Skip to main content

Full text of "The quarterly publication of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio"

See other formats




3 1833 01729 1466 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 

Quarterly Publication of the His- 
torical and Philosophical 

Society of Ohio 

1909 — 191 1 
Volumes IV— VJ 



•V 700443 


1 L 



A T 1 

Vol. IV. 190! N ! 



: ; 


s c 


I. 1802, Jan. 30, John Cleves Symmes to tke Committee of the Ho. of 
Rep., appointed on the subject of the Miami 

II. 1803, Sept. 1, Copy of Entry No. 204 in the books of the Register 
of the U. S. Land Office at Cincinnati. 

III. 184/*, Mar. 1 8, James McBride to Jeremiah Morrow. 

IV. 1844, Apr. 1, Jeremiah Morrow to James McBride. 

V. 1S09, Aug. 16, Commissioner's Report establishing the permanent 
seat of the Miami University. 

VI. 18 10, Jan. — , William Ludlow to James Smith. 

VII. 181 1, Aug. 31, James McBride to William Ludlow. 

VIII. 1 S 1 1 , Jan. 9, Samuel J. Browne to James McBride. 

IX. 181 1, Jan. 12, James McBride to Rev. John W. Browne. 

X. 1S11, July iS, Rev. John W. Browne to James McBride. 

XL 181 1, Aug. 16, Rev. John W. Browne to William Ludlow. 

XII. 1 S 1 3 , Nov. 6, Extract from Journal of the Board of Trustees of 
Miami University transmitted by James McBride 
to Messrs. P'indlay, Symmes and Corrw 

XIII. 18:5, Oct. 3, Samuel J. Browne to President and Trustees ok 

Miami University. 

XIV. 18 12, Aug. — , Report o:- Rev. John VV. Browne to President of 

the Trustees of Miami University. 

XV. 1813, Apr. 14, William Ludlow to Messrs. Reily & Este, Trustees 
of Miami University. 

Historical and Philosophical 

Burnet Jf^oods^ - Cincinnati^ Ohio 


A r WILBY,- - -* - 
CHARLES T. rv-:f:\¥. - 
Al ." T EI. CH \,TFIt ;.;>, - 

K W. ■ANAL?, - 


- President. 

- Vice-President. 
Corresponding Secretary 

- Recording Secretary. 
Treasur .'■■. 






As the Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, is preparing to 
appropriately observe its centennial anniversary, June l6th and 
17th of the present year, the Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio has determined to devote this and the following 
number of the "Quarterly" to the publication of material re- 
lating to the early history of the institution, contained in the 
"'James McBride Manuscripts" which are in the library of the 
Society. An invitation was extended to me, an associate of the 
University, to arrange and edit the selections from those manu- 
scripts. It seems most proper to present to the reader first a 
sketch of the life of James McBride, who served the University 
in an official capacity for almost a half century as Secretary 
(1810-20) : Member of the Board of Trustees (1821-59) and as 
President (1852, 1856-59"), and who was a charter member of 
the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio (1831), and 
during the remainder of his life. 

James McBride (1788-1859) was born in Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania. In i860 he moved to Hamilton, Ohio, where 
by his Scotch thrift and wise investment he soon acquired a 
competence. His qualities of mind and heart won for him the 
confidence of his fellows, who honored him with a number of 
official positions. Though self educated he possessed a remark- 
able literary instinct, which he assiduously cultivated. He early 
devoted himself to the study of the archaeology and history of 
the Miami Valley and during his life he acquired a library com- 
prising many thousand books and pamphlets relating to South- 
western Ohio, a complete file of the local newspapers and a 
valuable collection of antiquities personally taken from the 
mounds of Butler County. Pie was a student and writer who 
carefully noted, compared and revised his work and he added 
to his printed collection several thousand pages of manuscript 
material. Although he wrote much he printed little beyond some 
articles for the local newspapers and Cists Miscellany, and his 


"History of Oxford and the Miami University" printed by the 
Society in 1838, and reprinted in 1S72. His work was not done 
for money or fame but for love. He labored and others have 
entered into his labors. The "Ancient Monuments of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley", the ''Historical Collections of Ohio'* and the 
"History and Biographical Cyclopedia of Butler County" have 
been greatly enriched by him while he has received but general 
if any credit therefor. 

Howe, who declares that the destruction of McBride's library 
"was an irreparable loss from the great amount of original ma- 
terial it contained" speaks thus of the owner, "I was impressed 
by the beautiful modesty of the man, and the guileless, trustful 
expression of his face as he looked up at me from his writing 
and then unreservedly put in my possession the mass of his 
materials, the gathered fruits of a life time of loving industry". 
It is evident that his trustfulness was imposed upon as he noted 
the failure of a borrower to return the manuscript of his "His- 
tory of Miami University" for the writing of which he pos- 
sessed special qualifications, having data at his command not now 
available and being personally connected with this institution 
almost from its founding. Apparently when much enfeebled 
he undertook to rewrite the work but only the outline was 
accomplished when death cut short his labors. Subsequently 
his valuable collection was dispersed. His books and bound 
collection of pamphlets, bearing his autograph, are occasionally 
to be found but large quantities of his pamphlets and news- 
papers were sold to a paper mill to be converted into pulp. 
Hi: archaeological collection found its way into the hands of 
a Philadelphian ; while "The Society" became the fortunate pos- 
sessor of the bulk of his manuscripts, one only — his "History 
of Hamilton" — came into the possession of the University which 
he so long served. Ten years after his death his "Pioneer Bi- 
ography", upon the preparation of which he had spent much 
time, was published, and has proved a valuable contribution to 
the literature of Ohio. 

In arranging the manuscripts, logical rather than chrono- 
logical order has been considered. The history of Miami Uni- 
versity prior to its actual opening falls into two periods. The 
first (1787-1809) relates to the controversy concerning the "Col- 
lege Township". By 1809 this matter had been definitely de- 


termined and the title to Oxford township had been vested 
in a corporation known as "The President and Trustees of 
.Miami University", which a year later was directed by the legis- 
lature to lav out the town of Oxford within the ''College Town- 
ship" and locate the University within its bounds. The query 
naturally arises why, if founded in 1809, the University did 
not commence operations as such until 1824. The University 
officials found themselves handicapped first, by lack of funds, 
owing to the township being virgin forest and without perma- 
nent settlers to render it remunerative, and second, by certain at- 
tempts made to remove the University from the "College Town- 
ship" and locate it within the bounds of the "Symmes Purchase". 
In this number of the Quarterly certain papers relating to the 
"College Township", the selection of the University site, and 
the difficulty in securing funds are presented. The next number 
will contain material relating to the controversy concerning the 
removal of the University, which prevailed from 1814-1822. 

As the undersigned is prepaiing 'The Cgntegnial History 
of Miami University" any criticisms or suggestions based upon 
what is here offered to the public will be thankfully received. 
I wish to express my appreciation of the valuable assistance 
rendered by Miss Hamlin, the librarian of the Society. 

J. E. Bradford. 
Oxford, Ohio. 



SHIP. 4 ) 

It can not be forgotten that no township for the purpose 
was granted by the original contract. 5 ... as no township 
was given at first, it will be allowed that the grantee had a right 
to sell any and every part of the purchase and he did sell indis- 

1 John Cleves Symmcs (1742-1814) was born at River Head, Long 
Island, and after becoming of age, moved to New Jersey. He was chair- 
man of the Committee of Safety for Sussex County in 1774 and the next 
vear was chosen Colonel of one of the regiments of Militia. He partici- 
pated in the Long Island and New Jersey campaigns and subsequently 
served his State as a member of the Council, Lieutenant Governor, and 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Upon the erection of the Northwest 
Territory he made application in behalf of himself and others for a grant 
of lands, which was allowed, and he, being appointed Territorial Judge, re- 
moved to North Bend above the mouth of the Big Miami, where he arrived 
February 1 oi 2, 17S9. He played a conspicuous part in the early history 
of Ohio. His grandson Benjamin, son of William Henry Harrison, was a 
graduate of the Miami University. 

2 The committee consisted of Messrs. Randolph of Va., Elkudorf of 
N. Y., Goddard of Conn., Henderson of N. C, and Archer of Md. Cf. An- 
nals of the 7th Cong., 2nd Sess., p. 290. 

3 Published in the Western Spy and Cincinnati Gazette, Oct. 19, 1S03. 
As copies of this newspaper are scarce and, as a copy of this statement is 
inclv led in the McBride manuscripts, it is thought well to republish it as 
introductory to what is to follow. For the view of his opponents, Cf. "A 
Reply to the Statement of John Cleves Symmes, Addressed to the Com- 
mittee cf Congress, Etc." in the Library of the Society. 

4 In his petition to Congress of August 29, 17S7, Symmes asks that his 
grant be "in all respects similar, in form and nature, to the same grant 
made to Messrs. Sargent and Cutler, differing only in quantity and place 
where, and instead of the two townships for the use of a University that 
only one be assigned for the benefit of an academy." (Cf. Journal of Con- 
gress, Vol. XII, p. 150.) Congress having "by their act of the 3rd of Oc- 
tober 1787, authorized the honorable Commissioners of the Treasury Board 
to enter into a contract with Symmes," he, in his pamphlet "To the Re- 
spectable Public" published at Trenton, Nov. 26, 17S7 (Cf. Burnet's Notes 
on the Northwestern Territory, pp. 4S2-490), states "One complete township 
to be given perpetually for the purpose of an Academy or College to be 


After three and one-half years 8 from the date of the original 
contract had elapsed, tho^e lands that came within the patent 
were pretty generally sold, congress gave a township for the 
use of an Academy, to be located within the limits of the grant, 
as altered and designated by the act of the 12th of April, 1792. 

The act of congress of the 5th of May, 1792, giving this 
township, does not subject the location thereof to the approba- 
tion or disapprobation of the governor of the Territory. By 
fair inference, therefore, that part of the patent 7 requiring the 

laid off ... as nearly opposite the mouth of the Licking River as an 
entire township may he found eligible in point of soil and situation, to be 
applied to the intended object by the Legislature of the State." In accord- 
ance with this provision he caused to be designated on the map of the 
purchase, what is now known as Springfield Township, Hamilton County, 
as the "College Township." October 15, 178S, Jonathan Dayton and 
Daniel March, his associates, to whom he had given the power of attorney 
so far as the business of the association in the east was concerned, entered 
into an agreement with the government whereby the amount of the grant 
was reduced from two million to one million acres and the bound'; 01 the 
grant modified. (Burnet's Notes, pp. 490-91.) No mention being made 
iii this agreement concerning the "College Township," Symmes concluded 
that it was forfeited by the reduction of the grant and sold a considerable 
portion of the designated township. The patent of 1792 having made pro- 
vision for a "College Township," Symmes in 179S tendered to Governor 
St. Clair the second township of the second fractional range. This the 
Governor declined because it did not answer the description of the one 
granted by his patent, was indifferent quality, and his title to it was ques- 
tioned. (Cf. St. Clair papers,, Vol. II, pp. 444, 446.) He then offered it 
to the Territorial Legislature and later to the State Legislature, pressing 
its acceptance. 

5 The contract as modified Oct. 15, 1788. (Cf. previous note.) 
"May 5, 1792, Congress enacted, "That the President be and he is 
hereby authorized and empowered, by letters p tent as aforesaid, to grant 
and convey to the said John Cleves Symmes, and his associates, their heirs 
and assigns, in trust for the purpose of establishing an Academy and 
other public schools and seminaries of learning, one complete township. 
Cf. L 7 . S. Statutes, Vol. I, pp. 266-7. 

7 The patent issued by President Washington to Symmes Sept. 30th, 
1794 (the original document is in the possession of the Society), states- 
that "one complete township or tract of land, of six miles square, to be 
located with the approbation of the governor for the time being, of the. 
Territory Northwest of the river Ohio, and in the manner, and within 
the term of the five years aforesaid, as nearly as may be, in the center of 
the tract of land, hereinbefore granted, hath been and is granted and shall 
be holden in trust, to and for the sale and exclusive interest and purpose 
of erecting and establishing therein, an academy and other public schools 
and seminaries of learning, and endowing and supporting the same and to 
and for no other use, intent or purpose whatever. Cf. Laws of the United 
States, Vol. I, p. 497. 7 

governor's approbation must be surplussage and naught. The 
patentee did locate one complete township, 8 and notified the same 
to the public, and to the governor within the purview of the act; 
arul within the time mentioned in the patent; and there are 
tenants now living within <he township, under the lease of the 
patentee, as trustee of the College lands, and no other person 
or improvements are. thereon. The township is a good tract of 
land, no part of it is inferior to second rate, and some thousands 
of acres of it are denominated first rate lands. The act granting 
a township for the use of an Academy, does not demand out 
of the grant, a township of the first quality; and it would seem 
just that those who paid a high price for their lands, as some 
did to the United States, should have as good or better, if there 
were a difference in the soil, than those who had lands given 
to them gratis, as was the College township. 

This township was not preserved from sale and occupancy, 
Pecause i f was inferior in quality to others; but because it was 
supposed to be of more value than any other township in the 
grant, from its local situation, being nearer to the Ohio and 
Great Miami, both na\igable rivers, than any other whole town- 
ship within the purchase. There are more townhips within the 
patent of inferior quality of soil, than there are of those that 
are superior ; and the township for which some contend, in its 
natural state, was in no way superior. It is now rendered more 
valuable, only by improvements, and a high state of cultivation. 

The claim set up by Mr. Boudinot 9 to the College township, 
is vague and conditional, and on his part the conditions have 
never been fulfilled. That which he founds his pretensions 
upon, is a document several months older than the original con- 

8 "The second township in the second fractional range in the district 
between the Ohio and Great Miami." 

9 Dr. Elias Boudinot, "Scientist, statesman and philanthropist," was of 
Philadelphia, Penna. March 2nd, 17SS, he entered into an agreement with 
"Symnies to purchase for a stipulated amount an undivided moiety of the 
-township reserved by him for his own use and later offered for the college 
township. Sometime after this Dr. Boudinot brought suit in the courts 
to compel the performance of the conLract. In 1802 the Circuit Court of 
the United States for the District of Pennsylvania rendered a final decree 
which "ordered the defendant to execute and deliver to the said Elias 
Boudinot a deed conveying to him in fee simple an undivided moiety of 
the said township." Cf. Burnet's Notes, pp. 414-416 and 493-4. Also the 
McBride MSS. 

tract itself, and no lien on the land can thence accrue. If he 
had lived up to the conditions of his contract, which he by no 
means did, yet his redress could only be personal against the 
grantee, and not real ; for no color of fee could pass by the 
document he holds. This township was the only one which, 
at the passing of the law, had not been broken by sales; not 
preserved entire with design of presenting it as a college town- 
ship, for no such township was expected ; but by mere accident, 
it being that part of the purchase which the grantee had originally 
intended for himself; but which was afterwards agreed to be 
divided between twenty-four proprietors, on each proprietor 
paying a twenty-fourth of the purchase money to congress, and 
from this cause lay unsevered and unoccupied, until the passage 
of the act of the 5th of May, 1792, giving one entire township 
for the use of an Academy. 

But it proved fortunate in this respect, that not one of the 
24 proprietors had ever paid a cent to congress, or the grantee 
on this township, towards the purchase money due to the United 
States therefor; and for the payment whereof, every one of the 
24 proprietors were in the first instance bound to the grantee. 

On the patentee obtaining his patent including one township 
gratis, for academical purposes, every one of the 24 proprietors 
were considered as exonerated of the two-thirds of a dollar per 
acre for this township, and a settlement was made with them 
on the principle, that, the reserved entire township should be 
appropriated for the use of an Academy ; and no proprietor 
was charged with more than a 24th of the purchase money, which 
the fractions lying between the entire township and the two 
rivers, Ohio and Miami came to; and even his proportion of 
the price of these fractions, Mr. Boudinot has never paid. 

There was no other township at the passing of the act, that 
could be appropriated for the purpose. There is no other at 
present ; this is the only township in the patent for which the 
United States have not paid. If it be not accepted as the Col- 
lege township, it remains still the property of the United States ; 
and they can do as they please with it. 10 

Washington City, 30th January, 1802. 

10 Congress by its act of 1803 assumed the claim of the State against 
Symmes and gave the State in return a township west of the Miami River 
in the District of Cincinnati. 






Land Office at Cincinnati, 

1st September, 1803. 

We William Ludlow 11 and Jacob 
White 12 Agreeably to an act of Con- 
gress passed on the third day of March, 
1803, and in conformity to a law of 
the State of Ohio passed on the fifteenth 
clay of April, 1803, have entered with 
the register of the land office at Cincin- 
nati the following sections of land to- 
wit. Sections No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 
9, 10, East half 11, 12, 13, East half 14, 
15, iG, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, East 
half 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 
35, 36 in Township No. 5 Range No. 1, 
Section No. 30 and 31 in Township No. 5 
Range No. 2 and the West half of Sec- 
tion No. 6 in Township No. 4, Range 
No. 2 the aforesaid thirty-six sections are 
lying East of a Meridian drawn from the 
mouth of the Great Miami river which 
together contains twenty-three thousand 
three hundred and Hventy-one acres and 
sixty-eight hundredths of an acre as ap- 
pear by the returns of the Surveyor 

William Ludlow, 
Jacob White, 
Comrs. 13 for the State of Ohio. 

Sections No. 1, 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
East half 11, 12, 13, 
East half 14, 15, 16, 
17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 
23, Plast half 24, 26, 
27, 2S,. 29, 30, 31, 32, 
33, 34. 35. 3^ in 
Township No. 5 of 
Range No. 1 and Sec- 
tion No. 30 and 31 in 
Township No. 5 of 
Range No. 2, also the 
West half of Sec. No. 
6 in Township No. 4 
Range No. 2. 

"William Ludlow, son of Col. Cornelius Ludlow of Long Hill, Morris 
Co., N. J., and younger brother of Israel Ludlow, prominent in the early- 
writing of the Miami Valley, moved to Ohio, being one of the early set- 
tlers in the Mil! Creek Valley. Later he removed to Oxford, where he 
superintended the erection of the college buildings. He represented Ham- 
ilton County in the House of Representatives in 1809-10; Butler County 




n c . Hamilton, March 18th, 1844. 

Dear Sir, ' ' +t 

In the Journals of the House of Representatives of the state 
of Ohio of the session commencing in December, 1803, Page 36, 
the report of the commissioners appointed to locate the college 
township, it is mentioned in such manner, that it appears as 
though the location was made by Jacob White and William 
Ludlow. And as I understand that you were one of the most 
active members in the matter, would you be good enough, if 
it docs not trespass too much on your time, to write me a line 
or two on the subject, giving me information of what occurred 
at the time, relative to that business, such as the date of the 
exploration of the country, and date of the location of the town- 
snip, ; f within vnnr recollection. 

in 1S11-12; and Franklin Comity in 1815-16. He served as one of the 
commissioners on the boundary line between the Public Lands and the 
Virginia Reservation and was president of the Board of Trustees of Miami 
University iSro to 1813. He was a resident of Franklin County in 1815, 
but the year following he was again a resident of Oxford, where he, James 
M. Dorsey and others organized the "Rational Society of Oxford." Cf. 
McBride's MSS., Vol. IV, pp. 99-115. 

12 Captain Jacob White was descended from Edward White of Somer- 
set Co., N. J. He moved to Washington Co., Penn., prior to 1776 and 
removed to Ohio about 17SS and built a block house known as White's 
Station upon the site of Carthage. He died in Gallatin Co., Ky., July 20, 
1849. Cf. Historical and Biographical Encyclopedia, Vol. II, p. 471-2; 
Teetor's History of Mill Creek Valley, p. 30. 

13 Jeremiah Morrow was the most influential member of this com- 
r fission. The part he had in the work and the reason his name was not 
f.ppendcd to die report is shown in letters III and IV. 

14 Jeremi:>h Morrow (1771-1S52) was born in York County, Penn., but 
moved to Columbia, O., in 1795, where he served as a surveyor and school- 
teacher. In 1799 he removed to the lands purchased by Symmes on the 
Little Miami River. In 1800 he was elected to the Legislature of the 
Northwest Territory and was a member of the Constitutional Convention. 
In 1803 was a member of the Senate in the first Legislature of Ohio. The 
same year he was elected to the U. S. Congress from Ohio, remaining 
until 1813; U. S. Senator 1813-1819; Governor of Ohio 1822-1826; was 
elected to the State Senate 1826 and to the House of Representatives 
1829-30 and 1835-36. From 1840 to 1843 he again served in Congress. 
Was Promoter and President of Miami Valley Rail Road. He was Trustee 
of Miami University 1836 to 1852, serving as President of the Board 
1847-1852, and_ was deeply interested in the welfare of the University to 
the time _of_ his death. Henry Clay said of him: "No man within the 
sphere within which he acted ever commanded or deserved the implicit 
confidence of Congress more than Jeremiah Morrow." Cf. Morrow's His- 
tory of Warren Co., O., pp. 360-7. 




Dear Sir Twenty Milks Stand, April 1st, 1844. 

In answer to your enquiries respecting the proceedings in 
relation to the location and entry at the land office of the col- 
lege township, I state facts as far as my recollection will enable 
me after a lapse of forty years from the transactions. The 
proposition made by our state convention for a grant of a town- 
ship of the public lands to be made, in lieu of that granted in 
trust to John C. Symmes for establishing an academy, &c, 
having been accorded to by Congress, the general assembly 15 
at their April session in 1S03 — the first session under the state 
constitution — passed an act authorizing the selection and loca- 
tion of a township for the purpose, and appointing three com- 
missioners to carry it into effect, who should complete the busi- 
ness on or before the 1st 01 October next following. My name 
being first in the commission, on the adjournment of the Legis- 
lature I called on my associates Jacob White and William Ludlow 
to settle the arrangement for carrying the act into effect. Mr. 
White for reasons assigned could not attend to the business 
at that time. With Mr. Ludlow it was agreed that he should 
make examination at the land office and obtain the necessary 
information to enable us to execute the trust, and to fix the 
time for taking a view of the public, lands west of the Miami. 
The exploration was made by Mr. Ludlow and myself about 
mid summer, the view was satisfactory in preferring, by both, 
the present college township for location. It was known to 
us that a few sections of the township had been entered but 
of the particular Nos. we were uninformed. Mr. Ludlow, 
[being] convenient to [the] land office, agreed to ascertain the 
facts in order that the location could be made complete. A 
delay ensued. I had no information from Mr. Ludlow, and 
an unexpected call by President Jefferson for Congress to meet 
early in October put it out of my power to give more attention 
to the business. Of this Mr. Ludlow was informed. I had 
no agency in the selection of the particular sections to supply 
for those sold in the township; nor in making the entry at the 

16 Cf. Laws of Ohio, Vol. I, p. 66. 

land office or return to the offices of the United States and state 
Government as required by law. Whether any other explora- 
tion was made than that by Mr. Ludlow and myself I never 
was informed. 



Yellow Springs, Green County, State of Ohio, 

August 16th, 1809. 

We the commissioners appointed by the Act of the Legis- 
lature of the State of Ohio, passed February the seventeenth, 
eighteen hundred and nine, ''establishing the Miami University" 
for the purpose of selecting the most proper place for the per- 
manent seat of said University, Report: 

That, we have examined John Cleve Symmes' purchase, and 
have chosen a Site in the county 01 Warren on the western 
side of the town of Lebanon on the land of Ichabod Corwin 18 
at a white oak tree, 17 marked with the letters M. U. V. 

In testimony whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and 

seals the day above written. 

Alexander Campbell 15- ) _, . . 

T _,.., ' I Commissioners. 

James Kilbourn 18 J 

1(J Ichabod Corwin (died 1S34) moved from Kentucky to Warren Co., 
O., prior to 1800. He was one of the original proprietors of Lebanon and 
offered a tract of forty-one acres there as a site for the Miami University. 
Lebanon at this time was one of the most prominent settlements in the 
T-ymmes Purchase north of Cincinnati. Cf. Morrow's History of Warren 
Co., O., pp. 449-51 ; Drake's Cincinnati and the Miami Country (1815). 

17 Thc tomb of Hon. Thomas Corwin stands now on the spot where 
this tree grew. Cf. Morrow's History of Warren Co., p. 451. 

18 Alexander Campbell, Jr., born in Greenbriar Co., Va.. 1779, moved 
in childhood to Tennessee and afterwards to Kentucky. Studied medicine 
at Lexington, Ky., under Doctors Reigley and Brown. In 1801 he began 
the practice of medicine at Cynthiana and during his residence there served 
in the Kentucky Legislature. Removed to Adams County, O., in 1804. 
Was member of the Legislature in 1807 to 1809, serving one term as 
Speaker of the House; U. S. Senator 1809 to 1813; State Senator 1822-23; 
Member of the lower House 1S32 and 1833, a n d candidate for Governor 
of the State in 1826. Cf. Evans & Stivers "History of Adams Co., O.," 
>.p. 279-80. 

19 James Kilbourne was born in Connecticut, 1770. He took orders 
in the Episcopal Church in 1802. Organized the Scioto Company, 




$j r Chiujcothk, January — 1810. 

Yesterday I received your letter. Am happy in spending 
a few moments in compliance with your request. With pleasure 
I can inform you that it is reduced nearly' to a certainty that, 
the College will be placed upon the Township in your County. 
A bill 22 has passed in the Senate by a large majority to that 
effect, and I think from all appearances we have nothing to 
fear in the house of representatives. Should it turn out to 

which he conducted to Ohio in 1803. Was made Captain of the North 
Western Frontier in 1S04. District Surveyor in 1805 to 1814. In 1S06 
he brought out a number of the groups of settlers to Central Ohio. Was 
T ••-'-■• rif the Ohio College at Athens. Elected Colonel of the Frontier 
Militia. Member of the 13th and 14th Congresses and of the General 
Assembly of Ohio 1823-24 and 1838-39. Cf. ''Old North West" Genealogi- 
cal Quarterly. Vol. VI, pp. 111-137. 

20 The third member of the Commission as constituted by the Legis- 
lature was Robert G. Wilson, D. D., pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
at Chillicothe. Pie afterwards served as president of the Ohio University 
at Athens 1824 to 1839. (Cf. Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit, 
Vol. IV, pp. 122-6.) Because of his failure to serve on the Commission 
and of the Governor's failure to appoint another to act in his stead, as 
provided by the Legislature (Cf. Sec. XX of "An Act Establishing Miami 
University," passed February 17. 1809), that body rejected the report of 
the Committee and directed that the town of Oxford be laid off on the 
college lands and that the University he located at that place. (Cf. 'An 
Act to Amend an Act Entitled, 'An Act to Establish Miami University/ 
passed February 6, 1S10.") 

21 James Smith ("Sheriff Smith") was born 1763, in Cumberland Co., 
Pa. He moved to Cincinnati in 1702, where for ten years he. in partner- 
ship with General James Findlay, kept a store at the foot of Broadway. 
For many years he served as sheriff of Hamilton County. Also as gov- 
ernment collector of revenue for the North West Territory and for a 
time acted as private secretary for Governor St. Clair. During the sec- 
ond war with Great Britain he was paymaster of the 1st Regiment of 
the Ohio Militia. About 1805 he removed to Butler County and located 
near the mouth of the Four Mile Creek, where he resided until his death. 
McBride's Pioneer Biography, Vol. II, pp. 214-216. 

22 The bill was introduced by Mr. Cooper of Dayton. 

my hopes I intend being an inhabitant of your County by 
moving on the College township. Be pleased to give my best 
respects to friend Reily, and believe me your friend and well 




<-.. Hamilton, August 31st, 1S11. 

. . . I perceive from the numberless enquiries which are 
made of me from day to day, that a considerable damp exists 
upon the minds of many purchasers in the College Township, 
as well as a difficulty with many more who wish to become 
purchasers, in consequence of the original purchaser always 
standing charged on the boohs o| the institution with the in- 
terest annually due on the purchase money. 2 ' The original 
purchaser feels alarmed because the account on the books stands 
against him, and should the person in possession of the assigned 
fail to pay the interest annually the Treasurer and Collector 
will consequently proceed against him. And on the other hand 
the purchaser feels reluctant to purchase because he thinks the 
land not so completely his without his name being inserted on 
the books and the name of the original purchaser entirely erased 
or withdrawn. Now I have been reflecting with myself, why 
these doubts and difficulties could not be removed. . . . 

23 The purchasers of the college lands were given leases ''for the term 
of ninety-nine years, renewable forever, at an annual rent of six per 
centum of the amount of the purchase money." (Cf. Lazvs of Ohio, Vol. 
VIII, p. 04.) This unusual form of tenure and the difficulties connected 
with the transfer of the land, together with the fact that lands held in 
fee simple might be had at very low prices, deterred the best class of set- 
tlers from locating on the college lands and resulted in their being taken 
up by those who were not able to pay the purchase price of lands. Many 
of these squatted for a time on the college lands, but failing to pay the 
interest, forfeited the lands to the corporation. From the records of the 
Board of Trustees it would appear that for a number of years most of 
their energies were devoted to devising a satisfactory system of land hold- 
ing and transfer. Cf. Laics and Ordinances of Miami University (1S33), 
PP- 45-/S. 



Dcar Sir, Cincinnati, Jany. 9 th, 1811. 

I have just received a letter from my Father dated the 5th 
inst. on his journey on the College Business 25 in which he 
writes — "On receiving this you will immediately forward a line 
"to J. McBride, Esqr., the secretary of the Miami University, 
"and request him to send me a neat plat of the town of Oxford 
"and mark thereon the lots and out lots which are sold and a 
"general statement of sales with the aggregate amount of the. 
"purchase money, c o as to be able to form an estimate of the 
"future income of the interest." In addition to the foregoing 
extr?rt. he desires you would send him a list of the Trustees 
and any other information you can furnish him with. Let the 
Pint of the Town of Oxford be drawn on a large sheet of 
fine Letter Paper if it can be conveniently procured, and on 
the opposite leaf your observations, &c. 

Have the goodness to direct to John W. Browne, Post Office. 
Pittsburgh. Be particular to send the letter off by Sunday's 
Mail otherwise it will not reach him. Should it be by accident 
delayed you will then direct to the Federal City. 

24 Samuel J. Browne, son of Rev. John W. Browne, migrated with his 
fathe from England to Cincinnati and was associated with his father in 
publishing the Liberty Hall and Cincinnati Mercury, and upon his father's 
death succeeded to bis interests. Later he established the Cincinnati 

* 5 May 26, 1810, a committee of the Trustees, consisting of Rev. J. L. 
Wilson and Messrs. Daniel Symmes and William Ludlow, was appointed 
to correspond with suitable characters relative to employing an agent or 
agents to go to the eastern states for the purpose of receiving donations 
and gratuities for the use of Miami University. June 23 the Board, upon 
the recommendation of the committee, authorized the appointment of '"Rev. 
John W. Browne a missionary to solicit and receive donations for the 
use of the institution," at a salary of 550 per month and expenses, "pro- 
vided the donations collected be sufficient to meet the above mentioned 
sums." Cf. Records of Board of Trustees of Miami University. 




n <-•• . Hamilton, January 12th. 181 1. 

I yesterday received a line from your son Saml. J. Browne 
which informed me that you were upon your mission on behalf 
of the Miami University and that you requested a plat of the 
town of Oxford, etc. In pursuance of which request I im- 
mediately sat down to draw the plat requested which I have 
just now compleated and herewith transmit it you — on which 
you will observe those lots which have been sold are stained 
with red, the four town lots No. 55. 56. 73 & 74 are set apart 
for public uses. You will also recollect that the in lots of the 
town are each four poles in width from north, to south by ten 
poles in length from east to west. The out lots are 25 poles 
by 25.6 poles each lot containing four acres, the streets through 
the town are each six poles in width, the alleys each one pole 
wide and the streets through the out lots each four poles in 
width, main street runs due N. & S. High street runs due 
east and west and the residue of the streets and alleys run 
either parallel with or across the same at right angles. From 
the calculations which I have made from the sale books the 
University appears to have in stock $56509.53.5 — being the 
amount of lots and land alre[a]dy sold which at six per cent 
per an.[num] will yield an annual interest of $3390.57.2 — to 
the University should it be punctually paid up. The names 
of the trustees first appointed to superintend the business are, 
Hiram Mirack Curry 27 and William Ward 28 of Champaign 

26 John \V. Browne (1754-1812) was born at Bristol. Eng. He and 
his family moved to America in 1704 and arrived at Cincinnati, T70S. In 
1802 he was one of the delegates from Hamilton County to the Constitu- 
tional Convention. In 1804 he was ordained to the ministry and preached 
statedly for the Paddy's Run (Butler Co.) Congregation. During the 
same year he purchased "The Liberty Hall," which he and his son Samuel 
edited up to the time of his departure upon his "Eastern Mission." Soon 
after his return from the east he was drowned while crossing the Little 
Miami River to fill an appointment in Clermont County. 

27 Hiram Mirach Curry. Represented Champaign County in the State 
Senate 1S0S-1811 and in the House 1813-1814. 

28 Colonel William Ward moved to Champaign County, O., from 
Greenbrier, Va. In 1805 he laid out and named the town of Urbana. Cf. 
Howe's Collections, Vol. I, p. 81. 


County, James Brown and David H. Morris 29 of Miami County, 
Wm. McClure 30 & Benjamin Van Cleve 31 of Montgomery County, 
Benjamin Whiteman 32 & Andrew Reed 33 of Green County, John 
Bigger 34 & Ichabod B. Ilalsey 3 "' of Warren County, John Reily 33 
and Thos. Irwin 37 of Butler Co. to whom when the Amendatory 
act was passed were added the Revr'd. Joshua L. Wilson, 38 
James Findlay, 39 , Dan'l. Symmes, 40 Step-hen Wood, 41 William 
Ludlow, Ogden Ross, 4 - William Corry 43 & James Shields. 44 

23 D. H. Morris was one of the first settlers of Miami County, where 
he resided as early as 1798. Cf. Howe's Collections, Vol. I, p. 35S. 

30 William McClure was one of the incorporators of Dayton Academy 
in 1807. He and George Smith began publishing the Dayton Repertory, 
Sept. 18, 1808. Cf. History of Dayton. 

31 Benjamin Van Cleve was horn in Monmouth County, New Jersey. 
Moved with his parents to Washington County, Penn., in 17S5, and to 
Cincinnati in 1790. Served in the Quartermaster's Department at Fort 
Washington and in St. Clair's expedition. Removed to Dayton, April 10, 
1796, being one of the first party to locate there.. In 1S00 he taught the 
first school opened in Dayton. Was Clerk of the Court of Montgomery 
County 1003 lo 1621, and Postmaster of Dayton rSo.r to 1821. In 1S05 he, 
with others, incorporated the Dayton Library. "Though self-educated, he 
was a man of much information and became a prominent and useful 
citizen." Cf. History of Dayton, pp. 21-24. 

32 Benjamin Whiteman (1769-1S52) served in the Revolutionary War. 
Moved from Virginia and settled on Beaver Creek, Greene Co., O., in 
1798, where he was Associate Judge of the county from 1803 to 1807. 
Was a member of the Ctark Expedition. Cf. Robinson's History of Greene 
Co., p. 45. 

33 Andrew Read moved from New Jersey to Greene County, 0., in 
1803. Served as County Commissioner 1807-1S09. 

31 John Biggar was a native of Pennsylvania, but settled in Ohio, hav- 
ing received a patent for lands northwest of Lebanon. He was elected to 
the Ohio Legislature twenty times and was Speaker of the Ho. of Reo. 
1821-22. Also a candidate for Governor, 1826, but was defeated by Allen 
Trimble. He presided at the first meeting of the Board of Trustees of 
the Miami University. Cf. Morrow's History of Warren Co., O., pp. 390-1. 

35 Ichabod B. Halsey was a son of Major Daniel Halsey of New Jer- 
sey. He was a large land owner and prominent n'tizen of Warren County, 
Ohio, and County Commissioner 1812-1817. Ci. Morrow's History of 
Warren County, p. 435. 

3 *Tohn Reily ( I/63-1850) was born in Chester County, Penn. When 
about five years of age his parents moved to Virginia. He served under 
Greene in the Southern Campaign and at the close of the Revolutionary 
War moved to Kentucky, but in 1789 he took up his residence at Columbia, 
O., where in 1790 he opened the first school in the Miami Country. He 
was Deputy Clerk of the Court of Hamilton County 1794-99; Clerk oi 
the General Assembly of the Xorth West Territory 1799-1S01 ; Member 
of the Constitutional Convention of 1802. In 1803 he moved to 'Hamilton 
and was Clerk of Court of Butler County 1S03-1840; Recorder of Butler 
County 1S03-1841; Postmaster of Hamilton 1807-1832; Trustee of Miami 
University 1809-1840 and President of the Board of Trustees 1813 to 1824. 
"Respected for his intelligence . . . the crowning glory of his life was 


The narrow limits of my paper compel me to give you the 
information you request in a very summary way, but should 
it be incompleate or should you stand in need of any thing 
else with which I can furnish you, only drop me a line and 
it shall be attended to with infinite pleasure and the greatest 
of punctuality. In the mean time acknowledge the receipt of 
this by the earliest conveyance to satisfy me that it reaches 
you safe and I trust you will find leisure from time to time to 

his spotless purity, his scrupulous honesty, and his unsullied integrity." 
Cf. McBride's Pioneer Biography, Vol. I, pp. 1-70. 

3T Thomas Irwin (1768-1847), born in Lancaster County, Penn. Moved 
to Cincinnati 1789, where he erected the first hewed log house in the town. 
He was a member of both the Harmer and St. Clair Expeditions, and after 
peace with the Indians had been established he located near Blue Ball, 
Butler Co., O. During the War of 1812 he served as Major of the Militia. 
Member of the State Senate 1808-1820 and of the Ho. of Rep. 1824-25. 
Cf. McBride's Pioneer Biography, Vol. I, pp. 107-178. 

3S Rev. Joshua L. Wilson, 1774-1846, was a native of Bradford Co., 
Va., but moved with his parents to Kentucky in 1784. He was edu- 
cated for the ministry and ordained by Presbytery of Transylvania. Was 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Bardstown, Ky., 1804- 1808, and of 
the First Presbyte'ian Church of Cincinnati 1808-1846. Cf. Greve's Cen- 
tennial History of Cincinnati, Vol. I, p. 481. 

3y General James Findlay (T775-1835). a native of Pennsylvania, lo- 
cated in Cincinnati, where he with James Smith established the first store. 
He was a member of the Legislative Council of the North West Territory ; 
U. S. Marshal 1 , in 1801; Mayor of Cincinnati 1S10-11; Colonel of an Ohio 
Regiment during the war of 1812-15; General of the Ohio Militia, and 
Representative in Congress 1825-1S33. Cf. Greve's Centennial History of 
Cincinnati, Vol. I, p. 319. 

40 Daniel Symmes (1772- 1827) was a nephew of John Cleves Symmes, 
Sr. He was born in New Jersey and graduated from Princeton. A promi- 
nent citizen of early Cincinnati. He served as Sheriff of Hamilton County 
1796-9; Clerk of the Territorial Court 1S02-3 ; State Senator 1S04, pre- 
siding over that body during one session. President of the Select Com- 
mittee of the Town of Cincinnati 1808-1809. Jvdge of the Supreme Court 
and Register of the Land Office 1S14-1S27. Cf. breve's Centennial History 
of Cincinnati, Vol. I, p. 

"Stephen Wood was a physician residing at North Bend. 

42 Ogden Ross, "an old pioneer of Hamilton." 

43 William Corry (1779-1833) was born in Virginia, but moved to Cin- 
cinnati in 1798. Studied law under William McMillan and was admitted 
to the bar in 1803. Removed to Hamilton in 1804 and entered into part- 
nership with John Reily. Married in 1810 and returned to Cincinnati. 
Member of the General Assembly 1807- 1808. Mayor of Cincinnati 1815- 
1819. Greve's Centennial History of Cincinnati, Vol. I, p. 440. 

44 James Shields (1763-1831) was born in the north of Ireland; edu- 
cated at the University of Glasgow and migrated to America 1791, residing 
for 13 years in Pennsylvania and Virginia. In 1805 he removed to Morgan 
Township, Butler County, Ohio. Was a member of the State Legislature 
for 19 years and of Congress from 1829 to 183 1. Cf. History and Bio- 
graphical Encyclopedia of Butler Co., pp. 92-3. 


write me a line from your different stations to inform me of 
your well fare and success. At present whilst I bid you adieu, 
that your success may be such as shall hereafter entitle you to 
the appellation of the friend & father of our institution is the 
sincere prayer of him who has the honour to be with sentiments 
of respect and esteem. 



jy c* • St. Georges, Delaware State, July 18, i8ii. 

Thro' the medium of my son, Saml J Browne, I acknowl- 
edged the receipt of your favor containing the plan of the town 
of Oxford, its in and out lots and the necessary information 
respecting the sale of lots, trustees, &c. &c. for which you will 
please to accept my sincere thanks. 

The agency in which I am engaged 1 find difficult & dis- 
couraging beyond every previous calculation. The general stag- 
nation of commerce, the great scarcity of cash, & the un- 
certain issue of public negociations, have all conspired to paralize 
the hand of benevolence & leave the solicitor in innumerable 
instances to feed on the good wishes of those who have been 
accustomed to acts of liberality & bounty. Had I consulted 
my own private feelings on such occasions I should [have] long 
ago turned' back & either relinquished the object, or waited 
a more propitious season. But being embarked in a cause in 
which a retreat would appear cowardice T continued to per- 
severe, and have found some evidences that patience & perse- 
verance will, in a measure accomplish that, which at first sight, 
appears almost an unsurmountable difficulty. 

I soon found that to procure cash equal to the expectations 
of the trustees or my own expectations was quite out of the 
question. The members of Congress almost to a man discour- 
aged the application on the ground that "Congress having done 
so much for the state of Ohio, it became her to stretch forth 
her legislative hand to provide means for forwarding the Build- 
ings &c." and "How can the trustees expect strangers will sub- 
scribe to erecting a College in the State of Ohio when her own 
Citizens have not come forward to afford any pecuniary as- 


sistance thereto." Believe me, Sir, I have been frequently obliged 
to rack invention to find plausible but true replies to such sort 
of observations & interrogations. I frequently found myself 
completely embarrassed, until in addition to soliciting of Cash I 
ventured on Books. This opened a new field of exertion, and 
its has been mutually assisting to each other. Thro' 
the attention of Mr. Thomas Carpenter, late of Washington 
City, but now a resident in Cincinnati, my first efforts were 
made among the Booksellers which have since been accompanied 
with considerable success, and I have no doubt but under his 
charge about 200 volumes have reached Cincinnati. To the care 
of Mr. Mclntire, 43 who I trust has also arrived e'er this time, 
were committed two trunks containing at least 200 vols, more, 
and to the charge of Mr. Thomas Findlay* 5 & Mr. Van Lear 
of Baltimore, I suppose I have left 2 trunks more containing 
nearly 260 vols, more, so that of one kind & another we have 
a library of upwards of 550 volls. Last week I embraced an 
opportunity of purchasing a set of Globes — treatise connected 
with them — a Hebrew Bible & Lexicon & Greek & Latin Lexi- 
con together with a set of magazines, being a lot that I thought 
of considerable consequence to the institution, the whole of 
which cost me but abt. 57 dlls. I trust the gentlemen will see 
the propriety of the purchase; if it should be questioned, I 
will most chear fully take them to myself, but I am mistaken 
if the Globes themselves are not nearly worth § of the whole sum. 
As I am now engaged in the employ of the University I 
take for granted the account of sales or of purchases which 
I made will remain in statu quo till my return. If it should 
not be too much trouble I will be gratified with a line stating 
the last sales and the general account : also a list of what I 
purchased 47 as I have not the list with me. Perhaps I may 
sell to some actual settler — as I wish to encourage the settlement. 

45 James Mclntyre, grocer, is the only person of this name mentioned 
in the Cincinnati Directory of 1S19. 

46 Thomas Finley (as he spelled the name) was a brother of General 
James Findlay. He held the office of Marshall of the District of Maryland 
for a time. Cf. Quarterly, Vol. II. 

47 At the sale of college lands held at Hamilton, May 22, 1810, Rev. 
John W. Browne bid off In-lots No. 3, 39, 40, 87, 88, 91, 95 and 103; 
also Out-lots No. 5, 15, 19, 20, 23, 27, 6 and 16, all of which the books 
show to have been forfeited. Cf. Sale Book. 


Trenton in The State of Jersey — 16 Augt. i8ii. 

When I wrote the above I had intended sending it off im- 
mediately but meeting with an accident in being overset in a 
carriage wherein, tho completely soused in the mud, I received 
no great personal injury, yet it thus occasioned a delay until 
I thought it would not reach you till after the day of sales. 
I hope this will reach you before the meeting of Trustees on 
3rd Sept. In addition to general statement sent to Mr. Symmes 
I have the satisfaction to say that I have been somewhat suc- 
cessful in this town: my receipts from 15 dils. received in this 
town, it has now advanced to abt. 50 dlls. — so that my sum 
total 80S.83J/2 : and in this town collected abt. 80 cr 90 vol : 
some very useful ones. I expect to receive a few dollars & 
a few books more & this evening proceed on towards Princeton 
& Brunswick. The Gov. [ernor] has interested himself for me, 
so has Stacy Potts who is mayor of [the] town, through whose 
kindness I have been iree of expense since 1 have been in the 
town, and I have letters of introduction to several persons as 
I go along. 

The Governor 45 requested His compts. to Mr. Reily. 

To have a plat of the township & in it, the situation of the 
town of Oxford, would be useful to me; Say, has any plan 
been fixed of the building? What progress, if any, of the build- 
ing? 10 I cannot be furnished with too many particulars. Your 
plat of the town &c. has been very satisfactory to many. 

48 Joscph Bloomfield was Governor of New Jersey from 1803 to 1812, 
and represented his State in Congress 1817-1821. Cf. Dictionary of Con- 
gress, p. 35- 

49 At the meeting of the Board of Trustees held at Hamilton, Febru- 
ary 13, 181 1, it was ordered that there should be erected on the University 
Square in the town of Oxford, a house or building for the use of the 
school . . . The expense of the same should not exceed one hundred 
and fifty dollars. Work on the building must have been begun soon after 
this, for at its meeting, Sept. 4, of the same year, an appropriation of 
eighty dollars was made "for the purpose of completing the schoolhouse." 
In his report to the Legislature in 1815 the Secretary states that the build- 
ing was completed at a total cost of $297.00. Evidently this building must 
have been of the same design as the "Log College" that is preserved upon 
the campus of Jefferson Academy at Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania. 




n ear Sir- TrkntoNj 16 Augt. i8ii. 

1 just take the pen to inform yon that I this day saw Mr. 
Slack, son of Mr. .Slack, 50 one of the settlers in the University 
Township, & that he wd. receive any communications from 
his father of particulars concerning the purchase which was 
made by him on acct. of his son. Respecting the discharging 
the first annual payment he cannot do it at present. He wishes 
to hear from his father as soon as possible directed to him 
as usual in Trenton. . 

Various are the enquiries made by individuals respecting 
your welfare & of your family. 

The. skv seems to brighten respecting the object of my mis- 
sion. I have received in tins town 62 dlls. 69 cents. & order for 
11 dlls. 2 cents which I expect to collect on my way home, (the 
person lives near Zanesville ) : together with about an hundred 
vols, some of which are truly valuable. I do calculate on a 
large library although I fear that my cash acct. will be but 
small. 1 should be highly gratified by having a line from you. 
I feel myself neglected that I have not received a line from the 
corresponding committee since my departure from Cin a - If 
the trustees are dissatisfied I should be glad with a speedy 
hint, as I am determined to close my exertions in N. Y. and 
make towards home on the 1st of October unless I hear some- 
thing satisfactory by that time. I have no doubt but I can 
procure at least 2000 vol : but the work is tedious to an extreme. 
Dr. Smith 51 of Princeton received me with much politeness, 
gave me 5 dlls. & has promised to look out some books by the 

50 Aug. 29, 1S10, John Slack purchased Farm-lot No. 6 in 29. Cf. Sale 

51 Samuel Stanhope Smith, D. D., LL. D., 1750-1819. Graduated from 
Princeton 1768. Founded Hampden Sidney College. Professor of Moral 
Philosophy at Princeton 1779. On the death of his father-in-law, Prest 
Witherspoon, in 1792, he was elected to the presidency of the institution, 
which office he retained until 1S12. 


time I go forward to Brunswick. Providence is favoring the 
institution in a most remarkable manner by preventing expenses. 
I find a constant opening of hospitable friends. Tell Major 
Murray 52 that I am now at the house of Stacy Potts ; the old 
Gent : the' So years of age is well & hearty, his good lady 
(formerly Mrs. Boyd) enjoys good health & they live in a 
very genteel & easy stile. I am endeavoring to find out such 
persons as own land in the State & ply them pretty closely. 
I expect tomorrow to wait on Ralph Philips of Maidenhead, 
he has invited me to call on him. Your friend Revd. Mr. 
Collick is gone to Georgia — just preparing to start for Maiden- 



Saturday, November 6th. 1813. 

Resolved; That Messrs. James Findlay, Daniel Symmes and 
William Carry, members of the Board of Trustees of the Miami 
University, be, and the same are hereby appointed a Committee 
to call upon the administrators of the Estate of the late Rev- 
erend John W. Browne, deceased, and to make a full and final 
sett ement with the said Estate and to receive all moneys, Books, 
papers and other property, which has been collected or received 
by Mr. Browne in behalf of this Institution while acting as a 
missionary in the state of Ohio and elsewhere in the years 
181 1 and 1812. And the Books which they may receive, or 
any part thereof, to dispose of in such manner as they may 
think proper, should they deem it most advantageous to the 

52 Major William Murray settled in Hamilton prior to 1814, where he 
kept a tavern for a number of years. McBride's Pioneers, Vol. I, p. 148. 




Cincinnati, October 3d, 1815. 

. . . The report herewith communicated was found among 
my much valued father's papers after his unfortunate decease. 
As it is copiously written in his own hand, it will doubtless eluci- 
date the subject to the satisfaction of the President and trustees 
of the Miami University. 

The list of Cash and Books &c. Received as spoken of in 
the Report is herewith rendered. It may perhaps be imperfect 
in a few of the Books. Any further information that the 
Prest. & Trustees may be desirous of having and in my power 
to communicate, will be furnished with pleasure. 




Cincinnati, August — 1S12. 

As it is necessary that the Trustees of the Miami University 
should be in possession of a statement of particular circum- 
stances which occurred in the accomplishment of the Mission 
which, under their authority, was undertaken by me to procure 
subscriptions, donations or benefactions for the use of the 
Miami University in the United States: I herewith communi- 
cate my Report for their information. 

On the 4th day of January 181 1, I left Cincinnati and pro- 
ceeded to Williamsburglr' 3 where I spent the Sabbath. As 

53 The road to Pittsburg led through Williamsburg, O., and passing 
to the south and east of Hillsboro connected with the Chillicothe and Mays- 
ville Road one mile north of Bainbridge. For a description of the expe- 
riences of a traveler over the road from this point to Pittsburg Cf. Cum- 
mins' Sketches of a Tour (i8ro), pp. 191-236. Williamsburg, though laid 
out by William Lytic in 1796, is described by Drake in "Cincinnati and the 
Miami Country in 1815" as "not very populous," and as having only one 
public building (a stone court house), a post-office, and two printing offices. 


I thought it expedient in this part of the State, to lift a col- 
lection, it was done ; but produced a very small sum ; only 
about three dollars. 

My object. r><-rnrr , i'-'^ to our original design approbated by 
the Trustees, was to proceed to Washington City, that through 
the introduction of our representatives I might become acquainted 
with influential characters from every part of the United States, 
who might recognize me in their different neighborhoods where 
my future views might be directed. In my way, I spent some 
days in Pittsburgh. About this time the fate of the United 
States Bank was pending in Congress ; 54 which so alarmed the 
Stockholders and Note holders that Hon. Mr. Ross. Dr. Stephen- 
son and many other influential characters refused their aid on 
that account ; nevertheless in a number of small sums I received 
about fifty dollars and in paints 5 dollars and books twenty-six 
dollars subscriptions. 

On the fourteenth of February I arrived at Washington 
City after the most fatiguing Journey, I had ever experienced; 
and was kindly received by both of our Senators 5 r ' and Repre- 
sentative. 50 They took every opportunity to introduce me to 
their respective acquaintances and themselves opened a sub- 
scription to which each subscribed twenty dollars. Their ex- 
ample was followed by some of the members from the Western 
country, and only one other instance ; as it appeared to be a 
determined rule followed by the members of Congress, in gen- 

E4 The Bank of the United States was- chartered March 4, i89t, for 
twenty years. In April, 1808, a memorial was presented in the Senate for 
a renewal of the charter. Though its cause was championed by Gallatin, 
Secretary of the Treasury, Senator Crawford of Georgia and the Feder- 
alists, it was opposed by the Republicans, especially the Congressmen from 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, which states held stock in their own banks. 
In January. 181 r. the bill to recharter was indefinitely postponed in the 
House, and in February the corresponding bill was defeated in the Senate. 
Babcock's Rise of American Nationality, pp. 5-15 (Amer. Nation Ser.). 

55 Dr. Alexander Campbell (see 18) and Thomas Worthington. The 
latter was born in Virginia in 1769. He emigrated to Ross Co., O., in 
1798. Was a member of the Constitutional Convention. Served as U. S. 
Senator 1803-1807 and 1S10-1814. Was Governor of Oh«* 1814-1818. Cf. 
Diet, of Cong., 1864, p. 409. 

56 Jeremiah Morrow was the sole representative from Ohio in the 
Lower House of Congress 1803-1S13. 


oral, to refuse their aid in order to check personal applications 
to them when in Session. 

Dr. Campbel introduced me to the President 57 of U. S. 
without effect as was also my application to the Secretaries of 
War 5S and the Treasury ; 59 the heads of Department afforded 
me some small assistance. The whole of my donations only 
amounted at Washington and the neighboring' places to about 
200 dollars. 

As this time my prospects were very gloomy and discour- 
aging. The Vice President 60 pointed out many serious obstacles 
in the way of my success, such as, What have your own neigh- 
bors done? Have the Trustees themselves, and the Inhabitants 
of the State shown no examples of generosity? He doubted 
the utility of the object. &c. 5 &c. and closed the interviews 
with a promise of consideration. The final rejection of the F>ill 
for the renewal of the United States Bank at that time so 
operated on the minds of the citizens as to cast a Gloom on the 
commercial part of the citizens and led me to a disposition for 
a return. Having been introduced to Hon. Mr. Pope,* 1 Senator 
from Kentucky, he appeared willing to encourage the Institu- 
tion ; but could not make it convenient to advance any cash. 
He proposed subscribing 20 dollars, but it must be in Books 
and offered me a donation of [a] set of Plowden's History 
of Ireland, in 5 Vol. Octavo, for which he had paid 15 dollars; 
and would subscribe 5 dollars more in books on demand. I 
accepted the offer as I had an opportunity of sending them home. 

Soon after I waited on Mr. Barlow 62 (new Minister in 
France) as he noticed Mr. Pope's donation, observed to this 
effect, ''That to collect a Library at the same time that I was 

37 James Madison, President, 1809-1817. 

58 William Eustc; of Mass. Cf. Diet, of Congress, 1864. p. 129. 

59 Albert Gallatin of Penn. Cf. Diet, of Congress, 1864. p. 146. 

S0 George Clinton. Cf. Diet, of Congress, 1864, p. 85. 

ei John Pope was born in Prince William Co., Va. Moved to Ken- 
tucky, where he served a number of years in the Legislature. Served in 
the United States Senate 1807-1813 and in the House of Representatives 
1837-1844. Diet, of Congress, 1864, p. 297. 

02 Joel Barlow (1755-1812), born in" Reading, Conn., was a graduate of 
Yale Univ. 1778 and became one of Connecticut's most noted diplomats and 
litterateurs. Cf. "Connecticut as a Colony and as a State." 


collecting donations of Cash would answer a very valuable pur- 
pose for the University, as a number of Gentlemen who would 
not be disposed to bestow Cash, may be persuaded to give Books." 
I took the hint; he promised to examine his own library; he 
furnished me with 10 Vol., some very valuable ones. 

This circumstance gave a new spring to my mind. I cal- 
culated that the only expense to the University would be my 
time in collecting the Books and carriage ; and that the appli- 
cation for both would promote each, I resolved to unite them 
in my solicitations and eventually found the calculations correct. 

In the onset of my application for Books I was more solici- 
tous to procure a respectable list than to be choice in the quality 
or condition of the Books, as I wanted examples of numbers. 
To the kind attention of Mr. Thomas Carpenter, now of Cin- 
cinnati, the University is much indebted for my first weeks 
accommodation and through his introduction to and influence with 
tile Booksellers in Georgetown and Washington City they were 
induced not only to contribute handsomely themselves, but by 
their letters of introduction to those in Baltimore a way was 
opened for a general application and success. 

In my way to Washington City my horse received much 
hurt and I was obliged to exchange it to a considerable dis- 
advantage. In the City and neighborhood I found it absolutely 
necessary to keep it, altho' the expenses were considerable, but 
as the Spring opened I resolved to embrace an opportunity to 
dispose of it and rid myself of the expense and trouble of its 
keeping and leave me more at liberty to enjoy the benefit of 
private families. In Alexandria I received the attention of the 
Presbyterian Minister who introduced me by letter to the Clergy 
of Baltimore. 

To the great politeness of Rev. Obadiah B. Brown, Minister 
of the Baptist Church in Washington City, I am indebted for 
the most hospitable attention whilst I remained in the City, 
and introductions to several persons of character and respecta- 
bility. About the middle of April 1 reached Baltimore where 
I was kindly received by Mr. James Rooker with whose family 
I had been acquainted in my younger days. At his house and 
table I was treated with the greatest hospitality during the time 
of my long stay in Baltimore. 


My introductory Letters to Rev. Mr. Glendy 63 of Baltimore 
were received with great cordiality ; but his people being deeply 
in debt for their own New Church which was just erected he 
could not find himself at liberty to make personal applications 
to them ; but after having assisted him in his public services, I 
became acquainted with a number of them whose small donations 
made up some interesting sum. The Rev. Dr. Inglis 04 being 
about to take a journey to the Eastern States, I occupied his 
pulpit two Sabbaths, which in the issue proved very advantageous 
to my object. 

For several weeks my success in Cash was but small yet in 
Books I found encouragement — at length Mr. Thomas Findlay, 
Brother to Gen. James Findlay accompanied me to the stores 
of many of his neighbors and thro' his influence other gentlemen 
accompanied me to their neighbors which occasioned some 
progress in cash as well a? occasional donations of Books. 

About this time nevvs arrived of the fire at Newburyport ; 
this was a subject which entered into the feelings of the in- 
habitants, as they anticipated a general call of benevolence for 
the unhappy sufferers, and very frequently occasioned the with- 
holding a donation or considerably diminishing the sum. 

During my stay in Baltimore I had the opportunity of pur- 
chasing a neat small pair of Globes and a small number of 
Classical Books most of them absolutely necessary for a Sem- 
inary, of English price & duties without any advance. By the 
advice of several friends I embraced it and laid out about 57 
dollars — this sum with 5 dlls. for a Vol : of the Encyclopedia 
is the amount of what I have ventured to lay out for the Insti- 
tution. My stay in Baltimore was much longer than I wished, 
but I wanted to make the sum collected in that City to be as 
large as possible as an example to other places. 

On closing my concern in Baltimore I found that I had 

es John Glendy, D. D. (1755-1S32), was pastor of the Second Presby- 
terian Church of Baltimore 1803-1S26 and Chaplain of the U. S. Senate 
1815-16 and of the Ho. of Rep. 1806. Cf. Sprague's Annals, Vol. IV, 

64 James Inglis, D. D. (1777-1S20), was a graduate of Columbia College 
in 1795; pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Baltimore, 1802- 1820. 
Cf. Sprague's Annals of the American Pulpit, Vol. IV, p. 278. 


collected about 450 dollars and 300 Vol : some of them very 
scarce and valuable. 

In passing through the State of Delaware I found very- 
little success. I only spent about 2 weeks therein & principally 
to recruit my health & spirits. I procured only 22 dollars & 
35 Vol. 

As the summer was now much advanced I suppose that 
most of the influential characters in Philadelphia were retired 
to the Country: I therefore resolved to make that City my place 
of Deposit for Books &c, and my last place of application, I 
therefore merely passed through it on the fourth of August & 
made the best of my way to Jersey. — At Trenton I was kindly 
received by Stacy Potts Esq. Mayor of the City, who politely 
introduced me to every principal character in town & neighbor- 
hood, I took an early opportunity to visit Dr. Saml. Stanhope 
Smith president of the College at Princeton in New Jersey — 
He advised me to take time in passing through the State, and 
observed that little would be done any where but as I was re- 
ceived on the Sabbath. I found almost every town on the way 
to New York deeply engaged either in Building Colleges, churches, 
Schoolhouses, Court houses or some public building, or deeply 
in debt for what they had accomplished — I passed about 2 
.months in the State & collected about 338 dollars & 300 Vol: 
& a promisory note of Gen. John N. Cummins for 50 dollars. 

When I was at Pittsburgh I engaged to use my endeavors 
to get a piece of business in Land concerns accomplished for 
a gentlemen. This would have been attended with a donation 
of 100 dollars if successful. I turned out of my course and 
went to Morristown — failed in my object but procured an order 
from Genl. Doughty on Mr. Esty [Este], for the books in his 
possession as a donation to the college and collected about 28 
dollars — which is included in the above sum. 

When at Newark I was introduced to Revd. Mr. Thompson, 
minister of the Presbyterian Church in Augusta, State of Georgia. 
He encouraged me to hope that something might be done in the 
Southern States & wished me to accompany him thither — I 
thought it necessary to consult Genl. Dayton 65 & Rev. Dr. Kol- 

« 5 General Jonathan Dayton, 1755-1824, was a graduate of Princeton 
College, Member of Ho. of Rep. I79i- T 799. and of the Senate 1799-1805. 
Ci. Did. of Congress, 1864, p. 109. 


lock* 6 of Savannah. The latter rather discouraged me on the 
consideration of the State of public affairs & the great disap- 
pointment which the planters would experience in the sale of 
their cotton. Genl. Dayton thought the attempt might be at- 
tended with success; yet advised me to try what could be done 
in Albany, before I left the eastern States spend a few days 
there & 1 could sail for any of the Southern parts at any time 
before December, on trial I thought it not prudent to relinquish 
present views in pursuit of uncertainties so I lost sight of that 
scheme. Should the posture of public affairs bear a more pleas- 
ing aspect, I have no doubt but something of consequence might 
be done in the Southern States. 

In the month of October I took passage from New York 
in steam boat for Albany and on my arrival was introduced 
to Revd. Mr. Neille pastor of the presbyterian church. In this 
City 1 found two difficulties arise, one from the determination 
of the presbyterians to use their greatest efforts for establish- 
ing a Theological Institution at Princeton N. J. and the other 
of a legal nature. The Corporation had passed an ordinance 
that no subscription should be offered to the citizens without 
the Consent of the corporation signed by the seal of the Re- 
corder of the City under the penalty of fine & imprisonment. 
I therefore submitted my documents to the inspection of the 
Board of Alderman who reported that they could take no order 
on the subject. Thus I bcame exposed to the caprice of the 
public or relinquish my object. I did not hesitate; but hazarded 

On the first Sabbath I was in Albany I met with Mrs. Susan 
Symmes formerly from this Town, she became exceedingly use- 
ful to my object by introducting me to a number of her ac- 
quaintance and her friend Mr. Kane commenced the subscrip- 
tion entirely on her account ; Having made some little progress 
I pressed Mr. Van Ranseller the patron (or proprietor) of the 
City lots. He subscribed 20 dollars, I waited on his brother 
the Mayor of the City, who subscribed 10 dollars. He after- 

6e Henry Kollock, D. D. (1778-1S19), was born in New Jersey and 
graduated from Princeton 1794. Pastor of the Presbytericn Church, Sa- 
vannah, 1806-1810. In 1810 he was elected to the Presidency of the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, but declined to accept. Cf. Sprague's Annals, Vol. IV, 
pp. 263-270. 


wards, in a very friendly manner warned me of the consequences 
of making application to the Citizens without the authority of 
Corporation. I observed that I was well aware of them but 
must hazzard them. I came to beg, & beg I must. He smiled, 
wished me success & I passed on. 

Altho in the Presbyterian Society I received but little en- 
couragement yet in the Dutch Reformed Church 1 enjoyed much 
attention. Revd. Mr. Bradford their Minister made me a very 
handsome donation of Books & one of his Consistory, Elbert 
Willet, Esqr., late Chamberlain, took much pains to procure sub- 
scriptions. This City was my principal home during my stay 
in that neighborhood and closed with about 178 dollars. In 
Schenactady I spent about 2 weeks. The Ministers, Revd. Messrs. 
Monteith & Bogardus, aided me in private applications and in 
a public collection when both congregations were united. By 
which means I procured about 150 dollars and a few books. 

In the United Churches of Lancineburph & Waterford I 
received much attention from Revd. Dr. Saml. Blatchford. 67 
A subscription being at that time on foot for repairing the Church 
at Lancingburgh prevented much success there but on the whole 
did more than I could have a right to expect receiving about 
75 dollars. 

In the town of Troy the Revd. Air. Coe es received me cor- 
dially, but being under particular circumstances of obligation 
could not step forward, I was providentially led to an acquaintance 
with Mr. Isaac Brinkerhoff, a member of the Seceeder Church. 
He paid all possible attention to me, accompanied me to a number 
of his neighbors and during much indisposition in my lungs 
afforded me every assistance in his powei Thro' the Medical 
care of his physician, Dr. Proudfit, I soon recovered. The public 
mind was much engaged in my favor & I closed my visit with 

67 Samuel Blatchford, D. D. (1767-182S), emigrated from England to 
the U. S. in 1794. In 1804 he accepted a call to the Presbyterian Church 
of Lansingburg, N. Y., and an offer of the principalship of the academy 
of that place, retaining the latter position till 1S09 and the former till his 
death. Cf. Sprague's Annals, Vol. IV, pp. 158-168. 

68 Jonas Coe, D. D. 1759-1822), was a graduate of Queen's College 
(now Rutger College) 1789. Pastor of the United Congregation of Troy 
and Lansingburg, N. Y.,- 1793-1803 and of Troy until his death. Cf. 
Sprague's Annals, Vol. Ill, p. . 


about 123 dollars, — 20 of which was gathered at a public col- 

At two or three other places, public collections were made 
which brought but trifling sums to amount of 17 dollars. Thus 
I closed my efforts in State of New York, having obtained 
nearly 550 dollars and some valuable books. At the latter end 
of January I left Albany & waited on Caleb Strong 09 Esq. now 
Governor of Massachusetts. Altho' he possessed much land 
in this State yet on political considerations he rejected my solici- 
tation & I could procure nothing from his hands ; and finding 
that other land holders residing in that neighborhood were of 
the same cast I did nothing in that place. 

At Worcester I was kindly received by Revd. Dr. Saml. 
Austin. 70 Spent a Sabbath with him & on the Monday picked 
up about 30 dollars and 40 dollars worth of books. 

In this town I received information that on the following 
Thursday cheie was an ordination of five Missionaries 71 to take 
place at Salem about 20 miles above Boston. I resolved to 
be present on the occasion as it would afford me an opportunity 
to see a number of Ministers at one place & commence an 
acquaintance with them. I passed through Boston & proceeded 
to Salem. I was introduced to Dr. John Prince (brother to 
Capt. Joseph Prince 72 of this town) who promised to forward 
my design to the utmost of his power among his people. My 

69 Caleb Strong (1745-1819) was a graduate of Harvard College, 1764. 
During the years 1789-1797 he was a member of the U. S. Senate, and later, 
Governor of Massachusetts 1800-1S07 and 1812-1816. In 1779 he assisted 
in forming the Constitution of that State, and ir 1787 he also assisted in 
forming the Constitution of the United States. He was vigorously opposed 
to the war and denied the right of the President to make requisition upon 
the State for troops. Cf. Diet, of Congress, 1864, p. 354. 

70 Rev. Samuel Austin, D. D. (1760-1S30). Pastor of New Haven, 
1786-1790; at Worcester, Mass., 1790-1815. President of the University of 
Vermont, 1S15-1S21. Cf. Spraguc's Annals of the American Pulpit, Vol. II, 
pp. 221-228. 

71 They were Messrs. Judson, Hall, Nott, Newell and Rice, who were 
ordained February 6, 1S12, and who sailed the same year for Calcutta, 
India, thus inaugurating the foreign mission work begun under the direc- 
tion of the American Board. Cf. Encyclopedia of Missions, Vol. I, p. 66. 

72 Captain Joseph Prince was president of the "Select Council of the 
Town of Cincinnati," 1803-1804. 


object was accomplished at the ordination & I was affectionately 
received by a number of Clergy & by a Mr. Shermerhorne 
Student in Divinity with whom I had formed acquaintance at 
Schenactady, I was introduced to the patronage & family of 
Air. John jeriks under whose very friendly roof I received every 
possible attention during my stay in Salem. The appearance 
of success was very gloomy at first. The stagnation of com- 
merce in the Seaports rendered the Merchants very much im- 
bittered against the Western as well as Southern States, and 
my first applications were repulsed, other circumstances were 
in the way. Large subscriptions had been raised & still were 
raising on account of the Missionaries who were soon to sail 
for the East Indies & great sums had been raised for translations 
of the Bible into different languages, add to these the general 
inclemency of the weather which drew large sums to the poor. 
I had serious doubts whether I could do any thing in Salem. 
However the general mind was exited to an attention to public 
services in the different churches which terminated in favor of 
the institution ; and I had the satisfaction to find that in three 
churches about 130 dollars were collected & a Minister, Revd. 
Mr. Eently, among his people made a private collection of 31 
dollars which with what I had collected from individuals Amounts 
to 300 $ and some valuable books. Those Books with such as 
I had collected in that quarter thro' the kindness of Mr. Jenks 
were forwarded free of freight to Philadelphia where they were 
delivered safely to [the] care of Robt. Ralston Esq. — 

Notwithstanding the severe dispensation of Providence which 
had been felt in Newburyport by the late fire in that town, yet 
I was encouraged to visit it. I spent abo"t 10 days there, the 
weather so inclement as almost entirely to prevent my exposure 
to the air. The Ministers called on their friends on my behalf 
& by public and private collections I received about 117 dollars. 
In my way back to Salem I took Haverhill & Andover but met 
with little success only receiving 27 dollars & some books. At 
Marblehead the Ministers of both Churches in that town paid 
all possible attention to me & without my soliciting any indi- 
vidual they repaid my public services with about 70 dollars. 
At Beverly & Danvers in the same neighborhood I received about 
65 dollars and considered my object accomplished in that part 
of the State. 


• V ?00U3 

At Boston T arrived on 18th April & the next day I preached 
for Revd. Dr. John Lathrop & Revd. Mr. Channon the oldest & 
genteelest congregations in Boston and on the following Thurs- 
day preached before the Boston Association of Congregational 
Ministers and [was] by them invited to attend their association 
on the following Monday. The association recognized me, 
gave me a testimonial of their satisfaction as to my person & 
mission which opened a door for effecting my purpose. My 
spirits were raised & I conceived myself in a probable way to 
procure at least a thousand dollars in Boston. I had the names 
of some leading characters remarkable for their generosity on 
such public occasions ; at the head of which was John Phil[l]ips, 73 
Esq. (now Lieut. Governor of Massachusetts.) To procure his 
signature was of the utmost consequence & I took the earliest 
opportunity to wait on him. With a polite reception & invi- 
tation to dine he expressed his disapprobation of the object 
[or ivy mission] and - doubt of its success. T was in hopes 
his views would be more generous ; but I found my mistake. 
He was determined, urged the settled opposition of our State to 
the commercial interests of New England. The Embargo 74 he 
observed called all their resources to other objects & in short 
he declared himself principled against encouraging any State in 
league with the Southern States. 75 In vain 1 pled the numerous 
emigrants from New England, the present vote of one of our 

73 John Phillips (1770-1823). Graduate of Harvard. Was member 
of the Massachusetts Senate 1S04-1S23, serving as presiding officer from 
1813; also the first mayor of the city of Boston. 

74 0wing to frequent losses of American vessel owners due to the 
failure of these powers to recognize what Americans claimed to be "rights 
of neutrals" Congress, after the passage of the Berlin Decree and the 
Orders in Council, passed an Embargo Act forbidding the sailing of any 
merchant vessel from the United States to any foreign port. This act 
wakened such opposition in New England, whose interests were especially 
affected, that in 1809 it was repealed, and non-intercourse with Great 
Britain and France substituted, with the provision that the President might 
suspend its orders or decrees. Cf. Channing, The Jeffersonian System, 
pp. 208-227. 

75 A reference to the Annals of Congress shows that the Ohio Con- 
gressmen voted with the Southern States on every important measure dur- 
ing the sessions of iSic-ii and 1811-12. 


Senators with Mr. Loyde's 76 Motion &c. &c, the unsettled char- 
acter of our State & every argument in my power to move him. 
This repulse was a decided wound to my expectations. I called 
on some others : every one had the same spirit & in fact I could 
get no one to commence the subscription list and, had not some 
Ladies' Societies manifested their attention to me, I should not 
have received a cent in cash in Boston. 

I now thought my mission brought to a close. Dr. Morse 
of Charleston urged his people to do something — It met the 
same fate and I found every exertion useless in the way of cash. 

The question now to be decided in my own mind was whether, 
as no money could be procured, it would not be best to bend 
all my attention to procure books & leave a general effort for 
cash to some future period. I therefore determined to call on 
those characters again & inform them that as the situation of 
public affairs were such as made application for cash unpleasant 
I "Should leave the subject to some more propitious period when 
myself or perhaps some other person would zvait on them unth 
more effect, thereby keeping open the way for a future appli- 

My application for books was attended with more success, 
including some neighboring donations with Boston. I suppose 
1 collected above 300 Vols, a number of them of great value 
in a college Library. I waited on late President Adams who 
presented me with a ten dollar bill & 2 or 3 Vol[umes]. This 
sum with about 28 dollars more closed my subscription for Massa- 
chusetts, having collected 673 dollars in that State. 

I now resolved to make the best of my way home. I ex- 
pected the same effects at New York & Philadelphia & supposed 
that it would be much more expedient to leave these cities for 
a future propitious opportunity than now to make an unsuccess- 
ful attempt. Besides my health became & continued much im- 
paired ; I found exertion a burden & arrangements were making 
by my son and soninlaw Dr. French to take me home. 

76 James Lloyd (1769-1831), U. S. Senator from Mass. 1808-13 and 
1822-26 (Dictionary of Congress). March 2, 1812, he introduced a bill 
calling upon the Secretary of the Treasury for a statement of the amount 
of exports from the United States to France subsequent to the repeal of 
the Berlin and Milan decrees. Senator Campbell supported this bill. Cf. 
Annals of the 12th Congress, Part I, pp. 147, 167. 


From Boston I reached Hartford in Connecticutt, but found 
no opening for cash — procured some books & passed on to New 
Haven. Here I determined to make my last effort. SeveraLcir- 
cumstances opened in my favor. I was received, thro' personal 
acquaintance \yjth several of the inhabitants, by the President 77 
of Yale College & the Clergy of both parishes. — Active measures 
were taken by several persons who went with me almost from 
house to house so that from about Eighty different donors I pro- 
cured 161 dollars & 50 cts. 

Thus I closed my subscription list. For a more explicit, 
statement of donations, T refer to the list of cash & Books com- 
municated herewith. 

In New Haven 1 had the satisfaction of meeting my son 
with whom I proceeded through Long Island to New York. 
Received a donation from Whiting & Watson of Books to amount 
of ^5 dollars and a few others from another Bookseller & passed 
on to Philadelphia. Here I found a number of Books had 
arived & Messrs. Hopkins & Co. engaged to forward them with 
others to them directed, by the waggons to Pittsburg, to Patter- 
son & Hopkins — who will forward them to me in Cincinnati. 
At the time I was at Philadelphia the price of carriage was 
advanced on account of Military Stores being wanted in different 
directions, 78 this circumstance led me to give him [instructions] 
to take the best time to forward them when carriage would be 
reduced to its usual price. Having made these arrangements 
Dr. French & self left Philadelphia for Pittsburgh & after a 
vc ry fatiguing Journey arived at Cincinnati on the 3d Instant ; 79 
my health much impaired and which as yet I have not fully 

77 Timothy Dwight, D. D. (175.2-1S17) was president of Yale College 
from 1793 to 1819. 

"Although war was not declared until July 19, 1S12, active prepara- 
tions were being made for the impending conflict. Hull's expedition was 
already on its way to the Canadian frontier. 

"Twelve days after his return, Hull surrendered to th: British Gen- 
eral Brock. Then followed a year of anxious concern on the northwest 
frontier, that was relieved only by Perry's victory of Sept. 10, 1S13. A 
meeting of the Trustees of the University was held Aug. 21, 1812, 
but no mention is made of Browne's return. 




r, c . Oxford, 14th April, 1813. 

Dear Sirs, ' ^ ° 

Nothing gives me much greater uneasiness than to be de- 
prived of acting where my acts may benefit man and lay the 
base of happiness by increasing knowledge and dispelling super- 
stition. The Trustees of the Miami University were pleased 
to appoint me President Protempore sl of that institution; I be- 
lieve I have been uniformly disposed to promote the benefits 
to arise therefrom, and could 1 have been convinced that an equal 
corresponding disposition actuated the minds of all the Trustees, 
I should not at this time have made arangements to leave the 
Tranship. T ast spring, summer znd fall was lost without mak- 
ing any sales or increasing the settlement ; notwithstanding that 
there was a great desire in many to purchase, and this year is 
like to pass off in the same way. Altho I have resolved upon 
leaving the township, I yet wish to see something done. Within 
a few weeks a number of persons have applied to me to know 
when a sale will be held. And I can assure you that I have 
so little confidence of anything being done by the Trustees, that 
I have been able to give them no encouragement, I expect to 
leave home for Columbus in a few days, if the Trustees do not 
conclude to do something I shall conclude that it was an un- 
happy thing to place the University upon the township. If a 

80 David K. Este was born at Morristown, N. J., 17S5, and was grad- 
uated from Princeton, 1803. Admitted to the bar by the Supreme Court 
of New Jersey. He moved to Hamilton, Ohio, 1S10, where he was Prose- 
cuting .Attorney 1810-16. Removed to Cincinnati 1816. Presiding Judge 
of the Court of Common Pleas 1834-1S38, and Judge of the Superior Court 
of Cincinnati 183S-1845. Cf. Hist, and Biog. Cyclopedia of Butler County, 
p. 250. 

81 William Ludlow acted as President of the Board from March 2J, 
1810, to November 5, 1813. All officers were elected pro tempore prior to 
the removal of the University officers to Oxford in 1820. He represented 
Franklin County in the Assembly in 1815-1816, apparently residing in Co- 
lumbus about that time. 


meeting cannot be had next week, 82 I think I shall never make 
another attempt, as my absence at Columbus while holding the 
appointment here may prevent that prompt discharge of duty 
which the Trustees owe Society, which if not discharged ought 
to lay them liable to the strongest reprehensions of every one 
interested. The concerns of the institution require immediate 
action. A Collector ought to be appointed in the township. 
John W. Browne's Executors ought to be settled with, 83 and a 

82 The records show that there was no meeting of the Trustees from 
Aug. 27, 1811, until Nov. 1, 1S13. Several meetings were called, but the 
attendance was not sufficient to constitute a quorum. The surrender of 
Hull, Aug. 15, i8r2, and of General Winchester, Jan. 22, 1813, followed by 
the massacre of Raisin, had thrown a gloss over the frontier, and a number 
of the Trustees were serving in the army. The Secretary was absent on a 
voyage to New Orleans. 

S3 October 21, 1817, Air. Corry for the Committee (see XII.) reported 
that they had examined the collection of books secured by Rev. J. W. 
Browne and selected such as boomed desirable for the use of the Uni- 
versity. That of the remainder they had sold 118 volumes to the Cir- 
culating Library Society of Cincinnati for $88.50 and the others at auction 
for $382.64. Expenses for storage, duties, auction, etc., made the net 
receipts $311.88, of which $88.50 was owing from the Library Society. 
In payment of this debt the Trustees accepted, July 6, 1824, a partial set 
of Rees Encyclopedia, paying $100 to the publishers for the remaining 
volumes. April 12, 1821, a new committee, consisting of Dr. Stephen Wood 
and Luke Foster, the latter a prominent land owner of Springdale Town- 
ship, Hamilton County, was appointed to settle with the administrators of 
the estates of Rev. J. W. Browne and Daniel Symmes, to whom Browne 
had remitted $190, which, prior to the death of Symmes in 1817, had not 
been turned over to the treasurer. In 1824 James McBride was added 
to this committee, which presented the following statement and report : 

Amount collected by Rev. John W. Browne $2,566 75 

Amount remitted during his mission $688 00 

Salary for 19 months 950 00 

Expenses stated to be abt 300 00 

Expense of trunks, boxes, freight 300 00 

Cash paid for globes, etc 57 00 

Unpaid subscription 54 13 

2,349 13 

Amount due from estate $217 62 

The committee recommended that, in view of the expense and trouble to 
which the administrator of the Browne estate had been in careing for 
the books while in his hands, and for other reasons, it was not advisable 
to further press the claim of the University for the balance due from that 
estate. During a conference of the committee with the administrator of 


number of other important considerations attended to. Should 
you not feel disposed to aid in calling a meeting by the last of 
next week you will accept, gentlemen, of this as my resignation 
of the Presidency Protempore. 

the Symmes estate, the latter acknowledged the obligation but stated in- 
ability to "pay until debts due are collected." He offered ten volumes of 
Wait's "State Papers," value $30, on the account, which were accepted 
by the committee. It would appear that the "Browne Mission" netted the 
University $713.38 in cash; more than one thousand volumes of books and 
a set of globes valued at $57. It failed, however, to secure an amount of 
cash sufficient to enable the trustees to proceed with the erection of the 
necessary buildings. Of the amount mentioned only $478 had come into 
the hands of the treasurer of the university prior to Jan. 1, 1815. In his 
report of that date the treasurer states that the expenses of surveying, 
securing a set of books, erecting a schoolhouse, etc., had consumed all the 
income from the college lands save $143.45, and further, that, of the 237 
farm lots previously sold, 121 had reverted to the university. All that the 
trustees had to show for the efforts of six years, were, a surveyed town- 
ship with a few settlers (mostly squatters) ; a platted village with one 
brick house, a few log cabins, schoolhouse costing $297 ; and a set of office 
books with other supplies, besides certain volumes which were stored in 
Cincinnati, not yet come into their possession. In view of this discour- 
aging showing it is not surprising that there were those who thought with 
Dr. Drake, "That it [Miami University] will attain to the rank of a sec- 
"ond rate college, in the course of the present century, where it is now 
"fixed, no well informed person has the courage to predict. The general 
"opinion is, that both the interests of the seminary, and common justice 
"to the people for whose benefit it was expressly designed, require its res- 
toration to Symmes' purchase; where the funds necessary to the erection 
"of suitable edifices could be promptly raised by subscription ; and a col- 
lege organized in time to benefit the rising generation." (Drake's Cincin- 
nati and the Miami Country, 1815.) This sentiment crystallized into a 
movement, that persisted through a number of years, to move the univer- 
sity within the bounds of the Symmes purchase. Papers relative to this 
attempt will be presented in the next No. of the Quarterly. 


Quarterly Publication of the His- 
torical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio 

Vol. IV, 1909, No. 2 


James McBride Manuscripts 
Selections Relating to the Miami University, II 

Arranged and Edited by 


Associate Professor of History, Miami University. 



I. 1822, A Speech for the General Assembly or the State 
of Ohio, on the bill to remove the stte or 
the Miami University from Oxford. 

II. 1824, James McBride to William Sparrow. 

III. 1824, Robert H. Bishop, D. D. to the Secretary of the 

Board of Trustees of Miami University. 

IV. 1824, Robert H. Bishop, D. D. to James McBride. 
V. 1824, William Sparrow to James McBride. 

VI. 18:4, James McBride to William Sparrow. 

VII. 1824, James M. Dorsey to James McBride. 

VIII. 1825, James McBride to Abraham I. Chittenden. 

IX. 1836, James McBride to Joel Collins. 



While Miami University was slowly struggling into being 
at Oxford, certain enterprising persons living in the southern 
part of the Symmes Purchase determined upon the establish- 
ment of a school of collegiate rank at Cincinnati. The first 
known effort in this direction was made in 1807. In that year 
an association known as the Cincinnati University was incor- 
porated and money was raised for the erection of a building. 
When almost ready for occupancy, this building was blown 
do\yn by the tornado that passed over Cincinnati May 28th, 
1809. Nothing further was attempted until 18 14, when about 
$12,000 was subscribed for the establishment of a school on the 
Lancastrian Plan. A building was erected at the corner of 
Fourth and Walnut Streets and the school opened. This, how- 
ever, did not meet the ideals of the community and in 18 19 
it was rechartered as Cincinnati College and about $50,000 was 
subscribed toward its support. In the meantime there were 
those who called in question the justice and wisdom of locating 
Miami University within the college township and were en- 
deavoring to remove it within the purchase. In the Legislature 
of 1813-14 a bill was introduced to repeal the act establishing the 
Miami University and to fix the site for the same within the Miami 
Purchase and also to "compound and settle in a just and equitable 
manner with the tenants on the University lands for any im- 
provements they had made on said lands." This bill called forth 
"An Address to the Inhabitants of the Miami College Lands" 
by James McBride and a "Remonstrance" from them which 
was forwarded to the Legislature of 1S14-15. It was then 
decided "that it was not in the power of the Legislature to 
do away the Acts of a former Assembly, when under these 
2 43 

acts rights had become vested." Thus the matter rested save 
for some nev/spaper agitation, until 1S22. In that year a Me- 
morial from Cincinnati College was presented to the Legisla- 
ture, and later a bill was introduced to locate Miami University 
within the Symmes Purchase. It is with respect to this question 
that the matter in this number of the Quarterly principally re- 
lates. In preparing these manuscripts for publication few liber- 
ties have been taken with the spelling and punctuation of the 
author. Annotations unless otherwise indicated are by McBride. 
We wish again to recognize the efficient assistance rendered by 
the Society's Librarian, Miss Hamlin. 

John E. Bradford. 
Oxford, Ohio. 






OXFORD, IN 1822. 

The bill, now before the House, deeply involves the pros- 
perity of literature and science in the Miami Valley. But, 
aside from this consideration, this bill is one, in which that 
section of country I have, in part, the honor to represent, has a 
particular, a deep, and an abiding interest. Thus admonished, 
not only by the anxious thought that the step about to be taken 
by this Assembly may exert a powerful influence either for 
good or evil, on the rising West, but also by the firm convic- 
tion that this bill will operate most injuriously to the interests 
of my constituents, I claim the indulgence of stating the reasons 
which shall induce me 10 vote against it. 

To Literature and science, I trust, this House will, at all 
times, feel disposed to give particular attention ; and, so far 
as Legislative enactments may be efficient, will adopt and foster 
those measures which will most permanently secure their gen- 

1 Tuesday, January 10, 1822. Mr. Williams of Hamilton County pre- 
sented to the Ohio House of Representatives a "Memorial from the Presi- 
dent and Trustees of Cincinnati College" proposing to convey certain 
property to the Miami University upon condition that the said University 
be removed to Cincinnati ; which was read and laid on the table, the pre- 
vious notice not having been given. (Cf. Journal of the H. of R. 1821-22, 
p. 202; also the Diamond Jubilee Volume of Miami University, pp. 
35/ -9)- One week later Mr. Williams reported a bill to the House which 
in substance was as follows : (a) The removal of Miami University from 
Oxford and the appointment of a commission to locate the same within 
the Symmes Purchase at such a point as should be "most conducive to 
the great ends of edrcation." In making their choice the Commission 
should take into consideration "donations which may be offered and the 
permanent interests of education.'' (b) That an Academy known as Ox- 
ford Academy should be established as a branch of said University under 
direction of a Board of seven trustees to be appointed by the University 
Corporation, which should "appropriate the one-eighth part of the funds- 
arising or which may arise from the lands vested in the said University 
to the use and support of said Academy," which was also to receive the 
buildings and ten acres of ground for its use and accommodation, (c) It 
was further provided that any leaseholder who felt aggrieved by the 
removal of the University might surrender his lease, have the value of 


eral diffusion and progressive advancement. Permit me, there- 
fore, to express the fond hope and trust that no party motives, 
or sectional interests will intrude here, more especially on such 
an occasion, to divert the attention of honorable members, and 
lead them to oppose that course of legislation which has for 
its object the best and dearest interests of a large community — 
the ultimate advancement of literature and science. 

The site of the Miami University is permanently established : 
if not, it is certainly high time that it should be. Longer to 
doubt and hesitate and adopt shifting counsels, on a point so 
important is fraught with results deeply injurious to the cause 
of Western-Learning. This House should remember that, as 
education is not confined in its growth to the compass of a 
single year, so an Institution of. learning requires the steady 
quiet and fostering care of years to be ripened into any degree 
of usefulness and celebrity. I repeat that the site of the Miami 
University is aiready established permanently at the town of 
Oxford, beyond the power of this Legislature, or any other 
body to remove it without a direct and palpable violation of 
the Constitution of the State and the eternal principles of equal 
right and evenhauded justice. Sound policy forbids wavering 

the improvements he had made appraised, and retain the use of the 
property free of rent until the rentals equaled the appraised value of his 
improvements. This bill provoked a lenghty discussion. Mr. Shields of 
Butler County opposed the bill on the ground (a) that the bill was the 
same in substance as the Memorial from Cincinnati College which had 
been rejected by the House, (b) that it would be unjust to the people 
whe had located upon and improved the college lands, (c) that Cincin- 
nati was an unsuitable place at which to locate an institution for the 
training of young men. Mr. Williams then defended his bill in a speech 
which is given in full in the Liberty Kail and Cincinnati Gazette for 
February 20, 1822. His arguments were: (a) The University '"belongs 
to the Symmes Purchase" and "can never be of any advantage where it 
now stands to the present day and generation." Congress to encourage 
the settlement of the Symmes Purchase ottered certain inducements, 
among these being the grant of a college township which was to be lo- 
cated near "the center of the tract of land and within which the educa- 
tional institution was to be established." If necessity required the loca- 
tion of the College lands without the bounds of the Purchase, this did 
not require the location of the College outside the Purchase, as is shown 
where schools are in part supported by the income from school sections 
located outside the bounds of the township, (b) Congress granted to 
the Ohio Legislature one township "in lieu of the township already 


counsels in relation to a subject every way so important; and 
an honest fulfillment of well founded expectations for [e] warns 
you of the manifest injustice which a removal of the site, at 
this late day, would iufiict on the many worthy citizens of Ox- 
ford township, whom the legislature of this House has induced 
to fix their present residence, as the home of their dearest hopes 
and brightest expectations. However, it appears that there are 
some in this house who think otherwise, and more particularly 
that individual, who introduced this bill. An honest difference 
of opinion is praiseworthy; but still, on the present occasion, 
I lament it as a misfortune to differ in opinion with that gentle- 
man, where I am so well assured from my personal knowledge 
of his character that he would never hesitate a moment to go 
equal lengths with myself in supporting the cause of right and 

As this is a question which, from its locality, is more im- 
mediately iuicicsting Lo a particular section of the state, and 
as the history of the Institution, and the original grant of the 
township for its endowment may not be familiar to every member 
of this house, I will claim a few minutes indulgence, while I 
briefly advert to the original grant of the College township 
and its subsequent history. 

granted" and "for the same purpose," viz., for the benefit of the settlers 
within the Symmes Purchase. The Act of the Legislature in removing 
the University from Lebanon to Oxford was void because it transcended 
the authorization of Congress and "was entirely owing to a log-rolling 
scheme, that grew out of the contest for removing the seat of govern- 
ment." "The people of the Symmes Purchase have the same right to the 
College township that the inhabitants of each township have to their 
school section No. 16." (c) The school at Oxford has not succeeded, 
"at the most contained but 22 boys and cannot assist in the education of 
the present generation." (d) If "the citizens of Oxford took their leases 
on the grounds that the college was to be fixed in the township . . . 
the people of the purchase bought their lands under the inducement that 
they should have the benefit of a college located among them." To take 
the college from the settlers on the college lands is not so unjust as to 
withhold it from those to whom it rightfully belongs, as the former will 
be compensated for their financial losses and be provided with an Acad- 
emy which will meet their needs for years to come. The discussion was 
continued by Messrs. Anderson, Fitzpatrick, Biggar, Harper, Whittlesey, 
Collins and Shields, and was ended by the passing of a motion to strike 
out the first section of the bill. The feeling prevailed that due previous 
notice had not been given of the introduction of the bill. (Cf. Columbus 
Gazette, January 27, 1822.) 


The Congress of the United States, shortly after the Indian 
title had been extinguished to certain lands in the west which 
now form the State of Ohio but then designated as a part of 
the Territory North west of the river Ohio, on the 20th day of 
May 1785, preparatory to bringing those lands into market and 
extending our settlements westwardly, passed an ordinance which 
directs: — "That the lands in the North-west Territory, which 
have been purchased of the Indian inhabitants, shall be laid out 
into ranges of townships of six miles square; and fractional 
parts of townships, by lines running due north and south and 
others crossing them at right angles. The townships or 
fractional parts of townships to be designated by numbers 
progressively from South to North. And as soon as seven 
ranges of townships shall be surveyed, the Board of Treasury 
shall cause the same to be sold at public vendue. But the lots 
numbered 8, 11, 26 and 29 out of each township, and out of 
every fractional township so many lots of the same numbers 
as shall be found therein, are excepted from the sale so or- 
dered, and reserved by the United States for future sale. The 
lot numbered- 16 of every township, is also reserved out of the 
order of sale, and reserved for the maintainance of public schools 
within the said township". 2 

This ordinance according to my present information, is the 
first order made by Congress, relating to the disposal of the 
public lands belonging to the United States. On the 23d July 

The introduction and discussion of the bill led the friends of the 
University as then located to rally to its support. A public meeting was 
held at Oxford, March 23, 1822, when a committee was appointed to ex- 
amine the bill and speech of Mr. Williams and to publish a reply to the 
same, and also "An Address to the Inhabitants of the Symmes Pur- 
chase." (Cf. "Miami University and the Cincinnati College. By the Ox- 
ford Committee, 1822.") A "Memorial Address to the Legislature,*' bear- 
ing date of October 17, 1822, was prepared by the members of the Uni- 
versity Corporation and forwarded to that body. Moreover James Mc- 
Bride was elected to a seat in the House of Representatives and pre- 
pared the above speech that it might be in readiness should the friends 
of Cincinnati College revive the question of removing Miami University. 
This they did not deem wise to do, and so the speech was not delivered. 
It contains the best account of tire Miami College Lands that is extant. 

2 Journals of Congress from Folvvells press Philadelphia 1S01. Vol. 
10 Pa. 118. Also communication of Govr. St. Clair to the Legislative 
Council of the N. W. Ter. Octr. 21st 1799— Journal of Council 1799 Pa. 27. 


1787 Congress passed another order by which the Board of 
Treasury were authorized and empowered to contract with any 
person or persons for the sale and disposal of certain western 
lands; and after reserving section numbered 16 for school, and 
section numbered 29 in each township for religious purposes, 
the said order declares, "Not more than two complete townships 
to be given perpetually for the purposes of a University, to 
be laid off by the purchaser or purchasers, as near the centre 
as may be, so that the same shall be of good land, to be ap- 
plied to the intended object by the Legislature of the state." 3 
In pursuance of the power granted by this order, on the 26th 
day of July 1787, Messrs. Cutler & Sargeant made application 
to the Board of Treasury for the purchase of a certain tract 
of land containing two millions of acres, since known by the 
name 01" the "Ohio Company's purchase." On this applica- 
tion a contract was made and entered into with the said Cutler 
& Sargeant for the said tract of land. In this purchase two 
townships of land were granted for the establishment of a Uni- 
versity, to be located as nearly as possible in the centre of the 
first million and half of acres which they should pay for. 

In the year 1787, John Cleve Symmes of the State of New 
Jersey, v:ho was then Chief Justice of that state, presented his 
petition to Congress, dated the twenty-ninth day of August in 
that year (1S87,) at the city of New York, proposing to be- 
come the purchaser of one million 4 acres of land lying between 

3 Land laws U. S. Vol. 1 Pa. 362, & Journal of Legislative Council 
N. W. Ter. 1799 Pa. 28. 

*McBride evidently errs in the amount of the proposed purchase. 
Reference to the petition which follows will show that the bounds of the 
proposed purchase are fixed and no intimation is given as to the amount 
it was expected would be contained therein. The Miami Valley not hav- 
ing been surveyed, there was no definite information as to its extent. 
Symmes doubtless thought that the tract included in the bounds specified 
in the application was much larger than it proved to be. Judge Burnet, 
who had the advantage of McBride in that he was long associated with 
Judge Symmes, states that Symmes proposed "purchasing a tract of two 
million acres between the Miami Rivers" but that afterwards the "quan- 
tity of land named in his proposition to the Board of Treasury, was re- 
duced to a million acres" by his associates, to whom he had given the 
power of attorney. It was this reduction in quantity, he asserts, that was 
the cause of his selling portions of the College Township he had first re- 
served. Cf. Burnet's Notes on the Northwestern Territory pp. 413-415, 
4 -'8, 429. — Ed. 


the Great and Little Miami Rivers, and that one township should 
be assigned in the tract for the benefit of an Academy. Which 
petition reads in these words : 

"Your petitioner, encouraged by the resolutions of Con- 
gress of the twenty third and twenty seventh of July 17S7, 
stipulating the conditions of a transfer of Federal lands 
on the Scioto and Muskingum Rivers unto Winthrop Sar- 
geant & Mannasseh Cutler Esquires, and their associates 
of New-England, is induced on the behalf of the citizens of 
the United States, westward of Connecticut who also wish to 
become purchasers of federal lands; Do pray that the 'honorable 
the Congress will be pleased to direct, that a contract be made 
by the honorable the commissioners of the Treasury Board, with 
your petitioner, for himself and his associates, in all respects 
similar in form and manner to the said grant made to Messrs. 
Sargeant & Cutler, differing only in quantity and place where, 
arid instead of Two townships for the use o f a University, one 
only be assigned for the benefit of an Academy" And ''that by 
such transfer to }our petitioner and his associates, on their 
complying with the terms of sale the fee may pass of all the 
lands lying within the following limits, Viz: beginning at the 
mouth of the Great Miami River, thence running up the Ohio 
River to the mouth of the Little Miami River thence up the 
main stream of the Little Miami River to the place where a 
due west line to be continued from the western termination 
of the northern boundary line of the grant to Messrs. Sargeant 
and Cutler should intersect the said Little Miami River thence 
due west continuing the said western line to the place where 
the said line should intersect, the main branch or stream of 
the Great Miami, thence to the place of beginning." 5 

In consequence of this petition of John Cleves Symmes be- 
ing presented, the Congress of the United States on the second 
day of October 1787, made an order that the petition and pro- 
posals of John Cleves Symmes should be referred to the Board 
of Treasury to take order thereon. 6 

The probable expectation of John Cleves Symmes and per- 
haps the Congress of the United States, at that time was that 
the boundaries laid down in the petition would include about 

6 Land laws of the U. S. appendix, pa 7, Washington 1S17. 
'Journal Congress — V. 12 P. 225 appendix. 


one million of acres of land. But the geography of that sec- 
tion of country was at that time imperfectly known, and sub- 
sequent discoveries have ascertained that it would not include 
more than one third part of a million of acres : a parallel of 
latitude extending due west from the northern boundary line 
of Messrs. Sargeant & Cutler's purchase would probably strike 
the Miami purchase, several miles south of Dayton. Several 
modifications and alterations were made in the boundaries of 
the tract of land sold to John C. Symmes and as we are now 
on that subject I shall just notice those different modifications 
as I pass along. We find that a contract in writing exists, 
bearing date the 15th day Octr. 17S8, 7 duly made and executed 
between Samuel Osgood, Walter Levingston and Arthur Lee 
Esqrs. commissioners of the Board of Treasury of the United 
States of the first part : Jonathan Dayton and Daniel Marsh 
Esquires of the second part, John Cleves Symmes, Esqr. of 
the third part foe the purchase and grant of a certain tract 
of land in the western country adjoining to the river Ohio, 
bounded as follows, Viz: beginning on the Bank of the Ohio 
River at a spot exactly twenty miles distant along the several 
courses of the same from the place where the Great Miami 
Riter empties itself into the said river Ohio, from thence ex- 
tending down the said river Ohio, along the several courses 
thereof ; to the Great Miami River thence up the said river Miami, 
along the several courses thereof to a place where a line drawn 
due east, will intersect a line drawn from the place of begin- 
ning aforesaid parallel with the general course of the Great 
Miami River so as to include one million of acres within those 
lines and the said rivers; and from that place along those lines 
to the place of beginning, to contain the said quantity of one 
million of acres, to be granted to the said John Cleves Symmes 
and his associates their heirs and assigns upon certain terms 
and conditions in the said contract specially set forth. 

From this instrument of writing we may conclude that the 
geographical position of the Miami country was not well ascer- 
tained at that time, for we find that it was afterwards necessary 
to further alter and amend the said contract. We find that the 
Congress of the United States by their act passed the 12th day of 
April 1792, entitled "an act for ascertaining the boundary of a 

'Referred to in law of May 5th 1792 L. U. S. Pa. So, Vol. 2. 
3 5i 

"tract of land purchased by John Cleves Symmcs." (L. U. S. 
V. 2, P. 49.), authorized the President of the United States at 
the request of John Cleves Symmcs or his agent or agents to 
alter the contract made between the late Board of Treasury and 
the said John Cleves Symmes for the sale of a tract of land 
of one million of acres in such manner that the said tract may 
extend from the mouth of the Great Miami River, to the mouth 
of the Little Miami, and be bounded by the river Ohio on the 
south, by the Great Miami on the west, and by a parallel of 
latitude on the north, extending from the Great Miami to the 
Little Miami, so as to comprehend the proposed quantity of 
one million of acres. Provided that the northern limits of the 
said tract should not interfere with the boundary line established 
by the Treaty of Fort Harmer between the United States and the 
Indian nations. And provided also that the President should re- 
serve for the United States such lands at and near Fort Washing- 
ton ?s he mi^ht think necessary for the accommodation of the gar- 
rison at that fort. s By this law before any alteration could be 
made in the contract it was necessary that John Cleves Symmes 
should request it, and we find that in pursuance of the said act of 
Congress John Cleves Symmes did by a certain instrument of 
writing under his hand and seal bearing date the 29th of Sep- 
tember 1794 — request that the contract made between the com- 
missioners of the Treasury and himself and associates might be 
altered according to the stipulations of the act of Congress. 9 

On the receipt of this document from John C. Symmes, George 
Washington, the then President of the United States, by letter 
patent under his hand and the seal of the United States, dated 
at Philadelphia on the 30th day of September 1794, declared the 
contract made with John Cleves Symmes and his associates, to 
be entered as requested, and in the manner set forth in the law 
of Congress on that subject. 

From this examination we find that the boundaries of the 
tract of land sold to John Cleves Symmes have been several 
times varied. The boundaries designated in his original petition 
presented to Congress appears to be different from the boundaries 
as described in the contract made by him with the Board of 
Treasury and the boundaries designated in the act of Congress, 

*Laws U. S. Vol. 2 pa. 49. 

