Skip to main content

Full text of "The Quarterly Review"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book tha^ was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world^s books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for Ihe copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain, A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in Ihe public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to Ihe past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usskge guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public doruain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
preveni abuse by commercial parlies, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Mcikt^ nofi-comwcrcial itsip of the- files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-com mere ial purposes. 

+ Refntin from tjitlomtiieii querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a (aige amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help, 

+ Maintain attribution The Google ''watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep ii legaf Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at http: //books, google , com/ 


zm-FW - a* - t'n^^ I 





VOL. 167. 







■ » 






■ ■ ■ • •• 

'"" ' 

^004 35 

Prlntrt by WiLUXit CjOWka mrd Son, LimlW, 
SumrDrd GtiTft utl ChulnE Qron- 


No. 333. 


-1. GftApard do Coligny. Amlrftl ^ Praoco, Pw Lo 
roujtc Jakw iJc^lftb-irdo. 3 rain. PaiH^, I«7l>-82. 
^. Oalignj nrant ]« Oiurrfm do IteligioR. Par 

3. Hliitoirc d4) I'BlftbUweraaut dn ProtMtnnti^infT <qi 
Fnmoo^ ConlcoKnl lllistotre Politiijuir fil Iii^]i|^k«aau 
dtt in Nation dopntn rrai;^fi;fi Promi«ff jiwqu'i^ IVdit 


Pat L'A^cffio. 




Hifltotro £cde«iaflUqiio das Eglitea R^fonQt^s ait 
Bo^uno do Pnncc. BdilioQ Ni^iiTt^lIc mvoc cocu- 
nenteuVt notice hihliu^nplitqiir d tabln do faita ot 
dee DOmfl propren. P«r fon G, Dnum ot Ed, CmtiU. 
Tolft, 1 ftod 2. PuriK, 188:^. IH81. 
Hlelor^ oftlse Hiec <]f tho TTugtiQDotA By ilonry 
31. Baird, l*n>rouior m tlio Unitrni-itt^ of tho Oi^ of 
New York. 2 toIh. LotMloTi, 1880 


-ScotUod 4Dd Scotomon in tho Kitfbteenth Gontar?. 
(Vom tiio H86l i>f Jolin lUinaftT, &n|^ of Ochtettm. 
Cdilod bj AloKnndcr Allnrd/cc, 2 tdIa, 6vo. 
London uiul SdinborKii, IHHH . . . . ^ 

CoiTOVpoiidoDOO of Wagnrr aui\ LikxL Trati^Utod 
into Rngliidi. with a ProfAico. By Frjuicis; Uaoflbr. 
2 toIb. LoDdoo. 1388. 

Fruix Lint, Yoa L. Ranmnii. ^ toUl Xiinpsitft 

FnngoiA Tjinxt Sonvcnin d'uoo Oanp«tr£oto. PMir 
Juikik Wold. ruTO. 18ft7. 
4, WtCDOr, u Tie e< sea ftavros. Par Adolphe JuUicjL 
Panii,18S6 ...... 55 





Ir OOltTBllTa. 


IV.— '], Aet XX. of 1&67 of ibt.* Gor«Tii->r-0«ii«nrfl 0<^uiu>il 

in lodift. An Aet for tho ProU>ctJoii of Wild Birds 

tnd Gani<t, 
'2. Act YL of lS7a Atk Aet for the FroserTation of 

Wild ElcfiltMutu 
a. Shiluir Skct4<liL*ii. By J. Uony Brown, Ul« 7$th 

OameioD Hi^hlaiid^Te. London, 1S87. 
4. Tj^ttent oi^ gjiort iti Eoiteni Bouga). By R B. 

SiukAOD* I^cngal CiTil Scrricc, r^tirrd, Lnitdon, 


fi. Sporl in BfiDgal. By Edvr&rd B, BaW, lateDei>uly- 
iDSpoctor-GIfiiioivl of Police, Bcngftl> InJiulorj, 1887 

V^^AiiA tud»«m Ltsheoi luid aaa meiuer ZeiU Vou Emst II., 
HoTKog Ton Siiolifittn-Oobiirg'QotlLa. Kmt^^r band. 
Bftrliu, lHt47> (Mc'iiioira of my Life mid of my 
Time. By r:ni->«t II., Dako of Baxo-Cobnrg.Cfi>tha. 
Vol.r Borlin. IftS7.) 

TI.— L Tho Cotuitituliuoal IliHlory of En^Uud. By W. 
Stnbbe. D.D. 3toIil Oxfon^, 1875-1878. 
^ Olironiole of Convocation. (Nitlional Socie^.J 
Loncioa, 18CC"1B97. 

3. Tbo Studmt'M Englifth Chnivh Wwtory. By G. O. 
FerrVt Oanon of Linooln, 3 tuU. London, l87ft- 

4. AoU of the CliOTch, 1831-1885. By J, W. Ji^co, 
Proboiiilary of Ilcivford. London, leSC 

VfL— 1. Ufilmor (^ftrcm Voii>-Tbr«ugli ftlio Briti«b KB3|Mro, 
2 ro1j(. London, 1885. 

2. St&tut«ii of QQeenflbnd, New J^onlh Waloe, ViotonAf 
bonLli AiutroJitt, TAHuianijL uod Nuw Ztialiwd. 

3. Aiticlw &ud LtrlUirs iu tlu^ ' Tii^tce * en l)iv Ckiiiujifl 
Question in AiifitnJiik, Mny And Jimv, 1^8ii . - I€2 

V111-— 1. Fifty \'o*ni Ago. By Walker Bo«»nL London, 1888. 

5. London. Bj Oharlcfi Knicljl. London. 1841-44. 
$. Fiflv Ti]«rM' Nfttiuiiul Progrcv. By Michki?] G, 

MnUialL Loudon. Ifi87 - - - - -180 

1X«— tipoeebcH lia Uie Uoiim of Lotvlii ou Uie OonfLtttntion of 

Uio tIon«e, 1^88 ... - - . - 217 
X, — LocaI <JovofUiiioiil rt^ngUDd mxnX Walut)- A Bill to 
Amend tlio Uwft n<lMing to luteal Gov^ninient in 
En^luid ond \V aIck, ami for ctUirr purpo£oe conneciod 
Ll>«i«wit1i. Pn?v^fi-'d and brougljt in by Mr Ritobio, 
Sfi*- Wnimtn Mirnry Sniitli, th<; QbaLncrillor of Ut9 
ExcboqQOT, Hr. S«<.'n?Ury AlnlUuivit, mtd Ur. Long- 349 




No. 334. 

Abt. Pnire 

j.._Robert Elamci-e, By Mrs. Hnmphry Ward. London, 

1888. Siith Edition ------ <173 

II, — 1, CnrrcBpondence of Dantel O'ConncU, the Liborator. 
Edited, with notices of hiB Life and Times, by W. J, 
Fitzpatrick. 2 Vols. London. 1888. 
2, Life of Daniel O'ConneH. (The StateBroan Series.) 

By J. H. Hamilton. London, 1888. 
:i, ToiiQg Ireland. By Sir Charles Gftvan Dnfiy. 
London, 1880 303 

III, — L A Book of Nouponae. By Mward Lear. London, 
lS4f>. Twenty-sixth edition, 1888_ 

2. Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany, and Alphabets. 
By Edward Lear. London, 1671. New odition 

3. More Nonsense, Pictures, Bhymes, Botany, &c. By 
Edward Lear, London, 1872. Netr edition, 1888, 

4. Langbable Lyrics, a Fonrth Book of NonsenRc, 
Poeius, Songs, Botany, HTTsic, &c. By Edward Lear. 
London, 1877. Now odition, 1888 - ^ - 335 

IV- — 1. A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, comprising 
the History, Institutions, and Antiquities of the 
Christian Church, from the Time of the Apostles tfi 
the Age of Charlemagne. Edited by William Smith, 
D.C.L., LL.D., and Samuel Cheetbam, D.D. In 
2 vols. lUnstratod by Engravings on Wood. 
London, 1875-1880. 
2. A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, 
Sects, atid D<iotrineB, during the First Eight Cen- 
turies. Edited by William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D., 
and Henry Wace» D,D. In 4 vols. London, 1877- 
1887 - - 366 


Ak Pico 

V. — 1. On Translating Homer. Three Lectures. London, 
2. Last Words on TranslatiDg Homer, A Lectoie. 

London, 1862. 
8. Essays in CntioiBm, Third edition, rerieed and 
onl&rgod. London, 1875. 
Poetical WoAs. 3 Vols. LondcHi, 1885 - - 398 

VI.— 1. The Oorrespondenoe of Cioero during the years 51 
and 60 B.a 

2. Cicero in seinen Briefen. B. B. Aboken- Kanover, 
1835. English TraDslatioii, London, 1854. 

8. Une Province romaine soob la E^pnbliqne. Par G. 
d'HugneH. Paris, 1876. 

4. Ciceron et ses amis. Par Gaston Boissier* Paris, 

1877 427 

VII.— 1. Second Kcport of the Royal CommissioneTs on Tech- 
nical Instmotien. 5 vols. Sto. London, 1884. 

2. Techoical Instmction Bills. (England) 1887, 1888. 
(Scotland) 1887. 

3. The Straggle for Existence. By Profijssor Huxley, 
* Nineteenth Century/ February 1888. 

4. Report to the Board of Trade on the Sweating 
SyHtom at the East End of London. By the Labour 
Correspondent. London, 1887. 

5. Publications of the National Association for the Pro- 
motion of Technical Education, Loudon, 1887-88. 

6. Techoical School and College Building. By E. C. 
EobiuH, F.S.A,^ London, 1887 - - - -US 

VIlI. — 1. The Crimiiul Law and Procedure (Ireland) Act, 

1887, 50 A 51 Vict, cap- 20. 
2. The Land Law (Itchmd) Act, 1887, 60 & 51 Vict. 

cap. 33. 
8i The Report of the Hojal Canntission on tiie Land 

Law (Ireland) Aot, 1881, and the Porohase of Land 

(Ireland) Act, 1885. 
4. First and Second Report of the Royal Commiaaion 

on Irish Public Works 478 

IX.— Barly Life of Samuel Rogers. By P. W. Clayden. 

i London, 1887 - 504 

X,~ParIiKnrataT7 Debates. Febrttaiy to Aaguet, 1888 - 514 





Art. I. — 1. Gtupard tie (hliffntfy Amirtd dc France, Par 
Le Conilff Jiil^i» DMalwrtf^. Thrfle voir PstU, IS79- 

8. Colignr/ aatnt &i Gucrres dc R^ligwn^ Par Euft^ne Benicr. 

& HiM0if< dt t ElabUsttmtnt dti F>vU$Uiutitme en France, 
CrittenaHi l IlUtifU'^ l*oiU%tfiic H Rf^U^if'tite de la I^ation dtpui^ 
Frajn;&iii Premier Jutqu^a r^dit da Naniefi^ Par L*AgucftBC, 
VoU, 1 ftftd 2. ParU, \Mi^, 

\. HiMoir« Kcfl^siastit/iu de^ iCffUses R^fomxfyt au B^tfautm de 
Franct. Edition A^:ntcclk avcc cammtnt^tirc, notice bi&lw* 
qraphiqttt et table <tes fa\ts H des nomt proprei. Par r<;a G, 
Baum rt &I. Coniu- Vuh. I mid 2. Pari*, ISflS* lt84. 

S. Jlitfvrtf of fie Rite of l/te Ilitffn^NjU. Oy Ilt^nTv M. BAinJ* 
Praf^atir in the Unircnitjr of the City of Now \ork. S rot*, 
LoadoHt 1880. 

IP \hc bistorjr of Kurupe itunii]^ llit- M^iievatfa ct-ntur^' li not 
a4li>qu*:«lT wriiLcn, i1 tviU not he for l«ck of ihe n4ic«MaTy 
vithoTitiot : the miilrnjitc ^rr- ACWHibl^iDalmoit nrrrwhetlmin^ 
profuAiao, and every drcade M\d% lu quota to tho <?ii&ting atock. 
Privaie iftdastry viea wilb tho nnue^iried cfTort^ of national 
focirlirB and xuccf^Ktivc ^i>vrrnini?ntt tii the rpjinidurlion of 
rare piutphleUt diplomniic memoirs, and sutc despnicbeft- 
Tbc orchivcf of crcr^ capital In EurujK- (with one rjtccption) 
arv alrradjr at ibf oommnad of eIi4> fttud^iil, 9kTid th4iTH» it rv»^oa 
to hopT that tbcurorrt tivavurf^ of thfi Vatiran wi!l not hn miirH 
lon^n vritbbeld. Und^r surb ronditiona the int^rrtt in this 
ttott fucinaCin^ ])erii>d is not likely to decline, und the Tolamvs 
Mine<l at tbr boyui of oar nrtirlc show tioir widely it is innin* 
tAJDed, It would be difficult to select ^vc works dealing wilb 
the aacn« pciiod which should diaplajr greatcf Tarlcty c( 
VoL 167.— TVa «J- o trettment 


i Atfmiral Col\^n}f. 

tro&tment or more uniform vrvidoncc of unvpArin^ n^sctarcb. 
Count Jules OcUborde's conacicntious labour has amuflcd in 
throo pondrroiif volume* an 4;xtiauttivc* astembUgc^ oi all tbat 
can cast liRbt Dpr»n on<^ of th« ^roadctt ftgurf-a of Frrncli 
Protcitctnliim, HU work •uppHet iho Ivxt of mnny oflicial 
dacurneiits, and of much hilh«rto unpublished correspondence, 
discovrrtd in lie manuscript fleparlment of the National 
Library; it glfcfl amplr nlrBct* from Coligny'* own letters 
and c^piouK appendices filled with original nuthoritiea, besides 
the Author's conserurivc? and painttakin^ narratives. All this it 
dontr wiih such uuwcAticil dili^tticc, rLiid with 9^ enroot %\\ 
admiration for hi« hcnv, that it «cem« utigracioui to add that 
M. DclaborJe lack* the genius which is requisite to breathe 
life into th« statue Ijc has so laboriously quiuTied. The 
briefer and brilliant study of M Bcruer glows with all the 
firt? of the greal ProtesUnt preacher. The principle, upon 
which M. Agucssc*s um*fu] history is compiled, is that of 
fluotinif in drtail oonlomporary aulhoritica, aoleotod with 
Tnu<^h impartinlity^ although th^ nuthnr^s hiss tn fcivouT of the 
Keformeis it not disjruised. The care, with which exact reference 
is given to every eitniiTt In this modest work, is in sinffuliir 
contrail to the indifTorcncc to plagiarism which led Bcza 
to incntrporate without acknowledgment whole pages from 
Crespin, Laplace, and otlxT <:i>ntc[npiirario in lu* ^ llistoire 
Eoc!li-»io9ti<|uef' to whom^ UovriM'cr, ih^rir duo honour is restored 
in thifl fnagnifieont. (billion of Memrg, Raiim and Cunitz. Nor 
mu>t we pats without a wortl of hearty appreciation Professor 
Baird's scholarly and interesting; contributian to the Amencon 
Uteratare of an cpocb, which bos scarcely received from Engli^b 
writers tlie attention it de»erves. 

li i» the diktinctirc quality and characteristic of great men 
that they embody a.nd express the highest attainmrnt of whidi 
th«ir agie is eapable. \o man can be independent of the 
ioftuenco exerted by the times in which his life is cast. In the 
moral, as jh the ptiysicaf aphrrc, the orgmnism is necessarily 
and largely affected by iu environment ; but it is exactly at 
this poiiii that the force and value of character are felt ; and it 
is in proportion to tlxc dejprce in which iiubic prjuciplvs vaisc a 
man above the moral standard of hia age, that ci«^ is ri?ally great. 
Elementary at thia tmlh may s»*d>. it is esaenlial to bear it in 
mind, if we would arrive at a just estimate 4if individual 
character. All true judgment takes into con si deration tho 
conditions of the a^c in which a man bat lived ; not that these 
can mijdify etirrnal rulev <jf right and wrong, hut ibat ihcytnay 
exercise their legitimate weight is deciding «ach man's rank in 


Admiral CoU^ny. 


ttaXo of bnnour. To D«tcrl tliAl cv^tj mxn nhoulft t>a jlidg«Ml 
irdin^ to tbat bi^ hath, and iioi accaniin^ to tbnt Iil- balh not, 
jjctii btf Jwmeil iu|Mrrlliicmi, were it pcc ihat ip&vr luHtomiis 
vc not icldom measured jneo of past ag«t by tbo ftUnOanl of 
eir owOj and bare eipected them to be gui<led b^ uuutuui 
Utcrh, ftJlhougli nc»vr univcrtnlly a<:know]^gcd, were in their 
^y %M unkoowH ftn tbu applicaEton of elvctricitj or of ttcttm. 
hear (hcughlfl prrsrnl th<*Tnnc*lvi*"i Sfl wo AEt4>inpt to ti€^t of 

ligay'A iUe, HU manhood viubr^rf-i so lar^ n shore in tbe 
History 4*f France, that wc cannot tntisfHCtorily comlmsc it 
vithin the tpacc at oar command. We propose therefore to 
take Uie aalieat ptMnta of hi* career in iht; light of its snnttund- 
iu^ coiiditioiis. ^o virnrd, hia moral siaiurcii truely bcioic» wc 
but almost B&id aubUmcL 

Thp modrrn tlw^nij- of h*»t<»dity ooultl hardlj allege a mord 
tfriking illuttration in ila farour than th^t atTordt^^l hy the 

hatiUoni. Thej spraag from a race of warriors who had 
fuught in ibe Cruudea, and had exercised sovereign rights in 
tbe Middle Ag«a over their t^statrs, Dignifiod indrprtidcncef 
aulitury gi^oiuB, tnrupubjus cure fur thoii nubjucU, rt'veiroco for 
ironicn, nod ai^oal obedience to their mothers- no mcnn in^ 
gtedieniB of true nobility — were hereditary in the family. The 
Admiral*! fat!ier--a man ^witb a good heatl and a itn>n^ arm^ 
— was only known as a bravo officer who had riften by favour 
cl t'raAcift I. to be a marshal of France, when ho left to his 
aidow the arc of fonr fti>na, of whom DAnddot, tlic youngest, 
a^^a hill five inofitbs olil, iu addition to h<.'r thirc childrea bv 
t forniAr tnnrriflge. But Lnuiso dv Montinorf^nci wa« not un- 
mrthy of the age in which women exf^rnsed unparalleled 
bfinrnce over the deUiny of nations. Hrrtclf the tiiiJce of the 
fflmoua Conitable of France, the dams tf/toRK^Uf to (jooea 
Flleiuior of Austria, * the good cousin and perfect fTtend ' of 
Marjrucriti* of ^'alois, miatrras of a chaicnj where royalty was 
DO iiifpc<|Utfnt guest, she was no less remarkahlo for the Biiniplicity 
and onvullied purity of her life, for her sound judgmcut «nd 

nuine piety, than for the b««uty which she transmitted to her 
children, whom (in violation of the prerailing Court fjishtons) 
tbe ttouriabed at ber own breasts. After a few years of home 
eda<!ation unditr Niculas Pt-rnuhl, a ripe scholar and friend of 
Erasmus and I)c Bcrqnin, tbe boys were sent to Pnns in sbue 
the lessons and esrrciscs of the royal children. Tbe following 
letter written at tliis period, when Gaspar was fifteen years ^Id, 
is too chanurteristic of the time In he omitted : — 

Gajqiar d« Onligny t*i Ni«iUk B<'raiild — grtsttiug. Toa desird 
to give yoa Booie uewB of the Court, although, as a nile, JQ^ 

B 2! sm?Ek»:J^ 

Admiral Coti^n^, 

ovtnoQ A ctinlilui to ha infftrmnd of it; uiil I %m nni accuKicanti^ 
OOCOOT mr mitid vith Bnob Rt^i audi importuit matters, HowiiTer, 
I will ooty ootinulrr ihc nffcctioa wbicb niids uh (o ojicL othtir nod 
jocr legUiQUkLo wiHljiit I wLU then oonelrala lujMlf to iTA<:v out Ui 
^ti, viUi all Iho fiilvlity I GATk» what 1 hitro bo>ii abler to aAcortAxnu 
And, firi^t of njf, no one an yet niuicriH tli»t tbo BuTcrei^i rt>iiliff iw 
dead. All tliat cab bo sftid poeitiTcly te, that ho ui so ill that from 
dny to day wu DxjKKTt nUlier to boar of hia dettfa thui of tbo pro- 
LongntioQ of bis czi^tcucc^. At Ituui^ tL«i« ■ippcu' liai« ntid ibcru 
men in nnoH, Aomo [^mpar^ for pillmgo, othon rcoulnHl ia tlofinnd 
tlidr liomei ai^tiat criiutuul ktiaclu, Ou Stiptembcr Stb our car^ 
dinald quitted tbo port of MftTBoilloe. It isg<!iionll7 buliovod ihftt 
tbty lijiVH arrived at Bume, uul cveu aro alruodj eiliJug in ooDolftya. 
Vorr eciri^i^o compl icatiosa oro arlFiug: Uio conini<^n onomicB of 
manKitid und th<T ndvnrwiM of tbn Firiicb namo catmnantl the Act ; 
th« RoiuAn Caropagna ifi a prey to hoetilltiee ; ia aliorl, no ftccesa on 
Uiy eido rcoiuiuK ojhmi. Nevurtlulois, amidst the <]ouI>t and aoxicty 
which liaug uvur uvt^ij'lhiu^^ ibo King dous iii^t ulluw bia cuuntgu to 
}m (IfipKHWod ; for frnm it; n4 thongli null^foundod bopon animated 
him. he <1ovottt himeelf dnily to thti clited aiul ridea dowti Kta^a out 
hui»ttiJg. r>r dijepatcb«9 irihl boora ontaiiglcd in tho iMrts, Oocasioa- 
oUy I iiidalg« in the eaiue extrciso; but tbo gT«at«r pari of iny tliuo 
is ooueooratfid lo tbo reading of Ciooro and to ^(udj of tho T^bloa of 
Ptotdny imdor Dn IkEaiu. Thcrrc, now yim an: alimiit of tho Court 
biuiDefls ad I have booa ablo to m&ko it oatl Oc your side now. if 
you will» iuform ico I'f what i» i>a!t!tiug both in the tuwn uii<l al lionio. 
Sii^cu Ibti nU>vu whh miKI^u tbo Kiug linn rm^lTcil Oufiuito ii^wb (if 
tb« PopA'n di;atb, jnut »« orcoyona thoogbt ba iritt in a fair way 
of f«(WT«iy/ — Dolabordo, i. pp, 85, 34. 

A pataing gbiiic» at botli ibir coaolare aad th«i Court may 
rcvciil to u< Kninc itftrtling I'C'iturcfi of the age. Amongst tbe 
cardinah to whom CoUirny b lell*r advert* wm bi» dwii bn>tber 
Odct, who, through thv 0>nxtablva infliiciicc, had bcrn ndijiittrd 
l<» the sscrrd College at the ripe age of sixloeD, and was conse- 
quttitly t-'iititltrd to vottf on llie iiccjuion of n vaciuicv in ihc 
<:bair of S- P<^t4!n In the aprJng of thia J'cur, ]&o4, be w«* not 
only niadi* Arcbbtubop of Touloiu^*, but aUo bad diapuntatlon 
frcm TOfiidencc at the Papal Court, and periniBsioD to hold 
several rich abbeys and imixm;tni prioriej. A twelremontli 
later the biahopric of Heauvnis^one of the moat ancient ccdc- 
fiiaatical peeragca of France— was added lo tbe ampk- endow* 
Ditiilit uln.-udj' btra|>i-d upon the bojUb prelate. Hi.-nrrrorth 
CardmaL Od^t renounced all ahsre id ibe pntviiticny of tbe 
ChAUllonB,and (inipani wna rrgarded aa tbo hi-atJ ofthi? family. 

A linglir incident may help ua to realize tbe moral atmosphere 
wbieh was shed around ibe brJlHanl Giurt whcTL* CoHgiiy sprnt 
his boyhood. About four months after tbe date of this letter 


Admtutl CoU^ntf^ & 

^to Borftotct, th« Roya] bousebolcl wu enUrtained after dinner bj 
th« barning of six hervticK, ore of whom wti« n woman- It w 
on Juinan' 19th, ldJ5. Amon<^t the company waa Cardinal 
Dunrat, Cbann^lUr uf France, bishoji uf Ii[iir*«i*UcbtL-ii »re« 
betidcfi hu ni^hbinhnpric of S»cn», wiioRit cftl[ir<lrAl never vavf 
bint ^otcr until hia ft>rpw was homr thorr tfi ii* IhiriaL So 
Ueut was his Bmincncc** corpulcnco tbat a piece bad to be cut 
oat from the dinio^-table ro admit bU belly, and »o eminent 
iru his skill as an c^pirurr ihhl he bad jttat invented! a nrw dish 
—jiieU *rfiw*7n— upon which aU the courtiers doaied. The toode 
of execution crapJoyrJ w.t» tbr atrnpatU. Th<! victims ircro 
(sstvntfd to n beiim which jilrhyml op tvnfl dovra, And idternnl^ly 
di|>ped tbcm into ami wicbdrtw tUrm from tbe flamfts. As the 
torture was prolonf^ed tbe Ducheisc d'Etampce turned 1o Duprat 
and Dompltuned, nnt of \\\ft atrodous CTU«]tv of the punishment, 
bvt of the fimcTll ot hiimint^ ilrsh. *Ma<lftmc/ replied thf 
Csrdinnl jocosciv, * it is clear yon buve never entered yoar 
kitchf^n when park was being cooked — the odour la cx4ct)y tbc 
The octoriety of snrli linrrnrs mnst biir© aflrctetl Ci>!tpny 

fst this nio«l impression able period of life, altboU)t:b he was 
flonbtlas sheltered by the care of his ^>vernor, Vh. Brunelay, 
from attending them. Mrnnwhtlc be was revdiin|r in M tht? 
energy of healtbv louth, dincipliniii^ biuMelf to ivnke st Atxj 
hour, j»ininp in the roughett games wilh tbe Dnuphin ^nd 
Francois de Ciuise. Alwaji foremoit, lavii Itnotome. where 
blows werr thickest, there was sutc in be mitcbtef where Coli^y 
sad hii inseparable compjinion^ Ouiae, were concerned. The 
two cfxnrMios, dn-»fd and o^rcunlred nlike, indulifed in the 
wildest extrnvnganccs, in mock combfits nml mRtqiirndcs, an^l 
it was Dolit^d that ihey always luok the suuie side in (be»e 
^^ tnimic Wltlcj, Through aII this exnbernDoc of animal ipirils, 
^■sjdd in the midst of n society rbnl wns ateepnl in sensnaEiCy* the 
^Byoun^ Coli^ny was confl|ricnout for personal purity, singular 
^Bfenerositv, and unswcr>inj£ toyshy to truth. His exireme de- 
^Flilwratiun in utterAme, in which he imilaud De ElruneUy, wns 
V pmbisbly sn miiwanl sif^n of bis habitunl self-control, ns wa« 
al>u hts perfect cNjinmmid of bis ctiuntcnance, which betrayed 
^^^ho 4nno!ion uofltrr nnv emergeocy — ^a quality lae sHnrml with tb<> 
^■Cardinal nnd Dandlelol. 

^^ It was juat at the momi^nl when bis pf^Mcctlon would hnVi- 
been of most value to bii nephews, tbat the Constable Mont- 
morenci fi^II under tbe ditpWsurr of Francis, and the youn^ 
inea were left to carve out tbeir fortunes for ihemwlves, Tbc 
war with Charles V^. bad been renewed, and In 1542 Coligny 




Atbnirtd Cciiffny, 

mode bis flrst cftm|Kki^. IIg toon won distinction at tbc ^lege- 
dI' RinclK^ Tbi? Fivncli artitler}- wer<M<> badly planted ^ to be 
asetcss, and the young ni>&^fjf?, itiinuUtcd by the prr«cnro of 
the Dnupbin, ru»bcd ftt thi^ ditcbo iknd were met by n murderous- 
fire. Coligny was among^l th<^ woirnd^d. Tbi* gnllnntTy of 
mrmben of bis |M.'r»onui stafT c^^ouid uoc fail to attract ihe 
Attention of tbo lurir- apparent aixii to command promotion ; and 
in the Italian ciimpai|;n of 1M-i, alihougb no decisive battle 
vroi fougbt, the future Hugueni^t gemtml was studying military 
tttctici, lm|jraviui* ibc- di»ci|)]iiii- of liis rrgitucni, »od uct|Likrin^ 
tbc reputation of a »oLind and nble officer. The pcaoo concIadiMi 
with the Kin|>eror t«-ft pTanrlft ai libr^rf^ to t^\fTi aW Wt*t fttergwit 
ftgiinit Hrnrv Vlll.; but the French monnrcb was ivearv of war^ 
and the prrlimiDarirrs of a truces were arranj^cd upon condition^ 
tbat each tide sbould maintain their defences I'li staiu qito. 
Coligriy hatl been transferrmi to a command tti IVornuindVi bad' 
carefully timaUrrc'd ihv lo^Hj^rapby btid defirtictftt of Douloi^utrf 
and ba<i nlrcndy formed n p)nn for aEtcinptiog; its reduction. 

On his dying bed, Rr:(nris wnrn^rl liic sue^ettsrir Against the' 
insatiable ambition of the (liuiscs. If c^er they grasped the 
reina of govcrntncnt, tbey would despoil his descendants and 
reduce France to the extremity of misery. HJs advice feU 
upon unwilling cars. The two brothers, Frant^oii and tbc 
Cardinal of Lorraine, were aupreme ut the- Court uf Uvnry II, ^ 
and lh(« obuHiuious ilavva of DiAoa of Poielioro. Tboir 
pTop«»aK that tbeir brotlier Chude vbcmbl marry a daughter of 
tbe reigning beauty, occasioned the first coolness between Gaise 
and Coligny. When consulted on thi* project, Colipny bad 
replied bluntly, 'I prefer a pinch of authority with honour 
CO a pound wittiout it,' nod Guise sbclcerc<) hta annoyance 
bcbinil the pretext, that his frtcod was jealous of tbe good 
foriUTiA which the alliftnt^r- would confer. But iho Constable^ 
now restored to royal favour, stnm^ly upheld his kinsmen, and 
TM immf^diate breach ensued with the Guises, 

We must linger a moment over the dealb of ibeMarecbalede 
Cbatillon, which followed shortly allcr that of tbc French king. 
It would be hold to find a moie htrauijful ek-gy than the letter 
of eoadoIenceT which the Chancellor I'H&pitA) addressed to 
Cardinal Odet. 

'Why distreaa yourself orer your mother's death? We abovld 
sot oall by the aomo of doath tho paJ8ag<L to n b*it1or and otorool life, 
tbe exchange of this inhoapitable and i;crdid L-arth for a chiudlciw and 
usboQudcd sojonrn in Lho akifO. lie v^ho dioa vritfa a tranquil 
coEiiciciice, anrrouuded hy a pioua and lovmg o&jiring, mutt bo 
rogaitlcd att divuiuly privJlc^^, lui L-xc^ptiuuuIly furluuate. Huw 



Admiral Colign^, 

Iii4>py wu your mother! 6hd coiild ftiftrlett]j go down to tho 
inmoM tbldA cf her uoauiciunco cr Ionic withc'Ut ^ou&d bor Hor liA 
both bofore mid ^fUr Wr mjirriagu bu] l>veD froo ftom a cludov of 
sosiridoD > . , U&vina ftocurnpliflhoil »U }i«ir dnli^i kb ft inothar, abd 
ouiud pndfhvrvclf in l]brchitarciiaiidgmiide1iildroc),upoii a pofitcrity 
moro pftrftci Ihnn abe coald over baTo dreatted oi Arrived at a 
ttroU ngp^ in fall poiMK'Ssittit of hor rrvculticK^ coufldf^Qt of a jqX bettor 
uS% abo bftfl gt>xi<i Dp to bcibvon. Wljut more bokalifoi cud of a aoro 
blo life could belter codsoIo your Borrow or better dry your team?* 

How far LouiiM- de Montiaurtriici waj itubtinl with the Hc*- 
forinMl opinion* is a littli? obfcorc. On her dcntbbcd >bc 
rpit«>rAle«l, AgAin A»d sigain, \\^r rvlJArvc** upon tbv Divine m«frrv 
tot) her ossoraDcc of cicntik] talvrntion. 'His tncrc/ sball be 
from frcnerntion to f^eaeratioo vpoa iban th&t fear Ilimt' waft 
tl>e text whtdi wai coiuUntI/ on ber lipi. In her lut moments 
>fae desired Odct tn prcTcnt nay priest from attending hci. 

HGod bad ^ivL>u hrr ib« siugulau grace of tmcbiiig her bow tv 

^MeftT Aad lo iwrvo l^lira. 

^P It was Wt>ll^ perbnpic, tbut so tucpiriou* n drfviur? wni sliH* 

^tcTed brQ4*-tth the powerful roofof theConstabtp, for anonhotloxy« 
ontler Henr/ IL| was tbe one itapiirdati«ble crtinv. Adultery, 
of wbich ihe moiurcb himirlf srt ibr mort Hagiant ex^mpl^^ 
extoTlioD, murder reilod under ihe i^uise of justifiable rcvoDp^, 
rvcn incest — if the a<:(:iii.i titans ogaimt (he Cnrdinid of Liirmine 
*n> to h*9 oreiHli*d^w*r<» not iDcomp»tibl* with ih* royal tAvour ; 
bot no qnnrti^r wat giren to the fninte«t Kutpicnnn of hetinvMloxy^ 
tren under such coDditioni tu mif>ht reasonably mitigate royw 
and oTthtKlox diiplcAsure, In the funeral term<in over Francis I^ 
bis Grnfid Almoner, Pierre DuChatrl, Hisfiop ot kMitcon^dcclnml 
Itiat briUl-ini aud imuiuculace nion^Lreh UluI lived so well that 
hit apiril bad gone stiaight to hoftvcn without pasiing through 
tbe expiatory flames of pur^^Mory. Porttiwitti cvrtata doctors 
wsw <leput«^ to d^ntouner Ui tlift King the tnonslrous herMy. 
which dared to iumEest that hU rnyal fathers soul was not duty 
subjected la Daxnelcss tortun;. The <]urstio[i was licing gravely 
(tiscussed when the chief inaifnr tl/toUJ intervened. 'Oencle- 
uneD, wbai Mocisietir the Almoner said exaeily suits the character 
of my wuriby uiastor, the laic Kij»g ; and you can rely upon my 
.'Word, who knew him better than any one. He wac not a 
tince of a humour to stay long at any place whatd'er.^ (The 
C!ng\ reitlessneas durin^f bis later years was notorious.) * Be* 
llcve mtf }( he ever cotered purgmtOTy, he only just staid long 
nodgh to taUe tbe wine, as he would uUayt do in pajaing/ 
This pleassntry saved l>u C'b/iutl from any stcrmrr penalty thui 
banishment from C<»un« St^hwitttr ridtA ta^Lv, 



Atlmira! Coiu^y. 

The di^ath of Loulu^ ()e MiintmoTriK't left iht Ifwlin^ per^ 
aonagH in France characicvi&tic&ll)^ employee]. HeDry IK and 
Diftna uf Putctim wen? »|U9ndt-ria)^ tbt; national rcKmtxvs in 
•hftEDolots diutpMion ami luxurjr. Thd two Oui»i>i wot«» bufty 
with nrojrirtft lor protnorln^ ihi'ir Housr* 1o a r^yal noMtion, 
dcaigninf^ ihe throne of \ap1cB for one member of the family 
and the Pap;il tinra for another. The Constable wiu augmenting, 
without much rcgnrd for delicacy or honour, the enormous 
fortune be h;ui ^IreAdy amj>ased. And Coligny, who at ibe age of 
twcnty-<'ight Itnd been appoiotrJ *Colon<;t Aiid Captnin-Ocneral 
of French Infantry' — » post «eix>nd only in irapi^rtanoi.* to 
of f?omioandrr-io-(-hirf — wns drvotin^ liitnirlf to impmvp fiic 
discipline of bis troopi. The need tor such reform was tertihly 
urgent. The dit4)rdcr was friffhtful. Nothing hut pillage, 
theft, abduction, brigandn|;e, murders, qunrrelct and lewdnefs, 
(sayi Brantome) was prevaleai lu the ranksi so that they tvere 
more likr n honle of AiaHi or bAndJts thnn nohic «oldicr« ; and 
•O )OVet«raie weiv tbete ezoevi^Si thiit die ofTiot-n were f[Liite un- 
concrrnrd about thrm.* A ^lnn<-r At thr military cocLn drawn 
up by Colij^oy reveaU not only the nature of ibe disorders he 
designed to supprrss, but thir high slandiird of conduct he 
attempted to cttablisb. Besides such eiemenlary nilcs as are 
indis|itf usable ftjr the inaiutenauce of due subordin^ition, it 
embodied tome remarkable mi^rnl pennltics. The soldier who, 
without Juit cause, bod maUgncd the honour of B4]v>Enrade, was 
to be declared before all the troops to be himself stamped with 
the shame his charge implied. The blainhemer was to stand 
in some public pinoe for three days^ b>r three hours etich day, 
and then, barchorided, to ask God for pardon. It is astonishing 
thai so ^oujj]^ a man, in the days of iIjct Valuts and the Guides, 
sboutd have prescribed rrgulntions thftt onn only Fnd a iiaraUcl 
in the onlinanoei of Outtavus Adofphus ; but it would bo 
difTicidt to exftireerstc their importance. Brantomo asserts, that 
they saved the lives and property of more than a million of 

The redaction to order of an undisciplined rabble was no 
easy task, oud wa« only accumjdishcd by the occasiona) eaertiun 

* At tho fiftphm of Aflnn in I5IS » voTj bcantlM ]:irt wm ^T«n &• patl«f J 
his Khare ui ma ipoil tc CoJI^ny. Uia first ami^-ty wiu to pEui^rve hxx ftOBS f 
loivlt, and bo sent iii^ ftt tiir ukd nvjotut. umJi^r lultiLm-y <.Hc<>rt, to « nd^bbooTh ' 
In^ conrant On Ibilr w»y ITjjjt wwf* mi'l by n b^ti^l of lurtnTidxTw. nrhn duprrtod 
Uts esoart and omr«god ihe%t hcijAwa cbar^, Tbc Do^o of Of IrjiniL. Ut wLum 
Coll£ur ftpptvLloil, vrus «ur|iHwtl ui his wiutamiidintAi and only icIiicuuLUy 
ytt'ldc'l to Jila punidtvut ilcmanJ Tnr the jnuitBbiaciit of lh« offL-nd^ni. wtio isvr^t 
DfunluAUy eXMHited, uotfinf the Tir^lmico done to Ibn jctrl, (jut for tiiu miltLELry 
iiuuboidiaaUoa «f dlapaidag tlk> fioooik 



iron Willi Colijcnj iooti mic]« it plnin thnt he was born to 
land. Whco th^ Engliah alftUirhicrrtl their Frrnrh 
^nsoQcrs, he at once resorted to r^pnuls, anil reducnl them to 
ubsi-rve \hc law* af hotiourabtc war. IVrtonally brarii to ihi; 
verge of rantioeu i »o ditiiiltrrtratrO tbut be fluii;; for tliitribuliun 
osioog bift tTf^op* the priw^mobcy gnuitcd bim porcannllj- by 
bia sorerei^n, bi the no smalJ wrath oi the avancu>ut Coattable ; 
tvcr forrainvt where danger was hottest, he soon rnrb^ariH) 
himself to nil ranka^ ao that [>De an^y word from bim <jucll€d 
Ibe mo«t reb^lIiLiui spirit. Din <lJ3<iiuTi for »kulken, of wliatever 
lution, WAf profound and outsp^^km. * 1 would soonrr be d«ai] 
and burird bcncatK fifty feet of citrth, than b»re bct&ved aa yoj 
did/ wa« his blunt rcbukr in thn roynl pTeteDC« to Stmr?!^ wbr> 
liad iailed adequaielj to auppurt bis utiack upon the Enfiliah 
fl««t. To thrM*(|i]%liitrcwcrc mldcd tKatcnnprtil aEtrntion m, and 
masterr o:', det&iU which aro eawntial, though uaconspicuous^ 
d«nic^ts of tuccesi* 

The presence of so active a funeral soon made itself fell in 
iho Boolonnais, where the war Ungutibed under the ina<IequAte 
nrpport nlTorded to the Englich army l>y * ibe ProlffStnnt 
Misiule.' On April 25th, 16r^,Coli^nj took formal passessioa 
of Boalogne in his master's n?bme, and shortly nfterwnnlt hn 
crossed oier to Lnffbod to c<>m:iudt' the terms of peace with 
Edward VI. The imporinncc of iho service thus rendered by 
ColiX>iJ*a te|;iaieLit induced Henry lu ndopt bis code of 
discipline for the whole French army ; and hi|fh honours^ con- 
forred in rapid saci-p«4ion, tesiified to the influence he bad 
gained tbron^h his owa abilities and the favour of the Con- 
iilable. Within Ave years the important charf>cs of Gorcmtir 
T)f PariSt Admiral of France, arnl (lovprnor of Flcardy, — tbo 
bliCTf one of the most responsihle positions tti the kingdom — 
urere united to hi» command uf the French infantry, It was a 
laftgnifieent pottition for a youn|^ mttn of thirty-six, which 
die marriaj-e of bia niene with Louia de Hourbon, Prince of 
Coodi^t mi^ht bo expected to consolidate and ndvance. 

In January \bhi war wus oace more declared ngninst 
Charles V., and trance entered U]»<in the contest with frantic 
eathtisiasin. Yoang men of family crowded into ttie ranks as 
voloDleers for acrvice in Itily and the three biaboprics. Towns- 
folk laft th^ir count ing-hooaes, artisana their workshops. Ger- 
man allies swelled the roynl forces. Toul add Mets? opened their 
ntPi to the French army, and, although Strnsbur^ held out, 
Verdun was carried. It was not until September that (he 
Emperor tat down with 60,000 of tlie finest troops in Europe 
and 114 goni before Metz, and rowed that he would not leave it, 



Admiral Cofipny, 

a he hftd to wear out three nnniooar after nnother* uDtil it lur- 
rGDdered. The gallant resistance of Gube was loyally seconded 
hy Cvligny, itIio4v atiiplc injrrcvpundcDCc with tbr bcro of Mctx 
L«ar> marks of hU old ami afTi^Hionatt? regard. It mipht w>em 
invMinns lo inqtiirr h«w inurh of f iuiwr** i(]cc4<» wn< dun tn thn 
terrible winter leaion, which swalloivcd up a third oi Cbarleft's 
armv in iti cainp anionfr«t themnrsliifa aniumt .Metx ; bow inucU 
to Coli^y'a ikihut capture of Hesdtn, which saved I'icanLy and 
conapelled Cbarlea to raioe ibe aiege. Xo need to (]uefii<iD 
the glorjr of tbc de(t'.ndei itt Metx, nor hia place amon|^t tL<t 
foranost «aptaini uf hia nf;v. 

Wr tnxi%i pn*» rnpidly ovrr the events of the nnt two years. 
The death of his father in Ibhb obliged Antojne de Bourboa to- 
resign the government of Picnrdy^ and Coligny was appointed 
to succeed him. His brother Dandelot, to whom the King hacft 

fromised the command of the French infantry, and Frnii(;t>isUe 
[oiitmorenci, who wft» U> ukc over the g<i\ernor»bi|i of raritt 
were Loth priaonera In ihv baoda of Cb&rles, and the Adminil 
rMained their ofliees until they wore rrlrased. MennwbiU the 
diar^ of his frontier proi-ince en^ossed Col iirny^a time, and 
doubtless helped to maiure his views regarding the pf>licy whieli 
t'rance ought to pursue. He was indignant that so much French 
bloud and Ireaiurc were nquaudereil beyond the Alps, whilst \i^ 
couhl not obtain thfi inruns to put 1 iCArdy intu a stale of 
dcfcnci>. The stnnllcst vUU^e of Arlols or Flanders was of 
more importance in hi« eyes than a whole Italian kingrlom. 
Other causes of anxiety were abundant and palpable. licli^ioua 
discord woa driving a line of cleavage throngb thewhole nation. 
The (Jourt was split into factions, and rival counsels distracted 
the rijyal polic.y. The h(>undte«i extmviLgaiice of Diana ol~ 
PoicCicrs was diasipating tbr initionftl incnnte. AUb<jojfb the 
people were eruibed under taxntion impotcd lo provide for 
national defence, the army was disorganized, the arsenala 
uufumisbed, the n^yal dockyards empty. Accusations of berecy 
were fomented that the estates of the condemned might svrtU 
tbe fortune of lUe Kind's Diistre^s or provide marrinjfe-portions 
for her children. Thtmgtitiul men W(?re appalled nt th<T nasl4% 
which thrt'atoned nntioual baiikiuptcyf and wcrr ait^kened at th<T 
judicial murder of blameleaa citixens. To terminate acotlly an<l 
Bnpro6table war, to husband the resources of the country, and 
to unite all Frenchmen in concord by a rneasure cf religious 
toleration, was the policy which commended itself to all 
enlightened and jutriotic mjud:i. 

An incident which bi^fel (,'<>ligny in 1555 wiJI serve to illus- 
trate this condition of aOfpiira. Mary, sister of Charles V, aod 



Admir^i Coiiffny^ 


nejcent of lh« Low Coontrios, bad confiscated all French vetwii 
India^ ID Flemish ports. Hcnrj onJrr<:d hi« Admiral to nriMi^ 
the insult, * Vnar .Mnjr&ty hat no Ddry/ was the rrply, * and I 
lioow not wliL-i^ yuu cau lurn fur one? txcvpt u> iht inerctiiuiU 
Aod srAuica of Dieppe/ The old Norman town brftTclj 
nnponded to th«ir uionarcL'* calL 5uU oolj nincl^cn vessels, 
butiljr equipped, che largest not ciceedia? 1^0 toDt* were 
all that could be brou^^bt toother under ih« Sieur d'Epin^viUe 
lo awAjl tbc corning of the Spanish gAliconH. Prcscnttv tvronty- 
Xoar ships of from 40U to 500 lona burd<^n, mounled witb beavj 
jKuns, buve la si)^ht. Tiiv FiiTncIinii^n At onr«^ rusbrd tn cluc^ 
<|uar(CTi, and ftfti^r a dopmir sCruf^j^lc, in wbich lire of tb^tr 
«ii»n ship« verc Inst^ gairunl a i!rimplr-t4f viclorj-. Half thft 
Plemish 0eet were suuk ; aix more were lowed rich prt£c« into 
port next day, Tlio gallant d'Kpinrvillr wa> Among iKh; slain. 
Wbai might not be done with such bold hcfLris as ttjcsc, if only 
tbejr were well (rained, well up|>oint<;d, and wdl IlhI ? The 
liiUory of early mAfitiiuc dix^o>rry lold liow ibr sailors uf the 
^'oruasn coast hul been the firvt European ri»tors to the coast 
df {juinfft, ami iindt^r tlir famoiu An^ bad rhAscisrd tbn atto- 
fuice c( Pottufal And compelled teipeet to the French flaf. 
Hot had ihn* hoM »i-A-do^8 of Fmncc lost Any of their >lti]l and 
coora^. Why should they tamely submit to Spanish uiurpa- 
tLun over the ^Vc^tem cnntincDl ? Why sliouhl tbey not share in 
itk rouianiiC wcjdlb aud found iheru a tioruc of rrltgiuus freedom 
beynad the reach of papsl and royal bif^olry? Thoughts mioh 
M tliese were^iring in thi- tnind of the Admiral^ but th« 
fint ecsenti^ was ixuce with Ciiatles. Tlie hoptr of relmstu^ 
Dukdelot from bis long CApttvily further cnhsncc^l ihr sAtisfac* 
tian, with which Colignj acx^epCcd the inJuion to conclude the 
Treaty of Vaucvllc«, 

Already in this year {156&) CoH|cny bid utade the bold 
v^ture of despatching an expedition to BnixiL It vras the 
lint efTiiTt tn found a Krenrh <^i]ony. And Villej^a^Don, its leader^ 
A iLihu) sOAmAn And bravo soldif-r, wlio hAd been promoted for 
goad service to be Vice-AdmirAl of UritUsny* had many of the 
qoaliiie* which mjgbt ensure sacccvs. We commend to those 
nho have lojanre and taste for sucb stpdie« the ptctori^ac 
narratiiFc in which Jean dc l^vTy detail* the cauacs of its failure, 
\o wonder that bU book bad already reiichi'd its third nlition 
ia lMt4, for it prrbenta a 8in^lnr rombinalinn nf quaint smi> 
plicity and manly piety, of vivid deHcription and thrilling 
■dventure, from which ne might have quoted largely did our 
ipaee permit, lery was not one of the original colonists, but 
be formed one of thi? fourteen companions, including two 



Attmirai CoHgn^f. 

Hufsaenot pastorj, irba w^t from Gecievft tbe following year, 
at ViUegagnon's reqat-it, to jain the settli-menL It b a Strang 
world thjit is ilp[»ictc<l in hia pfl^cs. The three £bi[)« irhicL 
formed the aecuiKl zLniiJLmi.-ut jinK-lisfd uuMuihiu^ pimcjr oa 
the mcrch»ntm<'0 of frii*ikcl» tinii Tons inilifTflrenllv. Kcligioun 
(Ji^iiutr-A dUtritrtrcl the rolonisti, id wlach Vill^^gnon took a 
prominent pntt, adcI a^ hi? aii<led to the pQ«sc4Kion of nb^tolute 
•eculnr authority ih« Oogmatic intoleranoe of a theological 
lUspuEnnt, bis opponents soon Jon^ecl to ri^tum lo Europe. 

t^inbnrked in on unseawnrlby ve&icl, their hotnrward royage 
was one lon^ itrugglc? ngALoit peril of ileAtU m manil^oM sliaprA, 
agrgmi-Alr^ hy lU<» ]awIv««iio«B of th« crow and by di*eord aim^ngit 
th<t <]fnccr«, Tbi* ship aprun|r n leak, and waj( only kept atloat 
by conttant ciertioci. At one time they are close upon coral 
r«efft*so sharp thai, ba<) wre ttruck on them, we should bave 
been lavi^d nil trouhlc of pumping/ At another, flocks "f hinlf 
from the guanr) itlanda li^ht upon the rij>f>iD^, but the hungry 
snilor* iiDd thrm aII Icnlhrr*, with bwUcs no big^^r than 
iparrow*. Before n third pnrt of the voyage is orer, thoy 
be^n to devour their monkeys and parn>ts> At 1 500 miles from 
home ther iverc put on balf rations, and when they calculated 
that tbey should nhortly be in port tbe pilot waa 900 milea out 
f>f his rcrhonitip. At len*jih, when the inr>st rtpulstve food, 
Ervtii to the lifntht*r olT iXw'iv trunks, had bL-en all coasmnrd ; 
whr^n the n^rd MosC<-r Ricbtcr, their pantor, could nv longer 
Hft bimHdf up to pray; when l\n*j bej^n tn eye one another 
with the httrnble longing of cannibal^ they reached the eoail 
of Brittany. * I doubt not,' adda the author, " that the Rabbeliita, 
who seoH^ with their legs under their dinner-tables, would bave 
been in terrihle fright if they h^l h^^n ohltgrd to face such 
dun^t'iA.' Thtr culuiiy wus ahortly uftv^r broken up, and V'ill<v 
gn^on returned to Frnnce, whrnr b«f bocjtme a violent opponent 
of the Huguenots. Lery jisverf s that, if he had conductefl his 
govemmcni wisely, lOtOOO Frenchmen would have settled in 
Brazil, and would have added a valuable territory to the posaes- 
lionsof the Mont (,'brtstian Kin^, 

During the nrgociation of the Treaty of Vaucellcs, Coligoy 
was >tiU ill bigU favitur at Court. Veaatiuus dday arose over 
the tirma an which the priftonc»ra ihouH be relonand, and the 
firmnesi displayed by tbe Ailmiral «licit«d tbe Kinj^'s warmest 
approval, * My cousin ' (wmlc 1 leory, unJer date January 25th, 
155t»}j 'after seeing; your despatch, I will only tell you that I 
could not be better pleasMl or satislied wath a servant than I am 
with you. Vou have borne yourself so well and worthily in 
the conduct of ttils discussion, that no one has ever doiw me 


Admircl CWf/ny. 


bATie^iiccc[)ta1>]G service.* VVIicn t!)c |>rc1iiniiiftri» of llie tmcc 
arranged, the Acltniral let our, nttendeii Ly a tfanticimd 

railomen. to receive iU solcma ratification from Cbarlcs nud 
PhtUjT; but at the frontiL^r Culigay was met by tiie intimation, 
thu It would be impossible to ncij^vmmodiiK- so large a retinue 
at Uruftiels. 

It is munifying (hat nothing worcby ot tlie occasion is 
recorlod of tUo lacoEinff of Coligny with Pliilip sn<l his fittHcr. 
TW two greftt oppQving prtneiple« wbitU vtcro to ronC4'm! in 
inch protracted adcI fv-rescbioG: rivalry — who3« issue* would 
for ccntMri<-ft iif^txt the dustioj of Western Christendom — might 
■ccm embodied in the persons of their powerful champiuos. 
The grave dimity of the Admiral vm well calculated to elieit 
■omclbing more than gjirruhius frlmlilv frurn thr iciirt'd 
Ri'iOfLrch i hut beyoitd ihe iiieri'nt com rii'»fi place ciomnliments, 
the narmtire of an eyewitne« ie rngroaneil hy the eiplrkiu of 
Bmsquet, the Freneh Court bulfoon. Philip had receiveit the 
cinbusy in ao nuilicnri? uhamlirr hung with taprstryt which 
represeoled the defeat ot Pavin, and Jtrusquct, without making 
any une acquainted with his purj>i)se» deiermlned m avenge the 

*^«&t day iQAiSS waa cvlobrat^jd hy t}ie Dialtop of Arraa, at which 
kg aamUd in bin oratory, ati'l oppoiitto to hua tbo Admml 
__^_ t idtlef geot)<iuieu of his auitD. AVh&n mass was over tht» King 
njmaebod the altar and tlio Bixhcip of Arrsa haadui! him tlie Holy 
uospel, ou which he snoro and [>n>Tui6od to observe tho Treaty. 
Dinclly thU woa douc^ Drtiftc|iict Atid his H^rrviuit hagao to ahont 
Idtdly, "Largccsel" Th«iy had lu^h a hug fuU of loyil FVcnrh 
ooinis, nhich thoy begftn to scatter all about, . . , I'hc King at this 
«iboty tUTDod in astomahment to tho Admiral, who kuev nut what i> 
«j M he wms not in the Momt; hut ho dincnvunHl what BmMtiot 
ttd hia WAD wf^ro doing anil pointed thu King to thorn, 'fliey 
|>lay«d their part ao vfuU that the altandaatB, who were moro than 
^0 both man and tTotocii, Uiinkliig it woa a gift of the King's, 
<«^rly bent tfaomaolvei to gather np tho crowns, th« orchors of ths 
gWd aiiioag>»t the drM, who aix^u <^a]iui to the point ol' UMng tlioir 
L^hards. Tho Tr.ttt of tha crowd jraned in fluch ooiifuitico, the womitii 
^th dtAberelled hair and Iboir purses cut. raou and women qiiito 
epMl by «nob strargo drollery, ao that thu Kiii^ laughed tmiiJ ho 
«M obliged to hold on by th« altar to save liitJiKcIf ft\iiii falling. . . • 
The Gsroc hutod for inoro than lui hour, oiul at its concludion tho King 
viahad lo haro Bniaquet to entertain him dumif; his dinner, who, 
sfter ft great many huffnocerios, paid him in dilTrront voio. For at 
tbo iMt iwirau, with tho Kuiga pLTiuisaion-^whu, howorer, bftd tio 
id«ft whA( ho wma goiuK tu d^j — ho tuifk hold of tho two louvr codii of 
Uio etothy thnvr himMf apon the tablo, rollod along mil iU Ivngth^ 
•^loil tho Other tiro ends, and wrappiog himeelf ftud alt that wfts 




Admral CoUgnif^ 

within it icoind wittt tlio cli>tli> oorriort it olT, HiXiTuig firxt lOk^e liif 
Ijqw, KDJ Kftid^ '^lifiiiiy tbanlu I "' — DdftWrdL*, vol. i., pp. 1113, 4 

Howev4;r ludicrous tlie»*c kcvo«« ma}' appear, tbcri^was icnuui 
buflineM in abiimlnnre to hp rlincni^srcl, nn<i thr r**lrAse of ih* 
prisoners nwt only act!»m|iliibod iift«r luterminnble procrastiua* 
tion on the part of Gmnvcllp. Hwdly wa* ihn trcfity clrfinitpt/ 
cuDcluded, liian ila violalion wag resolved oa al FoniuiQebleau^ 
and Colignj felt all tlie more Ifi cat! oii of n xtnteuinn wbose mott 
chcrikbcd policy u rrrciracd ul the rcrr moiticnt of iu IriaiDpIi, 
and of ft patriot whoic cuuntry i% impertllctl by fantA«tic ncmt: 
ambitioR. Alrf^dy a coolness had arisen botvf^n himwtf and 
Ciuiu! ; but iht- Utter had now ncijuirud rnmpleti^ mattery ov^ 
the weak and »elf*]ndn1f;ent Ilrnry, and all Colignya remon* 
Btruoces were ^ain, Tbcir iimtiedUte efTecl was entirely to 
iilicnntr the King's favour. The folly of the rupture of^ ths 
|>oaec of \ attCL'llct waa uiily surpasard by the treachery witEt. 
which il wa» put into piroution, Gui«e wcib deapatchwl la 
November to Italy, at the bead of an army which comprised ihi 
finest troop« in France. CoH^ny w;i« hidden to eniMthr frontier, 
withoat any prcrious declaration of war, and seize upcn one oJ 
the Spaotsh strongholds in the Low Cuuntrles. He was deepl 
>ffn>ible of the lUngor to which hi* own i^ovcrnmcnt of Picardy 
waa expoBud, and he vainlr endeavoured during the ^\x month* 
which rInpBcrl lirtwrcn the dcrUrntion of wur on the Inut. dav of 
J^trkuary^ l.'>57, au<l the aclnaL commencement of bostilitici, \<i 
jiut Lhe province in x (late of defence. His rcprrsentationi 
were unheeded. Henry's mind wa& en^ossed with the Itsdian 
campaijfn< A meagre force of 23,000 men, one-ihird of whom 
were Ccrjuan mcrccnaTici, which che Duke of Ncvcfb com- 
mjtndcd until the arrival of tho Con»table, waa all thnt could 
be KpnrcHl for the defence of the moat vulnerable frontier of the 

Suddenly the news arrive<l, that the Duke of Savoy bad 
inarched upon ^^. <juentin. Lf the town were carried, the road 
to Paris lay o|>en to the inTmli^r; but its fall was inevitable?. \\m 
contained bul 150 men nt urmrt, and the hrst French truopa had| 
hiH<n €lc«patthcd to tcxvc under Guise in Italy. It< defeneei 
had been allowed to fall into decay, aiul they were alreadv com- 
monded by (he enemy's ortillrry. It would have required ■ 
8000 men adrquatc^ly to man its walls, and Coliffny could only " 
introduce some 45(1 to withstand a bc^siegiiig force of ^G^OOO 
infantry and 12,000 cavalry. Supplies were fnilin^, ammnni* 
lion and guna wcic wanting, Nnxlless to add, that lailure to _ 
rosict flueh a forco, under tho command of so skilfi;!) a gen^Tvl as 
Emmanuel Philihett, was ub»>]utely foredoomed. Yet if the army 





Admiral Coltffny, 



<otiltl be dctaincMl berorc iu walU for a ff^w pnce1»ft week*, time 
would be K&iaeci to recall Guito from Italj^ arul to eave the 
Tapital. With prTfi^ct Ai«umiir« tti:«t prolongml resistance was 
im|H>&*IMe, CirlJf;ii_> inMunilv ilrlrrmlitisl rij uttciJfKi? Iti« o«va 
tcpuiatioa to lie welfare of his touotry. aad «n ibn night of the 
^ndof Aogust h<^ throw himflf'irwiih bis scanty tmop inti> the 
tniTD. The enjfineer oHicer, whu accoinpnnitd him, tleclan:d 
diRt he had never entered so evil a plncc. 

