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Full text of "Quarterly report of the Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture"

Title: Quarterly report of the Pennsylvania Board of 

Agriculture, no. 35 

Place of Publication: Harrisburg, Pa. 

Copyright Date: 1887 

Master Negative Storage Number: MNS# PSt SNPaAgOl 7.9 



■J'l . 



THIRTY-FIFTH 



QUARTERLY REPORT 



OF THE 



PENNSYLVANIA 



Board of Agriculture, 



1887. 



HAERISBURG: 

EDWIN K. MEYERS, STATE PRINTER, 

1887. 



E(o30.873 



r^\ 






fv 



THIRTY-FIFTH 
QUAHTKRLY REPORT 



OF THE 



PENNSYLVANIA BOA RD OF AGRICULTORE. 

PKNNSVLVANIA BOAUU OF AGRICULTURE, 18S7. 



Members Ex-OlUcio. 



Hon. James A. Beaver, Governor. 




Coll eye. 



Appointed by the Governor. 

€ol. James Young, Middletown, Pa. 

Dr. John P. Edii^N T)o\vningto\vn, 1 a., 

Will r». Powell, Springlx )!•()', I'a., 

Elected by County Agricultural Societies. 



Term expires. 

.... 1SS8 

. . . ISHO 

1890 



Adams, 
Armstrong, 
Beaver, 
l^edford, . 

Berks, . . 

Bucks, . . 

lilair, . . . 

Bradford, 

Butler, . . 
<'entre, . . 

<'hester, . 

(iinton, . 

Columbia, 



I. riarretson, . . 
Jos. Painter, 
A. L. ^SrcKibben, 
J. E. >'ol)le, . . 
J. (r. Zerr, . . . 
E. Ileeder, . . . 
J. 1). llieks, . 
H. T.. Scott, . . 
H. M. Wise, . 
E. W. Hale, . . 
Thomas J. Edge, 
. J. A. llerr, 
, Cliandlee Eves, 



Bigler, 



Term expires. 

1SS8 

. Kittanning, l^^^O 

. (ireen (iarden, . . . .^ISUO 

. Waterside, l^^^O" 

. (^eiger's Mill, .... 1S89 

. New Hope, 1«90 

. Altoona, 1H80 

. Towanda, 1889 

. Harmon V, 18^8 

. Bellelbnt<% 18S8 

. Harrisburg, 181H) 

. Cedar Springs, .... ISVK) 

. Millville, 18.^8 

. Conneautville, .... 1889 



<'rawi<»rd,' '. cSV. Mulli^^,' . '. ' " ' ' ' . Mt. Holly Sidings, . . 18>8 



Cund)erland, 
Hauphin, 
Delaware, . . 
Erie, . . . . 

Indiana, . . 

Jciicrson, 



(t. Hiester, .... 
E. Hjuvey, .... 
J. C. Thornton, . . 
W. P. Gordon, . . 
J. MeCraeken, Jr., 



„v ..V ..>,..., . - WiKoTi "Oil i\«»\cii, 

I^ackawanna ' M V i "' ' ' • • • .Marietta. . . 

1--'".'>V'"' l'l> 1?™ ■ ■ ■ ; \ll.>.t.>wn. 

I-^'1"K'' t ! I'm. '...... Kiniiston, 

^'"'■^r"'i', ; :i;.Vi;K...W.nun> WiHiaMis,,ort 

Ijycommg, m,.i'.... . . . Mereer. . . . 



;>rercer, 
Montgomery, 
Montour, . . 
Northampton, 



Harrisburg, 18S8 

Chester, 1^^9 

A von la, 18«*^9 

Black Liek, 18^9 

l<'rostl)urg, l^^O 

Port Uoval, 1888 

1888 
1889 
1SS8 

IS'KJ 

1888 
1888 
1890 

Trai)pe, 1^^^<^ 

Einu'stoneville, . . . 1889 



Northuml)erlan<l lohn Hoda, . • 

SonuM'set C. C Mussel mann, 

Schuylkill, -J- ?; ^y^^^'tll • ■ 

Sullivan, I- L- ^l^^^f ^'' • • 

Susciuehanna ^^ xl' "^M^i \. ' ' 

Tioga, '1'^}'/:^''''^'}' • ■ 



Wvoming, 
Tork, . . 



K. McKee, 

H. W. Kratz, . 

Thos. L. Clapp, .> ., , • , .„ iw88 

V T> ^himer . • • B>ethlehem, 1888 

''• l>-^''>"^<^ Milton, l^iH) 

Sonu'rset, ^889 

Orwigsburg, l"^- 

H ill's (;rove, l-'^88 

Montrose, 1889 

Wellsboro', 1889 

ls«0 
18-89 
1889 
18<)0 
1888 
1889 
1888 
1889 



Lewisburg, 



1 "'*>^b •;-.;Y ciMtes Oil City, . 

^^'^ango v i5* m icr * ■ . Sugar Crove, 

Warren, i ^rid^ weU ' " ' ' • • Washington, 

}J>^'>^'^^^^>^^ N.^ C der;voo<li Lake Como, 

^^i^vue, . F V rionner (Ireensburg, 

Westmoreland, \'\ 1, ?.V,l,;ii' * ' ' * Vosburg, . . 



N. Cr. l^nnnell, % osnurg, 

W. S. Rowland, ^ oi K, 



• Died April 21, 1887. 



t Died February 22, 1887. 



QUARTKKLY IvKI'ORT. 



OFFICIAL LIST 



President. 
Hon. James A. Beaver, (ex-o[ficio.) 



M. W. Oliver, 



Hon. James A. Beaver, 
C. C. Musselman, 
E. Reeder, 



Vice Presidents. 
Dr. J. P. Edge, 

Executive Committee. 
W. S. Roland, 
G. Hiester, 
J. McDowell, 



N. F. Underwood, 



J. P. Barnes, 

J. A. Herr, 

T. J. Edge, {cx-ojficio. > 



W. S. Roland, 



Advisory Committee. 
J. P. Barnes, G. Hiester. 

Thos. J. Edge, (ex-officio.) 

Secretary. 
Thos. J. Edge, Harrisburg. 

Botanist. 
Thos. Meehan, Germantow n. 

Pomotoffist. 
E. Satterthwaite, Jenkintown. 

• 

Chemist. 
Prof. F. A. Genth, University of Pennsylvania. 

Consultinfj Veterinary Surpeon. 
Prof. R. S. Huidekoper, I^niversity of Pennsylvania. 

Veterinary Surf/ron. 
Dr. F. Bridge, V. S., West Philadelphia. 

Microscopists and Ilygienists. 
Dr. H. Leffmaun, Philadelphia, Prof. C. B. Coehran, West Chester, 

Entomologist. 
Prof. W. A. Buckhout, State College. 

Omit hoi o (fist. 
Dr. B. II. Warren, West Chester. 

Meteo rolof/ist.*. 
Prof. I. T. Osmond, State College, J. T^. Heat-ock, QuakOi-town.. 

Miner at o(/isf. 
Prof. J. Wilcox, Philadclph'a. 

Geologist. 
Prof. J. P. Lesley, Philadelphiii. 

tStenographer. 
Col. II. C. Demming, Harrisburg.. 



i 




Pennsylvania Board of Aoriciilture. 
STANDING COMMITTEES— 18S7. 



Hon. J. A. Beaver, 
C. C. Musselman, 
E. Reeder, 

W. S. Roland, 



Dr. J. P. Edge, 
J. McDowell, 
J. A. Gundy, 

(r. I roister, 
H. M. Engle, 
M. W. Oliver, 
H. \\ . Kratz, 

W. G'ates, 
J. E. Noble, 
H. M. Engle, 
J. Young, 

M. W. Oliver, 
I. Garretson, 
Arthur Todd, 

J. P. Barnes, 
W. Gates, 
G. Hiester, 

J. McDowell, 
Will B. Powell, 
J. A. Herr, 

D. Wilson, 
U. n. Colvin, 
Chandlee Eves, 

I. Garretson, 
J. A. Herr, 

N. F. I^nderwood, 

J. A. Herr, 
J. McDowell, 
J. C. Thornton, 
R. S. Searle, 
C. 1^ Lantz, 

N. F. Underwood, 
J. McDowell, 
J. C. Thornton, 

E. Reeder, 
H. li. Scott, 
M. W. Oliver, 

C. C. Musselman, 
B. H. Warren, 
G. Heister, 

H. M. Engle, 
J. E. Noble, 
I. Garretson, 

B. 11. Warren, 
Fj. Reeder, 

C. W. Roberts, 



E xK(n} TivE Com mittee. 
W. S. Roland, -T. P- Barnes, 

G. Hiester, J. A. Herr, 

J. McDowell, T. J. Edge, {ex-oXJicio.) 

Advisory Committee. 
J. P. Barnes, G. Hiester. 

T. J. Edge, {ex-officio.) 

Eechslation. 

W. S. Roland, N. F. Underwood, 

William Gat<is, C. C. Musselman, 

J. W. Hicks, T. J. Edge, {ex-o^ljicio.) 

Fruit and Fruit Culture. 
D. Wils(m, C. C. Musselman, 

W\ S. Roland, N. F. Underwood, 

T. U. Clapp, -T. A. Herr, 

H. H. Colvin, J- (^dder. 

P^ORESTS AND FORESTRY. 



J. Painter, 
Dr. J. \\ Edge, 
C. H. Uantz, 
II. L. Scott.. 



J. Shallcross, 

Mrs. M. E. Thomas, 

A. L. McKibben. 



I. Garretson, 
,1. A. Herr, 
.1. McCracken, Jr., 
T. Meehan, 

Apiary. 
H. H. Brown, 
G. Prizer, 
E. Harvey, 

Silk and Silk Culture. 
R. S. Searle, G. W. Atlierton, 

Dr. J. T'. Edge, J. G. Zerr, 

D. II. Foresman, H. H. Colvin. 

Wool and Textile Fibres. 
R. S. Searle, Chandlee Eves, 

Asburv St ruble, Edward Walter, 

J. Yoiing, J. C. ThorntoiL 

Roads and Road Laws. 
T. L. (Uapp, George W. Hood, 

J. Ilotfa, J. I). Hicks, 

H. W. Kratz, F. R. Miller. 

Farm Implements and Machinery. 

G. Hiester, M. W. Oliver, 

E. R(MMler, C C. Musselman. 
W. (iates. 

Cereal Crops. 
R. McKee, 
T. E. Clapp, 

F. Y. Clopper, 
A. D. Shimer, 

II. M. Engle, 

Grasses and Fodder Crops. 
W. P. Shelmire, J. A. Herr, 

F. R. Miller, J. G. Zerr. 
N. G. Bunnell, 

Dairy and Dairy Products. 
C. C. Musselman, Chandlee Eves, 

I. Garretson, R. S. Searle, 

J. G. Zerr, C B. Cochran. 

Useful Birds. 
N. G. Bunnell, 
H. L. Scott, 
J. E. Noble, 

POI'LTRY. 

G. Hiester, 
T. E. (Mapp, 
F, R. Miller, 

ORNITHOLOaV. 

Joseph H. Jackson, 
C. C. Musselman, 
C. J. Pennock, 



F. R. Miller, 
II. M. Wise, 
,1. G. Zerr, 
Chandlee Eves, 
C. C. ^Fusselman. 



E. Reeder, 
Dr. J. P. Edge, 
J. B. Smith. 

W. r. Gordon, 
J. A. (jiundv. 



Will B. Powell, 
G. B. Sennett, 
G. W. Atherton. 



1 



Quarterly Report. 



AX ACT 

To Ut';;iilatc the Mamiract iiio aiul Sale of Commercial Fertilizers. 

Sfctiov 1. Br if riKirtrd, d'c, That ov('ry paeka.iro of coiuinercial fertilizer sol(l» 
otVered or (vxposed for sale, for maiunial purposes, Aviti.iii tiiis ('oniiiumwealth, sliall 
h'ivei)iaiiilv>4aiiipedthereoiithenanieoftluMnanufa(-tur('r,theplaeeotinanutaeture, 

the net weight of its eontents, and an analysis, stating.- the percentap' thereni eon- 
tained of nitroL^Mi, or its e(piival(Mit in amniotiia in an avadal)le torni, ot potasli 
'oluble in water, of soluble and reverted phosplKui.- acid, and ot insoluble phospliorie 
•H-id- ProvUIcK That any eonnnereial fertilizer sold, ottered or exposed lor sa e, 
Nvliieh shall contain none'of the al)ove named eonstituents, shall be exempt Irom the 

^^SFrTioNli Kv'^M''vmanufa(4ur(M'oriuii)()rt(M-of(H)ninier(-ial fertilizers, as speeim^^^^^ 
sec-tion (,ne of this aet, siiali, on or belore tlu> tirst (lay of Auj.ust lu^xt ensuni^ 
olleriu-- the same for sale in this Commonwealth, tile annually m the othee ot the 
Seeretjrrv of the (N)nimonwealth an allidavit, statinjr the amount ot said tertilizer or 
fertilizers sold witliin the State durin.u" the last preeedinjr year ; and i >^^^'^J}^^}''^1\^^ 
b( one hundred tons or less, he or they shall pay to the Treasurer o the State the 
sum of ten dollars for each and every sueh article of sneh eomniereial tertilizer sold 
Mithin tlie State during- the last preceding- year, and if the said amount shall exeeed 
on hundred tons and be less than live liundred tons, he or they shal pay the sum 
of twenty dollars as aforesaid, and if sai<l amount sliall be live hundred tons or more 
he or they sliall pav tlu' sum of tiiirty dollars as aforesaid ; if sueh manutacturer or 
manufacturers or importers shall not have made any sales >yitiiin the ( ommonwealth 
during the preeeding year, he or tliey sliall pay the sum ot ten dollars as aforesaid ; 
iycn-y'sneh manntaeturer or importer, shall at the same time hie with the secretary 
of the board of auriculture a copy of the analysis recpnred by section one ot this a(% 
and shall be entitled to receive f'rom the Secretary of the (Vnnmonwealth a eertiheate 
which shall be eountersigned l)y tiie seeretary of the board of agrieulture, showing 
that the provisions of this act have been eomplied with. 

Sfction 3. Any person selling-, olVerin*,- or ex])osin- for sale any commercial tei- 
tilizer without tile analysis recpiired by section one of this act, or with an analysis 
statini that it contains a larmier percenta^n' of any one or more ot the above namecl 
<.. istituents than is eontained therein, or for the sale of wlucli all he provisions ot 
seetion two haye not been eomplicHl with, shall l)e deemed .yiiilty ot a misdemeanor, 
and on conviction shall forfeit a sum not less than twenty-tive and not exceednig one 
hundnMl dollars for the tirst ollense, and not less tiian two liundred dollars for eaeh 
subscM.ueiit ollense, one half of which shall be tor the use ot the intormer, and the 
remainder for the county la which the eonvietion is seeured: Proinded, Said in- 
former be the purchaser and the goods ])e for his own use. 

SKerioN 4. It shall bi^ the duty of the board of a-riculture to analyze such speci- 
nnmV of <-ommercial fertilizers as may be furnished by its agents, said samples to be 
aecompanied with proper proof, under oath or allirmation, that hey were airly 
arawn ; the fee for such analysis shall be determined by the executive committee of 
-the board, and be l»ased upoii a fixed rate for each determination, shall m no case 
exeeed seventy-five per centum of the usual i)rice paid tor such services, and shall 
be payable froni the treasury of the Commonwealth in the manner as now proyided 

%KrTioN 5. The money paid into the treasury under the pivjvisions of this aet shall 
.constitute a spe(Malfun(rfr(.niwdii(-h the (.()st()f such analysis shall b('pai(l: ^'roruh'd 
That the total ani(>unttlu.sexpen(l(M^ anyone year, shall in no case exeeed the 
anmunt paid into the treasury during the same year, an(l that any nioneysrenniinin^^^ 
ill this special fund at the end of the year shall be passed into the general fund for 

^^ S "('^rVoV!!'' TheU^rm "commercial fertilizers," as used in this act sliall be taken 
to mVan any and every substance imported, manufactured, prepared or sold for fer- 
tilizing or manuring' purposes, exeept barn-yard manure, marl, lime, and wood 
•ishes and not exempt by the provisions of section one of this act. 

sLcTio^^ act shall go into effect on and aft«M- the tirst day ot August, one 

J;housand eight hnmlrcd and seventy-nine. 

Ar,.K.,vKi.-Tl,.. 'Ml. clay ulMuiu-, A. L. ls79. HKNUY M. IIOYT. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 






THE FERTILIZER LAWS OF OTHER STATES. 



Since the passage of tlie present fertilizer law by the Pennsylvania 
Le^islatnre, the niunber oi' States whicii thus protected the consiuners. 
of fertilizers has, year by year increased, until, instead of seven as in 
1879, it has ^rowii to twenty-tour at the present time. These laws 
vary very much in their provisions, but a number of them are founded 
upon the same <>;eneral principles as the laws of our own Sate. In 
order that the general reader may obtain an idea of their construction,. 
we append the followinii: condensed statment of their provisions. 

Alabama. 

nr^t Tt is the duty of the CVnnmissioner of AgricuUure to prepare and distribute 
throughout the Sfate proper circulars, etc., showing the analysis, name, cV:c., ot eaeh - 
eommercial fertilizer* offered in the State. j. . x- 

^Scro))d Tt is the duty of every manufaeturer offering goods in the State to furnish 
the Commissioner of "Agriculture with a written or i)rinted statement showing 
plainly the number of pounds in the packages, the name <»f the manufjieturer and 
the place of manufacture, and the preeentage of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and pot- 
ash. This statcMuent is to be considered a guaranteed analysis, and any falling ott 
from it punishable as provided by another section. . , ,, ^ . ... 

Third It is made the duty of the Commissioner to furnish all manufacturers with 
proner tags (to be attaehed to the i)ackages of fertilizer), marked "guaranteed, and 
Avith the year or season for which tlu\y were issued ; for these tags the manufacturer 
nays at tlie rate of fifty eents i)er ton. . .111^ 

Fourth. Any oiler to sell packages without the proper labels or tags is punishablo 
with a fine of fifty dollars for eaeli offense. • w^ i 1 *i ^ 

Fifth IMiat eyery purefiaser of eomniereial fertilizers has the nght to demand that 
the manufacturer or agent shall, in his ])resenee, draw a sample in a -cordance with 
rules to be established by the Commissioner of Agriculture. . 

^'ixth. Tliat the (^)nimissioner may at any time, and in any plm^e, draw or eause to 
be drawn sann)les of any fertilizers oflered in the State. . , ,, ... ^ m 

S^Tntfi. Tliat all funds arising from the sale of tags shall go into th(^ State Treasury 
for the benefit of the Department of Agricultur(% except one third which is l»J>va>le 
to the State experiment station, cm condition that said sUition shall make all tiie 
analyses reciuired by the the law free of eharge. , ,, * i^ 

FU/hth. rime, land plaster, eotton-seed meal, ashes, and salt are exempted from 

the nrovisions of the act. . , „ *»• • ..:fu 

yinfh. The penalty, in addition to the one previously mentioned, for ofiering with- 
out a license is one hundred dollars. . 

Truth. The penalty for offering fertilizers in unstamped packages, or m paekages- 
not stamped as per liiw, is five hundred dollars. 

Connecticut. 

First That all fertilizers selling for more than ten dollars ]H'r ton must have the- 
nmnlier of pounds, name of fertilizer, name and address of inanuta<-turer, and the 

''^SWv>\?/'Vwh^^^^^^^^ in the State the manufacturer must furnish the 

dim-tor of the C^ouneetic^it experiment station with two eertihed copiers <> j-j-^^y- 
8is, and with a sample of the fertilizer with tiie proper afhdavil that it laiily leprc- 

"'^hi^d^ ^mIc mlnu^cuner must pay to the director as above, the sum often dc>llar^ 
fo, each fertiliz('r ingredient claim'ed' in the fertilizer; this fee eovers the sales of any 
iiunilx'r otiiitouts and to any miioiint. • i • ,i „. „- 

I''>,u-fh N^) fertilizer e<.i. posed in whole or in i>urt ot pulvc'rizec IcMllie , a« oi 
stt^um^ or roa^ l.^ather, oV l..atl.er in any lorn,, unless the analysis Inande.l npon 
the ivi<-ka"<'s shall distinctiv show the presence ot sucli leather. ^ 4 j 

/.' • / Tlal hsh serap shall he uied in any fertilizer nntd it has be^n treated 

witi s In U acid in aecor.lance with tl... <lire<-tions of the exp.;rnnenl station. 

VrMi \11 vi<)lati<ms of anv portion of the act are punisliab c by a hne ol one 
hnndred dollars ior lh<. lirst ofleusc, and double that amount lor eaeh subsequent 

"'!v..Th7/,. The experiuK.nt station is to analyze each fertilizer at least once each year, 
and is authorised to publish th,. analysis for the l-netit ot the consun.er. 



6 



Quarterly Report. 



I>('la\vare. 



IPir.^t. Kxevy inanul\u-turer must furnish the State elieniist with eertitied samples 
of each fertilizer offered in the State. 4^1 ^ «., ,f <i.,,^ ^^f 

Vrlvmr/. Each n-ent must furnish tlu^ same officer, on or betore the first da> ot 
Tulv of eaeh year, witii a similar samite Ibr an olhcial analysis. 

2^/ar / The manufacturer shall pay the State chemist the sum oi forty d()llars or 
each sa n, le sul)mitted l)y liim, and must post up in a conspicuous pla<-(^ m his o hce 
or f u torv^ cer t cate (i the State chemist that lu^ has thus complied with ti.e htw. 

iw /T \n\ pun-h of <-oinmercial fcrlili/ers has the n^ht to take a samp e, 

rnn/i erlv veri tie ) and on the i.avment of tive dollars to the State ciic^mist may de- 
manlnts analysis; this analysisl when verified by the allulavit ol the State chemist, 

shall be evidence in any court of the State. .h^Vauded 

Fifth. Any purchaser who may sliow ])y such analysis that he has bti n atliauuea, 

iviav recover twice the price ol' the fertilizer. A further act provides that- 

;/ThrLav 'ourtslall a).i)oint a ccmimission whose duty it shall be to draw 

samp es of ^rtilizer ottered in the State, and submit theni to the S ate c lennjvt tor 

analysis; it prohibits these commissioners from furuishm- the chemist >vilh the 

""^irnxe't^lu'vaiualioira twelve and one half cents per pound tVu- available 
i.hosDhoric acid, twcntv-two cents for ammonia and eij^ht cents lor potash. . 

^ c The ponaltv for a breach of tlu^ law is fixed at fifty dollars, one halt ot which is 
for'the benefit ()f the informer and the balance for the use ol tlie State. 

J/. The penalty for false branding is two hundred dollars or six inonths imprison- 

'T^The Lcn' V court is to have the analvses (both of the manufacturers and their 
own) samples published for gratuitous distribution, and the State chemist is to 

make an annual report. 

Georgia. 

First, The Commissioner of Agriculture has the power to prevent the sale of any 
brand deemed bv him to be valueless and any otTering or se ling without tirst siil- 
II!ittingas^niplet(, the commissioner is punishable by a fine one halt of which 
ffocis t(rthe informer and tlie remainder to the school tund of the district. 

SrconrL The manufacturer must place upon each package a guarantee! analysis, 
wdiich, in addition to the usual items, must show the per cent of moisture at ZIZ 

"^"^rlirT/. The minimum analysis is placed at ten per cent, of available phosphoric 
acid in acid phosphates, and of eight per cent, of available aci( , and two P^^r cent ot 
ammonia in ammoniated fertilizers. Any goods running ])elow this minimum subjects 

'^l^^r/f Tr^^nm of AgrK-ulture is to employ a competent chemist 

whose certified analyses are to be evidence. _ 

F>fth Tiie commissioner is also authorized to name six inspectors whose tl^it\ i^i 
• shall be to draw and forward to the chemist i)roper samples ot all commercial lertil- 

iyers • 1 v 

\sLrth. The fees of the inspectors is limited to one half the amount received by 
him and in no case can it exceed fifteen hundred dollars i)er yean 

^Srvrnth. The inspectors shall furnish proper tags at the rate ot fifty cents per ton, 
and must pav over all fees at the end of each month. They ar(^ prohibited frojii 
makinir anv insiu'ction until the i>ro]M'r and h\gal fees have ))een paid. . , , . 

Fivl^h. All failures to comi)ly with the provisions of this law are punishable as 
misdemeanor under a general law of the State. 

Indiana. 

First. Before a fertilizer is offered for sale, the State chemist must be furnished 

bv the manufacturer with a lu-operly certified sample. .,^11 i ^ ,. ^o^i. 

"Second. Theresultof the analysis of this sample IS to furnish the brand foi each 

package and the chemist is to furnish the proper tags, l)ut is only to be called upon 

to furnish said tags in even multiples of five hundred, and at no tune less than live 

'^77/?:r J.* Packages without proper labels subject the manufacturers to a penalty of 
from fifty to one hundred dollars. . i ,1 r u 

Fourth. The chemist is to receive from the manufacturer two dollars lor tacli 
analysis and one dolhir per hundred for all tags furnished. 

Fifth. The chemist of Purdue University is constituted the State chemist. 

Kentucky. 

First. All fertilizers sold for more than ten dollars per ton must have a specified 

label on eacli packages , ,. • 1 i i i^i ,e 

See.ovd. The Kentucky Experiment Station must be furnished by the manufac- 
turer with a sami)l<» bef(")n' lh(> goods are ottered for sale. , , , ,, , ., 

Third The dir(>ctor of the stations is to furnish analysis labels (based upon the 
sample sent him) at the rate of one dollar per hundred, and shall be paid hfteim 
dollars for each analysis thus made. 






Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 7 

Fourth. Penalties for violation are fixed at one hundr.Hl dollars, and are payable 

into the State Treasury. 

Ijouisiana. 

First. The manufacturer shall lu'and his packages in the usual manner, and such 
>»i»oTirl is: '1 iriiMr'nitccMl oiic for tlic i)urchaser. 

^^a^L '^h^ oiimiisl^ of AVn-u-ulture shall furnish the maniffacturer with a 

certificate of compliance with the law. The penalty for offering goods for sale with- 
out the proper certificate is one thousand dollars. • „ 1, .,!,..,.« 

Third. It is Uie duty of the commissioner to issue circulars naming such as have 

'^''"v!:!;-'r'Thc'!'>mmissi(>neri^ furnish proper tags marked 'Guaranteed," for 
which he -^hall charu^e at the rate of fifty cents per ton. . 

i^VV/!. The cUnmissicmer shall cause Wunples to 1^^ drawn, under proper restric- 
tions, and shall publish the result of the analysis. 

SirtJi The purchaser may, in the presence of the manufacturer <.r agent, draw a 
saniDleand send it to the Commissioner of Agriculture for ana ysis\ 

AVr-V^T^T^ ^^^« 1^^^^*/^* the fund arising 

from the iale of tags and from penalties, on condition that its chemist performs all 

"^^^'r t!] me? hu;;i ^' asu^ cotbm-seed meal, ashes, salt, and raw bone not treated, 
are exempt from the action of the law. 

Maryland. 

First The percentage of i)hosi)horic acid, ammonia and potash to be stamped on 
each im'kage, an(l auN^ariation o^^ more than two per cent, of ammonia hree per 
eent.\^ phnsi>horic ac-id and one of potash, is punishable by a penalty of two hun- 

'^'lv!;l;>\?Il'The licc^nse fee is at the rate of five dollars for the first one hundred tons 
or less and two dollars additional for eacli hundred tons or fractions thereof. 

TT^^v;/ Vll analvses are t() be niade by the Maryland Agricultural Uollege, and 

thSinstfftu^^^^^^ 

""|.!:;wrAUsamp^^^^^ twenty-five pounds and must 

be drawn in the presence of two witnesses. 

Maine. 

First. All fertilizers selling for less than ten dollars per ton, are exempt under the 

^""^ccovd \11 packages must ])e properly stamped as provided bv other State laws, 
and tiurpenaltv fi>r a false brand is fVom one hundred to five hundred dollars, but a 
^..ri.i inn of one uer cent or less shall not be counted as a violation. 

TMrd iniriic mL fee is at the rate of fifty dollars for the first brand and fifteen 
dofit^yiv>r" additional braml. Tlie ax- 1 docjs not ^M>1> y t<> tlie^rUcle^kim^^ 
porgy chum, or fish scrap, or fish waste of any kind, when it is offeied toi sale un 

''^^In-^' Ti^ Di;iJ;^r ^Ihe State Experiment Station is authorized to draw three 
sam es (in ffen^^^^^ of the State) of each firtilizer each y(.ir and he aver- 

age of three analvsrs shall be ,>ul>lish(.l and shall fix the standing of the fertilizer. 
Fifth. All sam'ples must l)e drawn in the presence of witnesses. 

Massachusetts. 

First All fertilizers retailing for less than twelve dollars per ton, are exempted 

'"'Z^^^^ulJ^ t^\- at the rate of fifty dollars for the first brand, and fifteen 

dollars for each subsequent one. ,i^iiav« 

Third. The penalties vary from fifty to one hundred dollars. 

Miehif?an. 

Fiy-^t. The usual labol or l.rau.l is to bo upon every package oflferecl for sale, under 
'' S^.S 1 '^:::^^:^^^^^^^:^^^l^'^^ tl,e ,.acUa.e, .nust be re- 

'"■"^7'!:;>J" '^^m^.^Z^::^i:'xo:SZ:::^^-^<^>^r. ,.. tou, are exou.,>.. 

i'o,!;-//^ The license fee is nxod at twenty dollars p.'r brand, witho.it r.'gard to the 

"'i^W/: Thelicense fees go to the Board of AgH.-.Hu,-.. foyhe...,H.n^^^^^^^^^^ 

on in the name of the board. ,,..., 

Mississippi, 

Fir.f. Kvorv u.anufa..tur.r nn.st keen, in a <-<>"-T'ri';",'.o^''"'"" "' "'' "'"''*' "'" ^''"" 
tory, an analysis of every brand offered lor sale ui the Slate. 



8 Quarterly Report. 

SrcniHl Tlic i)rof('ssor of c-lieniistry at the Stark ville Agrii-iiltural College is made 

ex-oljlcio the Stale i-heniist. ". 

Third. It is his dutv to analyze samples furnished him by ''manulaeturers, ven- 
dors, and other persoiis using the same," and he nmst give all sueh a eertified copy 

of the analysis. . . ., , , . i ^i 

Fonrth. lOyerv i)a('kage must have attached to it the usual analysis, and the man- 
iifaeturer must iurnish tlu' chemist with a certified sample for analysis. 

Fifth. For each analysis of a sample sent by iiim, the manufacturer must pay the 
fee of twenty dollars to the cluMiiist. Purchasers may, in the ]>res(^nce of witm^sses, 
draw and send to the chemist, samplet^ of goods purchased by them; such analysis 
are to l)e made free of ciiarge. 

Sixth. Every manufacturer must furnish the i)urchaser with a certihed copy ot the 
analysis furnished by the State chemist. , , , 

Seventh. Any purc'haser finding himself defrauded may recovcn- double the price 
of the iroods p'urchascd. In the case of non-resident manufacturers, the agent is re- 
sponsible. 

New Hanii)shire. 

First. The usual analysis must be attached or branded upon all packages. 

Second. The license fees are at the rate of twenty dollars for tiie first brand, and 
fifteen dollars for each succeeding one. 

Third. Tlie penalties for a violation of any portion of tlie law, vary from hfty to 
one hundred dollars. 

F(nirth. The State Board of Agriculture shall annually have analyzed at least one 
sample of each fertilizer sold in the State, and sliall report the results of these analy- 
sis for the benefit of parties interested. . 

Fifth. All fees are for the benefit of th(^ Board of Agriculture, but the amount paid 
in as fees is the limit of the amount whi<'h may be expended for the purpose of 
analysis. 

Sixth. The Board are made the prosecutors in all suits under the law. 

New Jersey. 

First. The usual analysis to be on each i)ackage. 

Second. TMie chemist of the Board of Agriculture to analyze one or more samples 
of eacli fertilizer offered in the State. 

Third. The chemist of the Board to receive fifteen dollars for each certificate of 
analysis issued by iiim. 

Fourth. Tlie penalty for any violation varies from fifty to one hundred dollars. 

New York. 

First. The usual analysis upon each package offered for sale. 

Seco7id. For selling a' package without the analysis, \hv ])enalty is one hundred 
dollars; for a false analysis, the penalty is two hundred dollars; Ijoth payal)le to the 

purchaser. 

Third. The analysis may show a variation of not more tlian one fourth of one jj^r 
cent, in any one iiigredient without subjecting the manufacturer to the penalty. 

Fourth. Any couimen-inl or other fertilizer sold lor less than one half cent per 
pound, is exempted Irom tlie provisions of the act. 

North Carolina. 

First. Each and every brand offered for sale in the State must pay a privilege tax 
of five lumdred dollars annually. 

Second. 'Vhis tax exemi)ts the manufacturer from all other taxes, whether State, 

city or county. . , . , i, 

Third. Lots left over at the end of the year, not exceeding ten tons m one lot, sliall 
not be subject to another tax the succeeding year. 

Fourth. ''Vhv braiid must show th(» proportions of the usual ingredients, and any 
fertilizer found with an analysis higher than is found in the goods, becomes the prop- 
erty of the Department of Agriculture. 

Fifth. In cases of dispute as to the quality of any lot of fertilizer, the sheriff of the 
county shall seize and take possession until the (lispute is settled ])y the court, and 
tlie gc')ods ordered from his j)()ssession into that of the ])roi)er ])arty. 

Sixth. The chemist of the State Experiment Station is the ollicial State chemist. 

Seventh. The Department of Agriculture may call ui)()n any railroad for a state- 
ment of the amount of fertilizers carried })y it, and the proper otlicer of the T>ei)Mrt- 
ment has access to the Ijooks of all carrying comi)anies, for the purpose of obiainmg 
this information. 

Oliio. 

First. Any fertilizer retailing for less than ten dollars per ton is not affected by the 

act. 

Secoml. The ordinary analysis shall V)e attached to each i)ackage, and the Board of 
Agriculture sh.all be furnished with a sample (by the manufacturer) of every brand 
of fertilizer. 

Third. The license fee is fixed at twenty dollars for each brand, without regard to 
the number of brands or the amount of sales. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



9^ 



^> 



Fourth. All funds from license fees are set apart for the expense of analyses, and 
any sur})lus at the end of the year is to be credited to the fund of tlu' Board of Agri- 
culture. . ,,1^1 

Fifth. The penalty for any violation of tlie law is from two hundred to hve liuii- 
dred d<)llars, and the manufacturer is liable to the purchaser in a suit for damages. 

Sixth. A deficiency of one per cent, in any one ingredient is allowed to pass with- 
out being considered a violation of the law. 

Si'venth. The B()ard of Agriculture shall deputize persons to draw samples, and all 
suits shall be in the name of the board. 

Rhode Island. 

First. Any fertilizer selling at retail for twely(^ dollars, or less, is exempt. 

Second. Tlu' usual label must be upon all packages. 

Third. The license fee is twenty-liye dollars per brand, without regard to number 

or amount of each sold. , , ^ i i i i 

Fourth. The penalty for violation is fifty dollars for the hrst offence, and double 

that amount for siibse(iuent oiu^s. 

Fifth. All analyses to be i)ublished by the Board of Agriculture. 

Sixth. All liceiise fees are for the benefit of the Board ; but in no case can the 
amount expended for analyses exceed that paid in as license fees. 

SoiitJi Carolina. 

First. The license fee or tax is twenty-five cents per ton for each ton sold, regard- 
less of the numljcr of brands. ^ . V 

Second. Any violation of the law relating to the ])randiiig or marking of the bags, 
or falling off in the guaranteed analysis, is punishable by a fine often dollars lor 

G'lch b'l*'" detected. 
' ThirtT. The Dei^artment of Agriculture is given full power to select samples, and 

to otherwise carry out the law. 

F'ourth. All taxes are available for the purpose of analysis. 

Second. The Commissioner is given the i)ower to fix a minimum analysis, and any 
goods falling V)elow it are liable to condemnation. 

Tennessee. 

First. All packages shall haye attached a tag or lal)el, furnished by the Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture. , ^, . • 

Third. A license fee of fifty cents per ton must be paid to the C ommissioner. 

Fourth. The Commissioner has power to appoint four inspectors, whose compen- 
sation cannot exceed two thirds of the fees of taxes collected by him. In any event, 
his salary shall not exceed two thousand dollars per annum. 

F'ifth. The Director of the State Experiment Station appoints tlie State chemist. 

Sixth. The act does not api^lv to cotton seed meal and home-made lertdizers. 

Seventh. All fees, after the inspectors are paid, are to be paid to the University ot 
Tennessee, for the purpose of paying for the analyses made under the jict. 

Vermont. 

First. The license fee is fifty dollars for each brand per annum. 

Second. Manufacturers must tile a bond of five thousand dollars, as security for a 
faithful compliance with the provisions of the law. 

Third. The i)roper label must be attached to each package, under a penalty ot one 
thousand dollars for each otfense. • , .• 

Fourth. The Board of Auri<Milture must notify the State Treasurer of any violation 
of the act ; and it is the duty of the treasurer to take acti(m in the name of the State. 

Fifth. Bone meal, land ])laster, lime or any natural i)roduct is exempted. 

Sicth. The Jioard of Agriculture is to make at least one analysis of each braml sold 
in the State every year, and make report of its result, for the benefit of those inter- 

ested 
Seventh. The l^niversity of Vermont is to make the necessary analyses, and is to 

receive five dollars for each one made. 

Virginia. 

First. The usual analysis to be placed on ey(M*y sack or package. 

Second. The penalties" yary from one hundred to two hundred dollars, and one halt 

is for the benefit of the informer. 

Third. Resident agents are responsible for the goods of non-resident manufacturers. 

Fourth. The penalty for adulteration is tix<'d at live hundred dollars. 

\l''est Virj^inia. 

• i^ir.T^ The usual analysis to be attached to each package. .. .i « * 

Second. The i)enalty for violation, or for a false analysis, is hfty dollars for the first 

otfense, and two humlred dollars for each subs<>(iuent one. , 

Third. The West Virginia University is made the ollicial organ for carrying out 

^Four'th. In all suits one Iialf of the penalty goes to the informer, and the remainder- 
to the State. 



) 



10 



Quarterly Report. 



ONE HUNDRED POINTS IN MAIXTAIXING AND 

KESTOKING FEKTILTTY. 



By the Secretary. 



In all i>rol)lems having for their object the maintenance ot lertility 
at a fixed point, or lor the restoration of exliansted fertility, there are 
certain axioms wliich sliould be kept in view and upon which the solu- 
tion of the probk^m -reatlv depends. Amonu' tliese are the ioUowing : 

F'u^^t That all farm crops mnv be divided into two distinct portions, 
-one of which is derived from tlie soil and is exclusively ^^ soil iood,' 
and the other, which although under certain conditions maybe par- 
tially derived from the soil, yet, if these conditions are not present, is 
derived from the atmosphere. 

Seco7id. To effect the separation or division of these two portions all 
that is necessary is to cause a complete combustion, when the remain- 
ing ash will represent that part which was derived from the soil and 
tlie escaping smoke or gas that which was obtained from the atmos- 

ph(*re 

Third That wdiile this mode of division is not chemically correct, 
yet for all ordinary purposes and for illustration it is sufficiently cor- 

rect. 

Fourth. That the uncertain integer in the case is to be found in cer- 
tain classes of plant food which if not furnished through the soil can 
be obtained I'roni the atmosphere. . 

Fifth, That one of the most important of the unsettled points in 
fertilizing: the soil,is to ascertain what elements can be most economically 
furnished by the medium of the atmosphere and which through the 

.soil. . - , . , 

Sixth. That the largest atmospheric element is carl)()n. wiuch may 
readilv, in the form of decomposed vegetable matter, be added to the 
soil and bv it supplied diredlv to the growing plant. 

Serenfli That we have the following means of restoring exhausted 
fertilitv or of maintaining that which already exists, viz : Plowing 
under green crops, increasing the amount of grain fed on the farm by 
the purchase of that grown upon other land, or l)y the application of 

commercial fertilizers. , , • i 

Eighth. That the increased fertility which follows the plowing down 
of any growing or grown crop must come from one of two sources : It 
must'either come from the atmosi)heric food stored up in and l)y the 
growing cro]), or it must come from the store of food which the crop 
has drawn from the deeper layers of the soil, and which it has (by be- 
ing ])lowed under), deposited near the surface in a position which ren- 
•ders it available to shallow rooted crops. 

Ninth. No actual soil food or plant food derived from the soil can be 
.added by green croi)s turned under, and that all which we can possibly 
expect to accomplished in this way is to draw a supi)ly I'rom the deeper 

soil. . • 1 i_ 1 

"Feitth. That it is an open ({uestion whether it is economical to plow- 
down green crops for the sake of the atmospheric food which we thus 
add to the soil; and that it may be cheaper to obtain these same ele- 
ments directly from the atmosphere. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



11 



Eleventh. That the feeding of the crops grown on the iarni to the 
average of farm stock cannot materially increase its fertility, because 
the soil Ibod lor the crop is not thereby increased. 

Twelfth. That in feeding any grain or other crop on the iarm the 
value of the resultinii; nuniure will in great measure depend upon the 
kind of stock to which it is fed and the use which is made ot the pro- 
duct of this stock. . i. 1 1^ 1 • 

Thirteenth. That if the grain produced upon the farm is led to dairy 
6to(dv, the milk of which is sold off the farm, no increase in fertility is 
made, because the actual increase in soil food is sold oil m the milk m 
the form of ])hosphoric acid and potash. . . ^^- ,. ,, 

Fourteenth. That if the same amount of grain is fed to a dairy the 
product of which is made into butter and the skim milk ted on tlie 
farm, the resulting manure will be of greater value, because the l)utter 
being mainlv fat is the i)roduct of the atmospheric i)ortion of the crop. 
Fifteenth If the grain grown u])on alarm is fed to full grown animals 
not gaining in weight, or to animals fattening, a gain to the manure pile 
wiir ensue, because the soil ibod is not carried olf the iarm, the tat, 
like butter, being mainlv composed of atmospheric elements. 

Sixteenth. That if a given amount of grain or other food is ted to 
growing stock a loss to the farm and to the manure pde must ensue, 
because the elements which are taken to increase the growth of bones 
and tissues are the most valuable of the soil elements, and by the re- 
moval of the animal are lost to the farm entirely. 

Seventeenth. That if a given amount of grain is led to wethers or 
stock sheep, and thev are fattened on the farm, the exhaustion, thougli 
not so great as if the milk from a dairy was taken oil the farm, is yet 
still greater than that sustained by fattening cattle, because the bulk 
of the wool is the ])roduct of soil food, and in this form is taken irom 

the manure ])ile and farm. „ x . ^i i 

Eiiihteenth. That if bv the feeding of clover (hay) f^^^other deep- 
rooted crops a irain in lertility is made, it is due to the fact that the 
stored up fertilitv of the lower and deeper sml is taken up by the 
stalks, and tlirough the manure pile, is restored to the surface soil as 

soil food. . , 1 . 1 L 1 • .. 

Nineteenth. Pasturing full grown animals which are not working oi 

gainin- in weight cannot increase the fertility, lor at best they l)ut 

remove the fertility from one portion of the soil to another, and do not 

add to its amount. . , . . ^- i i • .i . 

Twentieth. That while the soil food oi i)lants is practicably inde- 
;structable, vet there is always a portion in all of our practical teecling 
operations, which is not returned to the soil in the ^ixmeavadable form 

in which it was taken up. ,. 

Twenty-firHt. That in all feeding operations a certain percentage of 
loss of soil food inexperienced by changes of combination winch can- 
not be avoided, ])ut, which render less valuable the resulting manure 

TwentiMcrmKl. Tli;.1 tlie exttMit of any incroase ii. I''rtility, wlji.li 
mav be attained l.v le.-.linjr. will depend upon the care which is aken 
„r ill,, manure, for while the more valual.le parts may not actually be 
destroyed, yet thev may be. and very often are, lost to the tarm and 
jiclds bv leachinii in tlu' yard and similar causes. 

T,m-nty-fh;r<i:'Y\r.xX if <'rops are fed on the Iarm, and proper care 
taken of the manure, all .•ommercial fertilizers ai.pplied. uuist. to the 
extent to which tiiev furnisli soil food, be so much gain m b'rlility 



12 



Quarterly Report. 



for, it is practionlly brinpng- soil food from other land and adding 

it directly to vour soil. 

Iwenif/- fourth. The practical ex])eriment and theory both prove 
clearly, that the one element ot* the soil food of i)lants, winch is most 
likely to be deficient, is p]i()S])lionc acid, and that as a rule the longer 
the cropping tlie greater th(^ exhaustion of tlds element. 

Twenty -iifth. That after phosphoric acid, potash is the next one 
likely to be found deiicienl, but that this deficiency is to a certain ex- 
tent a (luestion of soils, some appearing to be capable of furnishing 
an indefinite su|)i)ly. 

Twenty-srHh. Tliat of all soil food, potash is the most likely to ex- 
ist in the soil in large amounts, and yet from the fact that it is not in 
an avaihd)le form, is of no use to the crops. 

Twenty -Heventh. That the most economical fertilizer for the restora- 
tion of p'hosplioric acid alone, is acidulated South Carolina rock. 

Twentii-eUjhth. Tliat in many cases where the soil is rich in natural 
potash, though not in an available form, it may be more economical 
to render it availalile by the application of lime, than to apply it in 
the form of a commercial salt or fertilizer. 

TweiXty -ninth. That in very many cases the action (beneficial) of 
lime is due to its effect of breaking up existing potasic compounds 
and the formation of new ones in which the potash exists in a more 
soluable or ayailal)le form. 

Thirtieth, That while in a few special cases the same argument may 
hold good with regard to phosphoric acid, yet these cases are so rare 
that a direct application of this element is the most economical. 

Thirty-iirst. Tliat while it is possible for the growing crops to obtain 
all of their nitrogen ammonia from the atmosphere, yet this gain must 
be made through" the medium of the soil, and that the nitrogen must 
pass through the soil ])efore it can become available for tlie use of the 

plant. 

Thirty-second. That w^e have no proof positive that plants are capa- 
ble of absorbing nitrogen ammonia directly from the atmosphere by 
the medium of their leaves ; and that while this ability has been 
•claimed it has airain been disputed and has not been proven correct, 

Thirti/-thir(L That no element of plant soil food can be assimilated 
until it is dissolved by water, and that therefore, all plant food must 
be in some solul)le ibrm to be available. 

Thirty-fourth. That it is very possible that we err in not applying 
enough commercial fertilizer «/ one time, and that if instead of apply- 
ing two hundred pounds to the acre, we were to apply the whole six 
hundred pounds to one acre, we would be the gainers; and that it 
may prove more profitable to allow the other two acres to lay idle. 

Thirty-fifth. That we should look upon the soil as a storehouse of 
food, which will honor our dralts at will, but only in proportion to the 
(le]>osits wliich are from time to time made. 

Thirty-Ki,rth. That no matter by what process it is accomplished, he 
who takes more than he achls will sooner or later overdraw his account, 
no matter how heavy the original deposits may have been. 

Thirty-Heventh. Tliat in as much as phosphoric acid and potash can- 
not bv anv process be supplied from or by the atmosphere, they must 
be supplied from the soil or fertilizer, or exhaustion must follow sooner 

or later. 

Thirty-eiyhth. That we have occasional areas so rich in potash that 
continued applications of phosphoric acid (South Carolina rockj will 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



13 



\ 



give the desired effect, but tlnit with the average soil this effect fails 
alter a few continuous applications, and that sooner or later i)otash 
must be added. 

Thirty-ninth. That it is a rule applicable to the average soil that no 
single element fertilizer can long be applied with good effect, and that 
the effect usually decreases after the second or third application, the 
time varying with the amount a])]died each time. 

Fortieth Thai by the application of commercial fertilizers, the drain 
on the soil, caused ))y the sale of milk of the farm, may be replaced 
and avoided. 

Forty-first. That from a chenncal ])oiut of view, this loss has pro- 
bably ])een somewhat exaggerated ; the fact being that the removal of 
one ton of nulk takes with it eleven ])ounds of nitrogen, three and one 
half pounds of phosphoric acid, and three pounds of i)()tash, and these 
nuiy be replaced by commercial fertilizers at a cost of about three and 
one quarter dollars. 

Forty-second. That all the losses may be replaced, eitlier by the use 
of commercial fertilizers or by the purchase and feeding of grain from 
other land, and that the comparative economy of the two methods will, 
in a great measure, depend on the use wdiich is made of the products. 
Forty-third. That in many cases in the eastern counties of the State, 
where there is a good market for butter, it will be found the most 
econonucal to i)ut on more cows and keep them on grain from abroad, 
and thus add value to the manure ])ile. 

Forty-fourth. That in cases where tins chance for additional i)rofit 
from tile product does not exist, commercial fertilizers will be found 
to be the most economical source of fertility. 

Forty-Hfth. That continued idowing, if all loss from leaching and 
Avashin'g could be avoided, would result in increased fertility, because 
the moving of the soil brings new surfaces to the action of the atmos- 
phere, an(i new^ compounds are thus formed and fertility added. 

Forty-sij'th. That the drawback to increased fertility by arearation 
is the same as that which exists in fallowing, viz : loss by the land 
laving idle, thus causing loss of interest, &c. 

Forty-serenth. That this increase from arearation is sui)i)lemented 
by elements a(hle(l from the atmosphere, and that there is good reason 
for believing that the stock of nitrogen is increased in this way, but 
there is no possi))ility of potash or phosphoric acid being thus added, 
althouirh it is possible and probable that these elements, as they ex- 
ist in the soil, are made more valuable by being made more soluble. 
Forty-eiyhth. That ^Mallowing'' land worth one hundred dollars per 
acre will cost at least six dollars per acre for interest and one dollar 
for taxes ; and that for this amount one ([uarterof a ton of commercial 
fertilizer mav be applied per acre. 

Forty-ninth. That it is possil)le that the manner of applying the fer- 
tilizer should be such that it will be available at a time when the grain 
of the crop is being ibrnied. 

Fiftieth. That many failures are due to a mistaken estimate of the 
eflect of the fertilizer,' too much attention being i)aid to the size and 
increase of the stalk and too little to that of the grain. 

Fifty-first. That in many cases the fertilizcM- lias really produced a 
profitable increase in the crop and is not credited with it from the fact 
that there is no corresponding increase in the stalk or straw. 

Fifty-second. That an increase of twenty-five per cent, is possible 
and often attained in the wheat crop without an actual increase in the 



14 



Ql ARTERLY EePORT. 



len<r;tli of the lieads, the increase hein^" due to an increase in the num- 
ber of liTains in eacli circle around tlie heads, and to the perfection and 
proper lillin<r out of the <i:rains in tlie upper and h)\ver circles. 

Fifty-third. That we need careful experiments to show the effect of 
commercial manures applied at different times durinii: the growth of 
the crop, and at different depths from the surface ])efore the crop is 
pi a !i ted, 

Ffftu- fourth. Tliat nearly all of our carefully conducted experi- 
ments prove, tliat a commercial fcM'tilizer i)roduces its best effect on 
the corn crop when it is ph)wed down with the sod, or in other words^ 
when it is placed where the roots can obtain it during the time the 
grain is being formed. 

Fiftj/'fifth. That we need careful experiments to sliow us the great- 
est amount of fertilizer (commercial) per acre, which can be used with 
profit and economy, and we predict that the result of such an (^\peri- 
ment will show that we can profitably double our present expenditure 
for fertilizers made off the farm. 

Fifty-sixth. That the commercial, manurial, or agricultural value 
of barnyard manure is dependant upon the manner in which it is 
formed and the material from wliich it is made. That from cows, the 
milk of which is sold off tlie farm, and to which nothing but poor hay 
or straw is fed, will have a very different value from that formed 
(even under the same circumstances) from cows fed upon large 
amounts of ricli food. In comparative value, the same amount of food 
being fed in all cases, the manure from full grown, fat steers being fed 
for beef, is the best; next on the list we have that from working 
stock, which is well fed upon nutritious food, and not losing in weight; 
after this we may rank that from well fed, young, or growing stock. 
All gain in weight of course, comes from the food used, and is that 
much less in the resulting manure, but in the case of full grown and 
fattening animals the gain is made from those portions of tlie food 
wdiich have been derived from the atmosphere, and not from the soil. 

Fifty-seventh. That while it is a fact that all crops re(iuir(^ for their 
growth certain classes of soil food, and that without tliese they will not 
perfect their growth, yet it is a fact that a ton of hay from a well fed 
and rich soil contains more nourishment, and "• will feed further" than 
the same weight from an impoverished and exhausted soil. AVhile 
the same argument may not, to the same extent, apply to our grain 
crox)s, yet it is evident that the condition of the soil with reference to 
plant f^ood has much to do with the actual food value of the crop, 
measure for measure, or weight for weight. 

Fifty-eiyhth. That if its food value is greater it necessarily follows 
that its hianurial value is also greater, for the two are so closely con- 
nected as to be inseparable. The feeder who used grain or hay fi;i)m 
a ricii soil has, therefor^, the ])enefit of not only an increase in f(;M 
value, but also an increased manurial value. 

Fffty-ninth. All estimates of the '^commercial or manurial value" of 
a ton of yard manure are uncertain, and Involve factors which must all 
be thoroughly stated and understood before any satisfactory conclusion 
can be arrived at. The estimates given vary from two dollars and 
twenty-five cents per ton to six dollars and fifty cents. This variation 
arises Hot from aiiy defect in chemical science, but from the facts as 
set forth above, viz : that the actual vahie is dependent u]^on the kind 
of food used and the* kind of stock to which it is fed. All scientific or 
" commercial '' values fail to take into accoun't the large amount of car- 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



15 



bon or vegetable matter added to the soil by each ton of manure. It 
is true that the atmosphen^ can supply all of the carbon neediMl by the 
plant, but are we sure that it cannot more readily obtain it from the 
decomposed carbon ( vegetalde matter) in the soil'^ And is it not also a 
fact that the vegetable matter plays a very important part in keeping the 
soil in a proper mechanical condition'^ As soon as any ordinary farm 
soil becomes exhausted of its stored up vegetable matter, we have a 
soil which -Svorks hard " and which l)akes readily; one which gets- 
very hard in dry weather, and upon which the crops suffer very much 
when the su])ply of moisture is withheld. 

Sixtieth. That in the matter of fertilizing our soil, as in many of the 
other items of practical agriculture, we are apt to travel in circles. 
Thus, the writer can well rememl)er when, in scmtheastern Pennsyl- 
vaniii, lime was the one thing needful, and the farmer who did not use 
it was considered behind tlu^ times and not fully rtwake to the import- 
ance of keeping up the iertility of his farm. But after a time, lime 
ceased to produce its former effect, because the store of vegetable mat- 
ter was in great measure exhausted. Sooner or later, by the continued 
use of commercial fertilizers, we will find that our stock of vegetable 
matter has increased, and we will again find that the use of lime is- 
profitable and is more economical than any other application. 

Sixty-HrHt. That the mechanical condition of the soil has much to 
do with its fertilitv, and that there are very many cases in which the 
application of a 'sandy material, containing in itself no fertility 
wdiatever, would very materiallv elfect the product, through its effect 
upon the mechanical condition alone. A soil full of vegetable matter- 
suffers much less from drought, because by its porosity it prevents the- 
evaporation of moisture and the absorption of heat. Other things 
being equal (as to fertility), a soil full of vegetable matter will, in a 
drv time, produce by far the ])est crop. , . . 

^ Sixty -Hi^'ond. That the thorough division of the soil by mechanical 
means, is a substitute for the presence of vegetable matter. Thus- 
soils which have been carefully plowed, well harrowed and rolled be- 
fore the crop was planted, or in a tillable crop, have been thoroughly- 
cultivated during their early growth, will suffer the least, and that 
this fa«ct has given rise to the addage that ''tillage is manure.'^ 

Sixtf/third. That all experiments which attempt the testing of dif- 
ferent 'fertilizers to adjoining small plots, are dece])tive and delusive in 
their results. An arre may be divided into eighths and seven dif- 
ferent kinds of commercial phosphates be applied (one being left 
without any application), and we will obtain a certain variation ; let 
the same or similar plots ])e cropped in the same manner, but without 
the application of anv fertilizers to-,.either, and the resulting crops will 
show (piite as <.a'eat a variation a^s where the seven fertilizers were 
used. Thus it would appear that it is imposs/ole to find a plot of 
ground which will yi^d approximately the same result in all of its- 

tVl I't K 

' Sixtf/-fourth. Tliat the loss which ensues from surface applications- 
of varil manure has been greatly mag^iiiied, and tliat the loss which 
actually cyisues from keeping it in the yard until autumn, lias been 
underestimated in about the same proportion. That in many yards,, 
the loss by keeping the manure there from May until bepteml)er, is 
double that which' would have been sustained had the manure been 
applied to the sod as fast as made. And that the decrease in bulk by 
keeping in the yard, cannot be taken as an index of the actual loss im 



16 



Quarterly Report. 



'Pl| 



manurial value. Or in oilier words, there may be a i^reat shrinkage in 
hiilk without any corresixmding loss of valuable elements, and that it 
is e(iually true that the ])ulk may be very nearly preserved and a 
o-reat loss ol* nianurial value (by leeehinji;) be o;oing on all the time. 

Slxttj-iiffh. That ditlerent chemical materials in our fertilizers (in- 
cluding yard-manure), are lost ])y leeching through the soil to a very 
different degree, and that this is somewhat dependent u])on the me- 
chanical character of the soil. Thus it is found that the dilferent forms 
of phosi)horic acid suifer very little loss by leachiug or washing through 
the soil and into the subsoil. It is also capal)le of ])r()of that the dif- 
ferent forms of nitrogen are thus lost to every different degree, de- 
pending, of course, upon their actual solui)ility. Some forms of potash 
are also much more readily lost in this manner than others. As a 
rule, all of these elements, as they exist in yard-manure, are iu those 
forms which are least subject to loss from this cause. 

SixUj-fiixth. That some chemical substances (lime, for instance), 
l)roduce their elfect upon the crop, not by the amount of chemical 
food which they furuish. but by the effect which they produce upon 
other compounds with which they meet in the soil. In many cases 
they cause the ])reakiug up of old and worthless (as i)laut food) com- 
pounds, and the formation, l)y a re-adjustment of elements, of new 
and valuable ones. Thus some of the salts of potash benefit the crop, 
not always by the addition of potash, but by the formation of other 
compounds with material, already existing in the soil. 

Si.rfj/-seventh. That all of the elements which chemistry iuforms us 
are necessary to the production of a good crop may be in the soil, and 
yet we may fail to obtain t hat crop, the failure being due to a condition of 
circumstances which prevent the plants from utilizing the plant food 
in the soil. The most common of these is a deficiency of moisture, 
without which the food is of little value. With abundance of mois- 
ture and a plentiful supply of plant food in a proper condition, the 
crop is an assured factor in the experiment. 

Sivt}/-(>'H/ht!i. That the (piestion, ^^Can a soil be maintaiucMl to a 
certain ])oint in fertility by the use of commercial fertiliz(M-s alone?" 
is not a fair one, for no farmer so uses his farm that the whole of the 
vegetalde matter is lost. If this was so lost, the question would nec- 
essarily be answered in the negative. In all cases some of the vege- 
table matter (often very much more than is generally supposed), re- 
mains in the soil in the form of stubble and roots or is returned to it 
in tiie form of farm-yard manure. But for this fact we should soon 
be supplied with a very practical and negative answer to the (piestion. 

Sixtf/-niHf/}. That the exhaustion of the soil varies very much with 
the character of the crop and the use which is made of it. Thus, a 
good crop of toV)acco removes from the soil about as much of actual 
soil food as seven crops of corn, and removes it entirely from the soil 
and farm. Thai clover, by bringing up through its deep roots the 
stored-up fertility of the deeper subsoil, is much less exhaustive than 
the same weight of timothy or other shallow-rooted grasses. 

Seventieth. That oats is exhaustive largely because it is shalloAV- 
rooted and obtains its nourishment near tii(^ surface, thus living, as it 
were, upon a much more linnted area; tiie total exhaustion of the 
soil is, of course, little, if any, more than that of other grain crops; 
but being taken from the upper stratta of the soil, the su]>ply of food 
is, of course, limited, and sooner exhausted. If it ol)tains its supidy 
•of food from the upper six inches of soil and takes Ironi this limited 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



17 



area the same amount of soil food as does the corn crop from the same 
soil eight inches deep, the above argument necessarily follows. 

Seventy-first. That no matter how much or how little of any given 
element the crop may require, it is always necessary to apply more 
than this amount in 'the fertilizer; this is due to the fact that no 
crop can secure all of the elements applied, and more or less are lost 
to the crop bv percolation into the soil and removal l)y washing. 
This amount varies with the element ai)plied, the fertilizer, the soil 
and tlu^ amount of moisture. In careful chemical test it has been 
found that at least thirty per cent, more of the least soluble^ element 
must be applied to insure that the crop shall obtain a sufficient sup- 
ply for i)r()i)er growth. Inasnuich as no one can foresee what a sea- 
son will bring forth in the shape of moisture, it naturally follows that 
the application made should cover tlie possibilities of the largest 
crop which can possiblv be grown upon the soil. 