'Land laws of the U. S. printed at Washington 1817 appendix, Pa. 8 

of the 12th of April 1792 is different from either. But this 
test described boundary of the tract of land sold to John Cleves 
Symmes as contained in the law of April 12th 1792, I take to 
be the tine boundary of the purchase and that the inhabitants of 
the whole of this tract of country, which it is believed would 
extend north as far as the boundary line established by the treaty 
at Fort Harmer are entitled to equal advantages arising from 
the grant of the college township. The tract of country actually 
paid for by John Cleves Symmes and for which he received 
title, commonly called ''Symmes patent," is much smaller, of 
which I shall remark hereafter: But the grant of the college 
township was given for the benefit of the inhabitants of the 
purchase according to the original contract, in pursuance of that 
contract Symmes actually took possession of the whole of the 
tract of one million of acres, and sold lands as well without as 
within the bounds of his patent, he had possession of the whole 
of the tract of land from 1787 to 179;, he had a contract for the 
whole of it, and had he paid for it agreeably to the conditions 
of his contract the whole of the lands would have been his, he 
sold tracts of land to individuals promiscuously all over the pur- 
chase, and many had paid him for, and made settlements on 
tracts of land without the bounds of the tract of land for which 
he afterwards received a patent, and the Congress of the United 
States always continued to recognize those sales made by John 
Cleves Symmes, for they appointed commissioners to examine, 
and granted pre-emption rights to all those who had purchased of 
John Cleves Symmes without the bounds of his patent. 10 This 
history and those circumstances, I think denned to us what is 
the bounds of Symmes purchase, and tend to show the extent of 
country interested in the advantages arising from the college 

It appears that John Cleves Symmes failed to make payment 
for the whole of the tract of one million of acres as specified in 
his original contract, for we find that on the 5th day of May 
1792, the Congress of the United States passed a law entitled, 
"'An act authorizing the grant and conveyance of certain lands 
to John Cleves Symmes and his associates." (L. U. S. V. 2, 
P. So) which authorized and empowered the President of the 
United States, to issue letters patent in the name and under the 

10 See "special sales — John C. Symmes'' in Land laws. 


seal of the United States, thereby granting and conveying to John 
Cleves Syrames and his associates, and to their heirs and assigns 
in fee simple, such number of acres of land as the payment at 
that time made by the said John Cleves Symmes his agents or 
associates, under their contract of the 15th of October 17S8, 
would pay for, estimating the lands at two-thirds of a dollar per 
acre, and making the several reservations, specified in the said 

The third section of this act further provided That the Presi- 
dent be authorized and empowered by letters patent as aforesaid 
to grant and convey to John Cleves Symmes and his associates 
their heirs and assigns, in trust for the purpose of establishing 
an academy and other public schools and seminaries of learning, 
one complete township conformably to an order of Congress of 
the 2d of October 17S7, made in consequence of the application 
of the said John Cleves Symmes for the purchase of the tract 

And the fourth section of the same act, directs That the 
several quantities of land, to be granted and conveyed as afore- 
said, should be included and located within such limits and lines 
of boundary as the President might judge expedient agreeably, 
to the act passed the 12th day of April 1792. For ascertaining 
the bounds of a tract of land purchased by John Cleves Symmes, 
see Laws, U. S., Vol. 2, Pa. 80. 

Agreeably to the provisions contained in the before recited 
law of Congress after an estimate had been made of the pay- 
ments made by John Cleves Symmes and a survey made of the 
country, George Washington the then President of the United 
States did, by letters patent dated at Philadelphia the 30th day 
of September 1794, grant and convey to John Cleves Symmes and 
his associates all that certain tract of land beginning at the mouth 
of the Great Miami River and extending from thence along the 
Ohio River to the mouth of the Little Miami River: bounded 
on the south by the said river Ohio, on the west by the said 
Great Miami River, on the east by the said Little Miami River, 
and on the north by a parallel of latitude to be run from the said 
Great Miami River to the Little Miami River, so as to com- 
prehend the quantity of — 311.6S2 acres of land, and provision 
was made that the tract should be laid out into townships of 
six miles square, and amongst certain other restrictions and reser- 


valions, as stipulated in the contract it was stipulated that out 
of each township in the said tract should be reserved and excepted 
the following Sections, Viz: Sec. No. 16 for the maintenance of 
schools ; Sec. No. 29, for the purposes of religion — and Sec. No. 
1 1, 8 & 26, for such purposes as the Congress of the United States 
should thereafter direct. 

In and by the same patent it was also stipulated and "declared 
that one complete township or tract of land of six miles square 
to be located with the approbation of the governor, for the 
time being of the territory north west of the river Ohio, and in 
the manner and within the term of five years as nearly as may 
be in the centre of the tract of land herein before granted, Hath 
been and is hereby granted and shall be holden in trust to and for 
the sole and exclusive intent and purpose of erecting and establish- 
ing therein, an academy and other public schools and seminaries 
of learning, and endowing and supporting the same, and to and 
for no other use intent or purpose whatever." 

From this we learn the extent of Symmes' Patent and discover 
the difference between the boundaries of the Patent and the 
purchase. The Patent contains only 311.682 acres the purchase 
contained one million ; however in the bounds of the patent was 
excepted and taken out the college township and the several 
reservations herein before mentioned, which were not calculated 
as a part of the 311.6S2 acres, the same reservation also applied 
to the purchase. The parallel of latitude which bounds the patent 
on the north is about half a mile north of the third entire range, 
the purchase would extend north at least to the thirteenth range 
as it was generally considered and believed that the tract of 
country south of the line established by the treaty of Fort Harmer 
and included between the Miami Rivers would not contain one 
million of acres. 

Shortly after the purchase made by John Cleves Symmes of 
the tract of land lying between the Miami Rivers he proceeded to 
survey the same into ranges, townships and sections as his con- 
tract required, and proceeded to make arrangements for the 
disposal of it to individuals. In a pamphlet entitled "Terms of 
sale and settlement of Miami lands," published by John Cleves 
Symmes at Trenton in the state of New Jersey in the year 1787, 
he designates the place where the college township was to be 
situated thus "One complete township to be given perpetually for 


the purpose of an academy or college, to be laid off by the pur- 
chaser or purchasers as nearly opposite to the mouth of Licking 
River, as an entire township may be had eligible in point of soil 
and situation, to be applied to the intended object by the legisla- 
ture of the state." 11 Agreeably [to] this notice and in conformity 
to the provisions and stipulations contained in the original con- 
tract, John Cleves Symmes after having surveyed the Miami pur- 
chase into sections or tracts of one mile square, previous to 
his making sales to individuals he located or set apart township 
numbered Three in the first entire range of townships situated 
on the waters of Millcreek, which he designated on the map of 
the Miami purchase and denominated the college township, and 
consequently for a considerable time afterward preserved it 
entire from sales. 

This location and designation of a college township was made 
as early as the year 1789, 12 and fortunate would it have been 
had it remained as the college township to this day and the 
seminary been erected thereon, it is I believe the most valuable 
township in Symmes' purchase. It would have saved the trouble. 
of drawing and introducing this bill, and save me the trouble 
of opposing its passage. I am not so accurately informed, in 
minute particulars, as to pretend to detail the motives of those 
concerned, or to particularise the causes why that township, was 
not applied in conformity to the original design, or how, or why, 
the settlers of the Miami purchase became deprived of a right 
which they thought secured to them by compact with the Congress 
of the United States neither is it important for the investigation 
of this subject to enquire. But the fact was such that no town- 
ship was "located with the approbation of the governor" and 
passed for the benefit of the settlers as the patent requires, and 
that John Cleves Symmes at length broke in upon this township, 
for it appears that in the year 1799 he had aliened and sold to 
sundry individuals in township numbered Three, in the first range 
which was the township designated on the map and generally 
expected to be the college township, thirty-one of the sections 
of land therein contained, which put it out of his power to com- 
ply with the trust reposed in him as to that township. 13 How- 

n Symmes' Pamphlet Page 2. 
12 Reply to J. C. Symmes, Pa. 10. 

"Journal of House of Represun. X. W. Ter. in 1799, Pa. 200. 

ever in compliance with what he conceived to be his duty, accord- 
ing to the tenor of his contract, he submitted to Arthur St. Clair 
the governor of the then North-western territory, for his appro- 
bation the second township, in the second fractional range, being 
situated in the forks of the river Ohio and the Great Miami for 
the purpose of a college township ; but the governor conceiving" 
it to be differently situated from that referred to in the contract, 
and described in the letters patent ; of an inferior quality and 
incumbered by a claim of one Elias Boudinot, and a suit at law 
at that time depending, respecting the title of said claimant did 
not think proper to accept it. 

For the more full understanding of the situation of the college 
township at this time, and of the causes which led to the grant 
without the bounds of the purchase I would beg leave to read an 
extract from a communication of Governor St. Clair made to 
the house of assembly of the North-west territory in the year 

"Many applications respecting the township granted for an 
academy were made to me by the people of the county of Hamil- 
ton, but as I had then never seen the patent to Mr. Symmes and 
fits associates, and did not know that the approbation of the 
governor of the location that might be made by them, was 
required, it was replied that I could do nothing with it and saw 
no course to be taken, if they had broke the trust, but an appli- 
cation to Congress; at length a gentleman informed me that he 
had seen the patent and the governor's approbation of the loca- 
tion was expressly required: I then called on Mr. Symmes and 
requested him to allow me to peruse his patent, with which he 
readily complied. 1 found it to be with respect to that township 
as it had been represented and a copy of it has since been trans- 
mitted to me by the secretary of state. Mr. Symmes was then 
informed of the application which had been made to me and the 
necessity of laying out the township; on which he spoke of the 
second township in the second fractional range of town- 
ships — occasional conversation passed between us on the sub- 
ject at several times afterwards, and on the 24th of July 
1798, Mr. Symmes wrote a letter to me, which I send here- 
with, making a formal offer of that township for my appro- 
bation. In conversation soon afterward I stated to him the 
objections I had to that location, and the matter rested a 


considerable time: I supposed the objections I had made would 
be considered by him as a refusal to approve, but the matter being 
brought to my view again, hearing of no new location and reflect- 
ing that the offer had been made in writing and might possibly 
be considered such a location as the patent required, and that the 
refusal had been only verbal conversation, which might easily 
be forgotten, and could not be made to appear — on the 15th of 
last July I wrote a letter to Mr. Symmes of which the following 
is an extract : — "I have never sir, formally replied to your letter 
of the 24th July last, wherein you proposed the second township 
in the second fractional range of townships in the lands granted 
to you by patent on the 30th September 1794, should be accepted 
to satisfy the declaration in said patent that one complete town- 
ship or tract of land of six miles square, to be located with the 
approbation of the governor of the territory for the time being 
as nearly as might be in the centre of the tract therein before 
granted to be hoi den in trust by you and your associates to and 
for the sole and exclusive purpose of erecting and establishing 
an academy and other public schools and seminaries of learning, 
and endowing and supporting the same, was excepted out of the 
said grant, and you requested that the township then proposed 
should be approved by me and proclaimed as the proper township 
for the purpose of endowing an academy in the Miami purchase, 
I say, sir, to that proposal I have never formally replied, but 
you will please to recollect, sir, that before you sent me the above 
letter, and after I received it, you informed me in conversation, 
that it was the only complete township that remained in your 
possession and of course you could assign no other for the 
academy — that I mentioned my doubts that you could not 
assign that one neither, for I had been informed that one half 
of it had been sold to Mr. Elias Boudinot, and the deed from 
you to him was upon record here, and other parts of it were 
claimed by other persons — That you observed that it was not 
a deed of sale to Mr. Boudinot which you had made, but a con- 
ditional contract and that the contract not having been fulfilled 
on his part, the obligation ceased upon yours and you had a 
right to dispose of it as you thought proper. To that it was 
replied, that supposing the case to be so, still I could not think 
myself justifiable in approving of the proposed location, since, 
however it might be terminated, a lawsuit was unavoidable ; 


and also that it did not, in any way correspond with the situation 
pointed out, to wit: as nearly in the centre of the tract as may 
be. On that we parted, after your requesting me again to view 
the proposed township, and examine its natural advantages. I 
have not, sir, examined the township because I have been 
informed by every person I have conversed with on the subject, 
and I have conversed with a great many on it, that a very small 
part of it is fit for cultivation, and I have since learned that a 
suit in chancery has been commenced by Mr. Boudinot, to 
compel you to make a deed for that part of it conditionally sold. 
As all this conversation may however be forgotten and the 
offer, or location, as it may perhaps be called, of the second 
township, in the second fractional range of townships, therein 
to establish an academy Set. has been made in writing in the 
before mentioned letter of the 24th July 1798, it is proper that 
the approbation or disapprobation of the sale should be in 
writing also. I request you therefore, sir, to take notice that 
for the reasons above mentioned, to wit: That the title to a 
part of it at least is in dispute, that it does not answer to the 
situation called for in the patent and, that according to informa- 
tion, it is' of very mean quality, which if true would defeat the 
purpose for which it was granted ; The location of the second 
township in the second fractional range of townships for the 
purpose of erecting therein an academy and other schools and 
for endowing and supporting the same, Is not approved, and 
cannot by me, be declared to be the lot granted to you in trust, 
for those purposes, and I must request you, sir, as soon as may 
be, to point out another township free from those objections." 

To that letter I have not received an answer. The applica- 
tions which Mr. Symmes made to Congress for a township for 
an academy, a copy of which I have lately seen, points out the 
place contemplated by him, with more precision that the patent 
does. The request is, that it may be granted as nearly in the 
centre of the tract, and opposite the mouth of Licking as may 
be, where the soil and situation in other respects may be suitable ; 
(I do not give the very words because I did not take a copy.) 
and it would seem that a certain township, answering that 
description, had been somehow pointed out at an early day, 
for there is one answering the description in all respects, and 
to this day is distinguished by the name of the college township. 

4 " 59 

The sale to Mr. Boudinot before spoken of, is contained in 
certain articles of agreement entered into between Mr. Symmes 
and him, on the 12th day of March 17S8, and recorded in Book 
Mo. 2, letter B, page 107, of the records of the county of 
Hamilton. Which after a recital setting forth that Mr. Symmes 
had contracted with Congress for a large tract of land between 
the Little and Great Miamies, proceeds, after another recital, 
in these words 'And whereas the said John C. Symmes intends 
and proposes to reserve to himself in the said purchase in his 
private right one certain township in the fork of the Ohio 
River and Great Miami, and the fractional parts of those town- 
ships and sections which lie between such townships and the 
Ohio and Great Miami on which he hath laid out the plan of a 
city on paper &c.' And then goes on after that description 
'and whereas the said EHas is desirous of becoming jointly 
and equally interested in the said township sections, and frac- 
tions with the said John Gleve Symmes and in the said city and 
reserved lands, in case he should obtain a deed for the same 
from Congress ; now these presents Witness that the said John 
Cleve Symmes for and in consideration of the sum of one 
hundred pounds, lawful money of the state of New Jersey, to 
him in hand well and truly paid, and also of the sum of one 
hundred pounds more to be taken by the said John Cleve 
Symmes, of the first share of the sales he may make of other 
properties so to be sold in common between them, belonging 
also to the said EHas, hath agreed to sell, transfer and confirm, 
and by these presents, doth engage to sell transfer, convey and 
confirm, unto the said EHas Boudinot, his heirs and assigns 
forever, Whenever and as soon as the said John Cleve Symmes 
shall obtain a deed therefor from Congress. The one equal 
and undivided moity or half part of all and singular the said 
township sections and fractions of sections, and reserved lands 
as aforesaid, elected and taken by the said John Cleve Symmes 
in the forks of the said rivers as aforesaid; subject to certain 
regulations and conditions which are there set forth.' It is 
alleged, that the township, which Mr. Symmes has offered in 
lieu of that in the centre of his tracts, granted to him in trust 
for an academy is one of those mentioned in the aforesaid 
articles of agreement. 14 

"Journal of Legislative council N. W. Ter. 1799 Pa 2c 1 

On the contract above referred to in the governor's communi- 
cation, Elias Boudinot, in the month of June 1797 filed his- 
bill on the equity side of the circuit court of the United States,. 
for the eastern district of Pennsylvania, in the third circuit 
for a specific performance of the contract ; on this bill process 
was issued, and ser\ed on Mr. Symrnes requiring him to appear 
and answer. In this court after the various continuances and 
delays customary in a court of Justice, the Judges of the Court 
sitting at Philadelphia in the month of May 1802 made a final 
decree in favor of the complainant, in which it is declared that 
the complainant amongst other things, is justly entitled to a 
specific performance on the part of the defendant, of the afore- 
said contract dated the 12th day of March 17S8, and conformably 
thereto ordered and decreed, that the said John Cleves Symmes 
should on or before the 2d day of February thence next, at the 
clerks office in the city of Philadelphia, make execute and deliver 
to the complainant ? good and sufficient deed or deeds of con- 
veyance, in fee simple, thereby conveying to him his heirs and 
assigns forever, in due form of law, the undivided moity or 
equal half part, of all and singular that entire reserved town- 
ship, situate lying and being in the fork of the Ohio and Great 
Miami Rivers in the North-western territory, with fractional 
parts of townships and sections, which lie north, south and west 
between said entire township and the rivers Ohio and Great 
Miami, with covenant of warranty on the part of the defendant,, 
excepting lands bona fide, sold and conveyed prior to the 1st 
day of June 1788, which land so sold the defendant was ordered 
to account for. 15 

The remaining interest of John Cleve Symmes in that town- 
ship of lands was afterwards taken in execution as his property,, 
and sold by the sheriff of Hamilton county in the state of Ohio. 

In consequence of sundry communications made by the 
governor of the North-western territory to the legislative council, 
and House of Representatives in general assembly, convened 
at Cincinnati in the year 1799, they were induced to take the 
claim of the Miami settlers, to a college township, under their 
consideration, and from every information in their possession,, 
conceiving that John Cleve Symmes and his associates had 
aliened and disposed of thirty one sections in the township 

16 Reply to J. C. Symmes, Fa. 19 — copy of Decree Pa. 54. 

originally appropriated for a college and consequently that it 
was out of the power of John Cleves Symmes to comply with 
the trust reposed in him and his associates, a committee was 
appointed, to take into consideration the mode of obtaining the 
township aforesaid, or an equivalent for so much thereof as 
could not be obtained for the purposes for which the grant was 
originally made. 16 -On the report of which committee 17 for 
the laudable purpose of better securing the benefit contemplated 
to result from said grant, the following resolution was passed, 
which I shall beg leave to read. 

"Whereas the President of the United States by letters patent 
bearing date the 4th day of September 1794, in pursuance of an 
act of Congress passed the 5th day of May 1792, made con- 
formably to an ordinance of the second day of October 1787, 
granted to John Cleves Symmes and his associates their heirs 
and assigns in trust, one complete township, or six miles square 
of land, la be faolden by the said John Cleves Symmes and his 
associates in trust, to and for the sole and exclusive intent 
and purpose of erecting and establishing therein an academy, 
and other public schools and seminaries of learning, and for 
endowing and supporting the same, to be located with the appro- 
bation of the governor of the territory, as near to the centre of 
a tract of land in the letters patent described, as might be. Yet 
by reason of the said John Cleves Symmes having aliened thirty 
one of the sections of the aforesaid township, most, and perhaps 
the whole of the sales whereof took place before he received 
his patent, and there now remains of the same township only 
the c ive sections following, to wit: Nos. 8, 11, 16, 26 & 29, the 
benefits contemplated to result from the aforesaid trust, must 
inevitably be lost, unless prompt measures be taken for securing 
the same. 

Therefore Resolved. 
By the legislative council and house of representatives in gen- 
eral assembly, That William H. Harrison, Esquire delegate to 
serve for this territory in the Congress of the United States, 
be instructed to use his endeavors to procure an act of Con- 
gress to be passed at the present session, vesting in certain 

'Journal House Representatives N. W. Ter. 1799, Pa. 42. 
'Journal H. R. X. \V. Ter. 1709, Pa. 51 & Pa. 183. 

trustees and their successors resident within the grant of land 
to John Cleves Symmes and described in the letters patent 
aforesaid the right of the aforesaid lots, to wit: Nos. 8, n, 16, 
20j & 29, in uie thud township east of the Great Miami River 
and first entire range of the grant afore said, to be holden by 
the sajd trustees and their successors, in trust to and for the 
sole use intent and purpose of establishing an academy and 
endowing and supporting the same, whose conduct and mode 
of succession shall be subject to the control and direction of 
the legislature of the Territory, and of the state in which the 
same tract of country may be hereinafter included. And that 
the said William H. Harrison be also instructed, if practicable, 
to obtain a grant of thirty one sections of land, in a body, lying 
on the bank of the Great Miami River, on the west side, and so 
high up the said river as to lie in a square, and the whole thereof 
to be east of a line extending due north from the mouth of the 
iSreai Ml^mi River, to and for the uses, intents and purposes 
aforesaid, and in lieu of those aliened by the said John Cleves 

And further, if the said William H. Harrison cannot effect 
the purposes aforesaid, that he use all legal means in his power 
to have such measures taken as will compel the said John 
Cleves Symmes to make good the trust aforesaid, or render an 
equivalent for the same, to be appropriated agreebly to the 
same use and intent of the original donation.'' 18 

The Convention who framed the constitution of the state 
of Ohio, in November 1802 addressed a similar request to the 
^Congress of the United States. In compliance with those 
several requests made by the legislature and convention, the 
Congress of the United States conceiving that the settlers of 
the Miami purchase had a claim on their justice, did by an act 
passed the 3d day of March 1803 entitled 19 "An act in addition 
to and in modification of the propositions contained in the act 
entitled an act to enable the people of the eastern division of 
the territory North-west of the river Ohio, to form a constitu- 
tion and state government and for the admission of such state 
into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, and 
for other purposes," by which act it was declared That one 

"Journal of House Representatives N. W. Ter. 1799, P. 200. 
"L. U. S. 2 Ses. 7 Cong. Pa. 262. 

complete township in the state of Ohio and district of Cincin- 
nati, or so much of any one complete township within the same 
as may then remain unsold, together with as many adjoining 
sections as should have been sold in the said township so as 
to make in the whole thirty six sections, to be located under 
the direction of the legislature of the said state on or before the 
first day of October thence next ensuing, (Oct. ist 1803,) with 
the Register of the United States land office at Cincinnati, 
should be, and the same was thereby vested in the legislature 
of the state of Ohio, for the purpose of establishing an academy, 
m lieu of the township already granted for the same purpose 
by virtue of the act entitled "An act authorizing the grant and 
-conveyances of certain lands to John Cleves Symmes and his 
associates." Provided However that the same should revert 
to the United States, if within five years after the passage of 
that act a township should have been secured for the said 
purpose within the boundary of the patent, granted by virtue 
of the above mentioned act, to John Cleves Symmes and his 

The fifth section of the said act further provided that the 
attorney general of the United States at the time being, should 
"be directed and authorized to locate and accept from the said 
John Cleves Symmes and his associates, any one complete town- 
ship within the bounds of the said patent so as to secure the same 
for the purpose of establishing an academy in conformity to 
the provisions contained in the said patent, and in case of non- 
compliance, to take or to direct to be taken such measures as 
would compel an execution of the trust. However it was 
provided. That John Cleves Symmes and his associates, should 
be released from the said trusts, and that the said township 
should vest in them or any of them, in fee simple upon pay- 
ment into the Treasury of the United States, of fifteen thousand 
three hundred and sixty dollars, with interest from the date 
of the above mentioned patent, to the day of such payments." 20 

In conformity to this act of Congress which I have read, 
and for the purpose of carrying the provisions therein contained 
into effect the legislature of the state of Ohio on the 15th day 
of April, passed an act entitled "An act to provide for the 
locating a college township in the district of Cincinnati." (L. 

w Laws of U. S. 2d Sess. 7 Cong. Pa. 265. 

O. V. i, P. 66.) By that law it was enacted, That one com- 
plete township in the district of Cincinnati or so much of any 
one complete township within the same as might remain unsold 
together with as many adjoining sections as should have been 
sold in the said township, so as to make in the whole thirty 
six sections, should be located and entered in due form with 
the register of the United States land office at Cincinnati on 
or before the first day of October thence next for the use and 
support of an academy in lieu of the college township hereto- 
fore granted in trust to John Cleves Symmes and his associates 
by the United States, and in pursuance of and agreeably to an 
act of Congress entitled "An act in addition to, and in modifica- 
tion of the propositions contained in the act entitled "An act 
to enable the people of the eastern division of the territory 
North-west of the river Ohio to form a constitution and state 
government, and for the admission of such state into the union 
on an equal footing with the original states and for other 

By the second section of that act Jeremiah Morrow, Jacob 
White and William Ludlow, were constituted and appointed 
commissioners to do, perform and transact all and every matter 
and thing that might be necessary to be done in locating and 
registering the said college township, or thirty six sections of 
land, and the said act provided that the said commissioners 
after being duly sworn faithfully to discharge their trust in 
this behalf should proceed without loss of time, to explore 
the vacant or unlocated lands of the United States, in the land 
district of Cincinnati, and after due examination should select 
such tract or tracts (as the case might require) as are most 
valuable, having due regard to the quality of the land, the 
situation for health, the goodness of the water, and the 
advantages of inland navigation. And after the location should 
have been so made and registered, the said commissioners should 
procure two fair copies of the same location at entry from 
the register of the land office, one of which should be trans- 
mitted to the secretary of the Treasury of the United States, 
and the other should be deposited with the secretary of the 
state of Ohio. It was further provided by the said act, that 
if any of the aforesaid commissioners should die, remove, or 
refuse to serve, then and in that case the two remaining com- 


missioners should proceed to locate and register the said col- 
lege lands in the manner prescribed by the said act." 21 

Agreeably to the provisions contained in the above recited 
act Jacob White and William Ludlow, two of the commis- 
sioners appointed by the act, having met and been first duly 
sworn as the law directed, proceeded to the duties of their 
appointment and on the first day of September in the year 
1803 located in the name of the state of Ohio, with the register 
of the United States land office at Cincinnati, so much of town- 
ship numbered Five, in the first range of township east of the 
Meridian line drawn from the mouth of the Great Miami River, 
as remained unsold at that time, but two sections and an half 
of that township having been previously sold, in lieu thereof 
the said commissioners located and entered Two and an half 
sections adjoining thereto, to make up the complement of thirty 
six sections of land, the whole containing according to the 
returns o&,th.e surveyor general 23.321^5 acres.- . This location 
was made by the said commissioners, within the time required 
and in conformity to the stipulations contained in the above 
recited acts, and copies of the said location and entry disposed 
of as directed by the act, of which proceedings report was made 
to the legislature of the state of Ohio, at their next session 
in December 1S03. 23 

The Miami college lands remained in this situation until the 
year 1809, at which time no other township having been secured 
for the purpose of a college township, within the limits of the 
patent granted to John Cleves Symmes, and his associates, and 
five years having expired since the passage of the law of Con- 
gress, which granted an entire township in lieu of the township 
w T hich had been granted within John Cleves Symmes purchase, 
the right to this township now became certain and the senate 
and house of representatives of the state of Ohio, proceeded to 
legislate on the subject and by their act passed on the 17th 
day of February 1809 incorporated the Miami University. 24 

The legislature by this act appointed a board of trustees 

21 Laws of Ohio Vol. 1 Pa. 66. 

~ See Entry No. 204 in the Books of the Register, U. S. Land office, 
Cin. Cf. "Quarterly," Vol. IV. pp. 11-13. — Ed. 
23 Journal H. R. Ohio 1803 Pa. 36. 
: *Laws of Ohio Vol. 9 pa. 184. 


and created them a body politic and corporate to be known and 
distinguished by the name and style of the "President and 
Trustees of the Miami University," and vested in them the 
Miami college lands for the sole and exclusive benefit and sup- 
port of said University; thereby prescribing the mode in which 
the said lands should be disposed of and in what manner the 
proceeds should be appropriated. This act also appointed Alex- 
ander Campbell, James Kilbourn and Robert J. Wilson com- 
missioners who should meet at Lebanon in the county of Warren 
on the first Tuesday in June thence next, and after having taken 
an oath, faithfully to discharge the duties assigned them, should 
proceed to examine and select the most eligible situation within 
the bounds of John Cleves Symmes purchase for the permanent 
seat of the Miami University ; and in case either of the com- 
missioners should neglect or refuse to act the governor was 
authorized to appoint others in their room. 25 Accordingly 
Alexander Campbell and James Kilbourn, two of the commis- 
sioners appointed met at Lebanon in the county of Warren, on 
the day fixed in the act and proceeded to visit and examine 
various situations within the limits of John Cleves Symme's 
purchase from the Ohio River on the south as far north as 
the Yellow Springs and the town of Dayton. But Lebanon 
in the county of Warren was the place in favor of which the 
two commissioners reported as the most eligible scite for the 
Miami University, of which opinion they made report to the 
legislature at their next session. 26 But the legislature discover- 
ing that Robert G. Wilson, one of the commissioners appointed 
on that business had not met nor any other been appointed by 
the governor in his room as was contemplated by the act by 
which the appointment was made ; and consequently the examina- 
tion of the premises, and the determination on the pretensions 
of rival claimants being only heard and adjudged by two (instead 
of three) it was considered that a door was still open for con- 
tention and adverse pretensions to the scite, and that the inhab- 
itants of Symmes purchase, for whose benefit it was intended 
might consider the location as not made on the most equitable 
principles; at all events the legislature refused to confirm the 
Report made by the two commissioners. 

25 Laws of Ohio Vol. 7 pa. 184. 
M Cf. Quarterly Vol. IV. p. 13.— Ed. 

The consequence was that the scite of the University yet 
remained unfixed, and what was now best to be done pre- 
sented itself for the consideration of the house. The lands 
from which t 11 ? revenue must be raised, lay unproductive. To 
appoint another board of commissioners to make a new ex- 
amination and determination, would be attended with delay 
and might be uncertain : Various proposals were made ; but 
all conceiving it to be an object of first consequence to estab- 
lish the scite as soon as possible and bring the lands into a 
productive state ; far the greatest portion of the representa- 
tives believed it best to establish the scite of the University 
upon the lands which would have to support it, for reasons 
very obvious as it would not only accomplish the more imme- 
diate and convenient management of the funds arising from 
the lands to be leased ; but also for the more important con- 
sideration of leasing them immediately, and for such prices as 
#eftrld produce the largest revenue for the support of the Uni- 
versity: By fixing the seminary of learning on the township 
located for its support, these two desirable objects were thought 
most likely to be effected, and consequently the design of the 
institution much better promoted. A general satisfaction and 
unanimity of opinion appeared to pervade the house as well 
as the representation from the Miami purchase as those from 
the different parts of the state, except those of the county of 
Warren, whose prospects of local importance would be dimin- 
ished from the height to which the report of the two commis- 
sioners had elevated them. However the advantages contem- 
plated to flow from an immediate settlement of the Miami col- 
lege lands and the great increase of the proceeds arising there- 
from were thought too important objects, to be sacrificed for 
the local prospects of a small part of that section of country 
intended to reap the benefits of the institution ; under these 
impressions the legislature resumed the consideration of estab- 
lishing the site of the Miami University and by their act passed 
the 6th day of February 1810, established the Miami Uni- 
versity on the college township, and thereby empowered and 
directed the board of trustees to lay out a town, and fix the 
permanent site of the seminary of learning on such particular 
spot on the college lands as they might deem most proper. 27 

Laws of Ohio Vol. 8 pa. 94. 


The President and trustees of the institution, in compliance 
with the requisitions of the law which I have recited met at 
the town of Hamilton in the county of Butler on the first Mon- 
day of March 1810, being the time and place appointed by the 
act of the general assembly, and proceeded to pass an ordinance 
to regulate the leasing of the lands belonging to the institu- 
tion, and have selected a tract of one mile square on which 
they have laid out the Town of Oxford, on the east side of 
which is selected and set apart a handsome plat of ground 
for the site of the seminary of learning; the greater part of 
the lands and town lots have been sold by the board of trustees, 
agreeably to the laws regulating the disposal thereof, and are 
now held by individuals. 

And now, more than twelve years after the college has 
been established ; the land sold and improved ; and buildings 
erected, and the college nearly ready to go into operation; a 
"Hi 11 is brought before this house to remove it from its present 

This I take to be a brief, and I believe a correct history 
of the original grant of the college township, and the Miami 
University so far as it goes, and from this history we learn 
that the Congress of the United States did grant a college town- 
ship for the benefit of the inhabitants of Symmes purchase, 
and vested the same in the legislature of the state of Ohio for 
the u^e a ad endowment of the seminary of learning. The legis- 
lature proceeded to legislate on the subject and by their act 
of the 6th of February 1810 established the Miami University 
on their own lands ; this right of establishing the University 
on its own lands I think is a necessary implication, and must 
follow as a matter of course. 

The original grant did contemplate that the township of 
land, as well as the seminary of learning should be within the 
limits of Symmes' purchase. But owing to certain circumstances 
beyond the control of either the legislature of the state of Ohio 
or the inhabitants of Symmes' purchase the township originally 
intended was lost and one in lieu thereof obliged to be located 
without the bounds of the purchase, from this I infer, by my 
manner of abstract reasoning that if the lands could be located 
out of the purchase the original grant necessarily implied that 
the college could be located on its own lands. 


The location and establishment of the seminary of learn- 
ing is intimately connected with the grant of land, the same 
authority which granted the lands and authorized the location 
of the township beyond the bounds of Symmes purchase, also 
I contend, by a certain and necessary implication, authorized 
the establishment of the seminary on the lands which belonged 
to itself. 

The patent made by the President of the United States to 
John Cleves Symmes specifies, "That one complete township 
or tract of land of six miles square to be located with the appro- 
bation of the governor for the time being of the territory North- 
west of the River Ohio, and in the manner and within the term 
of five years, as nearly as may be in -the centre of the tract 
of land herein before granted, hath been, and is granted, and 
shall be holden in trust to and for the sole and exclusive intent 
and purpose of erecting and establishing therein an academy 
aiiJ Oni«~i public schools and seminaries of learning and endow- 
ing and supporting the same, and to and for no other use in- 
tent or purpose whatever." 

The academy and other public schools and seminaries of 
learning were to be erected therein, says the patent, in where? 
In the township sec apart for their support is the meaning of 
the expression and appears to be the spirit and meaning of the 
whole transaction from first to last, the township it was stipu- 
lated should be "as nearly as may be in the centre of the tract, 
of land granted" to John Cleves Symmes, for what purpose? 
What does this imply? Why most certainly that the seminaries 
erected on this township might be equally convenient to all the 
inhabitants of the purchase. That township "was granted and 
"was to be holden in trust to and for the sole and exclusive 
"intent and purpose of erecting therein an academy &c." is the 
words of the patent, which is certainly meaning that the sem- 
inary should be erected within the township set apart for its 
endowment, that township was to be as near the centre of the 
purchase as practicable, so that all the inhabitants of the pur- 
chase might be equally convenient to the seminary. 

When the original township was lost and another in lieu 
thereof granted to be located by the act of Congress in 1S03, 
and all the subsequent transactions relative to the college town- 
ship appears to have an eye to the convenience of the Symmes 


purchase, and to have the township located as convenient to 
the inhabitants of the purchase as an entire township could at 
that time be obtained. All this has been done, and the Uni- 
versity established on the lands granted for its endowment. The 
present college township wliTch has been located, is in lieu of 
the original township granted, by implication it forms, and is 
in fact, an additional part of Symmes purchase and the college 
erected thereon may constructively be said to be within the 
bounds of Symmes purchase, at all events it appears to be on 
the very township which the original grant contemplated. 

Although the grant of land was expressly for the benefit 
of Symmes purchase, if the particular township granted had 
no exclusive right to the location of the seminary, no other 
part or section of that purchase had any right to have it es- 
tablished in its vicinity more than another, the citizens of Dayton 
or Urbana had no more right to have the seminary in their 
town man the citizens of Cincinnati ; nor Cincinnati had no 
particular claim to it more than those of Franklin, Yellow 
Springs or Springfield : But it was given for the general good 
of all, to the advantages arising from the college township 
the citizens of Symmes purchase have an unalienable right, 
but the citizens of no particular section of that purchase have 
an exclusive right to the location of the college amongst them. 

The object of Congress in making the grant was doubtless 
the establishment of a permanent fund, for the support of lit- 
erature and science, that course of conduct then which would 
tend to produce the greatest source of revenue and be most 
useful to the citizens of the purchase generally is the true course 
to be pursued and is most consistent with the original object 
of the donation. By placing the scite of the University upon 
its own lands, the value of those lands are greatly enhanced, 
in consequence of which the lessees have bid off or purchased 
their lands at a much higher price (I think I would feel justified 
in saying one hundred percent higher) than they would other- 
wise have done had the college been located 30 or 40 miles 
distant from them, and this location of the college on the lands 
does not mearly attach an ideal value to them, but so soon as 
it shall be in operation, it will enable the lessees to pay the 
high rents which they have agreed to do, so soon as the col- 
lege is in operation the various Professors Teachers and Students 


which will be drawn to that place, must be supported and sub- 
sist on the productions of the soil of that neighborhood, and 
consequently afford a market for the surplus product of the 
township. Thus the farmer will sell his produce to the Pro- 
fessor, or the boarder of the student, and receive the money 
for it. This money he will pay into the Treasury of the in- 
stitution for his rents, and the treasurer will pay it out to the 
Professors and teachers again, thus will the coin of the town- 
ship perform regular revolutions and in turn be paid back to 
the cultivator of the soil. Another source of revenue which 
the establishment of the seminary on its own lands has a 
tendency to produce, is the revenue which has accrued, and 
which is annually accruing from the sale of the lots in the 
village of Oxford. The establishing of the seminary at that 
place will support a small village and enable the holders of 
lots to pay the interest annually on the purchase money of 
tlieii- lots, which I think at present annually amounts to about 
the sum of $260.00 or $270.00, had the seminary not been located 
on its own lands this source of revenue could never have 

Another advantage which the scite at Oxford in my opinion 
possesses is a very material one. Oxford is an inland town 
and not likely ever to become a large or commercial place, such 
a situation I think a much more proper place for a seminary 
of learning than a large commercial city. Although the Bill 
under consideration does not designate any particular place 
for the scite of the institution; should it be again set upon 
wheels and transported to some other situation, yet my mind 
is involuntarily brought to conclude that if the scite of the 
institution was once more afloat, the population, the wealth and 
influence which exist in the southern part of Symmes purchase 
would unquestionably draw the location of the college to near 
the Ohio River and should the scite of the University be again 
to be located, from these and various other considerations I 
think I could point to the city of Cincinnati with a confidence 
almost amounting to a certainty as the future location of the 

The minds and the hearts of youth at the age at which 
they are generally prepared to enter a college, are from their 
tender sensibility, ready and susceptible to receive any im- 


pression which may be made upon it. How carefully then 
ought we to guard their morals, and to keep them from being 
initiated and familiarised to the vices prevalent in a large and 
commercial city. If the common saying be true that genius 
is exposed to peculiar dangers at an early age I would infer 
that genius, and the moral conduct, of him in whom it appears, 
are to be kept under the restraints of parental authority, with 
uncommon strictness of discipline and vigilance of observation. 
It is not sufficient mearly to give moral cautions ; but actual 
restraints must be imposed; for, after all the boasts of" moral 
philosophy, the most effectual method of restraining young 
people from vice, is to watch them circumspectly, to keep them 
at home, and at a distance from temptation, for that suscepti- 
bility of temper, which, when unrestrained, and exposed to 
temptation, leads to vicious habits and indulgences, will attach 
itself with equal strength to all that is good, laudible and lovely 
if care be taken that nothing but what is truly so, be allowed to 
solicit the attention. Literature and science will furnish a variety 
of delightful objects, capable of engrossing both the affections 
and the imaginations so long as the allurements of the senses 
are as much as possible removed from the view. 28 

I would ask any member of this house, if he would not 
much rather send his son to receive his education at some re- 
mote and small village where religion, morality, and correct 
deportment were known to be the characteristics of the inhabi- 
tants, than to send him to a large commercial city. For my 
own part I had rather send my son to a seminary of learn- 
ing provided there were able professors, even though it should 
be "Unmersed in the gloom of the Beech zcoods" as the gentle- 
men will have it, if the boy could be boarded in the seminary, 
than .to send him to a large commercial city where he would 
be daily exposed to the temptations and vices which are always 
prevalent in large cities. Nothing has a greater tendency to 
draw off and divert the attention of a student from his studies 
than the gaieties and allurements of a city, and when once a 
taste is formed, and a habit of indulgence in those gaieties or 
vices acquired I fear the progress and capacity of study will 
be very much broke in upon. It is not in the dust of a mer- 
chant's shop, or amidst the din of mechanics' hammers, much 

28 Knox Es. V. i pa. 311. 

less at a theatre, a tavern, or a grog-shop, that the classics can 

be read with most advantage. It was not in that 

Plato wrote his nor in Rome that wrote 

his no, the Qfie wrote in the secluded retirement 

of and the other far from the bustle of the world 

at [sic]- 

A general idea appears to prevail throughout the gentleman's 
remarks, and appears to be intended to be strongly impressed 
upon the minds of the members of this house, that Oxford is 
situated in a remote corner of the state, and at a vast distance 
from Symraes purchase. I would just beg leave to spend a 
few minutes in contrasting the distance from the several county 
seats in the purchase, to Oxford the scite of the University, 
with the distances from those county seats to Cincinnati, which 
I take to be the contemplated scite of the institution. 

M M 

From Lebanan to Oxford is 32 to Cincinnati is 30 

Hamilton " " 12 

" Franklin " " 24 " *' 32 

" Dayton " " 40 " " 50 

" Xenia " " 

" Springfield " " 65 " " 75 

" Urbana " " 

" Troy (Miami Co.) " " 

From this general view of the matter 1 do not perceive that 
Cincinnati would be a more central position than Oxford, on the 
contrary by making an addition of the several distances men- 
tioned we find a distance of ... miles in favor of Oxford, con- 
sequently the scite of the college at Oxford is more convenient 
to the generality of the inhabitants of Symmes purchase by . . . 
miles than Cincinnati would be, neither could the scite be located 
at any point where it would be such a vast deal more convenient 
to the majority of the inhabitants of Symmes purchase, was 
the exact geographical centre of the purchase ascertained and 
the college erected there, I apprehend the general advantage in 
point of convenience would not be very material as the present 
college township is located nearly opposite to the centre of the 
purchase from north to south and is only eight miles from the 
west bank of the Great Miami River to the college lands. Nor 
in my mind is a few miles distance such a very material matter. 


Locate the college where you may, but a very small portion of 
the inhabitants of the purchase can educate their sons there with- 
out boarding them from home, and when the young man is to 
be boarded from home, and has to travel to the college it matters 
nut much whether he travels ten miles or twenty miles before 
he arrives at his destination. Boarding at Oxford, it being an 
interior town, ought always to be cheaper than it could be ob- 
tained at Cincinnati, this circumstance alone to many would be a 
consideration worthy of attention. 

These considerations induce me to conclude that Oxford is 
the most proper situation for the scite of the University and 
were there no obligations by which the scite of the seminary 
is bound to remain at Oxford, the reasons which present them- 
selves in favor of that place I think would induce this house to 
decide in its favor. Whilst the seminary remains at Oxford, 
the funds arising for the support of the institution will be much 
greater than it could be if removed : The distance which the 
students will have to travel to the college will be little greater 
than at any other point where we could possibly locate it: 
They would not there be exposed to the vanities and vices with 
which they would be exposed in a large commercial city: And 
ultimately it would be more advantageous and useful to the 
citizens of Symmes purchase generally than it could be at any 
other place: And finally, as utility is the end and intention of 
the donation, the object of the original grant will be better 
accomplished by remaining at Oxford than by removing it to 
any other place whatever. And such I conceive to have been 
almost the unanimous opinion of the legislature of 1810, for 
on the final passage of the bill establishing Miami University 
upon its own lands, in the house of representatives only 5 29 
—and in the senate — only 8, 30 voted against its passage. The 
Board of Trustees of the institution in pursuance of their duty, 
and in conformity to the laws governing their conduct have 
disposed of a considerable portion of the township to individuals, 
and have executed and given leases to them and to their heirs 
and assigns, by which they are entitled to hold the several tracts 
of land which they have leased for the term of ninety "nine years, 

28 Journal of Ho. Rep. 1809-10, Pa. 297: Yeas, 40, Xo. 5. 
30 Journal of Sen. of Ohio 1809-10, p. 197: Yeas, 16, No. 8. 


and are also entitled so often as the leases shall expire to have 
them renewed on the same terms and conditions forever. 

Those settlers in the college township, made their purchases, 
and had a promise, and consequently made their purchases under 
a conviction that the Miami College or University, should be 
erected and remain in the town of Oxford, which was adjoining 
or contiguous to 'their little farms. In consideration of the 
advantages resulting from which, they gave a much higher price 
for the lands than they otherwise would have done. Conse- 
quently the assurances which they had of the University being 
fixed in the town of Oxford formed a part of their contract, 
in consideration of which, and the advantages resulting from 
the use of their lands, they on their part each agreed for him- 
self, to pay annually for the support of the University a certain 
sum of money. 

Now according to the common and universal received prin- 
ciple ot law, that between two contracting parties, so soon as 
one of the contracting parties makes a breach, or failure to com- 
ply with the stipulations in the contract, on his part to be done 
and performed, the other contracting party is not only absolved 
from all obligation on his part, but also has a claim in law and 
in justice on the party violating the contract for the damages 
which he may have sustained in consequence of the violation. 
We have the lessees bound to us for the payment of certain 
sums of money annually. If they do not comply, we re-enter 
upon their lands ; their right is declared to be at an end, and 
we again take possession of their lands. Must not this principle 
bt reciprocal? Remove then, the University from Oxford and 
you render void every contract which has been made with the 
settlers of that township, and give each c claim to be remunerated 
the damages which they have sustained. 

The same law which establishes the University at Oxford, 
also gives to the lessees the right of possession to their lands, 
touch one and you effect the other. How shall we attempt to 
divest those people of their rights when they hold up to our 
view our own act by which they claim a right to their property? 
Why drive them to the necessity of defending their rights in 
a court of law, as I presume they would do before they would 
tamely submit to have them wrested from them in this manner: 
at the bar of the federal court I presume they would claim re- 


dress — and in that court I have no doubt but they would ob- 
tain it. 

The constitution of the United States and the constitution 
of Ohio declares, "You shall make no ex post facto law." Would 
not a law to remove the scite of the Miami University be an 
ex post facto law? The constitution says "No law impairing 
the validity of contracts shall ever be made" — Would not a 
law to remove the scite of the University impair the validity 
of contracts ? I humbly think it would, it is a principle per- 
fectly plain, and which lies level with every man's understand- 
ing, to solve which it is only necessary to open the constitution 
of our country and examine the principles which it contains. 

When the legislature of any country, gives to an individual 
any right whatever, and that individual accepts the terms of 
the grant, no subsequent law of that legislature can ever right- 
fully take it away. When the legislature by law creates a 
political existence, they can nevci constitggrtionally repeal that 
law and thereby dissolve the corporation. No — We have made 
a contract with the settlers of the college lands and we are 
bound by it — We have given them our promise and we must 
perform it. The faith of the state of Ohio is pledged to them, 
their rights are not to be set at naught — they rest not merely 
on the fluctuating notions of policy, but on obligations firm and 
steadfast as the pillars of our government — obligations flowing 
from the constitution ; sanctioned by repeated laws, rivited by 
contracts made . with individuals, and rendered sacred by the 
plighted faith of the state. 

The principle that a legislature may rightfully repeal every 
law passed by a former legislature, when tested by reason and 
our constitution is untrue, destructive of the national faith, 
and pregnant with evils not to be described. Establish a doc- 
trine of that kind and what follows; the whim of the moment 
will become the law of the land. Our country will be looked 
on as a den of robbers, every honest man will fly our state. 
And who will be found to trust the legislature of our own country 
when they are the first to violate their own contracts. Before 
I dismiss this subject I would beg leave to advert for a few 
moments, and for a few moments only, to the provisions con- 
tained in this bill, and the probable consequences which would 
ensue should it become a law. 

I believe it is admitted on all hands, at least I think it a 
matter that admits of no serious dispute, that if we remove the 
scitc of the University from Oxford, we violate an important 
stipulation in the contract made with the lessees of the college 
lands, and will be bound to compromise with them, not only 
for the value of the improvements which they have made on 
the lands but also to reduce their annual rents to be paid here- 
after to such a sum as their lands are rendered less valuable 
in consequence of the removal of the college. This would be 
a necessary measure; for if the conditions of their contract is 
violated they would be released from their obligations on their 
part: this principle I believe accords with every just and legal 
principle with which I am acquainted, the consequence would 
be that the lessees would hold their lands without paying any- 
thing until the conditions of their contract should be restored. 
Let us advert to the means and probable conditions on which 
tiiib compromise could be made. 

The number of inhabitants in the college township I under- 
stand amounts to about The number of country or 

farming lots of land sold to individuals and improved is about 
1 60. . . . comprehending in the whole about 17.420 acres of 
land. The average value of the improvements on each of these 

lots I presume to be about $ This estimate of 160 

lots at $ per each lot would make the value of the 

improvements on the country lots amount to the sum of $ 


The value of the improvements made on the town and out 

lots in the town of Oxford I presume is at least , 

amounting in the whole to the sum of [sic]. 

This sum at all events would have to be paid to the settlers 
of the college lands ; now admitting the annual revenue of the 

college to be $3,500.00 it would take a period of nearly 

years for the revenue of the institution to pay the debts : But 
the moment the college was removed, the value of the lands 
would be reduced nearly one half, consequently the annual in- 
come would also be reduced, and the debt due to the settlers 
would bear an interest from the day it was liquidated until paid. 

This would make it perhaps [sic] before the debt due 

to the settler could be paid, and then after that is done, the 
lands might be again leased, and the revenue arising therefrom, 


reduced as it would be, may be applied to the erection of suitable 
buildings for a college at the place where it may be established. 
This calculation I believe if you take facts as they exist and 
calculate cjoselj will be found nearly correct. Then let us pause 

and reflect if it is worth the enormous sum of [sic] 

to have the college removed and after a lapse of [sic] 

years to be no nearer a college, (nor not so near) as we are 
this day, would this be the way to advance the cause of litera- 
ture and science. I think not. Had we not better expend the 
money which we would have to pay the settlers for their im- 
provements, in erecting a college edifice? I humbly think we 
had, and I hope this bill will not prevail. 

This bill if passed into a law I apprehend will stand as a 
foul stain on the legislature of Ohio, and will remain on our 
statute book as a landmark and a warning hereafter, to every 
stranger passing through our state, that no right however sacred ; 
that no contract however solemnly made under the sanction 
of the legislature of the state, is able to protect him against 
the omnipotent power of a subsequent legislature and secure 
to him the quiet enjoyment of his rights and privileges. 

The eyes of all the citizens of the state of Ohio are now 
upon us, and particularly those of Symmes purchase, and the 
passage of this bill will be infinitely more injurious as a precedent 
and principle which it would recognize, than the immediate 
injury which it would inflict on a large portion of the country. 

December 1S22. James McBride. 



Dear Sir, 

I received yours of the 17th [1824] on this subject of the 
M. U. I am unable to inform you positively of the time the 
trustees hold their next session at Oxford, however I think if 

31 William Sparrow (1S01-1874) was. born at Charleston, Miss; 
studied at Trinity College Dublin and at Columbia University, New 
York, He was Professor of Languages at Miami University 1824-5. 
Professor at Kenyon College 1825-1841 and in the Theological Seminary, 
Alexandria, Va., 1S41-1S74. He took orders in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in 1826. Cf. Murray's Weekly Volunteer, (Hamilton, Ohio) Dec. 
20, 1824; Alumni Catalogue of Miami University (1892) p. xvii. — Ed. 


my memory is correct it is on the .... clay of April next. I 
have as yet only heard of three who are candidates for the chair 
of classick in that institution, they are yourself, a Mr. Kemper, 
who resides somewhere in or near Cincinnati and a Mr. Wood( ?) 
who is at present engaged in the Ohio University at Athens ; 
he visited Oxford and this place a few weeks since and returned 
to Athens. 

I received a copy of a bill 32 which had been introduced in 
the legislature of this state, and which Mr. Higgins 33 wrote me 
that he thought would pass, appointing trustees. I enclose you 
the names of those named in the bill with a note made on it 
of their several places of residence. Any information or as- 
sistance which I can render you in this matter comporting with 
the interest of the institution shall be cheerfully given by, 
Dear Sir, with friendly sentiments of esteem 



<-.. Lkxington, Ky. Augt. 2 1824. 

Your official notice of July 8th has been duly received. I 
am at present inclined to accept of the appointment but at the 
same time feel, that my engagements and connections here are 
of such a nature that I cannot at this date say when it shall 

K Cf. Local Laws of Ohio, Vol. 22, p. 6S; Laws Relating to Miami 
University (1823) pp. 37-40.— Ed. 

"David Higgin; represented Butler County in the Ohio House of 
Representatives 1S23-27 and was a Trustee of Miami University 1821-30 
— Etj. 

"Robert Hamilton Bishop (T777-1S55) was horn at Cult, near Edin- 
burg, Scotland. He graduated from the University at Edinburg in 1798 
and from the Associate Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Selkirk 
in 1802. In that year he was induced by Rev. John M. Mason of New 
York City to come to America and identify himself with the Associate 
Reformed Presbyterian Church. Upon his arrival in this country he was 
assigned to the Presbytery of Kentucky and itinerated for a while in that 
state and in Southern Ohio. In 1804 he located at Lexington, Kentucky, 
taking pastoral charge of several congregations in that vicinity. The 
same year he was elected Professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy in 
Tr2nsvlvania University. In 1818 he was made Professor of Mathe- 


he in my power to enter upon the duties of the office. If in 
health however I hope I shall be able to wait upon the Board 
at their next meeting and give them at that time my final answer. 



My dear friend, CINCINNATI Sept 2ist 1824. 

I wrote you this morning from Springfield 35 but beg leave 
to trouble you again. To many who may visit the college at 
Oxford, the manner in , which the President is accommodated, 

matics and Natural Philosophy. The teaching of Mathematics was soon 
assigned to an assistant and he was given History in its stead. In 1819 
he connected with the Presbyterian Church. During his connection with 
the University he continued his pulpit ministrations which were highly 
appreciated. Rev. David McDill, Sr., who graduated from Transylvania 
University in 1S13, says of him : ''He soon ascended to a high rank 
amung the pulyii orators of Kentucky. 'Clay at the bar, or Bishop in 
the pulpit' was at one time among the students of Transylvania Uni- 
versity the 'ne plus ultra' of human greatness. There are and have been 
but few men in the United States who could wield a general principle 
with the same facility and apply it to such a variety of cases. This 
was his forte. In it he excelled Dr. Mason." 

In 1S24 Dr. Bishop accepted the Presidency of Miami University. 
Prior to this time the institution had had a precarious existence. In 181 1 
a school house had been erected on the University Reservation in which 
James Dorsey (Cf. note 39) had conducted a private school until 1818. 
In that ye2r one wing of the University Building and a house for the 
President being completed, the Trustees opened a Grammar School with 
Rev. James Hughes (Cf. Note 36) as Principal. This school was main- 
tained until 1S21, when, the principal dying it was discontinued that the 
Main Building might be the more speedily finished. By 1824 this work 
was so well under way and the regular income of the Institution was 
sue! , that it was determined to raise the school to collegiate rank. The 
income for the year ending December 31, 1824, is shown by the records 
to have been $4503.07^. To shape the policy of the young institution 
Dr. Bishop was eminently qualified. His administration of seventeen 
years, though not without imperfections, was on the whole "judicious, be- 
neficent and successful. ' In 1841 Dr. Bishop resigned the Presidency of 
the Institution to accept the Professorship of History and Political Sci- 
ence, in which capacity he served until 1844. From that time till his 
death he devoted himself to the upbuilding of Farmer's College at Col- 
lege Hill, near Cincinnati. Cf. Mills, Life and Services of Rev. R. H. 
Bishop, D. D., to which is appended a few chapters from Dr. Bishop's 
Autobiography; The Diamond Anniversary Volume of Miami Univer- 
sity, pp. 86-90.— Ed. 

35 Now called Springdale. Doctor Bishop was on his way home from 
Oxford, where he met with the Board of Trustees, Sept. 20, and accepted 
the presidency of Miami Universitv. Cf. Records of Board of Trustees 
of M. U. Vol. I.— Ed. 


will be a matter of very little moment, but to many others, and 
those too who may have an extensive influence on the fate of 
the institution this little thing will be a great thing. Now there 
is not a room in that old building 36 into which I could invite 
such people. It is necessary also that that old building have 
some repairs, and be whitewashed both within and without. This 
I suppose will not be deemed any way inconsistent with the 
powers vested in the building committee. Whatever is done 
must if possible be done by the last of Octr. The place, or 
situation of the proposed new siting room is to me a matter 
of indifference only that it be set convenient to the door of 
the old building. Should it not be convenient for the Board to 
expend the money at this time, I will advance out of my first 
year's salary $220, to be repaid to me or my family when I shall 
have to use it. With the addition proposed that old building 
will be a comfortable habitation for five or six years. Before 
thai period the Board will not contemplate erecting any other 
buildings for the use of any of the officers of the University. 
And by that time the experiment so far as I may be concerned 
will be fully made, or I may be by that time in the narrow house 
appointed for all living. 
Peace be with you, 

3 ' In 1818 the school building- erected on the campus in iSri (Cf. 
Quarterly, Vol. IV, p. 22, Note 49), in which James Dorsey had con- 
ducted his ''Select School" from 1S11-1S, was transformed into a resi- 
dence. A second story was added and other changes were made to 
render it suitable "for the reception of the teacher of the Grammar 
School and his family." This personage was named James Hughes, a 
Presbyterian clergyman, who had pursued his literarv and theological 
studies under Reverends Joseph Smith, Thaddeus Dodds and John Mc- 
Millan, D. D. In 1790 he was ordained by the Old Redstone Presby- 
tery, being the first person 10 receive ordination west of the Alleghenies. 
He served as pastor of Cross Creek and Lower Buffalo, Penna., 1790- 
1S14, and of the Urbana Presbyterian Church 1815-1818. In 181S he 
organized the Presbyterian Church at Oxford and served as its pastor 
until his death in 1821. He was a Trustee of Jefferson College 1804-1814 
and of Miami University 1815-1819 and Principal of the "Grammar School 
of Miami University" 1818-1821. While serving in this capacity he re- 
ceived a salary of $500 and one-half of the tuition of $5 per' session. 
He was also "furnished with a house and garden free of rent." This 
house stood just West of Franklin Hall, a brick structure, containing 12 
rooms, that was completed in 1818, at the cost of $6167, and which 
served as a recitation hall and also as a dormitory for the non-resident 
students. Cf. Records of the Board of Trustees of Miami University 
Vol. I, p. 259; Porter, History of the Presbyterian Church of Oxford! 
Ohio, pp. 8, 9. — Ed. 




Cincinnati Sept. 30th 1824. 
Dear Sir, 

When I last saw you I expressed a wish that the publication 37 
relative to our Oxford Institution might not be made for a few 
weeks. I am happy to inform you that my reason for that wish 
no longer 'exists. I obtained my degree a few days ago and I 
have only to hope that all other objections to my appointment 
may be as easily removed as that was. 

You have doubtless heard of P.p. Chase's arrival in the 
United States and perhaps also that our church is to hold a 
convention in Chillicothe the 3rd of November. If possible, 
I wish to attend it, for various reasons but especially that I 
may stand an examination preparatory to taking orders next 
spriiig; Should I go I shall be r.bsent from Oxford about a 
week but I will not, unless Dr. Bishop or Mr. Annan 33 shall 
have arrived in time to take charge of the students — in any 
case I will not, to whatever inconvenience it may subject me, 
if you and Mr. Higgins should think inexpedient. A few lines 
on the subject would much oblige your very humble servt. 



~ . Hamilton Oct nth 1824. 

Dear Sir, 

The committee of the M. U. appointed to superintend the 

Building was at Oxford last week, for the purpose of effecting 

some repairs & arrangements about the building preparatory 

to the reception of the faculty by the 1st of Nov. next. By a 

letter from Dr. Bishop which I have seen he expects to leave 

57 Cf. Murray's Weekly Volunteer (Hamilton, Ohio) for Dec. 20, 1824. 

38 John Ebenezer Annan ( -1S30) graduated from Dickinson Col- 
lege in 1824 and from Princeton Theological Seminary in 1829. He was 
Professor of Mathematics and Science in Miami University 1824-28, and 
pasior of the Presbyterian Church at Lewisburg, Va., 1829-30. Cf. 
Alumni Catalogue of Miami University (1892), p. xvii. — Ed. 


Lexington with his family about the middle of this month, in 
which event he will be at Oxford at the opening of the school. 
No intelligence has been yet received from Mr. Annan, but it 
can hardly be expected that he will arrive by the ist of Novr. 
As to your attending the convention at Chillicothe I can 
only express my opinion as an individual member of the Board, 
which is that in case either Mr. Bishop or Mr. Annan should 
be present, no very great inconvenience could result from your 
absence for one week, however should it so happen that neither 
of them should have arrived very great injury to the institution 
would be the consequence. I would suggest the propriety of 
your calling on Mr. Bishop cither as he may pass through Cin- 
cinnati, or after his arrival at Oxford and making an arrange- 
ment with him relative to the attention due to your department 
in the college, and also, that you should address the Board of 
Trustees (who meet on the 2d day of Nov.) on the subject of 
your absence. 1 should be pleased that you may be enabled 
to attend the convention, it would doubtless be to your advantage, 
and what would be to your advantage I trust would be to the 
interest of the M. U. as I hope your interest is now identified 
with the interests of the institution. 



Oxford, December 19, 1824. 
Dear Sir, 

Since my return from Hamilton, I have conversed with 
Doct r Bishop, Mr. Annan and Mr. Sparrow respecting a Bell 
for the University: they are all of opinion that one of an hun- 

39 James Maxwell Dors*ey (1776-1857) was born in Baltimore County, 
Md. For several years he was a teacher in the city of Baltimore. In 
1809 he moved to Cincinnati and the following year became a resident 
of Oxford, where in 181 1 he opened a "Select School" in a building 
erected for this purpose by the University Trustees which was located 
near where Brice Hall now stands. This School met the needs of the 
frontier community until 181S, when a more pretentious building having 
been erected and a regular income from the University lands having been 
provided the Grammar School was opened by the Trustees and placed 


dred pounds weight, will be of very little use ; that it would be 
best to defer getting one untill a much larger could be got; 
that a trumpet which they now use will answer very well for 
a year or two. DoeL r Bishop is of opinion that the real interest 
of the University, as well as its character abroad, requires that 
two or three hundred Dollars be, as soon as possible, expended 
in procuring philosophical apparatus. 



Hamilton, Jan. 22d, 1825. 
Dear Sir, 

The Committee appointed by the Board of Trustees of the 
Miami University to make arrangements for the Inaugural cere- 
monies of the Reverend Robert H. Bishop, D. D. as President 
of the University which is to take place on the 30th of March 
next have taken the liberty to appoint you marshal of the day. 
The Committee regret that they had not an opportunity of con- 
sulting you previous to the appointment. However, from your 
philanthropy and known disposition to serve the institution which 
they believe are inherent traits in your character, they have 
no hesitation in believing that you will accept the appointment 
and give every assistance to the committee in your power. The 
two members of the committee who are present feel some em- 
barrassment in prescribing the order of the procession and cere- 
monies, not having the assistance of David Kiggins, Esquire, 
the other member of the committee, who is well acquainted 
with the order of such ceremonies, and on whom we had de- 
pended to make the principal arrangements. However, it has 

under the direction of Rev. James Hughes. (Cf. Note Xo. 36.) While 
the College buildings were being erected Mr. Dorsey was Superintendent 
of Construction and from 1824 until 1827 he served as Treasurer of the 
University. In 1S16 he together with Wilham Ludlow and others or- 
ganized a society known as the "Rational Brethren of Oxford." (Cf. 
Quarterly, Vol. IV, p. 10, Note 11.) In 1830 he located at Xew Har- 
mony, Ind., where he associated with Robert Dale Owen. In 1S33 ne 
moved to Greenville, Ohio, and in 1845 to Piqua, where he resided till 
his death.— Ed. 


become necessary to issue this circular thus early, to give timely 
notice to those appointed to take part in the ceremony. 

The general order of the procession, which we have thought 
proper to adopt you will learn from the accompanying circular. 
I had supposed that when the procession is formed at the Meth- 
odist church, according to the order prescribed that they should 
move with the band of Music in front, in such manner as you 
may think proper to direct, to the college door, where they should 
halt, and the two ranks facing inward, when those on the left 
or rear should march forward between the two files and proceed 
into the chapel. 

Should any female 'attend at the church, and the rules of 
propriety require that they should form part of the procession, 
it would be your duty to arrange them, the married and un- 
married, in their appropriate positions. I am not sufficiently 
informed on this matter to know what is proper or improper; 
hvA ; f it is requisite that the females should form part of the 
procession, I should suppose the unmarried should be placed in 
front, all dressed in white, if convenient, and followed by the 
elderly matrons — however, I write at random — on these subjects, 
I presume you are better acquainted with commanding squadrons 
of this description than I am. 

I think it would be well if a good choir of singers can be 
procured to carry the different parts of musick, to have them 
selected and arranged together in an appropriate situation in 
the room, to accompany the musick required during the cere- 
monies. Suitable odes and pieces of music for the occasion will 
be furnished, which it is expected will be sung by the choir, 
accompanied by the band of music. 1 have understood that 
there are a number of musicians in Oxford, who play well on 
different instruments. If there should not be a sufficient number 
in Oxford, there are several in Hamilton, who I know would 
cheerfully give their assistance on the occasion. 

If there is anything improper, in what is here suggested, 
or if anything is omitted, in the circular, which ought to be 
attended to, I should be gratified if you would suggest it to 
the committee. 

Your acceptance of the appointment, will confer an obligation 
on the committee, and be particularly gratifying to your friends 
and humble servant 


[Accompanying Circular.] 


Inauguration of 


As President of THE MIAMI UNIVERSITY, on Wednesday, the 
30th day of March, 1825. 

A procession to be formed at the Methodist Church in Oxford, precisely 
at eleven o'clock, A. M. 







The procession will then move to the College Chapel, where the Inaugural 
will take place. 


1. MUSIC. 

2. INTRODUCTORY PRAYER, by the Reverend David Purviance. 

3. ADDRESS, by the Reverend William Gray. 

4. MUSIC. 

CHARGE TO THE PRESIDENT, By the Rev. John Thompson. 

6. INAUGURAL PRAYER, by the Reverend Alexander Porter. 

7. ADDRESS; By President Bishop. 

8. MUSIC. > 

9. CONCLUDING PRAYER, By the Reverend Stephen Gard. 
Abram I. Chittenden, Esq., Marshal of the day. 


Committee on Arrangement. 




Dear Sir, Hamilton Oct 31st, 1S36. 

I have received a confidential communication from a gentle- 
man of the first respectability of Cincinnati, that an effort backed 
by a powerful influence will be made at the next session of our 
legislature, to transfer the revenue of the M. U. to the college 
at Cincinnati ; this gentleman however did not wish his name 
to be mentioned in connection with this subject. 

He informed me that a certain gentleman called on him and 
told him he was offered a professorship in the college at 
Cin. about to be recussitated and asked his candid opinion on 
the subject. He stated that it was in contemplation to engraft 
on the charter of the Cincinnati college 41 another charter rais- 
ing it to the rank of a University at the next session of the 
Legislature, and to negotiate with the Woodward high school 42 
for a transfer of their funds and revenue, which amounts to 

"Joel Collins (1 772- i860) was born in Halifax Co., Va. At the age 
of seven he moved with his parents to Kentucky, and in 1806 to Oxford 
Township, Butler Co., Ohio. He was Captain of one of the Ohio com- 
panies that served in the War of 1812. He represented Butler County ' 
in the Ohio Legislature 1S17-1827, and was Judge of the Common Pleas 
Court of Butler County 1830-37. He served as secretary of Miami Uni- 
versity 1822-55. Cf. McBride, Pioneer Biography, pp. 179-264.— Ed. 

" Cincinnati University despite the liberal support accorded it by the 
public spirited citizens soon found itself in such financial straits that its 
operations were suspended in order that the income might be applied 
toward liquidating its debts. In 1836 it was revived and William H. 
McGuftey was elected its president. Even under the administration of 
a man of such recognized ability it did not succeed and in a few years 
it again closed its doors. Cf. Venable, "Education in Cincinnati" in 
"History of Cincinnati and Hamilton County," pp. 99, 100. — Ed. 

"In 1826 the "Woodward Free Grammar School" was founded and 
endowed by William Woodward. In 1S30 a Public School System having 
been established it was changed to a High School. In 1836 it was raised 
to Collegiate rank and continued until 1857. In that year its Trustees 
placed its grounds, buildings and income at the disposal of the Cincin- 
nati School Board to be used toward the erection of a more commodious 
building to be known as the Woodward High School. Cf. Old Wood- 
ward Memorial, pp. 1 1-56. — Ed. 


$3000 or $4000 annually and induce them to unite their future 
destiny with the contemplated University; this attempt has since 
been made and came within one vote of the directors of that 
institution, in succeeding in their plans. 

Their next object was to divert the funds of the M. U. to 
that object. It was represented that the Trustees and Faculty 
of M. U. were quarrelling amongst themselves, that two of the 
Professors 43 had left the institution and that at the last meet- 
ing, the board of trustees had come within one vote of removing 
Dr. Bishop himself, founding their claims on the present dis- 
tracted state of the institution, and on the strong efforts in- 
tended to be made all over the state it was thought little doubt 
existed in their being able to accomplish their object. Efforts 
are now making by writing secretly to members of the next 
legislature all over the state and other influential persons in order 
to enlist them in favor of this project: at the head of this Dr. 
Drake" ; ? believed to be one of the principals. 

'"'These were Albert T. Bledsoe and William H. McGuffey. The 
former was born in Kentucky and graduated from West Point Military 
Academy in 1S30, serving in the army until 1S32. He was an instructor 
in Kenyon College 1832-35 and Professor of Mathematics in Miami Uni- 
versity 1835-36. He then studied law, which he practiced at Springfield, 
Illinois, 1840-4S. He was Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy in 
the University of Mississippi 1848-54 and Professor of Mathematics in 
the University of Virginia 1854-63. He represented the Confederate Gov- 
ernment as Commissioner to England to solicit the assistance of that 
country. Minister of the Protestant Episcopal Church 1866-68 and of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church 1S71-77. Cf. Records of West Point 
Military Academy. 

William H. McGuffey was born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, 
September 23, 1800, graduated from Washington College in 1826. Profes- 
sor of Latin, Greek and Hebrew, Miami University, 1826-32. Ordained 
to the ministry- by the Presbytery of Oxford 1832. Professor of Mental 
Philosophy, Philology- and General Criticism, Miami University 1S32-36. 
President of Cincinnati College 1836-39. President of Ohio University 
! 839-43. Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy. University of 
Virginia, 1845-73. Author of McGuffey's Readers. Died May 4, 1S73. 
Cf. Alumni Catalogue of Miami University (1892), p. xvii; Records of 
Board of Trustees of M. U. Vol. I.— Ed. 

"Daniel Drake (1785-1852) was born in Kentucky and came to Cin- 
cinnati in 1800. He began the practice of medicine in 1804, afterwards 
studying at Pennsylvania University, from which he received the degree 
of M. D. in 1S16. He and others founded the Medical College of Ohio in 
1818. In 1831 he organized the Medical Department of Miami University, 
which was soon consolidated with the Medical College of Ohio. In 1835 


My informant told me that he considered it his duty to give 
information to some of those, who had the interest of the M. U. 
at heart, of the contemplated measure and secret movements 
now in operation, that those favorable to the prosperity of the 
M. U. might be apprised of the movements and prepared for 
the occasion, to meet them on the threshold of their enterprise ; 
they rely much- on what they are endeavoring to make the public 
believe, — the present distracted state of the institution at Oxford. 

The gentleman to whom the Professorship was offered, how- 
ever, in accordance with the advice of his friends did not accept 
of the appointment. 

he founded the Medical Department of Cincinnati College. Cf. Fords, 
History of Cincinnati, pp. 296-8. — Ed. 

The year 1841 saw Cincinnati College, to the establishment and fos- 
tering of which the ablest citizens of Cincinnati had for more than a 
quarter of a century devoted their energies and means, and to the assist- 
ance of which they had sought to divert the income from the College 
Township, with its doors closed and its activities ceased. The same year 
was marked by the termination of Dr. Bishop's Presidency at Miami. 
What of the Institution of which Dr. Drake had said in his "Picture of 
Cincinnati and the Miami Country" (1815), "That it will attain to the 
rank of a second rate college, in the course of the present century, where 
it is now fixed, no well informed person has the courage to predict." 
The College Township had been transformed into a thriving fanning 
community, yielding an annual income to the University of about $5500, 
"the largest permanent income of any college in America." The unpre- 
tentious "schoolhouse" first erected on the campus had given place to 
four permanent brick structures, three of which still render excellent 
service. The "Select School" had evolved into a real college with a 
faculty of six full professors, several of whom were men of national 
reputation, and a student body of one hundred and sixty-four young 
men drawn from ten different states. From her walls had gone forth 
three hundred and two graduates, of whom one hundred and eleven 
entered the ministry and ninety-three studied law. Forty sought to fur- 
ther the cause of education, either as principals of academies or as 
professors in colleges, seven rising to the position of college presidents. 
Twenty-three served in their state legislature, five sat in the gubernatorial 
chair, thirteen were elected to seats in Congress, and five rose to the 
rank of general in the army. Five were sent by the church as mission- 
aries to heathen lands, while four were sent by our Government on 
missions to foreign countries. With such a product, is it surprising that 
Miami University was speedily recognized as entitled to a place in the 
front rank of the educational institutions of our country? Even a Cin- 
cinnati writer, while lamenting the failure of local efforts to establish a 
successful college, could say of her, "It is gratifying that our citizens 
who have sons to educate, can avail themselves of the advantages of Miami 
University, which is located in the vicinity of our city." Cf. Drake and 
Mansfield, Cincinnati in 1826, pp. 41, 42. — Ed. 


Quarterly Publication of the His- 
torical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio 

Vol. IV, 1909, No. 3 

Selections from the Torrence Papers, V. 

Arranged and Edited by 


Assistant Professor of History, University of Cincinnati. 




. Apri 

1 22, 


. Sept. 



. Mar. 



. Mar. 

1 1. 


. Mar. 



. Apri' 

I 13, 


. Oct. 





































l 7- 






— , 









2 3> 












1 1, 










1706, James Wilkinson to William Winston. 

1798, W. McCluney to Smith and Findlay. 

1S03, James Findlay to Meriwether Lewis. 

1S03, Z. M. Pike to James Findlay. 

1803, Meriwether Lewis to James Findlay. 

1803, John Smith to James Findlay. 

1803. Z. M. Pike to James Findlay. 

1503, Thomas Sandford to James Findlay. 

1504, John Smith to James Findlay. 

1504, James Findlay to Thomas Worthington. 
1S04., John Smith to James Findlay. 

1505, Jonathan S. Findlay to Mrs. Jane Findlay. 
1S05, Jonathan S. Findlay to James Findlay. 
1806, John Smith to James Findlay. 

1806, Jonathan S. Findlay to James Pindlay. 
1806, Calf.u Swan to James Findlay. 
1806, John Smith to Jacob Burnet. 

1806, Jeremiah Morrow to James Findlay. 

1807, John Bigger, Jr., to James Findlay. 
1S07, James Findlay to Dr. John Bennett. 
1S07, P. T. Schenck to Nathan C. Findlay. 
1807, P. T. Schenck to James Findlay. 
1S09, William Findlay to James Findlay. 
iSio, Nathan 1 C. Findlay to James Findlay. 
1812, Thomas S. Jesup to James Findlay. 
1S14, Samuel Perky to George P. Torrence. 
1S14. Samuel Perry to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

1514. Samuel Perry to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
1814, Samuel Perry to Thomas Sloo, Jr 

1515, Clara II. Pike to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
1818, Thomas Findley to James Findlay. 


Selections from the Torrence Papers, V. 

The Transfer of Louisiana and the Burr 
Conspiracy, as Illustrated by the 
• Findlay Letters 


As indicated by the sub-title given above, the following let- 
ters relate to two main subjects — the Louisiana Purchase and the 
Burr Conspiracy. Far too much has been written about these 
momentous events to expect any new or startling information 
from this present publication, but there are a few personal de- 
scriptions of the chief actors, their motives, and of contemporary 
interpretation of the same that may justify its issue, and it is 
hoped that Lewis, Wilkinson, Pike, Claiborne, Burr, and Smith 
may thereby become better known, if not more cordially appre- 
ciated. The editor regrets that he cannot add to the number of 
letters the testimony of Judge Timothy Kibby concerning the re- 
lations of Wilkinson and Burr to Pike, as contained in the Gano 
Paj crs, III, 49, but the essential portion of this appears in the 
American Historical Review, XIII, 801, 802. It would also be 
interesting to include several letters relating to Pike from Tract 
Thirty-Nine of the Western Reserve Historical Society, which 
he was courteously given permission to use, but lack of space for- 
bids more than casual mention of them in the foot-notes. 

In the preparation of the copy and the proof the editor wishes 
to acknowledge the assistance of Miss Hamlin, the libararian. 

I J. C 

93 -9f 



[Box 28. No. 66.1 


Headquarters Greeneville. 
April 22nd, 1796. 
Dear Major 

Mr. McDermott follows your Stores, and leaves his own be- 
hind. I have detained him, or rather suffered Him to continue 
here until I could receive something respecting our fate.— The 
last post brought me the Report of the Committee 2 of which 
your Cornet has a Copy. Josiah Parker (a Hell Cat) writes me 
that this report will go down, yet I think it doubtful — to leave 
out the Major General, after his victories and his treaties, would 
appeal illiberal and will I am persuaded be ooposed. It is my 
wish, that one or the other of us may be left out, and as I am 
truh sick of the service I would not give five guineas for the 

The representative House are squabbling with the president 
respecting the British Treaty. Every man from the ancient do- 
minion is against Him ; papers have been asked for, which the 
president refuses to give up ; there the Business was by the last 

^William Winston, a native of Virginia, had served in the Revolution 
tinder "Light Horse Harry" Lee and was appointed lieutenant in the dra- 
goons March 14, 1792, became captain two months later, major in 1793, 
and received his honorable discharge upon the reduction of the army in 
November, 1796. Evidently he and Wilkinson were intimate friends if 
we may judge from the following excerpt from a later letter (Box 28, 
No. 72) : "I [Wilkinson] will dine with you the Day after tomorrow at 
4 o'clock, in confidence that you will not again debauch me." 

3 He refers to the report of the House Committee on Military Affairs 
[See Annals of 4th Congress, 1st Session, 801, 905.] By the law as finally 
enacted [Hildreth, History of the United States of America, I, 628] the 
army was reduced to 2,800 men, to be commanded by a major general 
and a brigadier general, so both Wayne and Wilkinson were retained. 
Upon Wayne's death, in 1797, the major generalship was abolished and the 
command devolved upon Wilkinson. Further light is thrown upon the 
relations between the two generals by a later letter from Wilkinson to 
Winston [Box 28, No. 72], dated June 30, 1796, in which he states "Genl. 
Wayne is approaching — I know not by what Route — by the Dispatch re- 


accounts — the Representatives refusing to go into a considera- 
tion of his message of refusal, and to assert the principles of 
their own action. 3 Where the thing will end I know not. God 
forbid we should experience anything like a schism in our Gov- 
ernment, at the present critical conjuncture. My Mad River 
speculation has turned out important to me. I could have 20,000 
Dollars for my bargain. The people are Land mad, 4 and I am 
determined the moment Honor may permit, to fix upon my own 
Ground in Kentucky. Adieu, remember me to Capt[ain] Webb, 5 
and poor Jones.* 5 Pope has I hope by this recovered his Senses. 
He is a sad indiscreet young man, and a little ungrateful. 


[Box 16, No. 33.] 

Lexington Sept. 4th. 1798. 

A few minutes ago I arrived from a d d fatiguing journey 

from Natchez. Finding that a great many of our Monogahala 
lads were at New Orleans lving sick and no sale for their Truck. 7 

ceived here, I am made Independent of our Chief, and as soon as he ar- 
rives, the President has given me leave of absence without his consent — 
So I shall move Eastward and will next Winter look at the folks in Phil- 
ad [elphi] a." 

3 The debate is given in Annals 4th Congress, 1st Session, pp. 424-783. 
For a synopsis consult McMaster History of the People of the United 
States, II, 266-281. The resolution to enact the laws necessary to carry 
the treaty into effect passed on April 30 by a vote of 51 to 48. 

*For the development of settlement in the vicinity of Dayton at this 
period see the article by F. P. Goodwin on "The Development of the 
Miami Country" in the Quaiterly of the Archccological and Historical So- 
ciety of Ohio, XVII, 4S4- 

5 John Webb. Jr., of Virginia, who was serving with Winston in the 
dragoons and also received his discharge in the following November. Cf. 
Heitman, Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, 
I78q-iS$q, I. ion. 

"Abraham Jones. He resigned October 1, 1796. Cf. Heitman, I, 579. 
For Pope see Note 10. 

'New Orleans had been regularly opened but a few months to the 
river trade under the Treaty of 1795 with Spain. 


I accepted of Eleven and twelve dollars a bbl. for mine, got sick 
and lay near three weeks, Started in a fever and in four weeks 
am arrived here. 

There is very little news astir at Natchez. The officers were 
generally well, and a great many of the soldiers sick — so it is at 
Mr. Ellicots 8 camp. By the death of Captfain] Feirce 9 — crazy 
Pope 10 is a Capt[ain]. The Govfernor] 11 had not arrived but 
was hourly expected. The Gen [era] l 12 [is] at Massack and 

'Andrew Ellicott was the Commissioner of the United States to offi- 
ciate in running the southern boundary with Spain. He had been appointed 
in 1708 and had reached Natchez Feb. 24. 1797. After the Spanish authori- 
ties had detained him here for fourteen months they had at last withdrawn 
their garrison from the Natchez district and were finally ready to begin 
the actual work of surveying the boundary. During the delay Ellicott had 
served the interest of the United States in a sort of semi-official diplomatic 
capacity, and his correspondence with the State department, collected in a 
manuscript volume entitled, Southern Boundary, Andrezu EVicott Papers 
[Cf. Guide to the Archives . . . in Washingtoil, p. 24], throws much 
light upon conditions then existing along the lower Mississippi. Portions 
of papers are printed in the American State Papers, Foreign Rela- 
tions, II, and in The Journal of Andrew Ellicott . . . Phila., 1S03. 
One of the most important, relating to the treasonable course of Wilkin- 
son, can not now be found in the archives of the State Department. 

"John Peirce, a native of Massachusetts. He served in the Revolution 
and re-entered the army in 17S6, and when he died, July 24, 1798, was serv- 
ing in the artificers and engineers. Cf. Heitman, I, 781. 

"Percy Smith Pope of Virginia had been in the service since 1792. 
He played a conspicuous part in the occupation of the Natchez district by 
the American forces, much to the disgust of Ellicott. He died July 12, 
1799- Cf. Heitman, I, 798, and Ellicott Journal. 

u \Vinthrop Sargent of Massachusetts had served as Secretary of the 
Northwest Territory and in 1798 was appointed as first governor of Mis- 
sissippi Territory, William Henry Harrison succeeding him temporarily 
in the former post. He arrived at Natchez, August 6. By the following 
year a traveler reported of him [Box 3, No. 20] : "I find the Governor is 
as unpopular here as in Cincinnati. The report in circulation in ycur 
country of his lady and him having fought and parted I find to be false 
nor have I heard since my arrival that they quarreled." Cf. Mississippi 
Statistical and Official Register, p. 20, and Miss. Territorial Archives, 
Vol. I. 

'^Wilkinson, who by reason of the death of Wayne was now in com- 
mand of the army. 


Col [one!] Hamtrammock 13 commands at Walnut Hills and 
Guion 14 continues to reign at Natchez. 

At Natchez I saw L[ieutenan]t Steel 1 -"' who had come from 
the hills for his health. He put ten dollars into ray hands to pay 
to you to discharge a certain verbal order; be pleased to call on 
Mr. Yeatman 1 * 5 who will pay you that sum on my acc[oun]t 



[Box 6, No. 29.] 

Cincinnati 7th March 1803. 
My dear friend 

The waters have been unusually high, our 

mail very irregular, [and] we have not heard from your City 
for a long time: Therefore [we] do not know what Congress 
have dono. The smiting of the port of Orlcaas is the wdiole 
subject of conversation, 17 from the oldest citizen to the shoe- 

^John Francis Hamtramck was born in Canada, but served during 
the Revolution from New York. He re-entered the service in 17S5, and at 
this time was lieutenant-colonel of the first regiment of infantry. He died 
April 11, 1S03. Cf. Heitman. I, 496, and Coues, The Expeditions of Zebu- 
Ion Montgomery Pike, I, XXVI. 

"Isaac Guion of New York was also a Revolutionary veteran, who 
re-enlisted in 1792 and served under Wayne. He assisted the French set- 
tlers to locate in Gallipolss and also commanded the United States troops 
that took possession of the Spanish posts east of the Mississippi in 1797. 
Cf. Quarterly, II, 82; Belote. The Scioto Speculation, etc., p. 48; and Miss. 
Statistical and Official Register, 143. 

"Probably John Steele of Pennsylvania, who in 1796 became a lieu- 
tenant in the Third Infantry. He died Nov. 8, 1S00. Cf. Heitman, I. 

"Possibly Griffin Yeatman, a native of Virginia, who kept a tavern on 
Front Street. Cf. Mansfield, Personal Memories, 155; Greve, Hist, of Cin- 
cinnati, I. 216. 

"A quotation from a Natchez correspondent (perhaps John Smith) 
of the Western Spy of March 2, 1803, will serve as an example of western 
sentiment: '"The reptile Spaniards act in a more hostile manner towards 
our citizens and commerce. ... I trust 700,000 persons will not wait 
for Mr. Jefferson to go through all the forms, ceremonies and etiquette 
of the cousis of ^-'pam and Bonaparte, before they determine whether it 
will be best to drive the miscreants from these waters or not." For general 
accounts cf. H. Adams, History of the United States of America, I, 421, 
431; and McMaster, II, 622IY; and Roosevelt, Winning of the West. 


black. You would be diverted to hear them talk on the subject. 
They suppose the Millitia could take Orleans, and keep it against 
all the Troops that could be sent. 18 God forbid we should have 
to fight them about the free navigation of the river, which is 
our right by nature. But you have seen too much service, to 
believe that millitia is equal to carry on a campaign at a distance 
of fifteen hundred .miles, to any purpose, or for any length of 
time. Millitia does very well if the enemy is at the door, but in 
my oppinion never will answer to go far from home. I have never 
believed that either [the] french or Spanish, would find it their 
interest to shut that port against us, admitting thefy] had the right 
or power, both of which I deny. T have no news to give you. the 
people are all in good health in this place. God bless you my 
dear friend. 



[Box 1 8, No. 79.] 

Kaskaskias 11 March 1803 
D[ea]r. Sir 

Yours of the 2d Ulti[m]o came duly to hand; and shall be 
remembered by me with gratitude. You have Inclosed a Bill 
drawn by Col [one] 1 John Edgar on Daniel Vertner, Esq[uire] in 
your favour for Seventy-five dollars and twenty five cents — the 
Amount of the Sugar receipt. I will inclose you the second and 
third at different periods unless you do previously acknowledge 
the receipt of the preceeding ones. What says the Legislature 
o. the State of Ohio — are they for "War with Spain ? !D If you 
are a member, be sure You vote for the measure, as I am in 
hopes it would add to the Numbers and respectability of the 
Members of our Profession. I know you are not an advocate 
for long letters, being brought up to business, the most concise 

" Despite this opinion and in spite of vigorous federalist resolutions 
by Ross of Pennsylvania the Jeffersonian majority passed a bill author- 
izing the President to call for a provisional army of 80,000 militia and to 
spend $25,000 in building arsenals in the West. Cf. McMaster, II, 624. 
For the opinion of Senator John Smith see page 102. 

19 A cursory examination of the journals of the Senate and House of 
Representatives for the session then being held would seem to indicate 
that they said nothing. 


method is your mode ; but for me, whose theory in most things 
in this life has gone beyond my practice, it becomes natural to 
be, prolix on every subject, but for fear T should become tedious 
(after my respects to your Lady) I will haste to subscribe myself 
Yours sincerely, 


[Box 14, No. 49.] 

Harper's Ferry State of Virginia 
March 26th, 1803. 
Dear Findley, [sic] 

The inclosed letter to Mr. John Cqnner is somewhat inter- 
esting to the Public, and is of much importance to myself ; I 
therefore trust you will pardon the trouble I am about to give 
you relative to its safe conveyance. Will you be so good as to 
forward this letter under cover to Capt[ain] Hamilton at the big- 
spring, or any friend of yours at Fort Hamilton, with the re- 
quest that they would forward it to Mr. Conner by a confidential 
Indian or other person: in that manner it would most probably 
reach him safely and in due time. Mr. Conner is an Indian 
Trader residing at one of the Deleware towns on White River; 
and is the same who visited the seat of government last winter 
in the capacity of an Interpreter to Long-beard a Miami Chief, 
and his party. Perhaps it would also be well to request your 
friend to desire Mr. Conner's agent or clerk at the Deleware 
town, in the event of his absence from that place, to employ a 
confidential Indian to take the letter to him wherever he may be ; 
I am confident Conner would nut hesitate to make ample compan- 
sation to such person for his trouble. 20 

My compliments to Mrs. Findley, and believe me 
Your friend and ob[e]d[ien]t. Servt. 

"Lewis was then busy in arranging for the famous exploring expedi- 
tion upon which his fame largely rests. He was anxious to secure Con- 
ner's servicer as interpreter for this expedition, and the enclosure which he 
mentions was evidently the leiter in which he explained its real object 
and invited him to participate in the undertaking. Conner was unable to 
accept his offer. Cf. Cox, The Early Exploration of Louisiana, 19, 20. 



[Box 21, No. 59.] 

New Orleans the i^th April 1S07. 
Sir ° r ° 

You have no doubt received the account of the arrival of the 
French prefect at this place before now, and of the flattering 
professions which he makes to the Americans. 21 Sincerely do I 
wish that it may not be artfully designed to lull our Government 
into supineness, or divide the People by faction. The Spaniards 
and Americans almost to a man, are wishing wilh unceasing 
fervour, that the People of the United States would at this impor- 
tant crisis come clown and take possession of this province. 22 
News has arrived of the French army which was designed for 
this Port being called to St. Domingo. The People here are much 
more in favor of the Americans than they are of the French. 
The) tremble at the French Tjra m and French contributions. 25 
The Intendant refuses the Americans a place of Deposit. The 
French army I think will not be here for some months. Now the 
Americans have Just cause, now a favourable opportunity, to 
take possession of this Country, and then would be the time to 
open a negotiation for it, with an imperious Nation. No time 

^Laussat the Prefect bore a copy of the instructions that had been 
prepared for Victor, who had been selected for the captain-generalship of 
Louisiana but who never left Europe. A significant expression of these 
instructions runs as follows : "The arrival of the French forces should be 
marked there by the expression of sentiments of great benevolence for 
these new neighbors" [i. e., the Americans]. The general tone of the in- 
structions gives point to Smith's scarcely-hazarded suspicion. Cf. H. 
Adams, II, S-13. 

"While on a visit to New Orleans four years before Andrew Ellicott 
[see note 8] had written the Secretary of State, Jan. 13, 1799 : "I am con- 
vinced that the present government might be abolished by the materials 
within itself and that with but little risk to those who- undertake it, and 
what contributes considerably to this weakness is the general opinion of 
the inhabitants that it will unquestionably before many years be annexed 
to us. The arrival of General Wilkinson has greatly strengthened this 
opinion." He went on to say that its continued possession by Spain would 
make it unnecessary for the United States to act, but the case would be 
otherwise should another power attempt to occupy it. Cf. also his Journal, 
Pi 145. 

^Even the Spanish minister at Washington preferred the Americans 
as neighbors to Victor's expected troops with appetites aroused for further 
conquests. Cf. Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association, X, J3. 


Sir, ought now to be lost. The Western Country has become 
an object of importance, by her Geographical, Commercial and 
political situation. The People ought by their rulers(?) to be 
called on to prepare for their own security. The Militia ought to 
be well trained and accommodated with arms etc., and to be ready 
to march at a moments warning. The Spaniards seem to ex- 
press their astonishment at the stupid indifference of the United 
States. It is currently believed here that the Intendant by re- 
fusing us a place of deposit with such persevering obstinacy in- 
tends to furnis[h] America with a pretext to take this Country 
and that he has been instructed by the prime Minister of the 
Court of Madrid to that effect.- 4 

It will be some weeks before I can set out for home. 
Capt[ain] Sterrett informs me that he will draw in a short 
time he expects on you, Sir, the Receiver of Public Monies at 
Cincinnatia. When he does I shall try and remit with certainty 
to Yourself, Mr. Smith, 2 "' Mr. Batim 23 and others. I intend now 
it grows so hot to return by land. 

N. B. If Congress have given the purchasers under Symmes 
any further time I will satisfy you well to sell any part of my 
claim for what you can get. 27 

N. B. If letters are published with you from this place the 
author's name must not appear. 


[Box 18, No. 81.] 

,^ r n c . Kaskaskias 24 Oct. 1803. 

D[ea]r Sir H ° 

Lieut [enant] Whitlock 28 informed me he had my note from 

you for collection. I am truly ashamed of the old story so fre- 

"'For other views of the Intendant's course cf. Tex. Hist. Quar., X, 71; 
Charming, The feffersonian System, 63; Roosevelt, The Winning of the 
V/est, IV, 260; H. Adams, I, 419. 

s For James Smith, see Quarterly, IV, p. 14, Note 21. 

M Martin Baum, the well-known merchant and capitalist. There is 
another reference to him on page 133. 

"In 1S03 Congress assumed the claim of the State of Ohio against 
Symmes and gave the State a township for a college. Cf. Quarterly, 
IV, O, and Burnet's Notes, 427, 428. 

a Ambrose Whitlock was a native of Virginia, who had enlisted in the 
First Infantry as sergeant in 1706, and at this time was a second lieuten- 


quently made use of by debtors that it is oute of their power, to 
meet the demand but never was there a truer assertion, than that, 
in the present case. I will only add as my apology that other 
clames with my own immediate support : has dreen'd my purse to 
the very dregs. - L ' And as the Orlean Markets are low the expected 
supply failed. 3 ' 1 was left less then my calculations had sur- 
mised by some Centimes. But if you will leave it with Whitlock 
it shall not remain any longer than it is in my power, (withoute 
absolute distress) to take it up. AVhy are not you a popular Man 
in our Sister State of Ohio — or has the counting of money for 
the United States engrossed so much of your time that you cannot 
attend to the Arts of Popularity. S1 

Mrs. Pike 32 joins me in respects to Mrs. Findlay and I re- 
main Sir. 

Yours respectfully, 

ant. He became a captain and served as deputy-paymasicr-^ciicral before 
he left the service in 1S16. For his later career see Quarterly II, p. 16. 

19 A letter written by Pike to Findlay August 24, 1800 (Box 18, No. 78) 
shows that he was short of funds on account of recruiting and unable to 
settle an account with Findlay. In a letter to his father dated October 12, 
1801 (Tract No. ?p, Western Reserve Historical Society) . . . "al- 
though I have, through my folly and extravagance in youth, forfeited, in 
a degree, my independence of situation ... I will never be the slave 
of any man whilst he thinks that his authority is derived from pecuniary 
motives; but from gratitude he might expect great sacrifices." His letter 
of August 13, 1803, to Findlay (Box iS, No. 80) mentions his indebtedness 
to individuals in Cincinnati, but promised to divert part of his "stipend" 
V pay them. Apropos of his promise in the letter here printed, it is with 
satisfaction that one observes in a letter dated May 27. 1804 (Box 18, 
No. 82), "I have paid to Lt. Whitlock thirty dollars on % of my note in 
his hands," and that there is speedy promise of the payment of the balance 
after certain transactions with a "Mr. Buntin" are completed. One is 
tempted to surmise that Wilkinson's later hold on Pike may have some 
financial motive to support it. 

30 Possibly due to the expected transfer from Spain to France and then 
to the United States. 

^Findlay had been a member of the Council of the Northwest Ter- 
ritory, but was not then a member of the legislative assembly of Ohio. 

"In 1801 Pike married Clarissa, daughter of General John Brown of 
Kentucky. Cf. Coues, I, XXX. 





[Box 20, No. 2] 

City of Washington Oct. 27, 1803. 

Strong efforts in the Senate against the ratification of the 
conventions between France and the United States was made by 
the eastern members, but it was ratified by them on the evening 
of the 20th Ins [tan ]t 34 24 to 7. The house of representatives 
commenced their opposition to taking measures for carrying the 
treaties into effect on the score of no constitutional provisions for 
the admission of new territories into the Union, and a destruction 
of the eastern commerce, and warm animated debates was in our 
house on this subject. 35 On the question for taking measures to 
carry into effect the treaty and convention with France Ninety 
rose in favor and twenty-five against the measure. This decision 
sctUti an opposition, and we are now deliberating on a bill from 
the senate for enabling the President of the United States to 
take measures for the possession and temporary government of 
the Louisiana country — which I presume we shall pass in due 
time. 3ti 

We are also endeavouring to agree on some plan for effect- 
ing a change in the constitution of the United States, so far as 
relates to the election of President and V[ice] President, intend- 
ing a designation at all subsequent elections for those officers. 
Various are the opinions on this subject and I know not whether 
both houses will be able to agree on any plan for effecting this 
purpose 37 

"Thomas Sandford was a member of the House of Representatives 
from Kentucky. 

"McMaster (Vol. Ill, 3) gives the 19th instead of the 20th. 

•'Roger Griswold of Connecticut led the House opposition to the 
Louisiana Convention and was actively supported by Gaylord Griswold of 
New York. John Randolph was the chief spokesman for the administra- 
tion. Seventeen out of the twenty-five votes in opposition came from New 
England. Cf. McMaster, III, 6; H. Adams, II, 96-104. 

M The House made some minor changes in the Senate bill, which the 
latter, after conference, accepted. The President approved the bill, Oc- 
tober 31. Cf. McMaster, III. 9, 10. 

"In the debate on this subject more was said about States' rights than 
about the need for the proposed amendment. R. Griswold again appeared 
in opposition, but it was adopted by the usual party vote. Cf. McMaster, 
III, 183-187; H. Adams, II, 131. 



[Box 21, No. 62.] 

Washington Jan. 6th, 1804. 
My dear Findley 

Scarcely anything has been done yet in Congress for the 
western country since the ratification of the Treaty — except the 
appointment of Committees to put the western business in train. 38 
A bill, has been reported to the Senate by a Select Committee for 
the Government of the Ceded Territories. 39 Louisiana, in this 
bill, is proposed to be divided into two Governments. But it is 
not possible for me to tell you what kind of Government they 
will have, as there is such a diversity of opinion on the Subject. 


[Box 6, No. 34.] 

Cincinnati 9th Jany 1804 

The Hon[oraJble Tho[ma]s Worthington 

I expect before this time we have the peaceable possession of 
Orleans, now one thing more, and we may be as wealthy as we 

^The "Western business" referred to was probably the division of 
Indiana Territory and a measure for altering the method of selling public 
lands. Worthington of Ohio was a prominent member of the committees 
to consider these questions. Cf. Annals, 8th Congress, 1st Session, 29, 124, 
222, 1675. 

^This committee consisted of Breckenridge of Kentucky, Jackson and 
Baldwin of Georgia, and J. Q. Adams. Cf. H. Adams III, 120. The bill 
is summarized in McMaster, III, 23-26. Although Breckenridge was the 
chairman of the committee, Madison and Jefferson probably framed it. 
In form it followed that signed for the first stage of territorial government, 
but this was intended for a scarcely populated country, while the lower 
portion of the Louisiana Purchase was fairly populous. 

40 Then serving as senator from Ohio. A correspondent of this period 
warns Findlay against Worthington [Box 21, No. 4]. 


are free, that is making the falls of Ohio navigable at low water. 
This appears to me to be worthy the attention of the national Leg- 
islature, and [I] have no doubt if you would exert yourself and 
get all the western delegation interested in the subject you might 
accomplish that desirable object. I am convinced it would be 
opposed by the eastern Members, and they would urge as a 
reason, the expense already incured in favor of the western peo- 
ple. Nevertheless you might succeed, as it would be a great ad- 
vantage to a large portion of the Citizens of United States, with 
a small expense. 41 

I am very respectfully 


[Uox 21, No. 64.] 

Washington Jan. 27—1804. 

Dear Findlev 

This Day we celebrate the purchase and possession of Louisi- 
ana in Joyful festivity. 42 Of this you will know hereafter. Both 
houses have agreed to the establishment of a Port of entry at 

The Senate by a large Majority have expressed their disap- 
probation of the importation of foreign Negroes into Louisiana. 
The debate on that subject continued for 3 days. 43 

"Cf. McMister, II, T5?; Ill, 475, 47S. The Annals of Congress, No. 9, 
10, p. 1401, show that the Senate was then in favor of appropriations for 
making this desirable improvement, but that the House refused to concur. 
The subject was not seriously considered until after 1S17. Cf. Burnet, 
Notes, 401 ft. 

"Possession had actually been taken by Claiborne and Wilkinson on 
December 20:h, 1803. A month later the Spanish government formally 
withdrew its opposition to the transfer. Cf. H. Adams, II, 277. 

"For this debate, which also touched upon the action of South Caro- 
lina in reopening the slave trade, cf. Hildreth, II, 499 ff ; Channing, Jeffer- 
sonian Democracy, 83, S4; H. Adams, II, 122. 



[Box 8. No. 15.] 

On the Ohio River 6 miles above Wab[ash] 

Sept. 13th 1805. 
Dear Sister, 

I should have written you long ere this but that I had noth- 
ing worth your notice to communicate, and have had a good deal 
of writing to do on the business of the contract, which has em- 
ployed most of my leisure moments. Of these I have not many, 
for the attention necessary to be paid to the boat, engrosses most 
of my time. It is fortunate for me that I am kept pretty con- 
stantly employed, or I should certainly fall a prey to Ennui. 

Between low water and head winds I have had a tedious time 
of it. Rfcleed from the little progress I. have made, I am afraid 
Mr. Smith will think I have been very inattentive or very indo- 
lent. It will however, should he draw it, be an incorrect con- 
clusion; for I never was half so industrious or attentive to busi- 
ness in my life and every exertion is used to get forward. But 
the water is very low, and abounds in sand bars, on which we 
get fast very often, no[r] can all our vigilance elude them. I am 
much in the water — last Monday night, I was out all night and 
until 12 the next day. and more or less every day. Heretofore I 
have experienced no inconvenience from it, being always careful 
to put on dry clothes as soon as I come out, and take a dose of 
bark. I sleep warm and dry and have no doubt but my health, 
with the care I shall take to preserve it, will continue unim- 
paired. 45 

*'A younger brother of James Findlay, whose career was a most varied 
one. Cf. Quarterly, I, 66, 83, and the letters of the various members of 
the Findlay family. At this time he seems to be engaged in fulfilling a 
contract of Senator John Smith to supply the army posts along the Ohio 
and Mississippi. 

^The manuscript journal of Dr. George Hunter of Philadelphia, the 
companion of William Dunbar in the early exploration of Louisiana and 
Arkansas, gives a vivid account of the difficulties of a journey down to 
Natchez during the preceding year. The original of this journal is in the 
library of the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia. 