The story of the sie^ has been iuUy told. CoUgn}' himself 
Hctirrd nt nncw to vrhili? away the lerlium uf hjs eaptivitv, and to 
b^iid (lonu au dact itrluliuii of cbe tili«itb t<> wLiL'li hi^ bud herii 
veducedf nod his simple am) w>td]or]y anrrative is confirmed in 
its euentinic hy nther writers, more especially by a Spanish 
officer wbr> was present. 0>lij;ny's owa cfTorts were at first 
sdmirably seconded by the ciiizcns. Women emtdatcd tbe 
tncTgy oi man in working wi the ramprtru. Provisions for thi^e 
(noDtlu were discoverr^l upon strict pcrquisicion, and all were 
put on raiioiiB, Satiitarr prrcuutti^pn wer<r aduptcd ; ri^id tliBCi' 
pLiao enforced. All usdcst pr^rsnns were compollod to Icjirc the 
city. Above a11^ Uff^^nt retgurstt for succour were despaL^^heil 
to the Constable. Even when Montmorcnci's cJTorts to relieve 
his nephew bad resulted in the crLiahin^f defeat of St. Quenlln, 
in which hift armj was annibil<i1ad and himself taken prisoner; 
when Dandoloc by a supremo eff<»n hnd only hern abli; to 
penetrate iuto tbc biwn vriib a iWc-e oi 400 in«Q ; wbeu tbe 
citiiWDs w«rni so diacouragod thnt they hod to 1>o hantod from 
their honies am) driven with bh>ivs to tbe walU; wben a field 
batierj of fifty ^ns had madi? many a brcftch in tbc wretched 
GortaiD walls, which over lonj* reaches of ^r^und were the 
only rsm parts — the AdtnirAl reltiMwl l*> s|>eak ui mpUuldCing. 
Summoning: the Town Couucil, he said : * If you ever hear me 
jiTxipuse U> yield, hurl me ns a cowunl inl^ tbe ditch outside tbc 
walls ; if any one propose* surrender to ma^ I will do tha same 
to him.' 

On Auf:u»t 24lb, Philip ordered eijjhl arrows to be shot into 
tbe streets of Si. (jueniin, arriund each of nhich wsi wrnpped 
A paper assuring the peopte that tbey should have favourable 
terms if they would give in ; should tbey tefuse, he would put 
thcoi stW to the sword. Coligny shot them back, with nothing 
hut tlw words * lii'ffem httl^uug^ upon tht'in in ivply. VVe re- 
^nl the Io/aIiv nnd drvolinn to his cnitnlry — incarnntr in n 
sorereiifn so personally indifferent to him as Henry — thus dis- 
playeil as insuTpntsable. It is characteristic of Coli^ny's noble 
and modest nature that he makes no mention of this incident* 
Three days later, when eleven breaches bad been made hy the 


Admiral Coliffni/. 

ciMMDj's fire, a g«^iicrft1 aisault was ordered, and the Sjinmnnln 
at one poiot drovo in the cbin lire of joung unseatoned aolcliers 
which filli^l a jawuing spuce in the defences. In vain Coli|^ny 
cndofivourcd to rftlly ihcfn, Tlic town win camcti, and tho 
Admiral wai tnk<?n prj44>n4<r. Affer two dttys of plunder ami 
cruelty, of fire and slaiighUr ; nfEer the mnnlrr in cold blood of 
nil the men who could not provide a lansom ; after 3500 womrn, 
prcicrvcd by great efTi>rtft on tlie part of Philip, had )>Ren driven 
out, half naked and mutilAtcd — ngcd matron », their while hair 
bc<lnbLled ivjth bhwd, juuu^ rnuthers with lufaiits at thrir 
wilbtTcd brcft«»-^lhc piciv of the S|mntHh mortftn^h prompted 
him to make? Holrinn trntry into thi* eiljr, from whirh t^vt*ry livifi^ 
soul had first been rutblcsHly expc^Ued, thEtt he might save the 
li&djf of St, Qnentin and the sacred rtUn! Mo*i 4if these drtnits 
are supplied u% by the Spnniih ofTicer nlremlv rneritinned, in 
whom the scene recalled the destruction of Jerusalem, A cen- 
tury later the city tiad not re-covered iia pruvjivrity, and wolres 
entered in winter lhr<iugh il« gftpin^ walU. 

Th«< oriKFj^rnntiiin pntflurf^d hv tlifr fnll of Sf, (Ju^'nttn would 
have licen more prof^mnd had France been permitted, like our- 
•elTes,a giiinpse behind the scenes. The peace which Coligny hnd 
so painfully contrived had no sooner t>een nvrrturned b_v Cnrafn 
and the Guides, than the former of theso high contracting pfirties 
realized the icnpoMibilily of currying out their sch4?mi.-9, and 
tecr<»tl_v tried to mako terms witli Alva. A rapid march upon 
Pnri« tniKht hnvp laid all PVnniri* at the m**r(y of Philip ^ but 
the victor hesitated, and the opportunity was lost. The whole 
couotrj^ flaw to arms. The capital, stirred up by Cwtherine de 
Medicis, roted ample supplies. Henry, rouse<J from thr pleasures 
of Compiirgne, urgently rreallnl (iuisc, to whom the Pope 
Paul IV. mtcnsli cully budir favewdl : 'Go, llwn ! Vou have 
done tmall aervioe lo your tovor^^ign, Htill less f'W the Churoht 
ntm^ for your own honour/ Stripjwd to their shirln and bare* 
footed, the brilliant army «rnt out ux months before was only 
saved fr»im starvation by the forced loan of 100,000 cnrwns, 
which Guise extorted from the Duke of Ferrara- V'et all hopes 
were centred in the hero of Metz, and popular opinion con- 
firincd his appointmrol ai Lie it tenant- General with absolute 
authority in so pressing an emergency. The care of the national 
fina»re-s was nt the siune time c^mlidi^) to his brother the 

Never was the irony of fate more strikingly nianifeste<l tlun 
in the acclamations which greeted Ciuttc's entry into Paris, 
whilai Coligny was a prt&oner within the walls oi L'Bcluse. 
The man whose tortuous and unpatriotic policy had brought 


Admiral Coli^y, 




about Cbe dttiuter from which France was sufTcring^, the maa 
vhosc ftTltisb ambition bad wnrked in luly ih« army which 
iroulU have- bvfcn pricvlciv for tlvfencc ut tliii junctuic, Chv m«Q 
who had br«n 6r«t bol'ooUd nnd tlir-n l>AtrAy«d by CanxfA, and 
who wjia now <:otn|M*tlfr(] to ivturn ;ilmuiii ti ftigitlvp, win hniled 
as a SAviour hy the Coart and ihc populaor. Colij^Dyv on the 
other hand, wb^se ^It'-fijicrinctn^ heroism had saved th<? capital, 
and whose obttinaLe tcnacUy ia a liopcl(?ss struggle had ki-pt 
Ihc cntmy at bay aatil thr country could recover from ita panic^ 
laa^)*h<i<) ID his F]«mi»h priaon, execrated by the mnh and 
«hampl4»<tflly nAgloc1«d by tU«t criviTivi^o he had so fnirlifully 
served- The hours nf his cnptivit)- itrre fti>1arrd hy writing a 
full description i}( the siege of St. Qnentin, and by stutty of 
Ihe Holy Scrlpturt's and such other books as the care of 
Dandelot supplied hiin. It is to tliis period that we may 
Assign his coDTerBion to the Kcformed fai;h> 

There W4« no purauit more con^eziii-tl to the tnitc of Philip IK 
Uian to pry int^^^ th^t jnmou hf^ariv ok' tboite who tenant^ liia 
dungeoniL N'n scirntlfic student of modern timei* dtK«-(-'ts with 
keener scalpel the intricacies of a living organiBni, or pursues 
its network of nerve* and veins ivitU greater patience and more 
accomplished akili. With unwearied nssiduicy the rojal 
detective would follow up the most obicure clue, and no faintest 
emotion of pity cjuivcred in the judgment which consi^ni.-d a 
rietim to the soulfold, or to the more cniftl dc^atiny of alow and 
teeret poison. Like master, like muri, (imnvi-Ue immediately 
became acquainted with the character of the literattirt? convcv(-d 
to Coligny, and in the course of negociatlons with the Cardinal 
of Lorraine he hinted at the quostionabte orthodoxy of cbc 
Cb^tilloua and at the puwerful /njtnC U'apput which men of 
ihcir position nnd ability would furniih Co the HugtiL^not parly. 
tl« did not think it neeeHui-y tn 4>X|il!un, tliAt he himflnlf took 
ercTj care that the dangerous bof>ks should reach their deitina* 
lion in order that CoIi^ny, confirmed by their study in his 
heretical opinions, might become a formidable opponent to the 
Gaiaes. To betray the secret of a prisoner was but an ordinary 
piece of craft ; but to deJudL- sud possibly to damage both tbc 
Cardiaalof Lorriiineand Cntigny at oncnnd theiamestrukcr, vtiim 
a f«at not altog<*thvr unworthy «f even so f^niilifnl * rrnflnman. 
Th« inainuation fell on willing ears. The absence of Dandelot 
from mass quickened the EUspicioni which the Cardinal of 
Lorraine, in his turn, suggested to Henr)'. The matter was de- 
bated aft^r ihe cmlomary fashion of the day. Whilst at dinner 
Henry turned to IJaudelut, and, riK:ountiog the many favours 
h« luut conferred on him, he added, *The bat return 1 looked 

Vol IGl.^No. 333. c for 


Admiral Colf^ff, 

(otvrktl^iotym^i^iddrc^ctaffmjat Ui^rcii^m of your w^ereign^ 
II ira» the »iap)e argumeDt, ' Uno fol, une loi, on tou Damldol 
ndiniltcd bow grcrntl^ indebted U< wa» to the King's fATCMxr, and 
anirtnod tbnt b« waft roatJy 1o «p«»Dc) lifv and forluni^ a thoaumd 
Umet orrr in hift srrvirr, ' bul jutf^r this, Sinr, you will nut think 
it Btran^ if f »[udy to ensure ttiy saLvation/ The diMnusir>n 
Wfixnl bottf-r, aiicl thr intrrv<?nli<m o( lh<< Cardinal of homdne 
added fuel to the Hnimrs. Al length tbc King to a iary duhetl 
bis plat« to Uie ground, wounding the Daijpbin, who waf be»ide^ 
bi«it and ordcTeJ Dandclot Xn be put under arrest. He waa 
ronhwith dcfprivod of hii pott of lieuff^nant-g^n^ral of mfantry^ 
and only obtalnnl hU rc1casf> by consenting to go to mass. 

The relutive poflitioDS of France and Spain were lajgelj 
cban^-d wht-n Coh^riy wan set nt libi^rly in Febiunry, 1559, 
England was no lon<;er under j^hilipfl control. Dificonttfot- 
wa» )|;n>wiiig ju ibv NetbtTlancU. The fiu^uici^s of Spain were 
t^xbftutied, and tbnt oitliodox country waa AcriouAly tainted with 
h^rety. Fmnf^e« tbn>U|(h tbp rni^r^y ami intlilAiy ikill of Ciuiu?, 
had nol only rrrovered CaUia, but bad wrested the three 
bi&hopncs nnd many imporlant towns in Luxemburg; from \hc 
en^tny. IJotb tidei vfislt<-d for peauf, and bi>th were; influenced 
by the satnc molivc — a determination to put d'>vrn heresy with 
increased severity ; but tie Cardinal of Loimine, who neK;acinUnl 
ibu ticixty, want«l in M'cure Phillp*« support, ftud ho •ftcnfi<M}d 
bit rountrj's jnlf^mti without h<<9il;ttiiin to liisown, Tbrirrma 
of tbc Treaty of Catenu-Csmbresis were so onerous to France 
that «reii Guise remoustrated tvarmly. 'Sire, you ore surrender- 
ing in a day wliat would not have been wrung from you by 
thirty yctin of disaster' The Italian alLies of Henry were 
abandoned. Tbc towns in LuKemburg were restored. By thc- 
surrcnd^r of Savoy and FimlEnont, th<* 0ni?niy was left st iho 
testes of Lyons, Tb;! bond vrtis tenled b}' the Jtiarringc of 
Elizabeth of Franco, a child of thirtecD, to Philip, now left 
for the second time a widower, and Alva, uccompEiaied by a 
brilliant retinue, arrivcsd at Fsri» to act s« proxy for the bnde- 
gronm. At a royal hunt Henry conreraed freely with a member 
of Alva's train about the? mutual agreement between Philip and 
himwlf to eiterminnlA hj»Ti'»lii^< thruugbi>u1 all Chri^tendotn. 
Ha hod selected as his confiditnt WilliFim tbc Silent, Prinoe of 
Oraagcl The liresofporsecuaon were<)uicklyaligbt,aDdm)Qe 
could tell to «rbat exeesses Henry would have been driven, bad 
not the lance of Montgomery broufrht a lefpite, in which the 
IlBgueRt>ls recogni/4-d the finger of God. U w:ls iiutiL-ed that ibe 
tapestried coverlet thrown over llie bed, on which the Kin^; lay 
in state, reprcsente<l the Conversion of Kt. Paul, and bore the- 


Admiral CoHi/ny^ 




v«rked In lu^ letlcrf, *Saul, S*ul, why prrwcutc«C 

At the Jentb or Henry, the Cviiis«r» Wcimc n1]-|Kiwirrful, The 
liifurbou priiK^f^ xn<\ the Con^ublr- wcrr dismissed from Couit, 
Mid CoUgny rrtifed (o Chjuilion-»t]r-Loio|f. Oit lus r«:utii 
from cApiivity he hjul rrmcHi^rHiH! Aiici *nlargM) thU Anoatrat 
bomfi, which wu previously r>f «1mriat mynl auigoificenoe. 
The employment of th(^ KenAiMAnrr style af architecttirc, then 
fto much in vof^o, cntiieJy reilieved the ^loom of the old 
ineclier:il Tortreu, from wl»me hiftr lovrer tin rxiemive view wju 
gMiK^t) Vfhicb cmbmcctl M<:>ntargis, tbo borne nf KciilV of 
F&TTar&, A new picture |[&i|c-iy in tbc aouth vtin^ was iillcd 
vith pMiniingfl frora tbn pADoil of Primiiluei!) mwI hia •ehool, 
recording (be pnacipd military exploits of the CbAtinons* 
Jean Cioajoa bad cnrred the mnrvrlhms hns-reliefs am! th« 
ctfyatide*^ in which he apeciAlly excelled. Several roorns were 
uloroed with freicoes designed by Julio EtamimQ. Fr^m tlie 
porticx) three leriBccs, whi(;h iiill remain, arranj^ed oue AboTc 
aaoiber, le>ut io cxienmire giudcn*, and testify, &« do the wolli 
of thf> en»rrnoUft hothonaei, tf> the mngnifiepnoe nnd tatte of it* 
owDer. ^ucb a country ^efttdenc(^ bcli>kTTnnl cuhure and reline- 
ment br in advAQCc of tb« greai mitiury nobles of th<! day^ 
md MQ^gmled nothing of that tin^ of Turiiuu fuceticUm which 
pcrbApi coloured the tlioughU of its noble-minded owner*. 

Tbo AdtDU'^rB nijujifur uf li£u witit reiiiurkably djgoifted and 
amplo. H« hftd married, la 15-17, Charlotte do LarnJ, n 
daughter of one of the first families in Fmtice, and their union 
bad been a lin^lorly hjippy one, and hiul been bleued with 
tererm] children. His bome-lifc mi^bt land did) serve as a 
D>odel for A Curutiin ^ntl«man. lit- was an early ri*er, very 
ibstcmioua in tbe uac of footl aotl wine, a great reader, devoted 
la the edacation of his children, tu tW truiiMOtion of husinessp 
b tb* mana^eniont of his large retinue, and to pertoiud care for 
Ihe aick and pocr Kvery other day preaching — then almoft 
iho only meins of distinct reliifious instruction — wot held al tbe 
cuUe. Tbe inaAter wt an example of pf^rsfmol devotion and 
practical piety, himself CK>ndu<:ting beu«ehold prayer io the 
ibseaco of ihc chaplain, miniatortn^ with careful in<|airy to the 
oecHstties of tbe stck. and adjusting all diiputes amonp^ hi* 
itrranta, ««p«ciaJty at tb(» sa^sona in which the Lortl^s Supper 
vas ti* lie lulmiuistered. In all th«e occupations he waa 
onrdially seconded by hU wife, who accepted 'the rvlifzion^ 
More bim, and exercised no little influence at the (E^eat crises 
<H bis biAoTY. It ia charn^ing to Jearn thftt so beatitifnl and 
pare a Ufe wai mada happy and attractive to the childicii* ' I 

C 2 am 


Atimircl Cotigny. 

am entertaining my eousio an<I lier cliildren/ wrote Heori de 
Comic, Komc jrnn Liter, lo him, *Aro) ihere arc few ev«-iiia^ 
tLdt vr<^ ilu nut lidve a Laujjj' tlxuu of tt o/J^rr ^onr Jiuhion^ wXL 
romping joy (^tt«Iy togdbcr. 

Frani lhi» simple piirftir^ of the inner life of the ^tpM tnlcUer- 
ttntetinan, it i» with a shudder th^t we return to the Court of 
FrAHCii \\. Wtioae heart is not touchfd wi(h y^iy at the- tbouf^hc 
of the joung King, feebler alike Jn bodr and mitid^ witti hiti fair 
jwin^ wife, whose wlDSomc beautj callc^l fonh from Cntbcrrinc 
de Mi^diciiH the uDr ff«nuiti« buraluf vrtimKnly a<lni>ralioii wc can 
recall in h^T vulumiaout corivKpoiMlcnco i * Our Scotch (|t]«*pnl«Tt 
wins all hearts, and oue iinile from her will turn anybody '« 
head?* To think of that joune couple, attended by expre«t 
direction of the Guiaes by the Kiofif's younj^r brothers, habi- 
tuated (o the brutal spc?i:tActe of the Huguenot martyrdoms! 
The death of Henry bwl bn^igbt but tnomeniary repow% and ibc 
periic<^UtioBi ilam<^(l out fiercer than ever; yet 'the relif^toii ' 
Kcrmc'd to thrive on aiifTering, The death of liu Bourg nynchro- 
oiicea with the formal orvauixation of tht Pfoteslani Synod, and 
tie open adhesion <.\i CVligny. It wat AKkuredlv not the moment 
for any, save the stoutest heart*, to cast in their lot with tbe 
KefuTinen. Soon tbe conipirocy of Amboise alforded tbe pre- 
icxt for more teirible airocitie*. Huudrcds periAhed at ibe 
h&nilB of the t'xecutioncT. Hundreds more, tiL^d bands and feet 
r^g<>lher ami Hung inro the Loire, antieipated the noi/iidi*j of the 
Revolution, ' KxcepU indeed, that a Prince of tbe CUiucli, 
Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, took tbe place of the butcher 
Carrier, and that Catherine de Medieis aod her ladies of 
honour assumed in thi» liitmal tragedy characti?rs to which, cvta 
in thr IVcnxy of the reign of terror, the vile«t P»>ia«urdeB of P^rii 
would i^uTc^Iy hnvo deucvnded/* ^i-ver did the nro»pecl« of 
the Protrttnnts nrrm dnrker than at this period, <tespile tbe 
appointment of THopiul a* Chancellor, despite tbe interested 
anxiety of Catherine, dexpiie the bold lan^^unge of Coligny at 
the Ai^embJy of the ^'otables at I'ontainebleau, and the d^er* 
mioation to convoke the Scates*Oeneral, An ansucceufut 
attempt by Conde to u-ixc upon Lyons waa followrd by his ap- 
prebenfion and fomtal entiviction, not for high trcuoa, hut for 
berefty. In vain bis wife threw herself at the King's feeL Tbe 
Guieej wer« determined to be rid of thnr most formidable 
opponent, and to strike terror by beheading a prince of the 
blood. The day for the execution was already fixedj when the 
King was seized with illness. 'God, who had pierced tbe eye 

* &tr J, StopLvo, ' Lcclurot on tb« HUI017 of iTrkno*/ ti. |h 07. 


Admiral Coli^y. 





of lh« rather, now scnote tlie cnr if the son.' ' GcnlliMnrn,' 
said Coli^y gHLvtrly, to tbc courtiers nho throng^ about bim, 
' ihc King is dead ; this shotilil it&ch m bow to live/ 

• Woe lo ibe laini ivhoir king i» ti child ' is a maxiin Mhose 
trmb is inlrn^ifiod by sruaaa lr&ini»)c uiidffr aucb >i suhaDa an 
Ctttbmne dp Medici*, mnd of tbU Fmrico vns now abi^ut to hav« 
billcr cxpiricncft. At Court Ibree grtrat paTtien were mnteodiikg 
for power in the King's name — tlie (luises, the Reformers, and 
the Po]itj(|aes — and Iwlween ibeie lUree C&lbetitie vacillflied; 
ifae cx>u]d oeret doeide, she would always trmporize, and 
leave vmic lunpliotr for rrircai. For ihc moment she held 
the reins as tcpt^nl for li*rr son. The Stairs -GenrraJ, which 
had bf^n lunimnnfd b4?Wc the* di>ntti of Francis, atiemblecl 
at Orleans to lOauirurate the rei^n of his successor, and were 
opened by a conciliatory sprerh fr-^m THopital, which adro- 
cated RiDtual religions tolerance, TUe orators of the nublease^ 
and of the Tiers I^tat, each in turn complainrd boldly of 
CburcJi abuses, and dcman<led ibeir refunn ; hut Jfun ijuen- 
tin, the ■pukcaman of the elcr^yt made it apparent that bia 
ATder bad Irmmt^d nothing tlirongh tlii^ couly «^iperii>ooe of fhfi 
last two reiffna. On the Church of the Honri'u nnil the Carafaa 
^in the bearing of men personally acquainted with Csrdinala 
Bourbon and Lorraine and Duprat — Ikt pronouoL-ed an eulo- 
^um which woubl bivr b(*en extravagnnt in the purity of 
Apoalolic days, lie called ou ChurlcB lo use ihe swt^rd dutiTercd 
hiia by God to extirpate heresy^ and, with open allnsioa to 
Coligny, demnnded thkt the supporters of heresy slioufd v/Mr> 
facto he treated as berelici tliemiehes. For this outragi^ he was 
required to aiKilo^ize, which he did with much dexterity ; bci his 
4eatbt shorlfy uherwardv, was ba!it<.-n(d by mortjrLcation and 
cba^rin. Coligny made so firai n stnnd r^>r rcUgi<>u« lil^erty as 
fo elicit the i^lowin^ n^atituile of Oalvio, II was agreed thai a 
eonfercncc ihould be ht^ld at Poiaay between tho leaders of the 
Reformwl :md Catholic parties, 1u see whelber some basis of 
mutuaJ Agrrctneni could not be establishnL The scheme was 
projected by tUc Cardinal of Lorraine, who hoped to display hit 
theological abilitVt and to produce an irreparable breach be- 
iween tbe Lutheran* and the CalrinlstSf who were both invited 
to be present. 

A vketeh of Coarl Vite at St. Gorm.tins during the Collaqny 
frf Poissy rends Mice an art fmm uUv of .Mo1iere*s comedies. 
The ijueen-mother is the verj- pood friend, the docile pupil of 
Coligny. She listens wish unfeigned admiration to the fervid 
ind copious eloquence of Theodore it(*:cn» She is training her 
foni in the f&ilbof tbe ll^formers. Anjou, ber fovourite, openly 



Athftiroi CfliffUi/. 

urge's hiA lister to chan^ hrr czt^d ; at one time be tbrovrs hc^r 
* Book of Ifoun' Into tlie fire ; at Another be obIig«» her to u«e 
the Ilugutrnot Pra^'er-btiicik and ihc P»ftllcT of MaroL CbarlcM IX- 
wkyt wbcn he u hie owa master be •b&ll no Ioniser ^o to njit*, 
and inspir-^ghnpr* that he may emulate Edn-aixl VI. of Knglantt 1 
Ahhou;*!* Catherine correct* Aiijou's iiopetuodty, her mftid* of 
honour imHrrstonil ibnt 'ihc n-lij;ion ' i* to be llif? fiibiun of 
the hour, and comport themselves Accordingly: Ihey neglect 
nun, And ent meat opuiljr on fuL dtt^ii Tlie longtnfl for reforn 
caggeAtA thai »oire <^nce»Aion on the part of the llolj Father 
might roeall the wAn<lcrcri into tho PapU fold, Thoy ape rery 
decent folk, Catherine urges ; they have no AnnhAptiflts, nor free- 
thinkers, nor pArti/<tnK of monttnmi opinion* airion|f»t thrm. 
Could it not be arranged to do nway with imaj^a from the 
churchet, to leAve out exorciiiTi at baptism, to restore the chalice 
to the laity, nnd to have divine service: in the vulgar ttmgtw} 
What did it all mean ? The Spttiiiah Ambassador ivaa seriouAly 
alaritif'd, and wrolp urgf>nt If^ttrr* to Philip, So wifr^ the 
Catholic clergy of Parii, whose pulpits rung with denuneialions 
of the mudem Jt^e^br*!. ^o wa5 nut, pL^hnpi, Charles, CArdinal 
of l^rmine, vrhn«e policy at that moment was to profess an 
Ardent desire for Church reform, &nd who w&s loud in admiration 
oT ihc Confession of Augvburg, That Catlwrine was really 
infiuenocJ by tbv trLithftil Btrui^-btforward charoctcrr of CoIigi»y, 
and ibal sbn marlr loirh npt^rloiia profr««ion< afi inftpire^l some 
hope thai she mijfht follow his counsel, nAiurally disposed as he 
seems always to have Ix-eji to trust anolbrrs pUghied word, is 
likely enough. That she was dctennined to side with the 
stronger party. Huguenot or Leaguer^ is absolutely certAlo. 
That she was touebrd by one spArk of honr*t religious cx>a* 
virtioa is ahsftlutel/ incredible. The ^inerchont's dauglit<«r,' 
AS the first (^^hnstian baron in France rnnb>Tnptiiously cjilird 
her, regarded sacred thin^cs as but one ainongit the wares she 
held in stock to barter fur place and power. 

If A deCioite b^sia of compromise was not diacovered at the 
Colloquy, its results were tnaialy favourable to the Huguenots. 
The plot to low diHcord betwo^n the CaUinlsts and Lutherans 
had been tbwarte<l through ihe ftiilurc of the laCtet to arrive in 
time for the rliscuB«ion. The dignity, the ability, the courage 
of BezA won golden opinions. ' Here come the dogs of Geneva,' 
exclaimed a Cardinal on hit entrance with his Associates. 
* Certainly, faithful watch-dogs are needed in the Lord's sheep* 
fold l^ bark At ibe wolves,' was his quiet reply. It was no 
mean ftdvaota^c ll^al * tUc religion ' «lioui<l Lave a hearing beforo 
the Court uad the ]>reUtr« of France, and that the Chaneellor 



Admiral CoH^a/^ 

-ot iho Kingidom ihouLd ftdrocatc its irfutation by reaK»D, aqcI 
nut bjr fin? nn<i *woTd. Tublic aiitcoiion wai poiotccllj i)irt;ctc(t 
to ihc iMUf, and the arf^a of di^ciiuion wvu enUrge^ until it 
cmbrATCfd tvt^ty clau of cocLetj anU ^very department of thr 

All thp wit* »r Fr&acc were spcGilily cnlbtpd in th^^rontio- 
Tcrxy, And nt iis outset tU^ keeneitt uMrtilftnts w«ro in fHVoar of 
the E19W opinioiH. Thr chm* ii^n^imncc of the monks ; the 
TBptcitj', iiQinoritlity^ nnO bnitaltty of th« clergy ; the contm^t 
botwo^n tlie lofty <^lntm* and the personnl characten of the 
Romtti) biiM'AT^.Uy ; the |iopiilar mrtd^ of i1»ling tlw cUndiag 
iDlroctc of tbe mau ; the moml fftilinf^f (only too nomrioiu) 
of tbe Cutbolic louden ; the Be&ndats admittixl and lamented by 
tlic ttauncbcat anpporten of the Hupacy — aI\ these tiffoitUd 
endleu m%iier for brilliant ridicul^r and biting eipoauie. 
fipitbet und vpignm* >atirtr aa<l sarcwiai, |HiuipbleC mkI pft»- 
quinsdv, fl<*iv »mriftlj from tide; to «ide, and no qiiftrter w&> ^tveo 
in tln^ war of bftrb^^) tnngun, wliioli smote with unerring pre- 
cision and sttiijfin^ force. Never wa« the mi)(le>i«nf-Kf of Ollic 
vit inori? mnvpictinaB. At tbe peril of their lives, irhich were 
not even assured of safety la a fon.M|;n land, aj^aintt the arenginp 
daner of a hired a^VAssin or the illegal riolation of alien 
temtory, men pezm«>d and publitiht^d pjunphUta wbicti il vrould 
have been ilealh to nvow or even to pou<-»«. How riipo those 
productions speeJily became is illuiitnited by the rfmark of ti 
■ooatcmpciTary (Leitoile) that he was loti^ unsuceeuful in Uia 
dTorta to procure a oopy i?f the * Taxe des parties casitfeMetde la 
Politique du Pa])e,' to replace one which (he tays) * 1 horned at 
tbe Saint Bartholntncw, fearing that it uiigbt bum me.' Of 
Prancjoia H<»ttnaa*s * Kpislle to lh« XiEr<^r of France '-^^a work 
«oneoived In tho spirit, and hnnHy liicking^ in the force, of the 
Catiline orations — only a sinifli? L^xninple was kni>wn lo exist 
4nieng;tt the trrasiircs of M- RrunntN library, and rven tliia 
would haTe been lost in the Jefttruciion of tbe ilotet do Villc by 
idle Cottununet had m>tMr. Charles Hea<l chanced to hare taken 
rl awny for reproduction under the auspice* of the 8Qci«^ie de« 
Bibliophilei, Tile quiver of Junius or of Swift could not have 
itni>ab#d more polnliKl shaft* than thn«r whirh fattened on 
MontiBorenci tbe name of Conatable Hurnbencb, or declared 
that the aio«t effective wing of the royal armywos the flying 
iquadron of Citberine'i maids of honour, or asaerted that the 
courier who brongiit tbe Pope's asw^nt to tlic Trident ine 
Oetnsea convoked tLe Holy Ghost in his *addlc'bai;3> Thru aa 
•ver, no rank was ton high, ao subject too sactcd, tor the spark- 
ling banter of French perti/laf4. 



Admiral CkJigr^i^^ 

It was 4J11 tlie heui of thv Cardinal o{ Lorraine tUftt ttw 
fi<rTc«-frt AtLtl m^nt pung<^nt of thc«c iJcmini^iationt wctc poured. 
Opc writer oiloL-tPtl compncstoniile anii^t}' about thi? itltimat*.* 
residence of his Efninencc : 'No Cbriaiian coaiitr^^ in Europe 
will have him: Italy %een throirfcb his <Iupljciiy; Germany 
ftbhors incest ; France cannot away with bim ; crvn Turkey tft 
Mohaoimeduu, wliere&s the Cardinal believes in nolhiD^! 
Hrnvrn is rioted Ut biin, H<:ll is nfraiil nf btiiif nud tlic- Pro* 
te«UiiiU are t?0]D|; lo Oo &w»} with pargntor^-. Poor wrotcli, 
whcro will yon go?' But rU othc-r invirrttvp* paleil bdore tbc 
Kathinic serentjr of Hotman s ramous ' Epiitio to the Tiger of 
France/ Wc bave only snaoe fr>r a f«w senteiicc«. 'Wben 1 
assert tbat the fsilurc of the finnncrs of Frnncc it rxclusivdy 
due to your ilisbonesty ; when I as»en tbat a husband is more 
moO^^st nitli bis nifr ibao you vttlli th^ur iirxl uf kin lo you^ 
wb(-n I aattcrt tbut you buvi' at-izvd tbi» govt-romt^nt of Fniii<«, 
.ind bare ftlolm ibii honour from thr> prinors of the hlood, thftt 
you may plant ibe crown of France in your own family — what 
cmn you rrply ? If y<iu Tulniit it, you ought to be gibbeted and 
strangled; li you den)- it, I will prove you fruilt)'- ' • Von 

fHix to death tliose who lonipire a^iinst }ou, but you iire still 
iving, who hfivc conspired ugAiAM tlic crowo of France, aLgninst 
xho patrimony of the widow and tbe orphan, against the blood 
of the sormwrul and tbr innorrnt! \ou profess to speak of 
holiness — you wlio know nothing of God but his name; who 
hold to Cliri»tiAnity only as a mask; who m;tkc eommoa 
tradic, barter, and merchandise of bishoprics and benefices ; 
you, who van see do sanctity that you do not soil, no chastity 
that you do not violate, no goodness that ^ou do not mar I * 

Wilb the excesses of the eivtl war there came a tarn in tbe 
tidt> of popular opinion. The artistic feeling of the educated 
classes was ouiripcd by the wanton destruction of so much 
beautT' The pride of n;Ltiona1 and local esteem woi woonded 
by the Joss of much that had been the g:lnry of Franee mad 
of tht! provincc-s. Mutilaicsl statuary and uianj^lcd tracery 
remAinea as avisihlc, standingindiclmcnt against (be unrrason- 
inc bi^itry and sensrleu fury of the uneuliurrd prpfpodpr* to 
refoTiDt whilst the countless rictima, whofie murder had bel]>ed 
to kindle their rajje, were forgoiten or buriinl out of sight in 
nameless graven. The irreguUr skirmishers with pen and pencil 
passed over xo the Catbotics. The sobriety of dress, the 
B« verity of demeanour^ the stem HioraUty, tbc scriptural 
ouotattons and psalin'siagingf even tbo peculiar intonation of 
the HugnrnoU, furniiKlirrL ai in^^xhaiiiitibln nmiiBrmrnt to their 
feUow-countrymen of the sixteenth century, as did the manners 

Admmi Cui^ny. 



of tlie EagluU Puritaja* al th« Krituratioa* N'» ili>uU much 
of iho rulicolt! hi^&prd upon thtrm w.t* iht> 1>nKu1<>Bt cnrio:hlnTv. 
The mokft of tbe HugtirboU indurltHl tlir fl^^wtrr of hifrh fiirth, 
culture, and rcrinnDcat — (^omld nnd the Cti^lillons, Sovbbo 
uitl LarocbefoacauM. But the satire buiitt into the popalor 
mind, ami it needed tlie gtitccr and the? ga!Untrj\ tlic blunt- 
iftcsa ADd liw btmhoutiet as wrtl as the menial aklU of Ulfi 
BvATrtMy to wrc»t popiilarity f[»m ibc Le^Agucrs. 

WhAtn^ifT iht* effect of Muguvnot ironocUttii, Cho h!Ami* of 
it caDiiu: juiUy ht dmrfi'd U> ilt IcTtiiicn. (^aIvip xtl^^la[y 
r«probat<^d it, and orgmJ obedience sad order Cnltgny 
&bUorr4^d all excess, and nowhere nn» reli^iou* tolernDce so 
jmparlia]!^ enlunrc^i as on his i^Eliitcv, t'omlt: WM icmiblc of 
tb« iujur^ it occaaioai'd to ihe cauete. Hut the uiuveinem waa 
irrcprcaiiblc. A tempest of dc«triicur<^ fvry bur^t out aad 
rftrrj4*d aII before it. The |>ent-up rn^ of ^^enrrattons broko 
hotCt which Uic leaden ttrorc to ni> purpotc to restrain. At 
Orleanst CoDdc pointed bia louaket at a joun^ inaa who wa< 
hacking down a ataiuc and thrcatt-ned to Rre if lie did not 
deaiat* 'Stop but one raomcnii' waa the rtplr, 'until I have 
fuibh«?d tbl« idolf aud ihvn do with me whiit jou tril].* 

W'c b^Tc, bowcrrr, outrun the acIuaI cvunw of crrnt*, and 
muttt return for a moment toColiffny at tbecloftcof the Collivguy 
of Poiaa/- The position bo took up waa not that of religions 
libenj in the modem o^rceptance of the term. He recogniaed 
tbc right of the Slate to rrguhite tlie belief of its aabjtfcts. But 
fao urgiM), ' We are Chnsliaiii, We accept the ApostLn and the 
Ntt:rnc Creeds; the law (:uin<»t puitikb at.' So much riJopilal 
hod ibe Fi>litiqucs were pn-|>arrd to allow, ^ij much wd« 
Uncorded bjr tht? famc^us ICdtrt of JnnLiarjr LMi2. It required 
iha restotalioD of all churches to the Catholics, Ic forbade the 
public perforniHuc^t of IWormed «-rvi<^-s within the walls of 
dties. But it rccopniied under certain conditions the ex4^^ciile 
of Mu^Qenot worship and the legaUty of ji llitguonoi miniatrj-, 
llicftc Goncrssionft meagre iq tben»clves and Aurroundcd with 
aiaojr emharruMin^ eoiidilioas, were lojullv accepted by 
ColignT. Thej^ cli<:itr<l nhowl of furious reprohation from the 
Catholics, which found sterner expression two months latter 
u Vasiy. 

The mnasacTC of Vasay aroused univerEal indtgiutjon 
uiHMigst thr lluguenoia. From every i|ujkner of trance the 
Protestant tn^bitAJK hastened townnU IVris, under a iponiaDeoDx 
sod general conviction, that the hour wss coid« when ihey must 
itriko for faitli and frcetlom. That do thought of rcbollion 
■gainst royal authority inQuc^nced them was not only dittinclly 



Admiral C^ligni/. 

aiRnnrd bj Colign^, who«e fr«nk sisuraooct to tbi* cfTecl are 
■upporFMl by I^noui^, but i« amply cfltablicbt^l bv tb<> r^oenllr 
publi&lied Ivtt^rs of Caiheriiie cfe Mi'dicU, in which she br^r^) 
Can4lc U> save 'the m()th<?r» thi^ diit<lrt-ii, nnd thr ktn|£<iotn from 
iuid/ With woEted, if pardoaablc, dupUciiy, and with even 
more than ber wontt^d dexterity, the penned billet aft^ billet io 
ambigoous tcrrn*^ which the mottcngcr who bore ibent wuuld 
^xplAin, but which might be (nnd irrrc^ iiitcrprctod in n 
fttolmry nr-nw if (hoy foil itnf}f*r thr- ryot of rhc. ('nlholi*^. The 
poftitioD wai critical in the extreme for Citherine and her son, 
at well Oft for the Hugrumot leaden* For the former, it weis 
doubtful which side would show moat audacity and piompUtude 
in seixin^ tlu* King'« p<^r«i)n. Af regarded the latter, the pro* 
hibition u> celebrate ibc Loid*» Sapjwr «t Popin<:4>urt, jurt 
i»uod by Cartlinal Bourhun ns Cfovemor of Parts, in open »ad 
4iffirJal rio1atif>n of the Frtirr nf Jafiiiiir\\ Kliown! that it was 
hopeless tu took for any re^anl for Protestant rtjfht»» unleas tbejr 
4:oal(l be enforced by ibe ditrct intcTveatian af royal AUttwrity. 
The population of Paris was hostile, and the city swarmed with 
Ouise's raen-at-arint, so that l.nnntie affirmed that ihe Reformed 
could no mure vrUhulfiiid ' iWui ihaik a fly c<ruld rrsisl a 
viephant. They wnu!d have been held in check by the novice* 
of the converrts and the chambermaids of the priests, armed 
only with their brnptn sticks.* On Sunday, March 2:^nd, Conde 
retired from Paris to Meaux, and on the fo!Iowing Fnday the 
triumvirs mar<:hed to Fontainebleau and carried off Henry and 
Catherine. ilrnceforih ihe ariion of the Spaniih party was 
sheltrrrd Aiid Bnncliuiinl by th^ bi^n-inanual of the Kid;;. 

It IK tuc*1c«« to TPopcn the mucb-dcbatcKi qacfliion, whether the 
Htiguenots should liave ubstalned from civil war. Coli^y*a 
own action was perfecrtly sincere and frnnk. He avowed to 
Catherine that he would not be the dupe of the Guises, but he 
entered with the di-i'pnt relucCnnof* upon a stru^le, whose ooD* 
sequeuccs he foreshadowed wiih singular clcamcst* No delasion 
ab^ut the inequality of the conditions, or the pnibablo re»ulta to 
his countrv and co-religioniit«, t«d him to srobark in the con- 
flict with a Ititht bearL The famous conTersation, in which 
A^rippa d'Aubi^nc has detailed the arfrun^^nts employed t^n 
citficT side bv tlu- Admiral and his noble-hearted wife, conveys 
too minute indication nj prnphrcy inipired nl^ler tlie event to 
bcsr all the aereiity of modern criticism ; yet it probably repre- 
sents, with added dramnlic power, the record of an actual oe- 
ctttri^acv. In the deaJ of the nif;ht — so nins tbe narratir*^ 
the Admiral was awakened by the sobs of his wife, and on 
inquiry into the cause of her distrets, she replied that she was 



flii»-whc}iDrd with sorrow at the tUou^hl of the pufTtfriD^ wbicb 
iWr brcllircn in the Ultb bad to citdurc. *Thc_v am bone *il" 
oor hon(*,AnH fle*h nf n[ir Il^*h. Do not yourBrgtimi>n<« agamtt 
dcfmdinir tbem sarour mthtr of worldly tbmn of hcAvmEy 
wJBdooi? Yoa confess ihat at tim» yoj have mhji^tvinjcft — 
tbe<e oT« the voice* of Gek). The tivord of kniglithotxj which 
VDU wrnr — ift h to opprtrcf the aflSicictl, or lo deliver th«m fmm 
tbe l^ntiil's I'liiwi? Th« hloiid uf ao inatiy of our people lies 
hcary on my heart,' Hct huihnnd replied by tetting forth the 
periU to wbieh wfir mig'hr eipo«e rhem. ' Pottiler vtrW.' lie 
urged, 'whether yon are prepaid to face brprprflry, shame, death 
<m the scaflald, — all thne not for yonraelf only, but vrhat it far 
birder, for your children. 1 give you three weeks to tM 
mursciff and vhirn yvm ahalt be consciously fortified s|:>inst 
Mch uilDtnitt<*«, 1 will gif lo iD«ci death with VDU and yotir 
frivadft.' * Th« thntn w<»eka arx* puaixl,' w^a h#ir inttant r«ply« 

The mournful foreh<Mling»of Caligoy wirre more than jiutified 
by the events which followed darini; tbe neit ei^fat years. 
Atrocities which the pen Tefuses to aarraie disf^raced the con- 
duct of x\ic ciril war*, aod the drpths of infjuny might nlmost 
appear 10 be sounded wbeo brave men like MoQlluc were so lost 
to all KOM? of ibani^ as to bear wi(iic» against themselves, and 
to boa«C in iheir mnmoir* of the enormitiea tbey hnd commiltfHl, 
Cruelty and perfnly went hand ia band, and bejrat reprisals; 
and the impartial historian is compelled to admit that both 
sides were indelibly dUhonoured. Such exoeiaet, which be warn 
powerless to reilrain, wc^re ndious to Coligiiv ; but tbe conduct 
■od tbe incidents of the vtar brought iato stiuii|; relief all the 
Aobler element* of hi* ehancter. Never was he {grander than 
ia thf hnnr of defpal. His rrkolnp*! wna irdomitahlp, H^ had 
tbe fixed tenacity of purpose, and that thorough con6drncv in 
tbe justice of his cause, which uphehl htm in the darkest seasons 
of disaster. He uever knev that he was bcaien. After tbe 
reTeraea (if Drvux and St, Denis, of Jarnnc and Mooteonlour, 
after the (all uf Orleans and <if Rouen, aflirr the death of C^ndo 
and of d^Andelot, he rallied his broken forces with anflagging 
tnergy, animated them with his own undiminished vitality, ar>d 
jireaented th(* same f^m front as ever. His enemies rece^ized 
that be wu the life and soul o( the Huf^vrnot cause, ' If the 
Admirai were gone/ they ^aid, * we would notoHer yon for peft«e 
to much as a cup tif water.' His pcrsunal friends well understood 
the source from ivhence bia ooofideiicc was flerived. A ain^k- 
«xtraet — an-d many such might be givon — will hctvo to illuBirnte 
Ike streoKthand reialityof his religion. I C is dated October Ititb, 
1&69, aad was written from a atck-bc<J to his children shortly 



Admiral CoHgn^. 

afuir tbe bai(]« uf M^mtcuntour; when a rewAn] or &O,0O0 
crowas ivaa offeree} for liit ticM) ; wlicn bis honnc won buml and 
hi^ ettnto* plundered; when many rnenils bad d^»«rrt^d bim, 
nntl hii tronpc wcri^ in open routing. 

' i wont 70a nlwayn to have pi^ty nJicl tbe four of Gml hfifnro jour 
ejC6, yourowneiperiflOi-vmufttUftVealixu-ly Uu^Ll jouiIaIwo luittt 
nut ndy upoo wbnt AfHi ciiUctl ^ond tliinp^ t>r]t mu^t plooo our hopcM 
flldewboTtf llutu uu f-'&rtli, uuU Btck Air Gum«l1iLt)^ bcLU^r thnii wliat our 
g;^«A oon Md unl otir Iijldi)^ cMLn bAniile. Ami fiinc^ thin 14 not klmkya 
in our power to d», wc mniit humbly bccKoch God tbftt it nmy ple^ae 
Him to gaido lie to the end by ft good and boto toa^I wliiob vro mast 
not liup^ will AlwuyH bu oa»y imd jileoAuit, ii<»r ftccoiupvii^ by alt 
oianDor of worldly {irouptirily. Wo iuu»t follow Jcftiu Christ, onr 
OAptoin, who hAB gono before tm.'— MaborJe. iii. p- 16T. 

Wc hari; nu ipact; fur tbcdetai[« uf tbc stru^^W. Its peculiiuly 
bopp]e» cbnractvT »ri>to from tb<^ fjxctf tlifit tbo thigu4»noi4 w«ro 
Hdt ilrong enough t4>nbtnin the miitt«ry, hut w4^t4^ ton vtrfmg U> 
aubiDit to the only terms which their opponent would ooncrde. 
On tbc one »ide were men who were fighting, not only for 
tolriAnc«f, but Jgr existence. On th«- other, every propi>«al for 
peace was marred either bv the treachery concealed in Its con- 
ditions, or by prcUetrrmincd intention to disrc^-^rd tbcm. 
Throughout lb« w^fLriiom«> diu-uHtiim* which pt^ei*deri nnd 
followrd tbc nutbn^ftk of hontililtrj, Coligny was Always ready 
to aacriSce any personal advanlaf^e to the interests of his aov4V 
reign .-ind hi» Church. He voluntArtly resigned bts government 
nt l^cnrdy. He retired ]n>in Courl to »m4>oih the path of 
Catbeiinc. He acaDiescedf lor the salie of peace and at the 
request of ht« aMoci&te*, in the Peac^c of Amboite, although be 
COn&icter«Hl thai it wna n nun 1 in factory- nnil inialfradlng. Not on« 
act of Ireacfaery or buene«s« not one of personal ambition or 
s^] fish nets, WAS brought home to him. It was a clay wb«D 
treachery played a leudin^ pnit in the omiidU of »tateftinen, 
and niiw that we are petmitted to gnsce into their «rcret enbinetx, 
uud te»d thvii iouiObt thoughts, not one cruel 01 unworthy 
doign ia rcvf^teil of the great Hugui?not Icoclrr who had to 
maintnin the unequal cr»nleil aeninst such opponents as Philip 
and Catherine and Charh>» of Lorraine. Inflexibtt-^ in hia ad- 
ministnttJoR of justice where others wer^ concerned, bts magna- 
nimity WIS frequently displayed in pardouin; the most serioua 
crimes against hitnielf. Nc» wonder that Hu^h Fil^william^ 
the Lui^lisb envo/^ wrote to Queen Elizabeth, 'The Admuml is 
t^e mroft nobleman in Europe/ 

It is in the light of these facta ihaE we must estimate th« 
accusation brought against him, that be was privy to the aasaxti- 




natioa of the Dtikc of Guise by Pollrot Tlie ivlioua ckaq;?, 
like lo many caluamlei, fmt wrung out hy larlun* tind then 
^et^wH«^4l, would dnrdlj be worth notice*, hut for the charnctenttic 
mode in which Collgny dealt with it Hii ftmt :ind moni urg«*at 
f^cjucit Traj that Pottrnt's life tbould be >|iAroiJ, until he could 
mopt him f.^ce to fae«, nod siTt the inatCi^r to lL«- hottom. W|i4mi 
thts jaxtice was denied him^ he disdained to support his denial 
of All compliciij in »f> foul an act by any concealment of his 
own opiFiiua abuutfiuiw. * I considrrcfd him n dangerous man^ 
and his remnrAl a blcising to the country,' was liis Fr^nk avowal, 
Thtf like ttolJicily uuL3|>okcn candour vrna exhibited m hia 
* Account of the Si^;c of St Qucntin * ; — 

■ Somo pctiKUkii,' ]i« akjv, ' may porliap* ftUfiposc tLftt U i* vHlton 
by way of jttstificfiticin of nij <!orir1ui^t ; Imt lioforn thry eti!LT <m itM 
penud, I beg thorn to put that notion uido for ttvo iiLftin r^a^on?. 
Flrat, beeatse there in no occikxjon for Lim to jiittify hiiuMilf uLoic 
no ODD aocufcfi, and I am so ctcAr ic all tbai tonchoe my honour that 
I hare na f<ar of being fto. Strcondlj, liocaUHO if I bhoald^bo uoonBOd 
by ajiy, I am conflci^ua thut my h^ort U in the nght pUct to enable 
roo to defend it ai; t>Rcoin4« a gfMitlciiian> n man of honour and 
poeitioii, a& that I can rvply to every man accoTflicij; to ht» rxnh 
witlkont having noourao to qiiilldriTing or dranuig up a |>rooi;»« likv 
ft lawyer '-*D«Jabovde, L pp. 316, 7. 

AlluwiiiK fjr clie ft^Ldtni^ aud habit* of that day, the dignity 
pf eonacious rectitude could liArdly l>c more vtrikin^lr diaptayed. 

The year 15*52 witn«Mcd a terond attempt by Coltgay Ca 
evtablish a French colony. This time Florida wat t«lected as 
the home, and Jean Ribaul, a trustworthy Ilujtuenotf a« optain 
of the eip<ililion. It isnmusingto lind a cc^temporAry Knglivh 
writer informing his readers that the hittory of tbn effort hat 
nerrr bt^fore, us he bellevrs, been tub] lu En),;livb, srH^iiig ibst 
tha complete record of Ribaut's anc) of Lnadonnibrc's voyages 
is C« he fcmod id H&kluyt's well-known eolleetion. The 
cbroiude runs, strangely enough, in parallel columns with the 
ttdrentures of VillekNijjmm and lAky, There 1:1 the tame ex* 
dbvniit Joy on fittt landing, xUrr tatac neghn't of nredt^I tillnge, 
tbe swnc eipeclnuon of lahulous wealth, the same terrihlo 
anAeriogs on tbr houipward royagc. Indeed, aomv future pn^' 
r«asor of tho higher eriticisnrt will probably •!>« in this improred 
repetition of the earlier story ibumUnt rennon lorn'ji^<rttnfE both. 
At first pvcryihinfi wss coiifatr de ro^e. * As wc passed through 
the woods we saw nulhirg hut turkeyeocks 'l>i>k^ i^ <li^ forest ; 
partrtdires, gray and re<l, little different from ours, but ehipfly 
io bigness; fish »o plentiful and laige^ that tno dr«ugliiE of 
the net were suRicient to feed the whole company of oar two 



Admiral CoSgn^^ 

ship* for two dftjra ; tunplce |;TOwIng of to rve properties that 
it is on excellent xbxti^ to bcboJct them/ Visions of ^l^^en store 
'in tlH? tnounuini of Apftlntcy ' eiciUril the luiagitiBtion and 
incTCAitcd tbc mortific&tiix) of ch« coloniatA in having, tbrou^b 
Irnr nf ■tnrvntifin, U% Ir-avo «o rioh a Inml. \Vr frnti* rtn vpju^ to 
recurU tbe ktntlnev* shown the sufTerers by Sir John Hawkins, 
an«] gratefully atknowlccl^rccl by Lauilonnil^re. The report of 
the lund wss to enoouraginjt tbat a seD^nd nnd stri>ngrr expedi- 
tion sttileid in 15^; but SpAniili jetdoutjr was &rou«ecl, and 
Mrncndcx, with 2(iOO ukiro, aW4)0|H-d down upon the [Icri^nrelfru 
EPltUinent, A fearful iragcdy ensued. Every avowed Prolo- 
tnrT, lo ihf> number of Gf.MjMoulft, tn ditfinncc ofthit roo«tRoli»nia 
crnirajfeinent, wav fttahbcdi mnn by inAn. 