Seventt/second. Land will at times get into a condition which is 
known to ])ractical men as '^ clover sick." In England they add to 
this another term, viz., ^M)ean sick;" that is, the soil gets into a con- 
dition in which, although fertilizers may be applied, it will not pro- 
duce satisfactory crops of either clover or beans. In such cases the 
only remedy is to plant some other crop for a few years, or until na- 
ture accomplishes the necessary change. Whether this effect is due 
to an exhaustion of some element or elements necessary to the growth 
of these crops, seems not yet to be fairly proven. Under the De- 
Candolle theory, that crops excreted certain substances as well as ab- 
sorbed others, and that the land failed to properly produce any crop 
when these excreted substances exceeded a certain proportion in the 
soil, that the excreted matter of one plant was the food of another, 
and that the only remedy for clover-sick land was to plant it with any 
crop which practice demonstrated would grow well on it. Whether 
the theory of DeCandolle can or cannot be accepted is an open ques- 
tion ; but' that this condition does at times exist is too evident for con- 
tradiction. . ^. . ^.11 L 

SevenUi -third. Common salt contains none of the essential elojnents 
of plant 'growth, and any effect produced by it must be attributed to 
an effect produced upon elements already in the soil. If, as it is 
claimed it stiffens the straw of grain crops, it must be, not because it 
of itself adds any element which will stiffen the straw, but because 
bv some mode of' chemical action it releases or makes solulde silica 
(sand), alreadv in the soil. Except in a very small number of cases, 
common salt (chloride of sodium) produces no effect that is visible 
either to the eye or in the bushel. ^ . . «• . i,- i 4- i 

SevenUi -fourth. That one of the most important eff^ects which fol- 
lows fallowing (keeping the soil without any crop and continually 
stirred by the use of the harrow), is the formation of nitric acid from 
the nitrogen of the atmos])here. In fact, it is claimed by good au- 
thorities that this is the only way in which the nitrogen of the at- 
mosphere can become available to the crop. Dr. bturtevant states 
that there is no evidence to show that plants can directly absorb 
a parti(de of atmospheric nitrogen. ., ^ . i 

Seventii-iitth. Fallowing is only safe in smls Which are tenacious 
and whi('h have sufficient clav to insure the absorption of t^he nitro- 
gen ; otherwise the loss by lea/dung or washing may exceed that by 

absorption and an actual loss ensue. , i w i ^- • i i 

Seventu-slxth. That while the amount of actual plant food iunnshed 

2 



18 



Quarterly Report. 



l)y an ai)i)lic:iti()n of four liimdivd pounds of snporphospliate per acre 
may he, and is very small, when compared with the irreat hulk of the 
soil from which the plant ohtains its food, it is well to remenduM' that 
the amount ol* this kind of Ibod actually p>resent in a fertile soil is also 
very small. A fertile soil has heen found hy careful analysis to con- 
tain hut live one hundredths to lifteen one hundredths i)er cent, of 
nitro<i:en. Even with this small percenta«i•(^ a soil nine inidies dee[) 
would contain from two tliousand two hundred and lifty to three thou- 
sand live hundred pounds of nitrogen per acre. It is possible, how- 
ever, that the soil may contain this proi)orti()n of ])hosi)horic acid, pot- 
ash or nitro'ren, and yet, from the fact that it is not in a condition 
available I'oi- plant food, will (pii(ddy respond to a much smaller appli-^ 
cation of available ])h()sphoric acid, potash or nitrogen in the form of 
a commercial fertilizer. 

Seve?(t(/-scvejft/f. By the same course of reasoninu", it may seem that 
the amount of nitroii'en in the atmos])here may be very small, and yet 
in its a^iire<2:ate ])e very larg:e. Schloesin^- estimated that it recpiires 
from six million to one hundred and nineteen million cuinc yards of 
ordinary atmosi)]iere to contain one pound ol' nitrogen. The averai::e 
of a number of European experiments api)ears to shoAV that about ten 
and one fourth ])ounds of nitroi!;en are annually deposited upon each 
acre by rain and from the atmospliere. 

Sev'e)it!/-e((/ht/t. Warrin<rton writes: ''Soils destitute of carbonate of 
calcium (liine),take up very little potash or ammonia when these are 
api)lied as salts of powerful acids — as, for instance, the cidorides, ni- 
trates and sulphates. WIkmi carbonate of calcium is present, tiie ])o- 
tassium or ammonium salt is decomposed, the base is retained in the 
soil, while the acid esca])es into the di-aina<i:e Avater united with cal- 
cium. The addition of carbonate^ ol' calcium may thus greatly increase 
the retentive ]K)wer of a soil for bases. The fertility of a soil is nearly 
connected with its i)()wer of retaining i)lant food. Sandy soils, from 
their small chemical retaining power and free drainage, are of small 
fertility and d(^])endent on immediate supi)lies of manure." 

Seveiity-n'ntf/i. The growth of a nursery of young fruit or shade trees 
is very exhaustive, for the following reasons: First, they re(iuire for 
their growtli larg(^ amounts of soluble i)lant food, but not so mu(di jnr 
year as our grain crops; second, they obtain the most of this directly 
from the soil, and not from tiie addition of any fertilizer I'rom outside 
sources; third, they obtain it from the soil, which, by constant stirring, 
(to keej) down weeds), is thus areated, and by exposure to the air has 
its component parts changed and rendered available for i)lant growth. 
Thus this kind of growtli, unlike many other crops, obtains its nour- 
ishment directlv from the soil for a term of from three to four years, 
without the addition of any artificial ai)])licati()n whatever. 

Euihiicih. That barn-yard manure formed and kei)t under shelter 
]nay contain I'rom sixty-iive to seventy-live (or even more), i)er ccMit. 
of water; of intro<;en it mav contain from thirtv-live one hundredths 
to seventy on(^ hundredths jK'r cent.; it completely ])urned so as to 
destroy ail })ut the actual soil food, it may be reduced two and live 
tenths to three and live tenths i)er cent, in ashes. (")! this ashes we 
may lind three one hundredths to seven one hun<lredths per cent, to 
be potash ; two one liundredths to three one hundredths per cent, to 
be phosphoric acid ; or, in other words, a ton of ordinary barn-yard 
manure may contain but twelve pounds of nitrogen, twelve pounds of 
potash, and but eight pounds of i)hosphoric acid. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



19 



Ei(/hti/'first. In the course of a four year's course at Kothamsted, 
England, it was found by careful test that 'Mhe nitr«gen amuially re- 
moved in the crops, on an average of thirty-one years, has exceeded 
by about thirty-five pounds the ([uantity sup])lied in the nuinure. If 
the crops in this experimental rotation should be permanently main- 
tained in cpiantitv, of whi(di at present we cannot l)e certain, we must 
conclude that tllis thirty-live pounds of nitrogen, together with the 
nnknown (piantity lost as nitrate by drainage, have been annually de- 
rived from the atmosi)here, partly as rain, but mostly by direct al)sorp- 
tion 1)V the soil or crop." 

Eh'iJ)i!i-Hi>cond. It has l)een i)roven by numerous European ex])eri- 
ments that although (dover contains a certain i)()rtion of nitrogen, yet 
a large crop of (dover hay taken from the soil actually leaves that soil 
richer in nitrogen than before it was grown. This increase on nitrogen 
(in addition t() that removed in the cro])), must have come from one or 
l)oth of two sources — the subsoil or the atmospliere. It is probable 
that by its large area of leaf ch)ver, without directly appropriating it 
to its own use, has the i)ower of lixing the nitrogen of the atmosphere. 
It is also probable that by its deep tap roots it draws nitrogen from the- 
deeper layers of the soil and deposits it in the surface soil. 

E'u/hfjj-fhhu/. Of the i)ower of leguminous crops to tims accumulate- 
nitrogen, Warrington writes as follows: ''It seems pretty certain that 
leguminous crops ((dover, peas and beans) ])ossess to some extent a< 
distinct source of nitrogen. They are probably capable of feeding on 
some compounds of nitrogen and carbon which are comparatively 
useless to other crops, and hence the facility with whicdi tlun^ accpiire 
nitrogen from tlie soil. A (h^eply rooted crop like red clover collects 
nitrogenous compounds from the sub-soil, and accumulates nitrogen 
in the surface in the form of a crop.*" 

Ei(/hfj/-foi(rth. That when nitrogen is to be applied to any crop, 
some attention should be given to the peculiar needs of tlie crop, and 
these should in great measure deline the form in wliich it should be 
api)lied. If it is wanted for immediate action, the form of a nitrate is 
to be preferred; but as this form is very soluble, it should not be ap- 
plied in large amounts, for all above the immediate wants of tiie crop 
will i)robably l)e lost by ]ea(diing and washing from the soil. In the 
form of the suli)hate of ammonia it is nuudi more lasting in its action, 
iind may be applied with less danger of injury to tlie seed and youn^ 
plants. * In a (Iry season, sulphate of ammonia may not give the de- 
sired ell'ect, from the fact that it re(iuires a large amount of water to 
render it s(>lubl(\ 

EUihiji- fifth. The nitrates may i)e used for such crops as depend 
largely for their value and yield upon their stems and leaves; thus an 
application of nitrogen may l)e found i)rolitable for clover hay, and ' 
be utilized economically by the crop, when it would not ]>rove satis- 
factorv on corn or oats. 

Ei(iJifj/-sixfh. Professor Aitken writes: '^Sulphate of ammonia can 
do little for the germinating seed in dry weather, as it is not in an 
imnuMliately availa])le I'orm ; and even after rain comes, it is some time 
before the sulphate of ammonia comes into ])lay, so that the result is 
a diminished crop, or perhaps a failure. Sulphate of ammonia is more 
suitable than nitrate of soda for mixing with superidiosphate and dis- 
solved manures generally, as it is not decomposed thereby. It does 
not attract moisture so as to render the manure unlit for sowing." 
Ei(/hfi/-sev€nth. That as a rule the cro]) will not be able to find suf- 



20 Quarterly Report. 

licient of iiitroii-eii and i-hosplioric acid in the soil to promote its best 
srrowtli, l.iit tiiat jt will usually lind a superalnuidance c.l iH>tasli It 
therelbre follows that it is only beneficial to use potash in connection 
with commercial fertilizers, upon peculiar soils which can only be de- 
tected by careful experiment. ., , , - • i i.^ 
EUihUi-etqhth. That on a majority of soils phosphoiic acid seems to 
be the one element lacking, and which is needed to sui-ply the wants 
of the crop. This can be most economically supplied by the addi ion 
of dissolved South Carolina rock. Eiij^lish experimenters have laid 
it down as a general rule that nitrates will best secure a crop ot man- 
gels; i)lK.sphates a crop of turnips, and potash salts a crop of clover 

^^M^^^iih. In referring to the applic^ition of raw (not treat^ed 
with acid) phosphates, a noted authority wri es as lolloxvs: 11^ i)hos- 
Xte could be ground down to a powder as line as precipitated i.hos- 

ae, there would be little need to dissoh^ (acidulate) them, unless 
that were found to be a cheaper method oi attaining Imeness It i^ 
impossible to grind phosphates so iinely as that by any mechanical 
means, but it has not been proved that phosphates require to be so 
exceedin-lv Iinely ground as that in order that they may satisfy tlie 
fmmeiUe wants ot- the plant. What is recp.ired is that phosphates 
sZ 11 be so Iinely ground that they may yield to the solvents con- 
tained n the soil and in the roots, <,uickly enough to supply the plant 
with as much phosphoric acid as it needs at a 1 periods ol i s^grow li." 

mnetU'th The same writer states : " Sol nble i .hosphates formed by 
the addition of acids), usually, though not always, yield a arger crop 
StuXs than undissolved phosphates as they have hitherto been 
and as thev are usually supplied. The advantage in favor of super- 
phospha e aJeated with acid) over ground phosphate (not treated with 
aS are the certainty and the rapidity of their action. Ground phos- 
phates have frequently failed to raise good crops, and m some instances 
have been an utter failure, while superphosphates have always raised 

^ ^^Wyll A cubic foot of soil has a weight of from 70 to 110 
pounds per cubic foot, varying with its condition mechanically and as 
to drvness. If the average is taken as 80 pounds and the soil as being 
sL i^ifches deep, we have 21,780 cubic feet weig nng about 1,742 400 
pou Is or 871 tons; if but one per cent, of any elemen s exists in this 
sd^lifs total weightier acre will be 17,421 pounds and with but one 
tenth of one |)er cent, per acre the weight is about one ton 

N^Zui-Hecond. That the average marls will not bear the cost of 
tr,m Nation, and that their effect upon t he soils of 1 ennsylvama can- 
H.t be measured by what they accomplish m New Jersey. 1 he per- 
cent -e of potash which they contain is too small and in a condition 
no m.dilv available to pay ibr transportation It as in New Jersey, 
tl e wa.-on could be backed up to the pit an.l loaded at a cost ot say 
es<Hurnone dollar per Ion (marl included), and the distance to be 
hauled is not so great as to .•ost over two dollars and one halt per ton, 
their application in large amounts will pay, otherwise not. 

N-;^eUHhh-d. In comparing the valueof nitrate ol p.. ash and nitrate 
of soda and refuse saltpeter,"^Dr. E. L. S.urleyant writes as lo^o^ys : 
'.Refuse material is always of uncertain comi)osition, and it is imims- 
Mbl(> to give any opinion regarding its value unless something dehnite 
i.l nown as to its .•omp.,sition. Taking e.pial weights ot ni rate of 
^Oda nd ,' rate of pota h, the former contains ,n..r,. nitrogen, but the 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



21 



nitrate of potash contains two requisite elements of plant food— nitro- 
.ren and potasli— while nitrate of soda contains but one, the nitrogen. 
Saltpeter refuse is, however, not necessarially nitrate of ])otasii, for 
nitrate of soda is also used in making some kinds ol i)owder. 

Ninety-fourth. "Cereal crops derive their nitrogen alinost exclu- 
sively from nitrates; in the form in which the great bulk ol the nitro- 
een is present in the soil it is unsuitable for them. Notwithstanding, 
therefore, the small amount of nitrogen contained m liie cereal crops, 
thev rank among those most benefited by nitrogenous manures. A 
nitro'-enous -uano or an a])plication of nitrate of soda and super-phos- 
phate is generally the most ellective manuring for a cereal crop. 

Ninetv-fifth. The dilference between the Teruvian and phospliatic 
guanoes is caused by the difference in the location of the deposit If 
deposited in a rainless climate we have a guano rich m nitrogen like 
the I'eruvian; if on the other hand the deposit is in a climate witli 
much rainfall, the nitrogenous material is washed out, leaving the 
phosphoric acid. Thus we have the Ichaboe guano with 12 per cent, 
of nitrogen and the same amount of phosphoric acid, and we have the 
Meiill ones with scarcely a trace of nitrogen and nearly 33 per cent, 
of phosphoric acid. We also have all grades between these, their 
composition being dependent upon the amount of rainfall m the 
locality of the deposit. , , ,. 

Wmetv-sixth. The phosphoric acid in these phosphatic guanoes is 
not in an available form according to the formulas adopted by chem- 
ists, but yet it is a form which seems to readily become available in 
the soil, and in this respect is superior to raw (unacidulated) bouth 

'^'^NYlTt^selmth. A large deposit of nitrate of soda (Chili saltpetre) 
has been found in Peru and Chili; before slni-ment it is partia ly 
purified by chrystalization ; its principal impurity is common salt; 
its variation is so great that it should always be purchased upon a 
guaranteed analysis ; the usual percentage of nitrogen is fifteen but 
it mav and does run much lower. . 

Nnietn-cUilth. Pure dissolved bones (bone and sulphuric acid) has 
one advantage of raw bone in t hat it contains nitrogen m a form 
?eadilv available to the plant. The dilference in action between the 
two is mainly one of time only, the bone extending its action over a 
term of years while the dissolved bone acts (puckly and for a corre- 

RTioiulin<^lv shorter period. , , , 

mneUi-nintlu Soot, woolen waste and dried blood are, in certain 
conditions, valuable manures; the nitrogen which ^they contain is 
however not in its most readily assimilated form. Dried blood con- 
tains from 10 to 14 per cent, of nitrogen ; woolen waste varies 
S ts amount of nitrogen with the amount of oils and fatty mat- 
ters wliich it contains; the usual proportion of nitrogen vary- 
bi' iVom 4 to 9 per cent ; shoddy may be classed in the same 
cate-ory as woolen waste and usually contains the same varying per- 
centages of nitrogen. By decomposition they all yield ammonia and 

^^^oiriiundreiHh. Farm yard manure, containing as it does, all of 
the e^ments of crop growth, is, where it can he «>''< j;:^;" j^,'";--! 
amounts and at economical prices, the H>ne ,,mnon ot feitilit,\ and is 
re best restorer of lost fertility. True agriculture will merely use 
commercial fertilizers as adjuncts to the increase oi the yard manure 
pile and not as the mainstay of fertility. 



00 



Quarterly Eeport. 



COMPLETE FEKTILIZEKS. 



By Joiix I. Carter, Esq., Chatham^ CheHfer Couniu, PennHylvanra. 

Read at the ineetiii*; at Atj;len, Pennsylvania. 

The name complete fertilizer for a maiiurial compound has such a 
winnin<>: sound to it, and affords such golden oi)])ortunity to the glib- 
touiiiu'd phosphate agent, to dazzle the eyes and dei)lete the pockets 
of th(- unwary farmer, thai I feel called u])on to ])ut the said farmer 
on his guard a little, and call his attention to a few facts before he 
goes too deeply into fanc'v fertilizers. 

It is true thill plants re(iuire, for full fertilization, three i)rominent 
manurial elements, viz : Fhosi)horic acid, potash, and nitrogen. To se- 
cure a healthy and vigorous growth, a cro]) must be al)undantly sup- 
plied with these elements from some source. The (juestion is from 
whence? Must we we ])uy them, or are some of them already in the 
soil^ or will they come without their costly purchase? In soils remark- 
ably fertile, like our Chester and Lancaster county soils, experiments 
and ex])erience have pretty fully shown that one of tliese manurial ele- 
ments has been more seriously exhausted than the others. The heavy 
grazing and wheat raising for a h)ng series of years have dei)leted the 
phosphoric acid to a dangerous extent, and all testimonies shows that 
its return to the soil again from some source is a nnitter of i)rime 
necessity. The mannei in which most of our crops respond to an ap- 
plication of dissoluhle bone or rock show this; and I need not multi- 
ply words to prove the great l)enefit farmers have derived from the 
judicious use of phosphate of lime. 

But is this true of potash? Have we any exi)eriments showing good 
results from the application of pure potash? If so I fail to remember 
them. 

It will not do to cite the use of ashes'. It may, and generally does, 
contain several things good for ])lants, other than i)()tash. 

Tile burning of brusli heai)s is often cited as evidence that ashes is 
a splendid ferliliziM* for crops. But were the rich spots the result of 
the presence of ])otash from the ashes, or from the heating or burn- 
ing of the soil i The feldspar rock ol* this section, i)robably yields i)()t- 
ash enough for all practical purposes, without any unnecessary outlay 
to procure it from other sources. 

How is it with nitrogen? This you know is the big card with the 
comi)lete fertilizer men. With much i)lausibility tliey attempt to 
sliow it as the most valuable part in i)repared ])lant-fo()d. But does 
exi)eriment or experiiuice show this to be true? Of course, nitrogen 
in some form is an im])ortant comi)onent \k\\\ in i)lant organization, 
and an ample supi)ly must be furnished healthy plants. 

Bart of this must be ])resent in ihe soil, but ])r()ba])ly not that it may 
enter directly into the plant, but on account of its action on Ihe other 
soil eUMUcMits, rendering tiiem available to the plants. Some late ex- 
periments of Professor At water, show that more than one hall'the nitro- 
gen contained in the grown i)lant must have.<*()me from 1 he air. I lis ex- 
periments with i)lants grown in i)ure sand and treated with delinite 
amounts of nitrogen, show tliat a portion of nitrogen must l)e i)resent 
in the san<l to givcMhe ])lant start enough to enable it to gather its 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



23 



main supplv from outward sources. He also proved that in held ex- 
periments, lieavv applications of nitrogens were unprofitable, not at 
all in proportion' to their cost. This agrees with very many held ex- 
periments made bv nivself on the experimental farm. We used nitro- 
o-en from several dilferent sources, and in varying (luantities ; there- 
suits w^ere not at all satisfactory. Some plots treated with nitrogen 
actually grew poorer during the live year course than where uo ter- 
tilizer at all w^as used. . . 

The presence of nitrogen in a ground bone is ot valm^ indirectly. It 
assists in the speedv disintegration of the bone ; and this is the reason 
whv a raw bone is' better than a charred bone, from which all nitro- 
genous matter has previously been expelled. Nitrogen is a popular 
rn-redient with manufacturers and dealers in commercial fertilizers, 
])ecause it makes an uncertainty about its value that enables them to 
increase their i)rolits, without ready detection, and as before stated 
gives opportunity for plausible theorizing on the advantages ol special 
fertilizers for special crops. ^ ,.,. . ^ 

A few years ago the idea of compounding a fertdizer in accordance 
with the component parts of the crop to be grown was adopted by 
some manufacturers, and much talked of, but practically it proved to 
be of little value. Science was not acurate enough lor such close work. 
Lawes and Gilbert compounded special fertilizers lor wheat and tur- 
nips, just in the right proportion to make the ^7.^^^}.'^^^^\f^^'^.^^.9j./j|.^ 
one and the root and top of the other. On application the tertilizers 
seemed to do well, but, to the great surprise of the experimenters, 
when they tried the wheat fertilizer on the turnips and the turnip fer- 
tilizer on' the wheat, they responded much better than when treated 
witii their ow^n special fertilizer. , ^ -, t^ i n 

It is possible that the sandy soil of Maryland and Delaware or the 
completely worn-out Southern soils mayrecpure something like a corn- 
Die te manure ; but with soils like ours, with latent stores unreached 
and unexhausted ; with the evidence of years ot experience that phos- 
phoric acid is the ingredient needed, it is lolly to ^vaste hard^eaiW 
money in useless outlays on plausible but deceptive theories. 1 m her 
farmer, stick to a well-dissolved South Carolina rock till we see lurther 
evidence that something else is needed. It has been a godsend to the 
farmers of my section. I do not want to see them turn their backs on 
it too hastily. It furnishes phosphoric acid cheaper than from any 
other sourcJ; much more so than bone, and I am surprised that so 
manv farmers imagine they must mix a portion ot ^one with t u.r dis^ 
solved rock to give it j^ermananc^i^Ti^ they claim. It is peimanent 
because it is unappropriated by the crop. But phosphoric acid is not 
vS e If not used it is still there. If you want to put on more than 
is needed for the wheat, all right ; but buy it m the cheapest torm. I 
thil'k it is better, as far as possible at least, to apply your iertilizer 
for every crop. You then have no unnecessary outlay of money. Any 
other plan savors of eating two breakfasts at one meal hoping thereby 
to do very well without your dinner. In speaking so strong y as I 
have in favor of acidulated rock as our main purchasable fertilizer, I 
do not mean to encourage the neglect of the farm supply ot manures. 
Indeed, 1 think the more rock you use the more >7d„ ^.;\^^^^f ;>;^;; 
should 'make and apply. To get the most good out of eU ;^^^^^^^^ 
should go together. The yard manure will furnish all the potash and 
niti" gen you need without buying any more, and Us mechanical action 
will keep your soils in good condition for yielding heavy crops. 



24 



Quarterly Report. 



THE yiLLE TIIEOEY OF FERTILIZATION. 



By the Secretary. 



During tlie period exteiHlin;^; from mul including the years 1867 and 
1875 ]\rons. Georges Ville,tlien in cliarge of a large experimental farm 
near Vincennes, France, delivered a course of lectures upon tiie use 
and effect of commercial fertilizers, or, as they were then styled, 
'' chemical manures." The substance of these lectures was the advance 
guard of the theories which, with some modifications enforced by prac- 
tical tests of later years, are still regarded as orthodox and sound. 

It is true that in these lectures undue stress appears to have been 
placed upon certain points and certain theories which our increased 
knowledge has demonstrated as untenable, yet in the main we still 
accept the general truths which underlie the lectures alluded to and 
which constitute what has since been termed the '' Yille theory,'' and 
which has recently been practically brought to the notice of the 
Board by the addresses upon Commercial Fertilizers by Hon. John W. 
Hickman. 

Starting with the foundation that all crops of whatever nature were 
composed of varial)le proportions of fourteen elements whose nature 
and character were well understood in that day, and of the character 
of which we know but little more at the present day, Yille, by a series 
of experiments apparently conducted with great care and fairness, 
proceeded to ascertain how many of these elements it was absolutely 
necessary to add to the soil of the Vincennes farm in order to obtain 
a fair crop. He reasoned that the lowest grade of agricultural soil 
contained sufficient of some of these elements to produce a crop and 
that the average soil would undoubtedly supply enough of a number 
of them to ensure a good crop, especially as chemical analysis had 
shown that but a very small proportion of some were needed in any 
crop. 

These fourteen elements then, as now, were divided into two dis- 
tinct classes, to which the respective names of organic and inorganic 
were applied. It was then understood, then as now, that this distinc- 
tion was not an exact one, but it appears to have been adopted for the 
purpose of distinction mainly. The organic elements are carbon, hy- 
drogen, oxygen, and nitrogen ; the inorganic class is composed of phos- 
phorus, sulphur, chlorine, silicon, iron, manganese, calcium, magnesia, 
sidium, and potassium, as given by Ville and as used in his lectures. 

Starting with an artificial soil composed entirely of calcined and 
washed sand, which could possibly contain nothing of plant food be- 
yond silica, and using nothing but distilled water, Ville deemed that 
he was in a position to give his theory a fair and complete test. 

A number of glazed pots filled with the calcined sand were then pre- 
pared for the experiment. In each a number (the same in each case), 
of seeds of wheat were planted; in each case care appears to have 
been taken that the seeds thus planted should have very nearly the 
same total weight, viz. fifteen grains. 

Of these seeds planted in the calcined sand and carefully watered 
with distilled water Ville writes as follows : '^ In calcined sand, with- 
out any addition, but soaked with distilled water, wheat acquired only 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



25 



a rudimentary development, the straw being hardly as large as a 
knitting needle. Under these conditions, however, vegetation follows 
its ordinary course, the plant blossomed and bears seed, but in each 
ear there are only one or two small and imperfectly-developed grains. 
Thus, in a soil barren as can possibly be, wheat linds in the water with 
which it is irrigated and in the carbon dioxide of the air, means whereby 
it can perform the cycle of its evolution, though of course in a feeble 

manner/' 

The pot above alluded to produced by weight ninety grains ot an 

increase (by weight) of six to one. 

To the next pot, prepared in the same manner and with the same 
amount of seed, Ville added all of the ten inovf/anic elements, but ex- 
cluded nitrogen, at least so far as any addition of fertilizing material 
to the water was concerned. Of this he writes: '' Under these new 
conditions the corn (wheat) is rather more developed than in the 
former case, but the cro]) is still very feeble, amounting to about one 
hundred and twenty-three grains (by weight)." 

In the next pot he reversed this order, and careluUy excluding all 
of the ten inorganic elements, Ville added nothing to the water 
but nitrogen. Of this he writes : '' The vegetation still remains poor 
and stunted; the vield is, however, somewhat larger, amounting to 
about one hundred and thirty-eight grains (by weight). The grad- 
ually increasing yield should be carefully noted. In pure calcined 
sand the yield was ninety-one grains; the mineral matter, but with- 
out nitrogenous matter, one hundred and twenty-three grains (by 
w^eight) ; Vith nitrogenous matter, one hundred and thirty-eight grains 
(by^veight). As long as we use mineral matter alone the plants are 
etiolated and the leaves are of a yellowish green color; but as soon as 
nitrogenous matter is added to the same the leaves change their hue 
and become dark green, and it seems as if vegetation was about to as- 
sume its ordinary vigor ; it is, however, only a deceitful appearance, 
for the crop remains "as poor as ever." . , , n i x a-h 

To a fourth pot (with the same number and weight of seeds) Ville 
added both mineral and nitrogenous matter, and of this he writes as 
follows : '' The result is almost magical, so greatly does this phenomena 
contrast with those that have gone before. Previously the growths 
were languishing, precarious, and etiolated ; but now the plants spring 
up rather than i^^row, the leaves are a beautiful green, the stem straight 
and firm, terminating in an ear filled with good, sound grains, and the 
harvest weighs from three hundred and twenty-seven and three hun- 
dred and eighty-three grains." , ^,1 . , ,^^^ 
In order to make the comparative results of these experiments still 
more apparent to the reader, we may represent them as follows : 

First. With neither mineral or nitrogenous matter, thus: 



Second. With ndneral matter and without nitrogenous matter, thus: 



Third. W'ith nitrogenous matter and without mineral matter, thus:' 



Fourth. With both nitrogenous and mineral matter, thus: 



26 



Quarterly Report. 



Of the exi)erinients thus lVn\ YilU- writes as follows: '' We liuve tlius 
succeeded in produciui;- phiuts artiliciiilly without usin«i; larui-yard 
manure or any unknown substance. You will a<iree with me that tliis 
is an important I'undamental point. There is no myster\' or undeter- 
mined force; a few chemical products of definite purity, some distilled 
water, ])erfectly i)ure in itself, a few seed to start with, and the result 
is a crop that will in oxory respect bear ('()m])arison witli those ob- 
tained on thoroughly ^ood soil/' 

The reader w ill of course note the fact that in this experiment, the 
exi)erimental crops of A'ille had the p-eat advantage of receiving 
plenty of moisture and at the proper times, and could thus utilize the 
fertilizing material, ahvays ])resented in the best and most available 
form, while in open lield culture this state of alfairs would not exist; 
l)ut this fact does not in any way injure, for the purpose of comparsion, 
the results attained by Ville. 

Passing to actual open field culture, Ville found l)y a series of care- 
ful experiments tliat the soil could at all times be de])ended u])on to 
sup])ly certain of the mineral elements needed, and that it was not 
necessary to apply them all in the form of fertilizer, or as he styled it, 
•a ''chemical manure.'' 

By a series of experiments, which our space will not i)ermit us to 
give, but which the reader can readily imagine, Ville demonstrated 
that of the ten inorganic elements, all ])ut three, viz., calcic phosphate, 
potash, and lime, might ))e left out, and that all of the others would 
be supplied by the soil, even though it be barren and unproductive. 
Since the times of Ville our chemists have ascertained that in supply- 
ing the calcic phosphate they are applying lime, and hence they have 
added another (lime) to the list of mineral elements which it is need- 
less to ai)ply in the commercial fertilizer. 

To wiiat he considered as the pro])er proportions of nitrogenous 
matter, calcic i)]i{)sphate, j^otash, and lime, Ville gave tlie name of 
''normal manure," and that term throughout all of his lectures is to 
be so understood; it is equivalent to our present term '^ complete fer- 
tilizer.-' 

To four adjacent and similar plots of several acres, Ville ap})lied fer- 
tilizers as follows: To one, the normal manure com])lete in all of its 
elements; to another, the normal manure without its nitrogen; to an- 
other, the normal manure with nitrogen alone; and to the fourth no 
application was made. The result, an exact acre l)eing taken, was as 
follows: 

With no manure the yield was of straw, two thousand three hun- 
dred and twenty-three ])()unds; of wheat, seven hundred ;nid ninety- 
four pounds, or a total yield of thr(H' thousand one Inindred and seven- 
teen pounds, and a cro]) of grain of twelve bushels per acre. 

Witli the mineral c^lements of the " noniial manure," but without 
its nitrogen, the yield was of wheat, two thousand six hun<lred and 
forty-tiiree iK)unds, and of straw, one thousand one hundred and thirty- 
two pounds, or a total crop of three thousand seven hundred and 
seventy-five pounds, and a yield oi' eigteen bushels to the acre. 

With the nitrogenous matter of the '^ normal manure," but without 
its mineral matter, tlie yield was of straw, three thousand and sixty- 
nine ])onnds, and of wheat, one thous:ind four hundred and twenty-six 
pounds, or a total yield of four thousand four iumdred and nine-five 
pounds, with grain at the rate of twenty-two bushels ])er acre. 

The x>lot to which the ''normal manure," with all of its elements, 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



27 



was applied the yield was of straw, six thousand one hundred and 
eight i)()unds, and of wheat, three tiiousand three hundred ])()unds, or 
a total of nine thousand four hundred and eight pounds, with yield of 
fifty and a half bushels of wheat per acre. 

To make the comparative yield still more evident to the reader, we 
resume our former mode of illustration, first taking the yield of straw : 

Flr^s'f. With no fertilizer at all, thus: 



Serond AVith mineral matter (cah'ic phosphate, potash, and lime) 
only, thus: 

TJiird. AVith nitrogenous matter only, thus: 

Fourth. With the ''normal manure," with all of its elements com- 
plete, thus : 



Wiiimii 



Applying the same made of comparison Avhich we have just made 
se of for tlie straw to the vield of grain in pounds, we have the fol- 



use 
lowing: 



First. Without any fertilizer, thus: 



mpTi-TP i i j-mi §,« " ijMijw i K yi 



Second. With mineral matter and without nitrogen, thus: 



Third. With nitrogen and without mineral matter, thus: 



Fourth. With the 'hiormal manure" complete, thus 



In order to give his theory of chemical fertilization a still further 
test, Ville made the following comparison, and attained the following 
results in entirelv artilicial cultivation, that is cultivation by which all 
natural sources of supply were cut off, and by which tlie plant was 
c()mi)elled to complete its growth with known elements added to cal- 
cined sand through the medium of distilled water alone; thus \ ille 
was enabled to know exactly what fertilizing material the plant ob- 
tained, and could readilv note the elfect of the material upon the 
growth of the plant. The result, with the application to each of the 

series of pots, was as follows : • • i i- 

Calcined sand alone, straw and roots, seventy-six grains, and ot 
grain but two grains; with calcinc^d sand and 'Miumus," straw and 
roots, eightv-one trains, and of seeds, four grains; with calcined sand 
and the '^normal manure" without phosphate^ of lime, straw and roots, 
l)ul nine grains and no seeds ; with '^normal manure" and without 
magnesia, of straw and roots, eighty-six grains, and ot seeds, one halt 
o-rain • with " normal manure " without potash, straw and roots, ninety 
grains, and of seed, three grains; with the mineral matter (all tern 
elements) onlv, of straw and roots, ninety-eight grains, and ot seed, 
ei'^-ht grains; 'with nitrogenous matter only, of straw and roots, one 
hundred and fortv-six -rains, and of seed, one gram; with ^^ normal 



28 



Quarterly Eeport. 



manure'' and without calcic carbonate or '^hunuis,'- of straw, two 
Inmdred and lii't v-five grains, and of seed, sixty-six grains ; with '' nor- 
mal manure" and 'Mmmus,'' of straw and roots, two hundred and 
twenty-one grains, and of seed, fifty three grains; with ^'normal 
manure "and calcic carbonate of straw and roots, two hundred and 
thirty-nine grains, and of seed, sixty-two grains; witli '' normal manure" 
and calcic carbonate and '' humus," of straw, tliree hun(h-ed and forty- 
six grains, and of seed, one hundred and thirty-four grains. 

In the course of several of his many ex])eriments, Ville noticed that 
potash applied in different forms, under precisely the same conditions, 
produced different effects and that the same was the case when the 
two forms (nitrate and silicate) were mixed. He also noted a similar 
variation in the action of the different forms of soda. In order to in- 
vestigate the matter and attain results he instituted an experiment, 
which he thus describes : 

^'All pots were dressed alike with normal manure, minus the two 
alkalies, potash, and soda. These were afterwards added alone or 
mixed, under two difierent conditions, as nitrates used alone or as 
nitrates mixed with potas^ic silicate." 

As the result of these experiments, Ville found that when applied 
by itself, nitrate of potash produced at the rate of one iiundred and 
eighty-eight of straw and forty-three of grain ; that idtrate of soda ap- 
plied by itself produced at the rate of one hundred and ten of straw 
and five of grain ; that nitrate of potash mixed with silicate of potash 
])ro(luced at the rate of two hundred and sixty-nine of straw and 
seventy-seven of grain; that nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash and sili- 
cate of potash, when mixed produced at the rate of two hundred and 
forty-tiiree of straw and seventy-two of grain. 

In a similar experiment in wiiich eciual amounts of calcic phosphate^ 
were mixed, one with nitrate of soda and the other with nitrate ot^ 
potash, Ville attained the following results: 



Calrir Phof^pJidtr avd Pofassic Xitrdte. 

Straw and roots, 1^*^ 

Grain '^^ 



Calcic rhoH})ha(i' <uiil S Urate of Soda. 

Straw and roots, 11<> 

(;rain, 5 



In this case the product of the phosphate and nitrate of potash was- 
just d()u})le that of the phosphate and nitrate of soda, while the pro- 
duct of grain was nearly ten times as great. 

When to each of these Ville added an eciual amount of silicate of 
potash, the results ])roduced were very nearly the same in both cases^ 
or exactlv, as follows : 

• 7 * 



Calcic Phos])hafr^ Nit rate of Potash., 
and Silicate of Potash. 

Straw and roots, 260 

Grain, "7 



Calcic Phosphate, Nitrate of Sod<(, and 
Silicate of Potash. 

Straw and roots, 24:^ 

Grain, "li. 



In referring to the result of this exi)eriment, Ville writes as follows: 
''In the absence of the silicate the i)lants grown by the sodic nitrate 
were inferior to those grown with i)otassic nitrate. But the a<Miti<)n 
of tlu^ silicate e(jualizes the result at once, and the s()<li<* nitrate is now 
apparently equal in its effects to the i)otassic nitrate, ^^'lly, it may be 
asked, do the two nitrates now produce the same e fleet '^ Simply be - 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



29 



cause thev onlv act bv their nitrogen. The mould added being ully 
provided with potash 'bv the addition of a silicate the potasli o the 
nitre exerts no influenc^e whatever. The conclusion to be drawn Ironi 
these experiments is, that as far as wheat is concerned, soda cannot 
replace potash. Sodic nitrate therefor, when used m conjunction with 
calcic phosphate, is but a poor manure, but by the addition ol potash 
we at once raise the value of the mixture as a fertilizing agent. 

The carefully made experiments of Ville also developed a tact, 
which thouo-h of little value to him or to his country, may prove ot 
value to the American farmer who compounds his own terti izers. 
He found bv several carefully repeated experiments, that the dilh^'ent 
forms of potash exerted a very different effect upon the crop of Indian 
corn In 1873 he commenced a series of careful experiments, intended 
to show the comparative effect of chloride and sulphate ol potash upon 
Indian corn. In his extended report of his experiments he tlius gives 
the result of this one : 



Manure and Chloride of Potash. 

Tons. 



Per acre. 

Stalks, ■> 

Husk, 1 

Grain, 3 

Leaves, 2 

13 
Grain GO bushels per acre. 



Cwt. 

1<) 

() 

14 

10 

() 



Manure and. Sulphate of Potash. 



Pry acre. Tons. 

Stalks, 5 

Husk, 1 

Grain, •'> 

Feaves, *- 

14 

Grain 80 bushels per acre. 



Cwt, 
4 

17 


13 

14 



The above experiment refers to extended field culture m which the 
fertilizer used was, in the one case, the before-mentioned Normal 
manure" with its potash from a chloride, and in the other from a 
sulphate, there being no other difference in the two plots. I he va ue 
of this and other experiments made by \ille, is increased from the 
fact that he never arrived at conclusions nor published results which 
were based upon one experiment only, l)ut he always duplicated his 
experiments before giving results or conclusions. 

Replacing the field culture with the glazed pots, to which we have 
before referred, and the ^' Normal manure " with one containing all ot 
the ten mineral elements, in both cases exact y alike except as to l^he 
kind of potash used, and both watered with the same amount of clis- 
tilled water, Ville found results to follow which he thus describes 
and which, in his report, are illustrated by pho ographs : In one tlie 
plant attained a height of 50 to GO inches before l)earing grain ; m 
the other the stalk has stopped at 35 inches and Jias borne seed 

The contrast is instructive and the cause not far to seek. In tlie 
first case the manure contained potash in the form of potassic chloride, 
and in the second in the state of potassic sulpha e J^^^gi^g.f^'^^ 
these results my first thou-ht was that potassic sulphate exercised a 
sS^^^ the formation of the grain, but I have since 

Sthat by slightly augmenting the quantity of ^- -j;-^^^ ^^^ 
grain is obtained with the potassic chloride ^^V^^^^h pot, ssic sul ha^^^ 

In his experiments as to the comparative effects o these two foims 
of potash, Ville found that the same difference in eflect did not exist 
when the crop experimented upon was clover, or in fact any other 
leguminous crop. In one experiment with clover, in open held cul- 



30 



Quarterly Report. 



ture the following mixtures were used, several times on several difler- 
ent plots, but always with the same result : 



Nonnal Manure No. 0. 

Su|)<'r])li<)S]>liat(' 'V}2 11)S. 

Miti-atc of ])()tash 17<) 11)S. 

G^Npsuiii, .T)^ lbs. 



8S0 lbs. 



Jncomplete Manure No. G. 

SnixTpliosjihato, ^~i2 lbs. 

('Iiloridc of potash ]7<) ll>s. 

(j|yi>siiiu, X)'l lbs. 

SSI) 11 )S. 



Several experiments upon clover jjroved that the result and crop 
from t hese two fertilizers was the same ; as the Incomplete manure 
No. () cost at least seven dollars less per acre (less than the other), 
the importance of the result is at once apparent. The difference 
between the two fertilizers being that the one containing the nitrate 
added twenty-two and one half pounds of nitrogen per acre while the 
other contained none, or at least that much less. 

From this experiment Ville draws the following conclusion : " Clover 
draws its nitrogen from the air and tlierefore the incom])lete manure, 
which does not contain nitrogen, is all it re(p'iires. Wheat, wdiich 
succeeds it, needs in realitv onlv nitrogenous matter, and bv reason 
of the detritus which the clover has left the dose may be restricted." 

The following extracts from the lectures of M. Ville, explain his 
theories more i'ully. 

'' M. Ponsard, president of the agricultural committee of d'Omey,in 
Cham]>agne, made])arallel experiments on a ])iece of waste land in one 
ol' the most barren districts of a i)roverbially bai"]*(Mi ])()rtion of that prov- 
ince, lie manured one half ol' the ground with about thirtv-two tons 
of farm-yard manure per acre, and the other with about hall' a ton of 
chemical maiuire ])er acre. With the farm-yard maiuire he obtained 
about fourteen bushels of wheat, whereas, with the chemical manure 
the land yielded about thirty bushels per acre, there being a loss of 
ninety-tive dollars in the former case and a gain of eighty-five dollars 
in the latter. 

" It may l)e objected that tlie farm yard manure has not exhausted its 
action in a single year, whereas, the cheinicjil manure had donc^ so. I 
can only reply that this id(\i is contrary to all known facts. Let us 
however, admit it : the result will not be so striking. The worst that 
can happen would be thnt the field would have to be manured afresh 
in order to grow a new crop, but the tirst result furnishes us with the 
means. 

''In the course of the last few years I have studied certain bi-anches 
of industrial cliemistry with a view to discover their connection with 
farming operations. For this puri)()se 1 had to consider a large number of 
interests. These researches were ihe scource of more than one mis- 
take on my i)art, but 1 was fully rei)aid l)y the fresh in form nt ion, 
which I had gained and wliich was hitherto unknown to m(\ 

'' In si)ite of the efforts, most of them praisc^worthy of large and pow- 
erful (•omi)anies, manufacturiuii: cliemistrv has not vet succeeded in 
allying itself with f.irming in a way that I should like to see. Before 
this can be accomi)lished an entirely new order of things must pre- 
vail, and I haveiiot the slightest doubt that whenever this shall hap- 
pen the elforts which I have already made will not be without value. 

'Mbit t he point u])on which I have, by i)reference, concent rated all of 
my endeavors I'or the pa.-t three years, is the economical and financial 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



31 



part of the agricultural (piestion. TlitluM-to, agriculture has existed by 
saving. What is called profit, is too olten the i)ri('e of the farmers' own 
labor and that of his family; but this so called prolit disappears if we 
assimilate the numagement of a farm to that of a numufactory, and 
charge so much for the labor of the cliiel' and of his subordinates in 
proportion to the amount of capital sunk in the venture. 

''Chemical analysis shows that fourtcHMi elements enter into the 
composition of pla'nts; they are divided into organic and inorganic 
elements, the former being carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and 
the latter phosphorus, chlorine, sulphur, silicon, iron, manganese, cal-^ 
cium, magnesium, sodium, and i)()tassium. This limited number of 
elements possesses such an infmite i)()wer of combination, that they 
are capable of forming an enormous variety of plants to which I have 
before alluded. They resem])le the letters of an ali)habet, few in 
number, but suffudent'to form all the words of a languaire. 

"-W must not, however, be thought that the composition of ])lants 
is the same throughout the various organs, differing only in form ; 
that the stem, the l)ark, the leaves, and tiie fruit are only different 
phases or develoi)ments of one and the same substance, which can at 
all times be identilied. Each organ has to a certain extent a com])osi- 
tion peculiar to itself, but as will ])resently be seen, these dissimihiri- 
ties area c()nse(pience of the conditions needed for the reproduction 
of the species, and mav be reduced to very simple ])roportions. 

''It may be laid down, as a general rule, that the foliaceous or fleshy 
parts of plants contain more mineral or inorganic matters than the 
woody and fibrous portions. These variations are caused by the 
aqueous ])ortion of the sap evaporating more ({uickly in the former 
than in the latter parts. In fact, the less compact the tissues are, and 
the more direct their communications with the atmosphere, the more 
rapidly does this evaporation proceed. Further, more mineral mat- 
ter is'found in herbaceous ])lants than in trees, more in the leaves 
than in the l)ark of trees, and more in the bark than in the sap wood 

and heart wood. 

"In leguminous plants there are two distinct parts, the pod and the 
seed. The pod, which is in inmiediate contact with the atmosphere, 
lends itself more rapidlv to the evaporation of the sap, consecpiently 
it contains more mineral matter. In the same way the leaves of 
evergreens, which are renewed in the winter— a season less favorable 
to evaporation than in the hot summer— contain on this account les& 
mineral matter than those of trees. -, .^ ^ i 

'*The distribution of mineral matter is not, therefore, left to chance^ 
but on the contrary, subject to a fixed law. All kinds of mineral 
matter participate indiscriminately in the formation of plants, but each 
is concentrated by preference in an organ, or in a determined systeni 
of organs. It remains for us to find out the reason for this unequal 

distribution. n a- - i • i 

"In the economy of nature all the functions of living beings, how- 
ever varied they mav be, tend towards the same end, viz., to assure 
the reproduction of' the species, that is to say, to insure its perma- 
nence for all time. Thev are regulated with a view to this important 
result, but that this condition may be fullilled, the embryo contamcMl 
in the seed must find, within reach of its vital power, those elementf^ 
which are indispensalde to the first acts of plant life. Ihisiswhy 
the seed is so abundantly provided with phosy>horic acid, potash and 
magnesia. It is a sort of reserved force provided for the first evolu- 



32 Quarterly Rei»ort. 

tion of the eml)iyo. An examination of the preceding table* shows 
the dilference between potasli and phosplioric acid. Thosplioric acid 
is in almost nniform proportion in all of the organs except the seed ; 
it is not so with potash ; tlie concentration of the phosphoric acid in 
the seed takes place suddenly, the proportion of potash, on the con- 
trary, increases by degrees, and the closer the parts ai)i)roach the seed 
the more considerable this i)r()portion becomes. 

^'In their distribution in the economy of i)lants, the organic ele- 
ments present yet another contrast to the inorganic elements. Three 
of tliom, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, are present iu almost invariable 
proportions. All plants, and all the various organs, without dis- 
tinction, contain them in the same quantities. Trees, bushes, simple 
plants, roots, stems, barks, branches, leaves, iruit and seeds show an 
invariable proportion of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. 

'' This is not the case with nitrogen ; it varies in a similar way to the 
phosphoric acid and potash. Fruit and seeds contain more nitrogen 
than other organs, because during the whole process of germination 
the embryo lives at the expense of the seed, and therefore reiiuires to 
find in the circumscril)ed limit of its activity, not only mineral matter, 
but also nitrogen. 

Jioofs. StrcDv. Grain. 

Pliosphorie acid, 1.70 2.20 4(1.00 

Magnesia, 1.97 3.02 13.77 

Potasli, 2.87 15.18 32.59 

Liiuo, 0.88 3.00 1.19 

''Th(^ l)rocess of vegetation is not e(]ually .simple; the phases 
through wiiich a plant passes before attaining its full development 
are nevertheless of so lixed and permanent a character that it is evi- 
dent that a plan exists, the econony and consistency of which excludes 
all ideas of a chance; a plan which, though very different from that 
governing the formation of minerals, depends upon no less inflexible 
laws, which are equally well known to us in principle and in detail. I 
have said that plants owe their formation to fourteen different ele- 
ments : I may now add that some of these elements originally existed 
in the air in the gaseous state, whilst others, whether liquid or solid, 
emanated from the soil. The former are absorbed by the leaves, and 
the latter l)y the roots; hence plants are formed and developed 1)y 
means of many and diverse ])rinciples derived from various sources, 
but these principles do not all at once assume the form of tissues and 
organs; they first pass through the more simple or preparatory stages 
in which, although they have not completely assumed the peculiar 
characteristics, they can no longer be regarded as belonging to inor- 
ganic nature. 

'' Wheat l)efore germination, contains from ten to lifteen per cent, of 
fibrin, and at most, only one or two per cent, of albumen ; as soon as 
g;ermination begins the i)roportion of fibrin diminishes, and that of 
albunuMi increases. Beans and lentile contain casein but no li])rin, 
and very little albumen, but during germination the casein disai)p(^ars 
and albumen takes its place. The same thing occurs with starch, 
which seeds contain an abundance; il is changed into gum and 
sugar, which, in their turn, undergo a fresh transformation, i)assing 
into cellulc^se in the leaves, stems, and roots. 

"A plant in its earliest stage is nothing but a seed transformed. 
After germination, when vegetation, properly si)eaking, begins, more 

* 100 jHtrfs in ash of wheat. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



33 



albumen is formed continually, until the plant blossoms, when the al- 
bumen is changed into librin in wheat, and to casein in beans and 
lentils. 

'' Among the conditions which inlluence vegetation, we have placed 
in the second rank, the composition of the soil, and the choice of 
manures. Now^ two contiguous portions of land freciuently differ 
greatly in fertility. Such diiferences may be accounted for by the 
presence or absence of certain agents which abound in the one place, 
and are lacking in the other. By adding to the less favored soil the 
elements in which it is deficient it immediately becomes fertile ; there- 
fore, by means of proper manures, we can ac(iuire in a case of this kind 
an alniost limitless power; man in fact commands nature. It is to 
the study of the second condition, the choice and use of manures, that 
the course of instruction at Vincennes is especially devoted. 

''All the different species (of plants) are susceptible of certain 
changes which are capable of becoming hereditary races, and varieties 
have no other origin. Unimportant in a botanical point of view, these 
deviations are often of great importance to agriculture, because under 
the same conditions of soil and manure, one variety often produces 
twice as much as another. 

'^For three years I grew two parallel patches of wheat, one being 
English red wheat, the soil and the manure were the same in both 
cases. The English wheat thrived wonderfully, whilst the other, not- 
withstanding the great care taken of it, turned out badly. During the 
autumn it always showed a marked advantage over the English sort; 
but in the spring, although late frosts occurred, it was attacked by red 
Tust, whilst the English corn (wheat) being less advanced took no 

harm whatever. 

" The assimilation of carbon is affected by a very simple process : 
Carbonic dioxide formed by the union of carbon and oxygen is ab- 
sorbed by the leaves in the substance of which it is decomposed, the 
carbon being absorbed by the plant while the oxygen is set free. 
This simple but wonderful phenomena, is one which can only be pro- 
duced in the chemists laboratory by the use of the most complicated 
methods of analysis, yet it is eifected by the delicate tissue of a leaf 
without its fragile organization being in any way impaired. 

'^It will be observed that this system of plant respiration is the re- 
verse of that of animal respiration. Plants breathe in ('arbonic diox- 
ide and give back oxygen, whilst animals, on the contrary, breathe 
in oxygen and return carbonic dioxide. This explains why the com- 
position of the atmosphere does not change, notwithstanding the in- 
cessant supplies drawn from it l)y both animals and plants. 

''It has already been stated that all plants contain from forty to 
forty-five per cent, of their weight of carbon. Now if carbon is ab- 
sorbed from the air and forms part of the fertilizing agents used in 
agriculture as well, it is at once evident why it is that the soil yields 
nTore than it has received. The same remark ap])lies to oxygen and 
hydrogen, which represents more than forty per cent, of the weight of 
plants%nd which both have their origin in water. It follows from 
this that ninetv-five per cent, of the substance of i)lants is derived from 
sources foreign to the soil, and that the portion which human industry 
has to furnish to the earth is only a fraction of that which is yielded 
by the crops. This fraction is, however, indispensible, and the oxygen 
and hydrogen of the water would not have been able to enter into 
plant life. 
3 



34 



QiARTp^RLY Report. 



'-^ TJie excess in llie earth's product tlieii is due to air and rain. The 
foHowin^; table, wliich ai)plies to other phuits as well as to wheat, is 
conclusive prool' of tiiis i'act : 

''Compost of Wheat (Straw and Grain.) 



Carr)on, 47.69 

Ilvdrogcii, 5.54 

Oxygen, 40.32 

Soda, 0.091 

Maiiiu'sia 0.20 

Sul])lniri<* acid, O.-'U 

ChloriiK', 0.0:5 

Ferris oxide, 0.00 

Silica, 2.75 

Maiigenese, 0.00 



Tliese 93.55 j^arts was derived from the 
air and rain. 



Tliese 3.290 the soil is sn])erabinidantly 
pr()\ ided Avith, and it is iiinieeessary to 
add them. 



I.60I 
0.45 



Nitrogen, ^..,u | These 3.00 parts the soil preserves only 

liiospnoiieacm, .4;> . to a limited extent, and the deticieney is 

Potash, 0.(h) \ 111 ^-^ • 1 "^ 

T . ' .> .)(, sn])])lied bv artificial manure. 

Lime, 0.29 ! ^ ^ 

''Nitrogen is assimilated l)y ijlants in three diflerent forms, viz : 

"In the i'orm of ammonia. 

"As the nitrate of some base. 

"As nitrogen gas. 

" One or the other of these forms is fonnd specially snited to certain 
kinds of ])laiits, for instance, nitrogen enters as ammonia into wheat 
as nitrates into beet root, while leguminous ])lants absorl) it in the 
form of free gas. It has been ascertained that crops always contain 
more nitrogen than the manure su]>plied to them. This excess of nitro- 
gen is derived, not from the soil, ])ut from the air; ])ut the (juestion 
now arises. In what state has the nitrogen been absorbed? Is it in the 
state of ammonia, of nitrates, or of free nitrogen? Rain water con- 
tains on an average half a ])ound in a million pounds; now, these quan- 
tities represent a contribution only of five and one quarter pounds of 
nitrogen per acre annually, which is evidently insufficient to explain 
the excess of thirty-eight pounds in the case of the Jerusalem arti- 
choke, and still less to the excess of one liundred and fifty ])ounds in 
the case ol* the lucern. 

"We are thus led to attribute to the free nitrogen of the air the ex- 
cess which otherwise would remain une>:i)lain(Ml. Iliis opinion is not, 
however, universally acce])ted. The following are some of the dejec- 
tions raised against it. It is unanimously admitted that a part of the 
nitrogen contained in the crops has its origin in tiie atmosphere, but 
the assimilation of free nitrogen is denied; it is sui)])osed that before 
being absorbed by plants, the nitrogen passes into the form of a nitrate 
in the soil ; the soil would thus become the seat of universal and per- 
manent nitrification. 

'^Now if nitrogen is assimilate in lucern only in the state of a 
nitrate, w^e ought evidently to find in the crop a certain amount of the 
bases corresponding to tlie nitric acid, the supi)osed source of the 
nitrogen. None however exist. 

'' 1 have stated that ten inorganic or mineral elements enter into the 
composition of plants, and now I am obliged to add that with the 
hel]) of nitrogenous manures, three only are sufficient to increase and 
maintain the fertility of the soil, and that the agriculturist need not 
concern himself about the remaining seven. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



35 



^It must not, however, be thought that the latter has no effect on 
plants. They are no less necessary than the three first, and if they can 
be practically dispensed with in artificial manures, it is only because the 
worst soils are superabundantly supplied with them. If the observa- 
tions I have just made are correct, the conclusion is obvious. It 
ought to 1)0 ])ossible by their aid to obtain as luxuriant growth in cal- 
cined sand, which is inert in itself, as in the most fertile alluvial soil. 
All that is necessary for this is a due x>roportion ot the ten inorganic 
elements and the nitrogenous matter. It follows eciually from these 
fundamental data, that in a natural soil the same result may ])e ob- 
tained with nitrogenous material and three compounds only — calci- 
phosphate, X)otash and lime. These two theoretical x>i"iuciples are con- 
firmed by experience. 

"Clay posvsesses anollier property worthy of remark, that of fixing 
in the soil the nitrogenous and mineral matter by wiiich fertility is 
essentially determined. This fixation is not complete and definite. 
It is only in a manner exterior and transitory, for in the end the clay 
gives back to vegetation the active principles of which it seemed te 
liave obtained possession. To enable the character of this property 
to be clearly comprehended, I will give this example : If a piece of 
clay be steeped in li(iui<l muck,* the liquid is decolorized, and an 
analysis shows that at the end of a certain period it has lost a part of 
its ammonia, as well as some salts which it hitherto contained. Let 
us reverse the experiment. Steep the same clay in distilled water,, 
and it wall, little by little, yield up the products which it had extractedl 
from the liquid muck.* Finally, if the active principles of the 
soil are not drawn oft' by rain-water, it is again owing to the clay, 
which, in addition to the property of retaining the fertilizing princi- 
ples of the soil, also unites that of afterwards regulating the solution. 
The absorbent property possessed by clay is more or less in proportion 
as the solutions upon which it acts are more or less concentrated. In 
a solution containing four per cent, of i)otash or aiTimonia the clay 
absorbs more of these two alkalies than in a solution containing only 
one or two per cent, of them. Hence it follows that if periods of 
drought occur, the only thing to be feared is that the soluble part of 
the soil may acquire a degree of concentration wdiich is dangerous to 
the plant; but the clay prevents this. If a prolonged rainfall occurs, 
the clay yields to the w\ater the substances which it had previously 
absorbed.' It follows from these actions and reactions that clay acts 
on the assimilable elements of the soil as a sort of regulating material, 
retaining or yielding them by turns as the earth passes from a state of 
drought to one of excessive humidity. It is clear that although clay 
and sand do not directly contribute to plant growth, they ful till a most 
important office. 

" I have said before that many intelligent men place humus in the 
foremost rank as a fertilizing agent, but if we ask them for ])roofs in 
support of their opinion they are not forthcoming. Plant nutrition is 
an extremely complex phenomena, the thorough investigation of which 
can scarcely be traced back for twenty years. When sufficient data 
w^ere wanted to explain, hypotheses and words supplied their place. 
Humus had the honor of serving as an explanation for everything 
that could not be understood. Thanks to this concurrence in expla- 
nation, men appeared to agree upon the subject, when in reality they 
were far from so doing. 

* Manure water from the barn-yard. 



3G 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Aoriculture. 



37 



'"How and under what circumstiinees does huiiiusaet iavorahly ? Tlie 
first of its good eilects is, that like chiy,it possesses the property of ab-^ 
sorbing; a great deal of water, thus contributing to the maintenance of 
the humidit V of the soil. If, however, we remember that the soil con- 
tains onlv a very small percentage of humus, it is very difficult to 
allow that such a small (piantily has the power of modifying the phy- 
sical condition of the soil. Humus i)ossesses tlie more useful property, 
that of lixing the anmionia in the soil, so as to prevent it from being 
carried olf l)V the rains. It afterwards gives l)ack tliis ammonia to 
vegetation. Up to the present these functions have not appeared very 
important, but now the utility of humus begins to be evident. It ab- 
sorbs the oxvgen of the air. and afterwards undergoes a slow, inappreci- 
able, but real, combustion. It thus becomes the source of a gradual, 
but uninterrupted, formation in the soil of carbonic dioxide, which is 
less useful on account of the carbon it furnislies to vegetation than for 
the solvent power which it exercises with regard to certain minerals, 
and especially to calcic phosphate and limestone. 

"'It might be believed that chemical analysis which has done so 
much in our time, and which has attained such a degree both of deli- 
cacy and certainty, ought to be able to test, with certainty, the rich- 
ness of the soil, and by so doing, to serve as a guide in the choice of 
manures best suited to its nature. It is not so, however, and I defy 
the cleverest chemist to tell beforehand what will be the yield of any 
land submitted to him, and what manure ought to be used. A few 
words will explain why chemistry is powerless to furnish these indi- 
cations. We must here call to mind the distinction which we have 
allowed to exist between the dilferent constituents of which the soil 
is composed. Let us suppose some land containing among its me- 
chanical elements quartzose and felspathic sand. For plants these 
two sands are equally valuable, although the first is silica only, while 
the second is a silicate, with lime and i)otash and sofa base, containing 
also small but very appreciable quantities of calcic phosphate. 
Here then are two bodies whose composition, notwithstanding their 
outward similitude, is not at all analogous, yet they are of equal value 
from an agricultural point of view, because the felspathic sand being 
insoluble in water, the part it plays with respect to the vegetation 
descends to the rank of that of quartzose sand, that is to say that of a 
sim])le mechanical body. But for the chemist there are no insoluble 
bodies, so he ranks the'^potash, lime, and calcic phosphate in felspathic 
f5and, and which are of no use in increasing vegetation, in the same 
category with the products of a similar nature which we have arranged 
in the class of active assimila})le agents. This shows the insulliciency 
of the information which we receive from chemistry alone. We have,^ 
in the case of the Vincennes land, a striking proof of the dangers of 
this confusion by which we are too often led astray. According to an 
analysis of this land, made by me with tlie greatest care, I found that 
in over four hundred thousand tons of soil, which about represent the 
weight of the vegetable mould distributed over the surface of an acre, 
there were fourteen liundnMl pounds of phosphoric acid, eighteeen 
hundred of i)otasii, and thirty one thousand live hundred of lime. 
This constitutes a considerable amount of fertility. Now if corn 
(wheat) were to be grown on this land for four years, a nitrogenous 
material being used for manure, the yield at rne end of the fourth 
year would not be more than five and one half to six and one half 
bushels. The soil, therefore shows, a great scarcity of mineral nuitter, 



and these lour crops take away from the soil only seventy-five pounds 
of phosphoric acid, c^ighty-one pounds of potash, and thirty-iive])Ounds 
of lime. These latter quantities are far removed from those indicated 
by my chemical analysis of the soil. It may be said that there was 
a^mistake in my analysis ; but this is not so, for the soil indeed con- 
tains what I have ([noted, but this indication is of no practical utility 
to us, because in calculating the proportions of these inorganic ele- 
ments, we have not distinguished ])etween what was active and what 

are inert. , , . , i ^ • -i ^ 

^' With reference to the different forms in which plants assimilate 
nitrogen— some ol)taining it from the air in the form of free nitrogen, 
while' others derive it from the soil in the form of ammonia and 
j^ili-.^tes— vou can appreciate the result of this distinction. Those 
plants which derive nitrogen from the air llourish exceedingly well in 
a soil which is destitute of that element as long as they lind in it the 
three mineral elements of the normal manure, potash, calcic phosphate, 
and lime. Plants which derive nitrogen from the soil become, on the 
contrary, etiolated and yield only a scanty crop. It follows from this that 
by the aid of two experiments on a small scale we may always know 
if the land contains the necessary nitrogenous and mineral matter. 