Fort Massac Sept 18. 
I arrived here yesterday evening and have found it a mighty 
poor place. The commandant Lieutenant Hfeeld 48 and Surgeon, 
Dr. King, appeal to he decent men, but the inhabitants are a 
poor miserable set of Indian traders, principally French, and 
have nothing. I am nearly out of provisions and cannot procure 
an ounce of anything except a poor hog. I would have died with 
spleen by this time, but that I met with Mrs. Chubbs who gave 
me an excellent cup of coffee this morning with a nice venison 
steak, some good fresh bread and butter etc. This was quite re- 
freshing and agreeable, alter being three weeks confined to hard 
pilate [pilot] bread and fat bacon. She keeps a tavern here and 
a pretty good one too, her and Chubbs have separated. But 
perhaps you do not know her. The officers are to dine with me 
there today. 

I am in a very bad writing mood today and have a great deal 
of ''business c n hand, for I have found this post almost starving, 
and no means of procuring provisions by the first of October. 
I shall therefore conclude at present. 


[Box 8, No. 1 6.] 

Natchez, Nov. 24, 1805 
Dear James, 

You will be as much surprised at finding my letter dated at 
this place, as you must have been at my long silence, a silence 
that I can neither account for, nor offer anything in extenuation 
of. My detention arises solely from the want of money, which 
heretofore I have been unable to raise on any terms, except a 
few dollars that I borrowed to meet some casual expenses. A 
friend, who I have been able to make here has promised to ac- 
commodate me tomorrow with a small sum for a draft on Phila- 
delphia, though he does not at present want it. I will imme- 
diately then set out to Orleans, though I am unable to meet my 
engagements with the commissaries above. Mr. Smifh has not 
treated me well through the whole of this business. He started 

"For Nathan Heald, cf. Heitman, I, 578, and for Dr. King, Ibid, I, 600. 
The latter was a surgeon's mate,, who died in 1S07. 


me with but 40 dollars in cash and some whiskey to visit and 
make arrangements for the supply of posts that I found almost 
literally starving. It is true 1 had the power of drawing, but 
of what use could this be at posts where there was no money and 
that had no mercantile connexion with cither Cincfinnatji or 
Phi![adelphi]a. At Massac T made Dr. King so much my friend, 
that he advanced me 50 dollars all the money [he] had, on a draft, 
which gave the commissary a start, and he agreed to purchase 
on my assuring him that funds or supplies would soon be placed 
in his hands. Whether Mr. Smith has done this I know not. At 
the Bluff, 47 there was not a dollar, or an ounce of meat. I had 
to buy a beef to Issue the day after my arrival. On my own 
credit I procured a person to furnish the garrison until I could 
transmit him money from this place, which 1 am now unable to 
procure. At Arkansas I left whiskey, which was dull sale; but 
the commissary promised to furnish beef on his own credit until 
it would rise, and the articles that were left from the late con- 
tract I purchased from the agent by giving him my note payable 
in Orleans at 30 days. In consequence of my detention here, my 
word has been again forfeited. Notwithstanding these difficulties 
and embarrassments I have had to contend with, and notwith- 
standing the tedious, fatiguing, disagreeable trip I had down the 
river, in consequence of low water, head winds, sick hands, etc. 
etc. on my arrival here I found letters from Mr. Smith very un- 
graciously telling me he had no further use for me ; not indeed 
absolutely, but leaving me rather at a loss to know what he in- 
tended. They were in that stile of equivocation and finesse that 
form his strongest characteristics, but the conclusion seems to 
be that he does not think my services necessary, but that I must 
judge for myself, and then that I must be governed by Messrs. 
Meeker, Williamson & Patton. As these gentlemen wish to see 
me in Orleans I will go, for though I have been treated very con- 
temptuously I do not think it any apology for the breach of a 
reposed confidence. Indeed I am almost obliged to go to Or- 
leans for here I cannot procure money to buy a horse or bear 
my expenses home. The private business which was the most 
agreeable business to me, and where I expected to gain some 
credit, he has taken from me entirely, and I am cut off from 
seeing the Nachetoches [Nachitoches], Appelousas [Opelousas] 

"Chickasaw Bluff, the site of modern Memphis. 


and Attakapafs] countries, which small weight in deter- 
mining - me to undertake the trip. I cannot help thinking- that 
Mr. Smith intended this proceeding from the first, and when he 
appeared so very generous and liberal to me in the commence- 
ment of this business, he had in view the obtainment of some im- 
portant accommodation from you. I have let him know my dis- 
pleasure, and if I ever live to see Cin[cinn]a[ti] he shall hear 
it in stronger terms. 48 

I have spent a good deal of time with Mr. Tho[mas] H. 
[Williams] 40 and the Gov[ernor] at Washington. Our friend is 
as much the old thing as his warmest admirers can desire. He 
never wearies in speaking of Cincinnati. I rode out a few days 
ago to inform him of marriage, which I had just learned. 50 

15 In a letter to James Findlay (Box 21, No. 72), written after receiv- 
ing this, John Smith explains that his communication to Jonathan S. Find- 
lay was not meant for an ahrupt dismissal and was intended to convey no 
Jack of confidence in him. 

'"Thomas II. Williams was a native of New York and had served in 
the Indian v. ars in the Northwest Territory. In a letter of May 4, 1805, 
written by R. Claiborne, postmaster of Washington, Mississippi Territory, 
to James Findlay (Box 4, No. 46), the writer states: "P. S. The fact is 
that Thomas H. is that clever industrious fellow, if the Board of Com- 
missioners had had his services before now, the land business would have 
been about finishing by this time; but now it will be many months first; 
I hope he has told you that he is Register and ex-ofhcio Commissioner — 
by which I will say his talents will be brought into public notice — and if 
he should chuse it, I am sure he will never want public service or a public 
appointment again. It is such men that governments want. Torn ought 
to be married, but I fear his modesty will ruin him." While holding the 
position of Secretary -of Mississippi Territory-, as mentioned later in this 
letter, he was in 1809 for four months acting governor. In 1S17 he was 
elected as one of the senators from the new state of Mississippi and served 
for twelve years. For a letter written during this period, see Quarterly, 
II, 8. A few letters describing his personal affairs and expressing his 
appreciation of attentions shown him by the Findlays while in Cincinnati 
are found in the Torrence Collection, Box 29. 

"With reference to this affair R. Claiborne writes to Findlay, in the 

letter mentioned in the preceding note : "If Thomas H gets clear I '11 

be d d. lie just put the inclosed letter into my hand— taking care to 

seal it up first, and would not impart a sentence of its contents. 

"I'll tell the truth upon him. If he is not in love with some fair one 
in Cincinnati I never fell in love with my partner at a game of whist." The 
rest of the letter seems to refer to a sentiment that Claiborne seems to 
entertain for another Cincinnati lady. 


There was a ball that evening- in Washington. He detained me 
to go to it, and I did not communicate my intelligence until the 
next morning, lest it might interrupt his enjoyment of the even- 
iiio- and from the effect it produced on him T had no reason to 
be sorry for my caution. He was seriously affected and did not 
recover his spirits during the time I stayed — a day and a half. 
He had been making arrangements to go through with me, but 
I know not now that he will persevere in this resolution. Though 
he has now 800$ per annum as secretary of the Territory, 3 dol- 
lars per day as commissioner, and his fees as register of the 
land office worth, all together from three to four thousand dol- 
lars per annum, he tells me he lays up no money. I cannot ac- 
count for this. I know he bestows a great deal to benevolent 
purposes, but the costliness of his wardrobe does not run away 
with much of it. 

From Abijah Hunt 51 I have experienced not only much po- 
V\ ,'--■■-, but a uniform disposition to serve me, and unabating 
evidences of a sincere friendship and the most generous and deli- 
cate offers to serve me. Major Claiborne 5 - did not acquit him- 
self so handsomely. He knew I was in town for several days 
without coming to see me. We met by accident. It was with 

some difficulty he thought by G he ought to recollect me — 

formally said he would be pleased to see me, which I answered 
as coldly by saying I did not know that it would be convenient. 
The thing passed on so for two weeks. Seamour asked me why 

I did not go to Claibourne's, that he expected me. I told S 

that he had no right to expect me — that I was entitled not only 
from his intimacy with you, but from our own acquaintance, to 
a decent degree of attention from the Major, and that [I] never 
would go to his house until particularly invited. Seamour told 
him, improperly., what I said as I afterwards discovered. In a 

5l The name of Abijah Hunt appears among the first directors of the 
Bank of Mississippi, established at Natchez in December, 1809. / Cf. Miss. 
Stat, and Offi. Register, 175. 

"Ferdinand L. Claiborne then held the rank of major in the militia of 
Mississippi Territory and served in that capacity during the Burr episode. 
His brother W. C. C. Claiborne was the governor of Orleans Territory 
(later the State of Louisiana), fie had served in the Indian Wars of the 
Northwest and during the War of 1812 rose to the rank of Brigadier-Gen- 
eral of Volunteers. Cf. Mississippi Statistical and Official Register, 388- 
392; Heitman, I, 302. 


few evenings there was a ball at my boarding house. The Major 
was very attentive — introduced me to a number of Gentlemen 
I had not seen, gave me a warm invitation to dinner next day. 
T went He introduced me to Mrs. Claiborne with a flatter- 
ing compliment [,] treated me with a marked attention at dinner, 
and gave me a general invitation to make as frequent calls at 
his house as possible at all times. The truth is that he found 
that I was paid a good deal of attention to by the most respectable 
people here ; and as the affair had through Seamour taken wind. 
he supposed he would lose by neglect, and that it would be as 
well to heal the breach ; for since I have learned that but a few 
days before this profusion of politeness, he enquired of a gentle- 
man who this young Findlay was that was about town. If I had 
knew this I would never have went [sic] to his house; but 
have met his advances with a repulse he would have little ex- 
pected. It is now I suppose as well to let it pass. 

I have bee* 1 solicited to settle in this country bv a number of 
gentlemen with such earnestness as to have little doubt of their 
sincerity, and advantages have been pointed out that are allur- 
ing. The bar appears here to be a certain road to wealth even 
for the weakest, and there is but little talents to contend against. 
Indeed if I had any confidence in my own industry and perse- 
verence I would not for a moment doubt that in a few years, I 
would make a handsome sum. I have no room to doubt of ex- 
ecutive patronage was I to ask [for] it. I have been fortunate 
enough to impress the governor 53 very favorably towards me. 
It has been indirectly hinted, that I might possibly obtain the reg- 
istership, which the present incumbent intends resigning in the 
Spring. 51 If I could once get a fair start in this country, I flat- 
ter myself that I would do well, especially with the powerful 

"Robert Williams of North Carolina had recently been appointed to 
this place. On April 4, 1805, R. Claiborne wrote to James Findlay (Box 4, 
No. 46) : '"Robert Williams one of the Commissioners here is appointed 
Governor of the Mississippi Territory, and if he accepts I have no doubt 
things will go on right. He has talents and merits— and all that is neces- 
sary is, for political parties to let him alone." This, however, is precisely 
what did not happen. Cf. Miss. Statistical and Official Register, 3, 22. 

"Thomas H. Williams did not resign, so this opening did not occur. 
Williams wrote to James Findlay Dec. 30, 1808 (Box 29, No. n), speak- 
ing of the laboriousness of the work in the land office and of his wish to 
obtain a young man as assistant. Cf. Miss. Statistl. and OM. Register, 6. 


motive of wife to stimulate me to exertion. But I must confess 
that the past presents no flattering presage of the future. 

Your letter to Captain Bowyer, 55 I have forwarded to A[0]p- 
pelmisas, where he is stationed, accompanied by one from my- 
self. Capt. Swain"' 3 is stationed at Fort Stoddard where I may 
possibly go. Jones 57 is selling tevern at Fort Adams, where I 
will see him in a few days, and Sterrett 5S is in Orleans, doing 
business with Clay. Dunwoody is gone to Orleans, and has 
money it is said. Ogden 53 is an object of charity — his debt is 
lost. Melston lives about ten miles in the country and is doing 
well. I have seen him, and made a demand of [for] your money 
— he said he owed you and was able and willing to pay it — that 
he would be in town in few days, and would pay me. Fie how- 
ever did not call on me ; but told Mr. Henderson, through whom 
the money was to come, that he had a receipt in full. As I have 
no specification to support the claim, I cannot compel the pay- 
ment. You had better forward it to some of your friends here, 
and the money will be recovered. 

I have not seen Sargent 60 or Guion. Scott 01 (now Col [one] 1 
Scott) I dined with. Old Judge Rodney 62 who tells me [he] took 

53 John Bowyer of Virginia entered the military service in 1792 and at 
this time was in the second infantry. He became a colonel during the 
War of 1812. His position as major, commanding the troops at Ft. Stod- 
dart, at the outbreak of this struggle, gave him some prominence in the 
frontier history of this section. Cf. Heitman, I, 235; Miss. Stat, and Off!. 
Register, 390. 

"Thomas Swaine, who had served in the sub-legion under Wayne and 
at this time was connected with the second infantry. He died October 8, 
1808. Cf. Heitman, I, 938. 

"Possibly the same one referred to in note 6. Ellicott may refer to 
him in his Journal, 164. 

"James Sterrett of Pennsylvania had resigned from the army Sep- 
tember 20, 1S05; the reference may possibly be to him. Cf. Heitman, I, 921. 
See also supra, p. 102. 

"Possibly Aaron Ogden. Cf. Heitman, I, 757. 

80 For Sargent see Note 11. He was then living upon his estate — 
Gloucester — near Natchez. Cf. Miss. Stat, and Off.. Register, 3, 20. Cf. 
Note 14, also Box 16, No. 33. For Guion see Note 14. 

"William Scott of Maryland (?). Cf. Heitman, I, 870. 

c Thomas Rodney of Delaware was appointed one of the judges of 
Mississippi Territory, July 12, 1S03, and also served as one of the land 
commissioners for the district west of the Pearl River. His brother, 
Cassar A. Rodney of Delaware was one of Jefferson's supporters and 


tea with you, was particular in his inquiries for yourself, Dr. 
Sellman and some others. 

When I began this letter, I had but little intention of- spin- 
ning; it out to so unreasonable a length ; but as matter presented 
itself I scribbled on until I think I have given your patience a 
pretty severe trial. I have now only to request you to remember 
me affectionately to my good uncle, beloved sister Jane, and to 
tender to yourself my assurance of brotherly attachment. 

Excepting a single paroxism of fever and ague I have had 
perfect good health since my arrival here. 


[Box 21, No. J2p] 

City of Washington, J any the 2~j — 06. 


High toned measures are talked of. It is not in my power 
to inform you what ground will be taken in Congress. 64 Wright, 
Senator from M[arylan]d. has brought in a curious bill. It is 
a theme of Ridicule. I shall try and send you a copy of it. 65 
Neither the English, Spanish, nor French Ministers seem coun- 
tenanced by our Cabinet. 66 There is a good deal of ill temper 

afterward? his attorney-general. Judge Thomas Rodney distinguished 
himself later, in the hearing of Burr at Washington, Miss. Territory, by 
his refusal to release Burr from his bond when the grand jury failed to 
bring an indictment against him. This caused Burr to flee and led to his 
later capture arid the famous trial at Richmond. Cf. Miss. Stat, and Offl. 
Register, 3, 173, 174; McCaleb, The Aaron Burr Conspiracy, 274. 

82 See Note 48 for a reference to the unprinced part of this letter. 

"For the bitter debate over the famous "Two-Million Act," which 
substituted the policy of buying a peace for the "high toned measures," 
cf. H. Adams, IV, 128, 137-130, and Hildreth, II, 568-570. The secret de- 
bates are found Annals gih Cong., 1st Session, p. 1116-1144. Jefferson also 
sent a special message to Congress on the subject of our commercial re- 
lations with Great Britain, in which he transmitted some of Monroe's diplo- 
matic correspondence under a pledge of secrecy. A proposal suggesting 
the later embargo policy formed part of the same "high toned measures." 
Cf. Hildreth. IT, 573^; McMaster, III, 230. 

"For the bill see Annals gth Cong., 1st Session, p. 5gff. 

"See H. Adams, III, 1S5. 195; and Hildreth, II, 571. 

amongst us. Almost every day we hear of impressments, cap- 
tures or condemnations. If the Belligerent Powers persist in 
the=e depredations War is inevitable. 67 Be pleased to present my 
respect tc your Lady, Brother Nathan and Family 


[Box 8, No. 17.] 

New Orleans, Feby 6th 1806 
Brother James. . ." 

I have met a number of Gentlemen here who know you ; but 
the only one from whom I have received any politeness on that 
account is Lieu [tenan] t Taylor, 6S whom you may recollect as a 
sergeant of the first reg[imen]t. He is grateful to you for fa- 
vors shown him then, and has treated me with every attention 
in his power. He is adj[utan]t and military agent, and said to 
be the best officer in the army. 

Your friend Lord Chesterfield is no great chose. 69 I handed 
a letter to him from Tho[mas] H. [Williams] and he made a 
mighty deal of fuss about his respect for you and all that kind 
of stuff but I have heard no more of him except when he waited 
on me as private sec[retar]y to ask me to dine with the governor. 
I am clear in it that you over rate the man in every point of view. 

Governor Claiborne is not hated here but he is pitied and 
despised. All appear willing to allow him good motives but he 
has no firmness and is misled by every old woman's tale. I have 
no doubt but his talents are rated too high in the Atlantic States ; 
besides he is running the race of popularity, and that will mis- 
lead any man. His person is the most justly formed I have 
ever seen but his address is awkward and embarrassing. It has 
that confident boldness which arises from an overweening vanity, 
and that stiffness which can only be avoided by an early acquaint- 

87 See Adams, III, 143; and Hildreth, II, 573- 
85 A Lieutenant Taylor is mentioned in H. Adams, III, 303. 
^This may be a reference to John Graham of Virginia, 'who was then 
serving undep Governor Claiborne as secretary of the Territory of Or- 
leans. He was active in circumventing Burr's supposed plans and later 
became assistant secretary of state. 


ance with polished society. 70 He is just a neater edition of the 
major. 71 


[Box 22, No. 50.] 

Washington City March 1, 1806. 
Dear Sir 

We have nothing materially interesting- here. I believe there 
will not be a Spanish war this time ; but I apprehend there is 
something- in embryo that may possibly lead to it eventually, un- 
less it should be averted by some future, wise and energetic ad- 
ministration, on our part. 73 But as I have done forever with all 
political speculations, and animadversions 1 give myself very lit- 
tle trouble about them. I don't subscribe for a single newspaper 
in the United States, and feel indifferent whether or not, I read 
one if it falls in my way 


[Box 21, No. 75.] 

Washington March 14, 1S06. 
My dear Friend 

Write no more to me at this place till you see me. I intend 
sending you Randolphs inrlamatory speeches. 74 They will amuse 

*°A very similar criticism by Laussat is quoted ii H. Adams, III, 29S. 
For a decidedly uncomplimentary view, as given by Wilkinson to John 
Quincy Adams, see the batter's Memoirs. Of a similar character is an 
attack on Claiborne by Daniel Clarke, which appears in the Kentucky Pal- 
ladium for March 24. 1808. Clarke speaks of the governor as a man "only 
calculated to cause contusion and wholly inadequate in powers." 

Tl F. L. Claiborne. See Note 52. 

"Caleb Swan of Massachusetts served during the Revolution and 
in 1792 became paymaster-general of the regular army, in which position 
he continued until 1808. His death occurred Nov. 20, 1809. Cf. Heitman, 
I, 938, and Box 22, Xos. 43~54- 

"The prospect of hostilities with Spain was removed by the "Two 
Million Act." See Note 64 and H. Adams, IV, Ch. VI. 

"John Randolph had already broken with the administration on the 
"Two Million Act'" and likewise opposed its policy with regard to com- 


you as specimens of wit, invective and declamation. They are 
destitute of both law and logic and even of decency. Pie has de- 
clared war against the administration, in order to bring Monroe 
into power. 

Give my best respects to your Brother. I thank him for a 
Copy of the declaration. I hope I shall be at home before the 
trial, and have no doubt but I shall see Cone much puzzled in 
substantiating the facts which he states in it. I must beg you to 
write to Mr. Broadwell to call on [you] and give you a state- 
ment of the case. I shall send to him the Copy of Cones declar- 
ation and get him to collect the facts etc. 75 


[Box 17, No. 56.] 

Washington City Dec 24th 1806. 

I hereby transmit the treasurer's receipt for the money you 
were so obledging as to lend me. I should have sent it when 
I first obtained it, but for the extreme irregularity of the mail. 

A resolution has been referred to the committee on public 
lands having in view a reduction in the price of the reserved 
sections, and of offering them again at public sale. The com- 
mittee have not yet made a decision but I presume they will re- 
port in favour of the proposition. The committee have directed 
a bill to be reported "providing for the sale of the public lands 
lying between the U. S. Military tract, and the Connecticut re- 
serve." A new office is to [be] established, a register and re- 
ceiver to be appointed, etc. ' 

Burr's expedition furnish [es] conversation for our leisure 
hours. Much, and important facts are ascertained, but still 

mercial restrictions against Great Britain. Cf. H. Adams, III, 137-139 and 
157-164. He opposed Jefferson because of his underhand attempts to gain 
the Floridas, and Madison for his general nerveless conduct of our foreign 

73 These statements may refer to land claims in this section. 

78 The best biography of Jeremiah Morrow is that by his grandson, Mr. 
Josiah Morrow, printed in the Old Northwest Genealogical Quarterly for 
1906. Morrow was interested in reducing the price of public lands. 


more rests on conjecture. We see the means for effecting 
some project, not of ordinary magnitude, but the end is out of 
view. Before these reach you his operations may perhaps have 
dispeled the mystery, and pointed to the project in view. 77 

I have no accounts from our country as to the public senti- 
ment respecting the above enterprise ; I however have full con- 
fidence that nothing either seditious or treasonable can meet with 
the approbation of our people. It would be gratifying and use- 
ful at this momentous crisis to receive information, if for noth- 
ing else, to satisfy those who might call in question our political 
attachment. 78 Your most ob[edien]t. 


[Box 2, No. 27.] 

Warren County 17th Jan. 1S07. 
Dear General : 

Enclosed you have an accompt on John Clark, in favour of 
the estate of Co [lone] 1. Parker. Dec [ease] d. sent me by your 
brother Jonathan for collection. I caled on Clark soon after re- 
ceiving it, and he insisted that he had paid the debt before. he 
left Conocoeheague, but that he would call and have the thing fix'd 
either with you or your broather. the first time he should be in 
Cincinnati. The accompt was laid by, and its being in my posses- 
sion had entirely escaped me untill the other day I accidentally 
found it among some other papers. 

They mindes of people in this neighbourhood has been con- 
siderably agitated for some time past respecting Burr's con- 
spiracy and as we live at a considerable distance from the scene 
of action, it is not to be expected that everything which zve heare 
is Gospel ; indeed it would be a happy circumstence if more than 
the half of it were found to be false. When I first learned the 

"The President's proclamation against the expedition had been issued 
November 27, 1806. See Adams, III, 285. 

"For a view of the effect of the proclamation in the West see McCaleb, 
199, where an editorial from the Lexington Gazette for December 19th is 
quoted. The West expressed its attachment to the Union in no uncer- 
tain terms. See McCaleb, 244. 

"For John Bigger, cf. History of Warren County, 390. 

existance of this infamous sceme, I confess that it struck me 
with no little surprise, but this surprise has since increased to 
a degree of uneasyness from reports current here of some char- 
ictors who are said to be implicated in this affair. And my prin- 
ciple object in writing to you at this time is, in hopes that you 
will as soon as convenient write me on this subject and as your 
situation affords you better oppertunetys then mine, of not only 
ascertaining facts, but of likewise discouvering the channal 
through which they flow. [I] would hope that you will as far 
as you know and can do it consistently, state they grounds of 
implication with some of the suspected charictors, and as I write 
to you in confidence I shall take the liberty of mentioning some 
of they names who with several others are whispered through 
this neighbourhood to have connections with Burr. Those that 
I shall mention, are your Senator \V[illia]m McFarland, 80 
Mathew Nimmo sl and John Smith our Senator in Congress, and 
thcr^ - 1 - certain other names who although they have been men- 
tioned, yet from the respectability ot their charictors and the 
opinion which I have of their probity, I can pay no credit to 
the reports and should think it improper to mention their names 
even in confidence. Indeed I should fondly hope for the Honour 
of our State that those which I had mentioned would be ulti- 
mately found to be clear. Without however giving my opinion 
I shall mention a circumstance concerning one of them, which 
if trken by itself is of but little conciquence. But connected with 
other suspicious appearances may be considered to have some 
weight. The affair was this. Last winter while at Chillicothe 
there went a report for some time that one of our Senators in 
Congress purposed resigning his sate at which time Dr. Wood 
put a letter into my hand which he had received from W[illia]m 
McFarland recommending in case of a vacancy the appointment 
of Aaron Burr as a proper charictor for filing it, and who he 
stated as the best calculated to do honour to himself and justice 

80 William McFarland was state senator from Hamilton County in the 
session of 1806-07, and from Jefferson and Columbiana counties in the 
following year. His residence in Hamilton County may have brought him 
into relations with Burr, Dayton and Smith in 1805. Cf. McCaleb, 25. 
For reference to McFarland see also J. Q. Adams, Memoirs, I, 5°3> an ^ 
Gano Papers, III, 33ft. 

81 There is a reference to Matthew Nimmo, then serving as federal 
judge for Ohio, in J. Q. Adams, Memoirs, I, 496, and in Gano Papers, 
HI, 39- 110. 

to the State. The thing then appeared to me eaven at that 
time, to display more zeal then wisdom, to recommend a man 
for an office who was by no meanes eligible, although I ac- 
knowledge that at that time I should have treated as chimerical 
any information concerning the iniquitous transactions of Burr 
and his party which, their subsiquent conduct has laid us under 
the nicessity of beleayeing, for I should have thought no set of 
men would ever have been so crazy — and what could tempt any 
men to such desperate measures against our Government the 
Lord only knows; A Government, where each of us may sit 
down, if not under our own vine and under our own Fig tree, 
'yet besides well stored Barns and Corncribs and enjoy all they 
advantages from the protection of life and property, which can 
be expected from civil institutions on this side the Grave. 

I wrote your Brother William some considerable time since 
for a statement of the situation in which things stand relative to 
Ridenowers bond left with him for collection, but have as yet 
received no answer. 

The Governor's 5 - address to the Assembly I have seen, offer- 
ing himself a candidate for the Senate of the United States, 
and think they remarks which follow in the Spy papers ex- 
tremely applicable. 

I have been almost the hole of this winter confined at home, 
from a severe wound which I have received in my leg, I got 
it in a violent combat which I had — not in attemting like a Burr 
or a Bonaparte to subvert or annihilate Empires — But in the 
act of attempting to secure a wild and ferocious Hog. The for- 
tune of War was against me, I got wounded, and although two 
months have elapsed I am not yet much more than able to crall 
out of doors. 

In addition to they points which I have Already requested in- 
formation on, I would wish you to state as far as you know what 
has become of Burr himself. What Boats is supposed to have 
passed Cincinnati, belonging to his party — and whether there has 
any Boats been detained on suspicion at your town. 33 For these 
are points which almost every day brings us some new but un- 

K Edward Tiffin was then serving as governor and in 1807 succeeded 
Thomas Worthington as senator. 

"For an account of the Burr expedition on the Ohio and orders to 
stop the expedition at Cincinnati, cf. McCaleb, 245, 256, and Gano Pa- 
pers, III. 120 

certain information concerning. I would likewise wish to know 
what is doing among you concerning our Colege Township, as 
I have heard nothing about it, only that petitions have been cir- 
culated *zr haveing it brought up another time before the Legis- 
lature which it is to be hoped is the last round without more 

But finding my epistle has grown to an unpardonable length 
shall therefore close after subscribing myself with every senti- 
ment of esteem, your old Neighbour and Best Well-wisher 

When you write I would wish you to do it in a manner easyer 
to be read than you do for common. 


[Box 6, No. 42.] 

„. Cincinnati, 27th Feb. 1807. 

By a letter from the Hon[ora]ble John Smith dated the City 
of Washington, I am informed that it is your request I should 
transmit to you a circumstantial detail of the relation given by 
Pallas P. Stuart 53 touching certain matters to him disclosed. 
The following is respectfully communicated as the most correct 
statement with which my memory serves me. 

Air. Stuart informed me there were frequent applications made 
to him, by Colonel Burr, and by his agents, who made him liberal 
offers to join the enterprise, which offers he refused; and in the 
several conversations on the subject, he understood the first prop- 
osition to separate the Union came from the Marquis De Yranjo 
[Irujo] ; s ' ; that Burr seemingly appeared to acceed to the prop- 
osition, and received an order from the Marquis for Thirteen 
Thousand Stand of Arms that were then at Pensacola. Last 
summer when crossing Lake Pontchartrane [Pontchartrain] (he 
Stuart) saw a Spanish vessel on which no American was per- 
mitted to enter, which he was told and believed contained the 

"Both external and internal evidence, together with a comparison 
with Box 6, No. 46, and Box 2, No. 27, support this designation. 

w For Pallas P. Stuart see Gano Papers, III, 35^. 

M The Marquis of Casa Yrujo was the Spanish minister. For Burr's 
intrigues with him consult McCaleb, 54ft"; and H. Adams, III, 261; and 
Rowland, Third Annual Report . . . , p. 168. 


said arms, and which arms he has since been informed, have 
been deposited at Baton Rouge. He Stuart further understood 
the route Burr and his followers intended to take, was to de- 
scend either the Bayou Chafalgar [Achafalaya] or the Bayou 
Plackamines [Plaquemines] and coast it round to the neck end 
of St. Bernards Bay and ascend the river Bravo to Santafee. 87 
That after they got possession of that country she would become 
a part of the United States if they would be received; if then 
[the] proposition was rejected the party who went would elect 
a convention and form a government of their own. 

He Stuart further understood that Burr has had agents in 
the Spanish provinces for a length of time, and that Governor 
Heirrara [Herrera] was colleagued with him. 88 That there are 
a number of men of the first respectability, and some of them 
holding high offices in the United States concerned in this enter- 
prise. He Stuart further understood that one hundred thousand 
dollars were raised at New Orleans and that the residue of funds 
were to be furnished from the cities of Washington, Baltimore, 
Philadelphia and New York. 

The above relation was made to me about the middle of De- 
cember last, which I communicated to Mr. Galliten [Gallatin] 
by the first mail thereafter. I know not whether he received 
that letter as it required no answer, and the subject not being 
connected with my official business kept "no copy of that letter. 

1 have the honor to be with the highest consideration and 
respect, your most ob[edien]t Serv[an]t. 


[Box 20, No. 2/.] 

~ -~. ', Natchez 23d March 1807. 

Dear Pmdlay ° 

I arrived here the 20th inst. after a passage of 27 days, mixed 

as is natural, with its different degrees of pleasure, fatigue and 

trouble, as varied as the country I have passed through. 

"These expressions reveal the lack of exact geographical knowledge 
concerning the country to which our government laid strenuous claim. 

88 Cf. JMcCaleb, 305. Lieutenant-Colonel Simon de Herrera, the gov- 
ernor of the Mexican province of Nuevo Leon, commanded the Spanish 


The different changes of feeling have been almost as numer- 
ous as the windings of the Mississippi, and like a true emblem 
of that river, they have emptied into an ocean which when not 
disturbed by the winds, (of adversity) is calm and unruffled, but 
subject to the same turbulency (of mind) when opposed by 
storms and counter currents. Mr. Hait and myself left the boat 
we started in as we thought regular watches night and day, 
hard rowing, and finding our own provisions, and in short, do- 
ing the duty of hired hands, more than sufficient to counter- 
balance the room we took in the boat. We were at Port Massac 
from the 4th to the 7th ins [tan ]t when Mr. Bechtle 88 overtook 
us and gave us a passage in his boat. This town is situated 
on such high ground and has so free a current of air that I 
cannot think it unhealthy. I was much disappointed in my idea 
of its size as J thought it much larger. It is not so large as 
Cin[cinnat]i. The Schooner Revenge, the Bomb Ketches, Etna 
onrt Vpcnvins and three Gun boats are lying at anchor before 
the town to catch Bur rites. All boats are brought too and ex- 
amined. 90 Before you receive this you will probably hear that 
Co[lone]l B[urr] is on his way to Washington and honor'd with 
a military escort. 91 He has many adherents here, and it is 
thought probable that some of his friends will liberate him be- 
fore he reaches Washington. Colonels Tyler, 92 and Blenner- 
hasset are here, and have given bail for trial at the May term. 

Many of the young men who came with them, have become 
involved in debt at the Taverns, and having depended on 

troops on the Texas frontier during this crisis, and in that capacity had 
signed the ''Neutral Ground Convention'' with Wilkinson. See Ibid, 
149, 150. 

89 John Bechtle of the later firm of Riddle, Bechtle, and Co.. who were 
prominent in the barge navigation of the river. See Quarterly of the Arch. 
& Histl. Society of Ohio, XVI, 335. 

''See Third Annual Report of Miss. Department of Archives and His- 
tory, where the Director, Mr. Dunbar Rowland, prints in Appendix II a 
number of letters and other documents relating to the Burr Conspiracy 
so far as it affected Mississippi and Orleans Territories. Consult espe- 
cially pages I35> *39- 

81 See Third Annual Report . . . , p. 77^- 

82 The order for the arrest of Comfort Tyler is in Ibid, 74. He and 
Blennerhasset were tried in Mississippi and also in Richmond, but re- 
leased, as was Burr. Cf. McCaleb, 2S2-284. 


Co [lone] 1 R[urr] for funds, many of them, have been obliged 
to give the Landlords kg bail. 

Two days before I arrived here a duel took place between 
Capt[ain] Leonard 83 and Lieutenant Jones of the navy in which 
the former was wounded. He is still living, but the wound is 
supposed to be mortal. They fought only 9 feet distant and fired 
three times without effect. The fourth, Capt[ain] L[eonard] 
received the wound in his side. 

I think I shall be pleased with this place if I can find em- 
ployment, but as yet have not had time to look about me. I 
shall probably remain here some time, and it is unnecessary for 
me to tell you, that a letter will at all times be a source of pleas- 
ure to me. 

Give my best wishes to your own family, and to Mr. and 
Mrs. Stone, and believe me to be with sincere regard, 
Your friend and very Hum[ble] Serv[an]t. 


[Box 20, No. 28.] 

New Orleans 8 May 1807. 
Dear General. 

Ever since I have been here I have been daily delaying writ- 
ing in hopes of having some news worth relating, but can find 
nothing of importance to say, except, that I am well and hope 
you are. I left Natchez on the 9th finding but little prospect of 
getting into any business that would please me, and arrived here 
on the 13th ult[im]o. Through the attention of the gentlemen 
to whom I had introductory letters I am now engaged in the 
employ of Messrs. Sanderson & White, a respectable mercantile 
house of this city, on as good terms as I could expect. 

What shall I write? Burr and his expedition has become a 
stale story, and as he is now (I suppose) in the City of Wash- 
ington, any information respecting him will reach Cincinnati] 
sooner than this place. Our Governor, and military chief are the 
principal topics of conversation, and a nitch in the temple of 

"Lieutenant Commander James T. Leonard, of the U. S. Ketch. Ve- 
suvius. Cf. Ibid, 139. 


fame (unless "like Cromwell, damn'd to fame") I suspect will 
not be the reward of either of their services. 94 From the infor- 
mation given me by gentlemen of this place, this city never wit- 
nessed r ° much confusion as at the time of the arrest of Kerr, 
Alexander, Adair etc. or ' Surprise and astonishment was seated 
on the countenance of every person — orders were given for the 
immediate assembly of the Volunteer companies — that few of 
them knew the cause of their assemblage. Here, a soldier might 
be seen fixing his bayonet while running, there, another fixing 
his flint, others running through the streets crying "shut your 
doors, fasten your stores" etc. After the Yolumteer Corps had 
assembled the General gave them a lengthy address represent- 
ing the visionary dangers which his duplicity had painted, and 
how much they had to fear from the leaders of the expedition 
particularly Gen [era!] Adair who, (he observed) "is a danger- 
ous man, / myself, have taught him lessons of war and of policy." 
This contusion has now subsided, and produced the effect 
on the public mind which might well be expected. They have 
had the alarm of war sounded in their ears, they have been told 
that a military force was to sack the city and plunder them of 
their property, and business of every kind was stagnated ; but 
the}- have now found that no cause existed for such alarm and 
curse their civil and military excellencies as the cause. Can 
there be a greater proof of a tyrant and of guilt than when a 
man dare not go through a peaceable city without a guard? The 
Gen[eral] never stirs abroad without six soldiers to protect the 

"For the attitude of Governor Claiborne and of General Wilkinson 
the b est source is their letters of this period, as published by Rowland in 
Third Annual Report .... I26ff. One should also consult McCaleb, 
2i5ff, and H. Adams, III, 319. Claiborne's letters of December 17, 1806 
{Third Annual Report, 131-133), and of January 2, 1S07 (Ibid, 140-142), 
best show his attitude. 

95 For the excitement at this time of the arrest of John Adair, former 
senator from Kentucky, cf. Adams, III, 324. Wilkinson carefully re- 
frained from arresting any residents of the city, except Judge James 
Workman, whom with Louis Kerr he believed to be engaged in "an intrigue 
to corrupt the army and plunder the bank." They were tried in Miss. 
Territory and declared "not guilty" in March. Cf. McCaleb, 283. Adair 
later brought suit against Wilkinson for false imprisonment, 'and at the 
end of eight years obtained a verdict of $2,500 in his favor, which would 
have been greater "but for the notorious poverty of the general. The gov- 
ernment, however, paid the debt." Cf. McCaleb, 300. 


(self styled) "defender of the holy attributes of the constitu- 
tion." That he must fall, if not from office, in the public esti- 
mation (unless that is already the case) is certain. I can't find 
a single person but believes that he would have embarked in 
the expedition with Co [lone] 1 B[urr] had the force been suffi- 
ciently strong. 00 Livingston, 07 Brown, Workman, and indeed 
all the talents of the country have dipped their pens in gall and 
are venting their sentiments as freely and bitterly as language 
will permit. It is expected many of the officers of the Army will 
resign, and I have been told (the truth of which I scarcely doubt) 
that they have been circulating a subscription list among them- 
selves, for signatures, to effect a general resignation. 

I have now given you a lengthy detail, unconnected, and of 
little importance, but as I have nothing else to write, pray be 
contented with this, although it will be a poor equivalent for the 
time you will lost- in reading it. I shall certainly feel gratified 
hv receiving a letter from you, as any information respecting 
the welfare of you or your family will ever compose a part of 
my pleasure. Give my respects to Mr. and Mrs. Stone, I will 
write them whenever I can find anything to say worth 25 cents 

With good wishes for your and your family's happiness, I 
have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, 


[Box 7, No. 57.] 

T Lancaster, February 14th, 1809. 

Brother James, J 

I know nothing of Judge Du[n]lavy's 9S char- 
acter, but what is exhibited in the report of the trial and I do 

Tor a definite expression of this cf. Dunbar Rowland, Third Annual 
Report . . . , 146. 

"Edward Livingston, formerly of New York, was a noted attorney, 
who afterwards codified the laws of Louisiana and served in the United 
States Senate and Jackson's Cabinet. He was the Secretary of State at 
the time of the Nullification Controversy. For Workman see Note 95. 

'"For Francis Dunlavy, or "Dunlevy" as his descendants spell it, see 
Morrow, History cf Warren County, 357. 


not think his letter" to the Governor as therein copied places his 
character in an enviable point of view. Neither does your friend 
Durnet's letter to the Governor, even taken in connection with 
his explanation, or apology, rai c e his character in my estimation. 

100 Betsey Smith and Jack Yanlear, 101 are now here, and have 
been for some days past. When they left home our friends in 
their neighborhood were well. Crawford takes his removal from 
office in high dudgeon, and will not even deign to speak to John. 
I believe Crawford's friends, which are not very numerous, think 
he should behave with more magnanimity on the occasion. 102 

It is here said, but I do not well know upon what authority, 
that there is a probability of Nathan being connected with the 
family of John Smith, the ex senator. I know nothing of 
the family, but be they what they may, from the present im- 
pressions which generally prevail against Smith over the United 
States, and which I doubt are too well founded, any connection 
v.jili him or his family would be abhorrent to my feelings. I 
know a child ought not to be held responsible for the conduct 
of the father, or, be effected by it, in the estimation of the world, 
but the fact is otherwise, and however we might philosophize 
upon the position, in the abstract, the connection in this case, if 
it should take place, could never be mentioned, without wound- 
ing my sensibility in the highest degree. But notwithstanding 
no one could deplore the circumstances more than I would do, 
yet, if he has it in contemplation, it might answer a bad pur- 
pose to manifest a violent opposition to it ; but it would be proper, 
to endeavour to persuade him from it, by the most delicate and 
gentle manner, and if these means should prove unavailing, we 
must however reluctantly, tamely submit to it. You can inform 
me on the subject and if there is ground for the report, and you 
should think my opinion would be of any service, I shall ad- 

"The letter referred to is doubtless in connection with the proceedings 
in the U. S. Circuit Court in the case of U. S. vs. Blennerhassett et a!. A 
partial report of this appeared in the Western Spy, Jan. 25, 180S. Burnet's 
testimony is also summarized in Gano Papers, III, 41. 

11,0 Possibly Elizabeth, daughter of James Smith, elsewhere referred to 
as "Uncle James." Cf. Box 7, No. 56, and also Qcarterly, IV, 14. 

"'John Van Lear, son of Matthew (?). 

,02 The reference is- to a change in local Pennsylvania politics, by which 
John Findlay obtained a lucrative county office. See Box 7, No. 56. 


dress his understanding- in a lengthy letter on the subject. 103 We 
are all in good health. I am with respect 
Your brother, 


[Box 8, No. 39.] 

Washington City April 23, 1810. 
Dear Brother 

Since I have been here I have been generally once or more 
a day with Jonathan. He has a wonderful flow of spirits for 
his situation. He has in the prison 1 '-" a Room in the upper 
story for himself about 18 feet by 25. a good bed, books, paper, 
pen and Ink. He boards with the jailler, who keeps a pretty 
good table and if not elegant with trifles, it is plain with sub- 
stantials. He has generally more or less company every day. 
He has many well wishers and some real and sincere friends 
who would go almost any length to serve him. He told me he 
could get bail for several thousand dollars say 10-15 or 20,000 
was he to agree to accept of it, but he says he was unrighteously 
committed to prison and that he said and promised when he 
went in that he would not give bail. I can not give you any 

103 The marriage does not seem to have taken place, if we may judge 
from the genealogical chart prepared by Major George T. Handy. In 
August, 1S07, Smith, who was then in West Florida, voluntarily delivered 
himself up to the authorities of Mississippi Territory, to be conveyed via 
Cincinnati to Richmond for trial as an accomplice of Aaron Burt. He 
was duly sent forward by Governor Robert Williams, but on failure of 
the charges against Burr a nolle prosequi was also entered on the bills 
against Smith. When he attempted to resume his seat in the Senate, late 
in the following November, a special committee, of which John Quincy 
Adams was chairman, reviewed the case against him and recommended 
his expulsion, but the vote in the Senate, 19 to 10, lacked one of the nec- 
essary two-thirds. Cf. Rowland, Third Annual Report, 84; J. Q. Adams, 
Memoirs, I, 48iff; H. Adams, III, 208. 

104 This case of imprisonment for debt simply illustrates one phase of 
the chequered career of Jonathan S. Findlay. 


particular information as to the time when he will be out as it 
depends upon an answer from Scaton (?) of N[ew] York and 
when it comes wheather he will agree to the propositions made 
by brother John io him, for Jonathan's relief, that is to give 
him some or any of the back lands at a fair and reasonable price. 

This morning I had the pleasure and honor of being intro- 
duced by Col[onel] Taylor 105 to Mr. and Mrs. Madison. He 
appears to be solemn and profound ; she is in her manners, easy, 
graceful and fascinating. 

Gen [era] 1 Wilkinson 106 dined in this place about a week ago. 
Lieu[tenan]t Cutler is one of his particular escorts. I think the 
Gen[era]l's character and fame will be from all appearances, 
something like an apple from a bended bow [bough] which takes 
its flight downward 

105 Colonel James Taylor of Newport, Ky. In this same letter Nathan 
C. Findlay states that Colonel Taylor wishes him to go into "a merchantile 
business" with him and his brother Edmund, provided Colonel Taylor can 
be released from his present partnership with Mr. Southgate, whom he 
does not especially admire. 

106 In an earlier letter Colonel Taylor had written James Findlay [Box 
26, No. 14] : "No news of Wilkinson. The Sec[retar]y of War tills me 
he expects him here by 1st Ap[ri]l. He asked for permission to stay 3 
mo[nths] to prepare some answer to Clark's book and to make arrang- 
ments. The Sec[retar]y gave him the time asked for and one month in ad- 
dition if necessary. Most think he will put in here till Congress rises. I 
think E[enjamin] Howard of K[entuck]y will be Gov[erno]r of St. Louis. 
If he does not Coburn will." The book referred to is Daniel Clark's Proofs 
of the Corruption . . . of General James Wilkinson, which had ap- 
peared the year before. Howard became the governor of Louisiana (after- 
ward Missouri) Territory. On the first of the preceding November John 
Brownson had written from Natchez to James Findlay: "Gen[era]l Wil- 
kinson is ordered on to the seat of the Government and Gen [era] 1 Hamp- 
den [Hampton] to take the command in this district. The Troops are 
sickly and wretched beyond everything you have seen or heard of." For 
an account from the pen of Z. M. Pike of conditions in the lower Mis- 
sissipi Country, of the strained relations between himself and General 
Hampton, and of the various courts-martial arising from the condition of 
the troops, see two letters dated July 10, 1810, and December 20, 181 1, 
printed in Tract No. 39, published by the Western Reserve Historical 



[Box 13, Xo. 11.] 

_ „. Washington City Jany 10th 1812. 

Dear Sir, 

I have this morning left my room to which I had heen con- 
fined for the last eight days by a severe indisposition. The ac- 
countant has not yet taken up my accounts. I hope however to 
get him at them tomorrow and expect to return to Cincinna[ti] 
sometime next month unless I can see a prospect of promotion. 
My arrival here was a fortunate circumstance for the subalterns 
of the seventh regiment. I have broken in considerably on the 
plans of Mr. Secretary. 108 He nominated (or rather placed on 
the list of nomination) two citizens to fill the vacancies of Cap- 
t[ain]s Cutler and Beall; I was informed of his intentions by 
the Inspector the evening of my arrival and represented the in- 
justice of the case to the western members in such terms as in- 
duced them to make the most determined opposition to appoint- 
ments of that description. Gen [era] 1 Worthington 109 told him 
plainly that if those names were sent to the Senate he would 
make every exertion in his power to have them rejected. He 
has relinquished his plan and will promote the eldest subalterns. 

A bill has passed both houses, and has received the signature 
of the President, for raising an additional force of 25,000 men: 
this looks something like active service. 110 Indeed the object of 
raising this force is publicly acknowledged to be the invasion of 
Canada. The british minister (Mr. Foster) 111 has become re- 

107 Thomas Sidney Jcsup, a native of Virginia, was appointed to the 
seventh infantry in May, 1S0S, and became a first lieutenant the following 
year. He did not become Captain until January, 1813. He became briga- 
dier general in 1818, and in due course major general in 1S28, and died in 
i860. He was an intimate friend of General Findlay, as may be seen from 
frequent references in the latter's correspondence. 

10S William Eustis of Massachusetts was then acting as Secretary of 
War and continued to serve until the end of the year. Cf. Executive Reg- 
ister of '.he United Stdtes, 17S9-1002, p. 77. 

""Thomas Worthington was then serving as Senator from Ohio. 

u0 For the discussion of this bill and of the purpose of its author see 
McMaster, HI, 4o5h\ 

m Augustus J. Foster had been appointed as minister to this country 
for the purpose of conciliating public sentiment. Cf. McMaster, HI, 402. 


niarkably attentive to Members of Congress: he gives a grand 
entertainment on Monday night, next, to which. I understand, 
he has invited the Majority of both houses. Is this for the pur- 
, rise of ob^ainm** information, or does he wish to conciliate? 

I have seen your brother 112 — he is in good health and fine 
spirits, Ke informs me that in his present situation he can save 
something handsome. . He is pleased with his employment — "noth- 
ing" says he "can afford me more exquisite pleasure than to ob- 
serve the youthful mind expand and to witness its progressive 
improvement and to reflect that its advancement is oweing to my 

The trial of Gen [era] 1 Wilkinson 113 had closed previously to 
my arrival at Fredericktown. The result has not yet transpired, 
we shall probably have it in a few days. The opinions on the 
subject are various — his friends believe that he is honorably ac- 
quitted and his enemies the reverse. 

T Have sounded members of Congress on the subject of dis- 
bandment in the event of an accommodation of our differences 
with [Great] Britain and France. They are of opinion that not 
only the 25,000 but also the additional corps raised in 1808 will 
be dismissed, consequently the corps in which I now am can have 
no preference to those to be raised. I have some idea of apply- 
ing for a Majority in the Infantry and have no doubt of success 
provided I can obtain your and Colo[nel] Taylors interest, the 
letter you were so good as to enclose to me with others which 
I brought on wou'd have been sufficient had they mentioned the 
rank for which I wished to apply. Should you favor me with 
your support and obtain for me that of Colo[nel] Taylor I would 
wish the letter on the subject, directed to Mr. Morrow, 114 in pref- 
erence to the Sec[retar]y. Letters in this way receive more 

Have the goodness to present my respects to Mrs. Findlay and 
receive my best wishes for your health and happiness. 
With respect and esteem Y[ou]rs. 

U2 This was his brother Jonathan. 

"'Wilkinson was acquitted. The investigations by Congress of Ran- 
dolph's Charges, backed up by testimony from Daniel Clarke, of Orleans 
Territory, and the subsequent Court martial lasted from 1S08 to 1S12. 
Upon his acquittal he was sent to take command at New Orleans. Cf. 
Hildreth, III, 46, 309- 

114 Jeremiah Morrow served as the representative from Ohio from 1S03 
to 1813. 131 


[Box 18, Xo. 59.] 

^ _.. New Orleans 23rd Sept 1814 

Dear Sir 

About a week since an expedition set out from this place con- 
sisting of 6 or 7 Gun Boats one small armed Brigg carrying 
14 Guns and 4 or 500 Regular troops under the command of 
Co [lone] 1 Ross 11 - for the purpose of breaking up a party of 
Smugglers or Pirates under the command of the notorious Laf- 
feit [Lafitte] who has infested the Lake Bar[r]ataria for three 
or four years past without interruption. Yesterday an express 
arrived bringing a letter from Co [lone] 1 Ross informing that 
they had succeeded in taking 7 schooners and some of the leaders 
of the partv, but we are not informed whetiier Laffeit [Lafitte] 
is also taken, but presume he is not. 

By the enclosed paper you will see what our military men h: 
this country can do 


[Box 18, Xo. 60.] 

^ _. Xew Orleans 8th October 1814. 

Dear Sir 

Your letter of the 28th August has just come to hand, and 

am extremely glad to find that some of our sugar has got on its 

113 Samuel Perry, of the firm of Baum and Terry. Cf. Burnet, Notes, 
400; Ohio Arch, and Hist. Quarterly, XVI, 335. 

116 George Thompson Ross, a native of Pennsylvania. He was then 
Colonel of the 44th infantry. Cf. Heitman, I, 846. Commodore Patterson 
seems to have been the leading spirit in command of this expedition against 
Lafitte. This notorious pirate later received a pardon for meritorious 
service in the defense of New Orleans against the British in 1815, and 
later took part in the operations on Galveston Island. Cf. Yoakum, His- 
tory of Texas, I, 186; McMaster, IV, 174-179. 

"'There are letters from Sloo in Box 21, Nos. 35-4$. and a great 
many to him, scattered through the collection. For his career in Illinois 
see Ford, History of Illinois. 


way to market. I have received letters from Mr. Raum 118 up to 
the 13th ultimo which came by the same mail that brought yours, 
but in no one single letter does he mention his having forwarded 
anv sugar nor does he tell me what has been done with it or what 
iv intended to be done. I must therefore beg that you will give 
me regular information of what it going on, what quantity of 
sugar has been shipped and what is likely to be done with that 
which is on hand at home, also how cotton comes on. 

This country affords but little news. A few days since the 
Expedi[ti]on which went against the celebrated Laffeit [Lafitte] 
returned with 7 prize vessels well loaded with goods, but unfor- 
tunately they are all German goods and of such a kind as does 
not suit our market, the whole amount taken is supposed to [be] 
worth upwards of one hundred Thousand Dollars. 

Gen[era]l Jackson has not as was expected gone to Pensacola, 
but still remains at Mobile, where the Tennessee troops are join- 
ing him everv day. lia If the British let us alone here one or two 
months more we can then make a formidable resistance. That 
is his arm>- can protect us. 

Flour and indeed every article in the produce line extremely 
dull. Fresh Flour sells slowly to the Bakers at n to 12$, but 
two Boat loads arriving at the same time bring it down to al- 
most nothing as there are no purchasers except the Bakers and 
they never buy more than 8 or 10 Barrels at a time 

Since writing the above we have been informed that the 
Barge Two Brothers loaded by Messrs Smith Dorsey & Co. 
with coffee for account of some persons in Baltimore has been 
lost near Natchez and the cargo nearly or entirely lost. 


[Box 18, Xo. 61.] 

r. n . New Orleans nth Novr 1814. 

Dear Sir 

Your letter dated the 17th ultimo has been received, by which 

I perceive you are under the impression that goods are very 

118 For a sympathetic sketch of Martin Baum, cf. Mansfield, Personal 
Memories, 1803- 1S43, p. 147. 

U9 Jackson's forces had beaten off a British attack upon Fort Bowyer 
at the entrance of Mobile Harbor, but he did not have troops enough to 
attempt a retaliatory attack upon Pensacola until later. Cf. McMaster, 
IV, 181, and the next letter. 


plenty here in consequence of the capture of Laffeits [Lafitte's] 
vessels. I am however, sorry to inform you that the goods which 
were taken there are not such as suits your country they being 
principally of German and Russia [n] manufactory. Indeed 
there is no chance here to purchase goods, everything in the dry 
good line is extremely high and scarce. 

Letters have been received in town yesterday from Gen [era ]1 
Jackson's army stating that they were then on their march, but 
where their place of destination is [is] not stated. It is how- 
ever believed that they have gone to Pensacola, and persons who 
pretend to know much of the matter say there is no doubt but 
that our Flag now waves over the walls of that famous city. 

Never was business here so completely at a stand, nothing 
a doing and what seems still more horrible there is no prospect 
of the times being better. What is to become of the host of ac- 
complished merchants that infest the Coffee Houses, I am at a 
loss to know. I am however inclined to think that there will 
udt hereaftei be the same difficulty in geting soldiers as has been 
experienced since the war [began]. 

AVhat says Mr. Bfaum] now to my wild speculation in sugar 
etc. By the latest quotations from Philadelphia I see that sugar 
would command about 27$ cash per cwt. and cotton 30 to 31 
cents. Your country produce is extremely dull. Flour is worth 
when it sells 9 to 10$, but you may rest assured that in less 
than 2 months (unless some great changes take place) it will 
not command 5$. 

Please tender my respects to Madam Mrs Findlay, Mrs Tor- 
rence, the Gen [era] 1. and the Major and all inquiring friends, 
also accept for yourself my best wishes 

The sugar crops will be very large anr. F'ine, there has been 
only one sale as yet made say 100 hog[shead]s at 8 cents. I am 
however of the opinion that it will be lower. 


[Box 18, No. 62.] 

Dear Sloo ^ evv O rleans 9 tn Deer. 1814 

By the last mail I received your letter dated the 31st October 
which gave me much satisfaction inasmuch as it informed me 
what disposition has been made of the property which I sent up 


the river last season. I had a right to expect that Mr. B[aum] 
would have given me that information but it docs not appear 
that he thought in the same way else he would doubtless have 
given if me. I am however convinced had sugar turned out to 
be so bad an article as he expected it would [be] I should have 
heard enough on that subject. 

I am very sorry your prospects for a winter's business are 
so gloomy, but as matters now stand but little can be done in 
dry goods. I am however still in hopes that you may be able 
to keep yourselves out of debt until the war is over and then a 
fortune may easily be made. You may perhaps think when I 
tell you that was it not on account of the persons connected with 
the firm of Baum & Perry that that partnership would immedi- 
ately desolve, that I am in a fit of passion, and that I will in a 
short time forget it. but I assure [you] that my f ceilings have been 
so much and so repeatedly put to the torture that I have come 
to the determination of closing the business so soon as it can 
L.c doiiv. iviUacut makirig too great sacrifices. 

Gen [era] 1 Jackson arrived in town a few days since but has 
again left it to visit the Bilese [Belize] where he intends erecting 
a fort. The Kentucky and Tennessee troops are expected in 
about 2 weeks. Gen [era] 1 Coffee with about 2500 mounted men 
is now at Batton Rouge where they are to remain for some 

time. 120 

I am yours, 

Sugar 8 cents dull 

Pork 15$ scarce Coffee 30 cents 

Cotton io^< dull Flour 9 to 9>< do 


[Box 18, No. 71.] 

Boon Countv. Kentucky October 22 1815. 
To Mr. Sloo 

Sir, Being a stranger to you, I should not thus have addressed 
you on a subject foreign to your own immediate interest, but 

^For Jackson's movements in the vicinity of New Orleans and the 
necessity for his presence, see McMaster, IV, 182ft. 

"Clara H. Pike was the widow of the General, and daughter of John 
Brown of Kentucky. For an account of the family connections and the 
various editions of Pike's works, cf. Coues, Expeditions . . . of Lieu- 
tenant Z. M. Pike, I, xxx, xxxviii. 


from the emergency of the case, and the recommendation of some 
of your acquaintance, who assured me that (if practicable) you 
would attend to an affair of considerable importance to me, 
which from your situation in England you might probably be 
enabled to perform, viz a Demand on Longman, Hurst, and Co. 
London Booksellers, who edited the Travels of the late Genera! 
Pike, who not long previous to his death received a letter from 
Longman, Hurst and Co. dated 7th October 1812, containing 
charges for Printing and Editing 500 copies and an account of 
the sale of 301, which defrayed all the expenses, except 2,£ o 3d 
against Gen [era] 1 Z. M. Pike leaving a balance of 199 copies 
to be sold, and the amount to be equally divided between them. 
Should they have disposed of those copies I presume, they are 
prepared to remit to me whatever should have been due my late 
husband. In that case, you are hereby authorized to receive of, 
and receipt to them for the same, and any expense or trouble 
innrrred in the transaction, shall be gratefullv remunerated 


[Box 7, No. 20.] 

Balto. 13th December 1S1S. 
Brother James : 

It is a long time since I had the pleasure of hearing from 
you in any way, and I think you are my debtor for several let- 
ters. But however this may be I will trouble you with another 
commencing in the good old Irish style abcut myself. Ever since 
my visit to Bedford my health has been gradually improving and 
I have now hopes of regaining my usual strength 

I have a long letter from Jonathan dated on the 19th October 
in which he says that his prospects are flattering. I rejoice at 
this most heartily. I had urged him so strongly to push to the 
extreme West, that, I should have reproached myself had it not 
turned out well. I think now that he is likely to become wealthy, 
and that he will have that standing in society to which his talents 

^For Thomas Finley, see Quarterly, I, 66. Letters relating to the 
removal of Jonathan Findlay to Missouri and his subsequent career are 
in Box 7 and Box 8. 


and his virtues so justly entitle him. I think it probable that 
I shall one day or other remove my rising family to the extreme 
West, feeling confident that they may do better there than here 
if they are so disposed. Business in the Cities becomes worse 
and worse every year. It is now, not only unprofitable but un- 
pleasant in the extreme. This I think must also be the case at 
Cincinnati as I observe by the report of your committee that 
you are largely in debt without having the inclination or the 
ability to pay. I should like to know what course your good citi- 
zens would wish the Bank of the United States to pursue. Your 
Branch has certainly been liberal, and yet the people appear dis- 
satisfied. 123 If the circulating medium of the Country is to con- 
tinue on a metallic basis, property in your city will decline 50 
per cent. It is the wish of many of our citizens that Congress 
would prohibit the exportation of every description of specie. 
If this measure were adopted the Banks would be able to sustain 
specie payrnents without much difficulty. It is reported here 
that the Merchants of Ohio owe the Philadelphians six millions 
of dollars. If this be true the whole produce of the State will 
not pay the debt for several years. 

The Circuit Court of the United States have been engaged 
here for seme time past on the trial of some of our citizens who 
have been Privateering, under the Flag of Buones [Buenos] 
Ayres. 124 This they call patriotism but in reality it is a love of 
plunder. But owing to some defect in the law or in the admin- 
istration of the law, I believe none of them will be punished. 
We have had a fine display of talents; Glenn, Hoffman and 
Wirt 125 for the prosecution Winder and Pinckney for the 
def[endan]t Mr. Wirt is certainly a great man and holds 
a distinguished rank as a lawyer, but great as he is, this brilliant 

*-' 3 For the relations between the Branch U. S. Bank and the people 
of Cincinnati, see McMaster, IV, 498, and Quarterly, II, 105. 

^Baltimore was the center of several filibustering expeditions of this 

13 Wirt had appeared at Richmond against Aaron Burr, and his suc- 
ceeding reputation rested largely upon the speech delivered upon that oc- 
casion. He was then attorney general in Monroe's Cabinet and served in 
the same capacity under John Quincy Adams. Pinkney had been minister 
to Great Britain just before the outbreak of hostilities. Winder was the 
commander of the American forces in the unsuccessful defense of Wash- 


star of Virginia is eclipsed by the greater luminary of Maryland. 
I presume that Mr. Pinckney is second to no man living as a 
profound lawyer and as an accomplished speaker. Gen [era] I 
Winder is also a very superior man and much more successful 
at the forum than in the field. Our friend's message to the Leg- 
islature of our Native State is a sensible production and has been 
a good deal praised by the Philadelphia Editors. In some of the 
Paragraphs the style would admit of a higher polish, but I think 
the substance does him credit. His friends are all powerful in 
the Legislature and I think he will get along quite smoothly. 

What is your opinion of Steam Boat Stock? Will it advance 
or decline ? Will not the great number that are building, when 
completed reduce the rate of freight from New Orleans ? 128 
W T ould not a grocery establishment succeed admirably at New 
Orleans ? 

1J, The first steamboat on the Ohio made its voyage in 1S11, but it 
was not till 1817 that Captain Henry Shreve successfully demonstrated 
its usefulness in the river trade. Cf. F. P. Goodwin, Growth of Ohio, 105. 


Quarterly Publication of the His- 
torical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio 

Vol. IV, 1909, No. 4 


Entered as second-class matter, at the post-office at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 

Committee in Charge of Publication 



Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio 

For the Year Ending 
December 6, 1909 








Corresponding Secretary. 

Recording Secretary. 




The meetings of the Society are held in its room in the Van Wormer 
library Building, Burnet Woods, at three in the afternoon of the first Saturday 
of each month from October to May. 

The Library is a free public Library, open to visitors daily, except Sunday, 
from nine A. M. to five P. M. 


Historical and Philosophical Society 
of Ohio for 1909 


Cincinnati, December 6th, 1909. 
Mr. President and Members of the Society. 

I have the honor to submit this report for the year ending 

The donations to the library have been 261 volumes, 1,449 
pamphlets, 7 bound volumes of manuscripts, 66 unbound manu- 
scripts, and various miscellanies. Other acquisitions were ob- 
tained by purchase and exchange. 

The following purchases were made : 42 volumes and 2 
pamphlets from the Elizabeth H. Appleton fund ; 77 volumes and 
5 pamphlets from the Margaret Rives King fund ; 3 volumes 
from the fund of the Colonial Dames Society; and 8 periodicals 
from the General fund. 

By an exchange of a quantity of duplicate periodicals for 
material not in the library,' we have secured an additional 57 
volumes of history and biography; 2 pamphlets (early local 
publications), and about 2S2 monthly serials of late dates, which 
were needed to complete some of our sets of bound serials. 
Another increase in the number of volumes has been gained by 
the binding of historical quarterlies into 33 volumes. The en- 
tire number of volumes acquired during the year is 472 and 
of pamphlets 1,460. The library now contains 23,565 volumes 
and, approximately estimated, about 67,230 pamphlets against 
68,962 of last year, the decrease being caused by exchange and 
binding as mentioned above. 


Besides the binding of the volumes mentioned, 25 volumes 
in the King collection have been rebound. 

The Manuscripts received are from various sources : 
Mr. IV. K. Bi.vby of St. Louis. 

Letter of Caleb B. Smith, Cincinnati, Jan. 16th, 1855; 

Letter of John Johnston Sozen, Mar. 27th, 1846. These were 
from the collection of George Harrington, who was connected 
with the Treasury Department from the time of Zachary Taylor 
to the administration of Andrew Johnson. 

Mrs. A. H. Chat field. 

1 volume of letters, reports, and miscellaneous material re- 
lating to the Cincinnati Training School for Nurses, 18S9. Con- 
tains list of subscribers. 

1 volume — J. Ralston Skinner's Notes and Comments upon 
"The Ten Books of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio translated from 
the latin by Joseph Gwilt, F. S. A. Architect. . . ." These 
notes, as stated upon fly-leaf, were composed Jan. 14, 1885, for 
Mary Fletcher Huntington (the mother of the donor). 

Mr. D. L. James. 

2 scrap books compiled by Mary A. Murphy, in 1890. 
Mr. W. StJ. Jones. 

1 volume which consists of copies of papers relating to the 
War of 1812; McAfee's '"Memorandum"; His Life and Times; 
Reminiscence^ of Capt. John McMurtry, etc. 

1 volume, Copy of papers relating to War of 1812; Ohio 
Company, 1754; Addresses of Caleb Emerson; Short account of 
Rev. Daniel Story; and various letters. 

1 volume, contains a small list of early publications, made 
by Robert Clarke. 
Mr. Alfred Ripley of Boston. 

Letter of Bellamy Storer, 1818, addressed to Dr. Jesse Apple- 
ton, President of Bowdoin College, which was secured by Judge 
Mr. C. W. Short. 

25 letters addressed to John Cleves Short, of dates 1825 to 
1832, written severally by Samuel Simonton, W. Basson, R. M. 
Corwine, D. K. Este, B. Wells & Co., Ben Piatt, J. H. Jackson, 
Dr. Oliver Fairchild, Judge Win. Burke, Dr. J. F. Henry, Daniel 
Gano, W. H. Harrison, Jr., James Chattin, Jonathan Judah, E. 


Stebbins, Hezekiah May, George Graham, J. Scott Harrison, and 
one letter of J. R. Chickering of 1S60; 

2 letters (copies) written by J. C. Short, 1832; 

Small journal of jSn-12. relative to earthquake shocks felt 
in and around Cincinnati; 

Bill of accounts of A. Hunt & Co. agst. Jonah Goodrich, 1794; 

Bill of accounts of Jeremiah Landin agst. Jonah Goodrich, 


Bill of St. Clair & More agst. J. C. Short; 

Appointment of William Mitchell as Cadet at U. S. Naval 
Academy, 1861 ; 

Constitution of Hamilton County Light Dragoons Company ; 

24 Tax receipts, Cincinnati, 1831-56: 

1 Insurance policy, 1841 ; 

Subpoena, 1S32, Case of Gilmore vs. Graham et al. 
Mr. XV. W. Taylor. 

Letter of Randolph Rogers, Rome, Oct. 20. 1864. 
Mr. J . L,. JVowe Jr 

Constitution and List of members of the Union Elocution 
Society of Cincinnati, 1820. and various receipted bills of dif- 
ferent firms of the city. 
Mr. J. Wilby. 

Letter of Hon. William H. Taft, 1906. 

Dr. DcF. Willard. 

Statesman's manual & Farmer's Library account with Edward 
Walker and Greeley & McElrath, 1846. 

The gifts to the Cabinet arc : 
Mr. IL M. Levy. 

Photograph of Hughes High School. 
Mr. J. Wilby. 

Photograph of the Lytle Homestead. 

Mrs. A. H. Chatfield. 

P'hotograph of the Indian "Wolf Voice'". 
Mr. J. F. Wtnslow. 

Photograph of the Auditorium of Christ Church taken dur- 
ing the Dinner given, Jan. 23, 1909, to the workmen and con- 
tractors who had a part in the erection of the Parish House, the 
gift of Mrs. Mary M. Emery to the Parish of Christ Church. 


Print of the new building to be erected for the Ohio Mechanics 
Institute in memory of Air. Thomas J. Emery. 

Mr. J. S. Conner. 

Military pass issued 1884 during the Court House riot in this 
city, at which time the building was burned. 

Wyoming Historical & Geological Society of Wilkes Barre. 

Invitation Card to the 50th anniversary of the Society and 
the 100th anniversary of the Burning of Wyoming Coal for 
Domestic use, accompanied by an attractive medal, commemo- 
rative of the event. 

Miss J. C. Neavc. 

Numerous Invitation cards of early dates. 

Mr. G. A. Middle ton. 

Ohio Presidential Ticket, 1864, (Lincoln & Johnson) and 
Ticket of the Republican National Convention of 1876. 

Mr. F. Spencer. 

oafiK -■ ost .'i.. 01 iiix. joic 01 s * ijjUi, 1001 , 

London almanac, 1793, 1x2 inches, illustrated and daintily 

Mr. H. F. Woods. 

Badge of the Grand Lodge, Ohio, 1908. 

Mr. A. H. Chatfield. 

Badge of Citizens Committee for Taft Notification Day ; 

Medal of Inaugural Committee, Mar. 4, 1909; Fireman's 
Badge ; 

Cincinnati Commercial Club Banner Program of Entertain- 
ment given on 25th anniversary, May 25, 1905, and a souvenir 
of that occurrence in the form of a pack of cards illustrated with 
views of this city. 

Mrs. E. C. Id dings. 

Photograph of Rev. James Kemper, (pioneer clergyman of 
Cincinnati) ; 

Daguerreotypes of Peter Kemper and his wife. 

Some of the titles added this year by purchase are: New 
Jersey as a Colony and State: Avery's History of the United 
States, 6 vols. ; The South in the Building of the Nation, 8 vols. ; 
Knickerbocker's History of New York, 1826; Political History 


of New York, vol. 3, 1909; Repeal of the Missouri Compromise; 
Story of the Great Lakes ; Remaking of the Mississippi ; Romance 
of American Expansion; Home letters of General Sherman; 
Historic Indiana; Speakers of the House; Great Speeches of 
Garfield • Poets of Ohio by Venable ; Mackay's Western Terri- 
tory ; Political History of Slavery by W. H. Smith; Works of 
James Buchanan, Vols. 7-9; Reminiscences of Carl Schurz ; 
Travels of four years and a half in the United States, 179S- 
1802, by John Davis; Blake's Visit to some American Schools 
and Colleges, 1865, (Oberlin and Antioch Colleges, St. Mary 
Institute, and Public Schools) ; Col. Crockett's Tour to the 
North & Down East, 1834; Caulkins' New London, (1st ed.) ; 
Narratives of New Netherland, 1609-1664; 1 volume containing 
22 pamphlets relating to the Miami University, 1S38; Four 
months in a Sneak-Box, 2600 miles down the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi rivers, by N. H. Bishop, 1875 ; History of the Mennonites 
of America; 2 volumes of Cincinnati Newspapers, "The Midnight 
Pry". Tftfi-i and "The Day-Star", 1846-7, which were published 
by the Shakers ; etc. 

A few incomplete sets, gifts to the library years ago, have 
been perfected by the following purchases : Vol. 6 of School- 
craft's Indians ; Vol. 2 of Benton's Thirty Years in the Senate ; 
Vol. 7 of 1 st Series, and Vols. 1-15 of 2d Ser. of Jared Sparks' 
American Biography; and, by purchase and exchange, several of 
our sets of the publications of different Historical Societies, which 
were deficient in parts of volumes, have been filled in. Also a 
number of biographies and a few genealogies have been added 
to the collection. 

Our Society is indebted to a number of distant friends for 
generous donations, namely: The New Hampshire State Library 
for 6 volumes of history and genealogy ; to Mr. V. H. Paltsits, 
State Historian, for 2 volumes, "Minutes of the Commissioners 
for detecting and defeating Conspiracies in the State of New- 
York, Albany County Sessions, i778- # 8i" ; to the Litchfield County 
(Conn.) University Club for 3 volumes, namely: "The Sport of 
Bird Study" by H. K. Job; "Clergymen of Litchfield Co." and, 
"'The County Regiment, a sketch of the 2nd Regiment of Conn. 
V. H. A., originally the 19th V. I. in Civil War"; to Mr. H. N. 
Casson, the author, a copy of "Cyrus Hall McCormick, his life 
and work"; to Mr. Edwin J. Sellers, compiler, 2 volumes, the 

.- . 147 

De Carpentier and the Pfeiffer Family genealogies ; and, to Mr. 
Samuel Abbott Green, the author, a copy of "John Foster the 
earliest American Engraver and the first Boston Printer.'-' 

The Brewster Genealogy. 2 large volumes, compiled by a 
Cincirmatian, Mrs. Emms C. Brewster Jones, has been donated 
by her to the Society. Two small books, the "Ohio Annual 
Register, 1835" and the "Ohio Form Book containing precedents 
for proceedings under the laws of the State of Ohio in relation 
to Roads, Deeds, Wills", etc.. 1831, have been presented by Mr. 
Charles W. Short. Both of these bear the autograph of J. 
Cleves Short. 

Miss Jane C. Neave has given a copy of James Hall's "West- 
ern Souvenir for 1829". Mr. Eugene F. Bliss gave to this col- 
lection, besides various other volumes, a copy of the "Memoires 
de M. Le Due de Lauzun", who served in the American Revo- 
lution with the French auxiliaries; and, through the unceas- 
ing generosity of Mr. Bliss, we receive, year after year, the 
Nation, the American Folk-lore. North American Review. Cen- 
tury, American Historical Review, and the Harvard Graduates 
Magazine, all in fine half morocco bindings. 

Mr. A. H. Chatfield has donated 20 bound volumes of the 
Scribner Magazine, thus bringing our set up to date, and Mr. 
Joseph Wilby has had 12 volumes of one of our periodicals bound, 
and, by exchange, I have added largely to other sets. If some 
of our members would save their copies of the Atlantic Monthly 
and the Harper's Magazine and send them to this Society when 
no longer desired by them, the gifts would be very acceptable. 

The work of the library has progressed in the usual manner. 
A number of persons from distant points have visited the library 
during the year to search for historical matter of early dates, 
and in every instance surprise and satisfaction has been expressed 
over the amount deposited here, and each visitor has commented 
upon the undesirable location of our Society, as being so far 
distant from the center of the city as to prevent a full day's re- 
search in the library. Undoubtedly the interests of the Society 
would be greatly advanced by a return to the business part of 
the city, or other location more accessible and convenient for 
visitors and members alike. 

L. Belle Hamlin, Librarian. 



Academy of History and Antiquities, Stockholm, Sweden, 
American Association for International Conciliation, . . 

American Jewish Historical Association, 

Anti-imperialistic League, 

Bunker Hill Monument Association, 

Cambridge Historical Society, . 

Canadian Institute, 

Chicago Historical Society, 

Cincinnati — 

Arbitration and Pr.acc Society, 

Chamber of Commerce, 

Children's Home, 

Commissioners of Waterworks, 

Museum Association 

Nomad Club (per Miss L. Nichols), 

Ohio Humane Society, 

Ohio Mechanics' Institute, 

Orchestra Association, 

Public Library, 

University of Cincinnati, 

Clark University (Mass. ), 

Colorado College, 

Colorado Scientific Society, 

xilorado State Historical Society, 

Connecticut Historical Society, 

Connecticut Bureau of I>abor Statistics, 

Connecticut State Library, 

Essex Institute, 

Illinois State Historical Society, 

Indiana Historical Society 

Institute Geol6gico de Mexico, 

Iowa Grand Lodge, 

Iowa Historic Department, 

Iowa State Historical Society, 

Johns Hopkins University Library, 

Kansas State Historical Society, 

Lake Mohonk Conference, 

Litchfield County (Conn.) University Club, 

Massachusetts Historical Society, 


Medford Historical Society, 7 

Military Order of the Loyal legion, U. S. — 

California 47 

Iowa, S 

Minnesota, '4 

New York, *8 

Ohio 6 5 

Wisconsin J " 

Milwaukee Public Museum, ' 

Minnesota Historical Society, 2 

Missouri State Historical Society, ° 

Newberry Library, ' 

New Hampshire State Library, b 3 

New Haven Colony Historical Society, ' 

New Jersey Historical Society, 3 

New York Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, ' 

New York Public Library, I2 

New Y r ork State Historian, 2 

N»v v ?-k c '-'r Historical Asseetalioii « 

North Dakota State Historical Society, 2 

Oberlin College Library, ■ 

Agricultural Experimental Station, ' 

Archaeological and Historical Society, ' 5 

Board of Health, 3 

Borird of State Charitie ; 2 

Diocese of Southern Ohio, ' 

Stats University, ' 

Ohio Society of New York, • 

Ohio Society Sons of the Revolution, ' 

Open Court Publishing Co., ' 

Pennsylvania Prison Society, ' 

Phiiadelpl ia, McKinley Memorial Committee of, ' 

Railway News Bureau, ' 

Royal Society of Canada, • J 

St. Louis Mercantile Library, • 

Schnectady County Historical Society l 

Syracuse Public Library, ' 

Texas State Historical Association, 4 

Toledo Public Library, ' 

United States- 
Bureau of American Ethnology, 4 

Bureau of Education, ,1 2 

Bureau of Census, i 

Coast and Geodetic Survey, z 1 

Department of Commerce and Labor, ' '4 

Department of State, ' 

Geological Survey, ,0 


United States. — Continued. 
Interstate Commerce, 


Navy Department, 

Smithsonian Institution 

Universite de Toulouse, 

University of California, 

University of Colorado, 

University of Illinois, 

University of Michigan. 

University of Nashville, 

University of Toronto, 

Virginia State I-ibrary, 

Washington State University Historical Society, 

Western Reserve Historical Society, 

Williams Directory Company, 

Wisconsin Natural History Society, 

Wisconsin State Historical Society, 

Vvoicesier Public library, 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 

Yale University, 


Berry, Dr. S., 

Bradford, J. E., 

Cadle, Cornelius, 

Casson, H. W., 

Clark, A. H. Co., 

Depew, CM., : 

Dickore, Miss M. P., '. 

Donovan, J. M., 

Espy, Arthur, 

Hollingshead, Mrs. R. M., miscellanies & 

Hosea, V,'. G., early newspapers 

Hunt, G. P., 

Iddings, Mrs. E. C, miscellanies & 

Jones, Mrs. E. C. B., 

Jones, W. St. J., mss. ,V 

Maxwtll, W. A., newspapers & 

Perkins, J. H., 

Sellers, J. E., 

Short, C. W., diss. & misc. 

Spencer, F., 

Stansbury, P. W 

Thayer, G. A., 

Thomas, A. A., misc. & 

Towle Mnf. Co • 

Warren, F. E., 

Williams, H. A., 







Anderson. Mrs. L. N., newspapers 

Bliss, K. F., 35 64 

Bollock, J. W., 1 

Chatneld, A. H., newspapers & 

Chatfield, Mrs. A. H. mss. & 

Cox, I. J., 

Dabney, C. W., 

Green, S. A., 

Hamlin, L. B 3 newspapers & 

Hinkle, F. W., ■ ■ • 

Holmes, D. H 2 early newspapers 

Ingalls, M. E., misc. 

James, D. L., mss., 3 newspapers, 2 62 

Neave, Miss J. C. misc. & 1 

VVilby, Joseph, , 8 13 

Window, T. F I 8 




? 7 









The Librarian's Report is sufficient account of ourselves dur- 
ing the past year. 

The Quarterly Publications of the Society have included as 
Numbers i and 2, of Volume IV, Selections from the James 
McBride Manuscripts, relating to Miami University. Their pub- 
lication at this time seemed fitting recognition by our Society 
of Miami's Hundredth Anniversary. The selections were ar- 
ranged and edited by John Ewing Bradford, Associate Professor 
of History at Miami University. 

The contents of our Quarterlies, beginning 1906, are: 

Volume I, 1906, No. 1, January-March, Personal Narrative 
of William Lytle. 

No. 2, April-June, Letters of Hiram Powers to Nicholas 

No. 3, July-September, Selections from The Torrence Papers, 
I, Edited by Isaac Joslyn Cox, Assistant Professor of History, 
University of Cincinnati. 

No. 4, October-December, The Annual Reports of the So- 

Volume II, 1907, No. 1, January-March, Selections from The 
Torrence Papers, II, Edited by Mr. Cox. 

No. 2, April-June, Selections from The Gallipolis Papers, 
Edited by Theodore T. Belote, Colonial Dames Fellow in Ohio 
Valley History, University of Cincinnati. 

No. 3, July-September, Selections from The Torrence Papers, 

III, Edited by Mr. Cox. 

No. 4, October-December, The Annual Reports of the So 

Volume III, 1908, No. 1, January-March, "Notices Concern- 
ing Cincinnati, by Daniel Drake," Part I (reprint). 

No. 2, April-June, The same, Part II (reprint). 

No. 3, July-September, Selections from the Torrence Papers, 

IV, Edited" by Mr. Cox. 


No. 4, October-December, The Annual Reports of the So- 

Volume IV, 1909, No. 1, Selections Relating to Miami Uni- 
versity, from the James McBride Manuscripts, I. 

No. 2, The same, II. 

Both Edited by Professor Bradford. 

No. 3, Selections from The Torrence Papers, V, Edited by 
Mr. Cox. 

No. 4 will consist, as usual, of the Annual Reports of the 

This Society expresses here its appreciation of careful and 
scholarly editing by Professor Cox, Professor Bradford, and 
Mr. Belote, of material from our collections appearing in these 

Two Corporate Members have died during the year, both on 
the same dav, December 15th, 190S; Daniel Henry Holmes and 
Mrs. Charles W. Baker. Mr. Holmes had been a member for 
over twenty years ; Mrs. Baker for over ten. Both were valued 
members, interested in the work of the Society. 

The remoteness of our present quarters remains an increas- 
ing hindrance to our convenience and larger usefulness ; Hope 
abides. Let us also possess patience. 

Joseph Wilby. 

December 6, 1909. 



December 2, 1909. 
For the President and Members of the Historical and Philo- 
sophical Society of Ohio. 
I have the honor to present the annual report of the Assets 
and Liabilities of The Historical and Philosophical Society of 
Ohio for the year ending November 30th, 1909. 

Schedule "A." 

November 30th, 1909. 


C?sh in hands of Treasurer, #73^ 57 

Cash in hands of Librarian, 35 65 

5774 22 

Central Trust & Safe Deposit Interest Account, 12 54 

Investments, Exhibit i, 24,784 42 

Fee of property No. 107 W. Eighth St., 29,00000 

Total Assets 


Central Fund, Exhibit 2, $716 25 

Building Fund, " 3» *7»*92 H 

Endowment Fund " 4, 12,320 00 

Life Membership Fund, . " 5» 5»°37 '3 

Julius Dexter Publication Fund, Income, ... " 6, 13 65 

" " " " Principal, . . " 6, 1,074 25 

E. H. Appleton Memorial Fund, Income, " 7» 42 28 

" Principal. . . " 7, 4,143 4° 

Halsted Ncave Fund, Income, •* 8, 31 46 

•■' " " Principal, " 8, 4,4^8 25 

Margaret Rives King Fund, Income, .... *• 9, 160 54 

" " " " Principal, .... " 9, 8,397 50 

Colonial Dames Fund, Income, " 10, 19 10 

" " " Principal, " 10, 200 00 

Binding Fund, Income, " II, 7 59 

Principal, " II, 807 64 

Total liabilities, 


S54.571 18 

$54,571 18 

Schedule "B." 

For Year Ended November 30th, 1909. 


Dues — 1908, $30 00 

l *» 56ooo $S9Q ^ 

Income from Investments : 

General Fund, $34 65 

Life Membership Fund, 274 50 

Dexter Publication Fund, 40 60 

E. II. Appleton Fund, 195 50 

HaUted Neave Fund, 193 40 

Margaret Rives King Fund 332 00 

Colonial Dames Fund, 12 00 

Binding Fund, 72 00 $lfl ^ 6 5 

Rent of 107 W. Eighth St., to Oct. 31, 1909, 800 00 

Balance of M. R. King Legacy, 263 67 

ToLal Receipts, $2,808 3? 


Salaries — Librarian and Janitor, $1,050 00 

Assistant Librarian, 29 00 

Stationery, 4 70 

Postage, 31 70 

Insurance, 18 00 

Printing, 269 29 

Audit of Treasurer's Books 25 00 

Safe Deposit Box Rental, 7 00. 

Miscellaneous, 50 95 

E. H. Appleton Fund, Purchases and Ex- 
penses, 160 93 

M. R. King Fund, Purchases and Expenses, 288 66 

Colonial Dames Fund, Purchases and Ex- 
penses, 7 63 

Binding Fund — Bindin;,' 67 60 

Central Fund, 79 53 

Investments Purchased for : 

Margaret Rives King Fund, $390 00 

Accrued Interest 351 

Julius Dexter Fund, $224 25 

Accrued Interest, 2 02 

Binding Fund $97 50 

Accrued Interest, 88 

Halsted Neave Fund $165 75 

Accrued Interest, 1 49 

E. H. Appleton Fund, $97 50 

Accrued Interest 88 

$2,089 99 

393 5» 
226 27 

98 38 
167 24 


$3.073 7 7 

Excess Disbursements over Receipts, . $265 45 

Cash Balance at Dec. i, 1908, .... 1,039 6 7 

Cash Balance at Nov. 30, 1909, . . . $77 4 22 


Exhibit "I" 


November 30th, 1909 

General Fund : 

10 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), $716 25 

Life Membership Fund : 

S3 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), £4,425 75 
Part Interest in $2,000 C. & O. Railway. Co. 4^^, 

Bonds (cost), 314 38 

4 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), . 289 00 

iS, 029 13 
Savings Deposit — 3$, Central Trust & Safe Dep. Co., 8 00 

Julius Dexter Publication Fund : 

12 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), 
Savings Deposit— 3$, Central Tru^t & Safe Dep. Co., 
Part Interest in C. L. & N. Railway Co. Bond, . . . 

E. H. Appleton Mfmorial Fund : 

3 Bonds C. H. oc D. Railway Co. 4^, (cost), .... 

13 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost) 
2 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), . 
Part Interest in $2,000 C. & O. Railway Co. Stock 

4%c? c Bonds (cost), 

$4,018 87 
Savings Deposit — 3$, Central Trust & Safe Dep. Co., 27 03 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Railway Co. Bond, ... 97 So 

, $834 00 
, 16 00 

224 25 

$2,SS2 50 
677 50 
I44 50 

3<4 37 

Halsted Neave Fund : 

C. L. & N. Railway Co. Bond, 4^ $1,000 00 

Kineon Coal Co. Bond, 5%, 1,000 00 

2 Norfolk & Western Railway Co. Bonds, 4% (cost), 1,755 °° 
Part Interest in Kentucky Central Ry. 4^ Bond, 1950, 4S7 50 
Part Interest in C. L. & N. Railway Bond 165 75 

Marg vRet Rives King Fund : 

4 Bonds C. H. & D. Railway Co. 4%% (cost), . . 
7 shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost). 
Part Interest in $2,000 C. & O. Ry. Co. 4^^ Bond, 
Part Interest in Kentucky Central Railway. Co. 4% 

Bonds, 1950, 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Railway Bond, .... 

Colonial Dames Fund : 

4 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), . 
Binding Fund : 

10 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), 

Savings Deposit — 3^ Central Trust & Safe Dep. Co. 

Part Interest in C.L. & N. Railway Bond, . . . 


(Increase during year, $975.00.) 


5.037 13 

,074 25 

4,143 4o 

$4,512 50 

481 25 
. I. 551 25 

4,^uo ^ 

1,462 50 
390 00 

8.397 5o 

200 00 

, $680 63 
29 51 

97 So 

807 64 

$24,784 42 

(Exhibi "2T) 


November 30th, 1909 

Receipts and Transfers : 

Dues, 1908, $30 00 

" 15-09, 560 00 

H590 00 

Cincinnati Street Railway Dividend 30 00 

Cash Donation, 2 15 

Sale of Catalogues, 2 50 

Transferred from Rife Membership Fund 274 70 

Transferred from Endowment Fund, 615 00 

Disbursements : 

Salaries — Ribrarian and janitor, #1,05003 

Assistant for Ribrarian, 29 00 

Printing, 269 29 

Postage, 31 70 

Insurance, iS 00 

Paper for Qwirterly, 2<S 9S 

Subscriptions and Due-:, 36 00 

Dues of Ribrarian, 10 00 

Stationery, 470 

Genera! Expense, 82. 95 

Miscellaneous, 4 55 

£1,514 44 

.565 «7 

Deficit Carried to Building Fund, .... #50 73 

General Fund Investment Account, ... £716 25 


(Exhibit "3") 

November 30th, 1909 



Rents to Oct. 1st, 1909, ?8oo 00 

Deficiency transferred to Principal Account, .... 507 86 

Disbursements : 

Deficiency to Dec. 1st, 1908 $642 13 

Interest on Endowment Fund, 615 00 

Deficiency from General Fund, 5° 73 

$1,307 S(> 

$i,3c>7 86 


Credit Balanc? st Dec. 1, 190S, $'7»°57 87 

Transferred from Income Account 134 27 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30, 1909, $17,192 14 

(Exhibit "4") 


November 30th, 1909 

Receipts : 

Interest on Loan to Building Lund $615 00 


Transferred to General Fund, £615 00 


Credit Balance at Dec. 31, 190S {12,320 00 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30, 1909, $1 2,320 00 


(Exhibit "5") 

November 30th, 1909 


Receipts : 

Cincinnati Street Railway Dividend, $261 00 

C. & O. Railway Bond Interest, 13 50 

Interest on Deposits, 29 

Disbursements : 

Transferred to General Fund, 

Credit Balance at Dec. ist, 1908, 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30th, 1909, 

(No change during year.) 

5274 79 







(Exhibit "6") 

November 30th, 1909. 


Credit Balance at Dec. ist, 1908, 

Receipts : 

Cincinnati Street Railway Divdends, $36 00 

C. L. & N. Railway Bond Interest, 4 60 

Interest on Deposits, 58 

Disbursements : 

Purchase of C. L. & N. Railway Bond, $224 25 

Interest accrued on same, 2 02 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30, 1909, ..... 


Credit Balance at Dec. 1st, 1908, 

Purchase of f s * a of Si, 000 C. L. & N. Railway Bond, . . 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30, 1909, 

(Increase during year, $ 224.25.) 


$ioS 74 

41 18 

$239 92 

226 27 
$13 6 5 

$850 00 
224 25 

51,074 25 

(Exhibit "7") 

November 30th, 1909 


Credit Balance at Dec. 1st, 190S, 


Cincinnati Street Railway Dividend, $45 00 

C. H. & D. Railway Bond Interest, ........ 135 00 

C. & O. Railway Bond Interest, '3 5° 

C. L. & N. Railway Bond Interest 2 00 

Interest on Deposits, 86 

Disbursements : 

Books Purchased, $160 93 

C. L. Si N. Railway Bond, 97 5° 

Accrued Interest on same, ... 88 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30th, 1909, .... 


Credit Balance Dec. 1st, 1908, 

Purchase of -^ of C. L. & N. Railway Bond, 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30th, 1909, .... 
(Increase during year, $97.50. ) 

£105 23 

196 36 
$301 59 

259 3 1 

I42 28 

$4,045 90 
97 5o 

$4,143 40 

(Exhibit "8") 

November 30th, 1909 


Credit Balance at Dec. 1st, 1908, 

Receipts : 

C. L. & N. Railway Bond Interest, 

Kentucky Central Railway Bond Interest, . . . . 

N. & W. Railway Bond Interest, 

Kineon Coal Co. Bond Interest, 


$43 40 
20 00 
80 00 
50 00 

$5 30 

193 4° 
I198 70 

Disbursements : 

C. L. & N. Railway Bonds $165 75 

Accrued Interest, 1 49 


Credit Balance at Nov. 30th, 1909 $31 46 


Credit Balance Dec. 1st, 190S. $4,242 50 

Purchase of r y o - of $1,000 C. L. & N. Railway Bond. . . 165 75 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30th, 1909, .... $4,408 25 

(Increase during year, S165.25.) 

(Exhibit "9") 

November 30th, 1909 


Credit Balance at December 1st, 190S, $247 04 

Receipts : 

Cincinnati Street Railway Dividend, $21 00 

Kentucky Central Railway Bond Interest 60 00 

C. H. & D. Railway Bond Interest, 180 00 

C. & O. Railway Bond Interest, 63 00 

C. L. & N. Railway Bond Interest, 8 00 

Transferred from Principal Account, 62 50 394 50 

$641 54 
Disbursements : 

Purchases and Expenses, $288 66 

C. L. & N. Railway Bond, . ■ 190 00 

Accrued Interest, 2 34 481 00 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30th, 1909, .... $160 54 


Credit Balance at Dec. 1st, 190S, $8,007 5° 

Puichase of ^ of $1,000 C. L. & N. Railway Bond, . . 390 CO 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30TH, 1909, . . . £8,397 50 


Cash Received Dec. 24, 1908, $263 67 

Purchase of C. L. & N. Railway Bond $200 00 

Accrued Interest on same, •• Ir 7 

Transferred to Income Account, 62 50 

$263 67 

(Increase during year, £390.00. ) 


(Exhibit "10") 

November 30th, 1909 


Credit Balance at Dec. 1st, igoS, $14 73 


Cincinnati Street Railway Dividend, 12 00 

S26 73 

Disbursements : 

Purchase of Books, 7 63 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30th, 1909, .... £19 10 

Credit Balance Dec. 1st, 190S, $200 00 

Credit Balance Nov. 30th, 1909, $200 00 

(No change during year. ) 

(Exhibit "ll") 

November 30th, 1909 


Credit Balance at Dec. 1st, 190S, Sioo 59 

Receipts : 

Cincinnati Street Railway Dividend, $30 00 

C. L. & N. Railway Bond Interest 2 00 

E. F. Bliss, 40 00 

Interest on Deposits, 98 

72 98 
£i73 57 

Disbursements : , 

Binding, $67 60 

C. L. & N. Bond, 97 50 

Accrued Interest, SS 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30th, 1909, .... 


Credit Balance Dec. ist, 190S, e 

Purchase of ^ of $1,000 C. L. & N. Railway Bond, . . 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30th, 1909, .... 
(Increase during year. 507.50.) 


165 98 

$7 59 

£710 14 

97 5t» 

SS07 64 


Cincinnati, December 3rd, 1909. 

To the President and Members of the Historical and Philo- 
sophical Society of Ohio, Cincinnati. 

In accordance with instructions, examination has been made 
of the books and accounts of The Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio for the year ended November 30th, 1909, and 
we submit as part of this report the following Schedules, viz. : 

Schedule "A" — Statement of Assets and Liabilities at November 
30th, 1909. 

Schedule "B" — Statement of Receipts and Disbursements for the 
year ended November 30th, 1909. 

These Schedules are supported by sundry Exhibits showing 
the principal items contained therein. 

Receipts and Disbursements have been examined and found 
correct and the Cash Balance as shown by the books at date of 
closing, November 30th, 1909, agrees with the balance on deposit 
in bank. 

Securities as shown by Investment Account have been duly 
examined and found in accordance with account as shown by 
Exhibit 1. 

The statement of Assets and Liabilities, as shown, repre- 
sents the financial condition of the Society at date of closing, 
November 30th, 1909. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Guy H. Kennedy, 
Certified Public Accountant. 



Anderson, Davis C. 
Anderson, William H. 
Anderson, Mrs. William P. 
Ault, L. A. 
Balke, Rudolph F. 
Battelle, John G. 
Brunswick, B. H. 
Caldwell, Charles E. 

Care v.-, Joseph T. 

Cist, Charles M. 

Compton, William C. 

Dabney, Charles W. 

Dandridge, Miss Mary E. 

Davis, Mrs. Nathaniel Henchman 

DeCamp, Walter A. 

Emery, Mrs. Thomas J. 

Foley, B. W. 

Foster, Miss Anna H. 

Foster, William Lytle 

Forchheimer, Mrs. Frederick 

Freiberg, Maurice J. 

Gano, Mrs. John A. 

Goepper, Edward 

Greve, Charles Theodore 

Hamlin, Miss L. Belle 

Harrison, W. PI. 

Hinkle, Frederick W. 

Holiister, Howard C. 

Holmes, John R. 

Howe, Mrs. Andrew J. 

IngaJls, M. E. 

James, Davis L. 
Kittredge, Edmund W. 
I^eaman, Mrs. Robert F. 
Levy, Harry M. 
Longworth, Mrs. Nicholas 
Ludlow, William S. 
McDonald, Alexander 
Miller, Griffin T. 
Parkinson, George B. 
Pendleton, Elliott H. 
Procter, William Cooper 
Procter, Mrs. William Cooper 
Fyle, E. C. 
RansohofF, Joseph 
Schmidlapp, J. G. 
Shillito, Stewart 
Storer, Bellamy 
Strobridge, Nelson W. 
Sykes, Gerrit S. 
Taft, Charles P. 
Taylor, William W. 
Voorheis, Albert B. 
Whitcomb, Merrick 
Wiborg, Frank B. 
Wiborg, Mrs. Frank B. 
Wilson, Obed J. 
Wilson, Mrs. Obed J. 
Winslow, Howard S. 
Winslow, John F. 
Worthington, Edward 
Worthington, William 
Wulsin, Lucien 



Anderson, Mrs. Louise N. 
Bliss, Eugene F. 
Buliock, James W. 
Chatfield, Albert H. 
Chatfield, Mrs. Albert H. 
Davis, Nathaniel Henchman 
Fleischmann, Julius 
Fletcher, Miss Clara B. 
Hurd, E. O. 
Jones, Frank J. 
Jones, Mrs. Frank J. 

Laws, Miss Annie 
Livingood, Charles J. 
Neave, Miss Alice 
Neave, Miss Jane C. 
Procter, Harley T. 
Storer, Mrs. Bellamy 
Thomson, Peter G. 
Vail, Henry H. 
Walker, Mrs. Paul Francis 
Wilby, Joseph 
Woods, Harry F. 


Adams, Charles Francis 
Cox, Isaac J. 
Duro, Cesnri.:> F. 
Foulke, William Dudley 
Galbreath, Charles P. 
Green. Samuel A. 

Hayes, E. G. 
Heath, William McK. 
Hoyt, Albert H. 
Thwaites, Reuben Gold 
Tyson, Philip T. 


Durrett, Reuben T. 

Venable. William H 


Mrs. Charles W. Baker, December 15th, 1908. 
Mr. Daniel Henry Holmes, December 13th, 19 


Quarterly Publication of the His- 
torical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio 

Vol. V, No. 1 

Brief Accounts of 

Journeys in the Western Country, 1809-1812. 



I. Tour of Mobille, Pensacola.. &c, by Peyton Short of Ken- 
tucky, in 1809. Account enclosed in letter to Hon. Henry 

II. Tour to Fort St. Stephens, Fort Stoddert, and Pensacola, 
by Peyton Short, described in letter to Dr. Frederick Ridge- 
ley, 1S09. 

III. Journey to Lexington, Ky.. by James McBride of Hamilton. 
Ohio, related in letter to Margaret Poe, 1810. 

IV. Voyage down the Mississippi river to New Orleans, during 
the period of the New Madrid earthquake, by James 
McBride, described in letter to Mary McRoberts, 1812. 


Major Peyton Short, the writer of the following descriptions 
of journeys through a portion of the Mississippi territory, made 
by him in 1S09, was the second son of William Short and Lady 
Elizabeth Skipwith. born December 17, 1761, in Spring Garden, 
Surry County, Virginia. His elder brother, William, born in 
1757, was the early American Diplomat of that name. 

In 17S7, when about 27 years of age, Peyton Short married 
Maria, daughter of Judge John Cleves Symmes, and three years 
later moved with his family into Kentucky, where he was elected 
s'o^hj after f<~-. the first State Senate, 1792-96. Influenced by the 
mania for land speculation which was prevalent at that time 
throughout the United States, he became the owner of thousands 
of acres of "pioneer lands" in Kentucky and Ohio. Among other 
tracts, he purchased from Judge Symmes a section in Cincin- 
nati, which received the name of "Short Square"; a portion of 
this was subsequently owned by his brother William. 

His wife died in 1801, leaving three children: Charles Wil- 
kins Short became a physician, and married Mary Churchill; 
John Cleves Short, a lawyer and jurist of Cincinnati, who married 
Betsey Basset Harrison, daughter of William Henry Harrison 
and his wife Anna Symmes ; and a daughter Anna. About 1S03 
Pey.on Short married second Mrs. Jane Churchill, widow of 
Armistead Churchill, and sister of Col. James Henry of New 
Jersey. By this wife (who died in 1808-09) there were three 
daughters: Jane, Elizabeth, and Sarah. 

During these years in Kentucky, he sustained very large 
financial losses owing principally to his extensive speculations in 
land, and when he went into the Mississippi territory in 1809, it 
was with the hope of retrieving his fortune. Consequently his 
own interest led him to observe keenly all that was presented to 
his view, and to make his notes clear and explicit for his own use 
in the future. He returned to Kentucky after several years and 
died in Christian County September I, 1825. 


The paper bearing title "Tour to Mobille, Pensacola, &c." 
contains a vivid description of that southern section regarding 
the climate, soil, scenery, condition of the inhabitants, commer- 
cial possibilities, etc., and it was forwarded to the Hon. Henry 
Clay, for his use, during the time the question of the occupancy 
of West Florida by the United States was under consideration in 
both Houses of Congress, and, when Mr. Clay made an extended 
speech in favor of such occupation. (Annals of Congress, nth 
Cong. 3d Sess. p. 55.) 

This manuscript was presented to the Historical and Phil- 
osophical Society of Ohio, by Mr. Charles W. Short, son of 
Judge John Cleves Short and grandson of Major Peyton Short. 
The Society is further indebted to him for permitting the publica- 
tion, in this Quarterly, of the additional account of Pensacola, 
&c, contained in the letter addressed to Dr. Ridgeley, and for 
the privilege of examining various family letters and papers. 

L. Bsu,s Hamlin. 


Sunday, Nov/ 12th iSoq. Left Melton's about 12 OClock in 
Company with Capt. 1 John Johnson, who with three other men 
are about to take seven pack-horse loads of powder to the settle- 
ments on the Mobille, and proceed from thence westwardly, on 
a trace nearly parallel to the Tennessee river, and not more, upon 
a medium, than two miles distant therefrom, to a water course 
a short distance from a small Indian hamlet. We here encamped, 
and having no other shelter than such as we could make by 
stretching our blankets over a half-faced tent, suffered much 
from a succession of heavy rains that fell during the night. Mel- 
ton is an old Indian trader, living w r ith his family (who are of 
the Cherokee nation) and several other families of the same 
ixifee, on the Bouth side of the Tennessee river, at the head of 
the Muscle Shoals. There are few situations more beautiful than 
this. His buildings are erected on a high bluff, which gives you 
a commanding view of the river, at this place three miles wide. 
Below you have a view of a series of small islands beginning 
about a male from Melton's and continuing as far as the eye can 
extend below. Above, at the distance of about three or four 
miles the eye is delighted with the prospect of a large and fertile 
island containing about 6000 acres of land, all of which is of the 
richest quality, and at present covered with lofty timber and the 
most luxuriant cane. The cane here grows fully twenty feet 
high, and nearly from one to two inches in diameter. The hori- 
zon to the North is terminated by a prospect of those distant 
mountains which separate the waters of the Tennessee and Cum- 
berland rivers. The Country back forms almost a perfect plane, 
and the lands of a very fertile quality, being covered with hickory, 
oak, poplar, black walnut, &c. 