There is no more romantic pn^ in the fourinating history of 
maritime discovery than that which record* how thii atrocious 
si au (filter was avenged, A certain Dominique de G»urgaes,A 
soldier uf fLTtuiif^i i^quiillj^ at home on neu or lai>d, h^tl Im-tu 
taken prisoner by the ^pAiimidn, nnd basely »enC t» the gallcyi. 
Hslf naked and bnlf «t:irvrd, cUain«I to iheoar, he yet managed 
to escape. No nondcr that he was filh^ witli uad>in|t hiuml 
to hii c&pton. He belonged to that cUsfl of advcnturcrSf at 
once both gentleman and conair, who united in strange com - 
biPAtion utter recklessncu of cbaractcr with some of the nobler 
elements of hvroiim, and he vi>wed that tbv wholesrde destruc- 
tion of h]« fe|]ow-ooLinlryin«<n shi>uld not go unpuniihcd. At 
the CO ft t of his entire forlunr ami with such other help as he 
could obtain, Dc Gourgues equipped three vcmcIs, manned them 
with the stoutest se^i-do^ of Brittany and Nonnandy, and sailed 
for the Western Continent. Hi* destiofttion was kept wcret 
until Florida wn» rrjirhed, when he explAincil hii project. It 
wa« facing fvnrful ofldn. He had but 1^0 men all told ; tlio 
SpanianU probably (^xc^eeded ten-fold Chnt numltrr. We have 
no space to recount how, with the Spanish standard flying ac his 
mast-head, he pnssed under the Ri^ns of the fort; how hv 
strftlagem and ambuscade he drew the enemy frooi their 
enirencbmencs, and destroyed them piece-meal ; how rumour 
magnified his liillc troop into a furue 20O0 strong, and panic 
spreml and threw the Spani>h lines into ronf(i»on< Not a man 
cscsped »ave aixiy. wh'»m De Gourgue* hail taken alivi* lo make 
his reren^ more complete, and ibese he bung up man by maOi 
whilst the awe»struck natives looked on io wonder This done 
he ditmamted and dt-stroved the fort, and sailed away leaving a 
large placard before the lifeless bodies, with tbis int<Tiptionj ' 1 
have done this, not lo Spaniards, but to tiaJtors, robbvrs, and 




^IaIc of th« tDosiacrv of St. BaTtholomi^w hoi been too 

often toM to need rcpelitloo here, Uow \ou^ the tttrodljr imd 

been prc*malitalctt and prcnrrnngrd, nnd wbat wb» tbc rxact 

ii0gro« of Charic* IX. 's conkplicitr with ita Parli^^r itAf^LM, tire 

r|Eic«tif)ni »vHi<"h hnvp ht^on t]c-ktatpc\ wiih grrnt fu]nf*«K oi cImsiI 

by hiAtondiu, wbo bave ArriTed At oppoaiic cfinrluaions. Tbat 

such *C<>iltitrU of prTft^f^tion ' A* tbc; wholrvalc; slaughter of 

JicrcticA ncTc tcndrrrcd by Pbilip nnd cntcilninod without 

scroplf by Catherine la amply e^ubtUUetl ; but all probability 

lUsfavoun iho theory thnC Charlr* IX. ivns b>ng Urfori^hAnd 

priry to the projccCtt) mufjvr, Min nnluri* ivan loo llabli? tu ho 

rarrird nirny by «iid(ifMi oiir.huriiU of tmrnnirtklUblr- p;uii]nn 

far biui to be the safe dept^siiary of so dan^erouii a ttecn^t. 

Uoqueatiunably a touth i>f mmJnv^s dcfi)<;d t\n* Valoit blood. 

To cxerciHC hiB great mtiacular strength in forging and welding 

voKHir, when bb health W2i« utterly une<|tjal to such exertion,. 

cr to display it by cutting dawn bi* auljjoctib' <:Att|c ur bcrmti of 

bur^K^n on the* higbirnj' ; to oiiiulntt^ iho ikill of a pailc*bu|L^bcT, 

in thr slan^htrr and diurction of flwinr^ with oitirr indifTorr'nce 

to the fiUhy odour thit ateatned fri>m their reekinjf oatraili ; 

to burst into the bccl*cbamber« of bU intimate fricmis, male 

ftnd fccnotc, amon^ the courEiers, that he mi^ht inflict corporal 

jninUhmeut upon iLl^ui with bis own rojal hand ; lUtst? were 

usoDgst tbi^ select piutir»c« of this iiucc<^s>4^r to the sceptre of 

Si, IvOuif. It wt>uld tcc-m that he tufTer^d from one of those 

ohacurc discatcs of tbu brain, whose nature is of such iniensc 

iaterest to muilem pathologists, and that its resultant lempera- 

Uftnt was nnc whioi CoUgny had magnetic power to sootbe, 

uid Catherine to inflame to the higtiest point of irritation. At 

^Hie CDutiient tlic Aduunil was Lis fathi-'t, whoM; adtitv he would 

mrdiidly follotv as hrir ti> the policj' of Ffuni^U L At nnoebcT, 

^aded by hi* mothtrr** «uipi<:tona and invectire, hi* would 

fifliccly turn upon ber with the cry, tboi she was hurrying bim 

b destructton. At la«t, exasperated beyond endurance by her 

teproacbrs, with frightful bUspiiemie«t he hid bcv work her will,. 

lad abandoned liinitelf with all the frenxy of despair to furttier 

W diAbolioal design. 

Fivr days before tlie fatui rve of Sl B«rtbolomiiw» Co!i(-ny 
WroU? the fnllowinir letter, the Utt which has berJi preserved, to 
UflwjTe, whom be had left at Chaiillon: — 

'Mr D^luoxo,— I wpitrfi ihia hSt of a letter tn tell you thut lo-dajr 
^ namagd of the Kings mter ani the King of NsTarro took 
placa . , , After tho fostiritias tho King has promised me that be 
will doTote a few ^ja lo attending bo a naiDber of eompJainte 
toBohiag th« iafiactiMi of Iho £dia(. Il is but rcaooctobJo that I 



Atfmiral 0>li\ 


dionM <)iap]ciy myftdf in tltU matter as hr oa 1 un able, for 
ftltbodgh X bare iiLflnito dmt^ to soo voa, yot I ilKrald f^l graat 
rognjt, and 1 beliovo that joo would aJKt, were I to fftil to oooupj 
mjHolf ]» HUfih an afTuir with all my nhiViiy^ ThiA tvill not otnito 
0Qc)i dela^ but Ui&t tlio Court will Icaro this city noit vo^. If I 
hftd in vimv only my own flatiafactino, I ftlioold tftko mneli giDKlnr 
pleasuTo in golog to &i^ yon ttinn in living in thic Ooort, for m&ny 
rcAHOQv wltich I abail toll yoru tint wo miutt havo moro rog«M fbr 
tJiti publio tliAU for our own private) iuttTOi^tA. , . . ?k[t<<uttiiuo I ^ny 
our Lord u> k«op jou^ m^ liitrtiiig, in lli^ lif>ly gujitO and protoctitui. 
MAiid«*it)oy eomntc se port^ lo pt^tit ou 1a petit«/ [His wifo vma 

* Your TOry good Ltiedwnd luid friend, 

' CB-iTUXow/ 

With tbo d«?nth of Cnlignj- there pnMcd awaj tb« Bftjrnrd of 
thr Kf>fiiriTkati^>n. Il is with ni^ wiih to tndii1i;r In imlin^ 
criminate eulogy that no close this brief notice, but it is 
difficulty paiotiog tbi> man amidst the dark sbAdows thftt hung 
over his timers, in Any wtiy sn to group the truthful colours that 
ihej do not of thcmsrlrcs fonn a halo round that honoured 
hcjul. He waa in and of his time, ^iscntinlly n soldier, but tn 
advance of it Jind nbov^r it. II© anticipated hy u c«ntiirj tb« 
Swrdiftli (lisi^jplino nnil ihi? poticv which founded the Unitrtl 
st«9. lie establisbcti a coUe^^e at Chiitillon-sur-LoiDg, and 
views OD education which were not unworthy of the 
in«iccntb n?ntnry. Ho ndvocfitcd ft policy which, if stead- 
fastly pursued, would have saved his country years of sulfetliig^, 
nad would hav« accurrd hrrr 3uch freedom lu became the happier 
tot of Knglnnd. N'or wa« ii only that Ii4> was 4>ii])ghtened 
cuougb to discern wherein the true hAppiness nf Fntnce would 
camist, he would pursue noble ends only by noble means. In 
the collision of violent passions he always stands out calm and 
dignifii'd, ber.iuse bis Chmtinnily moufderl his public as well 
as hitt privaitT life. The cbamcter of CuH^'ny waa estrntially 
the produf^t and ibe prv>p<!rty of hit cre^. It is the immortAl 
fslory of I'Vncb Pn-tle«raiili4m ihitt in the days of Alva and 
Granrelle, of Catherine dc M«?did*, and the Valois and 
Philip H., when diplomacy was honc)'Goinbed with treachery 
and undermined by fraud, she shouhl have develo|>ed such a 
bcro, ' sans peur et ssns reproche,* at Gsspsnl do Coli^jr. 

( aa ) 

From (he MSS. of John Ramtay^ Esq.^ of Ocht^ttfre. Edited 
■ 1)v Alcxiuider Allftrdvoe. Two roh., 8ro. London nnd 

^FIlHOUGH pt^Ilticnl and military liUtory form* sa larffc a 
_L proportion of the Jilcrsturc of the iroilcl, and though iti 
aubjecta are abundautty ini|Mftiaiic, coD»tanlly coinmanding 
^rrat att4fntion, and nroii sing wonderment and Admiration, ^ct 
tbifl branch of hiiiorjr it but a sid^li^bt un the pruf^rcsa of ibc 
bumon race, i>r rather on the duat that humnn progrcsi natundl^ 
rAiie* in iu cntuftl cttrtw. Tli« tnU^a of politics and nriTii''^ an* 
the hutk of human hiatorj^ ; the shell nnd kernel arc tnuRicj|ml 
and sociftl, family and personal deCaiU and records* tach as 
bave of laie ho largely Men revealt^l to ui. Thexe introduce 
us to the n^ry p\i\w of tlio machine of human life and pro- 
Ifma; and AlUiiiup;!! hy tUerui we tkxn uiA li^d lo tivuiputhi£c iii 
fk dramfitii: way irith rnriout Aggreative or tleicnsivo hcroc^i, 
or with uiccei^fut or suecrumbing nntions, the^e duoie&tic 
Tccorda tend to arouse our cordtcd intcreit in the lives and 
bomea and circumfltances of laborious and peaceful meo, and 
thaa we ajre diitinclly raised in arntimcnc and aitpifation. 

Of such intimately social records few have beea of greater 

iaiercst to HrtKlI^hmen and Si:oUmen of the jirracnl time than 

tljj>t<e which Mr, ALLtrdjee hf^i ofTc^rod to u* from the coptoua 

KM^. of John Kamiay, of Oditrrtjrr**. Htm we have the 

' winnowing of a lifelonj^ tnemorandum about men and women, 

tmtimenta and things iu Scotland during (he eighteenth cen- 

tcriff made b_v an acute ol>terver, a Inboriou* mcmorialUt, nnd 

« xualout Antiquary. The di^closnrei he has made are some- 

tunc* not entirely ociv, but they become of double interest when 

tleygiv© a s#eoad vii»w of old fimiliar object*, which ah? thiu 

Acreotcopicatly raised above tlie cumMit level of alTairs, and 

*ppt%r lo OS as if in now and momentary life. 

John Ramsa^v of Ochterivre, a property in the valley of tba 

Triih, a Jew mdes west ot Stirling, which hid been a«iuired by 

l^iiays ancxrsiors ul the end of the :»ixieeEilh ceotury, wiu 

waat E4linburgh in ]73(>. The son of a Writer to the Signet, 

V ini C4^nt to ttchool at Dalkeith, where he became, lo somT 

Jilcnt, a cla«*]eal scholar After entering the Univettity of 

*^inburgh, and sLudyiag latr, Rnmeay, at the death of his 

^(T while \iv UAi itill a minor, abandoned profevsional 

^nae«t, and devoted hmiM^lf to litcratarc, Co arch^olog>> and 

I '4 tLe uiauuj^euieiJl uf his |iro|)crty. He was, we acv lold, « 

I veno5cent landlord, very ii^ul^nt to hia Lcnantai and a scicntiric 

I VaL 167.— i>&. 3S3. X> agricnUurist, 

34 Scotland ami ScotSTrien in Urn Kitjhtcenth Century, 

agrtcuhurtsl, ntlvancL'd ;inJ vet not vjsionarjr. He wiu a kind 
fririKl, Mu iiitcl]i|^iitci>untrY f;rntlcm<in, «ii<l Wfu htgblv<-Mc«mei> 
b^ all cliiKcM of \\\c communiCj. _ 

Mr, ll&iiiBa>*s motber was a daughtor of Halph Danda*, oE m 
MaDOur nt-ar Stirling, and a nit'oe t^i lliihcp Dumrt, A sivtcr 
of Mr», Kamsay riarrirJ George A brrtrrombv, of TuUitwdy, and 
be^ati^e llie wotber o{ General J^tr Kiilph AberciiJUiby, h\ 
London, Hamtny bt^ramr ar<|iiAinii:d with Aiidrtvr Drummond 
IIht bniikrrf >t»d sf> wan iairotlucfd to WuJiKilc, and 1u tbc mlaor 
Whig society. HcT bad seen ^ the 1745 ' ; but, though faronnLbl^ 
to the Protestant Suc*ceiaii>n, be had great sympaiby with thnu^ 
whf> ba4l l>n*n rutnrtl by tbi?ir loyally to the ['n*tt>n<ler. He 
was a ' 13road Church ^ Presbytrrian, but averse to ■cepticUin ;. 
and be was ibe centre ot a Jitlle literary circle nt Stirling, To 
tbt« circle the Ochtpriytt; M^^. were often read \ but ihcy fcH 
into oblivion until Comroander Uundas, tb« pnracnt represiMitA-' 
tivc of Mr. Rnmsny, rc«olvccl to publiab tUem ; an<l vre deaire- 
to tbardt bim f»r his iviie und vtry gratifying resolution. 

K''(m]iay was nrquniiitecl with and bonourf.^] by most of the 
loadin;; Scotsmen of his lime, Butdb viaited him in 1787, At 
Ochterlyre ; 

* An^/ saya EamBay, ' thongli I have been in t1i@ oompAoy of many 
mOQ of gonitm, ninio uf thmn poets, i never witnessed Etu-h flashes of 
iut^Ut^utuid brf^bliioes as fiuirj him^tbo iiupuldo of tbo momont^ 
itpnrka of ro1i>utJn1 dro ! T Dover iraa mnra delighted, therefore, than 
with liti eoiopMiy, for two days, h'tc-'k-UU'. lu a mixed uumitany T. 
should hnv(^ tnado little of him ; for, to itae a gamceter'a pLrase, he 
did not always know whoa to jjlny off aud whoa to plaj oa. . . . I 
t^t only proponed to Lim iht^ vffi-itiog of a pli^y aimilar to the *'CeuUi' 
Shepherd," ^^qualmu decut cssu sororem," but Scottigh Goor^ce, a 
subject which Tbomaon has by no tuoails cxbausted in bis *' Seaaoua/^ 
. . . But to have executed either of Ihc^ plans, stendiaeas and 
abstractioa frum coinptiuy wore vautiug, not t^dtiiita. When I aaktHl 
him wbother tho ICdiuburgh Xiferati had mendod his pooms by their 
criticinna, "Seo," saii le» "tlioeo gcutleinou remind lao d somo 
spinatcra in my conntry, who spin their thread bo tino that it is 
notiber fit fur wefl nor woof." ' 

The idea of Burns iinitntlng Virgil or supple men ting 
Thomion illustrates tbe more pedantic side of Ramsay's 
character and culture. His h-tter (>f advice to UuniH, howe»^r, 
was, a% $^tt said (* L<x;khart's Lile') 'kinit, ' and was in 
* sagacioua : * — 

'Lot those bright taloQts which tbn Almighty hae beatoffcd npwt 
yon, hv Ijonecforth employed to tht- iiuhlc pur^ju^e of niij>portiag Iho 
4^anao «f troth and virtue. Ad inkagioatioii so varied untl fi>roibk »ti 


Suiiiami and ScaUmrn in th^ Fi^hi^nth Ctntury, 



yowti tD&j do tbis in ttmnj differeDt modn ; nor i« tt nccocMrj to be 
ftllTftffi wrions, which yon havo bo«iU, to good pnrpoee; goocl momlB 
lottjr bo rocuooiDctidui ixt 4i ouiaviljr or uvea in m 90iig- Grout allow* 
MiiC«t uv due tn lliA btut aoH ittox[»6t-ieoc« of joatfa; uid f«ir po«ttA 
Wi bofut* like Thoougn, ^ iiot<t hnvt written a line. wLich, dying, 
tbej would vieb to blot. In juirttoulur, I wUh yoi to kooj> clear uf 
tbe tbonij irAlka of vAliru, which luAkos a man ft bnndrod oouiuicx 
for ono friQDtl, *u<l ia doi-tbly daii^rotu wLoa odo ui mppotwd to 
atend Ui* «Up* nnd w4iAVT;i»irfl r»f inf]ivi<1nalH tf» ILoJr tier^t or P<ki^. 
About QodcA i>f ^Lb, seri^JUM m)4 <ixc«]l4;t:it nt<inhftvc AlwnyKdi&red; 
■ttd Ibtftt 4fo oertun curioiu qnotttions, wlii<?h tuny affurd scope to 
Doli^bjidisl bawU, bol soldom mo&d tbu bourt or t<^tD]ior. Whtbit 
ihom poiuU are beyond bntmn kou it in iin£icicut tliat all our a«<^ta 
coQOor ill Uudr tiotts of momls. Yoa will furgire mo for llieio 




Whicb give more evidence of ktrntly nature mm] judicious 
view*, than of poriio insight in the writer. 

In lT93f Walter Scotl^ recently called to the bar, came to 
Ocbtcityre, and the ai^uuitintaiicr ciintinuril until Kiini*nj''s 
ilcMtbt tlw yu^T vben ' Wjivcrloy ^ was publiilbcd. Lt>ckh«irt 
my* tbAl Scntt** Te^ToUertiont of RAmfiny went, tognthc^r witb 
tbofte of G«orge Constable of Wallace-Cragie, and Clerk of 
EldlD, to form the character of Oklhuck of Monkborru; for 
RABUfty was an entbusiastlc »ntiqimry. 

Tbe only aurvivintr acquaintance of Mr. KamBay la tbe son 
»f the Bikhoj) of Brediiji, tbv Ti^ucmble cx-Cbaptnin-GencrBl of 
the Forc«ii Dr* G* R« Gletg, who know bun wben bo was «n 
i^ld tnun \ ftftd who luys of him thftt * hnrin^ lived a bachelor, 
he had f&lten into slovenly habita of dreas ; but when receiving 
CODpftDJ bi« apnninimcnts were tUi»r of a gimllenian of tho 
old tcbool — a blue coat, metal builona, high collar, and Inecd 
wriubands, h&ir*powder, pl^iail, ba^echea, blue stockings, and 
aitvcr buckle*. At other timet be w»re worsted hose devoid of 
gnrtert. He wav of iniddlu atature, wi^ll mad«) nnd of intelligent 
MftpfHTl. Hill MSS, wrrr hi* rrcrralinn, and the trial of his 
frienda, for be read a portion of iheto to every visitor who 
ni-uld b<; prevailed upon tti Htlen. Hr h^d the rrrdit of having 
been in bis youth and manhood a ^reat admirer of the sex ; 
and in ]at«r hfe he used to exact a kiis from each of his young 
lady visitors, for which h^ rcwAided her wUh a peach from bis 
well-waUf?d ajid ahelterMl garden.* He dtml in Miireb I814| 
and was boric*! in the rhurchynrd of Kincarrline in Mcnt'^itb- 

Three- quarters of a century tince their author passed iway* 
the Ksmaay retninisceDces are made, by resolute abbreviation, 
readable and interesting. Tbe two volumes that contain the 
essence of tbe MSS< wiil be accepted by the present publit! as a 


Scotland end S<^tsm€n in tJia Eighttcnih (^nhay. 

velcome illustration of cvcfiU and timrs thai hardly yd are 
tcMteil tis hUtoric ; :ind by ]>os1erity ibey will be valaH ns a 
record nf ihr socUl irannrr*, puHHc rustfiirwj ngricuJturAl and 
economic science^ and political and ecclesiastical feeling, of ilie 
lirtlcr ctnss iif S«rot«mc<:i uf ttie vi^bteeniU cenlury. 

In bU rctimncQt, Oclitertjrc** firat al>jecl wa« tLc cultivation 
"Ljr himi^lf and bit contain por^rj Scotfimc^Q of tbi^ En^litb 
]an|fua|tet and be was nbundanlly tucccAsful. In aome cbaptera 
of the pn:sent ci>inpil/tlio]i ibr-m is an amuair^ lone of jv^dantry 
which manifests tlic hopeful itcbolar CIilssecaI <juotationfi, 
Frencb expressions, and «ome priggt^bnesa of eriticismt make 
tbc reader apprehend that be is rewHng * tianslatton, «n<l tbnt 
vrhat tbc aDlb^ir saya in polished l{nf;1isU was mo«t probably 
thought out in homely Seotcb. But In »thcr chapiMTi it appcttra 
that free tue of the F'n^tliab idiom had been attained, and ii 
dcvHop* [1 parliciiUfly graceful HtL*rary ityle. 

The first volume ia devoted chiefly to abort personal ond bis- 
loric sketc-hej» of itflectvd legal lumiDarJes, and other prominent 
men of tiic last <^ntury ; nnd tbc aecond votiunc givca, besides 
the writer's obi^rvAtiunc on e<tntemponiTy Chtireb aflftir^f an<i 
AOniF* nrroimt nf Highlnnil inannera nnd preiTliflritif^ many 
{graphic tietaiU of ibe economic alate and si>dal cucrouis of tbo 
Scotch and .Scotland upwanli of a century -and -a- half ago. 
The book is one that furciisbes materials for social history. A* 
aiich we noiv propose to tnsit it; and omitting the chapters on 
the antr-Revolutiuti Highlander, ^nd vn Ecclesiastical affain, 
we will (tiv* lueb a prvcis of tbcsv rolumet as may potfiibly 
indiicft tbp reacJer to ibrir further ntudy. 

Probably no part of Europe bn* changed mom completely 
tluin the cultivable part* of Scotland since tbc? beginning of the 
eighteenth century. The country at that time had a fraction 
onli of its present pc^pulrition^ and, apari from thai which i% 
atilt op«^n moor, the land iva» mostly b/irren, while the rest was 
not half eultivali*d. Though there bud been muob planting 
aincc tbc Kcrolution, timber was scarce, and wirods were gene* 
rally merely coverings for the ntcky sides of mountain della, 
Kndosurea hardly were begun ; the country was all open* fit for 
cavalry campaigm. Koads there were none, nor carriage*. The 
Ki]i^*s highway was a tnt<re tmck on high ground and along 
hill-siiV-s, avoiding the moraasei of the mountain lops and the 
dtv'p clays or Vf-grtnblp mould in th« low-lving distriets, but 
continually keeping where the natural »oil would either be to 
dry ihut the small iraflic would not furrow up the turf, or where 
a little change on onf; aide or another would relieve the broken 
ground. These were the tfrandcs roufcd of the time ; the bye- 

Scotland and Scot$nun in Ih^ Si^hUenth C^'ntujy, 37 


wftyi were ihe wmtf^rcourses — 'watery Jaiws,' — in summer m 
the beds, mud in vrillU^^on tli« bankft; and the ire ll-stii died un- 
dalaiiDns of tbr land, aod the iiieritnble donnirnrtL current of 
the ttrtramsf ^rrvrd lu direct and guide the traveller llirxjui^U 
tbe hftlf-poi^pW wiUIh. 

Xbr town* ftnd eiii*** vrt^TK pTr^vpninnf nWlrtWs only of th^ir 
present size mnd population, Bdinbuivb \ay merelr nn n risiDg 
rock, u long simi^bt itroet fn>in HiiljnJorl up to the Cutle, 
likr AD optiidinn skeleton, with lateral ribs ealleti wvads on 
eitbcT sidir, and oil beyond w;ls Utch and meAduw-land. Lcith 
WA* 4 busy Innding-ptfu^r, wUix uietiUxuttt' ttuir» and bi>UM-a, but 
mtiioul & dook. Glas;*i>ir, a sinnll tuiro extending from the 
Trnii Am) Gallow^ate U(i to Sc Mun^'i ; wicb, in lime, «f>me 
thirty feet of quay. The shippinirthi^ndisduir^I ibeircareo» 
at PoTC GIak^iw. for the Clyde ai Olasgov vrnt about ODe-half 
its pment width, frequently fordable, atid possibly with one* 
t«ntu nf its m(»rr recicnt volume, Abenlren anil Tnvcmeti^ 
I3*iil' and Dujiilcr^ were Utllr jiUce», but iiii|KfrUiil in tbeir 
loc^ splicrin- Tbe want of rundst and ttic gront difficulty of 
InvelliD^ without a public vehicle, eicept by sea, tras lUf^b that 
David Kiskine, Ixird Uun, in 1M4, retired from the Bench 
brcnufir be wat no longer able to ride tbe circuit on horseback ; 
and country towns wer« atllt tbe trade and fjuhtonabJe centres 
ol rnch small pronncial world. Thii isiilntion nfr.Trh separmtt 
district, witb its liKjal aristocracy, has hcra^ no doubt by lonr 
faereditarj influenev, tba e!atuc of the stroag individuality and 
clatiDisbness of Seotsmea, and has for centuriet been preparinfr 
pwn of vinous ranks to govrrn and administer our Indian 

1 be sbires of Stirling and Clackmannan, in Ihe centmt part 
of Scotland, were divided into terriional towni or (ownshipa 
oecupitMl by two or more tenants^ whose eottji^s were built 
g^mevally cloie together, for th<» farmers* mutual dnfnnce nnd tho 
secuni,\ of the gentry fmm Highland raids. The rentatiers 
or AiW/^ teacnU of the lairds were, in thr latt centUT}', giving 
place tofetiars ; and personal friendship iind devotion were tfra- 
dually supcffoded by incfPsiscKl rents with definite agreements. 
Many oftiie old tenants coittiuued on th« nil w teruks; indeed some 
bad been on the land * longer than the laird.* In Scotland, tben, 
jnsi as in Ireland now, the fiardest irtu^terH were thf» less'^r fmunrs, 
wbo, bring themselves countrymen, knew the full value of the 
land, and racked their de|ieuJenis. 'There is no oppressor so 
unfeeling as a bjttnct laird, or a trnant who has power to sublet/ 
But there was in those days ntuch familiarity and kindness 
between the gentry aikd the |>eople ; and nothing was morr^ 


^ " 


Scottmtd and ScottiucH m t/tt Ei^htemlh CtJduty. 

burtful to tenants tban tlio TnufortuiiPS that befe! tbeir masters. 
Hy a curioiic form »!' nrnlul, r^iUrd tbinl and teinil, lli« landlonl 
rcvt'ir^rd £t full tbird uf ihc com cr<fj>, vflvr Oediicliiig itic tltbc. 
Tho Init ia>t&tic«« of tbU were in tbo land of Raw on tbe 
Tvitb, belonging to Mn Foggo, anii on Lord ]Vevaik'« estate in 

In Mcnteith, the disirict around Ocbtcrtvri*, the ehirf culture 
WIS c<>ni» and eaub tenant hml a ]di>u^bgaie of land; but in the 
Higbland borders th4^^; were four tcnnnts or luora to nploujirh. 

■ Tbo toDonla' plola vrero not eepsralo trom cacb other, hnt vrorc in 
nmng ; verer&l teoanfa h^Tirig ndgo about of every 1io1<l. Thect 
there wah the limitf^ injifJd rii^r the homnfitrmd.fthniiilArilly ntiniitvd, 
and cultivated vitb great cjire^ with ih]uiU pru|)uftiuQii i^f peod or 
bcan§, b^rK-y aud oat»> ; and the much moro «itMiuve m^la^ moch 
QCglci^tml, jind, aflor oomu oattle-folding, broken u|» to oati. By 
monuriug with burnt punt, uuu John M^ArtLur groatlr fnoreoMd the 
crop of oats. A practical, ehrovrd tcoant on the Ochtortyrc <wt»to, 
Ida neigbbuura called bim John M'ludutitr^, from an eipreflaion of 
bis tb&t *'man might makn Indtiftry, bitt >t voe Und that gave tbo 
iniu'eaBe.** It vrnn Haid that ht^ uas kupl tiuta, boing an vlJt'i^ b;r duubt* 
ing the story of Raiuhi^ii htuI t)ii> fi^rt^a ; on hcnriiiu which toiuI be es- 
diUDodf " Wa 1 Wal vbcrc would this nton t;ct all thcati tods? *** 

By this nsb mftnurc, tw«lvc or ftft^on fcot wide wa« g«in«(l 
every ^enr niong the mesa side : and thos the inrr^^ae of culti- 
vated lan^t An^l o( its pTodur<; butb in quantity and improve* 
Dient, were very great. This was the cfcneral method for the 
advance; ol CLiUcvaUon up ihe mour-siJes throughout ^x^ullund. 

Ploughs, harrows, and other agricultoral tools were gmcniny 
home-made^ uud w^e very homely, tbe plough limber uoMinnf 
1#, to 1j, 6r/. each. Tbc collars for tho tonm wore himJc of 
alraw, Tbe horses were poor, small, an<I low-orited ; a teitm 
of ioux w»* 'not wtirth forty inrrki altoprihcr. Sbnlgrs were 
used for cirrvinfj dung and com,* thou^-li more rec^ntU tuntbfer 
carts with s^illd whei^ta, nu'ie sUbs ot timber, wi-re subvlituted ; 
but generally every percon or thin^, from tbe King's majesty or 
lU rcprcBcntative, to produce and manure, was corri^ oa bi>Tw»* 
backs in ta<)dlc« cr nac-kaof appropriate decoration or simplicity. 

* Thoagh fkiiuerd woro luscd ia uiilln Hs lOU'ly ns 1T20, it wna only 
about ITnn that onr tiMiAnU gr>t theni for tlitiir hamit ElvAry vntll 
hod a th^iliitfi hill, wlicro winnowiofc wns performod in tho open ur. 
It is said tliat Anti-Hurgher mini^terft testified against fonnora as n 
ctcatin// oj wind and disttufiling of I'rovidence/ 

• There *fo Bomo not too oM or t-jo juitng t^ trniimbcr <Fhfn Ihftg wcr© no 
vbcdod viihm]e« iilong tti<T t^ttMl routr* in Sriilti lleroii, wut of DirtaioutU. 
And but n /«« jr\-iu> aiuoc' iJoigo wh« 9liU bu^ lliim. 


Scttttami ntifl SrcifntfiH in thf Et^Utntth Centurt/^ 




Most of the boufrTA wrrc built of turf and clayi nnd beioic 
tbalcbcd llicy were sufficiently warm. Tim at&bJe doors were 
oi wattlMt >u>d ttit^rc vcri^ no lock* to Uic bam dor>r». Hrtflrccn 
harvest tiDiv aikI Maj the cauIu all rau Iouhit, tr(*sj>ua<i was not 
pcnaL Xlic clotHi.-* of both mmlcM and »crvAnl«, except An 
KngliHh ^rmnU^oal tii Lf^p nut ih«> rain> wfrr> m;»dc* and dy^ al 
home. WiM>lk*n sliirts vttm worn, witb sometimes Hncn nccka 
and slrevrs. For ladillcs, soda tverc used, bat oa occanoD ibeM 
were coTered wiib a pUid. 

For trnanti, iMimrnl porrMgc wn* a luxury; tho ordinarj 
food was Uiili-^iiivalf Jitid ppuii', aiid burlry bnraci, Watcr*kail 
was Q fttandiD^ diib. And for mcnt the moribund old rrwn were 
aoineiini«s killinl ; ftcb^rwiie butt^r^ ch«r«i«, *1C9't h«*rringa, 
and nw onions from Flanders, cam<7 «ft«r the kftil. For drink 
tb«y had vrhcy or butter-milk, but alo was brewMt odI}* on 
extmordinarj occ^njitons. Sur,h wcr^ their frugal mejils, and 
tboy hacJ Ecsirned tbercwith to be fontcni. 

in those da/> aj^ricuhurTtl S<:ciUiiip(] hiul no cntm^nisci 
ibejr dialik<Hi innovatinn ; but they eavod with sjrstomatie 
£iimttUlioo, and xhay lent tlieir ftciringt to the gentry. Innovfi- 
tion did, hoivever, come. Kunri^ in due time was abolished; 
the townihip* were diviJed into s«-pi-trjiCr^ f;trnii of from ihirtv 
to sixty nrren, and a tennnt oo a :>inrt''en y*^ars* jiraw would 
ondertalvc to build a complete ^teadin^ for a hundred merks 
t>cudci the tiniberingi the nrighbouri helping with cntrifLgc Hnd 
work anan ship. The ordinary fannrr'a household consivtecl of n 
^ff man, a filtU man, ami it plefffmn, i\«. a lad of ^(u^n to drive 
the plotigb, a little bo5 tr> herd the cattle, and a couple of 
maidferrnijta. The wagei were moderate enough. Ah(»u1 
IT30f plou]j;hmen Lad 40«. a y^^r, besides botmiiet in clothing 
^mountiri^ tn one-lhird more; the Hide man had IIL Scots; 
the pIcgtiHO 5/. or Hi.y and the mAid»ervnois %i^ Scots, cicluatvo 
of th« bouotitfft, la 17^6 a libounM^t wQgvs were &/, piT day 
in rumnier, while tailora had id. beiid» riciuala. 

The furniture vr»* scanty and cumber*nme. Tables^ chairs, 
and bcitsFrnds wrtr of wninB<ot or nUn^trcc ; the local carpenter 
was the cabinet-maker, and the ladies of the family made the 
bed anil window curtain* of home'ipun. Those wlio retjuired 
the luxuries of fiishioa l)nd to urder thero from London, as tlte 
trpboUtcring huiiotrcc had Uii]<^ n^pute <>ven in Edinburgh, 
bven tn ibr present century dome&tic details within doorii were 
of reniarknhlr simplicity- A travclk-r from Kiiiflaml, fttoppin^ 
at a countrv ian in Scotiand, had, with proper prudence, .isked 
to bare bis l>ed wcU aired. In due time the landlord, lightings 
Jiia gmtt up to his brtl-room, asked him if he would be ^ long 


StotlantI ami SrPtJirwn in tfut Ki/fhtratth CeuUtry. 

of ffftling ID ;* and wh*n tolil ih&t llcre would bo the slijbleat 
possible (lela^-f ho turned to the bed, end raid, iharply, ' Noo, 
Jenn, get oot, and lol the gcnllemui ftl Id.' Jran had becit 
ulili/rd £u an cfitck'tit wiirEiiiiiic-ptn. 

Altor iKo riling of I71'», a fpw military madt wcf«* mAde^ 
unci alier M^h the r<h-ids were extencicd very moch throaghout 
ib<t HighUnds, Carts nlu^ ivilh sp»hrs aad iron tyrrs to the 
ivheclfl, were introduced. The laws concerning MAlute work in 
r^ad*[naking were g:rttdDaIly enforced, ihouf-h at first with some 
difficulty; n$^ for instAncr, whrn ilir gravel for the Criujcfurth 
rondwAtt tnrricd from thr. moutlt ol' tLc Allun ncro»« the Forth 
on bortchctck." Kven in 17(13 tho tcrnnnt* ^nerilly brought 
notbinfr hui tutMn-s. h was only a hundred wid foriy \car« 
Ago thnt A turnpike Itiir wiu obtainerl for the roads from KdiD- 
buri;h lo Siirlinj>, and from Glftigow to Falkirk. In 1*30 
William Stirling, «f Ounhknc-, bad a wheeled cari, and sbonly 
niwv Jamrs M(-ndrr«on, fin AlTlhray feunr, guL auulbcr, whicb 
moA a wonder in tbo pariah of Lo|*ic. Cnrt« came inlo gei>er*1 
iwe In the diatricrt nhoul 17M1 ■ but for lome yi^an nfter Ctwis 
and lime were uiualli' carried in saeki, and still later be«r sod 
meal wcrccnrri("d to market on bone* burki^f 

When a ^ntlemnn's new houfic was bring built it was the 
enstom for all tbe ncij^hbourin^ gi-ntry * lu f^ivo what was called 
a raie i>f iheir whole li-Rant£»* hor»r», with lime, wood, sUtei, or 
whatever inaEerinl woa nearc^l to tbcm, Tbii e<»niinin»d to be 
given €i\ gooil will for ten nr twelvi* jenrii nfter the JuriMJi^lioQ 
Act bad taken away the exaction of service! at pleaiare/ At 
length, however, the gnodneu of road«, antt the facility of biriu^ 
carta, joined to a change in views and manners, put an end to 
this friendly oitioin. 

Hrforc the Uninn, Scotch cullle hud (o pay fluty in England, 
and in 1703 they were, owing to loiuo mitunderstaadtng, 
I'ntifelr prohib]tf*d, so thnl a doxen pricre cows wer« sold at the 
West Pott of Kilinhurfrh for hi. ScoU each, vhich was two* 
tbirds of the common price. When the duty was taken off 
prices were still very ni<Kle-rate. thou|^h the trade in catlle for 
luigland had beci^mc important; dr«ve« of ibe l)eil Highlaiul 
cows sellings at twenty-four tnerka each. Dot oivinff K» the 

* And jtl &,i>tlsiid WM not lo Ttry bbclEKnnl A rcmlury later, at Bribdlsl, 
A tiev qiukf tf A* fviniilrijctfil by wfJincn and «Iii1drni *rioping up the Bodl with 
t^koir Irngcr* aiid ferrying it In hAikil-bMbulM t^ boT'k vii ^^\e fi^it-valL 

t Ilin* Df^un tborv hiu » imnUoJ, raiicli lou-r, Iti Urn mjuiU: and Lcmduvun 
of middle u£d njoLiabrr muny a flno Suftrlk Panels, wilb n htiU liiwr ibayitiaD, 
iMTi«iul> <-iJi|»l(^r4!ii In druc^Lit^ ono or two eLghlucD-falloa beci «Mla, Jalt «r 
empt^Tt va m ueigb. 

Scotland and Scctssn^n in tht EigHentth Cmfurg^ 41 

waste or stock afier Uie '45* the pricv rote to from 3^». to 40$^^ 
itiul bjr 17*50 tlicjr were sold ta bih. to 55*. — u conaidi;rftblc ri»r 
ia L«M th«n tbirtj' j'esrc. The wnstc nra> eomotiaici prcvcntcdt 

' III Juijc, 17-lG, m grubt jiuinlHir of caltlo llint Lad bocu ilrfroQ olT 
tliv LtU* wuro broogbt to Criof by the militniy. Slnjor Foimitor 
wmt for a jofiikce of tibe |>eikce, tliat tbc«e who proved tbetr lojultj 
mn^ jirufHTty migbt havo Ui^ir clock rof^rcd. Baron M'Corft, tba 
onljrjn«iio« HTAilftUe, saM bo oonLd iir>t prooofid uutil a Biblo wa* 
brought in, wlioiiLotiinwid op tho toxt^'' Wilt thou sUr ^o^^^^^^^u" 
wiUi the vioJcedf ^ And tlio Bl^jor UtAraDpoD U^i him tZmt tbc> 
uMkicg s diAcnmiikftEion vns Lboir biiaiEiesa tbat day.' 

Gnuloally Cn^lUb prlix'A ami T^ijiflish precept And example 
rcToIuUiimficd Scotch n^iculturc. fklr. H'tmiAy gi^'<^* aomc 
inter^^i^iing notices of ibe J«irJ« who iii bit neigbbourbood 
intraducciJ the chnn^c; ^tron^ mcdt peculiarly Scotcb in 
rhsractcr and influence; and in lime the tenants imitated 
them. Xbeir tackie and tboir cattle wore improved, farms wore 
onclosetl and Ijnird and fallowed, and good fjrasses were 
iM^lecled fur lUt* jjujtUTXS Curn, owinfc to levcre weather, went 
up in price; nod in i74l>-7 InsU tield poUtoc* were culti- 
vatpd with siifTLeif^nt profit. By 17f)0 Scottisb apiculture wai 
OD a full tido of sncccts, and vast sums of money, for those 
times, Jlovied into the country. Of tbe subse(|uem fluctuations 
we hav<? in these MSf^. n Jetnilnl neenunt, which will no doubt 
be of great interest to tUoie engaged in agriculture and in its 
n-sultani coiituicrcr, but whit^h vnt baTC not now tbi; op]M>r- 
tUDity or vjvnee to dotnii niitl tvcord. 

AsfTending in the social scale from rnrmers to the gentry, wr 
God that in iheStewarUv ftf Menteith — the valleys of tlie forth 
and Teitb — th« bvlk of the property when KAmiay wrote bad 
been lor near two hundred }'ears in ibe posflesaion of some forty 
gentlemen of from £^00/. to $00/. a vear, who lived on a friendly 
fuoiiog tr^ctht-i, * Tbo^ iftTc A ttortby, wrlUififorinei] set of 
peopiv, though pcrhsps occerding to the present vlADdanl 
soBiewbal onpolished. They were exceedingly hospUAblcr, nnd 
lived together in the utmost harmony, so much that tlu-r^ wa« 
not a single lawsuit Ix^tween any two members of thi? KpJM^opal 
congregation at Doune, which included nine-tenths of the 
gentry of Menteith. A great proportion of them were tenants ; 
but even the smaller freeholders wuatd attach thvmtetfea to 
some great family/ Before the rebellions of ITI5 and 17^5 
the relation between iiobh^men and ibeir vasials was friendly 
rmthcr than commercial, and military rather than political. 


Scotlasid and SctMgm^n in ffte Eighteenth Ctniury, 

They were many of thrm Jacx>bitca ; but their power was 
gr^Ettlj^ limitcil tyy the iaflueace of the established cler^jt irho 
with ihe people haH ^cat love of Pmbj^t^r^r ^^^ great fttar a»d 
hnirc<1 of a I'opUli King. 

Th<* Mont of private* gppnlK'meit w^re nomelim^s tnught at 
homo; hut the iriajority neiit to claiy schools, mixinjt with the 
tons of tiielr more humble coantry ncigblKVurSt ' ivhich occasioa- 
a\\y k'J to imim;icies betiA'e<en sucinl superiors uid inferiors tiuU 
were ftl once honoumhie and ailvantngeouit.' Tlie <lAu^bter« were 
seul to the itchuolH uc LdJEibur^h, where thcry were tau]j(bt ocedle- 
irork and houscwifrry^ drLUcinf;, and n litdi; music. Notions of 
pil^tv ai"! purity, iiu*\ liahiN of fni^jiHty nnd »pplimtir>n, weiw im- 
presscti upon thorn hoih by precept and cx^implcr. Their rending' 
was limiled to religtoua bookv^and to the periodical literature of 
Addiinn and Steifle, Tbcy wmte l>ndty, and spelt worse. Lady 
IVewbi^^ini^, writing to nn Kdinbarirh shopkeeper for two neck* 
.laces, s|je[t it Jti such a nay tliut ihv tnan read it JuJtcd lasn^a, 
and na^unrd hirr in a p<tt thnt he dc-nlt in no such eom moil i tics. 

Curiously rnouf^h, the funemls wt-re frstirals, somMimps 
lasting for a week» at a ruinous cost: nnd the drinking was 
excessive. At a laird's burial the English drajfoons remarked : 
*A Scot't burial is merrier than our nTddings/ A very re* 
spectable f^pnileman^ ^ivinc^ his «on diTecuons about bia burial, 
add«?d : ' For God'* sake, Jifhii, ^ivc them a Lenny drink.' 

' A p<ir«oa fitaffgoriDg homo from tho hoiiwo a very worthy 
neighbour was Ijmg a corpse, beiii;^ asked by John Stirling, of KeEr, 
whi> ia<it him on tlio road, wkduco ho ctuno in that oouditioOt 
anffwvtred. *^ From the houHv of moumitig/' ' 

The ladies, in new gowns and petticoats, made their mo^t bril- 
liant appoaraiid^ nt burinls. Th^ ^rntZcirtondn^wnp nn c»nc vide 
of the Btreei, and the Indins on i\\f other. * Before the procession 
be^an, the men used to step over and pay their compliments to 
their Icmale acquaintance. The Tron Charch at lulinbcir^b was 
then called the Maiden Market, it bein^ there the finest noinen 
sat, which drew ihilher ttie Tme gentlemen,' 

Abmit ITllI, or 1720^ [be tbenire pind ^tsscinhliea became the 
fashion ; but It was many ycar« boforc thry could afTcct tho 
mnnneraof^rcQiry of small fortune, who seldom visited Edinbui^h^ 
and had little taste for the Icltt^'^kltr^, 

* A tfi»iitlrmfln*i; dan^btor tmiw ibn ctitintrf bning sfUrd hr a Iftdy 
what pUya tdio had aeeu, anttwerod '* Love for Love '* and 'The Old 

Baohdor/" "' Oh fio, Miss Iltrttyt " waid b«r frioud^ "' tbcso aro 

pliye, not proper for youug womeUp" "Indeed," replied abo, with 
gnjat aliapUoiiy. '* Th«y did nothing wrong that I saw ; and aa for 


Stetllmd and Srattmen in the Kiffht^nth Ontnry. 43 


MhM% ibnf Mid, it WM high English, &nd I did not vkdaiiteDd it/' 
At mn anemblf, the Oofii]tc»H of J'aninan;, & lady dirootroM; ob- 
flftTTiog hor uoplwwf Ibo Evl of CaflHilb. fluktorvd whilu payiD|f faiH 
fiomplimoriU to h«F, miw fT\>iii h^kr (?hftir. unA tuking him by Uk« bftnd, 
fiatd, *' Netibon*. j^ou huvo att too lonff Kfti^r diniu>r lo bo pmpor com* 
pftiiyfbr J^ioa*' Slio then lc<l him to tho dctor, and cnlUng out, 
" Uy IfOrd CansiirB cfaftir," ^ruhed him good night. At ki^vlhor 
tinLo, ft brovct-'i* i]ftt]^)it«r L«vjug eomo thoro Tvry wtdl dro^aui, lior 
Iftdj^p HtDt bur n mrutfttgo to e«ma x>o man, flb« not bung entitlod 
to ftttead MBfembliM.' 

Al the tim* of ibe Union, mo«t of the gentry Uv«d on thoir 
#«tfttc», Tbc cliJcst ttm va« pcrbApt smt lo a vrriter s office, to 
^ia the doabtTuI advAoia^' of a Jililc law. Tbc grcnEcr fnmilict 
sent their heir* lo mime Dutch or Gfrtnan UoivcrBitj mnd U> 
Praikce, to study civil law ami ses the world. * When (ietirge 
DronitnoiHl uf BUir wiu compUmcuLtnl on the actHimpUshmcnts 
of bU >i>n J am c», the old gcntkman aoBwr-Tcrd that hr knew 
nodiin}^ bit aon bad )(-rtrn«d id bit travrlc but lo trnxt o sark 
every day, and to sup bifl kail twice. Before that lime it wa« 
the cuatoiTi of the t;eolry» &h it atill is with our subfttantijil 
tenant*, for tbc whole company to cat broth out of one l&rg« 

*Hariitg little busioe^, and f^w reaottrc<8 agaiuHt fti>Htudc, Uio 
gentry woro wry much wUU O(io anuth^r at no (fix^rtl vipoitflo- With 
low tneeptiMiK thojr Looecb wcru small, fitter for tba rcooptititi of day 
than of Digbt visitorB. riilc«8 nt foetivnTB^ or upon ceremoDtouK occo* 
^ioMi wlwn Ihi^ dining-rtiom icim um(h1. |H;orIi^ lived mostl)' iti tlio 
fftatJly bodcb&jztbGr, wlioro frionde and neighhoura wer» received 
witboot Mcmplo. Maoy ait ca<y, oootfortabio meal haTo I made U^iig 
B^ in that v-ay thrnugh tJjin couutry, Bf tliiK iitn^nn. liow^Vfir. tho 
public roonM ncro iho worst souoned, and of course the least 
idouftnt of tbo whole. Evon wliea etiftugoi* alsycd all uigbt tLuy 
woroouilly occoioniodat^il, oothliig buiag moro oomutou tti&n t^ lay 
twogootlomcii, or two ladicic, tbat worn not acquaiutoJ, in tho vnrw bod. 

'FbdpU canunouty vUitud on chiuioo, and in ord^^r to give timo 
19 preparo ditinor it was the faKbion to como oiirly, nod th» gttcs^ts 
w«r# tftkea out to n-alk about tlio Govirona of the plocx'. Upou no 
ooo^ofla pvrbajia vriLti tlt<t (HinTcruklii^n of coniitry gentlemen moro 
nhHonal and agn?^>lo, Thoir fjHiultkn vrtm thtm vttol aiid mllcctud, 
and everybody oamo disposed to bo courteous and plooAaDL At 
Iftble peoplo, hcifts rosilraincd by the pteaenoe of their Korviintii, 
acrldom talk of anytLiing but wli^t is bofora ihom ; aud ivhcu the 
ladioa irithdrair tho o^mvorantion of tho gontlesnan booomoa ato long 
Doi^y and uniuatrm^tinr. 

* In Apcakiug of minulim of moniuire ohATOOIomtio of tho ^nns, 
the &a1uod of pTCKKing people to eat must not be omicted. As it 
originated in kiudaoc*, it watt so far ooniiucodikblc -, but it booamo at 


44 Seotiand and Scctanen in iht Eighteenth Century, 

liMt troablcsoiao fttid disgUBting. It mui iudood ix> oujp iiiAtter for % 
modojt pctAon to KTSiet : ai^d ovurutUiiii^ uiio'tf Milf lUily piMvokod 
iidditioufll imporlunitj. Tho best gociiiity w&« to koop one's pl^te 

'Fqvt of the f^enlry kept a full or rogtlAt t&bl« ; &nd as lh«ir 
^le^thIji were for tbo mo^t |i4rt upon lui criuty fuotiug, brot1i,ii cod|)]o of 
fowU ncm'l^ Icillvd perliapa, or a joiiit i.^f ni««t. \va« ibuu^^t no bftj 
diuner. No froeh boof or mutton could bo bod nftortlui middle of 
Duoconbor till null od in eammer* Tcwardu Ktjueb, the doftreat timtti 
tbero irero t<a1 and pork^ iLnd i;oin(itiinc« cnpone, Brcth was ik 
»tnudin^ diiih ; nad tboro ncro oat und butlcy iii«l], or grotta, kail, 
Irnlci', und oDiivDA, oatcok^iB, and bat liltlo vh«at bread. Sut'ar ^f^A 
considored as a o»diaJ, toft « an cipnuMivo and nDplawant drug. K 
Higblftnder being deaired to inquire riftfrr the honltlt of Ur. Graham 
of T>raco'H rAHiilj, briiiiKbt l^ck \r<rrd Uml hr fanciijd tltcv v*di« Dol 
wfiUf an bo found tbom dnakmg hot tt^tcr out ct Jit^i^kcd pigic/ 

Though thus plain And frug^il in tbeir ordinary cntert&in- 
mcnts, tbr genlry "n occflsion wrrc wt-ll plcaprd to make a 
kLow. With \\xr. EpJicopuIiaDB, CbtiBtuiaA was tbe vptcLil 
scit»oi] of fettivit^t nnd tbo PrcahvtL>riani on «uch oDcaftion* 
«r-!dom objrFtc^d to communi* witb thvir Kpiinftpal npijt^boun. 
Hard drinking was the complcmrni and climax of their 
bnnquela; after iLe Reaioralion, indccdj it wn» an evidence of 
pii>iis lojaliv ; And nrnrly down lo Kamita}''s lime it would 
have t>een esteemed unkind and disrespectful of a landlord not 
to ntakc hU guests quite Jou, In wliicb condiliaa they were 
left to find their waj* by r^iirht towards tb«iir bomes, across the 
mnimtain aiuI the flood. Vet aci'tdt^nts wero few, and they 
were somftimcs much less tropic than auiuainj^, 

' Tinrd KninffH toM mfi that dinin}^ onn day at a e^nntry gcot]^ 
maii'K bouBo with WiUiara Hamilton, tbu fxiot, tbcy draak«xecs«iTdj 
Lard. Wlion thoy came to take their horses it was pitch dark, but 
aftur tfao reiit luul nioautcd Mr. Hamilton wa» a-mijudn^. OaudliA 
being brought, Itu iviui ftitiiii] lying am»ng tlio horcw's fiiotf hardly 
able to articulate more thnn '^ Larlv I^Iary* svreot Lndy Slary ! Whea 
jou are ^^ood yoa are tuo guod 1 "— «l]uding In thu kguud of Uw noan 
who, being unable to mount his horse, piujed to tho Virgin for ud, 
and »&■ B(i much alrctigtheiivd ihki at Iiia next atlcujpt ho juuaped 
«>rtfr bis horse-' 

Potatoes nrc said by Robert Chsmbcrs to have been first 
cultivated in Scotland hy m pedlar named Henry PreDUCe* who 
sold I been in Edinburgh, nut, a« Prvntice died in 17^, and 
tbcrcf OTP recurdi of die uve of the potato in 1701 in the bouse* 
hold bi)ok of the Duchess of liuccleuch and Monmouib, where 
the price per peck i\ given as 2«. Qd.^ and lu ait old hoaaehold 


^Jandand Scoismai in ffi/t FAffhtemth Cmttuj, Ai 

faitok of th« Eglintoun fauiilj in 1733,* ]>erliapt Pronttco** 
cUini is not quite vultd. TovranU ih(> rml ni tbe century, at 
BtnfTt 10 ]b«. ofcmirifh c<m 6f/. ; scrcn haddocks co«t 4c/<; latd 
wiu Ijl, &ih1 bvcf, mtitton, And vral wfrrc fi<A a pound of 17 ox, ; 
l)Dtt(^ WEiM 10^, to W, n pounfl of 91 oz. 

Ale WHS (tie common bevtm^e^. It wn« the custom in tlM 
nortli to hrinff little bnrrpU nf strong nlc into the mom, anil tti 
4uk the company vriiethcr tbcv cht«e oM or new. Punch c»mc 
wilb the direct trndc to ihn \V<f«t Ititlics, and the coiuumplloa 
of aJc ditriinUljcd, Dal Ibi oiftoy gcDer^tii>us FrencU winn 
wa« the favountv BtimuUnt, and it wils sold at 6<A to lOt/. tbo 
pint, about the* prim i\i « b»*n. Rnt priro wa% on t(>«t of VJibir, 
or of ref«ence for puritj in wine, A<IuhiTaiiou wa* once, 
indeed, a capiut crime. 

* And gif 0115 cik (if., ni«it or oormpt vnite) happenis to W ficttt 
buiM^ tbftt no mau tup or fH^U it fn it bo dtMilan^d bo the bnilliu^ and 
«|Qot«r» of vino tliat it ia mcxt or comipl, but send It ngnm furtb of 
tbo nMlm^, under pain of doatiu Aod that na person \fUUm tLo 
reftlae Udr apou bjuid in time to eome to mex wine or beexe, under 
|^|)m» |«in of dc*tb/ 

^H Th«r duciei on Frf^noh wini*, »nd tbo itltrrrtiption of tmde l>jr 

H^tbe plajn>^ al Mnrseillef, rfttsed con»idt-r*bly the former Fcry 

^r lour price of clnret. Tbc cbtSTp winr wns, of course^ not ^ood 

wine, and when in the summer time it became tart nnd thin, it 

Was mixed with cinnamon and su^iir. Claret, thift enhanced 

in co*i, WAA too dear for home connumption. And nXr wai ibcn 

lesumcd ; tbo irini* druiik at tavcm*. New win^ wai io 

quickly Uied that d^ranling was unn*^reMftry ; und in 17."!^, de* 

«inter« were accounted a noridty. Ai the taverns tbe wine was 

^^irawn from the coaks and strrvcd in pewter, ' with the cream 

^■m/ la 174!3, port was imported as a renturCf and was drunk 

^^wbeo h was four jeors old. 

In dresi the Scotch wc^ic generally Bimple. 

' In 8eolt<Lud/ shtb Taylor thu Witter pool, ' I hftTO been nt houaiie 
like eActloA for building ; tlio niiut«r of tho bouco, hia bcavor being 
Ub blno bonnet, one thit w«»n no otlior tdiirt but of tbo dax that 
^rowK on his own groontl, and of bi« wife's, datigbtor'a, or sormntV 
^Uiniti^ ; tbst bath his HtookinKa, bose, or Jerkin of the wool of btB 
«im sbeop*a back« ; tbat iKivor (by tbo pride of liis appiLTol; connvd 
toereer, &€., to turn biuikmpt- VffI this plain hotniMtpnn f^illov ImtpH 
skI mratsinfr tbirty, forty, flftj servantfi, or perfasM cnore. This is 
tte ban thai never Ftudies the consaming act cf fasluonlew faahiout.' 