'^f we cultivate side by side pease aiul wheat, or pease and beet 
root, and the pease vield well whilst the wheat turns out badly, we are 
able to conclude unhesitatingly that the land is provided with the min- 
eral ))ut lacks nitrogenous matter; on the other hand, if wheat suc- 
ceeds equally as well, we mav be certain that the land contains both 
the mineral and nitroirenous matter. Can you conceive a method 
which is more practical and yet at the same time simpler and more 
conclusive^ At Vincennes, nothing succeeds m the land il we dis- 
continue the use of manure, neither pease nor beet roots wdl tlourish ; 
which proves that it is destitute both of nitrogen and the necessary 

mineral matter. . , . 1 1 . ^ 

'^ Farm-yard manure is therefore, so to speak, the incontestable t> pe 
of a fertilizing material, containing, as it does, the four constituents 
which are the foundation of plant growth, and consecpiently the only 
ones with which aiiricultural industry is in any way connected. 1 re- 
peat that we have here undeniable proof of the value of our previous 
inquiries. In order however that this proof should be complete and 
Avithout question, the identity of results must be placed side l)y side 
Avith the identitv of com])()sition. in this respect practice once more 
conlirms our theoretical information. With our normal manure* the 
vield is alwavs larger than where ordinary farm-yard manure has been 
used Tlie value of these data is all the greater, because they are 
founded on operations carried on upon a large scale. I have obtainea 
them from farmers, who, at my request, have l)een good enough o try 
certain experiments on the comparative value of artifu-ia * and iarm- 
yard manures. Throughout all these experiments, the advantage has 
alwavs been on the side of the former. ^ ' n 

'^With chemical manure, on the other hand, the farmer ac(piires 
almost perfect liberfv of action, and is ena])l<Ml to regulate the (pian- 
tity to be used at will'; his operations only being limited by the amount 
of capital at his disi)osal. 

nitn)^lnous matter, mul lime, a.ul . as eo,M,-n'.l with -•;-> ^^^ -='1;!;;^ ^ ^ , 1^ 
value- tims tlic apDlJcatioiis of tlic normal mainnv usiiall> cadied Hall '^ j; \ P^^ 
.i( r^mVl f-n>m t^ results oi' a L.r^c umuhw of experiments it always oxeecde I the 
vani num urJ, oVlen at the rate of :m tons per acre, and at the same moneyed cost. 



38 



Quarterly Eei'Ort. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



39 



i 



m 



"•'By the use of cliemical iniuiure lie may, so to speak, in a single 
day, pass iroiii a ])recarioiis to a thoroughly trustworthy system of 
farming, and thereby obtain a large amount of prolit as comx)ared with 
his former mediocre gains. 

'' It will be seen that this is the most important point connected with 
the agriculture of the future. As 1 have already said, in farming, the 
I^rofits obtained de])end u])ou the (luantity of manure that is spread 
over the land; with a small amount of manure the crops will be small 
and the prolit is nothing, if even there is not an absolute loss. With 
generous manuring the yield is increased and the profit is certain, for 
the excess in expendit ure is not more than one half or one third of the 
excess of the yield. To make this truth plainer, I may mention that 
the cultivation of the soil necessitates two kinds of expenditure. 
First of all there are the lixed expenses which never change no mat- 
ter whether we adopt a good or a bad system of farming, such as taxes, 
rates, cost of seed, vfec. Then come expenses which change according 
to circumstances, such as carting, threshing, and manure. I hold then 
that the system of farming which is sparing in manure is always a 
losing speculation, while an abundant use of fertilizing agents profit 
is certain. How can it be otherwise, seeing that manure is the raw 
material from which our crops are produced. 

'^ Two conclusions are to be drawn from this experiment. The first 
is that for wheat we must not use our nitrogenous material in too 
large a proportion at once, i. e., at the rate of one hundred and fifty 
pounds per acre. Unless this rule be carried out, accidents are sure 
to occur. If the corn (w^heat) escapes being lodged it is rarely free 
from smut, and even if both of these evils are avoided the straw 
grows so fast that the yield of wdieat is interfered with. As a general 
rule, it is much better to divide our nitrogenous material into two 
portions, one half to be used in the autumn and the other in the 
spring, but always as a top dressing. The first should be used when 
the wdieat is about four or five inches high, the second in the s])ring, 
from tlie 10th to the 30tli of Mandi. It is hardly necessarv to sav 
that the second portion of the sulphate of ammonia need only be sowed 
should occasion require it. Six times out of ten a dressing of I'rom 
forty -eiglit to ninety-six pounds* per acre in the spring will be suffi- 
cient. 

^' Great attention should ])e paid to the manner of using chemical 
manures. Farm-yard manure may l)e distributed unevenly without 
inconvenience, provided the irregularity is not pushed too far; but 
with chenucal manures, on the contrary, any irregularity of distribu- 
tion is sure to endanger the welfare of the crop. This part of the 
w^ork must, therefore, be attended to wdth i)articular care. Distribu- 
tion by machine satisfies all necessary conditions. When, however, 
we do not happen to have a machine at our disposal, the best thing to 
do is to mix the artificial manure with two or tliree times its bulk of 
mould and distribute it between the plowing and harrowing. The ad- 
dition of mould balances the effect of unequal distribution. This 
method of distribution is, it is true, more expensive than any other, 
but any extra outlay is amply comi)ensated by the increased yield. 

''Chemical manures, they say, are only a i)recarious resource. As 
soon as their Tise becomes general, their exorbitantly high price will 
render it impossil)le to employ them. A few summary explanations 
will be sufficient to answer this objection. 

''Taking calci-phosphate first, we shall find that twenty years ago 



the only known source of this compound w^as the bones of animals. 
It is certain that if we w^ere to be reduced to this source of supply its 
use could never become general. But at present (1874) there is no 
longer any dantrer of scarcity, for we know that calcic phosphate enters 
largely into the composition of all eruptive rocks, and that inex- 
haustible supplies of this mineral exist in various countries. In Es- 
tramadura, in Spain, for instance in the neighborhood of Logrosan, 
there are eight or ten veins extending over a space of several square 
kilometers, and containing seventy to eighty-five per cent, of calcic 
phosi)hate. In Canada and Sweden there are also large deposits of 
this valuable substance (now found in large deposits in South Caro- 

liiui). 

''The principal sources of potash are three in number: 1. Eruptive 
rocks which constitute entire chains of mountains and wdiich often 
contain as much as fifteen per cent, of that alkali. 2. Sea-water from 
which w^e may extract potash with great ease by employing the ])ro- 
€es3 invented by the late M. Balard, and which alone would sulJice 
for all of our wants. 3. Deposits discovered at Strassfuth (German 
potash salts of commerce) some fifteen or sixteen years ago. These 
deposits seem to be inexhaustible, being two hundred to two hundred 
and fifty feet thick, and covering an area the extent of which has not 
yet been determined. They are connected with the formation of rock 
salt which leads us to think that similar discoveries will be made 
where similar geological conditions exist, more especially as geologists 
in other localities are on the lookout for such beds. It is not, there- 
fore, to be supposed that this deposit in Prussia is an exceptional and 

isolated case. 

^' With regard to nitrogenous matter I must admit that ifw^e were to 
be obliged to employ no other sources of nitrogen than ammoniacal 
compounds and the nitrates, it might be held with certain show of 
reason that at a given period the present sources (known) would 
prove to be insufficient, to the already known sources however others 
will no doubt be added. 1 may instance the manufacture of coke 
which is now burnt in the open air. It is only necessary to carry on 
this operation in closed furnaces to obtain large quantities of am- 
monia. But even if these sources fail we should still have the nitro- 
gen of the air, a point to which my attention has long been directed. 

" In practice it is considered that the application of sixteen tons of 
farm-yard manure per acre every two years is sufficient for all 
ordinary purposes. Our aim on the present occasion being to com- 
pare farm-yarc. manure with chemical manures, we will first incpiire 
what are the proportions of our normal manure in sixteen tons of 
farm-vard manure. The following gives the reply as to the larm- 
yard manure at Bechelbron and Vincennes,— nitrogen one hundred 
and forty-four pounds, phosphoric acid sixty-six, potash one hundred 
and thirty-two, and lime two hundred and eighty-two ; total, six hun- 
dred and'^twentv-four pounds per acre. 

^' If it 1)0 true as experience seems to indicate that farm-yard manure 
owes all of its efficacv to these four substances, its active portion is 
reduced to less than a fortieth of the whole mass. In ordinary manure 
there is eighty per cent, of moisture whi(di reduces the solid constitu- 
ents of sixteen tons to three tons, four hundred-weight, in which latter 
figures we must count the carbo-hydrates whose utility is more than 
prol)lematical, at from two tons, eight hundred-weight, to two tons, 
sixteen hundred-weight. AVith two thousand two hundred and forty- 



tM 



40 Quarterly Et:poRT. 

ei<ilit pounds of chemical products we may eom])ound a mainii'e 
which is equal in lichness to the sixteen tons of farm-yard manure. 
The following table will show the truth of this : 

Ciilcic ])lK>s]>liato 52S ixninds. 

Potussic chloriilc, 2H'2 ]K)uih1s. 

Aminonic suli)hate, (iiU pounds. 

Calcic* sulpliale, 747 pounds. 

Total, 2,248 pounds. 

'-'' It is evident that with regard to facilities of carriage and cheapness 
of disiri])ution, the advantage is on the side of the chemical manure. 
This however is only a secondary matter, for the true superiority i? 
due to other causes and is justified by other considerations. In 
ordinary manure the nitrogen is not always in a favorable condition 
for assimilation. The contrary is the case with the chemical manure. 
In the farm-yard manure the nitrogen exists in the excreta, and in 
the half decomposed straw, &c., which cannot act favorably on the 
plants grown until they have undergone a process of decomposition^ 
which com])letely changes its condition. Nitrogen can only ])e 
assimilated after it has been transformed into junmonia or a nitrate. 
This previous decomposition therefore had for its chief results the 
loss of thirty to forty i)er cent, of the nitrogen which the manure 
originally contained which escapes into the air in the elementary form. 
In the case of chemical manures, I repeat, the whole of the nitrogen 
may be assimilated direct, and that its action is thus rendered more 
certain. 

[Note by the Secretary — Mons Ville then gives a large number of ex- 
tracts from the account books of the Vincennes farm, and of many 
other farms, to prove that the actual cost of farm-yard manures vari- 
ously shown to be $5 25, $3 75, $2 95, and $2 25 per ton, he pro- 
ceeds as follows:] 

'*How is it that with the same conditions we arrive at such diiferent 
conclusions. The explanation is very simple, and I insist the more 
upon bringing it forward, l)ecause it will furnish me at the same time 
with the op])ort unity and means of rectifying an error into which 
farmers too frequently fall by their bad system of bookkeeinng. 

"" By a kind of tacit agreement, founded on the opinion that the pro- 
duction of manure is one of the necessities which cannot ])e done 
without, the food of the animals ])roducing it is charged at its cost 
price and not at its sale price. It is not radically a defective system 
to carry on. When a farmer attaches a sugar factory (])eet sugar is 
here alluded to), or a distillery to his farm, does he reckon the value 
of his beet root at prime cost ^ No, he reckons them at the same price 
as those which he buys in the market. When he delivers his cattle 
and sheep, does he give them at the cost i)rice? No, he is inlluenced 
by the condition of the market. To arrive at the true price of ma- 
nure it is absolutely necessary to adopt tlie system of dividing ac- 
counts which is so advantageous to the trader, by showing him with 
certainty the origin of his profits, and by indicating where he ought 
specially to practice economy or spend more on means and ap- 
pliances. 

''In a properly conducted farm there should be a separate account 
ox)ened for the stables, whicli should ])e credited with everything that 
fetches value, sucli as milk, butter, animals sold, increase of weight 
in the reserve animals, the work done by the horses; ])ut on the otlier 
hand, the account should be debited with those expenses of whatever 



Pennsylvania Board of Agricilture. 



41 



nature, which have contributed to the realization of the sums which' 
have been carried to the credit side. In the expenses must be in- 
cluded the cost of keeping up the harness and wagons, the wages of 
the wagoners, shepherds, stable helps, &c., and finally, this account 
must be debited with those commodities which are consumed by the 
animals at sale price, a deduction being made of from ten to fiiteen 
per cent, as compensation for the cost of transport had they been sold 
off the premises. An account based ui)()n this data will always show 
a loss, but this loss is counterbalanced ])y the value of the manure 
produced. The loss divided by the number of tons of manure pro- 
duced gives the price per ton of the manure. 

''The farmer who uses nothing but farm-yard manure exhausts his 
land. For whence come the manure ])ut from the soil. As a fact, 
farm-yard manure does not make up for the loss of calcic i)hosphate, 
lime, potash, and nitrogenous matter which it had to submit to 
through carrying away part oi the crops grown on it. When meat is 
sold away from the faVm less is lost than in the case of grain, but there 
is always some loss. I repeat then, that this axiom which has hither 
to been made into the foundation and palladium of agricultural 
science, is nothing more than an expedient. It can only claim con- 
sideration in the very exceptional case of meadow being watered by 
a river which returns to the soil the fertilizing agents which have 
been taken out of it. I repeat, however, that such cases are so rare 
that they cannot ibrm a law. 

" At this distant epoch of which we are speaking the earth contained 
neither humus nor farm-yard manure, which i)re-sui)i)oses an anterior 
generation. Consequently by taking agricultural tradition in its in- 
tegrity, whether farm-yard manure or irrigation is employed, we are 
led to the conclusion that the carbo-hydrates, supposing them to be 
useful, plav only a secondary part, as meadow land on the one hand 
and primitive v'egetation on'the other unite it, attesting that it is (luite 
possible to dispose witii them entirely. But if this is really so, how 
are we to understand the constitution and function of farm-yard ma- 
nured What is the connection l)etween it and tliat law of restitution 
which we cannot escape from, and the disregard of wliicli is fatal to 
the fertility of the soil. This (piestion will be better answered l)y the 
following table than by any long explanation: 

Manure contained. 100 parts farm-yard. 

^Yater ^^ 80 parts not wanted by plants. 

Carbon, ^'^'^!]} i;i. 20 i)arts of woody fibre, the elements of 

Hydroj^en, ^^'^zi whirli come frouT the ;iir and water. 

Ox3'gen, J-<>' ) 



Silica, 4.31>1 

Chlorine, 0.04 

Suli)hnric acid O.l.'i ,^ 

Fci lie oxide, O.'U [ 

Soda, 

Magnesia, 0.li4 



o.OT i>arts of mineral matter, wliich all 
soils will furnisii in abundance. 



Nitrogen, . . . 
Pliosi)horic acid, 

I'otash, 

Lime, 



11 l.<>^ parts, which tlie soil can only supi>ly 
^^' ^^ I to a limited extent, and upon which the 
<>-40 I oflicicncv of the manure depends. 



''In one hundred parts of farm-yard manure, we lind m the hrst 
place, eighty ])arts of water. Now water is evidently not the cause of 
its efficacy. We then come to V^.20 parts of carlmn, hydrogen, and 



42 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



43 



\i 



oxygen represented by tlie remains oT the litter and llial part of the 
animal's I'ood not disorganized by digestion. We furtlier lind in the 
manure under consideration 5.07 parts of silica, chlorine, sulphuric 
acid, ferric oxide, soda, and magnesia which are of very little vahie 
in agriculture, for the simple reason that the worst lands are almost 
always superabundantly provided with them. There remains, finally, 
1.04 parts, or in round numbers two per cent, of the four bodies nitro- 
gen, phosplioric acid, potash, and lime of which the chemical manure 
is com])osed. and which we lind only in the waters which irrigate 
meadow land, and which alone nourish the plants belonging to the 
early ages of the world's history. In what then do chemical and farm- 
yard manures differ? Simply in form and in volume, and in compo- 
.sition; but this dilference is of small importance, seeing that the ex- 
cess is useless for fertilizing purposes. 

^ '^Normal manure composed of four ingredients (phosphoric acid, 
lime, potash, and nitrogen), is sufficient, it has been said, to render the 
most barren soil fertile; still these four bodies are not of the same 
degree of utility to all i)lants indiscriminately, but according to the 
nature of the plant, one of them exercises a preponderating iniluence 
•over the other three, and thus constitutes itself the regulator of the 
crop. For instance, with wheat, beet root, and hemp it is the nitro- 
genous matter which by preference inlluences the crop. Were we to 
use double or treble the quantity of phosphate, potash, or lime, the 
yield would not change, but if we vary the quantitv of nitrogenous 
matter, the crop is immediately increased or decreased in ])roportion ; 
an evident proof that with respect to the three crops above mentioned 
It IS the nitrogenous matter which really fills the most important otTice. 
''But another and equally important result must not be lost sight 
of, viz, that if the three mineral ingredients are omitted from the nor- 
mal manure and nothing left but the nitrogenous matter, its efficacy 
IS almost entirely lost. We therefore see that the aid of phosphoric 
acid, hme, and potash is absolutely necessary, and if it liappens that 
the uses of the nitrogenous matter without anv admixture of them 
succeeds, it is because the soil is naturally supplied with these three 
mineral ingredients. 

"Chemistry is powerless to throw light upon the agricultural (niali- 
ties of tlie soil, its resources and its needs, because it confounds in its 
indications the active assimilable agents with the assimilable a^'-ents 
in reserve; the active with tlu^ inert or neutral principles But Twish 
to carry my demonstration still further, and to do so with greater free- 
dom I shall choose for criticism as a last example an analvsis of which 
I am the author, that of the soil in the experimental field at Vincennes 
That analysis tells us that the quantity of available phosphoric acid 
amounts to 1,581] pounds per acre, the quantity of potash to 2 0^^5 
pounds per acre, and the quantity of lime to 34,674^ pounds per aci^. 
I hese results are perfectly correct, and it is impossible to challen-e 
their accuracy. Here then is a soil very liberallv provided with the 
three mineral constituents necessary to vegetation; nevertheless, if 
we grow wheat on it for four consecutive years, using no other fertil- 
izing ma erials except nitrogenous matter and ammoniac sulphate, 
vyithout the addi ion of either potash or phosi)hate, we shall find that 



...,.,. „...^, c..,o .«..c:, .,wm i'it^ t'Mi in sixiy-two ana one-half pounds 

of phosphoric acid, one hundred and two of potash, and sixty of lime- 



rand thus tlie plant finds only a poor soil, when according to analysis, 
it should have found a rich one. We can only account for this anomaly 
by the fact that the plant shows the existence of only those elements 
by which it is able to profit, whilst analysis in addition takes cogni- 
zance of the whole of the constituents of the soil, which are so firmly 
bound together that the plant is unable to separate them. 

^' It will be rememl)ered that in the last lecture we proved experi- 
mentally the necessity of classifying the constituents of the soil ac- 
cording to the special functions they perform, of separating those which 
serve simply as a mechanical support to plants from those which con- 
tribute to their nutrition, and whose substance at given times })ecomes 
;a constituent part of the plant itself. The following table gives in a 
practical form an accurate summary of this i)art of our researches : 



Sand. 



Mec'haniciil constituents, 



Soil. 



] Active assiniilal)le eon- 
' stituents in reserve, . 



Organic, 



> 



Inorganic, 



f fsana. 

] Limestone, 
l^ Gravel. 

^ Ammonia. 
( Nitrates. 



Phosplioric acid. 
Sulphuric acid. 
Chlorine. 
Silica. 
Potash. 
Soda. 
T^inie. 
Magnesia. 
Ferric oxide. 
^ Oxide ol Manganese. 



<! 



C Humus. 
Assimilable constituents in reserve, . . . <M>rganie. 

( rndecomposed minerals. 

"The modern system of agriculture has for its foundation the arti- 
ficial production of plants by the help of simple chemical compounds, 
in defiance of all the traditions which the old system has handed down 
to us. From the day on which the modern system was adopted, 
chemists, far from forbidding the use of farm-yard manure, have 
simply advised farmers to a])stain from using manures which are too 
strong for their particular purpose, but to rectify and complete the 
imperfect composition of farm-yard manure by the addition of chemical 
compounds, which is a vast different matter. Finally, I cannot i)ass 
over in silence, the new means that the association of chemical manures 
with farm-yard manure gives to the agriculturist. Let us suppose a 
sowing of colza and of wheat well manured; the winter has been 
vigorous, the spring late, and the plants have sulfered. With farm- 
yard manure only you could do nothing, and the yield would be bad. 
It is not possible to spread on the land more farm-^yard manure in the 
month of ]\Iarch ; l)esides, if it could be done, its action would be radi- 
callv nil. The farmer is thus condemned to remain an impassive 
spectator of an inevitable mistake. 

''l>ut, if on the contrary, chemical manure be added to the farm- 
yard manure, all will l)e changed; 17() pounds of ammoniac sulphate 
per acre will suffice to give a sudden impulse to the colza and the 
wheat, and the result is certain. 

''I have said that farming founded on the use of farm-yard inanure 
alone is, economically speaking, against common sense. Take, for 
instance, a piece of somewhat poor land, yielding no more than nine 



44 



QUAKTEllLY EePORT. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



45 



to eleven bushels per acre; calculate how lou^i; it would take to make 
it produce two and one-half or three times that quantity (by the use 
of farm-yard manure alone), and you will shrink back beibre the sacrifice 
that you would have to jnake. With chemical manures the change 
is immediate, the progress sudden and the profit immediate also. But 
if, as we may remark, beside the profit, w^e iucrease from the very tirst 
year the crop of straw, is it not evident that instead of growing meat 
in order to have corn (grain), there is a manifest advantage in re- 
versing the recognized order of things, and commencing to grow corn 
(grain) in order to gain the earliest advantaged In fact we get corn 
first and manure afterwards. I repeat then, that the soil cannot do 
otherwise than exhaust itself, unless we brinii: in from the outside a 
large amount of fertilizing material. The solution of tliis (juestion, 
imposed upon us by the force of circumstances, seems to be that we 
must increase the fertility of the soil by means of chemical manure 
composed of substances existing in the mineral kingdom, which appear 
to have been specially reserved to repair the depredations of the past 
and of the present, and guard us against tiie elfects of such disasters 
for the future. Is it not correct to say that with farm-yard manure, 
and nothing but farm-yard manure, we have everything recpiired. It 
is, however, true to say that in order to obtain large crops, there is 
only one method at our command, and that is to have recourse to 
chemical manures in preference to all others, because their compo- 
sition has been rigorously defined and it is always indentical, because 
they are the only ones, in fact, in regard to which fraud cannot be 
practiced, and also because they are, according to my opinion, the 
most economical. 

^' When we wish to introduce into a farm these new methods of ar- 
riving at the maximum of production, a change has to be made, of 
wdiich it is necessary I should say something, seeing that it is destined 
to give to agriculture an important portion of those lands, which 
were formerly devoted to forage, without, however, interfering with 
the resources which are devoted to this i)urpose. The change, which 
it is advisable to mako in this respect, consists in substituting, as far 
as possible, the growing of lucern (clover) in the place of grass 
(natural). I may quote on this subject the testimony of two autlior- 
ities, who are ecpially important, that of M. Boussi'ngault, who ac- 
knowledges that fields of lucern are more profitable than grass lands, 
and that of M. Schattenmann, who has made the substitution of which I 
speak, with great advantage. Every one can see that at Bechelbronn, if 
the necessary food for cattle was provided for them as well as the 
straw for their litter, thirty to forty per cent of the meadows on 
the farm, now devoted to one or the other of these purposes, would 
be at liberty. This would produce a large increase of income, more^ 
especially if the vacant fields were devoted to the cultivation of profit- 
a])le crops fertilized with strong doses of chemical manure. The im- 
portance of such a result is all the greater, seeing that it can be car- 
ried out immediately Avith a very small amount of capital. 

''It should be remembered that more than one third of rhe nitro- 



e ma- 
ct ex- 



i 



gen is lost to the soil on account of the decomposition, which th 
nure must first undergo before it can exercise its action. This fa . 
plains the reason wliy we obtain such miserable results when only a 
small (piantity of manure is used. To change this state of thiuirswe 
must place the land under proper conditions for high cultivation, by 
at least doubling the amount of fertilizing substances contained in the 



farm-yard manure by means of chemical manures, and concentrating 
in the case of each particular ])lant that particular substance of the 
four contained in our normal manure, which is especially favorable to 

its growth. 

'' As long as agricultural science could give us no positive informa- 
tion about the true agents of fertility, the production of manure and 
the growth of cereals was a most important item. Farmers therefore 
could not make their meadow land less than half the size of their whole 
farm without running the risk of exhausting the soil and involving 
themselves in inevita))le ruin. 

'' Under this system it was the duty of the meadow to obtain nitro- 
gen from the air, while the cereals were expected to find it in the soil. 
Cattle were looked upon as the providers of manure, and the hay of 
the meadows and the straw of the wheat held was devoted to their 
use when it could not be sold. By the use of chemical manures the 
agricultural problem has been simplified and is susceptible of nuich 
more independent solution. There w^as no ([uestion about the matter 
being an absolute rule. Farm meadows and breed cattle in order to 
have cereals, is a dictum which nowadays loses the character of an 
axiom which it once possessed. I will add that at the present day 
this axiom would be an agricultural solecism and an economical heresy, 
seeing that with farm-yard manure only crops are always small, 
corn (wheat) yielding scarcely at the rate of one dollar and thirty- 
hve cents per bushel, a hgure which cannot be a paying one. I say 
then that this axiom need no longer be imposed upon farmers as a 
necessity. Beside, you are well aware that true agents of fertility 
being now known, farmers need only increase their stock of manure 
when thev find it profitable to do so; where this is not the case the 
solution of the ([uestion is perfectly simple, they have only to use 
chemical manures. It is no longer an agricultural question, but one 

of profit and loss. 

" Now-a-days there is but one thing that hampers us, and that is the 
necessity for keeping animals for preparing the soil and for traction . 
purposes. Beyond this we possess entire liberty of action, liberty 
without limit, and we only grow meat and manure because we find it 
to our advantage. When we choose to keep cattle we can do so on a 
much smaller scale than formerly, or can produce a greater (luantity 
of meat on a given spot, because we can increase our meadow crops 
just as we do all others. 

^' We are obliged to return to the soil more than we have taken out, 
but this law does not impose on us the necessity of making more 
manure than we require for our own interest. We can satisfy our 
needs with foreign manures, the nature and <iuality of wdiich may be 
determined at any period by fixed rules. 

'' Whoever tries to understand the pro])lems that agitate the present 
age will easily see the connection which must exist between the higher 
interests of our country and the question we are now trying to notice. 
At a period when the means of communication had not reached the 
development which thev now have ac(iuired, the home markets of the 
country afforded certain and easy outlets for agricultural produce; 
but in 'the present day with free trade and the facility of traiisporta- 
tion which we possess, farmers are called upon even in their own 
markets to compete with the i)roductions of the entire world. In 
order that the struggle should be feasible and successful it is abso- 
lutelv nece.-sarv that crops should be made to yield to their utmost 



46 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



47 



i'l 



limit. AVith old-fasliioned metliods this is impossible except we 
change the wliole of our a<!:riciiltiiral system. Tills could not be done 
suddenly, and we would want such a I'onnidable capital that it would 
be absurd to dream of it. 

'' Between the constituents of farm-yard manure and those of the 
crops there is an important diilerence. Taking the inorganic elements, 
for instance, we iind they are present in greater abundance in the 
manure than in the crops, whilst with the organic elements the reverse 
is found to be the case. But if things hai)pen thus when a high sys- 
tem of cultivation is pursued, what takes place in the case of meadows- 
\yhere no manure is used and everything is due to irrigation >* We 
find that the yield is just as large from land subjected to other modes 
of culture. It will be interesting to discover the means by which the 
restitution is effected. 

''The analysis of water reveals nothing l)ut the existence of nitro- 
genous compounds like ammonia and the nitrates and different in- 
organic elements entering into the composition of plants, but no trace- 
of carbo-hydrates analogous to the blackish matter contained in farm- 
yard manure. Nevertheless the average vield of meadow is main- 
tained with as much regularity as that of manured lands. 

''The conclusion to be drawn from all this is evidently that farm- 
yard manure gives plants a part only of the car])on, hvdrogen, oxy«-en 
and nitrogen they contain. There is always in the crops produced an 
excess of these four bodies which is at anv rate equal to the amount 
contained m the manure and which proceeds from another source, this 
source being evidently the air and water, the air supplving carbon and 
nitrogen and the water hydrogen and oxygen. To confirm this view 
1 quote the example of meadow land kept in proper condition bv irri- 
gation only the crops from them being maintained at their normal 
amount solely by the supply of mineral and nitrogenous substances 
held in solution by the water and representing about two or three per 
cent, of their total weight. ^ 

"It is, therefore, practice and not science that is responsible for the 
notion that the restitution efiected by manure is onlv a partial one: 
he practice ot ages proves the fact and science shows'us that the res- 
titution IS complete in the inorganic and partiallv in the organic ele- 
ments. " ^ 

" One point remains unchanged, viz, the necessitv of dving back to 
the soil a part of what it has lost during the growth of the ci^s. As 
to deciaing whether farm-yard manure or chemical manure can be best 
emp oyed is quite a secondary matter, provided the law of restitution 
can be observed. However, as in this matter it is necessary to be clear 
and precise,! unhesitatingly affirm that in the majoritv of cases chem- 
ic^ manures ofler more advantages than farm-yard manure and that 
the la ter ought never to be used exceptin conjunction with the former. 
Ihe lessons we learn from the use of chemical manures are as fol- 

!)^ '' .nd'^h.1?';i '.^' l^^^^^V^;^>^-e calcic phosphate, more potash, more 
lime, and half the nitrogen taken away from it. If, however the lo- 
cality is unfavorable to pasture land, we are told to produce^onlv as 
much arm->^rd manure as is strictly necessary for the prepan^ on of 
the soil and ior utilizing the waste parts of the crops whCh Van not be 
mi ^^^'';f ";^V^^ '7. ^ eficiency by laying in a stock of chemica\ ma 
nure. ihe law which governs profitable production obliges us to 



'*We may again sum u]) the whole principle in four words. Use 
plenty of manure. Cultivation by means of l'arm->ard manure is not 
equal either to the necessities of the present day or to the exigencies 
of our social condition. It is not remunerative to the farmer; to so- 
ciety it gives no security. AVho will pretend to do better than La- 
voisier and to succeed where ]Matthieu de Dombasle, Bella, and Bou- 
singalt failed ? To pretend to do this would be the height of presump- 
tion and to attempt it an act of folly. If you wish your farming to be 
remunerative never say, '' I am going to produce manure ; " say '' I 
am going to manure in larger (juantities." If you lack farm-yard 
manure, buy other kinds; bring it in from the outside. Having within 
your reach a simple i)ractical method of discovering what the soil lacks, 
the choice of fertilizing agents has nothing arbitrary or adventitious- 
about it; it is on the testimony of the ])lants themselves that the se- 
lection is made. In many cases the i)roduction of farm-yard manure 
is not the starting point; it is only a subordinate element in the solu- 
tion of the agricultural problem. The judicious and reasonable start- 
ing point, the true condition of success, is to give the ground such 
manure as is necessary in order to obtain the maximum crops. There 
is the source of profit and the assurance against disappointment. 

" I have long since pointed out the impossibility of replacing j^otash 
by soda in the formula for artificial manures. I have proved by direct 
experiments on wheat, that in the absence of x)otash this point gives- 
very uncertain and precarious results. The same thing happened 
with regard to potatoes at Vincennes during the last twelve years. In 
the case of manures in which potash is wanted, the use of sodic 
nitrate (nitrate of soda) produces no effect ; but when associated with 
potash, sodic nitrate at once became valuable. Another conclusion 
which we may draw from these experiments is no less important, 
namely, that potash ought to ])e the dominant constituent of manure 
for growing potatoes. Besides this, the lack of potash in the soil i& 
coincident with the ap])earance oif the potato disease, whence we 
draw a second conclusion, that when plants are deprived of their 
dominant mineral constituent, and consequently of one of the most 
essential constituents of their existence they become the prey of in- 
ferior organisms such as microscopic fungi, aphides, &c. We have- 
here the startling and unexpected explanation of the cause of one of 
the most terrible plagues with which the farmer has to fight, namely, 
plant diseases. For many years past the same plienomenahave been 
reproduced at Vincennes with invariable regularity. Until the end 
of the month of May, besides a very marked difference in the size of 
the plants in the different plots, nothing striking seems to indicate 
the great change which is on the point of taking place. This change 
manifests itselt* al)out the middle of the month of June and invaribly 
begins with the plot which had received manure in which the i)otash 
had been suppressed, as well as in that which had received no manure 
at all. The x>l^iiil^ i^^ ^^^^^ plots which have been dressed with nor- 
mal manure are luxuriantly green, but those in the plot which has 
received no potash and in that which has received no manure at all a 
numl)er of copper-colored spots begin to make their ai)pearance and 
shortly afterwards V)egin to spread very rapidly, gradually extending^ 
themselves over the whole ])lant and drying it up as if a burning- 
wind had passed over it. As for the potatoes themselves they are 
hardly larger than walnuts and have a peculiar disagreeable smell 
and do not keep well."' 




■48 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



49 



THE USE OF COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 



At the annual meetin<>; of the J3oard, after the address of Hon. J. 
W. Hickman on the use of commercial fertilizers, the follo\vin«Jc ques- 
tions and answers followed : 

J. P. Barnes, of Lehigh : 

What kind of IV'rtilizer did you use upon the huid alluded to? 

^Ir. Hickman : 

I am not willing to advertise any i)articular fertilizer, and hence would prefer not 
to answer. W Jnle 1 liav(^ niy individual oi.inions as to wliieli is the best fertilizer in 
the market, 1 do not ihmklliat this would l)e the i)roi)er plaee to advertise it Sufiice 
It to Hay that It was a ''complete fertilizer "—tJiat is, one containing phosphoric acid 
potash and nitrogen. ^^ ^ ^^vivt, 

John JMcDowell, of Washington : 

AVas the amount of rainfall taken into consideration ? We all know that the amount 
ot ram Jias much to do with tlie action of a commercial fertilizer. 

^Fr. TIiciorAN : 

I will reply to tlie gentleman by asking a question. When he ai)plies a heavy coat 
ot barn-yard manure tor potatoes or corn, does not the amount of rainfall have very 
much to do with Its action ? Is luH tlie croj, damaged and lessened bv drv weather*^ 
is not the yield mucii less during a dry season than during a wet one ? This obi eel 
tion lioldsgood everywhere, and may as readilv be raised against barn-vard manure 
as against commercial fertilizers. I'^iie ditlicultv onen lies'l ere_a wel s'^^^^^^^ 

vfeh7 'Thi^ is';; \'"f Tt ^".V^ ''' ^'^ '^'' .^1*^^^^^^' ^"'^^^^^ '''^ -^^P ^"^'^ deem ses the 
yield 1 his IS allri buted to the commercial fertilizer, when tlie same or worse would 

have happened with barn-yard manure. Too often the fertilizer ivceives he blame 
of every accide.it or setback, and we are told that their application will not mv and 
that you cannot get your money out of fertilizers. ^ •^' 

To a gentl('man witli whoin 1 am familiar, as also are others here I said " T wint 

ieniH^^r'Vnd'nut v^H^^^^^^^^ 'f '"'^•'" •^' ""'' ^^'^ '"''''' ^' .vour held', 1 t'nlrnish U e 

leitilizer and put your harn-yard manure m an ordinary coat alongside I want vou 
to plow the manure down in the usual way. I will not charge you • v\li ni^ for th^^^ 
fertilizer, l,ut will take my chances in the extra ('rop which u'produces^ 
was X cry dry, and the weatlier was very Imd for corn, wliich was very late in eaW^^^^^^ 
I saw him again m March, and asked him for the result. T e s^ih^ - 1 m asl^^^^^^^^^^^ 
o tell It, and I did not intend to botlier you." J said, -n-ll the truth Xtft it tbr 
the tacts should stand." He said, -I measured careful v, and there was t w o In is h s 

b;^r3ic;:r''^t^Ml^;!;^^ 

was 1 u ISO hJfiuZ ^;^^*^\ .^^' >'""'' ol>s^'rve that the acre upon which no fertilizer 
A\as put also beat that to winch you gave a good coat of barn-vard manure'^" He 
InHn."'''^ his tact, but Stated that it had not\)ccurred t<> lii^b Vm" It this f"ct 
intiueiK.ed the experiment or its result in the least. The argumcMi whic w ^L^ood 

ilSrin ''drr^i^' t HM^l;rt""t '^"^'^^'P^^^ ^^^^^-^ tl^l^'/^lrn-^^nl^nan:;;^^ 
worsl ' '"'^ ^'' '"'^""^^ ^'''''^ manure is applied will usually be the 

h..M"j!rf/' l^^^^'^^^l^^/Ji-^N ^^ gentleman well known to some who aiv here to ni-ht 
^^hi.•j, th '';\wH'r ol.ta ■ .d'fm.' " ! "^ >'.- .use tdVl' ";"'',';', "'l''^'' "' tho f..rtilizo.-, 

l>nt if we have the fc'i- i i/.Vr in tJ , 'f J i' . . , ^<"«"" '« '''y. tliat is not tl.e case; 
it that fu • ,^ts .r \V <n tC en^^^^l^^^^^^ "*■ "'■" '!''''''" "'" ''"l- •" f-'^t 

aii':;:,:;u;:=,;"l;:-;~;? E^ 

"i.nn this way give ..p a,,out o„e'i;!r^,7it:-:;;/«|;.-''''iC'k'^ 



dryest day of the season, and walk through a heavy growth of clover, the gloss will 
be tak«'n oil", because the air under tlu; clover, being cooler than that above, parts 
with its moisture, which is deposited upon your boots. 

Mr. J. A. IIerr, of Clinton : 

What are th(^ comparative values of available phosphoric acid from South Carolina 
rock and that from Ijone ? 

Mr. Hickman : 

There is no ditlerenco in actual value, a pound of available t)host)horic acid having 
the same \'alue no matter what its source may be. This, however, is not the case 
with the insoluble form. 

J. A. Herr : 

What will probably be the etiect of the continued application of a fertilizer which 
only contains phosi)horic acid? 

Mr. Hickman : 

The ertect of a continued application of phosphoric acid, or of any one element, 
must necessarily be to sooner or later exhaust the other two. The store of potash in 
the soil may be so largc^ thnt it cannot be exhausted for a long time ; Init the time 
must comewhen it will be exhausted. You may go on api)lyiiig South Carolina 
rock indetinitely, if by feeding heavily, and applying the resulting manure to the 
farm, you keep up the sup[)ly of the other two elements in this way ; but it will not 
do long to continue the use of any single element where no yard manure is applied. 
It is min'li more economical to keep up the supply of any element than it is to })er- 
mit it to become exhausted, and then endeavor to replace it again. South Carolina 
rock may be used in connection with stable manure, because the latter is poor in 
phosphoric acid and rich in potash and ammonia. The two together make a com- 
plete manure, as we understand the term. Instead of buying the nitrogen and i)ot- 
ash in the shai>e of a fertilizer, they have bought it as food, and have fed it to the 
istock and saveii the manure. 

A Member : 

Would they in this way obtain enough potash to balance the exhaustion of the pot- 
ash, or would the soil in'time become exhausted of potash? 

Mr. Hickman : 

That would, in great measure, depend upon the kind of food fed and the amount of 
potash in the soil. No tw^o kinds of manure, nor two soils, will agree in the amount 
of potash which they contain. 

J. A. J I err: 

What is the manurial value of a ton of wheat bran ? 

Mr. Hickman: 

Our table makes the manurial value of wheat bran about twe»lve dollars and live 
•cents per ton, but the valuation is based upon the prices of fertilizer supplies which 
prevailed several years ago, and is conse(iuently too high. 

Note by the Secretary : 

Taking the table presented at one of our former meetings as a basis, giving forty- 
four and eight tenths pounds of nitrogen, tifty-fourand six tenths of phosphoric acid, 
and twenty-eight and six tenths of potash per ton of wheat bran, and applying to 
them the tigures of valuation now used by the Board, the manurial value of a ton of 
wheat bran before feeding would be nine dollars and seventy-eight cents. 

John I. Carter, of Chester : 

Could you not answer Mr. Herr's (luestion somewhat in this way: Suppose the 
soil contains all of the nitrogen and potash that is needed, ])ut is deticient in phos- 
phoric acid, might you not go with continued applications of phosphoric acid with- 
out any danger of exliaustion? 

Mr. Hickman : 

There is no doul)t of the truth of the question, bef3ause, as I have stated, you con- 




follows that the elements not applied must sooner or later become exhausted. 

R. S. Searle, of Snsciuehanna: 

Do not some of our scientilic authorities assign wheat bran a higher value than you 
have given? 

Mr. Hb kman: 

It is possible that they do, but in nearly all of such cases you will note that the 
valuations were made at a time when the ingredients of a lertilizer were much 
higher in ])rice than now. In my oi)inion twelve dollars and five cents is quite as 
much as it will bear, and more than the crop will get from it. 




illi 



50 



Quarterly Rp:i'ort. 



R. S. Searle : 

What is the value of a ton after being fed? 

Mr. Hickman: 

'IMiat will, in groat measure, depend ui)on the c-hiss of animals it is fed and upon 
what use is made of the product. Souie cows have a much stronger digestive appa- 
ratus than otliers, aud if th(\v, by digestion, take more out of the l)ran thev must 
leave less in the ujjinure. h:stimate a cow to give ten <jiiarts of milk })er day. One 
thousand (piarts of this milk will takeout of the feed ten pounds oi' nitrogen,' four ot^ 
potash and twenty of phosphoric acid. Upon the former basis of valuation, these 
elements are worth three dollars and sixty-eight cents; taking this from the total 
manurial \ alue we have eight dollars and thirty-seven cents ; making the usual al- 
lowance for waste of manure, we Iiave the value"^of one ton of l)ran (as manure) alter 
feeding, as six dollars and seventy cents. That is, it is worth as a fertilizer twelve 
dollars and five cents before feeding and six dollars and sixty cents after it is i'i^d. 

Secretary Eixie : 

I note that the fourth question which you have on vour list is, "The eliect of the 
present State fertilizer law ; what have you to say as to its etfect?" 

Mr. Hickman : 

As to the application of the fertilizer law, there are a great many people who be- 
come confounded on this matter of commercial value. They think thev can buy 
safely on them. They do not settle the agricultural value, unless a man knows ex- 
actly what lie wants and the condition of the soil upon a\ hich he applies it. It is in 
this way : In a general way it protects the farmer. It recpiires the man who manu- 
lactures it to stamp it on the bag and put it on the market for what it is. If phos- 
phoric acid, or nitrogen, or potash, the label must be just that. If a man has such 
knowledge as to know what the land requires— and that is what we give this address 
lor ; tirsl, to determine what he does want— but in the absenc(M)f knowledge of what 
he wants precisely, he had better take a little of somethingthat he does notVant— he 
had better buy a little more of what he does not want than to buy a little less \s 
he IS getting thirty-three per cent, in the wliole mass he is going to^buy, why quibble 
about buying a little nitrogen ? In that way he would be protected. 

We are in a kind of transitory state as fariners, and moving from the old thin<'^s to- 
the new. There are no people so hard to teach— and 1 am among that class too • I 
am not exempt trom theintirmity, for intirmity it is— there are no people so hard to 
teach as old larmcrs. They cling to traditions and old notions so tenaciouslv vou 
cannot get them away from them. It is a double work, because it is hard to jrot out 
ot their mmds the old and replace them with the new things, as they call them. 

Mr. Edwards: 

By putting on four hundred pounds per acre is tliere anv danger of lodginir the 
crop ? I am an old larmer, and know tliat heavy api)lications of f)arn-vard manure- 
do tldsT^'' ^'^^^ '" ^'^'^''^ ''"^ ^^ ^''''' ^'^''''^^'*-^- ^^'^^^ '''' overdose' of fertilizer 

Mr. Hickman: 

1 have yet to find a soil upon which any reasonable application will Uniirc tliecrop 

By the application ot large amounts of nitrogen in yard manure, without any coil 

respon,bng annmnt of phosijhoric acid, you weakened the straw and lodged the 

./iV theph<>sphoricacidis largely concentrated in the grain and but little in the 
staiK or straw, 

David Wilson, of Juniata : 

Is not the grain, other things being equal, more likely to lodge cm heavy cHv or- 
hmestone soils than on lighter or sandy soils? ^ ^ nea\y cia\ oi 

Mr. Hickman: 

Yes, sir ; the silica in the sandy soil serves to stitfen the str-iw -mH in.a-o it «f..t..] 
up; in limestone soils this is delicient, and hen(.e the iVsuU as staiell 

M. W. Oliver, of Crawford : 

Can a farmer atlord to plow under a good crop of clover as manure ? 

Mr. HicK.MAN : 

Our tables sliow that if fed to stock it has an actual value of lifteen dollars and 
ninety cents. I it has this value, and ,>rodu(.es at the rate of two tonVn r acre^ i^ 
certamly wdl not pav to p ow it down, for its value (as f<)<)(l) in nm y w l^h^^^^^^^^ 
ormot acomn.ercial fertilizer, buy much more phint Unnl i JKin y ay to 

turn two tons ot clover hay (or its equivalent) under anywhere i I'en svl " .ni i • \t 
will be better to ieed it, save the manure, and buy fertilizers. ^ innsNUania, it 

Secretary ED(iE : 

In valuing the manure resulting from feediuL^ one trm of r.lr.^•...- j. i i 

not make a n.aterial elilVennce as to what kind o^^stoVit^^^^^^^^^^^ Thktrs^vo^^^^^^^ 
not be (the manure) worth more from some kinds of stock ttan f i' on i others ? 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



51 



Mr. Hickman : 

Certainly; if the animals to which it is fed retain in their systems (as fat) or in 
their i)roduct (as butter or milk; a large amount of the value of the clover hay the 
manure will be less valuable. 

J. A. Herr : 

In comi)uting tlie value of a ton of clover hay, did you take the stalks and roots 
left on the ground into the calculation ? 

Mr. Hickman : 

No, sir, we only take what is hauled to the V)arn and not what is left on tlie held. 
It is estimated that the roots and stalks lelt on the field weigh as much as the por- 
tion hauled U) the barn ; the roots, however, are not so high in manui-ial value as the 
hay. If you have prolital)le stock it will certainly be more profitable to feed the hay, 
and you ciiniH)t altord to plow it down. 

Prof. David Wilson : 

The manurial value of some commercial fertilizers is placed at forty dollars per 
ton; in estimating the value ot a ton of clover hay, did you take into account the 
value of the vegetable matter or carbon which it contains? No sir ; this vegetable 
ni-atter is of no commercial value, and is only valuable as an absorbent ; tlie plant 
can more readily get all the carbon it needs from the atmosphere. Careful ex peri- 
nients demonstrate that this humus is of no value and mav be left out witnout 
detriment to the i)lant. 

R. S. Searle : 

Do you vary your comi)lete fertilizers with the cro]) to which they are applied? In 
otlier words, do you put more potash in your fertilizer for curii-fodder than for 
■wheat, or do you use the same fertilizer for all? 

Mr. Hickman : 

We ai-e in a transitory state, passing from the old to the new, and changing our 
methods and theories; thus far the only safe thing which we can do is to find out 
"what our soil lacks and what the crop wants and then supply it ; we had better have 
too much of it than too little ; when a farmer knows exactly what he ought to know 
or what he is privileged to know, and which I hope in time he will know, he may 
be able to apply exactly what the crop needs, (not more or less,) but at present we 
must be content with getting enough, even at the risk of wasting some. It is a very 
.safe rule to apply at least titty per cent more than the crops neea. 

Hon. A. L. Taggart, of Montgomery : 

Is it ])rotitable to use four hundred pounds of fertilizer per acre? If four hundred 
pounds is better than two hundred, as you have said, is eight hundred better than 
four hundred, proportionately ? 

Mv. HlCK]\[AN : 

The term "four hundred pounds of pliosphate" is very indefinite ; there are four 
liundred and sixty-four kinds now sold in the State; the\' vary in actual value from 
three d<dlars juid fifty cents to forty dollars [)er ton. If you take a fertilizer contain- 
ing twelve [)0v cent, of phosphoric acid, one per cent. "of jiotash, and the same of 
nitrogen, iuid ai)ply eight hundred j)ounds per acre, you i)ut on more than your crop 
can utilize, and in this sense waste it ; but it is not wasted, but is stored up in the 
soil for future crops. I have known fifteen hundred pounds per acre used with 
profit; it is not so much the amount that you spend as the amount that you can get 
back. I think that a fault with many of our commercial fertilizers, is that they con- 
tain too much ])hos}»horic acid in proportion to their nitrogen ; the latter ingredient 
should in most ciuses be increased ; the phosi)h<)ric acid is often (especially in large 
ai)plications) in excess. 

Hon. A. L. TA(iGART: 

Why is it that Peruvian guano produces a better crop of wheat than barn-yard 
manure? 

Mr. Hickman : 

It does not alwa\'s do so by any means ; tliat may have been the gentlemans* ex- 
perience, but is not that of all. I'erin ian guano has the siune fault as South Caro- 
lina rock — it contains an excessive proiioition of one element, (nitrogen,) and is 
deficient in tlie otlier two, phosphoric acid and potash; it is not well balanced. 

]\fr. Edwards : 

\\'ould it not produce a still straw \\ hich wcnild not lodge? 

Mr. Hickman : 

No, sn* ; in large amounts it would have tlie same effect as a large aj^plication of 
stable manure, and would tlirow the crop down before filling. 

Mr. Edwards : 

Do you know of a fertilizer in tlie market wliich lias the proper pr( portion of 



I 



52 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



53 




phosphoric acid? If a fertilizer has twelve per cent, of phosphoric acid, is there one 
running to nine or even seven of potasli ? 

JMr. IIk KMAN : 

No, sir ; except special manures for i)otatoes, which often run as high as five or six 
of potasli. Y'ou note in the charts the amount of potash in c()rn-l'o(hl(!r, oats and 
wheat straw, and lia^' ; tliese the larnier usually teeds on the; farm, and thus keeps 
the i)otash at home ; Ijut on the other liand tJie phosphoric ac-id and nitrogen enter 
largely into tlie grain and are very often sold off the farm. There is an accumulation 
of i)otasli. In such cases, with a fertilizer having a large percentage of phosphoric 
acid and a low om^ of potash, y(^u will get as good or better results ; the manure will 
thus \ ary with tlie plan of farming. 

A Mk^niber : 

Sup])()sc that you have a commercial fertilizer, Avhich contains fifteen per cent, of 
phospiioric acid, a large amount perhaps, and three of nitrogen, with two of potash, 
that would make twenty percent.; there are still eighty percent, remaining. On 
this I would l)ase the following (|uestioiis : Of what does this eighty percent, con- 
sist ? And would it not be better to buy the elements on whicli you do place a manur- 
ial value and exclude the others? 

Mr. IIlCKMAN : 
In theory the gentleman is right, but in j^ractice he is wrong. Take for example 

Eure bone ; it will contain about four hundred and thirteen ])onnds of these valua- 
le ingredients to the ton, and yet it is not adulterated ; you have one thousand live 
hundred and eighty-seven imunds of worthless matter to the ton, but you cannot get 
shut of it; the process which would take it out would be too expensive to permit of 
its application. You do not get anything pure ; not even mankiiuL 

Hon. C. 0. MussELMAN, of Somerset: 

I, for one, have very little faith in this homceopathic or pepper-box quackery for 
the cure of sick or worn out soils. While there are a few commercial fertilizers worth 
buying, thereare hundreds, yes, al)ont twothirds of all the brands of the store goods 
now sold that have not the commercial value or chemicals in them that it sells for. One 
brand is sold for fifteen dollars, wJiile the commercial value is onlv eighty-six cents ; 
another is sold for ten dollars, while the chemicals in it is worth only thirty-two 
cents ; another is sold for forty-five dollars, while the commercial value is onlv six dol- 
lars and sixteen cents. But Avorse than this, many brands are imposed upon the farmers 
that have no value at all, and still worse; some are ])almed olf on the innocent 
farmers that are not only wortliless, but an actual injurv to crops. Is this not im- 




thing of which he knows very little, practicallv or theoretically, trying to make 
farmers believe it does not pay to lime, or haul manure anv distance, and keeps 
talking untd farmers begin to wonder which of the two it woiild pay best, to move 
the barn or the dung pile. Nobody will haul dung and lime if we can carry the fer- 
tilizer out in our vest pockets. Their theory teaches waste and bad econoniy. Lime 
and manure, the great natural fertilizers, are to remain dead stock in the storehouse 
of the earth, m order to give these public benelactors a chance to entrench them- 
selves behind their sand bngs! For which we are asked to send our monev to New 
York and Chicago, and other i)l{ices a thousand miles away. 

My remarks are aimed at the great bulk of this worthless stull, and not at the few 
honest brands that are manufactured and sold. A good fine concentrated fertilizer 
whether made at home or abroad, and drilled in with the grain, will generally give 
.a start, and show a good and immediate efiect, as it geneially goes all right into the 
plant, liut we must look for sometiiing else to lav the foundation of a fertile soil 
:8table manure will do it as far as it goes, but it is upon funr that we must count as 
the fertdizer, all other fertilizers are nien^ heli)s. It is emphaticallv so in our part of 
the State, confirmed by practice and theory. Whc^re nature has furnished a sulfi- 
cient supply ol hme, it need not be dom^ artificiallv. Lime is one of the five «n-and 
divisions ot a terlih' sod, and without it not a si>eiir of grass can ^n-ow The^littlo 
bulk of commercial fertilizer acts only chemicallv, while lime acts chendcallv 
P^^y;'^"^! >' directly and indirectly. It will do all, and more, than the l)est commer- 
cial fertdizer. I venture to assert tiiat lime will give all the difierent elements such 
as nitrogen, potash, ammonia, and other elements derived from tlu^ best com m'ercial 
fertilizers, then in addition lime acts physically as an ameliorator, and chcmi<aliv 

"" ~ 'l*'» 'r':-,-^ ^-an buy twenty tons of lime for the i)rice vou pav (or one ton <] 

lal tertihzer. Lime converts sulphuric acid in the soil into sulphate of linn 



as aneutralizer. 
commerc 



)f 
o 




ber of the State Board of Agriculture, it becomes my duty to expose all frauds and 
impositions i)racticed upon the farmers, of which 1 am oiie. And I can assure you 
that pictures sent around to look at, and tlie bottles that are sent about with their 
contents for farmers to smell at, are becoming a stench in the nostrils of intelligent 
farmers. And I know, too, that the one who oj)pos(^s this pe[)i>er--box and i)icture 
farming is called old fogy and behind the age. What I say of commercial fertilizers 
1 shallnot apply to goou, i)ure l)one, of which I am an advocate. But I repeat that 
in our part of the county nothing is so cheaiJ and eliectual as a judicious application 
of lime to fertilize the soil. 

J. A. GuNDY, of Union: 

1 would make this reply to what Mr. Musselman has urged because I have had 
l)ractical ex]»erience in the matter: I divided a tract into twentietlis of an acre. I 
am a surveyor, and the work was carefully done with a compass and chain. Ou 
two of these plots I i)ut nothing in the way of a fertilizer; on one I put eighty- 
five per cent, of potash, ten pounds; on another fifteen pounds of bone black ; on 
another twenty pounds of dried blood ; on another two of these elements ; on an- 
other two others ; and to another all three were applied ; on one I i)ut half a load of 
barn-yard manure, and on one one and one half bushels of iilaster, and on another 
one and one half bushels of lime. We weighed both corn and fodder carelully ; I 
have not the exact results with me, but I remember that the lime appeared to have 
damaged the crop, or at least it lessened the yield ; it cost me six cents per bushel. 
The plaster did little or no good, and the coniplete fertilizer (containing all three 
elements) did by far the best. The barn-yard manure was fourth on the list of 
yields ; these were actual experiments in the field. 

Hon. C. C. Musselman: 

My doctrine is that lime is indirectly a fertilizer, insomuch as it utilizes plant food 
which otherwise might be lost. 

Mr. Hickman: 

One year ago last winter I had the i)leasure of addressing an assemblage of farmers 
at Uniontown, in Tayette county, and there we had up the elficiency and action of 
lime. Manv of theni took i)recisely the same ground as has my friend from Somer- 
set [Judge Musselman]. One of them asked me if I would put fertilizer upon i^art 
of his field in competition Avith lime, and whether I would stake the value of the fer- 
tilizer upon the result. I told him that 1 would do so, and we entered into an agree- 
ment. It was upon a farm where the iron company was taking out limestone and 
utilizing a part of it, but leaving a considerable amount of finely broken stone not 
wanted at the furnace, so he had nothing to do but haul the stone to the pile, pile it 
up, and burn it; the coal was on the land, and the only charge against the lime was 
for actual labor. He put this lime in competition witli our fertilizer on one half of 
the twentv acres of land; he understood the value of lime as too many understand 
it, and heVas going to manufacture all the elements of plant food from the soil by 
the use of lime. He applied seven thousand bushels to his half of the field, or at the 
rate of seven hundred bushels per acre. 

Hon. C. C. Musselman : 

That was entirely too much and injured the land. 

Mr. Hickman : 

Tliat is the true solution of it. The fertilizer was put on at the rate of six hundred 
pounds per acre. The fertilizer Ijeat the lime badly, of course. 

In Montgomerv county I met with a man named Cugler who was applying lime 
and had great faith in it. The gentleman with whom 1 was staying said, "1 wish 
that you would go over and talk with Cugler." I did so. He had just reached home 
with a four-horse load of lime, and, after putting his horses away, came into the 
house to talk to us. I said, '' We came over to tell you our tlieory of farming and to 
olfer a few suggesti(ms." W^^ sat there and talked of the action and value ot lime,, 
and finally 1 said, " I want vou to apply your lime to two or three plots and a good 
fertilizer to two or three others; give the matter a fair trial and see if you do not be- 
come more progressive." I liave never seen him since, but I have heard from him. 
He is now convinced that he then learned something, and from that day to this has 
never hauled another load of lime. 

R. S. Searle : 

W^e are now discussing the question of how to improve worn out or exhausted land 
by the use of commercial fertilizers. How would you use them? 

Mr. TIk kman: 

Suppose, in answer to that question, I give the experience of Thomas r.ale, of Hnmes- 
ville, Kent countv, Marvland. Mr. (iale had assigned to him about six hundred 
acres of verv i)oor land ;^i reasonable corn croj) had not been known to grow ui)onit. 
I Avas visiting an agricultural club near bv and he sent for me to come and look at 
his land and tell him what to do with it. Upon the tract there were some buildings, 
but he was i)oor. I said, ''There is onlv one thing in the world for you to do, and 
that is to fertilize it, and vou must be liberal with your fertilizers." People there 



64 



QlARTEKLV RkPOKT. 



I! "4411 



i 



only used two luni.lrecl pounds per aere, and T saitl that he must use sK hiuidiod 
JHiuuds ,„.,• ucio. He said, ••That is worth more than tl,e hind. uulerst h .t 

i; some <-as ,« you haAC furnishe.l the fertilizer, takin- vour pay out o f the h 'r aso 
in the .-rop. Is your faith strong enough to <lo that in n.v .-ase ? " T u swered "a 
V dl give you six liuiulred pounds for every acre but one (tlie tield eoiUaine.l 11 iViv 
two acres), and you are to put the tield in corn; you may take fro eve, '.ij 
as much as is produced upon (he acre witli no fertilizer." He answered, "You ire 
theinan tlial I have heen looking for, hut how al>o„t tlie wheat which follows I « 
corn?" I repl.e.l, ••We will divide the wheat , -rop with vou and w 1| • "o , ,■„ '^ 
hun.lre,] |,ouiids more per acre for It" I sent iiiiii' for the corn six I im ■ V n , 1 
l.er acre, ot which four luindred pounds were plowed down and two hi 
l-u 111 the hill when planted. It was not a favorahle year Ccoriri ut .> o k i 

corn to lialtimore am paid si.v cents per bushel in freight and weighii,,.- f "cs \VI en 

tlie'i:!r, M.;:f"/r ","'/ ''■"! ','r ^-''^^ '"" "^y '""""y ""I f l'"^'""' that" Hi I c'pp , l*^ • 
lie Ci I ihzer (forty-two .lollars per ton), six per cent, for the money, and o iie m 

1 ' .'i' '"';>'-'""' ''""'"■■' '"■''' ■' "f t"i« I returned him one ht.lf. ul irsuc cee 1; 
whea cro,, here was an excess over tlie cost of the fertiliz,.r of sixty- iv,. dollars "o 
hat Icoul.l have made limi a present of two hundn.d dollars and olV f'„T 

price lor my fertilizer. The field was sown witli timothv in I lot,., i,, ,i 
and next year he mowed it and had n.ore av t a y otile r m^^^^^^ a ;;„",' I'"'- V 

the .-ouiity, and liad live or six bushels of clox^.r seed i,^ acre "'""" "* 

p^^^il^d^ rniiiiLr aiuniad'-tfi^r^^^ii^ ^^^'o^'::^:::^^'^:'' ^cJ' n-i'r^ 

known as ••the Hickinan field," an^l will be so kiiowi fo so e tin e'to co le I ai? 
year I g,, from liim the n'titrns from one liundred aud thiily-fYve acres and .mm 

hi. hands promptly. Von nl^' w|.r'h'im"L. l/ic ll;^i\STlia';'^:'i4^:;;reVn 

J. A. \lvAu\ : 

of^irfeHili'^er'r"'''''""'''' """"""" "*' '"" ^"" '■''^" «°>'H'tI.ing to do with the action 

Mr. Hickman : 

Not .so much as the fertilizer has upon the meclianical condition of the soil. 

•T. A. Hkrr : 

Must not every one be, to a certain extent at least, his own ..xperimenter-' 

Mr. Ilrcfv.MAX : 

^vh^hr.'• a^;r.v!,id Jn^r "'" ^•"'""""" "'■ "'"• '^"-v'-'fe- this is the only way iu 

Secretary EixiE: 

grldcs:'\vtti;':^.;:,rri,fri'p,^.rn\" oconoinical than the ordinarv 

fertilizers are the niost economical ? '"" •""' '" " "»' " '"^^' "'at the higher grades of 

Mr. Hickman : 



1'KNNSVI V \\1 \ HoMUi OK .Xcitlcf I.TI UK. 



56 



to you. 



higlicr 



grades, 



most ocojioiiiic-al. 