13th. — Having spent some time this morning in drying our 
clothes, blankets, &c, we proceeded on our journey through a 
chain of Indian settlements for about six miles and continuing 
our course for about fourteen miles further, encamped in a bot- 

1 Heitman, in Hist. Register of the U. S. Army, mentions John 
Johnson, of Pennsylvania, as Captain of 5th Infantry in 1809, and Major 
of 21st Infantry in 1813. Died Dec. 11, 1S13. 

torn of wet swampy ground, where for the want of any kind of 
running stream, we were obliged to make use of the water which 
fell during the rams of the preceding night. The country through 
which ue this day travelled is generally of pretty good quality, 
excepting the Indian settlements, where the lands appear much 
exhausted by a long successsion of injudicious tillage; their prin- 
cipal crop being Indian corn, and the indolence of those people 
inducing them to prefer the cultivation of their old lands to the 
labour of clearing the new. 

14th. — We pursued our journey early in the morning, & hav- 
ing travelled about twenty miles through much the same kind 
of country as that which I have just described, encamped on a 
pleasant spot of ground, well watered and with a tolerable supply 
of cane for our horses. 

15th. — Capt. Johnson & myself, having this morning pre- 
ceded the party, reached Levi Colbert's 2 on the Natchez road. 
aftei riding about five or six mires from our last nights encamp- 
ment. Having breakfasted at this place we proceeded on our 
journey & crossing Bear-Creek, ascended the high lands, which 
separate the waters of the Tennessee from those of the Mobille, 
& encamped on a mountain. In the course of this day's jour- 
ney we passed through a considerable settlement of Chickasaw 
Indians, — the lands in general of good quality — growth prin- 
cipally of hickory and oak, until you reach Bear-Creek, after 
passing which you soon begin to ascend the high lands above 
mentioned, which arc poor and principally covered with pine: — 
Levi Colbert is the son of a Scotchman of the same name, his 
mother a Chickasaw Indian. He is about 50 years of age & 
is very comfortably situated at a place called the Buzzard's roost, 
on a small water course which empties into Bear-Creek. He has 
at this place a large well cultivated farm, about 30 or 40 likely 
slaves and a white overseer to superintend them — a good stock 
of cattle and hogs. He keeps a Public house in a large frame 
building & affords very tolerable accommodations ; & as many 
travellers on their road to and from N. Orleans, Natchez, &c. 
call on him, he through that medium obtains an ample market 
for his superfluous produce. Colbert is one of the chiefs of the 
Chickasaw nation, and a very respectable intelligent man : — he 

2 Levi Colbert, the celebrated Chickasaw Chief mentioned in Pickett's 
Hist, of Alabama, Vol. II, p. 187. 


appears to contemplate with much satisfaction the amelioration 
of the condition of his countrymen. In a conversation with me 
on the subject of the superior advantages of the agricultural to 
the hunter state he made a very impressive illustration of his 
ideas on that subject. "Formerly" (said he), "when impelled by 
hunger, I was obliged to set out with my gun on my shoulder in- 
quest of the uncertain product of the chase — I returned some- 
times loaded with a superabundance of wild meats, the greater 
part of which would become putrid before it could be consumed ; 
and at another time I would be compelled to fast whole days for 
the want of necessary sustenance. Such is the uncertain life of 
the hunter. But now when I want a bear I order my people to 
kill a hog. If I desire a buff aloe, a fat bullock immediately pre- 
sents itself to my view, and the fertile soil yields an abundant 
return to the labour of the industrious husbandman." 

16th. — This morning five of our horses having strayed from 
our can r , a cofisrderable part of the day was lost in searching 
for them. They were at length found about five miles back at 
the house of an Indian, who returning with the men, sent in pur- 
suit of the horses, demanded a dollar for stopping each of them. 
After passing 10 or 12 miles on the Natchez road over several 
bold stream-, being the North Eastern sources of the Tombeck- 
bee [Tombigbee], we reached an Indian habitation, where wc 
were kindly leceived, & supplied on reasonable terms, with prov- 
ender for our horses and some provisions for ourselves. 

fjth. — Having travelled 5 or 6 miles this morning over a 
rugged, mountainous & in some places a very swampy road, 
we reached the house of a half Indian by the name of James 
Browne, who keeps a tavern on the Natchf z road about 42 miles 
S. W. of Colbert's ferry on Tennessee river. At this place the 
trace, which leads to the American settlements on the Tombeck- 
bee, to Pensacola &c, turns oft to the left from the Natchez 
road. This is the first time that we have varied our course since 
we left the Muscle Shoals, having generally travelled hitherto in 
a westwardly direction. On this trace we pursued our journey 
about 12 miles further and encamped on a considerable creek, a 
branch of the Tombeckbee. 

18th. — Having made this day a journey of about 20 miles, we 
reached McGilveray's 3 [McGillivray], a Chickasaw hamlet of 

descendants of the Scotchman, Lachlan McGillivray. 


about 10 or 12 families. The men were all out upon a hunting 
part)'; but we got of McGilveray's wife and daughters corn, 
bacon, chickens, &c. on reasonable terms. The highlands from 
Browne's to this place may be called pretty good cotton lands. 
The bottoms [are] not of the most fertile quality, & rather too 
wet, the growth of the former hickory, oak, dogwood, Sec. — of the 
latter principally white oak, some sugar maple & sassafras. 

19U1, 20th & 21st. — Having travelled sixty miles over a 
country for the most part very fertile, we reached Pitchelin's, 
& having purchased some corn for our horses & provisions for 
ourselves, we pursued our course about 5 miles & encamped on 
the 21st on the margin of a very abundant cane brake. Pitchelin 
lives within a quarter of a mile of the main Tombeckbee river, 
& on the edge of an extensive & fertile prairie. — He is a very in- 
telligent and respectable white man with an Indian family. He 
is in very good circumstances, possessing many slaves, horses, 
and cattle. He informed me that his father was a Scotchman 
& an Indian trader, that he took him into the Chickasaw r nation 
when he was very young, about the commencement of the Ameri- 
can war, and his father dying in that country he was brought up 
almost entirely by the Indians. He speaks very good English, 
is a man of excellent understanding & in manners & appearance 
may be said to be a gentleman. He has always had the confidence 
of every Indian Agent that has ever been employed in that 
country by the American government, & is a great favorite 
& a man of influence throughout the Chocktaw nation, & no man 
stands in higher credit at Pensacola & Mobile. He has a son 
whom he has educated in some public seminary in East Tennessee, 
who is employed with a very liberal salary, as an Interpreter in 
the U. States factory at St. Stephens. From McGilveray's to 
Pitchelin's, the lands are generally extremely fertile, and abound- 
ing in the most extensive and beautiful prairies. 

2 2d, 23d, 24th. — After a journey of fifty five miles over a 
handsome prairie country interpersed w T ith groves-- of timber, & 
intersected with bottoms covered with cane, we reached Starnes'. 
This country is for the most part badly watered, as far as a trav- 
eller can judge from appearances on the road. Starnes is a white 
man, a native of New England, & has also an Indian wife with 
three or four children. He is a blacksmith by profession & tells 
me that he worked sometime in the city of New York, where he 

enlisted as a soldier & joined Wayne's army at Cincinnati. Hav- 
ing afterwards descended the Mississippi his term of service 
expired while he was stationed at Fort Adams ; and that he was 
there employed by the Indian agent for the Chocktaw nation to 
prosecute his trade in that country. I found him also a very 
intelligent, communicative & obliging man. I forgot to mention 
in the proper place that we crossed Tibia Creek, which is the 
northern boundary between the Choctaws and Chickasaws, about 
a mile before we reached Pitchelin's. We breakfasted at Starnes' 
& pursuing our journey about 10 miles further, again encamped 
on the edge of a very fine Cane-brake. Having also purchased 
of some of the Indians, whose habitation? we passed, a sufficient 
supply of corn, venison & sweet-potatoes, both our horses and 
ourselves fared very well. 

2$th, 26th, 2/tli. — On these days wc travelled over a delight- 
fully watered country, but its face generally mountainous and the 
soil poors We passed through several Choctaw hamlets. The 
natives miserably poor. By them we were supplied with corn, 
ground peas, some venison & other meats. On one of the moun- 
tains about 20 miles S. W. of Starnes', we discovered a large 
quantity of Iron ore, which appeared to be of excellent quality ; 
and streams conveniently : tuated as well for forges as furnaces. 
On the 2/th aforesaid we reached the house of Charles Duzant, 
a Creole of West Florida by birth & of French parentage. He 
is an Indian trader and married to a good looking woman of the 
half-breed as they call them, her father a Spaniard & her mother 
a genuine Choctaw. Duzant is an honest, industrious, money- 
making man. He keeps a very good house of accommodation 
for the country he lives in. Although we got to this place to 
breakfast we concluded to spend the day here. I mean Johnson 
& myself. We therefore sent the pack-horse men forward. 

28th. — Left Duzant this morning and overtook the pack-horse 
drivers in the evening at their encampment about 30 miles in 
advance. The land through which we passed this day grew 
much better and is extremely well watered. 

29th. — This day left Capt. Johnson and his party, & in 
company with a Mr. Moore a post rider, who had overtaken us 
at Duzant's, proceeded 45 miles to Shaw's, the first white set- 
tlement between the state of Tennessee and the Tombeckbee. 

There is a considerable variety of soil between our last encamp- 
ment and this place. 

December 2nd. — Having remained at Shaw's two days, the 
first from choice, & the second from necessity arising from the 
badness of the weather, I left that place in the morning & 
reached Fort St. Stephens in the evening of the same day, 
about 25 miles. There is a considerable quantity of good land 
in the neighborhood of Shaw's, principally of the prairie char- 
acter ; as also in detached parcels on the road between Shaw's and 
St. Stephens, and the interjacent country [is] pretty well settled, 
considering its infancy. The boundary line, between the lands 
purchased by the U. States and those still held by the Choctaw 
Indians, crosses the road about 40 miles north of St. Stephens. 
I might add, in addition to what I have said with regard to the 
character of the land through which I have passed, that the 
Tombeckbce, throughout its whole course, waters an extensive 
bwdj oT the most fertile low -grounds, covered with cane of the 
largest growth, & abounding in red oak, white oak, sassafras of 
immense growth &: various other kinds of valuable timber, 
amongst which I must not omit the black or flowering locust. 
The same may be said of the Alabama & many of the important 
branches, which empty into that as well as the Tombeckbee river. 
In the neighborhood of St. Stephens there lies an extensive 
body of fertile lands, on the east side of the Tombeckbee, on a 
creek called Bassets Creek. St. Stephens lies on a high, elevated 
bluff on the Tombeckbee, a little below the 32nd degree of North 
Latitude, & as it is at the head of the tide water of that river, & 
not only has the character, but the appearance of a healthful 
situation, it must necessarily become a place of considerable 
consequence. At present it contains but a few houses & a small 
population, but that population of a respectable character. 

Dec. 4th. — Left St. Stephens; and after travelling about 30 
miles over a poor, piny and but thinly inhabited country, reached 
Mcintosh's 4 bluff, at the house of a Mr. Johnson, 5 an old Set- 
tler of this country, & a wealthy planter, by whom I was very 

"Mcintosh Bluff is situated upon the western bank of Tombigby, 
between its confluence with the Alabama and the town of St. 'Stephens. 

5 The first American Court in Alabama was held at Mcintosh Bluff, 
1803, and John Johnson, with two others, presided. Cf. Pickett's Hist, of 
Alabama, Vol. II, p. 198. 


hospitably received. On my road to this place I dined at the 
country town of Washington, a poor miserable place, filled with 
the lowest kind of Southern horse racers and sharpers. 

Dec. $ths — Proceeded to miles further to Ft. Stoddert, 6 which 
lies on the Mobile river about four miles below the junction of 
the and Alabama rivers, & seven above the line 
of the Spanish territory. Remaining eight or ten days at Judge 
Toulmin's 7 in the neighborhood of Ft. Stoddert and on the 

ijtli. — Set out in company with the Judge on a visit to Pen- 
sacola. We dined at the house of a Mrs. Hollinger, a wealthy and 
hospitiable widow, and crossing the Tombeckbee and Alabama in 
the evening of the same day reached the house of the Messrs. 
Pierces s living on the eastern bank of the last mentioned river. 
Between the Tombeckbee and Alabama rivers the land is ex- 
tremely fertile, being entirely bottom land & the upper end of 
Nannahabba island, which at this place is eight miles wude. On 
the road we passed through two extensive cotton plantations. 
The Messrs. Peirces emigrated about 20 years ago from one of 
the New England States and have acquired a handsome fortune 
by commerce. 

i/tJi. — Left the Messrs. Peirces, and after travelling- about 
100 miles in a South eastern direction across the river Perdido & 
several handsome rivulets, and having paassed several Cozv-herd 
establishments, we reached Pensacola about 12 o'Clock on the 
tweutierh December. This road throughout its whole extent runs 
through an extremely sterile country covered with one general 

6 Fort Stoddert was situated upon a bluff below the confluence of the 
Tombigby and Alabama Rivers, on the site of the Present Mt. Vernon, Ala. 
Cf. Pickett's Hist, of Ala., Vol. II, p. 179- 

7 Hon. Harry Toulmin, born in Taunton, Eng., 1766, was pastor of a 
Unitarian church in 17SS. He came to Virginia and the next year became 
President of the Transylvania University of Lexington, Ky. He was 
Secretary of the State of Kentucky for eight years ; studied law, and 
compiled a code of laws for the State. In 1S04 was appointed Judge of 
the Superior Court for the benefit of the settlements along Tombigby 
river, at which time he removed to a cantonment near Fort Stoddert. 
Cf. Pickett's Hist, of Ala., Vol. II, pp. 204-5. 

8 William and his brother John Pierce, from New England about 1800, 
established a cotton gin at the Boat Yard upon Lake Tensaw. The latter 
started the first American school in Alabama at the Boat Yard. Cf. 
Pickett's Hist, of Ala., Vol. II, pp. 189-190. 


forest of Pine. The town of Pensacola lies on a bay of the 
same name, about seven miles from the gulph of Mexico, & 
contains something more than 300 houses & a population of 
between 2 8c 3000 souls. It appears to be growing very fast, 
but I can see no permanent source of improvement. The seat 
of government for West Florida having been sometime fixed at 
this place, and a military establishment of about one thousand 
troops, added to the consideration of the beauty and health- 
fulness of its situation have hitherto conspired to invigorate 
its growth ; but take away the two first named causes of its 
improvement, and the latter I apprehend will not be sufficient 
to support it. The country around is but thinly inhabited. The 
market therefore is principally supplied from N. Orleans and 
the American settlements on the Tombeckbee. They sometimes 
receive a partial supply of flour from La Vera Cruz. Their 
chickens and wild meats are supplied by the Indians; and the 
butchers procure their beef from the different Cow-pens through- 
out the country. I found beef the only cheap article in this 
place. Every thing sold uncommonly high. Chickens at one 
dollar each. Bacon from 25 to 50 cents per lb. Flour 20$ per 
barrel. Sweet potatoes 2$ per bushel. Pumpkins from yj 1-2 to 
50 cents each. Turnips 6 1-4 cents each. Milk one dollar per 
quart. Eggs one dollar per dozen, and every other article in 
proportion. I here speak of the retail prices at which the in- 
habitants, who are the Consumers, purchase them. The traders, 
who at N. Orleans or elsewhere purchase these articles, of course 
must make a handsome profit; they sell out by wholesale to 
hucksters, who retail at the enormous advance I have just 
mentioned. — The lands lying in the neighborhood of Pensacola 
are miserably poor, excepting the bottoms of the river Escambia 
which puts into the bay of Pensacola a few miles above the 
town which are said to be both fertile and extensive. We re- 
mained at Pensacola two days and returned to Fort Stoddert on 
the 24th. 

31st. — On the Evening of this day left Ft. Stoddert in com- 
pany with one of the officers of that garrison, & set out in a 
Perogue on a visit to the town of Mobile, which we reached on 
the day following. On our way we passed a continued chain of 
large and fertile islands, some of them containing upwards of 
ten thousand acres of land, overgrown with cane of monstrous 


size & all those various kinds of timber, which are indicative 
of a fertile soil. It is supposed that between the confluence 
of the Tombeckbee & Alabama rivers & the town of Mobile, 
there is not less than one million of acres of this kind of land. 
The high lands from St. Stephens to the Gulph of Mexico are 
extremely sterile in every direction ; but covered with lofty pines, 
which must necessarily at no distant day be a source of immense 
profit to this Country. I had nearly forgotten to mention that 
the bottom & island lands, lying between Fort Stoddert and 
Mobile and in many places covered with large bodies of live-oak, 
said to be the most valuable species of timber for ship-building. 
The town of Mobile stands in a most beautiful situation on the 
bay of Mobile— It contains about 150 houses, & a population 
of between 7 & 800 souls, & a garrison of between 3 & 400 
troops. This place or some other town on the bay of Mobile 
must at some future day. for many very good reasons, become 
one of the largest & wealthiest seaports in North America. 

From what has already been observed in regard to the 
topographical character of the country embraced within the limits 
of the above journal, the objects which would present themselves 
to the view of such persons as might wish to migrate to that 
quarter, might readily be inferred. — The rich lands within the 
American line are well adapted to the culture of cotton, rice, 
indigo, Indian corn, tobacco ; and I have no doubt but flax and 
hemp might be cultivated to an advantage, at least in the upper 
part of that country. From partial trials which have been made 
on a small scale in the neighborhood of St. Stephens in the 
cultivation of wheat, the result has been favourable. From the 
Florida line to the entrance of the bay of Mobile into the 
gulph of Mexico the lands are nearly of the same description as 
from thence to St. Stephens ; the highlands extremely poor, 
but the bottoms in general rich and extensive. Below this line 
it is presumed that the sugar cane might be cultivated to con- 
siderable advantage. Most of the highlands being intersected 
with streams well calculated for mills, the pine-timber growing 
on them, might be made a source of great profit by the erection 
of saw-mills ; for the product of which there would be a growing 
demand not only in the country already mentioned, but likewise 
at New Orleans, the Havanna, as well as West India islands 
generally. Within these limits also tar, pitch & turpentine might 


be made to an indefinite amount & would become a source of 
great commercial profit not only to the manufacturer, but the 
country likewise. And these pine lands afford an inexhaustible 
forage for cattle, which are raised in innumerable herds, without 
any other attention but that of cutting & marking the calves once 
a year. Many persons, particularly in West Florida raise from 
2 to io,coo head without the necessity of providing any winter 
provender for them. And these herds of cattle might, with 
good husbandry, be made useful in the improvement of the 
barren lands, which in general afford a good foundation for 
manure. Here also, at a period not very remote, the business of 
ship-building will be in all probability carried on to great ad- 
vantage ; as not only the live-oak but every other species of 
timber necessary for that purpose, abounds in this country, & 
in addition to the tar, pitch, & turpentine, there is no doubt, as I 
have already said but that hemp would grow in great perfection, at 
least in the upper parts of the country. Iron, in the first com- 
mencement of the business could either be brought from the 
Atlantic States, or the Western country by the way of N. Orleans, 
or from Eastern Tennessee by the way of the Hiwassee & 
Alabama rivers. The latter would in all probability be the 
cheapest channel. But in the interior of the Mississippi Ter- 
ritory as I have already mentioned there are large and very 
flattering appearances of Iron ore, which no doubt could be 
worked to advanttage. I might also add to the list of resources, 
which this country possesses, the article of Pork, which in the 
upper parts of the territory might be raised to any amount, from 
the inexhaustible quantity of mast, which is afforded by the 
extensive forests of oak and hickory, with which that part of the 
country abounds — The whole of this country is no doubt well 
adapted to the culture of the different kinds of fruit to which the 
climate ma)' be congenial. The apple tree would flourish in the 
northern parts of that country, the peach throughout the whole 
extent ; & from the great variety of the most excellently flavoured 
grapes which grow spontaneously in every quarter, reason and 
observation in regard to the other climates of the world would 
point out this as one of the promising sections of the American 
continent for the culture of the vine. Below the 31st degree of 
North latitude figs and oranges grow in great perfection ; and 
it is presumed that the olive would grow as well below that line 


as in any of the regions of the western hemisphere in which 
that valuable tree is said to flourish. 

Dr Sir, 

Since putting into your hands my reflections on the subject 
of the Mobile navigation &c, I have thought that it might be in 
my power to afford you some information in regard to the 
country through which that navigation would pass ; and with that 
view have sent you the above extract from my Journal of the 
town, wch I made in the years 1809, & 1810. Should the remarks, 
which I have made on that subject afford you any additional 
intelligence beyond what you already possess, I shall be happy in 
having communicated it to you ; if not, I pray you to excuse the 
trouble, which I shall have given you in the perusal of the 
foregoing sheets. 

In the course of my observations on the resources of that 
country j. iw S u. to ineajjioii two important -""tides in the com- 
mercial World — I mean Staves & Heading (and many others no 
doubt, have been pretermitted, which might have been mentioned) 
with which that country could supply the World; as the white 
Oak, of immense Bulk, forms one of the principal growths on 
the bottoms of the Tombeckbee & Alabama Rivers, as well as the 
wet low-grounds of other streams emptying into those Rivers, 
and I may also add, of all the most fertile high lands. 

It will afford me great pleasure to hear from you whenever 
you make it convenient to write to me — I probably may descend 
the Mississippi this winter — If I should, Mr. Wilkins will know 
where to forward any communications with which you may be so 
good as to favor me. 

I am Dr Sir, Your friend &c, 

Peyton Short. 

Lexington — Octr. 21st. 1811. 
The Honble. Henry Clay, Esquire 

Member of the House of Representatives of the U. States, 

City of Washington. 

9 See p. 4 of this publication. 




Fort Stoddert — 22nd Deer. 1809. 
Dear Sir, 

About the first of this month I wrote both to you & Mr. 
Wilkihs 10 from Fort St. Stephens requesting the favor of you 
to address an answer not only to that letter but also to all my 
preceding letters to me at this place 

A few days after my last letter, 1 arrived at this place where 
I unexpectedly met with two old acquaintances, Judge Toulmin, 11 
& a Mr. Wilson Carman (nephew to Katherine Wilson's 12 father.) 
These gentlemen as well as the officers of Fort Stoddert have 
been extremely hospitiable & polite to me ever since my arrival 
in this quarter, and I cannot omit expressing my very great 
obligation to Colo. Sparks 13 the Commanding Officer at this 
place. Fie has indeed been as kind to me as a brother. Fie 
speaks with great friendship & regard of Mr. Wilkins, says that 
he has a son at school in Lexington under his patronage. I 
was extremely sorry it was not in my power to give the Colo, 
any certain account of his son, although I had a faint recollection 
of either seeing him at Mr. Wilkins', or hearing him or my 
sister speak of him. 

On the day before yesterday I returned from a tour to Pen- 
sacola about 100 miles distant from this place in Company 
with Judge Toulmin. This is a place more calculated for the 
healtkfulness of its situation than any other spot in America. It 
was there observed that whilst Great-Britain held her Colonies on 
the Continent of America that there were fewer cases of sickness 

30 ChrLrles Wilkins of Lexington, married a sister of Peyton Short. 
Family papers. 

11 See note 6 of the Quarterly. 

12 Katherine (Henry) Wilson, a sister of the second wife of Peyton 
Short. Fam. papers. 

13 Richard Sparks of Pennsylvania, was Captain, 1791 ; Major, 1S06; 
Lieut. Col., 1812; and honorably discharged from U. S. Army June 15. 
1815, and died same year. Cf. Expedition of Zebulon M. Pike, ed. by 
E. Coues, p. 412. 


or Death reported from the Garrison at that place in proportion 
to its numbers than from any other military establishment, 
which they held in the new-world. Perhaps there could be no 
better Criterion, by which to form a judgment on this subject. 
The Scite of the town of Pensacola is supposed to be one of 
the handsomest in the World. I for my part never beheld so 
delightful a Water prospect as the Bay on which it lies & the 
distant view of the Ocean, which presents itself to the eye by 
faint sketches through a long & narrow Island, which lies at the 
entrance into the Bay about nine miles from the Town. The 
back-ground as to its manner of lying is correspondent^ beau- 
tiful, being in the first place an extensive plain about half a 
mile in width, & bounded in its whole extent by an elevated 
ground about ioo feet above the level of the plain. This high 
ground is indented here & there with projecting promontories 
on one of which are the remains of two antient fortifications 
which have no small effect, in adding to the magnificence of 
the scene. But thcie is one thing yet wanting to complete its 
beauties, particularly in the eye of a man so long accustomed 
to behold the fertile Soil of the Western Country. It cannot 
boast an inch of soil capable of producing an herb or plant for 
the support of man or beast. One continued bed of sand com- 
poses the Scite of the Town as well as the back-ground as far 
as the eye can extend, covered here & there with a starved 
Shrub, save only a narrow swamp of about one hundred yards in 
width running back of the Town — not a foot however of which 
has ever been reclaimed by the lazy Spaniard, and it was observed 
to me by Mr. Forbes, a principal Merchant in that place that 
there never would have been a road made across that swamp, 
had it not been done in the time the British held the Floridas by 
that more industrious Class of People. Nothing could have 
painted their Indolence in more striking Colors, as all that was 
wanting to efl'ect this object was the Carting as much sand over 
the ground as would make a firm and solid road, which an 
American Farmer would have been able to do in the course 
of a Week. This swamp merely from the name might be sup- 
posed to be the Mother of fevers, but there is not one cause 
existing within its bosom to produce this effect, it being formed 
by a number of excellent Springs, which keep the whole surface 
constantly covered with the purest Water, from which the sun 


in his fullest rays can never draw a single particle of putrio 

Judge Toulmin & myself counted the number of houses in 
this place, & found it to contain about 300. The town is now 
growing very i'd^i oc from what we could learn as well as the ob- 
servations we were able to make, there have been more houses 
built -therein within the course of 3 or 4 years back than per- 
haps for a half Century before. This is the first place I ever 
saw, where Money is of less value than any other Species of 
Property. There is nothing wch at this place will not command 
a ten-fold higher price than I ever heard of before; a Midling- 
sidzed pumpkin there readily commands three bits or 37 1-2 
Cents, a turnip half a bit or 61-4 Cents of a size not larger 
than an apple. Sweet Potatoes $2.50 per bushel ; Indian Corn 
4 dollars per Spanish Barrel of 3 bushels ; indifferent flour from 
25 to 30$ per barrel, and even- other Article of provision in 
the same proportion 

The population of Luis place consists entirely of pensioners 
on the King of Spain, a small military establishment of about 
600 men, & subjects, who are dependent on the other two de- 
scriptions of men, such as Shop-Keepers, Keepers of what in the 
Spanish tongue they call Fondas & Casasettas, the former cor- 
responding to the Hucksters of Sau'ges ( ?) Onions Potatoes Tur- 
nips &c, & the latter to the Keepers of Grog Shops — both of 
which are common in most of the Towns of the U. States. Not a 
decent Tavern or boarding house is to be found in the whole 
place, and indeed we should have been put to our shifts for 
any kind of accommodation had it not been for the hospitality of 
Mr. Forbes, 14 a wealthy merchant of the place, who was so 
good as to invite us to his house which is a kind of Palace, 
where he lives like a Prince. This Gentleman informs me that 
in the year 1797 he was at my house in Woodford in Company 
with yourself & Mr. Wilkins, but I cannot recollect having ever 
seen him there. It is probable that he made the visit whilst 
I was absent from home, but having before I saw him heard that 
he should have [sic] said that he was acquainted with me, & ap- 
pearing readily to recognize me on calling on me, I did not know 

14 John Forbes, son of James and Sarah (Gordon) Forbes of Scotland, 
was of the mercantile firm of Forbes, Panton & Leslie; the firm changed 
to John Forbes & Co. Cf. Colonial Mobile, by Hamilton, Ch. XXXV. 


how to express doubt of our former acquaintance. This Gentle- 
man is now the Principal of a Firm, which once went under the 
name of Panton, 15 Lessley 16 & Co., who for a long time having 
had the monopoly of the Indian trade in Hast & West Florida 
(it is said) have amassed a large fortune. Panton 18 & Lessley, 16 
being both dead, the firm now bears the name of Forbes & Co., 
they have an Establishment at Mobille, Pensacola, & St. Au- 

The Country between this place & Pensacola is all extremely 
sterile, being almost entirely covered with Pine, well calculated, 
however, for the Lumber business, & for tar Pitch & Turpentine. 
The Streams intersecting it are well calculated for Saw-Mills. — 
Both branches of the Perdido particularly, which are bold & 
never failing streams and but a short distance from the Sea. We 
lodged one night at Governor Folch's 17 Saw-Mills, on our return 
from Pensacola, about iS miles N. E. thereof on a branch of the 
Exambia (Escambia) & about a quarter of a mile distant from 
that Kiver, down which the Plank 6c Scantling cut at said Mills 
are floated into the Bay of Pensacola, & although there are but 
two Saws, such is the amazing price of Plank & Scantling, that 
the Manager informed me that those Mills on some days yielded 
a net profit of ioo dollars. 

In my last letter I gave you some acct. of the lands which 
I had passed through between the Tennessee River & St. Stephens 
on the Tombeckbee. I will now say a word in regard to the 
Country lying between Fort St. Stephens and this place. There 
are but two species of land from St. Stephens, I may say, to the 
Bay of Mobille, viz: the high lands, which are extremely poor, 
and covered with pine, & the low grounds on the Rivers, which are 
in general rich, the wet lands well calculated for Rice & the 
dry Cane-broken low grounds capable of producing large Crops 
of Corn & Cotton, & in the neighbourhood of the Town of 
Mobille, from the small experiments, which have been made, no 
doubt well adapted to the Culture of the Sugar-Cane. The 
poor high lands are covered with heavy pines & intersected 
with streams well calculated for Saw-Mills— & these lands have 

15 and i6 William Panton and John Leslie were Scotchmen. 

17 At this time (1810) Governor Vicente Folch was stationed at Pen- 
sacola and 'ruled both the Floridas for the Spaniards. Cf. Phelps' "Lou- 
isiana", p. 248. 


another advantage which the poor lands of the Eastern States 
have not. From the immense herds of Cattle, which are raised 
in these woods upon the herbage, which Nature affords & the 
Winter never destroys, they have an immense source of Manure. 
Most of the Herdsmen hold upwards of iooo Head of Cattle, 
& some from 7 to 10,000 head, which never require a pint of salt, 
or a blade of Winter provender. I had nearly forgot to mention 
that the river Mobille" from the Bay to some distance above the 
Confluence of the Tombuckbee & Alabama Rivers are filled with 
a continued chain of Islands for the most part extremely fertile, 
and some of which containing from ten to twenty thousand acres. 

Your friend & Hb ,e Svt., 

P. S. 
[Peyton Short.] 
Dr. Frederick Ridgely, ls 

via New Orleans, Lexington, Kentucky. 

ls Dr. Frederick Ridgelcy married a sister of Peyton Short. Ranck's 
Hist, of Lexington, p. 44, states that he was professor of medicine in 
Transylvania University. That he had been surgeon to a Virginia rifle 
corps in the Revolutionary army when nineteen years old, moved to Ken- 
tucky in 17S0; was one of the founders of the medical college. 



James McBride, son of James and Margaret (McRoberts) 
McBride of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, came into the west- 
ern country in 1806, at the age of seventeen years, and the 
following letters, written four or five years after his arrival, 
furnish an interesting description of his early impressions re- 
garding the general appearance and character of the newly settled 
country, and, of the primitive condition of pioneer life at that 
period. These letters form a part of the James McBride manu- 
scripts in the possession of the Society. 

In a previous Quarterly (Vol. IV, No. 1) is a brief sketch of 
his life, and a more extended biographical account by his daughter, 
Laura McBride Stembel, appears in McBride's "Pioneer Biog- 
raphy" published soon after his death in 1859. 

L. B. H. 




_^ _ , Hamilton, July 22' 1 , 18 10. 

Dear Peggy : x 

You hRve been good enough to encourage me to write to you, 
and (as you flatteringly express it) "communicate anything which 
I think might amuse you." This I consider one of the greatest 
privileges and comforts which I enjoy in this place, and feel dis- 
posed to engage in it and amuse myself in this way, in which, I 
fear you sometimes find me dull and tedious. As I at present 
feel a strong inclination to enjoy that pleasure I must indulge in 
it, although I have nothing better to entertain you with than an 
account of an excursion which I lately made into the State of 
Kentucky, from whence I have returned a few days since. 

1810 — Wednesday. June .... I left Hamilton, [Ohio] in the 
morning on horseback and rode to Cincinnati where I remained 
during the night. 

Thursday, June .... Early in the morning I crossed the Ohio 
river and proceeded on my way to Lexington. Travelled twenty 
miles to Gaines' tavern where I breakfasted, although it was 
then late in the forenoon, after which I rode forward to Arnold's 
tavern where I arrived at 6 O'clock in the evening and took 
lodgings for the night. The road by which I travelled is called 
the Ridge-Road, so called on account of its being laid out on a 
ridge of high ground known by the name of the Dry ridge, on 
which, in travelling the direction I went, you do not meet with 
a drop of running water for a distance of forty-five miles. The 
road was very good which, in consequence of the highness of 
the ground and nature of the soil, I presume must generally be the 
case. Of the entertainment which I met with at the Inns on 
my way I cannot boast so much as of the road. The soil of the 
country is poor, and its appearance by nature none of the pleas- 
antest, nor have the inhabitants greatly improved it by works 
of art. They are settled along the road at intervals of eight or 
ten miles from each other. They told me that there were no 

x Margaret Poe, daughter of James Poe, of Greencastle, Pa. ; she -mar- 
ried James Campbell. Cf. Letters of Jane McRoberts in the James Mc- 
Bride Mss. 

2 It was on Dryridge, Ky., that the writer's father, James McBride, was 
killed by the Indians in r/89. 


settlements off from the road to the right or left for a long 
distance, consequently the nearest neighbour which some of them 
have is ten miles distant. They live by cultivating a small farm 
and furnishing entertainment to travellers — consisting of new- 
whiskey and a liquid called tea or coffee, but. which I was not able 
to determine — and for which they never fail to demand an ade- 
quate price. But I fancy you have heard enough of poor moun- 
tain ridges and miserable Inns, so 1 shall advance on my journey 
to the fertile country beyond, whither, if you please, I shall be 
proud if you will accompany me. 

Friday. . . .Set out early in the morning and rode fifteen miles 
to Nelson's tavern at the south extremity of the Dry ridge, called 
the foot of the ridge where I breakfasted and continued my 
journey to Georgetown where I arrived at 3 O'clock, P. M. and 
sat down to an excellent dinner. 

Georgetown is a pleasant place situated on the south side of 
the North fork of Elkhorn Creek & is trie seat of justice for 
Scott County. It contains a frame Court house and 1 suppose 
about eighty houses, about twenty of which are brick and look 
very neat. As to the particulars of the place or manners of 
the inhabitants, I trust you will not insist on a particular account 
of either as I remained there only one hour in the heat of the 
day, and then proceeded to the residence of Coin. Logan, 3 who 
lives on a farm in the country. Here I received a very pressing 
invitation to remain sometime with the family and partake of the 
hospitalities of the State. I accordingly tarried during the night. 

Saturday. .. .1 rode to the residence of Mr. James Vance, 4 
who lives in the neighbourhood, and delivered a letter to Mrs. 
Ma.garet Vance, which had been entrusted to my care. After 
spending part of the day at Mr. Vance's, I left after giving a 
promise that I would call on them again before I left the country. 
In the evening returned to Coin. Logan's. 

Sunday. . . .This day went to church with Mr. Logan's family 
and heard the Reverend Adam Rankin 3 preach. He belongs to 

3 Colonel John Logan, of Lincoln Co., State Treasurer from 1792 until 
his death, 1807. Cf. Collins' "Kentucky", Vol. II, pp. 244 and 6S4. 

*Rev. James Vance, of the Presbyterian Church, came to Ky. from 
Va. in 1804. Cf. Collins' ••Kentucky", Vol. I, p. 463. 

5 Rev. Adam Rankin, from Rockbridge, Va., settled in Lexington, 
1784-5. He was the first Presbyterian minister who settled north of the 
Kentucky River. For full account of him and the Associate Reform 
Church see "Hist, of the Church in Kentucky", by R. H. Bishop, p. 140. 


the Associate Reformed Church, and officiates in a log meeting- 
house close to the residence of Coin. Logan. 

Monday. .. .This morning left Coin. Logan's and rode to 
Lexington where I put up at Postlewhaites, [Postlethwaites?] 
Tavern. In the afternoon I called upon John Maxwell* who lives 
adjoining the town of Lexington on the North. On his pressing 
invitation I remained with him during the night. He is now a 
very old man, was one of the early pioneers of Kentucky, and has 
now no family living with him but his aged wife and a few 
domestic slaves. 

I need hardly tell you that Lexington is a beautiful and 
nourishing in-land town. It has been, and yet is, the seat of 
wealth and refinement of the western country. The ground on 
which the town is situated is not altogether level but the gentle 
sw-ells or eminences, rather add than detract from the beauty 
of the place. It contains about six hundred houses mostly brick, 
wiiich appear Lo have neatness, elegance and convenience com- 
bined in their structure. The public buildings are: an elegant 
brick Court house. (Lexington is the County seat of Fayette 
County.) A brick College called Transylvania University in which 
are generally sixty or seventy students. A very elegant Presby- 
terian Church besides two other churches which would be called 
elegant compared with many I have seen. A Free-Mason lodge. 
A Market house, and a Theatre which is said to contain very 
splendid scenery, but I had not the satisfaction of seeing it as it 
was not then the season for performances. 

There are a number of kinds of manufacturing carried on 
here; but principally the manufacture of hemp, which appears 
to be the staple commodity of the country. There are here 
nine or ten rope walks, and five Duck-factories for the manu- 
facture of a coarse kind of hemp cloth. I was in one of the 
factories where were employed forty or fifty negro boys spinning 
in an apartment appropriated for that purpose ; by means of a 
rope fixed in some manner, they turned their wheel, and drew out 
their threads, perhaps fifty yards in length before they stopped. 
Over these boys presided an overseer — a black man, with a 
whip in hand — to expedite their motions, and take notice of the 

6 John Maxwell, a Scotchman, and one of the original settlers of 
Lexington. Cf. Collins' '"Kentucky", Vol. II, p. 1S0. 


number of threads which each one drew. Others were employed 
in taking the yarn from the spinners and conveying it into an 
adjoining apartment where there were about twenty negro men 
engaged in weaving the yarn into a coarse kind of cloth, such as 
I have seen used for bailing cotton. But as this is not the most 
pleasant part of the town, the stay I made was short. 

The people in this part of Kentucky generally have consider- 
able taste and refinement ; many of thern well informed and quite 
literary characters. There certainly are considerable opportuni- 
ties for improvement for those who are so disposed, as inde- 
pendent of their seminaries of learning, and book-stores, of which 
there are two very large ones in the town, they have a circulating 
library containing about two thousand volumes, established I 
think on a very- advantageous plan (too tedious to insert here) 
where a person, at small expense, can have the perusal of 
almost any work he pleases without the expense of purchasing 
it. an expense which the fortunes of but few are adequate to pur- 
chase every book which he ought to read, or which he needs oc- 
casionally as a book of reference. To the support of this estab- 
lishment, the inhabitants for twenty miles around contribute. 

On entering Kentucky- I had impressed on my mind the opinion 
that the people had a self important deportment, expressive of 
conscious superiority, but this measurably wore off on a more 
intimate acquaintance. I was received in the most cordial manner, 
and treated with every mark of friendship and esteem, by the 
families to whom I was introduced, and with equal respect by 
others to whom I introduced myself. As this is a slave country 
almost all the labor is performed by slaves. They are the only 
waiters, and very few of the white people, of gentillity, can wait 
upon themselves in the smallest matter. 

Tuesday The Court was in session, and I this day spent 

some time in the Court house hearing the Lawyers. There were 
present, Henry Clay, 7 Joseph Davies, 8 Jesse Bledsoe, 9 Mr 

7 In the U. S. Senate at this time, 1S10. 

8 Colonel Joseph H. Davies, born in Va., i~74, was killed in the battle 
of Tippecanoe; an eminent lawyer, and in 1806 occurred his celebrated 
prosecution of Aaron Burr. Cf. Ranch's Hist, of Lexington, pp. 243-4. 

9 Jesse Bledsoe, advocate and jurist of Ky. ; U. S. Sen., i8i3ri5J 
Prof, of Law in the University of Transylvania; Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Ky. Died in 1837. Cf. Ranck's Hist, of Lexington, 
p. 217. 


Pope 10 and others whose names I did not learn. In the after- 
noon I was invited to accompany a party of gentlemen on an 
excursion of pleasure to Mr. Fowler's al garden which is about 
a mile and an half from the town, which as I was not particularly 
engaged I accepted. The garden is situated, as I before remarked, 
about a mile and an half from the town, not on any public road, 
but apparently in a secluded situation, where only the keepers, 
and those who went purposely to visit the garden were to be 
seen. The mansion was a small neat frame building which 
appeared to have seen the lapse of many years. In front of the 
house is a beautiful plat of ground covered with short grass, 
having gravel walks, shaded by rows of lombardy poplar and 
various other kinds of trees, which rendered it extremely pleas- 
ant and agreeable at this hot season of the year. At the further 
end of one of these walks, at the declivity of a hill, issued a 
copious spring of transparent clear cool water. To this place, 
I'und -' Hid, Mr. Fowler (who resides in the town) occasionally 
takes his friends to regale them with cool water, not forgetting an 
abundance of good wine and brandy, of which he is always 
supplied with an excellent assortment. From this we proceeded 
to the garden situated at the other end of the walk. Here the 
gate was opened to us by a black man, who with several negroes, 
are constantly employed in attending to, and cultivating the 
garden and waiting on visitors. This garden contains about three 
acres, all under the highest state of cultivation, every kind of 
fruit, flower, and vegetable which I have ever seen in a garden, 
were here in the greatest abundance. The ripe cherries, currants, 
rasberries, and other fruits hanging on the trees and bushes were 
delightful. I returned to the town with the company, not re- 
gretting that I had spent an hour or two for the pleasure of such 
a walk. 

10 Johu Pope, born in Virginia about 1770, settled in Lexington, Ky. 
He was in the State legislature; U. S. Sen., 1807-13; Governor of the 
Territory of Arkansas, 1829-35 ; Member of U. S. Cong., 1S37-42. Died 
in 1845. Cf. Collins' Hist, of Kentucky, Vol. II, p. 752, and Drake's 
American Biog., p. 72S. 

"Captain John Fowler was Rep. cf U. S. Cong., 1797-1807, from 
Fayette Co., Ky., and Postmaster of Lexington for many years. He 
served in the Revolutionary War. Died in 1840. Cf. Ranck's Hist, of 
Lexington, p. 345. 


Next day I called on Mr. Clay, Mr. Fowler, Mr. Pope, and 
Mr. Bledsoe, Secretary, with whom I had some business. But 
I need not trouble and weary out your patience by telling you how 

or what I am doing 

At present Farewell, 

James McBride;. 



Mississippi River, April i, 1S12. 
Dear Aunt : 12 

About the First of March last I received a letter from you, 
and omitted answering it until now, which was, not occasioned, 
or owing to negligence, but because I thought the intelligence I 
v-oHd have to give, if I wrote truly, would occasion you some 
little uneasiness, a? at that time I was engaged in making prep- 
arations to make a voyage to New Orleans and am now so far on 
my way. Last winter I entered into a co-partnership with Joseph 
Hough, of Hamilton, [Ohio] with the intention of carrying on 
the business of merchandizing; we purchased a quantity of flour 
and whisky in the Miami Country and located two flat boats on 
the Miami river which we have brought out of that stream and are 
thus far on our voyage. When we go to New Orleans we shall 
sell our cargo, go round by sea to Philadelphia and purchase 
goods and return with them to Hamilton. 

As you had no doubt heard very alarming accounts about the 
earthquake and other clangers of descending the Mississippi river, 
I suppose you would have looked upon me as going to certain de- 
struction. Thank kind Providence, I think we have now passed 
those dangers, and if some untoward accident does not overtake 
us shall pass safely to New Orleans and if flour bears the price. 
which I understand it does, we shall make something very hand- 
some. Our cargoes consist of seven hundred barrels of flour 
and some whisky and pork which we purchased in the Miami 
country on very reasonable terms, as the reports prevailing of 
the dangers to be encountered from the Indians and 'the Earth- 

12 Miss Mary McRoberts, sister of the mother of James McBride. In 
1813 she married James Ralston, of Greencastle, Pa. Cf. McBride Mss. 


quakes had so much frightened the people that none would ven- 
ture to encounter them. These stories I considered improbable, 
but have since found too much reality to exist in them, particu- 
larly those relating to the Earthquakes. 

I shall give you some little account of what I saw and ex- 
perienced although it must be a very cursory account, as I was 
only on shore at certain points, and then but a short distance 
from the river. The following is extracted from the Journal 
which I kept. 

Soon after entering the Mississippi river we began to dis- 
cover the effects of the Earthquake 13 — the region of which we 
were now approaching. Above New Madrid [Missouri] on the 
west side of the river is a grove of Cotton wood and willow trees 
two or three miles long; these were all bent up stream and 
stripped of their leaves and branches in a singular manner. It 
is said that at the time of the violent shock the river at this 
jp&ce fxk c omp time ran up stream with great velocity, and 
from the appearance I have no doubt of the fact, as 1 know of 
nothing else that could have produced the appearance here ex- 
hibited — we were now experienceing considerable shocks every 
few hours. 

We passed New Madrid [Missouri] in the afternoon, in- 
tending to land before night. Mr. Hough had command of one 
boat and myself of the other, we each steered our own boat 
and had only two other hands on each boat to row. Mr. Hough, 
who was rowing to shore to land on the west side of the river, 
discovering that the landing place would be a critical situation. 
• by signs motioned me to keep out. I immediately turned ray 
boat and rowed for the middle of the river again; I made every 
effort to land on the other shore but was unable ; at dark I 
made a Willow-Island in the river and fastened to the willows, 
where we remained all night in a very exposed situation. The 
Island was all overflowed, but barely sufficient where we lay 
to float our boat which drew somewhat over three feet of water. 
The river was falling and myself and hands were obliged fre- 
quently during the night to jump overboard into the water, cold 
as it was, to push off the boat and prevent her getting fast 

13 For accounts of the New Madrid earthquake, see "Recollections of 
the last ten years in the valley of the Mississippi," pp. 222-22S, by Timothy 
Flint ; and, "Original contributions to the American Pioneer", pp. 34 _ 5> 
by Dr. S. P. Hildreth, republished in Perkins' Annals of the West, p. 250. 


aground. As soon as day dawned we put oft' from our danger- 
ous harbor, in a dull rainy morning and at ten O'Clock landed 
at the Little Prairie about . . . miles below New Madrid, Here 
bad been a small village of some twenty houses and a settle- 
ment extending back six or eight miles from the river, princi- 
pally French & Spaniards. On landing we soon discovered that 
the place where we were moored had been part of the town, 
now the bed of the Mississippi river. A considerable portion, 
several acres, on which part of the town had stood, had sunk 
down with the buildings and the river flowed over the place. 
The place where we made fast our boat was a burying ground, 
part had sunk into the river, and coffins were exposed along 
the bank. The tenants had been Roman Catholics, as the cross 
was erected at the head of each grave. A large cross made of 
strong cyprus wood placed, no doubt, at the grave of some pious 
Christian, was broken and prostrated to the earth. Although 
it rained considerably, after securing our boat I wrapped my- 
self in my great coat and went on shore to sec what discoveries 
I could make. Of about a dozen houses and cabbins which 
I saw, not one was standing, all was either entirely prostrated 
or nearly overturned, and wrecked in a miserable manner ; the 
surface of the ground cracked and fractured in every direction. 
At the back part of the village I found three Frenchmen who 
were sheltering themselves in a temporary booth of boards taken 
from some of the desolate houses. They informed me in broken 
English that the late beautiful village and settlement was now 
wholly destroyed. The inhabitants had fled with what property 
they could take with them. They, and only they, were left to 
tell the passing stranger of the melancholy fate of the place. 
I continued my excursion about two miles back from the river, 
although it was with considerable difficulty, and at every step 
witnessed some new phenomena of the desolating effects of the 

The surface of the ground was cracked in almost every di- 
rection and stood like yawning gulphs, so wide that I could 
scarcely leap over them, at other places I came to spaces of 
ground several poles in width, sunk down two or three feet 
below the common level of the ground. But what particularly 
attracted my attention were circular holes in the earth from 
five or six to thirty feet in diameter, the depth corresponding 


with the diameter so as to he about half as deep as wide, and 
surrounded with a circle of sand two or three feet deep, and 
a black substance like stone coal but lighter, probably carbon- 
i7prl wood. I took some pieces of this to the boat, and putting 
them on the fire I found they would burn, at the same time 
producing a strong and disagreeable sulphurous smell. These 
holes I presume must have been produced by a strong current 
of air issuing from the bowels of the earth, throwing up sand 
and water and this black substance which was perhaps wood, 
long imbeded in the earth prostrating the trees and everything 
else where they happened and producing the most horrible dis- 
order. I observed in several instances where small explosions 
had occurred under large trees, that the trunk of the tree was 
split, up ten or twelve feet and separated two or three feet wide 
at the ground and thus remained standing. The day was dark 
and gloomy with [little?] light; I heard and felt from time to 
time the rumbling noise of these explosions ; all nature around 
me had the most melancholy appearance. A sudden dread came 
over me all at once and I returned to the boat. I lay at Little 
Prairie until the afternoon of the next day during which time 
we experienced eight or ten shocks, some of them so severe 
as to shake from their places loose articles in the boat. Each 
shock continued about two minutes and was preceded by a rum- 
bling noise like distant thunder or the discharge of a cannon 
at a great distance. We experienced slight shocks at intervals 
for the distance of one hundred miles above and below Little 
Prairie. The shores of the river in this region presented a most 
melancholy spectacle, the banks cracked and fractured, trees 
broken off and fractured, and in many places acres of ground 
sunk down so that the tops of the trees just appeared above the 
surface of the water. All nature appeared in ruins, and seemed 
to mourn in solitude over her melancholy fate. 

In the afternoon of the next day, Mr Hough, with the other 
boat, made his appearance. The place where he had to land 
was in the head of an out-let so far down that he was unable 
to put out and gain the channel of the river again from that 
place, but the next day with great labor and the aid of some 
friendly Indians, who came along, they towed the boat some 
twenty or thirty rods up stream, from whence they were able 
to regain the channel. 


I am now lying at shore on the bank of the Mississippi river, 
I suppose about one hundred miles above Natchez. Yesterday 
a violent storm compelled us to land here, it continued all night 
so violent as to require us to be up to prevent the waves from 
dashing- our boats on shore. The high wind still continues to- 
day, and the river so rough that we cannot pursue our voyage. 
I therefore devote the day to writing you this letter intending 
to put it in the Post-Office when I arrive at Natchez. You 
may suppose that I am not in a very comfortable situation for 
writing, nor do I feel in a mood for writing after the fatigue 
I have undergone. I have brought a boat loaded with 350 bar- 
rels of flour from the Miami to this place with only two hands ; 
labor, watching and anxiety have at times reduced me to al- 
most exhaustion. Dear Aunt, your affectionate Nephew 

James McBride. 

[Miss Mary Roberts 

Green Castle, Pa.] 


Quarterly Publication of the His- 
torical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio 

Vol. V, 1910, No. 2 

Selections from the Follett Papers, I, 

Arranged and Edited by 
L. BELLE HAMLIN, Librarian-. 



I. July 23, 1830, Oran Follett to Azariah C. Flagg. 

II. Aug. 4, 1S30, Azariah C. Flagg to Oran Follett. 

III. Oct. 24, 1830, Oran Follett to Azariah C. Flagg. 

IV. Jan. 6, 1 S3 1, Henry White to Oran Follett. 
V. Dec. 13, 1 83 1, Oran Follett to John C. Camp. 

VI. Feb. 6, 1 S3 2, Oran Follett to Joseph Hoxie. 

VII. Feb. 13, 1832, Oran Follett to Joseph Hoxie. 

VIII. Mar. 23, 1S32, Joseph FIoxie to Oran Follett. 

IX. May 10, 1S32, Thurlow Weed to Oran Follett. 

X. May 11, 1832, Joseph Hoxie to Oran Follett. 

XI. May 3c, 1832, Joseph Hoxie to Oran Follett. 

XII. June 28, 1832, Joseph Hoxie to Oran Follett. 

XIII. July 16, 1832, Oran Follett 10 George H. Boughton. 

XIV. Aug. 6, 1S32, Oran Follett to Harry D. Ckipman. 

XV. Aug. 10, 1S32, Hiram Ketcham to State Corresponding 
Committee, Buffalo. 

XVI. Sept. 10, 1832, Duff Green to Oran Follett. 

XVII. Sept. 13, 1832, Hiram Ketcham to Oran Follett. 

XVIII. Sept. 14, 1832, National Republican State Central Cor- 
- responding Committee to the State 
Corresponding Committee, Buffalo. 

XIX. Sept. 19, 1832, John Youngs to the National Republican 
State Corresponding Committee, Buf- 

XX. Sept. 28, 1832, Joseph Hoxie to Oran Follett. 

XXI. Jan. 10, 1833, Oran Follett to Henry Clay. 



The letters of Oran Follett and his correspondents, published 
in this Quarterly, are selected from the ''Follett Collection" of 
manuscripts belonging to the Historical and Philosophical Society 
of Ohio, and have for their main subject the politics of the State 
of New York, in which the writers were, in a greater or lesser 
degree, participants. 

While the dates of these letters are from 1830 to 1833, they 
contain numerous references to the conditions and movements of 
the various political parties dating back to 1824, and furnish an 
insight into the views and feelings of the men in that arena, 
if no f a'tsy np\v historical data bearing upon that topic, which 
has been so fully covered by historians. 

Oran Follett, (to whom these papers formerly belonged) was 
the son of Frederic and Gifte (Babcock) Follett of Gorham, 
N. Y., where he was born Sept. 4, 1798. After an experience 
of service in the navy during the war of 181 2, and completing 
an apprenticeship wiih a Canandaigua publisher to learn the art 
of printing, he settled in Batavia, 1S21, and there founded "The 
Spirit of the Times", the first new.^papcr published within the 
State west of Rochester. Two years later he was elected to 
represent his election district in the State Legislature, and during 
the session of 1824, he nominated the Adams ticket. Thurlow 
Weed, in a letter of April 6, 1881, to Follett, writes: — "but for 
your action in the Democratic caucus, Crawford & Clay instead 
of Crawford & Adams electoral ticket mus f have been voted for, 
which would have kept Mr. Adams out of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, leaving the final issue between Crawford and Clay 
with the chances in favor of Crawford." (Presidential elections 
were at this time under the old system.) There were four tickets 
in the field; — the Adams (republican); Crawford (republican); 
Jackson; and the Clay (headed Democrat.) The Senate adopted 
the Crawford ticket but there was a deadlock in the Assembly, 
which was broken finally by the nomination of the Adams ticket, 
which the Regency ( Crawfordite ) voters sustained in preference 


to the Clay ticket. An interesting account of this Presidential 
election in New York, written by Mr. Follett, was published 
in the New York Tribune in 1SS1, a copy of which appears in 
the Autobiography of Thurlow Weed, v. I, p. 130. 

Following the Presidency of Mr. Adams, 1825-29, came the 
election of Jackson to the presidency, 1S29, and hh subsequent 
re-election in 1S34 with Van Buren as vice-president. The latter 
took control of the New York canvass for that party, and se- 
cured the support of the bankers of New York city, who recog- 
nized that in the extermination of the United States Bank lay 
their aggrandizement, as the government deposits would then 
come to them. Owing to this support, the popularity of Jackson, 
and other causes, it soon became apparent to the various opposing 
political parties in the State that their only hope for success in 
defeating the Jackson party, lay in the union of their forces and 
the support of one ticket. 

The Anti-Masonic Convention was held June 21, 1832, at 
Utica, Albert H. Tracy, Chairman. Francis Granger was unani- 
mously re-nominated for Governor and Samuel Stevens for Lieut. 
Governor, and the party announced an electoral ticket equally 
divided between Antimasons and National Republicans, headed 
by James Kent and John C. Spencer. The following month 
the National Republicans adopted the Anti-Masonic State and 
electoral tickets, with the understanding that Mr. Clay would 
receive the antimasons* votes if they would insure his election 
to the Presidency. This combination did not save them from 
defeat as history shows. 

In 1825 Mr. Follett removed to Buffalo, where he became 
one of the proprietors of the "Daily Journal" and, as its editor. 
his ability as a Writer on political and economic questions was 
abundantly evinced. He removed to Sandusky. Ohio, in 1834. 
where he was active in the interests and welfare of that town. 
He was president of the Board of Public Works of Ohio, from 
1845 to 1850, and was the editor of the Ohio State Journal for 
a number of years. In the Whig campaigns of 1840 and 1844. 
he was a staunch supporter of the party, and, it is claimed that 
it was due largely to his efforts that Salmon P. Chase was elected 

During the last thirty yea r s of his life he took no active part 
in political matters. He died in Sandusky, Oct. 14, 1S94. 

L. B. H. 



July 23, 1830 — Buffalo. 
A. C. Flagg, 1 Esq. 

Dr Sir, 

When you was hero I regretted that no opportunity seemed 
to present for a full and familiar talk about matters and things 
in general, and politicks in particular. Although since the fall 
of 1824. I have stood in a state of beivjeenity so far as names 
were concerned, I have nevertheless felt all the anxiety for the 
prevalence of republican principles and the triumph of the re- 
publican party (when it was to be found) that I ever did. I was 
you know a supporter of Mr. Adams 2 — he was my second choice 
in 1824, and so he was yours and a dozen other of our friends 
,..!,„ S..:.\\ \ ■ : •::. less. You and others (the real republicans) 
supported Gen. Jackson, 3 doubtless in accordance with some great 
principle of the party that I have never discovered, and probably 
never shall — you were successful. But as in war, the possession 
of the field after battle not always showing an ability to main- 
tain it, so in party conflicts a triumph today is no index of the 
issue tomorrow, it is no way singular therefore that a Waterloo 
defeat awaits you — (1 will not say us, after the manner I have 
been received by the real republicans). 

The situation of the parties in the state and union, clearly 
point to a great revolution in publick sentiment — greater and 
more sudden than that in favour of Gen. J[ackson], because pro- 
duced without official intervention in its support. In this State, 
you must I think be aware by this time of the condition of things. 
The party is literally gone to the Devil, or will soon be there, 
if a change of policy does not take place. True, you have the 
patronage of the State and general government to sustain you, 
and under a different state of publick feeling, with a chief execu- 

iAzariah C. Flagg, publisher of the Republican at Plattsburg, which 
he started in 1S11, was in the State legislature representing the Regency 
faction, but in 1S24 he cast his vote for the Adams ticket. Later com- 
bined with the Jackson party. Cf. Autobiog. of Thurlow Weed, and 
Alexander's Polit. Hist, of N. Y. 

-John Quincy Adams. 

3 Andrew Jackson. 


tive who deserved and commanded the love and respect of the 
people — who by his prominent acts gave something to the world 
£oi their admiration, and who furnished his friends with honest 
arguments for his support and their advancement — then, 1 grant, 
you would stand some chance of breasting the storm. But de- 
sertion of political friends, like a panick, is contagious — (vide the 
fate of Mr. Adams,). To be suspected, is to be abandoned, and 
when the impression amongst both friends and enemies is un- 
favourable to lasting fame or protracted power, the possession 
of either is no longer certain. So much for Gen. J[ackson.] 
Of Gov. Throop, 4 I would not speak otherwise than in terms 
of high respect and admiration. He has exhibited under the 
counsel of his friends some fine traits of moral courage and of 
adroit management. For these things he deserves support and 
will always command respect. During his short career he has 
done !i|rH5c:f r^dit. r~A has confirmed the opinion which many 
western men entertained of him long since, myself amongst the 
number, although I never had any personal acquaintance with 
him — (By the by, I am you know more an observer of, than a 
participator, in great men's fortunes and actions.) But all will 
not do. Gov. Throop's fate is 'linked with that phantom called 
the "Regency" 3 — (Did*st ever hear of the realities of the imagina- 
tion?) and down he must come, sooner or later, with all the rest 
of you in jolly sociability. Now, this is a hard sentence to pro- 
nounce, coming from an old friend — and that is the very reason 
why I speak it, that you may have the full benefit of all my 
sage wisdom and long experience, fearing that others less plain 
hearted might conceal from you the real state of the case. But 
how is this? I will tell you. The case stands thus: — ist. The 
Anti-Masons' 5 will of course run a ticket, perhaps Ambrose Spen- 
cer 7 and Frank Granger. 8 2d Gen. Root 9 zvill run. 3d If 

*Enos X-. Throop was elected Governor, 1830, by the Regency party. 

-The Albany Regency had its beginning in 1821, created by the "Buck- 
tail" faction, during Gov. DeWitt Clinton's second administration. Its 
purpose was to secure absolute control of the party policy and, also, of 
the patronage of the State, the distribution of which had been heretofore 
largely under local direction. Its power was supreme for a number of 
years, but was on the decline in 1842. Cf. Alexander's Polit. Hist, of N. Y. 

"The Anti-Masons had been steadily increasing in numbers since the 
abduction of William Morgan (a Mason who attempted to publish the 
secrete of Free Masonry) and a bitter and vindictive feeling existed 


Gov. Throop runs, the two last named gentlemen will assuredly 
be defeated or, in other words, the Anti-Masons (Bah!) will 
triumph, Weed, 10 Tracy," & all!! Again, If Gov. Throop runs 
alone against: a strong ticket, composed of old democratick Anti- 
Masons, he will be defeated, unless you can get along with 
3 out of 4 against the "Regency" in the old Western District. 
You will ask how do I know that Root "will run? You may 
be fully advised on this head. But he will run, you may rest 
assured, just as certain as cause and effect are inseparable. Then 
how is the matter to be avoided? Hear Sir Oracle. Make Root 
your candidate, fall in with the proposition, regard it as the 
voice of the old democracy of the State, and as such, honour it. 
What think you? Is the remedy worse than the disease? Gov. 
Throop and his friends can never secure an honourable retreat, 
with a fair prospect of establishing a new "Regency" (don't 
laugh) under the coming dynasty. The alternative is presented, 
l concents, oi su|g?nfciing to a defeat from the Anti-Masons, or 
yielding temporarily to an eclipse, arising from natural causes 

in the western portion of the State between Masons and Antimasons. 
The latter formed a political party and aligned themselves with the 
National Republicans (Adams party) in the Presidential campaign of 
1828. The Antimasons nominated their candidates for Gov. and Lieut. 
Gov., which ticket the Nat. Rep, of the western counties agreed to sup- 
port, but those of the eastern counties objected and nominated other 
candidates, thus bringing a third party into the field, which division 
proved one of the chief causes of their defeat. The Jackson party 
elected Van Buren and Throop for Gov. and Lieut. Gov. Cf. Hammond's 
Polit. Hist, of N. Y. 

7 Ambrose Spencer was in the U. S. Congress, 1829-1S31 ; of the 
Regency Party. In later years became a Whig. 

s Francis Granger was in the State legislature, 1826-31 ; he was twice 
an unsuccessful candidate of his party for Gov. Cf. Lanman's Diet, of 

9 Gen. Erastus Root had been elected Governor in 1820 by the Buck- 
tails; U. S. Congress, 1831-33. 

10 Thurlow Weed was at this time editing the 'Albany Evening 
Journal" which took a conspicuous part in the formation of the Whig 
and Republican parties, being equally opposed to the Jackson adminis- 
tration and to nullification. See Appleton's Biog. Cyclop. 

"Albert H. Tracy of Buffalo, had been in the U. S. Cong. Was in 
State Senate 1830-38, and was of the Anti-Mason party. 


and unforseen circumstances, by the Workers. 12 The first arc 
sworn enemies, from good cause — the second are friends in name, 
and may be made so in fact from the stem necessity of arbitrary 

Thou traitor ! you will say— Dos't thou counsel me to betray 
my principles and the republican party? — Keep cool, my friend — 
not so exactly. The change to a support of Root (as a matter 
of policy only) would not be greater — would it? — than that which 
took place in the principles of the Republican party in 1825, after 
the Presidential election? I am no admirer of Gen. Root's 
present political course — it is fraught with evil. But he has 
high example before him. The maxim is now-a-days, myself 
first, the party afterwards, principles when convenient. I did 
not see the Gen[eral] myself when he was through the country — 
I avoided him intentionally, and in doing so hardly saw you a 
moment. I did not care about seeing you at Buffalo as it was, 
because then 1 should have come in personal contact wnii your 
political friends, than whom there never existed a more mer- 
cenary set. I could buy them all with one moderate office in 
expectation. But let that pass. You know them, I hope. 

You do not believe that defeat awaits you. It is hard to 
acknowledge unpleasant truths even to one's self. Yet a wise 
man does not shut his eyes to danger ; he prepares himself for 
the emergency, come in what shape it may. Sooner or later, 
you will find out that the cry of the "Regency" has had its 
effect — it has worked and continues to work wonders — it operates 
as a charm upon the ignorant and seems to stimulate the broken 
dow 1 and mercenary with new hope. To them the "Regency" 
is the cause of all their defeats, the source of all evils, moral, 
physical and political. They therefore make war upon it, and 
it will be well for you if in the coming rencounter the fabled 
giant 13 at Albany is able to put forth his arms as effectually 
as did the airy antagonist of honest Don Quixote of old. In 
my recent jaunt I have seen and heard these things. Men who 
hale Anti-Masonry with a pious hatred, next to their fear of 
the devil, will still go for it rather than go for the "Regency". 
These are men of consequence in most instances. They would 

12 Working Men's party. 

13 Ed\vin Crosby, editor of the Albany Argus and State printer; 
Mem. of the Regency party. 


not talk this to you, and perhaps in many cases their language 
served to cheer you at the opening prospect. Lay not the flatter- 
ing unction to your soul. Believe them not, who tell you of 
easy victories, or I am nothing worth for a prophet. You cannot 
have forgotten the electoral excitement— the removal of Clin- 
ton, 14 &c. You will remember the state of publick feeling at 
that time. The movements of the general government, its re- 
movals and appointments, have created a deep sentiment of 
hostility now — it is silent, and strong, and is to be the more 
dreaded. Then there is the Report of the Canal Board — the 
"Regency" have to shoulder all the odium of that measure. By 
the by. the Canal Commissioners are becoming dead weight. 
They are too yielding and too pliable to the powers that be, too 
much in resemblance of the Vicar of Bray, to be profitable sup- 
port to any party. I never can— I never will forgive Young 15 
for his political backsliding in "24 — he is in no way to be de- 
pended [upon] as a man of principle — he is a shark. 

Vv cli, ^11 thjs is. verj nne, yoii will say. So it is and you 
are heartily welcome to it. It is the unaided suggestions of my 
own desultory reflections. Time will show you some truths 
amongst my crudities. I do not wish to convince you ; nor do 
I expect to advance any new views ; but the repetition of old 
saws and stale advice may produce good effects by forcing one 
to think. But why not profit by my own wisdom, and keep 
my knowledge to myself? I will answer the question by the 
single remark, I '11 no more of party at present, except to oppose 
myself to Anti-ism. I Ve had enough — it is poor pay, and the 
wisdom it teaches comes too late. Why then trouble you with 
my notions. The truth is, I 've an hour to spare, and I can think 
of no one, to torment whom, will afford me more pleasure. If 
you do not find a recompense in the matter, for the trouble I 
occasion you in reading, why send it back from sheer vexation, 
and I will send it off to some one else. 

"Reference to the removal of DeWitt Clinton from the Canal Com- 

15 Samuel Young was in the Assembly, 1815, had been an unsuc- 
cessful candidate of the Bucktails for U. S. Sen. 1819, and for Gov. 1824. 
Alexander states in his Polk. Hist, of N. Y. v. I, p. 394. that Young 
had declared for Clay in 1S24; had inclined to Adams in 1828, and was 
inclined to support Clay in 1832 but policy led him into the Jackson oarty. 


Wishing you safe deliverance from all your enemies for "auld 
lang syne", I subscribe myself in high spirits, your very obrlt. 
humble servt. 

[Original draft cf letter] 

[Oran Follett] 



Albany, Aug. 4, 1830. 
My Dear Sir, 

I have received your letter of the 23d ult. and have been 
gratified to hear from an old friend, and amused with your 
chapter of political romances ; Gen. Jackson, you may rely upon 
it, stands as firm as a rock ; and before the end of his second 
term, he will be as popular as Mr". Jefferson ever was. You 
cannot have forgotten, what was often repeated by the real re- 
publicans, that the success of Gen. jacksou vvas d. revolution simi- 
lar to that which took place in 1800. It was a second triumph 
of the "great principle," which you seem not to have discovered. 
The veto of Gen. J. may lose him something in the west, but 
in the whole union it gives him strength. The display of such 
moral courage and such honesty, will rally around the old hero 
a moral force which will be irresistible. Maine & N. Hampshire, 
and probably more of the east, will be on his side, and they 
were against him before. I say this from recent information 
from that quarter. N. York, instead of a maj. of 4 votes, will 
give Jackson a majority of 38 or 39, as the case may be. 

Thus having settled the presidential question to my entire 
satisfaction, let us discuss your propositions as to State matters. 

I agree with you that Gov. Throop has exhibited "traits of 
moral courage" which entitle him to the respect and confidence 
of honest men of all sects. And I shall not complain of the 
policy of the Clay masons of the west, if to embarrass the cause 
of those who support Jackson, they should endeavor to push on 
division, and to get the Herkimer convention to nominate a man, 
of whose election, or defeat, they might claim some advantage. 
The special counsel desires the nomination of Root, and in your 
plnn of operations we should have his ardent co-operation. You 
say take Root because he will run ; I say if he is nominated at 


Herkimer he will ; if not, he says no. — To the Clay men he may 
have said yes. This testimony therefore is balanced. The re- 
publicans of Delaware say that R. will not be a candidate, un- 
less he gets the H. nomination, and that his own Co[unty] will 
support the regular nomination, whoever it may be. This is my 
belief; and the democrats of Delaware will control this question. 
If I was a delegate to the Herkimer convention representing 
the Co. of Clinton, I would stand by an honest man, who had 
nobly done his duty, sink or swim. But as a member of the 
"Regency" you know I am constrained by the "great principle" 
to have nothing to do with such matters, and shall be entirely 
satisfied with the nominations made in accordance with the feel- 
ings of the democracy. 

As to the phantom of the Regency, there is nothing new or 
alarming in it ; it is like the cry against Tompkins, 1 " and against 
our party at all times, and is used by the old federalists, as they 
used Jefferson's red plush breeches, because they had nothing else 
io fint! fault with. There mav be some republicans who have 
got others, and are crying out regency;, merely from an anxiety 
to find the republican party, having been informed by the "Daily" 
that this "phantom" of which you speak is the real republican 

Your picture may be overwrought by the surrounding in- 
fection — mine may be erroneous from breathing a different at- 

Those of whom you speak, who hate anti-masonry, but will 
support the devil rather than the regency, are anti-Jackson men. 
This is not surprising and by no means alarming. They united 
with the anti-masons on the electors ; yet in the aggregate of 
the whole State, Jackson held more than 5000 majority. Now 
all such characters will certainly go to the devil sooner or later ; 
and yourself, and all such as have any anxiety to find the re- 
publican party, had better cut loose from them. A knight templar 
of this city, has said, he would go for Granger in preference to 
Throop. He is an Adams workey." Old-nick will have a royal 
arch chapter of such fellows. 

"Reference to Daniel D. Tompkins, Gov. of N. Y. and Vice-President 
of the U. S. 

17 Derisive name given to a branch of the Working Men's political 
party in 1832. 


Your able and manly defence of Throop in his controversy 
with the special counsel, must have p'repared the minds of your 
readers to support an honest upright magistrate. "Hold fast to 
that which is good'" and discourage the attempt of the ultras in 
the 8th district, to divide the small remnant which has heretofore 
opposed anti-masonry in that region. 

I am with much respect, your old friend, 

A. C. Flag*. 

O. Follett, Esq., Buffalo, N. York. 



Buffalo, Oct. 24, 1S30. 
A. C. Flagg, Esq. 

Dr Sir, 

I did hot call to see yon nn my return from N. York, 
for reasons which it is needless here to explain. I found things 
in a bad train wherever I went, all which you probably under- 
stand better than I do. At the west appearances are no worse 
than they were, and I hope that the result will not prove as 
disastrous as I had anticipated. There is no change in the aspect 
of affairs of a particular kind; but I think the vote for Granger 
will be less than I had thought, owing to general causes. 

In this Congressional district, a fine opportunity presented 
for dividing and distracting the enemy, but your friends here. 
on whom the management of affairs devolved by the usages of 
the party, let the chance slip, and all was lost. The nomination 
of Cook ls for Congress, produced much diss tisfaction amongst 
the friends of Norton. 10 They forthwith tendered him a nomina- 
tion in opposition, and he was actually nominated by the two 
easternmost towns in this county. This would have been echoed 
in other towns, and in Chautauqua county measures were in suc- 
cessful progress to bring it about, and Norton offered to stand, 
provided the Jackson folks would not make a nomination, thus 

ls Bates Cook of Niagara Co., mem. of Cong. 1831-33; of the Jackson 

19 Ebenezer F. Norton of Erie Co. in U. S. Cong. 1829-31; of the 
Jackson party. 


leaving the choice between Cook and himself. But so tenacious 
were they of forms, so fearful that they should be thought 
wanting in that which they were never suspected of possessing 
aii overstock, to wit. political honesty and stability, that, they 
persisted in making a nomination without the remotest hope of 
success, thus sacrificing the substance for the shadow, and forc- 
ing things back to their original position, by driving Norton off 
the course. 

I have no doubt but what a difference of iooo votes might 
have been made on the Government ticket, had the plan suc- 
ceeded. What renders the conduct of the managers still more 
ridiculous is, that they should nominate Foote 20 of Chautauqua, 
who was already in nomination for the Assembly in his own 
county, and could not therefore accept. Two or three of them 
(four, it is said) have since put Thomas B. Campbell in nomina- 
tion, of Chautauqua, and styled their doings the proceedings of 
iliC "iScir.qzriilck Mutiny", fro. &c. ! ! 

The first part of this farce took place before my return. 
Had I been at home, I could not have prevented it, for I am 
not consulted by the exclusives, nor do I wish to be, as I could 
not act with them. They are without any exception, the most 
Jackassical managers I ever knew anything about. Did you know 
them as we know them here, you would no longer wonder at 
the weakness of your party in this country and district. They 
force men to oppose them, who would if left to themselves 
naturally fall in with the course of the party, and heartily sup- 
port the State administration. 

They have all been making a great fuss about the Post office, 
since I left here, concerning which you have probably heard 
something, for they are famous for appealing to their friends 
for help. Nothing but mischief will result from it. They quar- 
relled amongst themselves — divisions and jealousies exist, which 
prevent them from acting together for general purposes effi- 
ciently — new enemies were made, and so the matter ended. There 
is also a quarrel in existence between the bar and the first Judge, 
Bennett- 1 — they asked him to decline, but he refused, and told 
them that "he viewed the whole proceeding with utter contempt." 
They persisted, telling him that they thought they could better 

:0 Samuel A. Foote of Chautauqua. 
21 Ph:lander Bennett of Buffalo. 


the matter by a new selection. To which he modestly replied, 
that "there were many men who no doubt thought the country 
would be benefitted if Gen 1 Jackson would resign his office, but 
he did not think the Gen 1 would do it, on being asked, and 
neither should he.'"' ! ! This affair has produced dissentions 
amongst the exclusives, and- has given rise to lukewarmness con- 
cerning the interests of the party. On the whole, you may safely 
boast, that no men ever possessed such auxilliaries as you have 
here. You will run no risk in worshipping them, should you be 
at a loss for a deity; and, withal, they are eminently calculated 
to enlist the affections — against themselves. The Anti-Masons 
are in high spirits, calculating sagely on success, and, what is 
worse, we have no means left of opposing them. I hope the 
atmosphere is clearer at the east, if it is not, if there is no 
bright spot on which the hopes of the party can rest, more cheer- 
ing than anything I can give you here, then sure enough the 
devil lias got us. ana' we may as well shout "Anti-Masonry and 
Master Frank'" 2 - as anything else — only it will sound bad. 
Which may God prevent, if he has any mercies in store for us 
on earth, and deeply gratify, amongst others 

Your obdt. humble servt. 

O. Follctt. 
[Original draft of letter.] 



Albany January 6, 183 1 
Dear Sir 

I yesterday called on the Editors of the Daily Advertiser, 2 ' 
whom I suppose to be leading men in the Clay 25 party, & in- 
quired of them whether the prospect of our Convention 20 on the 

-See Note 8. 

2S Henry White of Buffalo, a newspaper publisher. 

2 *Albany Daily Advertiser; editors were at that time, James Hunter, 
Robert Martin, and Gerrit W. Ryckman. Cf. Autobiog. of Thurlow Weed. 

23 CIay party organized 1S31. 

=6 Convention was not held until June 3, 1831 ; Henry Clay was nomi- 
nated for President, and Hammond, in his Polit. Hist, of N. Y. v. I. 
p. 366, states that something like a State organization was attempted. 
An address to the people was issued, signed by P. R. Livingstone, Prest.. 
J. D. Dickinson, H. H. Bogart, Joseph Hoxie. and Oran Follctt. 


20th instant was flattering or untowards. Mr. R.- 7 expressed 
his fears that the Counties would not be generally represented, 
owing to the shortness of the notice as well as to the extreme 
bad travelling & suggested the propriety of the Convention being 
postponed to some future period, as the project of holding a 
National Convention during the present winter appears to have 
been given up at Washington. Pie requested me to defer writing 
you on the -subject till today & stated that he would in the mean- 
time see the Central Corresponding Committee at this place & 
confer with them on the subject & advise me of the course, 
which they should think it advisable to pursue. He called on 
me today & informed me he had seen the Committee & that 
they considered it best to hold the Convention on the 20th rts 
had been proposed. He stated also that from what he could 
learn he believed delegates would attend from most of the Coun- 
ties & that it would be at least respectable in point of numbers 
. . ->W he was apprehensive , that if it should now be permitted to 
fall through, it would give an advantage to our opponents & 
that the slrgus folks would magnify it & pronounce it a flash in 
the pan or some other such like terrible thing. You will there- 
fore perceive that your attendance as well as that of our other 
delegates will be relied on & I apprehend that it is very im- 
portant that you should attend. 

The Governor's 2,51 message you will have seen before this 
reaches you, its merits are variously spoken of here as you will 
learn from the papers but I believe that it is generally conceded 
that the zeisdom of the man, who wrote it, is but a small light 
shining about his footsteps while his hand on State matters at 
least is shrouded in great darkness. It is not my intention how- 
ever at this time to criticize upon the message, suffice it to say 
that if it contains some good ideas it certainly contains some 
foolish things, to say nothing of those parts of it, which are yet 
so much under the dominion of darkness as to be hid from 
poor finite understanding, and I apprehend that in case the regents 
of the State should sum up the whole matter contained in this 
new State paper & strike a balance between the useful & useless 
they would find the balance hardly worth to the people what it 
will cost them. 

27 Gbrrit W. Ryckman. 
2S Martin Van Buren. 


The party are evidently labouring under some difficulty in 
the Senate — some misunderstanding has arisen among the Repub- 
lican members of that Honforable] body & a considerable party, 
which appears to be headed by Mr. Hubbard 29 of Chenango — 
seem to exhibit feelings of disaffection towards the Regency. 
I have not yet been able to ascertain the cause of this disaf- 
fection and cannot therefore tell whether it is likely to increase, 
or whether it will be removed by making a reasonable application 
of the usages of the party. It is said the same feeling has got 
into the lower House & displayed itself in the choice of Speaker, 
the Regency men voting for Gansevoort 30 — I however doubt the 
correctness of this statement & am inclined to believe, that what- 
ever of morbid feeling may now display itself, the usages of 
tlic party will be fully equal to the emergency & so applied as 
to remove the bile that may have collected during the warm 
season, and restore The Party to its usual health & vigor, not- 
withstanding its sudden death is devoutly to be wished even if 
it were to be effected by suicide. 

It is now generally understood here that Gen. Root will 
press his appointment to the U. S. Senate & he has as I am 
informed several warm supporters both in the Senate & Assembly, 
but I do not believe that he will succeed. It is now said by the 
knowing ones, that Sanford 31 .will be reappointed, but from some 
suggestions that I have heard I apprehend that neither of them 
will be appointed, but that Comptroller Wright 3 - will be pre- 
fered as a man upon whom they can more safely calculate at a 
time when his services will be most needed by the party; how- 
ever, there will be difficulty on this subject unless the usages of 
the party are strictly adhered to & the discipline of King Caucus 
is rigourously enforced, but he should not be too severe in the 
exercise of prerogative power lest the fate of Charles X over- 
take him. 

Mr. Roberts 33 of Rochester is here an applicant for the State 

29 John F. Hubbard of Chenango. 

30 Herman Gansevoort probably. 

31 Xathan Sanford was in the U. S. Sen. at this time; of the Regency 

3 -Silas Wright was State Comptroller, having resigned his seat in 
Ccng. 1829; of the Regency party. 

33 Elijah J. Roberts, Ed. of "The Craftsman" pub. in Rochester; he 
was an editor in Buffalo in 1834. 


printing in case the party should revolutionize & King Caucus 
should be decapitated. He tells me a majority of the Republican 
Senators are in favor of his appointment but I have not faith 
equal to a grain of mustard seed upon the subject. 

Our Bank Petition has been presented with many others of 
the same kind. I can form no opinion of its success, but from 
the number of Bank petitions already presented I should think 
if the proper combinations, to say nothing of coalitions, were 
formed it might probably succeed. 

I will endeavor to write you again soon, you must not criti- 
cise upon this nor let neighbor Day 

[Henry White endorsed on back of letter.] 

H. Whit: 


Buffalo, Dec. 13. 1831. 
My Dr. Sir, 

Yesterday was the day for the meeting of the grand Con- 
vention 35 of National Republicans at Baltimore. I write you at 
Washington, presuming that long before this reaches you, you 
will have discharged the duties of your appointment, and will 
be at the Federal City, watching the course of events. 

There can be no doubt but what the Convention has nomi- 
nated Mr. Clay, for the Presidency. It could do no less, with- 
out offending the sense of the nation, and it is questionable 
whether it or we, the people, can do any more. The nomination 
was due Mr. Clay, as a tribute of grateful remembrance from 
the real friends of the country — it was his due as the inflexible 
and eloquent defender of the constitution and as the advocate 
of that great system of internal polity, on which rests the pros- 
perity and happiness of the Republick. 

When I look back upon the political life and publick services 
of this man, I feel a glow of conscious pride, at the array which 
it presents. We are too familiar with his history to duly appre- 
ciate the strong and characterizing points in it. We call him 

3i Major Camp of Buffalo ; of the Nat. Rep. party. 
S5 At this Convention Henry Clay was nominated for President. 

an eloquent man — a good legislator — a statesman — and, as a 
climax, in the sickly language of Jackson panegyrick, a Republi- 
can ! But, sir, he is more — he is a Martyr, in the cause of con- 
stitutional liberty! It should be the boast of his friends, that, 
where duty pointed- -when the constitution was threatened — let 
the danger be ever so great to his personal popularity, or the 
array of force ever so mighty, he was at his post. The War, 
the Seminole campaign, the Missouri question, the Tariff and 
Internal Improvements, and, last of all, his vote for' Mr. Adams, 
stand up in proof of what I have here said. 

Now, my good Sir, shall such a man be sacrificed ? His fame 
is publick property — it should be guarded jealously, and not 
lightly offered up in any emergency. You will I know respond 
feelingly to this sentiment. He is the last hope of the country — 
he it is alone who can successfully lead the van in the great 
struggle that is approaching, in which will be arrayed the ut- 
most strength of faction, urged on by British rommercia! in- 
terests in different combinations, warring against the industry, 
the prosperity, the very existence (I had almost said) of our 
beloved country. How and when is this battle to be fought, you 
will ask? In answer; It should have been fought at the ap- 
proaching Presidential election. But the period for choosing our 
time has, I fear, passed. We have spent it in settling the pre- 
liminaries — in coaxing Antimasonry in New York, and in other 
moonshine expedients to unite the element of opposition. It 
will be fought, therefore, in 1836. What is to be done? I will 
give you my views in a few words. Let Mr. Clay decline the 
Baltimore nomination, out of respect to publick opinion (This will 
disan 1 Jacksonians) and enable him to discharge untrammelled 
his duty to his country in the new relation he has assumed. 
This will satisfy his friends. What, consent to flight, give up 
the cause, and yield the field? Not so — never. Pusillanimity 
and coward have no place in my political vocabulary, as you well 
„ know, let it apply where else it may. But it is our province to 
look truth full in the face, and we well know, as parties now 
stand, that Mr. Clay's election is as hopeless as salvation with- 
out repentance. Then what shall be done? The nomination de- 
clined, and Mr. Clay stands without a rival, at the head of a 
new organization, composed of recruits from all parties, (pledges 
for a second election to the "Military Chieftain" no longer be- 


ing in the way,) having for its object, the support of the Tariff 
on modified principles, the rechartering of the U. S. Bank, and 
the advancement of Internal Improvements. What man, what 
combination of men could withstand this? The administration 
will be forced to take ground — the rats will be driven forth — 
temporizing politicians, with their injudicious systems, will be 
nailed to the wall, and the march to victory will be steady, 
trampling 'down all the mushroom patriots and great men, which 
the present misrule is so abundantly multiplying. 

Soniebocy must head such. a party, and to whom does the 
honor belong so richly as to Henry Clay? Then why should 
he be called upon to sacrifice himself, when there is no prospect 
that the offering will appease the gods. Let us be wise and if 
the minions of fashion must have a victim, on whose carcass 
they can whet their fangs, let them amuse themselves with Mr. 
Wirt, 36 until another, if he is riot sufficient, can be provided. 
Tut l:t it rot be Mr. Clay. 

I do not throw out these suggestions, presuming that they 
are new. But the course of events is fast leading to a crisis 
which will call for action. The National debt is fast being ex- 
tinguished, and a new state of things will be demanded. The 
Tariff must be revised; this is a delicate subject, which must be 
handled by skillful hands. Who but Mr. Clay, the great cham- 
pion of the "American System" can act as umpire between the 
conflicting interests that will be aroused? If, in this great pros- 
pective work, he should acquit himself with his accustomed 
adroitness, he will again be, what he was before the pestiferous 
breath of Jackson slander was breathed over him, the favorite, 
the idol of the American people. Our f-iends at Washington 
and elsewhere, who assume to direct, must be made sensible of 
the necessity of some such step as the one here suggested. 

I have written in great haste, from continued indisposition. 
If Gen. Porter 37 is at Washington, (which I doubt, although it 
was announced he would probably be at Baltimore) you will 
please tender him my respects and congratulations on the recovery 
of his health. I have much more which I could say on the sub- 

~ e William Wirt of Maryland, the presidential nominee of the Anti- 
masons, 1831. 

37 Peter B. Porter, Sec. of War during Adam's administration, 1824-29 ; 
of the Nat. Rep. party. 


pect of this letter, touching more particularly, managers and 
management in this state, but I forbear. Let me hear from you 
occasionally during your stay, and believe me, 

Very respectfully, your obdt. humble servt. 

O. Follett. 
Maj. J. G. Camp. 
[Original, draft of letter.] 



Feb. 6, 1832. 
My D r . Sir, 

I wrote you a very hasty note some week or two ago, by a 
Mr. Nixon of your city, in which I said something of the state 
of things, politically, in this quarter and of our prospects in the 

On the subject of our political condition, I have as you know, 
in common with yourself and most of our '"hearts of oak", a 
deep and abiding feeling amounting to a perpetual declaration 
of war against the enemies of our internal peace, the present mis- 
rulers of the country. There is no sacrifice that I would not 
make, compatible with my duty to myself and children, to com- 
pass their downfall, and to place things where they used to rest, 
on their own proper merits. I believe this is a common feeling 
with the National Republicans throughout the union — it is one 
that can alone spring from convictions of right and duty, and 
such considerations as these, you know, only enter the calcula- 
tions of the truly honest and intelligent politician, of which it 
should be our pride to say the National Republican party is mostly 

Now, my dear Sir, what should be done to carry out our 
views in. this matter? What would become such a party to do. 
to attain their objects? The mere expression of individual 
opinion is not going to answer any valuable purpose, inasmuch 
as such expression is not uniform, and leads not to concentrated 

3 *Joseph Hoxie, active politician, especially known as a campaign 
vocalist during the presidential campaigns of W. H. Harrison and Clay. 
Cf. Appleton's Bicg. Cyclop. 


and united action. But there should be both uniformity and 
concentration. There should be one common center, one head, 
one general organ, through which the voice of the whole could 
be Leard^ and this organ should be so constituted as to command 
and so directed as to deserve the respect and attention of all. 
In this I am clearly convinced, as no doubt you arc, and our 
friends generally in the city and elsewhere. 

It is a wrong policy founded in a false estimate of things, 
that makes us too wise, in any of the relations of life, to learn 
wisdom of our enemies. In this particular of which I have been 
speaking, our opponents have taught us a lesson (and they have 
improved wonderfully upon the original plan by time and ex- 
perience) that should not be overlooked. I allude, as you will 
understand, to the central power at Albany, of which the Argus 
is the organ, dispensing light, and issuing commands to the 
remotest corner of the State. A concentration of power is apt 
10 be«-et aristocracy, and to bad to abuse- — true — in all such 
matters it is the province of wisdom and prudence, nay, patriot- 
ism, to make a choice between evils and to endure the smaller 
for the good of the great whole. 

But how can such an influence be created at Albany, and 
how sustained? "God said let there be light, and there was 
light", "The vox populi" &c. The voice of the people is the 
voice of God. And who is it gives voice to the will of the people ? 
It is the humble man of types and paper, who is himself con- 
trolled by cash. Plant deep "the root of all evil", and good will 
spring from it. We have but to will it and it is done— apply 
the talisman and a genius springs forth that will pervade the 
whole State, shedding light and giving life and vigour in all 
directions, and to all our action. . 

This is not poetry, it is sober truth, and you have the man 
amongst you calculated to assume the editorial management of 
a paper at Albany, of the kind needed. I mean, Jenks, of the 
Eve Journal. If he is not sufficiently known to the State, to 
give it character in the outset, let some one be associated with 

But where is the cash to come from, and how much is wanted? 
You have a hundred men in N. York who will pay $100 each 
for such a purpose. I will pledge myself for one, at least, in 
Buffalo; and should the suggestion ever be acted on, I think as 


many as four just men may be found. Put down Rochester for 
four more — Canandaigua, Geneva, Auburn, Utica &: Schenectady, 
for like number each. Albany, ten; N. Y. and the river towns, 
twenty, we have enough to start with. This sum should not 
be raised as a forlorn hope, as a means of accomplishing one 
object only, but for the purpose of establishing a central influence 
as permanent as the necessity for its creation — one that should 
oppose itself to the influence already existing", steadily, eternally, 
or at least until triumphant. 

Difficulties might arise as to how, and into whose hands, this 
power should be lodged. Create it first and it will then most 
assuredly take care of itself. The power that created could 
annul — a common interest would produce mutual dependence, and 
a common danger union. 

But enough of detail, fill up the sketch as you may like it. 
Let me hear from you on the subject, when you shall have 
consulted with your friends, such as you know feci right and 
have the will to do. The want of organization has destroyed us, 
and a complete organization cannot be brought about, without 
using adequate means. In the moral, as in the physical world, 
cause precedes effect. 

Your obdt. humble servt. & friend 

[O. Follett.J 

(Original draft of letter.) 



Feby. 13, 1832. 

You will think, by and by, that I am made up of words, and 
that I use them mostly in writing letters. But it is not so, I 
assure you — I write but little, and talk less. 

There has a crotchet got into my head, however, for troubling 
our good friends, the Regency folks, which I should like to see 
carried out, and which I believe is not difficult of execution. 
It is, to start Gen. Root 33 as a candidate for Governour — the 
Republican candidate, too! think of that. 

39 See Note 9. 


Without further circumlocution, these are my views. We 
all know how the Gen. estimates the Albany clan, and the great 
disposition he has for bolting — not from the party, but from their 
dpmmati.on. For, in relation to them, and all such matters, the 
Gen[eral]'s rule is to keep within party lines, well knowing, 
as lie expresses himself, that when we cease to be Republicans, 
we lose our influence, &c. — Though Gen. you know, is a staunch 
Republican in the estimation of the People, and has greater power 
amongst them in this State, than any other man save Gen. Tack- 
son himself. He is no favorite with the Regency — they dare not 
trust him — he is too blunt and honest. Now, how shall we avail 
ourselves of the power of his name against them? I think it can 
be done through the Courier & Enquirer, 40 the Craftsman, 41 and 
some other papers similarly situated. 

It is hard to acknowledge it, but in this State, we have nothing 
to expect at the next election, from our own strength. We 
have mwli to hope from the dissensidfis amongst our enemies. 
It should be our policy, I think, to divide them up into as many 
different interests as possible, so that after the Presidential can- 
vass they will be forced, some of them, to seek elsewhere than 
tinder the Regency flag. In order to do anything ourselves, we 
have got to assume high and independent ground in our future 
operations. We must show a bold front, and make a display of 
means to maintain it. Then, as matter of course, we shall become 
the center of attraction for all the fragments that shall have been 
broken off from the great lump of Republicanism by the collisions 
incident to a war in their own camp. 

The Courier stands pledged to oppose itself to the Albany 
interest. This it must do or be swallowed up. Like other men 
of policy (regardless of. principle) its managers will gladly accept 
aid to raise themselves above their enemies, or, more properly 
speaking, to sustain themselves against their attacks. They dare 
not abandon the party for the moment they do. in obedience to 
a general law of nature, they sink beneath the surface of their 
native element, filth and corruption, and are lost forever. 

They must be approached, therefore, cautiously — we poor 
Nationals, it can be safely said, do not expect to be able to run 
a candidate successfully — we cannot go with the Antis. they are 

40 N. Y. city newspaper, ed. by J. W. Webb. 
41 Rochester newspaper. 


too faithless, and we do not like to go with the Regency people. 
We are Republicans, gentlemen with the highest pretensions, and 
should therefore choose to support a genuine Republican of the 
old school on his own merits, if an opportunity can be afforded 
without obliging us to bow ourselves in humble submission at 
the throne of either party, as now constituted and led. We will 
have nothing to do with getting up your candidate; but if you 
will bring forward some old Democrat, like Gen. Root, when the 
time for action comes, we shall necessarily be found with you 
in the choice of e\ils which we shall be forced to make. 

The simplicity of some such a proposition will be apt to take 
with the malcontents. This has nothing else to recommend it ; 
and, if the hostility of the Anti-Regency Jacksonians, (and they 
are numerous after all in every quarter of the State ) can be 
brought to this point, the downfall of the party is accomplished — 
the door is thus opened for interior operations that will beyond 
a doubt, place our friends in power ai the Governor's election 
in 1834. The Senate will remain, it is true, a nucleus around 
which the corruptionists will gather. To reach this, in addition 
to future elections, we must depend upon the use of the same 
means that has made it what it is — fear, and the hope of reward, 
pledges, and payments when convenient. 

You may think me extravagant. A moment's reflection will 
convince you that I am not, provided we commence aright and 
in season, with our general state organization. Without this, 1 
confess, we are worse than nothing to ourselves, and conse- 
quently neither to be loved or feared by our enemies. Take for 
granted, what I expect was the fact one year ago, that there 
is an undoubted Anti-Regency majority in this State, disposed 
to act if an opportunity be afforded, and what is to prevent a 
triumphant march of power? One year ago there was, I will 
venture to affirm, 20,000 majority against the Regency in this 
state. And what has become of it? It has been frittered away 
by indecision on our part — or rather the want of correct and 
perfect organization has kept it back, it could not show itself; 
there was no point of attack sufficiently clear to draw it out. 
It has now, much of it, fallen back into the Regency ranks, the 
better to oppose Anti-Masonry — the rest lies dormant, and no 
shout from the Anti-Masonick "watch-towers" will ever rouse it. 

Let us be up and doing then. We must have funds for 

travelling agents, for printing pamphlets and handbills, and for 
sustaining a paper at the political centre. Three months time 
is sufficient for all this, if we act decisively. We may then, per- 
haps, make fight '"on our own hook" at the next Governour's 
election. Away with expedients in such a ease— no temporizing 
— but we will march on directly to the point, and conquer, or fall 
in the timbers. 

My respects to all our friends with whom I am acquainted, 
and believe me, Sincerely ycurs, 

[O. Follett] 

[Original draft of letter] 



New York 23rd March 18^2 
Dear Follett 

I am indebted to you for your several favors of Jan. 24, 
Feb. 6 & 13th, all of which I could have answered sooner if it 
had been in my power to have written anything satisfactory. 

Being apprehensive that you might lose all patience, or die 
of old age, before our friends here would do anything, I have 
concluded to say to you that our friends from the city with 
others from the River Counties & such other parts of the state 
as can attend, will meet informally at Albany on the 5th Aprl. 
& will then & there agree upon the plan of the coming campaign. 
It would have been very desirable to have your good company, 
bat the time since this determination was made was too short 
for us reasonably to expect the attendance of friends so remote, 
at this unpleasant season. At present I can form no idea of the 
policy to be pursued in the next election, but the moment our 
friends decide I will inform you. Old Root 4 - you will perceive 
is out upon the Regency & the eonsisient Courier & Enquirer 
is out upon him, although itself at war with the "Money 
changers". And so we go and what the d — 1 will become of 

42 Root's resentment against the Jackson party for their failure to 
nominate him for Gov. instead of Marcy. le<l him to make speeches 
against that party shortly after accepting his nomination by them, for 
U. S. Cong. His lack of good faith met the disapproval of Webb, ed. 
of the Courier & Exp., although opposing the Jackson party himself. 


us, who can tell? The news today i? that the Gov. 43 of Georgia 
will not submit to the decision of the Supreme Court. What 
next? "nous verrons" as the Sage Ritchie 44 would say. Do you 
see how Cambrelling, 45 Archer,'" & others of 'die party are 
"Soaping" J. Q, Adams? Who would have thought that the 
scales would so soon have fallen from their eyes, and they be 
permitted to see and acknowledge the talents and integrity of 
that man, whom they vilified as a corrupt coalitionist, and whom 
they succeeded in displacing & elevating in his place the miser- 
able "thing" now at the head of affairs. 

Hoping soon to have it in my power to write something more 
satisfactory I remain yours sincerely 

Joseph Hoxie 

Follet, Esqr. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 



Albany, ioth May, 1832 
My Dr Follett, 

1 called for a copy of your charter which was taken today 
by Mr. Russell. 

I was rejoiced to hear from you, and still more so. to find 
you in so amiable a frame of mind. There is a great work in 
hand, which may be surely and certainly wrought out, if we 
will it. I am abundantly persuaded you will do your part, and 
that part, permit me to say, is a most importan and responsible 
one. Yours, is the most leading and responsible national paper 47 
out of the city of Xew York. But all this you see and feel. 

Things look well — exceedingly well. The whole tenor and 
tone of thinking and speaking is changed. All men opposed to 

43 Gov. Wilson Lumkin refused to accept the decision of U. S. Snpt. Ct. 
holding the law of Georgia unconstitutional which extended the jurisdic- 
tion of the State over the Cherokee lands, etc. 

"Thomas Ritchie, editor of the Richmond (Va.) Examiner. 

45 Churchiil C. Cambreleng, went from N. Car. to New York; mem. 
of Cong. 1821-39. 

46 William S. Archer of Virginia., mem of Cong. 1820-35. 

"Buffalo Daily Journal. 


Tackson and Regency seem determined to act together. If this 
determination is adhered to all is safe. 

The C. & E. 4S I think, offers a pretty good explanation of 
its Bank affairs, and is strong enough to worry the Regency 
greatly. If Marcy 49 denounces the C. & E. (which he must do 
or not get the nomination) they will come out against the Her- 
kimer nomination. The City of New York is ripe for ''reform." 
The River Counties will do far better than before. Indeed, if 
we unite, as we must, many of them will give us a majority. 

Root intends to run, nolens volens, but may not. He is 
separated from them forever. The New York folks, Nelson 50 
of Westchester, Walt Cunningham, 51 Gen. Haight, 52 Jordan," 3 the 
Renssalaer Clay man. with those of this County, and the Wash- 
ington County people are all doing well. 

At the adjournment, more than one third of the Jackson 
Members of the House, were dead Anti-Regency. 

i wish I could sec yoa often. Will you be this way during 
the summer? Your brother and myself continue neighbors, and 
are quite cozey. He is well. 

Yours faithfully 

T. Weed 

Smce the weather moderates Jacksonianism stinks at Wash- 
ington. What a cursed state of things! 


New York nth May 1S32 
O. Follett, Esqr 
Dr Sir 

I have waited a long time to be able to write to you en- 
1 couragingly on the subject of the approaching election. There 

*s"C. & E." and "its Bank affairs" may refer to the N. Y. Courier 
& Enquirer and its support of the U. S. Bank party. 

49 William L. Marcy, U. S. Sen. 1851-33 but resigned after his election 
for Gov. 1S32. Re-elected Gov. 1834. He was of the Regency party. 

■^William Nelson. Cf. Autobiog. of Thurlow Weed, v. I, p. 107. 

"Walter Cunningham of Poughkeepsie. Ibid. 

32 Gen. Jacob Haight. Ibid. 

"Ambrose L. Jordan. Ibid. 


is no fact more clearly established to my mind than this, vis, 
If three tickets are run in this State we shall be found in a 
fearful minority, and then the question arises that has so long 
perplexed us, how shall the opposition be united ? In my last 
I stated to you that some of our friends would meet at Albany 
on the 5th April for the purpose of consultation ; they did so 
meet and the following plan was discussed and agreed on, viz, 
that we lie still until the Anti Convention shall have been held, 
at which an electoral ticket shall be nominated composed Yz of 
Antis, and V2 of Clay men, 8z probably Granger & Strong for 
Gov. & Lieut. Gov., the electoral ticket pledged to go against 
Jackson, and with the understanding that if the vote of New 
York will make Mr. Clay president, he is to have them all, if 
not the Antis may as well vote for Wirt or not, as it will only 
send the choice to the House. This arrangement is satisfactory 
to our friends here generally, and I believe in the River counties. 
With a ;iv,„ tc prepare the public mind for this you have doubt- 
less seen and observed the tone of some of our papers of late 
touching the "union of honest men*' &c. The Daily Advertiser 
and E [veiling] Journal at Albany you will also perceive are no 
longer at loggerheads. I see you are organizing and that is 

Should the Antis do as they have promised, (& I think they 
will) at their Convention in June, it will perhaps be necessary 
that we have a Convention in August or Sep* to endorse their 
nomination (if we approve it) so that we may be able to com- 
plete our organization & call out our friends to give the ticket 
a united and vigorous support. This appears lo me to be the 
only plan that is at all feasible, & holds out any prospect of 
success — if it can be carried into effect I think we shall succeed, 
if not, thank God, we have nothing to lose. A wag observed 
to me a few days since he thought "we were looking up, being 
flat on our backs we could look no other way." 

What think you of the proposed arrangement? If carried 
out, must we not inevitably triumph? My respects to all friends, 
"Dont give up the ship." 

Very sincerely, Your friend 

J. Hoxie. 




New York 30th May, 1832. 
O. Follett, Esqr. 