'n occiuion, however* the Scotch could he gorgeous and ez- 

9po -IVvdUIttM of BdtolbiDHlt,' p. M^ 

penure ; 


48 Scotlaml and Sc0i$meH in Hit Ei^hUmtk Century, 

pcrnaivc ; and the conMqucnt dcbUp induci'd hy rajral prngrrtws, 
tScc-, WGTO enormous* A Jaird to laced liabilimeDts mi^ht live 
in A crcc/ hnuir, with wooden door-Uicks, and the furniture U> 
maid), Jack-bootit, witli pcrift^igt, were ibe abiurd tiiLl dre««, 
Vv.ys thingn on niir ri^rmt stn^r liavr brrn n;iirc ludirrnot than 
the tenor in ' Gitftia-vtis ' Ainj»in}> love-son^s in this atranjci- 
iUtirc. In 1(j33, IXimr Mar^arrrt ^ttrling uf Kcir bad *ft g^wii 
of Jtlorerice aaiin and black and orange tln^'er^ Uid over with 
{pjld lace, price £133 60. 8;// ; but iE«»t^raJJ>' atufTs of tb«ir 
own spinning, or » £own that would co»t irigbt »bininj^t 
cufficM for bom<< uie and ordlnarjr vmtjn|^. Iii 1747, ladies 
mostly wore plaids, especially at church; but in 1752 there 
wa5 hardly ^ plaid to be sevn, tbou^b in 175*1 lber« were onl^^ 
five or six milliners in Kdinburgh. Shnwy caval<-ade« wrre » 
favourite mcani of display, of v^intiy, and of expense. In 1713^ 
the Duki; of Atholc's was ibe onlycarnugc at his son's tilvciion. 
A vhcclcd earring: was a sbow rather tb^n n comfort ; tb<T 
Toada, tmwpt within a few mllr* of Kdinbur^h, prohibiting 
ihcir safe aod pleasuriible use. Running* footmen would out- 
strip a hori(^. Tbi- Indies, as in Englniui, somi^timet nxle on 
ftido saddles, but generally tbeyrode on a pillion behind a man, 
A two-wbeeled chaise was uied in 1725, but It was consideml 
odd and vfTcrniniiic, and rairin^cs were not nuincnms antil 
1745. Lord ]>ruininore, who died in 1755, was one of tbo 
lust judgfA who rod** thp rirmit. At Hnwiek, within living 
jiieinory, seven of (be principal men kept a gig to have tbe ute 
of it by turns, in mere liebdnmndai * gentility/ 

' \Vhcn Lady Draco caoib to m;u hor ^UiiKhtur, Lady Tidlibody, aho 
mado tlio juunicy on a psd. Sbo oould \tiM Lave afforded a oarriago, 
hi^r joiututu buiLg 22,4MI0 miu'kx. ^Vbcn u.l>oiit to rutnru bume, Mr. 
Aburerouiby itaytt birf faiL<.ir'H tiniantd tieoJ, of tLvir o«ai aoor^rd, to 
aoconi]>uiy bar to Aucliterarder or Dunning. As di^ was a rciligioufr 
observer of old cuatuins, thia Lad probably be«u the eti(|uette uf old/ 

Livery servants were kept only by people of fortune and 
fashion, and hardly Miy of the Glns^ow merchants bad them* 
though their wagei uere low and their keep a Iriile. One, who 
was nUo a good gardener, groom, and cook, bad only forty 
shillinf^ a year, 

*In n pamjlilct in answer to Bishop Biirnet*B charges ftgfdnat the 
ScottifilL biiiljoiifi, it in nAHortod iLat only ono of them bfivido tbo 
AwlihiBhopof St. Andrcw'ii Lml HtTvantB in livury. WbMLcr R]>rho|k 
T^ighton*e men wore livery or itot, they had. according to tradition, 
the vioua of the partL-oolocm.d fraloruity. Ah thvy durat not he tioax 
tippling In town, they persuaded ibeir maBter that his borscfl woa1<t 
only drjuk in a burn two miles abovo Doablaac, wbon Itor^ wn« s& 


SooUdnd ow^ Softsjn^n in the Eighteenth Century. 47 

At liut, tcoHod with Uioir irr^gaUrity, ho ftUowod tbon 
fbeo egrdsa vil regress, proviilcd iLey nettlior lookoU liim oui dot in. 
Ooo <1fty ibat he h^d a puit of ccir clothes druiohod m Iho raio (ut 
trmTcllt&ic OHO of Ibu f(X>toiti) curri^nl hia nifljitcr'A coat behiiul bin on 
lioneback). be «aid Lot lui sQgiy vord to tlie fellow vUo bad 
no^lectod to bring biH cIoiJe &t tbo baur iippcibtcd. Oa a goDticmflii'ti 
woDtleriit^ at »^ iniiclt uaut-kijr«h, tbv I^ltiLup Biuitcd uuil tuit^l, *'T?bttl ! 
wi>iil4 yon baro mo toao tnj cont lUid mj tompiir toa?" W« tbAll 
)[iT« MMtbbr uieod<tte of Uiia ttcilltut muj. A yoaDK iromon, tbo 
widow of ft nuDtslor in bie dinccjfo. to ulioni bo bad been dceediDgly 
kittd, toak it ioto bar bead tLut tb<] ISExhoj) wta deeply in luve wiui 
htx~ fioding be iraa long of bronlciiii; Kit miuOi »b« went lo bim in 
thtt ffoi'DiK^. » lonclj walk hf tbn frflb^r-nidn, wlmm liA TtMod to 
mediut^. Upon biB uking her ooiniDand^ *' Ob, mj lord,'^ srLid b1i^« 
*^ 1 lud n rcTcUtioQ ]m1 niffbt." ^ Indeed I * ftnH^vcrr^I he ; ^' 1 bfiTtlly 
iuuLgiubd ifuu irculd erer buvu bt^un m> liii;b)y buuumud, Wb&t ii* 
j^yx ^Thnt your lofdnhtp o&d I w#to to bft lUftTric^d toMtWr-'* 
^ Hato a litdu pntieDce,' repUed tiio Biifaop, voiaov^bAt Abubcd» 
" UU I h»T© a rotektioa toa' " 

Tlie counlrv srats were, after tbe Union, gteiaily inodEHeil 
from tbo old towers nnd citile*. Tbc?>e frcquentlj were tnaiii< 
uioed aft part of ftn extended boildinjrf whicb, as at Caatle- 
Milk in Lanarktbirr, included tiiodern public and domestic 
rooms, TliP new house* wcrn gpnemllj" poor ftnd tncAn in plan 
anil »<:alir, witb a cunoua uieillrv of medieval und inojont 
«ir»CI* and ilcUule. HvcD in Ldinburgb, at thi? ond of lott 
cmtury, raoit eminent Uw^c^n »eem to have been very poorly 
accommodatrd. Lord lV-«ideat Dalrrmplc said one day to 
J«aies Wright, ' It was easy to Dtake rich when I was at the 
bar. Tbiiugh mr practice and my office brought mc in 
20,000 m&ika a ><^ar, 1 lirrd in * hundrod-pound houtc 
(8/. 6a 8ff. sterling). I had only two roasts In the week, ris. 
on Sundrty snd Thur«d*y/ 

The interior walls of boiDirs were ptaaterei! ; the ceiling:* 
wvre mostly of deal, thon^h some were sumptuously stuccoed, 
nod the windows were of small ^qunrry ' pane». Later, came 
plastered ceilings, sash windows, and wn in footings. Carpets 
wen* still mure recent; the Aoots beiuf^ tuosity waxed and 
polifhed. There woi no attempt ml ndornment, or appreciation 
of picturesque* benuiy In the enviroumeni* of country hou«e« ; 
eren the neighbouring river was trcau^d merely as a sewer — the 
tack rather than the front of the bouse bein^ towards it. 
' On approaching a laird's dwelling, the alahle byre and dung- 
hill at the Tery door presented ihemit-lves to view; and all 
aroand was a pleniiful crop of iietthTV^ docks, vud heuilucV 
The ordinajy cirilifed arran^nmrnta for sanitation were not 


48 Scotland ami Scvtsma) in t/ie Eightetnik G^ntttf^, 

yet intro(luc<Hl. The houses of the mitlilling anil SRiallcr gentry 
seem lo have fol lowed the rel ij^ioua hoiiaea in sij le uid 
emlx'llUhiDcnt, Tht^v had courl* with higfh walls, inftssiirr gAtet, 
and iron bolts ; and ihero wpfa elo«(?r]y-plnnt«d, oreruhadowing 
trcf^s> thnt irnuli^ the? ttnusir dark .intl dimp. 

With ttie fcuiD^ out of CrowD and Church lands at perpetual 
rentff, f:nme the increased plantiug of forest trees: — 

' lu fjK't a nnmbcr of our beet forest trocfl trcro iuido«1>1 
plantix^ by pt^ntittiicut fcuar^. Nor are we to wouder iit iU 
very ideft of property operated in all piol>ability with greattf fordlT 
Ihiin Iho mlcA ofid rogaUliQQJi predcribcxi by the King's foDuVp K 
Us[\Mxt In seldom ftoy friend to tho icortng of tr»eti, his altotition 
bein^ conHned to crops suited to hU loiuo nnd fthilities : nor will ho 
labour when he knows that unothcr man ie to reap Lhu fruitu <if hiv 
toil i*iid cure, WhpiHTw* hu who ohti^iiiH avn-j/ntuit^, fixtc^udb, by au 
CAsy traaHition, Liti views to tho faturo. To him it in a mutter vf 
little ctmsequunce wh^thor hia son or grandflon be to benefit from his 
plantations. If the profit Im n^motc, his plossuro in makitiff ^eta 
asd marking their pro-^ss is immodinto as woU as continued. 

After lUis description of the Menleith district, Mr. Ramsay 
gives scimr characteristic DDtices of those who in his time were 
Living there ; and some short refcreitcr-s to the local horticultural 
work with whi(Ji they uftcntltnet ^itnuaml tliemBclv^-'S. Perhaps 
nothinj; is a surer index ih^n ornainentAl and kitchen gardeDiD^ 
of thn jidvAnre ofrulinr*- nnd (ivilix.iti(>n in cimntry distrirt^ 
Thus. William Edmonsloune, of Cam bus Wallace, was remark- 
able for having, with uimsuni sense of beauty, planted tlic hill 
behind hi« housis ami for making a ncAt garden. And enclosiDg 
some lields below the house. This was a subject of remark, 
hccnuic at the time of the Union, ftchU were generally open and 
p1ou£he<l to thft very door of Ji gi^-nt lenimn's housf*. tdmon- 
stoune pn>iecti?d the b^ck wall fin Stlrlin<f (^nstln bill, with the 
plantations below it — one of the first of its kind in the country. 
This pioneer in comely public works died in 1748, aged eighty* 
mac. About thr? same time, the last tlarl of Mar laid out his 
gardens at AUoa In the Dutch scyle, and employed thirteen men 
upon ihcm ; nnd be first introduced the rcnriog and li'tmiiiiiig 
of lu^lges ; but even h« did ni>t drev* the fields around tbo 

Then we hare Sir John Enkine, who» between 1730 and 
1725, made very considerable cncloturrs at Alloa, and who 
introduced rrd clover, which the country people called J-^nffltsh 
vttils. HU wo;lis were large, and eventually were 'turned lA 
account in the hondu iif his crcflitors.* Junes Drummond's 
house, of Blair Driimnsond, was, in its first stage of ftmbellish- 




r 4mi Scottmm m tAv EightetfUk Ccntary, 49" 

mvQU of limitcct extent. It vras toundfA in 1715, wielioui n tr«c 
lo sbeUfT it, anU in \13d the mclnitirei for grnns and tilUgfc 
<li<I Dot exceed fifty acres. In 174^, bis sDcceBsor inado a 
kitchen gsTtleo wiib brick-fuced walli, and in 17^0 crnme a 
piae-liriusc, iiimll, l>ut ^ tufllcit-iti to r«is4- ]>ine-«p|>lc« nupt-nor 
in tinm atni flavour to any 1 hare aiuco Ai?cn/ Thiu die fint 
hM of the rightMrnih rwntnry wiinr«it«^l thp rompleto intrDclac- 
tioo of cftcloMJivs, oroamenlal pUiiEAtioiiK, kJtdii^n and trilled' 
fraTdeDs, and hoi-houtes, ia the crntre of Sorland. Msnour^ 
KtutiftAv'* patrm&l ^anilfutherf 1>4^^an in 171l> in plunc treeit 
Dear his house. He died in 1T2*J, atid hiit succr^tfor built, in 
17-17, a sidaJL b<KUc &C Aiiihrejr willi & kitchen i^iiidcD, which 
•9>emi to have beon a notable addition. At TuUiLodj', Abcr* 
cn^inLj mnilo two kitchen gardens on each aide of the house, 
ami enlar(;«d the orchard very considemhly, K^tcinj; the plum- 
trees from Holland ; another advance. He planted fir-woodc on 
the moor, which in ie« than fifty vear» brought his famify 
bOOOi. aterlinj^ ; again, a djeeiful impruTemeDt on the beneitt 
to EnJcine'a cretttiorg, Tullibody** aon continued the work — 
«nclo««d the Mt^l ^r^^rnt, gained land from the rtvcr ; and, ' before 
1745, tbc wait below the terraoc waa covered with tbe boat 
froits, particularly French p(<ara which were then rare;* Here 
also an orchanl ^contributed to wfirmth, and pleased the eye 
both in fruit and dower, beiidea yielding a great rent id prcH 
poitiou to tlie gixiund ;' and we now have ibe complete 
achicTemeDt of natural and artt«tlc beauty, eotnbtncd with 
eummerelal and hnrtieultuml vuceeu. Tullibody alio 'bad the 
river in ^igbt of (he windows, and the rich open fields of 
Baadcatb, cfaeckereil with trec^ which pTesentE<(] a lawn more 
picturesque in Bummei than mou of ihow that arc made by our 
modern artiats al great eipensv:' 

'PerbapH I nm pvtial lo the plaoo whera I spent many of th& 
happiiei daja of my yooUi — wboio 1 Ifumt what no ho^ikii can t^aoh, 
and where I fonuod lay ooilicst friotadflhipa and riewH of Ufc*' 

About 172-^ Alrx^mler Bmce, of Kennet, set hb bouse on 
tbo top of a moor wilhoat a tree to fhelter it Hut the new 
plantations that be made were profitable; tbe gardeo, on a 
warm «Ooth bank, \x*vd to 8Upp]j tic earliest and best kitchen 
eTop4 in the <?ooQty, and upc^n the ^jable of the boufto a peach- 
tree produrcil welMlavouml fruit, then a rarity in the dutriet. 
At Amliall ^the kitchen garden, finished about 1710, waa prob- 
ablr the firat in thia quarter where wall trees were regularly 
tmined and dressed. The house remained without alteration; 
no bod Gpecitnen of the half tower, half munosiery style.' 

Vol 1(>7- — Nq. 39S. B Henry 

50 Scotland and Soottm^ in the Ki^hUenth Caduiy. 

llenrjr Cunninghnm, of Hoqubarit n frte&d of Sir Robert 
VVftlpalc, goc his plans from Routchcr the Nunerrmin^ for 

' Whon g^^ng about bi^ furm, Jm tmoii to wear n biftck kilt-ccat 
nnd a blue btmiiat, like n cijumiuu fanuor. IIv tvi>k gnot i>)o»0uro 
irv binding p^ns »Tir] benrifl, mn<l ifi forkmg onni to bin f^lnciEO. flo 
tWis^ ridvorapT of Jamaica in IT85 ; nnd ki« cnbilo wuk void to pay 
lufl doble.' 

The old IIouM of Keir aTood n«ar the Teith, and was ac- 
counti-d a mlncre, baving bcrcn built bj ordnr of James IIL 
before the field of StiTlin^. The new housiy, built oa higher 
ground, was ju»t ror>fed in when Jainei ^tirliog of Keir joined 
the nrbcllion *>f 1715- His e%\»Us was f'>rfcitrd, aiid hu was 
banished for ivvcml ycaxs. In 1T4& be wns, &b a iirrcautiun, 
shut tip IT* Dumbarinn Caiitlfl ; ypt hin lady bnrr him twrntjr- 
three sons and daughters. This ^as the Keir wbose man, 
I)anji-1 Morison, having to e^TC widoncc on SttHinct irinl for 
high treason, d<^tcrniincd not to apealc the truth, WbcD Keir 
ivas acquilK'd, h<; asked ihtf man ivhj- he so forswore h&mself. 
'Sir/ lie ati*wcicd, '1 thi>ughl it better la put luyvAt in the 
Alniif*htV' hand* than to trust jour honour to the morcj' of 
thr Wh»^»-' Oaniel dipd very ohl, the muUurer of tin* Mill 
of Keir. The frivn<is of the family Imu^hi the estate for James 
Stirling's son John, who iitted up the house with elegance and 
made extensive enclosures. 

The ekiate uf Cardross was bought in 1746 by Mr, John 
Enkinc, grandson of Lord Cardroii». \l waa, owin^ to thv 
fjtiaoeial trouble! of the fnmilj-, in a pitiable ntntc. The house 
had been used as a harmck ; there were no enrlo&ures, and 
hardly any roaJs to the plaee. A few years wrought a irrenC 
change. The house was comfortably titled up, and, though 
mary of the trees were felled, su^teient rematued to give the 
air of a p^irk ; au cticlosufu also was iDa^le^ and the roads were 
ma<](? good. 

'Tbo cviling of tbo drawCng-room waa preserved ss a piece of 
Saceclleut vrorkinnfuilup. It wii^ <ixoctitod \y Bonie uf CruiuwijU'a 
soldiers vho were iiuaTten^d in tho naigbbnurhood. Tbero aro 
oeilinga of tlo mmi> kind itt Cslder> whieh, Keir says, were dono by 
Cromwnira troopers thai lay at the Kirkton i>f CahJor. Wh^ 
Mr, and Bits. Kr>kiRo ^vtv m Ediubtirgli liioy livml for trnwral 
yeara in a very indilfcn^nt darkaomo hon^ at the f<x>t of tbo Merlias 
Wyad, whfrre, however, tbey wure vi*itoJ by first-rato people.' 

■ Odo mny sometiuies jiulgo of fnmiti^e by their domodtica, O^orgft 
Hason wiut quo of tlioso antiijiio footmen who, boii^ wnrmly attacbod 
to their fsuily, think thcmaolTos entitled te admvmah gncots that 

Srothnd and Scctimcn in th& ICijhU^nth CWury, 51 


i^oqaoated ihtt bouso. Whoa Ao6 or noh wua first mtrodaoad, oa ft 
jooag gimi1«nuii nlling for wino m woond timo daring dinnor^ 
Oeorge wMBperwl bini loud onongli to bo heard, "Sir, you liavo had 
« glsM alnkody." Wbon JVlra. Erflkino lukod tiim tlio j*rir'^ ot larab 
in tlio nurfcist^ ho atutwcru'l archly, "It U not comu bj ycur prit:ti 
jot" Ho diod in Mt, David iiSrskiWs boiuo in 1780/ 

Mr. R«m«ijr it v«ry p1ain-<pnken nhouc lacH^s* dr««. 'To a 
orTtain exUmt attj^^nlion u* drt-M i» ];iui!aIiI«^, and in fact it ntay 
be cooaidcT^ as the ruling passion of the female miod.' 
But * in niPiitioniQg fEiiluons nf a fu^ritti^i^ naturr? onnc^csl wilb 
the spirit of ihr timc^ the scantiness and thinness of iho 
rasbioEittblr Udi<?>* c-lutlLinj; inuvl not W omitted; in cou* 
tcqiairnoc of wbicb tb«y nu)t:a no flcmjilc of diapUjriag tbosa 
bt^ntJea which thf>y used eith<-r to f?oiio«a1 or fpvtt only a 
glimpse of. In ll^S it was difficuU Ut sny whi*thcr tlic ladies* 
legs or Decks were most exposed to the publie ey^. A shop- 
kcrpifr in Scirlin^, who h^d been svrindlt-d by pr(*U?ruIi-d peopln 
of f^U>t ^^id : *' Filthy cnttlc I i might have knoirn that iho 
wmM little worth from her vrcarln^ very fcvr and rery tUu 

Tbc ^n«ral Minplicity of the time, and thr businmlikfi 
cbancter of ladies of rank ami pntilion is shown by the case 
of Latly Harotlton of Roseball, dauf>hter oi Jaui^ Stirling of 
Keir. For many y^an her chief reltaiiDe was on her jointure 
of 300/. per annum, t^esides a few JegAciva which ahe received 
later in hfc. By riffid economy »he waa enabled to ke«;p open 
boutA in An evpnntivo eountry not far from Rdinbtirgb. !^b« 
Ural cbj4--Hy at ML>nkn^^; but. the ettate being auld, she 
removed to Buccleucb Place, C<1inburj^h. She was a Scota- 
womnn of the old tcboot ; and^ when justices of peace and 
officers were not to Ik; considered part of the compuny, she 
woold sing a set of poignani pi^f iticsl son^ brcathini^ itie spim 
of 1746, with prcat spirit and humnur. She waa an nn- 
eeretDonious and lio«pkt:ib1^ ho«VeM ; even wSen ber failing 
speccli became with dilfirully iolrlli^ible it cnmmonly impirti^l, 
when interpreted, an invitation to eat or to drink. She died 
in 1W2, leaving her nephew l(HH)/. sterling. 

Lady Sarah Brnce lived to be one of the oldest women of 
ouality in ibc tlirvt-' kingdLiius. Slie wa* lliv dmuj^blt-r uf the 
Garl of Kincnrdinct Aod was bom in the IaaI yrnr of the 
aiTV#nle«*Qib e*'nliiry\ She Bi^eiiis In linve been a womiin remark- 
able even amon^ her countrywomen frr strength of mental 
aad physiml a>astitutiot) ; she was acute, lively, ple&sant, and 
ttclUfared. Seldom brilliant or original in conversation; but 
well acqaaiated with the gay and literary world, she vas 

JC 2 digni^cd 

52 Scotland and Sc&tsmtn in (he £iffktefnih Century, 

dignified and interesting. When an ocl^j^ennrianf her meinoTy 
and jud j^ment were unimpairec]. Not finding fftuU with tbe pMt, 
but perfectly recoucUed U> iniHlern ui^nuem, vliv oaiv dun^ In 
the fotireit wtij, ami mitde ALlownn(:c« for jouih nnd>ty 
within proper buuncU. SinnetJme* ihe wai keen m h«r 
recDArks: as when n miniBter m the nejghlKiurhood, in whotc 
welfare >he wu trUcTOled, discus^ the queation, whether bis 
Aon (hould he a clergymiin or a inAnufacturcr, If be was the 
IfttUr, the father inquired who would take charge of bi> MSS. 
Q[| the? fihthcrs, whilst UrnX tjkkrn so much of hia time, * Singe 
hen> widi them,' ftaid La<l^ Sarah, ' And let your son follovr hit 
inclination/ Hrr mnlhrr the Cnuntesn cif Kinrnrdine — formerly 
MisB Pauncefi>tc — oo her maniage, wrote the folloirinj; 
' irinipler ' letter to her m<itherMEi-Uw, the laily of Sir Alexander 
Hruc«t afterwanli Earl oi Kincardine. It is a fair specimen of 
the higbeftc manners of th« time. . Maroh % 169% 

' Mat> AM, --Since tli(f proTidttiM of (lod htth bronsht mo into a 
uuMT rcLatjon to jour itdjohip, whctVo cWuctt?, u il u houourable, 
SO it in ^loineDt for ov^rytliing that ia ercollf^t- A« T o1ati» th^ 
privik-g« of having the honour of kucIj on olliaucf^, I prusmtio. 
madam, to bog tbc favour ef your blo^iDg and prajere; bolieTUig 
myatiif under tbu same obligation (tf duty to jour UdyHbip oa to qit 
oivii mothor. Afl I e«toom it mj- highest 1;onL>ur, aL> I uhiJl mtLko it 
my utmort endcAvour, tn approve mysolf, madatn, ^our i>1>orlieDt 
daughter and moat huiuhlo eervaut, ' IUch£L Baccs.' 

Lsdy Snrah Bruce died in 1795, af ohl it tht* century, rather 
from a failure of nature than of sickneas or disease. 

A striking; contraU to Lady Sarah Bruce, and vet a eharat- 
Leri&tic ScxjtsHotnnn rf an extreme type, wu Loily Rjichel 
Drummonrl, dmighter of James Lundin, who asanmed the tiUe of 
Kuii of IVrlli, uad who sreuu to hnvr? birrn a poinpoui ft*ol. 
Lady Rachel iritt wholly uneducated. Instead of being seat to 
aehool, she remained at home, romping with her brothers, or 
liatening to the unprofitable discourse of her father and his gueats. 
When about fifteen veara of ngp, >h** went to live with Lonl and 
Lady Kamea in Kdinhurgh, ami hnd the benefit nf gootl 4'inmplc 
and advice. These, however, she seems to have treated with 
cunaidrrablc nr^lcct, and to have odoptri! vicw> and manners of 
her own without regard to the oonvvntioaaltties ef Edinburgh 
aoeiety. On her rrturn home, though nhe wn* more remarknhlr 
for strong tenae than for acquiied knowfeil|;e or eleicant accom- 
plishtnenttt she wax cun?»!(is] and atlmired by her family, and 
sbe ucquireci an ascendency in her father's little court. Her 
accent was l>orIc, she indulged in unseemly practical jokes, and 
her topics and acntiincnta requiq^ At times to be refiiwU 



Sce^iaitd and Seoi$men in the EighteetUh Cnv'try- d3 

ThTmigh »->m^ f-i>ntle vttrkincr. Thus, Sir Hugh Pntcrson, who 
outliTMt aM thr rAVnliTn nf thn clUtTirr, having pmnnitef] :irinii&1 
IiaU» a! Stirlinjf for fifty y«o^l^ »he obsrrvwj that * In n)uch ksa 
time the norms would be plaviog hackbmdy through Sir lluffh 
and the bulk of the compAnj, Her doqueiice was prculinny 
her own. catulog her /riend* to grant tic*r prnpotitions ihni wrre 
sofficKMiiljr quc4tio)i»bte. *\\kt coiirt^iHaUuii iL*!irui1>k-il th»i of 
no other pencn of ranic or fnEbioo. No one wa< more deeply 
levnetl m ihc history of private life, or in whnt may be tenned 
the antiquity of mnnnen ; nml her ttock of information wta 
retailctl with cqoal simplicity and force. Owing Co her keeping 
sloof from the circle* of the gay and poHte, »hc Jti>peared 
awkvmrd and unciisv in mixifd rninpanj. She cenninly had Lilttc 
resemblance to thr lodiP* uf c^uulity of the preocfit H^y Jn her 
address and talk.' 

' Id Mij, 1 Tiff), I modo her and hff vonfltublo aoat, Ladv Santb 
BnMW, tt Tislt at StohhidL It WDfi aoma tinu boforo I wna aamiUod, 
haviAg been mistAken for another person, Afler Lady Itaoh«] ttad 
eoEUDunteil in korown htylo on tho picttiro« in tho diiiiagroi^m, wo 
sat down to a rerj gooi bro&kfasL Thtr thing that appi?arod most 
now nwi a 4inh of wild fowhi' oggs hrnIo<I hurd, got froui n Ijuh iti 
iho Stonnont. Lailj Sarah vnu rathor \xki^ At thi» hook of ber 
cludr stood » comely baro-foolcd girl, twelTO or thirteoa joata old, 
wbo. Lady Baohel mid* wai httr aunt's pn'^. The dftmflel acquitted 
facnclf to good pnrpo«o, falling Um kettle, banding abont the t4Kicup«, 
«xid going mc^ogce to ihci hotu^kocpor. I waa noxt tak«n to tho 
family wardrobe, grent port of which bad been ambezalcul cr V^fX in 
the late citU war*. Yet orcn tho rcmaint ware intoreiting. There 
wate elothoe of an Earl John in Jamea VI/s time, floimceil nud 
deeoiahid with a [a\>fujuon of rlbboun aud friit^i^ ; thu officud rubon 
of Lord IHvtiuiMiidr Jiutico Goob^al lu tho rotgn of Jaiiiua IV.. of 
black (huaaak otnhroideied wttb gold, nmilar to thorn of the Lor<l 
Segister and eitnordlnary Lorda of Seaaioai which nuro uom in my 
yomgor yoar*. Aim lettera fty>m the Prlncoes of Orange, daughter 
-of Cliarlca L, uriltca aooD after her mairiAf^e, wht^n under n atcni 
ieov»Tiii>M), Tliey *fi>TO purfwlly gfrli*h, ill-written, and ill-Rpnll, 
Laiily Jtachct then guvo a idircinoIogLoal account of tie hotue. The 
J&rat Froteetant Lady Dmcamoud, who vaa the daughter of Lord 
iintbreu, tbo gnat rcfurmur, had convcrtoil tito church into a 
Jcilehcii, and a otiriul ratilt into a u'ino collar, with olhur ohaoges 
eqiiaOy uiomalcius. Thero woi«, if I mistaka uot, four wpamto 
bonaeap to each of vrliicli there ^^a^ a Mcparate outer door, looked at 
Bight. The boiu« and ^arlen overlook a long stretch of tho Hirer 
Tat, t^naitiatod by a uoblo flow uf w^tor at tho Litin of Oampiite, 
with a lurgd Euiuml wood to friugo and onlivi^n the proAnArf. On 
enr ww ip tbo hill, Lady Rachol, pointing at iho rrrV-woII, aakod if 
I tpled » ooltlo at tho botleuu On my saying I did n^^t, eht^ told mo 


M Scotlat\d and Scottmm in ik$ EiffhUsnth Century, 

tWt it luhl bocn llio immemorial pmcticc of tUo Perth Cunfly to 
order a bottle of wine to be put into it before Xhtt mmX of Etraog^rs ; 
apo]<}gtKiijg for tb<> omiHision. Bcforo wo went into the botuio iho 
cjurriixl mo to bco ft Hmiill pnrtorTo-grhr^Jcn, u^gtsl with 1h>x, vrlkicJi la^ 
undi^r iho wiaflftwp. 'ThiV* wtulshn, ''Uio*t^*o(i l>aabftM callod hor 
dr(ivrirj7-ruon)» repuiriiLg tlathtrr vritli hir ^uciita aftor dlnDoi, telling 
tbcm sQo bad no othor drawiog-room/' ' * 

Lady Rachel was perhaps the last Jacobite of her rank ia 
Scotland ; and though her preteuHioa* were aristocratic, lier 
muniKTs, icntlmcDts, and language wrrc all apparcatlf of tho 
oonr»4<«£ kind, 

Thr rhnpirr nn llif* R^WvaI nf Ix^ftrrs in SmtlnnH, thr firnf 
in the biK»k, wc must leavt to literary viuilenls ; ocir prt.-sent 
subject being rather the manners, \\x^- custom*, and Hivt illQstra- 
tidfr focial persona^a of the Eigbtecnth C«nlury in Scotland. 
We DOW therefore^ turn to thr judg<^«; to vhuin Mr. Uam»a^ ha« 
afToonlctl us m wjy inlntitttiii; ioiT<Hluction. Anri j>>i^iiii£ Sir 
WiLliom Pringle, Lord Newhnll, wc? como to Duocau Furbca of 
Culloden, who wajj a« grrat n fav^nnte with Mr, Rarosny a» he 
liad been with the public and the profeuion of h)» time. Born 
in 1G$5, near ]nvrrn<^ss, beir to a small patrimcny, he failed 
in business, took to ihu law, and att&ined its highest rank and 
honour*. Of troune be wa» a hard drinker, fi>r exceftjtive drink- 
la^ vrjkB the lilutost univt'Twil rule in Scx>tlditd »t th^C tiini*. 
Trndition even %tiyt thni nt their thoiher\ burial, hi? And his 
eld'^r brother drank so hard that when settin;^ out for the chorch- 
vard they forffot the corpse. Hut otherwise, Foibes leeina to 
have been emphatically n good insn. His great ability waa 
universally reco^ized. He was not merely learned in the law, 
but his mvral and intirlleetu-il (^uaMtics, romhiniul wir,h grrat 
eloquence nnd snflViri^t «tiinu]»lin^ htvc of appri>balioii, inndc 
him a prr«>n[il pinvrr amnn^ men, Hv ha<l iht* in»flt r«spniial 
quality of a judge-— he secured in a remarkable degree the con- ■ 
fldenc>(^ of the public. When be spake, thrn justice was hcanl> 
and humanity sympathised with law. Uy his eloquence and 
address Lord Lovat was withheld from the unfortunate rebcHton 
of 1715, Thi» suctreKs Kc^urct) for l^oibcs the faroijr of John, _ 
13uke of Argyll, and thr t^uko mminitFod to him tht* char^ of 
his nlTnin; ftir which rpflponsihility, however, Forhrs wAald 
take no salary ; hut wlten he came annually to puu the chamber- 
lain's accounts * all concerned were happy In having such a man 
to deal with.' 

On the fall of the Sunderland Ministry, Forbes was tnadc 

* *Tho lavCLrUhlo bovltn^^i^rot^n. whlcli fonik^d tbe open-atf dnwujs-rcKmi i 
tU PUT old boiisea.*— Cwtbom'tt ' Memorial*.' 


SMbmd md ScoUmtn in M^ Ja^hteanih Cetitunf. 


Lonl Advocate : aik] when tbc riots about llic M&It-tax occurrod 
in Glnsgnir, lirr went thrrc with troops And ljrou|fh( tbe m&^'n- 
trails prisonera to EcJinl>ur^b ; an<i by ffifiitu<le, and gendencsi, 
ftml r^and^mr, ho overcnmc a formidahtr apposition^ When 
ColoiK'l ChArtc-ii« was irieJ, and tlioojj;!] innuL-(*f]t found ^uiJtv, 
lh« Lord Aitvocato procured Lis pardon; but 'with grcftt 
Jignitj'' h^ rpfnwwt n imnn>jr pafm^nr. Ho«rev<»r, — pr^iumahly 
with M^ual diifnitT, -he an^rptr^d the life ivnt of the botifc and 
ground of Stonrjhill, MustclhuT<>h, which be o€Ctipi«d ai 
vacation lime as loaj^ ai he liveil. White lEtll in office, in 
comradUtini:iinnv> bis GiMgrjwfxprcHtion, he strongly opposed 
the hill fur puutithiu^ thi- ICdinhurf;!) uia^iBlratvs on ai:count 
of the PoTtcui noL 

Ifi 1737 Forbf** vras tnndo Pn*«id<^t, after Sir U«w DaT- 
rjmpVt long f^nun* of that nffior. On the bench he was 
remaTkahle for dignity and for good manners. No m&n im- 
paled tn him improper motives or presumed to take liberties 
with the I'nrsidcat, * At no time, perhaps, vvaa virtue more 
the hm^uage of th« Bench and the Bar than wliilcf this accom- 
pliahird nvLii proaidetJ. Ho genomtly apokcr Inst, and ihom wa4 
unirerml lileiice in llie liouu-, *vi-ryhody heinir disposed lo 
regard him as :%n urncl'^ ibat never <lecejrrd/ To him it wns 
due that the itehellion of 1745 could be overthrown. Had he 
and the Dnke of Argyll bvttn imsteil eaitier, it might hn\e been 
crushed in the hud. Vet bis exenions were repaid with ingra- 
titodc and neglect: — 

* L'pQQ tho Lord ProHidcnt'it arrival at IuvcmcH«f nftor tho battlo 
of CuUlmIcu, Six Evunnrd Falku<ir t^t;uivtU him at th^ fi;ut of tlic 
atoir, aad earriod hini irp Ut Uat 1>uko, who Nwoivnd him oio^t 
giAciotudj. and tmVinX him to dine. S:r <TaineA btdug thti oaptaui i>ti 
g&aid wttf of coiirm at t^ble. Th'} I'reftidcnt was in very high 
sprite— Iiappy in the eompaii^ of his mymt la&flter'B bod, and much 
otat«d iTilh dio ])gsition of pubtic aflairv- Af^r drinldng half a 
bdUin rif witiri, hia heart wanmu), and taking hnld of t)m bottle, he; 
aakad tho Duke'a pcffmi^siou to give a tooAt, which wh£ readilj 
granted. The Prwdcnt then nxid in a ^o glow of tNnevolonOD, 
"Now thai jour Ropd liighuuB8 Laa mj happily supproawd thia 
umBtttciiJ mbotliont alh^w cno to drink a bumper to naorey arni 
piaea/' 7ho Duko and lia mililary em[idi:4.^s dntnk off their gUaKu« 
vilhiocii saying a wotd» and an nnBociabl^ siloucc having takoii placci 
the I'rwdout soon after withdrow, Latly Macikmt<»Ahf his ueai- 
ucighboor, a ^v wuiuan, ot great wjt and «i>irit, wui^ n priAonor wh«u 
hv arriv^ at Tnnrmi^Hs. In thn trno npirit of chivalry, uhii^h novcr 
vagoa VOLT with women, hf> paid thia Indy a viiit orery day. Yet ho 
well kn&v how actiTo ^o ha«l been on tlie uido of ih<T rvbcl«, and liow 
ahi) ha<l inflii«ne«d some of his Dei^1)oui«* This conld not bo very 


<C& Scotlajui arifi Scottmen in the Ei^hUenth Century. 

agreeable to tbo Duke, who Mkod Ut« Frv^jiltxkt with p «&»!, ^Uui 
juur LurJnbip bvt^ti tu ih:« Liuly HXuiiktatuali Lbui uiunuug?" " Yotti 

Oa tb^ other hand, it fthould Id juttieo b« montionod 
that tbr aroountK of rruf'lli4<« said to fi>v4* ht-rn rvimmtthHl by 
the Duke &fe believed to bavc- been much exne^'* rated, and 
vtettii iimbably committr^d witbuut bi« orders. Thus, it wa& 
«aid that 'the Earl oi Ancrunn dtrvctrd n set of wretched 
men found in a bou»e at CuModen the day after the batclo^ to 
be taken QUt and shot, lu nn onVring to tbv mono nf b{> brother 
Robvft, who hnd fAlIvii in th<^ f>ffht ; And tliat thf* Oak« waft «o 
mtieli inernurd at ihiK bArbnnty that br did not >pe?ak to hia 
]ordahip aa lonj* as ho was in Scotland,' 

At honi<! the Pre«ident wns hospitable, in the aiinple way ot 
those timca. Wiz oonveriation waa parttculArly well inl'onned 
and genial, &nd airictl^ proper; though to the last he 'drank 
Xq the verge of tobijcty, nn ■ci:urncj' of limit which oi^uea 
much prnL'Cicc und spvoial abililj', ' D« that at it tnij', bU 
convivial tnrn tirvrr mndc him nrglert iiiiKinrsK, ni ffirgrt what 
waa due to his di^nit)-. lie was a rvlif^ious man, devoiinjc 
great part of Sunday to aolitude and modit:itton, and taking a 
solitary airing in hia cooch on the SEimla lor an hour or two ' — an 
evidc^ficeof the iinpructkabilttjor the bigb roads, • Thorough Ij' 
patriotic^ he was cxtrem<^l/ pop^ilar hoth na an ofKci^U and a« 
a jtiJg^. And so bt* dii^d unirenall^' laineated,' His statiMt 
gmcra the Parlmment Houac at Edinburgh. 

A contemporaiy, rival, and friend of Duncan Forbea wat 
Hobert l^unuaa, of ArnUton, who auccrnli-d him in the Prrti- 
dcnt*a ibair, Th(^rc were, however, atriking contraata of lem- 
pcraiueiit uiid cbaraelcr, of habh and inantier, between the two 
men, Dundos wot eloquent, but bla cloqurnce was hi-melj' ftod 
nide ; nnd he was peTiuaaive, hut his itielhrnl wnt s^llogUtic, 
and bis addreaa waa harsh and unpolished. His religious 
principlea were striei btit not vigorous, and his morals were, it 
aeeirs, in private life of a mlxetl nml fluetualing charactcf. 
He beliered in Christianity^ and when be waa not inclined 
tir other war he dcairtd * to act up to ll* prece|)ts. Such wr»c 
the efTr^ela nf a strict ri^Ugioua education. Even tUoee that 
loved him ItasE, and made le^utt allowances for hi« fmiltti^ 
never questioned hia sincerity, but imputed the frailties to the 
warmth of his piissions. He waa a constant attendant on 
divine urrvice in town and country-, and was an excellent 
hearer. On Sunday at breakfast he said to a voting Uwver, 
" I hope for jour company to church ; auch os do not ViKr, ihat 
h&d better tako themaeJvea away/" Ho seems> jndc*ed| to have 


ScoiJ^ad and Scct^naen in iha Et^kUenth Century, 57 




been parlicutiLrly cAToful for the rcltiriouEDeu of otlien, anil 
'was brj'on<l mcasarc jetiiout of tome of tbo Edinburgb 
philosopher*, who towardi the enil of hiB course, adventured 
CO broftch iLeir aa\vl notion*/ He wat f^md iif liin bottle At 
hoERc or rlvcwWre ; mnd once * vrlien he was cng4^ed with a 
«^t-^ jojous cairipa.ny m a tav<.-rn, hi» coachman ciim« «t th« h^ar 
Appoint^^. Boing » TPry ha^l night, h*f tent w^p^n!**] m^HOge^ 
without efle^t. At last the mnn, who prubablj: liked hi» 
hiir*e« as well as his mavTcr did his compAn)-* broke into the 
room and Mid he would slay no longer. So much was the 
Imtter incensed, lliAt he wrote n wamnt nf mmmtlment to 
ibe loJbouth sgHin*! the ^Mor luaii, antl wa« with gieut diflictthy 
prcvonttfH) from carrjing it into cxf^coitoei.' 

But nt timet hi* ' pfts^ions ' look a better turn. Abnat 1741, 
ofcer hf bad be<?n raised to the Presidency, 'Jobn, Duke of 
Argjll, gave Lord Amiiton a hint, that be would on a certain 
<jay be near Arniston ; and if his Xjordsbip would throw himteJr, 
4is by chARoe, in bis way ho would dine with him. A r/trrc/ 
mcMt^o would ix thove daya have been thought ill-bred. 
Accordingly he went A^coursinjr, and contrived to meet the 
Duke, Much kind converuition. ;ind many profeasiont of 
esteem, passinl on t>oth tidies ; hat the itMl^ went away witliout 
•skiDfr hii Grace to dine. When be came home, bii lady 
asked where the Duke was, for dinner wk nearly ready. **My 
<lear/' said lie, " the; first person 1 saw in the cnnch was that 

flcoundre] — , and ratlicr than let him witiiin iny door I weuld 

bum tbo tioutp. But eomr/* sAid he, " l(?t this great dinner he 
served up in form. I ashed a friend or two to dine with the 
Dtike, and thry shall certainly not he disappointed,^ Tlic 
Dttke, it was alleg?df was not afways choice in his company-' 

Nnr WAS Amiston always choice in his illusTrniiofls, Dining 
with A bn>tljer judge who rc-argucd cil»cs over his bottle-* ^My 
Lord/ said ht-, ' 1 nevor wiih to talk on law nfivr mcnU. The 
momenl a muv* i* dnUrmtnpd, I dr^ire not to nr^ue it ov^r 

Al^in ; i would ai soon converse with a after bunness was 

over/ He died in 1752 ; burnt out. He was one of the last 
of bis order who adhered to the dialect, manners, and costoms 
of his anocstorfl. 

As Thoiuatt Keourdv, of Dunuie, Lord Advocate for a few 
months in 1714^ was rcmovi-d tn the Exchequer Court in 
Lo4idon, he may t>^ piM^d over in tbis aketeh of Srottish 
characters. He hintsrU' was courdy in tlie extreme, but 'his 
lady bad all the ease and frankness ttiat could be desired, 
accompanied with a dignity and a politeness that would have 
graced a cottn ; and when any person in her company chanced 


88 Scotiatid <iW Scvt^mm in tfiv Ei^ht^nth Cmtttiry, 

to be rude, she knew how to check him without losing her 
temper.' Thus, * while the Uaron lived at hountainUidge 
nmong the Engliitli Com minio Deri, one of thero, n Ttilgftrt 
baU-brtrd mail, nn^itX oiiv J«v lo Mrv. K<-aottlv nt t^blc, " MadaiDt 
your ham it stinking; ordtr it uway," Slio cnm|iH«t), amJ^ 
turDinf* to hoT butler, a:hid. ** Did I not order one oIl my own 
bniB*, mndc nt Dabjuharran, and not that nntty, rotten, stinking 
En^Lifih one?" She had all alon^ n vein of Bpnghtlinm, 
chiulened by good breeding, aud heightened by beDifteity and 
n sense of pmprirtv, Sbe was imiecd nn excellent ftpc^iinen ut' 
ihi* ladies of EdinburgU \tviore they bff^an to nif^TjUt Bc^liah 
mode* upon ibcir awn. Sh<! survived the Baron, wbo di«l in 
1754, some years, reiamiiif; her ]i]eii»autr>* and cheerfulness to 
the last/ A fair pemUnt to Lady Kachel Drummond- 

Of Hagh Dalrytnple, Lord Oniminoref younger son of the 
Praideni, it i» said that <a stninger would have concluded him 
to bnvc been some slionpE-mimlrd country prmlcmnn who bad 
been accitlcntnlly raised to Icrgat dignity'; wbicbrL'cnlBlo Ed^IibK 
memory the ihX*> rcaportod Sir William Kr]t*. 'Up v*aS| ppT- 
ha|h^ the lut judfce who literally ro<)c the circuit ; be hiinteU 
iind Ids senants being wrti mounted, and firmed with pistols. 
He first induced the minialers to open the court with prayer, 
wiUiout a srnnun. He hail a little ^rm nt Druinmore, near 
Mutiitclburgb, And Le uavd to s^iuiiter about bia firlds in a tht^rl 
grc^cn coat and jockey capt a drcs» cbat d!d not suit h)s gr^Al 
hulk. Tbi« m»de the country people eoropAre him lo & giant's 
b:um/ He also bad his failings, was easily pniroked, and 
prune to resentment, and sometimes dmnk too hard. But then 
he was ' well grounded in the doctrines of Cbristi&nityf and all 
alon; profi-ssfvl bis belief in Ihinn/ Hr? died in 17d<>. 

Another remflrkable Scotch juil;^ bcfi^ro ihu '46 ham CLarh-s 
Enkine,Lord Tinwald, who contrasts with moit of those whom 
we have just reviewed. He wm a sober man, not given to or 
Itivinf an excess of wine ; aud he was eTidcntly of an amiable 
temper, by a ii^At rcmarkablj severe. 

' In hiH abseooe ft pragroatioal ^rdoner bad inrkdo pollards of a set 
of liin«» Dour tho house, "John,' eaid ho, calmly, *■ what mado 
manglo tboso trees?'* ^' To giro them bettor hoftd^'* AUAwer 
" Ah I befbre that takea pUoif, uiy ht^i will bo lowJ' " Bail 
nalter, my brd \ the trees will be still growing." Ths good man 
flcailed am went away.' 

Lfml President (^raij^ie, a good Inwyer, but a weak man and 
unacqunintrd witb the worbJ, by hia want of di^iCy and 
authorit> rviaided tlit.- biisiiic-S!» of his courL His fmlure ' oiay 
teacb Ministcra of State never to place a uian wbo ia deficient 

Sccdami end S«9Umm in tlte Eiykttenth Century. of)* 

[ ia poiat of ]>reedinjr, luul a ttmnirrr to th« ways of the world* 

i «t tbc head of a Supremr Court of JmCice/ A« was said by 

I one of our inosl sjgac-ioui Inw^crt, ' a judf.^ *!ioii!fl he tv g^-nOc- 

mai), and if b<^ kuows n littb Uty si> much the hottci/ As for 

I 'Preiidcrni CVnigi^p be Led U>^ long ou iiairow in^rafi*, kii 

family w» Uts^^ his wife bjul nr^itbcr birth nor io«nnm, aikI 

vrh^n ho rvute to th^ h^nd of bit pruf4.H«ior), they could not 

comrortAbly niter l!n?ir ityb* iff Hvmg, Hie brothtr used to 

»y^* The world is mucb naifltakirn about ihi? Prt'SuUaL Th»u^h 

I be lores moai^jr, lie does uot wiaji t>h(KiTd it; but bis misfortnite 

lift, be d<M!S no: know bow to tpi^nd it like a gentlemaTi/ A 

iCUud-UAlunrtl juaur he *«&» u bjid accounlant ; ' it was a principle 

with lum n*Yor to ontvo a debtor for int«re»tt or ft t«»nAnt for 

Ttnt, and li^woulil le»ven th»u>rnnd fiujnBm ip fF»M Ivitif^ in liis- 

tscntoirv^, whtirb \w ocithrr tlmugbt of couotjof nor Ujing 

out.' Id April, 170O, when bis last hour w.u eridL^ndv netr, 

wuc of his Intends propost-d to scm) for a clcrgyinau ; oiK he 

dfcUncdf saying *bc muu have Jived near fourscoie vears to 

\^ay bod purpose iiid4--»] if he did not know bow to die nt a 

moEoent's n<»tic«/ ■ A do^tb-bud,' ])« said, ' wcm no tima for on4> 

to -maXuff bis pi*ace with <j<mI/ 

Of Patrick Graot, Lord lUcbies * a mere lawyer/ and an im- 
patient, severe man, it is uupli^ruant to rend, that * in giirtiig bis 
i>pinif>p upon tbc import of verdicts, and signing the sentence 
of death) there appeared a maLignant smile upon his face, vrhich 
kliockcd tbo vpectatorv.* His succcaaur was Willicini Gnuit, 
Lord Pr«stongrangi>, * nnd turoly nt^ver vtvt*f tw:> vt^ry able mvn 
of the same name more difTnrrnt in tbrir mnnnrrs both on and 
off the Bench, At a time wlien ibe manners o[ iho Court were 
not tnore than correct, be behaved with revL^rence to the Presi- 
dentt aiHi with ooartesy townrdi bis brethren and the Bar ; and 
there WAS a strain of piety, couip^isiumf and |><Kjd senae in his 
■ddrostes to unbippy convirts, whirb mif^bt bnvc loncbcd the 
beartt of the inoit obiliimC«', wbitt- it melU'd nil wbii lit^rd it/ 
It seems that he wiis scmewhat penurious ; but, ' as he was horn 
and hred a gentleman, and alwa^rs Ured in f^ood company^ he 
did not, in rctrenobing' superfluities, faU into tbc absurdities 
which percons tbat rise from small beginnings arc apt to com- 
nit from not km^wiug betler.* 

Andrew Mncdi>onl, Lord Dnnkton, was a curious, awkward^ 
Inokin^r man, of nvrrLiritr ruAnnvn c^ven for tUowe tim^s. Mis 
Bbsurdiiies and rudeness, indeed, seem to be his principal cti a- 

' Ono day, in a eaurw br^tween tho tailors and the mantoa^iialcers in 
Perth'— ^ iuuous oud historic oaee^' ha bcon hu mcoeh ihan: 

fiO Scotl/md and Scotsmen tn tht ES^Iii€0nlh Ctntury, 

** Uy ZiOrd, I oonfcBA I liAve u i^roat tDolinfttiDQ for the gtrU." This 
produood a goDoml Inugh. Tho i'rcKitlotit, Cmi^io, lo^)(^1i[oo» 
«d<IrewflQr1 kUu when on Uio bench very indeoeDlly. " Tdr. Au^rvvr, 
my l(irfl ! ^ The oUier^ rio less ru<!oIy, vri>»Il AoraatiiTKK tttll th«t 
Pr^Kidout, " My Luril, that w bufF" (uoitwenflo). Quo day thut tlio 
latter 6j>ok(i flispara'^tugly ot Sir Juuea Baifoiir^B ^* prftcti^iioe," tli^ 
iitltrr suicl, " My Lorl, ha ^'ha a TrtJBidont la well a« y<>ur»uL^ and wt 
lucch thought t>f :u Ilih dnj ui noxuu uthojr |>oOpW ' 

LonL Bankton was alcogirthcr nn a1d*rf»bmncd man, Kpeaking 
the mott antiquntrd Scotch, and vrnt hnnlly ihc mnn tor & 
di'aWiu^*itMjm. Tbua, ' when :kt U'ii with hia wife, u wtlJ-bicd 
womftri, aisCcT to Lord Prc»ton^rnn|rc^, he was hctrd to s*yv " Am 
I foil yet? Ho^r mnny rupi hnv« I drunk?**' Hfi alto irai 
' f&CGtioQS and cntcttftining over a biXtlc, with a vein of wit iDd 
humour — perhaps nut the mo»t refined— peculiarly hia own.' 
Cfood on tbt? BL-rich, hut lictler in a tav^rro, lie was respe<:t4Ml 
for bis probity and honour as an odd but E(?*1out Scotsman, 
Uedit'd in 1 7 GO, 

To bim Alexander LockhaHf Lord Covington, was in sonno 
re«p<»(^ts a contrail, having less law find hett*r mannitn- Hi? 
was lErnrcftd and prrpoasessing in appearance, agreeable in 
speech, and frtfted with abundant common »fnse. Fond of plea- 
sure*, inist-nihly poor, and married to a Irrnutifut wif«?, the? pair 
were called * the handsome beggars/ He was a man of no 
great culture, but would have been catcrmcU in England a iir*t- 
ralA Niti Prius laury^n He could mislead) jurymen; but h« 
was respectful to the judges, and welUhred to his bretbrrn, 
always rctainiug the manners of a man of fashion ; and we are 
perhaps to take some incidents of bis career as mere exceptions 
to hifl LourEe*iy. Thus, when a jud^ nn one occasion tohl bim 
* he iliil not understand what he meant by a lojtff hundred and a 
^horl hundred ; aftf^r trying in Vfiin to cxplniu it, '* Gcutlcmcn 
of tb*r jury," said h<*^*'doyou understand me?" "Perfectly," 
they said. "Why, iben," proeiwded Mr, I#orkbart, " it ts of 
!e«s consequrnce whether my Lord iindentands me or not.'*' It 
scem^ however, that he dtttll freely in personalities, which is 
somewhat inmnsistf^nt with his reputed character; and as his 
reputation for poraona) coura|:tr was low, those who were 
nf^riercd insulted him even to the pulling of his nose, for 
which be got srnnt sattftfaerion or apology. Me died in 1782, 
nired more than foumt-ore, and looking back at hts past life as 
'no hottrr Ihnn a guilty dream/ 

Again, a contrast comes in Peter UVdderhurn, Lord Chester- 
hall, who in his »tudirs made jurisprudence and polite Uteraiure 
go hand la bund. * lie was remarkable fur qreakitf^ proper Ett^ 


lUh ftt ft time whea the moat xcaloits ofour Hierali were content^ 
with polishing their periods, uid dropping their Bcotticiiins ia 
wlut ihcjr imTf^*. Vet even they who were least fond of inno- 
vviiooSf coaftraMHl iLaI tli^ir vatB Dutbifi^ AJlccLn] or disf^ftling^ 
in Mr. WtctdorHurn'tt pronunciAttoa, IViio, pcdnntio, nn<l ix- 
sef^tf-d, be could not be popubir; but no one of his c^mttMTipo- 
Tttritit was more wortbj uf esteem. lie w» mikdc judge in 
17S5, and bis dignitj upon the Bench vraa conHpicuoua among 
his Kci mew hat faulty brelfareo. He died in atmul a ynr sfter 
taking hit tcau His son became I^rd Loughborough and 
Earl of Rirtslvo. 

Of Aiomndor Dogwoll, L^rd AuchmUelc, Mr, Rimtn^ htkd a 
very favourable opinion. Tbou^^h slow nrttted, Boswell icemi 
to hftvc been a icasible, energc^tic mn^istiatet a CATcfiil jud^, 
and an bonnnrsble and hospitnble man. But ^ be w&s ai no 
poins to improve his (»>[ioquial Scots, which people of fashion^ 
in the be^Dnin^ of the ceitorv, would have considc^red vulj^ar ; 
null he »cpnu to hnvv thought tUut diAlnrt and pronunciAlion 
mattered tittle provided one spoke th^ langungo of truth and 
oODimon sense ; which brings down uj>on him a page of reman* 
strance from thi^ Laird of Ochtertjrc. 

Mr. Hamsny give* sotne curious snecdoCei of Auchtnleck's 
son, James Doswrll. He hc-mlrd tite Oi>ugUM mcib thnt, on tlie 
reverssl bv thi' IV-vr* of the deciiion of the Cuurt of ScssioO) 
brok<; cUGjutlgc^i windows. 

* His good Csilier entreated tho i'rocidont, with tacirs in Lis ojes, to 
pQt li^ ^*n in tha tolbooth. Bdiuf; brought bcfuro tihoriHOuckLioru 
iof cxAraitifltioti, hv woe d«tun>d to tvll all that hapj>eiii>d th»t tnjjlit 
in hi» own iffttv- " AfUr,'* saiil ha, " I bad eomunnicsiod U^o glorious 
navs to vaj faUier, who reoeired them terj coolly, J vuut to tho 
CrCM to e«e what was going oo. Tbqre I ovcrhosrd s group of 
foUows forming their pbui cf oporatitrnH. Ouo of thoin lutkocl what 
sort of nmn Iho >lieniF waa, and whether ho wan to bo droailed. ' No, 
no,' answerecl anothor, ' he >« a punpy of tEie ProMtdeut's makicff/ " 
Oa hoaring tbis exordium, Mr. OocEOtirn went off, leaving tho culpnt 
to himaelf. 

