Society. 



87 



Forbes, R. B Boston, Masn. 

Francis, John Brown.. /"roOTcfewcc, R. 1. 

French, B. B Washin>jton, D. C. 

French, Benjamin Y,.. Harrison Square, 3Iass. 
French, Jonathan Roxbxiry, Mass. 

Greeley, Horace New York. 

Gage, Alva Charleston, S. C. 

Garber, Jacob B Columbia, Pa. 

Gage, Addison West Cambridge, Mass. 

Garcelon, A Boston, Mass. 

Gould, James Lexington, " 

Gibson, John Kinscssing, Pa. 

Glover, Townend Washington, D. C. 

Garrison, Ira Syracuse, N. Y. 

Gay, Syracuse, " 

Gill, William Columbus, Ohio. 

Gould, J. Stanton Hudson, N. Y. 

Greenway, George Syracuse, " 

Greenway, John Syracuse, •' 

Henning, B. S Oshkosh, Wis. 

Harrison, Charles W-.Aiidalusia, Pa. 

Harwood, Peter Barre, 3Iass. 

Hickok, W. Harrisburg, Pa. 

Hughlett, Thomas Maryland. 

Hammond, J. H Beech Island, S. C. 

Hamson, N. H Macon, Miss. 

Hardcastle, E. L. F....jEaston, Md. 

Healy, Waldo M Dudley, Mass. 

Hodges, Se^m.llel^Y. ...Stoughton, Mass. 

Hunt, Freeman JVew York. 

Hobbs, Ebenezer Waltham, Mass. 

Hastings, G. D Tolland, Conn. 

Hale, Joseph Boston, Mass. 

Harris, W. A Boston, " 

Hanchett, W. T Natick, " 

Hunnewell, H. H Boston, " 

Hatch, A. P Newburn, Ala. 

Haven, Franklin Boston, Mass. 

Hollis, John W Brightoji, " 

Holmes, J. N Hastings Centre, N. Y. 

Holmes, R. G Westboro\ Mass. 

Harris, W. H Nashville, Tenn. 

Haskins, J. P Syracuse, N. Y. 

Hosmer, George " " 

Hunt, William M " " 

Hoyt, J. W Madison, Wis. 

Hobbs, Edward D Louisville, Ky. 

Huntington, Benj. H...5o7?je, N. Y. 

Ingersoll, Harry Philadelphia, Pa. 

Johnson, P. B Albany, N. Y. 

Johnson, Wm. C Easton, Md. 

Jones, John Middletoum, Del. 

*Jaques, Samuel Somerville, Mass. 

Jay, John Neiv York. 

Jenks, Wra Washingtoii, D. C. 

Jones, John T Ottawa Creek, Kansas. 

Kimmell, Anthony.... iVew London, Md. 

Kupp, Henry S Reading, Pa. 

King, William Philadelphia, Pa. 

King, William S Roxbury, Mass. 

KeUh, C. T Providence, R. L 



King, John A Jamaica, New York. 

Kelly, William Rhinebeck, N. Y. 

Kuhn,jr., Uartmaxi. ...Philadelphia, Pa. 

Leavitt, David Gr't Barrington, Mass. 

Leavitt, jr., David GrH Barrington, " 

Leavitt, Shelden GrH Barrington, " 

Lee, David Barre, Mass. 

Lawrence, Samuel Boston, " 

Lawrence, William 'Q.Newport, R. I. 

Lee, Artemas Templeton, 3Iass. 

Lewis, A. S Framingham, Mass. 

Lewis, W. G Framingham, " 

Lincoln, Levi Worcester, " 

Livingston, Anson New York. 

Lyon, Henry Charlestown, 3Iass. 

Miles, James Girard, Pa. 

Martin, George Philadelphia, Pa. 

McHenry, J. Howard.. P/A-e.s)77Ze, 3Id. 
JIcGowan, George I... Philadelphia, Pa. 

McGowan, John Bridesburg, Pa. 

Manice, Deforest Brushville, N. Y. 

-McCormick, C. H Chicago, III. 

Mitchell, James L Albany, N. Y. 

Jlorris, Lewis G Mt. Fordham, N. Y. 

Moseley, David Westfield, 3Iass. 

Jlotley, jr. Thomas.... West Roxbury, 3Iass. 

*Mussey, Benj. B Boston, " 

Mcllvaiu, Hugh Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mallory, Robert Louisville, Ky. 

Manning, James Syracuse, N. Y. 

Manny, Pells.... Freepo7-t, III. 

McCarthy, D Syracuse, N. Y. 

McDougal, " " 

McHenry, Ramsay Baltimore, 3Id. 

Moore, D. D. T Syracuse, N. Y. 

Munroe, Allen " " 

Milton, W. S Louisville, Ky. 

Merryman, John Cockeysville, Md. 

Newhall, Josiah Lynnfield, 3Iass: 

Newhall, Moses Springfield, " 

*Newell, Moses West Newbury , 3Iass. 

Nightingale, P. M Albany, Ga. 

Newbold, Anthony T ..Philadelphia, Pa, 

Nichols, Charles Syracuse, N. Y. 

Nottingham, G " " 

Olmstead, Henry Fast Hartford, Conn. 

Olcott, Henry S Neiv York. 



Phillips, Ivers Fitchburg, 3Iass. 

Putnam, C, Agr'l Soc. Garrisons, N. Y. 

Parry, William Cimiaminson, N. J. 

Pierce, Jacob W Newburyport, 3Iass. 