Dp Sir, 

A few evenings since I had the pleasure of meeting a 
few friends from different parts of the State and although we 
could do nothing formally, we exchanged opinions freely and 
the following was the unanimous determination of all present, 
viz, That we should have a convention, that it be held at Albany 
subsequently to the Antimasonic. the precise time to be de- 
termined by the State Corresponding Committee from whom 
the call will emanate. 

It is expected that the Antis in June will make such a 
nomination as we can consistently support both for Electors 
and State officers, and the principal object to be effected by 
our Convention will be to give our friends confidence in such 
nomination, and ensure for it a powerful support, in other words, 
to endorse it. We are induced to believe and we do believe 
the Anti-masons will give us half the Electoral ticket with the 
understanding, that if the entire vote of this State will make 
Mr. Clay president, he is to have all. Xow, I wish you as far 
as you can, not only in your district, but wherever your influ- 
ence extends [would] see that suitable men are sent to the Anti- 
masonic convention in June. Men of liberality of feeling and 
such as are willing to make some sacrifice, if necessary, to save 
the country. At our little caucus (excuse the name), the counties 
of Westchester, Columbia, Rensselaer, Albany, Oneida, Wash- 
ington. & Livingston were represented, & of our city friends, 
D. B. Ogden, 54 Ketchum, 55 Blunt, 56 Jenks" & your humble servant 
were present. All agreed for the present we had better keep 
prettv still, at any rate do nothing to alarm the Antis, but to 
promote to the extent of our power a good understanding & 
good feeling. Yours truly, 

Joseph Hoxie 

54 David B. Oguen of New York City. 
55 Hiram Ketcham of New York City. 
CG Joseph Blunt of New York City. 
"Jenks of the Evening Journal of Albany. 



New York 28th June 1S32 
O. Follett, Esqr. 

Dr Sir 

I wish to congratulate you and all our friends on the 
happy result of the convention at Utica. I have as yet heard 
not a solitary complaint. You will perceive that the mandate. 
has gone forth to assemble at the same place on the 25 July ; 
now you know as well as I how important it is that it should 
be numerously attended, and you also know that on you will 
rest in a great measure the responsibility & trouble of attend- 
ing to- the Western Counties. You probably cannot afford to 
spend a great deal of time & money — I know you bleed freely 
but I am not willing to ride you to death. Can you command 
fundi at Eaffalo? We v-rmt a greal d^al here not only for this 
cursed County but Westchester, Rockland, Richmond, Kings, 
Queens, & Suffolk all look to the city for the needful. Will 
not Porter, Rochester, and others open their purses? When we 
have such glorious prospects, who will refuse. But the work 
mu^t be done, my whole soul is in the cause, we shall surely 
succeed if we exert ourselves, and for one, I am determined 
to have no stone unturned. I pray you go to work at once by 
correspondence or otherwise to stir up our friends in all the 
Great West; that every County may be represented in the Con- 
vention at Utica on the 25 July — put Camp & other friends in 
requisition — request them to write to every person they know 
in the several counties requesting them to b-_ up & doing. Gen. 
Porter* can write if he can't hear. I have so much to do at 
and about home that I must not promise much, but if you find 
difficulty in starting them, and should find it necessary to spend 
a little money, you may draw on me at sight for Fifty dollars 
to help along. I know this is not a large sum, but if you can 
get plenty of them you can get along — if the liberality of our 
friends at Buffalo has any proportion to their means you will 
have no difficulty. Let me hear from you soon & again let me 
entreat you to take hold in earnest. 

Yours faithfully 

Joseph Hoxie 
s - See Note 36. 62 



Buffalo, July 16, 1832. 
My Dr. Sir, 

Ever since your^ name was announced as one of the candi- 
dates for Presidential Elector, it has been my determination, in 
the spirit of friendly inquiry, to ask you several questions, touch- 
ing the course you might feel it your duty to pursue, should 
you be successful in your election. Your answers, I trust, will 
be as free and sincere as the motive which dictates the inquiry. 

Taking it for granted as I do, that the first object of every 
friend of his country, at this conjunction, is to prevent the re- 
election of Gen. Jackson, would you, (should the case present) 
give your vote for Mr. Clay, instead of Mr. Wirt, provided the 
chance for defeating Gen. Jackson should in the opinion of dis- 
creci: mend be increased by c ^ J^v 1 ?;?- Or -should it be reduced 
to a certainty, (as nearly so as human foresight will allow) that 
the vote of this state united for Mr. Clay would elect him, when, 
if given for Mr. Wirt, it would carry the question to the house, 
would you, in that case, feel at liberty to give your vote for 
Mr. Clay? 

There are several contingences that might be imagined, but 
I do not care to state them. My desire is merely to arrive at 
a satisfactory conclusion for myself, that, in the event of my 
using my feeble exertions to promote the success of the Electoral 
Ticket nominated, I shall be labouring for the advancement of 
th? great and leading interests of the country, not of a party. 
If I know my own feelings, and I believe I speak the sentiments 
of our friends generally in the state, I would do nothing to pre- 
vent the election of Mr. Wirt over Mr. Clay provided his claims 
of success should be greater than Mr. Clay's, and provided also 
that the redemption of the country can be as well or better 
accomplished through the elevation of the former as of the 
latter. I would effect and render certain the overthrow of the 
present corrupt power with as little violence as possible to the 

B9 George H. Boughton of Canandaigua, and Lockport, State Sen. and 
Canal Commission; Mem. of the Antimasonic Convention, 1S28, and of 
their National Convention at Baltimore, 1S31. Cf. Autobiog. of Thurlow 


present state of the opposition — satisfied that any change would 
be for the better, and unwilling to lessen the chance of success 
by contentions about minor points. 

Jt may suggest itself to your mind that I make these in- 
quiries at the instance of others. Lest this idea, should it ob- 
trude itself, might prevent a free expression of your feelings 
and opinions, (so far as I might otherwise be thought entitled 
to receive them on the score of "old acquaintance") I assure 
you that I write for my own satisfaction at instance of no one, 
and further, that your answer, whatever it may be, shall be 
considered in just such a light as you may prescribe, and be used 
only as you may direct. 

I feel an unusual degree of solicitude about the approach- 
ing election. Important interests are at stake — the permanency 
of the union itself may rest on the issue of this contest. It is 
no time to stand about trifles. The work can and must be done. 
Who then shall stand back? He who sees when he can. strike 
an effective blow for the salvation of his country and refuses 
his might, is a traitor! I am determined that the charge shall 
not rest on my name. 

The I'cto has put on the finishing stroke. Who ever saw 
from the pen of a statesman, so much pettifogging, quibbling. 
and assumption? Van is called a third rate lawyer. Most of 
the objections in the veto can claim no higher origin, whether 
they are from Van's pen or the pen of some other sage. 

Let me hear from you immediately, for your answer to the 
points suggested above will have some influence on my future 
course. Your obdt. humble serVt. & friend 

O. Follett. 

G. H. Boughton, Esq. 



Buffalo, Aug. 6, 1832. 
My Dr. Sir 

I rec d yours of the 1st this morning, and hasten to reply 
to it. It is certainly desirable to change the course of any and 
all the Jackson papers that we can reach. As to the distinctive 
character they shall assume, whether Nat. Repub. or Antimas k 


[Antimasonick] I do not think it can make much difference 
which, for eventually, the Antis have got to come to us or sink. 
Admit, if you please, (to gratify their vanity) that they have 
the physical force — we have the moral power, and to us they 
must adhere for countenance and support before the state and 
nation. Our leading men are pure and numerous; theirs are 
political hacks, and have no character to sustain them, even 
should they feel disposed to thrust us off. They must come to 
us eventually, however they may talk now. We occupy the 
National held and they cannot take it from us. We are identi- 
fied with the great interests of the country, such as Tariff, Im- 
provements, Banks, Judiciary question, &c. &c. The}- are of 
local origin, and quite too domestick for extended operations. 
A Victory this fall, however gained, will therefore put us on 
stilts, and the organization that will follow, of a National party 
must be .for our benefit. For any arrangement you may make 
for changing the politicks of the Monroe Rep.ub w reference 
should solely be had to the greatest amount of good the change 
will produce to the Anti-Jackson cause having all minor con- 
siderations out of the question. These are summarily my views, 
submitted for your benefit and the benefit of our friends, if yoJ 
shall think them of any value. 

What paper is this Monroe Repub n ? It is, as I understand 
it, the old Jackson paper of your village; or is it, the new one? 
If in the arrangement which shall be made, you should need 
any pecuniary assistance, we here will try to lend a helping 
hand. But it does not signify being too nice, our friends at 
Roch r must step forward, Childs, Barnard, Reynolds, Ha-wley, 
&c &c, are able and ought to help you. Gheenleaf, your late 
delegate to the Convention (who by the by I found a very in- 
telligent and clever fellow) with others amongst you, should 
make those Rochester gentlemen to do. If we put forth our 
power the victory is assuredly ours. Then why hesitate? We 
must spend and be spent in the good cause. I am glad to hnd 
you so heartily engaged. When Masons of our standing, can 
be induced from considerations of duty, to make the sacrifices 
we have, and are making, our opponents must give us credit 
for devotion, if nothing more. 


I remain, Sir, with conisderations of high esteem, 

Your obdt. servt, and friend, 

O. Follett 
H. D. Chinm^n, Esq. 

Brockport. [Monroe Co., N. Y.] 



New York, August ioth, 1832. 

The branch of the National Republican State Corresponding 
Committee appointed at the recent Convention, resident in the 
city of New York, are desirous of opening and continuing a 
correspondence with you, as a branch of the same committee, 
resident in Buffalo. V\ e have the pleasure of informing you 
that the proceeding- of the late Convention have given great 
satisfaction to our friends here ; the necessity of adopting the 
tickets already in nomination was sufficiently apparent, if we 
would cherish a hope of success, and the reasons for such adop- 
tion, set forth in the address, are such we think as honorable 
men, and patriotic citizens, ought not to be ashamed of avowing. 
The Convention by their manifesto are careful to let the people 
of this and all other States know that though they adopt the 
Anti-masonic nominations, they are not anti-masons. In the 
judgment of our friends here, nothing is now required but 
vigorous effort, to secure the election of the ticket nominated 
by the opposition, and such exertions they are willing to make ; 
there is much, for our friends throughout the State to do, and 
but a short time to do it in. We would suggest the propriety 
of publishing early calls for County Conventions of our friends, 
though it may not be convenient to hold such conventions until 
a late day; such notices give the appearance of action, and en- 
courage our friends in other States. It seems to us also that 
pains should be taken to give local circulation to the ablest news- 
papers in support of our cause. We are advised of the names 
of your County Corresponding Committee, and should be pleased 
to be provided with the names and address of the Committees 
of other Counties in your vicinity, we should be pleased also 

66 ' 

to receive any information or suggestions from you, which in 
your judgment will aid our cause. What do you learn from 
Ohio, can we do anything to produce union among" the oppo- 
sition in that State ? 

On behalf of the N. Y. branch of the State Corresponding 
Committee I have the honor to be yr most obt. servt. 

Hiram Ketchum 

Heman B. Potter 

David Burt 

John G. Camp 

Sheldon Smith 

Oran Fol'lett Enquirer 



Washington. Sept. 10, 1832. 
Dear Sir : 

I have the pleasure to acknowledge your letter of the 4 
enclosing ten dollars, and ordering Twenty copies of the Extra 
Telegraph. The first and second numbers will be sent you 
immediately and the others as they are published. Please ac- 
cept my thanks and do me the favor to give such circulation 
to the annexed prospectus 61 as your opportunities permit. I 
would suggest that much good could be done by your Com- 
mittee's ordering a number of copies for distribution on steam- 
boats, Taverns and places of public resort. A small sum applied 
in this way (unfelt by each contributor) would be well repaid 
if so important a State as N. York is secured to the opposition. 
The time intervening between this and the election is short. & 
promptitude, decision & energy on the part of the opposition 
(all that is wanting to insure complete success) must be used, 
or we may have cause to regret our inactivity when too late. 

60 Duff Green, a supporter of Henry Clay for President 1832, had 
"been editor of the administrative organ, "The United States Telegram" 
in Washington. 

61 Xiles Weekly Register, v. XLIII, p. 11, contains a copy of this 
prospectus, which vigorously opposed the re-election of President Jackson. 


I want my Extras to be extensively seen & read as its exposition 
will bear hard on the old chief - and his hangers on. I have 
only to add that my subscription list goes on admirably, and 
my e?'ten c ive intelligence from the States, heretofore considered 
doubtful, is of the most flattering nature. 

Very Respectfully, I am Sir, &c 

D. Green. 
O. Follett, Esq. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



New York, Sep. 13, 1S32. 

"Hcnr Sir 

Your letter of the 16th ultimo has served an excellent pur- 
pose by developing the character and views of D. C. Miller. 64 
I tell you in entire confidence that this rascal of an Anti has 
written a long letter to Chancellor Kent, 00 requesting him to 
state how he should vote if elected. He will receive no answer. 
Xow, your letter has been useful in producing this result, I 
shall not commit to paper, but if we ever meet you shall know 
all about it, in the meantime, from motives of delicacy to the 
distinguished gentleman on our ticket, entire silence is the word. 
Do watch the movements of the enemy, and report what you 
ascertain. We have called a meeting of the citizens generally 
under our own name, for Thursday evening of next week, and 
the Wards for the Monday following. I do not like to dis- 
appoint distant friends, but we feel like doing some thing hand- 
some ; we shall look too, to our neighbouring Counties. 

Our branch of the State Corresponding Com. have estab- 

62 Andre\v Jackson. 

63 Mem. of the Nat. Rep. State Cent. Cor. Committee in New York. 

e4 David C. Miller, printer of Batavia, who agreed to publish for Wm. 
Morgan the secrets of Free Masonry. Cf. Alexander's Polit. Hist, of 
N. Y., v. II. p. 417. 

6r, Chancellor James Kent, the noted jurist and author. 

will be issued, and where our friends will be received ; had you 
not better do likewise? How stands Cash matters with you, 
write me fully as to your flunking; not that I can promise you 
anything but good wishes but I have a hope that our rich men 
will shell out. I like "Plain talk to plain men", who wrote it, 
there should be a circular of this paper or a handbill. Read 
ail your papers 'til after the election for our office. Would you 
like some and how many of Duff Green's papers, if so, how 
shall they be sent? We shall have some to spare; it seems 
to me as they are nothing but Anti, they might scent the Anti; 
if you get up any good handbills send us copies, and we will 
do the same, please indicate the best mode of transmission. We 
are doing what we can in reference to Ohio. 

Yours truly 

Hiram Ketchum 
Oran Follett, 

Do not fail to put all the electors in your vicinity on their 
g&ard, let them s^ v nothing nor write anything 



New York 14 Sept 1832 

Facts that have come to the knowledge of this branch of 
the State Committee induces us to believe that the Jackson party, 
in addition to the public calls in the newspapers upon the elec- 
tors for a disclosure of their opinions and intentions, and publi- 
cations of fabricated private conversations with some of them, 
are now engaged in procuring professed xA.ntimasons to write 
letters in their own names to the electors, asking information 
as to their intentions in case they shall be elected. The answers 
to those letters will certainly be published if they can be pro- 
cured, and the injurious effects of such publications are too 
obvious to require an enlarged statement. We believe after the 
most deliberate reflection that no answer to any letter of such 
import could be drawn that would not by publication in some 
part of the State produce the most injurious effects. No elector 
surely can recognize the right of any private individual to put 


interrogatories which neither the Convention which nominated 
the electoral Ticket nor the Convention which adopted that nom- 
ination have thought proper to propound. Indeed it is due from 
the electors themselves to those Conventions, not to break their 
silence which the Conventions themselves have imposed. To this 
may be added the assurance that no such letters will be written 
by any friend of the Contention], they will be the mere devices 
of the enemy, seeking to destroy our present prosperous con- 
dition. It seems of the last importance to this branch of the 
Committee that pains should be taken to enforce upon every 
elector nominated upon our Ticket the absolute necessity of 
meeting with utter silence every attempt upon or application to 
them, either written or verbal. 

You are earnestly requested to see to it, and that every elector 
in your vicinity is immediately put on his guard against any at- 
tempts to draw confessions or declarations from him & this 
Committee thinks it prudent that the communications with the 
electors should be oral a::d not by correspondence. The New 
York branch of the Committee have established an office at 
No. 3 Broad Street in this city, in which there will be at all 
times of day a person in attendance to communicate with the 
friends of our cause. They recommend the establishment of 
such an office by your branch of the Comm* & the employment 
of a Clerk for the purpose of ensuring an immediate compli- 
ance with this request this branch of the committee have been 
enabled to raise a small fund from which you are at liberty 
to draw (if you have not funds provided) at three days sight 
for one hundred dollars towards defraying the expenses of the 
proposed establishment. Draw upon Joseph Hoxie, New York, 
and you will please give us as accurate information as you can 
as to our prospects in your part of the State & particularly 
whether any yet appears indicating that the Anti Masons will 
not support the Electoral pari passu with that for the Gov r & 
Lieut. Yours 

H. Ketcham 1 

Geo. F. Talman | N. Y. 

S. G. Raymond fCor. 

Wm. Acker Com. 

Th s Z. Wells 

[Addressed on back of letter to "Heman B. Potter, Esq-. r 
Buffalo,'' and endorsed "Answ d Sept. 19, by O. F."] 






Burdette, Tomkins Co. N. Y. Sept. 19, 1832. 
Gentlemen : 

As a Delegate to the National Republican State convention, 
held at Utica, on the 25th & 26th of July last, I take the liberty 
of addressing you, as members of the State corresponding com- 
mittee, appointed by that convention, upon the subject of the 
approaching election. In order to arrest the misrule of the present 
National & State administration, a united exertion of the political 
opponents of Gen 1 Jackson, will be necessary. 

By one common effort, we shall retrieve the character of 
New York, by division all is lost. The prostituted newspapers 
of a corrupt administration, are making desperate efforts to pro- 
duce division in our ranks. Whatever differences of opinion, 
may have existed in consequence of the unfortunate question of 
Anti-Masonry, still in the present political controversy, all party 
distinctions must cease, & the friends of the Constitution, must 
sacrifice minor considerations, to the great interests of the Union. 
In this region we have called meetings of those "opposed to 
the misrule of the present National & State administrations," 
&c. Those meetings have been well sustained, & have done more 
towards uniting the opponents of Gen 1 Jackson, than any measure 
which has been adopted, during the present political controversy. 
State Conventions, however important they may be, have a gen- 
eral effect ; & to bring the question home, the people themselves 
must convene & interchange opinions. Permit me to suggest to 
you, the propriety of calling similar meetings; & should you do 
so, please forward me a copy of your proceedings. 

Every thing depends upon success, defeat is ruin. The deep 
interest I feel in the perpetuity of our civil institutions, must 
be my excuse for this intrusion. 

I am Gentlemen, very Respectfully 
Yours &c. 
Messrs. H. B. Potter J. Youngs. 

David Burt 
John G. Camp 
Sheldon Smith 
& Oran Follett 

State Cor. Com. 




New York 28th, Sep 1832 
Dv Folic tt 

I am very much obliged to you for your good letter of the 
14th inst. which I would have answered sooner but for the 

d d politics which occupy more than half my time, so I have 

little left for business or friends. 

When I feel dumpish I read over your letter & I assure you 
it exhilerates me. I wish I could talk of such majorities in 
this section of the state— but you may be assured that there is 
a spirit aroused here, not known since the War. Our Ward 
meetings on Monday night were more numerously attended than 
on any former occasion, you can judge of the spirit which pre- 
vailed, by their resolution. Old veterans were present who have 
not attended a political meeting for ten years, & some who have 
not voted during that time, everything looks exceedingly well 
in this part of the State. I have never seen such a feeling & 
interest excited as at the present time. 

Have you seen the Herkimer GG estimate? They have esti- 
mated Granger's" majority in your county at 1500 & Marcy 's 68 
in this city at 5.000 both a little wide of the mark. I have had 
a long talk with Efner, 60 he, as you say, is not quite satisfied 
with his situation, but I very much fear that he will not abandon 
it. I have no doubt he would agree to vote the Electoral ticket, 
if I would vote for Marcy, hut I can't do it, in politics as in 
every thing else I must act m good faith or not at all. He says 
Rochester 70 and others will vote in that way, is it so? I can't 
reconcile it to my conscience. 

Tell the fat Justice 71 that I always loved him, & that now, 

e6 Estim.ites of the Bucktail party, who held their Convention, Sept. 
19, 1832, in Herkimer, when Marcy was nominated for Gov. 

67 See Note 8. 

68 See Note 49. 

""Elijah D. Effner of Buffalo. 

70 William B. Rochester was nominated by the Bucktails for Gov. 
1826.. but was defeated, and in 18.7 was defeated for U. S. Sen. Through 
the efforts of Henry Clay in 1825, he was appointed minister to Panama. 

"Albert H. Tracy. 


if I could possibly be spared, I would make a journey to the 
beautiful city of the West to take him by the hand; tell him to 
work the little time that remains before the election, & his friends, 
his children, and his COUNTRY will bless him. M. L. D. 72 
probably gave you an estimate of the majorities in this district, 
I think that a liberal one for our opponents — he put down the 
city 4.000 against us? My best judgment tells me it will be less 
than that, probably 3000, but as our opponents have pr...t.d 
it at 5.000 yea could probably get bets on that number. I think 
you will surely win all that you can bet from 5000 down to 3500, 
of iliis I have not a particle of doubt. I cannot form an estimate 
of the probable effect of Webb's 73 course, I do not think it will 
be as great as some of our friends calculate, still it will help 

Our Gen. Committee has no estimate of the "Grand result" 
nor. can we mnke one at present. Your opinion on that subject 
is as good as the united opinion of our committee. Should 
anything occur to enable me to give you any definite informa- 
tion, I will do so. Yours very sincerely 

Joseph Hoxie. 
O. Follctt, Esq. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 


Jany 10, 1833. 


You will pardon this communication, coming from one per- 
sonally unknown to you, when you discover its object. I do 
not possess a greater regard for the interests and honour of 
the country than may reasonably be claimed by any citizen of 
fair and honest pretensions. But the present condition of things 
suggest gloomy forebodings, and what so natural as an applica- 

7 -Probably Matthew L. Davis of New York City. 

73 James Watson Webb, ed. of the N. Y. Courier, which he combined 
with the Enquirer iSjcj. He left the Jackson party, 1832, after the veto 
of the Bank bill, and supported the Whigs. Cf. Alexander's Poiit. Hist, 
of X. Y. Also, see Niles' Weekly Register, v. XLIII, p. II, for address 
by him explaining his position. 


tion for light and direction to those who may be supposed capable 
of affording both? 

I will not trouble you with a tedious detail, all I would say 
of the past and present is familiar to you. Your knowledge of 
the history of our government and your understanding of the 
spirit that guides our councils at this period, enables you to look 
upon the future as though it were already history. In this con- 
junction, allow me to ask, what is to be done? I appeal to you 
directly, from a conviction that you know what is contemplated 
by the friends of the Union, and because I believe that an out- 
line of future operation- should be imparted to the Nat. Repub. 
part}' without delay to prevent a wrong conception of duty. 

The President's 74 late proclamation has opened the door for 
much mischief in this state and the northern and middle states 
generally. Of this you must be aware. Mr. Van B[uren] is 
already on the alert, availing himself of the feeling which this 
document has excited, making propositions to our old friends ; 
and, here let me observe these propositions are not without 
success. His policy you can not fail to understand. The message 
of Gov. Marcy reveals this in plain lines. He will strain to place 
himself between the great parties of the south and the north, 
in the attitude of mediator, beckoning to each in turn by con- 
demning the ultra doctrines of both, until the publick mind is 
prepared for the blow. Nullification, in its broad sense, will be 
condemned to satisfy northern scruples, and to soften the south, 
the principle of protection will be abandoned, and the tariff cut 
down so as to yield a revenue barely equal to the demands of 
the government. This latter movement is in a course of train- 
ing already, but are the friends of domestick industry fully aware 
that it is the lever in the Van Buren policy upon which the chief 
dependence is placed? You, Sir, must see it — I have evidence 
of it — combinations are forming to render it effective. The prin- 
ciple upon which it is to be worked, is discoverable in the new- 
system of political mechanicks introduced within the last few 
years in the national councils. The question presented is, shall 
the friends of the country resist? And, if so, how? Or, shall 
they submit themselves patiently to the yoke, and, by acquiescence 
earn a portion of the spoils ? 

To meet this crisis, concert is necessary, a rallying point must 

r *Andrew Jackson. 


be devised, and that too immediately, or our strength is dissi- 
pated. In short, Sir, the National party must have a candidate 
at least in prospective, they must come out and declare them- 
selves, and, having once taken a definitive position, they must 
intrench and fortify themselves against the evil appeals that will 
be made to men's patriotick feelings thro' their interests. I pre- 
sume I am understood— the past is a safe criterion for the future. 

I will be plain with you in this communication. I feel the 
force of what I say, and no one regrets the necessity more than 
I do, that compels me to say, you are not the man on whom the 
friends of the country can rely for the canvass of 1836. This 
is the secret conviction of the whole Nat. Repub. party, with 
perhaps a few exceptions. Your confidential friends and advisers 
in the last canvass, 7 " 1 have to answer to the country for this — 
they compelled you to place yourself before the car of the political 
Molock of the day. and you have been overwhelmed. I will not 
charge them with selfishness in this ; but, certain it is, they erred 
in judgment, and to their indiscreet zeal is" chargeable in a great 
degree the manifold evils that now threaten the country. 

Previous to the sitting of the Baltimore Convention in De- 
cember, 1S31, I wrote to a friend of yours, a member of that 
Convention, a letter of which the following is an abstract: — 76 
(See Letter to J. G. Camp, filed, Dec. 13, 1831.) 

I make this extract to convey to you more fully my views, 
and to show on what grounds I have made them up. If there 
is error in them, they should be corrected immediately, for they 
are fast being adopted as the foundation of future operations. 
The letter containing the above, was submitted to a confidential 
friend of yours. It expressed opinions offensive to the sanguine 
hopes of your particular friends, and the advice was, therefore, 
to suppress it. 

I have said that Mr. Van Buren was not unsuccessful in his 
appeals to members of the Nat. Repub. party. I will mention 
a single instance of defection, without, however, charging upon 
Mr. Van Buren the sin or folly of conversion, to wit : W. B. 
Rochester, Esq. 77 You know this man, he is under many obli- 
gations to you — he owes all his political advantages to your 
partiality. If you know him thoroughly, you know he lacks 

75 Refers to Clay's nomination, 183 1. 

7G The abstract was omitted by writer from his original draft of his 
letter to Mr. Clay. See Letter marked "V" in this publication. 
77 See Note 70. 75 

firmness; and to this weakness may be traced his present course; 
he is afraid of being lost, unless he can place himself in a posi- 
tion where the sun of governmental favour can strike broad upon 
his front. Here then is motive sufficient for throwing himself 
within the magician's circle, to do which he has been trimming 
these three months. 1 could mention others but this one will 
answer my present purpose. The case of Air. R. is an extreme 
one — a different one might produce a same effect, and some of 
your best and firmest friends may be compelled to change posi- 
tion. But I will not follow out the subject. 

I again revert to the necessity of breaking ground at an 
early day. It is possible that the non-committal policy of Air. 
Van P.. will fail him at this trying time. An expression of 
opinions in language that would satisfy the Union anti-tariff 
party at the south, might alarm northern cupidity, and thus 
counteract the evil anticipated. With what chance of success 
would a third candidate take the field in such a conjuncture? 
I fear with but little. 

Mr. Van Buren has a large capital to trade on, derived from 
the unaccountable popularity of the Old Hero. With such means 
he stands a great chance of success, unless the power which the 
popularity of the present course of the executive is calculated 
to confer, can be transferred to other hands. The means of 
doing this are best known to yourself. Unless this can be done, 
I fear the worst. "Save himself who can'' will soon be the 
cry — the protection of the interests of the country will rest in 
foul hands, with no hope of salvation but in forcing the leaders 
in the new school from their non-committal position, and com- 
pelling them to be friends. Can this be done? 

I have written the preceding in unreserved confidence, and 
I commit il to you (although quite unknown to you, a stranger,) 
in the same spirit in which it was written. If you do not recollect 
my name, M. L. Davis, H. Ketcham, J. Hoxie, and others of 
New York, will be able to give you such information as will 
be satisfactory as to the motive which has dictated this com- 
munication. Whether it needs an answer or not, yourself will 
be the best judge. 

[Note: This communication bears endorsement in the hand- 
writing of Oran Follett as follows: — '"Original Draught to H. 
Clay, Jan. 10, 1833."] 


Quarterly Publication of the His- 
torical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio 

Vol. V, 1910, No. 3 

The Trenton Circular "To the Respectable 
Public" of November 26, 1787. 

Letter of John Cleves Symmes to Elias 
Boudinot of January 12 and 15, 1792. 


Quarterly Publication of the His 

torical and Philosophical 

Society of Ohio 

Vol. V, 1910, No. 3 

The Trenton Circular (< io the Respectable 
Public" of November 26, 1787. 

Letter of John Cleves Symmes to Elias 
Boudinot of January 12 and 15, 1792. 


I. Explanatory Note. 

II. The Tpenton Circular "To the Respectable 
Public" of November, 17S7. 

III. John Cleves Symmes io Elias Boudinot, Letter 
of January 12 and 15, 1792. 



Although the two selections that make up this number have 
been heretofore published, they are not readily accessible; for 
this reason it is thought that their importance and interest justi- 
fies their publication in this form. 

The circular, "To the Respectable Public," is referred to in 
Thomson's Bibliography of Ohio as "the first publication relat- 
ing to the Miami Purchase. The only copy of the tract we can 
trace is in the Ohio Historical Society Library, Cincinnati." 
Since this statement was published several other copies have been 
located, but this reprint is from the one referred to. 

The autograph letter from Syrnmes to Boudinot of date Jan- 
uary 12, 1792, is also in the collection of the Society, having been 
presented by the late Robert Clarke on January 19, 1893. 

John Cleves Syrnmes was born July 21, 1742. at River Head 
on Long Island, the oldest son of Reverend Timothy and Mary 
( Cleves) Syrnmes. In early life a teacher and surveyor, he re- 
moved to New jersev some time before the war of the Revolution. 
In 1774 he became Chairman of the Committee of Safety for 
Sussex County, and in the following year was commissioned 
colonel of a Sussex regiment of militia, the third battalion. He- 
served through a large part of the war, taking an important part 
in the organization of the defensive forces and fortresses of Long- 
Island and New Jersey, and participating with great credit in a 
number of important battles. He was a member of the New 
Jersey State Convention that drafted the constitution of the new 
State, being on the sub-committee of five having the matter in 
charge. He subsequently served the State as Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor for one year, and member of the Council for six years, and 
judge of the Supreme Court for twelve years, during; part of 
which time, 1785-6, he was also a member of Congress from 
New Jersey. 


He had married a daughter of Governor Livingston of New 
Jersey, and was connected both politically and socially with the 
most prominent people of this time. 

Interested by Major Benjamin Stites, himself a native of New 
Jersey, in the country between the Miamis, even before the pas- 
sage of the immortal Ordinance of July 13. 17S7, he, with five 
companions, took a trip to the Miami country and to the falls of 
the Ohio in the spring and early summer of that year. Upon 
his return he promptly organized a company of twenty-four men, 
among whom were Jonathan Dayton, Elias Boudinot, Dr. Weth- 
erspoon and Major Stites, and in his own name memorialized 
Congress on August 29, 17S7, on the subject of a grant between 
the Miamis. The history of his struggles with Congress and his 
own associates has been too frequently written to make it desir- 
able to pursue it here. He was sufficiently satisfied with the 
progress of his negotiations to issue at Trenton, New Jersey, on 
November 26, 1787, the celebrated circular in pamphlet form, 
addressed "To the Respectable Public," reprinted as the first 
selection in this number, the first public statement of the con- 
templated movement which resulted in the settlements that now 
constitute one of the most populous, wealthy, and important com- 
munities of the land. 

It is worthy of note that the first land warrant issued was to 
Major Benjamin Stites. covering the fee of 640 acres "at the point 
betwixt the mouth of the little miame and the ohio in the pint," 
dated Dec. 17. 1787. Symmes was subsequently in February, 
1788, selected as one of the judges of the Northwest territory; 
his associates were Samuel Holden Parsons and James Mitchell 
Varnum. hie started westward in July of that year reaching 
Fort Harmar with his family Aug. 24, 17S8, to leave three days 
later for Limestone, now Maysville, Kentucky. From this point, 
Symmes started a few weeks later with Israel Ludlow, the chief 
surveyor of the Jersey Company, Matthias Denman and Major 
Stites to meet the Kentucky party, headed by Colonel Robert 
Patterson and John Filson, on the new laud between the Miamis. 
The landing was made in the neighborhood of the spot now 
known as the Public Landing in Cincinnati on September 22. 
1788, on which day the first surveys of the territory now in- 
cluded in that city were made. 

The actual settlements between the Miamis were made at 3 

little later time ; that by the Stites party at Columbia, on Novem- 
ber 18, 1788; by the Patterson-Ludlow party at Losantiville, now 
Cincinnati, December 2S, 1788 and the Symmes party at North 
Bend on February 2. 1789. 

The defenseless condition of the settlements exposed to the 
continued aggressions of the Indians led to the building of Fort 
Washington at Cincinnati in the autumn of 1788. General Ilar- 
mar arrived at this the headquarters of the United States Army 
December 28, 178c;. 

The expedition against the Indians under the leadership of 
General Harmar left Fort Washington in September, 1790. Al- 
though Governor St. Clair characterizes this campaign as an 
"entire success." it was and is usually regarded as a serious de- 
feat, and one which had a most discouraging influence upon the 
settlement of the Miami Country. 

The important campaign of General St. Clair was in the 
autumn 5f ttoi. terminating on November' 4th of that year in the 
terrible slaughter at "St. Mary's, upon the river plain," one of 
the most serious disasters that ever befell American arms. 

It is with reference to this campaign that Symmes' letter to 
Elias Boudinot, which forms the second selection in this number, 
was written. It must be borne in mind that at this time Symmes 
was in the midst of this controversy with Governor St. Clair upon 
the subject of the contracts for the lands between the Miamis. 
In letters of August 15, 1791. and January. 1792. to Dayton and 
January 25, 1 792 to Boudinot and Dayton he gives many in- 
stances of the friction existing between himself and the governor 
ard between the citizens and the soldiers. 

Wayne's campaign of 1794 terminating with the great victory 
of Fallen Timbers on August 15th, resulted in the summer of 
1795 in the treaty of Greenville which terminated for all time 
the danger of the savage to the settlements between the Miamis. 

John Cleves Symmes died at Cincinnati February 26, 18 14 
and was buried at North Bend. 

Charles Theodore Greve. 




Whereas the honourable the Congress, by their act of the 3d 
of October, 1787, authorized the honourable the commissioners of 
the treasury board, to enter into a contract with the subscriber, 
for the tract of land hereafter described, and upon the following- 
conditions: the boundaries of the land are — viz. Beginning at 
the mouth of the Great Miami river, .hence running up the Ohio 
to the mouth of the Little Miami river, thence up the Little Miami 
to the place where a due west line, to be continued from the 
western termination of the northern boundary line of the grant 
to Messrs. Sarjeant, Cutler, and company, shall intersect the said 
Little Miami river, thence due west, continuing the said western 
line to the place where the said line shall intersect the main branch 
or stream of the Great Miami river, thence down the Great Miami 
to the place of beginning. 

The conditions are. that the tract shall be surveyed, and its con- 
tents ascertained by the Geographer or some other officer of the 
United States, who shall plainly mark the said east and west line, 
and shall render one complete plat thereof to the board of treas- 
ury, and another to the purchaser or purchasers. The purchaser 
or purchasers, within seven years from the completion of this work 
(unless the frequency of Indian irruptions may render the same 
in a measure impracticable) shall lay off the whole tract at their 
own expense into townships and fractional parts of townships. 
and divide the same into lots, according to the land ordinance 
of the 20th of May, 1785 ; complete returns whereof shall be made 
to the treasury board. The lot number 16 in each township, or 
fractional part of a township, to be given perpetually for the 
purposes contained in the said ordinance. The lot number 29 
in each township, to be given perpetually for the purposes of 
religion. The lots number 8. 11 and 26, in each township, or 


fractional part of a township, to be reserved for the future dis- 
position of Congress. One complete township to be given per- 
petually for the purposes of an academy or college, to be laid 
of [f J by the purchaser or purchasers, as nearly opposite to the 
mouth of Licking river as an entire township may be found 
eligible in point of soil and situation, to be applied to the intended 
object by the legislature of the state. 

The price to be one dollar per acre for the contents of the 
said tract excepting the reservations and gifts aforesaid, payable 
in specie, loan office certificates reduced to specie value, or certifi- 
cates of liquidated debts of the United States, subject to a re- 
duction by an allowance for bad lands, and all incidental charges 
and circumstances whatsoever, one third of a dollar per acre ; 
and in making payment, ihe principal only of the said certificates 
shall be admitted. And the board of treasury, for such interest 
as may be due on the certificates rendered in payment as afore- 
said, piioi u> iiic fust of januaiy, 1/35, shall issue indents for 
interest to the possessors, which shall be receivable in payment 
as other indents for interest of the existing requisitions of Con- 
gress: and for such interest as may be due on the said certificates, 
between that period and the period of payment the said board 
shall issue indents, the payment of which to be provided for in 
future requisitions, or otherwise. 

Such of the purchasers as may possess rights for bounties of 
land to the late continental army, to be permitted to render the 
same in discharge of the contract, acre for acre, provided that 
the aggregate of such rights shall not exceed one seventh part 
of the land to be paid for; and provided also that there shall be 
no future claim against the United States on account of the said 

'Two hundred thousand dollars of the purchase money to be 
paid down upon closing the contract, and two hundred thousand 
dollars more within one month after the delivery of the return or 
survey of the tract, to be made by the Geographer or other officer 
as aforesaid. The residue of the money to be paid by the pur- 
chaser, or purchasers in six equal half yearly payments, to be 
computed from the time when the second payment becomes due, 
together with the interest thereon from the date of the second 

When the second payment is made, the purchaser «shall receive 

a deed for six hundred thousand acres, exclusive of the reserved 
and given lands, the survey whereof to begin at the mouth of the 
Great Miami at one end, and at the intersection of the northern 
boundary line with the Great Miami, at the other end, and ex- 
tending eastwardly from the Great Miami on a meridian line to 
be drawn from north to south lengthways of the tract.- until six 
hundred thousand acres exclusive of the given and reserved lots 
are included between the Great Miami and such north and south 
line. Further proportional grants shall be made to the purchasers, 
from time to time as the subsequent payments are discharged 
always drawing a line from north to south, parallel with the iirst 
line from end to end of the tract, until the whole of the land pur- 
chased be granted by deed to the purchasers, their heirs and 
assigns forever. 

The purchaser or purchasers, on payment of the first two hun- 
dred thousand dollars, shall have a right to enter, and occupy a 
proportion oi the land, not exceeding three hundred; thousand 
acres, exclusive of the given and reserved township and lots, 
which privilege shall be enlarged, from time to time, as future 
payments may be made by the purchaser. Thus far the agree- 

- The publick, by the foregoing, being made acquainted with the 
nature of the contract entered into between the honourable 
the commissioners of the treasury board and the subscriber, for 
himself and associates ; the subscriber begs leave to communicate, 
to such gentlemen as are desirous of becoming his associates, 
the scheme adopted for sale and settlement, which shall be con- 
sidered as fundamental thereto by every purchaser and stttler. 
The first necessary measure, is to raise two hundred thousand 
dollars in liquidated certificates, in order to discharge the first 
payment, which must be made previous to any entry, or settle- 
ment on the laud. 

For this purpose land-warrants will be issued by the sub- 
scriber, or other person appointed, for any number of acres, not 
less than one hundred and sixty, or a quarter part of a section, 
and always making the warrant for a township section, or quarter 
part of a section, authorizing the person purchasing the same his 
heirs or assigns to elect and choose, in his own person, or by his 
or their agent, such township, or lot, or quarter of a lot as may 
be most agreeable to the holder of the warrant, provided the same 


township, or lot, or quarter of a lot, be not previously located, and 
entered on record by a prior applicant. 

A map, as accurate as can be drawn before an actual survey 
is made, may be seen with the subscriber, on which any person 
may moke their election of a township, lot, or quarter of a lot, 
which shall be attended to as far as possible after the tract is sur- 
veyed into townships and sections, and the elected townships, 
lots, or quarters of lots, shall be noted in the true map of the 
premises, as soon as the same can be made. When the survey 
thereof is accomplished, a plat or map of the land, paid for at the 
treasury board, will lie before the register at his office, to be 
kept on the ground, in which every township and fractional part 
of a township, will be fairly laid down and numbered ; and every 
township, lot, or quarter of a lot, when applied for at the regis- 
ter's office, and no where else after actual survey, shall be im- 
mediately recorded as sold to the person or persons to whom 
the 'vKHi'aut bjelongs, nvhieh shall be produced to cover the same. 
And the township, lot, or quarter of a lot, so elected, shall be 
marked on the map to prevent any mistake in a subsequent loca- 
tion. Provided always, that no section be divided when the war- 
rant contains a sufficient number of acres to cover the whole 

Two-thirds of a dollar per acre, in liquidated certificates, ex- 
clusive of the interest due on such certificates, to be paid by the 
purchaser on the receipt of a land warrant ; and for the interest 
due on all certificates indents are to issue at the treasury board, 
which shall be returned by the subscriber to the right owners of 
such certificates ; regular accounts thereof shall be kept. But the 
subscriber recommends, as the better way, that each holder of 
certificates should apply to the loan officer of the state in which 
he lives, 'and first draw up his interest fully in indents, or facili- 
ties, before he presents them in payment for the land warrant. — 
Yet if this be inconvenient, the subscriber will see that justice 
is done touching the interest. 

After the first day of next May. the price of the land will be 
one dollar per acre, and after the first day of November next, the 
price will rise still higher, if the country is settled as fast as is 
expected. The certificates raised by this augmentation in the 
price, shall be applied towards the making of roads and bridges 
in the purchase. 


One-penny proclamation or the ninetieth of a dollar per acre 
in specie, or bills of credit of the states of New York, New Jersey, 
or Pennsylvania, must be paid by the purchaser at the time of 
purchasing the land warrant. This fee of one-penny per acre, 
is to defray the expense of surveying the country, into townships 
and lots, agreeably to the land ordinance. And one farthing 
proclamation, or the three hundred and sixtieth part of a dollar 
per acre, in specie or paper money aforesaid, to be paid by the 
purchaser, to defray the expense of printing the land-warrants, 
purchasing proper books for records, accommodating and paying 
the register for his services in attending to the recording of 
entries, and other incidental charges which will necessarily ac- 

When a land warrant shall be for one quarter of a lot. or one 
hundred and sixty acres, the same shall always be taken and lo- 
cated at one corner of a section, in a square with equal lines, 
and in no ease shall the square of half a mile each way be departed 
from, except in those fractional parts of sections which may be 
rendered incomplete by the outside lines, or boundaries of the 
purchase, and the entry shall be made on the record accordingly, 
setting forth which corner, or quarter part of the section is 
elected, and that quarter of the section shall be immediately 
stained on the map to denote its being located. 

The subscriber is very sensible that an inconvenience will 
arise from the circumstance of adhering strictly to certain num- 
bers of acres in a land warrant, as few men can make the amount 
of their certificates tally exactly with certain given numbers of 
acres contained in a township, lot, or a quarter of a lot ; and yet the 
measure is absolutely necessary, for if persons were to purchase 
any number of acres which is most convenient to them, and locate 
the same at their pleasure, it must follow, that there would be left 
unlocatecl. a number of small pieces and strips of land, through- 
out the whole purchase, which would infalibly mar the design. In 
order therefore to remedv this inconvenience as far as may be, 
and provide a kind of change, a certificate of the surplus amount 
shall be given to the purchaser, certifying so much land paid for, 
over the contents of the warrant delivered, which certificate or 
due bill, shall be transferable, and shall be received in payment, or 
credited wdien presented in the purchase of any subsequent war- 
rant. A number of persons, however, may throw all their certifi- 


cates together, and take whole township, which they can divide 
among themselves according as each contributes. 

After location and entry is made on the records, the register 
shall so soon as the hurry of entry is over, proceed to make out a 
patent under his hand and a special seal for this purpose provided, 
to the purchaser, for the township, lot. or quarter of a lot so Lo- 
cated and entered, which shall be evidence of a transfer of the fee 
of such township, lot. or quarter of a lot, to the patentee, his heirs 
or assigns forever, for which service the register shall receive one 
third of a dollar in specie for each deed, including but one lot or 
quarter part of a lot, and the sixteenth of a dollar more for every 
additional lot and lots or quarter part of a lot over the first six 
hundred and forty acres, which shall be included in the patent 
or deed. 

Whereas engrossing large tracts of land, whereon no families 
are settled for a long space of time, has been found very preju- 
dicial to tiic popuiatiuii of ail new eountn-js — in order to avoid 
this inconvenience, which has been greatly detrimental to the 
settlement of Kentucke. it is hereby provided, that every locator 
shall have two years from the time of entering his location, to fix. 
or place himself, or some other person or persons, on the ground. 
or in the country at some station oi defence, and begin an im- 
provement on every section, or quarter of a section, which he 
may have located, if this may be done with safety ; bat if the lo- 
cator shall negleet for two years after location entered, to make 
a settlement on every section which he may have located, or to 
settle some other prson or persons thereon, or in some station, 
who shall continue to improve the same, or live in such station for 
seven years, unless succeeded by others, who shall supply their 
place, provided they are not disturbed by the Indians for that 
period, in such case, one sixth part of every such neglected section, 
or. quarter part of a section, to be taken off in a square at the 
northeast corner, shall be deemed forfeited, and shall revert to the 
register for the time being, in trust, so far as to authorize him to 
grant the same gratis, to any volunteer settler who shall first make 
application to the register therefor, previous to any settlement 
being made thereon by the proprietor or locator, or some person 
for him, upon condition however, that such volunteer settler pro- 
ceed immediately to make an improvement, and shall continue the 
settlement thereon, or live in some station in the country for de- 


fence, as is required of the proprietor or first locator. But in 
all such forfeitures, the forfeited sixth part shall be invariably 
taken at the northeast corner of the lot when entire, or quarter 
of a lot, so neglected to be settled, and shall be surveyed off in a 
regular square, all the lines being equal, the expense whereof 
shall be paid by the volunteer settler, who shall have the same 
recorded to him. the register stating the ground on which such 
volunteer settler derives Ins right, and after seven years occu- 
pancy on the lot. or residence in some station of defence, making 
reasonable abatement of time within that period, if the Indians 
should prove troublesome, the register shall proceed to make out 
a deed for such forfeited sixth part, always to be taken at the 
northeast corner, to such volunteer settler, whereby the fee of 
the land so forfeited shall pass to him, his heirs or assigns for- 
ever, for which the register shall receive the same fees as for 
other deeds. 

Little need be ^aiu to evince the propriety and justice of this 
measure, as it is reasonable that all who become purchasers should 
in some way contribute to the defence of the country, by their 
own personal service, or by some other person for them. 

The difficulty of opening and making roads in the country is 
another heavy duty to which purchasers who do not go there 
ought to contribute, thereby rendering the residue of their land 
more valuable. The settlement of one family on the forfeited 
sixth part, will really make the remaining five-sixths of the section 
or quarter of a section, worth more than the whole would be in 
a wilderness. Perhaps some may think that two years is too 
short a time for making the settlement required ; but if gentlemen 
will reflect on the danger from the Indians attending the first 
settlers, the great difficulties which those meet who first occupy 
a desert, the extent of the federal territory, open in every quarter 
to emigrants, and that the value of land depends almost entirely 
on the number of its inhabitants, the subscriber believes that two 
years will be thought time sufficient for the purpose. The sub- 
scriber having been in the western country, is so fully persuaded 
of the great benefit that will result from this regulation, that he 
most cheerfully submits to it himself, and perhaps few will be 
more affected thereby. 

Officers and soldiers of the late American army, who wish to 
have their bounty lands in this grant, will be pleased to send their 


names, regiment, rank, and of what line, to General Dayton, at 
Elizabeth-Town, or to one of the gentlemen hereafter appointed 
to receive the applications of purchasers. 

Ministers of th<= gospel of every denomination of Christians 
are cordially invited into the country, to enjoy the use of the lot 
No. 29, in each township, in such distribution as shall be agree- 
able to the parishoners. 

Schoolmasters who will settle on these lands, and are capable 
of discharging with propriety the duties of such instructors, shall 
enjoy the free use and benefit of the given lot No. 16, in some 
one of the townships, so long as they shall severally pursue the 
business of educating the children of the parish, on such terms 
as shall be agreed between the master and his employers. 

All certificates and monies paid shall be returned free of cost 
to the purchaser of the warrant, in case of failure in raising the 
sum sufficient for the first payment to the treasury board; but on 
return of the. certificates the land warrants must also be returned 
to the subscriber, or to those gentlemen from whom they may 
hereafter be purchased. 

The subscriber hopes that the respectable publick will not 
think it unreasonable in him, when he informs them, that the only 
privilege which he reserves for himself, as a small reward for 
his trouble in this business, is the exclusive right of electing, or 
locating that entire township which will be lowest down in the 
point of land formed by the Ohio and Great Miami rivers, and 
those three fractional parts of townships which may lie northwest 
and south, between such entire township, and the waters of the 
Ohio and Great Miami. This point of land the subscriber intends 
paying for himself, and thereon to lay out a handsome town plat, 
with eligible streets, and lots of sixty feet wide in front and rear, 
and one hundred and twenty feet deep, every lot of which shall 
be given freely to any person who shall first apply for the same, 
lot No. 1 being retained, and lot No. 2 given away, and thus 
alternately throughout the town — upon conditional ways, that the 
person so applying for, and accepting of, a given lot or lots, shall, 
without evasion, build a house or cabbin, on each lot so given. 
within two years after the date of the first payment made to the 
treasury board, and occupy the same by keeping some family 
therein, for the first three years after building. Every person, 
who will accept of a town lot as aforesaid, shall have the privilege 


of cutting, on the subscriber's adjacent land, as much timber for 
building as such donee shall need, during the term of three years 
from the time when he first begins to build on his lot. 

The subscriber begs leave to add, for the information of those 
who are unacquainted with the country, that from his own view 
of this land bordering on the river Ohio, and the unanimous re- 
port of all those who have travelled over the tract in almost 
every direction, it is supposed to be equal to any part of the 
federal territory, in point of quality of soil, and excellence of 
climate, it lying in the latitude of about thirty-eight degrees 
north, where the winters are moderate, and no extreme heats in 
summer. Its situation is such as to command the navigation of 
several fine rivers, as may be seen by the maps of that country ; 
boats are frequently passing by this land, as they ply up and 
down the Ohio. There are no mountains in the tract, and, ex- 
cepting a few hills, the country is generally level, and free from 
stone on the surface of the earth, but there are plenty of stone- 
quarries for building. It is said to be well watered with springs 
and rivulets, and several fine mill streams falling from the de- 
viding ridge, into the two Miamis. which lie about thirty miles 
apart, and are both supposed to be navigable higher up in the 
country than the northern extent of this purchase, so that the 
interior farms will have navigation in the boating seasons, within 
fifteen or eighteen miles at farthest. Salt in any quantity may 
be had by water within a moderate distance, at the salt-works 
on the banks of the Licking river, which empties itself from the 
Kentucke side into the Ohio, between the two Miami rivers. 
Provisions for the first emigrants may be had very cheap and 
good, by water, from the Pittsburgh, Redstone and wheeling 
settlements, or from the district of Kentucke, which lies opposite 
to this purchase, on the south-east side of the Ohio. The distance 
from Fort Pitt is about five hundred miles down a gentle river, 
navigable for boats of one hundred tons to the Mississippi, 
and down the Mississippi to the sea. In the district of Kentucke. 
which is separated from this purchase by the river Ohio, about 
half a mile wide, the average price of land is half a dollar per 
acre in specie, tho' a large proportion could not be bought under 
three hard dollars per acre; eight and ten shillings per acre are 
frequently given. For the quantity, a larger proportion of the 
lands on the Miami are supposed to be of the first quality, and 


the whole equally good, compared generally with those of Ken 
tucke. The titles to the Miami lands will be clear and certain, 
and no possible doubt can arise. Whereas, on the kentuckey side 
(military rights excepted) the titles of land are not easily as- 
certained, frequently very doubtful, and too often not well 

It is expected that a considerable settlement will be begun 
on the land early next spring, if the first payment to the treasury 
board can be made by that time. 

The honourable the secretary at war, General Knox, having 
assured the subscriber of his friendly disposition to support the 
settlers against the Indians, by replacing a garrison of federal 
troups in the fort which is still remaining on the land, at the 
mouth, of the Great Miami, must greatly facilitate the settlement, 
and in some measure render safety to the first adventurers. 

A svstem of good government for that country is already 
formed by the honourable the Congress, and the principal officers 
of the government are appointed. His excellency governor St. 
Ciair, and the honourable the judges of the supreme court, go out 
early next spring, and they will carry with them wholesome laws, 
and the wisest regulations for promoting emigrants to that coun- 
try, protecting and rendering happy all those who become peace- 
able settlers therein. 

The subscriber intends going out himself, and shall make it 
his study to encourage and superintend the settlement of this 
purchase, by causing the utmost attention to be paid to every 
application, and aiding, as far as may be in his power, all those 
who become either purchasers or settlers. 

Signed at Trenton, the 26th day of November. A. D. 1787. 


A township is six miles square, and contains thirty-six sec- 
tions, "thirty-one of which must be paid for at two-thirds of a 
dollar per acre, which comes to thirteen thousand two hundred 
and twenty-six dollars and sixty ninetieths of a dollar in certifi- 
cates. The penny farthing per acre for surveying and fees of of- 
fices, comes to two hundred and seventy-five dollars and fifty- 


ninetieths of a dollar in specie, paper money New York, New 
Jersey, or Pennsylvania. 

A section or lot, is one mile square, and contains six hundred 
r.nd forty acres which comes to four hundred and twenty-six 
dollars and sixty ninetieths of a dollar in certificates. The penny 
farthing per acre comes to eight dollars and eighty ninetieths of 
a dollar in specie, or paper money as aforesaid. 

A quarter of a section is one quarter of a mile square, and 
contains one hundred and sixty acres which comes to one hun- 
dred and six dollars and sixty ninetieths of a dollar in certificates, 
and two dollars and twenty ninetieths of a dollar in specie, or 
paper money of the three states aforesaid. 

It is necessary here to observe that while the paper currencies 
of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, continue of the 
same value they are at present, those emissions will be received, 
as with it surveyors may be procured, and waggons and boats for 
transportation of the supplies of the surveyors may be hired. But 
should the value of those paper emissions sink still lower, it can- 
not be received on any account whatever. 

Such persons as think proper to become associates, will be 
pleased to- apply to any one of the following gentlemen, each 
of whom will be furnished with land warrants for the purpose 
of supplying purchasers therewith, viz. Edward Fox Esq in Phila- 
delphia, Michael D. Henry, Esq in New York, Joseph Bloomfeld. 
Esq. in Burlington, Samuel W. Stockton, Esq. Trenton, Richard 
Stockton, Esq. in Princeton, Andrew Kirkpatrick, Esq New 
Brunswick, Mr. Elias Dayton, jun. at Elizabeth-Town. 




., , ~. Northbend January tile 12th 1702 

My dear Sir 

Before this time you must have been made acquainted with the 
dreadful misfortune? attending - the last summers operations. 1 ex- 
pect that reasons have been assigned to government for the total 
overthrow of our army. It is natural for doctors to assign causes 
for the death of their patients, but the causes assigned are not 
iiwavs th^ r" 11 ones. 

In the letter which I had the honor of addressing to you or 
Capt Dayton by Judge Turner, 1 gave you some hints of what 
I plainly foresaw the military arrangements then on foot would 
end in. I will acknowledge I had no Idea that our army would 
have been destroyed in the course of three hours, for it was im- 
possible for any one to stippose that the army was at any time to 
be crowded together on a few acres of ground and liable to be 
surrounded by half their number of Indians, whose every shot 
could not fail of killing or wounding three or four of our men : 
while our platoons in returning their fire, three times in four, 
saw not an Indian, they being hid behind trees, but still our men 
fired on mechanically at they knew not what. 

From the first week in June onward till I went to Gallipolis 
in October, I discovered evident symptoms of very great disap- 
pointments and miscarriage in the course of the campaign. I 
knew with certainty that there must be a great failure in the 
supplies for the army as they advanced to the Northward, if the 
early part of the season was lost, when the dour then at fort 
Washington might have been transported up the Miami to new 
Chilccothe (Tawixtwi) with very little risk or difficulty, the river 
then being high. There were three or four companies then at 
Headquarters which might have been employed to much better 
purpose in building a fort and cabbins at New Chilocothe than 


to be kept shut up in the town of Cincinnata for several months 
wb.pre they weie debauching themselves and the Citizens by their 
mischievous intercourse with each other, here all the flour ought 
to have been stored early in the season, which was necessary for 
the consumption of the troops in their further progress. From 
New Chilocothc the detachments of horse should have been fre- 
quently sent sometimes towards Sandusky and sometimes towards 
the Maume village, these should have blazed the trees on every 
I ] of their routs as tho they were marking the way for a 

much larger army to follow in a short time, this would have kept 
the Indians in continual alarms, from Sandusky bay to eel river 
that they would never have known at what point to have collected 
their force, as the inhabitants of each village would not have 
forsaken the defence of their own horde, and the grand movement 
might have been made in September after all the troops had 
arrived without any considerable opposition. 

New Chilpcothe or some better ground near it is more proper 
on every account, than the place where fort Jefferson is built, 
to be made our barrier to the Indians until we can possess our- 
selves of their country, and fort Jefferson ought to be evacuated 
and the garrison placed here, here are extensive natural mead- 
ows extremely fine either for hay or pasture so necessary for our 
iiorse on which we ought principally to depend for our offensive 
operations in future. 

Besides, if this place was occupied by a garrison, the country 
round which being extremely inviting would immediately be 
cultivated by settlers, as it is within the purchase arid the rage of 
the people of Kentucky has always been to possess themselves 
of this part of the grant on account of the fine prairas, waters, 
timber and so level a country, could this be effected any quantity 
of corn and hay might be made in the course of one year where 
so much good soil is already cleared to their hands. 

Whenever the miami is boatable provisions and military stores 
may be thrown up to new Chilocothe with great expedition in 
bateaux or fiat-bottomed boats, properly constructed ; the large 
keel-boats of the Ohio are very improper, they draw too much 

The delays attending the movements of our army were ruin- 
ous to the last degree. From June to September the army seemed 
motionless. It is true all the troops expected had not arrived, 


but the greatest sufficiency had arrived in this period to have built 
a chain of small forts along the east bank of the Miami from 
Colerain to New Chilocothe. This work might have been done 
while the troops which had already arrived were idle, and would 
have wholly saved the months of September and October, which 
were lost in building fort Hamilton and fort Jefferson. Another 
advantage would have accrued: By lining the east bank of the 
great miami with a chain of small forts in the former part of 
the season, and making a long stay at New Chilocothe from June 
to September, the Indians would have been deceived in our main 
object. They would have considered our plan of operations 
rather as defensive than offensive, the}' would have construed 
all our precautions into nothing more than a view of securing 
the purchase and protecting the settlements that were made 
therein against their future attacks since they had attempted the 
reduction of Colerain the preceeding winter. But the moment 
that the troops crossed the Miami at fort Hamilton, every old 
squaw must have known that the views of the main army were 
offensive and against what towns their designs were : formidable 
measures were therefore taken against them accordingly. 

After our designs were thus iucontestably announced by cross- 
ing the Miami, tedious and slow were our movements occasioned 
by the difficulty of bringing up provisions, and the building of fort 
Jefferson in their rout, which after all was left unfinished, and yet 
with all this loss of time the army was not so far advanced as 
new Chilocothe, where they might have been by the first of Sep- 
tember and all the forts built, had proper measures been adopted 
in June for the subsequent operations. 

The mountain always seemed to be in labour, great tilings was 
to be done — but how they were to be accomplished was altogether 
incomprehensible from appearances. The army seemed unwieldy 
— was not well furnished with horses and teams, since arrange- 
ments were made to take all the stores and supplies every inch 
of the way by land, and nothing of the business anticipated by 
previous measures. 

Too great a proportion of the privates appeared to be totally 
debilitated and rendered incapable of this service, either from 
their youth (mere boys) or by their excessive intemperance and 
abandoned habits. These men who are to be purchased from the 
prisons wheelbarrows and brothels of the nation at two dollars 


per month, will never answer our purpose for fighting of Indians. 
Such men may do very well in armies or garrisons where their 
duty is merely mechanical, but it requires another sort of men to 
contend against Indians with success. It is to be considered that 
every Indian is in fact a general in his way, and must be opposed 
by a combatant equally skilled in all their cunning and artifice. 
Sure I am that one hundred Marlboroughs could not fight fifty 
Indians in the woods with success. What then had we to expect 
from the dint of so unequal a conflict, when three fourths of our 
troops were altogether unworthy such service; unless their great 
inferiority could be more than compensated by the superior and 
briliant talents of their general, as well with regard to his alert- 
ness and activity in his motions, as with respect to his wise and 
judicious plan of decisive operations in which his abilities were 
more than a match for Indian subtil ty. 

The misfortunes of the late direful day may also be attributed 
in a great measure to the radical error committed in June with 
regard to the omission of tin owing flour up the great Miami as 
high as new Chilocothe. This being neglected it was not possible 
to furnish the necessary supplies by land on the rout the army 
took : the consequence was, the troops were delayed in their 
march — reduce. 1 in their rations to one half, and even to one 
quarter of their flour. This brought on murmurings, and dis- 
content — rendered them weak and irresolute, and induced whole 
companies of militia to desert. The first regiment of 'regular 
troops was sent back forty or fifty miles (with what propriety I 
will not say) either to bring again to the camp the deserting 
militia, or to prevent their taking supplies of flour from a convoy 
of provisions then expected to be on their way for the army ; both 
of which views must of course prove nugatory from the first 
moment they were formed as the Militia left camp early in the 
morning and the first regiment did not march after them until 
the afternoon of the same day and could never overtake them 
nor prevent their plundering the convoy. So that not only mam 
of the Militia had absented themselves previous to the day of 
action, but the first regiment which was in fact the best part and 
flower of the army all things considered, was also absent. 

The Indians no doubt took advantage of this defection in our 
numbers as they certainly were apprized of the return of so con- 
siderable a part of the army. This circumstance added to the un- 


accountable disposition of our army so favorable to the views 
of the enemy, could not fail of inviting them to the attack in 
which they saw success certain. 

It is also to be ieaicu that the impiety of our troops may not 
be considered as the most remote cause of our misfortune. If it 
be true as our religion teaches that the great governor of the 
Universe is in fact the God of armies, and really inspects into 
the conduct of men, and is himself a being of immaculate holiness 
and one who is displeased with the abominations of Man, and 
I own myself so much of a fanatic as to believe that he is, how 
can we expect his smiles on our arms, when the most horrid 
blasphemies, drunkeness and lewdness marks the character of too 
many of our troops there are indeed very few exceptions. I wish 
these vices were only to be found among the private men. but 
there are too man)- officers whom one would suppose from their 
station, possessed some Ideas of decency in their language, good 
manner^ and morality, bit who in fact are the prophanest 
wretches that I ever heard speak with a tongue. My blood some- 
times chills within me to hear their blasphemous familiarity with 
the names and attributes of the three persons of the Godhead. 
Sure I am that their unbounded impieties are not known to gov- 
ernment, or some attempts would certainly be made at a reform 
of the army in a moral sense, and it might be easily effected if the 
commanding officers did not too often set the example, but on the 
contrary do all in their power to check it. If it was once known 
in the army that the general neither swore nor drank intemper- 
ately, and would never fail to frown on those who did, and would 
even make it so personal as not to invite to his table any who in- 
dulged in those vices, those monsters in wickedness who now 
strut triumphant with brazen front and polluted breath, would 
soon become ashamed sink into contempt, and either forsake the 
practice or the army. 

It pains me extremely Sir, to reflect on the consequences of 
our fatal repulse. What the success of the Indians may not 
tempt them to undertake against these settlements in the course 
of the winter and coming spring is very uncertain : I greatly fear 
the event however. But one thing is certain beyond all doubt, 
this is, that the Indians will find in themselves no disposition to 
treat at all with us of peace. A continuance of the war in their 
opinion will be a continuance of their emoluments. Great indeed 


was their plunder on the last defeat. I am told by some officers 
that not less than twenty thousand dollars in specie and bank notes 
was supposed to be lost ; what then must have been the whole 
amount of the value of their plunder? Their great acquisition 
of plunder however was attended with one happy effect to us: 
it saved the flying remains of the army — but for the plunder, 
hardly a soul would have escaped the slaughter to bring us the 
dreadful news. The enemy individually jealous that another 
would take more plunder than themselves very soon gave over the 
chace, which was indeed undertaken but by few. 

I sometimes fear that the Indians are not more reluctant to 
peace, than the United States will be to a continuance of an active 
war with them. Such sums of money have been thrown away for 
two succeeding campaigns and nothing effected, but on every ac- 
count we are worse of[f] than when we began. I tremble lest 
Congress should determine that the defence of the western coun- 
try costs the nation more than it is an wona to ijiem, and leave us 
to our own defence in the best manner we can make it. Not tha,t I 
despair but that the Indians may be effectually subdued in the 
course of one years operations : but if I may be allowed to give 
my opinion with regard to the most efficient measures to be taken 
against them. I would not advise a plan of operations for the 
present year on so large a scale as that of the last campaign. I 
would not bring a soldier into service from the Aihegany Moun- 
tains, except so many recruits as would keep full the two regi- 
ments already established. And these Regiments I could wish 
might be kept on garrison service only, and that of building 
several new forts which are yet absolutely necessary. The militia 
situate to the westward of the Aihegany Mountains are unques- 
tionably the most proper persons in the nation to contend with 

You never may expect to get Indians to fight you on your 
own terms. If your army is composed of infantry they will only 
fight when they have greatly the advantage and are almost cer- 
tain of victory. Cavalry therefore alone can compel them to en- 
gage on terms which you will approve. Our plan of active 
operations must therefore be carried on with horse. Of the ap- 
proach of these the enemy cannot have long notice, nor elude an 
action when our commanders shall think proper to bring one on. 

With horse we shall always be able to move with greater 

celerity than the enemy, both in advancing and retreating. Far 
smaller numbers will also answer our purposes if the war be pred- 
atory for one season and carried on with horse. The western 
country r»bdurids with men and horses adequate to this business, 
could they be drawn forth into the service for short periods of 
time, and a liberal encouragement will always do it in sufficient 
numbers. I never wish to see more than six hundred woods- 
men well mounted and accoutred marching at an)' one time 
against the enemy the ensuing summer, as every thing is not to 
be put in issue on one of these excursions. The rendezvous of 
these ought to be at New Chilocothe as that place is nearly equi- 
distant to all the important Indian towns on the Wabash and 
Maume rivers, for this purpose a fort should be built at this place 
early in the season. Pittsburgh is a proper place for rendezvous 
when the Sandusky villages are the object. These men should 
be armed with a rifle-gun, two horse pistols fixed to a girdle 
*vW-wi T-rv-mH 1-V.a waist of the men, and not fixed as usual to the 
saddle, they must have a tomehawk of one and half pound 
weight, with a helve of two feet in length. The cartridges for 
their pistols ought to be leaded with buck-shot of about one 
hundred to the pound — these are for close work either on horse- 
back or when dismounted, their rifles are for long and certain 
shots — their hatchets are for charging in lieu of swords, but are 
much better for the use of woods-men and raw Militia. David 
preferred a sling because he had always been used to a sling, 
hatchets are far more wieldy both in carriage and in action, and 
will cost about one eighth as much as swords would do, they are 
not liable to break, they are far more useful for many other pur- 
poses on such an excursion, as rafting rivers, encamping, pro- 
curing firewood, cutting down the enemies corn, &c. &c. These 
men will average at the pay of one dollar per day man and horse 
including rations and forrage which they must furnish themselves 
with, or pay for them at a moderate price. A due proportion be- 
tween officers and privates must be observed in their pay but 
this must bear no proportion to the difference observed in the 
established Regiments, for I wish to draw forth the more re- 
spectable part of the community, such as value themselves upon 
having a country, property, connections and a reputation to fight 
for, and not such as enter service merely because the}' can live 
no longer unhung any other way. 


The horses of which these squadrons are composed are to be 
valued at a reasonable price and paid for by the public if lost in 
action or by other unavoidable misfortunes. The pistols and 
hatchets with their trapings are to be furnished by the public 
and returned to the public magazines when the tour is over, the 
hatchets should be four inches broad on the edge, plated thin in 
all parts so as to be as large as i^lb of Iron & Steel will make 
them, yet not too thin so as to be in danger of breaking when 
used in wood, each man furnishes himself with a rifle gun. The 
public furnishes powder, lead and flints ; care must be taken that 
the powder be of the first quality. You can hardly conceive. 
Sir, how much depends on this circumstance. These squadrons 
as they are to be composed altogether of citizens, must be com- 
manded by citizens, but by such as government shall appoint, to 
lake the militia officers as they rise will never do. The officer 
who commands these detachments must be one of whose abilities, 
experience, courage; temperance, and activity government has 
the strongest assurance — we pay too dear for hoping and wishing 
the reformation of mortals, but still confiding — and I never wish 
to see a man more than forty years of age at the head of these 
partizans, there is a vigour in young men which we may never 
expect to meet with in more advanced years ; and every thing 
must depend on the alertness with which these excursions are 
made; the months of June, July, August, and September are the 
only months in the year for this service; horse, cannot well live 
in the woods much earlier or later, but I had much rather add 
May than October ; after the first frost falls the food in the woods 
is gone and horses must starve in a wilderness. But whether 
am I hurrying myself on a subject in which you will say I have 
no business. I acknowledge your rebuke is just. My duty is not 
militare. I ought to be silent and patiently wait the issue of the 
war, relying on the superior wisdom of those whose province it is 
to direct the storms of war. But feeling myself interested as I dc 
in the success of our arms and pitting an end to hostilities in 
this country, no man in the nation being more so. I hope Sir 
that you will pardon me the liberty I have taken of troubling 
you with what I shall not be displeased if you call the reveries of 
an ignorant man. 


January the 15th, 92. I had all the fall Sir, intended to 

have been with you by Christmas or New years, but on my return 
from Gallipolis the latter end of November, where I had been to 
hold a court, I found the Miami settlements in the greatest dis- 
order arising from their dismay on the late defeat. Many families 
had fled into Kentucky before I arrived. I had the address to 
dissuade many others from following them, we have lost from 
the purchase on this occasion about twenty families in all, tho 
but one family from Northbend is gone, many more were a tip- 
toe to be going, and it has been with difficult}' that I have re- 
tained them. I hope their fears are pretty well over for the 
present and they are in some measure reconciled to stay ; but 
should the Indians this winter or spring make a breach upon any 
one of the villages in the purchase, I fear that all the inhabitants 
of the other villages will fly for safety- into Kentucky, and leave 
the purchase once more a desert. I can illy be spared to go 
abroad, all the encouragements that J can impart to the people 
are necessary to keep up their drooping spirits in such discour- 
aging times as these are. I was however preparing myself for 
my journey to Philadelphia, when on the 21st of last month I 
was run upon by a mad steer and much gored by his horns, in- 
deed it is a wonder that he had not killed me on the spot. I have 
not been able to forsake my bed longer than while it is made 
again for me, and now write leaning on my left side with a folio 
lying on the bed before me and my paper and ink on the book. 
I am however mending fast, my fever has left me, and my 
strength is returning with my appetite and my wound which is 
between my legs heals tollerably well. As I cannot ride on horse- 
back for several weeks yet to come I send my nephew with my 
dispatches which I hope will arrive safe. 

I have the honor to be with respect 

Sir, your most obedient 
Hon ble very humble servant 

Doc *■ Boudinot. John Cleves Symmes. 


Quarterly Publication of the His- 
torical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio 

Vol. V, 1910, No. 4 


Entered as second-clas.s matter, at the post-ofrice at Cincinnat 
Ohio, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1894. 

LOiMMiiibt ii\ Chakol ot Publication 



Historical and Philosophic a 
Society of Ohio 

For the Year Ending 
December 5, 19 10 








corresponding secretary. 
Recording Secretary. 



The meetings of the Society are held in its rooms in the Van Wormer 
Library Building, Burnet Woods, at three in the afternoon of the first Saturday 
of each month from October to May. 

The Library is a free public Library, open to visitors daily, except Sunday, 
from nine A. M. to five P. M. 



Historical and Philosophical Society 
of Ohio for 1910 


The librarian herewith submits her annual report for the year 
aiding December 5th. ioto. 

From numerous friends the library has recieved 519 volumes, 
1073 pamphlets, and 3 maps. 

From the income of the Elizabeth Appleton fund there have 
been purchased 19 volumes and 1 map (this latter represents 
the Western Reserve of Ohio, including- the Fireland section, 
1826) ; from the Margaret Rives King' fund 107 volumes ; from 
the Society of Colonial Dames fund 5 volumes; and from the 
General fund 7 serials. These purchases combined with the above 
contributions of volumes, and 1 1 others secured by an exchange 
of duplicate monthly serials, amount to 667, which added to the 
titles reported last year, make the total number of volumes now 
in the library 24132. The pamphlets number about 68303. 

The following enumeration of titles furnishes a partial list of 
the purchases during this year : — 

Faust's German Element in the United States ; 
Documentary History of American Industrial Society ; 
Autobiography of Thurlow Weed ; 
Life of Thurlow Weed ; 
Schaff's Battle of the Wilderness ; 
Bigelow's Campaign of Chancellorsville ; 
Historical & Biographical Cyclopaedia of Ohio. 6 vols. : 
Scott's History of Fairfield County, Ohio; 

Day's Story of The One Hundred and First Ohio Infantry ; 

Humes' Loyal Mountaineers of Tennessee; 

Fox's Regimental Losses in the American Civil War ; 

Life of Commodore John Rodgers; 

i Set of the American Statesmen Series ; 

i Set of the American Men of Letters; 

i Set of the Makers of America Series ; 

Nicolay-Hays' Life & Works of Abraham Lincoln, 12 vols.; 

Merriam's Dawn of the World (California Indian Myths & 
Weird Tales) ; 

Slocum's Ohio Country ; 

Several Histories of Massachusetts: — Chelmsford; Framing- 
ham; Hingham; and records of Braintree; 

Histories of New Ipswich, and of Washington. New Llamp- 
shire : 

Breckinridge's History of Western Pennsylvania; 

Wright's Perry Count}'. Pa. ; 

Meviiirs Men of Mark of the Cumberland Valley, Pa.; 

Day's Historical Collections of Pennsylvania: 

Gordon's Atlas of Clermont Co., Ohio; 

Additional volumes to: — Works of James Buchanan; Mc- 
Master's History of the People of the United States ; The Original 
Narrative Series: Avery's History of the United States; The 
South in the Building of the Nation, etc. 

A few Family Histories have been added to the genealogical 
section, namely; Ashley, Andrews, Bradbury. Lindsay, and the 
Moffat Family la gift from the compiler, Mr. R. B. Moffat), 
also, the Genealogical Registry of Inhabitants of Litchfield, Conn. 

From the heirs of Mr. William Sampson, deceased, formerly 
of Mt. Healthy, a gift has been received, consisting of 144 vol- 
umes of history, biography, bound magazines, etc., and 2 maps — 
one of Ohio. 1834. the other of the World, 1S40, besides a num- 
ber of pamphlets ; and from Mr. Hulbert Taft of this city, a gift 
of 150 volumes of similar character, has been donated to the 
Society. While there are a number of duplicates in both col- 
lections, the privilege of disposing of these has been extended by 
the donors. 

The City of Providence has donated 2 volumes which com- 
plete our set of the "Records of the Town of Providence;" the 
State Historian of New York has sent the third and final volume 


of the "Minutes of the Commissioners for defeating Conspiracies 
in the State of New York, 1 778-1781 ;" the State Librarian of 
Pennsylvania has forwarded to the Society the Fourth, Fifth, 
and Sixth Scries of the Pennsylvania Archives; and, other wel- 
come volumes have been received from various donors, among 
which are "Philadelphia Founder's Week Memorial Volume con- 
taining an account of the Two Hundred and Twenty-Fifth Anni- 
versary of the founding of the city ;" "The Year Book of the 
Sons of the Revolution of New York, 1909," from that patriotic 
Society; "The Narrative of a Voyage to the Northwest Coast of 
America, 1811-1S14" by Gabriel Franchere, given by Dr. S. C. 
Ayres; and numerous others. 

Our sets of the North American Review and the Century 
Magazine have been completed to date, by 22 volumes in half 
morocco bindings, the gift of our former president, Mr. Eugene 
F. Bliss. 

Tne Cabinet has had the following additions donated through 
the year : — 

Allan R. Raff: Photograph of the old firm of Robert Clarke 

Pennsylvania Historical Society: Engraving' of William Penn. 

Mrs. R. M. Hollingshead: 3 Colored prints — 1. Interior of 
Volunteer Refreshment Saloon gratuitously supported by the 
citizens of Philadelphia, 1S61, and the others (2 & 3) show the 
exterior and interior of Cooper Shop Volunteer Refreshment 
Saloon in Philadelphia, the first opened for the Union soldiers 
in the United States. 

C. A. Ilinsch: 5 Posters of the Ohio Valley Exposition, 1910. 

John McLane: Broadsides of Shaker mat -rial. 

Joseph IVilby: Photograph of the Unitarian Church on Plum 
&- 8th Streets. One Dollar bill of the Cincinnati Whitewater 
Canal Co. Diploma conferred upon Miss C. A. Dimmick, 1858, 
by the Physio-Medical College of Ohio. Chart of the Coal Field 
in Clay and Owen Counties, Ind. 

John F. Winslow: Print of the Dedication of the Second 
Presbyterian Church. 

Mrs. A. H. Chatfield: Badge of W. C. E. A., and Key of the 
Old Wentworth House, New Castle, N. H. 

Several curious and interesting newspapers have been do- 
nated, among them is a copy of the "New World," Jan. i, 1841. 


which contains a story in five acts, "Blue Beard," by Lewis Tieck, 
and translated by John Lothrop Motley, and while the interest 
centers in the story, the paper is remarkable for its size, being 
live feet long', and about four feet wide. Given by Mr. J. F. 
Win slow. 

As the routine work in the library is very similar from year 
to year slight opportunity is afforded for any variation in reports 
made annually. This year the usual purchasing of books has 
been made, the publishing of the Quarterly continued, and the 
cataloging of additional volumes, with the other duties pertain- 
ing to a library, have received the customary attention. 

The reading room of the Society has been the depository for 
our manuscript collection and various Indian curios, since install- 
ing our library in the Van Wormer Hall. During last winter we 
discovered destructive worms, formed from the Iarvse of the 
^e^'" of l-^ftl^ which attacks Tndian skins, were attacking the 
manuscripts, and it became apparent that the Mss. must be re- 
moved from their quarters both on account of the proximity of 
the Indian curios and the heat of the room, which latter was 
largely the cause of their existence. Five galvanized iron cases 
were purchased and set up in the stack-room, and after exorcising 
the pests, our most valuable Mss. were placed therein. There 
has been no return of the trouble since. 

A small number of volumes have been bound this year. 

L. Belle Hamlin, Librarian. 



Vol. Pah. 

American Association for International Conciliation 23 

American Historical Association 1 

American Jewish Historical Society 1 

Boston Cty Hospital 1 1 

Bunker Hill Monument Association 1 

Cambridge Historical Society 1 

Canadian Institute 1 1 

Chicago Historical Society , 2 

Cincinnati — 

Bureau of Municipal Research 6 

Children's Home 2 

Cuy Auditor 1 

Musical Art Society 1 

Museum Association. 8 

Ohio Humane Society 1 

Ohio Mechanics Institute 6 

Orchestra Association 10 

Pc st Office 1 

Public Library 6 

Trustees of the Sinking Fund I 

University of Cincinnati 6 

Colorado College 2 

Colorado Scientific Society 9 

Connecticut State Library 1 

Essex Institute 1 

Hartford Fire Insurance Company I 

Holland Society of New York 1 

Illinois State Historical Society 1 5 

Indiana Historical Society 4 

Institute Geologico de Mexico I 4 

International Hygienic Exhibition (Dresden) 1 

Iowa Historical Department 4 

Iowa State Historical Society 1 

Lake Mohonk Conference 7 

Louisiana State Museum 1 

Marietta College 2 

Medford Historical Society 2 

Michigan Pioneer Association 1 


Military Order of the Loyal Legion, U. S.— 

California • 33 

Minnesota 13 

New York 17 

Ohio 45 

Wisconsin 12 

Milwaukee Public Museum 2 

Mississippi Valley Historical Association 1 

Missouri State Historical Society 1 4 

Newberry Library * 

New Haven Colony Historical Society 1 

New York Institute for the Deaf and Dumb 1 

New York Public Library to 

New York State Historian 1 

New York State Historical Society 1 

New York State Sons of the Revolution I 

Nova Scotia Historical Society 3 

Nova Scotia Institute of Science * 

Oberlin College Library l 4 

Agricultural Experimental Station 1 

Archaeological and Historical Society 4 

Board of Health 4 

Board of State Charities 2 

State Librarian 66 31 

State University 3 

Ohio Society of New York I 

Ohio University (Athens) 1 

Ohio Valley Historical Association 1 

Pennsylvania State Library 36 

Philadelphia,- City of 1 

Providence, City of 2 

Rhode Island Historical Society 2 

Rhode Island State Library 1 

Royal Society of Canada 

St. John's College 

St. Louis Mercantile Library 

St. Louis Republic. Editor of 

Syracuse Public Library 

Texas State Historical Association 

United States — 

Bureau of American Ethnology 

Coast and Geodetic Survey 

Department of Commerce and Labor 

Department of War 

Interstate Commerce 

Library of Congress 















United States— Continued. Vol. Pam. 

Smithsonian Institution 3 27 

Superintendent of Documents 1 

Universite de Toulouse - • 3 

University of California ,. , 8 

University of Colorado 7 

University of Illinois 5 

University of Toronto 1 

Williams Directory Company ' 1 

Wisconsin State Historical Society 2 

Worcester (Mass.) Public Library 2 

Yale University 1 2 

Allan Mrs. M. C (Obituary notices Cin'ti) 2 

Ayres, Dr. S. C 2 2 

Bell, C. W 7 niisc & 2 

Bok, E 1 

Bourne, ]., Jr 1 

Braglcy, A. W I 

Cadle, C 1 ' 

Cleland, A. M 1 

Craaek, ±\ivs. C. L> 14 

Debar, J 1 

Depew, C. M ...... 2 

Edmondson, R. E 1 1 

Earnsworth, E. C 1 

Gallinger, J. H 1 

Green, C. R 1 

Greve, Mrs. T. L. A 180 cop. Cist's W'kly Advertiser 

Hollingshead. Mrs. R. M 5 8 

Hunt, G. P 1 

McLane, jf 5 broadsides 

Maxwell, W. H Newspapers & 1 7 

Middle-ton, Mrs. G. A 8 

Middleton, Miss E 1 autograph of Bishop Vincent 

Moffat, R. B 1 

Moon, J. H 1 

Moore. C. P. 2 

Morrow, J 1 newspaper 

Polauder, W. B * 

Sampson, W., dec, Heirs of 2 Maps & 144 9 

Short, C: W Broadsides, cards 1 48 

Snape, W ' 

Taft, Hulbert 150 

Thayer, G. A 1 

Thompson, S l 

Welch, Mrs. A 1 

Vossion, Louis J 1 

Bliss, E. F Misc. & 30 96 



~~ Vol. Pam. 

Chatfield, Mrs. A. II 2 newspapers & 12 172 

Davis, N. H. (lately deceased)... 1 early newspaper 

1 lamlin, L. B Miscellanies & 9 

James, D. L 1 37 

Neave, Miss J. C 2 

Wilby, J '. 5 33 

Wilson, Mrs. O. J r 

Winslow, J. ¥ Broadsides, Miscellanies & 2 8 

Woods, H. F 1 



The bequests to us by Erasmus Gest were noticed in my 
report two years ago. 

Last spring" the Society received from Mr. E. C. Reemelin, 
Mr. Gest's Executor, the statue of Mercury and the stone tablet 
bequeathed by the second codicil to his will. We had previously 
received the crayon portrait of himself. Both the statue and 
the tablet were at the time of the death of Mr. Gest in the Cin- 
cinnati Art Museum; with the approval of the Society, your 
President arranged with the Curator of the Art Museum that 
they should remain in the Art Museum, as loaned to it by your 

The bequest of $5,000 for the Building Fund, in the same 
codicil, paid an inheritance tax of $222.87 to the State of Ken- 
tucky. The remainder, $4,767.13, your President received during 
the past summer and fall, from James C. Wright. Esq., of New- 
port, Ky., Administrator with the will annexed of Erasmus Gest. 

As matter of interest, preserving the language of these gifts, 
Item IV of Mr. Gest's codicil is here quoted, as follows: 


Dated Twenty-First day of 
September, 1907. 

"ITEM IV. Having been long a member of, and having here- 
tofore given to The Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio 
a large number of my books, the main part of which for the con- 
venience of said Society temporarily located in the Van Wormer 
Library Building at the University of Cincinnati, are at present 
permitted to remain at my residence in Campbell County, Ken- 
tucky, said bocks containing the book plate of said Society, as well 
as my own placed there before I made such gift, and hoping to see 
said 'Society in a permanent home of its own, I give and bequeath 
to said Society a statue of Mercury procured by me prior to i860 
in London, belonging to me, but at present loaned to, and located 

115 ■-,■-■„ 

in the Art Museum of The Cincinnati Museum Association in 
Eden Park, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

And I further give and bequeath to said Society an engraved 
stone tablet belonging to me, but now loaned to, and in the Art 
Museuwi ui said The Cincinnati Museum /Association, and popu- 
larly known as the Gest Tablet, which tablet was exhumed from 
approximately near the center and base of the old mound by the 
men employed in making the excavation for opening- Mound 
Street, between Fifth and Longworth Streets, in the City of Cin- 
cinnati, under my direction as City Surveyor, at that time, of said 
City, and delivered to me at the time, and in my possession or 
control ever since, it? exhumation. 

And I further give and bequeath to said Society $5,000 to be 
used and expended towards the erection of a permanent home 
and building which I understand said Society hopes to eiect at 
some convenient place down town in Cincinnati, more accessible 
than its present location in Burnet Woods Park, if said hope 
is not realized within ten years from my death, said $5,000. may 
be used for any other purpose said Society may desire. 

And T further give ~ind bequeath to said Society the large 
crayon picture of myself, now hanging' in my library in Ken- 

It is my pleasure to mention another fine gift to the Society. 
In October we received from Mrs. A. J. Howe $5,000 in cash, 
to be called "The A. J. Howe Fund ;" the net income to be used 
in the support of the Society. Acknowledgment has been made 
to Mr?. Howe. As further record of our appreciation this men- 
tion is made here. 

Mrs. Howe is now, and has been since 1894, a valued Corpo- 
rate Member of the Society, succeeding in such membership her 
husband, Dr. A. J. Howe, who was a Corporate Member from 
1889 to 1891. It is very properly suggested that Mrs. Howe be 
made, at this Annual Meeting, an Honorary Member of the So- 

The contents of our Quarterlies for the year ([910) are: 

Vol. V, No. 1, January-March, Brief account of some jour- 
neys of Major Peyton Short, of Kentucky, and of James McBride, 
of Hamilton, Ohio, Edited by L. Belle Hamlin, Librarian of the 

Xo. 2, April-June, Selections from the correspondence of 
Oran Follett, Esq. (1830-33), Part 1, arranged and edited by 
L. Belle Hamlin. 


No. 3, July-September, Trenton Circular "To the Respectable 
Public" Nov. 26, 1787; Letter of John Clevcs Symmes to Elias 
Boudinot, Jan. 12-15, l 79 2 , with explanatory note by Charles T. 

No. 4, October-December, which will, as usual, consist of the 
annual reports. 

In February last our Librarian discovered that a sort of de- 
structive bug and its grub were attacking some of the MS. col- 
lections ; some damage had been done ; the pest seemed to multi- 
ply rapidly. Your President and Librarian consulted experts, 
particularly Dr. Charles Dury, of Avondalc, and Mr. Herbert 
Putnam, Librarian of Congress, to learn the name and nature 
of the bug and the best means of getting rid of it. So advised, 
your Librarian, by a vigorous campaign of fumigation and clean- 
ing, succeeded in arresting the spread and terminating the cause 
of the trouble. The episode seemed of sufficient importance to 
mention here. It is the first instance of the kind in the history 
of the Society so far as your President is aware. The offending 
insects were of the Dermestidse family. 

The experience of the last ten years under the contract with 
the University of Cincinnati, dated November 8th, 1899, had 
suggested certain changes for the mutual convenience of the 
University and your Society. 

First, that your Librarian should no longer be and be known 
as Assistant Librarian of the University or part of its staff, and 
should be paid directly by your Society, instead of through the 
Treasurer of the University, as was provided in the original 
contract of November, 1S99. 

Second, a more definite understanding as to what parts of 
the stack room in the Van Wormer Building should be occupied 
by the books of your Society. 

Both these changes were agreed to in a memorandum dated 
10th of May, 1910, signed by Robert W. Stewart. Chairman, on 
behalf of the Board of Directors of the University of Cincinnati, 
and by your President on behalf of your Society. 

The Corporate Membership has been increased by the election 
during the year of six new members. 

We have lost by death three members, Howard S. Winslow, 
February 1, 1910, Alexander McDonald, March 18, 1910, and 


from the Life Membership Nathaniel Henchman Davis, Novem- 
ber 17, 1910. Mr. Davis had been a Life Member for a quarter 
of a century; one of the Curators of the Society ever since 1899; 
its Treasurer in 1889* and Vice-President from 1S90 to 1898, in- 
clusive; a constant and liberal friend of the Society. 

Your President has made effort during the year to obtain 
opportunity to copy the records of the Old Duck Creek Baptist 
Church, said to be the oldest church society in this part of the 
state. So far he has not succeeded. 

The year's growth of the usefulness of our Society and the 
increase of our library and collections appears in the report of our 
faithful Librarian'. 

I have firm faith we shall some day get a home of our own 
down town. 

Joseph Wiley, President. 

December 5, 1910. 


By Eugene F. Eliss 

Read at the Annual Meeting, December 5, 1910. 

The details of the life of Nathaniel Henchman Davis have 
lately been given to all our newspapers and I need not repeat 
them here. I wish to speak of him as a member of our Society. 
He was never prominent in our affairs and few of our associates 
have been so, but he was convinced we were striving to do worthy 
work and was conscientious in the performance of such duties 
as fell to his lot. His loss will be felt as deeply here as in those 
matters in which he took a more prominent part and felt, prob- 
ably, a deeper concern. 

He was chosen a member of this Society in 1884, at the. age 
of twenty-six. Two years later he became a life-member ; in the 
report for 1889 he appears as treasurer, twice afterward was he 
vice-president and a curator for the last eleven years. 



December 5, 1910. 
For the President and Members of the Historical and Philo- 
sophical Society of Ohio. 
I have the honor to present the annual report of the Assets 
and Liabilities of The Historical and Philosophical Society of 
Ohio for the year ending November 30th, 1910. 

Schedule "A." 

November 30th, 1910. 


Cash in Bank, 

Central irust t& Safe Deposit Co., lmcieat Account, . . 

Investments Exhibit I, 

Fee of Property No. 107 \V. Eighth St., 

Erasmus Gest Fund, Principal, . . Exhibit 9*, $95 37 
" " " Income, .... " 9*, 24 65 

A. J. Howe Fund, Principal, 
" " " Income, 

:i* $87 50 
»*, 5S 75 

Total Assets, 














$65,050 5$ 


General Fund Exhibit 

Building Fund, 

Endowment Fund, 

Life Membership Fund, 

Julius Dexter Publication Fund, Investment, . 

" " " " Income, . . 

E. H. Appleton Memorial Fund, Investment 

it .< u it Income, 

Halsted Neave Fund, Investment, 

" " " Income, 

Erasmus Gest Fund, Investment 

Margaret Rives King Fund, Investment, . . . 
" " " " Income, .... 

A. J. Howe Fund, Investment, 

Colonial Dames Fund, Investment, 

" " " Income, 

Binding Fund, Investment, 


Total Liabilities, 

chibit 2, 

$716 25 


17,185 62 


12,320 00 


5.037 13 


1,074 25 


59 45 


4,143 40 


178 26 


4,408 25 


228 26 

" 9> 

4,862 50 

" 10, 

8,397 5o 

" 10, 

2QI 17 


5,° 8 7 50 

" 12, 

200 00 

" 12, 

21 60 


807 64 


31 SO 

These deficits will be reimbursed from 19:1 Incc 


$65,050 58 

Schedule " B." 

For Year Ended November 30th, 1910. 


Dues — 190G, $10 00 

1909, § 20 00 

1910, ' 5S0 CO 

$610 00 

Income From Investments: 

General Fund, . '. $30 00 

Fife Membership Fund, 274 50 

Julius Dexter Publication Fund, ... 45 20 

E. H. Appletcn Memorial Fund, . . . 197 50 

Halsted.Neave Fund, 196 So 

Margaret Rives King Fund, 340 OO 

Colonial Dames Fund 12 00 

Binding Fund . . . . 34 00 

Erasmus Gest Fund, ........ 50 00 

— — 1,180 00 

Rent of 107 W. Eighth St., to Oct. 31, 1910, 800 00 

A. J. Howe Fund £5,000 00 

EiU-.iHu;. Gcst, Legacy lor Building, .... 4.707 13 

9,767 13 

Total Receipts, $12,357 


Salaries, Librarian and Janitor, $1,008 31 

Assistant lor Librarian, 15 70 

Stationery, 8 33 

Postage 5 00 

Printing 225 17 

Audit oi Treasurer's Books, 25 00 

Safe Deposit Box Rental, 7 00 

Miscellaneous, 313 93 

E. H. Appleton Fund, Purchases and Ex- 
penses, 62 41 

M. R. King Fund, Purcha-:es and Expenses, 209 37 Dames Fund, Purchases and Ex- 
penses, ... 9 50 

Binding Fund, Binding, 10 80 

General Fund, 77 22 

Investments Purchased For: 

Erasmus Gest Fund, $4,862 50 

Accrued Interest, 74 65 

A. J. Howe Fund, $5,087 50 

Accrued Interest, 58 75 

$1,977 74 

4,937 15 
5,146 25 

$12,061 14 

Excess Receipts over Disbursements, . 295 99 

Cash Balance at December 1st, 1909, . 73 s 57 

Cash Balance at November 30th, 1910, f r ,Q34jj 


(Exhibit "1") 



At November 30th, 1910. 

General Fund: 

io Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), $716 25 

Life Membership Fund: 

83 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), $4,425 75 

Part Interest in $2,000 C. «.\: O. Railway Co. 4##, 

Bonds (cost), . 314 38 

4 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), 289 00 

$5,029 13 

Savings Deposit — y/ r Central Trust & Safe Dep. Co., 8 00 

5,037 13 

Julius Dexter Publication Fund: 

12 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), $834 00 
Savings Deposit — yf r , Central Trust & Safe Dep. Co., 16 00 
Part Interest in C.T. & N. Railway Co. Bond, ... 224 25 

1,074 25 

E. II. Appleton Memorial Fund : 

3 Bonds C. Ft. & D. Railway Co. 4$ (cost), .... $2,882 50 

13 Snares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), 677 50 
2 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), 144 50 
Part Interest in $2, .300 C. & O. Railway Co. 4}4°/o 

Bonds (cost) 3*4 37 

$4,018 87 
Savings Deposit — 3$, Central Trust & Safe Dep. Co., 27 03 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Railway Co. Bond, ... 97 5° 

4,143 40 

Halsted Neave Fund: 

C. L. & N. Railway Co. Pond, 4$, $1,000 00 

Kineon Coal Co. Bond, 5%, 1,000 00 

2 Norfolk & Western Railway Co. Bonds, 4<% (ccst), 1,755 °° 
Part Interest in Kentucky Central Railway 4% Bond, 

1950, 4^7 5° 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Railway Bond, 165 75 

4,40s 25 

Margaret Rives King Fund : 

4 Bonds C. II. & D. Railway Co., 4"^ (cost), . . $4,5 12 5° 
7 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), 481 25 
Part Interest in $2,000 C. & O. Railway Co. 4><% 

Bond, 1,551 2 5 

Part interest in Kentucky Central Railway Co. 4% 

Bonds, 1950 I.462 50 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Railway Co. Bond, ... 390 00 

S.397 50 

Colonial Dames Fund : 

4 Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), 200 00 

Binding Fund : 

IO Shares Cincinnati Street Railway Co. Stock (cost), $680 63 
Savings Deposit — y/ r , Central Trust & Safe Dep. Co., 29 51 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Railway Co. Bond, ... 97 5° 

S07 64 


Erasmus Gest Fund: 

C. & O. $1,000 Bond due 1992 (cost), . $1,017 50 

Chattanooga Station Co. Bond, $1,000 (cost), .... 930 00 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington Bond, $1,000 (cost), 1,045 °° 
2 Western Pacific Railway Co. Bonds, *i,ooo (cost), 1,870 00 

4,862 50 

A. j. Howe Fund: 

5 $1,000 C. & O. Railway Co. Bonds, 1992 (cost), . 5>°S7 5° 

Total, $34,734 42 

(Exhibit "2") 

November 30th, 1910. 

Receipts and Transfers: 

Dues, 1908, ' $10 00 

" I9°9» 2 ° vo 

" 1910, 590 00 

$620 CO 

Cincinnati Street Railway Dividend, 30 00 

Transferred from Endowment Fund Account, of In- 
terest on Endowment Fund Loaned to Building 

Fund, 615 00 

Transferred from Life Membership Income Account, . 274 79 

Disbursements : 

Salaries, Librarian and Janitor, jfl,OoS 31 

Assistant for Librarian, 1 5 7° 

Printing, 225 17 

Postage, "" 23 85 

Subscription and Dues, 5100 

Paper for Quarterly, 26 22 

Dues of Librarian, 10 00 

Stationery, 95 

General Expense, 37° II 

f 1,539 79 


Excess Disbursements over Receipts Car- 
ried to Building Fund, .... Exhibit 3, $iQi j 2 

General Fund Investment Account, . . . $71 6 25 


(Exhibit "3' 1 ) 


November 30th, 1910. 

Receipts and Transfers: 

Rent to October 1st, 1910, $800 00 

Deficiency Transferred to Principal Account, .... 5 14 38 


Deficiency to December 1st, 1909 $507 S6 

Interest on Endowment Eund, 615 00 

Deficiency from General Fund, 19152 

$1,3*4 jS 

i,3M 38 


Credit Ealance at December 1st, 1909, $17,192 14 

Transferred from Income Account, 652 

Credit Balance at November 30th, 1910, . £17,185 62 

(Exhibit "4") 


November 30th, 1910. 


Interest on Loan to Building Fund, Transferred to 

General Fund, * 6t 5 00 

Credit Balance at December 1st, 1909 $12,320 00 

Credit Balance at November 30th, 1910 512.320 00 


(Exhibit "5") 

November 30th, 1910. 

Receipts : 

Cincinnati Street Railway Dividends, $ 2C1 00 

C. & O. Railway Bond Interest, 13 50 

Interest on Deposits, 29 


Disbursements : 

Transferred to General Fund, $274 79 


Credit Balance at December 1st, 1909, $5,037 13 

Credit Balance at November 30th, 1910, $5,037 13 

(Exhibit "6") 

November 30th, 1910. 

Credit Balance at December 1st, 1909, ^13 65 


Cincinnati Street Railway Dividend- 

C. L. & N. Railway Bond Interest, 

Interest on Deposits, 

Credit Balance at November 30th, 1910, 


Credit Balance at December 1st, 1909, $ 1,074 25 

Credit Balance at November 30th, 1910, $1,074 25 


$36 00 

9 20 


45 8o 

$59 45 

(Exhibit "7") 

November 30th, 1910. 

Credit Ba'ance at December ist, 1909, £42 28 

Receipts : 

Cincinnati Street Railway Dividend, $45 00 

C. II. & D. Railway Bond Interest, 135 00 

C. & O. Railway Bend Interest, 13 50 

C. L. & N. Railway Bond Interest, 4 00 

Interest on Deposits, S9 

198 39 

Disbursements : 

Books Purchased, 

Credit Balance November 30th, 1910, 

Credit Balance at December ist, 1909, 

Credit Balance at November 30th, 1910, 

(Exhibit "8") 

November 30th, 1910. 

£240 67 

62 41 

5178 26 

$4,143 40 


$4,143 40 


Credit Balance at December 1st, 1909, . . $31 46 

Receipts : 

C. L. & N. Railway Bond Interest, $46 80 

Kentucky Central Railway Bond Interest, 20 00 

N. & W. Railway Bond Interest, 80 00 

Kineon Coal Co. Bond Interest, 50 00 

Credit Balance at November 30th, 1910, . 


Credit Balance at December ist, 1909 

Credit Balance at November 30th, 1910, . . . 









(Exhibit "9") 

November 30th, 1910 

Receipts : 

Western Pacific Ry. Bond Interest, 

Disbursements : 

Accrued Interest Chattanooga Station Co. Bond, 

Accrued Interest C. N. & C. St. Ry. Co. Bond, 

Accrued Interest Western Pacific Ry. Co., . . , 

Accrued Interest & Commissions C. & O. Bond, 










$ 50 00 

574 6S 

$24 65 


Purchase of Chattanooga Sta. Co., J?i,ooo Bond due 1957, J930 00 

Purchase of C. N. C. St. Ry. $1,000 Bond due 1922, . . 1,045 °° 
Purchase of 2 Western Pac. Ry. Co. £i,oco Bonds due 

1933. I . S 70 00 

Purchase of C. & O. Ry. $1,000 Bond due 1992, .... 1,017 5° 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30T11, 1910, . . . 


Receipts : 

July 13th, 1910, Cash Received. $4,500 00 

Nov. 7th, 1 9 10, Cash Final Payment 267 13 

Disbursements : 

Transferred to Investment Account as above, .... 

♦Debit Balance Nov. 30th, 1910 

♦These deficits will be reimbursed from 1911 

$4,862 50 

54,767 *3 

4,S62 50 

595 37 


(Exhibit "10") 


November 30th, 1910 


Credit Balance at Dec. 1st, 1909, $160 54 

Receipts : 

Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Dividends, $21 00 

C. II. & D. Ry. Co. Bond Interest, 180 00 

C. & O. Ry. Co. Bond Interest, 63 00 

Ky. Centra] Ry. Co. Bond Interest, 60 00 

C. L. & N. Co. Bond Interest, 16 00 

$340 00 

Disbursements: £500 54 

Purchase of Books, 209 37 

Credit Balance Nov. 30TH, 1910, ' §291 17 

Credit Balance Dec 1st, 1909 $8,397 50 

Credit Balance Nov. 30th, 1910, £8,397 50 

(Exhibit "11") 

November 30th, 1910 

Disbursements : 

Accrued Int. and Commission on C. & O. Ry. Co. 

* £58 








Debit Balance at Nov. 30TH, 1 910, .... 

Purchase of 5 C. & O. Ry. Co. Bonds $1,000 due 1992, . 
Credit Balance at Nov. 30TH, 1910, . . . 