* At au ontortAinnioat to a very misoolTuii&oiis eompany of the 
friends nf I>OQglss, Bocwell made uo ficmplo of recnuntin^f LU feata 
nil the CLiglit of ibo mob, Un which Mr. StLvrart Hunarl^^, starting 
to his foet, Hsid: " Upon toy bouI. iioswcll> ygu nro mad" ** Sir," 
auawurod bi>,*'Bi*ear by your sixty tboumud jtounds, bj yonr 1<q 
hoaaa, by your pcanh itnA grapa bousiw; hnt do not avenr by n'hat 
joa valoo so Utile ua your souh" ' 

It is probable that Sir Walter Scon heard frora Mr. Ramsay 
the stories about Lord Auchtule<ci, wUivh h« gifc-s in n well* 



Scoflajid and Scotsmm in the E^'ffhieenth Cmttay, 

known Molt io Croker'a edition of 'boswQirs Johnion.* Tbtu, 
for instixnrc, Scotl ntUict tbctt Lnr<l Auchinltrck called JobnwD 
'a ilumiuicr, uKiu^^aii suit] dumltiii? ; hi.* krepr^ u »cbutc. And 
4?(iiiM it An af^nodcmy ; * mud in tEie prcaiont work Mr, Kamn^ 
savft thni Lord AuoliinlfN^k tofd tiim ttint *tke gre^ Hr. Johncon, 
of whom he imrl heard wondrnt, wac jmt a dominie, and ihe 
worst-bred dominie lie had «v«r seen.* Auchinlock died in 

Bat Mr Ramsay'* favourite htrrn t« Lord Kam<?s, of whom 
he gives A yvry t-opioua mid rcry hitrTtniiun account. Henr^ 
flomo hjid, it MT<^ma, a fitir endowment of thnt eonibination of 
strict coDKctenliau^iL^n with vi^rsaciljty and ninblenM* of mind 
whirh goes to form the lwrrisirr*ttt-!BW, ihr powrr hy whose 
p^Tiial and one-aided ftclion, in habitual antagonism, justice is 

*WlieiL ho waft dtniug witli tcomc pn^fcwoTM At Aberdeen, one 
of thftm asked him If ho tbnngbt Dnvid Humo belioTifd what he 
wn>te. " 1 oiumot/' ho Eail, ^ aiiawni tbat ^iioflt)<jD, uulann you iriU 
take what hapiieued to m3 n^lf for a piolali<iTi. Wben I wtm a jouug 
FUftwyor I had gTC«t «ontpl<^ About pleading oauF^rA that w^ro bad or 
not taaable ; but 1 waa toli 1/ tlm purttttt or thoir aftcuta that thai 
wa« not my alCur. Hciug n^ndy iu ubi<lo bjr tlo ^xniMtjuccfCOA, iLey 
iiiHiHtcd on my <loing wbut I (*oiil<l. 1 thcr<!foro wih ro|HUvitii'3od, 
and Bflid evcr^'thiiig thai could be urj^ip To my great aatoiuskmont, 
I Mimctinicfl proTuilcd when I k*nt expected or doftircd it. From 
tbf« I couclndo that an fugenioua uma may lerite himself into any 
opinion bo jiloaooih'' ' 

When At the bar he waa greatly devoted to literary compoai- 
tloD, Aitd ^rudually hiti oaaaion for Ulenry faine so engmsied 
hiH thought* tbat, when be was TAiscd to the 1>cn€lit it occupied 
ti>o niifcK i>f the tiDM that should hai'e been devoted to hit 
njudicial work. 

'He ictatic hi»( rl^rk road only tho Wto, Qnloeg ho 1ik«d tlie 
dmwer, eajLug he waultid no m^w law. A person coining to break* 
faet, fgutud bini examining a i>ro(?rreB. After Listening attontivoly to 
a luu|: n.Tpn«i?LlihLiuu, Iilh cl«rk aakml if bo [duiub] read utill lougur 
nnvwoM. ** NV* "^"""d hiti Lnrdnhip, " let ne only hear what ie Huid 
in answer to one parlictitae p<iiiit/ Ho then dictatod ; '"The Loid 
pXMinaiy, ta r^tpw^t of tho anevvor, refuses thia repreaentatkm/' * 

In all tbinga. Lord Kamejc waa a m^n who, with frreat talenta 
and acute diKCcrnmenl, thought and acted for himself. He wa< 
sin ardent pnimoter of polite literaiare and uf ihe useful arta in 
^collAntl ; and he tvas luokt^d up to as an arbiter in mattera of 
tfisie. He wa« rnt^iUHinstically fond of the l^ngllab clataict, in 
preference to those of Greece and Rome. Dat he ehielly 





Sc^<md antl Scotsvten in tlu EififtUenih Cmtiirrf, 63 

9ridc«E himteir on bis philosophicd (urtimm, prefcnin^ xntui* 
physical diaijaUitions to thoological or poUiical coDtrovorsies ; 
nad tbii not .ilir-ij's, il Appcan^ witK tloc di^rretion ;^ 

* Ur. DuiuLwi cjf HAt4>ur tnld mc it vt«k gvucmll/ Imliovod tbnt 
diO^ *wli«ii KuauM w» in Lodou dd btisift««tt, b« vE.>iitk vritboui 
pronoos jutrodociioD, t'> tbo lodging of Dr. Dorkolor, vrho reG«iv6d 
lum with ^ftt court^tiy. 'WiUtout proftmblci, hui vuitur fvU 
ipdifleosMng c«iiAin knotty points. Th# good Doctorp who was a 
WtiU*-bred i&«o« txiod to divert tho diMooroo, but^ flnding Uxst could 
not be doDa 6Mt aOeci.* 

In h!« Intvr yetkTt ho wai very op«-n <o nbundant fl.aitdy. But 

* ^mchndjr having rrejctlcd this foiWp, Dr. Charccrs said that if 
it was neoesBsrjr to fUtter Lord Kuhios it was 50 far wi^ll thmt 
a p^non Diigbt do it with truth and a tsiie conscimcr/ The 
poiDti on which he especially wished to be praised were, of 
course, his thmrtt^ aud his rund ()per4tiuus> ibe things that 
were not in his dirtrct profossionnl lino. Those who WfT« 
adroit ihn^w out tomi* ftU^cht ohjrrliont, whirh hi* Lonlihip 
wouhl, with cmphnsis and illaminafir>n, speedily ronecC, and 
the c>bject6r» Wuuhl dulv CTjnftst tbt-'ir c<>inpl<*te conrer»ion. 

Apt in crcry mood and on evcrj subject, grave or gay, philo- 
ftophic or frivolous, each in its proper ttine, he iras excellent 
company; young «nd old drligbunl in him { though when in 
very hjgh spitits, hta talk wus mit alwoy& cvitimriidbblir, hlv wai 
a eannoissftnr of miuir and nrting, nod hr vtm Pfjonlly at homr 
at the assembly and ihc tavern. It was said ib^l ho formerly 
drank h'ird, but later in life he was * in general * very subc^r* On 
giving ttp the tavern he had sapper parlies at home. He was 
fond of p^iroiijxing young men, und of directing tlieir studies; 
and iu his w^lks he used lo read Icciurrs to hi» juvcnilv Uis- 
ciples. hie bA<i a suecvscion of olvver ^&vf9f yd inost of theni 
sooner or later liropped tbe ronnortion- Poniihly tbi> npedfnl 
tfibnte of flattery became oppressive. Youdk ladies, also, were 
the objects of his 'philosophical * attention^ telling them vrhat 
books to read, and how lo criticise, with the eSect that they 
became distinctly more acL'oinpIixhed than fbeir mothers and 
gr^fMlmotlkcra. Vrt <x-u»orious pco|)lr reinArk<:d unkindly on a 
judge upnardi of seventy nrcompjinyinir Rirls of uighlcen or 
ninei^en to public places with all lUe sprigbtlineis of an ensign 
of the OuAnls, confessing still tliat this unieasnnahle gallautry 
v&s ^consistent with the purest virtue.' 

At Blair Urummoud three o'clock was their dinner hour. 

• Slrwigrrs or nrighhoora who did not brin^ their families were 
welcome wiiboot previous inrtiation. JFormoI psrtics wt-re, 
hofr«v«r^ coming into request; but his Lordship mad^^ tbiMo 


64 So}tland and ScOi$min in the EiffhicimA CtnhtTTf, 

agreeable hy breaking through form and cenrroony. To tin* 
laai, iadeed, he had a wondprful lloiv of Bplriu and a jtaiixt^ 
pcculiiu to himiclf,* I lU social language waa pare Scou \ whftt 
lii> apoktf on ifae b«ack * iipproncbed to English/ Tb« chfts^e 
of hiB DoriD piirn«T« would havo ipoiLt hU atoTtcj. Hif wm>A 
f^ooil aiorj'lcller of the cvt^nu dating his long and actire life, 
ami an ine^xUauxtible anecdotisl. * Though in g^nr-nl a sitb«r 
man, when he met with people to his liking thnt Jiked their 
bottlct h« could occutonalljr drink hard, lie was one of tlie 
very few livflv pcr»oi»» whom liquor rendered more jojoua «nd 

^At Ilia Sdinhurgb uuppero^ but not wbeu I kuow ibom, wKiulcj 
pTtDch wna tbo liquar. Por a niimbor of yoBm it was tboa^-ht to be 
patriotiun to drliiK it in priforuucu to Frenctt bruudy. Sis abbor- 
tM3no9 of clarot tn hie Uitor ycnr« i« too vull known to bo ini^gt«d on. 
At tho circuit toblo at Jolburgbr bid Lurdttbip «akod Hoary Krvkino 
wb<*TO b« aoppuaod B^EaUing Ami t1i» FriMiob flo'^t in tbo Waat 
Indies to bo. "Oonfiaod to wrt^ my Lord, m wo nri> at proao&L"< 
" Ob, you aly roguo 1 " replied Kamvs ; " but for all that, not one 
drop of eljirot shall you liaru." * 

Lord Kamea had, when an octogenarian, remarkably f^ood 
health, Ami hit dbeaies were those of young or vigoront men. 
Id the autumn of 17$;{ he was iak«^n ill, but for ne&rly six 
weeks be continued on the liench, and was only confined to the 
hou«o for A W4»«k before he died. 

<Wbon leaving the Court for the liMit time, before it roeo, aa Lo 
vfa,A etcpping into bia ohair he mat Bosi^cll, wlioui bo had not bean 
fond of for Bomo timot who said ; ** What, mj Lord! mo you going 
ttivay already J^" " Wball" answered h*f, "would yon h»ive ino alaj 
fkUi\ li;avo mj biiiien at tbo fircnide?'' Ofdliiii^ biiu back, be eaSu, 
*'Boawcll, I hopo to tiM your gi^od futhor one of thoaa days. Hattf 
you any meaaage to bim ? Shall I tell him how jou aro going on f" 

Here we mutt pauae. Space would fail us lo tell of * Church 
nnd llniveriiiir* before 1745;' of * Men of Orninn and Tfttle 
from 1746 to 17t33;' of 'Frofrwora and Clergymen from 1745 
to 17(>0 ;' and of a dozen other subjecu so agreeably discoursed 
on in theae pleasant volumes, VVhat we have quoted will 
^rbapa induce our reailera to atadj still further the? Kamaay 
Records, and to thank Mr. A Hardier for kia compreaalvc ed iliug ; 
a work, no doubt, of great pcrpWity and labour, but which baa 
liern, as tt appears, judiciously, and in so far as satisfaction to 
the public is concerned, aueceraafully performed. 


( 65 ) 

Art. III. — 1. Cyrrfitjiontbnrfi qf Wa^ntr anJ Lis:t. TraDfUt«d 
into KD^Hsb, whli a Pr«fnce, \\y FrAncis HacfTor. i vols. 
LoQibn, 18da 

2. Fnsnz Liizt Von L, Kamaim. 2 vols, Leipzig, 1887, 

3. Fratw;oit Lim. Souv^nirt tTune Compatriote, Par Jnnka 
VVohL Parlfc, 1&87, 

4. Wamwr^ §a vi< ci tt* ctHvr:s. Par AiiolpLc Julticn. P«ri>, 

IF immorulicy i» measured hy the amount of printrr'n ink 
whctX fox * mWfl mciniirj, tL<ii the twin sIatb d1' ihr l>(u«- 
cnri of mmUm mu>ic-«>lVagacT and Ltut — will n4ivor f4Tt on 
ibe artistic boriioji. Wagner died at Venice oq Kebrturv 1.H, 
1883, Lifti:t at BatrentU oa Jul> 31, 16€f>; am) the (rrare had 
acaroflly clotcil <ivrr rithcr of th<:m before the proasea of Gernuny 
were teeming with obhaary tiioUceff * remioucenceV and other 
epbrrncml liiemlufe, to txkj iiothiug of thr lii^nvv aniJIery of 
bioj^phies in on«i or lovrrrul v;>liJin«a- It is etaicd lliat the? 
bookt wriltrn oa Warner, both in a fnrndly nnd hnttile tpirit, 
would fill the flbeh-ee of a good-tized librarjr, and tliey include, 
amnn)^ other cnrioui thin^, a collec^on of all the abuiivo 
epitbeU applied to him at various times, arraii|^d in alpbabe- 
ttcal order, Lml, uhhou^U bo bad many bottilo critics, never 
excited tho sniur ninimnt of a(kiiiii>«iiy vrbit^b hts gTCAl friend 
drew upon himaclf both hy hiit iLrtiBtic: innovaiions and his eom- 
bA!iv«» nainrp ; and the rfToiiionft of i^nlhiminsni, wbioh w«^re 
lavished upon the mrjst famous viHuoto tbe world has ever fmrn* 
would no doubt fill a staicfly rolL]rtu^ On the other bancj, Lisvt 
lias not B4 yet tx^cn foitunaCc ciioii|;h to ftntl bo coiii|>eteot a 
biographer as Warner ba^ met with in tlii^ Fn>ncU author 
M. Jullim, wliotc Murk is a perfect mine of infoiiiinCiuu, and 
coutains a very iutoio*linj; colb^ction of Kreach, Enf^lisb, and 
GetTuan caricatures. Lisst was at all times the idol of the 
lulici, and a lail y, FrAulein Uaniann, lias been i1k< first to aspire 
to the position ot bis vakf sacvr. To th«t task she has brought 
no end of enthuiiavm for her subject, and an amount of paint* 
taking research which would du credit to any schtdar of the 
■t4*rncr b«x. At (bo uunc time olic Ucka Xhts facultj of wlint 
C^t^lo might h*ve called * vision,' which is as necessary to the 
biogmpUer as to the poet She baa laboriously collected all the 
Btatcriali fora picture ; but that pictun* iluAt ri^mrtins unpatnted. 
We bear a gr^t deal about Liszt's triumptjal pro<;ieM from 
SC Petersbtirg to .Madrid, from London to tbi? funbril t^ast uf 
Earop& Macb niso is said about the purport aad the aaprcmi? 
merits of his eompositiona ; btit the man bimielf remaias a 
VoL 167,— JV©, 333, P •Udowy 



Warner aud LUsi. 

shatlowy oatlmep and this is eipeclallv' fatal ia ihc cam of an 
nrtiftt wbose p<fru>Da]ity wa« to tiron^lj' jiroQOODced, and went 
so far (o account for the ma|^cal, one might 9^y rlcccric, sprll 
whiob bf? cxercuod over hi* bearer*. For, a» Warner ha» well 
expr«»<«d it, it matiMvd \^iy \\xt\^ whnt Li«zt piayd, l>mmBp 
he always plajreil lilniself, in the sense that he i^ave the imprest 
of his own imUvidudity to the works of any nCbi*T miutor 
Perhaps tbe fault \\q% leu with Friiulein Romann ihaa with the 
nature of her task. Tfic hest biographer of a inui remains 
]iijnat-Jr, and the best, or at leaat the iiiosi faithful, style of auto- 
hirtgraphy ]£ not tho eonsctnus f>ne lulo^ted )>y St- Au;;usljnc, 
Jean .l.'^r'qaps Ttoik^iteALi. rind nthrTH in fhi^ir r^ntraxinnn, hot Mm 
uncortsciuus cine emh^iflie'd in the concitpontlenoe with a familiar 
frienil. In the letters and billeh penned ftom day to day^ and 
sent acTti»s tlie street lo Krau von Siein, we see a jrreat deal mure 
of the n^al GiM^the than ever niinl24*r, I^ekeTmann^ and Lv-tvrs 
have told us of him ; oud i^reii lbi* Iui''->itipuiahle Duftwell iiit;;ht 
bare beon surpaAscd if Dr. Johnson had been a* voluroiuoUB a 
correapondenl ;is he was nn in«^xh»u«tib]e talker. 

It is for this reason that the two vdumet of torrespondcnco 
between Wa^n^ and Liwet, T6C6Dt)y edited by iho widow of Uw 
former and ttaughler of the latter, are of sacli paramount import* 
ance lor the history of these two remarkable men» ns well as for 
tJiat ^i uiudern music generally- For here we are --uided by 
their own haiiitt into the vi^rv focus of ihoir iirti«tic Anpimtioni 
and nchievi'inents. Iloth Warner and Liszt led. com (Kirati rely 
speakinjr, eventful lives; hut their interest always centred iu 
their art, and as holb looked upon that art very much ta the 
same lij^ht, lie intercammunieation of their ideas h^u tbe cbann 
of perfect linnnony* ahhonj^h it lacks die estciiemenc of n well- 
AUtlnlor^ cimtroversy. This unntiiniitY in matters artistic was 
stren^thene<1 l>^ tlae fact, that thi^s<> two, slnndinn; tog^thert ha/I 
the test of the musical world afrainst tbein. Wa^er, almost 
frimt the liej^inninf; of his career, was an innovator and a re- 
fonnrr ; and bis openu, although by no means written * with a 
purpose/ reprencntrti an enlirrJy now type nl miisir'>-dramntic 
art, and tbrreforrr verv uatuially tuet Willi the frtetu u|j|>i»siLioii 
of those who look upon ciisling ihin^ na goo<l and as finnl 
because they hnppcti to exJit. Liurt^s nature was nt first pliabt« _ 
and harmoaiouaemKigb; but when once he had come in coii- ■ 
tact with the powerful individuality ofhii friend, he also boi&ted 
the banner of reform, and carried Wngnrr's ideas., originslly 
ronfiiied tu the npera, inro the field of instruiuentBl music, la 
conscquLMice, be loii was 9uva;Eely uttAL-ki-d by the critics, who, 
moreover, were unwilling Co believe, that one wlko eould play the 



ly&fftter and^. 




piano so well mifcbt »1m be xb\c 1o write something woitli 
lutoniDg to. CotnmnD sufTrnn}^ and common striving's were, 
therefore, the basis of tLie rcinarkable frUMidnhip, of which tbls 
cofTCvpond^nce is the wiitt^u momonjtl. Find which lasted dlL 
the gTsv^t one uii^ht oliuust nay beyond the j^^iavir ; tor the lost 
tifn« that Lisst, alroadj ia lulin^ hf^alth^ left his room, wsa to 
witness a perfnnQance of Wagner's 'Tristan und Isolde' ;st 
Bttjrcuth; &nd in that tittle Hnvamn town, the Mrcca of the 
Wftgneritetf be lies baricd, not & milo distant from tbo large 
gnioitf^ sUb. without nny iiisiTiption, wliich cov<<rs the retniuiu 
of VVagnrr in thr gardi^ of hi* house Wahnfricd. 

Before w*^ enter more cluvrljr Jolo the contents of thr two 
voltim^t whirb form the iinm4>idiiLtii sobjpct of this ^Tticlc", it 
will \tc necessary 1o say ti ftw words on the lire-s of the two 
coTTPspofuIcnts hrfon* their viftys met in one comman point, and 
foatioued in a jurilM direction for the r«t of their davs. 
Frftnz Ljsjtt, horn at Raiding in HunifaTj- in October, 18U, 
was one of the few favc^urltes of fortune mho seeui uizirked out 
for snccsess from tbcir earliest infAncy. The oSsprin^ of a 
noble but impoverished Mngyor fAmily^ be showed^ like most 
musicians, a very earlr aptitude for hi« art, and made bis Itrst 
pubticappearance before the criltcAl Viennese audience as a boy 
of twelve^ Tl^ iinpreision he pKnlaceil on his htrarers w^is as 
dttttp ftt it was inttantnn4-ous, ait4l aniong^t the admirers of the 
ynim^ t^irimw} vitat uo letiv a peisuu than Beethon-n, who, after 
onc of Liixt'fl conocTts, str^c on to the pliaform and kisse<) him 
brfon- c hi- audience, A morv* substaniinllwnefitderivHl from his 
arly succesKes at Vienna and PressbtJi^ was a subBcriplion got 
ap by six Hunfr^rian nobtemen, which enabled the boy to 
omtiDno hi« sttidM*s at Paris, at that timo the tnusicnl centre of 
iltiTope. Althouf^h his deure to entcrr the Conservatoire was 
tmuauxl by a teycuUtion, long^ since abandoned, which excluded 
aad^nts nf foreigii origin, Lisxt continued bis triumphs ns a 

G'nnist in tbn ry>ncert- rooms nnfl Aalofn nf tHo Krrnch tnetrojiolis. 
e also Tisiced Mn^rl^ni] for the first time in 1H24, nnd playecl 
kfcre GfOfp? IV. at Windsor, bein^ here, as elsewhere, neceivnl 
vitb the utmost cnthusiAsm. The papcis were full of the praises 
<f * Master Lisxt ' — a denomioatton, by tb« way, which has led 
Lts biographer, Friiulcin Hamann, into acurioDs error. That lad j 
infimiw US tjial LitJtt gro»Uy objectLvl to being treat^ a» a l>oy, 
tnd being called * !r jtriit I.ii:* (sir) by ibi? Fritnth critics; 
vhat then was hi* delight when his voath was entirely ignored 
hy ih^ Enj^lJsh pre^s, which spoke oi him as a fTnished and 
fdlly developed musician — as ii master I ^ treacherous are 
tli« tDtricttCtot of ottr inuitar nomencUture to the Intelligent 

r 2 foreigner 1 

Warner and Lint 

tom^uer I It wouM br unnorrsAAry to follnir Ljczi's InampluziC 
caieer tbroaj^h all the cities of Europt?, to speak of tho awon) of 
himciuT wiiichwoA prt-senicd lo lUe peaceful artiat by iht warlike 
MBgjftrs, or of ihc Brrlin young Udu*% wlir> fnught for tin- hone- 
hair of tb« cIjAir on nblcb ibr virtuoiao hitd bt'rn aralt'iJ at ibe 
pUno« 5ufli<w it to uiy thnt, jn iho j-cnr L^ll^ wbon tbia conv- 
tponcieiKc bejj[in<, LurX vin% by fur the mott fitmoiis drtuatt^ 
then aiivc, and that he lived in Pjirls, ih'' observcJ of «ll 
observerj, tbe idol of fjtsUionabte ladies, and the intimate friend 
of r<rctrt«t;i«tir>l nnd worltlly poErnlntf^, witb tbe single exceptioo 
of Louis I'hiitpjic, up*>ti whom he looked as n tourfffoir nnd on 
up>>l4rlf nod whom, if Accoants Are true, b^ ticnted with ^jcai 
io»ol#itc^, flifctly refu«in|7 to pJ»5 b(»fope iho Citiu^n-King^ Aod 
thus forfeiting tbe Cri»as of the Le^inn of Honour gt?u:ioiul7 
ofTrrcd to him. 

The lines wlncli bail brought Warner to Paris about the 
same time bad not fallen in equnUr ptcaMint pJaoef. Born at 
I^ipaic on May 22Dd, 1^1^, of u middle-class family, be aboweol 
AS a boy no pArticuTar talent for music, or indeed for anytbinf; 
elap. At tbe aige of nine, Wafl;n?r entered lb*" KmiiwhnI*? %% 
Dnrsflen, where the family wa« then livinfr. but hi* studies do 
not appear to have been over-successful, lie lacked application, 
(■ii^ek, Latin, mytlLrdo^y* and ancient histnrv, he menlions at 
his favourite subjects. In addition to this ho took lessons on 
the piauofurtt'^ aud pU>cd overlurt-J* and other piiHv» by 'air.' 
But be refused to pi-acci»e, nod soon his master gave him ap as 
hopeless. * Ho wns n^ibt/ Wa^r^er confiMKe«^ * I have never 
learned to play ihc piano to this day/ The truth Is that, 
like Bediof, who could only play tbe ^uitnr, and thnr not very 
well, U'agner was a ryirtuo-to on the orelH-stra, and there is 
a touch of contempt for the supplementary keyc^d instrument 
in this confrssion. In tbe meantime, the bi>y set up for a 
poet on tbe lariat scaIc. His study of Circ«k and n slight 
sniatterinK' of English, which hff nrqinrvd for the parpose of 
nrsxlini; Sbnkspciire in the original, enabled him to choofo hit 
models in the right quarter. A tremendous tragedy was the 
re*uU — ' a kind of c«>mpnund of " Hamlet '' and '' King Lear,'*' 
Wagner called it. * Tbe desig'O,' be added, ' was ^rand in th« 
^.-xtmmc, Forty'tnro persons died in tbe course of the piece, and 
want of living charaeteri compelled me to let most of (hpra re- 
appear as ghosts in the lott net.' Hr nas einven at the l!mr. 
But lbi> was not all. Wa^-ner had an opportunity of witnessing 
a performance of Goethe's * K^monl/ with the incidental miisic 
bj Beethoi'en, and itcmediately be decided that his tragedy al«a 
must have a muncal accompaniment — tobesupplicd bv himself. 

If^ayfier and Litst. 


t nerd hnrilly be juldeil. He wu t^nomat oi tbe milimmts of 
tbe art, but that slight (lijficirnrv migbt» he thiaj^bt, b* got over 

I Id no time* All this may seem to be very cLilcliBti and flbsiin), 
bciC Uie child U fatbt^r to the innfi, ami it Uci^TCaiitly mil nitbuuc 
Emportaacc that iho proclninicr of the poetic fouii(Utii>n of tbo 
Mt of Aotinfll aUouM bave dUcovercd bii own muftical gift* 
tlirangh hilt pcmliir or — morir significAntty bmII — thniiigb hi« 
dr&motic requii^menlft. 

T hat Wftgaer fo'in took to t^ioua naaslcfti studtec is Mffi- 

^^^■flj proved hy tbc symphop)- writtea at the a^e of nineteen, 

^^^Flost llgbc of for nearly half a century, when, quite by 

^■•ccidcnt, ihc MS- vrA» ditcovcrcd and the work pcrfonovd 

^■^ttnder lUe ciompoter'a own dipe(.*tioo at V&moc only a l«w weekf 

beforo his <lrath. When thii symphony wat pUyed in London 

lut spHn^, iiinuEt^ur^ and critirs were AttofiifhiNl hy a display 

of sound musical knoivIr<Igc and bv a tn:istcrly handlini^or the 

orcbrsUa lictJe short of marvellotii in a hoVf while at thr wxsM 

tune it WAS ^rer«1lj remarked that in this can? tlii; child had 

not been fAtbrr to the inao^ the symphony ahowin^ Abflolniely 

no traces of Warner's latw *tyle, and heinfr, indiM^d, i^ntirelv 

nodellpd opon the wotks of Beethoven^s second period 

Waffner became hiinielf ai^ain only tt-bi-u, like the jfiani in the 

Greek labh-, lie lixxl bis own ground of ikamalic mtjsic!, and 

rren on thai ground be bat) to go throuj^h a prori-ss ol' very 

^—Xraduiil drvetopment bcfiin! he gajocn) an individual, luid there* 

^ftfore in itself pcvfc^t, expression of hi« tbouf^bta. His firtt con- 

^■iKCtion with tbi* oprrtt look pUt^n tn anything hut aitftpiciout 

Vorciun stances. fieing without means, he had to accept 

^ tppoinimeut* as c^tmluctor of various small Cierman Ebpatres^ 

«nd in that capacity wrote seversl opciai, ncmr* of which 

sdiiered any success, altfaougti a revival of one of ihrrm, *Die 

Fcen/ is, one is sorry ti> think, contemplated al Munich. In 

1639t wo fiml him cimductor of the German thoatro at Higa, 

Oarried to an actress, nrrniri^nrd in his cirrumMailces, and 

uobappy to the verge of despair. The method nfloplef] by him 

(0 free bitnsdf from bis trouUh? is thoroughly cha meter istie of 

ite maa. He wrote the poetry and the music of n tive-ac: 

opera, entitled *Hieiut,' and designed on so Urge a scale, that 

the production at a AmalJ thcaLrc won altogether out of the 

^UMtion, The libretto hi* «ent to Scrilte, with a request 

aiihliviaetl tn ihit prnsprrou* and dittingmshed drainalist, to 

ttaiuUle it and ^et it accepted for performance at I he Grand 

Opera. This demand, coming from an entirely unknown 

pmoQ, rematoedt as might have been expected, without an 

AOfwer. Buif undaunted by this rebuff, Wagner delennined to 



H'a^Ttcr and Liist. 

go to Paris himself to tee what pervonal soUcitfttian would do 
lor hiEn. AccordinglT Iw embarked at Kiga id the aumcncr 
of li^^df aad after a lon^ anti atormy vi>jtigi\ during vhicb, li 
j« interesting trt acK<?, the first Idf* of Ms ' Flj^lnf; I>t;itcbinan 
WA* conceived, bi» yonrhf-rf Pari« in th« nulumn of thi^ sntn*- 
y^^ar, aciompnnircl by [\i% vUc and an eiiormr>uK Nc^vfounillaxid 
dofc, wiib whom, in bia dirc»t poverty, he rrfiiMHl to part, 
Thi^rc were tbr«e moutba to feed, aud little or nothing to feed 
them ffitb. DisappointiTiffiit lay in »tc>re for him ererywheie ; 
all uLtempts »t liKviiij; Liii * Kien/i ' pcrrunued |>rov4^ futile, 
ami Wagnor wjl» conipc-l]c<I to arrtmgty operatic tun4w for 
Tarioiitt in«(ri]]n^nrt, anfl |HTform otlipr arT« of mniirjil rlnwlgrrv 
fur ttc publiihcrs. in onl^rr to ward ofT the actual Mtarvation 
which he has described with grim humour in bis norelette, 
' The End of a Muaician In Paris/ 

It was in thcAc circumstances tbat bu 6rBt meeting with 
Liixt tuuk place. Thai mi^etiu^ brlwetru >iu-n plaocd at tbe 
r)ppo«iE4^ iTitrcmoa of the »caIc of artialic tlUtiDction ivaa of 
.in anylliin|( hut sntitfarlory kind. And bow coubl it haro 
been otherwise ? Lisit knew nothing of Wagner, and acarccly 
diatinguiBhed him from the herd of starving Ciermui musicians 
corttinujdly laying xir^ to the attention of o. man who was 
generous lo a fault, and who, id'ter hating realized tbe lart^cat soma 
CTver g«incsJ bv n virtiw/ti/t died poor. U'iigncr al Grit felt *lccpiy 
hurt by ft Tec«-ption wliiob> although not unkind, vr«a no iitoro- 
tlian pfdite, Ami %nw in it detfrminnl ill-ivi1l, alihoiigli later on 
he discovered bis error. This is bow he refers In the matter in 
an autobiographical sketcbt dnt^nl 1851, by t^hich time Ltszt 
had become his warmest friend and admirer; — 

'I met Liszt for the firrt timu during my carltcil ntay id Pariit, 
and al a period ^h(.^n I had ronouuccd tho bojic, nay, even the wish, 
of a Paria ri^putaLivo, aud, indeed, vstu. in a i^tuto of inlcmul roroll 
against tbd artiHtJo Jifo I found thorvv At otir mteting Liitat 
ajipcorod te mo the most pcifect coittTast to my own being and 
situation. Id this warld t<> which it liud hc^n my dcMiru to fly !~ 
luy narrow cironiDfltonou, Liizt had grown np from lii^ c<uLie6( 
BO ae to l»u tho objool of general Iotd and admiration at a timu 
T wan rcpnl^ by general e<ildti^Ra and wnnt of Hytnpalhy, , 
eonsequmoe I loc>k<jd TirHin Iiim witl^ euspicion. I had do opjtOT' 
ttiLity for diwbsing my Wng and working to him, and tloreforo Ih* 
n.-cepiioii 1 mtt wUh uu hh part ww* aUogotlier of a supcTl^cJal 
na wan itidt^od qtiitv nutoral lu a tntiit to ivhoin every day tho 
diTtrpifnt imprciwion* claimod auceaa. But I ^va* net iu a mc 
look with nnprcjtitltccid eyes f4)r the natural oatiae of hia beha^ 
which, friendly and obliging in itself, eould not but hurt me in 
atato of mj mind. I never repealed tuy Gnl oall U|hiu Lm^i, nni' 


Warner awt LiazL 


llhont Icnoiriiii; or otuh vtnliiner to know biirt. I wta prone lo look 
apoD hia a« strftDgo and BdTersQ to my natiue.' 

The first Ic*tter in tbU collection Ix^longc to tfa<? period 
twi ref^rrriMl to ; it i« tinted March 34, 1S41, adcI U of tb<r muul 
DfiDfil kinti, asking Liszt for an interview on the stiL-n^tli of 
[>me common A<r<{uaint.inci*. It i< a tignificAtiE fnct tLat no 
epijr to tliis letter i» oitant, nor probabl^^ wa^ ^ver urrlttcn. 
i\x\ &ItboD^b LisKt may bare bf:<;n too lu;^' or too btu^ to 
>acbflafc stn antwor, h« tbought tbo ilocument ilaelf wortbj oT 
ration, wliicb aeemt to sbow tbAt, ercn at this rarly period^ 
P^agoer Inspired bim n-ltb some kind of interest Tbat 
intereit was soon to ripen Into Bometliinj^ verj dificropt. 

' repeated expninou of tl:i^ fc^lin^t' Wuj^or continnc*, ' wa^ 
3h nportod to LisKt, just at t^ time wben ray '* Kiouzi " ut 
L attncUid gcii«ral ^itontioD. Ho wjm aurprijiod to find liim- 
alf nisnnderatood witb »ac1i rio1enei< by a iiiao wlionj \m Lad 
vttively kndva, and wbocc ACtiiiaiatmioo now soomed not nithoat 
Ttloo to him. I am atiU touched at recollecting tho lepeatod ftud 
lagor attctnptit bu mrulo U> cliangi: luy opi[itr>a of uim, ovoq boforct ho 
kMW an^ of mj \roikii, Uu aotud not from au,y arliAtiO i^mpatby* 
bit led by the purely human wish of dificoutinuing a casuut did- 
Umuur bctiroon bunaelf and amitb^r boin^ ; parhapii bo aUn folt au 
laGnttaly loader miagimg of haTing roahy hurt me unooasciousty. 
H« who knowa tho Icrribto aelfinhao^ and ujEwusibUity i>f <jur aucinl 
lifb, and eapeeialtj in the relatiana of rondern trtiitA to eeob of.ber. 

I Wkoot bob be etrack with wonder, nay, delight, by tho troutmont 

L 1 tipericuoed from tliia eitraordinary mao-' 

^B At the time lo which the latter extract refers, the cirmm- 
^VfUaoea of both Ltszt and Wagner ha<l nni]i*r;^>nc a mAterinl 
^T thsiige« Wagner's * Kienzi ' had been accepted at Dresden and 
r pfifomctl there in Octcber \^\^y with sucb success^ that the 
^B (vnposer was immediately cngnginl ns conductor of the Rojnl 
^pSuo<t OpCTA, one of ibe leculing tbeatrr> of Grrmany. LibzI, 
^ ^ the other haad, :tt th** irm» of Wt% bmc*, bad ^rown tlivd 
(tf the ephemeral hurels of the virtu/xso^ h«l left ibe couoen 
plitform, and settled in the small city of Weimar, bis chief 
'^^ject bein^ to advocate the claims of the rising tnuiical 
mention by the pcrformnnoc of such works as were written 
'C^ardless of jKipuIaritj', nod therefore bod lillle dinner ut 
xtin^ the light of the »t«pe. LUzt's itny at VVeimar Utxa b<wn 
<ifiafiniie Importance for the dn-elnpmmt of modem miiwr. 
P'Oratimc, remarks a writer in *<Jruve*s Dtctionarr/ it seemed as 
a this small provincial cit; were once more to he the artiitio 
tntre of Germany, as it had been in the dajs of Goethe* 
^tlleTiand Herder, From all Aides musicians and amateurs 



Warner and LisiU 

flocked to Weiimir, to wilnru the utoniihtni: feaU to wliicla a 
iroall but eic^ltcRt communitj^ of singers aod initnimcnUliiU 
were iD9|nrt-d hj the );eniu« irf Uieir k;»i]rr. In thi« wnjr ««« 
ibrmwl tlic nucWs <if n group of yoang unt\ cnlhuaiafttio 
muKiriniiK, wK'i, whaN^vrr majr tic ihon^lit »f ttit^ir aimt an<[ 
achievements, were ai any rate iDspired by perfect ticv^tion la 
moiU'- ant) lis iv^ilail aiii». It Wfift indeed At these Weica«r 
^thcrin^^s tbat the mustcians who n»n take the leading places 
in contempomrjr «rt« till iben unknown to «acb otber And 
diridcd ItrcAllr aad mcntillv, cntnc firit to n clc^u' undcratand- 
inf; of thi>ir p4>wvra and avpiruilon*. How much thi> portonid 
fitsrinntinii of Usirt rnntribiitrd to tliiB di'iiw'd rnd iir-fd not f» 
said. It w^s at Weimar aUo that Liszt wrote those important 
oompo«iii<ins of sarn^l music and of orchestral music which 
have Irft A marked impress on tLic art of our epocti. But his 
own advancement was always a secondary consideration with 
Liut. DcWi? thinking of his own wnrki he thought of rhc 
vrorki of olhor«, nnd nznon|^ftt tbfxo other« Wn^^ner wis th« 6rst. 
It is no i^xnggrration to sny, and Wn^iirr tayji no nrpeAti^Klly in 
the course of this correspondence, that without the generous 
assittanci; of Lis^t, ti!» tntut important norks would not have 
been perlnnned, probably not h^ve been written. Never 
Indeed was a composer mor« In need of a generous patron than 
WjLgnrr <hirjng the years over irhich th<^ac letters extend. It 
will be? TPRivmbcred that in nn evil hf>ur, And knowing little 
and caring Ipss about politicks, be joined the rrvotutJonAry 
movement of IMti and Ibi^, vrhich led to the ilipfht of the 
Koynl family from Dresden, and was iinslly suppressed by 
Prussian bayonets. It does not appenr that he ever fought on 
iho buijica(k-3 ; ujid the sjit-cth, »vhitU hi? delivered 9t a jiulitical 
club, And wbirb has reecnllv brcn uac-urth<:d, vcmU modcrAle 
vnough^ the fnct bptnfc th:Lt Wa^nt^r lo^iknl upnn poltiical rrfitnn 
merely as a rosd towards the artistic ret'orm of which the 
theatres were and are in too much need. Comiderto^ however 
his pitxitiun At Court, his conduce had beon sufficiently com- 
promising ; ond the King of ^^aKony, not unn:ituraJly incensed 
at die «cccntrii:juc» of hj» (^1JMdllll<;iMtcr, rcfuMHl for a number 
of year* to rfsclnd the sentence of iuLprisonmcDt prouounced 
afrainst him. Fortunati^ly that srnlnncn wiu pronounced in 
/ittr€ntiat or else Warner might, like liis friend and fellow- 
musician Roeekel, have spent tlm most active p<*riod of his life 
in a ^axon prison. The fnend whosa^-ed him irom tbisfate was 
Lisxt. Wi^en his danger became imminent, Wagner quietly 
w«ot to UVimor &nd witncMcrd a rrlirur*A] of ' TannhUutci,' 
which Lisxl was then preparing fur performance, and thence be 


'fftCAped to &witx«rlflncl, furDivhnl with the pasiport of one of 
histxCjt VVcitoar frit-uils. Dr. VVidm^mtu fiv seuLnl at ZurirS, 
where foT the next tnclvo ycfiT% he lived A«vcre<(l Iroxn his 
Ofunirj and from any p^rsoiinl contact with ih^^ iheatir, 
deprircd also ol Any settled incomo or of tbo meaoa of increas- 
ing his resouriirs, ivhieh an- trcnerAlly viiliin n^ach of the 
«nccr«sfiil opomtjc <rnnipf>Hcr nnd ronductor. 

TUp tnmual |>outian of Ihc iwq friejuls, thus brieJlj sketched, 
shimld he home in mind, to Bppn^ciutc the attitude vrhich ihty 
tuitMtn<^ towarda om^L other in tht^to letter*. In the matter of 
ttorldiv potilion, lAnzt wn^ inrinttnlv tho unprrifir nf xhv two : 
hit fame was European, and his position al the \Veiin:»r Court 
4 htffhiy honourtsl one. VVigner, on the other Iiftnd, wav, in 
IsmiTiar pbrue, noivhi^rr, He had written three operas, none 
of vhich had met with reaJ popular success, altbough a few 
dcvoti^d fTonUipprvfl looked upon him ns the coming lu&n. la 
atldition to this hr tvav pennile«i, and ibc German Court 
th4?fttre:« were nf cnurse not inclined tii fitlvnnrci th«* fortunes of a 
leroluuonary outlaw, Nolhlnj:, thert^fore, would hnvp Iw-m 
more natural than for Ijs/t to A»ftuini^ the nttiCucJe of the patron 
and protector, instead of this, we find that without afiectation 
an<l aa a matter of c^iursc lie takes n suhordinate position^ 
tookio]^ tip to hia fricn<l «4 s superior being, and ouljr too happj 
to place Uis Bvn'icei and his puree at the dliposAl of that friend. 
Sttch aclf-ahnegation, such Ircrdom frtf^m vanity, aro perhaps 
nil precede nieil in the history of art or literature, the more so if 
oac consider* that, hy jidmcating thi? claims of Wagner, Liszt 
ujored bis own chances aa a composer, lie himself at one 
time had looked to tbi; stii^e as the scene of his triumphs ; but 
lihen Wagnrr's works taught him the real essence of dramatie 
mane, he inimi^inlcly ahandotml all tlioughc o( occupying n 
field which his frji^nd worked with such marked superiority of 
f«nius. In the earlj' part of ih? correspondence, pluus for pm- 
■tacing an opera in Italy or PVanot* an; mentione<If hut these 
also were dropped, and Liszt's oearett appToach to dramaitc 
composition remained iiis cantutA 'St, Elt^abeth,' whid) has 
now and th«n hern acted in crxtumo on tho staf;e after the 
nann^T of HnndM'« s^trTrd dramas. With reg:tnl In hia own 
oompoftitiuns Linzt indeed displays a modesty which is almost 
toQcning* &uch works as thf? Dante Symphony and the Fautt 
Sjinphony, he refers to in the most occasional manner^ and 
^Vagner has every diflicuhy in obtaining even a sight of the 
icores. On the other land. Lisxt is ovtrr^jojed and geueriillr 
Korprlscd when Wagner speaks of those v«x>rkfl with an eiithu- 
sli«mr partly jwrhapt inspired by frirndthipt hnl none the le«B 



fTuffhfr anii Litzt. 

genuine At tho time. There was laileed cauae for sucit «urpri«e, 
for Li%tC% compo>itionfi, a« has aircAdy Ix^cn nu-ntioneilt mcx 
wich miiiiv rebulTs, iioL oiUjf frum writi^m in lliu prcvit, but alsu 
front hia mont intimalo Irlonda, in whotc! jad|^rat ho liod 
every reiiion to l>eli(<vp. Tfierr* i* perhnpft no nobl<-r j»xftige in 
the whole correspondence thanthntt in which l.i«vt detrlftrci tbati 
thuugh other people nk&v not admire his worka, he cknDoi wiih- 
(triw bti sympathy itnd Admiration from thetrt. We qaote bu 
wordi in fiill :— 

'I confess cftndidJy that when I bronght my things to rou a\ 
Zurich, 1 did nal kuow hoir jou wonld rycoiro and IJce thctn. I 
hiiTO ba^ to h*.'iT atid t«ad bo muoh abottt them, UiAt I li4vo reatlj on 
opinuia on the sabjoct, uid continue to W4>rk only from potstHUjot 
Inner oonvioticD, ftiid witbuut atiy cluLii to reoogotiou or ap|kroraL 
Saverol of my iutimalo fricbO«— for i^XAmpJo, Juaobi&i, »nd funucrlr 
SuKumaim and oUior» haw dbown tLomuclvvd ctraugo. doubtfol, aniil 
antftvouiablo towiudfl my artistic crcfttioQ&. I owe them do ^rndgo 
on tliat aceonnt, ftnd cannot rotaltAtc, bucauxo 1 ooiitiuiu) to talio % 
siucoro and oompTohcnsiTo iiiloroBt in their works.' 

A nature so seir-denyinjr tknti %o forbearing: a» that of Lisxt 
wu required to sostain a life-long fnrndfthip with Wagner, 
who, aLihouj*h fulJ of generous impulses and, when he liked, 
abM>luC4!ly fascinating in hix penonal in tern June, mutt have 
been occasionally very trjriri^c tir the lempi^r of his intimMc*. 
There wat in hi* composition a good deal of thai childlike 
temperament which goes to the making of ^rcat artists, and 
there ift in these letter* a eontinuitl rising and fallinfr uf the 
mental thermometer from the white heat of joyful enthusiasni 
to ever so many decrees below the zero of absolute despair 
ThriNLts of suicide? al>E>uiid, and ihc pc-A»imism of Scho|iriihauer 
nppeivrt to bini only thc^ philoftophie exprvusion of what he bins- 
iflf had feh Ami (rxpenencrd fur mitny y"*"- LJs^l foTtunately 
was of what Carlvfe wouM have called the eupeptic tempera- 
ment, and he speaks of Schopenhauer as "that snarling car'' 
He also, no doubi, bad his angulnrities and rou^h sldea, and 
Tklademoiselle Janka Wobl^ who knew bim well^ cites inany 
bpr^fttots and lomnwliial iiinliciou» rcmarki, whi<:h, howcvrr, ill 
her papes dn not show tit inucli point as no doubt they bad 
when deti/rred by Lisxt in his perullnrly impn*«fiive manner. 
Bat these rough sides he did not turn towards Wagner, whom 
be tirmts in thr manner of a prudent, calm, and much forgiving 
mentor. * Patience, the virtue of mules,' U a favourite expre»* 
sion in bis letters, and that nno<lyne he n-conimends to bis 
fiicod aa the supreme Achievement vf wi«iloui, prvat^ed aiike 
by Sdioponhauer and by tbc Christian religion, in which 



Vo^wr and Liszt 

Luit wu & devout and implicit believer. At to Warner's iail- 
in^ of temper and <Kl)(fr tuulu, he is by no nu^nns blind, bat 
looks upon ih<Mn a* tlx^ «ltiiufel iuvf iuble coiupk-uivutur |£i;uius. 
In soiwer to one of VVagn^r^ «mtbu»U of rcpcntaiuv he. rop]ic» 
with the following r^^markable senteDce, winch remimU on« 
strfiD|[dy of a similur exprettion of n similar M^nlimrat ncctir- 
ring in a lett4?r from Potrarcb to J$occ&ccio — r pair of frieods 
DoC onlike ia their mtilual relations to the two moderu musi-> 
ciaai* * Above all, <lrArt<»t best friend/ writes Litxi, 'do not 
imag:iAG tUat I could pWv a bad conAtructioii on anj uttemice 
ufyoiin about opc mmi or th« other. My »rmpitby for you 
aad my adnitralioo of jour divine f^enius are surely l<«> e.-kmi^t 
and gcrnuinn to let me i»vcri<K>k their necc«»ar>' conscqucnrra, 
\ou can and muit not be dilferent from what you are; and 
*tich as yttu are, I esleiein, understand, and love you ivitb my 
whole? heart/ 

But LiwiS friendship was not confined to ^offll advice. When 
oac4* hft hiul Ti'co^ni/tHX Wn^n^r* g'^mint h* lookwi upon it »« a 
sacred doty lo inulhi? thi- arcinlitt and thfr m^aori.-il intrrrstK of the 
pi)Mcsfl[>r of ihni ^nius bi« own, and tothot [)Urpose he devoted 
his most arduous eflurts. There were more particularly three 
rcspecift ia which hiB aid was most ui^ntly required and most 
liberally ^tveu, and which almost aa » maitei of cour^u occupy 
a coospicuoui place in the correspondence. The iint of thcjc 
vAt \Vagr>er*s iiTipoverithcd contlitlort. U'lien he hod to fly 
Wfdd«^nly from Drrsdrn and ew^ape with Inne life into SwiUcr- 
Uad, he was literally penniteas. The s&lory I'rom the Dresden 
Court was of ct>une strrpptrd, his few guods atid chattels were 
ittd hold upon by Lib Uresden creditor*, and when his wife 
wished to juiii Uitn in exile sLl' bad actuully to burrow the 
CrsTcUing money, lli» only tneome was derived from the 
rfjyAlii^ft on the pcrfirrinances nf his o|>oTas, which in liio44^ dnys 
i^ounted to very little, although at the present time, when 
H'a^er is performed in Germany more frequently than any 
other composer, thtry yield a large fortune. The composer, 
therefore, waa compelled lo lely for the nreesftaries of existence 
ipon the; aid of his tVirndsf and amungst those friends hivX was 
Of course fomnost. (jnfortun.itoly his power wai not in propor- 
tion to his good intentions. He had, as we said hi*lore, 
v^^alized large suras, but poor musicians, inundated Hun^rian 
peasants, and the Heethoven monument at Bonn, had beneliteil 
much more largely by Iheic earnings than the virtuoso himself^ 
Md ibe remainder of his fortune be had settled upon liia moiber 
^ikd his three children. Mia ttnly certain income he derived froim 
Viii talary as Conductor of the Weimar Court lh<<atre, which 



IFagner cwt Litst 

amounted to rather los than 300/, Out of ihit pittance be gare 
bountifuUy to hU firiencf : aod it is touching to Bee hit fsrier wb«a 
fttera neco»LiycQinpdshim toreplr ta one of Wagnei^* d«mandf 
in tic a^gAtiV4.\ 1 boftc dctnuniU were hy vo tnc«n> infn^qucnt. 
On one out of many uocaaioni bi? writes : * 1 onc« more return tii 
the <)uestion, Cjinyou let mc have tbc lIlOO francs as a gift, and 
wauTd it bL' posiiblr for you lo j^itAranlee me the laine annual 
sum for the nnzt tvo jcars? * Tbc 1000 francs were farvardcd 
in due course^ but poor Lisxt had to doclin« the rcsponubjlitjr 
U>T tbe two other yenrs. Wagner's attitmie in tliU matter 
aliould not bo judf;rd nuhlj*. In later years, wheii be made niucb 
money, be «pent oven nior*r, for be bad nil an »rtUt*< love of the 
good thinf^a of this life — richly bound bnoks. piciurei, fine 
furniture, and even fine clothes Itut at this early nerioU itwai 
limply a question of life and dcntb, end that question involved 
a wife, careworn and voidof enlhnjiasm, who bad gone through 
many HulTmn^s wlch her husbamt, and fur whofte welfare be 
exptesmrs itif? tc-ndeTeat cAre. This ia the re<<lceinin^ feature of 
sueh dnmnnda a.a that n!rpa<Iy niwttHl. Apart from ibu, gnest 
artistic interests were at stake, Wagner knew that to carry out 
bis vtut schemea he required a certain freedom from tbc cares of 
the fvj anputa domu and he ar^ed not al toother unreasonably 
that, because the works be wnite were distinctly unpopular, and 
therefore un remunerative, the few wlio a<linire<l those works 
ynjTc in & nnumer bound to oasivi him at far a« id thrm lay. 
The matter i< put nn plainly as pns«ih1p in n prnmngr* from on^* 
of his letters, which may well eene to sxun up this par: of the 
question. He writes : — 

'Poor aud without mcaiia for bare Ijfr, without goode cr heritago 
as J am, I ehnuld be compelled to think ouly of ac^julMtion ; hut I 
hare IcEkint nothiug hut my art, and tiiiit I eaUDot possibly uao for 
die iiuri>osu of acquiring nuW4i<layb - I caunot neck f ublicity, and my 
flrtiBtjo flnlvntion ooeld bo bronght aWnt nnn day only b/ publieitr 
ttoekinf; me, T}io nubUt! fur which alono I can work U a sniaU 
nuclone of indiridunU who con^titato my whole publicity at present. 
To theaa iudlvMualit, therefcre, 1 must turu, and put tht; qncHtion to 
tiiMft whether iloy lovo mo und my art-wofk auffieioutly ta make it 
ptiisaihlQ for lac, iu( far as iti them lins, to ho m^«^, and to dovelop 
my activity withotit dlHturbsnoo. Tliese iudiriduals are nut nuuiy, 
and thoy live far from isich oth^^r, but tho rhamcti^r of tbc^r syin- 

fiuthy is aJi cuoj-gutic uuu. Bau fjjvud, \h*i tiutaUi^u with uit» ia htUQ 

Another subject, wbirh recurs again and n<?ain in this corre* 
snondencei ia connected with Wagner's exile from Germany. 
Wagner was no patriot in the narrow sense of the word ; his 




motto WHM * Ubi bene, ibi patria/ unA cf &II cities he jt«ve tbft 
preference to Venice, with its great hisloric memories uid its 
Bbsolute I'r^^cilom from ihr^ excrttrmttn^ twiac o\ canift^es (the 
ftbomiDJiblc peijiij ati^;imbi>iiU ivltli tLtrlr sbrill vrbUtlcs iliti nM 
in ihowc tlnja disturb the rcpoic of the GTand Cftiiftl). It 1*, 
indeed, ciiriou* to rend in n Jetrer of the mott German **{ all 
Gennan composer* the following paiSA^, written immediately 
after h!a country hud been opened to him aj^iQ ; — 

*VrTtli real horror I Uiiuk of Quruiwiy mru! of my fiitnrn enters 
t809 in thftt country. May God for^ve mo, but I JiscoT«r iioOiinf; 
loi meoa snd uiisunLblo tJiittga, oonoeat and a pretence? of M)lid work 
wiLbuat any rc«l fuuni^aiicia , LpkIf-hoart«duoM in vvar;^ thiu^;. AlW 
aQtl pnf4?rt(^BRa "Lo Pardon doPlfHtrmid*' to PaLnatoftn^rin^itiii the 
diftdow of th<i jtlorioiif German oak-tree. I mn&t aUu oonfoAA to you 
that my trcsding oitoo nuiro on German iu>il did oot produco tho 
slightest iioprcfiBiOD upon mo, except in bo for as X waa aatooiaUad at 
Ao insipidity and iisportiaQnco of tbc Ituiffnox^ I Ijad t> Ii»t«ix to* 
BelioTo mo, m hftte no Fatherland; ami if T un "Gonnaii" it is 
becaiue I carry my G^nnaiiy along with mo, lliis is fortunate, 
becaW tbo luiyence garrifon has oerlainly not insjtirod mo witJi 


ButGeroMny was to Wagner not only hia birtbplaoe, but alto 
the home ni his art, and to cut turn ufl from that home wak, in 
OtbeJli^'a words, lo ai^vrr Lim friurn the ' Aiuntnin from thf^ «vhicb 
my current too* or cl<c drici up/ The gtt-at Cc^rman theatres 
vvrre giving his op^rav, nnd th^i rv>iTipoft^r waa not aUnwnl to be 
prescDl. ¥ivcTy (>erman, u he palhetically complained, bn<I 
beard 'Lobcn^in,* except he who wrote it, and, what was 
worse, be knew tbat in hia absence hU works were exposed to 
tho dangers which spring frxim the carcles«Eio» and slolid 
ttupldjty of otdiuui'v ihL%iiiicul routine. Never Luu yuutbfiil 
error bcAEi moro crucUy punished than that of Wagner, who 
vaa only too willing to give every guarantee for hia total 
abstention from political lif^ and who yet was prevented from 
makin;; the required humble submiBGinn to the King of 8axonT> 
by the fear of having hi^i motive* miarepreienled bv a hostile 
fttM, Here agnin LinEt hnil to com*- tn th(! ri-tccii-. Ho wa« tlic 
Mend of every German potentate ; the Gri»nd DukcA of Weimmr 
nul of nnd«in were hit npec ia I patrons ; the Prince Regent of 
Pmntiit, afterwards Emperor William, was acYwaaible through 
lis wife, a Weimar princess. All these LisJtt interested in the 
Wagnerian cau^e. They were quito Willing to admit the 
repentant compoc^r to their States, but were preveiTte<l by 
4e laws of the German Confctlcratlon from doing lo wiihont 
the content of the Sason Gsvernmcnt. The King of Saxony 



Wcffner and Luzt. 

was nccordingly appenM to from tlie most iDflaentiil qucirtrrs, 
but, with & MTTirity wbtch lavoured of rindicti^'cnffss, that 
coMf-nt wiw withheld Tor more tlmn thirteen years: and it wa* 
Dot iill Mnrch 1^62 that tbct Imn wtt« rniM-d, rtnil that Wngocr 
wus pf^ruiiitrti 'to rciurn to the kingtlom of SBLzony witlunit 
r«9ir of punUbmcnt/ 

Kv«a more important than all thi« materiaJ astUtoocfi wan 
the cncoumfiTc^mcnt which Wapicr, u an arti)t> drnvfd from the 
cotintel and admiration of hia tru&tj' friond ; and it is but jaut 
to »yof him that, in this res|>eci, heypvcat least as miirh as hr 
receircd. Bo:h \J\xrx am) VVngm^r wctt, in an inlcllcciiial 
»cn»c, infinite)/ nbovcr the level of avpragi? masictans, who, as 
% mle, nrp loo bnnv tvilh the tnrhnica)ilif*4 of their own art to 
^ive much time to readtnir or general culture. It U it>decsl 
podttveiy Astonishing to observe the range of subjects which 
are touched upon in tliij concspondence, and it u here that 
Wafrncr decidedly takes the Icail, nuw tlisi^ourEing upon the 
beauties of Caldcron, now comparing the spirit and tht- 
legendary lore of Dante's ' Divina Commedia,' vrnich Liszt had 
miule th^ wiKjprr of n ayinp)jnnie popm, with tho quic^titm of 
the sacred b(>nk« of the Duddbists. \a%7X a)so was n man of 
de<7idcd culture, who hnd in Paris lived in cIomj intimacy with 
men of lij^ht and leading — \ icior Htjgf>, Alfred de Musnet, 
Lcimennnis, nn<l others. At the same timc^ bis intellectual 
ntamp ajid his aiuia in art iverc soaiucly of that idval trpef 
which even bis most persistent cnemicn aeknowlc<1g«d in 
Wof^ner. lie had led th(* life of a virtuoso, and that life 
impli«-s, even in the be«t of men, a certain amount of worlHli- 
nesi and empty thow and yielding to the taBle of the multitude. 
It IJ, for example, cnrjoui to aee that Livzt, in a lelti^r partly 
wpprexftcfl by >fadanie Wagner, prudently oounseU hts friend 
to (one down what he calls the ' su|K^r-iile;d* teudirncy <»f 
' L>ohengTin,* for the «iike of the weaker hmihrm, Wagner, 
it it nee<llea!t to add. reftiaed 1o mnke any surb coneesiion, and 
by the inipctu* of bit lH>ld and persistent endeavours gradaally 
carried alon^; bis friend, whose mental develupmeDt derived, no 
doubt, infinite benefit from \\\i% contact with a more powcrtul 
mind. On the other hand, he was able to ^ve snme vftluble 
adrice to Wa^ntr wiih regard lo the mere technicalities of 
inutic. This, at Irast, may be inferred fi^m such ontbunts 
of exaggerated modesty on the latter'i part as thi> following :< — 

^^ I vaiit muBT(.\ and, Tleafen ktiows. ymi uvq (he only one who cxi\ 
flupjily me with it. As a musician, I f<vel perfectly qi^d, whilo I 
think I bare di»t:overed that 3'ou siti the grt^tcst mofliciaa of sll 
tlm€B. This will bo something new lo you.' 