I'y 



I?y transiiortation fV'rtilizers liave their value increased •ind th,. 
the decrease m bulk, cost less in freight, hence thev are usm.llvi^^ 

H. M. Engi.e, of Lfincaster : 

ot^z,;'i:;;';;,;r ;!.';:.k'',:,v;;;,:!f'-^" ^"'■•y ^"'^••'-f'" ■" "'"-.-.« good crops by the use 

Mr. HicKMAX : 

Tliat indicates that flie soil is not deficient in ..,.(...,1. ■ ». , ,. 
ticie.it nitrogen from soni,. other source than "hi! rn'm,',;::.;'* """ "''' '^^''"J' "'^'""'« «'"- 

Note by the Secretarv : 




.vegetable niatterTcaHioIovtCcessa^sMo^ 

m some availableVorin. Mr.-'lJJyd'Hllli^n'd Vhat Zvl'.;'-! d'""' '"' " " '" ""' 



cloAvii (.'lovor was oiio 



of tho host \\\\{\ \\\{\H\ \m\m\\\\W{\\ \\)v\\\H in whldi carbon coiildlxMulUiMl to tht^ kdU. 
'\\i \\\\h Mr. lUoklUMh oI\)«mM<mI, on (ho phMi (l>at it was i(»o (>\i>(>nsi\ c. Ww cIon («r hciim- 
Avorth vory nnioh »noro «« \u\y than as a ^vovu vro|) lor plowinmnuior. To illusiiaio 
X\\U, Mr, UloUnuH* oshlhltod tito ll^nroM, Mhowln^ tl»o vahn» of oni* ton ot'i'loviM- fod 
H!!i i»uy ; utwutln* ViO\MMirtln» n»an\iro whioh wouUl n^Hult IVoin th(> t'ooilin^- ofono ton 
(»t' ohivor huy. Tho >4(nn nril^oso two an\ounls was nmch hw^vv tlian tluit ot'tho ina- 
Huriul valuta ♦»(" llu* (on ol lw».v whon in a ^vvvw slalo. 

ill rt^ladon (o ilnMiduooi' voHOinhlo niaKor, wo tiiinU tliai ilic views ol* Mi. Ilick- 
niau won* not M\y osproM^iMl, i\tnl woro inlsundtMstood hv nianv in tiu^ audiiMiot^ 
Mr. llu^kinan lidondtMl (o I'onvoy (ho idoa (hat, in l\is opinion, tln"^ roots and s(uhl)li* 
of tl»o crops m'oNN n on Iho woll, lojiollnM' wilh tin' ns\ial niunnro n»ad(» on tlu' farm, 
AVtudd, Willi Iho alnionpltoro, supply all of (ho carhon (the suhsiancc of \ ("i-t'tal)!*^ 
niadorofnll Uludw), (nM»dod l»v any and all crops. (ioiuKoviMi further, Mr. Ilickiuan 
adxaucod (ho opinion (hi\( wllhoid (ho ntanuro of tho harn-vard the roots of tlu^ 
<n'ops, toH'olhor \\ ilh (he «lul»hh' nmiall v lofl on (ho Hold, W(»uld' furnish an ahundaid 
supply of carhon for all (hue. and (hal l( was not ahsohUoly nocossarv (o add any 
juorc. 

Tlu* asNlndladon and uno ofoarhonaotMHis nud(or hv th(» plaidsisono of thost> proh- 
Icnis of awrlcidluial «'hondHli'y no( yo{ (IwuMMi^hlv understood, and in tho discussion 
alhuhul (o (al Iho ltu(«UN ( 'ounly I nslK ute ), uo" allusion was nuido to tho vorv iin- 
jMMlant ileni of (ho <<Mw«/MnMCf>/of \M'w-e(ahle nudler upon (he soil. While i( is no douht 
true, as claiuicd hy Mr, I lloUnian, (ha( (ho ainiosphore will furnish an ample supply 
for (ho Mr«»w(h of (he plaid, \o( i( \h a cpn»s(ion whelluu' an (Mdiro i«'uio\al of actual 
vt^Kotahlo nudlor iVoni (ho noII would no! sooner or later r(»sult in a nnn-hauical con- 
dition which \\i*\\\{\ ho very unfa\oral»le (o plaid, growth and dovolopuM'ul. It is a 
well know n facl Ihiil all now n«»IIh. and such as have lately heen cleared of their liiu- 
])er, are unuHuall.v pl'oductlN e. and II Is an accepled Ihe'orv (hat as hv after cultiva- 
ti(m tho supply of vojfolahlo inader dlniinishes, (ho fertility liocnNiscis in ahout the* 
saino ratio. 'I'ldw niM.v not ho du(> (o (ho ahsoiwo of carbon as food for tin* i»lant, and 
we think (lia( l( U not i hul (I i« more prohahly duo (o an improper comlidon of (ho 
soil as to htoscuoNM ami poitmliy. A h'ldh' soil which is (oo compact will not produco 
a sadsfiwtory crop, and II !« hul fair (o claim that much of this i)orosity is due to tho 
voK«'hihle mador in (ho noM. tl In ipiosllonahle whether thi^ more plowing- down of 
tno roots and siulihlo of (ho crop would furnish onouy^h <'arhon for this purposo. At 
any rate, we has e no record of any lon^ coudnued experiments in this direction. 

Cousiderod in ad nf \\h hearings', (he cpiesdon of (he actual eirecl of carhonac(H>ns 
nui((cr in (he wdil In a M'ly lldeieHJlug problem, and (MM' ui»oii w Inch, as before stated, 
authorities do not iil wayN mkC'M'. 'riius, for instance, Dr. .1. H. Lawos, tho celcbratod 
Isnwlish e.Hporlmohloj', wrKoNiiM I'oIIown: 

" Wheiievor voMolablo mador is placed In an arable soil, such asolovor pb)wod in, 
dull^ applied or Iho pa^lnre broken up, (he soil \a I'ound to l)e lull of <'arbonic acid. 
A ^jiroat (piaiidlv of carbon is biirnl oM, and by decrees more siid»lo compoinnis aro 
formi'd, ill whh'h Iho rehtdotiN of carbon (o nltro^:on an^ very dillcront to what llu^y 
are in liviM«; vo«:oladon. Hlniw, for Instanoo, ooidains mMirly half i(s w^'i^Jd of car- 
bon and less ihiin one per cold, of nilro^en, (he propordo'n of <'arbon (o nitrogen 
ln'iUK (dl,\ (o one, while wuiface soil coubdns cMiboii in propoi-t ion of ten to oiu' of 
nitrogen, iuid hn wo ^o lower down (he proportion of <'arl»(m to nitrogen ^rous loss. 
It is Ihewo lutriicnlur ooiiiiMmnds (ha( are aeled upon by living- organisms ^ivin^riso 
to nitrilicallcMi and pari of our roceid Impiiries have Immmi directed to asciTlainintc 
\N IiciIm I' |h«« carbon of (he nuIinoII In cajtnble of nit rilicnt ion. Wo have no ovidoiK'O 
that )>lan(N lake carbon from IIiomoII. Some of our lields have received no carl>on 
for nearly lU'ly yoat'N, and we can obtain, by means of mineral manurcsand nitrates, 
aw larm* cropN mm wo did al Id'Nb \N hen llr'sl a pasture is broken no there? <'an be no 
doubt that vory hirvf<' 'jiianddoN of carbon are oonver(od into <'arlM)ido acid, and at 
(he sumo dino odier c<impounds are formed, which arocady a<r(ed upon \(i'\- slowly. 
'I'o exhailMt a Nojl In, )»erhaps lorlumdely for mankind, a very slow and ditlicuK pr'o- 
<'i«H>*, 'I'IiIn may bo noom by our nnmanured w heal crop, which at the end of nearly 
half a oonfnry nOII yloblNovor (welvo bushels per aero." 

Monw (iooi'tfo \')||o, Iho oelobrated I-'rcfich oxporimcnlor, thus Avritos in reflation to 
the uHMlmilad(»n of carbon by plants ; " The <piMidity of cjirbon that entei's into the 
eompoMJdon of phiniN |m« In round numbers, from forty to forty-live per <'cnt.; it 
therefore playN an Jniporl/int pari in ye«ohdion. When I s(a(e, iMJWcvor, (ha( (o tho 
aj/rJi'ijJlnrJNl if In abMolnloly nninip«»rtant, and may bo excluded from manurcis w ith- 
ou( dio fni'tjl)ly of die Noll belnjf /dfecled, I shidl appear to bo ('(adradict in^ inys<'lf. 
'i'o prove, jliowovor, dnil Iho eondadlcdon is oidy appjircnt, I need oidy remark 
thai tho carbon of phiniN Iuin IIn origin in the carbonis dioxide of the air, and that 
the atMio»*phero fnrnJNhoN an ino,*jhaiisiMble supply. 

'J'o eoin)»|e|o Iho alndy of die MNsimilation of carbon, it is ordy necessary to say ' 
that if th(' adnoNphoro in the principle source fr<an which the |>lants derive their 
supply of IhJN oloMionl, dioy tM'Verdieless draw a certain «piantit,\ from tlu'dec|)or 
iayei'i* of dio «#//j|, die carboniN acid ctadained in which is al»sorbed l>\ the roots and 
afterw'unlM titu'(nntut4tui by dio leavoN inio oxygon afid carbon, the latter element 
bein ji^at***! lid hi<<<d/* 

Aw \n UNiia) jii MM/'h OMMON of dlll'ercnco of opiniofi, if is piobal)le that tin' safe courso 
will ho found In a Miodhnn bolweon die two, and that the liettcr plan for the dueks 



52 



QuARTETUv "Report. 



Jr^ENNSYLVANlA BoAKD OF AuRICULTrRE. 



53 



])Ti(>s|)horM* acid? If si HTtili/crlias twclvo por cent, of i>hosnlif,ri<' acid, isllioro nun 
v\\]\\\\\)'j to Tiinc or even sc\ cii "!" potash ? 

Mr. ili< KM \N : 

No, sir; cxrcpl special inainircs for ])otat()cs. wiiicli oftoTi run as hitrh as five or six 
of i)otasn. \n\i note in tiic charts tiic amount of potash in corn-fodrtcr, oais :ind 
wheal siraw, and ha V ; liiese the fanner usually feeds on the farm, and thus k(iei)S 
the potash at home ri)Ut on the otlier hand tlie i)hosphoric acid and nitroj^en enter 
hir^ch into the ^rain and are very often sold off the farm. There i.s an accuniuhition 
of poiash. In ^nch eases, witl) a *^fertiliz<M- having a larue pcM'centage of i)hos[)horic 
acid and a low one of potash, you \vill get as good or better results ; tlie manure will 
thus \ar\ with llie plan of farming. 

A Memrkr : 

Sui)]»ose that \ on have a commercial fertilizer, Avhich contains tifteen percent, of 
pho>piiorie acid", a lar;j,(' amount i)erhaps, and three of nitrogen, with two of ]>otash, 
that would make twenty per eent. ; there are still eighty percent, remairnng. On 
this I would base the following <iuestions : Of what does this eighty percent, con- 
sist? And would it not be better to buy theelcMnents on which yon do place a manur- 
ial \alut' and exclude the others? 

Mr. Hickman : 

Tn tiieory the g<Mitleman is right, bnt in practice he is wrong. Take for exam])le 
pure bone; it will contain al)out four hundred and thirteen pounds of these \alua- 
l)le ingredients to the ton, and yet it is not adulterated ; you have one thousand live 
hundred and eighty-seven pounds of worthless matter to the ton, but you cannot get 
shut of it; the process which would take it out would be too expensive to i)ermit of 
its ai)plication. You do not get anything pure ; not even mankind. 

Hon. 0. 0. MisSELMAN, of Somerset: 

I, for one, have very little faith in this honueopathic or pepper-box (juaokcry for 
the cure of siek or woni out soils. While there are a few commercial tertili/(M-s woith 
Inlying, there are hundreds, yes, about twothii'ds of all the brands of the store goods 
now sold that have not the commercial value or chemicals in them that it sells for. One 
brand is sold for tifteen dollars, while the commercial value is only eighty-six cents ; 
another is sold for ten dollars, while tlie chemicals in it is wortli only thirty-two 
cents ; anoth(^r is sold for forty-tiA'c dollars, whil(^ theconnnercial value is only six dol- 
lars and sixteen cents. Hut worse than this, many brands are imposed upon the farmers 
that have no value at all, and still w orse ; some are palmed off on the innocent 
farmers that are not only worthless, but an actual injury to crops. Is this not im- 
position ? Yes, worse. It is robbery. It is true that the State Hoard of Agriculture 
had a law passed compelling the manufacturer to giv(^ the; analysis on the sack, but 
how many farmers kn(nv what it means if they see the analysis on the goods. They gen- 
eral ly listen to, and take the instructions of some agent that generally talks about a 
thing of which he knows very little, practically or theoretically, trying to make 
farmers believe it does not i)ay to limts or Inuil maiiure any distance, and keeps 
talking until farmers begin to wonder which •)f the two it would i)ay best, to move 
the l)arn or the tlung pile. Nobody w ill haul dung an<l lime if we can carry the fer- 
tilizer out in our vest pockets. Tlieir theory teaches waste and bad ec'onomy. Tjime 
and manure, the great natural fertilizers, are to remain dead stock in the storehouse 
of the earth, in order to givt^ these public benefactors a chanct^ to entrench them- 
selves behind tln^r sand bags! For which we are asked to send our money to -New 
York and < 'hicago, and other [>lac(^s a thousand miles away. 

My remarks nvv aimed at the great bulk of this worthless stutl", and not at the few 
honest brands that are manufactured and sold. A good tine concentrated fertilizer, 
whethei- made at home or abroad, and drilled in with the grain, will generally give 
.a start, ami show a good and immediate ellV^ct, as it geneially goes all rigiit into tlie 
plant, liut we must look for something else to lay the foumiation of a fertile soil. 
;i^table manure will do it as far as it goes, but it is lipon liine that we must count as 
the fertilizer, all other fertilizers are mere helps. It is em])hatically so in our part of 
tlie State, contirnuMl by practice and theory. WIhmu^ nature has furnished a sutfi- 
ci«']it supply of lime, it need not be done artiticially. Lime is one of the liv(^ grand 
divisions of a fertile soil, and without it not a s])ear of grass can grow. The little 
bulk of commercial fertilizer acts only chenucalU', while lime acts chemically 
physically, directly and indirectly. It will do all, and mor(\ than the best commer- 
cial fertili/cM". I venture to assert that lime will uive all the different elements, su<'li 
as nitrogen, ])otasii, ammonia, and other elemenls deri\ed from the best commercial 
fertili/<'rs, then in addition lime acts physically as an ameliorator, and chemically 
as a neutralizer. I can buy twenty tons of lime for the price you pay for (me ton of 
•connnen-ial fertilizer. Lime converts sulphuric acid in the soil into sulphate of lime 
which is land j»laster, which has the power to attract and fix ammonia ; tin' \cry 
heart of mannri there you get ,>()ur nitrogen, and i)y the burning of shells and fos- 
.sels contained in limestone you get i)liospiioric acid. I know that sonu? will deny 
this last assertion, but so says Prof, .lohnson, in his work on agricultural chemistry. 
1 know too that I am treading on the toes of humh'cds of manufacturers, and tliou's- 
ati(N of au'Mits of thi^ high sounding and sweet smelling store goods ; but as a men i- 



b(>r of the State iioard of Agriculture, it becomes my duty to expose a I fi^ni}^ a 1 
impositions practiced upon the farmers, ot winch I am one. And I can ^ ^^ ^ > \^. 
that pi<-tures sent arouAd to look at, and the bottles that an. "'''^V /'' ' i /t li<n^^^^^^ 
contents for faruK-rs to snu-ll at, are bec-oming a stench m the ^''^^''l^^^\'']^^^^^^^ 
faruicrs. And 1 know, too, that the one who opposes this pepper-box and i^^^^^ 
farming is called old fogy an\l behind the age. What 1 say ot ^^'^^^^^.^f^-^f J 1 \"i^^ 
1 shall not apply to goou, pure bone, of whieii I am :m advocate. But I repeat that 
in our iTrt ol- the ccmnty Aothing is'so cheap and ellectual as a judicious ui>plication 
of lime to fertilize the soil. 

J. A. Gundy, of Union: , , 

1 would make this rej.lv to what Mr. Musselman ^\^^/^y-^'^\''^;^;^^^^. ^,,^^V^^^^ 
practical experience in the matter: 1 divided a tract into ^"^''^''''^l^lf^^l f^^^^^^ 
am a surveyor, and the work was carefully done with a ^^^^^P^^^^^^^"^ ^ "/j^ .^v 
two of these plots I put nothing in the way ol a tertilizer; <)n one I pu '^^ ' y- 
five percentof potaih,ten pounds; on another tifteen V^^]]'''^^ '^^,1'^^^^^^^^ 
another twenty pounds of dried blood; on anollu r two ot ^1^'^^ elen e s o^^^^^^ 
other two others ; and to another all three were applied ; on one I put '^ \; '^^^^^ 
barn-vard manui'e, and on one one and one half bushels ol P^f j.^f.' .^^^/^ .^^ 
one and one half bushels of lime. We weighed »>oth corn and ^^^^\\\' ^^ •; . / \^^.;4 
have not the exact results with me, but I remember that the lime appealed to lia\e 

amagedl' (^^^^^^^^^^ at least it lessened the yield; it cost me f^^^^^^^^'^^^ 
The plaster did little or no good, and the complete fertilizer (/«^^ i^^^ "^, \ il'^^. 
elements) did bv far the best. The barn-yard inanure was tourth on the list ot 
yields ; these were actual experiments in the tield. 

lion. 0. C. Musselman: . .n^.n^T^i.^nt food 

My doctrine is that lime is indirectly a fertilizer, insomuch as it utilizes plant food 
which otherwise might be lost. 

Ouo year ago fast winter I had the l-loasurc of '»l'l':*^««i"? »" »«;!f '''"".f.t.fi^^^^^^^ 
at Uniontown, in I'ayetto county, and ihcro vvc luul nj. T.e ^*^\'.X\r,i f Vmf Soin^^^ 
ii..,,. Mm V (iftlicni U)i>k iirceirselv t lo same ground as lias my Iriend Irom isomei 
I" riludgJ Muls A an (V ne of t?.em aske.l me if 1 would ,mt fertilizer upon l|art 
of 1. is Id con,pelitii,n will. lime, and whether I would stake ">« v»\"« <f » « '^Jl 
tilizer upon the result. I toKl hini that 1 would do so, and ;™ .';"t'^;^' \ X;^^^^^^ 
ment. It was upon a farm where the ,r<.n .omi.any was {.''.^'"f <'" ^ '"i'J, ^^'j^^^^^ ^ot 
i.tiii/iiK.' 1 ivirt of it but leavinu a consK erable amount ol hnely broken sione nou 
^ t 'at tV'e fmnt.rso h^^ nothing to do but haul the stone [o the pile pile it 

un and burn it- the coal was on the land, and the only charge against the ln^^ ^^^s 
iT actual 1 1 or' ile put this Hme in competition with our fertilizer on one hall o 
thetwen V acres of land ; he understood the value of lime as too many "ndersta d 

a d K^^^^^ ^^11 tlie elements oi; \^f'\}^f'l^^'^^^^^ 

the use of lime. 1 le applied seven thousand bushels to his halt ot the held, or at the 
rate of seven hundred bushels per acre. 

Hon. C. C. Musselman : 

That was entirely too much and injured the land. 

£ i^tlu'' nl^olution of it. The tertilizer w.u. put on at the rate of six hundred 
»»rwitwi« iwM- ncic MMic fertilizer beat the lime badly, ol course. , 

' J M<, tJm ery county I net with a man nanK;d Cugler who was applying lane 
■,.,, \v u^feTHithUrii The gentlen.an with whom I was staymg sai. , " 1 «isU 
th. Vouw4uldgo v^-^^ Cogler." I .lid so H^' '"^< !.)"«' "•;•■'":'' ^"'"^ 

wi h^rfom-lorsc load of lin.e, and, after putting his »>'>>-«f^„'';^;'if.VHrndnl" m o 
house to talk to us. I said, " We came over to tell you " f ,t ?°7^ f,'^^. ,V ,\"^,"' ,1? 
r,fr..r a few siKruestious " We Rat there and talked of the action and ^uui oi iimi,, 
amU-mairyT s!:[.r ■ ' I want you to.apply your i"-;,tf>t-. or three ,, <>ts^uid a good 

He is ",ow elmvimXhat he then learned something, and from that day to this has 
never hauled another load of lime. 

we a^e Sow discussing .he question of how to improve won, out or exhausted land 
by tlie use of commercial fertilizerH. 1 low would you use them ! 

S?pp.ll!huu,twer to that cpu^stion, I gi ve the experience of 'H 
that is to fertilize it, and you must be liberal with your leitili/Ais. 1 eopic mere 



-'■'»■ 



5i 



Quarterly Eeport, 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



55 



,1 



of 



only used two hundred pounds por aore, and T said that he must use six hundred 
pounds i)or acre. He said, -That is worth more than thu laniL I understand tliat 
in some cas'^s you have furnislicd the fcM-tilizer, takin.iJ: your pay out ot the nicivaso 
in tlio crop. Is your fiuth stroiio^ cnou^li to do tliat m my case?" I answered, "I 
will -ive vou si\ hundred pounds for every acre but one (the tield contamed thirty- 
two Seres), and vou are to put tlie litdd in corn ; you may take from every acre 
as much as is produced upon the acre with no fertilizer." He answered, " ^ on are 
the man that I have been looking- for, but how about tlie wheat wliich lollows the 
corn *^ " I replied, '' We will divide the wheat cro}) with you and wdl ^ive you tour 
liund'red pounds more per acre for it." I sent him for the corn six liundred pounds 
per acre of which four hundred pounds were plowed down and two hundred 
put in the liill when planted. It \vas not a favorable year for corn, but i)eople came 
miles to see it. WJien he hauled in his corn he measnred it. In :\Iay he sent the 
corn to Baltimore and paid six cents per bushel in freight and weighing fees. When 
I came to settle with him he gave me my money and I found that I had the price ot 
the fertilizer (forty-two dollars per ton), six percent, for the money, and one hun- 
dred and forty-one dollars over ; of this I returned him one half. In the succeeding 
wheat crop there was an excess over the cost of the fertilizer of sixty-live dollars, so 
that I couhl have made him a present of two hundred dollars and obtained full 
price for mv fertilizer. The hold w^as sown with timothy and clover in the spring, 
and next year he mowed it and had more hay than any other man in that section of 
the county, and had tive or six bushels of clover seed per ar-re ,.,,,, , , 

After nTowino- it for awhile, he turned it under for wheat, and applied hve hundred 
pounds of fertnizer, and had thirtv-iive bushels of wheat per acre. That field is 
known as "the Hickman tield," and will be so known for some time to come. Last 
vear I got from him the returns from one hundred and thirty-live acres, and upon 
that result I wrote and read a report before the county agricultural society, and 1 am 
free to say that it has attracted great attention. He hatl some doubts about buying a 
machine for threshing, ))Ut I said to him, ''lUiythe macliine and pay for it off the 
one hundred and thirtv-tive acres." That one hundred and thirty-tive acres is now 
worth a great deal more than the original tract, and I saw him threshing sixteen 
lumdred bushels of wheat otf his poor land. \\v lias a good bank account, and i)ays 
his hands proini)tly. You may w rite him for the facts as 1 have given them to you. 

J. A. Herr : 

Does not the mechanical condition of the soil have sometliing to do with the action 
' the fertilizer? 

Mr. IIi("K>l\n: 

Not so much as the fertilizer has upon tlie mechanical condition of the soil. 

J. A. Herr: 

Must not every one be, to a (pertain extent at least, liis own experimenter? 

^Ir. IIlCKMAN : 

Certainly ; and in the present condition of our knowledge this is the only way in 
which we can avoid errors. 

Secretary EdiiE: 

Is not forty i)er cent. South Carolina rock more economical than the ordinary 
grades, whicli give but tifteen i)er cent., and is it not a rub' that the higher grades of 
fertilizers are the most economical ? 

Mr. Hickman : 

By transi)ortation fertilizers iiave their value increased, and the higher grades, by 
the decrease in bulk, cost less in freight ; hence they are usually most economical. 

H. M. Kn(JLE, of Lancaster : 

Some in our county have been very successful in obtaining good crops by tlie use 
of South Carolina rock alone. 

Mr. Hickman : 

That indicates that the soil is not deficient in imtash, and tliat the crop obtains suf- 
ficient nitrogen from some other source than the manure. 

Note by the Secretary : 

The discussion as here given, and much that was not i)reserved, from the fact that 
the lecture and discussion was illustrated by diagrams, indicates tiiat at the Rucks 
County Institut<' there wjisa dilVereiK'C of o]>inion between Mr. Hiekman and a num- 
bei' of tlx' praetical fanners there i)resent. It was also evident that this dinereiice of 
opinion was due to the dilference of tlieir estimates of the value of carbonaceous ma- 
terial, such as straw and corn fodder. Mr. Hickman took the ])osition that by tiio 
continued application of ])hosphoric acid, i)otash and nitrogen in amounts larger tlian 
Avas removed by the cro])s, the soil wonld becom<' more fertile, and the resulting 
crops would be' increased. On the other hand, Mr. Tondinson and others assumed 
that vegetable matter (carbon) was necessary to the crop, and must be added to the 
soil in some available form. Mr. I^oyd clailned that pl(>wing down clover was one 



i)f the best and most economical forms in which carhon could be added to the soil. 
^n> V is Mr! Hickman objected, on the ph.. that it was too expensive the ^^J-ver W 
Avorth verv much more as hav than as a green croj) tor plowing under. I o illustiatL 
n is Mr Hi -k n r exhibite<lth(' llguresrshowing the value of one ton ot clover ted 
as h; V a so uJe valm3 of t\ie manu;:;. ,,.,,,,,, ^ould result from the fc^ed rig ol one on 
of clover hay. The sum of these two amounts was much larger than that ot the nia- 
luirial value of the ton of hay when in a green state. 

In reflation to the valine of vegi'lable matter, we tlunk that the views ot Mi. llicK- 
ma wer ) full y expressed, and were misunderstood by many m the audience. 
Mr Ilicknm lint nule^ conx^ey the idea that, in his opinion, the roots and stubble 
Sfihe crops grown on the soil,\ogeth(>r with tin. usiml manure made on the tar n 
would with the atmosi)her(N supi>lv all of the carbon (the substance ot \ egetable 
m- t r of a ki ids) needecl byanVand all .-rops. (ioing even further, Mr. Hu-k.nan 
advmced tluV^(^>^^^^^^^ that without the manure of the barn-yard the roo s ot the 

croiis tm^^^^^^^ with the stubble usually left on the tield, would turn.sh an abundant 
.su^Iply o^^^^^ for all time, and that it was not absolutely necessary to add any 

'''tiIc assimilation and use of carbonaceous matter by the P^'^^tsisone of those prob- 
h>ms of agricultural chemistry not yet thoroughly understood, ^^"^V'V Hu v m^^^^^^^^^ 
alluded to (at the Bucks County InstitubO, no =^^'*'^'^;V '''^'/''wi i i is no^ 
portant itein of the mechanWal of vegetable^ matter upon the soi \V \' ^^ ^^^^ ^^ 
true as claimcMl by Mr. Hickman, that the atmosphere will luriish an ample supply 
foi ti e gr h of the plant, vet it is a question whether an entire removal of actual 
vegetairie matter from' the ioil would not sooner or later result m a mechanical con- 
dition whicli would be very untavorable to plant, growth and developmen It is a 
wen knovNm t^'^hat all nAv soils, and such as have lately ^>-;;\;*^-[:;^^.;;;i;^;^^ 
her are nnusnally productive, and it is an accepted theory that as by alter cultiva- 
t^^n 'the s ply (^' iegetable matter diminishes, the fertility decreases in about the 
same ratio This may not be due to the absence of carbon as food tor the plant ad 
' e h k that it is not ; but it is more probably <lu(. to an improper <^^^^^;;^^ 
^oil as to looseness and porositv. A fertile soil which is too compact Nvdl not pioauce 
a satisfactory crop' ad t is but fair to claim that much of this porosity is due to the 
veget^iW the soil. It is (luestionable whether the mere plowing down o 

the foots an^^^^^^ of the crop wduld furnish enough --•^•-\^7;/ 1;,^;!;;:^;^ ;, ^^' 

«nv' r.itP we huve no record of any long continued experiments m this duet turn. 

3onsM\'r(d in al f i^^^^^^ of the actual etfect of cai;^)onaceous 

matTei he s i lis a very inbn-esting problem, and one u,)on wdiich, as bcton3 stated 
autholVties do not always\igree. Thui, for instance. Dr. J. B. Lawes, the celebrated 
TTrKrlisih ex 1 >eri tnentcr. writes as follows : , , , . 



bon and less than one per cent, of nitrogen, the proportion ot carbon to iitjogc^i 
leim hftv r<>( e whik surface soil contains carbon in proportion of ten to one of 
n^U -u rweg lower down the proportion of carbon to nitrogen grows less 
TtVs thesVX^^^^^ that are acted np<m by living organisms giving rise 

^ nilSion a;^;^^^^ 

Avli.'ther th(M-arbon of the subso I is capable ot nitrihcation. We li.n c no eM(i( lu c 

Tha 1 mts Ik c rbon fn>ni the soil. Some of our fields have received no carbon 

f ; n n-lv 1 ftv ^^^^^^^^ we canol)tain, l)y means of mimM-al mannresand nitrates, 

as 1 r^e crom ^^^^ lirst- When tirst a pasture is broken up there can bc> no 

doubt thTverv Targe (uantiti(>s (.f ^-arbon are convca-ted into <-arbonic acid, and at 

l^e^m Vmne^her <^>n!pouncls are ibrmed, which areonly aeted upon v|^ « -w^ 

To exhaust a soil is, perhaps fortunately for mankind a ^^.^T .f/ ;\^^^^^^^^^^^ 

oess This may be seen by our unmanured wheat crop, which at the ena oi ncariy 

,1k/ "s ndVa'tt:^ of :.,;,'l';.,n l.y plants : •' Tl,.. ..uantity "f V-'"'" J. -'-:;:';;::fr <" n t -'a 
.•„u,l.<..siti<m ,.f i-lants is, in n.un.l nun, .orH, ^^li' , ,[ Y *' *o v-flx.^^P^^^^^ 
,lu.r!.,br,M.lays an in.port.nU ,.a.;, n. voKCta .on U 



therefore i) ays an importaiu pan m m-^^-kiu'mi. ,, ..v... . • -• - .,,,,,.ow ^ifh 

wr .ailt m-ist 1^ is abs( Intel v unimportant, and may be excluded Irom nianuies with- 
ou 1 e VrU itV^^^^ 1 shall appear to be contradicting myself 

nv rov( hm^^^ llie contradiction is only apparen I need only lema k 

tlKd^theckllKmof planishas its origin in the carbonis dioxide of the air, and that 
the atmosphere furnishes an inexhanstablesupijly. i< onlv necessary to say 

ati.Txvanls <lcconij)oso(l by tlio leaves into oxygen and carbon, thi l.ittui iiinRni 

''I's^is nsl.'u in'sneh oases of.lifferen.-e of opinion, it is probable tha, the «;'fc eourso 
>vUU.e found in a nu^^^^^^ the better plan tor ti.e Uueks 



66 



Quarterly Report. 



W m fuT'"''' T'" ^-^ to carefully save and apply all the barn-yard nianur(> vvhiel, 
1 an n ak(> and aocuninlatc, and at the same time bny and usi all of the comnier- 

el^r/ili^c^^'h s'flr m'^T-' '"^' pay hin.; in this ^^^y he eannot tail to in^^i^ 
flw n -T i- ^ ^'^^ "' *"'*^ mcrease the average oi' his croi^s. He will accent ad(h^d 

r^'.;,in'ft i:z^^, rr;: zi ,!:r.-^i"-'"^'^'^' ^"^ ■^''""- "^^'-'""^ »- -'" -'-'-- '^ 

ntmol'."/* '^ r^''''-,V''l-,V'''^ ^'^'^ 1^^''^'^^ '*•'" ^^^'tain all their needed carbon from the 
; e so^; f Thl 'V-^^ ?^^^' wethink, fnul himself amply r(M)aid for thetronbh> a, ex! 
s ni^r ii A^P.P^f''^'^ f ^"^ y'''''^ '^'-'^'^''^'^ in its actual manurial clfect, s( far as 
w h . f^ ' f '^''^^' and ph()si)horic acid are concerned, and in the niechan cal cllbit 
whicli It must necessardy have npon his soil. »aiiicdi ciiLct 

For the purpose of ohtaiiung the views of practical farmers upon the 
use ot commercial fertilizers, a number of letters were addressed to 
sucfi as were known to be practically acquainted with the subject ask- 
ing their views upon such ])hases of the cpiestion as had attracted their 
attention. We give the following al)stracts of their replies : 

John I. Carter, Chatham, Chester countv, Pa. : 




phosphoricucid to Vnake\ T? .' e • m n,f .^^^^ quantity ot nitrogen, potash, and 
IvinLr feldsnqr ror-V-V, 1.1,1. ,V n^^i^^^ ^"" practically It was found that our iindcr- 

rLh^!,Vn ^!^f;cls ' wh e levJrrt^^r^^^^^^^ ^'''f^ """''•'"f '"*''^'^ ' ='"" th« 

carbonaceous inatt " loavine mU-H.o n^ « ,. '^•*'' '" « ^''*r"t''' "*' ""rogenous or 
chased fertili/,c.r. Th is o loifie nt V if r,^ ^^'1, '''' '"'"^ *? j!? supplied in the pur- 
hausted by our system of fann'i^^^^^^^ ?""-^' ''kelv to have been ex- 

and cattle feeding so 1 ircofv carrfl.H on ,, ? ' 't .'«'ing carried oflf in the dairying 
tilizcrs arc not iiUhc naU?re ot^VHnnH ... f '''■'''^"'" "' ""' ^"^"^- '^'"'t "'osc fei- 

by <xperi„icnts 1 ,aU.?,t the Eastern Fxor^ '" V"'''' ^"^''""^ "'^'^ «'>""" 

ublc i,b„si,|ioric acid ani.liod to tho ^,:.^, ? "''V ^"'''"' '''■'"^'■<' applications of sol- 



Kind of Fertilizers 




Nitrate of soda, 
No manure, 
Hulj)liat(' of ammonia, 
Barn-yanI manure, 
< Ground bone, .... 
Bone sui)eri)hosphates, 
Mineral •superi)hosphates, 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



5T 



The report of these, and many similar experiments, drew the attention of our far- 
mers to the value of commercial fertilizers, and to the special a<l vantages of those 
containing largely of phosphoric acid, and so tIiorou<i,hly convinced were they of 
their \aluc that run- ))est farmers use them on nearly all their cultiNatcd crops. Their 
usual i)ractice is, in late winter or early springs to I'uit a li<;lit coat of yard manure on 
sod for corn, and plow down four hundred pounds of dissoUcd rock in addition. 
Tills, under favorable circumstances, will insure a crop of seventy-tive to one hun- 
dred ])ushels of corn, w^eighed out of the field ; for oats, about two hundred pounds is 
drilled in with tlie seed, and forwlu^at anoth(M- li<2^ht coat of yard manure, if the barn- 
yard will furnish it, and about three liundred pounds of lertilizer, also drilled in. 
This gives the wheat a good start in the fall, evv'n if the grain is sowed late. The 
late seeding carries the crop beyond the tirst hatcli of the Hessian My, that so often 
damages the early sown a\ heat. These annual api>li< anions are not n'lade because of 
the transient elfects of the fertilizer, but becaus<' the lirst application simmus to stimu- 
late a vigorous early growth, which carries the plant beyond the risks and dangers- 
of this stage. Of course no good farmer should neglect to make and save all the 
manure his convenience and time will permit. 

R. G. F. KsHiNKA, Berwick, Pa.: 

My experiments have been too limited to add much to the general stock of knowl- 
edge upon this subject. The little on hand, however, is cheerfully contributed. 

The soil upon which my experiments have been chiefly made is somewhat (litlicult 
to name, and for want of anything better miglit be called a gravely clay, (of a friable 
nature.) 

My first experiment of any consequence with commercial fertilizers was upon a 
twenty-two acre field. This field had been entirely run down and left to shift for it- 
self for several years. It was to some extent covered with small scriil)by pines, dew- 
berries, and a "sprinkling" of wild grass, altogether not enough to cover the soil. 
There were many good-sized patches where the ground was quite bare. 

After the pines were pulled up and burnt, the ground was plowed the latter part 
of June. About the tenth of Julj-, the field was thoroughly harrowed, and three 
pecks of V)uekwheat, with two hundred pounds of fertilizer, drilled to the acre. Dis- 
solved South Carolina rock was ai)))lied to a part, and a high j)riced and grade com- 
plete phosphate to the rest of the field. The season was diy, and the yield twelve 
bushels per acre. This was fully up to the average of the neighborhood. No ditt'er- 
ence was noticeable between where dissolved South Carolina rock or the complete- 
fertilizer had been applied. After the buckwheat was removed, the field Avas twice 
cultivated, going over it diagonally', and one bushel and one peck of rye, with two 
hundred pounds of dissolved South Carolina rock, drilled to the acre the latter part 
of October. Being short of phosphate, and for fear the ground would freeze before- 
more could be obtained, wood ashes were substituted and drilled on about five acres. 

The field yielded oven* three hundred bushels of a fine grade of rye, tlie iK)orest 
part of the field with i)hosphate, yielding twelve, (12,) and the best twenty-five (25) 
bushels per acre, while the poorest part, with ashes, yielded scarcely the seed, and 
the best not exceeding eight (8) bushels. 

This was a wonderful difi'erence, the additional straw in the former alone fully 
jiaying for the phos])hate. 

This marked dillerence continued in the growtli of the grass ; in fact, the clover 
was scarcely perceptible wdiere no phosphate was sown. The statement made to me 
by the complete fertilizer agent that the "animal" bone would make the better- 
showing in the future was not realized in this case, for no difierence was and is no- 
ticeable. 

The application of four hundred pounds of pliosphate per acre two years ago re- 
sulted in an average yield of thirteen (I.'3) bushels of wheat per acre last year ui)on 
a piece of land whereon two years previous the yield of oats was eight (8) bushels 
per acre, and whereon the year still before that, white beans refused to yield the seed 
l>lanted on a part of the fiehl. In this case a part of the field was drilled with dis- 
solved Soutli C'arolina rock, and the balance with a complete fertilizer. As was the 
case in the twenty-two acre lot, so here no difierence in the yield was discernible. A 
comi)lete fertilizer, comj)(>sed of seventeen hundred })()unds of dissolved South Car- 
olina rock, two hundred pounds of nitrate of soda, and one hundred pounds of mu- 
riate of ])otash, a]>]>lied to the oat field, at the rate of two hundred and lifty ])Ounds- 
per acre, last year doubled the crop, and the investment netted over one hundred 
per cent. 

Other tiials have given similar results to those named. 

The results in some of the experiments referred to have been so marked that it 
leads us to conclude that our soil is ])eculiarly prei)ared for tlie rec<'ption of fertilizers 
containing a larg<' {ler cent, of i)hos»)horic acid. Our soil contains a fair per cent, of 
the fossil mollusca. It is j)robable that the actions of the atmosphere disintegrate 
minute particles of these; fossils, and i)repare it for the reception of the acid i>h()S- 
phate,and through tliis agent is converted into i)lant food. 

This much is certain, that the ]^hos])hate acts upon soinrfJUn;/ which has been lying 
dormant in the soil, for soil which will not, with the best tillage, ])roduce a sufficient 
amount of grain to pay for tlie seed and labor expended w ill, by the applicaticm of a. 
few hundred pounds \)f phospiiate per acre, not alone pay for the seed, labor and 



.58 



Quarterly Report. 



l)lK)sphato applied, ],iit Ki vo in addition a not profit. This ruhlifional product at least 
must )).. (•nMh(<Ml to li.e chemical changes of the soil thmugh this agency 
..n.il'Jl'''x •';'|;^!""*' ^^^^^^••' "'> '^*>"''t liave a similar ('fleet. However, since we have 
not eiioughot this to -g,) an.uud," wc mav be considered verv fortunate in hein^ 
•able to procure so cheap a substitute, and thus i)reveiil some of our lauds from be- 
connuo: barren wastes, aud restore others and make tlieni vahial)l(\ 
iJl V^Vl^'" ,)''*•''■<• *»^' Agriculture had not done another act since its organization 
to Dcneht thelarnicrs ot this Slate except the enlightening of its citizens upon the 
ler 1 lizer <,u(^Mion tlien every dollar expended by U from Its inc('ption lias^pn.ved 
whie I n.n-l^f; \^ ^^ ^^xa'uple, a few years ago 1 bougld sonle plios])hat(N for 
iv. J • ^'^ ^''^t.>^:^!^^li^ ^l;!ll'ir« (^^ IH^r ton. The next vear the ''Tabulated 
; • s worn. Jv''V''/r''^'^ Fertilizers " fell into my hands, and it showed that the stuff 
ANas ^\oltll SIX dollars and seventy-two cents, (^(i 72.) Conseciuentlv I was (mt of 
pocket twenty-one dollars and twenty-eiglit cents (^21 28) on oZ)on' cTthe 
<trno<int of mone,^, saved directly hy the f^^^^^^^^ heestivinLd sinee the Boar ha. 

Hut his'is' m/'.dl '"t^ ', '' '"; ''^"^' r '''' '^^^"'-^'^ • '' ''''''''' ^'"^ ^"^' eyc^ good •' 
isut tins IS not all. 1 he honest mauutacturer (as mcU as the farmer), is benetited 

Jnllnf /''' ^''''\^r'^ ^yi^J^' to judge of th(^ value c>f f(M-tiliz(M s/w( distr"^^^^ 

1 h?>s h?///^^^ M^^' ""''^ '^ '"^ "^^^"^^ t^ '^''^'^ ^''^^^ ^'^^' ^^'"^'^-^^1 introduction and use f 

b o tV'''' '' n'-^'y? ^'"^'''^ '""'*^^ ^^^^^^'^^^ ^^'■^''' '^ ^'^^ ^^'^'^b and hence the pro..Tess 

ni agiieulture m this Commonwealth much retarded. pio„icss 

F. DAKbiN(JTON, Lincoln University, Pa* 

liiih ifof/ "^/^^^^^ ^y Prt^sent farm, which at that time was considered to be in a 

at 
of 
been 
mofe than when I came to'iV "An,? t'o7"" I'^'ll "^''J'''''' '^''''^ my tarni is onethird 

those"}" ^"^iSJtZye'''^!::^^!:^^::;?''''''^ •■'^^""^- ""♦ >-"" -^^ '•-• !•■'<=*« «•"' 
•There s,...,n to ll ?„o r■loV;^v^^r.'?.^?.^'•''^^"."""'«'•y''''V•• »'«>'!?''''»■ •' <litte,-o„t rocrd. 




GEOR(iK H. Cook, Greenoastle, Pa • 

:^^=^'^u:^^t>Z:^^^-Z::^ ^.e ,.... ten .ears .as not 

.-hased a hn.estono .„•,„ near Oreou^i^'ir^J^Zuu^T:::;^^::^^^^:^ 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



59 



proNcd to be so exhausted that it would not produce over from nine to fifceen bushels 
of wheiit to the acre. This, with a heavy encumbrance, set me to thinking, indeed. 
I then commenced the use of commercial fertilizers and was agreeably surprised at 
tlie good results, but at lirst not without some mistakes in selecting. The first sea- 
son I used but few tons. Most of it was aiumoniated and potash goods of high grade, 
or what is erroneous called a complete fertilizer, and a few sacks of Dissolved Soutli 
Carolina rock or acid phosphate. In spite of mv prejudice to the latter, 1 found it 
equal and in some trials even Ijetter than the so-called' high grades. The high grade 
used contained from one and three fourths to two and one half per cent, ammonia, 
from three to four percent, potash, and from seven to nine ]>(n- cent, of availalde 
j>hosphoric acid. The l>issol\ed South Carolina rock contained from tJiirteen to 
fifteen per cent, of available phosphoric acid. Now, from exi)erieiice and from facts 
<lrawn from science, I concluded that my land was poor in i)hosphoric acid and that 
the aeid ])hos})hate furnished the needed elements of plant food more l(ir(/ely and 
for less tiioiiey. I, therefore, during the last eight years used mainlv the acid phos- 
l)hate, from eight to ten tons in a year, and from one hundred and I'lftv to two hun- 
dred and fifty pounds i)er acre. Instead of ha\ing from nine to tifteen bushels of 
wheat per acre, I now usually have from twenty-five to thirty-live, and of better 
(juality ; the grass crops imi)r()ve(i in i>roporti()n. At the two last tri-annual assess- 
ments the valuation of my farm was iiKtreased thirty-live per cent. This, of course, 
I did not like, but the blame was on the phosphate. Here in Antrim, on slate as 
well as on limestone land, the leading farmers chiefly use Dissolved South Carolina 
rock or acid phospliate, some even from twenty to thirty tons in a season. Its 
utility liere is now hardly an open rpiestion. In many cases of trial the results have 
been almost incredil)le. One farmer in the fall of 1885 who lacked contidence in fer- 
tilizers sowed one half ton of acid phosi)hate on part of a held he put in wheat after 
the corn was removed. The part fertilized made about tifteen bushels to the acre 
and the part unfertilized was, as he said, not worth cutting. All had the same ad- 
vantage as to soil and time of sowing. One other farmer, in a heavy soil, carefully 
measured otf in a held two plots of just one acre in each and sowed at the same time 
both plots in wheat for trial, putting two hundred i)ounds of acid phosphate on the 
one plot and none on the other. Wliile the wheat was growing there was apparently 
no difference. He cut and threshed each lot separately, and found that the lot fer- 
tilized made seven and a fraction more bushels than the lot unfertilized. A neigh- 
bor of mine while planting a lot in corn of about one acre dropped in with the corn 
two hundred pounds of acid phospliate. After the corn lie sowed the hn in oats, and 
the oats in clover. The corn hills and rows could ])e distinctly seen in the growing 
oats, even at a considerable distance ; so also in the first clover crop, and even in the 
second. The plant where the corn hill was grew so much taller and stronger. This 
not only proves the benetit of commercial fertilizers, Init also that the fertilizer does 
not do, as some say, for one crop only, but that it improves the soil. 

In our soil a complete fertilizer is'^not the most profitable. But I confess I have 
not yet seen a complete fertilizer, one that has all the elements of plant food and in 
the rifjhf proporlioi) : nor would such be suitable to our wants, for the poorest soil is 
even rich in some elements of i)lant food. With the organic matter we have in our 
soil, and with the ammonia derived from tiie atmosphere, I think that we have all 
the ammonia we need to jiroduce a crop. As for potash, my experience does not 
show that we are in need of it. I think that the potash which is made available by 
the disintegration of rocks and gravel sullicieutly supplies the waste. 

But phospliorous, we learn, is even at hrst but si)arse in our soils, and then much 
of it is locked up in insoluble coni])ounds juid not availal)le. Exi)eriene proves most 
emi)hatically that our soil is much in need of this element of plant food ; and V)y sell- 
ing olf the grain \\v raise, and the livestock, we return but little of this element 
through our barn-yard manure. Therefore, we prefer to scilect that fertilizer which 
contains the greatest amount of available phosphoric acid for the money. 

Howard Preston, Oxford, Pa.: 

I have used almost exclusively South Carolina rock. In ex]>erinients made with 
other fertilizers, Ix^ne and complete i)liosphatcs, the rock gave e(j[ually good results, 
at near half the cost. My soil does not seem to need potasli, and where a moderate 
ai)])lication of stable manure was a])i)lied (ten two-horse loads per acre for wheat) 
enough of nitrogen was furnished to meet the requirements of the cro[)s. 

liuying, as I do, through an organization on a giuiranteed analysis of fourteen ]>er 
cent, of available phosphoric acid at liftcen dollars per ton, 1 know that I ain not 
cheated. 

Of th(» large (piantities of commercial fertilizers used in this section, probably more 
than thi-e(> fourths is South Carolina rock. 

For many years I have used from ten to twenty tons annu:illy, au<l the result has 
been entirely satisfa«-lory, more than doubling the hay crop, and the increase of rev- 
enue from hay sold alone more tlian paying the cost of the fertilizer, while the 
amount of stock kept has naturally increased. 

I am jtlowing a held this spring that has gone through the course indicated, and a 
]>ett( r sod I never before turnecl under. When I conii)are it with what it was six 
years ago I cannot but l)e more than satisfied that South Carolina rock is a most 
A'aluable fertilizer. 

Some farmers think it acts too (piickly for corn, making a vigorous growth of stalk 



60 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



61 



at the expense of tlie maturing ear. I have seen something of this, and propose this 
year to use bone and South (Carolina rock side by side and note the result. 

D. r. Forney, Hanover, Pa. : 

The introduction and use of commercial fertilizers in tliis section of tlie State opens, 
up many nitcresting agricultural (jucstions for investigation and discussion. No- 
)\iiere in the State, p(>rliaps nowhere in the United States, lias the practice of fatten- 
nig cattle lor the spring market been so generally and so long adhered to. Tlu^re 
will be shipped from tlie single station of Ihinover alone about one hundred and 
titty car-loads of fat cattle this spring, and other stations will contribute still more to- 
the number. All tiie corn, oats, straw, and most of the hay are thus consumed on 
the larins, together with a large amount of |)raii, middlings, and some oil-meal. One- 
would suppose that with all this manure annually returned to our soil there would 
be little else needed to keep up its fertility, but notwithstanding this, commercial 
lertilizers have been gradually introduced until the amount consumed is enormous 
JSow, then, rejecting the exceedingly common and cheap presumption that farmers- 
are not capable ot understanding tlieir own l)usiness and can be easilv instructed 
singly or collectively, l)y any editors, lawyers, doctors, professors, or ])()litieiaiis who* 
leel called upon to undertake it, and accepting the opposite presum})tion that farm- 
ers like any other business men, understand their own business better than any 
body else we must come to the conclusion that farm-vard manure alone, continu- 
ously applied, will not develope the highest productiven(^ss of the soil. This con- 
clusion IS lortified by the opinions Avhich I get from my most intelligent and reliable 
neigJi bors, nien who annually feed from twenty to forty steers on their farms and haul 
out hundreds oi loads of manure on their land who still sav that where they aDolva 
good commercial fertilizer their crops of grain and grass are improved bv it, and our 
grain buyers tell me that the wheat is plumper, brighter, and heavier. My own ex- 
perience goes in the same direction. Before, therefore, endeavoring to decide wliich 
or what form ol fertilizer is the best, a matter which I don't believe can ever be de- 
V\lu}i /;^^^f/f^-torily would it not be more profitable to try and learn a little more- 
fh^f U^ »i<i"ner ot their action. We have here learned beyond reasonable doubt 
that commercia lor mineral fertilizers always do best when applied with manure 
and not alone. The soil must be first considered, then the applilLtion. The in e iT 
gent physician considers first the patient, then the remedy. A great mistake has- 
been made in trying to formulate a -complete manure " for the soil U ^al on a^ 
tKn1mil''i?::n;"''r^' r(.nedy;;for (he body and like a -complete food "for 
adai^edtSit. ^^ "" ^^'"^ c-apacity for digestion and assimilation are 

iufr/o7tld^ i,'^Vinn"''^'T ""^ ^*^*^^"»r''^^^^ fertilizers, lime was the great mineral ma- 
Whh Us use t e f?v; '' ""''''"^ ^^""^ ^y \"^">^ '^ '^ regarded as a panacea for tlie soil. 
w itli Its use, the farmers soon learned that it, too, alwavs did best when annlied with 

Sanation' "to El'o'lZ^''' V ''T' '''T -"-^^--^^ to^^act'Iipon^^Mhis'^^^^^ 
pianation. To me the explanation always was exceedingly unsatisfactory I.ime 
\vh( n api)lied to the soil in its caustic condition, as it usually is wiH in aT^on! v,,!' 

o th?fn^.nV \T' 'T ''t ^•^^^^^^.^^' ^♦"^^ ^^^l^'^'"t properties almo^stentixdy It iXrnt 
to the insoluble carbonate and hydrate. This is seen in makin- mortar every cav 

this theory, and a«su,ne that tho^-l'golabl^n, a r, t^trsoU act^ ulJI^^rt'h^^ir 
any other mnicral food, instead of the lime u,.o.i the ve^i.tal k^natt^'r "i fl "w^ 

Che nis rv t a, hL , t |, f bv^ ,? f '"'''^f "'" Tl','' ^"l"'''** *"'" «fll^-ieiit it beeonies. 

tell us, has been made vn, ),v the disinteiritifin r f H,,? ,1 k W ''' S^"'"'g'«t« 

pose there is any a.tual detiVlenev o " nte t he so tT^; J^'"''*" '';? '""■'""' *"'!'- 

ilenVe, after usin J li ne^^^V'^; it^S' me on\''i n^^^ ="'^> inetleetive. 

and fell u,,,,,, eouwu.nial fertilizers in " , 1 a "e an " f .1 nfn'f Vf ""^^fs^'fry, 
ally increasing indieates that in the main thev are ,, d pr ( \1 1 " T/.r T' '"',""'- 
to their use is their uncertaintv TSTr^ T>io+fr.>. ,. i ^ *i piontahle. T he objection 

fmls to give satisi .ctory re^^^^^^ ^^'"^ composition is, their us'e oftcMi 

W(H-st. What hap KM s^ir?fhe sAi1 I otw^^^^ ll t"^'^ ""^ ''^^'''' ^^^^^^ ''^' ^^^^ ^^^«t as of the 
seed, and reap th -^-r >p J^b^dy kno^^^^^^ ^'^V ''^'^'^y ^^''^ manure, sow th 

iiiori resnect^ nrobnbll>f n' ;*\.h'^' • ,^1 ,..^.V.- I-^^^'^^?'.^'»M^«^^ opinions are entitled t 




<-()me to that point in his accumulation of knowledge when he can admit his want of 
information. The man who "don't know" may some day find out ; the man who 
"knows it all" never will. In the application of commercial fertilizers we must 
admit that we know very little. We must contine oiirseU(^s to what little we have 
learned by obser\ation. In this locality vv^e ha\'e observed that they do bc*st when 
applied in connection w ith manure. This is likely wwing, to some extent at least, to 
the solvent i)ow^er of the acids which are formed l)y the decay of the manure. These 
prepare and digest the mineral food for the plant. It may be doubtful whether sul- 
phuric acid can truly digest the South Carolina rock for the plant. Without the in- 
tervention of the vegetable acids, there maybe no assimilation, just as in the animal 
stomach there is none, wdthout the use of the gastric juices, and we may yet discover 
that the main point in a fertilizer is its mechanical reduction, leaving its solution to 
nature and her forces, and dis})ensing entirely with sulphuric a<'id. I have failed as 
often with "])ure dissolved l)on(!" and "dissolved South Carolina rock" as with any- 
thing else, and have had gcxxl returns with ground bone without its dissolution with 
acid. This fertilizer I believe to be the best and cheapest in the end. from the fact 
that it contains more of what plants need than any other for the money, and yet I 
have seen it used without any j>erceptible l)enefit. In my own experience, I have 
found it very effectual when applied to meadow land, and the land then laid down 
to grass. I have taken four successive heavy crops of timothy otf of siu-h land. An- 
other thing in this connection worthy of notice is that where the manure is applied 
on top it seems to make the fertilizer most effective, and wliat at first surprised me, 
its etfects are more durable. Otf of a twenty acre field, which I mowed last year for 
the second time, and on which bolh superphosphate and dissoU ed South Carolina 
rock were used three years ago, and part of the manure plowed down and part ap- 
plied on top, after plowing, and tlien harrowed in, we took forty-three large four- 
horse loads of hay, averaging about one and one half tons to the load, weighed out 
of the field, and the best was decidedly where the manure was applied on top. This, 
after what has been said, seems reasonable. The manure near the surface will de- 
cay more eftectually than when plowed under, and will thereby render all mineral 
plant food with which it comes in contact more soluble and better fitted for plant 
nourishment. On a stifi* clay soil this is especially important. Chemists have dis- 
covered that if you mix clay in a vessel of licpiid manure it w ill retard putrefaction, 
whilst humus \viU accelearate it. For ulcerated sores, there is perliaj)sno remedy 
better than pulverized clay. I have found nothing better for scratclies in horses. 
When, therefore, we plow our manure down on a stifi' clay soil, we almost entirely 
arrest its decay and dissolution, and conse<iuently we find it takes more manure on 
clay than any other soil. Api)lied near the surface, the sun and atmosphere assist 
in dissolving it for the plant, and hence we invariably get better results from keep- 
ing all fertilizers near the surface on such soils. One of my neighbors, a very suc- 
cessful farmer, plows all his wheat land as soon as possible after harvest, soils it 
down, and then draws all his manure on the surface, often being compelled to use 
five and six horses to his wagons to do it. He uses fertilizers largely. 

The season when applied also has much to do with the success of a fertilizer. I 
have never applied any to oats, (kainit excepted), without gootl results, and I have 
the impression that they are more profitable on this crop than any we have. This is 
likely owing to tin? fact tiiat the ground is always moist in tlie spring, and all the 
forces of nature intended to produce growth are always more active then, and beside 
that, the roots of the oats, unlike wheat, all run near the surface, and are more likely 
to be affected by a fertilizer there applied. My conclusion is that they are always 
more certain in the spring on any spring crop than any other time. Applied in the 
fall, when the ground is dry, and the vital forces of nature are rediK.'ed to a mini- 
mum, they are alwa\'s more unci'rtain. 

As to what fertilizer is best, we appear to be almost entirely in the dark. They all 
succeed sometimes, and fail at others. As a rule, potash fertilizers are least effective 
on our soiL I have tried kainit and ashes, leached and unleached, in almost every 
way, with no [)ercei)tible benefit, whilst those containing a large jn-oportion of plu^s- 
phoric acid usually give better results. Ever since the creation the forces of nature 
have been engaged in retluciug the inorganic elements of the soil to siu'h a condition 
as to fit them for plant food, and thus support the animal life of the globe. Just how 
this is done is one of the secrets of nature, which, like the sprouting of the seed, will 
probably never be revealeil, and i)erhai)s the best the farnuM- can do in tlu^ present 
state of our knowhulge is to give nature a lair opportunity to carry on her work by 
furnishing her a generous siii)i)ly of all materials to work with, and, meanwhile, we 
must r6st content with tlie reflection that what we know about the matter, together 
with what we <lon't, comprises all there is of it, and if we can succeed in fixing the 
liHiits of the latter, we will have reached a point not easily attained on any subject. 

J. K. Murray, Potts Grove, Pa. 

My experience with commercial fertilizers is al)out as follows : 

I moved upon the farm on which 1 now reside about thirteen years ago, the land 
was in a low state of cultivation, and having been brought up to think that lime and 
barn-yard manure were all that was needed to improve a rundown fVirm. I, of course, 
commenced upon that plan. A trial or two with some fraudulent brands of com- 
mercial fertilizer, a few years before, did not change my oi>inion either. 
But after five or six years trial with lime and ni.inuie, I fouml my land but little 



62 



Quarterly Rkport. 



nf,IL7'.!!lTh,"Mf",!ri';'''.7r''i /• "."" «^'^''' "l"'""'- '••" ^opt «„ feeding .-ntd.. to 
, \> ,i' 1 I '"'",'.' ' V""'*'- ^ «"«d several brancls of coniii orcial ferlili/c' , ,wV 

ifecUon! I havy.;anu^e?y „rr lo it'''' "'^^' -l'-''->'« «" 'I""^' "-t degree of pe" 

wen'',;n';.!X',:;;',r 'nHrii;'"'.;':; ';?. "f"i;-fri'r"^'" ",""■ '"""■^' "-«^'" *° '»>« •^'^re ti,..ro 

creas '« f^tt e or tnore bt^;he s tier tn '%''V'*''^ 

or twelve nei- .nt /.f a, .fn i i 'V ' ? '"'""' """ •' ''itilizer tlmt <'oiitained ten 

tlmn ., n .\ i, , u",s' ev, , i t' ','''"ri: ''•.''''^ acid nm.le a «n.a,er m.-rease in hnsh.l" 

on tlie same fari.i •, ,ii i , ,„ ^; I'arate nigredients ; in this I found that even 

seve, d ex ertment^^ '■"'I"''-''" <'"•. <"»'<■>■'■"' li''l<l-- Hm aft!" 

b.e i^'ippb'o^^^ifni^ii':.':.^":;! "r,'!::'iL''!:i tnd" t> '" "t •'""'"*'■""• "■• "'>'"•" ••' —- 

beic!';l^St'^'::'i;/L^-'-i~ J''/> --i- b'ono h\. Vl^^'n^t'ile analysis of it I 
otiier kind. exct-lltnt manure tor worn-out sods, and as profitable as any 

R. S. Seari.e, Montrose, Susciuehanna coiintv P-r • 

to'i^^t;;:;; wa;V'V,'n:"?At^dnw^^^^ ""■"' ^f.-; .n',;,.;,, l,ut «.. hegi„„in^ 

given but littlei.tenihnf ; \ ;V ; ' V' . r'-'li.* n'ot'Vu" ^^' V,"" ""^ *'*"-""^'-« ""^^ 
Another drawhaek is th.. nndti.u ' f li w,! „ '^ ,,l "'l'"^'' •'* ""yV""*-' "•^^•• 

and eaeli agent running down most if not •, , H . ' ■ '''"'""J-' '<' ''<■ the best 

tested ,!;i;i hr;n!iT';ife[.^.fS^ t'lt^a^uTirr'" "T ■•^', ^-•^* -P-- -t- 

tnform„„on on the subje,.t^)rint. .r t e r r^"' U^^^ M' ".ous fert,h/ers, the valuable 
ber <,1 the farnurs, an.lilK-v'are not I e etited 'bv t Tbi'"" IT"-",!'"' f-^''"^'"'' ""-"- 
remedied m tiuu- by tin. iimm'nee of i ,^H ,t„ /^ , ,^ '"■* '^t'"^""- '"nH, and will be 
the great nuiioritv in tins seetion h l m /h , T',' '"'""-■'•? '"ganizations. While 
mercial fertilizers, a few hav^ i sed h m i^ "^ <■'""- 

eiousiy use.l ,be results have been sa is ' Ho ' T r *'' "TlY''' '"" "'"" '"'"- 
1" tin. «eelion has been v.'rv satisfaefC I so wh , '"*';.'", '"'"' '"' "'■" sc<"<ling 
oats, rye, and wheat, an.l (•spe-'iallv m^nooVs^ 1 1 in ''1*1'"''' '" *•<"■" an.l p<,tatoes, 
sun.mer. A tiehl of buekwheat was s ow ? o.rV/j. l^^-^^'^ '" >" *«« «"^' P"st 

no f.rtdizer was sown, the n.niainder sh ,r v' V ' ''''^ '"K a portion on wl id, 

'"■•"\'\ I'on,. phos|,l,ale. The r", was .^^ l"',"""- 1«"'- aen. of aunnol 

"sed, but noi,.nough to pa v for iil.iu,. ",?,'''' '' K'","' KWin and straw where 
young farmer in ISriclg-water i,nw si , us".,T ,!'"' '""'','• ^"'^' <'-'l' a progressive 

wheat ami rve, seeding at sa e'li /.e We",'w'. I',' h;"''' "",".""': V" '"'"• W '''<•'•«« 
held look.d spfendi.l when the snow eai u' I do u i " "■^""' ""'' i'"<'''st- The 

1 a wng used dissohcl South Carolina r -k but I v, ',11^ V'' !""¥'•"'■ "> 'bis section 
sist our people. Man v who attended or I'.sr -J. . " i ''"'•''" " ^^"•'I<1 gn^atly as- 
bear Hon. .1. H. m.-kman o„ this si ., '.^ ,,'"'""■'■*' I>>«titute eame CN^pressIv to 
vve hope to hear hhn in th,. future. A 1 ^^u ,:;■,">':■';. '' ""'' ''i«M>p,.int<'.d. Stil 
eht to our p,.o|,l,. ,|,.riv,.d from Ih,. two Inst tufes I'^T, '•'"""■'•tion that th,. benl 
computation m ,lollars. Not onlv hVve th'J l' '" -^'"""-os,. has b,.,.u b,.von 1 
portan,-e thai tlu.y will make h si- irTa, iTi ""'ire'.'l'r^'' '^^""-^ '"' i^'^-^^'-:^ ' 

'/o"^-(»(/, and when men Lret to tl i,,,, ' " '"^"^ 'allmg, but it basset tlu'io i,. 