Receiits : 

Cash Received Oct. 10, 1910, £5,00000 

Disbursements : 

Transferred to InTestment Account, as above, . . . £5,087 50 

Debit Balance Nov. 30TH, 1910, * £S7 50 

These deficits will be reimbursed from ign Income 


(Exhibit "12") 

November 30th, 1910 


Credit Balance Dec. 1st, 1909, #1910 

Receipts : 

Cincinnati Street Ky. Co. Dividends 

Disbursements : 

Purchase of Books, 

Credit Balance Nov. 30TH, 1910, 


Credit Balance Dec. 1st, 1909 $200 00 

Credit Balance Nov. 30th, 19 10 £200 00 

(Exhibit "13") 

November 30th, 1910 

12 00 

S3 1 *o 
9 5° 

$21 60 


Credit Balance at Dec. 1st, 1909, $7 59 

Receipts : 

Cincinnati Street Ry. Dividends, 

C. L. & N. Bond Interest, 
Interest on Deposits, . . 

S30 00 
4 00 
1 01 

35 01 

$42 60 

10 80 

$31 80 

Disbursements : 


Credit Balance at Nov. 30TH, 1910, 


Credit Balance at Dec. 1st, 1909 $807 6 4 

Credit Balance at Nov. 30th, 19 10, $807 64 



Cincinnati, December 3rd, 1910. 

To the President and Members of the Historical and Philo- 
sophical Society of Ohio, Cincinnati. 
Sirs: — 

In accordance with instructions, examination has been made 
of the books and accounts of The Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio for the year ended November 30th, 19 10, and we 
submit as part of this report the following Schedules, viz.: 

Schedule "A" — Statements of Assets and Liabilities at November 
30th"jj 1910. 

Schedule "B" — Statement of Receipts and Disbursements for 
the year ended November 30th. 1910. 

These Schedules are supported by sundry Exhibits showing 
the principal items contained therein. 

Receipts and Disbursements have been examined and found 
correct and the Cash Balance as shown by the books at date of 
closing. November 30th, 1010, agrees with balance on deposit 
in bank. 

Securities as shown by Investment Account have been duly 
examined and found in accordance with account as shown by 
Exh.bit i. 

The statement of Assets and Liabilities, as shown, represents 
the financial condition of the Society at date of closing, Novem- 
oer 30th, 1910. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Guy H. Kennedy, 
Certified Public Accountant. 



Anderson, Davis C 
Anderson, Larz W. 
Anderson, William H. 
Anderson, Mrs. William P. 
Ault, L. A. 
Balke, Rudolph F. 
Battelle, Jolm G. 
Brunswick, B. H. 
Caldwell, Charles E. 
Callahan, John R. 
Carew, Joseph T. 
Cist, Charles M. 
Compton, William C. 
Dabney, Charles W. 
Dandridge, Miss Mary E. 
Davis, Mrs. Nathaniel Henchman 
DeCamp, Walter A. 
Emery, Mrs. Thomas J. 
Foley, B. W. 
Foster, Miss Anna H. 
Foster, William Lytle 
Forchheimer, Mrs. Frederick 
Freiburg, Maurice J. 
Gano, Mrs. John A. 
Goepper, Edward 
Greve, Charles Theodore 
Hamlin, Miss L. Belle 
Harrison, William H. 
Henderson, Edwin 
Hinkle, Frederick W. 
Hollister, Howard C. 
Holmes, John R. 
Ingalls, M. E. 
James, Davis L. 


Keyes, Miss Mary E. 
Kittredge, Edmund W. 
Leaman, Mrs. Robert F. 
Levy, Harry M. 
Longworth, Mrs. Nicholas 
Ludlow, William S. 
Miller, Griffin T. 
Outcalt, Miller 
Parkinson, George B. 
Patterson, Jefferson 
Patterson, John H. 
Patterson, Robert 
Pendleton, Elliott H. 
Procter, William Cooper 
Procter, Mrs. William Cooper 

Pyle, E. C. 

Ransohoff, Joseph 

Rosenthal, C. H. 

Schmidlapp, J. G. 

Shillito, Stewart 

Storer, Bellamy 

Strobridge, Nelson W. 

Taft, Charles P. 

Taylor, William W. 

Voorheis, Albert B. 

Whitcomb, Merrick 

Wiborg, Frank B. 

Wiborg, Mrs Frank B. 

Wilson, Obed J. 

Wilson, Mrs. Obed J. 

Winslow, John F. 

Worthington, Edward 

Worthington, Wi,lliaru 

Wulsin, Lucien 


Anderson, Mrs. Louise N. 
Bliss, Eu^ne F. 
Bullock, James W. 
Chatfield, Albert H. 
Chatfield, Mrs. A'bert H. 
Fleischmann, Julius 
Fletcher, Miss Clara B. 
Gest, Joseph H. 
Hurd, E. O. 
Jones, Frank J. 
Jones, Mrs. Frank J. 

Laws, Miss Annie 
Livingood, Charles J. 
Neave, Miss Alice 
Neave, Miss Jane C. 
Procter, Harley T. 
Storer, Mrs. Bellamy 
Thomson, Peter G. 
Vail, Henry H. 
Walker, Mrs. Paul Francis 
Wilby, Joseph 
Woods, Harry F. 


Adams, Charles Francis 
Cox, Isaac J. 
Duro, Cesario F. 
Fouike, William Dudley 
Galbreath, Charles P. 
Green, Samuel A. 

Hayes, E. G. 

Heath, William McK. 
Hoyt, Albert H. 
Thwaites, Reuben Gold 
Tyson, Philip T. 


Durrett, Reuben T., William H. 

Howe, Mrs. Andrew J. 


Mr. Nathaniel Henchman Davis, November 17, 1910. 
Mr. Alexander McDonald, March 18, 1910. 
Mr. Howard S. Winslow, February 1, 1910. 

Quarterly Publication of the His 

torical and Philosophical 

Society of Ohio 

Vol. VI, 1911, No. 1 

Translation of YR AMERICAN, A Welsh 

By the Rev. B. W. Chidlaw 




Notes of a Journey from the Ohio Valley to Wales 

A View of the State of Ohio 
A History of Welsh Settlements in America 

Instructions to Enquirers 

Refore the Journey, on the Journey, and in the Country 


Minister of the Gospel in Ohio 






I have disposed of my Book called "The American" , 
to Mr. J. Jones, Printer, Llanrwst, and grant to him 
all the right and Claim to the same. 

B. W. Chidi,aw, A. M. 
Paddy's Run, Ohio. 
Llanrwst Deer. 25, 1839. 



Contents of the Chapters. 

I. The City of Cincinnati— Columbus — Prison — Association 
The Plains — Lake Erie — Niagara Falls — Indian Villi 
Rochester — Syracuse — Onandago Indians — ■ Utica — Tl 
President — Anniversary Meetings — New York — Voyage — 
Seeing a Shipwreck— Burial at Sea — Reaching the land. 

II. The State of Ohio — Explanation of the word Ohio — Divi- 
sions — Population — Nature of the Soil — Products— Coal — 
Iron — Salt — Stone — Canals — Roads — Climate — Taxes — 
Government — Colleges and Schools— Religion. 

[II. Welsh settlements — Paddy's Run — Radnor — Welsh Hills — 
Columbus — Cincinnati — Owl Creek — Palmyra — Gallia and 
Jackson — Putnam and Van Wert, in Ohio — Utica— Deer field 
• — Ffloyd — Steuben — Remsen — New York city, in New York 
— Pittsburg — Ebensburg and Pottsville, in Pennsylvania. 

IV. Instructions as to qualifications necessary in persons who 
aim to secure a comfortable competence in America — Liver- 
pool — Embarking — Changing Money — Clothes — Food — 
Conduct at sea — Reaching 1 America — Travelling — Cost. 



The Welsh pamphlet, a translation of which appears in this 
Quarterly, contains 48 pp.. is i2mo. in size, and bears this title: 
Yr American \ Yr hwn sydd yn cynnwys j Xodau ar Daith o 
Ddyffryn Ohio i Gymrn, j Golwg ar Dalaeth Ohio ; | Hanes 
Sesydliadan Cymreig yn America ; j Cyfanvyddiadau i Ymofyn- 
wyr I Cyn v Daith. ar y Daith, ac yn y Wlad. j Gan y Parch. 
B. W. Chidlaw, A. M. | Gweinidog yr Esengyl yn Ohio. | Yr ail 
argraffiad. ! Llanrwst: | ArgrafTwydd, Gan John Jones. | 1840. | A 
cop] is^n'thc collection of the Society: 

The author, Reverend Benjamin Williams Chidlaw, has fur- 
nished an account of his own life under the title ''The Story of 
my Life", and other sketches are to be found in the "Biographical 
Encyclopaedia of Ohio of the Nineteenth Century, 1876", and in 
tlie "Miami University Alumni Catalogue, 1899". p. 14, therefore 
it follows that the brief account here, is simply a reiteration of 
what has been previously printed. 

He was born July 14, 1S11, in Bala, County of Merioneth, 
North Wales, and accompanied his parents to this country in 
1821. He writes that they landed in New York and journeyed 
from there westward, aiming to settle in Radnor township, Dela- 
ware county, Ohio, among friends who had emigrated earlier. 
The}' were conveyed by a sloop from New York to Albany ; by 
wagon from Schenectady (across from Albany) to Utica ; by a 
keel-boat from there to Black Rock ; and by the steam-boat 
''Walk-in-the-Water'' (the first boat propelled by steam in the 
waters of Lake Erie) to Sandusky; and by wagon from that 
point to their place of destination. His father died shortly after 
their arrival but his mother determined to remain, and pur- 
chased land in Radnor township, where she settled with her two 
small children. 

The primary education of Mr. Chidlaw was obtained in the 
local school, but later he attended the Ohio University at Athens, 

Ohio, and subsequently, the Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, 
and was graduated from there in 1833. During' the three years 
following he studied for the ministry ; was ordained a pastor by 
the PresSylery of Oxford, and soon after became the pastor of 
the Welsh Congregational church at Glengower, Butler Co. Ohio. 
In 1838 he was commissioned Missionary by the American Sunday 
School Union, which post he occupied for fifty-four years. He 
served as Chaplain of the 39th Regiment, O. V. I. for nearly a 
year during the Civil War, and later as agent of the Sanitary 
Commission. He was a Trustee of the Miami University for 
about thirty years, and a trustee of the Ohio Reform School for 
Boys, 1866-87. His death occurred July 14, 1892, while re- 
visiting his birthplace. 

Mr. Chidlaw returned to his native country in 1836 and re- 
mained several years ; it was during this sojourn that he prepared 
the pamphlet "YR AMERICAN" from recollections and a few 
• ■'•• rna'cif' on that return journey. It has more of the quality 
of a guide-book than history, and it is apparent that his sole 
object in writing was to furnish guidance to compatriots emi- 
grating to America. 

The Reverend M. O. Evans, pastor of the Welsh Congre- 
gational Church of Cincinnati, made a verbatim translation at 
the request of Professor J. E. Bradford, of the Miami University, 
Oxford, Ohio, who having, a copy, was curious to know the 
contents of the little work prepared by an early graduate of that 
University, who subsequently became an eminent minister of 
the gospel. Later this interpretation was placed by Prof. Brad- 
ford with the Society for publication. For this purpose a greater 
freedom in expression was desirable as the literal translation 
made by Mr. Evans was intended only to secure the context of 
the Welsh pamphlet. The re-modelling, therefore, has been done 
by me, with the approval of the translator, avoiding any change 
that would obscure the meaning or intent of the author. 

L. Bexlk Hamlin. 


It is not easy to conceive the emotions that arise when part- 
ing with a beloved family, church and kind congregation, to 
face a long journey over sea and land. It was with feelings 
impossible to express that I left, on August 26, 1839, the neigh- 
borhood of Paddy's Rim, and after travelling 20 miles in the 
company of genial friends, I came to the city of Cincinnati ; the 
road good, but the weather remarkably hot. 

In the evening I spoke upon Temperance in the Welsh Chapel ; 
the cause is advancing, and through it many have been saved 
from the deadly clutch of drunkenness. As I left the Chapel 
the sound of rejoicing reached me, coining from the house of 
worship of the Wesleyan Negroes. I entered and my pleasure 
was great to see a crowd of black people joyously praising God, 
as they fervently prayed, sang, and rejoiced. I was asked to say 
a few words, and was led to the rostrum by a black preacher, 
who, having obtained a little silence, said, "Come, dear bredren, 
try to be still, de white broder is going to talk to de sinners." 
Beautiful was the scene! To see those black children of Ethiopia 
enjoying religious liberty as sons of God in the distant western 
" vorld was profoundly impressive. 

In 180S Cincinnati had less than 5000 inhabitants — now it 
contains 50,000 persons and is the commercial city of the west. 
It is situated on the Ohio river, and from its banks one can see 
large steamboats, some going up to Pittsburgh, a distance of qoo 
miles; some moving down to New Orleans, 1500 miles; and 
others to St. Anthony Falls, 1S00 miles distant. In the winter four 
or live hundred thousand fat hogs, weighing from two to three 
hundred pounds each, are killed and salted, and then sent to the 
different markets by steamboat. They are fattened mainly with 
Indian corn and are sold for 2 or 3 pence per pound. This is 
the farmers' reward for his labors. The houses, built generally 


of brick, are beautiful and commodious, the streets straight and 
wide. There are 30 Chapels, 9 large Schools, 4 Ranks, and the 
Market-houses, 4 in number, hold market every day except Sun- 
day, beginning at daybreak and ending at 9 or 10 in the morning". 
There are two Colleges, one for physicians and the other for 
lawyers, — and another is under the supervision of Papists. Be- 
sides these there are many other buildings both useful and mag- 
nificent. Twenty newspapers, either dailies or weeklies, are 
printed here. Half a century ago the place was a wilderness, 
the abode of Indians and wild animals. Great is the change 
wrought in so short a time! Leaving here August 27, 1S39. 
I travelled in a conveyance 115 miles through a pleasant and 
fertile country ; the farmers were sowing wheat, and the fields 
of Indian corn had begun to ripen. The towns were pretty 
numerous and appeared progressive. I reached Columbus, die 
State Capital, on the bank of the Scioto river, early on the 28th. 
The inhabitants number 7 or 8 thousand. The Government 
Sessions are held here. There are Asylums for the blind, dumb, 
deaf, and insane, large and imposing buildings of brick and 
hewn stone. Xear the city, on the bank of the river, is the 
State Prison. To glance at this very fine building with its sur- 
rounding gardens, one might suppose it to be a gentleman's 
•palace, but observing the iron doors and windows, one soon 
realises that criminals arc confined there. All criminals from 
the 1,500,000 inhabitants of the State of Ohio are sent to this 
prison to be punished by hard labor during the term of im- 
prisonment, which may be for one year or for a lifetime, ac- 
cording to the crime committed. At this time there were .145 
prisoners in confinement, coming from every county in the State, 
of all ages, and of every rank in society. The prisoners' work 
of last year, after paying the prison expenses, netted a profit 
of 3000 lbs. to the State, and saved the citizens that amount of 
taxation. In the daytime they all labor — none allowed to speak 
a word ; at night they are in cells with only the Bible for enter- 
tainment. Their clothing is of striped material. They are given 
plenty of wholesome food, but in every other way the life is one 
of punishment. A minister of the gospel labors among them, 
preaches on the Sabbaths, conducts family worship daily, and 
frequently visits them in their cells, and these services, under God's 
blessing, succeed in drawing tears from many eyes that never 


wept before, and in softening many an adamantine heart. Many 
of the prisoners give satisfactory indications of reform and of 
the reign of grace in the soul, and it may be said that the gospel 
which had its trophies of victory in Nero's palace, has its living 
monuments within the walls of the penitentiary of Ohio. 

I preached at night, in the above mentioned city, to a Welsh 
congregation, and the next day I went to Radnor in Delaware 
county, where many Welsh people reside and their number is 
continually increasing. An Association was held here by the 
Independents, 1 September i, 1839. which was the first meeting in 
this place. Only a few preachers were present, namely: Rever- 
ends H. R. Pryce of Worthington, S. Howells of Columbus, 
M. M. Jones (formerly of Edensburg). and Rees Powell. The 
hearers were numerous and the services ''dew-drenched", and 
we hope of benefit to our fellow-countrymen in this distant land. 
September 4th, I left Radnor in a conveyance, going through a 
flat and fertile country, 85 miles, to Sandusky on the shore of 
Lake Erie. The land here is low and sometimes wet. Much of 
the level lands, which they call Plains, is naturally treeless. Some 
of the Plains are 20 miles in circumference and are covered 
with wild grass, useful both for pasture and hay. The dry plains 
are ploughed as they are remarkably fertile. I saw one team 
of three yoke of oxen and two horses ploughing in this locality. 
After the first ploughing the soil becomes loose like ashes, and 
is easily handled. On one meadow I counted over a hundred 
haystacks weighing from two or three tons each, ready for use 
as fodder for the cattle during the winter. September the 5th, 
I left the State of Ohio in the steamboat ''Erie" for Buffalo, in 
the State of New York, a distance of 230 miles. About 300 
passengers were on board. We had pleasant weather and ar- 
rived in Buffalo the next day. Lake Erie is 270 miles long and 
from 30 to 40 wide, fresh water, and is navigable by vessels of 
400 tons, and the number of boats and ships sailing upon it is 
remarkable. September 6th, I boarded a Rail Road car, and 
went 15 miles to visit the Niagara Falls, between Lake Erie 
and Lake Ontario, where all the waters of the northern lakes 
roll hurriedly and with unspeakable grandeur over a steep 
rock, 164 feet in height. This is one of the chief wonders of 
the American continent, with its roaring waters like an ever- 

1 Now Congregationalists. 

lasting "fingerpost", pointing out the magnificence of the works 
of the infinite Being who placed them there. Having looked at 
it from above and from below, with my eyes not half satisfied, 
I left on the Rail-Road for Luckport, and from thence on the 
canal to Utica. 

O.i this journey I saw a village and country inhabited by a 
tribe of Indians (the Tuscaroras), civilized and living like their 
white neighbors. In this village is a chapel and a missionary 
laboring among them, and the gospel has been of great benefit, 
to them. They were once a famous and numerous tribe, but 
through wars and drunkenness, they have become few — about 
300 in number. I was carried on the canal to Utica, for ten 
shillings the hundred miles, and this included my provisions. The 
visit to the Indian village formed the pleasantest part of my 
trip to Utica, 234 miles which required four days. Many large 
towns are to be seen on the banks of the canal, and among them 
is Rochester situated also on the bank of the Genesee river, which 
is famous for its mills; I counted sixteen and in each of them 
from 6 to 12 pairs of stones which were grinding wheat, to be 
sent on the canal to New York. In Syracuse are the most ex- 
tensive salt works in the country. Here I saw many half civilized 
Indians of the Onondago tribe; they have land near the town; 
they have rejected the gospel and its messengers, and they do 
not seem as thriving as others whom I saw. They number over 
400 and have a chief called Antioga who is 90 years old. The 
men wear clothing similar to the white men, but the women 
and children are in Indian apparel, wearing moccasins on their 
feet, cloth skirts of calico covered by ornaments of different 
materials and colors, blankets over their heads and shoulders, 
and silver ornaments in their ears and on their hands. I counted 
fifty pieces of silver arranged as a chain around the neck of a 
boy of five or six years of age. The mothers carry their chil- 
dren, under one year, bound to a board that they may be straight 
and strong when they grow to manhood. In passing through 
the town, I saw a number of Indians somewhat unruly through 
the effects of Alcohol — that enemy of the red. black, and white 
man, which had its claws upon one Indian, who was being taken 
away by some more sober. I asked an Indian standing near, 
who the drunkard was, and lie replied, smiling, "He no Indian 
now, white man made him drunk." 


In size the Indian resembles the European; he is copper 
colored, and has long, rough, black hair like horsehair. It is 
mournful to think of the red dwellers of the extensive forests of 
the West, who once possessed this land with its fair valleys for 
hunting grounds, and then consider their present condition. 
Wars and ardent spirits have preyed upon them until nought 
but small remnants are now to be seen, and these are vanishing 
like mist before the intense rays of the sun. Great effort is 
being made in their behalf by the Missionary Societies, but as 
with humanity in general, the gospel receives but a cold recep- 
tion and a rejection of its tender counsels. Their refusal of its 
free blessings forms a hindrance to the enjoyment of its precious 
privileges in this world and that to come. 

At Utica I saw Martin Van Buren, the president of the United 
States, on horseback, without a servant following, and looking 
more like an ordinary farmer than the President over 15,000,000 
people. While in Oneida county I spent a pleasant time in the 
\7u/:i districts? as^-sting my brethren at their Anniversaries. 
Looking at the number of hearers, the commodious houses of 
worship, and the spirit of the work, I could almost fancy myself 
in my native land. Having enjoyed their very pleasant fellow- 
ship, and partaken liberally of the kindness of the churches, I 
le^i on September 26th, going 96 miles on the Railroad to 
Albany where I was near my journey's end. In the evening I 
went down the Hudson river, 160 miles, on the steamboat Dcivitt 
Clinton, to New York, and next morning, I could see from the 
boat the city in its magnificence before me. It has 320,000 in- 
habitants. I preached here to the Americans on Pearl Street, 
and to the Welsh Independents on Broome Street. I spent a 
few days in this city and received unusual kindness. 

On October 1st I left the American coast on the ship 
Columbus (670 tons), bound for Liverpool, at 10 o'clock in the 
morning, to face the rough waves. As there was no wind when 
we started, a steamboat had to tow our vessel down as far as 
Sandyhook. Many other ships started with us, and among them 
the famous steamship British Queen, which shot past with the 
speed of forked lightning. Having reached the great sea, the 
boat left us ; the wind rose ; the sails were spread ; and old 
Columbus began to rush through the waves at ten miles an hour. 
As the mantle of evening covered us we lost sight of land and 


nothing was to be seen but green waves and blue sky. In the 
cabin there were three of us from Ohio, one from New York, 
and one from Pennsylvania, who had all the food and care 
necessary for our comfort. In the steerage, there were 70 or 80 
passengers, and amongst them several were unruly and irrev- 
erent. In the cabin we paid (being supplied with everything 
necessary for the voyage) 20 lbs. each. In the steerage they paid 
14 lbs. for only their passage, water, and fire. 

On October 3d I was visited with sea sickness although I 
had been severely troubled three times before, however, with 
proper nursing, I did not suffer as much as I expected from it. 
It is a kindness in the guise of unkindness — evil that good may 
come, for better health is enjoyed afterwards. 

On October 7th. when far out on the blue, deep, I heard one 
of the sailors shout from the masthead "Ship in distress." 
Soon after I saw a two-masted vessel with the waves sweeping 
over it, washing everything off its deck: We knew not its 
n^rhc -whence it came^^whitber it weni? — nor what happened to 
the sailors. They may possibly have been saved, but more likely 
they all sank into the watery grave. 

October 14, I heard that a child had died in the Steerage, 
the mother's only child and she a widow. The body was wrapped 
in a piece cf an old sail, a stone was laid to his feet, and one 
of the saiiors brought him on deck, laid him on a board at the 
vessel's side, and as I read a portion of the burial chapter, 
lowered him into the great deep, to rest there until the morning 
when the sea shall give up its dead. 

October 15, at night, we saw the light of the Cape Clear 
Lighthouse, in Ireland and on the morning of the 20th day we 
reached Liverpool, after a comfortable voyage, having met with 
no unpleasant accident during our sail of 3500 miles. 



It is well known to most Welsh people that many of their 
compatriots dwell in Ohio, which is one of the States of the 
Union, and is similar in character to the other western states. 
Strangers from all countries are continually settling there. The 
meaning of the word Ohio is not easily determined. Jt is the 
name of the pleasantest river and valley of the West as well 
as of the State. Some persons assert that the word signifies 
bloody and was applied to the river on account of the blood shed 
in Sie terrible battles of the Mi&is, ivhile ""others claim that it 
was owing to the custom of the Indians to cry "Q-HI-O" as they 
paddled their canoes upon the stream. 

This State 2 lies between latitude 38 30' north and longitude 
8o° 40' and 85 ° west of London. It is 220 miles long, 200 broad, 
and cumpris^s 2.000.000 acres of land. It is divided into 75 
counties and each county in parishes [townships]. The popu- 
lation has increased in the last fifty years in an almost incredible 
manner. In 1790 the inhabitants numbered 700 not including 
Indians, now, there are 1.500.000 white persons, 1500 Indians, 
and from 15.000 to 20.000 free Negroes. The settlers are from 
older States of the Union and from different countries of Europe. 
The government is free ; the common language of the countrv 
is English although others are used. Strangers adopt the lan- 
guage of the English, their mode of living, of tilling the soil, 
and fall in with the customs of the Country generally. They 
enjoy both political and religious liberty, and their privileges 
are great and precious. 

Fifty years ago savages and wild beasts were in possession 
of this land, and the echo of the warlike cries of the former, 
mingling with the evil noises of the beasts of prey, alone broke 

s Topography of Ohio: Latitude, 38 22' and 41 57' north ; Longitude, 
8o° 35' and 84 48'' west ; 225 miles long and 200 broad ; and comprises 25.576.960 

upon Nature's silence. But not so now ; the wild beasts are 
destroyed and the Indians civilized or are retreating further into 
the wilderness. The extensive and fertile land is the dwelling- 
place of 1.500.000 free, moral, and comfortable people. It is the 
judgment of many intelligent persons, familiar with this section, 
that, if the land suitable for tillage, was cleared and cultivated 
like European lands, its products would be six times more than 
sufficient for its present occupants ; and the same might be said 
of all the western states. Only indolence and inebriation could 
cause poverty in such a fruitful country. 

The land of the southern part of the State is generally roll- 
ing while the northern portion is level. The soil, somewhat 
damp, is rarely either too high to plough or too wet to be con- 
verted into meadows. Trees grow naturally, except upon the 
low level plains, and are of various species, as oak, French hazel, 
ash, lime, cherry, hickory or walnut, pine, poplars, etc. The 
poplars are straight and tall without any branches for forty or 
fifty feet from the ground. Brushwood is very scarce in some 
parts but so dense in others as to be difficult to penetrate when 
walking or riding. Some of the oak trees are 15 feet in cir- 
cumference and 100 feet in heigh th, and in size exceli the trees 
in this country [Wales], but are not as durable for some pur- 
poses. Wood is the common fuel of the country, although there 
is an abundance of coal on the banks of the Ohio river. 

Land is divided into three grades when taxed. The first 
grade includes land in the valleys and on the river banks, where 
the soil is the richest and best in quality. I have seen fields of 
this grade, that had been under cultivation for forty years with- 
out fertilizer or rest, with as good a prospect for crops this year 
as in the past. It is easy to recognize good soil by the trees grow- 
ing upon it — not by their size or number — but by their species. 
By this method land in the valleys is judged to answer best for 
raising Indian corn as it yields from 80 to 100 bushels an acre. 

The second grade of soil is more common than the first. It 
is dark, loose, and rather coarse; it produces wheat, barley, oats, 
clover, etc., and is also suited for Indian corn, yielding from 
40 to 60 bushels to an acre. 

The soil in the hilly sections is placed in the third grade. 
This grade is desirable on account of its growth of trees and 


frequently, for coal, iron, and stone. It is suitable for hay land 
and pasture, and produces excellent wheat. And further it is 
better for well springs and is healthier than the low plains. If 
there is no water convenient it may be obtained by digging a 
well from 10 to 50 feet deep. Thus we find that each grade 
has its advantages and disadvantages, which shows that a com- 
bination of each grade is most desirable if it can be secured. 
It is hill and vale that makes a farm convenient and valuable, 
easy to cultivate and of lasting quality. I never saw lime ap- 
plied to soil in Ohio, but manure is beneficial to old soil and 
to the second and third grades. 

On the banks of the Muskingum river and the Ohio, as far 
south as Portsmouth, there is abundance of coal, iron, salt, 
and hewn stone in the bosom of the earth which is easily ob- 
tainable. Limestone is to be found here and there throughout 
the entire State. There is not much being done yet with these 
products. What with the wool and flax, the produce of the 
fields and the gardens, the soap, sugar, and candle making, the 
striving farmer and his family need not fear, under God's bless- 
ing, for an abundance of food and suitable clothing. 

There are in Ohio various small rivers which afford facilities 
for mills, woolen and cotton factories, and other Works, but 
few of them are navigable by steamboats although during floods 
numerous rafts and other boats travel up and down these streams. 
The Ohio river washes the banks of the State on the south for 
450 miles, and is navigable by the largest boats ; there is hardly 
an hour of the day that some of them are not travelling on it, 
and there is a surprising amount of transportation by the river. 
Lake Erie lies at the northern border of the State with many 
p)rts on its shore, and there are numerous canals and railroads, 
either finished or in course of construction. One of these canals, 
334 miles in length, begins at Cleveland on the shore of Lake 
Erie, and runs through the middle of the State to Portsmouth 
on the banks of the Ohio; and another starts from Cincinnati 
and runs along the Miami to the north end of Lake Erie and 
the mouth of the Maumee River, 190 miles. This canal passes 
through a newly opened country, where the Welsh people are 
settling, namely: Putnam and Van Wert counties., and when 
completed, will be of no small convenience to the whole country. 


The wild beasts have ceased to exist or retreated further west; 
there need be no fear of them nor of snakes. There are horses, 
cows, sheep, hogs, geese, ducks, and chickens as in this country. 
The surface is so level that it is easy to make canals and roads 
through it, and they increase as the inhabitants become more 
numerous. The conditions of the climate and weather are dif- 
ferent from this country [Wales] ; the heat is greater in Sum- 
mer, and the cold in Winter ; the Summer longer and the Winter 
shorter than here. The harvest is in June and July; the dry 
weather continues sometimes for two months without much rain. 
The Winter is dry and frosty with very little snow ; few per- 
sons tie up their cattle, and they feed them outside. 

In all countries mankind is exposed to accident, disease, and 
death, and are more likely to be in danger of them in a strange 
land owing to ignorance of the climate. Ohio is more healthy 
at present than a few years ago, yet it is not as healthy as 
mountainous old Wales. Strangers should avoid drinking very 
cold water in warm weather when over heated; they should 
accustom themselves to light weight clothing in summer and 
heavier in Winter ; and be careful to wear suitable clothing morn- 
ing and evening in hot weather; and they should not sit on the 
ground. The most common diseases are ague, bilious and inter- 
mittant fevers, pleurisy, rheumatism, and consumption. 

In sickness neighbors are remarkably obliging and faithful, 
and doctors are easily secured. When death occurs, similar sym- 
pathy and kindness are shown. The deceased is buried the second 
day, and a crowd on foot, on horseback, and in vehicles, accom- 
pany him to the silent grave, in a simple and reverential manner. 
A religious service, suitable for the occasion, is performed. Very 
few mourning dresses are worn there. 

The laws are remarkably good relating to the property of the 
deceased — justice for all according to the law of nature and 
reason. If a will has been made, it stands ; if no will exists, 
the widow gets, during her lifetime, one-third part and the other 
two-thirds are divided equally between the children when the 
youngest becomes of age. Marriages are performed by preachers 
of the gospel or a Justice of peace, at the young woman's home, 
without distinction of time, either morning or evening. It is 
not customary for the parents to give their children much sub- 
stance to begin life with ; they give them a little to start with 


and then they must struggle for themselves. This is a great 
blessing to the young people, and in accordance with the char- 
acter of the commonwealth and the general principles of the 
Americans. It teaches them self reliance, and not to depend upon 
others, and to use their possessions rightfully by learning their 

From the nature of the government, the taxes are light. Little 
is needed for the expenses of the commonwealth. The greater 
portion of the taxes are levied for the making of canals and roads 
which are for the common benefit. The salary of our governor 
and the expense of the government last year, was only £35.000, 
which was collected from 1.500.000 inhabitants. All pay the 
tax according to their means ; the farmer who has 300 acres of 
land, and a full stock, is assessed only £5, and a few days' work 
on the main road. There is also a small tax, proportionate to 
the property for the support of schools, and in this the rich help 
the poor to give their children education. If one has money at 
interest, one pound per cent must be paid in taxes, but from 
6 to 12 pounds per cent is easily obtained on land, or on good 
security. One seldom hears of the poor-rate in Ohio, and as 
for the tithe it is not mentioned except in gratitude that there is 
no such oppressor amongst us. There are parishes [townships] 
in every county, and proper provision there for the poor, but 
such aid is seldom needed. Given health and industry all may 
obtain a sufficiency of all things necessary without asking for 
anything of the parish. 


In Ohio state laws are made by 36 Senators and 75 Repre- 
sentatives who are chosen by the people. The legislature sits 
annually for 2 or 3 months at Columbus, and every member 
receives 15 shillings a day for his own expenses. It is not the 
extent of their possessions that raises men to this council [legis- 
lature] , but their qualifications ; nor is it one great man favoring 
another, but the free choice of every citizen, poor and rich alike. 
The Governor of Ohio is chosen in the same way every other 
year, and he receives £300 yearly. The whole expense of the 
government of Ohio, notwithstanding its size and population, 


is not greater than the expense of some gentleman's estate in 
this country, which accounts for the taxes being so low. All 
are entitled and are given opportunity to secure their lawful 
rights, as there is a justice of the peace in every parish and a 
civil court held quarterly in every county, to try offenders and to 
adjust other cases. Trials are held before the judge and jury 
as in this country, and ample justice is administered. 


The liberality of the government has set open the' door for 
all, without distinction, to obtain the necessary education to make 
them fit citizens of a free government, and to engage in every 
ordinary trade. It is upon the knowledge and morality of the 
populace that the pillars of the government stand. If ignorance 
and ungodliness reign, then tumult and disorder will come in- 
stead of prosperity and peace, therefore the whole country en- 
deavors to give the young people an education, and while the 
effort for education and good morals continues, civil and re- 
ligious liberty in the United States will remain firm and immov- 

There are in Ohio 1280 parishes [townships] containing 7500 
schools already, which are under the auspices of the government. 
The money comes from the land, and the tax is evenly divided 
in every parish, according to the number of children. In our 
parish there are nine schoolhouses with 756 youths, between 4 
and 20 years old, in attendance and instruction is given in each 
school the greater part of the year. A good, learned, and dilli- 
gent male teacher gets from 4 to 6 pounds a month ; competent 
female teachers, from 3 to 4 pounds a n onth, without board. 
There are many academies in Ohio where men and women may 
receive a more extended education than in the common schools ; 
several of these are controlled by various religious sects, and 
two Universities are under the authority of the government. In 
these schools there is room for all who have money sufficient 
for the expense, namely : 30 to 50 pounds per year ; when 
students have been there four years they receive the degree of 
A. B., and if 7 years, they get the degree of A. M. I judge 
there are in these colleges at present from 800 to 1000 students, 
and the number continually increases. 


Religion. **~. 

It is the boast of the United States that religion prospers 
without the help of civil institutions ; that chapels are built and 
ministers sustained without a church rate or tithe, but by the 
free and voluntary contributions of the people. Certainly there 
are not enough preachers or chapels to answer the demands of 
the inhabitants, and there is much ungodliness lifting high its 
head, yet the progress of religion, the unity and brotherliness 
of the different denominations, give room to expect that before 
long the fair valleys of the West will be as the garden of the 
Lord. Many religious publications (in English) are issued 
weekly and monthly ; the word of God ; and other beneficial books 
are spreading all over the country. The most numerous of the 
religious sects in Ohio, are the Wesleyan Methodists, Baptists, 
Presbyterians, Independents, Episcopalians, Dutch Reform, Lu- 
theran, and the Papists, although there are other religious de- 
nominations, as Shakers, Quakers, Campbellites, Universalists, 
if they be worthy to be called religious denominations. Many 
churches are weak and find it difficult to maintain ministers, but 
if help be needed, the different denominations have societies for 
the support of faithful ministers in their churches, and in a few 
years, by the blessing of God, they will be able to support their 
own minister, unaided by the societies, and in their turn con- 
tribute to the necessities of weaker churches. The Sunday 
Schools, Temperance Societies, Bible Tracts, and Antislavery, 
are warmly supported, and thus are doing good. 





• This is the oldest Welsh settlement in Ohio and is situated 
20 miles from Cincinnati, in Butler County. It is said that this 
Irish name was given the settlement because an Irishman, whilst 
fighting- the Indians, fell into a brook that runs through the valley, 
and was nearly drowned, and in consequence, the brook and 
valley were called Paddy's Run. 

Ezekiel Hughes, Edward Bebb, John Roberts, and Ann Row- 
lands (the first Welshwoman who went into the Ohio country), 
of Llanbrynmair ; William and Morgan Gwilym, of Llangiwc, 
Glamorgan, left Wales, August 4, 1795, for this place. They 
had many trials and difficulties during the first years here and 
were obliged to labor unceasingly in the wilderness, but it is 
probable that they and those who followed soon after, secured 
much better land than the Welsh families who emigrated later. 
This valley has excellent soil, and the hills are full of trees and 
stone. Nearly every farm contains land both fiat and hilly. The 
soil is suitable for all kinds of corn, but especially for Indian 
corn. The farmers are chiefly employed in raising Indian corn 
and in fattening hogs ; some of them from 40 to 1 50 hogs a year, 
according to the size and quality of their farms. There are many 
fields from 10 to 25 acres in extent which produce Indian corn 
for 30 to 40 years without manure or rest. The soil of the hills 
is better than that of the plains for wheat, oats, and potatoes. 
This locality is one of the healthiest in the state and has been 
so from its settlement. 

There are only about 200 to 250 Welsh people in this place, 
and nearly all of them farmers who own their farms, containing 
from 80 to 400 acres, on which is an abundance of wood for 
kindling and fences. The land is dear and difficult to find for 
sale; and this is the reason why the Welsh do not become more 
numerous here. The farms are worth from 6 to 18 pounds an 
acre; are rented for one pound to thirty shillings a year. Men- 


servants get from 25 to 36 pounds a year, and the maidservants 
from 15 to 20. The produce of the soil and of cattle is easily 
sold at good prices. 

In 1804 a church was established here by the Independents, 
although there were only 5 of them — Welsh and English. In 
1817 preaching in Welsh was first begun here by the late Rev. 
Rees Lloyd, and one of the small number who started the cause 
is Mrs. Bebb (a. sister of the late Rev. J. Roberts of Llambryn- 
mair) who is still living in this place, and is a beautiful ornament 
to the cause. May 26, 1836 there was set apart to the full work 
of the ministry, the Rev. B. W. Chidlaw, A. M. of the Miami 
university, who is a native of Bala, Merioneth, but reared in Ohio. 
He began his ministry in this settlement, there were 25 to 30 
members only, . and hearers were few, but now there are over 
100 members, and great progress is shown in every part of the 


This is the name of a settlement in Delaware county, on the 
Scioto river, 32 miles from Columbus and 8 miles from the town 
of Delaware. The land is flat and low, the soil good, but some- 
what damp. The settlement was begun here in 1804. I heard 
some of the old settlers describe their beginning here in the woods, 
with no mechanics, stores, mills, or chapels; their cloches and 
food were the fruit of the labor of their own hands. But ere 
long, after many efforts, the shapeless forest became a pleasant 
home for them and their children. There are more Welsh people 
here than in any other place in Ohio. The soil is suitable for 
raising all kinds of corn, and is excellent for hay and pasture. 
A farm may be bought, with a portion of it cleared, and having 
a house and barn upon it, for about 4 to 6 pounds per acre ; wild 
land for one half or less. It would be better for strangers to 
buy a farm already cleared if not familiar with that process, so 
that they may derive a livelihood from it forthwith. Most of 
these Welsh people are from the counties of Montgomery and 

There are plenty of schools within the reach of all the in- 
habitants, with every advantage for the education of children. 
Good prices are obtainable in the markets for all that is for sale. 
The different religious denominations have churches and chapels. 


Recently there has been a great revival here amongst the Inde- 
pendents; their minister is the Rev. R. Powell. 

The Welsh Baptists and Wesleyans have united with the 
English, although there are Welsh preachers among them, namely, 
the Rev. D. Cadwalader and Elias George. This is a good place 
for farmers to breed stock, raise corn, and make butter and 
cheese, as lands are easy to obtain and the markets are accessible. 


Newark is a very thriving town on the bank of the canal 
which leads from Lake Erie to the Ohio River. Many Welsh 
dwell here and live very comfortably. To the north-west from 
here lies the Welsh Hills where some hundreds of the Welsh 
people dwell. This country is pretty open and healthy, with an 
abundance of running water in it. 

The settlement was commenced by Theophilus Rees and others 
in 1803, and a religious cause was raised by the Baptists, which 
is prospering under the ministry of the Rev. Thomas Hughes. 
In 1832, the Independents and the Calvinistic Methodists joined 
together to raise a religious cause, and to build a chapel — success 
follows their efforts — the Rev. W. Parry (a Calvinist) labours 
amongst them and in the surrounding districts where any Welsh 
people dwell. The people generally are farmers. The land is 
high priced, that is, from 5 to 10 pounds an acre, and hard to 
get. In thinking of the present circumstances of the Welsh 
people in Ohio, who have lived soberly, industriously, and striv- 
ingly, I am impressed with the improvement in their condition ; 
they have great cause to give thanks for God's tenderness toward 
them. Many of those who started without anything, now own 
farms of good land, with prospects of a comfortable living. 


While only a few Welsh families are settled in Columbus, 
there are many of the young people of Wales here in service, 
and they continue to come as there is plenty of work for all 
and good wages ; menservants receive 3 to 5 pounds a month, 
and the maidservants from 7 to 10 shillings a week; mechanics, 
according to their work and skill, 4s. 6d. to 6s. a day, and their 


food. The Independents and Baptists have a cause here, but 
it is rather feeble, and the preaching is in Welsh. 


The same thing may be said of this city that is said of 
Columbus except that many more Welsh people live here. The 
only difficulty that strangers have to face in coming to a place 
like this is to find work and a home at the outstart, but having 
obtained a situation, and showing themselves worthy and faith- 
ful, they need not fear any more. 

The great works in this city give all craftsmen an oppor- 
tunity, with high wages, according to the work, namely from 
6 to 8 shillings a day. They get board and lodging for 10 to 
16s. a week. Steamboats are built here and spacious houses ; 
400 brick houses were built last year, and the city is making 
steady progress. There are places of worship here belonging 
to the Welsh people. Some of the young people, namely: me- 
chanics, having saved a little money, buy lands with the same 
in a new country and go there to live ; others remain and follow 
their occupations in the city. A number of Welsh families live 
in Newport and Covington, Kentucky, on the other side of the 
Ohio, where there are iron works, in which they find employment. 


This is the name also of a river in Knox County, and the 
settlement is 36 miles from Columbus, where several Welsh 
families live. The farmers here are doing well ; the land though 
somf what low, brings forth much corn and hay, and there is a 
good market for the produce of the soil. The Baptists have a 
cause here, with no members, and a commodious chapel; their 
minister is the Rev. John Thomas, who preaches in Welsh and 
English. The price of land has gone up lately and there is but 
little woodland to be had. 


A parish in Portage county, 40 miles from Lake Erie and 
22 from the Ohio canal. The Welsh did not begin here when 
H was a wilderness, but they bought their land at second hand. 


At that time they only gave from I to 3 pounds an acre for it; 
but now it is worth from 3 to 8 pounds. 

The first Welshman who came here was John Davies, in 
1829. The quality of the soil is not as good as that of many 
other settlements, but its proximity to the canal and Lake Erie 
make it very convenient. The different Welsh religious de- 
nominations have houses of worship and churches here, and their 
cause is progressing. 


In these counties many Welsh people have settled recently, 
locating 20 to 30 miles from the Ohio , river ; the soil is clay and 
remarkably broken and is the poorest land and soil that the Welsh 
have chosen in Ohio. Hundreds have come here from Cardigan- 
shire within the last years, but it would have been much better 
for them to have gone 1000 miles further toward the Mississippi 
to find land worth cultivating. There is plenty of coal and stone 
in the hills ; but a poverty of corn and pasture. Although the 
land is not flat and rich, it is a very healthy place, and the in- 
habitants make a comfortable living. 


Seven years ago the Indians owned and inhabited these 
counties in the northwest corner of the State. They sold the 
land to the government, and after surveying it, the government 
offered the land to whoever wished to buy at 6 shillings and 9 
pence per acre. Now it has begun to be opened up and it is easy 
to obtain a farm with house and from 10 to 30 acres of cleared 
land for from 2 to 4 pounds an acre. Farms contain generally 
from 80 to 320 or 640 acres, and some Welsh farmers have 
bought 800 to 1600 acres. The Maumee river runs through this 
section to the north end of Lake Erie, and a canal is being built 
through from Cincinnati to Lake Erie. The land is wooded and 
the soil coarse, and the plains somewhat wet. 

In 1834 several Welsh families left the Paddy's Run settle- 
ment to begin in this locality, and after much toil and many hard- 
ships, they now have open farms and a sufficiency of everything 
for their comfort at their command. At present there are from 
40 to 50 Welsh families here and many more are continually 


coming. Land is growing higher in price and there is not much 
government land to be had, but there is good soil to be pur- 
chased at second hand either cleared or partly so, for 15 shillings 
to 2 pounds an acre. Here are good opportunities for buying 
land to hold until the price increases, or to live upon. There 
is no tax on government land for five years after making entry, 
and there is no expense in allowing it to stand, and it will surely 
double in value during the five years. As the land is low in 
price and the canals convenient there will probably be more 
Welshmen here soon than in any other part of Ohio. Some 
government land remains unsold but not of the best grade. It 
is easy to obtain farms which have been slightly improved 
and if strangers can do so, it is the best to buy. There are 
many religious people here but as the country is so new, neither 
churches or houses of worship have been built. The Independ- 
ents have a preacher here and they are preparing to establish a 


In this city, containing 11000 inhabitants, large numbers 
of Welshmen live, and they appear comfortable and prosperous ; 
commendable citizens ; and industrious and useful in their occu- 
pations. Those in the city are merchants, mechanics, and in 
service, while in the country around, they are farmers and dairy- 
men. This city is on a low bank of the Mohawk River, in a 
valley that has good soil, but the farming section is further from 
the river and is uneven and not very fertile ; it is better for 
meadows and pastures than for corn. The Welsh began to settle 
here in 1800. It was the Welsh Independents who opened the 
first house of worship in this city in the year 1802, when they 
numbered only thirteen; now they own a beautiful, spacious brick 
chapel, with a membership of 250, who are under the ministry 
of the Rev. J. Griffiths. The Baptists have a cause here com- 
menced in 1803, which has a large and increasing congregation. 
The Calvinistic Methodists have a brick chapel, with many ad- 
herents, and the cause is faithfully supported by them. The above 
mentioned denominations have schools and Welsh preaching 
every Sunday. It was a pleasure to me to see my fellow-country- 
men in a distant land, enjoying such religious and temporal priv- 


The summer season is very pleasant here but the winter is 
cold and long, with snow upon the ground for four months. 
Land is dear and hard to secure; there is a better opening for 
mechanics and servants than for farmers. The demand is great 
for both mechanics and servants ; the wages of the mechanic is 
4s. 6d. per day and their food ; servants from 6s. to 10s. a 
week. Clothes are much dearer here than in Wales. 


This is the name of a village a little north of Utica, where 
many Welsh people live, and most of them own land, make cheese, 
butter, etc., and live very comfortably. The land is broken 
[uneven], the soil middling good, and is largely populated. There 
is little woodland except that which belongs to the cleared farms. 
The different religious denominations have chapels, and preach- 
ing in English. The Rev. J. Griffiths, Utica, is the Independent 
minister here, and the members number 50 or 60; their chapel is 
of wood. 


A town 12 miles from Utica, where many Welsh people live. 
They are mostly farmers, industrious and striving in the things 
that pertain to this life and to that which is to be. There are 
two Welsh chapels here, one belongs to the Calvinistic Meth- 
odists, and the other to the Independents; the latter's chapel is 
called Bethesda; the members are from 40 to 50, and are under 
the ministry of the Rev. Hugh Lewis. 


This is the name of a town 20 miles north of Utica, whose 
inhabitants generally are descendants of Gomer. While at an 
Association here, I looked at the large and cheerful assembled 
crowd, with their ruddy, healthy complexions, and then at the 
green hills around, and I almost thought I had reached the land 
of Gwalia [Wales]. 

As a rule the farmers live on their own land. They do not 
raise much corn for their lands are usually meadows and pas- 
tures. The cheese and butter of these districts have a great 


reputation far and near. They keep the butter in tubs holding 
ioo to 120 pounds each, and sell it in the Fall at Utica, for 
from 9d. to a shilling- a pound ; from there it is sent on the canal 
to New York. The farmers keep from 10 to 40 milch cows, ac- 
cording to the size of their farms. The dogs churn the cream 
with a machine which may be seen in every house, and saves 
the women much labor. It costs but little, about two or three 
pounds. The families that have been years in this country, have 
prospered greatly in the world, both they and their children own 
land and live in the enjoyment of every blessing necessary to 
make life pleasant. Another town, called Remsen, to the east 
from here, is peopled by Welshmen and is similar to Steuben 
as to the land and opportunities. 

The most uncomfortable things in this locality are the cold 
weather and the great snows in winter, which lasts from four 
to five months. This section is healthier than the Welsh settle- 
ments in Ohio; the soil is not as fertile, nor are the seasons of 
the year as comfortable. In Ohio few persons tie up [house] 
their cattle in winter, but here they are cared for as in Wales. 
There is plenty of work to be had here in summer but not so 
much in winter. Men-servants get from twenty to thirty pounds 
a year, and women from ten to fifteen pounds. Land is very 
difficult to secure here. The farms which have been cleared and 
have good buildings on them, are from 8 to 12 pounds an acre. 
Good buildings are to be seen on every farm and good locations 
for mills, etc., and the markets are very convenient. 

Religion and temperance thrive in these districts. The In- 
dependents have two commodious chapels ; in one there are 220 
members, and in the other 50, under the ministry of the Rev. 
R. Everett. 

In Remsen they have two chapels, one has 150 members under 
the ministry of the Rev. Morris Roberts. Last year the Inde- 
pendents had a great and powerful revival and the work con- 
tinues to prosper. They have schoolhouses and other places in 
which to preach besides the chapels. The Sunday School and 
the religious societies, Home and Foreign, receive their help. 
The Baptist church flourishes in this region ; they have four places 
of worship: — Bethesda, where there are no members ; the Bridge 
Chapel, 46 members — both under the ministry of the Rev. Jesse 
Jones ; Bethel in Remsen, 50 members under the ministry of the 


Rev. David Michael ; South Trenton Chapel, under the charge of 
the Rev. J. Richards. I failed to find out about the preachers and 
members of the Calvinistic Methodists ; they have five places of 
worship in the different Welsh localities. The Wesleyans have 
one chapel and nearly ioo members ; the Rev. J. Jones ministers 
to them. There is every religious opportunity, and good schools 
for children in these settlements. Although the soil is not as 
level and rich as that in Ohio, the thousands of Welsh inhabitants 
who have made their homes in this locality have the appearance 
of living in comfort. 


Very many Welsh people live here ; but not as many families 
as there are young people. Many have been obliged to remain 
for lack. of money to go farther, but when they become able they 
move toward the west. The generality of those who are here, 
are artizans and tradesmen, and those who are active, striving, 
and sober, look fine, have plenty of work, and good wages. It 
is somewhat difficult for strangers to obtain work at first, but 
once started and proved to be acceptable, there need be no fear 
for the future. 

The Independents have a commodious chapel here, and a large 
congregation under the ministry of the Rev. J. S. Jones. The 
Baptists and Calvinistic Methodists also have Welsh places of 
worship here. As a rule it is better, if possible, for strangers 
to go to the country than to stay in the seaside cities, especially 
those who have families. 


This city is frequently spoken of as the "Birmingham" of this 
country, as the principal works here are coal, iron, and glass. 
Several thousand Welshmen, from south Wales, are settled in 
and around this city. They seem to be doing well, although 
drunkenness destroys many here as in Britain. The Independents 
have a large congregation and a flourishing cause, under the 
ministry of the Rev. Thomas Edwards. The Baptists and Cal- 
vinistic Methodists have Welsh churches also. 



The heights of the Allegheny mountains form the dwelling 
place of many Welsh. This settlement was started in 1796, and 
as the soil is rather poor and the country mountainous, there is 
little progress shown. It is very like Wales but more largely 
wooded, is healthy and pleasant in summer. They do not raise 
many crops but they keep cows and make butter and cheese. The 
Independents have a Welsh cause here, and places of worship in 
the town and country, under the ministry of the Rev. W. Wil- 
liams. The Rev. George Roberts labored faithfully here for 
many years, until old age somewhat unfitted him for the work, 
and he is now ending his useful life respected by the world and 
the church. We hope the sun of his life may go down painlessly 
to shine forever in the regions of immortality. 

The Baptists have a church and a minister here, though some 
of them have become followers of Alexander Campbell. 


Pottsville is in the eastern part of the state of Pennsylvania. 
There are here, and in Minersville and in Corbendale. many coal 
and iron works. There are no farmers in this town, only work- 
men, and most of them hail from South Wales. The Welsh have 
three places of worship, with hard working ministers. The Rev. 
Evan B. Evans labors acceptably and successfully among the 

It is not easy to ascertain the strength of the various re- 
ligious denominations [of the Welsh settlements?] in the United 
States, but, as nearly as we can make out, they are somewhat 
as follows : 

Independents ........ 16 Churches 15 Ministers 

Baptists 13 9 " 

Calv. Methodists 12 10 " 

Wesleyans 3 3' " 

Church of England ... 2 I " 



It is a serious and solemn thing to leave the land of our birth, 
our home, and our friends — to travel thousands of miles over sea 
and land, and to be aliens in a distant and strange country. It 
is very unwise for any one to thoughtlessly or ignorantly face 
an unaccustomed and long journey ; it is necessary to seek direc- 
tion of the Lord, and seriously consider the subject before starting. 

Many of the inhabitants of Wales have gone to America greatly 
to their own and their descendants' benefit ; have exchanged pov- 
erty for an abundance of all the blessings that makes life pleasant, 
but not without many difficulties and many untiring struggles. 
Others by changing countries have made their conditions worse 
and all their pleasant anticipations proved disappointing and heart- 
breaking to them. 

America is so extensive and has such a variety of soil and 
advantages, and the Welsh settlements are so unlike one another, 
that a true description of one part or settlement, will not answer 
for all. As there is a great difference between the valleys on the 
banks of the Severn and the mountainous country of Merioneth, 
even so, in the United States, and the Welsh settlements east 
and west. 

Men and families who live comfortably, with the prospect of 
a similar condition for their children after them, need not move 
away from their native land, for they can expect nothing better 
in any other land. A life of ease and wealth, with idleness and 
drinking, need not be expected to be secured by going to America. 
Be it remembered that there is there no secure shelter for those 
who flee from the grip of the civil law, and they may rest assured 
that their sins will find them out. Then do not flee from sorrow, 
struggle, and labor here, in order to secure better opportunities 
to labor than are common in this country, unless you have courage 
and determination to make use of the same. I should advise those 
unaccustomed to work, and who have not much inclination to do 
it, not to cross the great deep. Application and diliigcnce are the 
characteristics of ail who succeed in America, and they alone have 


a right to expect comfort and prosperity in their affairs. Although 
the wages are high there, it is not a good place to live by the 
labor of other people when you do -nothing yourself. Every Free- 
holder there, if well, and is a farmer, tills the soil, cares for and 
cultivates his own farm. The children are taught to labor and 
so' by the efforts of parents and children, the land increases in 
value. "The desire of the slothful killeth him; for his hands 
refuse to labor: "but the hand of the dilligent maketh rich." 
Some persons go to America, expecting that everything will come 
to them, expecting naught but continuous prosperity and enjoy- 
ment, but unquestionably they will be greatly disappointed in this. 
It behooves no one to go there who "err through wine, and are 
out of the way [disabled?] through strong drink"; for they may 
as well have shame, contempt, and the life and grave of a drunkard 
here as there, and any one who thinks of spending his time in 
idleness and drinking need not expect either comfort or success 
in the land where intoxicating drinks are so cheap and plentiful. 
I desire everyone who would set his face toward America, to be 
in principle and practice a total abstainer from all kinds of in- 
toxicating drinks, as they are of no benefit to the country and a 
great evil to other men. People who have reached a great age 
and are feeble, I counsel, with a view to their personal comfort, 
to remain in the land of their birth, but if they desire to benefit 
their children at the sacrifice of their own comfort by changing 
their country, then they had better go with their family to 
America, for it would be a great blessing to their posterity. 
But now, who is likely to improve his circumstances by chang- 
ing countries? I cannot say positively and infallibly, as that, 
under God's blessing, depends upon themselves, but I can say 
this, that to go into a goodly land will not alone make one rich 
or comfortable. Emigrants must expect to face some hardships 
and endure many privations at first, and must labor dilligently, 
otherwise they will be in the same condition in which they were 
before starting. Parents who are bringing up families and have 
some property, but are almost unable to pay their way in spite 
of every effort, should go to America, where they would, doubt- 
less, ere long see a great change for the better in their circum- 
stances, and there secure a better place in which, after their 
labor and effort, to enjoy their reward. Many difficulties over- 
take strangers in a distant land — unfamiliarity with the work 


and speech of the place ; sometimes sickness and disappointment, 
but for all this, having endured and striven untiringly, there will 
be for the family a better recompense, and in a year's time, 
they may rejoice that God's smile is upon them, and that they 
are far out of the reach of the House of Industry, and that they 
have a comfortable home with the prospect of a similar heritage 
for their children, long after they themselves have passed to 
another world. 

Young people, sober, industrious, and faithful ; maidservants 
and menservants ; together with ordinary mechanics, active and 
skillful, are the fit persons to go to America. The cost of cloth- 
ing is much greater there than here, yet, if they are thrifty, they 
can save much out of their earnings. Far away in the West, in 
Ohio, Indiana. Illinois, and the new states of Iowa and Wis- 
consin, is found the best land for the least money. 

A great many persons delay changing their home and country 
until their property is almost exhausted and they have sarccely 
enough for the journey. These are obliged to remain in the old 
settled states or begin in the newer states under many disad- 
vantages. It is pretty hard for a family to begin with small 
means in a strange land, but I can say that many who, have set 
their feet upon American soil without anything, are now in easy 
circumstances, having made by their industry a comfortable po- 
sition. Still all are not so situated. 

Thousands of the old Welsh people have found the United 
States a goodly land, and their children will have reason to be 
constantly grateful for their fathers' bravery in facing the rough 
waves and the dangers of settling in a foreign country, in order 
to hand down to them a comfortable heritage and the enjoy- 
ment of the human right to judge for themselves in civil and 
religious matters. Those who have been in America and return 
to their native country, rarely chose to remain, but are drawn 
back to live and die under the shadow of the branches of the 
Tree of Liberty. 

Many opportunities are afforded young people, who are will- 
ing to work, to acquire property. If they have money, good 
interest may be obtained, or uncultivated land may be purchased 
in the new States, and held for awhile until it becomes more 
valuable. The tendency of the Welsh is to stay in the old settle- 
ments or to select high and broken land, but having left their 


old homes and the religious advantages that were theirs, it is 
much better for them to endeavor to secure a place where the 
soil is fertile, and where the land will increase in value. Re- 
ligious privileges will soon follow them. If they keep with the 
ark personally and as families, the means of grace will soon be 
within their reach. In the old settlements there is not much 
government land unsold and the price of that is 6s. 6d. an acre; 
but there is plenty further west which is very advantageous to 
purchase with the intention of having farms later on, or of sell- 
ing them again after the value has increased. 

When on the sea, I heard an old Saxon (Englishman), who 
being disappointed in America, was returning to England, state 
his objections to the former country as follows: — I. That there 
was too much equality there between the servant and his master, 
the two working together, eating together, and associating to- 
gether — even the daughter of an Independent Freeholder leaving 
the dinner table to make room for a manservant : ''Was there ever 
such a thing? I could not stand it!'' 2. A Gentleman Fanner 
can not live in America, every one works there, if not there is 
no success. My way is to watch and drive my servants and not 
exert myself, but that will not do there and I can not stoop to 
do otherwise. . 3. Persons who wish to enjoy life indolentlv, 
drinking, hunting, and horse racing, with a merry company, do 
not receive the respect due them although they have plenty of 
money, nor are there opportunities for such a merry life. 4. Their 
beer and spirits are not as good ! ! It must be admitted that 
there was much truth in his objections, yet I wish there were 
more of just such objections. As I listened to this man I feared 
that he was on the road to end his days within the walls of the 
House of Industry rather than as a Gentleman Farmer. He is a 
good specimen of those who are unfit to go to America, for such 
will either be unhappy there or return home disappointed. Those 
who expect to taste the bitter as well as the sweet wine are the 
persons qualified to undertake life in that country and they will 
not be disappointed in the result. In going to America there are 
many difficulties to overcome — leaving one's native land, travel- 
ling over the sea, learning a new language, new customs, — in 
a word, to go to America, is a revolution in a man's life. 

Few things pay for the expense and trouble of carrying them 
over the sea to America, as they are as low-priced and as easily 


obtained there as here. Made cloth and linen garmens ; beds 
(ready fof the journey) and a few other small things, are worth 
carrying so far. It would be well to place a cover of rough linen 
over the beds to preserve them during the journey. Necessary 
utensils for the journey, and instructions as to what may be neces- 
sary, can be had in Liverpool. Travellers have frequent hin- 
drance and inconvenience by a quantity of luggage so the less the 
better. All kinds of clothing, earthenware, knives and forks, 
are much dearer there than here. Nothing can be taken there, 
except what the family needs, without paying a duty thereon. 
Usually, I find that money is better than much luggage, after 
reaching American soil. If you have English gold (Sovereigns) 
your money need not be changed, as they are used throughout 
the United States. After arriving in Liverpool, it is wise for 
families to take a room where they can live, feeding themselves 
until the ship is ready to start. Liverpool is the most desirable 
place to embark as there are ships leaving weekly and sometimes 
dailv, which gives an opportunity for choice. 

In large towns travellers will meet all kinds of men, some 
may appear in the guise of friends, who seem ready to aid them 
by engaging a vessel and preparing food for them, but great 
care must be taken not to believe all that is said. It is best to 
look out and speak for oneself when taking a ship. The help 
of a trustworthy man, familiar with ships and the preparation 
needed for such a journey, would be very desirable and beneficial, 
but all should be careul lest they be misled or deceived. The best 
sign that a ship is about to sail immediately is that it is loaded, 
and not fair words about starting. Look at the cargo. That is 
the surest way to learn if she is about to spread her sails. Some 
p arsons, after engaging passage in a ship, have been compelled 
to remain in Liverpool for a long time before starting owing to 
the ship's failure to leave at the time agreed upon, so it is wiser 
for passengers to require a written agreement, bearing a promise 
of a certain amount per day paid them for each day they are 
forced to wait for the ship beyond a stated time. The fare for 
passage in the Steerage is from 4 to 5 pounds ; in the Cabin, 25 
lbs. You can go with a good, fast Merchantman for from 3 to 4 
pounds in the Steerage; in the Cabin, for 15 to 20 pounds. The 
American ships greatly excel the British ones going there, and 
they are to be had constantly in Liverpool. Packets always leave 


the port on the appointed day, weather permitting, but the others 
are less reliable. After engaging a ship it is well to have every- 
thing on board in good time; to place the luggage and food 
securely before starting so that nothing may be loose to be thrown 
about hither and thither when on the sea. The Welsh should 
prepare bread, oatmeal, butter, cheese, and meat before leaving 
home; this is the most wholesome food and best for the journey. 
Tea, coffee, sugar, treacle, salt, etc., may be had in Liverpool. 
These are the necessary articles, although all may take what they 
wish. Food must be provided for 6 or 8 weeks, and it is better 
to supply too much than not enough, besides any remainder will 
be useful after reaching New York. After arriving in that city 
it is much safer for strangers to follow their usual mode of 
living for a time so that they may continue healthy. There is 
no need of liquor on the voyage. If required as medicine it can 
be had of the Captain. In order to be well on the sea live 
temperately — a little Epsom salts or Rhubarb will be beneficial 
sometimes. Low-spiritedness, lethargy, and indolence cause one- 
half the sea-sickness, and the best doctor for preventing it, is to 
go on deck, walk about, and converse cheerfully with one an- 
other. This will also cure it. 

At sea everyone should endeavor to bear with one another, 
be affectionately disposed to help, so that the journey may be 
pleasant, and all part in peace. And if you remain in port, hav- 
ing reached land, you had better try to obtain work at once ; 
be careful of your health ; your character ; and your success, 
and avoid idling, drinking and unruly company. These are what 
have injured hundreds of men after reaching America. There 
are good places for men-servants, maid-servants, and artisans, in 
the large cities ; a better place for famiLes is in the country or 
in villages. 

. YORK. 

Listen not to directions from strangers here any more than 
in Liverpool ; many persons will be ready to give advice, but 
it will be far wiser for you to be watchful and use your own 
judgment. There are Offices in New York where information 
may be had in regard to journeying west, upon which you may 


rely. If you wish to go to Utica or the northern part of Ohio, 
inquire from where the steamboats start for Albany ; from there 
and other more western points, directions can easily be secured. 
Since American money is current here, I will state in dollars — 
each dollar equivalent to 4s. 6d. — the expense of various journeys : 
From New York to Albany, 160 miles (steamboat) . . 2 dollars. 

From Albany to Utica, no miles (canal) \ x /i do. 

From Utica to Buffalo, 154 miles (canal) ^H do. 

From Buffalo to Cleveland, 193 miles (steamboat) . . 2.y 2 do. 

From Cleveland to Newark, 171 miles (canal) 2 do. 

From Newark to Columbus, 40 miles (canal) . 24 do. 

From Columbus to Ohio River, 4 82 miles (canal) ... \% do. 
From Ohio River 5 to Cincinnati, 100 miles (steam- 
boat) 1 do. 

The entire journey, 1100 miles ; 

The entire cost, 14^ dollars. 

Be it known to all that they can not have their food and 
passage at the above prices, but only their beds and passage. 
If cabin passage is taken the cost will be 42 to 50 dollars. Given 
the usual facility the above journey is made in from 15 to 18 
days. To reach Putnam and Van wert counties, in Ohio, go from 
Cleveland to Perrysburg on the Maumee river, and thence to 
Kalida or Lima, in wagons. 

Another route to Cincinnati is through Pennsylvania: 

From New York to Philadelphia, 100 miles (steam- 
boat) 1 ]/ 2 dollars. 

From Philadelphia to Columbia, 81 miles (Railroad) \ l / 2 do. 

From Columbia to Pittsburg, 313 miles (canal) \y 2 do. 

From Pittsburg to Cincinnati, 500 miles (steamboat) 3 do. 

The entire journey, 994 miles ; entire cost, io>y 2 dollars. 

The cabin passage from 40 to 50 dollars. 

The journey is accomplished in ten or twelve days. It will 
be necessary to pay for luggage by the hundred weight if over 
forty pounds. 

Those who wish to go to Palmyra should leave the canal at 
Akron, 39 miles from Cleveland ; if to Radnor, leave the canal 
at Columbus ; if to Ebensburg, leave the canal at Johnston, 285 

* — 5 At Portsmouth, the terminus of the Ohio Canal. 

miles from Philadelphia; if to Gallia or Jackson, leave the Ohio 
river at Gallipolis, 270 miles from Pittsburg. You can go on 
this route to Cincinnati from Gallipolis by the Ohio river, and 
thence north by canal to Piqua, 90 miles; and from thence, 40 
or 50 miles to Putnam and Van Wert Counties, in a wagon. If 
you are going to Indiana or Illinois it is best to go down the 
Ohio river; if to Wisconsin or Iowa down the Ohio to Indiana 
and thence onward. 

Let all travellers be very careful not to drink cold water 
when perspiring, nor remain out in the night air. Eat whole- 
some food with regularity so as to avoid sickness. After arriv- 
ing at your journey's end listen to the advice of friends who 
have long been there, as it may be very helpful in your first 
venture. If you have money buy land that has been cleared, if 
not, purchase from 20 to 40 acres of forest land and dry the 
trees by cutting the bark and allowing them to so stand for three 
years, when it would be easier to clear them oil". During those 
years it might be well to rent land and raise stock on it. Strangers 
should never attempt to open up forest land immediately as it 
requires much more work before the trees are properly dried or 


This is the name given to that portion of the United States 
that is watered by the Mississippi river and its various tributaries. 
It lies between the Allegheny and Rocky Mountains ; extends 
1400 miles from north to south, and 1500 miles from east to 
wes<" ; comprising S33.000.000 acres of land. This extensive valley 
conoists of the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Mich- 
igan, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas, 
Louisiana, Iowa, and Wisconsin, together, with a large tract in 
the possession of the Indians. 

In the year 1790 there were only 100.000 white people in this 
valley but at present they number over 7.000.000. It is supposed 
that no other part of the world contains such an extent of good 
and fertile land as this. Every part of the valley is watered 
by large and navigable rivers. No mountains are seen, and the 
land, though here and there hilly, is generally level and well 
adapted for canals and roads. It is 'divided into parts, the Lower 
and Upper valley ; the former is in the southland below the point 


where the Ohio river flows into the Mississippi, and includes seven 
States: Kentucky, Tennesee, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
Arkansas, and Missouri, in which the principal products are cot- 
ton, sugar, tobacco, and rice. Slavery flourishes here. The land 
is flat and exceedingly rich and fertile. Its rivers are the Missis- 
sippi, Missouri, Red, Cumberland, Arkansas, Yazoo, Jabine, Ala- 
bama, Ossage, etc. The Mississippi river is considered one of the 
principal rivers of the world ; it carries all the waters that flow 
through this enormous valley to the sea. Rising in Upper Red 
Cedar Lake it empties into the Gulf of Mexico, a distance of 
about three thousand miles. Its width opposite the Missouri river 
is from 2000 to 2500 yards. In New Orleans and below, it is 
about 120 feet deep. It is greatly flooded two or three times 
a year, usually in January and the first week of July when the 
width of the river at New Orleans is from 80 to 100 miles. 

The Upper Valley comprises six states, namely : Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Michigan, Iowa, and Wisconsin. There are no 
slaves here — ali are free — and a great blessing it is to the com- 
monwealth generally, for the free States are much more pro- 
gressive in every way than the slave States. The soil is good 
and bears fine crops of Indian corn, wheat, barley, rye, oats, 
potatoes. &c. Its rivers are the Ohio, Wabash, Illinois, Rock, 
Kaskaskia, Miami, Scioto, Muskingum, &c. The climate . here 
is more temperate and healthy than in the lower valley. Coal. 
lead, salt and iron abound in many places. In Illinois and Mis- 
souri there are extensive lead works ; and iron, coal, and salt 
predominate in Ohio. 

In such an enormous valley as this, the climate varies — hot 
and cold — wet and dry — healthy and unhealthy. In the Lower 
Valley the summers are hot and the winters moderate with little 
ice or snow, almost continual Spring and Summer weather. In 
Ohio, Indiana, etc. it is more temperate in summer but colder 
in winter; the seasons number four as in this country, but the 
summer is warmer and of longer duration while the winter is 
shorter. The extremely hot weather lasts only a few days, and 
the same may be said of the coldest weather. In the Cincinnati 
section, I have seen many winters with scarcely enough snow 
to cover the ground. The Ohio river freezes every year; the 
Mississippi never. Cattle are seldom seen under cover and are 
usually fed outside all the year. 


There is a marked difference between the inhabitants of these 
two valleys. In the lower valley slave trade is carried on, and 
the slaves do all the labor. The property owners are indolent, 
proud, -lovers of vanities, not very moral, and are frequently with- 
out the fear of God. While the characteristics of the inhabitants 
of the upper valley are generally the opposite. 

Teithiaf — hwyliaf for heli — ar antur — 
Mi w'rantaf rhag siomi ; 
Caf yno waith maith i mi, 
Ac ARIAN sy'n rhagori. — 


I will travel — I will sail over 

the salt sea — en an adventure 

I '11 warrant against disappointment, 
I shall there find ample work 
And excellent Money. 

*A free translation of the Englyn, one of the twenty-four authorized poetical 
metres in the Welsh language. 

Quarterly Publication of the His 

torical and Philosophical 

Society of Ohio 

Vol. VI, 1911, No. 2 


Selections from the Torrence Papers, VI, 

Arranged and Edited by 


Assistant Professor of History, University of Cincinnati. 





19, 1812, 



28, 1813, 



4, 1813, 



10, 1813, 



13, 1813, 



17, 1S13, 



8, 1813, 



23, 1S15, 



23, 1S15, 



27, 1815, 



23, 1S16, 



i3» 1S18, 



19, 1819, 



— , 1S19, 



15, 1819, 



18, 1819, 



22, 1S19, 



24, 1819, 



26, 1819, 



28, 1819, 



2, 1820, 



18, 1823, 



17, 1824, 



20, 1825, 



3, 1827, 

Thomas Sloo, Jr., to Mrs. Jane Findlay. 
Martin Baum to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
Id. to Id. 

Id. to Id. 

Thomas Sloo, Jr., to James Findlay. 
John Armstrong to Martin Baum. 
Thomas Sloo, Jr. , to Martin Baum. 
Oliver M. Spencer to Aaron Ogden. 
Nicholas Longworth to Jonathan Dayton. 
William C. Anderson to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
Hunt, Riddle, Piatt & Co. to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
Gorham A. Worth to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
Thomas S. Jesup to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
Gorham A. Worth to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 








to Sept. 10, 1824, Minutes of the Meetings of the 

Illinois Canal Commissioners. 

Erastus Brown } . ~, „ 

Emanuel J. West } to Thomas Sloo > J r - 

James Geddes to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

James Brown to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 















Selections from the Torrence Papers, VI 

Early Commercial Conditions in the West as 
Illustrated by the Sloo Letters. 


While the bulk of the Torrence Collection is made up of papers 
belonging to General James Findlay and Judge George P. Tor- 
rence, there are also sundry letters written by and to other promi- 
nent men of this section. Among these latter the most important 
group in number and in interest is composed of the letters of 
Thomas Sloo, Jr. The present number of the Quarterly and 
that to follow will be made up from these. 

The letters of this number treat of three factors of consid- 
erable importance in western commercial history: the Miami 
Exporting Company and allied organizations of Cincinnati, the 
Second United States Branch Bank of Cincinnati, and the Illinois- 
Michigan Canal. It will be noticed that Mr. Sloo occupied a 
prominent position in each of them, and while the letters do not 
add much to our knowledge of these enterprises, they serve to 
give a certain local color to their affairs. 

Thomas Sloo, Jr., represents the second generation of men 
prominent in western history — a generation native to the soil. 
His career is also typical of the interlacing of the early history 
of the Mississippi Valley, for he was borr in Kentucky and was 
at times prominent in the history of three other states — Ohio, 
Illinois, and Louisiana. He had close personal and business re- 
lationship with those who were its leaders from the period of 
the Revolution to the close of the Civil War, and seems always 
to have been held in high esteem by men of all classes and con- 
ditions of life and political faith. His military career was prac- 
tically nil, but in both business and politics, he occupied a promi- 
nent position, just narrowly missing eminence in both. The chief 
events of his career have been summarized in a paper by Dr. John 
F. Snyder — "Forgotten Statesmen of Illinois" — published in the 
Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 


IQ()3 and in a paper by the present editor, "Thomas Sloo, Jr., 

a Typical Statesman of Early Illinois," to appear in a forth com- 
ing volume of the same publication. 

In the preparation of this material for publication I desire to 

acknowledge the personal courtesies and assistance of Mr. 

Thomas Sloo, of New Orleans, of Mrs. Jessie rainier Weber 

of Springfield, 111., of Dr. John P, Snyder of Virginia, [11., and 

of Miss II. Dora Sleeker and Miss I,, liellc Hamlin. 

I.J. c. 


[Box 21, No. 36.] 

Cincinnati 19th Aug[ust] 1812 
Dear Madam 

Knowing-, that you feel a great anxiety to hear, of every move- 
ment, and transaction of our northern army ; I have embraced 
the earliest opertunity of giveing you an account of a battle, 
fought on the 9th instant, by a party of Ohio voluntiers, com- 
manded by Colonel McArthur 1 — Who received orders to march 
with his Regiment, to dislodg a party of Indians, and a British, 
amounting to about six hundred ; (say 200 of the latter) who had 
collected at Brownstown, oposite Maiden, and about eighteen 
miles from Detroit. Their situation was such that they cut off 
all communication, between this place and Detroit. In pursuance 
of his order, Colonel McA[rthur] marched down, and attact 
them on the 8th, but was repulsed ; on the 9th he made a second 
attempt, in which he proved successfull, as he completely routed 
the enemy, took possession of their boats, in which they had 
cross'd the straight; and some arms. The loss of the enemy is 
said to be, about 150 killed and wounded. 16 taken prisoners. 

Our loss is stated to be 18 or 20 killed; and about seventy 
wounded. This victory will have a very happy affect. It will 
not, only, stimulate our troops, but will deter and intimidate the 
enemy. This information came by express, and can be relied on. 2 

Part of the Kentucky voluntiers have arrived at Newport, 
the balance will be here in two or three days — among which 

a Duncan McArthur afterwards elected governor of Ohio in 1830, 
after serving as member of Congress from 1823 to 1825. He, Lewis Cass, 
and James Findlay were important subordinate officers under Hull and 
were by him included in the surrender of Detroit. McArthur became 
brigadier general Mar. 12, 1813, and served through the war. Cf. Lanman, 
Cnarles, Dictionary of the U. S. Congress, p. 247, and Heitman, F. B. 
Hist. Register of the U. S. Army, p. 425. 

2 This seems to be an erroneous report of the fight that Colonel Miller 
had with the British and Indians on Aug. 8th, McArthur was ordered 
to join Miller with a hundred men as soon as Hull learned of the engage- 
ment. Cf. Clarke, James Freeman, Hist, of the Campaign of 1812, etc., 
PP- 357-8. 


is your old acquaintance Doctfor] Scott, 3 who commands a 
Regiment. What sensations must be produced in every bosom, 
that possesses one spark of patriotism ; or thirst for glory, in the 
field of Mars. But fortune as usual smiles on me — but with 
contemp — She appears to decree, in direct opposition, to the 
fire of youth, and feelings of independence. All's well. Please 
accept of my warmest wishes for your health and happiness, 
and believe me Madam 

Sincerely yours 
Mrs. Jane Findlay Tho. Sloo, Jr 

Mercersburgh Pennsylvania 

I had like to have forgot to say that Mrs Johnston is well. 
The reinforcement that goes to Detroit will am[oun]t to about 

3000. Please to remember me to my friend Nathan C 4 if 

he is with you and tell him, I should be extremely happy to hear 
from him. 



[Box 2, No. 8.] 

Cincinnati March 28th 181 3 
Mr Thomas Sloo 

[Washington City] 

Since your departure Gen [era] 1 Harrison has handed 
me the enclosed certificate of facts, which goes to substantiate our 
C aim against the War department, for the two per cent, which 
we claim, and if there is the least difficulty in obtaining it, you 
then will please make use of this statement of Gen [era] 1 Har- 
rison's. If there is no difficulty of obtaining the 2 p[e]r c[en]t 
then you need not show it. 6 

3 Probably Dr. John M. Scott of Frankfort. He was concerned in some 
early land transactions with Findlay. Cf. Box 2r, Nos. I, 2, and Biograph- 
ical Cyclopaedia of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, p. 257. 

*Nathan C. Findlay, younger brother of James, and .afterwards a 
resident of Zanesville, O. 

5 For Martin Baum see Greve C. T., Centennial History of Cincinnati, 
PP- 439, 573- 

6 For further reference to this percentum see page 12. 


In case the War Department refuses to furnish a guard/ 
and you will have to hire one, it will be well to engage them 
only as far as Pittsburgh, because I am confident I can procure 
a guard from Gen[ua]l Harrison to meet you at Pittsburgh and 
to come down the River with you. This step may save some 
money and will be equally safe. 

Nothing else has occurred to me which would be necessary 
to state to you at this time [-1] will however address you fre- 
quently hereafter 


[Box 2, No. 9.] 

Cincinnati 4th April 181 3 

I promised to write >ou frequently and therefore determined 
to fulfill that promise. 

When you left this [place] I requested you to urge the Secre- 
tary of War s to furnish a guard, if therefore he does not grant 
one at the first asking press the necessity of one again and again 
untill he will yield. 

Tel him that you cannot do without one and that if he will 
not consent to furnish the guard for the whole distance to this 
place it will be of infinite service as far as Pittsburgh, for ar- 
rangements may be made for some persons to meet you there 
if the guard does not come all the way to this place, use every 
argument you can invent to procure the gua-d, and get Gen [era] 1 
Taylor's 9 influence to urge it also. I am confident that he will 
be of great service to you in the business, because he knowes 

This guard was for the purpose of protecting the specie which Sloo 
was conducting to Cincinnati, to be used through the Miami Exporting 
Company in paying the troops in General Harrison's army. Cf. the fol- 
lowing letter. 

8 John Armstrong of New York, late minister to France was then 
filling this office. 

9 James Taylor of Newport, Ky, who was the Commissary-General 
of the Western Army during this war. A manuscript copy of General 
Taylor's Reminiscences is in possession of Colonel Reuben T. Durrett of 
Louisville, Ky, For other references to General Taylor Cf. Quarterly 
Ir > 105; IV, 129, 131. 


the services which the M[iami] E[xporting] Company 10 has ren- 
dered the Public, and which it still continues to give. Should 
the Secretary refuse to grant the guard then press him for arms 
to supply the guard which you will have to hire. I have applied 
to General Harrison and stated to him that I wish him to write 
to the Secretary of War and request a Guard for us, but he 
stated to me that from what he had already written on the sub- 
ject, he had not the least doubt but it will be furnished, that 
nothing further is necessary on that point. I therefore feel 
confident it will be Granted. 

You better write to Mr John Adams at Philadelphia and 
ascertain if he will accompany you out. State to him when you 
will expect to [be] ready to set out with your Cargo and where 
he shall meet you. 

In case neither a Guard nor arms are furnished then I sug- 
gest the propriety of purchasing some good Muskets or Guns, 
of the measure you wiil have to Judge yourself. 

As advances to the Public are daily made and to considerable 
sums too, the sooner you can therefore return the better, and for 
this reason no unnecessary delay should take place. By next 
mail you may expect to hear from me again 

Yours respectfully 

Mr Thomas Sloo of Cincinnati 
now in Washington City 


[Box 2, No. 10.] 

Cincinnati ioth April 1813 
Mr Thomas Sloo 

[Washington City] 

Your letter dated at Wheeling the 26. Instant has come 
to hand and am glad to here that you have progressed so well. 

10 For a brief sketch of the Miami Exporting Company see the article 
by F. P. Goodwin, in the Quarterly of the Ohio State Archaeological and 
Historical Society, XVI, pp. 329, 330. For other references to the com- 
pany cf. Box 12, No. 4; Box 9, No. 16; Box 11, No. 67. 


I have this [day] wrote to Mr. Gallatin 11 and stated to him 
that if he wished to retain the am[oun]t of the Treasurers de- 
posit now in the Mfiami] Exporting] Company out of the 
Drafts sent by you that he might do so. If this letter meets you 
in Washington City it may not Jbe amis to call on him. As he 
has the Treasurers account with this Bank sent him by Mr 
Spencer 1 - he will see the balance due him and no doubt will 
retain it, if it is his desire to do so. 

I have received a letter from Mr Gallatin from the tenor of 
which I have some apprehention that some of the Drafts [in] 
your hands may not be duly honoured though I cannot see any 
just ground of rejecting payment. To obviate the difficulty thus 
apprehended I have enclosed you a Copy of a letter received 
from the late Secretary at war 13 which will show that Col[onel] 
Morrison 14 and Buford 15 were authorized to Draw without limi- 
tation, and the other Public agents have also been authorized 
to Draw without limitation by Gen [era] 1 Harrison. But their 
authorities are not now in our possession, will however send 
them when we obtain them. Should the Secretary of War re- 
fuse to pay Col[onel] Morrisons or Bufords Drafts or any of 
the others, you then will exhibit the Copy of his predecessors 
letter to him 

I feel anxious to hear from you from the City and to lern 
the fate of your mission. Will write again 

Yours very respectfully 

"Albert Gallatin, the Secretary of the Treasury, who was about to 
depart for Europe as one of the commissioners to negotiate peace with 
Grett Britian. Cf. p. 10. 

12 0. M. Spencer one of the organizers of the Miami Exporting Com- 
pany. Later he is reported as its' president. Cincinnati Directory for i8ig. 
See also Quarterly II, p. 116; Greve, I, passim. 

13 William Eustis of Massachusetts. 

"James Morrison of Lexington, Ky., an army contractor. The 
Torrence Papers, Box 17, Nos. 50-55 contain some of his letters. Cf. 
Quarterly II, p. 105. 

,5 Thomas Buford of Kentucky, one of the purchasing agents of the 
Commissary Department. Cf. Heitman, p. 156. 


[Box 21, No. 37.] 

Washington City 13th Ap[ri]l 1813 

At length my dear Sir, I have had the long wished for grati- 
fication of visiting Mercersburgh ; and sufficit to say, that I was 
not disappointed, in the opinions, and expectations I had formed 
of your friends there. The particular friendship and attention 
with which I was treated by them, while at that place, shall 
ever be remembered with gratitude. 16 They were all well, ex- 
cept Mrs. Parker, who has been confined for sometime with the 
rheumatism, but is now recovering. W[illia]m Ir\vin 1T has been 
appointed prosecuting Attorney for one of the new counties of 
P[ennsylvani]a, and intended to leave Mercersburgh for sun- 
berry in a few days after I saw him, which was on the 9th 
ins [tan] t. 

I arrived here on the nth ins [tan] t, but have not yet been 
able to arrange my business. I expect to know, tomorrow, what 
I have to calculate on. It is the general opinion that we shall 
have peace in a short time. Mr. Gallatin sets off for Russia in 
a few days ; 18 and it is said the Russian mediator is now with 
Admiral Warren. 19 An armstice [it] is supposed will be the result 
of his mediation. They have numerous reports every day, of 
the british having landed at different places, all of which I be- 
lieve to be false. If they have landed at all, it is merely small 
plundering parties, whose principle object is a little fresh pro- 

I have not yet seen Mr Gallatin, consequently can give you 
no information relative to your business. I will write you on 

16 A sequel to this visit was his marriage, July 14, 1814, to Miss Harriet 
Irwin, a niece of Mrs. Findlay. Cf. Snyder, J. F. in Publication No. 8 
of the Illinois State Historical Library, p. 202. 

17 For William Irwin see Chart of the Torrence, Findlay and allied 
Families. A William Irwin was one of the prominent merchants of 

18 He sailed from New Castle, Del. May 9, 1813. Stevens, J. A., 
Albert Gallatin. 

19 He was in charge of the fleet blockading the Chesapeake and Dela- 
ware. Cf. McMaster IV, 121. 


that subject so soon as I shall have a conference with him. I 
regret very much, not having found our friend Jesup 20 here. 
He was ordered to Cleveland, previous to my arrival ; to superin- 
tend the building of some boats at that place; being appointed 
Dpty Q. Gl [Deputy Quarter Master General], and since his 
departure promoted to Major, in the 19th Reg[imen]t. Which 
circumstance, it affords me the greatest pleasure to communicate, 
as I know it will be highly gratifying to you, and profitable, and 
honorable to him. I have been appointed 3rd Lieut [enant] in 
the Reg[imen]t of Light Artillery. Qu[e]re? Am I not in honor 
bound to accept the appointment (be it what it may) which my 
friends have procured for me. The corps is one of the most 
honorable and permanent. It has been signified to me, that if 
I accept the appointment of 3d L[ieutenan]t, I can have an ap- 
pointment in the staff immediately. I think I shall not accept. 
However I shall take a few days to consider of the matter. 21 I 
found Genferal] Taylor and Mr. BerHl 22 here, the Gen[era]l has 
been extremely polite and attentive to me, and rendered me 
every assistance in his power relative to my business. 

My respects to Mrs. Findlay and all friends. I am D[ea]r 
Sir with sentiments of the highest respect and esteem 
Gen [era] 1 James Findlay 

Cincinnati Ohio 



[Box 1, No. i4. a ] 


War Department April 17, 181 3. 

The percentage in the account rendered by the Miami Ex- 
porting Company can only be claimed as compensation for loss 

20 For Thomas S. Jesup cf. Quarterly IV, 130. 

21 Sloo's name does not appear in Heitman, so he evidently did not 
accept the appointment. • 

22 The reference is too indefinite to locate accurately in Heitman. 

23 John Armstrong of New York served during- the Revolutionary War 
and is supposed to be the author of the celebrated "Newburgh Address". 


on Exchange, and it is no doubt equitable to compensate such 
loss, if suffered. 

The Bills of List marked B, were paid by the Treasury out 
of a Deposit in Specie made with the Company, on these there- 
fore there is no loss. 

The Bills on the lists marked A and C, were remitted through 
the Bank of Pennsylvania, and have been paid ; on these, no loss 
could have accrued/ As the Company has sold Bills on that Bank 
to an equal Amount. 

This appears from a statement of the affairs of that Bank, 
shewing that the funds of the M [iami] E[xporting] Company in 
the hands of the Bank did not exceed 35,000 Dollars on the o, - 

The Bills on the list marked D, are not yet paid. These 
will be paid by Drafts on Philadelphia and Baltimore. Mr. Sloo 
will have a right, common to every person, to demand payment 
in specie. The conveyance of this will be at the Company's 
expence, and covered by the two per Centum, which will be 
allowed on these bills. The Bills drawn upon the Paymaster 
General to the Amount of 135,702^% having been taken up by 
the Company at 2 per Cent discount, no further allowance on 
them can be claimed. 

Very respectfully, 

I am, Sir, your mo. obt. 
Humble Servant 

John Armstrong 
Martin Baum Esq r 

President of the 
Mi- mi Exporting Compy 

A true copy from the original by John Stokes 

He succeeded Robert R. Livingston as minister to France and served until 
181 1. In Feb. 1813 he became head of the War Department but his ad- 
ministration was ineffective. Cf. H. Adams, Hist, of the U. S. and 
McMaster 77/ and IV passim. Armstrong represented that New York 
faction which Jefferson and Madison deemed it necessary to propitiate, 
even at the expense of such Virginians as Monroe, Skipwith, and John 




[Box i, No. i4. b ] 


e- Cincinnati 8th June 1813. 

You will herewith receive my statement of the expences at- 
tending the transportation of a certain amount of Specie 24 re- 
ceived by me, on account of the Miami Exporting Company at 
Philadelphia, and my disposition of said Specia since my return 
to this place. You will also receive some papers put into my 
hands relative to your transactions with the agents of Govern- 
ment, and which may be of service to you in the final adjustment 
of your affairs with the War Department. 

At the particular request of the Sec[retar]y of War, I left 
the statement of your account with the United States, and the 
statements A. B. C. & D., (of Advances made in this Country 
to public agent) in his Office. I found it impossible to keep a 
particular statement of my expenses, but know the general charge 
made in my account to be correct. 

I am very respectfully Sir 

Your ob[edien]t Serv[an]t 
Martin Baum, Esq r , 

Pres[iden]t of the Miami 
Exporting Company. 

A true Copy from the original by John Stokes 


[Box 22, No. 3.] 

Cincinnati 23d Sept [ember] 181 5 
Gen [ era] 1 Aaron Ogden, 

[Elizabeth Town New Jersey] 
Dear Sir, 

This letter will be handed to you by my particular friend 
Mr Thomas Sloo Jr of this place, I beg leave to introduce him 

24 See pages 7, 8, 12. 

25 For O. M. Spencer see Note 12. He was one of those greatly inter- 
ested at this time in the project of making Cincinnati a port of entry 
for the purpose of furthering the plans of the company he describes. 

26 Aaron Ogden of Elizabethtown, N. J. later acquired the steamboat 
monopoly rights of J. R. Livingston and figured in the celebrated case 


to your acquaintance, and recommend him to your friendly at- 

Mr Sloo, is one of the Firm of Hunt Baum Riddle & Co, 
(composed of Jesse Hunt, Martin Baum, James Riddle, James 
FindUy, Jacob Burnet, O. M. Spencer and others) 27 a company 
formed for the purpose of importing- goods from England, for 
which place he will shortly embark from N[ew] York. Most 
of the gentlemen of the above Firm are possessed of very large 
fortunes, and some of them would be singly able to meet any 
engagements that Mr Sloo is authorized to make. Mr Sloo 
will have letters from some of the most respectable importers 
in Baltimore and Philadelphia, to mercantile houses in England, 
but as a choice of Houses might be an advantage to him, Permit 
me to solicit your friendly aid in procuring from some of your 
mercantile friends in New York, such letters as will assist him 
,in accomplishing the object of the firm. 28 Our mutual friend 

of Gibbons vs. Ogden. Cf. Thayer, J. R. Cases in Constitutional Laiv, II, 
p. I799ff. See also Drake, F. S. Dictionary of National Biography, p. 668. 
27 See the list of names given in the following letter. For references 
to these men consult Quarterly II, p. 105; IV, pp. 132-135- For a letter 
written to Sloo by Mrs. Z. M. Pike see Ibid IV, 135. Cf. also Greve, C. T. 
Cen. Hist, of Cinn. passim. 

"The Liberty Hall for Jan. 18, 1814, states that the "Cincinnati Ex- 
porting and Importing Company" had been formed for the purpose of 
exporting and importing produce but no banking or speculation was to be 
permitted. It was, however, one of the "wild cat" concerns of the period. 
Contemporaneous with the operations of the comoany mentioned in this 
letter there began an agitation to make Cincinnati a port of entry, or at 
any rate, to permit importers to give bond at New Orleans for the payment 
of duties and to pay these to a special collector at Cincinnati. Louisville 
also desired this privilege, so the two cities were joined together in the 
bill which passed the House of Representatives. The bill was defeated 
largely through the opposition of William H. Crawford, Secretary 1 of the 
Treasury, who feared the expense and the facility afforded for smuggling. 
Both John McLean and William Henry Harrison supported the measure, 
and the former especially mentioned the formation of the company re- 
ferred to, as a reason for establishing the port of entry. The Act of 
Mar. 2, 1831 {U. S. Stat, at Large IV) finally allowed Cincinnati and other 
cities along the Ohio and Missouri to import their goods in bond. Liberty 
Hall and Cincinnati Gazette, Jan. 15, 1816; Annals 14 Cong., 2nd Sess. 
p. 362, 


Gen [era] 1 Jonafthan] Dayton, 29 is personally acquainted with a 
number of the Gentlemen composing the Firm and will if neces- 
sary confirm the assurance that their entire competence to meet 
any engagement, which their partner Mr Sloo may make, will 
preclude the most distant probability, that your friendship will 
be misapplied. 

I have the satisfaction of informing you that my dear mother 
enjoys tolerable health, my own family and that of my sister 
Mrs Weeks are well. 

Remember me affectionately and respectfully to Aunt Ogden 
and your family and permit me to subscribe myself with senti- 
ments and esteem 

your affectionate relative & obt 


[Box 14, No. 58.] 

Cincinnati Sept 23d 181 5 
D[ea]r Sir 

Permit me to introduce to your acquaintance Mr Tho[ma]s 
Sloo Jr, one of the firm of Baum Sloo & Co. We have estab- 
lished a Company here for the purpose of importing goods from 
England, not so much from a view of profit, as an impression 
of the importance of such an Establishment to the Western 
Country. Mr Sloo is appointed as the Agent to make purchases 
in England. Confident that a desire to accommodate the per- 
sons concerned, and a desire to promote every thing beneficial 
to the western country, would induce you to give us such aid 
in the prosecution of the business, as may be in your power, I 
have been requested to address you on the subject, and request, 
you to procure for Mr Sloo letters of recommendation from 

20 From a very early period Dayton's interest in Trans-Allegheny 
speculation had brought him into intimate contact with many western 
leaders and he was likewise concerned in Burr's land and filibustering 
projects. Cf. the following letter and McCaleb, W. F. The Aaron Burr 
Conspiracy, passim. 

30 For Nicholas Longworth cf. Greve, Cent. Hist. Cinn. passim, and 
Drake, Diet. Amer. Biog. p. 561. 


such houses of high standing in New York, as you may be 
particularly acquainted with. Being personally acquainted with 
all the persons composing the concern, you can give the kind 
cf information to your friends, that will be satisfactory. 

James Findlay Jesse Hunt John II. Piatt Riddle Bechtle & 
Co Martin Baum Nicholas] Longworth O [liver] M. Spencer, 
Yeatman and [William C] Anderson Jacob Burnet and 
Tho[ma]s Sloo Jr compose the firm. 31 Mr Sloo will have letters 
from the first houses in Phil[adelphi]a and Baltimore, and we 
were desirous of letters from New York, if practicable. 
I am very respectfully yr obt ser* 

Gen [era] 1 Jonathan Dayton 
Elizabeth Town New Jersey 


[Box ii, No. 73.] 

Cincinnati 27 Nov[embe]r 1S15 
Mr Thomas Sloo Jun r 

[Care of Messrs Wm & James Brown, Merchants 

Your two letters from New York have been duly 
received. The success you have met with in laying the founda- 
tion of our credit, is fully up to our wishes. This so far will 
do. But it was not our calculation to \ lace a fund in England 
cotemporary with your purchases ; on the contrary, to meet them 
with produce, if possible, at Orleans. And this was the object 
of establishing a good name, for with this we supposed the 
British merchants rather than keep their goods would readily 
take their pay at Orleans, and in a general way at par. That 
they will do, except when the balance of trade stands very much 
against us ; and finding this the case at present, we think it best 
to confine your purchases to something like one hundred thou- 

31 See Note 26. 

32 A William Anderson is reported as a merchant in the Directory 
for 1819. 


sand Dollars rather than two, under the instructions already 
with you. 

On your arrival you probably find goods high; they are so 
in our eastern Cities, and deminish in value as they travel this 
way, owing to the unusual flow of them into the Country. This 
will however no doubt change; yet at present there is nothing 
like the ordinary shipments of our produce ; and as we anticipate 
a different state of things for the reason of its happening from the 
transition from war to peace; so for these reasons we deem it 
good policy to await the favorable moment for heavy purchases. 33 

Nevertheless, Air Riddle 34 will proceed to Orleans in good 
season to make the best use of our plan ; and as you progress 
we shall keep you advised. 

But whatever capital it may be found convenient to throw 
at your command into Europe, must be considered as Casualty, 
whilst Orleans is to be considered stationary whether for pay- 
ments in money or produce. A reasonable reverse of exchange 
will be the signal for the liberal operation of our enterprise. 
Should that reverse be found obstinate, we conceive it will not 
be because our plan of making the Mississippi the channel of 
our imports as well as exports is at all chimerical, but because 
making it the course of imports is necessary to the opening of 
it for a full course of exports ; and this, should the exchange 
continue to be exacted of you, we shall effect by degrees, sub- 
mitting to the difference of exchange till removed. 

The navigation of the Mississippi, we inform you, is from 
new circumstances every day becoming more important. 35 The 
difficulty from its mouth to Orleans is nearly at an end: the 

S3 For trading conditions immediately following the second War with 
Great Britain cf. McMaster IV, p. 321ft'. The demand for English goods 
was unusually great for several months following the resumption of trade 
relations but there was not a corresponding demand for our produce. 

34 The firm of Riddle, Bechtle & Co. was a prominent one in the city 
at this period. See the list of names on pages 14 and 16. 

33 He undoubtedly refers to the introduction of the steamboat on west- 
ern waters, or as McLean had expressed it "The invaluable discovery 
of propelling boats by steam." Nilcs Register for July 1, 1815 reported 
that the Steamboat "Enterprize" had worked its way up from New Orleans 
to Bardstown (nearly 1500 miles) in 25 days. 


steamboats attend at the turns, each takes a ship in tow, and 
in a few hours they arrive at port. 36 

We are with much esteem, etc. etc. 

For Hunt Riddle Piatt & Co. 

W. C. Anderson. 


[Box n, No. 75.] 

Cincinnati 23d August 181 6 
Mr Thomas Sloo Jr 

[Care of Messrs Wm & Jas Brown & Co., 

Our last to you from this place was the 10th June. 
The singular situation of Exchanges throughout our own 
Country had then produced difficulties of opening credit east- 
wardly for our agent at New Orleans beyond any calculation ; 
and such credits were absolutely necessary, because it was too 
lately discovered that our shipments to Orleans, however suffi- 
cient in Magnitude, would not produce funds in time for the 
payment of your future drafts ; You were therefore advised 
to gain, if possible, an extension of time for their maturity. 
Those difficulties have since increased to such a degree as not 

36 At first it was thought that the chief function of steamboats would 
be to tow other boats carrying freights and passengers. Niles Register 
(June I, 1814) reports a patent for this purpose to be applied on the 
Merrimac River. The Liberty Hall and Cincinnati Gazette, for April 1, 
1816 states that "a Mississippi Trader" believes that steamboats should 
be used for no other purpose than towing other boats, and the Lexington 
Reporter, Jan. 10, 1816, utters the same sentiment. As a prophecy of the 
effect of this and other important commercial improvements the former 
paper in its issue of Feb. 19, 1816 thus expresses itself: 

"Here, ere long, our town shall rise 
With turrets sparkling to the skies, 
And shine in backwoods splendor drest, 

The Great Emporium of the West." 

It was this feeling that undoubtedly prompted the spirit of extensive 
speculation which led up to the commercial crash of 1819-20. 


to be surmounted by laps of time. 37 Your gaining- indulgence 
becomes therefore the more urgent ; in short, it is not now a 
matter of policy or choice but of absolute necessity. The Drafts 
that have so far appeared are $30,000- £1447. 18. o- $15,000- 
144/. s- Q.-? 8 

These we trust will all be honored in course, yet through 
straights that nothing but the superior abilities and credit of our 
agent Mr Musson [ ?] can controul ; for the strength of our 
house can only give confidence without at the same time de- 
riving from it those advantages in its commercial pursuits which 
it could have commanded in all other times of which we have any 

Heretofore you know we could affect at any point of the 
Union a credit for our operations at any other point ; but even 
Banks, then the most efheatious organs of remittances and ne- 
gotiations, are at this juncture not of the least important utility 
to us ; in truth, in them is now found almost the whole difficulty. 39 
For instance: our Gazeucs apprise you of a National Bank and 
the consequent steps of the government for compelling the State 
Banks to Specie payments. 40 The dreaded consequences of these 
steps are such as cut off every accommodation, and, in fact, all 
intercourse between bank and bank, except what leads to the 
accumulation of specie and the constant calling in of paper 
medium. Kence, till the panic is over we have no other re- 
source to look to at Orleans than the proceeds of the produce; 
nor in this should we have acted at conveniency till of late 
because no human conception perceived the fallacy of some re- 
liance upon a bank intercourse. 

The period then to which we wish you would if possible 

37 The balance of trade was strongly against the United States at this 
time. The local markets were flooded with manufactured goods, while 
there was less demand for our products than had been the case before 
the war. 

' 8 It seems hardly possible that these figures represent the current rate 
of exchange, but with our present sources of information no other sug- 
gestion can be offered. 

30 On general banking conditions in the country at large consult Mc- 
Master IV, p. 295!?. 

40 For the measures leading to the establishment of this institution 
cf. Caturall. Ralph C. H. The Second Bank of the United States. Ch. I., 
and .McMaster, IV, p. 309ft". 


pitch the payment of your future drafts is about April next. 
In the meantime suspend making any further purchases, and 
hold yourself in readiness quietly in England for further orders. 41 

We are in hopes and have no doubts of better times long 
before the intended period of your returning to America ; and 
consequently the objects of this company though so much em- 
barrassed in the beginning will in the end be fully affected. 

Let your communications to us be full and frequent and any 
that you make to our house at Orleans the knowledge of which 
you would conceive at all of use here, forward here a copy. So 
also when the original is addressed here if at all useful at 
Orleans, give to that point a copy, the same knowledge is then 
had mostly at the same time at both places. The Goods by the 
Retrieve 42 are on their way up and should reach here by the 
first of Xov[embe]r. Mr Musson is now alone for us at Orleans, 
Mr Anderson having returned. 