IFiSffTtffr and Lusi. 


To wbicb Liszt replies; — 

• Tour mad iDJostic^ toward j-onrecU id enllUig younwlf a " miwcr- 
»ble mniictmi Ar.d bluiuicivr/' in % Bign of ywir grtfttopM* In tlie 
■MWf MDM> Pmc«I mjtm, " La vrait; ^Ui^ttcncc «c moque de V^hq^ienec" 
It iH tnu> Uint your j^rontiifAs briDgiiyoa littlo comfort And hftppinMN ; 
but wtoft iti hap)iiij<i»ti, iu tlie narrow mouotonoiu §odvo, irhich u 
. absntdly given U> thowcrd? ItoBignatioD and safi<<ring alone aaattiii 
nn iu tiiU uurld. L&t ua bear our croa« tcgetbuj ia Cbritft— '* tlw 
Ood vrl»om oti« apjiroavfaca vJtboat pnd<>, tr> irbom ooo bouda tho 
kt)«o wit^cict despair." Bnt I nta«t not bo tempted to needleBa 
Pnuiefaoau eermoua.* 

it will bn «r?(rn tbnt mulunl aid, mutual ^ru.x>iiragrm<intr nnil 
• focxl dcnL of motuol udmimtioD, were the keynote uf this 
remarkable friendsJitp. 

In oni- Tctpcrt, huncvrr, Wn^er wna qaiic unablo to rrtam 
the material servicer rendered to him. This woa the pro[m|^ttoD 
of hi* Acirks, ivtiicJi, vtriiliotit LisJAt'v iuvt.-unn< Ub'>UT9, would 
probably hcivt? K-tptod Into oblivion* h wuii Liut vthof in II^M), 
producefl *l,abf<agrin * vrilh nil thr ftpIi^rtJonr of acvnvrj and 
muncal pprfection which tlio limitod resource* of Weimar would 
allow- oU ui() who, later on, nviv4^ ' Tonnhjiuaor * and ^Tbe 
FItjo^ Dulchman* in the laiDG manner, thos eatabJiKhin^ a 
uantlard ;ti;d modi-l of stvle vrblch eren at this date hx^ not 
been aurju^^HiH), From tbi; firsi-iiftinrt] went WagniTr'a fsmir 
Dtay iodMrd he said to date*, H'viiiiar l>rcauio & kiDd of focu» 
Aflbe nt^vr «rhnal, to which muvir.iAns Horkftl from all p«rii of 
the world, tiad from which ■ Lrfhcoifriii * went forth on ii« tri- 
QiDpban: progrras through the civiUari-d world, cslabliBhinjt almoftt 
From the fir^l its pv^ailion as the most human, uioil lovahlr^ ami 
tfarrciorr mo»l gi-mTallj jipprf-ciutnl, nl" a[\ VVajn^Vs operas. 

WbiU' Wa|;uci'a chuiKva of ever bciti^ iiUowd to rvtuiti tu 
QerinnRy wera still r^mot«^ ho natnrnllj IooJcimI oat in (ortyign 
caoDtriea for th^ hospitality which hia Fatherland refumi to 
Ennt him, and there ia in these letten nientioii of many plani 
ior eatablishing a home of Wflgnrrina oprra in Paris, London, 
thp Uoiied States, and e^^en the Empire of I5m/il. All thenar 
sdhemea cami? tn nothing, and thr only prnetirAJ resnlcs to 
^ich the^ led were tli« pcrforinAiicr vf 'TAniibjiuaer' at Paris, 
and lVa^nor*s viait to this country in 1H&&. The fiotco of 
'Tannb&uw-r* in Paris is a matter of hiaiory ; and it is eqnally 
Qotoriocsa Ihnt artitiii- qui-iti<jns had rninparntivrly Utile to do 
with the catastropljc, ihe members of the Jockey Club btrginninif 
tiieir hoi»ting and whistliufc t^vt^ix before thr curtain was raited, 
pnlj because Wagner had rcfuHxl to inleqiolate the orthodox 
kttllet in the second act^ and partly because they wished to 



Witt^ner and LitrL 

tnnke opposition to the Rmperor Napoleon, by wlioie srwcia) 
cvmmADii ^Tannhausrr ' bod been accepted ot tfac Grand 
Opem. h ii almoflt pathetic to redd id ibov letters the un- 
haand<Kl gratitudi; nilh wlitch Wngncr ncknovrlcdgc* tbc libe- 
rality and klndnoitt ibown to liim hy the Psrit auiliorjtjv*, — the 
cxcellmt singcra who were placed At his commnrid^ the fine 
scenery, mid the ueneml artistic spirit in which thiDjrs were 
done. Giving, according to his wont, tliL' etiiphuti of italics 
to his words, he ezcUimB ; ' I^ever yet has the material of an 
eretiient jK'rf'orrfiance ieen placed at my dii^poiat so J'uiiy ami 
vncomlititjriaH;/ fts hiii Iwrcn donr nt PArla fnr ihr pcrforniAncc of 
''Tannhiiucpr" ftt tht< Grand Opi*ra, and I ean onljr wish that 
some Gcrmnn prioce would do the same for my new works.' 
Of (he existence of such a generous GermaD pitron in the person 
of the King (then Crown Prince) of Bavaria, Wagner wn» at the 
dale oi this letter as little aware as of the impcDitng catastrophe 
whiclt a lew weeks ftfteinrards urerthrcw his Parlsiau castle Jn 
tbcT Air, 

Wagner's \'iiit to thit eountry, which is of spr^cinl inlrrest to 
English readers, playa a conspicuous part in this corrctpondence, 
and throws some new light on an important phaic of the history 
of the Philharmonic Society, nnd of Kngltsh mutic generally. 
Wc? have bocn able to aupplemeat M'sgner's own indications, 
as c'cintaiDcd in thcsr IcUrrs, L>y the >tntemcnis uf contr^iiporArieii, 
ftiid hy one or two interesting docurnents hitherto unpublished. 
'Jill* hope nf sei^incr his wnrks appreeiat«<l by a nation so nearly 
allied to the Grrraans as the English, seems to have been enter- 
tained by Wagner for a long time. As earl^- as June, 1^49, 
lie writes: '1 am ready to go to London as soon as possible to 
do all in n\y power for the performance of my works;' and 
noon afterwards wr? are iofcirmcil that he; bad fiiLcd upon a plan 
of having * l^beogrin' performod in London, and in English, 
even before it had beun heard jn the original. This is the- 
passage alluded io : — 

^ Latterly I hsve accustomed my^If to the notioEi of girins It to 
the >rorld at firHt in a foroign Iniigiiu^, nnd now I tiiku up yonr own 
tV'rmor id«a of having it tmnstat^d into IlD^lish, so as to make its 
production iu London passible. I am not afraid that this Opcca 
would not be nadoratood by iLu Enj^liab, and for n ulif-ht altcmtifiu 
I ahoold bd quito prepared. Aa yet, boworcr, I do aot know a angle 
person in London. . , . Could you mauuf[e, dear frit^ud^ to writoto 
London and tu intrudiicr; my DuJortakiug, aud c^iuld yuu ahvo lei mo 
baow io whom to ni>ply ffirthor? ' 

Lisict, as usual, iras ready with his ndrice and his help^ bat 
Lc alto had few connections in LondoDf and tbe only person of 


Ifogntr and LitsL 


wbon lie could tliink tu apply t4> was Mr. Chorley, the In- 
loentiftl critic, who, hv tlic wnv> took *Lil»s<rqurnl]r n rnott 
ittil«* poiitinn Co Wagner vrlirn hi> came to EogUnd. The 
Dmrclutc cau»c of thai vint aroAc from a dilTcrcfit and entirely 
nezpected qaaner. la 1854, tlje PhilhariDomc Society, which 
^t thmt time ix^cupicd the IcAtling potjtt'm nmonfst musicij 
titutions in Ir^n^land, was undcr^oin^ a serious crisis. Sir 
Ijch;iel Coilji hid imiiciicd his pmt of cntiductur, nnd Ut find ft 
ahttitutr for him wiu ftn (extremely cliflicult taaJc. At a mevlJOf; 
if the inFf^cton, many lume* wcte mpntioni^d ; iotnc mggeited 
Vndpainlaer, others Beiliox ; others insisted upon appoiDtioK a 
ausiciazi of Kn^liib birth, or at feast onn residing in Kngland. 
kt ia»t ArSiinion, thefamotis violinist, whoat the age of scvcniy- 
ii-e still lives amongst ui in full possession of bis menul and 
tiatic Jacuhirs, roM? to his feet And nnmrd Wngscr. lie him- 
telf biul no peraoDftl cyif^nijetincu of VVspicr'a capncitie», neither 
bad any of the ttlht^r dirrrtora; hiil, as M, Sainton refnarlcf^d, a 
man who bad been so tnucb abused must have sometbinir in 
him. Tilts M-nlimen( was rt^ceivcd with acclamation, and it 
was nnAniinooifily resolved that n IcDp in the dark should bo 
made. Tbe result of that resolution appears in a letter from 
tl A^nor to Li*xt, which is not daCrd, but cridcntty belongs to 
the r<ry early part of 1855. 

' To-dsj- 1 wfts Bv^cd, on ihft ptirt ct tlia PhilbiirmoDlo Sedai^ of 
Ixiidoa, whether I shoidd bo inclined to conduct its conoortfl this 
jesr. I asked iu rtituru 1 1 ) Have they got a sooond conductor for 
itii eominoiiplsco UiiogH? and i 2) Wilt Uio oichosUa havn as manj 
nfceaiaala an I nu-y oonoidcr ncccBu-iAry ? If tlicy natidy me as to aU 
lbia,tball I wcept tbefj ? If I eould maku a little money vitbont 
4ii^rsc<\ I HbotiM ho pleastiil wdt cooagb* WriCo to mu at onoe 
«W you tbiiik of this,* 

A little later, January I9tb, 1855^ he writes — 

'1 Bin ablo to-day to tend ^ou pnrticulsra about London, BI& 
^ersoa, treasurer of thd riiilharmoatc Society and coudnetor of 
^ QuMn's bukd, csmo epcdnlly to Zurich to nrraago the matter 
*^ mo, 1 did not like the idfa lotich, for it in uot my vocation to 
P b Lendim anl oanduet Phi Uiarm onto ooueorts, not eveti for the 
pvpoKe cf prodacing vamo of my oompositions, as is their wiab. Ou 
^ cAltex hand, 1 felt distificlly tUat it wsa aocesssry for me to turn 
°7 Wk once for all upon i^v<^ry hoi'O and i;Vory dcuro of takiDg an 
Vlivs paH tri our oun Artixtic lift, iitid for tliat rieaaon T accepted 
^ hud hold ont to me. LodcIoq is tbo only plsco m the world 
*^ lean make it pos8ihIe to pruditcxT 'LcihuiKnu" myself, viliilc 
^ tin^ snd priooc« of Gormsny have Eomollxiiig olso to do tban 
pvti me ny unacoty. It would ptouw mo vory mtiob if X eoidd 
>^>ec tbe Knf^isb people next ytiar to get up a qilendid Ooriuan 
Vbl, 107,— iV«i. W;>, G Opera 


H'ljffjtrr anJ Lu^. 

Opvr* with m; worTcs, paCrouiatod by the Court. I uUuIC HaX zaj 
htMX inttv^dnction for that purp<Hw will bo my appointnant B« oon- 
dactor of tie PZiiUmnmiuiu Ttbe old\ oiti] ft^ I conBCiitod ftt Iwtt 
lo Iho Kalp of iji;rFolf. ahliongh I fctclicd a vrry loir [n-i<»— 2O0t for 
four montLfl. I ^haU h- iu Loudou at the brj^'inaing of Tklorch to 
coniact right <^oni:crU, ibo llret of irliich Ukva fUco Hwli ISlh, 
aiul tbf? Inst Jonn 3-"jtb,* 

Wa^cr arrived ii London late in FebruAry»&nd after BtajiDi; 
for a sbnrt timp at ifcc lioust? of hU iViend. Mr, P^[lcg€^^, l<wk 
roomv al ^2, Portland T<»mir*, K<Tgcnt'» Park. M. Sainton 
ieUc«i that, one mnmin^ in l'«bruaryt at 9 a.m., a youUifal- 
looking; German called en him in fult cvcninE? clroAa* in order 
to pa^ him an ofiiciiJ visit as one of the Pbilhannonic directon. 
At fir«t their inteTrnur«r uiui a littli* I'ormnl, cind ftli^itly im* 
peded bv Wa^ni-r'ti iiri|k<rrfrci knQwIed|;e of I'^rt-ticb ; but Booo 
the ice begnn to ibaur, and boforc an hour vran nvcr the two 
Wf>rp eh*ltinf( »« if ib<^y hnd known caeh other for yenrs^ and 
from that morornl tlicjr were ftut fnrndt, and remainctl, during 
Wagner's itay in London, inseparable. Waifner had fow other 
accjualntantci in London, and not beiii^ uhle to ft|Teak our 
langUAj^c was practically debarrcr! from Kngliiii t<K'Jrty. Ilia 
only inlertxjurai% autirt fnjui M. ^niiituu, vian with Mr. lVai-;^r, 
aUo •till nlivf^ ; Mr, Liitlt^n, a tnuaical cathuftiatt and intiinkt^ 
friend of M. Sainton ; Klindworlh, nt that tirat* a very joun^^ 
pianist: aiid Hector Berlioz, who was conducting the New 
Pbilbarmonic Conci?rt» at ibc time. For him Warner enter- 
tained a very Hvclv mlinirntion, whtdi wai not altogether re- 
ciprocated by the TVencb romposer, who later on gloated orer 
ihe defeat of * Tannhnuser ' lu Puris tn a manner Hule CFcditablv 
to bis heart. But all this was still in tbo distant future, aiul 
VV'ftf^ner s(p*-alf« of bi« nrwlv-;^""*^"' l^riend a> one of th^ £pw 
BCquisiti^inB of his dreiiry London days. 

' Odo real f^in' ho writes to Liazt, ' I hring back from Enj^ftad — 
the eordiul and genuine fritiiidiJiijk ^hioh 1 foci fcr Bcrltos and 
whieh wc havo mataally concluded. I board a concert of the ^ev 
Philharuionio nndcr bi» direction, and wan, it in tra«, lilLlo cdi£od 
by li]« jierfiirmanuu of KToimrt'K Q iriioor SyinpTiory. vrbilc th« tmJ 
jjnpi^rfoct ciocntioa of hie " Kotneo and Juliet " Symphony made me 
pitj him. A fuwdaya afterwarda wu tvvo rure tho only gac«rt« al 
Siniit4m'H table ; ba was Hvoly, anil the progrces In French whl^ I 
havo lando in London ponnittod mo to diootian vdth bim fiiv flro 
hours all the ]irob1emH of ar(, pldlonopby. and Hfo« in a ntfiMt 
ting eonTomtion. In timt manner I i;fiined a doop sympatby fo: 
new friend ; he appeared to mo i^uito diffc'H>nt ttota What be hvl 
before. We diveoTerod iniddonly that wo ttoto in taalltj f« 
ATiCTervr*, and I thought npon the wbolo I wu hnppior than Eorlior- 


WagnfT awi Litrt, 


ar my kai concert bo and th« uUier fev friooiJfl I bikTc in London 
llnd upon no, his ihfo alto cbdw. Wc ronulD^ togetbor till 
o'clock io tbo moTciiiig, imd took 1e«Te with tlio wanooBt 


Dcrlioz, on bis part, ^iv4^ a description of ihis Lnndoii 

plaodc Io Li«zt, in which b<? ^n.y^^ * Wngncr U spli<ndi<l in hu 

dour, and 1 ci>nre«« ihnt even hit vi'>]*'iitt* fTvJigbu mc. Ho 

i somcOiiner *inffu!iirly atlrnirti^c for mc» and i( wc both have 

riticfl, ihoae aipcritica dovelAil with each other,' accopi* 

nying thr Irtal r<-inark bj^ nn indented line, the anglcfl of 

ran in |>aral[ch« 
Waj^ntr^s prufeskiutriti |iruii|>«^'t» ajipcfaTtrd at firsl \f.xy farij^ht. 
I. Sainton givers an intcnrftting dcBcnption of tho (irat n-hc«r»al, 
: which Wajj^er Ci)ndu<:tn1 thr Hf-roic S^rmphon}^ of B<xtthov<ra 
rithoot book — nt thni time- nn nlmott unprecedented feut of 
armory, ftUhou^h linoo then Hfrr Rithtor and othtr comlucior^ 
hftve itnitatrd It. The orrhcfttrA and the few persons present 
were at once aatonUhf^d and delighted at the new reiding given 
Uv tb«? fniniliar irork, the dclicdicy of the* nuances insi«tnl upon, 
the mi4>]ligrace and fire wiiti which the melodiea wpfe pbrued* 
After the rehearnal the mii«iei«nft hmke mit intn a utorm of 
\ppUuBe sarh ai hris been seldom heard in an Ezi]*li)h concert- 
room, Wagner him^ielf vra> exiremely jileaseil with hi> recep- 
tion, HM the following cxEracIn will shtiw ^^ 

' After Uie £rttt rehoonnl tbo directors of llie rhilhu-monio vem so 

Utgkt«d vnd full of hope that thoy infliftkfl upon luv porferottDg 

teoMi of tuj compoHitioiia nl thu vtiry noit (njuct<rt. I kud Co yivld, 

inl ohooo Iho pi«oiM fn^m " T-ciliongrin.*' . , . The ori^henlrA, which 

I kii Uken » ^TDat likini; t> mo, Ik v^^ry cfficumt. imd iiovvesaoft jcnat 

ddQ aad fttirly quick iut^lligeoce, but it \% <|aito upoilt as regurde 

opntnoii ; Uti)re ia nr^ piftao, no uri<:in'V. li van uHtouitthcd and 

Wfjhlod at my ray of doing ttingtt. With in\> farth<<r rvhoannl* 

Ibflfe Io put it tolonbly in ordon Hut then thin hope and my 

EialCffiBonreo with the orohcKtra are all that attnct me hfrre ; beyond 

ttiitll is indifiar^Bt and disga^ting to nic. Tho pnbltc, howoTor, 

Wvu dutinguiahttd mo rt-ry much* both in ivcuWiu^ um luid evou 

&w« ftl tho oloae. Ouriou« io itw vrtM ihi- i'-yufiMnntm of «oni« 

VaMaaohiiiaiiA that they had never lusftrd and understood the 

ttiwtm to thu ^' Hebriioa" aa veil aa under my direction/ 

Hke fiFKt Pbilharnifniio Oncert took place on March 12. 
Oq the next day, most of thed;iily pnper* came out with a perfect 
^fvr of abu«ei, which was echoed in ihc weeklies, notably in 
^' Atbenamm/ and coiitinued without abatement duriii]^ the 
^lotttcayof Waj^er in Loudou. M. Sfiinton relslrs tiint, at 
^ next nlivaraal, when Wagat^r entered the orchcstm, not a 

u 2 hand 


fycffner and LitsL 

liand WAS raised to welcome bim, tke musicjam nceiring \x\m 
witi AbsaJutc silence. He biRittelf AUril>iitcii this ch&ti|^ of 
Miinide Lo the influeDce of the prcts, while Wngnrr fUscoven 
in it the inflacnoc cf Co»ia, ' ibc real mulcr nod ilcspot of ih^ 
muiicianf, who c%t\ dikmias atvl fLppriiKtl tbc-m 'irrordin^ tf> bti 
will/ IVobnbly both were rjfibl. VVa^ner, althoUKli, we have 
fteen, a tme aoil warm-hciirted friem), was little cnncilintorj' in 
his manner xa straDgers; and tb» stperities, of which Berlioz 
speaks, naturntly roused the indignation of those who came in 
casEial cuiiiaut witli tbL*iu. He* wus wvH known to be no 
■utmiror at llalinn Oj>cra ^ and the Italifin fACttonj with Covta nt 
their head, nalurallv hate*! him. Whal wa* uor^e, hr had 
written n vcr>" ill-judged painphh-l ngAinit the Ji^w>, in which 
XfondelsAohn and Meverbeer were icveroly criticized, although 
by no inenns vtilgarlj* abused, Meyerbeer's influence was ixt- 
reoehing, and Mendelssohn was at the time the idol of iLe 
Kiif^lish public. \W Luvi* btrcii Iiiroiiiitnl on llitr \>v^i. lUithoiity 
ihn: Wn^cr, when be had to conduct a work by Mendclccuhn, 
deliberately and slowly put on n pnir of while kid gloves, to 
indicate the formal, or one may say fashionable, character of the 
muiic; and this pUce of bad taste nsturally rouwd the trtr of 
Mendelssohn's admirers^ in the press and elsewhere. As is 
usual in such cases, both sides were to btame. Hut, at the same 
time, it leuiuiDH a iri^Uer fur rtr^^irt ihat lh<.' innutriice, wLicli a 
miui of W»gncr** grrniun and high :&rt>scic aim* mjght have had 
on English music, wa« thus alinoU literally ' sDufTed out by an 
article/ ALtugetlicr, Wagn<-rs days in Lon<lon were amongst 
the tinhnppiest of his eventful career, but it is interesting to 
obserre how, even in such ein-iim stances;, be was able to forget 
exicmiil iroiiblcis «vcr n mibjrci thai really laid bold of bLs mind. 
The instruinentuliuii oi * The Wnlkurc ' wa» for tbo ^Tioati?r part 
liniihrd nt Porllnnd Terrarp, nnd tbo irtant-rly ekpoiilirin of 
Buddhism as distinguished from the asceticism of Dantes 
' Divina Coinmetlia/ already refrrretl to, t* dated fn>m London. 
U'e are assured by Mr. W. G, Cusins, Master of the Qtieen's 
mnsic, and for a number of venrs conductor nf the Philharmonic 
Society, ituit in spill? «f i\\v. ftuacks of the prc-ss, the Pbilhar* 
monic seuson of 1855 wat in a pi^cuniary aenn' on extremely 
snccievsful one, Thr publir wrn- rager In &«><> iho man nho 
excited such ire in celestial besoms, and many of th<}sc who 
came to scofr remained to a^lmirc. There were at any rate two 
very clistinguished persons, who treated Wagaer with a kiudness 
which almost moved bim u> tcnrs. 

'Yen have probably beard/ be vriti^ to Liszt, ' how cbanaiDg! j^ 
QuDon Vieloxia behaved to lue. She attended the auwulh concerfr 


Wagntr and LiszL 


, Prin^>« Allxrl, anil aa tlio^ wuiW lo liOftr BomoCliiiig of minOf I 
I tUtt '^ TaT)nWiiiiu<r '* nvnrhirrr ivrpcinW, whi<th hAlnml niA to a littlo 
amende. I r«at1y tt-em tti liiiTo pleased Uie Qutwu, In n 
iticn 1 hnil itith lior. b^ hor diiHiro, itftor llio first part €f tho 
^ abo wwi M> kiud t}ittt i vuB ruiilly qaitfj loDoLedn Tbi^Mi two 
Um firat people iu RniiilAnd tvlif> duW to vpoak in my farour 
opBDlj ui<l nndtKiftiifti^ly, aaJ if yc>u ccniHidor thftt tbcij hod to deal 
inUi ft politic&l outlaw, oliar^'od with bigh traadOD «id '^ irant^ *' bj 
Ibfl police, yoti will Uiink it uatiiral that I am eiiio«ro]T grat<;fiil to 

Before Icaringr tbit part uf itic aubjcct, wr mutt Jay before our 
rcadcn two interesting Ifrttrrs, for wbich wc ^tt indcbtrd to tbcir 
mipit^ot, }A. ProajMrr Sajiitoti, and wbicb sbuw WagntT in a 
most nmlablc ll^ht — full of gmtihiflct for tbn kindnosi ibnt bnd 
boen sbowri 1l> bim, loiikinj? bAf^k upnn bis Kondon troubles witti 
a fcrtftiii liumour, rcmcmbrrin^ old frirndc by tlicir nicknAmcs, 
ami old Atori^ and old jokes. We should !idd, b; way of com- 
mentary, itiat tbL^ t'ha'jnns Hii^seu/n^otnUf mentionnl in the letter 
refer to tbc scc^siion of M. Sainton from cbc PhilbArmonic 
Society, wblch H'agurr crroatously attributca lo ibe fncnd»bip 
iUown to bim by ihat g^ntlffmaiiH TLo Mr. Buinpu«t about 
wboae welfare bt* no anxmu&ly rnquiri?!, :■ the bookacller tn 
Otford Street, wbom Wagner, of couraCf hail never met, bet 
vrhoae tborougblv in»ular name amused bim verj- much. Tho 
peculiar French m which these letter* arc vnUen add» to their 

*OKKa Paofipfta&f — r'«etaiijaardhui<ju» jcriooadomiLtler lo lit dn 
atlado, que j'ai icarde pcmlant deut moU u IVieoptiOQ do pen da 
joera. Cjtait— je crois— la maladio ^lo Loudro^ lonf^tetnpfl eaohJe, 
^li «t <^laloe <iufiu, pour mu rapptilcr co quo jo dfiin k tui «t jk tea 
■ciaa bien ami«atix, ttana lon-indn jVurftifl probril>l4>mor]t troiirtS ma 
Qnrt — la, d'oh jeu'at romporti? mAtntenant qu'itne eortiiino oollotrtiou 
iirbEUaee et do eatarrha lateula qui Tiontieut do aortlr euflu do lour 
t>^ LcaTapcura do Loudros a'uyant unfui^un tinftlcunect, taut da 
Vn oorpa (|tLo do uicjit unprit^ mvt pruoiivru occuj'ulioii tJat du nuiuuhur 
tut la fraiii^iH <]no jn rriiiidse cacare tronvor dann oea coinn Ao mtin 
|wm oorrcaa, ou — daprte la doctrine du proftutftuur PracK^r 
mAmmi twe ^ult^a linguiatiqnca : ear jo mo Mms rraimont ngibr ot 
mnta t%^riro, at ^ t« dtrc, C|Ud jd t'aime toi^oura encore, et qa*un 
^nua pltid doQ3C »ouv«Dira, c*e«t ta conaaiaaaz^oo ot tou aciitic. Lo 

^Povrtant jo no toux paa to oacher quo oea aouToatra aout accom* 
IVnia par dw rogrtita : — jc eodk quo moa aiuiti^ t'a bGaiiC4>np ooiit^. 
ttjQ |]o«TnlB c:Qkcur ijnrhiuo ahijvio do ina ouuduiti? pusAt^u, cl* vnraivul 
^ nl^iitofl ut t^<moi^Q»f*i>t: d<> Di^oduti^ritijoxiikt < jui) jo t'at di>iio^i< tAot 
^ nia A entendre, ea iveompcndo do ta tooUlcure vo)(mt(\ et, cnrioiitt 


ff'a^/ter ai*d J^Utt* 

utomnT alorn toi-ui^tne, ^ oaiiBO de moi. ... To voil^ iDUEjteiifuit 

Sby6 comtno tu lo mcritAU. Kt <]ii'cMt-uo quo tu as gtgno 6n ^otlMOfle 
e oe 4|Ue tu ua ptirilu? Hfilttdl tui tri«l« ilon, mou ■mitiv^ ct le 
«ouri>nir il'ttn li<iniuiii ib<51ai:ioi>Li<]iio, fnrt oouvcat ]tiJtupporta1>lo qui 
[uaancftit \a^ illucrn ot uttitquiut tu ineillouio humcur \*MiT ^n fruuc^is 
liorrihlo! VoUii U r^mpenset Kt moi? do dovniK-jo jmia £tre 
moi'titi^ pJiT I'lili^o do t'uroir attir^fi loal oetft eana to poUToir r^taHw 
U luotuilre part d« uq cju9 tu «» |)0rilu » cnuAO do tnoi P Tout co qoi 
mo onnHoIo uii poii, eVjit )u Ici^on quo tii ah rflijao^ ot qui t'uim appnti 
do no t'oconpcir junaU, qu&nt » IVrt, que dos liommtu d'ntio trotni)0 
bien diff^cmto do la mionno. Mftii conuao ju Mok lo plus j^giS je to 
doittto eacortj uo con»eil uu pvu groc : 

'Tu mi comprcndn&j 

'Eh ^an ! II fHiit roaintonftnt lien foira botinir miuo u mAUiniK 

S" a, c^ost poor ccU qno jo to prio do domnnJot fi Ludora oo qQO Uit 
tutpoii^ B'il m'en p«;ut tlonitor da booQc* naatxillc*, ccIa mc 
eotiaolora ^t toncl;ftra pri>fi:i[id*jTit<int. J'etiprm qu'il ta bi«&? Va Io 
KiiUndo d'liomardr c:t Ics boutcilloB do loda untor, qui etaio&t toujoim 
si affrcuses pour *oufl deux ii Toir ? Et CliarlotiUigiw ? — il Trorfttore, 
Lit lee oiiiiB giiemcre J'jMim. . . . 

* A Itt Torite jo t'ujKiiMi quo jo porto un gT*nJ et vif d<$Kii< d^avoir 
ioft noiiTolles do voire part, nials bleu hrgt« — li^a Urgt^! 
EntcuJ«"tu bieu? Ou m'oa r<rtii-tu a. present, puiiiquotn hji appHu 
quo ma oonnajaaiico Vapoit^ dtj TiiAlh^Dr? Je n'ycroUpiLs; or Jo 
iijlU qac tu cd— avant tout 4^!(oi:Uciit ynri^oii, ccvur gt'tu'ivux. , , . 

' AIM1114 ilntiJ? T Gnr<loTiR iiotn> nmiiit' 4^111 mWt a ii:ni prucianx 
oomme on Kotiriro inutUmdu du <i<j^titi. Espi^rocs nona rtfroir uu joiu 
pour coutiuuer ce quo u'a qau oommanc^ <A braroiut loa oiknalUc» \ '. 

*Adicii, tnoti trv<« cbor Prr>«p£l«! Wllo ^Utfi ii Ludora ct ^ U 
iuiuM>n Friu'gor, muo |mruijis ! Jo to romoroio cncora do tout mf^n 
DcDur pi>i]r taut dc biou* doat tu m'a^ comb)i<, ct etuia iwricudf^- du ce 
quo ja n'eii ptrilrat JtuDoU lo sutivcciir- 

* Toil tout durou^* fK^ i:t ami, 

A <ecomi letter, culdirtsfrtl tn M. Sainton, ant! also publUbed 
h<jnT for the first lime, is dated Bavreuili, 1S7'>. At tUal lime 
Wagner was m tbc icaitb of bis fnirie, and juat |>rc|>&finK a per- 
formanco of In* * Nibelungen-Rm^' oX tb^ Bajroutb Tbc*trc, 
eroded for bim bj' tlu^tibfrrAlity nf bi« ndmirpr«, and of the King 
"f IlavariA Hul hr liad not forgotten \\\% old Lomlrvn friends, 
and a letter fn>m M, f^ainton, whioU mchc^i bitn in the imddle 
of hla cxeitemeiit, imEnvdiatelj^ elicited tbe following rvpir : — 

'Mox OBEB Sadttok, — Tu &*AvaiA pM boeoin de ma rappoler ton 
soureiiir. J'al dict^ a nu. fcmme ma Tie cnti^; elld la vonlait 



WagwT aiui LittU 


* an fc4ifL CoU «it ^Ht, ot •«» logn^ 1 suq 61«, pour le £iiro 

panftTD BprC'& ma mort. Et quoi ? Yon« rona flgnrei ^o no fMU 

tijrnrer duti oe4t4- tiq ? Duiblc 1 No. 8, Hind Stroot Kt Li^^dcra ? 

^Ofit« Totn luatoiro ^ yatxA deax 06t d6pC6^ dwii ce maj»in*ri^ 

'(■QiA IfcUUigforv jtui'ia'ik ToiiIcmiim: (dh jroMant lIjULtniarg}, Bt 

10 LonfltXH? — ChftrWittgno ? Oii bm-Iu Ic «<*iih. mon tht(r V 

'fib bi^o! Bappcllo-toi biontOt il CO qneiiBto oacoro im coitain 

^Ku BftTitro^ Don Sjmo!K 

^BDOQto iw boo i^fib i riieiue, ei nmv« iL jUBti} Umpa il WftTmfnett; i 
^^no bcQio aoTw dinonra (I !) Honpcr h wrpt bouroA <lii soir. 

Uuc u tu Teiu, appgrto ton vii/loii ftvuc Ivi, ot J^uifi. Les Kibeluugou 
firront 1u« hcijjboun a rotu totut. 

I'FvTco do A]QUUi>n4 oordiftlca Jo la port d« ton mnoiiiii ami. 
^ EiCttAKD Waonei, 
•Ba|raiitb,4Jiiin ISTV 
Wflgner again visited London in 1877, when ht conilactcd 
loBif^ <-oncrnfi at Uie ^Ibcft Hnll, ruid was received by th« 
puLiltc — lu wan lu» ("ricHil LIhjcI iiuht jcar» lalvr — wUU tvcrj 
iign of cnihusiAun. By apccinl coniniAnd he wont to Windsor, 
kibd bad an nudirn<^ ai ibe (jucwn, nnd it trotilfl be tnt^rrttin|( 
(o knovr what reminiaccpccs tbcsc two eminent pcrooD* ox- 
ciunged with each other. 

The ct>rTt^ap<>nd(Mii:« a( \V<«gnf!r and Liixt, as far as H if pub* 
ilibiMl in these two volumes^ breaks olT with the year ISOL, and 
MmIiudp \Vu>;ti<.-r, ftccoidin^ U> 4U f^iilcrjmBiDg GitrniAn incer* 
VLfwcT, bni cicoliircd tbot no further Iclcera arc in e^stoncv. 
Ttkis »tAttiin<-iit ia jsC-Arrely cmdible, nnd wi> fiurmiar that thi; 
Udy only said that such tellers were not in her poaaeaaion. The 
frxodaitip reniAined undiaturbed for iwenty-tvru years lon^r, 
wd it isacnrccJy crr<Jiblc"lhat livo men, who were almoitaa fond 
^( letter' wri I inif as was Clariatu lIurloMe, and who never Jived 
la the umc toirn ftir any length oJ" time, should not hitvc com- 
■tainted wiih vach other. What haa becoino of the MSS,? 
"ho ia their present pnaaeasor, and for what reason di>ea he 
^hkold tbem fnwn publicity? Theae aie queationa which 
(^CTiBui rcacarcb will no dt^ubt solve before loag. 

( 8t^ ) 

Aet. IV.— !• AH XX. tf 18S7 of ^A* Covtrmr-GcRerart 
Council in India. An Act for the Frvitcti^A Qf tP'tbt SinU 
and Gumfi. 

2. Ad VL of 1870, An Act f^/r th^ Prt^vrvatwa of WiU 

8- Shikar Sketches. By J. Morny Drown, Iab> 79th Camcmo 

4, LrftfTS on Spor^ in iW*T?i IMn^aL B/ F. B- Stmsoiv 
Bengal Civi) Servtoe, retirvit. l>>ndon, 18^1>. 

5. Sport irt Ji^ngaL By lulwuril D. BhUvt, Ia1« Deputj- 
lovpector Gcnerol of Police, BcogAl. London, 1987. 

A LAW fnr tbr protrction r»f wild \}m\% and fnmi* has lypD 
n?ty.'iiU_v rnucicd hy the ViL-eroj- uf India aiad bi« Lt^gUU- 
tlvc Council. Il follows generally the linos nf our English AcU, 
In providinjf for a c1o«v ur breeding setiion. during wliicb it 
will be A punisbAble olTcncc to po«ftc«i or acll any of the pro* 
tectcd birdi, if rf^ccnlly killed or takoo. The expre»ion * wild 
birdi' ift 1o be defint'd by tW (i»v(-nior» of tfit.- different pro- 
rincGi, ficconling lo the rrquircmmt* of the trrntorics over wbich 
thvy rule. Tbe local Ouveiuiits arir iil»u cuipuwcrvJ to apjdy 
tbe law to any animals of giunc otUcr tbnn binlS' Tho onact- 
mmt of this law may be said To mark n nntabff> ers in the? 
progress of Wrstcm thought and civJlii^Tition in India. If & 

Same law bad been introduced by ibe Kn^liih conqneron of 
lengAl in the \\%l century, what a subjtfct for cleclamation il 
mi^hl have afforded to Burke and Sheridan; and what bar- 
rowing; |nctures imgbt have brtn conjured up of ibc much 
sufTc^ring nativc*s vainly struggling agAin*! \\m* tj rtnny of Strang* 
feuda) Iaws. But happily it is not likely that any rornplmnts 
will now be preferred by the natives of India, Tlicir sympathy 
has been succeaafully enliated in favour of the new law, as it 
makes <jwciftl pn>ri»ii)n Uyr tlie pn>le<nion of the fWfowl, wbicb 
are regarded in many pans of India as sacred birda. I^e Aci 
also takes nmier its protection many tDsectIroruu» blrds^ which 
are the (mo frjpixU oi the culijvalon of the toil, and roicue tbeir 
rrfLpft from the ravages of tlie innumerable liny pcsU whteh 
iwarm in a tropical climate. Evrn the odious Indian crow nay 
cone within [he scope of the Act, a» be hangs on the skirts of 
the great flights of locusts, und devours as many as he can 
gorge. The law bopes prtaclpally to favour such birds as the 
graceftil cgreti, and pnddy'-birds, an<t the ilycatebcrs, wbich arr^ 
great de4rroy«>rs of grulis and iusLvli. Thete are all eagerly 
sought and slain for the sake of iheir plumage, which is- 
brightest duTiag the breeding season. The Lieutenant-Goreroor 


Thi GatMc and Cantc Ixars a/ India, 

oTtlK* Panjftl> r«port4Kl tEftl ibe E«rftp**fln ileminil for tb« tlcina 
of inftcctirorous birds h&d done iiiucli tiArm^ The runi popola- 
lioo if w>rry lo wtc llicm iliTitruyrtl ; whiUt thr only pc-rKonc 
interested in the trA<]e arc tbe exporters^ «ad tbo acttcn and 
mnrere employed hj tbun. 

It tAUiwSf Altnoii nc'cestarilj, that tbe birds, wbtch arc com- 
moiiljr cnll^rd f^inr bird*, hiive poAered »cven.-ly ; and perbaps 
ibrip miiforlimm bnvn ronn^ homf^ mott forribly t" t be feelings 
of the English sjiortimen, who Gnd tbeir occupation almost goae, 
and ib«ir toil inn^lrqiifttcty rrpaid< It not n*€entlj rcporled 
by the Contmissioncr of S'iadli Ihat as many ai 30,000 black 
parEridgts irere tlettroyed, in a very few dtiys, in iddic of tU« 
iu»rtbcrii di^tricU of tfiiit praviii€c, with a vicvr lo supply the 
(lefnftnd froin LIorDpc for their akins. The BUck FaTtridge is 
the FranrMilin (AViiimvJjivv/ ri^/^^rfii) nt knoirn in Rumpc*! 
chiefly in the North of Italy. The plumage nf the o)ck btrd ia 
Tery haodcomc, and xa an undeniable ornament to a Ia<)y^a hcad- 
dren. Destruction at the rate of 30»D0(J birds in a week 
neana early annihilatian. Olher bird* can be mentioned 
«hich bttve ftiiird little butter ibbii the Black Puiirld^^e. The 
Muaal ond KMIj PbcaMmi*, whicrli DM;d lo be common in 
ttie llimAUyan valleyt, have now ninioit disappeanMl. Th« 
leautiful Fidjplectron, or wood- peafowl, and the Atatoora Phea* 
aintt or Suplocamus ihrsjieldi^ which vicre formerly amon^ the 
t»oft coveted prirj^ in the jtingica of Kastem ilengal. have been 
nitbleskly prnmiicd for the aakc of their plirnioge. The 
jjni^Je-fuwl, the aburigioal Gtillntt Jfrrut^ineta of Ucngalf which 
ifTordcd apOTt olmoflt i^nunl lo that of ordiaary pheasant* 
jiiooting in England, h«a been driven away from bia old huunis. 
This i« due partly to tbo inroads of tea^plnnters, who have 
ntAblished Iheir lea-gardena on hia favourite hills, and partly 
lo the uUindanoe of chenp g^uns, which have found tlieir way 
into the hands of the nativo biid-slaTers. In faet, almost every 
gamc^hiTd that hju Its hrccdifig-placr in IndiJi bia had no 
pRac« allowed to it throughout tho twelvo montha of the year. 
The migratory birds have fared better, for they takt^ their 
departure irom India when the cold season comes lo an end, 
k it believed ihnc tbey fly away to Lob Xonr, and other lar^ 
bkc« in Central Asia, whrn^ tfacy build their nrsts, ami hatch 
cQt tiie young bmoda which arc lo join in the next autumnal 
UVAsion of IndiA, Cranea, ond wdd greae, and ducka, and 
vid^ton and teal, in millionw, fly *oulhward« to ladia about 
October. Snipe arc to he found in very great numbers, fn^in 
September to the end of Febmary, in almott every part of India, 



Tho Gam^ and Game Lanes oj India. 

until, on ^me briffht mcN>n1i^1il ni^bc in Mnrcb» iivty take 
their departure as awiftlj' and noiaclcssJv as xh^y bwl amvcf). 

In Lord DufTcrm's new Ciiime Lhw a p*>vrer lias b«n takm 
to enable the Louil Gf^vrrnmrnt* t« ntrmi ihr proviiirnw i>f 
ihe AcTt to ail} aniiiiuls uf jrauir utUer than birds. This vtajr, 
IMrliapi, be looked on witb suapicion by some people. Bttt 
thertr an* ci*vera1 kinds of fC'i^i^ animalsr tuch as nilghai miMl 
ant^lopf's, which n^ftlly nocd prt>ti'rtinn. \or is this iho first 
i^fi'ot\ of GovcTnment in this direction. Nearly ten years ap>) 
the VicT-rity found himself «blij;:cd to Ir^isUte to pmhibit the 
wanton destruction of wiid elephants, ami lo sMrrt tb« Oovi?ri>* 
menl rifchls uf owiivnbip lu bU that tiught hvt captured^ wb«llicr 
by its own spccinJ ofltcwrs or by licon^cd hunters. It aoDin«d aa 
\t the i-tephnnls of India were nbciut to beeiorn^ an extinct 
speeiea. The supply of newly-c-aught wild clephAnti wv d^ 
creasing: it<*^ year lo year. The iiiottality amon^ the tame 
rlepharis employed for military purpoKet had largely increased, 
cjpccially during the proirocied campaigns of the Matiny of 
IbST. The elcpbajitf (hough of hu^ itrcagth, i> of deUcate 
eon sti tut ion, and reqnlnts to b« treaied with much mor« ear« 
than it utually reci^ivrs when engaged on military dutiec The 
market value of elephacis showed how scriinuAly tbe supply was 
becomtri); exhaustH. Thvir price mtire than doubled itself for 
all young and scrviceahU anircals. Then the Government 
interpoaedf and a« tame elephants do not breed id captivity, the 
\wv woi pft»9cd lo protect the wild elr^phnnta fro^tt being bunted 
for the «ak<> of lUelr ivory ; and to r«^uir« the profomonal 
banters of elephants In take out a lirrnee, tinder wbirh the 
Gtovemmrnt would have ihc first choice of all newly captured 
elephants for tlie wants of the Commiasariat, and for otlicr 
military purposes. 

U has been probably too much the habit of Engliili apona- 
mcn in India to deplore the ^nrral decrease of the wild animals 
which ihey used (o bunt. VVbcr4>VL*r thrre biu boen a marked 
diminution nr disappearance of the beaita of pn^y, it i« uaually 
due to one of three causes. The first and principal cau»e has 
been (he gradual increase of cultivatt^m thrnugbout thccouatry. 
The second crause is referable to the jioliey adcmted by tbe 
Goveifimeut of Indiiw "f giving prcuniarv rewards for the extei^ 
mination oi wild animuU nod piit^onouH cnakcH; and the lliird 
c:iiue ia lo he fiiund in the atsidtions endi*avaurs nf English 
sportSTnen, during the last century, to kill as many wild beuU 
as they could find time and opportunity to destroy. With r^anl 
to tbc first cause, it U a simple fact that the ctcaranoe of the 


IThe Ccme and G*tmc Imic* of ludta* 



nntl ilift AprrAct nf ruUiiTAfioi] b«vft lipi^n d^tal, not r>nly to 

larger bcaela of prev« but also lo tbc iniioceni liord* of deer 

niitL^lofM^s. AVitbiiut ciitrriojif inlu any rliscm^ion on the 

Andcd tcoutcft of India, it is gcncmlJy known tbal, bovrevcr 

'tniidi Ibe GorernmeDt revenue Bjstemt may diifer in cAch pro- 

incfr, cbcrc is cvcrTwtcrc a Mmitar amount of IttJid-huiigrr 

.monf^ (he cultivating^ clauue*. VVlii^revor it Ua* h^vn possibfc 

'tri rnlrrm n frw arrr« f>1 imniltrvaif^d land, the vf^ntiirctioiDe 

peasant has f^ne in, with hja bill-book and U\% pbiuteb, and b;is 

not besltAicd to risk his lifi* in proLrcting his littlr crop from 

tbc rava<r<n of tbc wild boatt«t ^hich had looked on the land as 

a part oi ibeir own doaiaia. .-, * 

The policj, wtiicb lin* been pursued hy the I\n|;li»li Govcrn- 
tneat in Altvmptinft to vxtvrmumii? wild b<?aKti, Ico-vct very little 
fitasofl to £oar tliat it witE pemtit its new Game Law to be ubuBed* 
to as to enctiuraK*^ the jsrowth of any noxious animals. Un ibe 
contrary, jf, arc^rclin^ to the old lablr of .^^p, a council of 
wild beasts eould now he beld^ it would be for the animals to 
ciimplain ihctt tbu T\n^lMh Govctrnment had enrroaclinl on their 
righta and privili-;;rs in a iHAniK'T utterly uokuown ti> l\\c ori^^lnul 
nitpTS of India, They might plead, tbnl thero in no evidence 
that under any Hindoo or Mabomedan dynasty wjis there ever 
a Exed taritT of rewards for the; destruction of lioni and tigers, 
I crocodiles and snakes. They might admit, that it was the 
pra<?tice of Oriental monucUs to make targe collections of Living 
Mild nninuU in their menagrric«. The native; putrntatcTK nnd 
tb«tr princesses iLod. courtien df.di[{1it<rd in tiie fi<;hti of wild 
bttt«ts ; whether a tigrr wan pitted nfffkinnE n tiger, nr A wild 
hifialo fouicht ajrainst a rhinoceros. The jtiQifles wt^re of coarse 
hurled and netted to take alive the antmals needed for the 
tirants* pleasure. But with tbe English Government it has 
iten made a s>stemstic businaM to L^iuouni^ the desiniction 
•I all wiJcl beasts. A table of rewards scUJng a viiluc! on the 
usd of oaoh tiger and (rther dangeruufl uuim&lT bangs in erery 
public ofHen an'l ntJirkol-pljM^r. 

We shall now proceed to explain what bus been the efiect of 
^U fiovcrnmcnt opemtians and its system of Howards. In a 
't'Cent number of the official ' Gazette/ cortjiin figured statements 
We been published witb a resolution, n^ronled by the Viceroy 
*^lhdi« tJU lltr ^^od NovchiIkt, l^tf7> Tevjcwing Xlw provinctAl 
'warns, showing the iue.Ttur«s adopted for tlio extertnioaUoa 
<^ wild animals and poisonous snakes in British India during 
^jeux lbt^6. The (jovcrnment paid Ra. 1^9,006 in rewards 
L ^ be destruction of wild animals and poIsoDous snakes col* 
B lecUvely ; 



3^tf Gamp and Gaim La^es of India. 

li^ctircljr ; but w« sLhII trc-al of tlic aaukra scpftr^tctv IjfrrcaAor. 
Tlic total numbeT of buman beings reported At kilkn] hy wild 
Animalft in 1886 warn S707. Some ilreu muflt b« hid on th« 
word rrporUtU ^<^^ i^ i* very possible that many deaths occnnetl 
wlitcb Mere not rejK>rtocl to tbo police, through whocc ^gtncy 
these iijttisties ure colfecled ; n hilsl, on the oibcr huid, it it 
susprctrd that »omo CMfS nS munkr nrc concriilcd — ihc cauie of 
death or disuptKMrdiict* brin|; attribulcU tu wild beast*. Xhe 
totid number of cattle reported as killed bv wild bc^iuta in 1880 
wa^ .')5,20^j : but this also gives a rntbc^r innderjuate idea of the 
trui: tnortnlity ainongst tnme nnimaU; f<)r, in the fint pUcr, 
iDsny must bo killed whilst giazin^ in the jungles, ivhoi€ deaib 
the ]nK>r owner never roport* to the pulioo ; and the return only 
includes rows and oicnt and bafTslors ; whiht it is inri<)entaily 
uentifined that nearly 80OO sheep and goats wtre killed la 
Mailras, in siddition to 10,0(JO bctad ofoAttl^- 

The following table exhibits th(< numbers of the bnmsn 
victims, according to the icveral wild anitnaU by which they 
were slain : — 

Killed by wild dophanti 57 

«> by ti^r» 98tf 

„ by loopanbi 194 

rt by b«ArA X18 

„ by wolvc6 SflS 

„ byhyieuafl S4 

„ by olUcx auiinnU 1169 


The accoant per contra^ showing the number of wild animal 
^csiroycd^ nnd the amount of rewards paid for their destruction^ 
stands as follows : 

WildolepbanU .. ., 7 .. .. 1U> nCO 

Tigtrfi 1,4W « „ i8,0C0 

Leupurds 4,0M .. - 70,032 

Bern 1,666 .. .. 7,7^ 

Wolves 6.735 •, .- 24,138 

Hjmtias 1,650 ,. .. 6,663 

Other animsle » » M^^ - >- 0,033 



Total 16MSB 

Tlius it vrill be area iSat, on the wbulc, the wild be;uti t» < 
much the wc>rst of thn conflict- As betweon tij-ers and men ^-^ 
forlunately the numbers were more nearly Df[tjal ; but nn took i ^ff 


71u Ganwf and Gam^ hattM of India, 


into the detaila from the difTorcnt proTiocea, very mnarkablo 
OifTereDcei apjie^r. For instance, in Lover ilen^ 580 perroDB 
wcr<* kiPni hy ligrr«, but nnlr 24^ tigrr* vrcrrc killed ; whereas 
ill ibe I*r-jvmce <jf v\»Mm £11 |ier»4>ua were killed bv Ugert, 

■ YrHiIit ■t3r> tii^is nrctv kil1c<K &>mc provinces arc nlmott free 
frnm ri^n. In ibe Punjab only o»e mnn was killed by a tig;r>r, 
uid only 4 timers wcie ricstroj-cd. In tbc Province of Bombay 

»o«Iy 8 persona were killed by tiKera, thouj^b 97 tiperi forfdic<l 
their lives, it vrill liave been ob«i-rvt^(l tbnt 1109 of ihe deritbft 
tte ftttribalrd to 'other un»pccifieii nnim^-iU*; whiUt 68to 
animals (umin^ Uiidt-r llna iinlefuuie lif^a(3i";i were killed, 

■ From >omc of ihr dctailii ntiich have been ^ivcn, particular I)' 
in Ueti^nl. it appears that jat^kalt take the bijfheftt place in tbiB 
dftsi; and it is probable that many more youn^ children nnt 
earrie«l ofTbj jackaU tlun ibe returoi shovr. A woman, wbo^e 
bat u on the ouukirls of a villngr aiirrounded by trees and luar 
bnisbwofld, mar |*o over to a nei^bbaur's botise Co borrow a 
Hide rice or >4»iir Hxn-yt^iod. Elcr abxcucp ma^ be bu; for a 
Minute, btit wben alke rotumt, the little eliild that aho left 
playing at her door has dlsappran'd. No cry ivaa h^anl* 
liar the jacknl »cized the child by the back of the neck* and 
death was instanlaneous. The men of the village are away at 
their daily work in the fields, ami before thi^ alflicttHl woman 
cATi flommon her neif^hbotin to the rcacue, every mor»rl of her 
niiaaing child has been dcrourcd by the jackal and ila hungry 

(With re^nl to the unipretlirxl fl8r)2 wilil animals which 
tilled llGy penons^ Home almoil comic particiilard have been 
Kiven in the rejioris of the dilferent pnkvinces. i'or instance, to 
Madraa tl>ry include wild boars, bisons* mad jackals and cToeii-* 
dilea. In Uombay the Hat embraces scorpions, mad do;?s, mad 
<^ainrls, toad jacrkAl*, wild h<^a, stray dogs and bull*. In 
R^nf^al they conalvt of wild boar«, buifaloes, erocodit^s, mad 
■^'>p<, tharkf, moles, oxen, pip, »ror]itimB. waups, and koias. 
'V'e re^j^rec that we are not acquainted with tbc last named 
^nimat, the kola: and it is rather a novelty to find wisps 
^^nicred as wild beaatf. The mole waa latal to one of our 
^■~«atesl English monaichs, and iberefore may have acqujml 
'^igb rank aod dignity In ibe cyca of tbc educated native derk 
^y whom the relum was most probably compi[e<l : wbiUl tht* 
**M»e authority profcfcses to distini7iii»b beiwren nlli^lors and 
^^^tioodiles ; and it is an addition lo zoological knowledge 
^ben a shark is classified as a wild beast. Tbe siatisiicnl 
^^mpUcT has also noted a^^U^a^AD^bAtwcen wild boan„ 

1)4 Thi Game anil Game Latts ^In&U 

Tbc DQmbrr or cattle kilW by wild beasts in 1686 was 
55f02S. They wert destrorcd as jbllovs : — 

By tijrort 23.769 

By Wjiai^s 22,275 

Cy bcnnf 758 

Sy vcolroB l,Si^5 

By hywniK .- l,'n"2 

By othur uitmAlK S.&U 

A% rrgnrdft poiftoafius su.ikL'a, it wnt hnrfUy to be ««pi*ctf 
tijat iiULi>u«; ttir Hiiuloir^ fliiy «j»u-mjillc ftctiini atioiiKI hHVvbci-ii 
t&kcn for their dc«tructiun. To the Hindoo tho nnake \% tbc 
rvprcMnutire or^ dpity. A native finding ft cobra in his bouif 
wcMilil be more diKptunl to pmpitlaiie it with n bowl of milk 
i\\hn to Alrilic it with n •lick. Hut ihc Kn^livb Government of 
India ha* t;ikeu a dillcrent view of its dun« as re^Ards veiKi- 
moun «nakr«. The denlh* Attnbut«?i] to lhi< bite ofa snnki* were 
BO numi^iiiLis, tbnt abuut tbirt^ vcatb 9-^^u wben Sir FrcdrricL 
Hnllidny waa Lieut.-<^o%-ern<ir of Bengal, he tirct mithoriaeod the 
grnnt nf a inukll retv^rd lor the dcnd body of every venomoDi 
«nake tbat wan pnidiicnl befon^ thf^ niai:i«tTate of a diittrict. In 
S9m<? <l]fttricls the proflVrcil reward had but little effect ; in othcr« 
the jwcuniarv inducement was so teinpting to the poorer clutset, 
iliM almost the wholr community took lo inakr-hunting. They 
brought ia the dead vnakt-s by ihousandt, sr> that thv ina;-I«tratO 
of on« diatriet oomplnintHJ thnt bo eould not eioTy on hia ordi- 
nary duty 'm account of the stench from the putrid bodies. 
Finallj, a financial difltciilty aroM% as the demands for the 
rewards vrerc I'ound to have exceeded tlie small sum vrhicb had 
liet-n tentatively pmvided in the annual Budget estimates. So 
Lord Canning and his finnncinl ndviscT« decided tbit, having 
regard to the ompty cN>tn*r» oi ihc public Treasury, it would be 
axppdipnt tn nUnw thn eimkes to rivmain undifttuibi>d in tb^Jr 
natural haunts. 