[o the Stat., will be returned in tl . n fr na,' n'''l'''' 'T""- '"''' <""• dol lar.s n cost 
bett..r crops, b,.l„.r ,.itiz,.ns. Our prncn,.';^ j'''^ ''''.'•'■"' •'"'"kI'I ai>pli<.,l, w b 

~.. our Winter has been unn'su'.^l'iy «t'ili:'.ilfo!v1tVCirrr.[g'\!f^^^^ . 

,-^V^- ^^^'''''"' -^liUville, Collin bin ronntv P« • 

In discussmgiheconiDar.itivi. ,-..i.., .■ ,• ','"'"' ^ a . 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



6S 



may liavo bc'eiKlctenuincd sciontifif^ally and contino myself to an e's^fmate of the 
couiiiarative worth of eac-h, as cleinonsl rated by actual test in the field 

Considering cost to results produced, I have no hesitation in saying that dissolved 
South Carolina phosphate has been, on my soil, so far, the eheap'est source of fertil- 
:,.,, "'' "'' "i-Ji time, sooner or later, may come when this will not be the case, 
e luture to dissolve, confidently hoi)ing, as soon as the necessity for 



ity. Whether 
leave for tii 



I 
a. 



change is apparent, to be able to see it and tind wiiat niay tlien be needed. 

The time was when intelligent farmers were misled into the belief that chemical 
science was able to tell them just what fertilizer or fertilizing materijds were neces- 
sary to apply to a given soil in order to make it produce paying crof s. Their claim 




stock broker watches tiie course of invents likely to enliance or depreciate his invest- 
ments. Chemistry may do much lor the farmer by determining what elements are 
lacking or what are abundant; but the roots of 'plants running through tons of 
soil tind al)undance of needed alnnent, where the chemist from his small sample is 
scarcely able to tind a trace. 

To apply fertilizers successfully r<'(iuires studious observation. Tlu' mode of ajtpli- 
cation may cause failure, an unfavorable season mav also cause the crop to go annss 
when treated, Just as a previous oni' had been that was a grand success. An excel- 
lent lertdizer may thus be discredited, because the circumstances under which it 
acted were unfavorable. To apply a complete manure in large (piantitiesor in (pian- 
tities sulliciently large to m(>et the wants of a crop on a soil that needs only i)hos- 
phoric acid or only potash is equivalent to borrowing and placing in bank a'sum of 
money several times as large as we now see any necessity to draw upon. The same is^ 
true of a soil that responds to ammonical manure or any other needed element of 
fertility. If a man be famishing for a drink of water, shall we require him to take 
a lull meal of solid food that he may be benetitted by the little moisture contained 
therein ? 

While the complete manure man improved his fields by putting on w hat is not 
immediately necessaiy, their keeping a long bank account ahead, the specialist aims- 
to supply what is now needed, and seeks ultimate improvement by calling to his 
aid natures resources, carefully watching the effects of every application, not en- 
tirely with a view to immediate results, but to develop more and more, call down, 
and draw up, constantly storing at the right place additional fertility with each suc- 
cessive round of his rotation, never for a moment losing sight of the fact that the 
farm is not a store-house of unlimited capacity to honor drafts, but one that needs- 
constant replenishing with those goods tliat are most in demand. 

Commercial fertilizers of whatever kind'are chielly valuable in the impetus thejr 
may ])e made to give to the growth of grass, especially clover. With clover to reach 
up into the air and down into the subsoil for materials ; commercial fertilizers judi- 
ciously chosen and appli<'d will do much to aid in i)lacing the best of plant-food at 
the right i>lace for the use of all crops. As a fertilizer to insurea growth of clover, I 
have found nothing cipial to the highest grade of South Carolina phosphate at same- 
cost. 

Experience thus far leads to these conclusions— that a fertilizer rich in phosphoric 
acid is of the first importance to crop production on my soil — that when a fertilizer 
of this kind has been applied along side of another, with a h-ss quantity of this \-al- 
uable constituent, yet high in its percentages of potash and ammonia, the result has- 
invariably been that the increased production, when any increase has been apparent, 
has not been commensurate with the increased cost of the fertilizer. Repeated trials 
have been made with this invariable result. 

E. Reedp:r, New Hope, Bucks county, Pa.: 

I have been usingcommercial fertilizers in a moderate way for about twenty years,, 
chiefly on wheat and i)otatoes. I luive not used the South Car<tlina rock by itself. 
Most manufacturi'i's, 1 believe, now use the rock as a base ui>on which toconipound 
their fertilizers. It is rich in phosi)horic acid, but does not contain potasli or ammo- 
nia. I think tiiat my soil reciuires a fertilizer rich in potash, l^'or ivhcat I want a 
fertilizer thjit will analyze five to six per cent, of soluble^ j>hosphoric acid, six per 
cent, of potash, and three per cent, of [unmonia. I give a moderate' dress of stable 
inanure (ten two-horse loads per acre), and two hundred pounds of fertilizer drilh'd 
in witli the wlu'at. Wlien I do not ha\'e manure enough to cover the fiidd, I drill 
the field both ways and apply from two liundredto two hundred and fifty poundsof^ 
f<'rtilizer each way, making four hundred or five liundred j)ounds per acre, lint a 
nuxlerate coat of manure nnd two hundr<'d pounds of fertilizer gives me the best re- 
sults, l^xix'riments made seem to demonstrate that my soil does not need strong 
doses of ammonia, hence I class that lowest in the list. The stable manure I think 
supj)lies about all that is needed of ammonia. For potatoes I want a fertilizer run- 
ning from ten to twelve per cent, of potash, and I always have it mixed to order. 
K\'er since I have been fertilizing potatoes in this way (six hundred ])ounds ])eracre 
in addition, to a coat of stabhi manure) 1 have not missed a crop, and the (juality is 
uniformly excellent. I think the fertilizer rich in ijotash for potatoes increases the 
yield and improves the quality. 



^4: 



Quarterly Eeport. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



65 



G. IIiester, ITarris])uri!:, Pa.: 

My experience' in the use oi' coniniereial fertilizers has been rather limited, and I 
cannot speak aecurately almut results, as T iiave never wei<ilied and measured the 
cro|»s raised on a gis en area as compared with an ujimanured ]»lot. liut IVom wlud 
I have seen I am convinced that wa can use them w itii i)rotit as a sui)plement to 
barn-yjird manure. Furtlier than this I am not prepared to go just now. 

Our soil, which is a sandy and gravelly loam, seems to recjuire the presence of con- 
siderable vegetable matt(M' to give it just tlie propiM- consistency to jn-oduce the best 
results, and we iind that commercial fi-rtili/crs are most elfective when applied wJien 
a stiti" clover sod lias been turned down or when a heavy dressing of course manure 
lias been applied the previous season. 

If the mechanical condition of the soil is just right and the rain-fall during that 
season is sullicient to dissolve them, w(^ get excellent results; otherwise there is no 
perceptible ditierence where they have been applietl and where thev have not. 

I have generally used complete manures and have noticed a marked elfect upon 
potatoes, corn, strawberries, and market garden crops. 

Have used the (Jermaii potash salt (kairiit) with great i)rotlt on peach, apple and 
I3ear trees, and on potatoes and celery. Have never used Dissolved South Carolina 
rock. 

I believe that by the judicious use of commercial fertilizers we can make our farms 
iriore prolitaitle, but we must be careful not to place our entire dependence ui)on 
them, as many mterested i)ersons are urging us to do, but should always use them 
as a supplement to a clover sod turned down or a dressing of barn-^^ard inanure. 

J. C. Thornton, Avonia, Erie county. Pa.: 

speaking of the use of commercial fertilizers, the (piesticm is frequently asked • 
Does It pay to use fertilizers on our spring and fall crops? I am convinced it does* 
My first trial of phosphate was very discouraging. I used it on barley and oats oi'i 
muck and sandy soil, and long before my crop was ready to harvest it was over half 
lodged down. The next spring I told the manufacturers of the fertilizer how it had 
worked lor me. They said they would talk to their chemist and ascertain wiiat I 
Avanted. They done so, and made me a special lot that year, which done better 

Since then 1 have been using Dissolved South Carolina rock, nitrate of soda,* and 
inuriate ot potasli. Mixed it myself as Professor .Jordan advised in State Hoard Ue- 
port, IhSo. I vary the mixture as I think the different fields need it. Now^ I have 
no trouble with my croi)s lodging down. 

Tills IVrtili/er is^iow used by several of our best farmers and is increasing every 
year. I am lre(iuently told it is just what they wanted, and especially on warin 
grave ly soil where tbe different brands of phosphates had (lone no good, but had 
done harm by bemg too heating. I do think if our farmers would try it, thev won d 
be wel pleased with it and at less cost than any fertilizer of tlie same quality in Uie 

fvTjr'''r?-^ "V'\^^ ^^^"^ forty acres of corn and used about two hundred pounds of 
this fertilizer to the acre drilled in with the corn. It kept the ground moist ad wet 
adong the row nearly all summer. ^ mui-M ana w ci 

^J:;^;:::;:'^^':^^^ ^^--' ^^^^ ^--^ - sow several tons 

JM^St^n^alu/!^^^^ ^^^ '''^'''^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^-« ^-- - ^-- on wheat, 

W. J. Hollenbach, Berne, Pa.: 

(1.) It isalM)ut ten years since commercial fertilizers in the form of ordinarv nhos 
I >hates were first introduced in this section of Berks (.()untyD^,irmrhh^^^^^^ 
years of its introduction tlie farmer who made use of this (dass of imm re u'ls he 
exception ; l,ut Its rich results on all crops has so establishinl the confidemu^^^^ the 
public- that to-day it is safe to say that it is now used by nil leV-nine per c^ of our 
farmers in more or less (piantities. ""-'-J ""»^ P^r etui, oi oui 

(2.) My own practical experience with this class of fertilizers extends to unw^rd^ 

(5.) When it is considered that liino is oiVv a m r.l, .^, P >n>"«'' altogetluT. 

value or plant food in anv deKroe I am not s^.r,, U : 1 ; ^ ."a>,M,ial 

save ,ne at <-ro,,s in .•o,npariso„S,V,;i„« ,", "t" In roll,. '!"!"'' '"'-"^'^ '^ ^''"^'>^^ 
tlian l,en.^it to a crop of grain in a Ilry-sVaH. n. 'r, I'i ' liar I Vm :."'''•','• "''•'■'^' """y 
because it is put into n..)?tar lor that parUci Mr mrno r !. . '' " ^''''''^ ">''""• 

tili/...rs an. n.ore prolitahle to the tarn .r a an ' t KlasV Im^^^ f'^''- 

and tM.jr m, applying, and l.ring In-tterand nn,r;Mlircct resul s "'«^ "''ve labor 

1 hud cases already where, by the use of fifty <lollars-\vor,h of phosphate I in 



i 



creased my wheat crop seventy dollars, (?70,) in comparison with where I had used 
lime or common barn-yard manure, and no phosphate ; and also in a number of cases 
the ratio of prolit was even greater. 'Vo more fully test the true merits of commercial 
fertilizers in contrast to lime and stajjle manure, I at several times had occasion to 
use them all three at a crop of wheat alongside each other, all in one common held 
The soil of the whole field was all treated alike in pre])aring it for sowiii'-- and the 
seed all sown on the same day. I had the held divided in four sections. ^The first 
field was fertilized with ])hosphate, th(> second with stable manur(\ the thin! with 
lime, and the fourth was not fertilized at all. The proportion of results in the wheat 
crop to the acre were about as follows : The section fertilized with lime and the uii- 
fertilized section did not show any difference in crop yield ; the manure fertilized 
section showed an increase of fifty per centum of buslltds to the acre over the two 
preceeding sections ; the section fertiliz(-d with i)hosphate yield<Ml an increase of one 
hundred per centum over the lime and unfertilized sections, and fifty per cent over 
the one fertilized with manure. 

(().) Not only do I find the foregoing experiment in favor of phosphate true in 
wheat raising, but have tried it at a variety of other crops in dilferent seasons jind 
condition of soil, the results always l)eing similar to the above. I therefore think 
from these results, reaped by the using, and with the close experiments made with 
commercial fertilizers, and the rich results always obtained, I have a powerful ariju- 
meiit in favor of its i>ractice. ° 

(7.) Thii greater quantity of phosphate I buy I apply to wheat. T usually sow my 
wheat the last week in Sei)tember, with two and one half bushels of the grain and 
from two huntired to three hundred i)ounds of phosphate to the acre in drills I 
have experimented that phosphate-grown wheat, as well as all other crops, will ripen 
at least a week earlier, nnd with much more regularity over the whole field ; also 
the grain is of a finer color, and more fully developed, and l)rings a l)elter price in 
the market. The Hessian fiy is also less apt to affect it when fertilized with this class 
of manure. 

(8.) I am using it on oats, and the results are aUvays very good. At corn I find it 
does admirably well. It produces a speedy growth, a heavy stalk, and a well-devel- 
oped ear. 

(9.) This spring I tried it on potatoes. I dropped about a tablespoonful of the ma- 
nure upon ev(»ry potato before I covered it upAvith sod. The last nnv, my phosphate 
I had in the field did not reach out quite, and being too much trouble to bring out 
another bag, I left the remainder of tlie row unfertilized. The ertects are plainly 
visible now. I can show you the very phmt where I emptied niv bag. Tlu^re is a 
difference of at least four inches in the height of the plants, and they liave a rich 
brighter color. ' 

(10.) It is sometimes asserted that phosphate is only a temporary fertilizer, and l)ut 
of benefit to one crop. To this T would s;iy that I know it to have benefitinl my grass 
crop in a profitable measure for two successive seasons in the s:uue field after I had 
reaped the grain from it. 

(lb) I never had tried ''South Carolina rock'' as a fertilizer, but from w hat I hciir 
it does not bring very good results in this section. 

E. SiiORKLEY, Lewisburg, Union county, Pa : 

The steady and encouraging progress made in the various departments of com- 
mercial fertilizers to farming, seems quite apparent to the one who has l)een brought 
on for the last twenty yearsor more toward a i)racticjd use and knowledge, mo.sf/u 
from his own experiments and experience, and nholhf on a lin(M)f his own neces- 
sity, iiefore the discoveiy of South Carolina rock, and at the time when nearly 
every small town with a machine shop and foundry, had at least one mechanically 
inventive genius, i)utting up a bone-mill, more or less i)erfect ; and when "pure 
animal bone" at twenty-five dollars per ton in sacks, and in the rough at half that 
price was abundant in some parts, iust from tiie "out-of-the-way" i)laees of the 
country and farms, then it was, that the farmer who took the study of the i)iH).^phate 
problem without a teacher, found himself confronted with oyerwhelming evidence's 
of an expensive, laborious, and troublesome undertaking. The farm upon wliicJi 
tlie herein results were i)ainstakingly noted, contains soil and fields of note-worthy 
variations in character and conditions. The low underdrained, black and loose, the 
heavy (day, tlie uplands and tlie sandy; and on all these, by a careful system of 
weighing products, and a prudent plan of purchase, the dissolved animal bone iv- 
variahly gave better, and more grain, grass, and straw, than the same amount of 
money invested in barn wmX stable manure from th<' farm-yard or town. Tlie im- 
mediate demand for bone took it to a better market, ami mixed goods and guanos 
were then for a timelimitedly purchased, "and pure bone" at forty dollars was gen- 
erally adulterated. 'IMie "jihosphate " sack of those days, with its 'glowing set-off in 
print, covering all (me side, would require more of a scientist to explain tlian would 
ever be ;it hand, and th(wo?^^f?i7.s of the same would be satisfactorily estimated by 
the reputed character of the //ow.sc, from which the goods were obtained. Three 
successive seasons were considered the best period of time to well established tixed- 
ness and reliability in any and every special test, by which the con<dusion was 
reached, that phosj»hate of a high-grade always \y,i\(\ aiid paid best. The meaning of 
"phospiiate " in all stateuKMits herein made, is a mixture containing nvMilnble j)hos- 
l>horic acid, ammonia, and potash, and in such proportions as to make the goods 



(jG 



Quarterly Keport. 



Pennsylvania Board op Agriculture. 



G7 



Clover, in nsn ot iiirett inindroaiiis to tne acre. Tiie origin or tiic rcnnsylvania iState 
Board, aiul its Clieiiiist, in courtesy of its Secretary, came kiiully and just in time to 
atlord the most valuable aid, andat a junction wherein tlie purchase and all local 
agents were being innocently defrauded, dissolved South Carolina rock was liber- 
ally cologned, colored, and sold as "phospliate," and though measurably ehe(;ked, 
an inexcusable defiance has often been detailed, and a few eAi)eriinents therel)y lost, 
liut unlike aforetime, the general adulterations and their consequent faults, are 
heing i)laced at the door of the fjictory, and the uses no longer, by common consent, 
classed with the fooLs on account of poor results from fraudulent and unworthy 
'J j)!iosi)hate." The j^oard through its deputy's and the public press, turns atten- 
tion to the i)hosj^hate laws, and after eleven years with the trade in mix(Ml goods, 
aided in tlie use of all the Legislative enactments, all the experimental farms can do, 
and all the information atforded by the most liberal scientists; yet, it can well be 
said, we have not obtained enough i)ractic{d fact and knowledge to secure and hold 
a jiosition of general welfare, in the purchase and use of phosphate. It is the idea 
thai jthosphate in a certain sense, is being believed by so many to be a 7i.eces.sifi/, 
and the Agricultural press is brave enough against it, to echo this, so as that in some 
way or another, the accepted condition has worked serious ills in almost neutraliz- 
ing our pioneer elements of work ; and it is becoming questionable whether we are 
7U)ir progr(>ssing ; and there is room for the belief, that there are more ditlicult prob- 
lems, and njure serious obstacles yet to overcome, than we have alreadv encountered. 
However, the last decade has variously decided, in its impressive logic of e\ ents, 
that tlie redeeming elements and forces of substantial progress in knowledge of and 
income from phosphate must come to us, if they come at all, by the way of a wise 
em|)loyment of tlie olfers of Legislation and ccoVeration. No o/ie man in fariniiig, 
is likely, a/owc, to battle against the enemies of a fair and untried division of the 
great gains realized, and the open day view demanded of the mvstery-making 
manulacturers, without, in less tliaii a quarter of a century, seeking aid and sympa- 
thy- in c< operative law and powers. 

The line of actual land and crop test, on any one crop ; the facts to be brought out 
of commercial and real values, and the sources of the plant-food ingredients are 
sufliciently problematic for the skill, patience, and tastes of the most plucky' and 
gamey ol larmers, and past practice in testimony declares, not one of one hundred 
cares for, or knows avy of these vitally important truths, as coming of industry and 
ddjgent personal research. The last six vears have, with some few, been faithfully 
and unmterruptedly given to a form of work calculated to, and did in resu/ts, sini- 
phly the phosphate complexity, and "standard phosphate" has been closely fol- 
lowed m Its pretentions of quality and its sul)tilitv of mixture. This indetinite 
"some lew " includc^s enougli of the two classes, scientists and farmers, to be able to 
put plant-lood aiul plant-feeding on a footing more readilv understood, and much 
more practically applied, than in the generally adopted connnercial methods, which 
armers have been compelled to accept. In the work referred to. South Carolina rock 
has been considered and purchased as the cheapest and best source of phosphoric 
acid; the nitrate of soda, our source of ammonia, and the muriate has been pre- 
lerred tor Potash Six years test on winter wheat and rye, gives contirmaticm of the 
tollowing tacts : riiese ingredients, with a certain uniform per cent, of purity, miyed 
with a shovel and a hoe, have in test with factory mixed phosphate invariably done 
best, and m s(,me instances, vastly better. Applied as for tlie immediate crop, dis- 
solved slaugh Cr house bone has be(>n less protitable, and in "complete phosphate'' 
the lower grades have l)een no better than dissolved South Carolina ro<.k alone. The 
orlif I?: T""' ^^^^' ^"'^ buckwheat, are crops on which tests have not been repeal 
edl.> made. Farmers raising ])otatoes, have an opportunity for protitable experi- 
ment not only to themselves, but for others, and on clav soil potatoes hav^fblen 
raised, m the use ol these chemicals at \ho cost of tifteen and eightecVcents ner 
bushel, that is t^^ie increase of crop by the applic-ation, was enmigh i^ bus^^^ ^.^y 

lor the goods at tlie stated prices. This friendly force Of c( 6 )er'ition h-.s H , .Vd .1 
out of the hands of unjust tributes and broken up ol mXds ins much aTh^^^^^^ 
the copjous showers of gain are fast filling up all tlie "old rut^''Vf o^^^^^^ d t 

salislaction. In the amount purchased, at an expense of two and sL tenth cen^^^ 
ton lor the ass(,ciations work; a saving of oxer four thousand dolh^^^^^ 
an economic rain-nUl toour little phosi^hate union, iuuclM:alculate4 ^e^ ^om^^^^^^^ 
honest and fair ccSperative workers. The late waive of natioS Legis at o i^give 
lea.l.ng agricultural scientiests an almost enviable opportunity to LtX rave ^md 
fail .tul ill their service for the "bread and butter biV^aeie • '' .imHf- X^f^^^^^^^^ 
periment Station bill fails to illumine the darkiu^ss o^ e phos a I qm^^^^ 
will our advance forces at home be iustlv censnr-dilp ThLil ;?'/•./ ^i»<>H; then 
one tl.,. .,..s. ,l,in.. in ,.,.os,,„a„. ToriS^X 'bufrecil'rwT.a' or'^!t7;!u";'^^^^^^^ 



direct help must r,e given than comes of the most judicious cr,) rot'^Hc^^^^ 
queslion, " what is the best phosphate?'! Answer inav he ncX ^.V.ii * • . 

ammonia, and notash. Now «nr.r^r.«« ^^ ,.t"i,. ,.^.!"5L.^^^ '"^^^^» phosphoric acid, 



and under the Hatch law we use science, and learn as much abovit these as anybody 
knows, as they are id)solut(^ly "pliosphate," and every farmer has at his market a 
local agent for several mixed kinds, can we not in lime, by field, soil, and crop 
tests, *dig out" toward the light? Knowledge, c( operation and (^xperimen t are im- 
portant factors in the avoidance of fraud and loss ; and as this ceoperative w ork and 
way is quite a dei)arture, self and seltish modes are against it. 

We, in wisdom, w ill always, upon a knowledge of the evils we are following, turn 
from them, and when made a<iuainted with the benefits of a change, will with our 
full heart and soul, in the; exercise of a large heartedness and self-denying benevo- 
lence, (five up for the sake of others. 

In tills "phosphate," as in every other department of our wT)rk, we must "farm " 
with our brains and ballots, as well as with our women and wallets. 

M. S. Cook, Avondale, Cliester county, Pa. : 

It has been our custom for the past seven years to depend almost exclusively upon 
commercial fertilizers, using ciuring that time many tons both spring and fall. We 
are to-day of tlie opinion that they are in this immediate locality a wonderful advan- 
tage to farmers. Our experiments have been princiiuilly with tine ground bone meal 
and South Carolina rock. After many very satisfactory experiments we have ar- 
rived at the conclusion that to mix these in ecjual proi;()rti(;ns (as to bulk, not weight), 
and apply from four to live hundred i)Ounds per acre, you will reap a protital)le re- 
sult. More can l)e advantageously used in some instances, but it lias been a ques- 
tion with us whether from a linancial standpoint a farmer can atlord to apply greater 
amounts than we lirst menticmed. As a rule, to be sure, he must be governed by 
the condition of his land when he first commences to apply chemical fertilizers. If 
the land be quite poor and run down from excessive farming without the use of fer- 
tilizers of any kind, a large amount per acre, say even seven or eight hundred 
l)ounds per acre, will prove protitable to such a farmer. It has been our custom to 
apply about the same amount tor corn, cats and wheat, farming successively from 
corn to oats, and then grass, allowing the fields to remain in grass for three or four 
years without the use of any further fertilizers with excellent results, yielding from 
two to two and one half tons per acre. We have tried other brands of fertilizers, but 
are decidedly of the oi)inion that bone and rock is needed in South-East Chester, as 
many of the farmers in this section agree. There seem, however, to be ditferent fer- 
tilizers needed in different localities, as one soil requires one ingredient wiiile an- 
other lacks in some other particular. We might state that it is only at present prices 
of rock that it proves so protitable, as a few^ years ago, w hen it cost from t\\ enty to 
twenty-live dollars per ton, it was too expensive for results obtained by its use. 

David Wilson, Union City, Pa. : 

We think that commercial fertilizers and barn-yard manures should never be 
looked upon as rivals. A good farmer should save everything from the faim that he 
can to increase its fertility and then lay by as much fertilizer as he can afford to, and 
that will increase the hay and straAv, and consequently the manure pile the next year, 
and in this way keep uj) the fertility of his farm. To this end the carcasses of dead 
animals should not be allowed logo to waste. I have a neighbor who has built a 
cheap house in which he stores muck at his convenience and prepares it by mixing 
a barrel of lime and a bushel of salt to every cord of muck. When an animal dies or 
li,e can procure one from a neighljor he cuts it up and mixes it with muck, covering 
it at least six inches deep. Then after it has lain for a summer season fork it over 
and throw out the bones; then by the next spring it will be tit for use. If forked 
over once more in the meantime, all the better, 'the muck will absord all the am- 
monia and let nothing escape. We think an old horse in this cheap way is made 
worth one half ton of good phosphate. The bones can be gathered up and taken to a 
bone mill. 

J. A. Gundy, Lewisbiirg, Pa.: 

My lirst experiment was the i>urchase of five large two-horse loads of wool waste 
from a woolen factory, on which the soap suds had been poured to increase its value. 
For this I paid three dollars per load, and hauled it two miles. It was without ex- 
ception the most olfensive article, as regards smell, that I ever handled. It was so 
otlensive that before it was j)lowed under I smelled it distinctly at a distance of one 
and one half miles wlu^n tlie wind was favorable. I spread it on my oats stubble, 
and plow ed it under, sowing to w heat. I supposed I had a bargain, and engaged it 
for the next year, but on examining the croj) of wheat the next j^ear could lind no 
favorable results. It was i)ut on limestone soil of fair fertility. A neighbor about 
three miles distant on sandy river bottom had abotit a similar experience the year 
before. My next experiment was the purchase of three tons of superphosphate from 
some Delaware tirm. This same phosphate was sold the previous year to a neighbor, 
who had drilled it in with his wheat in alternate acres, using phosphate on one acre 
and sow ing the next without. The lield of my neighbor was low, with a clay soil, 
but underdrained. The etfect on this lield was* wonderful. During the entire next 
year the tield looked like a striped carpet ; the acres having the phosphate could be 
picked out as far as the field could be seen. The elfecton this lield is what led me to 
order the three tons. 1 drilled it in with my wheat, putting about two hundred and. 
titty pounds per acre. At several i)oints I doubled the (quantity for one round, and 



68 



Quarterly Report. 



at sovoral points inado ono round witliont any pliospluito. Tlu^ soil was a gravelly 
red shah', \viti^ liniestone undejlyin^-. T\\o result was that I could not tell except 
by the marks on the fence where tlie phosphate was a])i)lied, or where it was not. It 
could not be told either on the wheat or grass. Cost of phospliate, tliirty-tive dollars 
Iter ton. Next I made a mixture of glue refuse, containing (piitean amount of small 
hones tiiat had been so softtuied l)y acid as to be cjuite easily <*rum]>led in the tingers. 
Taking about two tons of this to one ton of ])ur(i ground bones, which I dissoh'ed 
with suli)huric acid in the pile, after laying for some weeks, and shoveling over a 
number of times, it was run through an old threshing machine and lifted by a shaker. 
This contained nothing but fh'sh, b(^nes and acid, and I tiiought it worth at l(?ast lifty 
dollars i)er ton. This I ai)plie(l witii tfie (bill in sowing Avheat, with no favorable re- 
sults as far as I could see, although applied at the rate of from two liundred and fiftv 
to live hundred pounds per acre. Many others used the same mixture, and mainlV 
w ilh the same results as mine. After this I tried several brands of phosphate and 
(h'ssolved South Carolina rock, sown broadcast on limestone soil in good fertilitv. In 
these but little ditference was discernible to the aya either between each })iot or be- 
tween them and the adjoining pieces containing nothing. In the fall of ISSo, I made 
a mixture consisting of seventeen hundred pounds of dissolved South Carolina rock 
two hun<h-ed ]>()unus of muriate of potash, and one hundred i)oun(ls nitrate of soda! 
These were mixed together on tlie barn-tloor bv shoveling about for a number of 
times, and then drilled in with tlie wheat. The mixture was a])plitHl in tliree ditfer- 
ent fields. In the first, a good limestone soil in good fertilitv, and all of the tield 
well manured, drilled in at the rate of two humired to three hun'dred pounds per acre 
showed no improvement over the spaces containing no phosphate, so far as the eve 
could detect ; but most of the tield was badly injured bv the freezing of the plants 
where the snow was blown olf. On another lieid of varvin- fertilitv, on the good 
land but little ertect could be seen, but on the poorer parts", and where the limestone 
lay deep below tlie surface, the etfects were quite marked, tlie grain being nearlv or 
(luite (loubled ,n (juantity. On the third (ield, one and one half miles distant, grav- 
elly and without the limestone soil, the fertility of wliich had been to a great deirree 
exhausted, where no manure was applied, the elfect was marvelous, the vield l)ein£r 
at least twice as much as when no phosphate was sown ; but where manure was ap- 
plied the etlect o the phosphate was observable, but not nearly so much as where lio 
manure was applied. lUit in none of the foregoing cases was any certain measure- 
• /i.:LV.\''t''''^ '''' '^ conseciuence are not as reliable as could be desired. Last 
spring ( S8(}) I measured off twelve plots of one twentieth (^) of an acre each soil 
a sandy loam, lying immediately on the limestone, in fair feAilif v ; sod of clover and 
inothy plowed m the spring, and after harrowing I applied is follows, aU broad- 
cast and harrowed in : No. 1, nothing; No. 2, ten pounds muriate of potas i: No 3 
hlteen pounds dissolved bone black ; No. 4, twentv pounds dried blood No 5 ten 
}^'!l^!]^?^!.^}!i}'^''^ ^''^' bone_ black ;^No. <;,\en pounds pot 1^/11^1 twl^nty 



pounds dried blood; No. 7,.tilf een pounds i;;;;c;ma;:kamrtetyp^s a^auS 
No. N ten pounds potash, fifteen pounds bone black and twenty pounds (riedbloSi. 
No. !>, one half two-horse load of yard manure; No. 10, two and ne alf bu^^^^^^^ 
burned lime; No. 11, one half Inishel (fiftv pounds) grev gvpsuni • No r notln-ni. 
each p of planted with corn of the same varietv, ami in ihtlluunvm^^^^^^ 

the corn. ' ,e p lot containing all three elen.nts i-owed to .'he ov'IVhe' .onlider- 



the corn. 

ably better than the ploValong'side, treated with manure." Th^^Vn was (MiVoirnnH 



hat 

)ts 

IS 



Pennsylvania Board of x\griculture. 



69 



-.J 

o 

Cm 

O 

* 

O 

'A 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



Fertilizer applied. 



10 pounds potash, 

15 i)ounds dissolved bone black, 

20 pounds dri(3d blood, 

10 pounds potash and If) pounds bone black, 

10 pounds })otash and 2t) }K>unds dried blood, 

If) pounds bone black ami 20 pounds dried blood, 

10 pounds potash, 15 pounds bone black, and 20 jjounds dried blood, 

I two-horse load manure, 

2h bushels l)urnt lime, 

50 pounds gypsum, 



m 
o 

r— ( 
O 



o 



O 



Jjhs. 

20 1 



lo; 

303 
511 
021 

21 i 

()2i 
371 
6p 

2i 



•1-1 . 

(7* "+-• 



701 
20^ 
15^ 
92^ 

87^ 

11 Of 

77f 

7i 
32* 



*Lo 8. 



It is intended to continue these experiments through the entire rotation of crops. 
From my experience and observation, the following deductions seem to be war- 
ranted : 

IHi^st. That all commercial manures show better results on naturally poor lands 
or lands of exhausted fertility than on fertile lands. 

^Second. That phosphoric acid is valuable according to its availability, no matter 
wherefrom obtained. 

Third, That on limestone soils potash appears to be the most effective and most 
needed element. 

Fourth. That relative cost of purchase and api>lication considered, complete fer- 
tilizers are more economical and remunerative than yard manure. 

Fifth. That actual tests by weight are the only reliable tests of value. 

Sixth. That tankage and similar products are of very little value. 

Seventh. That lime and gypsum are no longer of value to our lands (although they 
once were), being stimulants furnishing no element needed by the plant and want- 
ing in the soil, only making the ehunents in the soil immediately available, whereby 
they have enriched the fatliers and are impoverishing their sons. 

Eiffhth. I believe^ although I have not tested it, that the needed supply of humus 
and of nitrogen ean be obtained by using potash and phosphoric acid alone, and with 
these growing l)uckwheat, peas, clover, or other rai)id-growing crops and plowing 
til em down. 

Future experiments may cha ge these deductions, but so far the evidence tends to 
establish theuL 

The Octoraro Farmers' Club : 

Your committee, appointed to report upon the relative merits of the commercial 
fertilizers in the market, would most respectfully submit the following as the result 
of a careful iiHpiiry from different sections where the results from practical tests could 
be ol)tained without bias : Whilst some farms would use only bone or other high 
grade fertilizer, the almost unanimous exj)ression, from an economic standpoint, is 
in favor of South Carolina rock. As an evidence of this fact, its increasing use and 
growing demand has in many sections of our county almost ignored the different 
brands of what are termed high grade fertilizers ; the same is indorsed by the wSales 
made at the various dei)ots or shipping points within our knowledge. For example, 
at the sales depot at Atglen, conducted by John K. >relone, lOsq., hundreds of tons of 
rock are sold annually and scarcely one car-load of all other brands of fertilizer com- 
bined, in the same time. The same facts or indorsement at the warehouse kept by 
Bunton Walter, Christian, liancaster county, whose sales of South Carolina rock 
amount annunlly to some live hundred tons and cmly some thirty tons all other 
grades of fertilizer. These goods are purchased and spread upon our land and are 
judged alone by their previous good working (ju .lities. 

The Grangers, a progressive, economic, and intelligent class of farmers, purchase 
in many instances their fertilizers by the hundred tons, and almost invariably South 
Carolina rock; hence we are constrained to believe from thes<' ;md other stubborn 
facts in connection with the increased productiveness of our broad acres in localities 
where these goods are almost alone consumed, that South Carolina Rock, in connec- 
tion with barn-yard manure, has j)laved an ac^tive part in restoring our worn-out or 
neglected farms to a high state of fertility. By this we do not altogether ignore the 
dilfen'iit brands of phosphates on the market, as the basis of all are South Carolina 
rock: neither do wc discard bone. The ditference in their commercial value is 
greater than will warrant the consumer to pay for agricultural purposes and at the 
same time keep up a healthy bank account. 



I'l 



70 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriclt^titre. 



71 



S. E. Nevin, Landenhiirii', Pa. : 

After some experience and observation of the use of commercial fertilizers, my 
practice is to sow five hundred pounds per acre of fine ground bone on the sod for 
corn. South C.arolina rock I use for oats at the rate of two liundred and fifty jxMinds 
per acre. 1 always leave several strips across the fiekl in which no fertilizer is sown 
and have never failed at harvest to t(»ll exactlv wh(>ro they were. Barn-yard ma- 
nure I use as a top dressing for grass ; or if I have any in tile fall T use it for whesit 
spreadmg it over as much of the field as possible. I tllen sow from two hundred and 
tilty to three hundred pounds per acre of bone phosphate over all tiie field. After 
the wheit is harvested T spread about forty bushels per acre of wood-hurned lime. 

In 1871) I spread on ten acres a very heavy coat of harn-vard manure made by grain- 
fed steers and kept under cover. On two acres in th(i s;ime held there wjis* no ma- 
nure, and on this plot I sowed al)out four liundred poumis South Carolina rock and 
six hundred pounds ground bone mixed. The wheat on the part manured started 
stronger looked better all winter, and in the spring the two acres appeared so far 
behind that I sowed four liundred [bounds more ground bone as a t^>p dressing At 
harvest there was no perceptible dillerence in the wheat. The tield has not since 
been plowed, and the two plots can be distinctly seen. The one where the bone and 
rock was used has yielded the most hay, and the pasture is much better there tlian 
in the part manured. My business is dairying and raising stock and my obiect to 
increase the yield of pasture and hay, believing it was a wise farmer who said, ''Seek 
yo hrst a good grass crop, and all other crops can then be added to it." 

Henry C. Snavely, Lebanon, Pa : 

While I have no exact data I can only give my experience in a general way, as 
their use affected the dillerent crops to which I applied them 
As applied to wheat and rye during the last five years, an ordinary bone phosphate 

menT^n^. v-^'^^ H^'^"'"' '^' ^^^^""'l^^' Prepared, lias invariably been a profitable ifi vest: 
rnent , making the increase Ui straw alone almost sufficient to pay for the fertilizer 

fuUyt^'^^^r^'i^r "' ^"'''"' ^'''' ^'"''^^' ^''^'^'^' ^^"^^^^"^^ ^^''^ '^^'^^^ «"* ^^'^^^^^'•- 

liber-d W^ ? fv, vi .^^^ manure, rich in nitrogen, by feeding wheat bran 

liberally, I have ot late used pure raw, or pure dissolved animal bone and either 
kamit or muriate of potash mixed with gynipsum, thinking niy \^ird m- 1^^^^^^ 

re'aUnTprelllr a\3one i^^amire"*" ""^' ''"^ "^'"' '''''''''' ""' ^^"^-^"^^^' --^ ^^ ^^is 



s to 
put 



THE PEESERVATIOIS^ OF B^VRN^-YAED MANURE. 



By Prof. Wm. Frear, State College P. ()., Pennsylyania. 



[Read at Lew isburg meeting. ] 

Within a oomparativel}^ recent period there has been a vast increase 
in the application of i'ertilizers npon the soil of our farms, whose 
original supply of assimilable ])lant-food had been heavily drained. 
In the earlier stages of this movement, attention and interest were 
chielly centered upon the manure of home ])roduction; hut latterly, 
the rapidly increasing productiou of commercial I'ertilizers has diverted 
attention irom the manure produced upon the J'arm. Not only has 
the early skecticism concerning the practical utility of commercial 
fertilizers been completely overthrow^n, but many, following the bold 
leadership of Prof. Ville, have ventured to assert their complete 
independen(*e of any form of fertilizer, but the concentrated, artiticial 
supi)lies. They oppose the general practice of that mixed system of 
farming, wdiicli includes the raising of cattle, or the i)roduction of 
milk, and the de])en(lence upon the manure thus made for the main- 
tenance of fertility, claiming that it must necessarily be a losing sys- 
tem. They claim, apparently, with much force, that it is impossilde 
to increase the amount of food on a poor farm by the simple return 
to the soil of the ma^terials removed from it, much less by the return 
of only a X)art of what has been removed. Just here it must be re- 
called that the available jjlant-food in a cultivated soil, is made up 
not only of that wdiich has been added as fertilizer, but, also, that 
which has been formed by chemical decomposition and mechanical 
subdivision, from that great portion of the soil previously unlit for 
assimulation by the plants; it must further be remembered that the 
retention in tlie soil of a fair amount of humus, or organic matter 
formed by the decomposition of roots, straw, etc., is a very important 
element in the maintenance of its iertility. 

It would seem, then, that the value of farm-yard manure cannot be 
measured simply by its content in nitrogen, potash and phoq)h()ric 
acid. The problem of fertilization is, therelbre, more complex than 
might be supi)osed, and it will be safe, wdiile admitting the great util- 
ity of the commercial fertilizers as additions to the mnnure of home 
I)roduction, to regard the extreme conclusions of the Ville school, as 
deserving experiment, rather than as proven to be best for general 
adoption under our present agricultural conditions. 

Under any circumstances, however, and wdth every system of farm- 
ing, the return to the soil of the largest possible portion of those ma- 
terials removed therefrom, that cannot more i)r()(ital)ly be sold, must 
be regarded as essential; i. e., whether the amount be great or small, 
it should be returned in the most economical manner. It is a well- 
known fact to all observing farmers, that the practical agriculturist 
who accumulates wealth, whether in the shape of cash, stock, acres 
or fertility, does so, not by great discoveries, nor in great sums, but 
by constant vigilance, and the most careful, intelligent economy in 
matters of ai)parently small importance; while a poor tanner is 
marked l)y his heedlessness of the little things, even more than by 
his lack of the great and costly appliances of his art. 



■ m 




72 QUARTEKLY RePORT. 

Observation leads to the conclusion that in no matter is tliere more 
ignorance and more unconscious waste than in tlie management of 

with t 

of 

II • 

it is, however, to tlie iniluence of the methods of its preservation 
upon the composition of the manure, rather than to that of the ma- 
terials emi)l()yed in its production, that I desire to call atttention. 

Before entering upon any discussion of the relative merits of dif- 
ferent methods of preservation, it may be well to glance brielly at the 
character of the substances composing it. 

*J)r. Voelcker analyzed a mixture of horse, cow and i)ig dung with 
straw litter, and found in one thousand pounds the folloAving weights 
of various substances : 

Water, ; . . ^^.^.T':"- 
Oi-anie ma:tter; ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !^'l 

^^'^^' ;.:::.::;:; 55:9 

1000.0 

In a ton of the same manure he found the following quantities of 
valuable fertilizer constituents: 

Nitrogen, Pounds, 

Pliosphoric acid, . 7-'-'^ 

Potash, ,^»-i?2 

13.50 

fWarington gives the following summary of many reliable analyses 
ot diilerent stable manures: 

Wat^r, . . . , ,. Pci* ^ent. 

Nitrogen, . .' ' Oo.OtoSO.O 

Ash ^^--^ t<^ ^>-<^5 

Potash, '. '.■.'.'.'. ^"^Jo 3.0 

Phosphoric acid, . . *. '. '. HI"" ^vl 

' 0.2 to 0.4 

A single ton of yard manure will, therefore, supply: 

Nitrogen, . . Pounds. 

Potasli, . . 9 to 15 

Phosphoric acid,. 9 to 15 

' 4 to 9 

So that the total quantity of constituents having a direct fertilizing 
value will vary })etween 22 and 81) tt>s. per ton. "" 




Urine contains urea and allied nitrogenous compounds whlrh are 
:3Jf ""^^^^^^^' ^^^^^^^-^ -ith notal,le quant ities^ of inok"^^^^^^^^^ 



stances. 



The straw of the litter is, also, when moistened and lieated li d.le 



to 



itim^ or 



It is thus seen that every pnvi of the manure is readilv fermentible 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



73 



As a first stage of this fermentation, the fiber and other carbona- 
ceous matter form water, carbonic acid and certain obscure organic 
acids, called, in general, humic acids. The nitrogenous matter })reaks up 
to form ammonia as its chief product. At this stage of fermentation the 
ammonia unites with the humic acids to form soluble, but non-volatile 
compounds. These may be removed I'rom the heap by leaching, and 
form a very important part of the dark-colored liquids that trickle 
away unheeded from so many of our barn yards. 

In the second stage of fermentation, which may be almost im- 
mediately induced by too little moisture, too high 'temperature, and 
too free access of air, the carl)()naceous nuitters form carbonic acid 
chiefiyor altogether; the ammonia unites with this product to form 
volatile carbonate of ammonia, wiiich will not onlv leach away in 
drainage waters, but will be rapidly dissipated into'the atmosphere. 
The humic acids themselves are broken up into carbonic acid and 
water. When too little litter has been used there is serious danger of 
large loss of ammonia in the form of carbonate 

Having thus obtained a cursory view of the general character of 
yard manure and its fermentation products, let us proceed to examine 
some of the more exact experiments that throw liuht upon the subject 
of its preservation. Your attention is invited to three series of ex- 
periments, the first having for its object a knowledge of the losses re- 
sulting from the storing of yard manure in the several ways usually 
ada])ted; the second, a knowledge of the relation of litter to its pre- 
servation; and the third, a knowledge of the rehitive values of several 
preservatives, the addition of which to manure heaps has been sug- 
gested. 

The first of the above mentioned series of experiments was made 
by Dr. Voelcker a number of years since. He studied the changes 
occurring from time to time in flesh, mixed dung exposed in the fol- 
lowing ways : 

A. In a heap, open to the rain. 

B. In a heap under cover. 

C. spread out and exposed to the rain. 

These experiments w^ere carried on simultaneously, the manure 
coming from the same source, and being tlioroughly mixed. The 
quantities used were weighed on the same dates, samples of (nich were 
drawn and analyzed, and from the result obtained, the changes in 
composition ascertained. In table I. are given the absolute weights at 
the various dates of weighing of the diilerent constituents of the ma- 
nure treated according to these several methods. Dr. Voelcker made 
an experiment, for comparison, starting with manure of six months' 
age, well rotted, and exposed under the same conditions as the fins; 
heap of fresh manure nnd during the same time. The results of this 
experiment are tabulated with those first mentioned: 



74 



Quarterly Report. 



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Pennsylvania Eoakd of Agriculture. 



75 



Without attemptin*^ any discussion of these interesting results, let 
us turn at once to the conclusions drawn I'rom them by Dr. Voelcker. 

'' First. Perfectly fresh farm-yard manure contains but a small 
X)roportion of free ammonia. 

'' Second. The nitrogen in fresh dung exists principally in the state 
of insoluble nitrogenized matters. 

'' Third. 'Ihe soluble organic and mineral constituents of duuii: 
are much more valuable fertilizers than the insolul)le. Particu- 
lar care, therefore, should be bestowed upon the preservation of the 
liquid excrements of animals, and for the same reason the manure 
should be kept in perfectly water-proof pits of sufficient capacitv to 
render the setting up of dung-heaps in the corners of fields, as much 
as it is possible, unnecessary. 

'' Fourth. Farm-yard manure, even in quite a fresh state, contains 
phosphate of lime, which is much more soluble than has hitherto been 
suspected. 

'^ Fifth. The urine of the horse, cow and pig, does not contain any 
appreciable quantity of phosphate of lime, wliilst the dnnnin<rs of 
dung-heai)s contain considerable (piantities of this valuable fertilizer. 
The drainings of dung-heaps, partly for this reason, are more valua- 
ble than the urine of our domestic animals, and, therefore, ought to 
be prevented by all available means from running to waste. 

'' Sixth. The most effectual means of preventing loss in fertilizing 
matters is to cart the manure directly on the field whenever circum- 
stances allow this to be done. 

'' Seventh. On all soils with a moderate proportion of clay, no fear 
need be entertained of valuable fertilizing substances becoming 
wasted if the manure cannot be ploughed in at once. Fresh, and even 
well-rotten dung contains very little free ammonia, and since active 
fermentation, and with it the further evolution of free ammonia, is 
stopped by spreading out the manure on the field, valuable volatile 
miniuring matters cannot escape into the air by adoi)ting this plan. 

'' As all soils with a moderate proportion of clay possess, in a re- 
markable degree, the power of absorl)ing and retaining urine matters, 
noneol the sabine and soluble organic constituents are wasted, even by a 
heavy fall of rain. It may, indeed, be questioned whether it is more 
advisable to plough in the manure at once, or to let it lie for some 
time on the surface, and to give the rain full opportunity to wash it 
into the soil. 

"- It appears to me a matter of the greatest importance to regulate 
the application of manure to our fields, so that its constituents may 
become properly diluted and uniformly distributed amongst a large 
mass of soil. Py ploughing in the manure at once, it appears to me, 
this desirable end cannot be reached so i)erfectly as by allowing the 
rain to wash in gradually the manure evenly spread on the surface of 
the field. 

" By adopting such a course, in case practical experience should 
confirm my theoretical reasoning, the objection could no longer be 
maintained that the land is not ready for carting manure^ upon it. I 
am inclined to recommend as a general rule: Cart the manure on the 
field, 8i)read it at once, and wait for a favorable op])ortunity to plough 
it in. In the case of clay soils, I have no hesitation to say the ma- 
nure may b(» spread even six months before it is ploughed in, without 
losing any aj)preciable quantity in manuring matters. 

''I am perfectly aware, that on sliif clay land, farm-yard manure, 



76 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Arriculture. 



77 



more especially loriR dunK, when ploiished in before (lie frost sets in 
exercises a most beneficial action by Iceepin- the soil loose, and ad- 
mitting the Iree access of frost, which pulverizes the land, and would, 
tnerelore, by no means recommend to leave the manure spread on the 
surface without ploughing it in. All 1 wish to enforce is, that when 
no other choice is left but eitiier to set up the manure in a heap in a 
corner ot^ the held, or to spread it on the field without ploughing it in 
directly, to adopt the latter plan. In the case of verv light, sandv^soils 
it may, perhaps, not be advisable to spread out the manure 'a lontr' 
time before it is ploughed in, since such soils do not possess theiwwer 

^ni/^ f !""^i^"'''""""? ?'''"'''■' ^" any marked degree. On light, sandv 
soiJs 1 would suggest to manure with well- fermented dunj-- shortlV 
before the crop intended to be grown is sown. " ^ 

Eighth. Well-rotten dung contains, likewise, little free ammonia 

era! n^tZ'"/!:;'' 'f '^l'' Proportion of soluble organic and saline mi^-' 
erai matteis tlian fresh manure. 

u'-^"*'f- w''.*^^," *''.'"g is I'i^'ier in nitrogen than fresh, 
freslf '" '^ '''^'^''^' ™^^*'" *^""S i^ "'"'•« valuable than 

T.ortf,ro7il n" *''^- f«™f "Nation of dung a very considerable pro- 
poition of the organic matters in fresh manure is dissipated into the 
^' u'!}."'?/?™ «f carbonic acid and other gases. ^ ^'^ 

isno/rnlnirf^'^']*^'''^ regulated, however, the fermentation of dung 
IS not attended with any great loss of nitrogen or saline mineral matters 
Ihirteenfh. T uring the fermentation of dung, ulmic luiric md 

m nla'S^raS'ln Uif r^' '" "!?' ^^ ^.^T^^^"^ ^"^ ^^^- am' 
ents of "]"!;' ' ^''^ decomposition of the nitrogenized constitu- 

appreciable qua ii lilies. Dune-lieans fnr f 1 ,.„„ ' i """'M ,'" 

re™tst;|r f ,rir£!i;iret^.'SiS'L'Sr "-'"- °" '^» 

" Nineteenth. The loss of manurinc: matters whiVl. \. ; 
keeping manure-heaDS exno^Prl tr^ihl. ,\:^^h which is incurred in 

b^^ihe„i,/.,,i;rs'T„%?e'-Lri;-r':Lrr^^ 

" Twentielh. If rain is excluded from dunjr-heans or Utfi^ • /■ i, 
at a time, the loss in annnonia is trifling a^dn;' - ^"'^^^^^^ 
course are removed, but, if much rain faSf," especiallv f 1f"!fi^""' f 
in heavv showers upon the dnn<r l.oo,^ <"'»; ebpeciaijy if it descent s 

"ble organic matt?rrptsSfe\^'^irn:rd"sa?t; 0""^,"'^ '^'^ 
curred, and the manure becomes raniMlv n. fl • ^^T ^' P^^^^^h is in- 

at the same time it is diminished Keight '^^'^ '^ '^"^""' ^^^"^^ 



'' Twenty-first. Well-rotten dung is more readily affected by the de- 
teriorating iniluence of rain than fresli manure. 

'' Twentij- second. Practically speaking, all essentially valuable ma- 
nuring constituents are preserved by keeping farm-vard manure under 
cover. 

'' Timnty-tliird. If the animals have been supplied with plenty of 
litter, fresli dung contains an insufficient quantity of water to induce 
an active fermentation. In this case fresh dung cannot be properly 
fermented under cover, except water or li([uid manure is pumped 
over the heap from time to time. 

'' When much straw is used in the manufacture of dung, and no 
provision is made to supply the manure in the pit at anv time with 
the re(iuisite amount of moisture, it may not be advisable to put up a 
roof over the dung pit. On the other hand, on farms when there is a 
deficiency in straw, so that the moisture of the excrements of our 
domestic animals is barely absorbed by the litter, the advantage of 
erecting a roof over the dung- pit wdll be found very great. 

'' Twenty-fourth. The w^orst method of making manure is to produce 
it by animals kept in open yards, since a large proportion of val- 
uable fertilizing matters is wasted in a short time; and after a lapse of 
twelve months, at least two thirds of the substance of the manure is 
wasted, and only one t!iiid, inferior in quality to an equal weight of 
fresh dung, is left behind." 

It may be well to remark at this point that, although the ex- 
perirnents just detailed deal only with the stall system of manure 
keeping, the general results of the box system maybe closely approxi- 
mated from the knowledge obtained. 

The second series of experiments, to which your attention is now 
called, w\as conducted by M. M. Muntz and Girard, upon the Joinville 
farm of the Agricultural Institute of P^'ance. 

''These experiments," the authors say, were undertaken. 

" First. To ascertain what relation exists between the fertilizing con- 
stituents of the food and of the excrement, i. e., what the losses are 
that result from fermentation and evaporation, as well as those due 
to the handling of the manure. 

'' Second. Todiscover what quantity of fertilizing substances, animals 
put in pasture return to the the earth in exchange for the forage remo,ved, 
when the animals pass part of their time in the stable, where, with- 
out receiving food, they drop a ])ortion of their excrement." 

The animals were kept in the stable under throc^ dillerent condi- 
tions. In the first case, the floor of the stable was pitched, and no 
litter Avas used, with sheep and cows being experimented ui)on; 
second straw litter was used, and two lots of food, one green, the 
other dry, were fed, sheep l)eing the animals subjected experiments ; 
in the third case, the floor of the stable was covered with fresh earth. 

In all cases, the food eaten was weighed, sampled and analyzed, 
due allowance being made for that ])art which was thrown from the 
mangers upon the floor, and trampled into the manure; the manure 
was also weigluHl, sampled and analyzed, due allowance being made 
for the litter. The changes in live weight of the animals were noted, 
and. from the well-known result.^ of other experiments, an estimate 
was made of the fertilizing substandes stored up in tlu^ increase of 
live w^eight. From the records thus obtained, the data given in Table 
II were gathered. 



78 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



79 






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The enormous loss of nitr()o:en from uiililtered slieep manure is 
noteworthy. Owin^^ to the physical condition of cow manure it seems 
to have sullered less active fermentation, and conse(iuently less loss. 
The authors attribute the loss mainly to the formation of carbonate of 
ammonia, and an analysis of the air of the stable, found it to contain 
about four hundred times the normal amount of ammonia. ''It is 
well,-' they say, '' to remark that these figures prove only that a notable 
quantity of carbonate of ammonia was ditfused in 'the air of the 
stables, and that this diffusion is one of the causes of the loss of nitro- 
gen, but the foregoing ligures show only the nitrogen that has escaped 
in the form of ammonia; M. Keiset has long since shown that during 
the fermentation of animal escreta, a part of the nitrogen is given off 
in a free state, and M. Jonlie has recently reached the same conclusion." 

Examining the results, first with reference to the proportion of 
])otasli and phosphoric acid recovered in the manure, it is found that 
practically the whole amount consumed is recovered in every experi- 
ment. 

But turning to the figures representing the amounts of nitrogen 
recovered, we find a marked difference. With straw litter tlicjimount 
lost is very little less than with no litter at all, viz., almost iilty per 
cent. It is also worthy of note, that with the dry ration, wliich con- 
tained a considerably higher proportion of nitrogen than was present 
in the green food, the loss was relatively greater. It must liere be 
remembered that the statements concerning the effect of straw litter, 
are warranted only in tiie case of the very concentrated sheep ma- 
nure, and must not be regarded as exact for otlier kinds of manure. 
Concerning the experiment with earth litter, the authors make the 
following statement : '' To gain a fair idea of the quantity of fertilizer 
preserved by pasturing, tlie authors placed in one of the stables, a 
layer of earth eight by ten inches deep. At the close of the experi- 
ment the manure was taken up ; two distinct layers were seen ; the 
first was composed of the excreta, a little debris from the lucerne fed, 
mixed with a considerable quantity of earth. This layer gave out a 
slightly ammonia odor, but less than the straw litter. 

"' The second layer was composed of soil unchanged from its orig- 
inal condition ; i. e.^ the excreta were retained upon the surface." 

Upon the results of t hese experiments the authors remark : "- Finally, 
when a litter of earth is substituted for that of straw, the loss of nitro- 
gen becomes much less; instead of a loss of fifty per cent., we have 
one of only twenty-four per cent.; a quarter of the nitrogen has, by 
this practice, been retained upon the farm, in place of being uselessly 
difused into the atmosphere as in the preceding cases. It seems that, 
in ])ra(*tice, the substitution of a litter of earth for that of straw 
would prevent a large i)art of the enormous loss of nitrogen pre- 
viously referred to. We call the most serious attention of practical 
men to this subject." 

'•Turning to the question of herding, and remembering that the 
fertilizers are dro])ped by the sheep directly upon the soil, if we admit 
that the soil of thcMields has the same properties as that used as 
litter, we establish the fact that a greater part of tlie fertilizing con- 
stituents of the excreta are retained by tlie soil ; by stabling upon a 
straw litter a large pro])()rti()n of these constituents is lost into the 
atmosphere. Tliere is, therefore, a difference between the practice of 
allowing sheep to drop their excreta directly upon the soil, and that 



80 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



81 



of collecting the excreta in the stables, and carrying them to the 
field." 

The third and last series of experiments, which deals with the rela- 
tive values of several preservations added to the manure, was con- 
ducted })y Hickethier and Holdelleist.* The x)lan of the experiment 
was as lollows : The quantity of cow manures gathered in a single 
week was thoroughly mixed and divided into four heaps, samples 
being taken for analysis at the same time. To the iirst heap no 
addition was made ; heap No. 2 received a weighed quantity of 
kainite, which w^as thoroughly mixed with the dung; heap No. 
3 received a quantity of superphosphate — gympsum — essentially 
a very poor superphos])hate, containing 4 per cent, of soluble and 
6.5 i)er cent of total phosi)horic acid, together with about GO percent, 
of sulphate of lime ; heap No. 4 was covered with a soil rich 
in humus. These lieaps stood from June 6 to January 6, exposed 
only to t}ie direct rain-fall, leveling being prevented. After this 
period, the heaps were again weighed and sampled for analysis. 

While the manure in heaps 1, 3 and 4 was almost eciuallv decom- 
posed and quite well rotten, that of heap No. 2 was as fresh as stable 
manure a few weeks old ; its straw affords considerable resistance to 
tearing, so that there is no doubt that the manure treated with kainite 
had decomposed very slightly, as compared with that of the other 
heaps. 

The loss of dry substance in heaps 1 and 3 was 11.2, 11.9 and 22,5 
per cent, respectively. The amount of earth used on heap No. 4 was 
not weighed, hence it was impossible in this case to determine the loss 
of dry substance. 

The authors remarks : ''These figures show : 

"(a.) That stable manure lying without any added preservation, 
sutlers a loss in dry substance amounting to one third. Since the 
value of stable manure depends very largely upon its content of 
organic matter, which forms humus in the soil, it is evident that a 
great diminution in value is caused by this loss of organic substance 
alone. 

''(/».) The loss of organic substance was considerably diminished by 
the presence of superpliosphate-gympsum ; but the loss was still verv 
consi(leral)le. 

''{c) By using kainite as a preservative the loss of organic sub 
stance was reduced to a relatively small quantity. But dung treated 
With kainite by reason of its slight degree of fermentation, decom- 
poses quite slowly in the soil, and, from this point of view, is inferior 
to the more completely rotted, and therefore, more quickly acting 
manure treated with superphosphate-gympsum." 

Table III, gives the final results of the experii 
composition of the manure is concerned. 



experiments as far as the 



*Der Daudeioirt, Jalerg, 1885, Nr. 79. Bickermannis Central-Blatt, 14. p. 24. 



TABLE \\\.— Experiments of Hickethier and IIoldefleisL Changes 

in Manure on Standing, 



Treatmkmt of Manure. 



1. Without admixture, 

2. With kaiiiito, , 

3. With 8uperj)hosphate-gypsum, 

4. With earth covering, , 



I 

a 

A 
mt 
<p 

u 

to 
'5 



*Centner». 

123 
121 
121 
120 



o 
(1 



o 



Per cent. 

0.3960 
0.4008 
0.4113 
0.4356 



1 


4-^ 







m . 




u 


— 00 




*» 


T ♦-> 




.^^ 


<U -. 




a 


^V 




<<-i 













It a 




fl 






C5 


a- 


V 


be 


^ 


■♦J « 

;= 


u 
c 


OD 


.5? 3 


OQ 


U 


a, — 


OQ 


.^4 


Lbg. 





nLbs. 


Lbs. 