[Box 29, No. 49.] 

Office Di-[coun] t . & Deposit. B[an]k U[nited] S [tares] 
Cincinnati 13 Fcb[ruar]y 1818. 
Dear Sir 

• I have the pleasure to inform you that you have been ap- 
pointed a Director of this Institution for the Ensuing vear. 

41 This seems to indicate the failure of the main purpose of Sloo's 
trip to England and the dissolution of the co-partnership engaged in 
the transaction. 

42 The anticipated length of passage would seem to indicate that the 
Retrieve was a barge and not one of the new steamboats. 

43 WorLh was then acting as cashier of the Cincinnati Branch of the 
Second U. S. Bank. For reference to this cf. Quarterly II, pp. 104, 5; 
III, p. 10S. Worth's letters to Sloo are found in Box 29, Nos. 49 to 66 
inclusive and form our most important source of information regarding 
Sloo's career. These men seem to have been intimate friends as well as 
business associates in Cincinnati affairs and in western land speculations. 
The vicissitudes of Worth's career in Cincinnati are shown in the suc- 
ceeding letters. He finally lost his position in Cincinnati when the Branch 
was temporarily withdrawn in October, 1S20, but obtained similar employ- 
ment in New York City. 


The Board will meet this afternoon at 4 O Clock — when you 
will please attend. 41 

Your most Ob 1 St 

G. A. Worth, Cash. 


[Box 13, No. 18.] 

Quarter Master Gen [era] Is Office 
c-- Washington City Nov[embe]r 19th 1819. 

You are appointed agent for the Quarter Masters department 
at Cincinnati and Newport. Your duty will be to furnish trans- 
portation for troops or stores which may be sent from New- 
port; and to furnish fuel, forage, straw and stationary, for such 
troops as may be stationed either there, or at Cincinnati, also 
to pay, on the order of the commanding officer for apprehending 
deserters. A copy of the regulations for the Quarter Masters 
uepantnem is ncicvV1i.i1 ciiciosed. ; " 

1 have the honor to be, Sir. 
Your Obt servt 

Th. S. Jesup 
Tho. Sloo Jr Esq' Q. M. G 1 



44 Iu the issue of the Western Spy for Jan. 31, 1818 appears the notice 
that "T. Sloo, Jr. &: Co., are now opening (In the house formerly occupied 
by Carneal and Howell, on Main Street) a large and general assortment 
of Merchandize." The advertisement states that ''the greater part of their 
goods were selected by one of the firm [evidently Sloo] and imported 
direct from England, by way of New Orleans." In a few months this 
firm goes out of business and its accounts as well as those of N. Sloo & 
Co. are turned over to the firm of H. T. Sloo and Co. (the head of this 
firm is possibly Thomas Sioo's brother, Howell T. Sloo). Still later the 
accounts of H. T. Sloo & Co. are turned over to William Irwin and Co. 
Archibald Irwin continues to act as Sioo's agent in shipping merchandise 
to him in Illinois and in extending his notes, etc. Cf. Liberty Hall, May 5, 
1819 and Feb. 1, 1S20 and Box 12, Nos. 4 and 5. 

40 The last receipt bearing Sioo's name as agent of the Quartermaster 
General's department bears date of May 6, 1S20. Cf. Torrence Papers, 
Box 50. Doubtless in view of the business reverses which overtook Sloo 
at this time and ultimately led him to migrate to Illinois, this office 
proved very acceptable. It seems to have been the result of his former 
friendship with Jesup. Cf. page 11. 



[Box 29, No. 50.] 

Chillicothe Monday Mor[nin]g 
(I don't know what day of the month tis — ) 
Dec [ember] 1819 
My Dear Sloo 

I arrived in this splendid capital 46 yesterday morning about 
II O Clock, a very pretty place, but from appearance of things 
tis Sunday here every day in the week. 

The stage for the East, does not leave here till tomorrow so 
that I have this day to lose. 

My Endorsement in your office for Mr Embree. 47 is not to 
be continued. The evening before I left home I assigned over 
the certificates of the Indiana lands to Mr Embree, on pieces of 
paper attached to the certificates, those certificates are to be lodged 
in your hands by Mr Symmes and not to be d[e]l[ivere]d to 
Mr l^mbxee l ^-- l - :c Endorsement on the nolo L-.hall be changed. 
In case of any failure on the part of Mr Embree the transfer 
of the Certificates is to be annulled by tearing off the paper upon 
which the transfer is made and thereby leaving the whole in Statu 
quo. I hope you understand all this. 

If you should want any more funds to meet my business 
in your hands, you must write me to that effect, and if I get the 
300$ from Gen [era] 1 Edmonds I will enclose it to you. If I 
should be disappointed in that, I will remit you from other re- 

Mr Claypool 4S treats me with great politeness and cordiality 
the weather begins to look threatening, and your humble 
serv[an]t is of course in the figdets to get on. 49 

46 Worth is writing in ironical vein for Columbus was selected as 
the capital in 1812 and had been occupied by the legislature since 1817. 

47 Evidently Jesse Embree, who with M. T. Williams and David Pierce 
had just opened an office on Main Street, "for the purchase and sale of 
lands, and of General Land Intelligence." One of their number was located 
in Illinois Territory — an interesting fact in view of Worth's and Sloo's 
interests in that locality. Cf. The Western Spy, Mar. 7, 1818. 

48 Possibly Abraham Claypool. Cf. Hist, of Ross & Highland Counties, 
p. 65. 

49 Wcrth was on his way to Philadelphia to protest to the directors 
of the National Bank against his removal from his position as cashier of 
the Cincinnati branch. 

22 ' 

Remember me to Mrs Sloo, 50 and assure her that tis not in 
my nature to forget any act of kindness friendship or civility, or 
cease to cherish the remembrance of those to whom I am in- 
debted for their good wishes and good opinion, Adieu 51 
Thomas Sloo jr 



[Box 29, No. 51.] 

Baltimore 15th Dec[embe]r 1819 
Dear Sloo, 

I this evening arrived in this Mobocratic and Bankcratic cap- 
ital ; 52 as yet have seen nothing and nobody ; all is runabout, 
ringabout, cress in and out, four hands half round and back 
again — a mighty botheration about nothing — a great supper made 
up of servants and oyster shells. 

Its the great House — Landlord's name Barnam — servants all 
paddies. I wish the Devil had 'em all ; the rascals put me in a 
room without fire — twould'ent do — got a tire at last, though I 
believe twas made for somebody else. 16 Beds in the room — 
Tag, rag and Bobtail, in ruffled shirts — Beaux, and Jockies, and 
Gamblers! — found a quire of paper on a Bed and so began this 

We took in a passenger at Hagerstown for this place, a mighty 
talking would-be-witty Gentleman. He found out my name and 
began to talk about the Bank, considered Ohio as dam'd for 
keeping the Bank money, said the Govern [ men] t would take it 
back by force ; that the State was in rebellion, etc., etc., talked 
of Mr Cheves 53 in high terms, said he was amazing popular, 

50 This was Sloo's second wife Elizabeth Smith Findlay, daughter of 
John Findlay of Chambersburgh, Pa. whom he had married Aug. 25, 
1819. Cf. Snyder, loc. cit, 202. 

51 A postscript to this letter mentions the insurance rates prevailing 
in Cincinnati at this time. 

52 For frauds and disburbances in connection with the branch of the 
National Bank at Baltimore. Cf. Catterall, pp. 3 ( >50. 

"For an account of Langdon Cheves and his administration of the 
affairs of the Bank consult Catterall, Ch. IV. 


etc. I found out he was a Broker and his name I believe is Mc- 
pherson ! — 

This is all the news I have got. I have slept but about 30 
hours since I left home. The last 48 hours I slept as nigh none 
at all as possible, am therefore tired, wornout, half sick, half 
mad, half disgusted, and half dead. . 

I start tomorrow for Philadelphia and at that port will write 

Remember me most respectfully to Madam and believe me as 

Yours truly 


[Box 29, No. 52.] 

Philadelphia Dec[embe]r 18 1819. 

L-v.d.1 CJ>iCu, 

I reached here this morning — I mean yesterday morning ; 
have been at the Bank, seen Mr Price, Mr Smith, 54 etc. The 
vanity, and conceit, and pride, and haughtiness, and pretended 
purity of the Great man, 55 are not to be imagined ; no conces- 
sions, no admission of error will be made. 

I have this day written to the Board, telling them that as 
I presumed they were by this time in possession of facts and 
documents conclusive as to the correctness of my official acts, 
they would be pleased to authorize the same to be stated in one 
of "the public papers. But I know they will not do it, and to- 
morrow I prepare my documents for the press. The great man 
relies upon his southern, and Governmental support. The Board 
however may be changed, in that event he may take it into his 
head to resign, and the system of hypocrisy and persecution, and 
damnation to the Institution may then cease. 5 *'' The Government 

"Jonathan Smith the cashier of the main Bank. 

5S Langdon Chevcs, the president, who came from South Carolina. 

56 0n succeeding William Tones as president of the Second National 
Bank Cheves found its affairs in a most critical condition and instituted 
a series of reforms which saved it from ruin. The affairs of the Cin- 
cinnati Branch were especially involved, so it is natural that Worth should 
complain of "hypocricy and persecution." In time the Bank was obliged 


directly or Indirectly must and will support the Bank. I supped 
this evening with the Vice President" 7 who is on his way to 
Washington. I shall have many friends in Congress, but I am 
apprehensive the Post I want will be disposed of before I can 
apply for it. 

I shall be detained here till Friday next, I then start for the 
City. If Mr Glenn 5S has returned from Columbus, see him, 
and tell him to send me a letter to Mr Scott" delegate from Mis- 

Of matters and things in particular I have as yet learned but 
little. Write me often direct to Washington till further advised. 


[Box 29, No. 53.] 

Philadelphia Dec [ember] 226 1819. 
Dear Sloo, 

The Directors of the Bank of the Ufnited] States are now 
in Session. The documents are I presume before them. I have 
also written to the Board requesting them to do the office and 
myself justice,' 30 by authorizing something to that effect in the 
publick papers, But I have no Idea that they will do it. Cheves 
is at presoit Lord of the Ascendant, and a still further revolu- 

to assume control of a large part of the business area of Cincinnati, hut 
the later rise in real estate prevented any great loss. Cf. Catterall, pp. 
62, 66, 67 and Ch. IV passim. 

57 Daniel D. Tompkins of New York. 

"Probably Hugh Glenn of the firm of Hugh and James Glenn, Cin- 
cinnati. Worth mentions him often in his succeeding letters. Cf. Box 29, 
Nos. 58 to 66. Glenn was also engaged in western Indian trade. Dr. Elliott 
Coues has published a most interesting but most difficult journal cf an 
expedition by Glenn and Jacob Fowler in the region of the Arkansas River 
and New Mexico. Glenn suffered severely in the Cincinnati panic of 

59 John Scott was territorial delegate from Missouri from 1816 to 
1821 and representative, in Congress from the latter date to 1827. Cf. 
Lanman, p. 338. 

60 The Cincinnati branch was heavily involved at this time and one 
feature of Cleves' reform was the closing of this office for a time. This 
was carried out in October, 1820. Cf. Catterall, passim. 


tion will take place If a Board of a different complexion cannot 
be elected, and the thing- is doubtful. 

My removal took place when all the liberal and honorable 
part of the Board was absent. Cheves is hated, as Hell ought 
to be, by some, and worship'd, as the Devil is, by Others — ! — 

In confidence — He or Smith will go out of the Bank, the 
former, If he cannot control, the latter by compulsion.* 1 

There is no use in trimming at the office, the report of yours 
in anszver to the report will leave no room for accommodation 
if Cheves rules. — I will write you more tomorrow. 

Present the enclosed to my friend. 


[Box 29, No. 54.] 

Philadelphia Dec[embe.]r 24th 1S19 
Dear Sloo, 

I this morning rec[eive]d your letter of the 12th. Your 
determination not to resign is a "good one". I expected as much. 
Self-interest soon cools down all the unruly feelings of friend- 
ship, pride, independence, dignity and selfrespect. It is the 
master spirit and rules the heads and hearts of nineteen twenti- 
eths of the World. 

The creed of the Persian is becoming universal; my Friends 
and acquaintances all worship the rising Sun. It is the God of 
their idolatry ! and may they profit by the worship, bask in his 
beams, and not forsake him in the tempest, when the passing- 
cloud shall obscure his face ! 

You see how easy it would be, to make you feel unpleasantly, 
if not to make you believe you had done zeroiig. But the above 
is all in fun, all a Joke. The course you have pursued is such 
as I would now recommend. Your resignation (I mean all of 
you) 62 would not have been of any service to me, and would 

81 Smith was succeeded .15 cashier of the Main Bank, Feb. 25, 1820 
by Thomas Wilson. Catterall, p. 78, n. 8. 

•*-This may refer to a particular group of the directors of the Cin- 
cinnati branch— probably those who were most closely concerned with 


no doubt have placed your interests in other mens hands. If 
the Whole Board would have resigned it might have made an 
Impression beneficial To the establishment and the place, but 
that being decidedly in the negative, your resignation would 
not have been felt, and consequently not heeded, give my regrets 
to the Gentlemen and tell them not to resign. Before you can 
give Mr Houston the names of the new Directors, or such as 
you would recommend, the Board here, will have already had 
a list from another quarter. 

But let me tell you, that if the present Board of the Parent 
Bank is not changed, you will not succeed in the ticket you shall 
recommend. 63 Air Cheves is at present Lord of the ascendant, 
and deals damnation round him ! all the Old System is to be 
changed — right or wrong — and though a man of some talent, [he] 
is too crooked a Devil, and has too much malice to perceive or 
pursue, the Interests of the Institution. If he is not overruled, 
the Bank is dam'd ! 64 

Immediately on in} am'val ia Town I addressed a letter to 
the Board requiring that Justice should be done, that if satisfied 
of the correctness of the Management of the office (as I pre- 
sumed, they by this time must be) to authorize the same to be 
stated in one of the public prints. The subject was referred 
to the same Committee that made the Report and recommended 
my removal ; your address to Mr Cheves on the subject and 
in answer to the Report was also referred to the same Gentle- 
men, and two days after my letter had been handed in, I was 
requested to attend the Committee. I did so, and made a speech 
of j hours. To what effect I know not. But I can tell you that 
3 of that Committee (6 in the whole) never attended and that 
those three will probably be favourable — two of them to a cer- 
tainty. Mr Toland is as clever a fellow as ever God made. 
And several members of the Board look upon the system pur- 
sued with sorrow and disgust. 

63 The new board of directors of the parent bank as finally chosen 
represented a compromise among the conflicting parties. The list is given 
in Liberty Hall for Jan. 21, 1820. 

64 Cheves' task was to reform the loose methods in the conduct of the 
Bank's affairs and in this he was successful. He was not, however, pri- 
marily a bar.ker so after putting the affairs of the institution on a sound 
footing, he retired in October, 1823. Cf. Catterall, pp. 82, 91. 


Tomorrow, I start for Washington, shall do nothing- till I 
know what the Bank will do. Mr Cheves, is cx-officio a member 
of all Committees, and was a prominent member when I was 
before, them, questioned me closely, and the committee had a 
dam'd mass of my letters papers etc. before them. But I had 
but the truth to tell and could not go wrong! Show the first 
part of this letter only to Keys. 65 Show the whole to Worth- 
ington 60 and Glenn. 'But let nothing come to the publick as yet 
from me! I hope Mrs Sloo was not offended at my presumption. 

Thomas Sloo. Jr. 

Cincinnati Ohio 


[Box 29, No. 55.] 

Philadelphia Dec[embe]r 26th 1S19 
Dear Sloo, 

Although I have no hope that the Bank, will do anything of 
a just or liberal, character, yet my friends here have advised 
me to wai: till something is determined. The same Committee 
of enquiry is still sitting, and it is no doubt the object of Mr 
Cheves to get at all the little details of the office, and every 
informality, every item in relation to Bills of exchange reneijeed, 
not forwarded, or changed into accommodation paper will be 
magnified into high crimes and misdemeanors! 61 

My rec[ord]s as I st?ted to you before, will undergo, or 
has already undergone a severe scrutinv, and has or will be 

63 James Keys was one of the directors of the Cincinnati Branch. Cf. 
Cinu. Directory for 1S19, p. 47. 

66 Thomas W'orthington of Chillicothe, governor of Ohio, 1S14-18 and 
U. S. senator, 1803-07; 1810-14. Worthington was greatly interested in 
the establishment of the Chillicothe branch of the U. S. Bank. Cf. 
Quarterly II, 105, and was at this time one of the directors of the Cin- 
cinnati Branch. 

e: This is a reference to the practice of paying one bill of exchange 
by the purchase of a new one. These were known as "race-horse" bills, 
because they were kept running to and fro without ever being paid. Cf. 
Catterall. p. 32. 


reported in detail. Now you know that some of those Bills of 
mine were renewed, and that one or two were turned into Ac- 
commodation papers. Mr Burnet 08 not only sanctioned, but 
advised it. I have written to him, "To say the same to me in a 
letter." Some of the Board may say that they knew nothing 
of those Bills of Exchange. This would be the Devil all over ! 
You know there was nothing secret in my acc[oun]t, and the 
Bills of mine as well as of others, were always examined by 
the committees, etc. So Mr Cheves is keeping the question off 
with the view of ascertaining all those little points and justi- 
fying my removal upon the grounds of Irregular and, as he 
terms it, "improper proceedings" — Remember the Bill of 
Gen [era] 1 Findlay 60 on his Brother the Gov[erno]r which was 
not forwarded, but renewed by a Bill on New Orleans. (This 
fastens him). 

If the Board are true, and will act firmly there can be no 
difficulty. I want either the president to say that those Bills 
of mine were periecily safe in any event, that their being re- 
newed, was no way prejudicial to the interests of the office. 
That he recommended the measure himself, etc. or I want trie 
Board to say something to that effect — at all events I wish 
the Board to say "That no private interests of mine ever inter- 
fered with the Interests of the office and they are convinced that 
I always consulted the latter in preference to my own." 

Cheves is determined to make a noise about those Bills 
provided I publish anything, and perhaps even if I should not. 

I have a great many friends here. But those dam Bills, 
though right and proper, are stumbling Blocks. 

Suppose you speak to Burnet on the subject or to Doct[or] 
Drake. 70 Those dam'd rascals here would ruin a man if they 
could, for not bending the tail of a Y the right way. Send me 

68 Jacob Burnet, the president of the Cincinnati Branch. At Phila- 
delphia loans based on the Bank stock were frequently renewed by the 
president and cashier, without the knowledge of the rest of the board 
and the same practice may have obtained in Cincinnati. Cf. Catterall, p. 33. 

60 General James Findlay was one of the directors of the Cincinnati 
Branch. His brother William was governor of Pennsylvania from 1S17 
to 1S20. 

70 The best life of Dr. Drake is that by Juettner, Otto, Daniel Drake 
and his Followers, Cin., 1909. 


the list of Directors you made out, direct to this City, I shall 
get your letters. 

1 have not yet been able to attend to Worthingtons Law 
Books and have not written him since I left Chillicothe. Tell 
[him.] I shall write him by and by. 

Write me often and keep a damd good look out to Windward. 
Where's Piatt? 



Make such use of the substance of this letter as you may think 
proper. 71 

Thomas Sloo. Jr., 
Cincinnati Ohio 


[Box ?9, Xo. S7-] 

Phila[delphi]a 28 Dec[embe]r 1819. 
Dear Sloo, 

This is the cursede'st state of things that ever existed. I 
hate suspence as I hate the devil. Tis Damnation all over! I 
can neither sit still, stand still, go on nor stop. 

Now do you know that the only part of this letter worth a 
d — n, is the Postscript? and do you know that this same post- 
script will not be written these 6 hours? 

In plain English for I hate ambiguity, the great and mighty, 
the all knowing and all imporant, wise, vast, splendid, and con- 
sequential Directory of the Bank of the U[nited] States, are this 
moment deliberating whether they shall acknowledge that "they 
(or myself)" have been wrong.' 2 

T think it is very easy to imagine which way the balance will 
incline, pride, hatred, malice, will I think overpower, the still 

T1 On the next day Worth sends the following brief message to Sloo 
(Box 29. Xo. 56) : "Dear Sloo If you have done nothing on the subject of 
my last letter, keep it to yourself and do nothing till you hear from me 
again. The die is not yet cast. Tomorrow determining It. G. A. Worth 
Phi[laddphi]a Dec[embe]r 1819." 

"This refers to the previous action of the directors in removing 


small Voice of Justice, and even Interest and policy, all power- 
ful as they are, in the general concerns of life, will I am afraid 
in this instance give way to their mure impetuous neighbours. 

There may be a delight in the Idea and attempt to ruin others, 
But it must be a devilish kind of delight, and a queer sort of a 
fellow that could relish it. Still there is a great, and perhaps 
ruling, disposition in the Bank of the Ujnited] States to justify 
rather than retract. Yet let me do them justice, and not be 
guilty of the crime which I impute to others — there are in the 
present Board of Directors, several Gentlemen of great re- 
spectability, liberality, talent and honourable feeling." 

Need I tell you that those men are my friends? I need not, 
but you must know that they are (like our Friend the General) 
always in the Minority ! 74 

The Bell rings, I go to Dinner with what appetite I have 

G. A. Worth 

6 O Clock, P. M. 

P. S. 

All is lost ! Postponed again till Friday. I set out tomorrow 
for Washington, But you may direct to me here for T shall re- 
turn again in a few days. Say nothing as coming from me, 
do not agitate anything in your board on my acc[ounjt, feel 
your way, and let me know how or what they think. It is 
possible, I may yet be restored, but not probable. I shall publish 
nothing until after Jan[uar]y. I have been advised to the course 
I have pursued. Amen! for the present.' 3 


73 Perhaps Worth refers to the minority who had also served under 
the former regime. In Jan. 1819, fourteen new directors had been elected 
out of a total membership of twenty-five. Cf. Catterall, p. 78. 

74 Probably General William Henry Harrison whose speeches and 
general legislative career illustrate this characterization. 

75 Despite Worth's pessimism, one of the last acts of the board of 
directors, before proceeding to the election Of a new board was to re- 
instate Worth in his position as cashier of the Cincinnati Branch. At 
the same time they adopted a much more stringent' set of rules for the 
conduct of affairs in the branch banks, one of which was that no cashier 
or subordinate officer should be allowed to speculate upon or traffic in 
the stock of the Bank. Cf. Liberty Hall, Jan. 19 and 21, 1820. 



[Box 29, No. 58.] 

Office Bank Ufnited] States 

Cincinnati 2d Augfust] 1820 
My clear Sloo, 

How far you are from a Post Office I know not, nor can I 
guess how long it will be before this letter reaches you. 76 But 
unless I make an effort at a correspondence I may not hear of 
or from you these seven years, yet 1 can not believe you are. 
altogether indifferent as to what passes in this once glorious 
but now crest fain City. 

All things are changed, the rich have become poor, and the 
poor distrust, one universal state of embarrassment exists ; tis 
want, ana fear and prosecution and suspicion and terror and 
dismay and bankruptcy and pauperism on all sides and on all 

The wealthiest are considered as ruined, and security by 
mortgage or Judgment required from men who would have 
spurned the proposal and the proposer with disdain and con- 
tempt, 2 years ago. 

The Bank of the U[nited] States has become seriously alarmed 
for the safety of its debt in this quarter, and not without reason. 
It is "sai'c himself zeho can." Mr \Vilson TS the new Cashier 
of the Bank of the U[nited] States has been here these 3 weeks 
and may for ought I know stay 3 weeks longer. 

His Object is "Security and Interest", and no one is ex- 
empted from the terms. If a man owes 20,000 Doll[ar]s he is 
considered as ruined though he may be worth 100.000 Dol[lar]s 
in good real estate. Property in this City Sir will come down 
to the Old prices of 10 years ago. Piatts 70 40.000 dollar lot 

70 Slco had already left Cincinnati for Illinois, probably in May or 
June, iSjo. 

"For an account of the financial panic which Cincinnati was then 
experiencing cf. Greve, Ch. XXIII. 

7S Thomas Wilson. See Notes 60 and 61. 

"'^Liberty Hall for Feb. 4, iS_>o contains a statement signed by the 
leading firm, of the city that they will not accept the paper money issued 
by John H. Piatt & Co. because it is not on a par' with the paper of the 
City banks. 


bought of St Clair would not at the present moment bring- 2000 
doll[ar]s; real estate has had its day in this quarter, and those 
who have built upon that foundation (and are in debt) have 
literally built upon the sand. 80 

Where in the name of the Devil then do / stand? My House 
and little farm are not considered by Mr, Wilson as good security 
for more than 3 or or 4 thousand dollars ! My Kane debt is 
gone to h — 11 ! All that I have received or am likely to receive. 
Mr Olcott tells me is not worth 500 Dollars 

This is a gloomy state of things, but this is not all, the 
Bank will attribute our losses here to the bad management of 
the office, and my salary will, I am told, be reduced, and at least 

2 of the clerks dismissed as useless. It is thought too by 

that the Business of the Office will be reduced to any agency and 
that other managers and agents will be appointed. S1 

But enough of this. I would rather talk about my Illinois and 
America" lands, though the thought of them gives me the 

If there is a prospect or a possibility of selling those land 
lots etc., for Godsake sell them ! I will confirm and convey : 

All my right title Interest to and for. of and from those cursed 
lands and will gladly sell for the simple amount of what I 
.originally paid, throwing Interests and costs to the devil. 

By an exchange of paper credit may be had for a long time. 
It is a bargain for somebody ; the little Chain s: "' farm is worth 
the money or very nearly. I have no title yet to the America 
property. I have written Major Langham, 51 but, it seems, to 

S0 The later marvelous advance in real estate in Cincinnati enabled the 
Bank to escape serious loss in its western operations. Cf. Catterall, p. 6j. 

sl The Cincinnati Branch was withdrawn in October, 1S20, and re- 
established in 1S25. Cf. Catterall, pp. ~g, 308. 

f? America. 111. was a settlement made by Henry L. Webb and Dr. 
William M. Alexander on the Ohio about ten miles from its junction with 
the Mississippi. It was the forerunner of the later Cairo. Cf. Lansing, 
Hist, of Alexander and Pulaski Cos. 

S3 Little Chain was on the Ohio about five miles below Ft. Massac 
and about 25 miles from the junction with the Mississippi. Caledonia, 
also mentioned in Worth's letters lies below and nearer America. Cf. 
Cumings, S. The Western Pilot, 1832, pp. 6S, 69. 

84 Probably S. E." Langham. Cf. Heitman. p. 390. 


no purpose. Glen 95 is yet absent. I gave Doct[or] Alexander 30 
you know full power to sell, but have not heard from him nor 
your honor since you left us. 

They (the lawyers) are abusing Judge Torrence in the In- 
quisitor* 7 most scandalously: Baum is not quite crazy nor Burnet 
reduced to an absolute skeleton. Even the Gen[era]l ss looks blue, 
and biting his finger nails, a thousand of your old friends are in 
a cursed quandary, and none more so perhaps than your old 
inmate, ( ?) the abused, routed, restored and at present sub 
CasJiier.* 9 God save the people! This year and part of the last, 
I should not like to live over again. I think I would rather 
throw down the Commission of life than bear it with its present 

Dam the Banks, and the "Witch that begat them! I have a 
great mind to fall too and Curse them as bad as Obadiah was 
cursed for tying the knots, But you know I hate swearing. 

Let me hear from you and let me have your opinion relative 
to trfe prospect of selling those lands of ours, relative to America, 
Webb, 90 Alexander business, Farming, in short relative to what- 
ever concerns me or yourself. Now, having become temperate, 
let me ask how Mrs Sloo is pleased with her new cottage and 
new fields ? I pray God, that she and you, and all those in whom 
either of you have any interest or affection may enjoy good 

85 Evidertly en his extended western expedition with Fowler. Ct. 
Coues, Elliot, The Journal of Jacob Fowler. Hugh & James Glenn appear 
in Liberty Hall for Feb. n, 1820 as advertisers of the steamboat Vulcan 
which leaves Cincinnati for New Orleans. 

86 YVilliam M. Alexander advertises in Liberty Hall for Nov. 10, 1819 
that he has established a commission ware house at America for the 
transaction of all sorts of commission business and the supplying of 

87 These attacks begin in The Inquisitor and Cincinnati Advertiser for 
July 18, 1S20, under the pseudonym "Constitution". There was some 
question about the legality of Torrence*s election some 18 months before. 

8S Both General Harrison and General Findlay were extensively en- 
gaged in financial operations then going on in Cincinnati and both were 
seriously crippled thereby. 

89 Though Worth's mission of the previous December had been suc- 
cessful so far as retaining his connection with the Cincinnati Branch 
was concerned, he lost his position when the branch was discontinued. 

90 For H. L. Webb cf. Box 28, No. 26 and Worth's letters, passim. 
He is mentioned in Edwards, N. W., The Edwards Papers. 


health. You see I was determined to take myself into the pale 
of the prayer. 

I intended to have written before now, to my sober and sin- 
cere and rational friend your Mother, 91 and to my young and 
I hope happy friend Madam, but these are times of peril and 
dismay, acts of friendship, of gratitude, of courtesy are post- 
poned. My memory however is good, and while it lasts you and 
yours shall have a place in it. 

God Bless you 

Worth 92 
Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
Shawnee Town 




TO SEPTEMBER 10, 1824. 

[Box 36, No. 14.] 

Vandalia February iSth, 1823. 
At a meeting of the Canal Commissioners an election was 
holden, for a president, which resulted in the choice of Thomas 
Sloo Jun., 93 it was ordered that T. M. Smith, 04 act as secretary 
to the Board. 

01 This reference as well as others in succeeding letters show that 
Sloo was not left an orphan at an early age as has previously been stated. 
Cf. Snyder, loc. cit. p. 202. 

^-Apropos of the general financial condition of Worth, he states in 
the oostscript that his wife and children have gone to Xew York City 
to remain until he gets free of his financial difficulties. Later he follows 
them there, as his letters show. 

"Letters to be published in the succeeding number of this Quarterly 
will show that in 1S22 Sloo was elected to the Illinois senate, representing 
the counties of Hamilton and Jefferson, and that in 1S23 he was appointed 
one of the board of five commissioners to consider the ways and means 
for constructing a canal to join Lake Michigan and the Illinois River. 
Cf. Snyder, !oc. cit., p. 203. 

04 Theophilus W. Smith was prominent politician and judge of Illinois 
and actively engaged with the State Bank. Later his banking operations 
were subjected to an investigation by Governor Ninian Edwaids and still 
later he narrowly escaped impeachment for his course as state judge. 
Cf. Davidson and Stuve, Hist, of 111. pp. 339, 368; Fo*4 Hist, of III. 
PP- 64 66. 


Vandalia February 1S23. 
The Board met pursuant to adjournment, letters directed to 
Benjamin Wright, and James Geddes, requesting them to com- 
municate, on what terms, they will act, as engineers to the Board, 
were read and adopted. 

ORDERED that the 1 'resident be authorized to conclude an ar- 
rangement, with either Benjamin Wright, Esq 1,0 "' of Rome, New 
York, or James Geddes ' 1 of Geddesburgh, New York, to act as 
Civil Engineers to the Board, provided the sum to be allowed 
for the services to be performed does not exceed fifteen hundred 
dollars, in good funds, or specie. 

At a meeting of the Board of Canal Commissioners June 10th 
1823. Present, 

Thomas Sloo Jr, President 
E. J. West ' 1 

Erastus Brown, and \ Members 
T. W. Smith J 

T' I..:' . 1 :' benjamin Wright, and James Geddes Esquairs 
having been read, in which the}' decline acting as engineers to the 
Boaid, for the reasons therein expressed, 

It was ORDERED, that Samuel D. Lockwood Esq rf>7 be author- 
ized, as the agent of this Board, to enter into a contract under 
the direction of this Board, with an engineer to explore and 
survey the route of the proposed canal to connect the waters of 
Lake Michigan with the Illinois River, with estimates of the 
probable expence thereof,' and that this Board will ratify, what- 
ever engagements he may enter into in pursuance of this authority. 

A letter of instructions was then read as follows, 

Samuel D. I.ockwood Esq r 

The Board of Commissioners have appointed you their 
agent, for the purpose of procuring an engineer of character 

"•"For Benjamin Wright cf. Hulbert, Hist. Highways', XIV, pp. 109, 
115. 180. 

n "Fcr James Geddes cf. Lanman, Diet, of Congress, p. 149. lie was 
chief engineer for the Ohio Canal and later was associated with the 
Chesapeake and Ohio and Pennsylvania Canals. Cf. Drake and Mansfield, 
Cincinnati in 7&?6, p. 18, and Atwater, Caleb, Sketches of Ohio, pp. 263, 274. 

9T Samucl D, Lockwond received two complimentary votes for senator 
in 1.82.3, and was also later an associate justice cf the state supreme court. 
Cf. Edwards Papers, pp. 204, 296. 


and skill, and to enter into a contract with him, to survey and 
locate the line of the proposed canal to connect the waters of 
Lake Michigan with the Illinois River. Yon are herewith fur- 
nished with a letter on the subject, to the Board of Commis- 
sioners of the New York canal, who will doubtless afford you 
every possible information to enable you to make a judicious 
selection. You will also call on Messrs Geddes and Wright, to 
whom the Board have written some time since, under the ex- 
pectation that an arrangement might have been made with one 
of them, they have declined, but offer their friendly aid in pro- 
moting generally the object in contemplation. You will be 
guided in your selection by the joint information of those gentle- 
men, recollecting, how important it is that the selection should 
be of a character, to insure the the utmost confidence, in the talents 
and practical skill of the persons chosen. The great interests 
of the State involved in the measure, the absolute necessity for 
the utmost accuracy in the proposed survey, and the consequences 
which would result to the slate, and the character of those im- 
mediately concerned, should it not be prosecuted with the most 
peculiar care and circumspection, have doubtless presented them- 
selves to your consideration, and will, we are persuaded, have their 
influence on your judgment, in the choice you should make in con- 
nection with your own feelings on this subject. 

It is desirable that the engineers engaged should arrive at 
Eclwardsville, in this state (the point from which it is proposed 
to set out) as early as the 15th of Sep[tembe]r next if possible, or 
ceartainly by the 26th of the month, as it is the desire and in- 
tention of the Commissioners to commence, and complete the 
survey this fall, if possible. 

You will impress on the mind of the gentleman employed, 
the necessity of promptness, and that this season of the year 
presents the only favourable time for the prosecution of the 
work. You are authorized to offer for this service to the engineer. 
a sum not exceeding ten dollars, per day, while actually engaged 
in the prosecution of the work, and two hundred dollars for 
his expences in coming and returning to the place of his resi- 
dence, but you will be aware, at the same time, how important 
it is, that one should be had for a less sum. proz-ided his talents 
are equal to others.. It is not however the wish of the Board by 
this suggestion to hazard in the least the object, by pressing this 


consideration, and rather than be defeated, you may add one 
hundred dollars more ; and it will be understood that during 
the prosecution of his work his subsistance and necessary as- 
sistance will be furnished to him free of charge. Believing that 
yctir own good sense will, under the advice of the gentlemen, 
with whom you will confer, enable you. to make a proper selection, 
they entrust you with the utmost confidence, in the management 
thereof. For your services you will receive a reasonable com- 
pensation. You will apprise the Board by the earliest opportunity 
of your progress in this business, and in the event of concluding 
an arrangement, forward duplicate letters of advice by mail, and 
private conveyance if practicable. One directed to the President 
of the Board, at Shawney Town, One to Capt[ain] Alexander, 955 
Golconda Pope County, and one to the other commissioners at Ed- 

Ordered that a letter be addressed to the Board of Canal 
Commissioners of the State of New York, requesting their as- 
i>iitu.iiCc in the selection of an engineer. 

Ordered that William H. Hopkins be appointed secretary to 
the Board ; his compensation to be hereafter fixed by the Board. 
Ordered that the President address a letter to the secretary at 
War," requesting his aid in furnishing, certain materials for 
the use of the Commissioners, and other friendly aids, from the 
commanding officer at the Post at Chicago. 

Ordered that on the receipt of information from Mr Lockwood 
that, an engineer is employed that Erastus Brown, E. J. West and 
T. W. Smith be authorized to contract for the necessary supplies 
for the expedition, and to engage a surveyor, and the necessary 
hands to accompany the commissiiners, in the performance of 
their duties. 

Ordered, that the President be requested to communicate with 
the Governors of Indiana, and Ohio, on the subject of the Maumee 
communication with the Lake Michigan and Waubash River. 100 
The Board adjourned until tomorrow morning. 

98 Samuel Alexander, the fifth commissioner. 

"John C. Calhoun was then filling that office. 

100 An important project often mentioned in the governor's corre- 
spondence of this period. Cf. Greene & Alvord, Governors' Letter Books 
1 8 18-1834, pp. 85, S6, 94. 


June ii, 1823. The Board met pursuant to adjournment. 
Present, Thomas Sloo Jr Pres[iden]t ] 

E. J. West. Erastus Brown \ Members. 
T. W. Smith J 

Ordered, that Messrs Smith. West, and Brown be authorized 
to draw on the Auditor of the State for the sum of One thousand 
dollars, for the purpose of purchasing supplies, &c &c — The Board 
adjo[urne]d. — 

October nth 1823. 

At a meeting of the Board, called in pursuance of a Notice of 
the President. Present E. J. West, Erastus Brown and T. W. 
Smith, a letter from Col [oriel] Justus Post, in answer to one 
addressed to him by the Commissioners, in which he expresses 
his willingness to accept the offer of the situation of engineer 
to the Board, was read, and the propositions of Col[onel] Post 
accepted (see his proposition.) 

Ordered that the residue of the funds in the hands of the 
Stale Treasurer be dra^Si for. 101 A letter from the Hon[orab]^ 
DeWitt Clinton, of the 28th July 1823, was received and read. 
The Board Adjo[urne]d. 

At a meeting of the Board of Canal Commissioners held on the 
10th September] 1824 102 

Thos Sloo Ju[nio]r 
Erastus Brown 
Emanl J West 
T. W. Smith 

:01 In accordance with this resolution we find the following (Box 36, 
No. 15) : "Edwardsville nth October 1823 E. C. Berry Esq Auditor of 
the State of Illinois, Sir Please to issue a war -ant on the Treasurer of 
the State of Illinois, for the [sum] of One thousand Dollars payable to 
Theophilus W. Smith, or bearer, pursuant to the provisions of an Act of 
the Legislature of this State, entitled an act to provide for the improve- 
ment of the internal navigation of this State, approved feby 14th 1823. 
Eman[ue]l J. West, Erastus Brown, T. W. Smith, Canal Commissioners." 

102 This meeting occurred as a result of the following communication 
(Box<28, No. 29): "Edwardsville 10th August 1824 Dear Sir, Now that 
the storm is o'er, I have to urge upon you the necessity of taking a Jaunt 
to Edwardsville, for the purpose of arranging our business for a trip north, 
we have but little time to go upon, and expedition will be necessary. 
You have no doubt heard of my defeat and the defeat of the main ques- 
tion ; we are beaten easy. I hope you will not fail to be here, we have 
extensive political arrangements to make." 

. 39 

After discussing various subjects connected with the expidi- 
tion, and adopting certain preparatory -.measures, the Board ad- 
journed until Monday next. 103 




(Box 3, No. 7) 

(Alton, 111.. Feb[rua] r >- 17th 1824) 

A few days past we were fav[ore]d with a communication 
from the See?e[tar y ] to the board of Canal Commissioners, ac- 
quainting us that it was your wish to be informed, if we had 
returned from our expidition to the Lake, and what has been 
the result of our examination. 

Agreeable to your request, we beg leave to give you the 
outlines of what we have iilecied, and as a detailed account 
would be more than our letter could be made to contain, we flatter 
ourselves that this will be satisfactory to you, assuring you as we 
do that we are ready at any time to give you a detailed history 
on any particular point or points relative to the duty we have 

The Commissioners and Engineer left Alton on the 17th of 
Oct r last, and proceeded in^as direct a route, to the foot of the 
falls of the Illinois River as the situation of the country would 
admit, and the public good required ; from thence we meander d 
to the Illinois on the S. E. bank, to the junction of the La Pliene 
and Kankakee (where the Illinois first takes its name), from 
thence we followed the La Pliene to the ford near the old estab- 
lished portage about 14 miles from Chicago and 40 from the 

!0 "In 1825 Judge MeRoberts appointed West as clerk of the circuit 
court of Madison County, in place of Joseph Conway and by this act 
caused the legislature to pass the judge-breaking law of 1827. Cf. Dav. 
and Strive, 343 and Box 11, No. 4, which is to be printed in the next 
issue of the Quarterly. West espoused the defeated side and in con- 
nection with Judge Theophilus W. Smith had edited the Illinois Repub- 
lican, an ephemeral sheet devoted to the pro-slavery interest. Cf. F. W. 
Scott, 'Newspapers end Periodicals of Illinois. 1814-1879, p. 166. Sloo seems 
to have had intimate friends upon the pro-slavery side, even if he per- 
sonally opposed the Convention. 


junction of the La Pliene and Kankakee, and from thence along 
the Chicago river to the village situate immediately on the bank 
of Lake Michigan, and after exploring along the banks of the 
Lake and the river Chicago we made preparations [and did] 
descend by the La Pliene Illinois and Mississippi rivers to Alton, 
after an absence in all of 49 days. On our way up we were 
particularly carefull in examining the banks of the rivers and 
the surface between the water and bluff, and on our return by 
water we obtained a perfect knowledge of the river, its banks 
and bottom. From our observations dureing the journey, we 
are led to the conclusion, that an excavation to unite the two 
waters by a navigable canal is completely practicable. Nature 
has been as prolific in her gifts to Illinois in this particular 
as to any other section of country, for She has left no obstruction 
to the construction of canals from Lake Michigan to the foot 
of the falls of the Illinois River; to which point we (at present) 
are of opinion the Canal must extend, for . from the ford on 
the La Pliene, to the foot of the falls there is a succession of 
Rappids with intermediate deep places of from 1 to 8 miles in 
lenth, which if used for navigation would reduce the extent of 
excavation to about 35 miles, and if, the line of canal be run 
the whole distance without using the bed of the river the 
probable extent would then be 80 miles. 

The Summit-level between Lake Michigan and the La Pliene 
River does not exceed 7 feet, the la pliene would make a good 
feeder, yet the presumption is the Lake will be used for that 
purpose. From the foot of the falls of the IU[inoi]s River to 
its mouth there is every appearance of its affording at all times, 
a good Navigation. 104 

We will in a few days have the pleasure of making an addi- 

1Ci The report submitted by these commissioners was upon request of 
the legislature transmitted by Governor Coles to President Monroe and 
to the Illinois delegation in Congress. Of this latter Daniel P. Cook vui 
especially active in behalf of the desired internal improvement. He how- 
ever succeeded in changing the plan to construct it by a private corporation 
in favor of public construction, and in March, 1827, Congress granted 
the project some 224,000 acres of public land. A new survey was then 
ordered by Governor Edwards on the ground that the first was done 
by men without sufficient '"practical experience." Cf. Greene and Alvord, 
loc. tit., p. XXVI and 74. 


tional Communication to you relative to the business of the 
board, meanwhile we are with high respect, 

Sir, Your obt. servants 
Erastus Brown) 
Eman 1 J. West} 
Thomas SIoo, Jun r Esq r , Commissioners 


Hamilton Co., Illinois. 


(Box 9, No. 33.) 

_. „. March 20th 1825 

Dear Sir 

I have lately seen a small notice in a Newspaper of your 
explorings between Lake Michigan and Illinois River for a canal. 
Il is so much more favorable than what you had taught me to 
expect in your communication to me two years ago, that 1 have 
my curiosity very much excited' to see your late Report. 
Gov[erno]r Brown late Senator from Ohio 105 writes me that 
he had seen one of your Reports at Washington but could not 
procure one to send me. I hope Sir, it may meet your feelings 
and convenience to send me one, the favor would be very grate- 
fully remembered. 

How far Sir, can Steam Boats ascend the Illinois River? 
If a canal could be made to pass Steam Boats from Lake Michi- 
gan to the head of Steam Boat navigation on the Illinois River, 
so that we could send a steamboat from the west end of our 
Erie canal to St. Louis, I think many of our New York capital- 
ists would be anxious to vest their funds in your canal. 

Sending the water of Lake- Michigan through the Mississippi 
to the ocean is surely taking hold of one of the great features 
of our country. 

Accept Sir, the assurances of my best wishes for your per- 
sonal welfare and the success of your project. 
Please Sir direct to me Jas Geddes 

Geddes Post Office 
Onondago County 
N. Y. 

105 Ethan Allen Brown is mentioned in Lanman, p. 55. He was gov- 
ernor of Ohio from 1818 to 1822, U. S. senator from 1822 to 1825. 



(Box 3, No. 13.) 

New York 3 April 1827 
My Dear Sir 

Yours of 3d March 1826 I received in course and was in 
hopes that ere this you would have commenced with the re- 
demption of your lands, every now and then the concern at 
Balt[imor]e ask information on the subject, you alone can 
enable me to give them the satisfactory information they want, 
and as this debt arose from our personal intimacy I hope you 
will exert yourself and make a beginning if you cannot accom- 
plish it all at once. 106 

Here matters going on pretty much as usual, we get our 
share of business both sides the Atlantis aud have no reason 
to complain 

I was told you had offered yourself as a candidate for repre- 
sentative in Congress from your State but not seeing your name 
last winter and not hearing from you I must have been misin- 
formed. 107 I should like to hear from you and your prospects 
as to public life perhaps you look to Governor I dont know 
but I have heard some hints of that. Let your wishes or en- 
deavours be what they may, taking it for granted they will be 
exerted in an honorable upright manner and that your country's 
good as well as your own will be promoted thereby, you have 
my hearty wishes for your success, here private life is all I 
aim at, as to politics they give me no trouble, the Inns be they 
of what party they may, are pretty much alike. 

Who knows but that in a few years you will be coming from 
the West in Steam Carriages on Railways at 10-14 miles per 
Hour, you no doubt hear what is going on in Baltimore the 

106 This reference and one in a letter of Archibald Irwin of Dec. 5, 
1826 (Box 12, No. 5) would seem to indicate that Sloo's finances had not 
yet been placed in a satisfactory condition. This fact coupled with his 
defeat for governor may have determined him to seek a wider sphere of 
activity in New Orleans, whither he shortly removed. 

107 Possib!y this is a reference to Sloo's senatorial aspirations in 1824, 
or is a mistaken report of his gubernatorial race. 


projected Railroad from thence to the Ohio. 10S I am told our 
George 109 set the matter in motion by collecting the informa- 
tion and when he had enough to satisfy himself called a meet- 
ing of about a Dozen of the largest property-holders at his house 
who on investigating the matter and being satisfied are about 
carrying the tiling into effect. This will bring Cincinnati (as to 
time) within 60-70 miles and all other parts of the West near 
in proportion. Pennsylvanians are so jealous of the undertaking 
(see- that it takes the Western trade to Baltimore in place of 
Phil[adelphi] a ) that they have refused to grant them permis- 
sion to run any part of their road thro' their state unless they 
will make one end of it at Pittsburg this they will not do — 
Wheeling was contemplated but if they cannot touch Pennsyl- 
vania on the route [it is?] probable about Marietta will be the 
point. Pennsylvania that has so much talked of internal im- 
provement to object to running such a road tJiro' their territory 
shows their SELFISHNESS. Fortunately they can do without 
them and such unlocked for opposition only rouses the energies 
and exertions of the projectors and will cause difficulties to be 
overcome that might under other circumstances have been 
tho[ugh] 1 overwhelming. 

I had no idea of writing such an epistle but when I get on 
Rail Road I hardly know where to stop. As however my paper 
is nearly filled and its bed time I must conclude and subscribe 
myself Your friend 

iosp or the Baltimore and Ohio railroad project cf. McMaster V, p. 144. 

10 '"'George Brown was an active promoter in the project and was 
afterward Treasurer of the B. & O. R. R. Cf. Hulbert Historic Highways 
XIII, pp. 95, 98. 


Quarterly Publication of the His 

torical and Philosophical 

Society of Ohio 

Vol. VI, 1911, No. 3 


Selections from the Torrence Papers, VII, 

Arranged and Edited by 


Assistant Professor of History, University of Cincinnati 



















- V. 


















































































1 8, 






Jonathan S. Findlay to James Findlay. 
Ninian Edwards to James Findlay. 
Joseph Phillips to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
Thomas Sloo, Jr., to Joseph Phillips. 
Anonymous to Jesse B. Thomas. 
Gorham A. Worth to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
Thomas Sloo, Jr., to George P. Torrence. 
Edward Coles to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
Thomas Sloo, Jr., to Edward Coles. 
T^vael T. Canhy to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 
Gorham A. Worth to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

Id. to Id. 

Id. to Id. 

Id. to Id. 

Henry L. Wekb to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

Gorham A. Worth to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

John McClfan to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

Id. to Id. 

George W. Graham to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

James Hall to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

Edward Coles to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

Samuel McRoeerts to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

James Hall to Thomas Sloo, Jr. 

Elijah C Berry to Thomas Sloo, Jr.\ 

Thomas Sloo, Jr., to Elijah C. Berry.) 

James Campbell to James Findlay. 

Selections from the Torrence Papers, VII 

Early Illinois Politics, as Illustrated by the 
Sloo Letters. 


The following letters of Thomas Sloo, Jr. supplement those 
published in the preceding Quarterly. While the latter was 
devoted to certain commercial undertakings in which Mr. Sloo 
took an active part, these describe political conditions in Illinois 
during the first decade of its state history, wherein he also achieved 

In the two numbers are included nearly every letter relating 
to Mr. Sloo that the Torrence Collection contains. While there 
are a few still unpublished that refer to intimate family and 
personal matters, and while doubtless a more minute examination 
of the Tonvncc Papers may yield some other casual reference 
to him or his family, yet we may reasonably infer that this 
hitherto used source of information regarding one who has been 
called a '"forgotten statesman of Illinois" is practically exhausted. 
The work has been worth while for it has rescued from almost 
total oblivion an interesting minor character in early western 

Thomas Sloo, Jr. reached Illinois in 1S20, when he was thirty 
years old. He came into the state hampered by an unfortunate 
commercial experience in Cincinnati, but at the same time he 
enjoy< d the prestige derived from friendship with the leading 
men of Ohio and the favor of William H. Crawford, Secretary 
of the Treasury and an aspirant for the presidency. This natu- 
rally brought him into friendship with Edward Coles and Jesse 
B. Thomas, leading Crawfordites, and at this same time into 
enmity with Xinian Edwards and his party, who favored Cal- 
houn. The political situation was still further complicated by 
the fact that Thomas and Coles were arrayed on opposite sides 
in regard to the issue of slavery in Illinois. Sloo's position 
towards the calling of a state convention to decide this question 
Htms to be an uncertain one. It has been supposed that he 
favored the calling of the convention, but the letters given in this 

47 s /i 

number a!! represent him as opposed to the introduction of slavery 
into Illinois, and he never, even in his later life in Louisiana, 
owned slaves himself. Possibly Thomas's failure to support 
Sloo for the governorship in 1826 may be due to the latter's 
attitude in 1S24. About all that one can safely say regarding 
politics in Illinois during this period is that political combina- 
tions seem to be formed upon a purely personal or commercial 
basis. Yet one perceives in the letters of John McLean and 
James Hall, herewith given, that in the years between 1824 and 
1828 the political nuclei were beginning to form, from which 
the later Jackson and Anti-Jackson parties developed. 

Sloo passed rapidly through the course of minor office hold- 
ing" as indicated by his friend Worth (see page 63) and in 1S26 
presented himself as candidate for governor against Ninian 
Edwards. Were it not for Sloo's political and social connections 
outride the state, as well as his busmess and political standing 
within its limits, such an act would seem unduly presumptuous. 
As it was, although Edwards was one of the most widely known 
men in the \\ est. Sloo was beaten only by a narrow plurality, 
and that too with a third candidate in the field. When on com- 
ing into office. Edwards ineffectually attempted a series of graft 
investigations, in order to make political capital for himself, 
many who had not supported Sloo, regretted the fact. 

After his defeat Sloo manfully refused to hamper his suc- 
cessful rival by contesting the election or continuing to exercise 
contro 1 over the department of the militia organization to which 
Governor Cobs had appointed him. Letters of this period show- 
that the financial obligations incurred during his residence in 
Cincinnati were still resting heavily upon him. Accordingly he 
removed to New Orleans, where a wider field of mercantile 
activity awaited him. This change must not be regarded as 
the desertion of political combat in the hour of defeat, for his 
prospects of future political success were good and the career of 
more than one of his intimates seems to promise a like measure 
of political honor for himself. Phillips had gone to Tennessee 
and Thomas to Ohio, after political defeat, and even his rival. 
Edwards, once planned to migrate to Texas, so that he does not 
suffer in comparison with his contemporaries. His career demon- 
strated that Illinois was at that time pre-eminently the field for 
young and ambitious politicians, and among these he occupies a 
noteworthy and honorable position, which it is a pleasure to 
assist in re-establishing. I. J. C. 



(Box 8, No. 24.) 

Kaskaskia, May 26, [1818] 
Brother James, 

Our passage clown the Ohio was rather tedious and irksome 
in consequence of head winds. We landed at Shawne town -on 
Monday the 25[ult.?] We shipped our goods round for St Louis 
on Wednesday, and on Thursday set out home, where we arrived 
last night. We lie by to day to rest ourselves and horses. The 
by horse is lame, and is no great things. The little one is good. 

I could not sell my boat, but left her with old friend Sloo, 2 
who was very decent. 

Chambers slaid behind us aL Shawnee, and I have not since 
seen him. I do not much regret it, as he is not of all men the 
most pleasant travelling companion. Coles 4 left us the day he 
landed. He worships but one idol, and that is himself. He is a 
2 & 7 /2 penny animal. 

The country from Shawnee here is most miserably watered, 
or rather not watered at all, and a great deal of the land poor. 
There is some good soil. 

The family all stand the journey very well, and we have got 
along very safely. 

My writing tools are very bad, adieu 

x For references to Jonathan Findlay see Quarterly I, 66, 83; IV, 
107, 128, 136. He was then on his way to settle in Missouri. 

2 This is Thomas Sloo. Sr., who was acting as receiver in the land 
office at Shawneetov.n. Cf. Flower, George, History of English Settle- 
ments of Edzvards County, Illinois, pp. 50, 51, and Official Register for 
1822, p. 49. 

3 PossibIy Benjamin Chambers, of Dearborn County, Illinois. Cf. 
Reynolds, Pioneer History of Illinois, p. 401. 

4 Edward Coles, afterwards elected governor of Illinois in 1822. He 
spent the summer of jSiS in the state and removed thither in, the follow- 
ing year. He had served as Madison's private secretary. Upon his 
arrival in the state he freed his slaves and became the most active cham- 
pion of the anti-slavery party. In national politics lie supported Crawford. 
Cf. Dav. & Stuve, History of Illinois, p. 322. 



(Box 5. No. 61.) 

Washington City 
Feb[ruar]y 13, 1821 
Dear Sir, 

I take the liberty to inclose you a copy of one of my speeches 
upon a subject interesting to all the States and Territories in 
which public lands lie. 

I have not thought prudent at the pression session to jeopardize 
the bill by asking for all the relief that I think justice requires, 
but you will see from the speech itself that 1 consider further 
relief both expedient and just. To obtain it however, Ohio must 
take the lead and therefore I should be gratified if my speech 
should be republished in your state. 

If the bill should finally pass it must greatly enhance the 
value of the land offices, for as payments by certificates of re- 
linquishment will require the same labor as payments in cash 
the same per cent ought to be. and I have no doubt will be 
allowed as was done in a case precisely similar in Illinois. More 
payments will be made in this way than could be expected in 
cash even in prosperous times. 7 

r, Xinian Edwards was at that time one of the two senators from 
Illinois, having been elected to that place when the state was admitted 
in 1818. He had previously served as governor of the territory. For an 
account of his career consult Washburne, E. 6., The Edivqrds Papers, and 
Edwards, Ninian \Y., History of Illinois. 

••The bill to which he referred was one to permit purchases of public 
lands prior to July 1, 1S20, to relinquish a part of their holding, and to 
have the money already paid upon die whole applied to the payment of 
the part still retained. Edwards' speech may be found in the Annals 16 
Cong., 2d Sess., pp. 161-178. A speech by Jesse B. Thomas, the other 
senator from Illinois, precedes that of Edwards. 

"Findlav was then the receiver in the Cincinnati Land Office. 



[Box iS, No. 68.] 

Covington [111] Deer 31st 1821 
Dear Sir 

Since my name was announced to the people as a candidate 
for the Government 10 various rumours and reports have reached 
this section of country, some saying- you are all against me, others 
that you are divided. Whether I am at liberty or not to set you 
down on the list of my friends, you will I hope with that candour 
which is due to one who knows not how to dissemble in calling 
himself your friend state to me the true feeling that exists with 
your people relative to this matter. 

Judging from the number of candidates talked of in this 
r'lirtp'-. 11 T should have much to fear, but relying upon public 
sentiment I feel every confidence of success : and am disposed to 
ascribe the multiplicity of names used to a mere political 
manouver. [sic] however one of the gentlemen talked of has 
taken the field and offered his name to the public, which you have 
no doubt long since seen. 

Like every man when placed before the public for prefer- 
ment I have my political enemies some of whom have appeard 
in the public prints against me. These will no doubt endeavour 
to impress upon the minds of the people at a distance that I 
cannot run in my own section of country, against the attacks of 
such men I must be permited to caution my friends. 

Be assured Sir if I cannot find support in my own section of 

8 After a service in Illinois during the War of 1812 as captain in the 
regular army, Joseph Phillips filled the office of Secretary of the territory 
and of Chief Justice of the state supreme court. Cf. Davidson and Stuve, 
History of Illinois, p. 300, and E. B. Washburne, The Edzcards Papers, 
p. 126 note. 

9 Phillips spvlls the name as it is pronounced — "Slow." 

10 He was at that time candidate for governor of Illinois, upon a pro- 
slavery ticket. 

"The contest finally narrowed down to four names. Phillips chief 
competitors were Edward Coles, who was successful by a plurality of fifty 
votes, and Thomas C. Brown, who likewise represented the pro-slavery 
element. James B. Moore "also ran." Cf. Da v. & Stuve. p. 309. 


country I will never be guilty of the indelicacy of asking patron- 
age abroad. 12 

Some men have already ventured to assail me on principals 
aliogctliei foreign to the duties of the office to which I aspire. 

Having ever felt a strong repugnance against succeeding in 
any thing, upon mere questions or hobbies, I feel no disposition 
to give any other answer to these men than the bare declaration 
of my profound abhorrence to any innovation upon our form of 
government incompatible with the wishes of the people. 

Believe me when I say, I am incapable of exercising the 
powers of any office with which the people may honor me beyond 
its legitimate sphere. 

Please let me hear from you. Health and felicity to yourself 
and family. 
Thomas Slow Esquire 

Hamilton County Illinois 


(Box 21, No. 41.) 

[April 9 th , 1822] 
Dear Sir 

I had not the pleasure of receiving your polite and friendly 
letter of the 31st December last, until the 9th of March ulto, 
and should have replied to it at an earlier period, had I not 
understood that you were then on an election tour through the 
eastern part of the state, and thought it highly probable that I 
should have the pleasure of seeing you it my house. I have 
since been informed, that you had left Shawanoetown on your 
return to the west, sometime since, consequently, have concluded 
that you do not intend to take Hamilton 13 in your route. 

12 The vote in Washington County in 1822 was 43 for Coles, 3 for 
Brown, and 200 for Phillips. This information is derived from lists 
furnished by Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Secretary of the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

13 Hamilton County, Illinois, of which McLeansboro was the county 
.seat, was organized by the state legislature, February 15, 1821. Mr. Sloo 
was the first county surveyor and in this capacity platted the county 
seat, where he resided, combining the occupations of merchant and farmer. 
Cf. article by Dr. J. F. Snyder in Transactions of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society for the year 1903, p. 203. 


In relation to the feelings of our citizens, on the subject of the 
Gubanatorial election. I can form but a very incorrect idea, as 
but little has yet been excited. My own opinion is that if Judge 
Brown 14 had not come out, you would have got a majority in 
the county, but at this tinie, I think there is no doubt but what 
the majority will be in his favor. However great changes may 
take place between' this and the first Monday in August. 15 


[Box 26, No. 29] 

[Vandalia, Julv 29, 1S22] 

Within you will see a bond executed by yourself some few 
years since, and this is to inform you that if you do attempt to 
influence a vote against Mr Cook 17 during your stay in Vandalia, 
you may expect to see it in handbill for the purpose of bringing 

"Thomas C. Brown [or Browne] was elected an associate justice of 
the state supreme court in 1818 and remained there about thirty years. 
He resided in Shawneetown. Cf. Daw & Stuve, p. 300. 

15 In the election Coles received 2S10 votes, Phillips, 2760, Brown, 
2543, and Moore, 522. The division in the ranks of the pro-slavery party- 
gave Coles the victory. This event has been called the turning point 
in the history of the state. The later close relations between Sloo and 
Coles in state and national politics would seem to indicate that the former 
supported the latter despite his non-committal letter to Phillips. Phillips 
returned to Tennessee shortly after his defeat. Cf. Dav. & Stuve, p. 309 ; 
Snyder, loc. cit.: Edzvards Papers, p. 126, n. 

16 Jesse B. Thomas, the author of the first Missouri Compromise, was 
then senator from Illinois and one of the state pro-slavery leaders. For 
a sketch of his career, particularly with reference to the incident which 
gave occasion to the subjoined bond, cf. Ford. Thomas, History of Illinois, 
p. 30; Edz^ards Papers, passim; Reynolds, John, The Pioneer History of 
Illinois, p. 401. 

17 Daniel P. Cook, one of the most brilliant and serviceable of early 
Illinois statesmen, was the representative in Congress from 1819 to 1827. 
He was then running for the second time against John McLean of Shaw- 
neetown. one of the pro-slavery party. In 1820, Cook voted against the 
admission of Missouri into the Union with slavery and for this was 
roundly abused, but was triumphantly elected over his opponent for that 
year,. Shadrach Bond. McLean. Cook's predecessor in Congress, had voted 


to the recollection of your old acquaintances your former con- 
duct, and puting those unacquainted with you on their guard. 

The sooner you leave here the better for your future pros- 

29th July 1822. 

In consideration of the members from the Illinois country voting 
for me in the joint meeting of both houses of the Legislature, to 
represent the Indiana T[erritor]y as a delegate to congress I do 
hereby pledge my honor to use my indevors [sic] both in and 
out of the house of representatives of the U[nited] S[tates] to 
obtain a division of the Indiana Territory so as to form a new 
Territory to the west of the Wabash and also to use my indevors 
to further in all respects the interests and wishes of the inhabi- 
tance of the Illinois country conformably to the instructions that 
may be given me by the members from those counties 1 * 5 

Witness my hand this 22nd day of Oct 1S0S. 

Jesse B. Thomas 

for the admission of Missouri, during the preliminary stages of the con- 
troversy, and he may have thought that this vote, together with his able 
service as speaker of the house in the second General Assembly, would 
enable him to triumph over his rival, but he was defeated by a vote of 
4764 to 381 1. McLean was subsequently twice elected to the United States 
senate, but like Cook died early in the midst of a prosperous career. 
Cf. Edwards, X. W., History of Illinois, Ch. XIII, for a sketch of Cook, 
and Transactions of the Illinois State Hist. Soc. 1903, p. 190-201, for a 
sketch of McLean. Also the Edwards Papers, passi>u. Cook was the 
son-in-law of Xinian Edwards. Of him Worth later wrote Sloo (Box 
29, Xo. 60) : "Your representative Mr. Cook has made quite a figure in 
Congress, and sustained himself well." Under date of Oct. 5, 1S22, Cal- 
houn wrote Edwards (Edwards, Hist, of III, p. 493") : "Cook's election has 
afforded much gratification. He not only has talents, but is bold and 

l!5 The Legislative Council of Indiana Territory had passed a resolu- 
tion against the division of the territory, but Thomas, following his bond 
rather than the Council's behest, secured the law for the division of the 
territory in Eebruary, 1809, and shortly took up his residence therein. 
This action was in favor of slavery. Cf. Indiana Historical Society Pub- 
lications, IV, p. 221, and Dunn, ]. P., Indiana, pp. 376-379- 



(Box 29, No. 59) 

New York 15th Octfober] 1822 
My dear Sir, 

It gives me much pleasure to learn that you have become 
an important spoke in the Legislative Wheel of your State. 20 
Your stump speech must have been a good one. I always thought 
you possessed more natural Eloquence than man}- publick speak- 
ers, yours is not of the loud, the empty or the declamatory species. 
But of that gentle persuasive and unsophisticated character, 
which is calculated to be felt, and consequently to be followed. 
If soundness of head, integrity of principle, kindness of heart 
and gentleness of temper, are considered of any value, or held 
in any estimation in Illinois you will become a favorite of the 
people.-' 1 . 1 pray God you may be enabled to settle in a satis- 
factory manner all your old business, and stand from all pecuniary 
evils, redeemed, regenerated and disenthralled.- 2 ... . 

I perceive by the papers that Mr Coles is elected Governor 
of your State, this was unexpected to me at least. 23 What has 
become of Thomas and Edwards? 24 On the subject of Politicks 

l9 Gorham A. Worth, formerly cashier of the Cincinnati Branch of 
the Second United States Bank, was then engaged in the banking business 
in New York City. Cf. Greve, History of Cincinnati, pp. 496, 527, and the 
other letters of this series. 

-°In 1822 Sloo was elected to the State Senate, representing the 
courtie's of Hamilton and Jefferson. Cf. Snyder, loc. cit. 

' 1 Snyder, loc. cit., states that "He (Sloo) soon, by his genial disposi- 
tion and uprightness of character, became one of the most popular men 
in that part of the state." 

—The reference is to his previous unfortunate mercantile experience 
in Cincinnati. Both Worth and Sloo were overwhelmed by the panic 
conditions that prevailed in 1S19 and by the subsequent action taken by 
the Branch of the United States Bank located at Cincinnati. See the 
letters published in preceding number of the Quarterly. 

23 See Xotes 4 and 15. 

- 4 Jesse B. Thomas and Ninian Edwards were then senators from 
Illinois. Thomas was an active member of the pro-slavery party, but 
Edwards, probably because of the attitude of his son-in-law, Daniel P. 
Cook, who was then running for Congress, seems to have maintained 


I can say nothing, except that the contest for the Presidency it 
is thought here will be between Crawford and Clay. 2 "' The latter 
will doubtless be supported by the Western and South western 
States, and if Xew York gives him her support (which is not 
improbable) he will be the man. What say you to this? . . . 


[Box 21. Xo. 43.] 

Vandalia [Illinois] 
1 2th Jan[uar]y 1823 
Dear Judge 

I had the pleasure of receiving your letter of the 13th ultimo 
some time since, for which I feel greatly indebted to you, as it 
relieved me from a great deal of anxiety and apprehension, which 
I felt on account of Rebecca.- I have since, received a letter 
from herself, and I hope all are now out of danger. 

We have had a very tidious and unpleasant Session, there 
has been nothing but a continued scene of intrigue and elec- 
tioniering. On the 9th iust we had our election for Senator 
and Chief Justice.- 7 Our friend Jesse B. [Thomas] was re. elected 

a more neutral position. Edwards favored Calhoun for the presidency 
and Thomas. Crawford. Coles as well as Sloo belonged to the Crawford 
party also, and this would afford Edwards an additional reason for oppos- 
ing Coles, had not he feared the effect upon Cook's candidacy. Cf. Gil- 
lespie, Joseph, Recollections of Early Illinois and her Noted Men. p. 14. 

- r 'Clay had considerable popularity because of his active championship 
of he "American System." Crawford was supported by Van Buren and 
the Albany Regency. Cf. Turner, Rise of the New West, Ch. AT', pp. 251. 
255. A few months later, while writing to Sloo in regard to financial 
matters in which Glenn and Webb were concerned. Worth adds (Box 29. 
Xo. 60) : "Will Illinois go for Crawford or for Clay? Clay should be 
3-our man. He is thought here to stand the best chance. This State [New 
York] is. as usual, divided. Crawford. Clay and Adams all have their 
friends, and tis doubtful which will receive the support of the Ma- 
joiity. . . ."' 

2,: Mrs. Rebecca Smith Findlay Sloo. his second wife. She was a sister 
of Mrs. George P. Torrence. See Handy, W. T., Chart of the Torrence. 
Findlay, and allied families. 

27 Thomas Reynolds served as chief justice of the state supreme court 
until 182=;. Cf. Dav. & Stuve. p. 329. 


on the first ballot, notwithstanding every exertion was made to 
defeat him. His triumph is the greater, as he had, a great por- 
tion of the big folks against him : but no matter we beat them, 
and I hope we shall always beat them.- 8 

The most important bill that we now have before the legis- 
lature is a bill making an appropriation for internal improve- 
ments, and which contemplates the location of a canal, from 
Lake Michigan to the Illinois River. It has passed the House 
of Representatives, and has been twice read in the Senate. It 
is now in the hands of a select committee, and I think its fate 
somewhat doubtfull. 29 

We shall nut issue any more State paper, 30 the convention 
question is very doubtful], and there will not be more than I 
or 2 votes either way. 31 

Please remember me kindly and affectionately to sister Mary 
and all friends. 

- 8 J. C. Calhoun wrote to Ninian Edwards under date of June 12, 1822: 
"What is Thomas' prospect ? Will you leave him out? Though he is a 
man of moderate talents, yet much dtpends upon his being - left 01;?;" 
and again under date of October 5, 1S22: "The re-election of Thomas 
would have a very bad effect. You must run but one, and if necessary 
you ought to come to an understanding." Cf. Edwards. Hist, of III., 
pp. 490, 493. For an account of the Illinois opposition to Thomas, see 
Edzvards Papers, pp. 203-4. 

2;, A board of live commissioners was appointed to consider the ways 
and means of constructing this canal under permission granted by the 
federal government. Sloo was one of these commissioners. Cf. Snyder, 
loc. cit., and Edwards, Hist, of III., 259. Governor Coles was strongly 
in .avor of the construction of this canal by the state and the commis- 
sion prepared a report upon this basis, which, however, was put aside 
temporarily in favor of the Illinois and Miclr'gan Canal Company, char- 
tered in 1825. Cf. Greene, E. E. and Alvord, C. W.. The Governors' 
Letter Books, 1818-1834, in Collections of the Illinois State Historical 
Library. Vol. IV, p. XXIV. 

30 For the disastrous experiment of Illinois with a State Bank, cf. 
Ford, Hist, of III., pp. 45-48. 

31 For an account of the method by which the requisite majority was 
secured in favor of submitting the question of a convention to a popular 
vote. Cf. Ford, p. 52:1. For a somewhat different interpretation of this 
incident see Flower, Hist, of the English Settlement in Edwards County, 
Illinois, p. 205 n. 



(Box 21. No. 44 a ) 

Eclwardsville June 30, 1823 
D[ea]r Sir 

In casting my eyes around to find a person well qualified for 
the situation, and at the same time who should be particularly 
pleasing to me personally, I have singled you out as the man 
I should prefer to appoint as an Aid-de-camp to the Commander- 
in-chief. I now offer you that appointment ; and must request 
the favor of you to let me know, as soon possible, whether it 
will be agreeable to you. or will suit your convenience, to accept 
it. It confers the rank, as you know, of Colonel, but at the same 
time imposes the expense, not only of an equipment, but that 
attendant upon accompanying the Commander-in-chief whenever 
iic ivw^wj inc Militia, which by the way I shall do next October. 
Whether you accept this situation or not, you will do me the 
justice, I trust, to believe that I derive a sincere pleasure in giving 
you this small testimony of that great respect and sincere regard 
which I have long cherished for you. 


(Box 21. No. 44 b .) 

Hamilton County 

21st July 1823 
Dear Sir, 

I had not the pleasure of receiving- your letter of the 30th 
ultimo, until yesterday. It would, at all times, be very gratifying 
and agreeable to my feelings, to be associated with you, in any 
way, in the performance of your Executive duties : But my 
present situation and engagements, will not with propriety admit 
of m> accepting the appointment, with which you have honored 

Believe me sir, it is with no small degree of regret, that I 
have to decline your polite and friendly offer, but I am one of 
those old fashioned fellows, who think it improper, for a man 


to accept of an appointment, without a reasonable probability of 
having- it in his power, to perform the duties of the station. 

My duties as Canal commissioner, will probably call me to 
the head v.-aters of the Illinois River, about the time of your 
first review. The winter of 1824-5. I shall have to spend at Van- 
daiia. 32 which will rerder it inconvenient, for me to be from home 
the preceding fall, when it is probable, you will review the Militia 
of another portion of the state. 

I had expected to have seen you, on my recent visit to Ed- 
wardsville, but had not that pleasure, in consequence of your 
departure for the south, a few days previously to my arrival. 

Could you make it convenient to visit Hamilton, it would 
afford me great pleasure, to see you at my house, and to have an 
opportunity of talking over the affairs of last winter. Highly 
appreciating - , and reciprocating, your expressions of respect and 
attachment, 23 I am. very sincerely your friend 

and Ser[van]t. 


[Box 4. No. 13] 

Madison [Ind.], Aug[ust] 3d 1823 
Dear Sir. 

Your favor of the 26th Feb. last was duly received and after 
considerable delay wrote an answer via Shawaneetown but as I 
have heard nothing from you since presume it miscarried. 

Your business here with Mr. McClure 3 " remains in statu quo 
He is a candidate for associate judge and very much engaged 
in electioneering. To-morrow is the eventful day and after the 

3 -Vandalia was then the capital of the State. Sloo was a member of 
the state senate. Cf. Snyder, foe. cit. 203. Worth writes (Box 29, No. 60) : 
"But I presume your Legislative duties have absorbed all your time and 

S3 This offer by Coles would seem to indicate that Sloo supported Coles 
in the last election, and the next letter that he was an opponent to the 
call for the convention in 1824 and to the introductioa of slavery into 
Illinois. For a contrary view cf. Snyder, loc. cit. 203. 

3 -For a reference to Canby cf. Quarterly II, pp. 16, 22. 

35 Probably William McClure. the leader of the settlement at New- 
Harmony. Cf. Smith, W. H., Hist, of Indiana, p. 853. 


struggle is over and the mind of the Judge becomes tranquil I 
intend to make a heavy charge upon him and will give you the 
result as soon as possible. 1 have no doubt whatever that if you 
would visit us that the business could be arranged much more 
to our satisfaction. 

You express your hostility to the introduction of slavery. On 
most subjects I believe I coincide with you in opinion but on this 
my opinions have undergone several revolutions and I now wish 
the slave party in your State a partial success. I would not 
myself advocate the principle of unconditional Slavery but as 
mitigated slavery I think would be beneficial to all new States 
and would be the most likely to eventuate in the final emanci- 
pation of the coloured race. Suppose you permit slaveholders 
to bring their slaves to Illinois and hold the present generation 
their descendants to be free at the ages of 28 and thirty one all 
born in the State to be registered and the master not permitted 
to remove them out of the State all free negroes rigidly for- 
bidden to emigrate to the State, etc. would it not be a present 
advantage in enabling you to procure labourers and would the 
future evil be any greater than if you permit the vagrant negro 
population to overrun your country and remain the only free 
people in it.[?] I am a warm advocate of a convention in Illi- 
nois but opposed to it in Indiana. If you introduce this kind 
of slavery you may expect to see me a citizen in 24 hours after 
I hear of the decision. . . . 
Thomas Sloo junr Esq r . 

Findlay Place near Mc Leansboro 
Hamilton Co. Illinois. 


(Eox 29; Xo. 61.) 

,. _ 01 New York 18 Aug [us]* 1823 

My Dear Sloo, . & L J ° 

. . . 3e But notwithstanding all this, I am in fact and in 

feeling unchanged. My memory is good, honest, and tenacious 

of its stores. Every benefit conferred, every act of kindness, of 

38 The preceding portion of the letter had been filled with personal 
financial details and inquiries about his lands in Illinois, particularly those 
in connection with the settlement of Webb and Alexander at America, 


friendship, or of partiality is registered in a firm and durable 
character, and I stand ready to endorse the list. Among the many 
recorded I always find yours and Mrs Sloo's standing in bold 
relief; around these names, the lines, obligatory, of favour, of 
kindness and of hospitality, appear to thicken at each review/ 7 
1 make the confession once for all, and believe me tis an honest 

In politics we are waxing warm. The Presidential race is 
crowded with Jockies, Grooms and Ostlers, riding, and running, 
and Gentlemen in livery. The friends of Mr Crawford affect to 
be very sure and talk in a very confident strain. But judging 
from present appearances, I should say that Adams takes the lead. 
Clay has many friends in the western part of the State. The 
contest is evidently between Crawford and Clay and Adams, 
and it would puzzle the Devil himself to tell which is the strongest. 
I am for Clay, because I think it is for the interest of New 
York, to support him. 

How comes on your Canal ? s * and how do you stand politically. 
I expect to see you Governor of Illinois yet. 39 If you were per- 
fectly free from all your old business concerns, 4 " you would 
naturaUy rise in any walk you might chose, either in Church 
or State. By the by let me hear what progress you have made 
in vour settlement. . . . 41 

111., near Cairo. In this portion he makes one suggestion of interest : 
"If your State paper will pay taxes, would it not be well to buy enough 
of it to pay three or four years ahead? I hear that it is at a Devil of a 

37 \Vorth characterized Sloo's last letter thus : ''It was a tine long- 
letter in your usual easy and pleasant style." 

38 In the preceding letter Worth mentioned die receipt of Canal docu- 
ments sent by Sloo. 

39 This expectation came very near being realized. See pp. 48 and 79. 

*°A reference to the conditions which caused Sloo's failure in Cin- 
cinnati, in iSiq. 

41 The letter also mentions four brothers of Sloo by name and states : 
'Tell your father that I always think of him with feelings of respect 
and esteem." Dr. Snyder (Joe. cit., pp. 202, 206) evidently is in error in 
stating that Sloo was left an orphan at an early age. Worth also sug- 
gests that Sloo should consider accepting the place of cashier of the bank 
at Vandalia. 


(Box 29, No. 63.) 

New York 14 April 1824 
Dear Sloo, 

I have just rec[eive]d a letter from Mr. Webb. 42 in which, 
among other pleasant things, he says he is likely to have some 
difficulty in getting either rent or possession of the Chain Farm. 
The chap thats on it will neither pay nor clear out, neither die 
nor resign, and of course must be removed ; for which purpose 
I have this day forwarded to Webb a power of att[orne]y. 

Bv Webb's own acc[oun]t he is doing much better than 
formerly. Promises to pay his debt to the Branch in Cincin- 
nati, etc. etc. but he is such a devil of a romancer, that I know 
not how much of his story to consider fact, nor what part of it 
to set down as fiction. 

If von should mike a pilgrimmage to America 43 next summer, 
I wish you would enquire into matters and tilings in general, 
and rntd Mr. Webb's affairs in particular and let me know how 
the land lies, and what I may reasonably hope from Webb and 
the Chain Farm. 

Webb says that the Doct[or] is going down hill fast, and that 
Hatch 44 of Cincinnati (according to the Doct[or's] ans[swe]r) 
intends to make me pay for the salt he sold the firm of Webb & 
Alexander some 5 years ago — am[oun]t 170 Doll[ar]s. 

That liability of mine the Doc [to] r assured me he would dis- 
charge and for which and other things I gave up the notes and 
claim I held against the Concern. 

Are these cursed old affairs never to be ended? I wish the 

4 -For Worth's connection with Henry L. Webb and Dr. William 
Alexander in their land projects near the present Cairo, 111., see Note 36 
and certain ones of the previous number of the Quarterly. In previous 
ktters ( Box 20, Xos. 60, 62) Worth expresses his distrust of Webb, 
from whom he had not heard for two years. 

"America was a boom town started by Webb and Alexander in 1S1S 
and abandoned on account of the floods in 1835. The first sale of its 
lots amounted to about $100,000 and at one time it boasted a population 
of 1200. Cf. Hist, of Alexander and Pulaski Counties. 

•''•The name does not appear in the Cincinnati Directory for 1819. 

devil had Hatch, the Doct[or], Webb and the salt! That he will 
get all but the last, I have no doubt. 

My next and last payment to the branch becomes due next 
November, and is, including Interest the debt of Webb, and a 
little debt of Mr. Di&tn, about $2,800. Where the Devil I am to 
obtain the money from I know not. Will no person be fool enough 
to purchase any of my Illinois lands, to help me out, in that pay- 
ment? I suppose not. 

If you can think of anything agreeable to write me, don't 
fail to let me have it. I will not trouble you with a list of my dif- 
ficulties, it is a long one. 

How do you come on? You must be a Crawfordite, if I 
should judge from the office 4 " yon lately held— pray will Illinois 
support that Radical Chieftain? He calculates upon New York, 
but he reckons without his host. Some of our political leaders 
would indeed elevate to the Presidency the Devil himself, pro- 
vided he would make them his prime ministers. 40 Remember, 
all £he intriguers in the union, and all the radicals and political 
Stock Jobbers are for Crawford. I am for Clay, Adams, or Jack- 
son in preference. I would vote for Crawford only on one condi- 
tion, and that is. that he should pay my debt to the Branch ! . . . 


[Box 29, No. 64.] 

My Dear Sloo, New York l 9 J une l82 4 

I have before me your aspiring letter of 12 May. It seems 
your ambition is not likely to be satisfied with trifles. Member 
of the Legislature, Canal Commissioner. Justice of the peace and 
Agent of the Treasury, etc, etc, are mere nothings, we must be 
Senator of the Umited States! one of the grand counterpoises 
to Executive Influence — the sanctioning or controlling power of 
Official patronage ! Very well — go on. ' 

Mr. Webb too (who the Devil won't rise next!) is on the 
road to greatness. Well, I hope it will increase his ability to 
his notes at the Branch. 

* r, For this office see page 72. 

4t; Possib!y a reference to Van Euren, who managed the Crawford 
forces in Xew York, and also, probably to certain members of the state 


The Doctor], 47 it seems has nearly run his race, I am sorry 
for him, but remember "Every dog- has his day." On the sub- 
ject of your own ambitious views, I doubt not of success. As 
p. Senator you would certainly appear to great advantage, you 
have a natural dignity of deportment, and a most senatorial 
gravity of aspect, in short, you were made for a Senator, for one 
of the sages of the present age. for a conscript Father ! Then, 
you have all the necessary requisities of wit. and worth, and 
words, action rnd utterance. You have (I am not in jest) the 
eloquence of truth and of nature — of form, of sentiment and of 
feeling — not the noisy eloquence of a demogogue — not the ora- 
torical flourish of a declaimer. But the more winning and im- 
pressive power of mildness of judgment and gentlemanly de- 

You will be a favourite at Washington with the honest portion 
of all parties. . . . This is my deliberate opinion. 

Or. the subject of the Presidential Election, the voice of the 
State has not yet been heard, it the Electoral Lav,"' should pass 
(and our Governor has called the Legislature together for that 
purpose) Crawford will not be the man. If the election should 
be by Districts, our weight would be divided. If by General 
ticket. Adams may be the choice. Clay has however a strong 
and I believe an increasing power. 

I do not think that Clay can be elected by the People, but I 
care not a d-m whether his election be by the House or by the 
Electoral College. I wish to see him safe in the House and then, 
I'll trust him to his fate. 4 '-' 

Now permit me to say one word about another personage, 
not so great a man, as those we have been speaking of, but one in 
whose concerns I take full as deep an interest. I mean myself. 

4: Dr. William Alexander. 

48 This law was to give the people instead of the legislature the power 
of choosing the presidential electors. As this would militate against Craw- 
ford, whom the Regency favored, that group of politicians succeeded in 
avoiding this result by using its control of the state senate to force an 
adjournment on the ground that the special session was unconstitutional. 
Cf. Rammelkamp, in the Report of the American Historical Association 
for 1904. p. 193. 

4u The failure of Clay's followers to secure for their favorite three 
votes that had been promised them left him out of the election by the 
House of Representatives. Cf. Ibid, p. 200. 


I am in hot zvater again, (don't laugh) for I may get dam- 
nably burnt. We have a contested Election in our Bank, the 
parties nearly equal in strength and more than politically hot. 
I of course belong to one side or the other, and my place perhaps 
depends upon my success. The 5 day of July decides it, and I may 
have more leisure to attend to your piospects and ambitious 

Remember me to Mrs. Sloo, and tell her, my recollection of her 
kindness and hospitality is still fresh, and will long remain so. 


(Box 29, No. 65.) 

Dear SIoo? New York Sept [ember] 20 1824 

t yesterday rec[eive]d your running epistle, commencing 22 
July and closing under date of 24 Aug 1 . 

Political honours, must I think, be cheap in Illinois, when the 
Lawgivers, and the representatives of the Majority of the people, 
are composed of such materials as Webb''" etc. etc. 

The rejection of a call for a Convention, 51 is however indica- 
tive of some good sense, or of great good fortune ; for the present 
period is not propitious to the tinkering of Constitutions. The 
introduction of Slavery into your State, though it might operate 
favourably to the immediate interests of a few, would be the 
certain index to its future degradation, or the positive bar to its 
future moral, physical, and political importance in the Union. 

As for Gov[ernor] Edwards, he is politically damn'd in the 
estimation of nineteen twentieths of the people of the U[nited] 
States. His charges,'"- however true, were from their nature in- 

C0 In 1S32 Webb was a candidate for Congress from the first Illinois 
district and received the smallest number of votes cast for any of the 
five candidates. Cf. Edwards Papers, p. 599. If we may judge from 
the following letter Sloo was net any more likely to be influenced by 
Worth against Webb, a possible supporter of his senatorial aspirations, 
than against Crawford, his choice for the presidency. 

•"•'-The vote was 4.972 for and 6,640 against. See Da v. & Stuve, p. 327. 

52 This is a reference to the controversy between Edwards and Wil- 
liam H. Crawford, usually known as the "A, B. Plot. - ' For a view dis- 
tinctly unfavorable to Edwards, cf. Benton, Thirty Years' Vuw, I, pp. 34-36. 


capable of that clear and absolute demonstration as to fact, and 
that irresistable inference as to motive, which could alone sanction 
their introduction against so high an officer of the Government, 
and on such a fallacious pretence. The result, was such as any 
sensible man would have anticipated. They advanced the in- 
terests, if not the reputation of his adversary, and covered him- 
self with obloquy and disgrace. As the conduct of the repre- 
sentative honours or dishonours his Constituents, the State I 
should suppose would "feel the stain like a wound" and punish its 
author with merited contempt. If therefore you have no more 
formidable rival for the Senate than Edwards, I predict your 
success. In truth I know of no weight of character, of talent or 
merit, which should induce you to withdraw, or to despair of 
your election. 

On the Presidential question, this State will also give a di- 
vided vote, unless the Crawford Leaders resort to purchase. 
From tlie acts and character of our present Legislature (which 
choose the Electors) there is I think some reason to apprehend, 
that some votes may be bought. In that event, Crawford may 
get the State, but not else. This is the opinion of the most in- 
telligent politicians of this section of the Union.""' 3 

In an unb ought state of things. Adams will get 24. and Clay 
12 votes. This, (to here believed) will bring Clay into the House, 
where the contest is to be decided. 

The Directoral Election here, on the 5th July, terminated as 
I wished. The insurgents were beaten and the influence of your 
friend strengthened rather than diminished. So much the better 
for the Bank. But this cloud had hardly passed over, before 
another and a more threatening one was seen rising in the south. 
I shall begin to think with old Shylock, "That there's no ill luck 
stirring but what lights on my shoulder" . . . 

The whole world here is taken up and occupied in attention 

For an opposite view, cf. Edwards, History of Illinois, pp. 1,35-154. and 
Edwards Papers, pp. 223-231. Cf. also Ford, Hist, of Illinois, for the 
opinion of a contemporary from his own state. 

53 Van Buren seems to have been hopeful of Crawford's success to 
the very end. Rammelkamp does not mention the possible use of money 
in connection with members of the legislature. The final vote was Adams 
26, Crawford 5. Clay 4. and Jackson 1. Cf. Reft Am. Hist. Ass'n, 1904, 
pp. 198-200. 


to Gen [era] 1 La Fayette.' 4 Dining, fetes, Balls, Shows; and pa- 
rades of every description, civil, military, private and corporate 
musical and masonic, mixt and miscellaneous, combining every 
class and almost every individual, rump and radical, ragtail and 
bobtail, from a two foot chimney sweep, up to the Lord Mayor 
of this Magnificent Metropolis — for further particulars enquire 
of the newspapers. 


[Box 28, No. 26.] 

D^ar Sir Shawneetown Sept [ember] 2i l 1824 

I received your letter of the 4th of this month a few days be- 
fore I left home and according to your request mentioned to the 
representatives of Union your being a candidate for the senate of 
the United States. 1 found they had been apprised of it pre- 
viously by some of your friends. I was surprised to find the 
Caladonia Tract 50 relinquished, and have had it divided, so that 
by entering One Hundred and Twenty-one acres all the valuable 
part of the tract can be secured, I wish to enter it with you, the 
amount will [be] 76 Dollars a piece for us. I think I can raise 
my part in 3 weeks, and if you like the arrangement and will 
join me I will remove to the place and put up a ware house and 
cut and sell Steam Boat wood, unless it is done soon we shall 
lose it. I wish you would write me immediately on the subject. 
1 feel anxious to effect it. Mr Berry 50 can make no collections. 
Wilson"' 7 is good and Berry dislikes to push him. he wishes you 
to write him how to proceed in the collection of the several debts. 
S. H. Allward is now at Louis Ville, Mr Berry paid me what I 
advanced for your Taxes Times are hard and money scarce ; 
our Town is perfectly healthy. Mrs Webb desired me to make 
her respects to you, I expected to have seen you at this place, 
present my best wishes to Mrs Sloo. 

54 For Lafayette's reception in New York, cf. Niles Register XXVII, 
pp. 23, 41, 58. 

5: 'Ca!edcnia was a small settlement near Cairo. Webb was associated 
with Sloo's brother Howell in some of his land speculations and timber 
cutting [cf. Box 29, Xo. 66]. 

° ,J Elijah C. Berry was the first auditor of the state of Illinois. 

57 See Note 116. 



(Box 29, No. 66.) 

M D-a Si ^ ew ^ or ^ 4^ Dec[embe]r 1824 

. . . The Presidential question will be settled before this 
reaches you. Unless Clay gets a part of the votes of Illinois 
and Indiana, and the whole of those of Lousiana 38 he will not go 
into the House, and the contest will be between Jackson and 
Adams, the latter of whom will get it. There has been quite a 
revolution in political sentiment in this State. Clinton is again 
Lord of the Ascendant™ He carried all before him, is stronger 
than ever, and if Jackson is President, Clinton will be the next. 
How comes on your Sentorial race? I pray God you may 
succeed. I think you will. You were made for a Senator — cut 
put prigiMUy for one of the Conscript Fathers of this deliberative 

As soon as I hear of your success, I shall drop my familiarity 
and commence my future epistles with — "Most potent, grave, 
and reverend Seignor.'" 60 . . . 


(Box 17, No. 3.) 

■Q ear g- Washington 16th Jan [liar] y 1825 

I have delayed writing a long time that I might have something 
to say which would be interesting or amusing. But I have waited 

68 C!ay received no votes from any of these states. 

59 Clinton Lad been elected governor by a majority of over 16000 alter 
what Thurlow Weed pronounced "one of the most stirring" political cam- 
paigns he had ever witnessed. Cf. Rammelkamp, loc. cit, p. 196. 

60 He had received four votes at the time Elias Kent Kane was chosen 
senator, Nov. 30, i8_>4. Cf. Snyder, loc. cit., 203. Worth's desire to see 
Sloo in New York '"on his way to Congress," and his statement that "it 
is not improbable that you and Worthmgton and I may meet as usual 
under the same table'' were not to be realized. Cf. Box 29, No. 65. 

•"John McLean was born in North Carolina, February 4, 1791. When 
fcur years old his parents moved to Kentucky, where the son, as the letter 
shows, evidently enjoyed few educational advantages. He was, however. 


in vain and it seems at present that if I [wait now till?] I shall 
have such intelligence to communicate, that the time will not 
arrive for beginning tin's winter. 

The question of the .President is beginning to be looked 
about a little, but it is a matter of entire doubt who is to succeed. 
Mr. Crawford's friends still maintain that his prospect is equal/ 2 
In this I have no hesitation in saying that they are wrong. At 
present, however, things are so unsettled that his chance may be 
the best before the question is tried. But be certain that every- 
thing on the subject is so doubtful that no man seems to have any- 
thing like a settled opinion as to the likely result. 

I have been and am immensely mortified at my treatment in 
Illinois] not because I have been beaten for the Senate: 03 but 
because I am induced to believe that I have been treated with in- 
sincerity by men of whom I believed better ; because I believe my 
friends have been imposed upon and led away from me by de- 
lusions fabricated for the express purpose ; because I have been 
attempted to be played upon by the chimera that I was reserved 
for the purpose of sealing and cap[p]ing the trinmp[h] of the 
party by beating Mr Cook for congress being the only man who 
could do it : tU because it has been given out that I was no candi- 

one 01 the most brilliant and eloquent men in public life in early Illinois, 
was an active rival of Daniel P. Cook, who like himself was reared in 
Kentucky, and also like Cook cut oft comparatively early in the midst 
of his career. He died at Shawneetown, Oct. 14, 1830, within less than 
a year after his unanimous election to the United States senate. Cf. the 
sketch by J. A. Burnham in Transactions of the Illinois State Historical 
Society for the year 1903. p. igoff. 

* ; -Crawford actually had no chance, but the result was in doubt until 
the election by the House finally gave Adams one majority. Cook's vote, 
which pave Illinois to the successful candidate, afterwards led to his defeat 
for Congress in 1S26. McLean was a strong Jackson man and did not 
approve the action of Cook. Ibid. 195. 

63 McLean had been elected by the legislature of Illinois, on the third 
ballot, to fill the unexpired term of Xinian Edwards, from December, 
1824, to March 4, 1S25. He was likewise a candidate for the full term 
of six years but, as indicated in the letter, was passed over for Elias 
Kent Kane. The letter to Sloo displays marked confidence in the latter, 
which is surprising in view of Sloo's own candidacy. Cf. the preceding- 
letters of Webb and Worth and the articles by Burnham and Snyder, 
loc. cit. 

64 Xone of the real leaders desired to make the canvass against Cook, 
despite his vote for Adams, so Joseph Duncan entered the race and un- 
expectedly beat him. Cf. Ford. p. 73. 


elate when the fact was otherwise ; this kind of soft corn may do 
to feed children, but it is too lite diet for men. It is said too I 
am advised by my quandum friends that I am at the head of the 
triumphant party in Illinois] 65 that I am a man of great talents 
and cleverness ; now this is a delightful desert ; But it will never 
do for dinner: I have long- ago learned that if the only reward of 
talents and cleverness is to be called such that a man might just 
as well be called rascal and fool. 

By this time you begin to think that I have deserted my 
colours and that I am about to go over to the enemy. Expel 
your apprehensions J have taken my stand and will never leave it. 
But I must be pardoned if I should set about expelling some men 
from the camp; YYe have amongst us some cunning men, some 
men that are too wise they must be put out ; and for the future I 
am determined to have no political connection with any man who 
has any secrets and who does not take a decided and open stand 
upon all important Questions and that I will support no sly 
cunning man for any office. If those who had acted with 
me and with whom 1 acted chose to elect any man of our friends 
to any office in preference to me : and heard said he lias more 
claims, he is better qualified, he is more deserving, etc. etc., 
I should never have thought hard and if either of those reasons 
or any other good one had been assigned I declare most solemnly 
I would have been better pleased with Mr. K[ane]'s 66 Elec- 
tion than with my own and if after it was arranged and deter- 
mined that I should not be elected ; could my name have been 
kept out of the contest I would have been rejoiced: it was my 
request I ought to have been gratified or had the election been 
put oft till the last of the session so as not to have operated upon 
me here I should have contented myself. I requested--* at 
much ; but even in that I could not be gratified. It seemed as if 
anything and every thing which would cloud my future prospects 
was assiduously studdied out and promptly executed ; perhaps 
it was without design. I hope so but appearances are strange. 
If I had known that the same legislature that elected me for one 

85 McLean was the chief organizer of the Jackson forces in Illinois for 

the victory of 1828 — an event which resulted in his own unanimous election 
to the senate. Cf. Burnham, loc. cit., p. 196. 

Grt For a sketch of Elias Kent Kane cf. Reynolds, Pioneer Hist, of 
Illinois, p. 410. 


session ; would have beaten me for six years in a week I would 
now have have been in 111 [inois] for I was aware of the little 
benefit any man would have to be here for one session only and 
it known he was beaten for the next. 


[Box 17. No. 13.] 

Dear gj r _ Washington 22nd Jan[uar]y 1S25 

Yours under date 31st ult is to hand and altho I am not fully 
satisfied with the result, I agree with you that it is pretty well. 
I am sorry that B[rowne?] 67 is elected and that Robinson 68 is 
beaten. I am exceedingly pleased that my name was not used 
as I could not have accepted the place. 

You mention that many have their eye upon me for a certain 
object; 00 you do not name what it is. Because I do not now and 
never did doubt you ; because I can in perfect confidence say to 
you whatever I may think. I take this occasion of answering to 
that remark that I never intend to trouble my friends in 111 [inois] 
for any thing because I am satisfied that I can never get it with- 
out descending to a course of conduct which I ever have and I 
trust ever will be above. 70 

I have no faith in the men who call themselves (the party) I 
mean collectively. Old Nic or the Devil could not be more hypo- 
critical or false, or selfish than some of them. 71 When I see you 
I will be more at large, for present believe me ever your friend — 

07 Evidently Thomas C. Browne (or Brown), of Shawneetown, who 
was elected one of the associate justices of the state supreme court. For 
McLean's opinion of Browne cf. Edzcards Papers, p. 359. 

6s John M. Robinson, of Carmi. In 1830 he succeeded McLean in 
the senate. Cf. Ednards Papers, p. 551. 

60 The reference may be to a state judgeship. McLean had bei n 
nominated as judge for the eastern circuit of Illinois Territory, in 18 rS, 
two years after being admitted to the bar, but had then refused the ap- 
pointment. Cf. Burnham, loc. cit., 192. 

70 For other references to this attitude on the part of McLean cf. 
Ednards Papers, 358-36-'. 483. 

vl Possibiy the Edwards Letters, pp. 347-350, 361, and the letters of 
James Hall. Infra, may serve to indicate some of the individuals McLean 
has in mind. 



[Box 9, No. 48.] 

Treasury Department 
Gen [era] 1 Land Office 

2 1 st Decern [be] r 1825 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your duplicate Reports on 
the result of your examination of the General Land offices in the 
States of Illinois and Missouri and Territory of Arkansas, 73 also 
your letter of 30 Xovem[ber] last, transmiting the account for 
your services and showing the amount received in payment from 
the several Receivers of public Moneys of the land offices ex- 
amined, which has been referred to the Secretary of the Treasury. 
I am, very respectf y Y r Obt Svt 

G. W. Graham 
Tho s Sloo Jun, Esq. 

Mc Leansboroug'h Ills. 


(Box II, No. 4.) 

T . P . Yandalia January 15th 1827 

Dear Sar, J " 

The Bill for an act abolishing the Circuit Courts 73 has at last 
passed the council, and is now a law, if that can be called a law, 

"Graham had earlier undertaken a special mission to Texas for the 
State Department and was employed in other confidential missions before 
filling this position. 

:3 This is evidently the office that had led Worth to infer that Sloo 
was a Crawfordite. Cf. p. 63. 

T4 For an exceedingly interesting sketch of Judge flail cf. the Ohio 
State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, XV III, pp. 468ft. The 
Edzvards Papers, passim, present a less favorable view. In December, 
1824, he had been elected by the legislature as one of the five circuit 
judges of the state. Cf. Dav. & Stuve, p. 329. 

T: -The course of Judge Samuel McRoberts in removing for political 
reasons the clerk of the Madison County circuit court, Joseph Conway, 
and in appointing in his stead his friend Emanuel J. West (see Note 99), 
and also pushing a judgment against Governor Coles for manumitting 


which is in direct violation of the constitution. I sent you a 
copy of our Memorial, 76 in which the constitutional question is 
presented at length. I wrote it in a great hurry after the Bill had 
got into the Senate, but I think it will do before the people. If I 
can get an opportunity T will send a number of them to your 
County, if not. I will carry them there, on my way home. In 
the meanwhile, all is uncertainty here, as to the final arrange- 
ment of the Courts. 77 Edwards still goes for two circuits, and 
with him go all his minions. Such a plan would carry if it were 
not for the uncertainty who would be the judges. Indeed we are 
not without ' some hopes, that they will even repeal the judge- 
breaking law, and put everything back to what the diplomatists 
call the Status ante helium, as they were before the war. Those 
who advocate the repeal of the Circuit System are alarmed at 
their own success, and the people who arrive here daily bring 
reports from all parts of the Country of the unpopularity of this 
measure. This feeling among the people should be encouraged. 
Tl;. 1 ) are now, in riany places, astonished and incensed, at the 
high handed measures of their representatives, and should not 
be suffered to cool. An expression of such feeling may perhaps 
induce the Legislature to retract. I wish therefore to have all 
the petitions which were got up in Hamilton sent on to Mr 
Casey, 7 * and I would be glad that our friends would write to us. 
I intend, as soon as the Legislature adjourns, if things remain 
in their present shape, to make a public appeal to the people of 
my circuit, or else to join other judges in making an appeal to 
the people of the State. Gov[ernor] Edwards has said, that one 
of the Supreme Judges. Smith, gave his opinion in the Council 
that the repeal of the system, was unconstitutional, and that the 

his slaves without giving a formal bond. In addition Governor Edwards 
had attacked the state court system on the ground of extravagance in 
the number of judges and their salaries. Cf. Dav. & Stue, pp. 342. 343, 
and Echvards Papers, 265, 268. 

76 A copy of this memorial is in the library of the Hist, and Phil. 

77 The five circuits were retained, with one of the supreme justices 
to officiate in each of four, while Judge R. M. Young was retained on 
the circuit comprising the military district of the state. Cf. Dav. & 
Stuve, p. 342. 

7s Zadoc Casey then representing a district composed of Hamilton and 
three other counties in the state senate. Later he was lieutenant-governor 
and representative in Congrss. Cf. Reynolds. Pioneer History, p. 413. 


Legislature ought to attend to that matter, in other words, that 
Smith should be addressed out, for not confirming his conscience 
to the will of the Legislature. 7 " 3 Will the people submit to such 
degradation of the judicial office? Wattles 71 ' has entirely given 
up Kdwprd.s. Indeed many of his friends are becoming very tired 
of him. The Adams men are much incensed at his joining Jack- 
son. 40 I have written to Col[onel] O Fallon 81 on that subject. 
A few days ago Edwards, in a message to the lower House, 
complained that he [had] not seen nor heard any thing of a 
memorial which had been adopted to be sent to Congress. 8 - 
This was considered as a censure upon the Committee on enrol- 
ments, and Dr. Alexander." 1 ' one of that committee introduced a 
resolution, about such a memorial until it was sent to him, and 
that his message was an encroachment upon the priviledges of 
the House; it was referred to a select committee, who will report 
tomorrow against the Governor. All is confusion. The Legis- 
lature will not in all probability rise for six weeks yet — they have 
•|< vet f^^" nothing of general interest except to pass a few laws 
submitted to them by the Supreme Judges, and to break the Cir- 
cuit Judges. I am quite undetermined what course to pursue as 
respects myself. I cannot practice before Brown, 84 his notorious 
partiality, and his hostility to me. would always prevent my 
success as a lawyer, and I should be engaged in continual war 
with him ; on the other hand I cannot afford to be idle, or to 
await the decision of the next Legislature, who I think would 
reinstate us. But whether to go to the North, or the West, or 

™aCi Daw & Stuve, p. 342. 