When the financial Rtatcof the country improved* the Sapreme 
Government permitted some of the local :ulmirustrators to reiuma 
the practice oi offering rcwar<ls for killing %'cnoinous snakes. 
The number of persiMis kilk-d by snakes in India ia appalling. 
The returns for 188<3 sh»AV that 2:^,131 human beings perished 
from <nftk<*-bit<*, Oo ih^ otb**r b»nd. the mjmhpr of catd^ 
killed by incikes is returned at 2514, The serpent il therefore 
specially the mofl^l enemy of man in India; snd dctatb froia 
the bile of a snake c<imt-s to be rt-ganled ai an ordinary incident 
in human lil'c. The Province of Bengal tiolds a bad piv- 
tamiueucv in tbi? bilU uf uiotlaltty fixun snake*bite, as U>e dealli 


77h« Game and Gontc Lawt of India, 

m I0ft388 p«rMD3, which is Dearly biilf the toul Tor the whole of 
lio, u attributed to thi* cauwr. TLc figuic« arv us follow*: — 

Uadnui 1,4$S 

IBombfty 1,306 

BoMif » 10,888 

N. w. ProrinoM uA Oudo ,. .. 6,538 

Pug\h 984 

CcDtrnl PronncM 8^1» 

Bonuah 18& 

AitMin 354 

On the oppo»ile sid^ of the account, it ii «lnipd th^t 417*596 

snftJc» WCTC d«*itrf}vc'1. And thnt R<- 25»360 wcrr p^itl hyGoreni- 

meqt as rewanis fur ihfir deilruction. But consitlvniblf? jncon- 

.fUtcncj pivratU in dit&rrnc provinces, both ai to tlic diUg«nce 

Iwllll which the snaktrK ate ueivecutcd, and ici tliu suida paid as 

' mvnrd* in killing: them. In AlAcIras oalr S5r» stiftkcA were 

di*fttn>yod, and no renardn w<*r« |iaid. In Rnmbn/ \\\ey killed 

r ^60,921 »nakct, nml paid revrnniK ^tnountin^ to Rii^ 65]£7 for 

^ iketn. In tlcngal <fl,2>^4 firnkcs were dc-Blrorod, ant) rewanls of 

Kft. 38b9 were paid. In Uie i\«rth-VVes: I'loviiici'* and Oudc? the 

Slighter of :ii>,6^}6 makes cost R«. 32'Jli, and in the I^UDJ^b 

^5,715 «DAkes wrre dc»tru>ed at a cost of R», I0,^0t>. In 

l^armnh 20117 anakes weTO kiUtfd, but only R«. 3 wcro paid iia 


In Madras thcv lost 1403 lire* from »nnkr*hite; bnt they 

killed only :25j soakes, and paid no rewards! In Bombay 

120r> person* were bitten, and :flit>,D21 tnakc* wern killed, an«J 

&i. ^727 .were paid in rewaida. Vet in 1966 the rate of tnor- 

t^ity from snakc-bitc was hig;heT in Bombay than in Mmlro^ id 

l&tfo. In lJi4> Punjab the deatht from aiinkc-bilf> increa«c><1 from 

(66inl8)4.'S to ^:;8in 188^; but they killed 47,000 anak^« in 

iV former year, and f^5,0O0 in the Utter year. It certainly 

t>econies rather difftmlt to say whether it 1% heat to continue to 

Siv^ rrwardft for kiilinj:; snake*, or to rerert to Lord Canning's 

^ilicy of master)/ non-interferrnco, leavinj? the uiakes ondls- 

'Vwd ju tlirir jDjttornl haunts, it »ccma vcrv poviiblc tha% where 

theinake* ari? ftvitctnatio:i1l^ biiated an<l mtiixhl, »(>me ttt tbeir 

P^uen an? fatally bitten ; and, on the other hand, it ha« bren 

^Atially su|[];^5led, that wtien rewarda arc freely ^iren for killing 

"Mcts, tonic of thr ingenuous natirei delit>eralely brccil them, 

J^Ure Qpoa the profits derived from this new kind of stock, 

7^ QUinher of catlli^ killed by snakes is so small, that fuuie 

^''■tmotoii is derivable frum it. It is certain that nettle munt 

WfTPstlj exposed to attack from snakes whilst grnxing ifl tli^ 

jung)et : 


7%^ Gnme and Gttme Lmtn of India, 

jungles: ihc snakes, Ooubtless, nvnld the cattle ; >nd siinilaiJjr 
Auy anukc will try lo get vut of a man'* way if lE can do >o, 
witU tKc cxcoptlon of tliv opHtophagne, wbo is crodit^l n-ith tb* 
li&blt of attacking men. The mortAlity from tnnkohiu^ in 
H(<n^al U al>o much I.-u-frer ainonfr women than amoiif; mm. 
They nrc usually biitrn in the rarly morning, when tUcy go out 
unse«n before (laylijjht, either to fetch wood from the fagjjot- 
stA<:k| i>r tor some other <lom(TsEic purpose. During the rafay 
sc«LSOfi, when nenrlv all the ricc-ficl<U tVT<T under wat<*r, tllo 
snakes take refuge on tlie higher plots of ground oa which the 
villages are built, and they bide lEiemselves in the little wood- 
stAcks and granaries in tht* o)urtTnrds of the Louiieft ; whilst, not 
unfTequrntly, they take up their abode in the house itself, where 
tliev tire allowed to dwell with impunitv, and sometimes fed 
with milk ; until, on »>uiv unlucky dnv. the nife treitds acci* 
dentally on the snake in tbe dark, mad it turni u|>on her aihI 
bltttc her. From the bile of a full-grown cobrtt de«th ensties in a 
verj few minutes ; and the natives have uo &uch remedies at hand 
at English srtencA miffht uKe« but tbey put a vain faith in the 
faneiful charms and incantations recommended by their priests. 
If the system of Oovemment nwards and the continual 
extension of cuttivntton nm to be regarded m two of the prin* 
cipal Cftuies for the decrease in the number of wtld beasts in 
India, thr* thifd enute of it 3S to h^ rrrfignixed in the incessant 
wnrfare which bas been oirrieil on njrainst them by the KngHsh 
conquerors of the country. From the earlieat da_v» of Hritith 
rule there have been a series of sportsmen who have derotnl 
themselves to the pursuit of wild heaits, and there are not a fev 
of them wbo b%ve put on record thu wondrous feats whicb they 
and their frieads pprfi>rmed. It wi^uld be diHicult to give m 
romplptf* and rxhniistivf* Hit of these wrilpm ; but we will 
endeavour to mention itnne of the principal authorities amoD 
tliem» It dors not niwnys follow that the hand, which can 
skilfully wield the riUc or the spear, is most successful in ust 
the pen or pencil to deccribc or portray tbe inci<1ents that 
occurred. It aometiniea happens tbsi tbe old tt[K>ftsioaiit when 
he atteinpta in his >tudy to recount the titlea, of whicb merely 
the dry I'nets are recorded in hii sporting diary, permits his 
imagination to give a c*olour and warmth to his narrative, which 
make some of bis readers incredulous. But, if we may venture 
to borrow an expression from the iljshop of Chester's Lectures 
on Modern ffiitory — *tbey may be entitled to the sympathy of 
tbose whf> know bow easy it isf in mailer* where head and 
bean ar«> alike engaged^ to disparage truth hy unintentioiud 


The Gunm and Game Latc$ <^ India* 


CahptAin ThnmA« WilllAiiiKon, ai thp ft^ngat Army, in llio t^arly 
patt nf iLe pivwnt et^nltiry, a »<:DnH f^dition of it hftring been 
caJVcd for in ISll'. It conUina a rivid dcicnptionof the sports 
In which be took part with UU contcmprinrie*, And ilso of the 
babits of the ICumpenn <:»mmaniij in Bi^ngAl at ttiat pcTJ'xf. 
Tbr iJliulrMirrii* Aro (|ii4iitl mn! iTitirrL-^llii^. Hut Uii* uuUu»r 
tIatM that b^ has krio^ra iLtfc^ >cntri«v Co h» rnrricd olf bv 
tigeri in one night from the r^mp nf hia rpgimc^nt whilo on the 
BiAtcb; Ditd he Iclli such »toniihinft tnle* of the number of 
tjgcn to Ixf ««n within no ^ent difttanrc of CAlrutta, tbat vr 
<)o not cire to shock the fnitfa of modern renders^ and will ptiss 
im :o other writers, 

Anotht-r ikf the older nod mo«t popular works on Indian sport 

wa(*Thp Old FoTe4l-Riinc*?r/ which w«« introduced to tbn public 

tboat fift^' jcirs ngo bj Major Walter Cuipbell, In order to 

five a xest in his sporting fulvenrurca in the NiFghiri bilU of 

Silai)r«St Major Campbell workr<) them up into the form of a 

KiifttDCe, with a preilj' heroine and a youtliful hero, TUi? book 

ITU also well JIIijRtrnit-d ; and in^in^ young hearts may bave 

bnCcn more quickly mX ihc »J|;hi "f the picture where the help- 

W bflroin^ find« her hero itru^rgtinfar in the rlutchi*ft at an infu- 

! tisurd bean In later life Major Campbell published another 

lolatnefin wbich he described the sporting adventures of himself 

^ his bni'Jier, in the ordinary form of narrative: but some- 

boT the rcaxter misses the romantic history of the heroine and 

^eqnaint MOFcdoic-* uf thr old Scutch doctor, wbicli enlivened 

lb* pages of * 'i'ho Old Forctt-R^inger/ 

\V4^ mnst pas* by vtthont nny detaiM notici^ siieh tiandanl 

Wki as LieuL-CoK Gordon Cammin^^a * Scenes in Camp and 

JtLQfle/ puMidied In 1871, and Captain Haldwin's * Large and 

Snidl Ciim<r of lieni^!,' which will l>c UKcful to spnrtmjen in 

«>j p*rt of India. There is an illiiiiratcd work calli'<l ' 1 iger- 

oting in Indin,' by Coptain PHce, irhich gives mu<:li infor^ 

reganlin^ the huntio^-grounds of tho Roznbay Preii- 

The more recent publications of Colonel Bams of the 

abajr army will be found of interest to those who with to 

Ittgeisand panlbers in Western India, An older book by 

bJQT M. Shskeipearc is aIso an ioKiTuctivi? guide as to the 

_Uair*l Provinces, In more modern times, wc come lo Mr, Sati- 

s's experiences of fourteen ye^rs »mni)g IndiAn big gatoe 

I Msdnu and Uengal ; nbilit amoogtt iha movt recent sporting 

[Mlications are Mr. J. Moray Brown's ' Shikar Sketches, with 

|V«to on Indian Fi*ld Sports ;' Mr, Frank Simson's ' Letters on 

■Sport in Eastern Hmgd ;' and Mr. Eiwarcl Baker's work. 

VoU U1^—Nq. jw, n eft\vx\eA 



The Game and Game Z^aws qf fndUu 

an, wLJ 

hoo tilM 

he mP\ 

cntlt]c<l * Sport in Bongnl/ turAiiing the provincp* which j 
utKl«r tli<? rule of the LicLit--Ouvornor of Iffrif^l. 1( It to ill 
last ihrce booki that wc propmi? ta invite pnrticular AttJ^ntlon. 

Tlio work of Mr, Moniy ilmwu, formcrij" of the 79ib Cameron 
Highlander^ contains an account of many fttining incklenta in 
ivhicli he look part^ chielly in Wi^storn nnil Ccntml India. He 
wiu A Kpfirisittan of (!;«? Wcrstvra virhuol, uuU vra» wu£Jl Ut ahuni 
fail t:|-m oil foot, and to aiH-Ar hia wild hoAtu with the ioDg 
Bombixj apcnr. Some of the tpoTtiag adytriiurifa whith h^ 
detcribea occurr«l more than ten yctkvt aj^o ; but tlmy are nar- 
nii«^ with much fretbn^is and vigour. It is needles* to dwell 
on hii fi*at» in bog-hunting ; for though he profirnw^i ibe gn^tcsl 
admiration for it, espccialljp' in conimst with fox-hunting, he 
w-u bodlj- tnnuntcil : and the iiinii, who hju not a g^wd hone 
under him, cnn seldom onjoy tbla vpert to tho b^t AdvnntAga. 
He was fnrtunAte in Rom'^ of bU adri<niure« with hiacint 
several kinds of larj^ deer ; hut when he comes to tigrr-thi 
his enthusiasm rises lo the highest point. Although he 
nearly nil bis tiger* on foot, or from a safe iMixitian on the 
forked branch of a tree, ii is satisfactory In obscrTc that he vras 
always vcrj careful of the lives of the native? bcatcta who occota- 
pftnied liiia, and he writes emphatically on the duty of ihe 
spoTtsnuin to protect them. He says : — 

* If the li^jcr li© wcun^od only, tho beaterc BhDuId iWTor hrt 0Mit b 
to IxMit again. It in ugt fair in ti^ud in a lot of iKi<ir bslf-oaked 
WT*>tGhcs, armod only with eticks, to boat out a fnriouH and euragd 
animal suU'uriu^ from the aguniw of a wonnd ami a burning sun. If 
not on the Kcoro of humaaity, Bolf-iuUsreel aIoou idiould prevrat 
SfportamuD taking thiit connte ; for if onn nf t!if> tw&U^ra bo Mite 
kiUod or wounded, Ihe news of the catastrophe will tmvtd throng 
the diatriot, and he will havo ntnck difficnlty in getting beaters m 
lli« fbturo, and any ftesli infonmiUuu ahoat <nh*ir tigtott. Btdkksi i 
think mynolf that tkuy mao who goos in for tig<'T-ehooting «dieaU 
make up liis mind to ooiiaidor it a iwiiit of htiDonr Ui follow up, eveB 
alono if ncx:o6Eary, anv tigsr that bo may wound, and follow him 0^ 
nntil he «itbei bajga huQ or loses hun, for a woundcxl tiger often takai 
heavy toll of human Utm when loft bohimh' 

It ia difltcult to select the most interesting out of the maiij 
nnrcrfotes wiiich Mr. Moray Urown relates of bis j)ersonal 
encounters with ' the fc-line race/ as hecalts Ibcm. Indescrihnig 
his fifftt mrcimg with e tiger on foot, at a few yards distance* 
be says ihat ho was in what it commonly termed * a blao funic. 
His band shook, and his heart beat, as be raised bis rifle and 
took aim at the tij^ers shoulder. 'SLie was/ he writes, 'no* 
more than some twenty yards from me^ and aosweied my sLnl 

Tiu Gaaic and Gcme Laws of India, 



■pinning round and round, growling and biting at the 
wouiid, and tanibling about in a confuseil manner. Another 
itut, howcrerf settled her, »nd J di«l just abi*ui fcrl th»akrut/ 

But h it not tsvery tigor that can bo kllWL »o oiwilj. The 
vHoving luimttivi^ «hovr« how IrTinciniiii of lifi^ a tiger it, and 
; A d&ngcmas antagonist be may be : — 

'Tho tig«r tumod up at tbo verj eud of the beat and trotted down 

\ maaH rariiio towurda £., who Htod and hit, tuniiDi^ the ti|{txr baok 

ftlo high grass, amongst which he dieappoarcdL It was ImpomUe 

^ wmlk him Qp>" no hariD^ pocitcil markorn in trccv, wo ict fin to 

gran, which wo 6nixtoi:«ioil in buriitng, nil rotinr) & triaogtilaf 

%U^ in th<i fork Itctvocn two mrincB. Althongb tKo morkan saw 

I moYo, ho rofnsod to loaTe this. «o^ H. and B. beiujj; poatod in treds, 

, and I vtnat refund to protnot th<> bcators whilst firing tlits last 

iain^ covur. In iloiiig au I saw tho tcgcr l^n^ down undur n 

H«iid fired. With several roars, and after soma d«lay, during 

tk« tiger apnaarod to tw tnTubling aloTit in tbo grasa, ho 

i!toit<Nl paat K. and U^ who emptied L}iuir riScs without stopping 
\Vu tht^u aU joiu^ tugeth«r, autl fulloved u|> in the dirootioa 
t bsfl gi>ii«, n<it very aAiiguiuu, lu tho tiger waa apjmrontly not very 
~ hit ; the s^^^i^^ was jungly, and (he grasa higli. How(iver, H. 
. 0aw bim moving slowl/ through tho graai^* and ftred. This wae 
I ntach for bim, aud with a roar he cbiirged straight al iis, tLo l^jng 
I ofdy ahoiriDg hta hoad as hv g^dhpwl ovc^r tljt tlirtr yiudH of 
rnnnd hctireen qk Six ahotd mot him en rotUr, mostly hitting bim 
»al the haid and neck. H. drod bia last shot almoj^t in the bmteV 
&iO«t slightly cheelcing an<i tunimg him; but, ri^eiivoring, he, after 
clearing our flmih, lurned in ou H. (wh<» was biichi^^g with «mpt; 
rifift roQCKl tbo otliers), nrid wiis on Iho point of gpringin^ on bim, 
whan I &rad tho kat rcmniuing bnrrel Itft among ne> and bo wl^ him 
over. This sh'^wa what di.^tormiii6tioQ some of thc^sc brntcs possoss, 
Bot b> bs Ktopped or i:Ttin tunuMi fc^r a mumtjiit by four dotQrmined 
awn JO lim, aruunl with thu beat of liilos ^ btid, Although liil M 
ovar Iba hoad, cbi^Ht, and nix^h, as sxiteoq^uont c^uvminiktiun provod, h<i 
stUI oBEao on, and vary nearly made gcjud hiB cliargo. Anybow, h« 
diad as a tigor ought to dio— trackc^l, met fncv ti> fiicv, aud fought 
on Ilia own ground by four sportsmen, and not done to death by that 
low vilJaiiMMS systom of poieoning, whiah, alaa ? I hoard nhsequeatly 
was tho mcKna of destroying many another tiger in Iridia.* 

But we must leave this gallant Western flportt(m»n and his 
COfii|>naiontp and turn tn the books of Mr. fr^ink Simsnn and 
Mr Inward Baker, which coat^n quite an encyclopedia of 
t^ortin^ experirnci?, and practical a<Jvirr to sportsmen in 
pSenga)« Mr Simson ft book has ibc advantage of bcinff well 
il.ustratrd ; whilst the unforlunMt^ death f>r Mr. l^dward Baker, 
b^fure the pubHcatiiin i>f hia bui>k was compktcJ, 1i^l> deprived 
Uof f^mc^iniihing touches, and also of the pictures by bis own 

B 2 * 


T%e G<int« and Game Atncv of India* 

^MBC ilisciplcB of Nimrod devoted ihomselvoa lo the rhftsc when* 
ever opportuniiy ofl^-a'cL Mr. Sjrn4r>n was a memlK^r of th^ 
BcngAl (*tvil Strr^iir*", nnd IipM hinb oft'icr througln^ut a difCio* 
gui&hed an<l useful carc^, lie TcmJDils us of the chartttcr f>ivoii 
br Peter of BlnU, wbcn clr»cribing W^v^ry II. of Eoglmid » i 
greAt hunUmAD- * llo Ii^iaIwav* io liia hnnd bow« nnd aitawi, 
■wonlft 'ind huiK in ^-spears, sari* when l>i* i« l>uty in (.'i^uncit 
with hU boolts/ So it wa« with Mr, SiniAon. Whcnrrer he 
could m»kc< for liini^elf a few hours of leisure, or (ake ndv?inU^r 
of AH authorizL-d ollL<:ial holidfij, he wa» husy ivitli bin guns and 
riflci ; wUilit hia huniing-spcori, f&tbioned according to s 
mttcm of his own invention, w«re alwAvi k<^ptbrlgbland »lurpi 
Ht* wan :& diligrnt gliidrnt of tho HlnndnTd «|uirtlng nuthoriiJPtt 
suGh 9k% H:i^kL-r on shontin^. and DecKford on hnntin^: xni^ 
having a considrrnliic knowletlgr of wiolo^T aod omithoh>iry, he 
oft^n contributed valuable Bpecimens and infoniiAtion to the 

Erof«*(S(!d literary tvritert on thoie »ubj(-ct«. He could aiTonl Ui 
rep A priVpttc stud of VAlunble rlirplianU and hones ; nod be btd 
onliflted In his st-rvicn n faltbrul nativi? henchman, who bmaie 
A perfert tiarkf*r and nn rfTertivp uliot. ThU intrlligent pi^rwio 
WAS evor on the alert, rouwiinjj in the juti^rUs, and acquiring; 
informntion reganline tht? wild brrA»tft and bird* of the locAtltjr, 
until his muter could f^ct nway from the duties of hU officv td 
operate accordinc^to the informatioa received. 

Mt. KdvTiird IlAkcr Yta.% aUo a good iportimAn, And bj a 
tingulnr turn of fortune be wai able lo combine his official 
function* with die indulgence of htn prnprn&ity for fihootin^AuJ 
htintin^. For many years he was eniployed in the luperinirfi- 
dence of Goreinment salt manEifnctuie, which was carritMl oO 
along tlie coast of tttc Bay of Hengah ^alt could ouly ^^ 
AdvaniAgcously made where there was aa uncultivated tract ^ 
country, partly corcrcd nitb high rrrds And tAinnritk buil]0>i 
and (tuntpd lrf^4 and coarse grnts, urhicli vrns the nilunil hom# 
of tttfr^ri and wild hufTaloc*. nTt<I wild boars nr^d deer. Tbr 
tEihi:>urera engap^ed in the salt manufacture were liable to lbs 
attacks of these wild animah, by day and by night, so thftl'* 
W41 one of the first duties of Mr, Superintendent Baker to I^T 
iltid destroy tliem and check tljeir luva^es. Afterwards be joiucJ 
the Police force, ond was apccdily promoted to be • Dcpvtj 
Inapertor-Oenerftl ■ in which capacity, ns the title importl^bc 
was principully einployt-d on inspection duty. As the potit^ 
Stations, which are nituated near jungles abounding with wild 
beasts, arc tuually mou remote from local supervision, lb' 
Deputy Inspector 'General made it bia special cait thai tbey 


71* G^im0 and Ccum Latrs^ India, 



l^ionld be Ttftitcd in the coanc of fait official toan ; so that he 
gsio Able CO combine hU dut/ with bi* propensity- for 
sport, la the course of some tbirtj- ymn hr acquired n very 
l%Tge ejtpemocc of ihc brat huniing-giv>um]s la Beogml, and 
orctimolAlcd » lar^^ coUfrction of the tropbiei of ihc chiuc 

\Va noi only rpf«r bri<»Aj to ftom^ of lh« principal wiM 
»nim»U of Bt^njral, to show hovr tbejr werr^ Kt)rcn««fultf' hunted 
by radi sporUmrn at Mr. Simson and Mr. BaIcct ; And their 
compaDioDS. Precedence may be pi^en to i\tc ti(fer> Next 
cXHUfi the rhinoceros an<l the wild btiflnlo, j^nd after them ve 
bare the bears and leopanU or pantben, and wUd boan, 
bj'vnik^ and wolvts> Tbiaricb catalogue alands in rcronrkable 
contrast to th4* tinv lUl of our English wild nnimalt, as giv«n 
by Nimrud in lii famous article on the riinse. wbea he wrote 
thnt ' the wolf, the Ix-nr, and the boar were the favourite beasts 
of Vcncry with our ancestor*,' VViih regartl to ti^-ers, it is aafc 
to take Mr. Siinson as the leading authority. He doe« not any 
bow ninoy h^< killed wltb Lis cwu gun, ui in company witb 
friendH. He roentions tbe namesof two sporting imlign-plaaters 
whom be knew. One of them h«d ki)l«^ b«tiv«en four hundred 
and fire huadml tigers: A'hUst the other had kilbfil nbove a 
thousand ligirrs )>efiire Mr, Simeon met him. In writing as to 
thr size oi tigers, he states that no tiger which Eje killdl 
measured in»T«^ thno eleven feet fnim snout to tail, when pro- 
perly measun:d. Thn conclusion at which Sir Ji>*rph Fnyrer 
amv«d, after comparing the accounU given hy many expori- 
^nr^t sp*ift«men, wan rhnl nny tig«r over ten fert is vrry large, 
and that aUhf>ufth eleven and even twelve feel have been r<H:orded 
occasionally t such a sixc is c^zc^eplional, 

Mr. Simson took ttie field ag^tinst timers witb every necessary 

Erecaution to ensure success. His elephants were staunch ; hi* 
:>wdKhs were Htvong but ligbtj and be saw that ihey fitt«d on 
tha elephants' baeks aa carefull}' as a foxhunter looks to th« 
saddling of his horftes. His goas and rifli*s wrre ibi* best pro- 
Curable. Ho was a first-rato shot, and could fue from an 
dephaut in motion with as much pn^cision as mosi men can 
shoot on foot. With an army of twelve Mephnnts and two 
trusted companions in their separate bowdahs. the order to 
advoncjc is given, And the line is soon almost lo»t to sight in 
the high gnisa aiii light buiihot, Pr«sentlj the warning note 
of some eiprrienrrd rlephant ^irrs ibc sign that the liiis winded 
s tj^T. It is hard]> possible to give a detailed account of a 
tiger-bunt. Then- it mueh variety of incident^ but there ii 
something identical in every case. There is th«; rush of some 
Urge beast, and a hasty shot, followed by a savage growK In 



7%e Gamt and Gamt Laws oflndiA. 

another tnomtnt the brad and pair* of a ti;-rt may be tetn 
claninj!^ at &o ^^lophant^t trunk, but iHo nngrv bciksC cion drojii 
ofT Th(?n mnrv sbou f»]lnir. MoilerD pins un^i bullets ait 
too mucb for tbe tigor. A about of triumpb pnicrlnims that ibv 
tiger U down. He cnnnat move or rise ; but hit cmd fv« 
gbstm VFith biry, init in bis nguny be wtx^s Iiii ovrn fore-paw 
in his sborp lettb. Acothcr fumi shot, nnd tbr tigrr Ur« ilrpul 
on tbe ground. His body i* prcacntly hotitrd on to one of ibc 
pftd «r]ephant« ; And th« line, baring rc-fonn?d, pttnnefl it« mtKh 
in teitrcb nf more tigCTs. 

But WG will \et Mr. Simson narr&tc in hii own words l}^^ 
incidents of one <>f bis best days of snort when shoolini; on the 
bunks of thr Hcrlmmpfmter River witb two coinp;in!ons. He 
writer ibu«: — 

'Wu (;oi ^ru|ior nuws of tigtjrs on tho 29tL of Fobmary. Thm 
footmorkH vmro voi^ numorouc, but tbo jiingto was juiit oa bi^ ■* *p 
oJepbanl's bead. It wils inAj to beat and ^ei tbroDgli, bat diffic^ 
to wo in. ICridcntly wo w<irc olojki ta tjgi*™, my niir-rring i^brpbsnt 
Bald BO pljkliily ; HtilJ vg beat a Bplondid palcb ad^I eaw noihiog. &- 
oocing a niinjl>Qr of men nbuidiTJg by tho riv<^ vidcj woiii ott lo spcv 
to tbum. whilat I <uid L. niKrdvt-d to bc&t Wk throagh tbe JogU 
Wo cntddealy camo on a lot of ti^^are. It was diffi<:ult to g<t |«od 
eboti at them, and they ruarud and doit^ud about in dillurfinl dmt- 
tioufl, B. camo hurrying bock, but J tbiuk wv bod difljtoMid of tv« 
bofora bifl arriTaL Wo turned oitt a tbird tiger bofbro B,, who pUnVd 
a ball in time, irhieh btid a most curiously Indicrous efleoS. H^ 
tigci oould not taiiK) bii« lu^d from ihd grttuiid^ but kept ftpindng 
round and rouud, his bond In tbc contio, aJs bind-qnartera aa^ t&it 
high in tbc air- lie kcjt up thia tcctcttJiu kind of guDofor»fin* 
time, till vfti fimd again and fttf»pi»t-d it. TboTO we» no moce tl^ 
in tiia junglo, no wo hnd to pad th^o tbroe, whicb took a long ticn^ 
Then t«o made a heautifid hue, to b«st tbe next jungle. Tbo tliM 
o]o|ihnnlf^ cncb witli a tigir on tho pad, loukijd lovely. I vidb ** 
arttiit oould bmru depicted tbo pnrty about b quarter of an boor »Jltf- 
wards, wlion an active ti^er boiuidt'd over tlje top of tbo junglo vtui 
li-ud Tunr a,Tn\ arnbul Inclt, tail up, aud ium( laid back. He jnoip^ 
high in tbo air. This was meroly to enable him lo see wnat**' 
going en. In bin next bound bo jvu^ Hgbt on tbo hc^ of mj*'^" 
aJ«^anU "Ertriiug Stnr." Hed£(l not luill tbu id«>|ibu]tduvn, u^;^ 
tbe mabont Mnitk ibe tiger on the bca^ with alt Iils force wiUiH^ 
iron elfcpbant •^yml ; this made bim let go, aed *a bo movied off ** 
flrud, and be nn* killrd. TbU wajtcambv^foiir; Ijiit tbcxa WWI anulli^' 

rit. Wo bent ateadily on, and after *omo delay got our fifth ^P^^ 
nerer abot fivo tigors in a day at uiy other time, thongh 1 1^" 
killed tbreo in a day more Urnn onoo.' 

It bas been said tbat tbere is no more danger ia 
tiger from a bowdah on an elepbaiirs back tbaB ttOK 

ni Game and Game Ixtms of In^a* 


ID shooting rn>in tbe roof of a houfte. The tales told by 

Ir. :>imsoD vliow ih&t tliU mnv be >o, wlicn all goes wdl, and 

jODglr ia ligiil, thr ^rounU firm and l«vel, and tti<;rc ore no 

ffi« in thp wny. Hut ft poaUion nf sn^minglv p^rfpct caf^ty 

ay roddeulr become one of much danger. The c?lirn1iart's 

Dn>fM*t tink drfp in lome mttrn Kotl^ And the Animnl s head 

nncs to tbc t^roundf ^vhilst the sporUman in ihe bowOah wtth 

guns 1% U\ iiiLmine-Dt danger cit heing picclicd uuL Or the 

[invrrM nmy happ^^n* when the clr|iti«nis hind IcgB give way 

nd it is brought into & ajtting position, which bring* ihc 

nllrmikit in ih** \\ovn\ah, with hit gnnn, inton vrrj inrotir^ii^nt 

angle. Or in the iinluur of puriLit the e]f-pbnnC mnv have b«en 

urged to fnllon- n woonthd tigrr into the dwp bed ofa wat'jr- 

coorspf from which llie tiger suddenlj emprges and gaina the 

fh bank on u Icvt'l vritti the s|x»rtsman in his howdali. And 

tn ihv staundicst «1ep1uinta have been known Xo give way to 

■nic. Mr, Sitn«nn gi'c^ a most InterettSng ae«>unt of nn 

Iventorp, wh«>n ho And hit pnmpftnion, with his best elephants, 

"were all routtnl hv severid lijrer*, who fnirly drove ihem olF the 

' ' for A time, ilut we will Irt him tell hit own story. 

' Before we had gcme oii« hundred yardfi iuto the junglo tvo tigDra 

tbo limr with gr«ftt uproar. A panic mX once scisod tho 

Bphante and lh«y Ul l*o)t«d. aod wo were driir^n cleaL oat of tbo 

witlioal firing n aJiot- Wo roformod lino And wctkt at thrnn 

wa hnd tbo grcHitcid nnniber of elephrvntn in tie ooiUre : t}mn 

[ on the right and I was oa the loft. A eocond tinw wc wore 

id atid didgnu^ofuUj- n>iitG<l. Wti now nltertil DUi tactic*. 

J that the tiger« caino alwaja at the ovotm ef tbo liue, L. nud I 

oar howdftb olophante in thd oontro, and omngod dao bontiDg- 

'd^photits on CLkoh Hide, and in this formation we udraQced to the 

third attAcli'. Tho trgem bebarcd exactly nn befi>re; but wo both 

ged to lire ut chrm oa tfa^y come towards us. My t-tephaitt ^ad 

, 111 an inntant, *»d in full retreat ; but the Itgcr Mngtcd hor nnt 

gavD cliUA. I Ttinnagsd tt> Htuuly myib^lf in tlif^ }iowdah, with 

r £ce lo Uio Uil, a^id id this wmy ^t an easy nbot jast as the tii^or 

■ rising lo strike Uiri ck^^^hont belaud, aud 1 put in * inurUl hullet. 

tsiw the tigor rulJ ovor and oTi>r ; luul ihoDgh wc wero ull nnming 

iff at the tiD-top >pcod ulopbiuitfi oould ^oi np, I n vhvvr to L,, 

tnd iihonteci t>at that ^mu of the tigera waa done for. The whole 

Wy ef cli^]ihaatj4 fled fnr into tb>^ plnin, 

■Not onJy bad my elephant misi>ahaved greatly, but it Feamed to 
loatlMt her nttboat loo liad lost hin cour^^r^, ilhiI did iu>t ciort him* 
■elf tu Icaop hffr ■ti^dj. A eowonlty inu)ii>ut makeit a oowardly 
tJepfaant ; so I ivsoItoiI to put my bowdali on an old aad woll-traioed 
at oalled " hwiky" whose mahout wan aloe excoiitliii^Iy phieJ^. 
anan^nent having beoD cairiod eat, we again cuteivd tbo 
, L. and I going aido by 4iido iu tho ooittro of tho lino. Seforo 



The Game Oifd Game Lews of Indite 

'Bfe ro&che<l tlio miildlif of tlio tn^UJi tvc cojiki npoa tLc budj uf the 
dool ti^c, tvliEcU ratbor itnrtloii tLv nlroftJjr uci'voutt olcpliAiiU; but 
we weut CD, lud wLcn wo cnmo across tLo other tiger, my <rlcpluwt 
at any mto wiut jitciulv, ^ud vm v/oxmdi}^ hiuu ouil were not ronlod 
tliU tJBie. AVLeii next the tignr wan rou«ol up nnd began tu kUow 
fi^it, no wGxc ntilo U> gi>t u bobUr vie ^v of biin^ uid bo wmi 0OOI1 rvHod 
over Uuotl^ ThtfTfi u'(^ra niori^ pftlch()H of jiiif^ltt to be be^t^n, aikI in 
one of these we lurneil up 11 tigcir. ]lc ciiino idan ht luo OjicD- 
moathed ; but tLe nkoliout held *'Xiiioky*' firmly, aua niy fimt »bot, 
at aboDt twenty ]hicobi oS^ KtTuck the tiger on tbo notui, ti!uLtter«d tho 
lowor juA, and riMidufud him |>owi>rIuite to bito, Br> vr>f Inkd littto 
dif^L-uJty Id killin;; him, 1 boliovo that thoeo ti^terB hul alvaytt lived 
on Lhu inlioid wkuru w« foand tbein. I coiieidur that tbcy bad dotot 
beeu iDtort'erod with, aiKi ihnt th<iy bad no fcnr uf man; aud tbftt 
U^ertf. fijuud ill plmwB whcxo thuy huvt? becu lung ttUuwoJ Ij yrcy on 
miiiimlM uilhoitt bcriiLg attnckHl fln^ dE8tnrbr«dt ai^ fancli mare rcndy 
to tiKbt Ihait thuHu vUicli have bcou (tfti^u hurnssod by shootiDg 
parties and natiTc fihikarccB.' 

If Mr. Simson wm fcreat as a alajver or tii^^^fs, lie held a atill 
higher puitton aa un<|orsttonabl) tbt* beit man iif hia tim« 
against wild boars. Oi these dan^rous animula be had killed 
more th^iu a tbousuDd with hh own apear He lelU of bis 
bo)'iab ddigbt whiMi the lirst buar fell to bit right band, when 
be bad bat rooontly arrircd in India. And after the l&pa« of 
Aany y^art h« give* a ginwtng armunt aV n ^n>at day of bog^ 
buutincf with the lamoQied Vioen>yj L<jrd Mayo, who wai neldom 

jipior than wht^n bf? <^<>uld sparr a fvw hour* fiotn hii officinL 
labour* to join Mr, Simeon in a huot ali>nj; the roedy banks of 
ibe l\)dda. FourtoeD lar^e boara were a]ieared by tUeni in one 
mornlog. And it h not the k-iut merit uf Mr, Simttm'a book 
ihht he tries tn ic'Ach yuuni; «))orl«mon liow they ought to riOc 
nAer ft hc>^, ftnil dplivrr tbi-ir »(«'nr pflpctivoly, m na to protctrt 
their gnllant hi>r»ea n§:nin»t the furiouti cb:Lr|»e« and »[mr|>w:Lit- 
ting tu*ka of a deaperaie boar. The wild hoar is the? brareat of 
nil animali, and U be inakci gam} his char}{c at a horse, be ia 
sure to deal out feaiful woanda with bU tu»k« before the rider 
can eatncaii- himself and bii ktecd from the encoLiiiter, Mr. 
SifDton ia ablo to *ay th«il, nft^rr h« bid learnt from bia mentor, 
Mr. Cotkburti, buw n honr sliould br ri<3d<*r) at and »ppar*Ml, hff 
nerer had any of hia hortea wouaded, so long* a» he kept bis 
iD»iniction> ia uiinil. 

Mr bimion haa dcvotc-d two cbopiers of his houk to anakea. 
He noticft the fortunate fact, that no Englishmen were ever 
bitten by anake* wttbin his capcrlejicr, although n^anv natives 
were kilJed by them from time ti> lime. He dtc*a thr authority 
of Sir Joseph Fayrer, tliat a robra'a fang is barmleiu if it hat 


Tht GatK^ ontt Game J^jws cf hx/iut. 





to pttis ihroogh a piece of ^ood Eof^lisb boot-leather, Tdc 
pobonoiu venom is cxjieiuU-d on \\\c out«i<le of ihe boot; 
wbiitt tt^'iiptiT-sol ^xi^l ljroAifrT{»ih, or ulavrrol' hrnadolnth lioccl 
willi flilk, ait* an ulmuat i^tjual &:Lft}j;uurd. Hr holiltt []«> diHlbci'lll 
opinion regarding the dcftcllj- chnrAci^r of Uic bite from « cobra* 
H« wriio* i^mptiaiicAll^' (bnt If die ju^iton of a vj^orovf €obr& 
ha* been injec:t4*d into a ihaii^ that man will utrclyditr in a very 
tboti time. H<r says tbat he studied snakes ai mucb as b6 
could, and foolitbly leatiit t4» cjitcU cidimu. He u» ncaHy 
1)iltrn tmcv whrn Ivxiking lor bird s-nrsts. Hr gave up birdV 
uwtiiif; in India iVoui ibat motnc-til ; aud sbortlv arte-rvtaids be 
made a vow to cAtch no more cobrn* witb bis ovrn hrtniltt. He 
deacribet Aome f^j^blft ibat b« law betvcwn oobrss and n mttn- 
foose (a tort of icbnctunon), in whicb the latter came olT 
victorious, DoE bfCaUBc it wm inviilni?rflble or poifton-prDof^ but 
limplj- because it wu I^ki nuiL-:k for ihi? tn:Lkt-. Me baft seen 
piga cAtcb nnd mt tnnkrg, but be declines to rrrtiiy that Che 
inakci vierv oubrLH. 11^ tvus fumniat n itb tin? 9nAki'-kia|Ci tUe 
opbiopbmgu*. Mc onc^c shot one ti>ni wn* thirteen feet long. 
He bod another one brought 1o hii boti»^ tlint hi^ iriglii see it 
feed on A cohra. The cobra wrilbed and sFrugglnl nnd bit, 
bat waa aooo orcrpoviered, uad ^ruduallv begun Co disappear 
bcMl foremost dovrn the lirgL-r snukci throat, until it naa 
tntirelj' tivtllutred* 'This rnicnainment,' ho remarks gravely, 
'took up more than half-AP-hour/ 

We now turn to Mr. Edward Rftkar's book, flf, too, bad 
many stirrinfr adventures with tijt<>rs and wild boArs : hut it 
»as witb wild bufTnlrket that he had the ^eate«t success, and be 
braorpaued anything tbat Mr, Simsoii could ever accompliih 
in the pursuit ol the rhinocenis. A gnsit miiny dnys ol .Mn 
Baker's life wcrc^ spent in hunting wild buffaloei, nnd he usuftlly 
attacked lho(n on ftmi, which Is very dangcrun* work. Tlio 
mtractDtv nf the wild buflnln's head anil boms i« sucb^ that the 
brain and the neck are well proEireted against bullets ; whilst it 
tfl Klciom that a fatal wound cnn be indicted on the budy, lo u 
to prevent the animni from clinr;fk[i)>, Mr. Baker sometimes 
*boc ibem from :in elf^phanl, and i><rcaiij>nall^ he att:icked ihem 
on hot«cback, and nn one occasion he chaied a lai^e bufhilo 
tn^A & brond river, in wUich be followed it in a small eanoe, 
eventually killing it, nfT««r a n^rtnw etenpe from death or 
dnswninjr, "s ihe huge hL'nst nearly knocked him out of the 
l>osi by a sweep of its horns. Mr, Hnker tells of the death of 
■Qaay buiidTed buEfii^ioes that fell to his rifle : and be must hare 
^ovfeiTed a great bixkn on the ugriculiurpi] comu^unEty by de- 
'I'syuig sudi numbers. He was foitunatc lu bt^iiig able to *boot 



3A0 Gcmt afid Game Law* of IndiiL 

rbinocf?ro> from bis LowJah' elephant on the rocdy innr«hc« 
which flbnk th^ courte of tli«» river Brrhnm|H>o1er in Aisnm. 
Of courir it it n ^rernt triumph to kill n rbiiKicrrftft : but tbrrf> 
are m&ny blank dayi, aod aianr long weary purau!l*(» throuKb 
t«edft much higher than tbe eieplmnt, whiht the rhinocc^ros 
kcept moving on ahead, jutt out oi ti^ht» though not quite out 
of hvariii]^. TUenr ar« many pcirm lu ib« bard hide of a rhino- 
ceros which arc not proof ng.tinit ibc bullets of mo<Icrn riBcs. 
Mr. UfLkrr nUo went on fiK^t nfter th^ rhinoc«ru« in th** Sundcr- 
bao* on th« faw? (jf tin- Hay of Bmg'-il. The country ts full of 
tiftvrt, rhinoceros and deer, an<l wild bo]ffl, but there are no 
human bAbiUtiuni, Mr. Bak«r j^ive^ a ht-art-stirring account 
of bi« sport one inornin^^ nhrn \\c killed two large rhinocerov^ 
& ti^ei, and a hrge pytUuu ; but we Will Ic^t bitu tell hit ttory 
in his own words^ as regards the rhinoceros. 

* On tbo marg^LH of a brnxtd inud liolq atoixl a hu^ rliinoourcMi 

Cvoly watching two of bie ompaDioas who wcro cojoyiag the mcd- 
b Iroitk which bo liad rtisijutly ctuerged. Thty wtjro ftilly tvro 
hundrod yiirda distant from us, too fur a «bot at so tongh a custiHDor. 
Kackiug out, I miulv a evroBp ruuiid tbruiigU tbo bu&hi^a, not altogolhor 
amDittdfa] of tho possibility of a tigor bi^mg au intitrL^At^d ttp^retator 
of my movi^ueutB, oud wrigglod my way Ui a position within ^^iXj 
pacoe of tho mud hole, tho wind Soing favouraMo to mef and the 
brosdmdti uf the rliliiucerofl btiartu^* uIiuohI din^c:tly on m4>. A* aoon 
OS my bixuithing hiKl Msttltrd dovni tu itti normal otatu, niy big rifio 
was dirrotrd to thi^ AnimixpK nt^rk^ bnt my sim wra mpidly ehaiiQod 
to a epot a little hi^biiid tliu Ahuulilor, and tlu bullet tuU truly with 
% Iflua ttnook. On frriling Urn Hhot, th^^ rhiuocoros lliruw up his bead 
wilb a ^uiit, Htid glafuvl roijud fut tLu I'UHtuy whu hiul Htruck hi^T , 
uid boforo bis petition won chann-nd, a socond Uullot hit him ou 
aliDOtft tli^ 8aiu« fipot^ and brought him ott bit kneet witli a groiiii. 
Ho WQB up again inabrntlyj and drwhcd itilo the woods with blood 
tpufting Trom his jnoalh. At Uie rtsport of thu first nbot, tho otbcr 
two rhii]oi:ci^>s rose frum the quio^ but pnuMid uii failiug to di«coTer 
aught on which to vent tlieir wrath; antf thm «(M?ing or M^orting Ibn 
tnwke, gallnpod ofTaflor tboir IoadL>r, the lur^^r of thu two reot'tTin^^ 
from my Btfcutid ride one hull in tho forc-nbet niid a Kbuood in tho 
Iwad. I lulooilud HH fttft 110 poiwlbloy and foUowi^d i>n the bruad trail, 
and boforo I bu^l gone fifty jordn, a loud oroiah auiiouot^cd tho fall of 
one rhJDoceroB, and I almoat stuinhlod Ufor ito hagft cansaiifi lying in 
tho dt^nth agony. DuMhing oa upon thd bloody trnil for another 
hundred yards, I cAme to the bank of a mrrow ereok^jutt at ooo 
animal wo* disappearing in thu wi>ihI on the: n]ipi.i«iiu bonk^ wbilat 
the other wiu ritiinff out of tlit wiit<*r, Htnij^glitifj to oxIrTei&to ititolf 
irom tho Hoep and «ticky mud. A shot jiliinttid in the middle of the 
book, oyer thu loiuf, foUowutl by nuotbLT jurtl hidiind tlio hro^l, canned 
tbo Btrickcn bcinsl lo plunge forwjinl sionc*dead, its foreparts on tho 
land, nod th« hind-^uartcrs in Uio tidal water in tho orook. Tho 


The Game and Game Latct of India, 



;7oa&d and exftnuiiod tlic ittnnifo form luid 

iPOartTOBg Tmlk of tto iMm beasts*' 

Ther^ i* % $Tv«t t^mptJttirin fn reUt^ some more of th« 
exciting Ant-cdotei which .Mr, Hiik^r ttflli, t^iiwci^ll^ of his 
ndventurrs with hcara, ]copar<!s, aad other minor wild nnimnU, 
But it is necx^ttnry to resist the tempution. The old tport^niaQ 
is often loo much jnclindcl to dwel] %o iDucti on hU own mighty 
fr«U that he hcconxtii CnltouB and wcariAomr* Wo Unrc ea- 
d«ftr<)oml 1o ttfltc (be esse impartiAtlj as botW€?erk tb« Gorcm^ 
m«nt und tbe native public in India, and the wild bea»tB, 
tndudti)^ xonlcts. For, ns Mr Simsun writes, * though Lht' 
Icjlling of fln^kct might not bo rcganbd as Gport, it was a good 
thin|r to do/ Concerning the poor birds, whose ornamental 
plutnAgi; hji« attracted the tutliless destroyer, there crii be little 
doubt that tbt' pn>t€<:tto[i of thr Indiao Govenimcnt biu bc^on 
rightly bpstntVAd on ihpm With rogard to the Giivrrnmpnt 
measures for the extermlaaiion of wild uDimala and poisonous 
snskcs, it may be that innn- effL-ctuftl suj».'n^isi(m aiid dirt'c:tiii» 
would lead to better teiults. It seems that there will be little 
nenl to protect any animals of gamer ^^'^ wild elephants and 
some Itmds of dnrri for a long time U* come And the English 
snortsmno mny jtilJ find an a^nple field for the cxeroiie of bin 
siiin and rouragp in the irrrititries of Hi^ogitl and Auain, ttni] 
the Central Proi'ince^ and Madras, when he finds that it has 
been left to the native pmfessioasls uud trappers to destroy 
upwards of a thoasand tigers in a single year, and tltat rear 
Wtt 18^. 


< 108 ) 

Art* V, — Au4 rmtHtm Ltben ttnd au^ ttwintr Z*^it. Von ErDii 1 1,, 
HcnEOg von Snc1is<?rk-Ci>burg-Gotb«. Krslcr Band, Berlin, 
1887- (^J^fa^ioirg qf nti/ Lifs ttjid of irt}/ Tii»^. lly Em^at II., 
Duke of Saxc'Cobui^-(jiJtha, Vol, I, Ik^rlin, lI^i^T.) 

IT 13 nnfoTtunbtc for ihc hittorinn iUaI RovaI mcmfti™ fcf* not 
mun- pleatiful- U i* also unfortunuf(> for the Royal |w*rton> 
^Kg^ thcmsclvoa. There was a time indeed n\wn hiitor.v might 
b&ye been thought to be lillle else iban a bioirraphy <^{ kings. 
The hiAtorirt n1 KngliLml nml Fninr(< nre ntill tuu^^tit id reignt, 
and the majority of tbc monarchs of both countries have had a 
strati}; itidivlil^itjr which juatifii-s thi? sUuiqiiog uf their fcMtuitra 
on th<) current coin of thn rrnlm. Itut in tbc^ac <3avt of contti< 
lulifiniil inf>nnro1ij' thit ii no lonf^r thr* mse, Th^ (lerci* ii^ht 
which onirc tent upon the throne ii nniv turned towards the 
Prime Mini&ter, and the dUtlem reposes in comporatire g1o<»iD. 
Yet the monarch may be the mo»t important part of EhemaehJDO 
of govcrament. It is generally supposed that Italy was tQ»de 
hy Carour, yet we ate tuld that Victor EmmmiucI would bare 
doCM as tnucb witb nny ntbnr minUf^r. It ia the fA»h)On to 
repretent George III. a* tlie obilinnte oppom^nt of his wisei 
councillor*, a bluniirrrr into (lespernte courses, a stupid slicliler 
lor costly and unaul)Htiinlial shadjw*> If the first King of Italy 
had Left memoirs which cooUL be pub[Uht<T, and if the voltx* 
mhioua coirespondencc of the third Hanoverian could be brought 
to light, we migbt find tEint one ira» the ffir-vrein^ creator of a 
Dtw country, and ihn oiher inon* |ahr>i'iou«, more honpfti, and 
mare paiiutakinj; th^iu any of his servants. It is difiicult to 
publish Hojal memoirs in their entirely. The comity, which 
suppresses diplomatic correspondence for at least two generations, 
is cren stricter between sovereigns than between nations. Sir 
Theodore Martin's* Lifeofihe Prince Consort ' is a mo^t valuable 
contribution to runt«mpnriLry history, but what hiia been Ml 
iinnAtd iH proltAbly Tnr mnrp impnrtnni llinn whfti hna br¥»n 
related. We ou^bt therefore to be grateful to the Duke of Snxe- 
Ooburg for giviog us ihrRr r^^conlt of bis life and times. Tbcy 
have occupied many ^ears of conscientious labour. They aiw 
baaed, he tells tis, not only on personal rccol lections, but on 
documents and corrrk|ioiidrnce which caumit br «Mailc<L They 
are written in an admirnblc style, elear, ftntsUed, and poinics). 
The volume before un extends to ihr ynnr l^.'iO, and eovrrs a 
period wbich must be ftimiliur lo many who are now alive. It 
is said that a teconil volume was recalled immediately after 
pubhcalioa, as containing revelations which only maturity could 
render disfrreet. 


Tbo Duk^f indcctl) ir&s well Bitunlcd ns an obMrrrcr of 

Hurapcnn v{ri«iiitiirtr<i. Snvrrrifrn of a «rnnll Statrt rnnn#rt«><l 

witb, but Dot involved in* tho bigh poliiict of ilie rival Gennnn 

Courts, W woulil at once be iic(|UA]nt«4] wilh the cccrcts 

of aflkirt, ftn<l be able to pDnoiincc an inclppciittpnt judgnteot 

apOQ tb«in. DesiJi^s tliitt, lie vraa a member oi che ^reat Cobiirg 

fAntiljTT wtikh »ccmi^il i»l one limr driUniH] to gWc »ovi:-mpoa 

to half H^ropv. Hitt father « youn^^v^t brcrlhcr ws# King of tbc 

Rf^l^Uns, while h!t own hrotlinr AMirrtt «n near to him in ag« 

&s to be almost a twin, held the position of Prince Consort in 

Kngliond, for which their uncle tiad at imr time been drstinorl. 

His cousin was Prince Con^n nf I'ortU};^!, L>uke Kmr?st was 

connected by allinnci^s with VVUrK^uiber^, Bai^en, Russia, 

Franct^ *n*l Auitrin. His cloac connection willi Portu^nl 

odmittnt bim lo tho intimacy of Donna Maria da Clu^iE^ wba 

gav* hcT confidence to lew. But tbc salient interest of the 

book lies in the lett<?rs of ibe Prince Consori^ and in the iijfht 

tlirowri on his charncicr and opinions. We suspcot that this 

mif^ht have bern CumishctJ us in greater abundance bad it not 

he«n r*r impoied reiieeoce. The narntivr, as might Iw ei- 

^loctcd, is nikintj eonnect4;il with ibc implicated slmf^^dea for 

Caennan unity, a tubjrel which miiat always he ohccure and 

4lifficuU to the Knglish student. Wc will endcarouT to place 

before our readers the principal lessons of tbe book, confining 

II cUTseUes, as sjiacc re<juiu-s, to a few points of special inti^rrst. 

H The two brothers, the Duke Cells us, were similarly consti- 

H^uted Wth jti body and itdml. Albert was tnna his eorlif^st 

^kildhood tho moro popular of tbci two, and enjoyed thu petting 

^hieh hiB n-enker health anpearetl to invito. Thii want of 

lodily strength, evidences of which arc visible ibronghout hit 

^arly life, brought bim eveniuaily to an untimely grave. The 

liro brothers were placed, when very joung, und{.-r a private 

^Utor named E*lorscbU(x, who watched over them with most 

Xcndci anxirty. He wo.* a man of wide kDovrled|cet v%pc* 

^zially in Histi.iry, anil was in aclrancft of tho eilucation of his 

4ige. The Princts leanit Latin, Chemistry, Natural History, 

,„ «nd Physics; the absence of Greek was cotnpenEated for by 

■"translations, and by an extended ttudy of moilern languages. 

H^t the same time they did not brgin to speak Lt^lisfa and 

7r«!ihch until they h»d acquired n complete mastery over iheir 

xative OcTman. Their love of the Fathf^rlani! was strengthened 

\y ibe study of thn poetry of tho Middle Agrfc, at thst time 

less well known than now; their religious training was earnest 

lut liherid. 