48.71 


37.35 


—11.36 


48.50 


48.57 





49. 77 


52.05 


-f2.28 


52.27 


51.13 


— 1.14 



u 
O 

go 
ca 

o 



a 

o 
u 



—23.3 


-f-4.6 

- 2.2 



• — 



= 110 Avoirdupois lbs. 



tt 



1 Avoirdupois 11)8. 



The loss in nitrogen of the dung without admixture was 23 per 
cent; this seems, from the results of other experiments by the same 
investigators, to be considerably less than the usual quantity. If the 
amount of manure produced yearly by cattle, per head, be estimated 
at 35,000 pounds, with an average nitrogen content of 0.41 per cent., 
the annual loss per head would be 33.5 pounds, an amount of nitrogen 
greater than that contained in 200 pounds of nitrate of soda. 

The preservative added produced the following ell'ects: 

In the heap receiving kainite, the quantity of nitrogen remained 
unchanged. ^ This result indicates not only the strong preservative 
action ol kainite, but also, that the e.vperiment was free irom error. 

In the heap receiving superphosphate gypsum, an increase was 
found of 4.6 per cent over the original quantify of nitrogen. This in- 
crease may be only apparent, and due to error in sampling or analy- 
sis ; but it may be due, as well, to the fact, that superphosphate- 
gypsum has, not only by reason of its content of gypsum, but 
also on account of the free phosphoric acid present, the power of ab- 
sorbing ammonia from an ammoniacal atmosphere. The experimental 
heaps, of which No. 1 gave olf considerable (piantities of ammonia, 
stood close together, an<l the sheep stable was in their innnediate 
vicinity; so that there was a possibility that the heap with super- 
phosphate-gypsum, took up ammonia from the atmosphere, and so 
not only retained all its own nitrogen, but even stored up an addi- 
tional amount. 

The heap covered with earth had lost an inconsiderable quantity 
of nitrogen, only 2.2 per cent, of the original amount. This method 
of preservation, therefore, which has long been known and frequently 
employed, fulfills its purpose in great measure. 

As a further test of the value of the above mentioned preserva- 
tives, a culture test of llie resulling manure was made. The heaps 
were distributed in exactly similar plots, separated by plots receiving 
our fertilizer, and the plots were planted wilh potatoes. The weight 
of tubers obtained, and the percentages and absolute quantities of 
starch yielded by them, are shown in Table IV. 

6 



82 
TABLE IV 



Quarterly Report. 

Yield with Manvres treated with Different Preserva- 
tives, 



IMot 

N'o. 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 



FKRTIL ZKB. 



Duug without admixture, ...... 

Unfertilized, 

Puuj,' with superphosphate-gypsum, 

ITufertilized, ... 

Dang with kaiiiite, 

Unfertilized 

Dung with earth, 





. 




X3 




« 




u 


• 


a 


«B 


*-' 


L. 


to 


V 




.Q 


•-^ 


S 


o 


v> 




o 


be 


♦.> 


5 


A 


fl 


t»C 


OJ 




u 


lU 


u 


i? 




* Centners per 




ifniorgen. 




109.3 


19.1 


97.1 


19. 1 


135.1 


19.5 


ICO. 6 


21.2 


117.3 


17.4 


105.7 


20.3 


129.2 


18 5 









'i^6s. 



2088 
1855 
26*4 
21S3 
2041 
2146 
2390 



•For English e<iuivalent8 see Table III. **Equal to nearly two thirds of an acre. 

These results indicate that the effect of kainite, measured by the 
yield obtained, was considerably less than that of superphosphate- 
gypsum, and of the earth covering. 

To conclude : The results obtained by these experiments, indicate 
that serious loss results from the keeping of yard manure too long, or 
under conditions conducive to excessive fermentation, or leaching; 
and that these unfavorable results may be avoided; first, by the 
promi)t removal of the manure to the land, in case the latter is at 
all retentive in character ; second, by the careful protection of ma- 
nure so as to secure the proper degree of moisture and lermenta- 
tion ; third, by the use, in addition to the precautions just men- 
tioned, of preservations, as superphosphate-gypsum, or earth, mixed 
with or covering the manure. 

There is not the least doubt but that the intelligent application 
of the facts lenrned from these experiments, would, without involv- 
ing any considerable additional labor or expense, add greatly to the 
agricultural resources of a large class of our farmers. 



THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS UPOX THE 

TOBACCO CROP. 



By the Skckktary. 



At a recent meeting of the Lancaster County Agricultural Society, 
at the close of an address on Commercial Fertilizers, by Hon. John W. 
Hickman, the subject of the effect of commercial fertilizers upon the 
burnin<:- (lunlities of tobacco was incidentally brought into the general 
discussion of the fertilizer question, and it was suggested by Hon. J. 
P. WicktM-sham, that th(^ subject should be referred to the Secretarv 
of the State Hoard ol* A<rricultur(% for an investigation and report. 
Thefollowin^M'ompihdion istheresult of an attempt to comply with this 
request, and if the practical assistance of our tobacco-growers is exten- 
ded to tlu^ Hoard, this report may be regarded as preliminary to a fur- 
th(M- investigation into the whole question of the effect of commercial 
and natural fertilizers upon the crop under consideration. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



83 



At the commencement of the examination, circular letters were sent 
to many of the leading tobacco-growers of our State; in these letters 
certain questions were asked and the resulting replies, though not as 
numerous as would have been desired, are of great value in formulat- 
ing conclusions and in obtaining practical data in relation to the sub- 
ject in hand. From the very first it was evident that in conducting the 
investigation we should not be at a loss for information of a theoretical 
character; numerous theories were at once ollered and it became the 
duty of the Secretary to sift them and discard all such as would not 
bear the test of practice; nunu^-ous manufacturers of commercial fer- 
tilizers advanced (to them) incontrov(4'ti])le arguments to show that 
their special ''tobacco fertilizer" w^as just the very thing to produce 
a crop of good burning weed, and that no matter what tlie nature or 
condition of the soil, its application would always insure a good crop. 
()t the immense mass of correspondence which reached us the practical 
occupied but (comparativly) a small space, and by applying this small 
portion of known practical information, we were at once enabled to 
eliminate much of that which was merely theoretical and which in 
manv cases came from scientific scources. 

At the meeting alluded to, it was intimated that the solution of the 
question was easy and depended entirely upon scientific tests and 
chemical analyses; but those who have given even superficially, an ex- 
amination of t lie topic assigned us, know very well the utter unreliability 
of chemical analyses when a])plied to our soils; and that nature has a 
practical way of dealing with the union of fertilizers and soils which 
utterly upsets all scientific theories; thus we may know what our soil 
contains; we may have a correct chemical analyses of the ash of the 
crop, and we may have a reliable analyses of our fertilizer and think 
that from these three we can easily solve the problem we may have in 
hand ; but the chemical changes and re-compositions which always take 
place in the soil, assert themselves and upset all preconceived theories. 
With no crop do we find this more certain in its effect than in that of 
tobacco; and this is probably due to the fact that it is put to a mechani- 
cal test, to which no other crop is subjected, viz : that of burning with 
an ash of a certain consistency and character. The analysis of the 
ash of any of our ordinary grain crops will give us an insight (at least 
partially) into the composition of a proper fertilizer, but in the case 
of the tobacco crop, w^e find a complication arising from the unknown 
effect of constituents in the soil, upon chemicals in our fertilizer, which 
confuses all of our theories. Thus, for instance, we tind that in ap])ly- 
ing potash to our grain crops it is merely a question of the most eco- 
nomical form in which it may be used ; it appears to matter little, be- 
yond the question of comparative cost, what the form or grade may be, 
we may use a low grade with economy, provided we do not have to pay 
too much freight on it; in case the supply is near at hand, wood aslies 
may be economical ; at points further removed from the scource of 
supply, kainit maybe used with economy; but at the more distant 
points only the higher grades of commercial salts of potash can be eco- 
nomically used; in all of these cases we must have due regard to the 
cost per pound of the available and actual potash obtained, and we are 
not (^ompell(Hl to fear the comparative effect of the diiferent forms 
which we may use; but in the case of the tobacco crop the introduc- 
tion of one more reipiirement (that it shall burn well) complicates the 
problem, and it is often the case that the form of potash which costs 



84 



QlJAKTERLY EErOIlT. 



Pennsylvania Boakd of Agriculture. 



85 



' ' y, 



Iti 



ill 



II' 



il 



us the least per pound of actual potash, is the one least desirable and 

economical. t -i -i 

The result of our investigation would lead us to divide soils, m re- 
lation to their desirability as tobacco producers m connection with 
fertilizers, as follows : i ^ i • i^- i 

First. New soils which have been newly cleared ol their timber. 
Seco?id. Older soils to which nothing but barn-yard manure has been 

api)lied. 

lyiird. Soils to which a mixture of barn-yard manure and commer- 
cial ferlilizers have been ai)plied. ^ 

Fourth. Soils to wluch no other application than commercial tertili- 
zers have been applied; and that while it is true that the divisions 
between these classes is not distinct and plain, and that they lap over 
into each other, yet lor our purpose they are sulhciently exact and plain. 

With the first and second classes our investigation has nothing to 
do; and that Avith the fourth we have very little to do, ibr it seems to 
be a universallv admitted fact that tobacco cannot be profitably grown 
in Pennsylvania by the use of commercial fertilizers alone ; hence our 
investigation seems to be necessarily confined to the third class of soils. 

As a nucleus or starting point, we have the statement made at the 
meeting alluded to, that common salt (chloride of sodium), even in 
small amounts, would injure the burning quality of the leaf. This 
statement we find is supported by all of the practical evidence given 
at the meeting by practical growers who have communicated 
their views, an^l with the results obtained by practical experi- 
mentors, not only in this country, but also in Europe; hence 
we may fairly assume that common salt must not be used. Inas- 
much a we know that some of the other forms of soda may be used 
with good eli'ect, We may fairly assume that the injury in this case 
is due to the introduction of chlorine, and is not necessarily due to the 
soda. This view is supported by the fact that at the European exper- 
iment stations the introduction of chlorine, in any form or combina- 
tion, produces a similar etfect, but that it is in comlnnation with soda, 
that it exercises its injurious eifect to the greatest degree. At home 
and abroad, it is admitted that the application of salt will, in nearly 
•every case and on nearly all soil, produce an increase in the size and 
external qualities of the leaf, and that the use of four or five bushels 
of common salt per acre will increase the actual yield at a much less 
rate of cost per pound than almost any other api^lication which can 
be made. 

We find that in France and German v the effect of different fertil- 
izers upon tobacco has been made the subject of official examination. 
In Erance the government maintained an experiment station (under 
the care of the eminent experimentor and chemist, Schloesing), for 
the special purpose of tobacco culture and experiments relating there- 
unto. At this station themost careful tests were made, and the results 
given in a series of official reports. In one of these, when alluding 
to the effect of fertilizers upon the burning (pialities of the crop, 
vSchloesing writes as follows: '' The burning (piality is al)solutely in- 
dependent of the variety of tobacco, of thc^ t hickness of the leaf, of its 
strength, of its flavor and of climate. It stands in relation only to 
the proportion of potash salts to the vegetable acids contained in the 
leaf, and consequently to the richness of the potash in the soil in 
which it grows*" 

Erom this we may infer that the result of Schloesing's experiments 



were such as convinced him that the effect was not so much due to 
the special form of potash used as to the relative proportion of potash 
and of vegetable acids in the leaf; that if there was an excess of cer- 
tain acids in either soil or leaf, the effect of even the best form of pot- 
ash would be neutralized and bad burning the result. To explain this 
result, let us suppose that potash is applied to the soil in the form of 
a high grade of sulphate, and after its application comes in contact 
with a surplus of unappropriated vegetable acid, an entire change of 
the nature of the compound takes place; a decomposition and a sub- 
sequent recomposition takes place, and we have entirely another form 
of potash formed. If this latter form is advantageous, good burning 
leaves are the result; but if, on the other hand, it be bad, then we 
have as a result a bad burning crop. These results, it must be re- 
meml)ered, are indei)endent of anything which the grower can con- 
trol, and are inde])endent of what he may have applied in the form of 
a commercial fertilizer. The laboratory of nature has effectually un- 
done the good effected in the laboratory of the chemist employed by 
the manufacturer of fertilizers, and the tobacco producer cannot con- 
trol the result. 

This train of argument evidently leads Schloesing to the following 
statement : '^ This theory of the combustibility of tobacco has been es- 
tablished by chemical analyses, and by direct experiments in culture. 
The ashes of tobacco that burns well, contain and yield to water, car- 
bonate of potash ; those of badly burning tobacco contain little or no 
carl)onate, but yield to water only sulphate or muriate of potash." 

Erom this we may assume that the great desideratum is to get the 
potash into the leaf in combination with carbonic acid, and to avoid 
all combinations with sulphuric or muriatic acids. Then, says our 
theorist, we have only to apply it to the soil in tl;e form of a carbon- 
ate, and our aim is accomplished. But again, the chemistry of nature 
interferes; the different acids combine with potash (as with other 
bases) with varying degrees of affinity or power. If, when combined 
with an acid — for which it has' a weak afhnity,— it comes in contact 
(in the soil or otherwise) with a free acid, for which it has a stronger 
alii n it y, it at once forsakes its first combination and forms a new one. 
In this latter form (independent of its first form) it may be injurious 
and hurtful. 

Schloesing further adds: '-The carbonate of potash is, however, the 
result of the l)urning of malate, citric, tartarate and oxalate of potash, 
and the burning quality is therefore related to the presence of these 
salts in the to])acco. If enough of the above-named potash salts are 
incorporated with badly-burning tobacco, to give an ash containing a 
certain amount of carbonate of potash, the tobacco is thereby made to 
burn well. On the other hand, well-burning tobacco is made to luirn 
badly by impregnating it with a certain i)roportion of sulphate or mu- 
riate of magnesia." 

The eflect of these salts is to convert tlu^ malate, citrate, tartarate 
and oxalate of potash into the corresponding lime or magnesia salts, 
so that on burning, the ashes contain their potash as sulphate or muri- 
ate, and contain no potash as carbonate, but carbonates of lime and 

magnesia. t/. i • i 

In a cigar the fire is held by the charred tobacco. If this char be 
compact, tlie fire easily iioes out; but if it be light and porous, it con- 
tinues to burn just as a compact lump of charcoal soon ceases to burn 
when taken from the fire, while an equal mass of pulverized charcoal 
burns away to ashes." 



m 



86 



Quarterly Report. 



pi 



* 



III 



From tliis we may infer that, in the opinion of our author, the pres- 
ence or a})senee of carhonate of potash is not due neeess- rily to its 
presence or absence in the fertilizer, but rather to the presence of the 
ve^^etal)le acids named, and tiiat if these are not present in the soil— 
no matter liow lar^e the preponderance of carbonate of potasli— the 
resultino; crop will burn badly. That these acids are not supplied to 
any considerable degree by ordinary barn-yard manure is admitted; 
that thev do not exist in commercial fertilizers is equally indisputable; 
therefore, it follows that they must exist in the soil; and by inference 
it follows, that if they are not present, no fertilizers can produce to- 
bacco which burns well, and that its })urning qualities Avill depend 
iil)on the extent to which they exist in the leaf. 

In his report, Schla^sing further states: ''Now the oxalate, malate, 
citrate and tartarate of potash when lieated, melt before they burn, 
and by furlher heating, yield an inllated, highly porous coal, favorable 
for holding lire; but the corresponding salts of magnesia give a com- 
pact coal which is easily extinguished." 

This leads to the inference, that in order to secure good burning 
leaves, these acids must not only exist in the tobacco, but also that 
they must not be in contact with magnesia. We may also infer from 
this and other evidence submitted by Schkesing and Nessler, that the 
burning (luality of tobacco is dependent in reality upon mechanical 
eflects, which are, of course, ]>roduced by chemical causes; thus the 
good quality of the tobacco is dependent upon an ''intlated and highly 
l)on)us coal," while the reverse is due to a '' coal which is easily ex- 
tinguished." In corroboration oithis, a series of careful experiments 
in the tobacco-growing n^gions of Connecticut leads to the statement 
in the experimental station report of that state, for the year 1884, that 
" mineral salts whiclj fuse at the burning temperature — such as chlo- 
rides of potassium and sodium, and phosphates of potash and soda — 
hinder free burning. Fermentation, which reduces the quantity of 
sugar and all)uminous matters, act on tli(^ whole to im])rove the burn- 
ing quality. It w^ould thererore seem that the burning qunlity is good 
or bad according to the preponderance of favorable or unfavorable 
factors, and that it is always related in a simple manner to the com- 
position of the ash." 

Scientific investigation appears to prove that fertilizers which when 
first applied are injuries to the burning qualities of the leaf, by modi- 
tications which they undergo in the labratory of the soil, become so 
changed as to eventually give an excellent result. In corroberation 
of this Nessler and other experimentors corroborate the theory that 
in all cases of bad l)urning leaves, that portion near the midrib and 
the po\ver of earliest formed leaves always burn worse, and that the 
burning quality always increase as we proceed either towards the lat- 
ter or last formed leaves of the plant, it having l)een clearly shown 
that in some crops where the center of the leaves burned very badly 
the outer edges burned as well as could be wished. 

In order that the reader may judge of the actual requirements of 
the tobacco crop when compared with other crops, we give the fol- 
lowing table which shows the number of pounds of each named in- 
gredient contained in one thousand pounds of the crop when in an or- 
dinary marketable condition ; in order to carry out the comparison 
we have added an nnalysis showing the number of pounds of each in 
one thousand i)oun<is of dry leaf tobacco : 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



87 



Product. 



be 
o 



Timothy, 

Clover, 

Green (H>rn fodder, . 

Potatoes, 

Wheat, 

Rye, 

Barlev, 

Oats, ' 

Corn, 

Wlieat straw, . . . 
Barley straw, . . . 

Rye straw, 

Corn fodder,. . . . 

Oat straw, 

Tobacco, 



13.5 

19.7 

1.9 

3.4 

20.8 

17. (> 

U).0 

19.2 

1().0 

4.8 

().4 

4.0 

4.8 

5.6 

34.8 



O 



a 



20.3 

18.0 

3.7 

5.8 

5.2 

5.8 

4.7 

4.8 

3.7 

6.3 

10.7 

8.6 

16.4 

16.3 

40.9 



4.7 

20.1 
1.4 
0.3 
0.5 
0.5 
0.6 
1.0 
0.3 
2.7 
8.3 
3.1 
4.9 
4.3 

50.7 



i 

92 

O 

be 



1.9 
9.3 
1.1 
0.5 
2.0 
2.0 
2.0 
1.9 
1.9 
1.1 
1.2 
1.2 
2.6 
2.3 
10.4 






U 



6.9 
5.(> 
1.0 
1.6 

7.9 
8.5 
7.8 
6.8 
5.7 
2.2 
1.9 
2.5 
3.8 
2.8 
6.6 



1.7 

1.9 

0.3 

0.6 

0.1 

0.2 

0.4 

0.5 

0.1 

1.1 

1.8 

1.6 

2.4 

2.0 

8.5 



A reference to this table will show that a crop of fifteen hundred 
pounds of leaf tobacco removes from the soil acout fifty-two and two- 
tenths pounds of nitrogen, sixty-one and four-tenths of potash, 
seventy-six and one-tenth of lime, fifteen and six-tenths of magnesia, 
nine and nine-tenths of phosphoric acid, and twelve and seven-tenths 
of sulphuric acid. When compared with an ordinary crop of corn in 
which the fodder is returned to the field through the barnyard, we 
note that the tobacco is very largely in excess in the amout of potash 
(nearly ten to one) removed from the soil; hence the infer- 
ence that all special fertilizers for tobacco should be rich in pot- 
ash ; in like manner we find that the tobacco crop takes a large ex- 
cess (when compared with corn) of nitrogen, and hence we find to- 
bacco fertilizers rich in this element also; but when we compare the 
phosphoric acid of the corn crop with that of the tobacco we find the 
proportion reversed, and that the corn requires the most; hence to- 
bacco fertilizers run low in phosphoric acid. 

In connection with the fact that common sale injures the burning 
qualitv of tobacco, we find that, after long experience and careful ex- 
periments, slaughter house oflal, and fish scrap have the same ettect, 
while on the other hand peruvian guano and cotten seed meal have 
the opposite effect. To this fact we may look for niany of the fail- 
ures in the use of commercial fertilizers on the tobacco crop ; very 
many of them derive their whole stock of nitrogen irom slaughter 
house olTal, blood, meat and fish pomace. 

At the North Carolina Experiment station much care has been 
o-iven to experiments with various fertilizers for this crop, and after 
beino- tested in a number of cases not only on the Station farm, but 
also among practical growers in different parts of the State, and upon 
divers soils, tlie following mixture has been strongly recommended: 
''To one thousand pounds of stable manure or ukhiM, add the lo Ow- 
ing, carefully mixing and composting them : sulphate of potash three 
hu^Klred pounds; sulphate of ammonia, one hundred pounds; sulphate 
of ma^^nesia, one hundred pounds; dissolved bone, our hundred 
pounds, and land ])laster (gypsum), one hundred pounds, making m 
all two thousand pounds." 



\\ 



88 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



8^ 



III 



„-t!t 



In Connecticut the following mixture has for several years been sub- 
mitted to a practical test and found successful : fifteen pounds of bone 
dust, eight pounds of sulphuric acid, thirty-one pounds of carbonate of 
potash, live pounds of carbonate of soda, twenty-five i)()unds of carl)on- 
ate of magnesia, and sixty pounds of carbonate of lime ; the acid, when 
mixed with double its weight of water is to be slowly added to the bone 
dust, and the other ingredients added to dry the mixture.'' We would 
suggest that instead of the ground bone and acid, it will be less trouble 
to use twenty-live pounds of some reliable brand of dissolved bone and 
thus avoid tlie trouble of handling the acid. 

In referring to the plan of compounding special fertilizers for tobacco, 
one of our leading fertilizer manufacturers writes us as follows : 

'' Our analysis is eight and a half to nine and a half of phosphoric acid, five and a 
half to six and a lialf of j^otasli, and three and a half to four and a half of ammonia ; 
the phosjihoric acid \vco[)tain by dissolvingthirteen hundred |)oundsof hone (animal) 
and adding two liundred and seventy-five pounds of higli grade sul])hate of i>otash 
(innty-eight per cent.) with less than three per cent of clilorine, and we use nitrate 
ot soda of sulphate of ammonia to bring up the ammonia, and add one hundred and 
nlty pounds of plaster which is mixed with the ammonia salts; no chlorine or salt 
ot any kind enters into our goods to prevent the projier burning of the leaf and make 
It rough ; we use nothing but sulphate in the best form ; there is no doubt in mv mind 
that i)otash derived from a vegetable scource^ is better because it is more easilv dis- 
solved and contains no salt." *^ 

One of the largest manufacturers of fertilizers in the State thus re- 
fers to the character of the proper fertilizer for tobacco, and also to the 
effect of fertilizers upon the crop : 

Several years ago our attention was called by prominent tobacco buvers in Ilart- 
tord, Conn, and Lancaster, ]^i., to the almost universal decline in the quality of 
domestic cigar leaf tobacco, and particularly to its lack of free l)urning properties 

'The introduction and use of Sumatra leaf for wrappers followed this complaint 
and one of the most potent arguments used by the cigar manufacturers before Con- 

These comi)laints coming from sources not to be disregarded, induced us ft) cire 
lully inquire into tlie cause wliich led this falling olt' inuucea us no care- 

The first observations establislied this fact : tliat though it was possible to .-row <m 
equal nuinber of pounds of tobacco year after year upon tlie sanie ground w 
been amply covered with stable manure, tlie qualities whicli Isting^^^^^ 
crop were backing in the others. Tlie leaf grew rank and coarse, bi ciirtl bad! y 
and chok<'d in burning. The texture was no longer tough and elastic «nd tho?.^ ;.; 
was wiable. Good buyers neglected it, and it'ceaseJf bi^^iil^Tluiri^ 

e^al^^^^^i^':^^;^ ^^^^ ^^^^ '''' ^^---^^ -^-h -ere evidently 
Agjun it was noticed that those commercial fertilizers specially prepared for use on 
cereal cro|>s, and which also promoted a vigorous growth of ci -ar^eaf toMc^^^^ 
improve it m respect to ts burning, color, nor texture. An mi7 ysi^ot' ^1^^^^^^^^^ 
cigar revealed minera elements dillerentfrom tlie ashes of wl c;^it rve oits e c -md 
from this It was clearly evident that what was suited to the onVx^s m^^^^^^^^ 
rip^ht manure to perfect the other. Therefore the dis-mnn nf,\,Lf ^.i • i TV, 2 
the application of fertilizers tliat had pr()ved usef to Xat and v^ ^^l^'^^l 

th. q^ity of seed-leaf tobacco, gave ke to the I^yu^ilSg^ll^Cl^f ;l>??fi^^ 

ing but a few cents per pound in the nnrkc^d^^^ ^"^ (command- 

The fouiulMlioii of all efforts to arrest (lie (leD-cnpi-ir.,r ,>f ao„.i i„ <• .^ i 
laid upon .1 full apin-ociatioii of tlie f-„^, ,/,:,/ ,,*?'"*''''^^-Y <>'*'ee(I-Ieaf tobacco iiiust be 
ininerl.! constil.u. ti i. so" .XtTtsV -owfl „ 1 rh'^'T"' "^^''«ence of certain 
or perfect all itn parts witho" then , Prof ' W ohn'tT""^ '"!' '' 1'^^'^'^ "^« 

on which one crop cannot attain to naturi v rinv v,, ^Z? '■'■"""•'<N,tl>'»t "a soil 
anotlier; therefore, it is as much the end of^.n<M,M, .r^' '"'■'' <-">"Pl<'t<:I.v ripen 
provide for th.e various re,, "" nu . ts of each cron n*;','*'"',''/'^''""'""'^'' '"•"'!'•'• I" 
to endeavor to enrich the I'and witll pure^yteget^We'sl^Mances"!'-'''''"'''' ''^ *** ''" 



An analysis of the soils of those famous to]>acco lands of Vuelta de Abajo, Cuba, 
and San Diego, Brazil, discloses the pix'scnce of certain inorganic substances foreign 
to tliose particular localities, whilst their exact counterparts are found in the ashes- 
of tol)acco grown there. Now, as these lands have been cropped with tobacco con- 
tinuously tor over one hundred years, it is plainly evident that as much pains is 
taken to ixitiew those i)eculiar mineral elements as there has been care used to sup- 
ply organic food to the i)lants 

it is well known to manufacturers and smok(^rs how the leaf assimilates with cer- 
tain manures, and the rank odors of hog-dung and Menhaden fish follow it into the 
cigar and the pipe. Again, how greedily it absorbs saline particles, that, if even ma- 
nured with the product of salt marsh luiv, the crop will be ruined for smoking pur- 
poses. 

(Mr. .lohn l^YMidrick, of C;:>luinb'a. Pa , told tha writer he would no', buy toba ;co> 
where he kncnv the sm dlest quantic^y of salt had been used with the manures, as its 
presence could be detected in all stages of curing and manufacture, and that cigars 
made from it Avere universally condemned). 

In view of these circumstances, as much care must be taken in excluding delete- 
rious matters from a tabacco fertilizer as in furnishing those which add to the de- 
sirable smoking (pialities of the weed. 

In the south of r' ranee, where the celebrated St. Omer tobacco is grown, its culti- 
vation is })ermitted only in certain departments, the soil and manures being care- 
fully analyzed, and cultivation prohibited where these do not possess the constitu- 
ents necessary for the growth of good tobacco. 

For all of these reasons our efforts have been directed towards perfecting a ferti- 
lizer that will not only grow tobacco but improve it; believing if the growing i>lant 
can incorpc^rate into its leaves tliose substances which impart tiisagreeable odors, or 
those which render them brittle w hen cured, and choke their pores after fermenta- 
tion, it is likewise capa])le of absorbing those which will produce the opi)osite effects. 

We have advanced with great caution and tried our new brand on the crop of 1880, 
on different soils in Lancaster and Chester counties, but always in tiie same fields 
where other fertilizers were employed to institute an intelligent comparison of ita 
value with the rest. 

Its effect on the plants was strictly watclied from the time of its application till the 
leaves were stripped from the stalks, and the results may be briefly summed up as 
follows, viz: Every plant on which it was used grew vigorously from the start an ith- 
out checking, and was fully ripe inside of sixty days from the date of i)lanting. The 
leaves were uniformly fine, of large growth, elastic, splendid color, and entirely free 
from spots or white veins. 

Simply as a rapid grower it was a perfect success, and in all cases matured theleaves^ 
from ten to fifteen days in advance of those dei)ending upon l)arn-yard manure or 
other fertilizers for support ; thus insuring their safety from the hail storms and 
droutlis of late summer. 

Although the dry weather which prevailed through the fall was unfavorable to- 
curing, the crojxs grown by it maintained their superiority over others in color and 
texture ; and when comi)arativesami)les were shown to the tobacc^o dealers they pro- 
nounced them worth tive cents per i)ound more than the average crop. 

T^hese samples are now undergoing the sweating processto determine Ihe enhanced 
value of the free burning pro])erties given to the leaf by this fertilizer. 

It is our intenti<»n to trace these samj^les through all the stagers of fermentation and 
re-sweating into the hands of cigar manufacturers and consumers. 

While wV^ fe(d assured that these investigations will further denK)nstrate the pecu- 
liar adai»tability of this fertilizer to all these needful points of tobacco culture, we are, 
as before stated, proceeding cautiously, and before definitely asserting superior claims 
of excellence ; we want toallow the fullest range of our experiments over varieties of 
soils and seasons. 

We have too much at stake to proceed faster than is warranted by such a range of 
experience. The disappointment which has too often followed bold assertions we da 
not want to reac^t upon us. 

We earnestly hope, for the good of our own State, that our fertilizer will speedly pro- 
duce wrapper'leaves equal to the best imported stock. If it should, however, prove a 
general failure, we shall be glad to welcome any fertilizerthat will produce the sadly 
needed improvement and a full success. 

The practical tobacco growers whose names are attached to their 
communications, have furnished us witli tlie ioHowing notes on tobacco 
culture and the effect of different fertilizers upon the crop; want of 
space has compelled us in several cases to condense the communica- 
tion. 

II. M. Mayer, Kohrerstown, Pa.: My experience in the use of commercial fertU- 
izers is limited. I used it one j^ear on tobacco; six hundred and fifty i)ou]ids to the 
acre; paid S-'^S per ton. I raised a good crop, but received no benefit above that 
where I applied nothing but barn-yard manure; therefore I had nothing for the 
commercial fertilizer, so I quit using it. I had applied lime and barn-yard manure 
in large quantities, a few years prior to the commercial fertilizer. Used manure 



M 



90 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



91 



with the coiiimercial fertilizer. I was always most siiceessful in raising the best tc)- 



'i 




consecutively, then ceased to produce tobacco scarcely sullicient to pay lor the labor, 
and is then tollovved by a wheat crop, tiie straw would ))e too rank to i)roduce good 
wheat. What ne^w soil contains above what we call old soil I am not able to ex- 
plain, but it has something that is essential in tobacco. So far as the burnmg (luali- 
ties of tobacco are concerned, I have noticed that salt and fatty sul)stances cause it to 
burn dark. 

i). H. Landis, Lancaster, Pa.: Having lived in a tobacco-growing district (East 
Hemi)field township), I naturally saw and learned some of the results from a use of 
oommcrcial fertilizers. 

J^arn-yard manure, as a matter of course, is largely used in that locality as a fertil- 
iz(»r, although other commercial products iiave been and are extensively substituted 
where it is j)ossiblc to do so to advantage. 

Lime was one of the hrst fertilizers, other than ordinary manure, tried on this soil. 
Manv farnuTs still adhere to its use in the growing of tobacco. Some growers claim 
their soil dries out too much where lime is used, and, in consequence, use it moder- 
ately, or in conjunction with stabb^ manure. Others think lime is just the article 
for their tobacco tields Outside of manure, lime is more sought after as a fertilizer 
in my native township than any other product. 

Some years since fossil marl w^as experimented with by a few farmers. Tt worked 
nicely in some instances when dropped at every si)ot wliere a tobacco i)lant was put. 
l*lants grew rai)i(ily and matured well. Several growers, however, did not have 
any noticeal)le satisCaclory results. They thought the marl was not adapted to their 
soil. No large amount of this fertilizer is used at the present time. 

Various other fertilizers have been more or less successfully used in the growing 
of the weed. IJough's, of Philadelphia, perhaps as much as any other, is used to 
some extent here. 

In my varied experience of observation (and especially during the years of 1883 to 
1886, when, as editor of the Landisville T%?7, I was brought into contact with the 
most successful tobacco raisers of the section), I have learned that it pays to use 
commercial fertilizers on all crops. Tobacco farming-land to-day averages from 
^UoO to r::W){j per acre; as a result irom the constant use of soil strengtheners. iiarn- 
yard manure generally works the best here on all crops of a rank growth, i. e. to- 
bacco, corn and vegetables Other fertilizers work admirably on potatoes, wheat, t^c. 

Jamp]s Collins, (Quarry ville, Pa.: The first to])acco crop grown by me was that 
of 185(1. I then us(m1 hog manure and lime. I have always had the best crops with 
liog manure. Have; used fertilizers in connection with manure and lime. I prefer 
to plough the hog manure down under a stiff sod, roll the ground well and mark 
out as for corn, sowing the fertilizer in the furrows and the ridge up over it with a 
corn-scraper, then roll to make the ridges compact. I have used a number of differ- 
ent kinds of fertilizers, all of which s(m-v(h1 to give the young ])lants a good start and 
keep them growing until they reach the hog manure'under the sod. I have used 
dissolved South Carolina rock with good effect, and for its cost (?15 per ton) it gives 
me the best return for the outlay. I am of the opinion that the burning (jualities of 
the tobacco are but little affected by the fertilizer. The manner of curing has, in 
my oj)inion, much more effect than has the fertilizer. The crop should be ripe 
when cut, and not dried too fast ; should be hung in tlie shade, and not placed too 
close on the poles. The faster it grows, in my experience, the better it cures. 



Casper Hiller, Conestoga, Pennsylvania: 



In reply to your iiKpiiry about commercial fertilizers, their effects, Ac, on 
tobacco : 

Some years ago some one said that lime slacked with salt water made a valual)le fer- 
tilizer. I api)lied some of it to a to))acco crop, and therebv learned that salt was in- 
jurious to the crop, both in the curing of it and in its smoking quality, especiallv the 
latter. Cigars made from it burned into a black ash, and smokers decidedlv objected 
to them Manufacturers find fault with crops raised exclusively by commercial 
fertdizers. The potash from kMJniteand muriate of i)otash, and the nitrogen from ni- 
trate of soda are the luanurial elements in commercial fertilizers, as well as thev are 
in barn-yard manure, but kainite muriate of i)otash and nitrogen of soda, as used in 
the make-up of c(mimercial fertilizers, contain from fifty to eighty-five per cent of 
<'xtraneous matter. A good dressing of stable manure is twenty tons to the acre. 
In these twenty tons, there are about two hundred i)ounds of potash, and about one 
hundred and sixty pounds of nitrogen. Sixt(#en hundnMl i>ounds of kainite woubl be 
required to produccahe same amount of potash, and eight hundred Dounds of ni- 
trate of soda furnish th<' nitrogen. 

If I Min correct in this statement, then we are applying two thousand pounds of 
this extraneous matter to t le acre, and it appears very evident that therein lay tlie 
elements that are injuring the (luality of tobacco. How much of it is common salt? 



S. G. Hubbard, of the Northeast Homestead, writes as follows : 

I have investigated the questions involved with consid(^ra])le care, seeking to know, 
if possible, the bottom facts about fertilization. An experience of thirty-five years as 
a grower — a part of the time a buyer and jobber of leaf among the manufacturers — 
has given abundant apportunity for observation and practical knowdedge of the dif- 
ficulties in the way of successful production by the farmer, and the qualities required 
in leaf to satisfy the manufacturers of cigars. 

In common with other young farmers, I started with the idea that stable manure 
was the ''sine (jua non" of tobac<M) production. Aft(;r a succession of four years' 
cropping on the same lot, it was found that manure was failing to produce the same 
good results as before. Peruvian guano was tried and it produced astonishing re- 
sults as a fertilizer for several years. Therefore it was concluded that stable manure 
alone did not furnish the fpiantity of nitrogen re(|uired by tobacco, and that a com- 
bination of both would be sufficient for all the requirements of the plant. After a 
few years it was observed that the (juality of the leaf and quantity of pounds per 
acre had greatly deteriorated. Whole fields were spotted with brindle or calic^o 
l)lants. Rust would ai)pear and spread rapidly over the field, and it would })resent 
a very unhealthy ajipearance. Guano had failed to produce its former good results, 
and stable manure failed to restore health to the phuits. 

It now began to dawn upon tiie farmers that tobacco possibly required some other 
elements of plant food v,hicli stable manure and guano did not furnish in suflicient 
quantities. The prolyl em was finally solved, and the credit is due to science. The 
chemical analysis of tobacco showed it to contain as leading elements in its composi- 
tion, lime, potash, nitrogen and sidphuric acid This knowl(Mlg(^ led to a most care- 
ful and systematic line of experiment. The soil was supplied with all the elements 
of plant food required. Experiments have been carried on in that line l)y a few 
farmers in tlu' Connecticut valley which they claim have been crowned with success. 

As a general thing, these are modest men who mind their own business aiul do not 
write for the press. Competent judges of tobacco, dealers and manufacturers, have 
seen and tested their goods and pronounce them to compare favoraldy with the best 
grown in the Connecticut valley. Tho sales of tobacco so grown, for several years 
past, inchuling the 1886 croj) — in tlie advanced i)rices received from dealers and manu- 
facturers, furnish still l)etter i>roof of successful exi)eriment of growing good tobacco 
without manure. Tt is (iainuHl that the following important results have been 
reached bv tliis system of fertilization : 

i^/r.sV. U is known how to obtain a perfect burn, in which respect most of the 
tobacco as forincrlv raised was more or less deficient. 

Second We get a more perfect and healthful plant grown, as shown in its greater 
freedom from rust and other defects in the field. 

Third. The leaf is of finer texture, improved color and a more glossy surface. 

These essential qualities of tobacco are only found in good leaf. They have been 
produced for several years in succession by this system of artifi( ial fertilization. The 
inexperienced farmer is never sure of a perfect growth and developement of the 
leaf umlertlK^ old haphazard system with manure and fertilizers. 

Our friends, the New York dealers, who are so generous with their advise to 
farmers, know very well that the introduction of Sumatra tobacco introduced a 
new fashion, and created a new standard for wrappers in the trade, greatly (littering 
from that of seven years ago. Tested by that new standard, what were called the 
fine seed-leaf wrappers of twenty years ago, would now be condemned by most man- 
ufacturers as unsuitable for wrappers. 

Several of our correspondents have sujr^ested that a solution of the 
problem might readily be found by an analysis of two sami)les of leaf 
tobacco, one of which burned well and the other badly, and that this 
analysis would show the ])resence or absence of the special ingredients 
which caused the trouble; at the meeting of the Lancaster County 
x\gricultural Society the same theory was advanced. We t herefor eoffer 
th(^ result of a number of careful analyses of the two kinds of leaves 
allndcMl to (good and bad burning) taken from the reports of the Con- 
necticut Experiment Station ; tliey ure as follows : 



m 



W' 



92 



Quarterly Report. 



Compositio7i of Crude Ash of Tobacco Leaf.—^o 1. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



93 



Sand and soil in- 
soluble in acids 
and silica, . . 

Oxi<lc iron a n d 
alumina, ... 

Tjime, 

Magnesia, . . . 

Potash, 

Soda, 

Phos])horic acid, 

Sulpiiuric acid, . 

Carbonic acid, . 

Chlorine, .... 

Carbon, .... 

Water, 



Oxygen equival- 
ent to chlorine. 



Burn Well. 



Burn Badly. 



Sweated. 



1 


*y 


3 


25.10 


3.65 


7.75 


1.63 


.20 


.35 


21.80 


23.92 


24.30 


5.08 


6.84 


5.44 


15.13 


28.18 


25.72 


.29 


.30 


.37 


1.92 


3.65 


3.46 


3.05 


3.93 


4.53 


16.20 


23.30 


24.96 


5.43 


4.08 


.89 


3.55 


1.21 


1.56 


1.90 


1.10 


.80 



19.50 

1.25 

19.61 

12.10 

18.22 

.59 

2.05 

4.08 

16.20 

4.72 

1.66 

1.14 



101.08 



1 '>9 



99.86 



100.36 
.92 


100.13 
.20 


99.44 


99.93 



101.12 



1.06 



100.06 



Un sweated. 



4.52 

.28 

23.57 

8.71 

26.02 

.29 

2.14 

5.99 

22.54 

4.12 

.98 

.90 



100.06 
.93 



99.03 



O 



5.30 

.22 
22.25 

8.57 

26.50 

.15 

2.18 

6.62 

20.50 

5.58 

2.05 

1.10 



Sweat- 
ed. 



7.90 

.96 

25.23 

6.48 

23.20 

.42 

2.24 

3.98 

21.40 

6.30 

1.94 

1.30 



101.02 
1.25 



101.35 
1.42 



M9 



i I 






8.20 

.81 

19.32 

7.27 

28.29 

.11 

1.79 

4.31 

19.49 

7.62 

») Qr; 

2.m 

101.63 
1.72 

99.91 



Composition of Pure Ash, — No. 2. 









Burn 


Well. 


• 




Burn 


Badly. 




Sweated. 


Unsw^eate 


d. 


Sweat- 
ed. 




1 


o 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


Oxide iron and 


















alumina, .... 


3.04 


.28 


.54 


2.01 


.39 


.31 


1.42 


1.17 


Lime, 


40.66 


33.76 


37.34 


31.81 


33.18 


31.62 


37.16 


28.38 


Magnesia, .... 


9.47 


9.66 


8.36 


19.80 


12.26 


12.18 


9.54 


10.67 


Potash, 


28.21 


39.76 


39.48 


29.42 


36.62 


37.69 


34.17 


41.54 


Soda, 


.54 


.42 


1.11 


.94 


.40 


.21 


.61 


.17 


Phosphoric acid, . 


3.58 


5.15 


5.31 


3.31 


3.01 


3.10 


3.30 


2.62 


Sulphuric acid, . . 


5.69 


5.55 


6.95 


6.60 


8.43 


9.41 


5.86 


6.31 


Chlorine, 


10.13 


5.76 


1.36 


7.65 


5.80 


7.93 


9.28 


11.19 




101.32 


100.34 


100.45 


101.54 


100.09 


102.45 


101.34 


102.05 


Oxygen equivjil- 


















ent to chlorine, . 


2.28 


1.30 


0.31 


1.72 


1.31 


1.79 


2.09 


2.52 




99.0^1 


99.0-1 


100.14 


99.82 


98.78 


100. ()6 


99.25 1 


99.53 


Pure ash, per cent, . 


13.80 


14.38 


17.99 


17.74 


16.25 


16.80 


14.58 


18.08 



Per Cent, of Ash Ingredients in Water Free Tobacco Leaf. — No. 3. 





Burn Well. 


Burn Badly. 


' 


Sweated. 


LTnswx'ated. 


Sweat- 
ed. 




Cuba. 


Sumatra. 


Wis. 


Conn. 


Conn, 


Conn . 


Con n . 


Conn. 


Sand, soil and 

", silica, 

Oxido of iron and 
alumina, .... 
Lime (CaO), . . . 
Magnesia(MgO), . 
Potash (K2<^), . . 
Soda (Na.O), . . 
Phosphoric acid 

(P2O5), • . ■ . 
Sulphuric acid 

(SO3), 

Carbonic acid 

(<~'02), 

Chlorine, 

Carbon, 

W^ater, 


1 

6.49 

.42 
5.65 
1.32 
3.92 

.08 

.49 

.79 

4.19 

1.40 

.92 

.49 


2 

.74 

.04 
4.86 
1.39 
5.73 

.06 

.74 

.80 

4.73 
.83 
.25 
.22 


3 

2.15 

.10 
6.76 
1.51 
7.16 

.10 

0.95 

1.26 

6.95 
.25 
.43 
.22 


4 

5.62 

.36 
5.65 

3.48 

5.25 

.17 

.59 

1.18 

4.67 
1.36 

.48 
.33 


5 

1.03 

.06 
5.39 
1.99 
5.95 

.06 

.49 

1.36 

5.16 
.94 
.23 
.21 


6 

1.25 

.05 
5.25 
2.02 
6.26 

.04 

.52 

1.56 

4.84 

1.32 

.48 

.25 


7 

1.71 

.21 
5.45 
1.40 

5.02 
.09 

.48 

.86 

4.63 

1.36 

.42 

.28 

21.91 
.30 


8 

2.19 

.22 
5.15 
1.94 
7.54 

.03 

.48 

1.15 

5.17 

2.03 

.63 

.58 


Oxygen equival- 
ent to chlorine, . 
Summing ofanaly- 

sis, 

Total crude ash, 

per cent, .... 
Potash (;arb. in 

ash sol. in water, 


26. 16 
.31 


20.39 
.18 


27.84 
.05 


29.14 
.30 


22.87 
.21 


23.84 
.29 


27.11 
.45 


25.85 

25.89 

1.37 


20.20 

20.32 

5.23 


27.79 

27.74 

7.60 


28.84 

28.84 

2.91 


22.66 

22.88 

4.54 


23.55 

23.62 

4.29 


21.61 

21.02 

3 46 


26.66 

26.65 

4.74 



[^.;These tables present an analysis of the same samples iu tliree dif- 
ferent forms, viz : 1, as crude ash or the leaves in their natural con- 
dition burned at a heat but little above redness and containiuii; sand, 
&c., which adhered to them; 2, in which sand, carbon and water have 
been removed leaving in the ash tlie soil food of the plant, and 3, the 
asli of the water free leaf; tlie third table also shows the place at which 
the leaf w^as produced. 

A number of our correspondents having suggested that chlorine is 
alone to blame for the bad burning qualities of tobacco, it may be in- 
teresting to note the effect the facts presented in these tables have 
upon this theorv. In table No. 2 we note that the specimen having 
the greatest amount of chlorine (10. b>) was one of the best burners; 
tliis was also the case with sample No. ;J, which contained the least. 
Some have claimed that bad burning was due to a deficiency of potash 
but our table shows that sample No. 8 contained the largest amount of 
potash andwasatthesametimeoneof the worst burners; on the other 
liand sample No. 1 containing the least potash was the best burner ; 
in fact, after carefully examining the table, item by item, we fail to 
find that the presence or absence of any one ingredient has in anyway 
effected the burning (pialities of the leaf. 



ii 









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Quarterly Keport. 



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In his excellent report on '' the chemistry of American tobaccos, 
(see volume 111 ol* the tenth census,) Dr. G. E. Moore, thus alludes 
to the causes which atlect the burnin^^ (lualities ot tobacco : 

''First. The soluble part of the ash of a combustible tobacco al- 
ways contains potassium carbonate, (tobacco contains, accoi-dmg to 
Sciiloesing, no sodium); or, in general, a tobacco is more combustible 

the more alkaline the ash. ^. , ^ r. ^-x i 

'' Second. The soluble part of the ash of a difficultly combustible 
tobacco contains not potassium carbonate ; it ordinarily contains lime, 
whence it ibllows, that in the combustible tobaccos, the quantity of 
potash exceeds in equivalent proportion that of the sul])huric acid 
and chlorine, and that in dillicultly combustible tobaccos the reverse 

is the case. i . -i i •/. 

'' Third. A diihcultly combustible tol)acco becomes combustible it 
the potassium salts of an organic^ acid (malic, citric, tartaric, oxalic, 
&c.,) be added thereto in such quantity that the potash in the salt ex- 
ceeds in eriuivalent proportions the sulphuric acid and chlorine. 

'' Fourth. A combustible tobacco becomes dilTicultly combustible if 
a mineral salt (sulphate or chlorine of calcium, magnesium or am- 
onia, &c.,) be added in such ciuantity that the sulphuric acid and 
ilorine exceed in equivalent proportions the potash of the ash." 
Schloesing, in referring to the same subject writes, as follows : ''1 
have observed that the alkaline salts of malic, citric, oxalic, pectic 
and tartaric acids, when heated in close vessels, swell up strongly, 
wdthout doubt, because they melt in decomposing and leave a very 
voluminous coal that possesses little solidity and is very porous, 
while lime salts under the same circumstances do not alter in volume 
and leave a very compact and coherent coal. Now every one knows 
that a porous coal remains longer incandescent than a compact one. 
On the other hand, if we examine the combustion of tobacco, (i. e. a 
cigar,) we will observe that the action of heat produces two classes 
of effects. Volatile substances (smoke) and coal, are formed, which 
later chiefly sustains the combustion, as it burns as it forms. If a 
cigar contains enough of those salts, which, when ignited, swell up 
while decomposing, it will leave a porous coal lliroughuut, aini will 
contains little or no organic potash salts but only sulphate or chlorine, 
consequently "' hold fire" a longtime. If, on the other hand, the cigar 
neither of which plays any role in the combustion, and if the malic, 
citric, &c., acids are comlnned with lime, the constituents of the 
tobacco do not swell up in burning, but leave a compact coal, which 
does not remain long incandescent. In the latter case the cigar car- 
bonizes and the resulting coal shows the structure of the leaf. Will 
not say that in a difficultly combustible to])acco there are no organic 
potash salts, that all the potash is in the form of sulphate and chlorine, 
but only that the combustibility of to])acco is independent of its 
thickness, ])or()sity, ripeness and composition. A tobacco therefor 
burns well il' it contains enough organic potash salts; it burns badly 
or not at all if it contains too little, and the j^resence of carbonate of 
potash in the ash is a sign of the good coml)ustibility of the tobacco, 
as its absence is a sign of incombustibility." 

Conclusion. 

After collecting all of the evidence wdiich we have been able to 
obtain by correspondiMice with the practical tobacco-growers of our 
State; after caretully going over the acknowledged authorities; after 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



95 



carefully collating all the evidence thus found, w^e incline to the 
opinion that the bad burning (jualities of tobacco are due to causes, 
w^hich are not directlv related to the fertilizers which are used, nor to 
the soil upon whicii it is planted, ])ut rather to a combination of these 
two scources by which by the uniting of certain substances in the 
fertilizer with certain acids in the soil, compounds find their way into 
the leaf which exercises a direct and positive influence upon their 
burning qualities. That is if certain acids exist in the soil they may, 
and often will, neutralize the effects of the best commercial fertilizer 
which can be employed. 

That the burning qualities of the tobacco depend ui)on the presence 
not only of potash, but also of potash in combination with certain acids 
not found in our fertilizers, and that these acids (in coml)inntion with 
l)otash as a l)ase) exercise their effect and power by the nature of the 
ash which they form. 

That the fact that if poor burning tobacco be moistened with any of 
the vegetable acids named by Schloesing, in combination witli potash, 
its burning value is increased and brought up to a maximum, seems 
to prove that in order to produce a good burning article, the potash 
(no matter in what form it is applied) must, at some time during its 
passage from the soil or fertilizer to the plant, come in contact with 
these acids, and that their affinity for potash is so great that they will 
break up its combination with other acids (as carbonic and sulphuric), 
and thus form the necessary compounds. 

That muriatic acid and'chlorine in some unexplained way, effect 
the form of the potash as it exists in the plant, and if applied to the 
soil even in small amounts, more or less injure the combustibility of 
the product; but there are cases in which this rule does not hold 
good, but thev are so few as to scarcely affect the rule. 

That any fertilizer, the nitrogen of which is derived from meat, 
blood, fish, scrap or animal matter, will more or less affect the burn- 
ing quality of the leaf, and injuriously affect its odor and ffavor. 

That as a supplement to yard manure we have nothing more trust- 
w^orthy than dissolved bone (animal) or acidulated South Carolina 
rock mixed with a high grade of potash salt, and that in the present 
condition of our market there is nothing better than high grade sul- 
phate of potash for this purpose. 

That while ths addition of nitrogen (ammonia) may, in many cases, 
benefit the crop, yet inasmuch as this ingredient is the most ex])ensive 
of the three (being valued at seventeen cents per pound), its addition 
is often made at so great a cost as to destroy the margin for profit. 

That an ordinarv application of fifteen tons of yard manure per acre 
will furnish all of the nitrogen required by an ordinary crop, and that 
the addition of more, otherwise than in a more available form, is not 

profitable. ^^^ -, n ^^ 

That it is profit al)le to use from 300 to 600 pounds of a well com- 
pounded commercial fertilizer per acre, in addition to a fair coat of 
yard manure and that the value of this commercial fertilizer greatly 
depends upoi'i the availability of its potash, nitrogen an(l phosphoric 
acid its main duty and effect being to push the plants forward until 
they can utilize tiie yard manure, or until the latter becomes suffi- 
ciently deconi]>osed to be readily a>^ailable. , ^ .r 

That with less barn -yard manure and a greater amount ot the 

'proper commercial fertilizer, the actual ciuality of our tobacco may be 

raised althou<di the ultimate eff'ect will be to decrease the weight per 



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Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



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acre. No doubt this latter defect will be rully supplemented by the 
increased value per pound oi' the product. 

That it is not always safe to value the crop in accordance with the 
nuinl)er of pounds per acre, but that its quality is also an important 
factor which is too often overlooked. 



HOW TO USE COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 



By Watson Kenderdine, Lumierville^ Pennsylvania. 



[Reiid at Doylestown meeting?.] 

To answer this question in the simplest manner would be to say 
that commercial fertilizers are best applied to land with a phosphate 
drill. But I realize that the question as it is given me is meant to 
call out my opinion, not only as to the best way to apply them, but 
of what quality and quantity, and what combination of the three princi- 
pal ingredients should be selected for the ditferent crops grown on our 
farms. 

In speaking of the three ingredients, 1 mean — first, phosphoric acid, 
as derived from animal bones and from what is known as acidulated 
South Carolina rock; second, potash, as derived from muriate or 
potash, and third, ammonia or nitrogen, as derived from animal llesh. 

We prefer ammonia coming from this source as more desirable than 
when it is obtained from sulphate of ammonia or from nitrate of soda, 
for the reason that ammonia derived from these is too apt to escape, 
either in the air or by sinking too far down into the earth to be 
reached by the plant roots. But when coming from animal tiesh it is 
found to be sutliciently soluble for immediate assimilation as plant 
ibod and free from all dangers of escaping before the plants have time 
to receive benefit from it. 

Commercial fertilizers that grade high in ammonia, and vet contain 
the proper per cent, of both phosphoric acid and potash, are too apt 
to be ammoniatedfromone or the other of these objectionable sources. 

Twenty years ago suli)hate of ammonia came largely from Germany^ 
but the large and continual use of burned bone for refining sugar, and 
for which purpose it is not fitted until the ammonia contained in the 
raw l)one is extracted, put an increased supply of sulphate upon the 
market, causing a decline in price from nine cents to two and one half 
cents per pound. 

At present it is mostly used by manipulators of imported guanos to 
build up the grade of their goods to what thev consider a marketable 
per cent, of ammonia. The high grades of imported guanos, in their 
])nnly ol twenty-live years ago, rated from fourteen to fifteen per 
cent, of ammonia, but now the raw material will rarely exceed four to 
five per cent.; hence the necessity of manipulating it and increasin^>- 
th(^ grade to nine or ten per cent We know of one lar^e manufac" 
turer in 1 hiladelphia, who furnished a Baltimore party with seventy- 
five tons this present season, and yet was unable to supplv the amount 
required. 

We think it a mistake witlisome manufacturers of fertilizers, who in 



their desire to furnish first-class goods will use these manipulated 
guanos for their ammoniates, when nitrogen obtained from tlesh is 
much to be preferred for reasons already given. Nitrate of soda, or 
Chili saltpeter, comes from the Bacific coast of South America ; has 
been used to some extent as ammoniates in commercial fertilizers, but 
in the opinion of the writer, its volatility is too great to be relied upon. 
Its introduction into Germany and its use for beet culture was so 
severely condemned by the manufacturers of sugar that they refused 
to purchase beets of any farmer who used it. Although it greatly in- 
creased the growth of l)eets, the saccharine qualitiesso far deteriorated 
that its use was condemned. The result of these trials proved that as 
the growth of the beets increased in size their value declined. 

How to apply and what grades to select for the different crops, is 
the question given me, if I understand it. For growing corn success- 
fully a fertilizer containing from five to six per cent, of potash, 
ammonia from two to three per cent., and soluble phosphoric acid 
from ei2:ht to ten per cent., has been proven by experiments to be the 
best. When we consider that seventy-nine pounds of potash is con- 
sumed by every thirty bushels of corn, it is easy to see the need of a 
fertilizer containing largely of potash. Should an acre of cornstalks 
and cobs be burned, we would all be surprised at the quantity of ashes 
produced, and when we know that all of this has been drawn from the 
land we can rightly judge of the great depletion of the soil in potash. 
Ammonia is supplied, to a great extent, from the air and from decom- 
position constantly going on during the warm months of summer, by 
which many gases are liberated and pass upward, to be returned again 
to the earth by the warm showers of rain that fall during the growing 
season. But neither potash or phosphoric acid can be thus supplied, 
but must be furnished (by the farmer) from some other source. 

The analysis of stable manure will show the farmer its contents and 
he must judge for himself what additional supplies are necessary to 

perfect his crops. 

The analysis of good stable manure per two tliousand pounds shows 
the presence of three and three quarter pounds of phosphoric acid, ten 
pounds potash and eleven and one half pounds of ammonia. As ten 
loads of manure are considered an average dressing, we find the 
farmer has put on to one acre for corn, as follows : thirty-seven and 
one half pounds of phosphoric acid, one hundred pounds of potash and 
one hundred and fifteen pounds of ammonia. Now we see that it 
thirty bushels of corn consume seventy-nine pounds of potash, that 
eighty bushels would consume two hundred and sixteen pounds, which 
are one hundred and sixteen pounds more than is supplied by the 
manure Considering the great increase of corn raised per acre, when 
compared with the crops of forty years ago, we should cease to wonder 
why the farmers of to-day are compelled to use commercial fertilizers 
as an additional aid for the growth of crops. The continual cropi)ing8 
of several generations have so depleted the sod of phosphoric acid and 
of potash, that the great necessity of supplying these lost elements 
have driven the farmer to seek for them elsewhere than m their own 

^WlfenU'is estimated that every one thousand pounds of (dover hay 
exhausts from the soil five and one half pounds of phosphoric acid 
and nineteen and one half pounds of potash, it is easy to explain the 
manv failures to secure a full crop of it. Before chemistry was called 
on to assist the farmer, he had found out for himself that newly cleared 

7 



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QtlAKTEKLY REPORT. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



99 



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land was much more certain to produce clover than his older fields, 
and the reason is plain, for the native soil contained this necessary 

element. 

Whatis most lacking in our soils to-day is a sufficiency of phos- 
phoric ncid and i)otash; and were it not for the discovery of tlie former 
in Soutli Carolina and the latter in Germany, the outlook for farmers 
would be much more discourai!;in^^ than it is, and were it not for these 
great natural deposits within easy access, this flourishing country of 
ours would ])e in poverty and neglect. We can not be unmindful of 
the i-a])id decline of our woodbinds. Much of it that remains are in 
exposed positions, where for the last forty years the leaves have in 
mostpart blown offon to adjacent fields, leaving the ground almost 
bare. In large forests where one tree protects another, and wind can- 
not penetrate', we find the trees healthy and the ground covered with 
leaves, which by their decomposition return to the same soil the potash 
they drew from it. The result is concdusive, that wherever woodlands 
have suffered such exposure, we find the trees declining and many of 
them dead. 

When the farmer at last decides to clear the land for farming pur- 
poses, he finds the soil very thin and un])roductive, and is soon com- 
pelled to treat it the same as his older fields, by supplying it with the 
elements it has lost. Many farmers gather leaves from their wood- 
lands for litter to add to their stock of manure. This is robbing ^vPeter 
to pay Paul," and the result will surely be the death of Peter. You 
can not keep your cake and penny, too. If you rob your woodlands 
they will soon decay. Observation can not fail to prove my position 
to be correct. There should be a law passed releasing all woodlands 
oiless than ten acres from taxation, and this would tend toward their 
preservation. The present extent of woodland in our county should 
not be lessened but increased, if possible, and then, if the theory be 
correct that the presence of forests trees tends to increasing the rain- 
fall, we all will be benefited. Let our State Board of Agriculture 
advocate this law. 

If our peach and apple orchards were resupplied with those elements 
they extract from the soil, the trees as they decline with age can be 
replaced with new ones with the same chance of success as when they 
were first planted. It is my opinion if farmers would intelligently 
l)roceed to supply their land with those elements extracted by any 
certain crops that they may continue the same indefinitely. 

A farmer may use with some success for a tew years a fertilizer con- 
taining a low per cent, of potash, but in the end he cannot fail to 
notice the gradual depletion going on. The generation that follows 
him, while sull'ering from his neglect, nuist learn to avoid his mistake. 

The difficulty to drill, owing to the dampness of some grades of 
phosphates is often attributed by farmers to an excess of potash, but 
in most cases, particularly with the cheaper fertilizers, in the lowest 
2:rades of potash, you will find the most difficult to drill, even when 
the analysis on the bags mark l)ut two per cent, potash. Whenever 
the other materials are in i)roper condition, the best made phosphates 
will nicely drill, and yet contain from five to six per cent, of available 
potash. For corn we would advise from four to five hundred pounds 
of phosphate running strong in potash four or five per cent., of phos- 
j)horic acid, from eight to ten, and ammonia from two to three per cent. 
It can either be sown broadcast and plowed downorputin with a drill. 

For successful growing of wheat we would advise four hundred 



pounds of phosphate, per acre, if sown without manure, or two hun- 
dred pounds in. addition to a light coat of manure. As one thousand 
pounds of wheat and straw extract from the soil about ten and one 
half per cent, of phosphoric acid and about ten pounds of i^otash, any 
farmer can judge what grade of fertilizer to use. For one thousand 
pounds of oats and straw there is taken from the soil about seven and 
one half pounds of i)hosphoric acid and about fourteen pounds of 
potash. A fertilizer containing as near as possil)le these elements in 
their proper proportions should be selected. 

I have always maintained, a farmer can for a time apply phosphoric 
acid alone as we find it in acidulated rock with beneficial results, but 
its exclusive use will surely lessen in time the i)roductiveness of his 
land, owing to the constant exhaustion of potash. This element must 
be supplied in accordance with the demands of the several crops or 
certain failure must follow. 

With all the light that agriculture science can give, and the protec- 
tion that is now afforded farmers against fraud and deception, they 
have but to exert a little effort to become sufficiently informed to 
enable them to buy their phosphates prudently and apply them intel- 
ligently. 