"•'John O. Wattles was one of the live circuit judges deprived of his 
cfrice. Cf. Dav. & Stuve, p. 329. 

^'Edwards is referred to by Snyder (loc. cit.) as a "milk and cider" 
or mild supporter of Jackson. His friendship for the General and at 
the same time his connection with Cook placed him in a dilemma from 
which the early death of the latter in a manner relieved him. Cf. Gil- 
lespie, p. 15. The references to Hall in the Edxmrds Papers are decidedly 

Sl Possibly Col. James O'Fallon of Missouri. 

"^Possibly this was on the subject of reducing the price of public lands. 
Cf. Dav. & Stuve, p. 343. 

"See Note 42. It may also be Samuel Alexander, one cf the members 
cf the Canal Commission. 

84 See Xctes 11 and 12. 


quit the State, and its cursed politics, I am uncertain.* 5 It is a 
hard thing to be so poor, that we must bend to circumstances. 
Please to present my best respects to Mrs. S. 

Your friend, 
Thomas Sloo, Jr. James Hall 


Hamilton County, Illinois. 


(Box 4, No. 56.) 

Washington Febfruarv] 15, 1827 
My Dear Sir : 

Owing to my having been detained in Virginia, by the busi- 
ness which took me there, I did not reach this until the 5th in- 
stant, when I had the pleasure to receive your letter of 8th 
nlt[imol previcn? to whfch However your fathers letter to the 
Com[missioner] of the Gen[era]l Land Office^ had been de- 
livered by Mr. Kane. I immediately waited on the Com[mis- 
sioner] read with him your Fathers letter. ST and made to him, 
and afterwards to the Secretary] of the Treasury,- 8 and his 
chief clerk, all the explanations necessary to a thorough under- 
standing of the subject ; and from what passed I think there 
will be no hesitation, when the subject of compensation for clerk 
hire is passed upon by the Sec[retar]y, to allow your Father the 
amount claimed by him viz: as much as is allowed to any other 
Register in whose office the same am[ounjt of labour was per- 
formed. There are several other Land Officers who are in the 
same situation ; unable to produce vouchers from the death or 
removal of the clerks employed. There will of course be one 

S3 He did not leave the state until 1830 and before that date was 
chosen as state treasurer. He was defeated for this office in 1830 and 
passed from it under a cloud. Cf. Dav. & Stuve, p. 366. 

SG George W. Graham was then serving in that capacity. See Box 9, 
No. 48. 

%7 This claim must have referred to an earlier period for he does 
not appear in the Official Register for 1826 as the incumbent in the office 
at Shawneetown. 

■^Richard Rush of Pennsylvania was then Secretary of the Treasury. 

uniform rule established, and from what I can gather from the 
Secretarys conversation it will be a liberal one. I have explained 
to him in detail the amount of labour done by your Brothers," 
and every thing in relation to your Fathers case : and also of 
the hardships of other cases, especially of that of Mr Humphries' 1 '' 
of Kaskaskia, who employed no clerk, but preformed all the labour 
himself. I have adduced other cases, and by various illustrations 
endeavoured to show that sheer justice required that clerk hire 
should not be allowed by the vouchers only, but other considera- 
tions, all of which I explain to him, should be taken into the esti- 
mate; and gave it as my opinion that the most just and equi- 
table mode would be by an exact appointment of clerk hire to 
the labour performed; whether performed by the principal, by 
his children, or by hired clerks. Vouchers have not yet been 
rec[eive]d from the different Land officers, they are however 
coming in from time to time. But such is the press of business 
at this time, that if the vouchers were all in, the Secretary] 
v.-ould not have time to attend to it until after the adjournment 
of Congress. 

Before my arrival here the Secretary] of War 91 had ap- 
pointed young Menard. 1 '- on the recommendation of Cook, as the 
Indian Agent at Peoria : and also had filled the vacancy at 
Chicago," 3 of the existence of which I was unapprised until my 
arrival here, by the app[ointmen]t of some one from Virginia. 
I. spoke very freely in disapprobation of this last app[ointmen]t 
to the Secretary, told him it was disrespectful to the State, and 
unjust to its citizens, that we did not claim as a right to share in 
the loaves and fishes, but that we did to the crumbs which fell 
from the public board on our soil. But it was then too late to 

S9 A letter of Gorham A. Worth ( Box 29. No. 61). names these brothers 
as follows: Howell, John, James, and Albert. Albert Gallatin Sloo and 
James C. Sloo are mentioned by Snyder, lac. cit., 206. 

90 Edward Humphrey of Kaskaskia was appointed Receiver of public 
moneys at that place in 1820. Edwards opposed the appointment, but 
Thomas favored it and was successful. Cf. Edwards Papers, pp. I75- T 77. 
and also Box 11, No. 62. 

91 James Barbour of Virginia. 

9: Menard's father Pierre was the first lieutenant-governor of Illinois. 

9: 'The question of ''spoils" seems to agitate all parties at this period. 
Coles, himself, was an outsider when first appointed to office in Illinois. 


reconsider, the app[ointmen]t had been made. I cannot but 
think if I had been here I could have prevented it, and if I could 
not have gotten it for a friend, I could at least have had it 
coiiicrcu oil a citizen oi the State. 

I find prevailing- here an extraordinary degree of excitement 
among the active politicians. 34 Men who were heretofore of 
the same party are now separated ; and as to the boundaries of 
party are not well defined, there is a good deal of jostling and 
irritation. Each one makes himself the standard, and charges 
upon the other a dereliction of principle or a desertion of friends. 
From the language of the late supporters of our friend Crawford, 
among whom were the purest Republicans of the country, you 
would suppose this the age of evil alternatives; for they 
neither like Adams or Jackson, and are driven, they say. to a 
choice of evils : and are unfortunately divided in opinion as to 
the greatest evil. I was much gratified two nights since, in ex- 
plaining our Illinois politics, and the causes which led to Edwards 
election, and speaking of you as a good Crawford ite, who. like 
myself, had prefered to all other men at the last election, and 
were uncommitted as to whom we should support at the next, 
willing to wait events and at the proper time to select the best 
man. Two or three of the Crawfordites present, simultaneously 
exclaimed that they [torn off] concurred with us, and that 
it was the [roper course for all to pursue. I have many old 
friends on both sides of the question, both for and ag[ains]t 
the Adm [instratio] n, and have a good opportunity of hearing 
much on both sides. When we meet I shall be able to amuse 
you with many anecdotes, both as to men and to things. 

I shall leave this in about one week for Phi[ladelphi]a. and 
shall return through this place to Virginia in March, and from 
the-,ce shall return to Illinois in April or May. I cannot say ex- 
actly when I shall be back, as the business connected with my 
late Mothers estate has not yet been settled ; but I have reason 
to believe it will be in April. As soon as this is done I shall set 
out for the West. I am very anxious to hear the result of my 
suit before the Supreme Court, "' and what the Legislature has 

n4 For a review of political conditions cf. McMaster V, p. 50:1ft. 

35 Possibly this was the one brought against him for freeing his slaves. 
Cf. note 75 and Dav. & Stuve, 3.22 note. 


done, and how things are going on in Illinois. Our last newspaper 
date was January 20. 

I caught a very bad cold on my way here, and have and still 
suffer very much with it. I have not been so sick however but 
that I have been able to dine out every day in large parties and 
gone every evening but one to an evening party. This you will 
say is rather too dissipated for a quiet fire side YVetsern man. I 
own it. But I have many valued friends here, where I resided 
six of the happiest years of my life, 86 have not enjoyed their so- 
ciety for seven years, and shall not remain among them but 2 or 
3 weeks. This will excuse me even with you who are a more 
quiet fire side man than myself. Gen-feral} 87 and Mrs. Findlay 
I see often, they are both well. 

My respectful compliments to. Mrs Sloo and your Father and 
accept for yourself the assurances of my great respect and sincere 


(Box 19. Xo. 22.) 

Vandalia. February 17, 1827 
Dear Sir 

The General Assembly is still in session but from present ap- 
pearances that body will adjourn this evening, or on Monday 
next. They have had night sessions for some time past, and one is 
contemplated this evening; if so. an adjournment may take place. 

The charges preferred against the cashier [sic] of the prin- 
ciple bank, 90 Judge Smith, and the president and directors of the 

96 \Vhile serving as Madison's private secretary. 

9T lle was then finishing his first term in Congress. 

9S For references to Judge Samuel McRoberts. Cf. Dav. & Stuve, 
pp. 329, 343. There are a few references to him in the Edwards Papers. 

or This was the State Bank created in 1821. The cashier of the prin- 
cipal bank, at Vandalia. was J. M. Duncan. From the beginning the 
method of conducting its affairs forced down the value of its issues of 
currency, aside from the effect of the vicious principles uron which it 
was founded Judge T. W. Smith had formerly been cashier of the 
branch bank at Edwardsville. of which William Kinney, then lieutenant- 
governor t^See Note 106) was president. He, Emanuel J. West, and James 
McGuire united to publish a pro-slavery paper at Edwardsville during 


branch Bank at Edwardsville. have all failed. Investigations 
before committees of the House of Representatives, in two cases 
were had, and the charges were abandoned in the other case. 

The Session since I have been here, has been a boistrous one. 
Many circumstances with which you are no doubt acquainted, 
tended to produce a spirit of discord. 

We have been expecting to see you here. And I am well 
assured had it fell to your lot to have presided over the state, 
and many here who opposed your election now regret the course 
they pursued and that you had not been elected, the ill feelings 
and angry passions produced here this winter, would never 
have been heard of. It is a misfortune to Illinois that you were 
not elected. It is in truth a deep misfortune, both as it respects 
the internal harmony and prosperity of the state, and her charac- 
ter abroad. 

I was in Kentucky in the fall. Many gentlemen there ex- 
pressed the wannest feelings for you, and hoped the legislature 
would recognize you as governor. It was understood there that 
there was likely to be a contest before the General Assembly 
upon the subject. 

The elections, so far as any were had in the legislature, ter- 
minated favourably. Judge Hall was elected state treasurer, 
and James Whitlock. ino of Kaskaskia, state Recorder. The latter 
gentleman 1 presume you recollect. He is a worthy man, and well 
qualified to discharge the duties of his office. 

We have understood from Washington city, that Dr. John 
Todd 301 has been recommended by the president to the U[nited] 

thtj Convention campaign and Edwards charged that McGuire obtained 
through Kinney and Smith a loan at the bank for the purpose of estab- 
lishing this press. The committee to whom the charges of the Governor 
were referred reported against the charges in both cases. Edwards had 
waged his campaign in t8j6 on the basis of reform in state banking con- 
ditions and had felt bound to make good his charges so his letter books 
and messages for this period abundantly prove. His insistence upon this 
course had arrayed against him nearly all the leading politicians of the 
state, who joined forces to thwart his purposes by raising the cry of 
political persecution. For references see Dav. & Stuve, p. 339; Ford, 
pp. 64-66. Edzvzrds Papers, p. 270; Scott, p. 166: Greene and Alvord, 
pp. 1 16-123. 

100 A possible reference is in Greene and Alvord, p. 222. 

101 Edwards had previously recommended him to Clay as being a 
warm friend oi the latter. Cf. Edzvards Papers, 241. 



Sftates] senate, for Register of the land office at Sangamo. 
What the senate may do is not known. It is also stated that 
Mr. John Reynolds 102 is recommended, or probably will be, to 
the U. S. senate, for district attorney for the state. 

A gieat many bills have been passed by the legislature. They 
are to be published in the form of a revised code. 

From the present arrangement of the courts, the term at 
Madison will be next week. 

I shall practice in all the counties of the first and second 

Accept the renewed assurance- of ray profound regard 


(Box ii, No. 5.) 

Vandalia June 3d 1827 
Dear Sir. 

Will you do me a small favour? Our friend Mr I. T. B. 
Stapp is an applicant for the office of Postmaster here, which is 
vacant by the resignation of Judge Warnock. His appointment 
would be gratifying to all your friends at this place,, and there 
is no doubt of his capacity and integrity. We have all written 
to the Postmaster General, and to our members. Will you do 
us the favour to drop a line to Mr Mc Lean. 103 if it is only to say 
that the testimony of Col[onelJ Berry, 104 Air Forquer, and my- 

102 He had previously served as associate justice of the state supreme 
couri and was afterwards governor. Cf. Dav. & Stuve, 300, 329. He 
was unsuccessful candidate for attorney-general of the state in 1829. Cf. 
Edwards Papers, 442. 

105 John McLean, of Ohio, then serving as Postmaster General. 

! " + Elijah C. Berry was the first state auditor of Illinois. Cf. Edwards, 
Hist, of III, p. 336. George Forquer. one of the settlers of Monroe County, 
was of considerable importance in the political history of early Illinois. He 
was secretary of state under Edward Coles and in 1829 became attorney- 
general. Berry and Forquer were commissioners under the free 'school 
act of 1825. A letter from Berry follows this. For sketch of Forquer, 
cf. Edwards Papers, 278-279^ He was a frequent correspondent of 


self, and Col[onel] Ewing. 105 may be relied on — as we are 
strangers to him. 

I have just returned from Edwardsville. St. Louis, Belleville, 
etc. I saw Smith. West Kinney, 106 Thomes. Edwards and other 
great men, and am satisfied that old things are to be done away 
among us. and all things to become new. Our parties, as they 
have heretofore existed are already dissolved, and. new distinc- 
tions are rapidly taking place. Smith. Kinney and West, are 
about to set up a Newspaper at Edwardsville 107 — ostensibly for 
Jackson, but in fact to operate in State politics. Smith and 
Kinney want to be Senator and Governor. They go against 
Edwards. Thomas, but most especially and bitterly against Mc- 
Lean. 1 ' 18 Party No 2, consists of John Reynolds 109 and Tom 
Reynolds the Beairds 109 etc. Juo Rfeynolds] wants to be Sen- 
ator — is inveterate against Smith, Edwards, Thomas and dont 
much, like McLean. Party No 5 consists of Jesse B. Thomas 
Sohts—tht privates and officers yet to be enlisted. The Hon- 
orable] Jesse is very bitter acrainst Smith and Co. but more 
against Mc Lean. He swears that Mc Lean is a dishonest man 

and a dishonest politician — that he cant, and by G he shant be 

elected. 110 

"■"For \V. L. D. Ewing cf. Edwards Papers, p. 23311. He served for 
fifteen days as governor of Illinois at the conclusion of Reynold's term; 
Cf. Dav. & Stuve. 369. 

10ti \Yilliam Kinney had been elected as lieutenant-governor in 1826. 
He ran on Sloo'^ ticket. He was unsuccessful candidate for governor in 

10r The Illinois Corrector, edited by R. K. Fleming. Cf. Scott. News- 
papers and Periodicals of Illinois, p. 166, and Edwards Papers, 292-293. 

10 -On July 7, 1S27, Joseph M. Street writes to Edwards from Shavv- 
neetown : "McLean has high hopes — as Thomas sinks here." McLean 
was chosen as senator, cf. Notes 61 and 63. The letters of Hooper Warren, 
Ninian Edwards, and John McLean for this period should be compared 
with this of Hall. Cf. Edzvards Papers, passim. 

109 For John Reynolds cf. Xote 102. Thomas Reynold? had suc- 
ceeded Joseph Phillips (Note 8) as chief justice of the state supreme 
court in 1822. but neither he nor his nephew John was re-elected in 1S24. 
Cf. Dav. & Stuve, pp. 300, 309. The name Baird or Beard is mentioned 
in Edzvards Papers, pp. 364-370, and in Dav. & Stuve, p. 326. 

ll0 McLean gained the election and Thomas then removed to Mt. 
Vernon, Ohio. He took part in nominating his friend Harrison for the 
presidency in 1840. and died at Mt. Vernon. May 4, 1S33. 


I do not see how the above named men can ever again amal- 
gamate, at any rate they will not join with Party No £ which con- 
sists of Jno Mc Lean and his friends — Nor with Party No 5 
w r hich is composed of Edwards & Co. 

Edwards declares publickiy on all occassions that he will not 
be a candidate for the Senate, and I am inclined to think he will 
not be. Thomas also declares he will not be, but it is easily 
seen that his object is to bring out a great many candidates, and 
he thinks the report of his retiring will have that effect. 

When I saw him at St Louis he expressed a great deal of 
contrition at having opposed your election for Governor, and re- 
quested me to say to you that if any appointment from the 
Gen [era] 1 Gov[ernmen]t should offer which would suit you, 
you might reply on his most active exertions etc. He urged 
this matter very much, and begged me to endeavour to convince 
you how much he was your friend, and all that. He said a 
^reai many more things to nie equally sincere and true, some of 
which 1 will repeat when J see you."' 

Depend upon it, my dear Sir, these combinations which are 
going on in our State will ruin every man who is engaged in them. 
The people are beginning to complain loudly. Kinney is sink- 
ing faster that I ever saw any man, his violence disgusts even 
his friends. 11 - Thomas and Edwards are gone. 113 Smith 
is universally feared, his ambition and his intriguing spirit 

J11 Sloo had been a friend of Thomas, as is shown by his reference on 
page 56. 

112 Despite this unfavorable characterization Hah supported Kinney 
for governor in the election of 1830, although he was anti-Jackson in 
national politics. Through this he lost his office as state treasurer. Cf. 
Dav. & Stuve, p. 366. One of his political opponents characterizes Hall 
ver severely and his political career seems neither consistent nor par- 
ticularly creditable to him. Cf. Edwards Papers, p. 519. 

I13 Xeither of them figured in Illinois politics after 1830. Thomas 
removed to Ohio and Edwards for a time considered removal to Texas 
but remained in Illinois. He was candidate for Congress from the First 
District of Illinois in 1832 but was beaten, and died of Cholera in the fol- 
lowing year. It is interesting to contemplate the spectacle of both Ed- 
wards and Houston in Texas at the same time! Cf. Edwards Papers, 
P. 447- 


alarm friends and foes. 114 Lockwood 115 and Wilson 116 are greatly 
depreciated. All of these men must go down. Mc Lean stands 
best, but his prospects are very doubtful, his habitual neglect of 
the interests of those who have supported him most warmly, 
is attributed to want of gratitude, or to a selfish policy, and a 
great many predict that his friends will forsake him in the hour 
of peril. Should they do so he would have no right to complain 
for he has never supported any of us. 117 I shall however support 
him. I have not yet learned what will be the course of our 
friends at Kaskaskia. They are considered with the Smith 
gang, lis but I cannot believe it. How do you feel on the Presi- 
dential question? I hope you do not think of joining the Jackson 
combination. If you ever expect to be a candidate again before 
the people of this State, avoid that rock. 119 Jackson's day is over 
in Illinois — the canal appropriation has settled that question. 1 -' 1 
Can you not also whisper to me whether you will again offer for 
Governor? If you do so, keep clear of the combinations. The 
^oopk- arc with you. 125 Trie Kinney squad is against you. 

114 During the legislative session of 1832-33, he narrowly escaped im- 
peachment for misdemeanor in his office as associate justice of the supreme 
court of the state. Cf. Daw & Stuve. p. 368. 

""Samuel D. Lockwood was then serving as associate justice of the 
state supreme court. He had received two votes for senator in 1S23 
when Jesse B. Thomas was re-elected (see supra, p. 57), and there was 
an expression of sentiment in his favor at this time. Cf. Edzvards Papers, 
pp. 204, 296. 

116 William Wilson was then chief justice of the state Supreme Court. 
In a letter of George Forquer to Edwards, March 18, 1S30, the former 
represents Lockwood and Wilson as working against Edwards and Forquer 
in favor of themselves and of doing so through McLean. Cf. Edzvards 
Papers, p. 4S2. 

117 For another statement reinforcing this characterization of McLean 
cf. Ibid, 4?3. 

118 An early use of a term of very modern signification. 

u9 Sloc is reported as being a "'whole hog" Jacksonian. Cf. Snyder, 
he. cit., p. 205. 

120 This was the appropriation by Congress in 1827, of about 224.322 
acres of public land. This was largely secured through the influence of 
D. P. Cook. Cf. Edwards, Hist, of III., p. 239; Illinois Historical Collec- 
tions, IV, p. 74. 

121 In 1S28 Sloo determined to seek a larger field of mercantile activity 
and removed to New Orleans, where his family followed him two years 
later. Disappointed political ambition doubtless played its part in bringiag 


We are trying to make up a little party to the mineral well 
at Mt Vernon, or Mrs Gaston's. Ewing and wife, and myself 
and wife will I think go down after the Federal court, and spend 
ten days. 

Edwards is there now, and talks of taking his own family and 
Cooks. The latter has returned home very low. 122 

If we go to Jefferson you must meet us. I can tell you a great 
[deal?] of news. . . . 


(Box 2. Xo. 26.) 

Vandalia. July 26. 1S27 
Dear Sir. 

You no doubt bear in recollection the stand taken by His 
Exc[ellenc|y last winter, that the staff of the Commander-in- 
chief, as well as all staff appointments, were void and of no ef- 
fect, and were not authorized by the Constitution; 123 and you may 
also recollect the opinion of a large majority of the Senate on the 
subject, which, as I supposed, had fully settled the question, 
when we consider the precedent already set by the practice of 
:the former governors for the last 8 years. But it seems that his 
excellency determined to oppose his mighty individual power to 
the clearly expressed will of the people through an almost unan- 
imous vote of their Senators, and still refused to acknowledge 
any staff appointments. I have understood that he has given 
orders to the Sangamo Colonel to draw the whole or a portion of 
the arms from Shawneetown, directly from the Ware-house, 

about this removal. In this he simply follows a precedent established 
by Joseph Phillips and Jesse B. Thomas, and contemplated by Edwards 
also. Cf. Snyder, loc. cit., p. 204 and Box 27, No. 14. 

122 He was suffering from tuberculosis, to which he fell a victim Oc- 
tober 16, 1827. He died in his native state, Kentucky, at the age of 32, 
but he had already exerted an important influence during the formative 
period of his adopted state. In many respects he and Sloo present an 
interesting comparison, but Cook has the advantage of a wider stage for 
the exercise of his talents. Cf. the letters herewith published and the 
references to Cook in the Edwards Papers. 

12:; For a sketch of the early militia of Illinois cf. Dav. & Stuve, pp. 


and has paid no attention to the quarter master General, the sole 
person, I contend, who is authorized to controul the arms, under 
the directions of his Exc[ellenc]y and that a wagon has gone 
down for that purpose. 

Now the object of this letter, is to suggest to you the neces- 
sity of taking a stand in the case, and to keep under your par- 
ticular charge those arms, and to permit none to be removed, 
but under the order of the governor, directly addressed to the 
quarter master general.' 124 

If I mistake not. a law or resolution passed at the called ses- 
sion requiring the quarter-master general of the state to take 
charge of the public arms, and to deposite them at the seat of 
government, which is to be, or must be paid for out of the con- 
tingent fund. I now hope you may determine at once to possess 
yourself of those arms agreeably to the law, and cause them to 
1->^ cnnvfM-ed to this ptare under vour controul alone, and yield 
them to no living being, thro any other channel than from an 
official order from the commander-in-chief, to the Quartermaster 
general of the State of Illinois ; and thereby bring his excellency 
to his bearings, and at the same time maintain your rights as an 
officer. If trusted to my care at this place, I pledge myself they 
shall not be delivered, upon any condition, but upon the order 
of the Commander-in-chief, officially addressed to the ''Quarter- 
master General, Thojmajs Sloo. Jr." 

I hope you will excuse the liberty I have taken in addressing 
you on this subject, and accept my sincere friendship. 

E. C. Berry. 

N. B. I shall be glad to hear from you on this subject, as soon 
[as] convenient 

^This evidently was a political scheme to hamper Edwards, who 
was then encountering some trouble with the Indians in the upper part 
of the state, and to force him to set a precedent that the opposition could 
use against him. To Sloo's credit he refused to be a party to this attempt 
to gain partisan advantage. 



(Box 2, No. 26 b .) 

iSth Aug[ust] 1827. 
Dear Sir. 

Yours of the 26th tilt was not received until a few days since, 
on my return home, after an absence of nearly three weeks. 

My appointment as q[uarte]r Master Gen [era] 1, agreeably 
to my understanding of the 4th sec. of the Militia law of the 
State, terminated with the Executive duties of Gov[ernor] Coles, 
from whom the appointment emulated. Indeed but for that con- 
viction, I should have long since resigned. 

Situated a< I am, in' relation to the present commander-in- 
chief, had I barely doubts as to the termination of my ap [point- 
men J t. delicacy would forbid my interposing any obstacles to 
interrupt the harmonious administration of his government. 126 

Believing as I do, that there is *t present no Ofuartelr 
Master Gen [era] 1 of the State, the arms would of course be 
under the entire control and disposition of the Gov[ernor]. Ke 
assuming however a responsibility which does not appertain to 
the office of Commander-in Chief. 


(Box 4. No. 7.) 

Spring-field Sangamo Co[un]ty, Illinois 

Feb[ruar]y 25th 1S30 
Respected friend 

Since I saw you at Urbana Ohio. I moved wittwny family 
to this place. I left there immediately after the fall elections. 
Here as in Ohio I find party distinctions, the Adams men tho in. 

125 This is written on the sheet attached to the preceding letter and is 
evidently a copy of Sloo's reply. 

r - : Sloo's reply exhibits a sense of political honor which is refreshing 
in that period of personally vindictive politics. 

12T There is no other communication from him and no means of identi- 
fying him. 


the minority are full of malice and intrigue, they are trying every 
plan to distract and defeat if possible the Jackson ranks, their 
general cry is peace, peace, lay partyism aside as the contest is 
over and let us vote for the best man 1 . Yet when they come to 
the polls not a single man of them will vote for a Jacksonian. 12 "* 
They [the?] Jackson party is wide awake and I am in hopes not a 
single man will suffer himself to be wheedled out of his vote by 
any of the coalition 12 '' gentry. Ohio has showed herself repub- 
lican and I hope will ever remain so. My dear sir, I solicit your 
friendship and aid to procure me the appointment of Post Master 
at this place, the present incumbent Mr Mitchell 130 is a warm 
Adams man and from what I can learn is opposed to every act 
of the present administration. I also understand that a Mr Wil- 
liam Herndon 181 a Jackson man has petitioned for that appint- 
ment, he is a man given to intoxication and not of the best 
character, he lives with his brother A. G. Herndon. who bid off 
the contract for carrying the mail from St Louis to this place 
and severed other routs and has failed to comply with any of them. 
I do not think it would be any credit to the Jackson party to have 
W[illia]m Herndon appointed to that office, but rather a disgrace. 
I make these remarks from a Knowledge of the facts and Mr 
Barry 1 -- might be imposed upon. You are acquainted with me 
and my political creed throughout the canvass and if that ap- 
pointment is not made, I will be under many obligations to you 
if you will intercede with the Post Master General for that ap- 
pointment, as I know your influence will do much, it would be a 
great benefit to me and the income would help to support my 
small family. I could give the best recommendations from my 

128 For a comparison of partisan conditions at this period in Ohio 
and Indiana, see Quarterly II, pp. 12-J5. The Jackson organization in 
Illinois as elsewhere was beginning to intrigue for the "spoils." 

^"Coalition" formed the most effective war cry against the supporters 
of Adams and Clay. 

130 Edward Mitchell is reported as the incumbent in the Official Reg- 
ister for 1832, p. 343- 

131 Possibly William H. Herndon, Lincoln's later law partner and 

"-William T. Barry of Kentucky, then serving as Postmaster General. 
For some Barry letters see Am, Hist. Ret: XVI, p. 327ft. 


friends in Ohio if it were necessary, any security required I can 
give here. I am well acquainted with the duties of that office 
as I have acted two years in the capacity of a deputy. If I should 
get that appointment 1 will be content therewith, and ever will 
feel grateful to you and my country. If you have any news or 
any documents I would be always glad to receive them. 

Your attention and answer as soon as convienent will much 
oblige your obedient and humble Servant 

Quarterly Publication of the His- 
torical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio 

Vol. VI, 1911, No. 4 





Entered as second-class matter, at the post-office at Cincinnati 
Ohio, under the Act of Congress of July 16, 1S94. 

Committee in Charge of Publication 



Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio 

For the Year Ending 
December 4, 1911 








Corresponding Secretary 

Recording Secretary. 




The meetings of the Society are held in its rooms in the Van Wormer 
Library Building, Burnet Woods, at three in the afternoon of the first Saturday 
of each month from October to May. 

The Library is a free public Library, open to visitors daily, except Sunday, 
from nine A. M. to five P. M. 



Historical and Philosophical Society 
of Ohio for 1911 


Cincinnati, December 4th, 1911. 
Mr. President arid Members of the Society: 

During the year the increase in number of hooks and 
pamphlets of our library acquired by gift and purchase, is as 

Books donated 127 

Books purchased 91 

Pamphlets donated 963 

Pamphlets purchased 9 

Total 1190 

Of those purchased, 60 books and 9 pamphlets are credited to 
the Margaret Rives King fund; 26 to the Elizabeth Appleton 
fund; and 5 to the Society of Colonial Dames fund. Besides 
these there are the usual serials which are purchased annually. 
The increase in the number of books has been further aug- 
mented by the binding of desirable publications, which, lacking 
proper covers, had found an abiding place in the pamphlet col- 
lection, and, also, by the binding of several hundred pamphlets 
that were previously assorted into groups according to their 
subject matter, and then bound so that only those pamphlets 
treating upon the same subject were brought together under 
one cover. By this means we have made available to the 



student of history some valuable material that heretofore was 
lost sight of. There are 2 pamphlet volumes relating to the Mis- 
sissippi River; 2 to the Ohio River; 1 to Ohio Turnpikes and 
Canals; I Northern Boundary Lines of Ohio; 1 Early Steam- 
boats; 1 Ordinance of 1787; 4 Ohio History; 2 Removal of the 
U. S. Capitol from Washington; 11 United States History; and 
others of equal interest. The pamphlets bearing upon United 
States history are rare, of dates 1765 to 1824, principally pub- 
lished in London, many of them presenting the British view of 
the difficulties between England and America during that period. 
The addition so obtained amounts to 77 volumes. These, 
together with the 218 volumes enumerated above, added to the 
24132 volumes reported last year, make the total number of 
titles in the library at the present date 24427. 

The titles of a number of the volumes purchased this year, 
are: — 

Louisiana under the rule of Spain, France, and the LTnited 
States, 1785-1807, 2 vols., by J. A. Robertson; 

The Spanish-American War, 2 vols., by F. E. Chadwick; 

The Wilderness Trail, 2 vols., by C. A. Hanna; 

Old Times on the Upper Mississippi, by G. B. Merrick. 

Historic Indiana, by J. H. Levering; 

Quakers in the American Colonies, by R. M. Jones; 

Mathew's Expansion of New England; 

Kirkpatrick's Timothy Flint; 

Forbes-Lindsay's Daniel Boone, Backwoodsman; 

McCarty's Territorial Governors of the Old Northwest; 

Diary of Gideon Welles, 3 vols.; 

The Monongahela of Old, by Veech; 

Recollections of Alexander Stephens; 

Washington and the West, by A. B. Hulbert; 

Fitu's Presidential Campaign of 1860; 

Fite's Social and Industrial Condition in the North during 
the Civil War, 2 vols.; 

Life of Rutherford B. Hayes, by Conwell; 

Life and Character of Rutherford B. Hayes, by Howells; 

Norton's Reminiscences of the Log Cabin and Hard Cider 

Spears' Story of the American Merchant Marine; 

Richman's California under Spain and Mexico, 1535-1847; 

Studies Military and Diplomatic, by C. F. Adams; 
Belcher's First American Civil War, 1775-78; 
Writings of James Madison, 9 vols., by Gaillard Hunt; 
Slavery and Four Years' War, 2 vols., by J. Warren Keifer; 
Fiske's Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, 2 vols.; 
Harper's Encyclopaedia of United States History, 10 vols.; 
Crawford's Kansas in the Sixties; 

Fleming's Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama; 
Sharpless' History of Quaker Government in Pennsylvania, 

The Mother of Washington and his Times, by Mrs. Prior; 
New Amsterdam and its People, by J. H. Innes; 
North Carolina, a Study in English Colonial Government, 
by C. L. Raper; 

Story of the Negro, by Booker Washington; 
Recollections of Thirteen Presidents, by J. S. Wise; 
The Last American Frontier, by Paxson; 
History of Company C, Seventh Regiment, O. V. I., by 
T. Wilder; 

History of Fuller's Ohio Brigade, by Major C. H. Smith; 
Personal Recollections of Service in the Army of the Cum- 
berland and Sherman's Army, 1861-1 865, by S. A. McNeil, 
Co. F, 31st O. V. V. Inf.; 

Lights and Shadows of Army Life, by W. W. Lyle, Chap- 
lain Hth Reg. O. V. I.; 

The Stone Age in North America, 2 vols., by W. K. Moore- 

Manwaring's Early Connecticut Probate Records, 1635-1750, 
3 \ols.; 

Hoyt's Old Families of Salisbury and Amesbury; 2 vols.; 
Bibliography: Writings on American History, 6 vols. 
The following enumeration is a partial list of books drawn 
from the pamphlei collection and bound — not including the 
"Pamphlet volumes" mentioned. 

Correspondence between John Adams and William Cun- 
ningham; Letters of John Adams to Dr. Calkocn, 1780; De 
l'lnfluence d'une Grande Revolution, sur le Commerce, I'Agri- 
culture et les Arts; Complot d'Arnold et de Sir Herry Clinton 
contre les Etats-Unis d'Amerique et contre le General Wash- 
ington, pub. 1816; The American Remembrancer, pub. 1795; 
Memoire envoye de IS Juin, 1790, au Comite des Rapports de 


l'Assemblee Nationalc, par M. de la Luzerne, Minfstre & Secre- 
taire d'Etat, pub. 1790; Convention between the United States 
and the French Republic, 1803; Collection of Authentic Papers, 
relative to the Dispute between Great Britain and America. . . 
from 1764 to 1775, pub. in London, 1777; The Battle of Lake Erie, 
by J. Fennimore Cooper; Discovery of the Valley of the Mis- 
sissippi, by A. M. Hart; Histories of the Fourth Ohio Vol. 
Cavalry; of the 46th Ohio Volunteers; of the 83rd Ohio Vol. 
Inf.; and of the 104th Reg. Ohio Vol. Inf.; Popular Lectures by 
Francis Wright D'Arusmont. Das Deutsche Element in den 
Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika, 1818-1848 von Gustav 
Korner; Geschichte des Grossen Amerikanischen Westens 
. . . von II. A. Rattcrmann. 

A number of gifts of miscellaneous nature have been re- 
ceived and are particularly acceptable as they relate to this lo- 
cality. They are: — 
From the Cincinnati Training School for Nurses: 

1 volume ol annual reports and 6 volumes of the recording 
secretary's minutes. The latter furnishes a complete his- 
tory of the corporation from its organization in 1889 to 
its final dissolution this year. 

From Mr. Charles IT. Short: 

Collection of pamphlets, photographs, broadsides, cards, etc., 

relating to the Ohio Valley Industrial Exposition held in 

this city, 1910. 
From Mr. Albert Dcttlngcr: 

Collection similar to the one above, relating to the Fernbank 

Dam Celebration, 1911. 
From Mr. J. Stacy Hill: 

Collection similar to those above, all relating to Cincinnati. 
From Colonel Jeptha Gcrrard: 

2 Lists of Members of Hamilton Agricultural Society, 1835 
6c 1837; Constitution and By-Laws of the Cincinnati Fire 
Association and a list of officers and members, 1839. 

From Mrs. S. T. Brewster: 

2 Scrap Books of newspaper clippings containing accounts 

of the Cincinnati City Election of 1844, collected by L. E. 

From Mr. Thomas Hollister: 

1 Passport issued during martial law in Cincinnati, at the 

time of the Kirby Smith raid. 
9 6 

From Mr. J. Lewis Sampson of Chicago: 

Framed Chart of a branch of the descendants of John Samp- 
son of Ireland and later of Pennsylvania; An old Bible 
containing family records, that formerly belonged to his 
son Joseph who came early to "Turkey Bottom" now Lin- 
wood, Cincinnati; Sword of James Sampson (son of said 
Joseph) who lived in Silverton, Ohio, and appears to have 
been an officer in the War of 1812 ; also, a Cane, gold mounted, 
that was the property of Joseph Sampson of Lockland, Ohio, 
the son of James above mentioned. 

From Mr. H. F. Woods: 

Masonic Badge of the Centennial Celebration of the Blue 
Lodge of Ohio, Oct. 2, 1908. 

From Mrs. G. A. Thayer: 

Photograph of the Woman's Citizen Committee, 32nd En- 
campment of G. A. R., Cincinnati, Sept., 1895.. 

From Mrs. R. B. Bowler: 

Daguerreotype of James Lodge, with an obituary notice, 
of date Dec. 21, 1835, where he is mentioned as "Senior 
proprietor of the Cincinnati Gazette," with which news- 
paper he was associated for 18 years previous to his death. 
He emigrated from Pennsylvania in 1814 to this locality, 
residing in Dayton, Ohio, and in Corydon, Ind., previous 
to settling in Cincinnati. 

A Hat of the Independent Fire Co. 3 (of Cincinnati); also, 
a large photograph of Grover Cleveland. 

From Mr. D. L. James: 

50 views of Cincinnati, on postal cards. 

From Mr. Charles Lehman: 
Several old Bank Bills. 

From Mr. II. C. Ezekiel: 

Several Bank Bilis of early dates, and an article written by 
him upon the early money of Cincinnati. 

From Mrs. A. II. Chat field: 

10 Tax Receipts of various dates. 

From Captain Louis Hoffmann: 

2 Poem's elaborately illustrated and mounted in large frames. 
One was presented by a number of his friends in 1888, as 
an expression of their appreciation of his skill as an American 
vinter, especially in the cultivation of Ohio grapes, with 
the request that a place upon the walls of his new Assembly 

Rooms might be found for the framed copy of Longfellow's 
song. "Catawba Wine," addressed 

"To the Queen of the West, 
In her garlands dressed 
On the Banks of the Beautiful River." 

The other poem is Drake's "Address to the American Flag 
dedicated by the Loyal Citizens of the Republic to the 
Army and Navy of the United States, and to James E. 
Murdoch, Esq., the Patriotic and Fervent Dcclaimer of our 
National War-Lyrics." Inscribed upon the frame is: "James 
E. Murdoch, eminent as an actor and interpreter of Shake- 
speare's Plays, Distinguished as an American patriot in the 
War of the Union. Born, Philadelphia, 1811, Died Cincin- 
nati, 1593." 

The Miami University "General Catalogue of the Graduates 
and Former Students, including Members of the Board of 
Trustees and Faculty during its first century, 1S09-1909," has 
been received. It will preve to be a desirable reference work 
for the biographies of many of our early residents who were 
educated in that college. The Minnesota Historical Society, 
has sent lately a copy of their publication "The Aborigines 
of Minnesota" that is very large and elaborately illustrated. 
The Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society has very gener- 
ously donated to our Society 7 volumes of their "Collections" 
thus completing our set to date. The volume III of the Collec- 
tions of the State Historical Society of North Dakota, which 
has just been received, appears to be a full history of the State 
of North Dakota. Other Historical Societies, too numerous to 
mention, have been similarly generous. 

The Society has secured by purchase about 240 manuscript 
letters addressed to Nathaniel Wright, a lawyer of this city, 
where he died in 1S75 in his 87th year. While many of these 
letters are written by persons outside of this locality, others are 
signed by S. S. Prentis, General Leslie Coombs, Hon. R. C. 
Schenck, John Kilgour, R. R. Springer, Peter Neff, Hon. S. Gal- 
loway, Rev. C. E. Stowe, Bellamy Storer, Micajah T. Williams, 
Alfred Kelly of Cleveland, and other residents of Cincinnati 
or Ohio. There is a notice of his election as a member of. the 
Board of Trustees, and as President of the Executive Committee 
of Lane Seminary. 

9 S 

There seems to be no special report to be made upon the work 
done in the library this year, other than that there is a gradual, 
though slow, advancement in the effort to bring the pamphlet 
collection into a more accessible condition. The four numbers 
of the quarterly publication have been issued, and the regular 
routine work in. the library has continued in the usual manner. 

L. Belle Hamlin. 

7 ft 



Albany Law School . / i 

American Antiquarian Society 37 

American Association for International Conciliation I 

American Colonization Society 35 

American Jewish Historical Society I 

Boston City Hospital I 

Boston City Register Department 2 

Bunker Hill Monument Association I 

Bureau of Railway Economics exchange 6 7 

Case Library (Cleveland) -.......' 1 

Chicago Historical Society 2 

Cincinnati — 

Chamber of Commerce 2 

Children's Home 2 

City Auditor 2 

Museum Association 9 

Nomad Club 1 

Ohio Mechanics' Institute 4 

Orchestra Association 8 

Pullic Library 8 

Training School for Nurses 7 

University of Cincinnati 

Woman's Club 

Colorado College 

Colorado Historical Society 

Colorado Scientific Society 

Connecticut Historical Society ■ 

Connecticut State Library 

Essex Institute 

Illinois State Historical Society 

Indiana State Library 

Instituto Geologico de Mexico 

Iowa Grand Lodge 

Iowa Historical Department _. 

Iowa State Historical Society 

Kansas State Agricultural College 

Lake Mohonk Conference 

Lowell Historical Society 

























Massachusetts Historical Society 2 

Medford Historical Society 8 

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society 7 

Military Order of the I dya! Legion, U. S.— 

California 20 

Michigan I 

Minnesota 16 

New York 14 

Ohio 3? 

Wisconsin 10 

Miami University 1 

Milwaukee Public Museum 1 

Minnesota Historical Society 1 

Missouri State Historical Society 6 

Nebraska State Historical Society 

Newberry Library 

New Haven Colony Historical Society 

New Jersey Historical Society 

New York Institute for the Deaf and Blind 

New York Public Library 12 

New York State Historical Society X 

North Dakota State Historical Society 1 

Oberlin College 1 

Agricultural Experimental Station 1 

Archaeological and Historical Society 1 

Board of Health 8 

Board of State Charities ' 2 

State University 8 

Tax Commission 2 

Ohio Society of New York 1 

Ohio Valley Historical Association 1 

Pennsylvania Historical Society 1 

Pennsylvania Society I 

Rhode Island Historical Society 2 

Royal Society of Canada 1 1 

St. Louis Mercantile Library I 

Swedish Colonial Society 1 

Syracuse Public Library 1 

Texas State Historical Society 4 

Ticonderoga Pulp & Paper Co I 

United States — 

Bureau of American Ethnology 7 1 

Bureau of Education 2 

Coast and Geodetic Survey c 

Department of Commerce and Labor 5 3 

Department of the Interior I 

Department of War 


Interstate Commerce 

Library of Congress 2 

Smithsonian Institution i 

University of California 

University of Colorado 

University of Illinois 

University of Michigan i 

University of Nashville 

University of Toronto 

Wisconsin State Historical Society 2 

Wisconsin Historical Commission 2 

Worcester Public Library 

Wyoming Historical Society 1 

Yale University 

Allen, T. L. M 

Ayres, Dr. S. C 

Brewster, Mrs. S. T 2 

Bryant, T. J 

Cox, I.J 

Depinv r. M 

Dickore, Miss M 

Dominion Archivist (Canada) 

Drury, A. G 

Dunn, S. C 

Farnsworth, E. C 1 

Field, Miss F 3 

Fisher, Mrs. W. H 6 

Francine, A. P I 

Gano, Mrs. J. A 9 

Garrard, J 2 Broadsides 

Handschin, C. H ; 

Harrison, Mrs. L. B 

Holden, W Miscellanies 

Jameson, Mrs. F. D 

Love, T. H Early newspapers 

Moore, C. B 1 

Paltsitz, V. IL, (New York State Historian) 2 

Porter, R. P 

Ripley, E. P 

Reed, W. H 

Sampson, J. L 1 

Shemler, Mrs. M 

Smith, J. H 

Thayer, G. A 240 periodicals, etc., 

Thompson, Slason I 

Webster, J. L 

Wood, VY. M 










Bliss, E. F 6 59 

Chatfield, A. H 5 periodicals 4 67 

Chatfield, Mrs. A. H 77 

Dandrid^e, Miss M. E 73 periodicals 

Hamlin, L. B 1 16 

James, D. L Miscellanies 83 

Taylor, W. W Miscellanies 5 

Wilby.j 1 31 

Winslow, J. F 12 20 



The Librarian's Report gives good account of the year's 

The contents of our Quarterly Publication for 1911 are: 

Vol. VI, No. 1, January-March, Translation from the Welsh, 
by Rev. M. O. Evans, of Rev. B. W. Chidlaw's " YR American," 
with introductory note by L. Belle Hamlin. 

Vol. VI, No. 2, April-June, Selections from Torrence Papers, 
VI; Edited by Prof. Cox. 

Vol. VI, No. 3, July-September, Selections from Torrence 
Papers, ATI; Edited by Prof. Cox. 

Vol. VI, No. 4, Will consist, as usual, of the annual reports, 
including Index to Volumes IV, V and VI. 

The Society is indebted to Prof. Cox for his careful editing 
of the selections from Torrence Papers. 

Mrs. Robert F. Leaman, a Corporate Member of the So- 
ciety, died June 1-1, 1911. 

I take pleasure in recording here, the gift, October 13, 1911, 
from Miss Jane Caldwell Neavc of $1,000, for "The Halsted 
Neave Endowment Fund," making $5,000 in all contributed by 
her, since June, 1906, to that fund. 

Joseph Wilby. 

December 4, 1911. 



December 4, 1911. 
For the President and Members of the Historical and Philo sop) deal 
Society of Ohio. 
I have the honor to present the annual report, of the Assets 
and Liabilities of The Historical and Philosophical Society of 
Ohio for the year ending November 30, 1911. 

Schedule "A." 

At November 30th, 1911. 


Cash in Bank $3,179 44 

L. B. Hamlin — Petty Fund 56 60 

Central Trust & Safe Deposit Co., Interest Account . 18 21 

Investments Exhibit I, 34,734 42 

Fee of Property No. 107 W. 8th St 2y,ooo 00 

Total $66,988 67 



General • Investment. . . .2, $716 25 

Building Principal 3, 17.416 49 

Endowment 4, 12,320 00 

Life Membership Investment. . . .5, 5.037 13 

Julius Dexter Publication Investment. . . .6, 1.074 25 

Income 6, 105 26 

E. H. Appleton Memorial Investment. . . .7, 4-M3 40 

Income 7, 311 57 

Halsted Neave Principal 8, 1 ,000 00 

" " Investment 8, 4,408 25 

" Income 8, 425 06 

Erasmus Gest Investment. . . .9, 4,862 50 

" " Income 1 14 98 

MargaretRives King Investment ... 10, 8.397 50 

" " Income io, 434 05 

A. J. Howe Investment . . .II, 5.087 50 

" Income II, 78 75 

Colonial Dames Investment . . .12, 200 00 

" • " Income 12, 1 35 

Binding.. Investment ... 13, 807 64 

" Income 13, 46 74 

Total $66,988 67 

For Year 

Schedule "B." 


Ended November 30th, 1911. 


1908 $10 00 

1909 10 00 

1910 30 00 

191 1 560 00 

$610 00 

Income from Investment: 

General Fund $30 00 

Lite Membership Fund 274 50 

Julius Dexter Publication Fund 45 20 

E. H. Appleton Memorial Fund 197 50 

Halsted Neave Fund 196 80 

Margaret Rives King Fund 340 00 

Colonial Dames Fund 12 00 

Binding Fund 34 00 

Erasmus Cest Fund 235 00 

A. j. l r : »vc F-.'. ! 225 00 

1,590 00 

Receipt from Life Membership 100 00 

Rent of 107 W. Eighth St. to Oct. 31, 191 1, 800 00 

Halsted Neave Principal Account 1. 000 00 

Total Receipts 


Salaries, Librarian & Janitor $1,050 00 

Assistant for Librarian . 33 35 

Stationery 6 00 

Postage 375 

Printing 290 37 

Audit of Treasurer's Books 25 00 

Safe Deposit — rental 7 00 

Miscellaneous 85 05 

E. H. Appleton Fund, Purchases & Expenses 65 1 1 

Margaret R. King Fund, Purchases & Expenses 197 12 

Colonial Dames Fund, Purchases & Expenses 32 25 

Binding Fund— Binding 20 10 

General Fund 83 42 

Excess Receipts over Disbursements 

Cash in Bank December 1, 1910 

Less Cash in Librarian's hands, December 1, 191 1 .... 
Cash in Bank, November 30, 191 1 

$1,898 52 

2,201 48 

1,034 56 

3-236 04 
56 60 

3,179 44 



At November 30th, 1911. 

(Exhibit " i ") 
General Fund: 

io Shares Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Stock $7*6 2 5 

Life Membership Fend: 

&3 Shares Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Stock . $ 1.4-5 75 

Part Interest in $2,000.00 C. & O. Ry. Co. 4>2% 

Bonds 3H 38 

4 Shares Cincinnati St. Rv. Co. Stock 289 00 

Savings Deposit— 3% Central Tr. & S. D. Co. . . 8 00 

Julius Dexter Publication Fund: 

12 Shares Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Stock $834 00 . 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Ry. Co Bond 224 25 

Savings Deposit— 3% Central Tr. & S. D. Co. . . 16 00 

k.. ii. Appleton Memorial vvsu: 

3 Bonds C. II. & D. Ry. Co. 4% $2,882 50 

13 Shares Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Stock 677 50 

2 Shares Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Stock 144 5° 

Part Interest in $2,000.00 C. & O. Ry. Co. &}i% 

Bonds 314 37 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Ry. Co. Bond 97 50 

Savings D?posic— 3% Central Tr. & S. B. Co... . 27 03 

Halsted Neave Fund: 

C. L. & N. Rv. Co. Bond 4% $1,000 00 

Kineon Coal Co. Bond 5% 1,000 00 

2 Norfolk & Western Ry. Co. 4% Bonds 1,755 °° 

Part Interest in Ky. Cent. Ry. 4% Bond 487 50 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Ry. Bond 165 75 

Margaret Rives King Fund: 

4 Bonds C. H. & D. Ry. Co. +}<% $4.5*2 50 

7 Shares Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Stock 481 25 

Part Interest in $2,000.00 C. & O. Ry. Co. 

4H% Bond I.55I 25 

Part Interest in Ky. Cent. Rv. Co. 4% Bonds.. . 1,462 50 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Ry. Co. Bond 390 00 

Colonial Dames Fund: 

4 Shares Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Stock 

Binding Fund: 

10 Shares Cincinnati St. Rv. Co. Stock $6So 63 

Savings Deposit— 3% Cent. Tr. & S. D. Co 29 51 

Part Interest in C. L. & N. Ry. Co. Bond 97 5° 


5.037 13 

1,074 25 

4.143 40 

4,408 25 

8,397 50 

S07 64 

Erasmus Gest Fund: 

C. & O. Ry. Co. $1,000.00 Bond $1,017 50 

Chattanooga Station Co. $1,000.00 Bond 930 00 

Cincinnati, Newport & Covington $1,000.00 

Bond 1 ,045 OO 

2 Western Pacific Ry. Co. $1,000.00 Bonds 1,870 00 

4,862 50 

A. J. Howe Find: 

5 C. & O. Ry. Co. $1,000.00 Bonds 5.087 50 

Total $34,734 4 2 









(Exhibit "2") 


November 30th, 1911. 

Receipts and Transfers: 

Dues, 190S $10 00 

5909 10 00 

1910 30 00 

191 1 57o 00 

Dividend Cincinnati St. Ry 

Transferred from Endowment Fund, account of 
Interest on Endowment Fund loaned to 
Building Fund 

Transferred from Life Membership Income Ac- 


Salaries — Librarian and Janitor $1,050 00 

Assistant for Librarian 33 35 

Printing 290 37 

Postage 24 75 

Subscriptions and Dues. . . .' < . . . . 20 00 

Paper for Quarterly 36 27 

Dues for Librarian 10 00 

Stationers- 6 00 

General Expense 123 20 

1.593 94 

Excess Receipts over Disbursements 

Carried to Building Fund, Exhibit 3, 45 87 

General Fund Investment Account $716 25 


$1,639 81 

(Exhibit "3") 


November 30th, 1911. 

Receipts and Transfers: 

Rent to October 1st, 191 1 $800 00 

Transfer from General Fund 45 87 


Interest on Endowment Fund $615 co 

Transfer to Building Fund Principal Account. . . 230 87 

(Exhibit "4") 

November 30th, 1911. 

$S 45 87 

845 87 


Credit Balance at December 1st, 1910 §17,185 62 

Tr-.rr.WH from Income Account : 230 87 

Credit Balance at November 30th, 191 1. $17,416 49 


Interest on Loan to Building Fund, transferred to 

General Fund $615 00 


Credit Balance December ist, 1910 $12,320 00 

Credit Balance November 30TH, 191 1 $12,320 00 


(Exhibit "5") 

November 30th r 1911. 


Cash— Jos. Henry Gest Sioo 00 

Cincinnati St. Ry. Dividends 261 00 

C. & O. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 13 5° 

Interest on Deposits. . . .• 3 1 

$374 81 


Transferred to General Fund $374 8l 


Credit Balance December 1st, 1910 $5.°37 x 3 

Csebit Ba^a^ce November. 30th, 1913 $5>°37 *3 

(Exhibit "6") 
November 30th, 1911. 

Credit Balance December 1st, 1910 $59 45 


Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Dividends $36 00 

C. L. & N. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 9 ?° 

Interest on Deposits 61 

45 81 

Credit Balance November 30th, 1911 . . . . $105 26 


Credit Balance December 1st, 1910 , $1,074 2 5 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 $1,074 2 5 


(Exhibit "7") 


November 30th, 1911. 

Credit balance at December ist, 1910 $i7 8 2 ^ 


Cin'ti St. R'y. Co. Dividends 

C. H. & D. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 

C. & O. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 

C. L. & N. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 

Interest on Deposits 


Books purchased . . . 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 

Credit Balance at December ist, 1910. . . . 
Credit Balance at November 30th, 191 1. . . 

(Exhibit "8") 


November 30th, 1911. 

$45 00 

135 00 

13 50 

4 00 


198 42 

$376 63 
65 11 

$311 57 


$4,143 40 

$1,143 40 

Credit Balance at December ist, 1910 $228 26 


C. L. & N. R'y Co. Bond Interest 

Ky. Cent. R'y Co. Bond Interest 

N. & W. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 

Kineon Coal Co. Bond Interest 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1. 


$46 80 
20 00 
80 00 

50 00 

196 80 

$425 06 


Crkdit Balance December ist, 1910 - $4-4° 8 2 5 

Credit Balance November 30th, 1911 .- • $4,408 25 

Cash October 13th, 191 1— Gift from Miss Jane C. 

Neave $1,00000 

(Exhibit "9") 

November 30th, 1911. 


Western Pacific Ry. Co. Bond Interest $100 00 

Cin. Newport & Coy. St. Ry. Bond Interest 50 00 

Chattanooga Station Bond Interest 40 00 

C. & O. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 45 00 

Credit Balance Dec. ist, 1910 • 5° °° 


Accruals for Interest & Commissions to Decem- 
ber ist, 1910 574 5 

Transferred -to Principal Account — Final Pay- 
ment on Bonds Purchased 95 37 

$285 00 

170 02 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 $ IX 4 9^ 


Debit Balance December ist, 1910 ?95 37 

Less — Transferred from Income Account — Final Pay- 
ment on Bonds Purchased 95 37 


Credit Balance December ist, 1910 $4,862 50 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 $4,862 50 

(Exhibit "10") 

November 30th, 1911. 

Credit Balance December ist, 1910 $291 17 


Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Dividends 

C. II. & D. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 

C. & O. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 

Ky. Cent. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 

C. L. & N. Ry. Co. Bond Interest 


Purchases of Books. 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 


Credit Balance December ist, 1910 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 

(Exhibit "11 ") 
November 30th, 1911. 

$21 00 

1S0 00 

63 OO 

60 OO 

340 OO 

$631 17 

197 12 

S434 05 


$8,397 50 
S3 : 397 50 



C. & O. Ry. Co. Bond Interest $225 00 

Debit Balance December ist, 1910 — accruals for in- 
terest & commissions ' . $58 75 


Transferred to Principal Account — Final Pay- 
ment on Bonds Purchased 87 50 

146 25 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 $78 75 


Debit Balance December ist, 1910 $87 50 

Less — Transferred from Income — Final payment on 

Bonds Purchased 87 50 



Credit Balance December ist, 1910 $5> o8 7 5° 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 $5.° s 7 5° 

(Exhibit "12") 


November 30th, 1911. 

Credit Balance December ist, 191 1 $21 6o 


Cincinnati St. Ry. Dividends 12 00 

$33 60 


Purchase of Books 3 2 2 5 

Credit Balance NovEMBER.30th, 191 1 _ St 35 


Credit Balance December ist, 1910 $200 00 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 $200 00 

(Exhibk "13") 

November 30th, 1911. 

Credit Balance at December 1st, 1910 $3* 8o 


Cincinnati St. Ry. Co. Dividends $30 00 

C. L. & N. Bond Interest 4 °° 

Interest on Deposits I 04 

Binding. . . . 

35 04 

$66 84 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 $46 74 


Credit Balance December ist, 1910 $807 64 

Credit Balance November 30th, 191 1 $807 64 



Cincinnati, December 1st, 1911. 
To the President and Members of the Historical and Philosophical 

Society of Ohio, Cincinnati. 
Sirs: — 

In accordance with your instructions, we have examined the 
books of account of The Historical and Philosophical Society 
of Ohio, for the year ended November 30th, 1911, and we re- 
port as follows, submitting as part of this report the following 
Schedules: — 

Schedule "A" — Statement of Assets and Liabilities at Novem- 
ber 30th, 1911. 
Schedule " B" — Statement of Receipts and Disbursements for 
the year ended November 30th, 1911. 
These Schedules are supported by sundry Exhibits, which 
show in detail the principal items contained therein. 

Receipt- and Disbursements have been examined and found 
correct. The Cash balance as shown by the books at date of 
closing, November 30th, 1911, agrees with balance on deposit 
in bank. 

Securities as shown by Investment Account have been duly 
examined and found in accordance with account as shown by 
Exhibit 1. 

The Statement of Assets and Liabilities, Schedule "A," 
represents the financial condition of the Society at date of 
closing, November 30th, 1911. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Guv H. Kennedy. 
Certified Public Accountant. 



Anderson, Davis C. 

Anderson, Larz W. 

Anderson, William H. 

Anderson, Airs. William P. 

Auk, L. A. 

Blake, Rudolph F. 

Battelle, John G. 

Brunswick, B. H. 

Caldwell, Charles E. 

Callahan, John R. 

Carew, Joseph T. 

Cist, Charles M. 

Compton, William C. 

Dabney, Charles W. 

Dandridge, Miss Mary E. 

Davis, Mrs. Nathaniel Henchman 

DeCamp, Walter A. 

Emery, Mrs. Thomas J. 

Foley, B. W. 

Foster, Miss Anna H. 

Foster, William Lytle 

Forchheimer. Mrs. Frederick 

Freiburg, Maurice J. 

Gano, Mrs. John A. 

Goepper, Edward 

Greve, Chailes Theodore 

Hamlin, Miss L. Belle 

Harrison, William H. 

Henderson, Edwin 

Hinkle, Frederick W. 

Hollister, Howard C. 

Holmes, John R. 

Ingalls, M. E, 

James, Davis L. 
Keyes, Miss Mary E. 
Kittredge, Edmund W. 
Levy, Harry M. 
Longworth, Mrs. Nicholas 
Ludlow, William S. 
Miller, Griffin T. 
Outcalt, Miller 
Parkinson, George B. 
Patterson, Jefferson 
Patterson, John H. 
Patterson, Robert 
Pendleton, Elliott H. 
Procter, William Cooper 
Procter, Mrs. William Cooper 
Pyle, E. C. 
Rosenthal, C. H. 
Schmidlapp, J. G. 
Shillito, Stewart 
Storer, Bellamy 
Strobridge, Nelson W. 
Taft Charles P. 
Taylor, William W. 
Voorheis, x\lbert B. 
Whitcomb, Merrick 
Wiborg, Frank B. 
Wiborg, Mrs. Frank B. 
Wilson, Obed J. 
Wilson, Mrs. Obed J. 
Winslow, John F. 
Worthington, Edward. 
Worthington, William. 
Wulsin, Lucien. 



Anderson, Mrs. Louise N. 
Bliss, Eugene F. 
Bullock, James W 
Chatfield, Albert H. 
Chatfield, Mrs. Albert H. 
Fleischmann, Julius 
Fletcher, Mis; Clara B. 
"Gest, Joseph H. 
Hurd, E. O. 
Jones. Frank J. 
Jones, Mrs. Frank J. 

Laws, Miss Annie 
Livingood, Charles J. 
Neave, Miss Alice 
Neave, Miss Jane C. 
Procter, Ilarley T. 
Storer, Mrs. Bellamy 
Thomson, Peter G. 
Vail, Henry H. 
Walker, Mrs. Paul Francis 
VVilby, Joseph 
Woods, Harry F. 


Adams, Charles Francis. 
Cox, Isaac J. 
Duro, Cesario F. 
Foulke, William Dudley 
Galbreath, Charles P. 
Green, Samuel A. 

Hayes, E. G. 
Heath, William McK. 
Hoyt, Albert H. 
Thwaites, Reuben Gold 
Tyson, Philip T. 


Durrett, Reuben T. 
Howe, Mrs. Andrew J. 

Venable, William H. 
Hulbert, Archer B. 


Mrs. Kate Phillips Leaman, June 14, 191 1. 


Volumes IV-VI inclusive' 

Acker, William, V, 70. 

Adair, John, IV, 125. 

Adams, John, IV. 36; VI, no. 2, S. 

Adams, John Q., IV, 105, 116; V, 37. 58; 

VI, 61, 66, 68, 77. 
Alabama, VI, no. 1. 39, 40. 
Alabama river, V, 10, 11, 13, IS; VI, no, 2. 

39, 40. 
Albany, X. Y.. IV. 31. 3-*; V. 40, 42. 53, 57; 

VI, no. 2. 13. 3S. 
Albany Daily Advertiser, V. .',6, 60. 
Albany Evening Journal, V, 60. 

Akron", 0.,'Vl, 'no. 1, 38.' 

Alexander, Mr., IV. 125. 

Alexander, Samuel, VI, r.o. 2, 33. 

Alexander, William. VI, no. 2, 33, 62-64. 

Alexandria, Va.. IV, 26. 

Allward, S. H.. VI, 67. 

Alton, Hi., VI. no. 2. 33. 62. 

America, VI, no. 1. ?2-jo. 

America. 111., VI. no. 2, 33. 62. 

Anderso-., Wilti:.m C, VI, no. 2, 16 letter. 

Andover, Mass., IV, 34. 

Annan. John E., IV, 83. 84. 

Anti-Convention, V. 60. 

Anti-Masons, V 38-40. 55. 61, 64, 71. 

Antioga (Indian Chief), VI, no. 1, 12. 

Archer, John, IV, 6. 

Archer, William S., V, 58. 

Arkansas, \"I, no. I. 30, 40. 

Armstrong, John. VI, no. 2, 7, n letter. 

Arnold, , V, 22. 

Atlantic States. V, 14. 
Austin, Rev. Samuel, IV, 33. 
Bala, Wales, VI. no. I. 22. 

Baldwin, , of Ga., IV, 105. 

Baltimore, Md.. IV, 29; VI, no. 2, 49. 

Baltimore Convention, V. 75. 

Bank of the United States, IV, 137; VI, no. 

2. 32. 
Barbour, James, VI. 76. 
Bailow, loel, IV, 22. 
Barnard— of Roc:- :sr<- : r. V. 65. 
Barry. William, T., VI, 87. 
Basset'3 Creek, V, 10. 
Batavia, X. V., V. 35- 
Bjton Rouge, La., IV, 122. 
Bauin, Martin. IV, 10?. 733; VI. no. 2. 6. 

letter, 7. letter ?.., letix-r, 11, 13. [4, 16. 
Bayou Chafalcar (Aehafalaya) . IV, 122. 
Bavou Plackamines (Plaquemines), IV, 122. 
Beall. Mr., VI. no. 2, 1:. 
Bear Creek. V, ',. 
Bebb, Edward, VI, no. 7, 22. 
Bechtle, John. IV, 123; VI, r.o. 2. 16. 
Bennett, Dr. John, IV, 3. 
Bennect, Priilander, V, 45. 

Bentley, Rev. Mr.. IV, 34. 

Berry. Elijah C, VI. 67. 80. 84. letter. 86. 

Beverly, Mass., IV, 34- 

Bigger, John, IV, 18. 

Bigger. John, Jr., IV. 11S, letter. 

Bishop, Robert H.. IV, 80, letter, 81, letter. 

83, 84, S3, &9- 
Blatchford, Samuel, IV, 32. 
Bledsoe, Albert T.. IV, Sg. 
Bledsoe, Jesse, V, 25. 
Blennerhasset, Harraan, IV, 123. 
BloomLeld, Joseph, IV, 22. 
Blunt, Joseph, V. 61. 
iiogaruu^, Rev. Mr., IV, 32. 
Boston, IV. 35. 37- 
Boudinot, Elias, IV, 8, 9, 57-6i; V, 80, 81, 

Boughton, George H., V, 63. 
Boundaries — Land under Symmes Contract, 

V, 82. 
Bover, Tohn, IV, 113. 
Bradford, Rev. Mr.. IV, 32. 
Bravo river, IV, 122. 
Breckinridge, John, IV, 105. 
Brinkerhorf, Isaac. IV 32. 
Broadwell, Mr.. IV, 117. 
Brockport, N. Y„ V, 66. 
Brown. Clarissa, (Mrs. Zebulon M. Pike) IV, 

Brown, Frastus, VI, no. 2, 36. 38, 39, 40, 

letter, 42. 
Brown, Ethan Allen, VI, no. 2, 42. 
Brown, Dr., IV, 13. 
Brown, George, VI, no. 2. 44. 
Brown, James, IV, iS; V, 7; VI, no. ?., 43, 

Brown, Gen. Jol 1. IV, 103. 
Brown, Obadiah B. IV, 2S. 
Brown, Thomas C, VI, 51. 7L 74- 
Browne, Samuel J., IV, 16, letter, 17, 20, 25 

Browne. John W., IV, 15. 16. 20. letter. 23, 

letter, 25. report. 39- 
Brownstown, VI. 5. 
Buffalo, X. V., V, 44. 49, S3. 63; VI, no. 1. 

11. 38. 
Buffalo Daily Journal, V. 58. 
Buffalo State Corresponding Committee, V, 

Buford, Thomas, VI. no. 2. 0. 
Burdette, X. V.. V. 71. 

Burnet. Jacob, IV, it6; VI. no. 2. 14, 16. 29. 
Burr. Aaron, IV, 114. 118. 119. 121, 123-4. 
Burt. David, V. 67. 71. 
Cadwalader. Rev. D.. VI. no. 1, 34. 
Calhoun. J. C. VI, 67. 
Caledoria, 111., VI, 67. 
Car.ibrelling, Churchill C, V, 48. 

'Vol. VI, Nos. 1 & 2, have separate pagination; Noa. 3 & 4 continue pagination of Xo. 2. 

Camp, John G.. V, 49. 62, 67, 71, 75- 

Campbell. Alexander, IV, 13. 26, 67. 
Campbell, James, V, 22; VI, 86. 
Campbell, Thomas B.. V, 45. 
Canal Commissioners, X. V., V. 41. 
Canby, Israel T., VI, 59. letter. 
Cardiganshire. Wales, VI, no. 1, 26. 
Carman. Wilson, V, 16. 

Ciu.peni.6r, li,u,,., IV 3. 

Casa, Yrujo, Marquis ot, IV, 121, 

Casey. Zadoc, VI, 73- 

Chambers, Benjamin, VI, 49. 

Channon, Rev. Mr., IV, 35- 

Chase. Philander, IV. S3. 

Chautauqua, X. Y.. V, 45- 

Cheves. Langdon. VI, r.o. 2. 23. 25-27, 

Chicago river, VI, no. 2. 41. 

Chidluw, Rev. Benjamin W., VI, no. 1. 7, 

Chillicothe, O., IV, 14. 83. 119. 

Chipman. Harry D.. V, 64. 

Chittenden, Abraham J., IV, 85. 

Choctows. V, 8. 9. 

Chubbs, Mrs., IV. 10S. 

Churchill, Armistead. V, 3. 

Churchill, Mrs. Jane, V. 3. 

Churchill, Mary, V, 3. 

Cincinnati. IV. 10, 25, 64, 71, 72, 75, Si, : 

Ij7; V. £0. 04; VI, no. >. 6, 10, 25, 

VI, no. 2, 6. 7, 21, 44. 
Cincinnati Branch of the National Bank, 

r.o. 2. 22, 23, 25, 2S. 
Cincinnati College. IV. 48, SS, 90. 
Claiborne, Ferdinand L„ IV. 1:1. 116. 
Claiborne, R., IV, 106. no, 115. 
O'-hr.rr-. W. C, C. IV, in. 
Ciark, John. IV, ns. 
Clarke. Daniel, IV, 131. 
Clay. Henry, V, 15. '5. 27, 49-5L 60, 63, 

VI. 56, 61. 63, 64, 66. 
Claypool. Abraham, VI, no. 2, 22. 
Cleveland, O.. VI, no. 1, 38. 
Clinton, DeWitt, V. 41; VI, r.o. 2, 39- 
Clinton, George. IV, 27; VI, 68. 
Coe, Rev. Jonas, IV, 32. 
Colbert, Levi, V, 6. 
Colerain. V, o>. 
Coles, Edward, VI, r.o. 2, 41, 49, 51, 55. 

letter, 75. letter. 
College Tc.vr 'hip. IV, 6-S. 15, 47- 
Collick, Rev. Henry. IV, 24, 30. 
Collins. Joei. IV, S8. 
Columbia, V, Si. 

Columbus, O.. IV, 38. 39; VI. no. 1, io, 
Columbus (Ship), VI, ho. /. 13. 3^>- 
Constitutional Government. IV, 16, 17. 
Conway, Joseph, VI, 72. 
Cook, Bates. V, 44. 

Coo :, Daniel P.. VI. no. 2, 41, 33. 69. 76. 
Coo er, Daniel C, IV, 14. 
Cone--, IV, 1:7. 
Conner, John, IV, 100. 
Corbendal?. Pa., VI. no. 1. 31. 
Corry, William. IV, iS, 19, 24. 
Corwra. Ichabod. IV, 13. 
Covington, 111., VI, 31. 
Craftsman (Rochester, X. Y. newspaper] 

Crawford — of Pa., IV, 127. 

Crawford, William H., VI, no. 2, 19, 56 

63. 64. 66, 69, 77. 
Crosby, Edwin, V, 40. 
Cummins, John X.. IV, 30. 
Curry. Hiram M.. IV. 17. 
Danvers, Mass.. IV, 34. 
Davies, John. VI. 720. J, 26. 
Davies. Joseph. H., V. 24. 
Davis, Matthew L., V, 73. 76. 
Dayton, Ohio, IV, 67. 71. 74- 
Dayton, Jonathan, IV, 7, 30, 51,; V 30 

93, VI. no. 2. 13. 
Deerrield, X. Y.. VI. no. 1, 23. 
Delaware Co., Ohio, VI, r.o. 1, 23. 

Denman, Matthew. V, 80. 

Detroit. VI, no. 2. 5- 

De Witt Clinton (Steamer), VI, no. 1, 

Dorsey, James M., IV, 11, S2, 84 letter. 

Doughtv. General, IV, 30. 

Drake, Daniel, IV, 89; VI, no. 2, 29. 

Duncan, J. M.. VI, 75- 

Dunlavy, Francis, IV, 126. 

Dunwoody — . IV, 113. 

Duzant, Charles, V, 9. 

Dwight, Timothy, IV, 37- 

Farthquake (Mo.), V, 28. 

East Tennessee, V, 14. 

Ebensburg, Pa., VI, no. 1. 31. 38. 

Edgar, John, IV, 99. 

Edmonds, General, VI, no. 2, 22. 

Edwards. Ninian, VI, no. 2. 41. SO, le 

55. 65. 73, 77. 81, S2. 
Edwards. Rev. Thomas. VI, 1:0. i, 30. 
Edwardsville, 111., VI, no. 2, 37, 5S. 
Effner, Elijah D., V, 72. 
Elkhorn Creek, V, 23. 

Elkmdorf of X. Y.. IV, 6. 

Ellicott, Andrew, IV, 97, 101. 

Enibree, Je«e, VI, no. 2, 22. 

Emigration, VI. ?;o. 1, 32-39. 

Erie (Steamboat). VI. no. 1, n. 

Escambia river, V, 12, 19. 

Este, Mr.. IV. 30. 

Este. David K.. IV. 38. 

Eustes, William, IV, 27. 130: VI. no. '<. 

Evans. Rev. Evan B., VI, no. 1. 31. 

Everett. Rev. R., VI, no. /, 29. 

Ewing, W. 

D., VI. 81. S4. 

Vl, no. 1 

Eindlav. Elizabeth Smirh, VI, no. 2. 23. 
Findlay, IV, 14. 18, 19. -'4. 29. 98 

letter, 99, 100-102, 104, 105, letter, ioo, 

10S, 114'. It 5. H7. US. 121 letter, 124. 

126, 12S, 130, 136; VI, no. 2, 10, 11, 14. 

16, 29, 40, 50, 78, 86. 
Findlay. Mrs'. Jane, IV, 107, 115. letter, 136; 

VI, no. 2. 5. 
Findlav, John, IV, 127, 129. 
Findlav, Jonathan S.. IV, 107 letter, 108 

letter, 115 letter, 12S; VI, 49 letter. 
Findlav. Xathan C, IV, 122, 12S letter; VI. 

no. 2. 6. 
Findlav, Thomas, IV, -1, 136 letter. 
Findlav, William, IV, 120, 126, letter. 
Flags. Azariah C, V, 37. 42 letter, 44- 
Florida, V, 13. 
Folch, Gov. Vicente. V. 19. 
Follett, Oran. V, 35. 37 letter. 42. 44 letter 

46, 49 letter, S2 letter, 54 letter, 57-o2, 

63 letter. 6a letter. 73 letter. 
Follett. Girfe (Babcock), V, 35. 
Foote, Samuel A., V, 45. 
Forbes, John, V, 7, 18. 
Forbes & Leslie, V, io. 
Forbes, Panton & Leslie, V, iS. 
Foro.uer, George, VI, So. 
I Fort Bowyer, IV, 133. 
Fort Jefferson, V, 94- 
Fort Hamilton, V, 95. 
Fort Harmar, V, 80. 
Fom Harmar Treaty, IV, 52, 55. 
Fort Massac, IV, 07. 10S. 123; VI. >:o. 2, 33- 
Fort Washington. IV, 18, 52; V, Si, 93- 
Franklin, Ohio, IV, 74- 
French, Di.. IV, 36. 

Gaines , V, 22. 

Gallatin. Albert. IV. 27, I2~; VI. no. 2, 9. 10. 
Gaiiipolis. Ohio, V, 03; VI. :-.o I, 39. 
Gallia Co.. O.. VI, mo. 1. 26, 39. 
Ganscvoort, Herman, V, 4S. 
Geddes, James. VI, no. 2, 36, 42, tetter. 
George. Elias, VI, no. 1, 20. 
Georgetown, D. C. IV, 128. 
Georgetown, Xy., V. 23. 

Genesee river. VI. no. 1. xi. 
Glamorgan. Wa!e3, VI, no. 1, 22. 
Glendy, John, IV. 29. 

Glenn, , IV, 137. 

Glenn, Hugh, VI, Up. 2. 25, 34. 

Goddard, , of Conn., IV, 6. 

Gorham, New York, V, 33. 

f:nh^ra. John. IV. 115. 

Granger, Francis. \ , 38, 40, *,-,, So, --• 

Great Miami river, IV. S, 9, 50. 51. 54- 

Green, Duit, V, 67 letter. 

Greencastle, Pa., V, 31. 

Greenleaf , v. 65. 

Greenev'Ue Headquarters, IV, 95. 
Greenville, Treaty, V, 81. 
Griswo'd. Gaylord. IV, 104. 
Griswold, Roger. IV, 104. 
Guion, Isaac, IV, 9$, 113. 
Gulf of Mexico, V, 12. 13. 
Gwilym, Morgan. VI, no J. 22. 
Gwilym, William, VI, no. 1, 22. 
Haight. Jacob, V, 50. 

Halt, . IV, 123. 

Hall, James. VI. 72. 

Hail, Tuige. VI, 79. 

Hall, Thomas. VI, So letter. 

Halsev, Daniel. IV, 18. 

Halsey, Ichabod B., IV, iS. 

Hamilton. Ohio, IV, 11. is. 17, 69. 74, 8S; 

VI. 52. 
Hamilton, Captain, IV, 100. 
Hampton. General, IV, 129. 
Hanitranck. John F., IV. 98. 
Harper's Ferrv, IV. roo. 
'"- -'-■■'.. R - ■ ■.aiin IV. 6. 
Harrison, Betsey Basset, V, 3. 
Harrison, William Henry, IV, 6, 62, 63; V, 

3; VI, no. 2. 6, 7. 14. 
Hartford, Cor.n.. IV. 37. 

Hatch, of Cincinnati, VI, 62, 63. 

Haverhill, Mass., IV, 54. 

Hawiey. of Rochester, N. V., V, 05, 70. 

Heeld. Nathan, IV, 158. 

Henderson. of X. C, IV, 6, 113. 

Henry. Col. James. V. 3. 

Herkimer Convention, V, 42, 43. 

Herndon, A. J., VI. 87. 

Herndon, William, VI, 87. 

Herrera. Go- . Simon de, IV, 122. 

Hiawatha river, V. 14. 

Higgins. Daniel. IV, 80. 83. 85. 

Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio: 

Annual Report. 1909, IV, 142 

Annual Rencrt. 1910, V, 106 

Annual Report, 1911, VI, S9 

Hoffman, IV, 137. 

Hcliinger, Mrs.. V, n. 

Hopkins, W. H.. VI, no. 2, 35. 

Hopkins & Co.. IV. 37. 

Hough, Joseph, V. 27, 28, 30. 

Houston, Mr.. VI, no. 2, 27. 

Howard, Benjamin, IV, 129. 

Howells, S., VI, no. I. 11. 

Hoxie. Joseph, V, 52. 54, 57 letter, 59 letter, 

60, 61 letter. 62 letter, 72 letter, 76. 
Hubbard. John F. V, 48. 
Hudson river, VI, no. 1, 13 
Hughes, Ezekiel, VI, no. 1. 22. 
Hughes, James, IV, 82. 
Hughes, Thomas, VI, r.o. 1. 24. 
Humphrey, Edward, VI, 76. 
Hunt, Abijah, IV, 3- 
Hunt, Jesse. VI. no. 2. 14. 16. 
Hunt, Riddle. Piatt & Co.. VI. no. 2, iS 

Hunter. Dr. George. Journal of, IV. ro7. 
Illinois, VI, no. I. 39, 40. 
Illinois Canal Commissioners, Minutes of 

Meeting, VI, no. 2, 33- 
Illinois and Michigan Canal, VI, no. 2. 36, 
, 37. 42. 57. 01. 83. 
Idinois river, VI, no. 2. 41. 

Indiana, VI, no. 1, 30. 40. 

Indiana Territory, IV. 105. 

Inglis, Rev. James., IV, 39 

Intendant (Morales), IV, 102. 

Iowa, VI, nd. 1, 39, 40. 

Irwin, Archibald. VI, no. 2, 21, 43. 

Irwin, Tliom-is, IV, iS, 19. 

Irwin, William, YT, no. 2, 10, 21. 

Jackson Andrew, IV, 133. W. V, 37, 3&. 42, 
46. 55. 60, 63. 65, 71. 74; VI. 63. 66, 68, 

Jackson Co.. O., VI, no. 1. 26, 39. 

Jefferson. Thomas, IV, 12, 105; V, 42. 

Jenks. John, IV, 31. 

Jeuks, ■ of Albany Evening Post, V, 53. 


Jesup, Thomas S., IV, 130 letter; VI, r.o. 2, 
10, 21. 

Johnson, Capt. John, V, 5, 10, 69. 

Johnston, Pa., VI, no. /. 38. 

Jones, Abraham, IV, 96. 

Jones. Rev. Jesse, VI, no. 1. 29, 30. 

Jones, Rev. J. S., VI, no. 1. 30. 

Jones, M. M.. VI, r.o. 1. 11. 

Jones, William, VI, no. 2, 24. 

Jones, Lieut., VI, 124. 

Jordan, .Ambrose, L., V, 59. 

Kane, Mr., IV, 31. 

Kankakee river, VI, no. 2, 40, 41. 

Kcskaskias, IV, 99, 102. 

Kemper, Mr. (Rev. James?), IV, So. 

Kentucky, VI, ;:■•. /, 39. 40. 

Kentucky volunteers, VI, no. 2, 5. 

Kent. Chancel!'.;; b.mes, V, 63. 

Kerr, Louis. IV, 125 

Ketch.;-., ihiaai. VI, 61, 6.'. letter, 68 letter, 
70, 76. 

Keys, James, VI, no. 2. 2'S. 

Kilboura, James, IV, 13. 67. 
I King. Dr., IV, 10S, 109. 
j Kncx, General, V, 01. 
i Lafayette, General, VI, 67. 
! Lafittc, Pierre, IV, 132-134- 
I Lake Erie, VI, no. 1. 11. 
j Lake Michigan. VI, r.o. 2, 36, 40, 4.1. 

Lancaster, Pa., IV, 120. 

Langham, S. E„ VI, no. 2. 33- 

Lansingburgh, N. Y., IV, 32. 
! La Pleine river, VI, no. 2, 40, 41. 
! Lathrop, Dr. John, IV, 35- 
1 Laussat, The French prefect, IV, 101, 116. 
I La Vera Cruz, V, r2. 
• Lebanon, G., IV. 13 iS, 47, 67. 
i Lee, Arthur. IV, 51. 
j Leonard, James T.. IV, 124. 
I Leslie, John, V. 19. 
; Lewis, Rev. Hugh, VI, no. 1. 28. 
i Lewis, Merriwether, IV, 9$. 100 letter 
; Levingston, Walter, IV. 51. 
j Lexington. Ky., IV, 96; V, 22, 24. 
1 Licking river, IV, 7 
| Little Chain, Hi., VI. r.o. 2, 33- 
1 Little Miami river, IV. II, 30, 54- 

Little Prairie. V. 29. 30. 

Limestone (now Maysville). Ky., V, So. 

Liverpool, Eng., VI, no.. J, 14. 36. 

Livingston, Edward, IV, 126. 

Livingston. Gov. William, V. 80. 

Llanbrynmair, Wales. VI, no. 1. 22. 

Llangiwc, Wales. VI, no. 1, 22. 

Lloyd, James, IV, 36. 

Lloyd, Rees. VI, no. 1. 6. 

Lockwood, Samuel D-, VI, no. 2, 36. 38. 

Logan. Ccl. John, V . 23. 
I Longman. Hurst & Co., IV, 136. 
1 Longworth. Mcnekis. VI. no. 2. 15 letter, it.. 

Losantiville (Cineumari., V. Si. 

Louisiana, VI, to. /. 30. 40; VI. no. 2. 14. 

Louisiana Convention, IV, 104. 

Louisiana Territory. IV, 105. ic6. 

Ludlow, Cornelius, IV. 10. 

Ludlow, Israel, IV, 11; V, 80. 

Ludlow, William, IV, 10-13, 14 letter, 15-18 
23, 33 letter, 65, 66. 

Lumkin, Wilson, V, 5S. 

McArthur, Duncan. VI, no. 2, 5. 

McBiide. James. IV, 3. n letter, 12, 14, IS 
letter, 17 letter. 20, 2a, 48. 79 letter, Si, 
83 letter, 85 letter. S3 letter; V, 21, 27, 

MeE.^e \.?.;aiv, ;V _,<-■- rtc/ V 21 
McClunev. W.. IV, 56 letter. 
McCiure. William, IV, 18; VI, 59- 
McDermott - — , IV, 95. 
MeFarland, William, I\', 119- 

McGillivrav. , V, 7. 

MeGuttev, William H., IV. 89. 

McGuire. James. VI, 7 S. 

Mclntire, James, IV, 21. 

Mcintosh Bluff, V, 10. 

McLean, John. VI, no. 2, 14, S3, 63 letter, 

7T letter, 80-S2. 
McLeansboro, III., VI, 52. 

McPherson, , VI, no. 2, 24. 

McRoberts, Man.-, V, 27. 31. 

McRoberts, Samiiel, VI. 72, 78 letter. 

Madison, Mrs., IV, 129.' 

Madison. James, IV, 27, 105, 129. 

Madison, Ind., VI, 59. 

Maiden. VI, no. 2. 5. 

Marblehead, Ma=s., I\", 34. 

March, Daniel, IV, 5, 7. 

M-tcv. WUharu L,, V, 50, 72, 74. 

Maxwell, John, V, 24. 

Meeker, Williamson & Patton, IV, 109.- 

Mellon. . IV, ri3. 

2.Ic-itou..(ludian>, V, 5. 

Menard. Pierre, VI, 76. 

Mercersbur..;. Pa., VI, no. 2, 10. 

Miami College lands, IV, 66 63, 90. 

Miami Country, IV. iS; V, 2;; VI, 80, 81. 

Miami Exporting Co.. VI, r.o. 2, 3, 9, 11, 13. 

Miami Purchase, IV, 51. 63. 

Miami University, IV, 3-5. 13. 15-18, 25, 45; 

V, S2. S4. 

Miami University Circular, IV 7 . S7. 

Miami University, Commissioner's Report, 

IV. 13. 
Miami University Trustees, IV, 11, 16, 24, 

25. 3?. 69. So, S5. 
Michael. Rev. David. VI, no. 1, 30. 
Michigan, VI, no. 1. 39, 40. 
Mill Creek. Ohio IV. 2. 10. 56. 
Miller. David C„ V, 6S. 
Mississippi, VI, r.o. 1, 39, 40. 
Mississippi river. IV, 123; V, 

VI. no. 2. 17, 33- 
Missouri, V, 39- 
Mitchell. Edward. VI, 07. 
Mobile, IV, 133; V. 19. 
Mobile river. V. 13, 15. 3S. 
Monongahela river, IV, 96. 
Monroe Republican (X. V.), V. 65. 
Montgomery Co.. O., IV, iS. 
Moore, Mr.. V. 9. 
Morrow. Jeremiah. IV, 11, 12 letter 

!7, 2S, 33 

65, 11. 

1 17 

Monteith, Rev. . IV. 32. 

Mt. Vernon. Ala.. V, 11. 
Murray, William. IV, 24. 
Muscle Shoals, V. 5. 7. 
Muskingum river. IV. .50. 
Musson, Mr., VI, no. 2. ip, 20. 
Natchez. IV, go, 97. 122; V, 7, 31- 
National Bank. VI, no. 2. 19. 
National Convention, V, 47, 49. 
National Republican State Central Corre- 
sponding Committee, V, 69. 
Nationals (National Republicans), V, 55, 64. 

Neille. Rev. , IV. 31. 

Nelson's tavern. V, 23. 
Nelson, William, V. 59. 
Newburyport vMass.) fire, IV, 29. 34- 

New Harmony, Ind., VI, 59. 

New Chillicothe, V, 93. 95. 99- 

New Madrid, Mo., V, 28, 29. 

New Orleans, IV, 96, 101, 115. 124, 132; V, 

12, 14, 27; VI, no. 2. 14, 16, 1S-20. See 

Newark. O., VI. no. 1, 24, 38. 
Newport. Ky., VI. no. 2, 21. 
New York City, V, 44, 57. 59, 61; VI, no. 1. 

30. 37. 
New York Branch-National Repub. State 

Corresponding committee. V, 61, 6S, 69 

letter, 70, 71. 
New York Courier and Enquirer, V, 55. 57. 
New York Senate, V, 48. 
New York State Convention, V, 46. 47, 62, 66. 
Niagara Falls, VI, no. 1, 11. 
Nimmo, Matthew, IV, 119. 
North Bend, Ind.. V. 81, 93- 
Northwest Territory. IV, 6, 11, 14, 1S48. 
Norton. Ebenezer, F., V, 44. 
O'FaUon, James. VI, 74- 
Ogden, Aaron, IV, 114; VI, no. 1, 15. 39. 40; 

VI. no. 2, 13. 
Ogden. Daniel B.. V. 61. 
Ohio, IV, 10, 11, 61-69, 79. 
Ohio Canals, VI, r.o. J, 17. 25. 26. 
Ohio Climate. VI. no. 1. iS. 
Ohio Company Fur-hase. IV, 49. 
Ohio Journal. VI, no. 1. 19. 
Ohio Laws, VI, no. 1. 18. 
Ohio river, IV. 7-9. 5?. 5'. 54. 67- 
Ohio Schools, VI, r.o. I, 20. 
Ohio Soil, VI, no. I. 16. 
Ohio State Prison, VI. no. I. 10. 
Ohio Taxes, VI, no. 1, 19. 
Ohio University (Athens), IV, 14, 80. 
Ohio Volunteers. VI, no. 2. 5. 
Olcott. Mr., VI, r.o. 2. 33- 
Oneida Co.. N. Y.. VI, no. 1, 13. 
Ouondago Tribe, VI, no. 1. 12. 
Orleans (New Orleans), IV, 99, 105- 
Oriear.s' Port, IV, oS. 
Osgood, Samuel, IV, 51. 
Owl Creek, Ohio. VI, no. 1. 25. 
Oxford, Ohio, IV. 3, 15-17, 20, 45. 46, 69, 

72, 74. 76. 79- 
Paddv's Run. O., VI, no. 1. 22. 
Palmyra, Ohio, VI. no. I. 25. 38. 
Panton & Lesley. V. 19. 
Parker, Josiah, IV, 95. 
Parker. Mrs., VI, r.o. 2. 10. 
Parrv, Rev. W.. VI. no. 1. 24. 
Parsons. Samuel Holden. V, 80. 
Patterson, Commodore, IV, 132. 
Patters m Sc Hopkins, IV, 37. 
Patterson, Robert. V, So. 
Pensacola. IV, 121; V, 7, S, 11, 12, 16, 17. 19- 
Perdido river, V, 11, 19- 
Perry, Samuel. IV, 132, letter 133 letter, 134 

Perrvsbur«. Ohio. VI. no. 1, 3S. 
Philadelphia, IV, 37: VI, no. 1, 38; VI, no. 2. 

24, 44. 
Phillips, John, IV. 35; VI, no. 2. 51 letter. 

Phillips. Ralph. IV, 2.1. 
Piatt, John H., VI. no. 2, 16. 32. 
Pierce, Tohn IV, 07; V, 11. 
Pierce. William, V, 11. 
Pike. Clara H., IV. 133 letter. 
Pike, Zebulon M., IV, 99 letter, 102 letter. 

Pirckney. William, of Md., IV, 137, 13S. 
Piqua, Ohio. VI, no. 1, 39. 
Pittsburg, IV, 26; VI, no. 1, 303S; VI, r.o. 

2. 7. 
Pitchelin. V, 8. 9. 
Poe, Margaret. V. 22. 
Poe, James, V, 22. 
Pontchartrain Lake, IV, 12 r. 
Pope, John, IV. 27; V. 25, 27. 

Pope, Percy Smith, IV, 96, 97, 
Portage Co., O., VI, no. 1, 25. 
Porter, Peter B., V, 51. 62. 
Post, Justus. VI, no. 2. 39. 

Postlethwaite. , V. 24. 

Potter, Heman B., V., 67. 
Potts, Stacy, IV, 22, 24, 30. 
Pottsville, Pa.. VI. no. 1, 31. 

Prince. Dr. John, IV, 33. 

Prince, Capt. Joseph, IV, 33. 

Pruudra, Dr.. IV, 32. 

Pryce, Rev. ii. R., VI, no. J, n.. 

Putnam Co., O., VI, no. 1. 17, 26, 38. 30. 

Radnor, Ohio, VI, no. 1. 11, 23. 38. 

Ralston, James, V, 27. 

Ralston, Robert, IV, 34- 

Randolph, John, IV, 6, 104, 116. 

Rankin, Rev. Adam. V, 23. 

Rational Society of Oxford, O., IV, 11. 

Raymond. S. G., V, 70. 

Reed, Andrew. IV. iS. 

Rees. Theophilus, VI, no. 1. 24. 

Reigley. Dr.. IV, 13. 

Reily, John. IV. 15. iS, 3S. 

Religion of I'. S., VI, no. 1, 21. 

Remsen, N. Y., VI. no. J. 29. 

Reynolds, — — of Rochester, V, C;.. 

Reynolds, Thomas, VI, 56, So, 81. 

Richards. Rev. J.. VI, ro. J. 3". 

Roberts. Elijah J., V, 48. 

Roberts. Rev. George, VI, no. J. 3- 

Roberts, John. VI, r.o. I, 22, 23. 

Roberts, Matv (McRoberts), V, 31. 

1 " ,■ .".."' rris. VI, ro. ' 20 

Robinson. John M., V i. no. 2, 71. 

Rochester, N T . Y.. VI, r.o. 1. 13. 

Rochester. William B., V, 72-76. 

Rodney, Thoina*. IV, 113. 

Root, Erastus, V. 38-40, 42, 48, 54-57- 

Rooker, James, IV, 28. 

Ross, George T., IV, 132. 

Ross, Ogden. IV, 18, 19. 

Rowland, Ann. VI. no. J, 22. 

Rush, Richard. VI, no. 2, 75. 

Russell, , V. 53. 

Ryckman, Gerut V."., V, 47. 

St., V. 1Q. 

St. Bernard's Bav. IV. 122. 

St. Clair. Arthur", IV, 7. 14. iS. 57; V, 81; 

VI. no. 2. 33. 
St. Domingo, I\ , 101. 
St. George. Del.. IV, 20. 
St. Louis, VI, 7io. 2. 49. 
St. Stephens, V. 8, 13, 19. 
Salem, .Mass.. IV, 34. 
Sanderson & White. IV, 124. 
Sandusky, O.. 94; VI, no. 1. 11. 
Sanford, N'athan, V. 4S. 
Sanfoid, Thoruas, IV, 104 letter. 
Santafee, IV, 1:2. 
Sargent, Cutler & Co.. IV. 49, 50. 
Sargent. Winthrop. IV, 97, 113. 
Schenck. P. T. IV, 122. 
Schenectady, N. Y.. IV, 34. 
Scioto Company, IV, 13. 
Scioto river. IV, 50. 
Scott Co., Ky.. V. 22. 
Scott, John, of Mo., VI, no. 2, 25. 
Scott, Dr. John M., VI, no. 2. 7. 
Scott, Col. William, IV, 113. 

Se?mour, , IV, 111. 

Second U. S. Bank, Cincinnati Branch of, 

VI, no. 2. 20. 
Seaman. Dr.. IV, 114. 
Shaw's settlement, V. 9. 
Sha\vneetov\ n. VI, no. 2. 38, 49. 
Short, Charles Wilkins, V, 3. 
Snort, John Clevcs, V, 3. 
Short, Peyton, V, 3, 15. 20. 
Short. Wiliiam, V. 3. 
Skipwith. Lady Elizabeth, V, 3. 

13 letter. 

Slack, John, IV, 23. 

SIoo, Albert. VI, no. 2. 76. 

Sloo, Howell T., VI, no. 2. 21. 07. 76. 

Sloo, JameS, VI, no. 2, 76. 

Sloo, John. VI, no. 2, 76. 

Sloo, N., VI. no. 2. 21. 

Sloo. Mrs. Rebecca Smith Findlay, VI, no. 2, 

S!r.o, f homfus Sr.. VI, no. 2. 49. 75. 76. 

Sloo, Thomas, Jr.. VI. no. 2, 3. 5 letter, 10 
letter, 12, 13 letter, 14-18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 
26, 30. 32, 34. 3<5. 38, 40, 42. 43. 5i. 52, 
letter, 55. 56 letter, 5S letter, 59; (.0. 62, 
63, 65. 67, OS, 71, 72, 75, 73, 80, 84. S5. 
S6 letter. 

Smith, Dorsey &: Co., IV, 133. 

Smith. Findlay & Co., IV, 14, 10, 102. 

Smith. James. IV. 14, 19. 

Smith, John, IV, 10 1 letter, 105 letter, 106 
letter, 107-100, 114 letter, 119, 127, 12S. 

Smith, Jonathan, VI. no. 2, 24. 26. 

Smith, Sheldon, V, 67. 71. 

Smith, Samuel Stanhope, IV, 23, 30. 

Smith, Theophilus W., VI, no. 2, 3^, 36, 38, 
39. 78, 81. 

Sparks, Richard. V. 16. 

Sparrow, William, IV, 83 letter. 

Spencer, Ambrose, V, 38. 

Spencer, Oliver M., VI, 
14. 16. 

Springfield, O., Iv, 74. 

Springfield, 111., VI, SC. 

Starnes, , V, 6, 9. 

Steele, John, IV, 98. 

Stembel. Laura (Mrs. McBridc), V. ; 

tterrett, Chj..l. James. IV, 102, 113. 

Stites, Benjamin, V, 79. »--' 

Steuben, N. Y.. VI, no. 1, 28. 

Strong, , V. 60. 

Stuart. Pallas, P. IV, 121. 

Swan, Caleb, IV, 1(6 letter. 

Swaine, Thomas, IV, 113. 

Symroes. 'Anna (Airs. W; 
V, 3. 

Symmes. Daniel. IV, 16, rS, 19, 24. 

Symines, Johr. Cleves, IV. 6. 7. 12, 13, 22, 
50-65, 1^?: V, 81, 93 letter, ior. 

Svmrnes. John Cleves "To the Respectable 
Public". V. 82. 

Svmrnes, Maria (Mrs. Peyton Short), V, 3. 

Symmes, Mrs. Mary (Cieves), V. 79. 

Symmes' Patent, IV, 55. 56, 7»- 

Symmes' Purchase, IV, 13, 46, 67, 69-71, 79- 

Svmm.-.s, Mrs. Susan IV, 31. 

Semmes, Timothy, V, 79. 

Syracuse, X. Y., VI, re. 1, 12. 

Taimau, George t., V, 70. 

Taylor, Lie it.. IV, 115. 

Tayior, Co . James, IV, 129. 

Taylor, Gs 1. James, VI. no. 2, 7. it. 

Tennessee, VI, no. I. 39, 4.0. 

Tennessee river. V, 5. 
i Thomas, Jesse B., VI. 5c. 53. 55. 56, 81, 82. 
( Thomas, Rev. John. VI, no. I, 25. 

Thompson, Rev. IV. 30. 

Throop, Enos T., V, 33. 39, 42. 

Tibia Creek, V, 0. 

Tiffin, Edward, IV, 120. 

Todd. John, VI, no. 2. -g. 

Toland. Mr. . VI, no. 2. 27. 

Torabigbee river, V, 7. 9-it, 13. IS. 19. 
I Tompkins. Danie! D., V, 43: VI, no. 2. 23. 
j Torrence. George P., IV, 132; VI, no. 2, 34, 
56, 85. 

Toulmin. Harry, V. n, 16, i3. 
I Tracy. Albert H.. V. 39, 72. 
I Ttansylvama University, V, 24. 
! Trenton Circular, V, 32. 

Trenton, N. J.. IV, 22, 23. 
I Troy, N. Y,, IV, 32. 
I Troy. Ohio, IV, 74- 
; Tuscaroras. VI, no. I. 12. 

II. Harrison). 


VI. no. 1, 63, 

Tyler, Comfort, IV, 133. 
United States Bank, IV, 26. 
United States Bank party, V. 59- 
United States Congress, IV, 7, 9, II, 4 

69, 71. 
United States Land Office, Cincinnati 

2, 10. 64, 65. 
Urbana, Ohio, IV. 71, 74- VI. 86. 
Utica, A. V., VI, no. I. I2-, I.?, 27, 26. 
Van Buren, Martin, V, 

Vance, Rev. James, V, 23. 
Vance, Mrs. Margaret, V, 23. 
Van Cleve. Benjamin, IV, iS. 
Vandalia, VI, 53, 59- 

Van Lear, 01" MdL, IV, 21. 

Van Lear, Jack, IV, 127. 

Van Renseller. Mr. , IV. 31- 

Van Wert Co., O.. VI, no. I, 17, 26, 38, 

Vertner, Daniel. IV, 99. 

Victor. (Claude, French Marshal), 

Ward, William, IV, 17. 
Warnock. Judge. VI, 80. 
Warner, Admiral, VI, no. 2, 10. 
Warren Co., Ohio, IV, 13, iS, 67. 1 rS. 
Washington. D. C, IV, 27. 28, 104, 114, 

117. 130; VI. no. 2, 2S. 
Washington Extra Telegraph, V, 67. 
Washiigion, George, IV, 7, 32. 
Waterford, N. Y..TV, 32. 
Wattles, John O.. VI, 74. 
Webb, Henry L., VI, r.o. 2, 33. 34. 62, 

65, 67 letter. 

Webb, John. Jr.. IV, 06. 

Weed, Thurlow, V, 35, 39. 5S letter. 

Wells, Thomas C, V, 70. 

West, Emanuel J., VI, no. 2, 36, 38, 39, 40 

letter, 42, 72, 7S. 
West Florida, V, 12, 14. 
Wheeling, VI, r.o. 2, 8, .14. 
White, Edward. IV, 11. 

White, Henry. V. 46 letter. 

White. Jacob, IV, 10-12. 65. 66. 

Whiteman, Benjamin, IV, 18. 

Whiting & Watson, IV, 37- 

Whitlock, Ambrose, IV, 102, 103. 

Whitlocfc, James. VI, 79. 

Wilkins. Charles, V, 15. 16. 19. 

Wilkinson, James, IV, 95, letter 101. too. 

Williams., — : - of Haml'ton. O., IV. 45. 
Williams, Robert, A', 112. 
Williams. Thomas, IV, 105, 130. 
Williamsburg, Ohio, IV. 25. 

Willet. Elbert, IV, 32. 

Wilson, Rev. Joshua L., IV, 67. 

Wilson, Mrs. Katherine (Henry), V, 16. 

Wilson, Robert j., IV. 14, 67. 

Wilson, Thomas, VI, no. 2, 26, 32, 33 

Winder, Genera! (Wrn. H.), IV. 137. 13S. 

Winston, William. IV. 95- 

Wirt, William, IV, 137; V, 51. 50, 63. 

Wisconsin, VI. no. J. 39, 40. 

Wood. Dr., IV, 119. 

Wood, of Ohio Univ., IV, So. 

Woodward High School. Cincinnati. IV, 88. 
Workers (Working Men's party), V, 40. 

Workman, Mr. . IV, 126. 

Worcester. Mass.. IV, 33. 

Worth, Gorham A., Letters of:— 20. 22, 23, 

24, 25, 26, 2:;. 3-, 32. 55, 60, 62, 63, 68. 
Worthington, Thomas, IV, 26, 105, 130; 

VI, no. 1. 2S. 
Wright, Senator, (of Md.), IV. 114. 
Wright, Benjamin, VI. no: 2. 36. 
Wright, S:L;>, \. 48. 
Yale College, IV, 3 7. 
Yeatman, Griffin, IV. 98. 
Yellow Springs, O., IV, 13. 67. 
Young, Judge R. M.. VI. no. 2, 73- 
Young. Samuel. VI, no. 2, 16, 41. 
Youngs, John, VI, no. 2. 71 letter. 
Xenia, Ohio, IV, 74.