Partridge, jr., H Northampton, 

Paige, James W Boston, 

Pierce, Samuel B... ....Boston, 

Potter, Joseph S Boston, 

Parker, H. D Boston, 

Poore, Ben: Perley.... West Newbury, 

Proctor, Abel Danvers, 

Peters, Richard Atlanta, Ga. 

Pendergrast, N. W Syracuse, N. Y. 

Phillips, J. S '.Syracuse, " 



Obituary Notice. 



Pope, John Memphis, Tenn. 

Potter, E. R Kingston, R.I. 

Pierce, J. W Boston, llass. 

Price, Richard Philadelphia, Pa.' 

Peter, Arthur Louisville, Ky. 

Price, Joseph Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ridgely, Charles Hampden, Md. 

Rogers, Richard S Salon, jllass. 

Reynolds, John J Wickford, R. I. 

Robinson, E. W Dorchester, 3Iass. 

Ruggles & Co Boston, " 

*Rusk, Thomas J Nacogdoches, Texas. 

Russell, George R West Roxbury, Mass. 

Rice, Lewis Boston, " 

Randall, L Syracuse, N. Y. 

Rice, John Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ridgel}^, John Hampden, Md. 

Simes, Joseph Boston, Mass. 

Santbrd, 0. S C'ordaville, " 

Salisbury, Stephen.... Tro;-cf«/er, " 

Sanderson, David Somerinlle, N. J. 

Smith, George C Boston, Mass. 

Stevens, Paran Boston, " 

Spooner, William 11. ..Boston, " 

Silsby, J. H Boston, " 

*Sprague, Seth Duxbury, " 

Stockwell, S. N Boston, " 

Scott, R. W Springfield, Ohio. 

Sherman, Duncan 

Smyth, Frederick Manchester, N. H. 

Sedgwick, C. B Syracuse, N. Y. 

Smith, A. L Syracuse, " 

Smith, G. P Nashville, Tenn. 

Stewart, Wra. D Syracuse, N. Y. 

Stilwel],E. Miller Lancaster, Mass. 

Tayloe, H. A.,jr Warsaw, Va. 

Tracey, Charles Nortcich, Ct. 

Thompson, James W.. Wilmington, Del. 

Tappan, John Boston, 3Iass. 

*Thayer, John E Boston, " 

Thompson, James Nantucket, Mass. 



Twitchell, Genery Boston, " 

Thayer, Adin Iloosic Falls, N. Y. 

Thayer, J. S New York City. 

Ta3'lor, A. J Syracuse, N. Y. 

Tyler, Philos B Springfield, 3Iass. 

Tilghman, Tench Oxford, Md. 

Todd,Wm. B Washington, D. C. 

Treadwell, Alfred M... 

Talbot, S Sec''y, Tremont, III. 

Underhill, R. T Croton Pt.,N. Y. 

Vinson, Cornelius ^....Jamaica Plains, Mass 

Wilson, Henry Columbus, Ohio. 

*Weston, J. D Dalton, Mass. 

Woodward, Joseph A... Philadelphia, Pa. 
W^hytal, Thomas G. ... West Roxbury, Mass. 
Winthrop, Robert Q... Boston, " 

AVainwright, Peter Boston, " 

Walley, Samuel H Roxbury " 

Waters, Richard P Salem, " 

Watts, Arthur Chilicothe, Ohio. 

Webster, Joshua Maiden, Mass. 

Weld, Aaron D Roxbury, " 

Wellington, Andrew.. -&. Lexington, " 

Wheelock, J. R Mendon, " 

Whitmore, Charles 0.. Boston, " 

Whitin, Paul Whitinsville, " 

Wight, Eben Dedham, " 

Williams, Aaron D. ...Roxbury, " 

Worthington, Jas. T... Chilicothe, Ohio. 

Wyckotf, N Williamsburg, N. Y. 

Welch, A. J Syracuse, N. Y. 

Ware, Col. Josisih.W..Berryville, Va. 

Ward, Joshua , S. C. 

White, Hamilton Syracuse, N. Y. 

Williams, WiWo^hj.... Nashville, Tenn. 

Wilson, W. Duane Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. 

Wood, Walter A Iloosic Falls, N. Y. 

Woodruff, Jason Syracuse, N. Y. 



Young, Lawrence Louisville, Ky. 



[Those marked with a ( * ) star are deceased.] 



OBITUARY. 

Col. Samuel Jaques, a life-member of the United States Agricultural Society, died on 
the 27th of March, 1859, at his residence, "Tea Hills Farm," Somerville, Massachusetts, 
in the eighty-third year of his age. The Boston Courier says of him: Though born and 
reared in the United States, Col. Jaques, in his personal appearance and in all his tastes, 
was a very fine specimen of an English country gentleman ; and to those who visited him 
at his residence, the peculiarly English character of everything at Ten Hills served almost 
to complete the illusion. His fondness for the out-door occupations and varied scenery 
of rural life amounted to a passion ; and the lovers of good fruit, among their obliga- 
tions to his horticultural zeal, are indebted to him for the propagation and dissemination 
of the celebrated peach which bears his name. He Avas a distinguished agriculturist, 
also, having probably done more than any other single individual has accomplished for 
the improvement of the breeds of domestic animals in this section of the country. Who- 
ever remembers him will recall the deep and lively interest which he habitually mani- 
fested in all that promised to aid in the amelioration and elevation of those engaged in 
what he regarded as the noblest of the industrial pursuits. 



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