• SAMPLING COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 

The correspondence of the Board clearly proves that manufacturers 
of fertilizers misunderstand the provisions of the act of June 28, 
1879, which controls the manufacture and sale of commercial fertilizers 
in the State. Many of them confound the analysis required by section 
one ^f the act with that provided by section four. There is no connection 
whatever between the two. Section one provides '' That every package 
sold, offered or exposed for sale for manurial purposes within this 
Commonwealth, shall have plainly stamped thereon the name of the 
manufacturer, the place of manufacture, the net weight of the con- 
tents, and an analysis stating the percentage therein contained of 
nitrogen or its equivalent in ammonia in an available form, of potash 
soluble in water, of soluble and reverted phosphoric acid and of insol- 
uble phosphoric acid." This analysis is to be furnished by the manu- 
facturer from any source which he may deem proper, and the Board 
of Agriculture exercises no control over it in any way or form. It is 
practically to be the gauge of the quality of the article, and being on 
record in the office of the Board furnishes the standard should it be 
disputed by any purchaser. The manufacturer is thus allowed to fix 
his own standard of quality, but having fixed and placed it upon 
record he is expected to keep .his goods up to it; for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining whether this is or is not done section four 
provides that '^It shall be the duty of the Board of Agriculture to 
analvze such specimens of commercial fertilizers as may be furnished 
bvits a<»-ents ; said samples to be accompanied with proper proof, 
under oath or affirmation, that they were fairly drawn." This analysis 
is for the purpose of ascertaining whether the standard is up to the 
guarantee upon record in the office of the Board; under it no samples 
from the manufacturer can be admitted, and only those sent in by 
properly authorized persons can be analyzed. Manufacturers have 



if'! 

rn 



=.l 



I 



IQO Quarterly Report. 

made the claim that they can obtain the ''l-^l^f «(fJ^2,{";-;^};,J.;"t'; 
one 1)V sendin- samples under oath as provided tor by section lour hut 

ZSZ cannot test such samples, nor does t^^, f.^^^^l^c > ^c led 
should do so If an analysis is necessary to establish the lotoia call a 
folly sect o.s one and tvvo of the law, the manufacturer and not the 
Board must furnish it; if an analysis is deemed necessary to ascertain 
Slethei the IJoods are up to the'standard, the Board makes it at the 
expense of the Fertilizer Analyses Fund as provided by the law. 

In a large number of cases consumers have sent^samp es of goods 
which Ihey have purchased and wish tested. The Board having been 
imposed upon in this way, has been compelled to make it a rule to 
accept samples only from known parties under oath or alhrn.ation ; 
this rule has in some cases been misunderstood, but when explained 
its fairness is at once admitted. . ,^^ 

In order to prevent such errorsandtoprotectitself from imposition, 
the Board has adopted the following rules for the sampling of fertil- 
izers for analysis under section four of the act ot June ^8, 18 /y: 

Section four of the act of June 28, 1879, provides that " It shall be the duty of the 
Board of AKi-iculture to analyze such specimens of commercial fertilizers as may be 
ftirn7shed by its agents, said samples ti be accompanied with proper proot, under 
nntli or allirnuition, that they were fairly drawn." • x ,.0 • i 

B^a vo ^of the Board, its Secretary has been authorized to appoint " Special 
Aeents of the Board," whose duty it shall be to collect and lorward samples ot fer- 
tilizers for analyses in accordance with the above provision ; and to secure fairness 
and iinifm^ tlio samples forwarded, your attention is requested to the follow- 

ing directions, with the request that all selections, as far as possible, be governed 

^•^Ist'^That while the law is designed for the protection of the consumer, it was not 
intended to do injustice to the manufacturer, and 1h nee in all cases ot doubt as to 
the correctness of the sample, the manufacturer should be accorded the benefit, and 

the sami)le discarded. , , . -, x i-x • xi r 

">(} In making selection of samples, care should be exercised to obtam them trom 
comis made for the season during wliich they are selected; with even good care 
there will always be a certain percentage of waste in fertilizers kept over season. 
In many cases, manufacturers change their formula after spring sales are ettected, 
and for autumn sales put another quality (under the same name) on the market. 
This being the case, it is possible that unintentional injustice maybe done to the 
manufacturer by forwarding samples tak(^n from tlie stock of the preceding season. 
In all cases when sami)l(»s of over year goods are sent, the fact should l)e so stated. 

:\d Care should be taken to send witli'the sample, or in a letter by same mail, the 
following particulars : The name and address of the manufacturer; the exact name 
of the fertilizer as copied from the package, bearing in mind the fact that a number 
of manufacturers have brands on the market which ditler in name but to the extent 
of a single word, the omission of which might not only deceive the consumer, but 
also be a cause of injustice to the manufacturer ; tlie place at which the sainj^lc was 
sele<'ted ; and the retail price per ton cash at the point at which the samjih' was 
lairni—i\\\i^ latter item is not necessarily for jmblication, but as a source of informa- 
tion to inquirers and to enable the Secretary to rectify possible errors in the names 
of the fertilizers. 

4th. In selecting samples care should be taken to obtain one which will, as fairly 
as possil^le, represent the bulk of the goods ; for this purpose a portion should be 
taken from different parts of the same bag, or from different bags, and the final 
sample taken from a mixture of all these, thus securing a fair average of the goods 
from which the sample was drawn. 

r)th. Samples sent in papers or paper boxes will, in the course ofpassage through the 
mails, often lose a portion of their volatile elements ; to avoid tliis the Board will fur- 
nish all agents with metal sample boxes with air tight lids ; these may be sent by 
mail or exi)ress at the option of the agent: if sent by express glass bottles, tightly 
corked, may be substituted for the metal boxes, but the latter jire prefera])le. 

. ,, V ... ..i , :ii I... A 1 |j^, 11^^. Board, and where 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



101 




each agent 



eacii agtin. 

7th. From the fact that the Board has in several cases been deceived by interested 
j)arties who have forwarded samples, it has been decided to receive no samples unless 
vouched for by one of the special agents of the Board. To accommodate consumers 
and nianufaeturers, these agents will, so far as possible, be appointed in each dis- 
trict, and attention is requested to the fact that it is the duty of every member of the 



Board to select and forward sami)les where there is no special agent appointed for 
this purpose. 

8th. Inasmuch as the fund available for the purpose is limited, the Board reserves 
the right to decline to make an analysis of a sample which is a duplicate of one re- 
cently tested, or to decline to make an analysis when the funds available are ex- 
hausted ; and to assist in this distribution of the work it it4 requested that agents will 
(unless specially requested to do so) be careful not to duplicate samples of the same 
spring or fall goods. 

9th. In order that fertilizer agents maybe ])rotected from any loss from a violation 
of the law, our special agents are riwiut'sted to inform them that a non-compliance 
with the provisions of the law on the part of the manufacturer subjects tlui agent 
selling or offering the goods to the full i)enalty upon each sale or otter to sell. 

lOth. In filling the sample boxes, care should be taken to screw each lid tightly 
into its place, and to place inside and outside of the box some mark by which it can 
be distinguished in the list to be sent by mail ; it must be remembered that the 
Secretary receives samples at all times and that without some distinguishing mark 
the whole labor of the special agent will be lost through the inability of the Secretary 
to recognize the sample when receiv.ed. 



DECISIONS AFFECTIT^a LICENSES. 



First. All licenses must be taken out in advance, and before the 
goods can be legally even ofFered for sale in the State ; tlie words of 
the law are ''or before oilering the same for sale in tiiis Common- 
wealth." Manufacturers who during the year, and after an applica- 
tion ibr license, offer other brands, should be careful to take out a 
license lor these brands ; otherwise the agents of non-resident manu- 
facturers mav be put to much inconvenience and loss. 

Second. The amount of the license fee being dependent upon the 
annual sales, and at the same time being due in advance, it is neces- 
sarily based (in the words of the law) upon the '' amount of said fer- 
tilizer or fertilizers sold within the State during the last precedmg 
year." • As the fertilizer year commences August 1, the alhdavit 
should give the sales of the year ending July 31. 

Third. The amount of sales by which the license fee is determined 
must be established by affirmation. It is not the desire of the State 
officers to expose the business of any firm, and hence the exact num- 
ber of tons need, not be stated; it is sufficient for the purpose aimed 
at if the affidavit states '' less than one hundred tons," ^' more than 
one hundred tons and less than five hundred," or '' more tliaii hve 
hundred tons." Some manufacturers in making out their allidayit 
give their sales as '' not exceeding one hundred tons," which it literally 
interpreted by the Secretary of State would involve a double lee ; 
special attention is asked to this point so that no errors may occur. 

Fourtk. License fees once paid into the State Treasury and tound 
to be in excess, cannot be recovered except by an actof the Legislature 
as no money can be paid out of the Treasury except by authority of 

such an act. , ., .. • t 1 01 ^^ 

Fifth All licenses (no matter when taken out) expire July e^l ot 

eacli^ year, and none are granted for a shorter term than one year. A 

prompt renewal is necessary to secure both manutacturers and agents 

against the penalty of section three. , , , . 1 

Sixth. The license is payable upon each ],rand and any change or 
variation in the analysis will make another brand. It two diiferent 
brands or names are used, even though ])oth bags be filled trom the 
same pile a license must be taken out for each. Any brand not men- 
tioned in tlu^ affidavit and license is not protected. Often changes are 






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Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



103 



m 



made in tlio l)ran(l durin- the year; such changes, unless recorded as 
per law, subject both manufacturers and agents to the penalties ot 

section three. 

Seventh. If the ])ags are marked or branded '^ Made for 

" they, althuugli tilled from the same pile as those bagged 

directly for \he manufacturer, constitute another l)rand, for wlucli a 
license must be taken out either by the actual manulacturer or the 
person for whom it is made. 

Eighth. If the manufacturer has made no sale '' during the preced- 
ing year " it is sullicient that the altidavit so state ; in such cases the 
law ^( see section two) makes a special fee of $10 00, regardless of the 
amount which may be subsequently sold. No brand can be licensed 
under a less fee than $10 00. 

Ninth. The aii;ent offering or selling unlicensed goods is equally 
liable wit lithe manufacturer Ibrthepenaltylixed by section three, and it 

may be collected from both for the same offense, both having violated 

the^^law. In the case of non-resident manufacturers the agent offering 

or selling in the State can be held liable. 

Tenth. In the matter of the analysis the law is distinct and in many 
cases is violated by the manufacturers ; the law distinctly states that 
" every package of commercial fertilizer " shall have plainly stamped 
upon it '' the percentage therein contained of nitrogen or its equiva- 
lent in ammonia in an available form, of potash soluble in water, of 
soluble and reverted phosphoric acid and of insoluble phosphoric 
acid." An analysis showing the percentage of potash as ^'sul])hate" 
does not comply with the law, and any agent ofiering or selling such 
brands is liable to the penalty ; an analysis showing the percentage 
of "bone phosphate of lime " also exposes agents to the danger of the 
penalty of section three. 

Eleventh. Any fertilizing material sold to the consumer '^ for 
manuring purposes" which contains either potash, nitrogen or phos- 
])lH)ric acid, and not specially excepted by section six of the law, should 
be licensed, and any sales of such goods, without their having been 
licensed, exposes the manufacturer or agent to the penalty of section 
three. Wood ashes, though containing potash, is specially exempted by 
section six ; marl, if sold as it comes from the ])its, is also exempt by the 
same section, but if manit)ulated, bagged and sold under any special 
name it becomes liable to a license fee. 

Twelfth. The law does not make it obligatory upon the Board to 
make an analysis each j^ear of each brand licensed ; the license 
fund will not warrant this ex])ense even if warranted by law. It is 
the desire of the Board to do justice to all and to so arrange it that 
the number of analyses shall bear some relation to the amount of 
license fee paid, and it is evident that the manufacturer who sells a 
large amount of any given brands, is entitled to a greater number of 
analvses than the one who sells but a few tons; if any are uninten- 
tionally neglected aj)plication at the office of the Board will meet with 
promi)t attention. To enai)le us to obtain samples of any given 
brands the manufacturers should furnish us with a list of all agents in 
the State who sell or offer his goods; the Board will decline to draw a 
sample from the goods of a dealer or agent who may be named by the 
manufacturer. 

Thirteenth. There is no connection between the analysis alluded to 
in section one ai^. 1 that referred to in section four; the former is in all 
cases to be made by the manufacturer and tlie Board will record any 



analysis thus furnished, but such an analysis when placed upon record 
in tiie otUce of the Board is the guaranteed analysis for that l)rand 
and any falling off from it renders the manufacturer liable to prosecu- 
tion under section three of the State law. 

Fourteenth. A license taken out by the manufacturer covers the 
sales of any nunilxn* of agents and any number of tons during the 
year for wiiich it is taken out, but a license taken out by an agent 
only covers his own sales and will not protect sales of the same brand 
by others. 

Fifteenth. Any natural product, if ])agged and sold under another 
name, is subject' to a license fee; lime and marl, though separately 
exempt, if mixed and sold under another name must be regularly 

licensed. • > n 

Sixteenth. In all cases it will save time and correspondence it all 
of the papers referring to the license (affidavit, license fee and 
analysis) are sent direct to the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture, 
who will see that they reach the proper State officers and that the 
license reaches the applicant. All checks should be made payable to 
the order of the State Treasurer of Pennsylvania. 

Seventeenth. Section three imposes a penalty : first, for selling or 
oifering unlicensed ii:oods; second, for selling goods not properly 
stamped with the analysis, and, third, for selling goods the ([uality or 
actual analysis of which is not up to the analysis on the bags or re- 
corded in tiie office of the Board of Agriculture. 

Eighteenth. In cases of dispute the final appeal is to the copy of 
analysis presented at this office for record ; the analysis on the l)ags is 
a written guarantee from the manufacture, but in cases of dispute the 
recorded analvsis would be accepted as evidence. This, however, does 
not warrant the conclusion that an illegal analysis on the bags become 
leo-al if the proper one has been placed on record ; it is the intent and 
purpose of the law that the analysis is on record here, and on the bags 
shall be the same and shall both constitute a guaranteed analysis. 

Nineteenth. The sale to the consumer of '' Kainit " sulphate ot pot- 
ash or any fertilizing material containing either phosphoric acid, potash 
or nitrogen without the proper license, subjects the seller to the pen- 
alties of-section three. The sale of fertilizing supplies of any kind to the 
manufacturer is not affected by the law, because they will eventually 
be included in the return of manufactured goods as made by the pur- 
chasing manufacturer. , , ., . i ^i u 
Twentieth. Common salt is not affected by the law because, though 
not specificly exempted, it contains neither phosphoric acid, potash 
nor nitrogen; for a similar reason ^' salt cake'] is exempt when sold 
separately, but when mixed with a fertilizer it is of course included in 

the return of the number of tons sold. ^ • i o n ^ v 

Twentu-first. Where two or three grades of bone of acid fe. U loc c 
are offered differing in the amount of available phosphoric acid, each 
one is subject to a license fee and should be named m the alhdavit as 
a c;eo'H-ate brand If all are sold under exactly the same brand there 
wil?i;^f violSn of the law, unless that brand be that of the owest 
-rade and the analvsis recorded in this office corresponds with it 
*" Twenty/second. Where a consumer buys and mixes his ovvn chemi- 
cals the law takes no cognizance of the transaction, unless he sells it 
to another in that case^a license must be taken out to cover its sale. 
S is presuined that in the case of the consumer the sale of the chemi- 
cals has been covered by a license. 



104 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



105 



r, 



Twenty-third, The whole intent of the hiw is to secure to the pur- 
chaser the rio;ht to get exactly what he l)uys and pays for; the law 
does not (•onteni])late anv publicity of the alfairs of any manufacturer 
or agent ; the records are open to all as public documents ; they merely 
show the amount of license fee paid on each brand, the name and 
analysis of the brand and the name and business address of the manu- 
facturer. 

Twenty -fourth. It is the duty of each agent to know whether the 
goods which he oilers for sale are protected by license, and at any 
time an inquiry at the oltice of the Board will secure a reply ; ignorance 
of the fact that the goods are uidicensed or that there is such a law in 
existence, will not excuse its violation or interpose against the penalty. 

Twenty-Hfth. The law does not require that the manufacturer shall 
state the source from which he obtained his phosphoric acid, potash 
or nitrogen ; it confines itself to requiring tliat the amounts given of 
each of these ingredients shall be given in a soluble form ; as nitrogen 
in 'leather scrap '' is not in a solul)le form, it cannot be embraced in 
the analysis; in each case the la\y is emphatic in the use of the terms 
"soluble" and ''available," and in this way affords protection to both 
consumer and nuuiufacturer. 



LIST OF MA:N^UFACTUKERS Al^D liRA:N^DS OF 

FERTILIZEKS. 



Licensed Undek the Provisions of the Act of June 28 1879. 



[For the year ending August 1, 1887*. 

Ash, T. D. & Co., Wagontown, Pa. — Bone Phosphate, 50; Siouski 
Phosi)hate, 51. 

Arner, a. (fe Son, New Mahoning, Pa. — Victor Phosphate, 100; 
Hero Phosphate, 101 ; Jumbo Phosphate, 102; Bone Meal, 103. 

Allentown Manufacturing Company, Allentown Pa.— Complete 
Bone Phosphate, 138; Lehigh Bone Phosphate, 139; Complete Bone- 
Manure, 140; Soluble Pock Phosphate, 141. 

Allen, J. J. Sons', Philadelphia, Pa.— Quaker Citv Phosphate, 197; 
Cornell Phosphate, 198; Nitro-Phosphate, 199; Alkaline Dissolved 
Bone, 200; Popular Pliosphate, 201. 

American Fish (Iuano Company, Iloil'man's wharf, Virginia — Ocean 
Guano, 241 ; Virginius Guano, 242. 

Allegheny City Fertilizer Company, Allegheny Citv, Pa. — Paw 
Bone L^liosphate, 243; Pure Ground Bone, 244; Pure 'Bone Meal, 
245. 

Amway, J. L., Chickies, Pa. — Imperial Plu)Si)hate, 13. 
American Ojl Fertilizer Company, Grenwick, N. J.— Bayside 
Sturgeon P'cTtilizer, 392. 

Baugii (feSoNS, Philadelphia, Pa.— Pure Ground Bone, 382; Export 

*TIh' figures following the naiiio of each fortiUzer are those of the official record 
in the office of the n()ar(L 



Bone, 383 ; Twenty -live Dollar Phosphate, 384 ; Acid Phosphate, 385 ; 
Pure Dissolved Bone, 386. 

Baltimore Guano Company, Baltimore, Md. — Game Guano, 158; 
Baltimore Soluble Bone, 159; B. G. Ammoniated Phosphate, 160;. 
Defiance Bone. 161 ; High-Grade Dissolved South Carolina Pock, 
162. 

Bradley Fertilizer Company, Boston, Mass. — Bradley's Patent 
Super-Phospliate, 65; Sea Fowl Guano, m\ Farmers' New Method 
Fertilizer, 67; Palmetto Acid Phosphate, 68; Bradley's Dissolved 
Bone and Potash, 69 ; Alkaline Bone, 338. 

BowEN & Ziegler, Stewartstown, Pa.— Bone Phosphate, 210. 

Brodbeck, a. p., Hanover, Pa.— Jay-Eye-See Phosphate, 291 ; York 
Ammoniated Phosphate, 292 ; Brodbeck's Soluble Bone, 293 ; Stand- 
ard Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 294. 

Buffalo Fertilizer Works, Buffalo, N. Y.— Buflalo Ammoniated 
Bone Phosphate, 5; Buffalo Potato, Hop and Tobacco Phosphate, 6^ 
Buil'alo Vegetable Bone Phosphhate, 7; BufFalo Queen City Phos- 
phate, 8; Crocker's Buffalo, No. 2, Phosphate, 9; Pure Ground Bone, 

10. „ ^ 

Brodheck, S.B.,Brodbecks, Pa.— Economical Fertilizer, 357; Farm- 
ers' Dissolved South Carolina Bone, 358. 

Bollinger, E. K. & Co., Seitzland, Pa.— Ammoniated Bone Phos- 
phate, 359. 

BoYFR & LicHLiDER, Ilagerstowu, Md.— Dissolved Bone Phosphate^ 
378 ; Tip-Top Bone Phosphate, 379 ; Bone Phosphate, 380 ; Eagle 
Bone Phosphate, 381. 

BowKER Fertilizer Company, Boston, Mass.— Bowker's Hili and 
Drill Ph()S])hate,421 ; Bowker's Super-Phosphate, 422 ; Bowker's Am- 
moniated Dissolved Bone, 423. , . .^r^ t^- 

Blocker & Co., Baltimore, Md.— High-Grade Phosphate, 429; Dis- 
solved Bone and Potash, 430; Soluble Ammoniated Bone Phos- 
phate, 431 ; Blood and Bone Mixture, 432. ,,,,.-,, ,o^ 

Bowman & Co., Baltimore, Md.— Pure South Carolina Bone, 437. 

Chesapeake Guano Company, Baltimore Md.— (Chesapeake Guano, 
15- Ammoniated Alkaline Phosphate, 16 ; Ammoniated Bone Phos- 
phate, 17; Corn and Oats Fertilizer, 18; Dissolved Bone Phosphate, 

19 
' Coleman, Anthony, New Ringgold, Pa.— Bone Phosphate, 47. 
Caldwell, Durham & Co., Williamsport, Pa.— Economy Bone, 90; 

Good Crop Phosphate, 91. , . ,-, t i t^ - n q^. 

Christian & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.— Lobos Peruvian Guano, 85, 

Standard Peruvian Guano, 86. , -, ^ t. ^ z^-. -ni if 

Cleveland Dryer Company, Cleveland, O.— Forest City I'Jjosphate, 
123; Buckeye Phosphate, 124 ; Square Bone Phosphate, 125; Ohia 

Seed Grower, 126. ^,. ^ ^ r^ i> .i o^f 

CusHWA, Victor, Williamsport, Md.— Royal Crown Bone and 1 ot- 

ash 145 
Carib' Guano Company, Balf imore, Md.— C!arih Gnnno, 170 
Chemicai. Company of Canton, Balf.nmre, Md.-Hnker's Standard 
Guano, 1«!3 ; Resurgam Phosphate, 1fi4 ; Soluld;' Alkahne 1 hosphate 
165- Pure Dissolved South Carolina Bone, ItiO; B;.ker s Dissolved 



nicorn 
(A) 




106 



Quarterly Report. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



107 



11:; 






rhosphate, 275; Great Planet (P) l^liospliate, 276; Peach and Fruit 
Tree Phosphate, 277 ; Atlas Phosphate, 278. 

CnRLSTY, A. P., Oakland Cross Roads, Pa.— Franklin Township 
Phosphate, 289. 

CiiAPPELL, P. S. & Sons, Baltimore, Md.— Champion Ammoniatcd 
Phosphate, 308; Ammoniated Phosphate, 309; Solui)le Flour of i^one, 
310; Special Wheat Fertilizer, 311 ; Farmers' Reliance Ammoniated 
Phosphate, 312; Dissolved Animal Bone Phosphate, 313 ; Dissolved 
South (^irolina l^one, 314; Im])erial Potash Manure, 315. 

CoE, K. Frank, New York. — Ralston's Knickerbocker Phosphate, 316; 
E. Frank Coe's Hi<i;h Grade Ammoniated Phosphate, 317; Alkaline 
Bone, 318; Hi^h Grade Acid Phosphate, 319; Ammoniated Bone 
Phosphate, 320; XXV Phosphate, 321; Ralston'sBone Fertilizer, 322 ; 
Ground Bone, 323. 

Cranston, J., & Co., Odessa, Del. — Whann Brothers Raw Bone 
Phosphate, 324; Horse Shoe Brand of Soluble Bone, 325; Pennsylva- 
nia Pliosphate, 326; Dissolved Bone, 327; Ground Bone, 328. 

Cumberland County Fertilizer Company, Carlisle, Pa.- — Special 
Fertilizer, 350; Grade 1 Phosphate, 351; Grade C Phosphate, 352; 
Grade D Phosphate, 353; Grade E Phosphate, 354; Grade F Phos- 
phate, 355 ; Grade G. Phosphate, 356. 

Cope, Henry, & Co., Lincoln University, Pa. — Pure Bone Phosphate, 
393; Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 394; Dead Shot Phosphate, 395; 
Wheat Growers' Complete Manure, 396 ; Potato Phosphate, 397. 

Cope, Josiaii, & Co., Lincoln University, Pa. — Pure Bone Phosi)hate, 
442; Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 443; Try Me Phosphate, 444; 
Acid Phosphate, 445. 

Church. James, & Co., Tiverton, R. I.— Standard Fertilizer, 454; 
Fish and Potash Fertilizer, 455. 

Clark, Curtis S., Union City, Pa.— Carbonized Bone, 470. 

DAMiiMAN Brothers ik Co., Baltimore, Md.— Pure Dissolved South 
Carolina Bone, 142; Wheat and Oats Fertilizer, 143; Alpha Soluble 
Bone, 144 ; Imperial Blood Guano, 449. 

Davison, W., & Co., Baltimore, Md.— Bos Ammoniated Phosphate, 
193; Pen-Mar Ammoniated Phosphate, 194; Dissolved South Carolina 
Rock, 195; Hi<i;h Grade Ammoniated Phosphate, 196. 

Davison & Scarlet, Greencastle, Pa.— Farmers' High Grade Phos- 
phate, 171. 

Dkmpwolf (t Co., York, Pa.— Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 365; 
Dissolved South Carolina Phosphate. 366. 

Dickey, S. R., Oxford, Pa.— Raw Bone i*hosphate, 410 ; Ground Raw 
Bone, 111. 

Davidge, R. C, New York.— Special Favorite Phosphate, 485. 

P:ckenrode, T. H.,Taneytown, Md.— Eckenrode^s Bone Phosphate, 46. 

Erie Lime and Cement Company, Erie, Pa.— Lister's Bone, 122. 

Eureka Fertilizer Company, Perryville, Md.— Farmer's Favorite 
Bone Phos])hate, 188; P & P Acid Phosphate, 189; Pure FineGround 
Bone, 190," Imperial Bone Phosphate, 476; Pure Dissolved Bone, 477; 
Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 480. 

FwiNG, AV., Landenberg, Pa.— Ground Raw Bone, 202; Eclipse Raw 
Bone Ph()s])hnle,203. 



i3on(^ 1 ii()si)nnie, zi)c5. 

Eqiitaiu.k Fertilizer Company, Baltimore, Md.— Esmaralda Gui 
404; E(iuitable Soluble Phosphate, 405; O K Ammoniated PJ 



mo, 
hos- 



phate, 406; Rose Bone Phosphate, 407; Equitable Fish Guano, 408 ; 
Potato Compound, 409. 



Flamingo Guano Company, Baltimore, Md.— Flamingo Guano, 239 : 
Liebig's Ammoniated Phosphate, 240. 

Farmer's Fertilizer Company, Syracuse, N. Y.— Reaper Phosphate, 
456 ; Standard Ammoniated Phosphate, 457. 

Glidden tS:; Curtis, New York— Dissolved Bone Phosphate, 114; 
Soluble Pacific Guano, 115; Nobesque Guano, 11(>. 

Gawturop, J. W. ^ Co.— K(^nnett Square, Pa.— Fine Ground Bone, 
300; Complete Phosphate, 301. 

Granger Fertilizer Company, Philadelphia, Pa.— New Departure 
Fertilizer, 424; Universal Crop Grower, 425; Granger Fertilizer, 426. 

Hauze, J. H., Rock Glen, Pa.— Stamped Raw Bone, 29. 

Hathaway, James, Leman Place, Pa.— Pure Bone Phosphate, 48; 

Evergreen Phosphate, 49. 

Hoffman, J. Rich, Font, Pa. — Bone Meal, 121. 

Horner, Joshua, & Co., Baltimore, Md.— Ammoniated Raw Bone 
Phosphat(\ 110; Dissolved Slaughter House Bone, 111; Slaughter 
House Bone, n2. 

Hopkins, J. N.. & Co., Baltimore, Md.— Carib Guano, 170. 

Hager, H. F.,— Hager's Ammoniated Phosphate, 258; Farmers 
Favorite Phosphate, 259 ; Burkholder & Wilsons' Bone Phosphate, 260; 

Hess, D. D., & Son, Reading, Pa.— Ammoniated Phosphate, 154; 
Keystone Dissolved Bone Phosphate, 155; Acid Phosphate, 15b; 

Ground Bone, 157. aoo r^^' ■ 

Hliruard & Brother, Easton, Md.— Standard Phosphate, 48b; Cli- 
max Phosphate, 487; Soluble Bone, 488. 

Irwin, E. J.,— Honevbrook Bone Phosphate, 39. 
Jarecki Chemical Works, Erie, Pa.— Ground Bone, 70; Guano, 71 ; 
Phosphate, .72 ; Soluble Bone Phosphate, 73 ; Lake Erie lish Guano, 

479 

Keystone Chemical Company, Philadelphia, Pa.— Concentrated 

Phosphate, 438. i 4. iq^. 

Kenderdine, T. S., Newton, Pa.— Kenderdine's Bone Phosphate 137 , 
Kenderdine, Watson, Lumberville, Pa.— W. Kenderdine s Plios- 

^^o!INtFELTER, J. A., Glenville, Pa.— Klinefelter's Reliable Phos- 
phate, 17^; Alkaline Phosphate, 177. 

Kline. J. L., Roaring Creek, Pa.— Raw Bone, 290 

Keystone Fertilizer Company, Johnstown, Pa.— Lion Ammoniated 
Phosphate, 182; Cambria Phosphate, 183; Bone Dust, 184; Standard 
Phosphate, 185 ; Dissolved Bone, 186; Dissolved South Carolina Rock, 

187 

Krug. J. & Co., Krugsdale, Ta.— Krug's Ammoniated Bone Phos- 

^ L^noaWer Cuemicat. Company, Lancaster, Pa.-Rising «'"> flios- 
phate 41- Flag Brand Phosphate, 42; Tobacco and Vegetable fertil- 
izer 48- Pure Bone Meal, 44; Dissolved South Carolina Rock 40 

L^RENTZ & RiTTLEH, Baltimore, Md.-Dissolved South Carolina 
Bmie 87; Powhattan Wheat Fertilizer, 88; Bone Phosphate lor 

'''Loi'd^oScStPANY, Odessa, Delaware.-Diamond State T^.ob- 
nWe 77- Diamond State Soluble Bone, 78; Champion I'erti iizer, 
7^ So] Jue Bone Potash, 80; Peach Tree Phosphate, 440; TruK- 

"^i™ * S^oS; BaMm^fe, Md.-Fiamingo Guano, 239 ; Liebig's 
Ammoniated Phosphate, 240. 



108 



Quarterly Report. 



^i! 



'; r 






ml 



Livers, John A.— Farmers' Gold Dust Pliosphate, 341 ; Dissolved 
Bone, 342. 

Lister Agrict ltural Chemical Works, Newark, N. J.— Standard 
Phosphate, 412; Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 413; United States 
Phosphate, 414; Ground ik)ne, 415; Harvest Queen Phosphate, 416 ; 
Success Phosphate, 417; Potato Fertilizer, 418. 

Meiiring, F.— Ammoniated Phosphate No. 2, 00; Twentv-six Dollar 
Phosphate, 61; Dissolved l^aw Bone, 62; Ammoniated' Phosphate 
No. 1, 63 ; Acid Phosphate, 64. 

MiDDLETON, J. J., & Co., Baltimore, Md.— Magnetic Phosphate, 
52; Sea Cliff Phosphate, 53; Acid Phosphate, 54. 

Maryland Fertilizing Company, Baltimore, Md.— Dissolved Ani- 
mal Bone, 92; Fine Ground Animal Bone, 93 ; Alkaline Bone Phos- 
phate, 94; Tornado Fertilizer, 95; Ammoniated Phos])hate, 96; Sangs- 
ton's Plant Food, 97; Linden Phosphate, 98; Dissolved Phosphate, 99; 
lobacco Food Brand Phosphate, 478. 

Miller, C. H., SellersviUe, Pa.— Raw Bone Phosphate, 136. 

Miller, F. W., SellersviUe, Pa.— Animal Bone Phospliate, 473. 

Mapes Peruvian Guano and Formula Company, New York— Peruvian 
Guano, 204; Ground Bone, 205 ; Phosphate, 206; Complete Manure, 

•, .^'^^VvM LiPPiNcoTT & Co., Baltimore, Md.— Simnvside Phosphate, 
148; W liitelock's Vegetator Phosphate, 149; Soliihle Phosphoric 
Acid and Potash Fertilizer, 150; Peninsula Ouano, 151. 

Michigan Carbon Works, Detroit, Michigan.— Homestead Dessi- 
cated Bone, 261 ; Homestead Bone Black Fertilizer, 262 ; Jarves Drill 
Phosphate, 263. 

MiLSOM Rendering Company, Buffalo, N. Y. — Milsom's Buffalo 
Phosphate, 219; Milsom's Potash Fertilizer, 220; Milsom's Pure 
Ground Bone, 221. 

MoRiTz, L., Philadelphia, Pa.— Button Bone, 427. 
Myers, S. S., Philadcli.hia, Pa.— Shell Phosphate, 450. 
McDowell, S. S., Oxford, Pa.— Bone Phosphate, 481 

Phn^nh!!fl^''fo7 ''^f ^'?"'J''^^ Company, Chicago, Ills.-Garden City 
Phosphate, 127 ; Ralston's Bone Meal, 128; Fine Raw Bone, 129; 
Twenty- SIX Dollar Phosphate, 130; Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, i;il- 

m Ch . t'r' "";"*' '.'"' P»-Gf™un.i Bone, 133; Pnarie Phosphate: 
it)4, Cliallenue Corn Grower, 135. ^ 

T^h^J^i^'^Ti?'"'^^^^^^^ T^liiladelpliia-Acidulated Phos- 

hlp Hnnf^ ?i r Bone Phosphate, 338 ; Super-Phosphate, 334; Solu- 
ble Bone and Potash, 335 ; Acidulated Fish Guano, 336 

CeS pLfph\tr372''^" York-Sickle Brand of Alkaline Bone, 371; 

4of 'SrDL^4/)f ?•' ^^".T^ ^^"^^' Pa.-Rectified Phosphate, 
A in ^i^"^M^^' German (A) Guano. 403; Twenty-Five Dollar 
O.^lrP^^^'l'^^V?.^ I^lain Super-Phosphate, 4?r 
Ober,G., &SONS, Baltimore, Md.-Soluble Ammonintcnl Phosphate 
23; Dissolved Bone Phosphate, 24; Farmers\Standard > lo'i a e 2^^^^^ 
Dissolvec Bone and Potash, 26; Dissolved Raw Bo e an K^^^^^^^^ 
Special Compound for Tobacco, 28 ' ' 

8KTHTF^T^^^''~//^**'^^Hy"'^: Md., Orchilla Guano, 30. 
C Kiir, J F., Beading, Pa,-Reading Bone Phosphate 420 

Orient Guano Manufacturing Company Npw \rl\ ' a • . ^ 

Bone Plmsnlvif^ AKQ. T^ i^^^ v>u3ii a.\ Y, rsew 1 ork — Ammoniated 
i5onclhospliate,458; Long Island Phosphate, 459; Orient Complete 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



109 



Manure, 460; Suffolk County Phosphate, 461; Fish and Potash Phos- 
phate, 4()2. 

Patapsco Guano Compaisiy, Baltimore, Md. — Special Wheat Com- 
pound, 224; Grange Mixture, 225; Baltimore Soluble Phosphate, 226; 
Patapsco Corn Fertilizer, 227; Pure Dissolved S. C. Rock, 228. 

PopPELTEN SiLiCATED Phospiiate Company, Baltimore, Md. — Active 
Ammonia Bone Phosphate, 229 ; Model Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 
230; Favorite Phosphate, 231; Soluble Bone Phosphate, 232; Ammo- 
niated Raw^ Bone Phosphate, 233 ; Popplien's Silicated Phosphate, 234. 

Peninsular Fertilizer Co:\[pany, Smyrna, Delaware — Planet Fer- 
tilizer, 246. 

Pacific Guano Company, Boston, Mass. — Dissolved Bone Phosphate, 
114; Soluble Pacific Guano, 115; Nobesque Guano, 116. 

Phillips, Moro (estate of ), Philadelphia, Pa.— Improved Phosphate, 
367; Soluble Bone Pliosphate, 368; Phuine, 369; Guarantee Guano, 

370. 

Provident Fertilizer Company, Philadelphia, Pa. — Tried and Irue 
Phosphate, 398 ; Meat and Bone Phosphate, 399 ; Mystic Phosphate, 

400. 

PuGH, J. S., Oxford, Pa.— Raw Bone Phosphate, 410; Ground Raw 

Bone, 411. n 

Philadelphia Fertilizer Company, Philadelphia, Pa.— Philadelphia 

Poudrette, 803 (last year's record). 

Quaker City Poudrette Company, Philadelphia, Pa.— Quaker City 

Poudrette, 452. t^ . /-i r»A 

Rasin Fertilizer Company, Baltimore, Md.— Empire Guano, JO; 
Rasin's Dissolved Bone, 21; Basin's Acid Phosphate, 22. 

Richardson, A. S., Philadelphia— Wando Phosphate, 113. 

Roberts, J. C, Philadelphia, Pa.— Quick and Lasting Phosphate, 109. 

Ramsburg Fertilizer Company, Frederick, Maryland— Ramsburg's 
Excelsior Plant Food, 208; Old Virginia Compound, 209. 

Rauh, E. R., & Sons, Indianapolis, Indiana— Raw Bone Meal, 222; 

Ammoniated Bone, 223. o.t o 

Richey Brothers, Uniontown, Pa.— Pure Ground Bone, 247; lione 

Phosphate, 248. ^ ^ ^ , ,^ ^^^ -, 

Ruth, The R. J. Co., New York— Good Luck Guano, 287; Essex 

Ouano, 288. _ ,.,.!-. .-i- c^^7n a 

Richmond, J., Philadelphia, Pa.— Excelsior Fertilizer, 279; Ammo- 
niated Bone Phosphate, 280; Azotized Bone Phosphate, 281; Potato 
and Fruit Tree Fertilizer, 282; Acid Phosphate, 283 ; Cereal Bone 



y, 



~i 



31 ; Swift Sure Ground Bone, 32 ; Good Enough Phospliate, 33 ; Echo 
Phosphate, 34 ; Dissolved S. 0. Rock, 35 ; Swi t Sure Disso ved Bone, 
36; Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 37; Twenty-Three Dollar Phos- 

Sha'mrkrger Brothers, Baltimore, Md.— Ammoniated Bone Phos- 

^''slingluff & Co., Baltimore, Md.-Corn and Potato Grower, 104 ; 
Dissolved S. C. Rock, 105 ; Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 10b ; Pure 
niaanlvprl Ronp 107; Giant Pliosphato, 108. 

s'Skkt?sE. A., Baltimore, kd.-Sharetts' Wheat Grower, 12; 

Sharretts' Tobacco Grower, 453. 



110 



QlTARTEKLY RePORT. 



Pennsylvania Boakd of Agriculture, 



111 









./**• 



1% 






Stick, 11.8., Glenville, Pa.— York County Phosphate, 178; Mar Pen 

Phosphate, 170. 

SciiALL Brothers, Erie, Pa.— Erie City Phospliate, 180; Ground 

Bone, 181. 




moniated Bone Phosphate, 297; High Grade Ammoniated Bone 
Phosphate, 298. 

Simmons, J. 1)., Ilagerstown, Md.— Wlieat and Corn Producer, 302; 

Honest Fertilizer, 303. 

Somerset Fertilizer Company, Somerset, Pa.— Bone Meal, 249 ; Dis- 
solved Bone, 250; Imperial Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 251; 
Excelsior Bone Phosphate, 252; Acid Pliosphate, 253. 




Fertil 
Am 

Scott, I)., S: Brother, Elkton,Md.— Tip-top Soluble Bone, 329 ; Sure 
Growth Phosphate, 330 ; Standard Phosphate, 4G3 ; Ground Raw Bone, 
4t)-l ; Pure Dissolved Bone, 465. 

Smith, J. J., Trenton, N. J. — Fertilizer for Grain and Grass, 374; 
Fertilizers for Potatoes and Truck, 375. 

Sharpless & Carpenter, Philadelphia, Pa. — No. 1 Bone Phosphate, 
387; Acid Phosphate, 388; Ground Bone, 389; Dissolved Bone Phos- 
phate, 390; Soluble Tampico Guano, 391. 

Susquehanna Fertilizer Company, Baltimore, Md.— Bone Phosphate, 
300; Superior Rock Phosphate, 361; Ammoniated Bone Phosi)hate, 
302; Pure Ground Bone, 363; Packing House Bone, 364. 

Tate, Muller & Wittichen, Baltimore, Md. — Esmeralda Guano, 
404 ; Flquitable Soluble Phosphate, 405; O. K. Ammoniated Phosphate, 
40i>; Rose Phosphate, 407; Equitable Fish Guano, 408; Potato Com- 
pound, 409. 

Tygert, J. E., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. — Star Bone Phosphate, 433; 
Star Guano, 434; Soluble Bone, 435; Acid Phosphate, 436. 

Thomas, I. P., & Sons, PhiLadelphia, Pa. — Tip top Bone Phosphate, 
173; Farmers' Choice Phosphate, 174; Normal Phosphate, 175. 

Trinley, Jacob, Limerick Station, Pa. — Raw Bone, 117; Raw Bone 
Phosphate, 118; Favorite Bone Phosi)hate, 119 ; Ravine Bone Phos- 
pliate, 120. 

Turner, J. J., Baltimore, Md. — Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 191 ; 
Dissolved Bone, 192. 

Thompson & Edwards, Chicago, 111. — Fine Ground Bone, 215 ; Bone 
Phosphate, 216 ; Dissolved Bone Meal, 217 ; Sure Growth Phosphate, 
218. 

Taylor, John, & Co., Trenton, N. J.— Ammoniated Dissolved Bone 
and Potash, 235 ; Complete Fertilizer for Wheat, Oats and Grass, 236 ; 
Com])lete Fertilizer tor Potatoes, Truck and Tobacco, 237; Complete 
Fertilizer for Corn, 238. 

United States Chemical Comiiany, Phila(lel])hia, Pa. — Philadcdphia 
Standard Phospliate, 264; National Potato Fertilizer, 265; National 
Tobacco P'ertilizer, 266; National Phosphate, 267 ; National Soluble 
Bone, 268; National Comi)lcte Phosphate, 269; Yearsley's Acid 
Phosphate, 270; Yearsley's Chester County Phosphate, 271. 



Ulmer, Jacob, Pottsville, Pa. — ITlmer's Ammoniated Bone Phos- 
phate, 451. 

Vaughn, Bonsall & Co., Salem, Ohio. — Pure Salem Bone Dust, 74; 
Twenty-live Dollar Guano, 75; Salem Bone and Meat Phosphate, 76. 

AValt, F. K., Pennsbury, Pa.— No. 1 Complete Animal Bone Phos- 
phate, 474. 

Walton & Whann Co., Wilmington, Del. — Diamond Soluble Bone, 
1 ; Plow Brand Raw Bone Phosphate, 2; Acid Phosphate, 3 ; Reliance 
Ammoniated Phosphate, 4. 

Wolf, Joseph, Abbottstown, Pa.— Spring Run Bone Phosphate, 11. 

Wilkinson & Co., New York— Fconomical Bone Fertilizer, 14. 

Walker, Joshua, Baltimore, i\Id.— Old Pittsburgh Phosphate, 55; 
Dissolved Bone Phosphate, 56; Economical Ammoniated Phosphate, 
57; Victoria Bone, 58; Dissolved S. C. Rock, 59. 

Waring Fertilizer Company, Colora, Md.— Ammoniated Phos- 
phate, 81; T. & P. Acid Phosphate, 82; Pure Dissolved Bone, 83; 
Pure Ground Bone, 84. 

W^ooLRiDGE, R. A., Baltimore, Md.— Orchilla Guano, 30. 

Wanuo Fertilizer Company, Philadelphia, Pa.— Wando Phosphate, 

113 

AValker, Stratman & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.— Big Bonanza Phosphate, 

146 ; Pure Bone Meal, 147. "^^ 

VViNDLE & DoAN, Coatesville, Pa.— Raw Bone, 211 ; Bone Phosphate, 

212; Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 213. . -r. ^, 

Weist, Jacob— Weist's Phosphate, l52; Weist's T. & F. Phosidiate, 

153 

Weaver, E. M.— Pure Bone, 172; Special Bone Phosphate, 467. 

Whann, Thomas, Jr., Chester Springs, Pa.— Keystone Raw Bone 
Phosphate, 339 ; Pure Raw Bone, 340. 

Wahl, Emil, Philadelphia, Pa.— Button Bone, 419 

Williams, Clark & Co., New York— Americus Phosphate, 343; 
Royal Bone Phosphate, 344; Americus Bone Meal, 345; Universal 
Dissolved Bone, 346; Americus Potato Fertilizer, 347; Acorn Plain 

Dissolved Bone, 348. 

Whann, W. E., Atglen, Pa.— Chester Valley Phosphate, 468, 

Ammoniated Phosphate, 469. 

Whann & Sellers— Chester Valley Phosphate, 373. . ^ , ^, 
Yarnall, L, Media, Pa., Bone Fertilizer, 376; Ammoniated Phos- 

^' Young, J. & R., Pittsburgh, Pa.— Smoky City Phosphate, 1G9. 
Yearsley, I.— Yearsley's Acid Phosphate, 270; Yearsley's Chester 

County Phosphate, 271. j r>„„„ on±. 

Zkll Guano Company, Baltimore, Md.-ZePs Dissoved Bone, 304 
ZelFs Economizer Phosphate, 305; Zell's Ammoniated Bone Phos- 
pliate, 306 ; Zell's Calvert Guano, 307. 



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MINUTES OF THE SFJUNG MEETING. 

Held at UelU'lb.ite and State Collejre. June 8th ami !>Ui, 1887. 
Boav.l .-ailed to ..nler at 9.30 A. M. by Dr. John 1'. Ldge, vice presi- 

"^Ti i>elmTf ol The Centre County Agricultural Society and the citizens 
of Bellelonte, Hon. A. O. Furst, president judge ol the twenty-htth 
iudicial district, addressed the Board as lollows: _ 7, „ ,/ 

'' J/r. President and Members of the State Board of Agriculture of 
■Pennsylvania: The pleasant duty has been "f «"^'^\,f ^ ,!" J [r*^.^^ 
welcome to the county of Centre and to the !f;>:""f«,^;' ''*'•' f^ 
When vou r<>ach Centre county you come vvitlun the centu ot the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and when you locate in this town 
you are practically in the centre of the State. 

We reco"nize the fact that of all the industries ol thib land agicul- 
ture is thefeaditig one. In other words, it is the living industry o the 
a"e t stlie foumlation upon whi<-h every other pursuit m this land 
must rest Wiien agriculture is prosperous, all other industries partake 
™ s prosper tv. WM.en adversity strikes the farmer or his 1 arm it 
affSs every other business in tlie lan.l. So that there is no industry 
f poteni -md so important to all the -tl^erindustries ot our coim ry s 
thatofaLn-iculture. It is the basis upon which the commen ul ana 
rn'uu ■. -n, ri " t.terests of this Commonwealth rests. It is perhaps of 
^1 1 sS one most dependent upon the hand o 

Providence From the dav the farmer sows his seed in tjie ground 
nnnVhe harvests his crop and places it in the barn, every day m the 
Seasiii he Sde^i^yetit lipon a' beneficent Providence for lavor and 

PT.!;miif.^Ts'redu::edrlSen;.e. You will discover this when .>^u 
hear Erour wo thv friend of this town (Clement Dale, Esq.), m his 
es4V upon Ce.it?e county farming. He may tell you howfarnnng was 
Sfe in is co^^^^^^^^^^ I'' liedoes,you will be very much 

st3ri ed wl e^you contrast it with the present method ol l^nnnng n 
t ifeo . Iv and surroundi.ig districts. But for the essayist I des re 
o sav is termed wUh us a« ancestral farmer, he farms throi.gh his 
St Sis He lef the farm when he was fifteen years ol age and w I at 
he knows now of practical farming he gathers as executor ot Us father s 

^''f mi-dKo's^' in this connection, referri.ig to the lo.'al history of 

per ahum, or, m it is Mia m "" ., f.„.,,„V H„le," we ilisl iisui»ll 
We are ■>"';.';:"\«"S\,'°H'f s phj^id mof W,' tewn. AnS yet 
he'L /™ccSl ?'nner i.f «. Lmtv, lHat he owns nearly .11 the 

Jr'Th"i:,;tr«,'i ol-Jur'eoSirale i'er'y .mijl, hhe the h,.e,«.sof 

every asricultnral <=»'"'' J,-; '''^.frT,:;,!?.'' 1,,. ri,-l„.,t <iepe.it, of 
ire^^r^e-^l^-nf^L ^.l?r,:;l! c; :;. ™o U^^^^^^^ 



124 Quarterly Report. 

ces of iron ore, coke and coal will all be derived from within the county 
ifmit / \ % have verv extensive gh.ss works in successful operation; 
a short time since it^net with a disastrous tire and was totally de- 
stroyed. It has been re])uilt, and to-day Bellelonte ^^lass stands upon 
an /quallity with any other -hiss manufactured in this Commonwealth. 
We have also successful iron works largely engaged in the manutac- 
ture of nails, and there are other industries connected with tlie manu- 
facture of iron. We have rich deposits of coal and iron ore, as 1 have 
already stated; the deposits of iron ore seem to be innumerable, and 
the supply inexhaustible. For a hundred years to come the iron in- 
terests of'this conntrv cannot be fully develo])ed, much less exhausted. 
And we have not onlv our iron and lumber interests, but we have 
other manufacturing interests of importance. We have some of the 
very best mills, with the new process for the manufacture ot Hour, 
actively and prosi)erously engaged within the limits ot this county, 
and within the limits of this borough. .„ ^ , . , .\ . . ,, 

W^e are, perhaps, as old a town as you will find in the interior ot the 
Commonwealth. This town travels with the century. It was organized 
in 1798 by James Dunlap and James Harris, whose descendants largely 
are residents of this borough. 

The first agricultural society was held in this town in 1825, and it 
was presided over by Judge Burnside, afterward of the Supreme Court, 
and wlio to-day is sleeping in our beautiful cemetery; so that for a 
period of sixty years and upwards this people has been engaged in the 
science of agriculture, and interested in the development of the coun- 
try and the farm, and commencing at a period of time, gentlemen, 
when the Indian must have traversed the confines of our county. 

You are to-day wdthin sight of the bald eagle's nest, the noted chief- 
tain after whorn our railroad and our valley of the Bald Elagle is 
called. You are in sight of Logan's spring, called in honor of the most 
noble of all the Indians of this country, and his war path and the site 
of his camp are in this county; and not only this, but the great war- 
rior's path leading from Erie to the Delaware, the Chinklodacamoose,. 
is to-day a land mark for some of the original surveys, an incontrover- 
tible land mark fixing the boundaries of unseated lands in tliis county. 
Gentlemen, I desire to call your attention to the fact, and I do it 
modestly, that you are here at the home ol' the Chief Executive of this- 
Commonwealth, who for some good reason is absent from your Board 
to-day. By virtue of his office the ( Governor is President of this Board. 
I welcome you to his liome. We all feel a personal pride in Gover- 
nor Beaver, who so worthily tills the office of Chief Magistrate of this 
Commonwealth. 

I am not in the habit of pronouncing panegyric or eulogy over the 
living, and yet I cannot restrain my thoughts and my feelings from 
saying that w^e are proud that it is also the home of the most distin- 
guished living war (Jovernor of the age. Governor Curtin is a resident 
of this town. I feel a personal ])ri<h' in everything that is connected 
witli his name, l)ecause of his usefulness to his country, and his record 
as the War (Jovernor of Pennsylvania. I might say that he is not only 
the peer of every living war Governor, but he is one of three surviv- 
ing of the seventeen Governors who met in the city of Altoona during 
the war, upon whose determination dei)ended very much the success 
of the Union arms, and if there is any thing that the country should 
rejoice in, it is the memory of the men who in the trials of the country 
stood faithful to her tlag (applause); we should honor them on all oc- 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



125 



casions, and we should be ready even in their lifetime to pronounce 

eulogy upon their name. , .. ^ f ii.. i.oa 

Governor Curtin occupies a peculiar relation to our court. He has 
Dronounced within the last year a eulogy upon six or seven mem- 
C of th\s bar; and, as he is in the prime of his life he ^-^ Pro;|nse^^ 
to continue to pronomice eulogies upon the deceased members oi this 
bar until, as he says, w^e are all buried (laughter). . ^ ., 

Tl^i s one otlL' matter of interest to which I ^eBire to cal yo, r 
attention; we have in this town a most "«tea si.un^; it waters are 
pure and fresh and sparkling, and as clear as the ""^^^^'^.^^f J '• ^^ *JJ 
as we know, since the creation, there has never been the first evidtiice 
;? discoloration in a single particle of that water, then it is not o.ily 
■Pkiir*^ «inrl frpsh in anDearauce, but wholesome. 

^T,o ic< that IL ??esident ;>f.this association at the cornniencernent 
exercises of the theological seminary at Prmceton the othei day, ma 
pos prandial ^MveB.' complained that the a litnde o P""««ton was 
so ^reat that the atmosphere was exceedingly stimulaing and very 
BKY Now alto beingdry, if any member of this association ^ndulg^s 
in the use of water, we refer him to our spring as «"« ^^^ ^^' {^{^ 

^'i'tJ^pirurti^r/LtS^yon for your P-enee,^ere^^^^^^^^^^^ 
cordially extend you a welcome to our town and to the hospitalitj ot 

''"olrb^h'alf of the Board, Dr. John P. Edge replied as follows : 

"^^.^s^nd Gi^i^ens of ^-^^--?.- iiyj.^KcTthVa'o: 
to eve?y member of this Board present, that H s Jl^cf llency the uov 
Avnnr the nresident of the Board, is unavoidably absent. 1 was maae 
TwaTe S the fact only a few minutes ago that I would be required to 
awaieo the tact onij a president being also absent; 

St?rvethSSS^'no extended remarks to make in response to 
fL verv coVdal address of welcome that you have just pronounced. 
^LeieclXofUe proceedings of this Board during its present session 
ine lecoiu oi mc i welcome- and when that record shall have 

T™ co'nSS t rfW Srciii.e;„ of Centre county. »-l.o have 

~[S^B^, i-ro'o!!;;;iises,? « 

H:^^«fN;.H=tS'a cSe°' ,} 1^1^ ,epo,t ,u»„ th, 
. credentials of members elect and J^l^ga es 



12(5 QUAKTKIU-V PvKI'ORT. 

and Montrose were uMmed, wlieii, on motion, the selection was left for 

'r)\'m\':,To;vf>fS;Sn.i,h. W.... Gates, of Venan.o then read an 
68 a? ^ • 1 ow to Build and Maintain Public Roads, " he sub.iecr, mat- 
ter was tlHMi .liscussed by Messrs. Dr. Ed^e, Searle, Lngle, Herr Im- 
dervvood, McDowell, (iaies, Roland, Hamilton, Freav, Kratz Colvin, 
Secretary and otlu-rs. when, on motion of Mr. Mather, the discussion 

was closed. ^^^^^ ^^^ Chester, then read an essay entitled" An Inquiry 
into theResultsof the Artilicial Propagation of Food Fishes mUiester 
county " which ellicited discussion on the part of Me.svs. Kohmd, 
Shortiidge, Snuth, ( Jrotf, Dr. Edge, Engle and Musselraan. 

On behalf of the Committee on Credentials ot members and delegates. 
Dr. W. 8. Roland presented the following report, wlucii, on motion ot 

Mr. Enirle, was accepted. , ^ „ • , i 

"The Committee on Credentials report the following delegates pres- 
ent, viz : Muncy Valley Farmer's Club, A. J. Kahler and Abner 

r '1 ^ 1 1 1 

^Clinton County Agricultural Society, James David, William Hayes, 
J. H. Lou-, Jacob A. Bittner and Charles Kyle. tt t> . 

Clinton County Tomona Grange, John Mc A aul, James M. I orter 

and I. T. Lundy. ,, ^,. , ^ r^^ ^ -o 

Nittanv (xranse No. 334, John AV. McClintock and Charles K. 

Eomick. 

Bald Eagle Grange No. 303, L. T. Lundy and wife. 

Solebury Farmer's Club (Bucks county), AVatson Kenderdine, W. 
C. Blackfan, Hannah Beeder and Lizzie C. Blackfan. 

On motion of Mr. Searle, Prof. W. A. Buckhout, Entomologist of 
the Board, read an essay entitled ''Some suggestions on Forestry, 
which was followed by discussion from members and others. 

On motion of Mr.' Smith, Clement Dale, esq., read an essay on 
"Farming in Centre county." 

On motion discussion deferred and adjourned until 2 p. m. 

Wednesday Afternoon, June 8^ 1887. 

Board called to order at 2 p. m., by Dr. John P. Edge, vice president, 
in the chair. 

On the motion of Messrs. Herr and Barnes, the chair was directed to 
ap])()int suitable committees to prepare and present to the Board reso- 
lutions expressive of the feelings of the memVjers at the death of J. S. 
Keller, late member from Schuylkill, and D. H. Foresman, late mem- 
ber from Lycoming. The chair named, in the case of the death of 
Mr. Keller, Messrs. Barnes, of Lehigh; Zerr, of Berks, and SInmer of 
Northampton, and in the case of the death of Mr. Foresman, .Messrs. 
Herr, of Clinton, Gates, of Venango, and P]ves, of Columbia, with di- 
rections to present their reports at the afternoon session of Thursday. 

On behalf of the Committee on Credentials, Mr. Herr, of Clinton, 
reported that the committee had received a certificate showing that 
E()])ert A. Foresman had been selected by the Lycoming County 
Agricultural Society, to represent them for the unexi)ired term of I). 
H. Foresman, deceased. They further reported that inasmuch as the 
certificate was not ui)on tlu^ blank form prescril)ed by the rules of the 
I^onrd, that they wouhl recommend that he be received as a member 
for this meeting, and that previous to the next meeting he shouhl fur- 
nish the secretary with a certificate of membership made out upon 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



12T 



the proper form. Beport of committee adopted, and the secretary 
directed to furnish ]\Ir. Foresman with the proper blank. 

On motion, John Hamilton, of (Jentre county, then read an essay 
on "Tenant Farming," which was discussed by Messrs. Eoland, Gundy, 
Hamilton, Humes, Searle and Smith. 

On motion of Mr. Engle, Hon. C. C. Musselman, of Somerset, then 
read an essay entitled '' Lime and Home-made Fertilizers versus Com- 
mercial Fertilizers." 

On motion of Mr. Herr, of Clinton, all discussion of the fertilizer 
question was deferred until after the reading of all essays bearing on 

the topic. 

Hon. John W. Hickman, of Chester county, then addressed the 
Board upon the subject of commercial fertilizers, and illustrated his 
remarks by a series of illustrated charts. 

On motion of .Mr. Eves, of Colum])ia, seconded by Mr. Searle, of 
Suscpiehanna, it was decided to invite Hon. A. G. Curtin to address 
the Board during the early portion of the session, and on motion the 
chair named Messrs. Eves, Musselman and Roland a committee to in- 
vite Governor Curtin to address the Board in accordance with the 
resolution of Mr. Eves. 

Prof. Wm. Frear, of State College, then read an essay on '^ ihe 
Results of Recent Investigations on Nitrogen in Soils and Plants." 

On motion of Mr. Herr, the unfinished order of fixing a place of 
next meeting, and after several ballots it was decided to meet at 
Beaver at the call of the Advisory Committee*. 

On motion adjourned. 

Wednesday Evening, June 5, 1887, 
Board called to order at 8 p. m., by Hon. John P. Edge, vice presi- 
dent, in the chair. K r^ r^ ^' ,\ 1 
In accordance with the programme, Hon. A. G. Curtin then ad- 
dressed the Board. ^ p ., t> i ^ v i -n 

Dr Henry Leflmann, Microscopist of the Board, delivered an illus- 
trated lecture upon '^ The Application of the Microscope to the De- 
tection of Alterations." The lecture was profusely illustrated by a 
camera, and was listened to by an appreciative audience. 

Thursday Morning, June 9, 1887. 
Board called to order at 10 a. m., in the chapel of the State College, 
• by Dr. J. P. Edge, in the chair. 

Dr. George Atherton, president ot the State College, then ex- 
plained the programme for the day. ^ ^^ ^ ^ . . ^. 

Dr George W. Cook, director ot the New Jersey Experiment Sta- 
tion, 'then read an essay on '^ The Limitations of Agricultural Experi- 
ment Work." , . - . . .1 i-rr 4. 

On motion, adjourned for the purpose of examining the d iflerent 

*Soon after the adiouniinent of the Bellefonte meeting, it was found tluit from the 
faot that the court house would be in use during the month ot Sep ember it would 
be imnos%^^ ^'P''' proposed; it was also lound 

fl?a Thc^re d been a misundei'standing as to the time ot the proposed meeting. 

tI ..w.w ohse facts and with the advice and consent ot the Executive Commit- 
tee obuVed in wrUi^ decided to call a meeting of the Advisory Committee 
for the Durnose of takin^^^ such action as might seem advisable. 

Af H.^ rnoPtino- ot- the Vdvisorv Committee, after a caretul examination of the 
At the /meeting ot tn^ /^^>^ \ was decided to liold the next meeting at Montrose, 
^llsrri'nn t • n^^^^^^^ 13 was decided on as a date^hieh would 

best suit th'^rcsldenl^^^ and the members of the Board. 



128 Quarterly Report. 

departments of the college, and the plots on the State Experimental 
farm connected with the college. 

Thursday Afternoon, June 9. 1887. 
Board came to order at 3:00 p. m. in tlie chapel of the State College, 
X)r Toliii 1' Edtre, vice president, in the cliair. . 

"" The conunittee 'appoi.\ted to prepare resolutions expressive of Uje 
feelings of the Board in relation to tlie death of D. H. l^oiesnian, late 

removed from this Board of Agriculture one of its foremost and most 
inlliKMitial members; therefore, be it 

Si That in 'the death of Hon. D. II, Foresman, late member 
from Lycmning county, this Board has sustained an irreparable oss. 
A strong and valuable member has been taken from us, whose long 
knd useful connection with tliis Board, whose great social character- 
istics and sterling qualities of head and heart had greatly endeared 

Viim to ns 

Resolved, That while we humbly submit to the Divine fiat we mourn 
the loss of one whose private and official connection with the Board 
has been distinguished by the zeal and ability which he brought into 

^Resolved, That we tender our earnest sympathy to the bereaved 
family and friends; and . . x ..u ^ -i r 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be presented to the tamily 
of the deceased and be spread upon the minutes of this Board. 

[Signed] J. A. Herr, 

William Gates, 
Chandle Eves. 
The committee appointed to prepare similar resolutions relating to 
the death of Joshua S. Keller, late member from Schuylkill county, 

presented the following : , . i ^. r i. 

Whereas, This Board having ])een informed of the death ol Joshua 
S. Keller, who has represented the Schuylkill County Agricultural 
Society as a member of the State Board of Agriculture since its 
oro;anization, in the year 1877, continuously to the present time, haying 
in January last been re-elected for another term of three years from 
that date ; therefore. 

Resolved, That by his death Schuylkill county has lost a worthy 
and efficient citizen and faithful representative in the State Board of 
Agriculture, in the Agricultural Society and in the State Horticultural 
Association. 

Resolved, That as a Board we hereby express our sympathies and 
condolence with the family under their" bereavement by the loss of 
husband and father who was long spared to them, even beyond the 
allotted time, three-score and ten years, but now, by the unchangeable 
providence of God, removed in the way of all llesh. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions l^e transmitted to the 
family and that they be enrolled in lull on the records of the Board. 

[Signed] James P. Barnes, 

A. D. Shimer, 
Jacob G. Zerr. 

The ])resident having requested an expression of the feelings of 
individual members the following responses were given : 

Dr. W. S. Roland, of York. My acquaintance with the deceased raem- 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



129 



bers, J. S. Keller and D. IT. Foresman, commenced with tlie organiza- 
tion of this Board of Agriculture, ten years ago last January, and that 
membershi]) and association has continued uninterrupteclly down to the 
close of their useful lives. It is honoral)le for the living to speak ot 
the virtues of the dead and to express sorrow, and to pay trihute to 
their memory, and to do justice to their merits, whereby gratitude 
truth and friendship are served, and the example rendered worthy ol 
the emulation of the living. . ^i 

The deceased were agreeable and pleasant companions; tliey weie 
attentive, active and energetic, and took great interest in the ])usiness 
of the Board, and bv their careful, intelligent and strict attention to 
their relative duties: and by their uniform courtesy and kindly dis- 
positions endeared themselves to their fellow meml)ers. In their in- 
tercourse with their fellow associates and friends they were uniformly 
urbane, respectful, and always easily approached. Warm in Iriendship 
and sincere in their convictions, they enjoyed the respect and conlidence 

of all who knew them. ^ • i ^ i 

Mr Keller was a plain practical man, rather unassuming, l>ut wiien 
he dill take part in the proceedings he was consistent, and what he did 
say showed intelligence and sound judgment. His absence Irom the 

meetinKS will be mourned. ..■,-,• ■ c ii.„ 

Mr Foresman always took an active part in the discussions of the 

various topics introduced into the meetings and was ever ready and 

prepared to say something intelligently to the purpose. He was am- 
[ti us in action, never wearying in seeking for successtul results, and 
is words and ntluence were respected by his fellow members as 
osses ing thougiit and ability. I most sincerely lament the unUmely 

loss of an associtite and friend, thus cut down in the midst ol an active, 

^"Sr;?. C.tEMiI?Na. J. S. Keller had a very strongly marked in- 
dividualitv. Of all the men the members of this Board have met, no • 
one can be brought up in memory as resembling the gentleman re erred 
to H?s dress, his manners, his conversation, h s general ideas o men 
.nd th ngs, all appeared in decided contrast with the generally ol men. 
He b' ived mo?e in the homely home-spun than later cuts in iashion, 
ihou-h in tliis respect he was not so lar behind as to call ioith dis- 
ar^n' remarks or unfavorable criticism from strangers or acuaml- 
aices In manners he would not attract special att^ention mingling 
with 1 n m er of farmers, unless by his habit of sitting more or less 
Ld ted ro" "tl'ersinth; meetings he regularly attended, dropping 
ow down in his chair, and now andthen, without regard to parliament- 
irv In w uttering a word or suggestion, or even making a motion as 
the oSs^n seemed to warrant I have noticed the elfectol this upon 
rn?er 'resident^ of the board, particularly ex-Governors lartranit 
a I 'at Lo The first mentioned at first seemed to be taken com- 
Siehbvs rprise; but after mak^ 

Fnfan tiSsof th^ member from Schuylkill, he always treated luu 
viU^'; tesy and respect, though evidently a little worried at t. m- 
when ■ Srs of note were present. When ex-Governor Faltison had 
reViUdov^the delibera.il.ns of the Hoard one or two sessions, he 
h Id he- rd r. n our iricid two or three times in the unexpected manner 
1 ave' nd cated. At lir.t he evidently thought he was not a member 
;<• H,. R ard but havin- inwardlv decided that he was, he then pro- 



il 



I1 •' 



V 
Hi 

li; 
\i 

I* 

It 



23Q Quarterly Report. 

minutely observin- every moveinent, and seemin^^ly reading" liis yery 

Z h ts \™ conclusion was never was communicated; but 

•o r t time or wlieneyer a remark or suggestion or motion came 

X u iSu^^^^^ way alluded to, if it could be received witl- 

out U)o am'ai^nt incor^istency with the subject under consideration, 

it was invariably entertaiued. , , . 

In conversation one soon was convinced with the Idct that the (le 
cea enacfdevoted much time to study and investigation and was m 
vdvancr ^vell educated agriculturists. He 

fl 1? r^T ok^at len-th during the sessions of the Board, perhaps not 
K t ne?^i^i^ U^^^^^ membership, but what he did say was 

?^iX sound and to the point, and on one or two particular occasions 
nn te imSauT He was outspoken in his sentiments, and a man ot 
^e y trong^c^^^^ When he made investigations they were 

charac er zed bv intelligence and much patience. The results were 
conunuidc^ his neighbors and others without restraint ; and I 

think this accounts tor his great popularity at home. ^ 

He was notonly regular in attendance upon the sessions of this Board, 
but ^a member of tlie State Agricultural Society and ol the Exective 
Committee thereof he seldom omitted a meeting. He took a deep in- 
terest in everything pertaining to agriculture, he seemed to care little 
for anvthin- else, the cultivation of strawberries and the stocking ot 
his lisii pond with carp being considered branches ot that science 

As a man he was honest, large-hearted, generous, kind to his tellows 
without exception, punctual in his engagements, seemingly reguhir in 
his habits, and in hearty accord with the progress of the age. He never 
carped about the -good old times,'' but ever seemed to look upon the 
present as in advance of the past, aiding in various directions to the 
best of his ability until he sank into his last sleep. ^ 

About fourteen years ago it was my good ibrtune to become acquainted 
with one who will live long in the memory with the older members ot 
this Board (Hon. D. H. Foresman). He was unlike other members of 
the Board in some respects. While regular in his attendance upon the 
meetings, he usually sat aside or further V)ack than the other members ; 
and wlien discussion lagged or appeared dry, or not to the point, a lew 
words would be thrown in. combattingsomething that had been said, 
tlius i)ringing several members to tiieir feet in reply. Thus new lile 
would spnng up, and more than once the matters drawn out proved 
of great additional value in the published proceedings. In going to 
and returning from the sessions of tlie Board, when our departed friend 
was on the train, time passed much more ])leasantly and agreeably, 
particularly before he suffered from the poor health that was apparent 

the past year. 

Mr. Foresman was a man of strong likes and dislikes. Some men lie 
seemed to care very little lor; others commanded pcu'haps only his re- 
spect. If true merit were discovered, no man was more willing to 
acknowledge it than he. With merit, ability ;nid tact combined, then 
not only respect and attention, but admiration would follow. 

He w^as a strong partisan. From early Hie he remained unswerv- 
ingly of the same politi<'al faith, but consenting to h(>ld positions by 
the franchises of his fellow citizens in local ollices only, and with small 
or no pecuniary remuneration. 

He was a man who led in sentiment at home, and had great inllu- 
ence with his neighbors. While watchful monetarily, and to a degree 
noticeal)le by strangers, he had a (piiet way of hel])ing the needy that 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



131 



I'v 



very few kue^v until his decease. After the f' ".efl""™^^?"^^ ^^P.^^ 
Ions came to the alHieted wile, ..r sons, or adniiinstrator, aeknowledg- 
,-n" w' ith deei) -ratilude help which had been extended. Widows and 
o|)l"ns atd'm'imlus ixH>^.eighlK,rshadlK.d th^^ 
out knowledge of any other member ot the laniily than the hubl)ana 

" He't^an enterprising citizen A number of tluMnost prosp^^^^^^^^^ 
industries of Williamsport are largely due to his businebs saj^atity 
d forSX. In agricultural pursuits he pushed with vigor lie work 
if tl e la -e hrivini farn.s that he owned. He seldom made a mis- 
take in connection with their operation; but when he diditwas amus- 
in': as wJil as entertaining to hear him relate how it happened, and 

iU\ JS in^liS apparently carefid in. ^i^^^^S^:^::l^^::i 

ances eve -keenly interested in the welfare of this Board and act ve 
foi Us pimanent good, this association has sufiered a great loss in the 
departure Toi^ver of on'e of its oldest members, sincerest fnends and 

warmest advocates. PrP^^rlent• Permit me to 

Hon. C. C. MrssELMAN, of Somerset. Ml. Fres^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

^^:^n:£i:^rS:^'t:ii-ie'^^^^^- I cio tiot believe 
[w anv L. ber^^^^^^ Board will be more missed than he; not on 

He l>el»ni-t" ' '„„ ' „f IVimsylvania's Dutch farmers, to wlu.li elass I 
f/av"", he h" ,™« Eelon's' ™He Lid.butlittle. h„t ser^rally it ™ to H,e 
J;"„t. He was a ,,h,in nnasH.tm.nC ??" l™""' "'"' '' ' 

"7?'^-';K':^'oVL":L':^h"''M"r.'i.lent'rn,aveh.,...eww„rd.,o 

meetingin the year 1877 J^«''J^^^^^^ ,,;,,, them to a greater or 

from the 'f ^'y" 'l'^; "J;\j*",'S,aTof 4^ peculiar bupressions. He 
less extent. *j'\^^l':\ '^!,;,!^,^" ^^^^^ ^ He was not a theoretical 

practical part he »l;">'%f''"f''' ,^*„ 'f , ",£ ,1 is l.al.ils, as I 
S'hS:J,':r?;tTcV,lr£"sle Sp^S/'S'lie re,„ar,ts he ...,e 

''" ll*^!™ m 1 rce in his exfros-ioiis. an.l very coniii.tin.. alive. 



^32 Quarterly Rki'Obt. 

1 Tiw.,r AVPrp wen of different temperaments 

two excellent members. They ^^^re n en o ^^ position 

and dillerentin eharacter l>"t X ' ",/ ^^'^ V ' -ee inllv with what 
in this Board that cannot be ^^;*i'y [^^l-''^^^'.^ alv spoken' in memory 
has been said by my predecessors, ^^ ho have so a ly i 

of the deceased President • I remember that Mr. Fores- 

E. KKE..KH. ot K'''^'^«: . ^\^Voard oSh'er on the 22d of May, 1877 
man and 1 came »" " ^h s M 

There were nine ot ''« ^^ ^ if thrPP now remain in the Board, Dr. 

T ''"'■ r uiddi I'nilSso^WnS of Sat "and myself. I iormed 
Barnes, of Lelngh,! loitsboi vv ii« , and it has been kept np 

Mr. Foresman's «.<^'l'';'"^ta,K-e ten yea s a o^^ a^^^^^ ^,.^^ .^^i^^^^^^ 

pleasantly ever smcu?. He I'''" f^^^ .resided over our deliberations 

f '';H ?*"?,; .dlil tv and di'nU V a d hi eclsions, soiar as 1 was able 
he did it with aUlity and (ii.-,nii.y, aii i p^savist or a reporter, 

to.iud,^e, were alwas ]"«t.and nnpartnd^ ,;^ bit a«ons of on' proceed^ 
he does not appear c^onspicnously ^'' 1 " f ^ of work, and the 
i„,s. He appeared ^ ^ave a I JUe to i^t^^^^^^^^^^ ot ^^ ^^^^,^^ .^^^^^ ^ 

la1„.r which IS f J^^^^'^y {,7Xt J4 va ned him tor was the words of 

rZS a 1 beermad^. I shall always hold in gratetul remembrance 
hi, o. tnes V th which he came to my succor on one occasion. _ 

I i TreSved the news of his death in the proirramme annonncmg 
thL meeHnrand it filled me with feelinp of surprise and sorrow. I 
bd that in his death we have lost a most valuable member 
HlSotV of Bradford. Mr. President : I cannot al ow this ocea- 
sicmtop'ss without expressing my hearty 'U-l-oval oMhe sentime.it^s 
Pxliihited in the language of those who have responded. Ih s Boaul 
has lo t two members, a^ld men who have been of value to it almost 
nm the time of its organization, and this is a fitting occasion for this 
do g ve expression to its feelings relative to their loss ^ Hehveen 
even and eight vears ago I first formed the acquaintance of Mr. I ores- 
m.n ad became better acquainted with him afterwards perhaps than 
S "a v other member. I had intended to make some remarks in re- 
Itiou to ins decease, but I find that what I contemplated s-'-Ving^ has 
been so much better said by others, and the ground so well covered 
that I can add nothing. The thoughts it is true have been clothed in 
somewhat different language, but they have so t loroug dy expressed 
mv views that I will not take the further time ot the Board luin to 
sav that I am heartily in accord with the sentiments of the resolutions, 
and l)elieve with vou all that the Board has lost two valuable members. 



Tennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



133 



7 



Thursday Evening, June 9, 18S 
Board called to order by Dr. .Tohn P. Edge, in the court house at 

Bellefonfe, at 8:0ft p. m., June !), lbS7. 

Hon. A. (i. Curt in then addressed the Board. 

Prof I.TIiornlon Osmond, Meteorologist of the Board, then delivered 
an illustrated lecture on the •' Physics of the Atmosphere." 

On behalf of a previously appointed comnnttee Dr. W. h. Kolaml, 
of York, offered the following resolutions, which were unanimously 

adc)i)ted: , ^ , . r,, .■<-, ■< e 

W iiKREAS, The spring meeting of the Pennsylvania State Board ot 

A"'ricullure being now about to close, it is proper that we should put 
on^ record a formal expression of our satisfaction at our reception in 
Centre county ; therefore, 

« 



tim s of" naiH-rs bv the residents of tlie (ounty; and 

tionsot paptis > in i-.^ebted to the trustees and faculty of the 

PetnSfe^lnf^tL: cXge tr a .la^ pl...^ ami in^jjj^ ^^ 

Betfoif'unl iuSlo It; Railroad Company for the courtesy of 
transportation to and from the CoHtge.^^^ 

"^ W>[. S. RotMND, 

Henry Lei-emann, 
R. S. Searue. 
On motion adjourned to meet at Beaver at the call of the Advisory 
Committee. 

ESSAYS, AUDRESSES AND mSOT^IOSS OF TOE 

An address by Hon. J. B. UcC^Z:^ FreM Judge of the Thirty- 

fourth Difttnct. 



tDelivered at tl.o opening oi tl.e Institute at M"";---l 

This meeUng is in the i"'e.rest of agricu lure, ^^^^.^Z^- 
cupation essentia to l»»ni'»' ^";, "' l^iS'to improve their con.lition 

industry shall be "V^fll^S^^^^i'^ fZ/S^^ood hat the methods that 
shall be increased. ^^ is novv wel un le.st^^^^^ fair profits, 

obtained, an.l were «''"''?3Vci,o ex sting condi ions. Then a vig- 

lifty years ago are "J^' j^ ' f.l^^ewanle di.i abundant harvest the et- 
orousandunexhiu.stedsoil u 1> re yam fertilizers, average 

forts of the iHisbandman, and y. bout thea ^^^ ^^^ .^^ 

,il,age secured ••^^l^f^f?!,^ •'7£',,me re it on.e gave without 



1 1 

( 



134 QUARTEIILY "RkPORT. 

learned That such restoration is ].ractioable is certain, /'"t /]'« 

best nellKHl whici. experience and stndy have <l'«-?f -;i' ^ ne ) ., m 
ado,,ted. TIovv shall a k"owledgeo (hosebe ac(,un-e Notab^^^^ 
books and papers. These are valuable aids and should be oltei ap- 
Sed 'V^al tl'ey record the observation and -penenc^ a^ weU as 
he theories of those who have given ti^eand though to e 

But these should be supplemented by ,^1^''"^ '"^ "" ^/ned ' 
bv ollorts to put in practical use the mformalion thus jxained. 

•\ve are all interested in a healthy growth and developmei t of the 

indust ies by which we are surroun.led, and m the mte ectual and 

oral advancement of the men and women employed in hem. ihis 

es ecially true of thrt ind.istry whi.^h is the basis and «-'PPor of 

all others. In the thriit and intelligence ot our agricultural ].opula- 

tion we should all rejoice, because these are the source ol a general 

^'' There'are people who always sneer at new methods and all de- 
partures from the precepts which w^ere the guide ol their ancestors m 
the same pursuit or calling. Tins quality or disposition has been ex- 
hibited in the domain and to the detriment of agriculture as much as 
in and to the prejudice of any other industry. It takes no note ot 
chansed conditions and of the advances and departures made neces- 
sarv bv them The discoveries and advancements made by preceding 
generations should be utilized by us. These belong to the common 
fund of Iniman knowledge to which each generation contributes. In 
farming as in everv other industry there should be improvement an( 
progress. National harmony and prosperity, as well as individual 
thrift and comfort, demand this. Farming is a diversified industry 
and mast be learned by experience, study and ell'ort. Men are not 
born with a knowledge of it. The young man who elects to become 
a farmer needs not the same course of study and training required 
for proper service in the learned professions, but he needs and should 
have a good practical education. In this country such an education 
as our common scliools allord is a basis on which its possessor can 
build, if so disposed, a broad, intelligent and useful manhood. Farm- 
ers, as well as others, should stamp out the false notion that it is the 
occupation that makes the man. No legitimate industry or occupa- 
tion in this life ever did, or ever will, absorb all the good men, or ex- 
clude from its ranks all the had men. It is not the pursuit in wdiicli a 
man is engaged that should bring to him the respeci and confidence 
of his fellowmen. 

No mere em|iloynient can make a man true and honorable. Char- 
acter is sonietliiug which is distinct from occupation. 

In choosing a life-calling, young men are often lured from tlie farm 
by the notion that the professions alford better facilities than agricul- 
ture for the ac(iuisition of wealth atid the attainment of distinction. 
If this idea had something substantial to rest upon, it would not fol- 
low that a man's happiness and usefulness would be increased by act- 
ing upon it. But when we consider the expense and delay that pre- 
cede the entry upon a professional life, and the weary waiting for 
refoirnition and patronage that usually follows, it is by no means cer- 
tain thai the aver.ige of wealth and happiness is n()t higher in agri- 
culture than in professional life. 

L-.dior in some fields is essential *^o human happiness and prosperity, 
and it is a condition of all enduring success. We shoidd all keep this 
fundamental truth in mind, remember that each employment lias its 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



135 



advantages, and that a man's character and standing are not deter- 
mined by his occupation, but by his conduct. If, however, the repute 
in whichanoccu])ation is held must have influence m the choice ot 
pursuit in life, aiiricidture has the preference, because the hes ana 
most trusted of mankind have approved and commended it. VVasli- 
ington declared it to be " the most worthy, the most useful and the 

most noble emidovment of man." _ ,,,■,,,• t „ 

In any light in which this subject may be treated, he importance 
and value of the agricultural interest appears, and the duty ot tne 
State and citizen to alford it all the legitimate assistance is obvious. 
In an increase of ten per cent, in the annual i)roduction ot our 
farms we annuallv add to the wealth of our country a quarter ot a 
million dollars. That such an increase is practicable by the employ- 
ment of more intelligent methods and care in cultivation there is no 
reason to doubt. With it would naturally come more emulation and 
enterprise, and a corresponding growth in the productions of this 
-reat interest that would make contented and happy those immodi- 
atelv connected with it, and increase the general prosperity. It the 
meeting shall aid in the attainment of these results, and in bringing 
about a more perfect union ot the farmers for natural improvement 
and protection in a pursuit so vital to the well being ol the State 
" and all the inhabitants thereof," no citizen ot this county will ever 
have cause to regret that it was held. 



SMALL FRUITS AND THEIR CULTURE. 

By E. A. Weston, Brooklyn, Pennsylvania. 

[Read at the Montrose meeting.] • 

Only a few years since the growing of small fruits was confined 
chielly to amatuers, and a few who made a business of it. And we 
are glad to see that to-day this branch of horticulture is making such 

^^^Therfcan be little doubt that the business of growing small fruits 
has been, an<l is rapidly increasing in this country. And it is a lact 
th^t while quite a nund.er have within a few years engaged in this 
business oil v a few instances of failure are upon record Many aie 
doubted deterred from planting small fruits by the fear ot over 
pSSon.' Bufthe exper/ence otHhe last few years s1k>ws c e^^^^^^^^ 
that the demand increases in proportion to the supidy /^speci<dl> is 
t is true since the process of evaporation has been introduced. Vast 
an i ies of smal fruit, especially Black Cap raspberries are now 
^vJiorafed and the facilitv with which this can be done, and tlie pro- 
duXshh ped to distant n.arkets, has prevented any great depreciation 
fn ?hei V due. As an iUustrat ion of tiie rapidly enlarging demand of 
1 e se n i ts, let us consider the experience of a w<>stern city. In 
iS wasVeganled as a most wonderful thing that one hundred 
bui^^^Bls o 'strawberries c.uld be disposed on the ^'^^^^f'T^ 
in a sin-de dav, and was commented on as a great event. A close es- 
thn-d! sllows That during the season of 1884, not less than ninety-five 
thousand bushels of strawberries were sold m Cincinnati. 

i S the .•ultivalio of Black Cap raspberries was <-on>menced 
in tills country by James Gallager and F. A. McCormick, ol Salem, a 



136 



Quarterly R*^port. 



small i)la('o on tlie Hudson. The first season tliey fruited, Ga la^er s 
laro-est shipment in one day was six bushes, and MKormick s four 
AVhen they were placed on the market, McCormiek sold outsat six and 
one fourth cents per ((uart, and Galla-er hehl up nntil McCormick 
had sold out, when he put his on sale and obtained eight and one 
ei^dith cenfs per quart; and the demand was fully satisfied It is es- 
timated that not less than ei-hty thousand bushels were sokl in (Cin- 
cinnati in the sunmier ol'lSTt) ; sellin- at two dollars per bushel. 1 he 
value of the crop of snudl fruits sold in one year in the btate of Mich- 
o-an amounted to five million dollars. And I notice that the amount 
consumed annually in the city of New York for the last few years 
amounted to not less than twenty-five nulhon dollars. And these 
results are not confined to large cities alone, but in rural districts also ; 
the demand keeps pace with the supply. Four years ago, when 1 en- 
gaged in the business of growing these fruits, there was but little de- 
mand for them, and the demand has been on the increase, and I lound 
it easier to dispose of fifteen hundred ([uarts of berries the last season 
than the seventy- five quarts the first season. Strawberries and rasp- 
berries can be grown at a good profit for from six to eight cents per 
quartandat these prices the demand would be greatly increased; as 
the high i)rices they command therefore withholds the poorest class 
of people from purchasing large amounts. Why sliould we grow small 

fruits ? 

As an article of food, these fruits are exceedingly valuable. They 
are capable of sustaining severe and constant labor, and the acids they 
contain are especially adapted to the wants of our physical organiza- 
tion ; filling our veins with pure, healthtul blood that is made from 
nature's choicest gifts. Again, they make home attractive. There 
are very few homes in our country that would not be improved by 
having'a strawberry bed well kept, situated near the house, and a bed 
of red raspberries planted in nice straight rows, neatly pruned, and 
nicely tied uj) to stakes, make a good appearance anywhere. And 
then'they sliould be grown, because a large part of the soil of our 
county is especially suitable to their culture. The rich alluvial soil of 
our river bottom is well adapted to the growing of the red raspberry, 
which require a loose porous soil that the roots may spread. It is also 
well adapted to most varieties of strawberries, and I find that the 
Cumberland, Miners' Prolific, Chas. Downing, Manchester, Crescent, 
Sharpless, and many others do remarkably well, not only on the soil 
of our river bottom, but also back from the river, where the soil is 
naturally light, many are beginning to plant these fruits, and if we 
may judge from the appearance ot the fruit, they find even that soil to 
make large leturns. I have learned from Mr. James Welch, of Mill 
Hall, who has been very successful in growing the Sharpless, of which 
he makes a specialty, he finds his soil capa})le of yielding large crops. 
Then it is a business that benefits all classes and injures none. It is 
almost the only business in which a poor man can engage and be his 
own employer. It is a business for w^omen ; ladies are our most suc- 
cessful liorists, and they can do as well raising small fruits. Growing 
these fruits does not require a great outlay of physical strength ; even 
children render efficient service in their culture. One of the most suc- 
cessl'ul and best paying strawberry beds in this county is that ol' Mrs. 
John Hlesh, of Woodward township, and I am informed she does all 
the work herself and children. We should grow these fruits, because 
they are a i)aying crop. Small fruits pay many people well, and un- 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



137 



t m 



less location, soil, or climate is hopelessly against one, with a little 
skill, iudgment, and industry, it is sure to be a success. 

A f'ruit farm should be situated where there is quick and cheap ac- 
cess to good markets, and often the best maket can be found at a 
neighboring village. Enterprise and industry, however, seem to sur- 
mount all obstacles. The Rev. Mr. Knox grew his famous 700 straw- 
berry beyond Pittsburgh, and shipped to New York city, securing 

large returns. 

Gentlemen present may wish for some definite statements with re- 
gard to the profits of fruit growing. In the spring of 1883, I set out 
one fourth acre with Cuthbert raspberry plants, and in the following 
spring I sold from that plot, at the market of this city, six hundred 
and fifty-four quarts, averaging twelve and one half cents per cpiart, 
or eighty-one dollars and seventy-five cents. This same spring I set 
out again one fourth acre, making in all one half acre. This season, viz : 
1881, was unfavorable for young plants, and at least one fourth failed 
to grow, but the next season being favorable for fruit, I sold from that 
one half acre one thousand one hundred and twenty (piarts, for which 
I received one hundred and forty-two dollars and forty-eight cents, 
averaging twelve and one half cents per quart, and at this time, judg- 
ing from the growth of cane made during last summer, if the coming 
season is favorable for fruit, I expect the crop to reach fifteen hundred 
quarts. In the spring of 1885, from a plot of strawberries that were 
fruiting their second crop, containing one ninth of an acre, from which 
I sold three hundred and ninety-seven quarts, and received for them 
fifty-three dollars and seventy-three cents, averaging thirteen and one 
half cents per quart. At this same rate, an acre would yield three 
thousand five hundred and seventy-three quarts, or one hundred and 
twelve bushels, worth four hundred and eighty dollars and hfteen 
cents. Mr. James Welch, to whom I have already referred, iniorms 
me that from a plot of one half acre of Sharpless strawberries, he sold 
during the season of 1885, six hundred and fifty quarts, realizing one 
hundred dollars. Mrs. John Hlesh, the lady already referred to in 
this paper, is making the culture of strawberries pay well, and it is 
not an uncommon thing to see her at market with two hundred (piarts 
of strawberries. She sold at the market in this city over nine hundred 
quarts last season. We see here that fixing the yield of these fruits at 
the same rate of those arown on my own grounds, and making the 
price at only ei-ht cents per cpiart, we have a product ot seventy 
bushels of raspberries worth one hundred and forty-nine dollars and 
t ventv cents, and you have a crop that needs no reniirsing for many 
years,^if properly treated, and a crop that will increase in quantity 
until the plants are from five to seven years old, and it well fertilized 
will continue to make large returns for years to come. 

Strawberries I do not find quite so prohtable, all things coiisidered, 
they require much more labor, richer soil, and the beds require to be 
renewed every two or three years. They are however a paying crop, 
and always command a better price than raspberries, i wo years 
since I set out 100 Taylor's Prolific l)lackberries, they fruited for the 
first lime last season and gave great satisfaction, being very pnxluc- 
tive and brindng fifteen cents per (piart. I also grow the Ki anning, 
Lawton,and Early Harvest blackberry, all seeming to do well on our 

soil and making good returns. I am also growing ^^^^ ^^ ,f ^,^;^P^^^^^^^ 
berry, which I am satisfied will do well here, and be a prohtable invest- 
ment I would also call attention to the fact that the red currant is one 






'■1 

1 



138 



Quarterly Report. 



of tlie best pavino; eroi)s the farmer of small fruits can ^row; yielding 
hn-ge crops aiid sellin^^ for good profits. 1 have planted it largely the 
past season. The culture of the gooseberry also pays well enough to 
encouniii'e its culture. As the people are begininng to feel interested 
in the cultivation of these fruits, and will plant more or less, it may 
be well enough to sav sometliing as to what varieties we should plant. 
For the early crop of red raspebrries, 1 grow the Turner, it is very 
productive, one of the earliest in cultivation, of a beautiful bright red 
color, good size, and hrst ([uality, but lor shipi)ing to distant markets 
is too soft, for new markets or the home garden it is unsurpassed. For 
late, and for the general crop, I grow the Cut hbert, a berry that has 
lately l)een introduced, but for a late raspberry is unequalled. The 
fruit^ large to very hirge, color a little dark, very prolitic, good ihivor, 
and although not quite so hardy as the Turner, still stands the winter 
quite well. J am growing the Marlborough, a new berry which has 
not yet fruited on my ])lace. 

For the general crop of strawberries I grow the Cumberland Triumph. 
The fruit is large and of excellent quality and very productive. This 
variety does well on almost all kinds of soil, and with ordinary culture, 
although well repays good culture. The kSharpless does not do so well 
on my soil as some varieties, is very large and of tine color. I have 
found the Glendale to be a profitable berry ; being late and coming 
in after most varieties are i)ast, it always commands a good price. 
When fully ripe it is of excellent quality; it is of large size and has a 
flavor peculiar to itself. 

1 am also growing the Miners' Prolific, which is a very good 
berry, of a dark crimson color, and genuine strawberry flavor; it is 
immensely productive, the hills being literally covered with fruit, 
and of large size. It is well suited to our river bottom soil. Another 
good berry I find in the Manchester, a berry that grows on any soil 
and gives fine crops. I am also growing the Crescent Seedling, which 
E. P. Roe calls the lazy man's strawberry, it is a most beautiful berry, 
and has made the largest crops per acre on record, four hundred and 
sixty bushels. I have a number of other varieties growing on my 
])lace, all worthy of cultivation. I deem it necessary to say some- 
thing liere as to the culture of small fruits, and permit me to say 
first, that it is next to ini])()ssible to grow small fruits on land that is 
not well drained. Any land that will not allow the water on its sur- 
face to pass away in a few hours, is not suited for the culture of these 
fruits. Any soil that will produce good crops of corn and potatoes, 
can be safely planted to small fruits. In fact, the red raspberry 
does best on land not too rich, as it has a tendency to cause the growth 
of too much cane. The Black Caps do well in heavy soil. All the 
varieties of strawberries referred to in this paper, with the exception 
of the Sharpless, do best on sandy soil; one that is deep and well 
enriched with manure. I have found nothing better than wood ashes 
for this purpose. Upon the whole, it is safe to say that the richer the 
soil the larger will be the crop of strawberries, if* the culture is well 
done. As to the i)lanting of these fruits, I would say, 1 plant rasp- 
berries in rows as long as it is convenient to make them, making the 
rows six feet apart and the plants three feet apart in the row. The 
soil should 1)0 deeply and well plowed, and then holes dug where the 
plant is to be set. They should be eighteen by eighteen inches, and 
at least eighteen inches deep; the top soil put in first, then a large 
shovelfull of good compost put in the hill, and the plant tirmlv set. 



^^■i 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



130 



The (piality and amount of the first will depend largely on the cul- 
ture of the plant, pruning, mulching, giving the necessary support, 
&c. Blackberries require the same culture as the raspberries, will 
however, do well on a heavier soil. In pruning, 1 cut all canes back 
one third, as severe xu'uning causes the canes to throw out sprays 
lower down, and I find the finest fruit on the lower canes. I plant 
strawberries in rows three feet apart, and the plants twelve in 
the row, growing what is known as the narrow row system, keeping 
the space between the rows clean and allowing no runners. Noth- 
ing is more conducive to a crop of straw])erries than l)eing well 
mulched. Your attention might have been called to many other items 
of interest, as to the planting, tying up, mulching, A:c., but time will 
not permit me to Ibllow this subject any farther. In tracing these 
pages, I have tried to make them as practical as possible. The horti- 
culturist may thrive, if he will, for nature at each season furnishes 
just such supplies as are best suited to his needs. She will develop 
every good (juality he possesses, especially his patience. But it is his 
great good fortune to co-work with Nature, and usually among her 
lovliest scenes. And he wiV find his reward not only in enjoying 
the delicious fruits that have been planted and grown by his care 
and ])atience, but in the decline of life lie may say with Dr. Vendee 
Holmes, '^ I have written many verses, but the best poems 1 have 
produced are the trees I planted on the hillside which overlooked the 
broad meadows, scalloped and rounded at their edges by loops of the 
sinuous Housatonick. Nature finds rhyme for them in the recurring 
measures of the seasons. Winter strips them of ornaments, and gives 
them, as it were, in prose, translation, and summer reclothes them 
in all the splendid i)hases of their leafy language." 

The time to cut back and prune raspberry plants. I find to do best 
in the spring, ai'ter the buds have began to put forth, as it is the best 
to cut back to a vigorous bud, and as the tops are always more or less 
injured l)y the winter, it is safest to cut back in the spring. Black- 
berries require the same treatment as the raspberries. 



WINTEE DAIRYI^S^G. 



By W:\r. Sterling, Brooklyn^ Pennsylvania^ 

However profitable or otherwise, winter dairying may be, its pur- 
suit is not favorablv to literary work, as this paper will bear witness ; 
but perhaps some simple mathematical calculations simply given, will 
throw some light upon the subject. .. . , ., . 

Absolute profit is so seldom expected or realized by the larmer, 
that I use the term profit only in a relative sense; that is, is winter 
dab'viim- profitable as compared with dairying in the summer season. 

Upon'^the ratio of winter and summer prices or values of dairy pro- 
ducts the ratio of the amounts that can be produced in winter and 
sunnner, and the ratio of the cost of products of the two seasons, de- 
pends the solution of the question. ^ 

As the better price to be obtained for winter milk either wlioie or 
manufactured, is the prime reason why milk is produced at all during 
the winter season, let us first try to determine the ratio ol winter and 



\i 



140 



QUARTP^RLY KePORT. 



ft'' 



summer prices. Having been an almost constant patron ()f lie A. T). 
Co., since the openin- of their first factory at Brooklyn m the sprin- 
of 1880, I L^ave the prices paid by said company lor each nion h in the 
years 1884, 1885 and 188(>. These prices were based upon highest but- 
ter (luotations except for the three summer months o 188d, when they 
failed to pay tlie hi-hest (luoted prices, and I think the month ol De- 
cember, 1884, and the month of December, 188(;, whe^i, in order to 
stimulate the production of winter milk, they ollered prices whicn 
proved to be a little hi-her than butter quotations durinii: those 
months. These exceptions will have the effect to slightly reduce the 
percenta^^e in favor of winter milk, as 1 obtain such percentage from 

actual prices paid. in 

During*- the year 1884 prices were as follows: January, one dollar 

and iifty^ents, per hundred pounds of milk ; February, one dollar and 
fifty cents; March, one dollar and forty-live cents; April, one dollar 
and twelve cents; May, ninety-two cents; June, seventy-eight cents; 
July, seventy-five cents; August, seventy-eight cents; September, 
eighty-eight cents ; October, one dollar and three cents; November, 
one dollar and fourteen cents; December, one dollar and iilty cents. 
Averaging the prices paid during the six months from November 
1st to May 1st, we have one dollar and thirty-seven cents per hundred 
pouudsof milk, or the equivalent of nearly thirty- four cents per pound 
for butter. The average from May 1st to November 1st, is eighty-six 
and a fraction cents per hundred for milk, or a little more than 
twenty-one and one half cents per pound for butter. This difference 
amounts to sixtv per cent, in favor of winter milk. One dollar and 
fifty cents per hundred lor the three winter months, against seventy- 
seven cents per hundred, the average for the three summer months, 
gives ninety-live per cent., or nearly twice as much, lor the three 
winter months as for the three summer months. 

For the year 1885 prices were, January and February, one dollar 
and thirty-live cents per hundred; March, one dollar and twenty-live 
cents; April ninety cents ; May, seventy cents ; Jun<Milty-livecents; 
July, sixty cents; August, sixty-five cents; September, seventy-seven 
cents; October, eighty-one cents; November, ninety cents, and De- 
cember, one dollar and twenty-five cents. Finding percentage as 
before, we have seventy-two and a fraction per cent, in favor of winter 
milk, or for the three winter months againstthe three summer months, 
one hundred and twenty per cent. For the year 1880 the dillerence 
is still greater, showing seventy-five per cent, in favor of the six 
months from November to May, and one hundred and forty i)er cent, 
for the three winter months. For the three years 1884, 1885 and 1886, 
then we have an average of sixty-nine per cent, in favor of winter 
milk. 

In the prices of veal calves in the fall and spring, there is still a 
wider difl'erence. In the fall and fore part of winter often running as 
high as fourteen cents per pound, for home dressed, or seven and eight 
cents at home live weight. After April 1st, three to five cents are 
ruling prices. 

So much for prices, and now I hear my summer friends say, Oh, 
well! that may all be true; your figures seem to be all right, but then 
you can't get much milk in cold winter weather, the sun on the other 
side of the earth tifteen hours out of the twenty-four, the cows eating 
nothing but dry hay and a little grain. Don't believe you will get 
more than half or two-thirds as much milk as in summer, and you're 









Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



141 



just out your grain and w^ork for nothing, and board yourself Now 
while I can't give you a long array of figures on this point, let me tell 
you what I think 1 have learned from six years' experience, and from 
what 1 know others have done. I believe I have learned that just as 
much milk, if not more, can be made from November 1st to May 1st, 
with ordinary feed and care, as can be made from May 1st to November 
1st, with ordinary summer feed, viz : Pasture for a few months, a little 
sowed corn to keej) the poor cows from actual starvation in the month 
of August, and the grubbing of the last green spear off the meadows, 
whicli last is accomplished in a very short time. Now let's see if there 
is a reasonable reason why a cow may give as much milk from Nov- 
ember to May, as from ^lay to November. In the former case there 
is one cause, and only one, for a diminishing yield of milk, viz : The 
increasing length of time the cow has been in milk; while in the latter 
case there is the same cause as before and the greatly diminished sup- 
ply of feed that is inevitable after the middle of the season or the first 
of August. 

Now I don't pretend that a cow will yield as large a quantity of milk 
on hay and a moderate grain feed as she will on llusli pasture; but to 
illustrate what I believe to be true for the seasons, we will suppose 
that a fresh cow yielding twenty-three or twenty-four pounds of milk 
per day in November would yield, if fresh, in JMay, twenty-seven or 
twenty-eight pounds a day. Now, owing to her feed being equally as 
good in April as it was in November, and perhaps a little better on 
account of the earlier cut, greener hay in bottom of mow, she should 
not, and w^ould not if all right, shrink below sixteen or seventeen 
pounds, making an average of twenty pounds per day for her six months 
in profit. ( )n the other hand if it is unusual for a coav fresh in spring, 
to shrink to fourteen or fifteen pounds a day before she gets through 
the month of August, then my experience has been unfortunate and 
misled me. Some one says, if it pays so well to feed grain we can 
supplement the short feed of the latter part of summer with it. Yes, 
you can make winter milk for summer prices if you want to. Upon 
the next point, that of cost of production, there can be no disagree- 
ment. As on the question of prices, simple figures sliow the facts from 
which there can be no appeal. Waiving the claim that might be made 
of a little cheaper labor in winter, and doubting, as I do, that the claim 
often made is well founded as to less coarse fodder being required when 
a li])eral amount of grain is fed to a cow in milk, we have only to de- 
duct the actual cost of grain from the diflerence in receipts. Taking 
eight pounds a day, about what I feed, of corn meal, wheat or huck- 
wiieat middlings, fed in about equal quantities, each of which cost 
this year just one penny a pound, for one hundred and eighty days, you 
have fourteen dollars and forty cents cost of grain per cow. Now if 
you have so poor a dairy that they will pay only about twenty-one 
dollars from May to November, if milked through the winter you 
would be just even so far as the two periods of six months each are 
concerned; because your sixty-nine percent, better prices in winter 
would only just cover cost of grain ; but for every dollar that you ex- 
ceed twenty-one dollars for your sumnuM- receipts, sixty-nine cents 
would be your gain for winter, that is, a decent dairy worth forty dol- 
lars a head for the summer, would be w^orth sixty-seven dollars and 
sixty cents for the winter, or a little more than tliirteen dollars gain 
after paying for the grain. And this is not all. A cow coming into 
profit in October or November will yield a paying quantity of milk 



t •,! 



14 

■4 



142 



Quarterly Kkport. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



143 



•lear tlirou-li tlie Hush of feed the next summer; say up to Au-ust Ist, 
Sini-- nine or tea mont lis that slie will ])e iu milk ; Nvhile a cow milked 



c 
m 



from April, when put upon dry Ibdder witli the comm^^ ot winter, wi 
yield but little, and if fed j.^rain will about pay for it but no more, and 
in nine cases out of ten will be dried olf by the middle ot Deceuiber. 
1 believe this to be one of the strongest ar-uments m favor ot a 
cow be-innin- her vear^s work in the fall and endin- it up with he 
end of hush pasture feed. Tlie six weeks or two months onger that 
the winter cow continues in milk without extra cost, will make the 
dilference in receipts for the lapping over of the two seasons one^upon 
the other, an item of some account. What 1 mean is us: A cow 
that has been milked through the winter will pay trom three to five 
dollars a month during May, June, July, and, perhaps, a part ot Au- 
irust, while a cow milked all summer will but little more than pay lor 
her feed after November 1st. Tiiis ditl'erence deducted irom cost 01 
grain fed to the winter cow, will leave a balance in her lavor ot lit- 
teen to twenty-five dollars every time. Then your winter cow run- 
ning dry through the season of short feed will maintain her already 
tine'condition in pasture that would produce scarcely any milk. 

Then there is another item that I cannot pass, though I should have to 
ask the i)ard()n of our worthy chairmnn for mentioning it, only for the 
fact that he sells feed as well as commercial fertilizer. In broaching 
this subject, I know^ that I am exposing myself to guns that should 
silence inv little battery forever. I have no doubt that you w^ere fully 
convinced last night that your failure to become rich olf your farms, 
was the direct consequence of your failure to use commercial fertilizer. 
Still, 1 can't give up my theory that as long as our neighbors just out 
in the region of the long rivers can raise grain for nothing, and all w^e 
have to pav is to the railroad company for bringing it to us, and the 
miller for grinding it. that that is the way to get our fertilizer. 

1 can't believe that commercial fertilizers w^ere ever made for tlie 
stock farmer. It may do for the market gardner to invest in the lux- 
ury ; and even then I would prefer to make a bargain witji some hotel 
or' livervman, such as the late Wm. II. Vanderbilt made wdth his pa 
while running the Staten Island market garden. He asked the Com- 
modore one day what he w^ould take a load for manure at some of his 
stables near the wharf. The price asked by the father was a pretty 
round one. A short time after, William came over with the ])oat which 
he used to transport the products of his little farm to the adjacent 
cities, and proceeded to get a load of manure from his father's stables. 
The old Commodore, observing what was going on, said he meant 
wagon loads; but William said that he meant boat loads. 

I had rather have wagon loads manufactured on my farm at a profit, 
than to have thimblefulls dearly bought. I have no nice theories to 
give as to w^ays and means of realizing extravagant results from winter 
dairying, neither will you be astonished by any remarkable results in 
my own experience. We are all apt to preach what w^e do not always 
practice, and to really believe that certain investments and methods 
WM)uld be advantageous, and still fail to act upon our best judgment; 
so, while I may fully believe that there are conditions in regard to 
wdnter dairying that would recommend it much more highly than the 
])!-iniative ones upon which I w^ork, I am bound to own that I haven't 
a single facility for making winter milk, not possessed by every farmer 
in the county. I have no doubt but that one would be well repaid for tlie 
exx^ense of providing w^arni stables, and perhai)s for heating w^ater and 



steaming feed. Yet my cows live in stables as cold as a barn, drink 
ice water, and eat hay and grain dry. But I need not tell farmers that 
a farmer, even though engaged in winter dairying, is obliged to con- 
sider first cost of improvements, however much desired and desirable 
they are. 

(So, before giving anytliing of my experience, I re])eat that I have 
not had a single advantage over any farmer. From a dairy of native 
cows my receipts have averaged for the last five years a little over 
sixty (hdlars, j)erhai)s sixty-two dollars jyev cow. The cost of grain per 
head being from ten to tw elve dollars. Not the cost of feeding a cow 
that was in milk all winter, but the average for the whole lot; only 
about two-thirds of them being winter milkers. 

If all had come into profit in the fall, my receipts would certainly 
have increased to fifty-five or sixty dollars a head after deducting cost 
of grain. Years wdien all calves w^ere sold as veals they constituted 
nearly one- sixth of total receipts; prices in the fall, and up to March, 
ruling high, in the fall and winter of 1883-4, fourteen veals, averaging 
twaMilv-three davs old, sold for one hundred and fortv-four dollars and 
twenty cents, or ten dollars and thirty cents apiece. In the fall of 1884, 
six veals, twenty-five days old, sold tor seventy-seven dollars and forty 
cents, an average of twelve dollars and ninety cents apiece. Since 
then 1 have fed several calves, and I think i)rices have not been ([uite 
so high; still I believe it is a mistake to deacon calves, as is the prac- 
tice with some, even when milk is the highest. To any who might 
Avish to raise calves, and think they could not well do so in the winter, 
I say there isn't the least reason why you may not, and to the best 
advantage. I am now feeding five grade Ilolstein heifer calves, all 
of them doing finely. While it may cost a little more to get tlu^m 
tlirough to grass next spring than it w^ould to feed them their first 
summer, they will have had the advantage when tAvo years old of two 
seasons at pasture and only one winter of dry feed, instead of tw^o 
winters aiul one summer, after weaning from milk, as in the case of 
spring calves. This, I think, will make finer animals at two years of 
age, and at less cost than spring calves can be raised to the same age. 
And so from every standpoint the dilferences range themselves on the 
side of winter dairying. I believe it to be an important question for 
the consideration of farmers, and worthy a better advocate than myself 
at this time and ])lace. 



ABSTRACT OF A:S ADDRESS AT TITE MO]VTROSE 

I^NSTITUTE. 



By James E. Carmalt, P]sq., Friendsville, Pa. 

If tliere is any place in the world that requires house and barn to 
work liand in hand, it is on the farm. It is more ])rofitable to pack 
the i){)rk as it will sell for about twice as much as when trc^sh. Every 
part should be utili/(Ml. Meat is always toothsome if well cooked and 
seasoned. Tlu^ [)rolits of the farm are the products you get after pay- 
ing the expenses. ]Make the small things pay. There is no land in 
Suscpiehanna county that amounts to anything unless the details in 
the barn go hand in hand with the details of the house. I don't w^ant 



It 



-^44 Quarterly Report. 

to anticipate the other people's thmuler, but ^^rum_^- ,f ^e going to 
l,.ivp .111 essav on "How to Keep the Hoy's on the i^arm. 

T have Iwavs noticed that where the nice girls are, there you will 
find tie lis" Astng as you can't keep the girls in the kitchen, you 

'•"m^,S '"toYSi^at exttt'Thas taken the place of skilled labor 
so th^^tlenedianic commands scarcely any higher wages than the 

^n .on hiborer. You can buy a new thing ff^^^^J'^I^^;^^! 
a thing repaired. The tluuking men-the scholar «* f « "^^^ " |j"^>^^. 
have <nven way to machinery; they have to think and plan cuier 
eXlli^ work in the summer is no criterian in he winter, lie 
WeUcnal man spends lialf of his life in learning, in httiug himselt 
or sr^sll euM the other half. He is -ovr^^^^^^ 

or lawyer until he is about thirty live years ol age. He does his J ork 
afterTeistlurtv vearsofage, like the sinless man. It akes thuty 
vears to take the conceit out of the man or the woman either. 
^ O, r tn today is considering one of the most < ireatening stTU|- 
gles that has ever leen known in the history ot mankind, and hat is 
fhe St • urgle between capital and labor; the former since the days ot 
our Savim.r, holding that "from ium that hath not, shall be taken even 
that whicli he hatli ; and lie that liath, to him shal be given. 

The great railroad corporations regulate prices tor hauling so that 
the hod haul pays a hiilier price than tlie long hau . 1 trade can 
be carried on iA one place to the disadvantage of anotlier the property 
of that town has got to go to tlu- .vail. Let Mr. Jaf^ here have a 
contract with tlie D., L. &. W. R. K., to carry goods to New \ oik, at 
ten cents a hundred, and I have to pay twelve cents a hundred. Uo 
you suppose Mr. Sayre is going to give that right away ^ No, people 

don't work that way. , ., , . i 

The Supreme Court said the States have no authority to control con- 
tracts made l)y a party who had tlieir power and authority out ot the 
State, because the commerce of the United States belongs to the 
United States. What is the result ? Wlien Congress meets and tries 
to amend that law, the old parties, Repul.licans, Democrats, and why 
],ot—thev refer it to a committee and away it goes. 

Farmers have got to organize systematically and intelligently. J.ooK 
at the taxes farmers have on them. >hiny years ago people came in 
here and settled over the hills and cleared oif the land ; one man had 
to make four or five miles of road for the privilege of carrying his corn 

on his back to mill. . , .. 

AVhen the land was cleared so the sunlight came in and there was a 
chance to dry vour roads, we commenced running along the water 
courses; when t'he raihvays did not take them the highways did. ihen 
we made new frontages i'or the newcomers and left the old citizens 
high and dry on the water sheds, away from everybody. The corpora- 
tions don't iielp keep up the roads. 

We mean to criticise what people bring forward here, but we will 
do it kindly. We are here to-day to learn to work in harmony. 1 
wish to call your attention to one particular, andthatis the civilizin" 
and harmonizing influence which farmers have on the rest of ih 

world. ., 

Wh(Mi the great and only sinless man came upon tlie world, he uiu 
not conic from the great city of Jerusalem with her tabernacle and 
rabbis, but lie came from the farm. When you ladies comjdain of 
the isolation of the farm you want to remember, you have your hus- 



le 



jjt— 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



145 



bands just where you want them if you don't drive them to the tav- 
erns. 'The hidies have an inlhience over them for all time ; they are 
not riglit bv the corner grocery. They may go to the taverns, and 
they may go to revival meetings and leave their horses out without 
any blankets on them. 

if the girls all go to town the boys will go there, and you can't keep 

them out. . - -, i . 

There are lots of men wdio have tried to prevent their daughters 
from marrying; and if you do not allow them to do so openly, they 
will get out of the window up stairs or do it underhandedly. 

There was a difference of opinion in regard to Mr. Cole's idea. It 
may not be all right nor all wrong. It is not necessary to throw away 
all his ideas. I am certain that if my fatlier had been able to run the 
water off his hill slowly instead of rapidly, tliat land would be worth 
more than it is to-day. I am not certain that U\\ Cole's theory is the 
correct one ; 1 have some thoughts on tluit subject, when we get to it. 

The object for all farming is for profit and for the benefit of our 
neighbors. It must not be so entirely selfish that w^e will disregard 

all duty to others. t ^i • i 

I believe there will be an advance on the law of contracts. 1 think 
it is the experience of most every lawyer at the bar, and I think every 
farmer know^s it very well, that a man can make a most unconsciona- 
ble contract. I tliink there will be a jury by and by who will sit here 
to determine whether you have made an unconscionable contract. 

Now, when you learn to vote for constable and for supervisors, or 
for temperance, or for wdiat else, to acconiplisli the result you are 
working for, work in harmony ; outside of organizations your oi)inion 
isn't worth a cent, if somebody else don't agree witli you ; it will only 
make a crank of you. Our strength is working in harmony. 

You can put in a great deal of time in getting ready to make your 
time very valuable when the opportunity offers, and that is a very 
great privilege. You can raise vour family so that they are orderly, 
temperate, business-like citizens; that is a great privilege. The 
average of men are not so. There is such a constant strain on men 
in the cities they soon break dow^n, and they are being recruited from 
the hills. There is a difference in over-work ; farmers do not realize 
how men break down with brain work. He has no notice when that 
brain gives way ; wdien the farmer's muscles are tired they give him 
notice. People come here from Philadelphia, New York, and Boston 
to vour charming fresh air, and home, why? Because the mental 
strain and strife of the city life has so worn them that they have to 
spend the heated days of the year recuperating. 

Everything you raise to sell away from home places you at the 
mercy of commission men. The best thing you can do is to pocket 
your grief, if you have any i)articular sorrow about it, too. Remem- 
ber that when you sell vour hay, straw, or fodder, to your neighbor, 
you get the retail price for it, and there is no commission taken out 
of it, no expense about it, and no loss of time. 

Do not live for your cattle, altogether. Some people keep stock till it 
is worn out. We can make butter, perhaps, for eighteen cents; there 
is no trouble about that. If we could make it, we are all going to the 
dogs when olemargarine is selling for tw^elve and fourteen cents. 

We never ought to have anvthing that we do not want ourselves ; 
and if we have soinetliiug that* we want, everybody else is pretty sure 
to want it. 
10 



-1^46 QUAKTERLY REPORT. 

^tdlrVTarSr "tocklt^^^^^^ through. You better 

^elTtSd cow than make l.utter and run her down to ten dollars; 
vou r^d better se her and have the advantage of the increase, lou 
!^^M i in this county more taxable cattle than untaxable. We 
lend a irr "at del^o nonev for machinery, and then don't house it 
of ake proper care of it; nuu^h of it isn't worth ten cents on a dollar 
Some wCm^ but litfU" land are going to have a machine because 
fCis tl e sU'le You lind. ii' vou have got to wrangle with everybody 
fikVVr. their cattle out of your pasture it will cost you more than to 
■en^e yilT Wi'e stock [s not worth a great deal, it is not worth a 
treat dea to pasture. Sometimes the increase in weight is almost 
Sunteracled by decrease in price. You can't keep your cattle and 
filippn in vour Dastures without iences. . ^i /» ^ 

SevoJ let your machinery be sure that your farm is ready for 
it, and bJsurf tlfat the fertility of your soil is kept up where you 

'^ xlif nui\l V lile is the treasure around which prosperity must center. 
If the w"fe is working all day at the wash-tub she is not going to 
make a chippy home in the evening, and it won't help you any to go 
to the hotel and suck rum all the evening. 

I would rather have five cows than fifty if I had to milk them my 
self You must keep informed through the papers and avoid conipetition 
with men who are better situated for doing those things, where you 
qrp in the same occupation. . ^^ , 

The domestic life of the farm is the life of the nation. Your boys 

""''l deTire to can'^ymi'r attention to what King Lemuel said of women 
two thousand five hundred years ago. It is generally said that the 
humanizing of the human race has been since the Christian era; that 
since the time of Christ woman has had more respect shown her; but 
vou will find that the chosen people oi' the Almighty had a regard lor 
women I wouldn't have all the land in Susciuehanna county, it 1 
couldn't iiave woman's help in the house. 

Without them you would have to have a lot of men around ; they 

would let things run to waste ; they wouldn't keep anything in order. 

At this point Mr. Carmalt quoted and commented on the words ot 

King Lemuel, concerning the virtuous woman, (Proverbs 61 : 10-^S), 

closing with the following remarks: ^ , ^e 

Gentlemen if the American nation ever fizzles out, and selt-gov- 
ernment becomes a fraud, it is the fault of tlie farmers; and it is 
because he don't api)r.M;iate the blessings which he can carry to his 
family and his family life ; if that family life is beautiful and pleasant 
there' will alwavs be scenes in farm life that wdl be pleasant to the 
memories of childhood. Tlie liome will be a treasure tliat will never 
be for"-otten; and you will from that build a nation that will make 
self-go'vernment a pride and joy through all time and generations to 
come. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture. 



147 



now WE MANACLE OUR DAIRY. 

By E. G. Ball, Esq., Montrose, Pa. 

When I was rec.uested to write an article for this occasion I declined, 
feeli S ha mv ti ne was n<.t my own at present, and that i would l)e 
nUnteres iiK to those in attendance. Later the movers m the matter 
SeT& should write a few lines, at l-«t enot^to ope.^d.- 
cussion Feeling that if our exi)erience would stim late biotlur 
farmers to improve their dairies, either in the line we have followed 
or sTie other,^ 1 would cheerfully give it. 1 consented to write a plain 

statement of facts. -, ^ y ^ ^^^ 

Firot We have no thoroughbred stock to sell. , 

&i We are not millers and have no feed to sell, consequently 
we have no axe to grind. We have had no experu-nce in the manu- 
facture of cheese, our efforts having been to improve our herd h,r 
butter only Li 1877 we decided to purchase a Jersey bu 1 o cross 
wi if >u .^tive cows (1 suppose the term native may prope^Jy >« -^,^ 
as there was not much, if any, foreign blood m them), fence that 
tTme we have used males of that breed, endeavormg to purchase only 
sud^ Is would give us stock that would make a larger amount ot 
butter never purchasing an animal unless his dam had a gcx.d l.utter 
record AlUiJugh we could purchase anin.als witliout such a record 
[hat were ncetcT look at, for less money, we cliose to purchase the one 
from the cow with a good butter record, but never paying what we 
h^ht an extravagant price, and never sought for stock Irom cows 
S 1 ad been torced to yield six or eight hundred pounds per year 
Inerl aii we should if we had been favored with more money). 
^^ A owinTou. heifers to come in at two years of age, we never use 
thf same male but two vears, believing that in-breeding has a tendency 
to weaken the stock. We occasionally set each cow's milk separate, 
usiu^small mns, and churn as many times in a day as we have cows, 
SuUy weighing the product of each, at the same time taking into 
cJ S er^itTon^the age of the dilferentanimals as we 1 ^s the time they 
• have been in milk, in order to determine whuii should be ...Id, and 
4V,>m which to raise heifers for our own use. , , i 

We a e of en sked if we consider grades as good as thoroughbreds 
for buter Having never milked thoroughbreds, we do not know. 
We are asked we think that Jerseys are the best butter cows. We 
^swer that we know they are better than the natives that we com- 

" Wetwe no practical knowledge of any other breed as butter makers 
Our actum shows our belief. In caring for them we think that kind 
SeltmentpaysT believing that a kick or a blow, or even a sharp word 
may caTse quit; a shrinkage of milk at the time, some nervous animals 
cniVprino- more than others. ., ,, . ^ 

n fee'di^g ve intend to give them all they will eat, generally using 
fod ler CO a ter the grass becomes short, cutting it Iroiii the root and 
iuowhi- wilt beh.re fee.ling. The wilting seems to obviate tbe 

niessUv of u vi g grainh>ss salve instead of butter. In the winter 
Tl8S4 we CO n. eiutd cutting and steaming the coarse iodder, using 
f pmv^r cutteTn..' vvith a oiarhorse tread power, and we are satisfied 
that it pays well for the extra labor and expense. 



|! 



14S 



QUAKTEKIA' IlKrOKT. 



In the matter of ^rain feed. During tlie time the cows are dry, say 
from t e Ist of .la.H,arv to the 15th of March, we teed about two and 
one h t pounds <.r grain per .Lay; from tlie time they come in milk to 
the 1st (f .lune,six pounds; from June 1 to August 1 about wo 
1 minds -from Vugust 1 to January 1, about three pounds per day, 
nd if tlK t o po nuls fed from J une 1 to August I shou d look to any 
e ke a wast\. of feed, I can assure them that it is not, as we get it 
back n (lil Vrent ways. Not only in a better yield and better quality, 
tut in tl'e satisflction of seeing the cows ciuietly take their places in 

'^^Ve'Ih' nlt'thlnk it correct to charge all the grain fed to the butter 
alone. A portion should be charged to the superior qua ity ot the 
manure, and more to the coarse fodder saved. The cash value of 
grain fed to each cow in any one year has never been more than 
*U 50 The milk is set in large shallow pans, each pan holding one 
milking, and is cooled to the proper temperature for raising cream in 
them as soon as possible by running ice water around them, the 
cream is allowed to ripen on the milk, the time varying from twenty- 
four to forty-eight hours before skimming. ^\ e use a Stoddard (•hurn, 
nropelled by horse power, which is stopped as soon as the butter is 
shown upon the glass in the cover in granules the size oi a kernel ot 
wheat. The buttermilk being drawn from the churn, a pail ol cold 
water is thrown in and, after being agitated, is drawn, repeating the 
same until the milk is all removed from among the granules ot butter, 
when it is taken from the churn 1o tlie balance, where the proper 
amount of salt is ascertained. Tiie balance is so constructed that it 
can be adjusted for salting butter for the dilferent markets, ior our 
own use, for Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, we use one and one-quarter 
ounces, while New York needs but one ounce, and I iuladelphia but 
three-quarters of an ounce to a pound of butler. After being balancd 
the butter is placed in a butter- worker and salted with salt made by 
thv Warsaw Salt Company, at Warsaw, N. Y., working it as bllle as 
possible and have the salt evenly distributed througli it. Alter 
standing a few hours it is again worked, but not enough to destroy the 
..,uin when it is printed or packed, as the case may be, tor market. 
Some of it is printed in one pound prints, wrapped in paraffine paper, 
laid on trays in a sliiiiping case holding iilty-six pounds. In warm 
weather we place a metal ice box with ice in the centre of llu- «-ase 
when it starts for market. We pack some in small pails lined with 
paraffine (the pails are known as the Bradley pail); they hohl from 
eight ounces to eight pounds each and are so light that the weight is 
not deducted from the gross weight, which makes them a clieap pack- 
age, extremely convenient for the retailer, and growing m tavor. Ul 
course there are little details in the manufacture of good butter that 
it is hanllv possible to put on paper, or even tell, as only practice and 
care at the proper time, and at all limes, can give one a full knowledge 
of how it is done. I have said nothing of the extreme cleanliness 
necessary, as all butter makers are supposed to be neat. 

Our clVorts to improve the dairy up to this time have raised the 
average yield of butter (not including that used by two families and 
the hired help) from one hundrci] and twenty-five jmunds per cow to 
two hundred and thirty-eight and seven-sixteenth pounds in 1885. 
And at present we are unable to sui)ply the demand for our butter at 
thirty-five cents per pound, delivered at the express office in Montrose. 



Pennsylvania Board of Agricttt.titre. 



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