When their school education was at an end, there was tome 



Itcminisc€nc<s ef the Cohurg Family. 

difHcultji' in Arranging for tbr continunlion of tlit^ir studies, oAti 
it was DOC ctutomftry at chat time for reigning |irinc«* JA 
Germapjr to go to a UikiTcTuly, Tbr^ wc|p> I>j a Hnppj dcciuoa, 
s«nt to their uncle Leopold, in Bruu«U, wWm thr>y ooiild enjoj 
thi*bD«t t«<achiRgATidB()cicty un(!rrthci]ir<^cUuTiof tlit- most expe- 
rienced AtAtdsman in i£urope> Theii Betllcmvnt in the Belgian 
oipilal w« prw^cUtvl Xyy a vUtt to Lon(Ii*H, during wliicU thcj 
vrcre the gursta oi the DucLcsa »1 Kent nx hvnsington Prince 
Any idea of a /utur« alliance Wt ween the tno couAint, Albert and 
Victoria, if it had occum^J to the mother and uncle, was core- 
fully eoncealwl from lh« ehildrvn. William IV,, who Hetired n 
Duti^h Alliance for his niecr> di<l not treat the Princi^s with any 
pnrlicul&r con aid era lion. He iDviled them one day to Windtor^ 
utid went to ileepduring dJnnL^r. Thej eame into contuct with 
tbe pruininent persons of the day, among others with Di»racHf 
wlio aujieaied to the Duke a raio young Jew of Uadical opmioDS. 
The C^turt of die Ciiiacn King iormc^d a strong eontraat to the 
artciefy of London. Liiji« Pliilippr* charmird the Pfincei by hi* 
thoTouirh knowlnl^r of (iennsn, and by thr astounding memory 
vrhich retained the events of his chequered Ulo. Only a difTer- 
ence of religion prevented an aiUaiict? hc^tween Prince Emot 
nnd Princess Clcmcntinef who afterwords married his oouiin 

In June 1h^3Ii the two hTOthcni settled ilown to their studies 
in n liitle villa on thn HuLilfvaTd de rOhif^rvatoire at Bniiselt, 
Flortehtili was slill aX their side ; but they were to he pnrparcd 
both iitx society and for govcniment Their most intluential 
teacher was (juetelet, at that time forty ye^rs of age, a inathe<- 
matician, an astronomer, and a statesman, who applied with 
rcifipiTkablc skill abstract calcalalions to the phenomena of 
society and politicd. It would hp difHcult to overrate the efToct 
which the cold and accurate mind of Ouclelel had over the 
enthusiastic t4;mp(^minent of Prince Albert, Qnetclet's grcftt 
work, ' Du Systcme Sociale et dc§ lois qui le re^ssent,' pub- 
liahed in 1^4$, was dedicated to his Royal pupil. The taion of 
the young students was crowded with men of Ir^tters. Among 
thctm was Charlco d(? Brouckcri^, the famous financier, head of 
thr NatiouEkl Bank, Hcrr nUo they madr the nccpiamtitnrc of 
Van dp Weyer, who wu» holding; for a time the stals of the 
Home OlHcT, and Van Praet. ihc private secretary of the King. 
The Duke tells us that the derotjon to the study of art whidk 
was so remarkable in the Prince Consort was first givcrn to him 
in Brussels. The iiiltuencir of the Prince upun English art has 
booTi sc> profound, that wo are apt to imagine thot il occupied a 
largfir portion of his mind than was really the ea»e. A statn- 


Rikh^tiUdt/thfi Cuharg Juuntfy. 






man «nd r man of Icttm, art snil music attnctH him only id 
duf pro]>ortioD. He worked in England on the field mott 
K»dity opm to liicn, and a lang<^r lite wciutd lnv<? d{*vdopc^d 
Oppujtuiiliirs Iff wider bcujk?. llftd iIr- PriiKC CuiiburL livL'd, 
tbe pro^c« €)f EiigU»li cducalioa would have bccrt ndv«nc«<I 
hy twenty jears. The mitiUrv training of the young: men wai 
inadf^ easier by the fact, that the armieiof Ut^liEium and Hiilland, 
which had recently' been in conflict, wrrc stitl mmu^ in warlike 
amy in uppovite camps. Brussels was also at this tinie the 
refuge for hnlirin Carbonari, as it bc-'CAine at a Inlrr p<^rir>d for 
tbcf adh«*rt.-iila ul Cjui'L-ii Chii»liiia. CutiMrriruEivL' Oi'iiiiuiiy liirardf 
viih M>nic aitoniihmcnt, tb»t the young prin«>t of a rcign'inf^ 
hoaa» aiftociAtrd with such dangeraus char&cEcra ai Arrivahcne 
ai>d Silvio Pdlico- Thr opinions of the youn^ In<^n took a 
decidedly Liberal turn, and Fruioc Albert could say of hioiKlf 
with trtitb, * 1 did not go over from the Tories to the Whigs ; 
but whm I awoke and looked about mc, I found that 1 wai a 


Tbn nine moniha^ sojourn of the Princes in Braiarls mnda 
ihrm only more aniiinis lo drink knowledge at the founlain- 
hesd* and with great ditficully they obtnine<l prrtnissioa to 
matricuUie at the University of Bonn, Here they ^nve ihem- 
sslvrs up with pcisvionate enthitsiasm to hearing lectiiret and 
fiUmg noiC'bo<}kff a wcaknris ol' the Opriran mind which the 
ndlcgmolii: LuglitthuiAO rtgarda with a»luni>hjni;Dt and di»m»j, 
TUcy attended nearly all the courses in the faculty of law, heard 
Picbie, die w^TTthy ion of an illustrious father, in philosophy, 
Scfalegel in litcraturr, and others not less comprient in histofj, 
finance, art, and Freoch. They studied anatomy and pLyaics, 
iDQsic and thotongb bass. They rode and '-hey lencnt^ and the 
Duke tells us thai he was presrntril with a aword of honour at 
a prue duel. It appears from the early year* of the Prince 
Cotuort (p. 143, ft. 1, and p. 172^ that Prinee Albert camMJ 
nlTa similar distinction, A year and a half was spent in this 
frmtfol and hitppy toil. If a stateaman requires a ^ond edoca- 
tioB bt t4ie esietcising of his functioni, a aorefeign needs it itill 
tnore, and <>rnnanv miv cf>Dgralulate benelf that the example 
mn by the Saxon Princes of working as ordinary Mudrnis baa 
been largely followed, and ha> bapptly apread Into Engla4MJ. 

in theatitui&n of 11^37, th« brothers travelled over ^wita«rUnd 
and the Italian Ukes on foot, and reached Venice in Ofiober. 
Accotdiocto theauttkoTityof the Dake, which does not, boircver, 
Wve wi'ii the Ko|^kab account, do serious mention was made of 
t& viaiTiagc oi Queen Victoria la her cf>usin antil March 15^* 
Tbe bftMhcTt were oow aeparaicd. Priace Alb«n wpmt a winter 



Ihminif^mc^ t*ftk6 Ci^r^ Famtiy. 

in !t&1y. while the iiilim Duke wc^nt to Dreidm to prrrcct 
hiiTiu^lf in in il it arr fttuclteis, Dreulon was imlvml at tbia lime 
th(< home "f iht* ^fuif*tt> King Frirdrtcli Aug^iii>t wtu a tliuiri' 
gui«hed IraTcUor and botanial. His brother, IVince Jobn^ wa« 
cne of thtf first Dunti.' scholars m Eumpe. TheimnslatLon and 
cfunmcrtUry puhllahc'd untlfr the tinmr of Pbilnlclhos, in in«iny 
rcBpr>et« the? b<<Et of a vast number, vraic at tbii litne appi^avhinjc 
roniplrt!i>n, ami ihc fuiure Kint; Icriurcd on hU fftrcurUc port 
to a select auilienc^e, Tbe two Devrleots and SchriTdcr were the 
star« of iho Drrsiloti Thctntrr, vrhilr .Mrnifr]sfi<rhn and Scljlimann 
were not far oET at Leipzig, Under tbcw happj auspices tbe 
jrouu|^ Prinu; allaiiKd Uis tnnjorhv. 

Tbct Dtikc iiiff>rnia iia tbnt tli<f poitpon^mnnl of QdMO 
VieI'>riB*i Tnnrrinfftr, for which th«^ QunMi ripr<-ftftffs her regret 
in ihr Lifr nf her hmb^nc], wna tbr work of hrr govrniew. 
Countess Lehzen, wIjo wisbeil la preserve her intluvnce over her 
pupil AS lon^ as possible*. Tbt^ [Imp, bnwever, bad now ooRie 
when the wish ol' so many hearts was to be CArried out. The 
two hroibcrs travcllrd toffcthi^T to Englntid ta October I839» 
and ntt IcArn from tKcrso Mnmoin some intoittatiog delaiU aboat 
the betrothal whith fotlowetl. Tht* Oulte cocnplaizis of ibe 
weakness of thr Ministn-, which hid not the oonra^ to propnte 
to Partiament that his brolher ahould receive the title of King 
Comorl. We can now H*e that such a p>«iuitn would ha^e been 
resented hy the nstion, and might have exposed its occupier to 
an amount of jralousj^ whith would havo impaired bis oppoi^ 
tumtin nf inflacnro. Undoubtedljr it vrofild hsvp br-rn tufttcr 
for the Prince if he could have made himself more acci^ptable 
to the English anstocrncj'. In the fidlrwing Frbniar}- the two 
brothers returnrd for the wedding- The only new circunistaDce 
recorded, is that in bis passage through London the Prince vrms 
driven hy sldr slm^ts, wbib* nins»r« of ejtpcclant erowds were 
wfiitiiig (fir him in the main thorou;»h fares. Afterthe marring 
tho Duke itajed with hia brY)lhffr for three monthsi, and 
witnessed a daily growth of affection in the Ro>al pair, which 
was the more reroarknhle from ihr dtfTerrnres of their characters. 
' Victoria,' be writes on March :fnd, 'is consiBtent with herself; 
she is always a loving, atteniive, and tender wife to Albert, And 
seeks to diB^orer hi» moi^i trilltng wishes/ At the snioe time* 
he could ob>ierv« laow dJfTicult it was for hit brother to tindcrf' 
stand !he English people and to mnkr himiu'tf nnderstnod by 
them. As they wefe riding tOf>ether dunne the ta«t days of 
their visit, and talking of tliese difTtcLilEieK, Prince All>ert said 
to his brother, * When you are gone I shall have no one to 
whom I can «peak unrestrained Iv on these subjects. An Engliab- 



JUmimsr^nctf {t/the Cohurt/ Fanihf. 



man doet not underUand or commeb^nil th<f«<* thinf^ and iocs 
in tlicm only th«? anngant crncKiousnrsfi of a forrigDcr/ The 
Hake tbinkt ibac ibc choice of jMr. Anson m Si-crrt^rj', nul* 
iruhftlAndin^ hts 111:111/ ^xxi (|Uhlitir>, wns not a. hap[>y onr, 
m bia tow opinion of cvcrj-tbiiig Gorman. Tliifl iiatuntlljr 
'r«ik»p<l ibc Princ4.-'a iaulailon, aaO be? had no r>Qc to full back 
spoQ bat Baron Stockmar, Whatever pMiiion and inlluence 
^ Prince Consort aftvrwanli ai^uirc*d in England was due to 
his tfvrn cjualjtii** Ami ctforis, and UnA to br won stt^p by stop. 

In ]tS4U Prince Lrnrat made a journey to For1U|fi) jukI Spain, 

Ivlnif, 3S ht? tcll> u^ pniUibly the Tint Grminn Prince who eVL*r 

viatlcil ttie PenintuU oa a tourist, Oi'tna Mari& il% OJoria, Qucoti 

of Poriu^lf after the dpAib nf hi?r tir»t hmfMnd thf- Diik<! iif 

Leucbien berg, bad married Prince Ferdinand of Saie-Cobur;, 

ihv firat cousin of ibe Duke. The court of Unna Muna and 

ihc King C(>n»oit prrarntcd to the traveller a picture of peace 

And prosperity. 'I he troablea of ibe civil war were forjjutten. 

T}oui Vcnmad^y a yxnxu^ man cif twmly«f<»ura hjid now si^tllril 

<luwn in bit poaiiion. Prinoe Krnest wriirs to bis brother hi>vr 

a^rrvtdilr be 11 abl<* to mnkp bimv-lf, and hnw skilful hr^ ta in 

eaiertajning the company at Court. Perbaps some friendly 

■V4lvice w^y here lurk betwetrn tbe lines. Of Diina Maria bet 

^ivcs a tjiore favoumblo ncrnutit than is usually received. He 

c&scTibea bcr apparent ihjrnefs to deliberate purpose, and con- 

^ta bcr aUcncc In the presence of the CouU with bet nnrc 

^2«inad loquacity in tbe fauaily circle. Ho portrays her as full 

»f insight nnd origtrudity. It is generally believM tliat the 

tiiuet of Dom Pern&ndo's career was embarraased by a Gcnnun 

-Camarilla, uf whdin Diet/, the King's former tutur, wm titt- bead. 

r*hc Duke contrn<ltcts this., and ailributes the clrAnlincss and 

urity of the cspiial, as well aa improvement in agriculture, 

S«xon influence. At ihe same time the King's poiilion wna 

s«<rure ono. He reeeived every one in audience before the 

atrrit and visitors paid iheir respects first to bim> 

The Duke'a experience in Spain offered a strong contract to 

U peaceful scene. On arriving in the harbour nf Karceloiui 

<-la.e travellers were not received with any signs of respect, but 

^^«» kejrt waiting tliiee hours before their Iuj;i;a^c was 

**'3C«miiie<b Tlie^ found that the town bad been ^Icdarv^l in a 

^^-Aie of «iege by iLfpart^ro, the lieail of the Fxahados psrfy, 

^^fco were ende^vrpuriog to return to power. Towards evening 

^**eT »'«re conducted into a large but unfurnished palace, with 

^^aay apologia for delay. At this time tbe (Jueen was a 

Pv^imnrr in bcr ps1ac«. On the tnorniagof the following tiny 

^*^srtcro called, cui'eivd frvin head to foot with gidd love. In 

VoLl67.— A^-^M. 1 tbe_ 



Jtemimscenees of the Col^urf; Fairrify, 

the aftcrnnon thr Duke <Irore in a miserabli* cnrria^, to visit 
the Qaecn Kegrnt and facr two ctnughrcrt. He Snxtml thrm 
■UTTDumlcd bj cvcrj' sign ot w|uulor anij pwrcrtr, Tlic Quet-u 
ftumtnod ui> her conv^nation with tho worda: * I nm tho tno«t 
ini«(*mhl*? womon in the world,' Two daja |n|(»r tber«* wat a 
review of troops in honour of the Duke, atn! Espartrro asked 
him if he would persuade the Queen to shinw herself at the 
bolcony oi her palace-prison whilst the soldiers marched bj. 
With great difficuhythc Queen consented to witness the parftde 
of the Tcrj- airmj, which had jjst defeated htr troop* and was 
keeping her a nriaiinrr. The >ubmisB]'>n was of litdc use to 
thp httmblcd sovereign. On Se]>tember Hj, 1840, Espartero 
entered Madrid in triumph* and n month later Queen Christina 
ahdieatfd, and sought refuge in France, 

In \bW the Dulce married, not Princess Marie of Prussift, 
as had at f\m been intended, but Princess Alexandrina of 
Bftdct). In 1^44, hy the sudden d^aih of hii folhcr, he succeeded 
Xi> the throne. In March be rec«jv(?d a viait from htB hroiber 
Albert, and after so lon^j an absence f'ould fonn an independent 
judgment of his cbaracti^r, which is highly intercBliug to us. 
i'he Prince Consort, lie says, was by no means so decided s 
supporter of constitutional government us the Duke himsell. 
lie desired to maintain the patriarchal system customary in the 
smitll Ccrmnn Duchtcs, ond was opposed to any sharp division 
between public and domoatic afTnirs. Ho remarks, ihai Ox" 
lettrrs and sptteches of his brother ^ive only a ona-sidcd picture 
of his distinffuishcd but very peculiar character, and do not 
suGBcieBtljr exhibit its contrasts and oppositions. He represents 
him OS uniting a gentle amiability of^disptsitjou to a severely 
critical judgment^ a self-saciificin^ warmth of heart lo a 
coldness which was repellent to mattVr a devoiion for humanity 
in th<> abstrnrt to a conEcmpt for ind]vh)ita1« ; to benr>fit mnnkind 
he could he severe to men. This critical mood showed itself 
equally in politics, art, and science. He was by nature an 
enemy of all half tiuths and of hollow phrasi^s. The serious* 
ness with which he regarded the business of life impaired the 
n&tuiul cheerfulness f»f his cliarueter. The Duke li inclined to 
ascribe this change to the iDflurnce of Kn^lith surroundings^ a 
country in which pleaiure is alway* tiiken more or lest lodly; 
but he comes to the conclusion, that tlie real cause of it lay in 
the presence of Baron Stockmar, who was e^ublished nt 
Windsor as aii adviser to the Koyal ]iair. It has ofron 
hnppcnrd that the private physicians of princes have plaved mi 
important pait in politics, Daron Siockmar is ;i striking figure 
in that series of notabilities which extends from Olivier lo Dain 


Jlemiitucencet of the Oiburg Family. 

Ia nftrtAr F.vnn*. H<* orviipiwt, (h<' Duke I^IU m, in iho Cobu^ 
Ikmiljir the ]M>sitiiHi of ihc (jrwrk Ch(jn»> bciagr a ronatanl and 
truttivrirthy adTiHcr, but not & roiponBiblc minHCor. He lioil aUo ci 
strong inilutoce over tie Knglisb Court, nnil frnip the pagci of 
these Memoir* wc find him to be » tnort important poJitlc^ 

» personage- than we bIiouM Lave (rxfWL'ted, 
Xhc y^t%T% bctwem l!^i& adiI 1$18 were occtipScd bjr the 
rnn»litutiona1 atmg^l^t which (^ilrniimliMi in the outbrcnlc of 
the XsiUrz ymr, Th*? Duk** wm from hit position intimRtdy 
ArnDBiDtcd with all the tniats and turn* of that secular rivalry 
vrUich eventuuJIy placed Frusiia at the bead of (lermany. 
From him vre CAn Wm much a1)0Ut xho ^nifnnBttcal charactfr 
of Frrdcrjck William IV,, whusv oicJicval mrvticismv aod 
wavering whim* of gi^nius ivimv fto lonp; nn fibttftcto to tho 
sir-A;]y df*ve|(>pmvnt of l\\i- f j^rman people. MHt#*mirb wni 
oppi>tcd to the cBtablisbmcnt of ftny constitution Mhstcver in 
Pru««ia. 'Hie King; ctaboraicKl a convtitution which vras quite 
unfit for the a^. Prince Allicrt, who, in an interesting Letter 
novr for the fir^t time published, cntreatei) the Kinj? 1o prevent 
if possible the dritruction of xhr Hcutan constituiioa, «> a 
violoneo don^ to the common go-^i faitb of princo*, b»d it aI*o 
in his mini) In pUc<T Frustia at the heful of the Libentl move^ 
ment in Germany. Amon^ tho forcrannen of Prince Hisman:k, 
ivlio was pventualiy to determine this long contesif was General 
RadfiwitZf tn whom the Duke ascribes an important share in 
the nnifiealioD of Germany. He was, the Duke infoims os, 
r% figure out of the iVIiildIc Agci, a »o1<UeE poUticjaa nod a 
ft^^btiTijr bishop, ft man of grr^al knowL-«lgi> aod wide r-iuiing, 
%\e po««4^ts<^d n memory scarcely inferior to Liird Maci\ulay*i^ 
I'le could read a moderate-size book in an afternoon^ and repeat 
nearly every sentence in it by beurl, with the page on nhicb it 
^as lo be loanil> In convcTsatJon he quoted from books to an 
v^xteiit ivh)v:L uppeanrd tucredibk-, bul un exfmiiii»tii»n be whs 
sacarly always found to be ez^ct He wn«, as might bo expected, 
Voniething of a doctrinaire, and was ratbi>r a t?ueh<>r than a man 
of action; he was more uieful as a critic or advLst^r than as u 
leader. Whilst the Statet-Oeneial were sitting at Berlin tn the 
autumn of lt!'17, he pressed tipon tbe King the necesiity of 
wc^uring the freedom of the pres«, the ptihliration r\i debates in 
x\ic I'V-bruarv imeittbly, meiL^iures fur the nitiiy of Geruiiiuy and 
the interest of tro'le. 

In the discuation of tkesp <|ueilions of bigli tioliey Printe 
Albert took a more considerable share than would appear Ixom 
the pa|:es of bi» life. They were mooted during the Tisit ot the 
Vrioee to Coburg and Gotha in 1S43, where a Lar^ number of 

I 2 Germatt 


Remimsr€nc€s ofUte Cohur*/ Familt/, 

Germftn prince vrtrc a>si^ml>lcd to m^^t the Queen of England. 
Tliey Vrere ibe 4ut>jL'Ct of convcisAliunfl bccwi^eu lh<7 bix>lb<.'rb in 
the foUowtng /ear, ond ih^v formed lh<: j£Tuundw»rk uf a corrc- 
tpontl^noe Ix-tw^en Prinrj^ Alhrrt %nt\ \ht* Kin^ of Pruttia, which 
viAtt rommunJcnied m>t mil} to Duke Krnesit and the Frinci? **( 
Lciningcn, but lo ^tockmnr Find Bun«c[i» Prince Albert found 
biuitc^lf in little nx^reeini_*nt with the liuiited and eccentric views 
which wcm unpcited upun Frederick WiUiam IV. by the tlreu 
of his own character and of Lis Icrrilorial und family cotincc- 
tioni. The Prince ti>ok him «tand upon tUu twu funOamcntol 
prinHpl^s of iweuring at onn^ thr iiniiy of Cit^rmnny nnil ^ 
popular government in il» compoiietit pnivtaceii. Of this 
Germany^ PrLisnia w« t<j he the hend, and yet Austria was not 
to be excluded from it. To eflect ihie combinacioo was an 
opcmtiun of consummate delicacy, made more itiUicalt by ihc 
resolve of Frod«rick VVililam that bis only function waa to hold 
the stirrnp for the Emperor of Austria, Vet Austria was quite 
unable^ financially, morally, or polilically, to lak*^ iho li>iul, 
Jiut at ibis limt- the sv^lem of MettcrniLb sufreiL^d tUrt^e lerloui 
bloM<< The incorporalion of Cracow intrj the Monarchy pro- 
dacetl an outbreak which strained the resources of Au^tiia 
attnost to breaking. The election of Papc Plus IX. raited the 
dng of luliuu libcKy with a» authority which could oot bu 
overlooked, while (be war of the Suiidcrbund in Switzerland 
covered ihf policy of the An^lrian Chnnnelior with diftcrrdiL 
In the iia^iLUtiuie ii nei-oeiation which mijcljt liuve led tii a 
Eun^penn war was occup)'ing the attention of the two brothers. 
The (juration of the Spanish Marringca bas been treated in 
Sir Tbeodore Martin's "Life of the Piince Coniori* with more 
than onlinary complctenci*. It i> not nocx^Mary to relalc n|;aiii 
the whole dreary story, but tho Doki-^K Memoirs throw Fomc 
light nn points which have hillirrlo been obscure- The enger- 
nesa of Guizot and Louis Philippe to contract an alliance 
between the Courts of Spain and Franct* recala the family 
compacts of nn earlier age, The l>uke's second journey to the 
Peninsula took place in the spring of 1846. No sooner had 
he landed at Barcelona than he heanl from M> Lea«i.-t», then 
the CoiiBul'General of France, of the fall of Narvaex which had 
juftt occurred. Six years before, in the same city, ibc Uuke 
hul witnessed the humiliation of Queen Christina before 
Kspartero. He now saw her tread a devoted aod enlif^htcuad 
minister into the dust. Prince Albert had some reason for 
writing to b!s bmthur thai be wouUl soon be reganlcd as i 
family apcctro, iJDce revolution, deposition^ juaa»iuut[oii, and 
•laughter, seemed always to follow in bis train. The Duke is 


Meifttm^^ntxt (ff the Coffur^ F*tmihj, 



of opinion tbat Qdi*«D CbrUtinn only dc^tircHl nn OHmnitt 
muTiaf;i*, in nrd^ lo got b^ck to Spain with the astistance of 
Liois I'hiJippf, uekI that wben that object wua aromrpH 4 b«I in 
1844, nhf- would bnvc prcfrirt'l i" hai-c given ber dnughirr'a 
LadcI to brt brolbcr. lb*? Uuk<^ of TrftpADi, ihc? jr»tiPfCCfM of tlie 
tive1v« cUtblrcn of Frnnctc 1. UnUoabtctltj the be«t haGbiiad 
for th« joung Queeo would bavc been « Coburg; but Lord 
Piilmerstofi, who \\w\ hii own rc«»cins fnr disliking Cobur^ 
n?pTi-£4?ntril this at an alliance in the French inlercat, an<f 
lupportcd the candidature ol Don KnriquL^, the l>ukc of Seville, 
die M-cutid v>u of Don FranriM^o dr E^tu1n, ifir hnnht^r of Don 
Cnrbis. Qtic<'n Ctiriiltna nrn» atron^rly opp^ised to Don I^nriquCa 
be<T4Ufie of 111* oonnt^ctinn trilb the IVogminlnH, whom ftho held 
ta abbonence. Hu elder brother, Don FmncUeo de Auiii, 
wai even more distuteful lo her, becauw* she knew ibnl a union 
with bim mmt be without hope of postentr It is indeed 
terrible to Ibtak that, in an enli^i^htened a^e, such a inarriagt' 
coold hjiTe been serjoudj^ tb^u^lu of. 

Tbc Duke, who was & strong tupporler of thf* Coburp marriape, 

thinks thnt thn Rn^lith M!nUtrr« wen> oiirwiited Rt Ko. It 

wa» there arranited, as we learn from iht* Life of the Prince 

Consort, that the marringv Evf the Duke nf Mimlpnaiier wilb 

the Queen's sister should not take place until the t^uccn bcr-* 

•elf should be married and have children. The price of the 

urrrndcT xii m\ Oilc«.uiftl ftlliAncc with tbo Queen irni the 

miio of Kn^land to support a n»urbon a])i;toce, and this 

ought not to hnve iHrrn rionrcde<L TEie letter of <Jui^n Clinstinn 

to ibe Duke^ dated Mav 2, IM4>, which ia printed in full, 

flurknowfeilgrs the (Queen's desire to unite her daughti-r wilb 

the Count of Trapani, but decUrei that the alliaoce which 

iiould Itest fieeure the happineu both of her child and of the 

toaCioD w^vik) W a Tosrriage with Pflnce Leopold of Cobar^. 

^b« atkcd tbu Duke lo use his influenee wilb the Englikb 

^ourt to secure ber daoghtet n free choice in this matter. The 

3)uke expre««ed to (Jtieon Christina a hope that her desire 

anight be acc^omplished, while he sent copies of the It-tlnr boih 

^^*(> hi* brrtther and lo King Leopold. Prince Alltert replied 

^■«m May SO that he eould not do what the Duke wUbed, tbac 

^V^c Queen and himself were plcdgt^d to promote & Bonrbon 

^B^nnrria^e on oondiiion that Louis Philippe refrained from 

^■T^uiiinj^' fornartl ^ny of bif own sons ; of course, if the Spanish 

l^f Court deelarcil that a Hourbon alliance was iinpoisible, the 

^iui'cn might then b« free to in»rry whom she pltaied, but 

^^ Kngland coatd have nothing to with the matter; the best 

^B chanoe for a Cvburg marringr was to srcure the support of Louis 

■ Philippe. 


L th. 


BentittiscaiMt qfda Cobniy Fatnity. 

Philippe* The unfortunAlc Queen of Spfiin had u> wait long 
for a definite answer. 

Luid Palmrtvtoii liml iucceedcd lAtrd AhvidvcUf and o\xi 
own Qucon vntA for soino tifn<r uftcr tlio binh of the Princvu 
HpTenn unahli- In nttrml tn public nffiBirK. On August 5, 
PrinoG Albert sent lo hia brt)ther a chaught of the Answer to be 

SiveD to Queen Cbrlttina, which had been drawn up bj the 
lucen, the Prince^ And the King oS the Hd^inns, It touk 
awaj fd] hope of a Cobar^ marrlafi^, alleging the determine- 
tioD of LouU Philippe that tlii; Qurcit vf Sp^iiu should nx^try a 
Dourbon, und the impoHcr and, indeud, tho impouibility of 
n-sittin^ thin cletrrmi nation hy anjtiiirg ihort of l\u* pu^tivt* 
resolution of the Spaul^h nation. The result was not Inn^ in 
coming. The rffurts of Lord Pulmenton in favour of Don 
f^nnciuo onJy strengthened the Anxiety of fiuixot to K^ipport hii 
brother. On August 29, the simuliancout betrothal of the 
Duke of Cftdix to the Qaccn of Spain, and of the Duke of 
Montj>enuer to hvr Bitrev, wat formally announced- A» wv 
Itarn from llir \Aie nf the Hrinen t^nnftort, the Qur^'n waft deeply 
wounded al this breach of faith. Prina: Albert wrt»:o to bi» 
brother on Dec 17 : — 

' Nothing ooQ be lunre fihithlesR timn the poliey aDUi>nncH!d by 

Froneb C<^urt. It is a paltry triu[aph to haro duped * f r 

eepociBlly nhcu ho U Ibo ouly onu you |whhcih- The }Hjor Qaem, 
up til the ^n*i ii}<^m<*nt, riling ta t\\n nitivt\u^i^^ T.f^opoTJ, nnd only 
gjivc it up when Itiil^^ar dcclan^d that lio conhl uiit ituppc^rt at> ana 
uTiHt take tbo hide of Dou Knrii|uo, wLc, as a Bourboo, had the 
upproval of Fraiioo. BreaHt>ii liitd lulroilly wtml their Ul-tvmper to 
11 1 it forward Don FranciMO, and citucludud tha botroihal of 
Moutpciisior t(j the Infanln/ 

Kin^ Lc-opold threw llic whole blame of failuTo on Lord 
Pfi|meT«ion'A nupport <d Don Linnque. The marriigv wa< fatil 
to both d^nattiei. TKc new King Consort only Hred a few 
months with his wife, and at nu lonjt interval tlie House of 
Orleans was driven from the throne of Franee. 

The l>uk^, on arriving at Lisbon, found ihe situation even 
more troubled tliAii iu SjKLin. A civil war wafi raging in the 
streets of the capita], yet Dona Maria rode about peftcefuUy in 
th<» suburbs, and was ret-eived with f^nthutiatm by the popolaee. 
WbiUt storming columns were attacking Fort Almada, the 
royal family drank lea on the terne« of Brlem, sind the hand of 
the frigate sent to seeurc? thetr Enfety plnved a wnlcz o( Str&utt. 
The Queen Appeared to re[^nrd the contlict as an exhibition of 
firc^woiks, but til*.- Kin^ C'nuscjrt took it more MrriouaJy. Duke 
Ernest meribes the Queen's attitude not to indilTcrcncct bat la 

a sense 

RcminiKenctM of tin Cohttrg FamOff. 




aeiue of bfinp ibovc pjirly ; and lie believes tUnt, whnn 
flnglub intervcmioEi had favoured the tiepcembrislB and bad 
liriyen the C*ctm%a Camarilla from the couattj^, the royal 
tamily VTvtp mor* jdtoIv^ in p^rty qunrreU, »nd reigned with 
lets dij^nitj' Alid lr«s |>eacre. The Km^^ of the BrljriaiK enm- 
pUinetl (o his nrphew, that the Enf-liati were? hchavin^ sh^aie- 
Jally, and thai tlev would now ruin Ferdiiinml At lefure tliey 
tad ruined Leopold. L4>fd PAJmerston't puhcy, even thuagb it 
^cncrulljr made for frtedom, waa noi unmflueitccd hy temper 
*ind pcnottal aatlpathj. 

Thp nukfv 1i*i something to tell ua »baut the fall of Louit 
Pbilipf>e, He tlutik* it a pity tliat the Kin^ of the French 
<:x)|j|d never vork with Thiers. Some years later, Thiers aaid 
himself to the Uuke, 'KiDg Louts I'htlippe would never take 
xhe trtjubte to under»taQd me,' Imlerd, hit dislike ami^unted to 
««vcraiuit. The dt^iU of tbe l>uktf of Ork-au) waa a tenible 
blow to hU father's position. It deprived the King of hia 
^viaeat ailvtier. Prinee Joinvilte and the One d'Aurnale were 
in Africa, and Louu Philippe? was tJirowu back upon the fetimle 
anembers of his family, who were clerical and reactionary. It 
at but little known that a lively eorrespondenc« cook place 
Iwtveen Louis Philippe jind the King nl the Belgians, on the 
vequeal, that Kiu^ Leu|K>Id tliouM undertake the guarditiDsliIp 
■«f the children of the I>iikp of Orleans. Perhaps there VFha 
Aoiue idea of the eventual union of Belgium with France, 
Iun£ Leopcdd refuKrd, and said of hl% faltkf!r-*in*[aw that the 
^ood old gentleman must cut his soup himself. A lUtlc reso- 
lution might have tared the Monarchy at tbe hut moment^ 
^ut the King had a keen recollection of the Terror of 1793, 
Kc bad Ikicii rt^ading Lamartine'a ^Giroadina* aloud to hia 
family, supplemnnting the book by personal recollecliont, and 
«l»c ladies dn-aded a rtcurrence of the scenes of horror which 
Dvere so vividly present to bis own mind. Tbut, although the 
*r&)y was firm and faithful, rcsoltition failed in the supreme 
criuc The Ktnr reiiealed again and i^gain, * I havo seen 
UoodsLotl enough. He told tlie Duke at Ricbmuad, in iJitiS, 
^ be strode up and down the room in poasionato oxcitemenl, 
1 wilt explniQ all. Mv miniateri doci^ivrd me ».« In thi* 
^tuation. It it the ambition of M. Thiers which brought 
About the fall of the throne.* 

'Xbe outbreak of 1848, although it was long eipccted, took 
^«iy one by surprise. The King of the Belgians was one of 
^c few who anticipated that Louis Philippe would be driven 
'^t like CharW X. Tbe revolution was marked hy tho 
(^rrrsality of its eruplioB, by wild bopea on oc»e sidr^ and by 



J^^miniicenp'^s qf tfi* (hhur^ Famxhf. 

abject despair and incompetence on the otbrr. There exiited 
nt thU time a do»e conDeciioa between England and PnifsiB, % 
set-oJi' flgainiit tfie aUiAnc<i brtwctm France nnd Austria which 
diiftgured the lait jeara of Louia PiiiU|>p«i. To x\i\% conn^^tion 
Ruftin sought to attach hrrftoU in order to bnn^ about the 
i«i!ilatioti of Knglnnd, Thi> fTirndihip lx>twpon thr* twn Pnw<*nt 
wtu, however, endnn^ered hy the t^^mnnthy felt in Eo^lnad for 
the aspirations of \in\y. Frrdcrick William could do nothing 
wliich Wiis likely to shake the authority of Aaatria in Vcnctin 
and the Milnnene, and he hnd n pincis horror of Italian con- 
fEpiratorti. Djk<r Ciiiriil WAa in KNgl-ind tvljrii thir roval fugi- 
tivc< arrived from Fr&nce. He met tho Uuo d* N«infniT» oa 
hii landing at Dover, nnd tho Queen lont a apecial train to 
bring biin to London. 

Tbc Duke returned to bis own domininni at the beginning 
of March, and soon found himsetf face to face wirh a miniature 
revolution. He met the diaturlJAnres in Cobur]^ and Gotha 
with mio^'lod Aruinca» And coocIJiutioo. The tmgedjr of lt$'l@ 
wotf aot altogrtbcr without it* roomie aide. One <laj- in May, U 
the Doko was driving from Gotha to Cobarg, he was met hy a 
carriage which contained the whole executive irovemment, 
three in number, of a tittle Thurinj-ian town ealled Cells 
St. lilasii. Tht'y were in the greatosi excitement; they were 
driven nut by the nrrolulion, and wrre v'l^king Fefu|E^ in Oolfaa. 
T]je Dok*^ determined itt vi»ii Cclh in ptrurn, hut the govera- 
ment waa far too much frightened to aceotapunj' hint. On 
arriving at the town, he fimnd several hundred persons asicmblcd 
in the market-place, while speechet were being made fnsin the 
public fountain in the middle. The Duke cnterr^t an inn, 
jiersuaded the half-tipsy landlord to give him a Urge room, and 
piovided hiniM^lf with a clerk. He dcclnrc^d himn^tf ready to 
hear complAiiitJt, and the hall was soon fdled with artiaans and 
shopkeepers, who ihout^l around him, Hr told thrm that they 
must send a depiitatioD. After an hour's interval a deputation 
of fd^ty niEidit it» np|>earanei% wh<» |iri:rcee<te^l to bring Tiuineroui 
irregular diaries ngninst the Diir^il nfliei^ils. The Duke replied 
ibat the chargt-s must be laid tn regular form before the ministry 
of Oothn, and that in the mcantiuic tbr rxrrutivr o(1iccr» muai 
be r«ator4*d to their p1aee«. .Some ilight h«ffitatiori iruc removed 
by th«^ thfrat that, unlrita this were done^ a regiment nf foldiera 
would be quartered at Cella at The eipense of the inhabitants. 
Thirty ciiixcns WL-re found to sit^n i pa]V.r {guaranteeing tbo 
personal tafety of the ofTiciaU. Tbe grievances, when placed 
on paper, were found to be very inilgoifLcant, and a year later^ 
when the Duke dcaircd to remove the*e very ofTieiiJa, be re- 

X€mmisc97tce4 of the Cohur/^ Famify. 


cipjTeJ an ortlcni nppml in llioir favour. Stochmiir irri>to to th« 
Dokc, tliAl }i^ Will fr'*^'! *^ i^f^ *^^t ^^i'^ pprAnnnl infltiMtoR aF 
•overtijrn* WA$ noT Altogether drad in Gcrmanj. 

Th4? [>ak^ wfts j1s-> able lr» nasUt '*tberi wh« were weaker 

than hiDisclL In July he wti% informrxi ihut ih€ Duca) family 

In AUcnbarg w&i in ihc greaieit peraon&l dan^r. He imm^* 

ciiAlcljr took hi« place in a secon(l-<:1n» rnilirny CAmagr anil 

arrived ftt Altcciburj^ unre<^i>goi7M, Th« landlord of the tnn 

UKirvd bi:n that AUftnbur^ vran on the ihrrshold of grrjil 

eveals, that the Puke was a prLtiiner, and cut off from all 

oommunicMiion with i\w exie^nml wi>rid. Wht-n sktktd by 

wboiD, mine hnit Trpltod, 'He t« in the power of the Prfn 

fiiiunnl government, and i> under the tturveiHance of tb« 

DMiun&l ^unrd/ *ls it posijblr,* A»k<!d the Duke, 'to pcn«- 

tnte inttt th<> palaee?' *Qcni^ iinpociibfi*/ w*b xhf niitvr^r. 

Thfr L(*rd HJET^i ^ir^wAn) was rIeki smtd to Ik* a prisoner in 

Ui houw. The Duke deteriTtLned to coll upon the litffb 

^t^wnrdf and found the door pn>tected by An uumilitary-luokiDg^ 

national guant with a hnlbml in bis bond^ who in broad 

Altcnburg fnUoiji lolJ Uiui thai he could not eater. T\w Duke 

pcttbrd the mnn ^ntly- oniilp, nod wnlknl into i}iP houw> tic 

fotfwl thp Mi^h St'wnnl in a ttatv of tb« deeptMt alarin. Hf* 

dared not o>nduci iht* Djkr into the presence of bit novrrei^j 

Inritwotild be certain death to any one makinj; the attempt* 

The road to ibe cantle, wlticb if situated upon u height, waa 

^»^rc4 by two )aT^barricA<leso<xup]r<i by »oldieri, who allowed 

DO noe to |K«H3. Tilt? Dukif ]u<:kjly artived at Ibt? moment whv*ti 

t**y ircrn rclic%'ing gnnni, and tctling tbp officer in oomcnnnd who 

m v«s, wat aJmitlf^fl to tbt- pAhire, tbf> v'mh of a nei^hb<rurinj7 

•(fftrrfgi liavin^ been apparently overlooked in the ordcra of 

*** liar. Tbe Duke tboughl ii at well to hint, what was 

'fitirriy without foundation, that there wna a budy of troopa in 

^ Deighbjurbood who were preparc<l w atiack if he wcro 

|*mii]jr df?laiut.'d. 'Fhr l^uki.- of Alli'iibuFf; and hLn fniijily w«re 

||i t «i£ito of dM»p««t dpJAttloo. Wtdi greAt didiFuhy Duk^ 

^-^tit jtrrsuaded ilu^in to invite- the leader of tbe D(rrni>crAtic 

G5 tn Court. He hn<I been appointr^d Minister, but bad 
I kept at arm's length. To receive him into Ducat aociety 
**> i?^anled a* tbe truhninating point of human dej^radatton. 
*J llie help of Duke Krnest evpryihing was EACi«fnrtonl_y 
•''^jcd. The bitcd MinistcTf Scckcndorf, roigni^d ' from 
I'^tlie* of ill-b«*ft|tb ;' Krnliiig;r'r, the IVmorrAt, did I bo honour* 
''l^railway^ italion when tlic Duke starEed back on hia home* 



Aiwnig t^ various projects for tbo rccoDStitution of Gemun^ 



Seniijtucenccn of the Cohurg FamiUf. 

at thU Uoic, waft one for estabibbing a Kingdom of TbariDgiJi, 
which would unite the SAxi>n Duchies un^lcr the ]>n-tiiJe*fi€^ of 
WcimiLr. J^k^ ICfiki'Bt wuB iiAturaU^^ averse U> an AirjiD^mcBt 
which tt'oulil HubonliDnte hiB own Dachi^s to a rival. Wilb his 
acciutomed acti^itv he tmvelled from Reskiem to Rcsult-nz, and 
lucccedt^d in r<>lh<cling a. tntxUng d 'V\iUTiii^'i:in dt^lc^titeft on 
Jaly 2i!, l*ii4S, under hift own presidency, ai Gotlj/t, The 
actiinaUi>Dft of VVeimar were foiled, but republican agitators 
~ to br put down by forci?. The Duke led hU Iroopt in 
er«cin af^aiDBt the barricadt-v iii Finstcrbcrgc-n, &nd took twenty 
or thirty prisoner*, who wore afterward* aevcrcly punished. 
Prince Alb<.'rt waft aft ftlrongly opposed to a Tliuringian kln^ 
dom tt» hi« hri>lher. He conititiercd that it would make ibe 
confusion of Germany even worst; confounded, and he thoaght 
that the protensionft o] Weimar lo stand at its bead were baseleai. 
At ihv »ritn<- tiino hr was in fnvour of Koinr unity of action 
between the Saxon Oucbies. and Iil* wrL-omtd tlic conftrencc at 
(lotha na « airp in ibit direction, wUidi shuuld be roppAi«>d 
every tliree j^eara. Duke Ernest could now wrilo to hii uncle 
in Beljciutii that li<^ (-Tiji)}'s for his own part In Gt-rmaDy an 
inllucnco and popularity of which he never crjuld have dreamed; 
that be has reacbed unconsciously, and without any seeking for 
It, the doubtful honour of a popular lender. 

'Tho poaitioii,' he says, Mb ilu unfurtunutu and an iutiuciiro otio, 
but It givoa tno the poivur to rend^^r ^n^l bcTVicua tv tliv cause of 
(tnrtDany, and to ecrvo the interest cf tbc cocinion weal with the 
pofttj>onom«ut of my own, Yi:t, altliougU 1 Lavu b«eu abl<? to asiust 
iny couBtuB in vaiioufi ways, they are jcaLoiiB <if my poeitioo.' 

Prince Albert regarded the German movement for indc- 
pL^n<tenc:e almost witli enthusiasm, and tliis optimistic spirit is 
»hown in Wtrrs which are quoted by the Duke, He writes^ un 

^Iho outlook in Qcnnanj ia Iniloed truubW, but 1 aiu not with' 
ont tlie hi)]>e tliatf w^ien tJm first onthrpak ia nrcr, nnd certain thin^ 
which Lavo boon nej^locleil by tlie Govcrumeut are duly ^H-^tfonned, 
a olcATur knowled^ of what la right will «Lice04rrl> Tho proofs of 
atlAcliment to Ql% prblCUK and thvir famiUiiH aru nut tn be despised, 
nad tho EtrivingB tovraivU tiornuku unity aio worthy of all pr^iso/ 

A week later he wiUes to hi* uncle Leopold : — 

*6iuoe I last \\r*iUi to you a nl^w entasitroiiHo Uuh talcen place, and 
llml iu VioQUft. Mottcrtiich 13 wandcrmg uhout a fugilirc. Toiriblo 
nx Kitch a de^-ription of a long over nl rained Byntom mtint ho. and 
fcuch as eiccsfleB ari:i to be feared, jet 1 eee in this ov<mt the Mitvation 
both of Germany imd Italy, lu Gcrm»ny it will restore to the 
priucea tLu couiidoiiee of their peoplos. They will no loi>gu: he 


Rmninisetnwes of f/ur Cobrtry Famify, 




lodnood hj secret inflocncw to pUj Uw, 1o ooscedo mucb, utd thou 
Co witblr.iv ii Focivtiy. It will |i1aoo tbo Kiug of PrtiMiA ngaui oti 
lav vvTU fcvt, ajul will rcoioTc tlto iaipoiMibilitj t^ Dniliit^ cuutiUlcj- 
ticdul u)d nW>lQl« SUtM £& oiM feadTBtloti for AoiHtunoQ poJilif«] 
pKrpo«A. All pretext for Anstrian flgcT'^fiion in Ital^ trUI fi^ll 
i» the gTouml. WhftI u ctow Uktut- pUot iu Berlin la Torjr tm- 

Cmt; mfortanfttely ncn^ has ftrritcd of ^ conflict in tho 8tro4tt* 
gtsnt tbai tl>o King Lmi at Icaet provud TKJtonoufl In tho strooto. 
TIm inilwiiic* of Meltorni-cli upon fiormAnyiA now pMud, ftnd m 
bttve Men tho lut of Uua pnmunT njnm (icvommcota tod tbia 
JttUou^ oa tlio [ttit of Iho pooplo. X iningiiio thnl tlia new stitdcf 
tUn^ will Ic ounatilnlcd n* foll^wn: — Provincial imrliAinout* to 
BoWoi», lIor«n», tho Tyi-o1, AtL^triii. <~^Ariiithio, atyriA, V«ni«o, 
Laabvdjr ; « i^Tiicral diat in Vicimn, nftor iho modol of thU id 
Frtusia; ft defiuitt uiodeni ocoslitmioD in Huugi^rj ; » OcrmiiQ 
league cirgftnizcd on n Dvmocrfttio b4«iH; th<f PrcMdrncy givon to 
AiUflriA dLod PmsAift ijiijruftlclj willi coitAin ciiwutiTo prorogativo ; 
tt CnHtitmn vnion for thd whole of Germnit^. When this 14 orgiLi]iKi<d 
and foaud to be caoocMfol, an iinituttim of the nune kind of coti- 
•tJtDtion in lUly, &n Italian I/o«^nc, a CactoTad tmi^n which will 
inclttdo Aiutria with ItH IliUiun ]iruriuc:G«^ Iu (bis lujoiuur Aattrin, 
ei a |H>werftt] State, would form tLo i^i^tilro t^f gnvity butwucm tUts 
Ivo Lc«gtiB0» uid would be ft eommon nusiTjlwr for Uio imiou of botb. 
la tkie nMnoer tbe whole i*f Ceutrfll Europo would ha unitud iutii n 
Bliiglo CdnMmtivo vaojm, which wouM kucp tlie Aflrnhc iMLrlmriong in 
diMi boondi, oniJ nlfiu tli« Ouulis tln^Av n^ltuAM diAtiLrbcre uf pvncc. 
Thi« wfiald ho A tnodom ciinKtilutinnal mid nidavttial roalizatioa of 
the inodiii<ml idcn of thu Holy Itoiiidu Empire.* 

UnfoHcnately tliii roi^rolniirwl pirtnrr^ was lY>rt good to b* 
realized. The duintrgmtion of Auitrm v/m im>rc; serioui thnn 
Prince Albert ima^jincd. Thcrr was a *inngpr of the whole 
empire brrahing up into n nitmbeT of indcp^^ndent kingdoms 
and Datiocialitics. The very cxiitance of ihe monarchj was 
iBore than doubtful, and Auuri^in funil* and T>a|i«r umnt^y 
akficrcd a doprcciatioa wor*c than nny which ba<l been h<?fird nf 
in k'urupp «tno<- the war* of Nrt|w»lr'<>n. Thit ay^lom of Mrllpr- 
nich had bi^n atiainc^l too fpir. UbHi? the ii|;ed Chaiicctlhir 
was onyajcifd in exitnt^uiflbint^ rrvtduttimary movements in 
Earapc be almost ovcrluok^^d the fact, that the Court of Vientia 
ititlf wu ID the greatest don^r The E(iij>cror F^idinand 
hiiDK'tf wu emin^ly iacupablv 01' ^orerningt fl^nd Li« p]ac« wa» 
taken by a trinmvirAto conii^linj^ ol' Mcttt^rnicrb, Kolowrat, and 
ArelKlukc l,cwt«. Tiiti rr^j^ncy hail never hoen authorised, 
cither by law, by parliament, or by auiy publii: Act. The 
eiiit«*nce of the rejfency w[i» very little known, alchou{?h tlio 
ooooarch wnt not CApabli? even of writing hU aaiui?. There 
no diGiculty in overthrowing a guvc-rnment of Lhi« kind. 


^miniBcencet of the Cvburff Famtfi 

Prince Albert appear* to bate mainUined his belief in ifav 

{tolitical ability cf ibr King of Priuttci b>ng after i>itu*rs bid 
oat it. He coiiaiiTcnrd bim &» tlir best leiuler of ibc morcmcnt 
towards united Gormnn)', He tbnugbt tbat bit brorb«*r tli« 

fPrince of PriusU u;ls iiiucU to be pitied; tbat ihcrc was no 
rt^a«cm why br utiouli) be under a cluud, since be waft refllly iQi 

, iTiDPatby wiib reform. However, tbe confrrence* b«^lJ at 
Serhn lor tbe creation of a new constJtutJoD bad bat litUe 
eflt^t, and publie aiteiiiiDn wai soon removed tu Fiaakfurt. 
Tbu Oukci prifits in full n sketcb drawn up hy Princo AllMrt 
for 4 now ecinstitution of rif^rmany, dntml Buekin^bfiTn Pa1fltie|- 
Marct ^'Sth, of iivbich it will be intereilin^ to ^ive an nbstrftct.' 
He lays tlonti tbat ibe pniblem is bow to convert Germany from 
a loose confederacy into a close federation. Tbe di^ereot 
ftcopUt, slates, djDjUties, aiid crowns, of wbicb Germany U 
compoacd^ muit W *U uiiiCrd. At the »nmc time tbe ludiridu- 
ality of vocli portion must he preserved, and tbo existing ri^iC 
of the rrnvrnn And dynn-nlipu muiit lie nrrured. F""nr ibis puqimse 
tbe princes of tbe Geiman Leaj^ue, toiceiber with tbe fi>ur bur* 
^oinasters of tbe fn^e towns, are to form a House of Princes, aod 
arc to choose from among tbemftelves a German Emperor, either 
for life or for a term of ^ears, Tbe parHuments of the difTerent 
OermAR pn^iviitccx are to elrct from (^Jicb of tbcir two chambers 
rej^reienlatlri^i fur an Iiiipt^rial Olot in proporltoii Co fb^ 
population and thi^ imporlancr of each State. An Imperial 
Court of Justice is to le Itinned, presided over by an irremovable 
cbajicellor, cvmsistinfr of representativcft of tbe law faculties ol 
German Universities. This court is to decide all question 
between suverejj(us and |KLrliuinenLs, as well as queuitius of ^ 
sufcessiou nnJ re^^ency. The Kmprror in to hare contidcrabW- . 
pfiwer, bnr hi^ mini^T'^rB are to be reiponsibU in Parliaments 
A C'hamb(-r of Cominrrctr and n Council of War are to decid 
uihm the matters which nflturnlly come under their jurjsdictinc 
1 liey will form, vrilh tbe Diet, thn^ Imperial ch.tmben. T"^ 
House of Princes is to possess u veto upon the Diet, find t]{ 
the iiuuuiiulion of iinuiTter!!. Ita inembLTs aie to have a pn 
pirrtional vote, and arc to 1>c reprrftrnted by proiv. The Oi 
is to meet every three years, hs tneinben are to sit and diseu 
tog^ether It IB to contain about fifty members in the 
chamber, and one hundred and fifty in the second. Tbe Kit 
of Prussia rej^arded this prriject as the bett tbat be biulyet wtft 
but he expressed bis disngrreinent witb iC on important poin' 
A temporary LoipeTur would be a tnonstio^hy. If tbe be ^*^' 
were elected for n numWr of year* bo must bc^ar aaothor tit V^^' 
He propoaeil himself a different solution of tbe diClieiiltv. T*£>^ , 



Itaninis^netM of the Coinry Famity. 

mperor of AuiiTJa should rem&in tbt* j«ckDowIe<]|^ bead fif 
the Orrman nAtinn. TUc elected mLt^r, call him wbnt you will 
~'uriljA|>a King of i\tc GeriujiiiH — ^•Uuultl liei:UtrM^u &l J'ruukrurl, 
ftiftd Ui« vlpction confircncd b)- ib« Empvror. TLU would ftcrwf 
to lififp tlip two rival fit^rman powers in unilv- 

Tbe committee of scvc-titttfii, of vrbfitn l)ubbn;inn vim the 
tnling fpirit, drvw up in April a Echemc of a very diffrrr^nt 
cbftracter. It propoted a republic, atior the Americaa uiudd, 
vilb a President ami a «inglr clinmbcr. Prince Albert »lmngty 
djaapprovcd of tbit. Writing from OAbonic on April llth, he 
vipTriEcd tb<; vicrn-, thai FmnkAirt ciugbc not to be the cupital 
<ti <:Serinany. It waa too much undt^i the iufljence of the south 
(jermnn rabble, and much loo cloic to the French frontier; 
XureinbcTg vn>uid make n much better ccntie. But he trcaifti 
the wbiile tcbeme wiib conieitipt. lie »uid that bis own plun 
provitlrd at Irntt that cotninonM sbauld remain cinnmons, pt^iTrs 
peers, «nd Bi>Tcrrif;iii BL>v€r€i^n3 ; whcn'ttS to mix up (■>gclhvr 
Kin^&t Electors^ Cirond Dokri nod tirdinnrj- drpuupi ti>|fi'th^r 
ooe ctiAmb^r waa horrible and impossible. Duke ETrir-«t 
inplains that his brother lotjknl at theic matterx too exclusively 
froiD ft Prussian point ef tiew, being under the joint jnflufrnce 
i l^unsen and the Prince of Prussia. It it difficult to tesiBt 
be infcrcncr, tliat the Duke's Ambition wa* cicHrHl hy lUvtv 
Bilj«ns vilb h4>pvs iif |Krdonal nj^i^randixcuieiit, which were la- 
onniitatf<nt with thr* nrkno^nlrcigr-i) hctuUhip nf Prussia, He 
miyht bimsf'lf hope lo he, if not aq elected Linperor, at least ft 
1{ing of Cicrnianv. This is not the only trace of peTsonal 
vanity to be found in thrsc Memoirs, 

Wbeo ibe National Asaomblj was opened at Frftakfort, Daron 

^tockuiAV WHS icot to icpicacnt baxv-Ciiburg-Gottia ; but he 

^vBs ablr? to pr^nluc-e but lilllc eJTvct on the coarse of ev^mts^ and 

Ijeritnr tnon- silrnt and morr rrnrrred than ever Prince Albert 

^rote to his brother, that tome one had sent him ft pocket-hand- 

Xtcrcbief from Frankfort in the (jerinan cidourt, black, ted and 

^old, fto tbftt he anxid now blow his nose in ncconlano? with the 

«idrit of the ape. When the rivalry between Auaitia and 

J'rusiifi could uo longer be appc^ued, aud ibe idcn of a triad t>r 

Vriplf? pre«id4>ncy o( the fedpnition did not oommand A»vni, 

Archduke John of Anstrja was placed nt the bend of the league 

■*ith the title Kcichveiwescr or Imperial Vicar, None of the 

deputies at Fnnkfoit were personally aecinainted with him, but 

4bej believed him to be an honest man and a demotTal, partly 

beoiuse he had married ibe daughter of a iStj^tian postmaster* 

He soon reccivcnl the nickname of 'John Lackland.' l>uko 

Ernest weni to meet the new Viceroy at GL>tba, and received 



Bimnuoencts of the Cobury Familif. 

from biin the imprr»Ei]np, tliAt lie was not vorj tliort>u^h1^ nC* 
quiLintfid with Ocrniiin aiTnin. Tho tnonmprtcnco of the 
Nnlioniil A«fpml>l^' wti!t c-loarly iiN>n wli^n it be^Jin tu mcdilt^ 
njili for<*ign policy. Thr truce which bsul brcn concluded be- 
tween Prusatn ADcl DenniAik &t MnlmCt on Anj^QAt 26tli, 1848, 
vith th(^ niithoHt^ of the EiTipf^rinl Vicar, was brought before 
ihc N&tional Assrmbly for confirmation. It wa* vchrm«iily 
iippovi^d not only hj the Left, but br the Hi)|fht Centre under 
DAhlmiinn, nnd tpaa nrgntiioil b^ a amall mnjority. Xhc Lfii- 
ningen Miniitr^r ivai iiv^ribrown, atid Dahlmann was unable tr> 
form a n«w one. JuU at that critU the Duke arrived at Frftnk" 
fcr(, and was presect at lh« debates which followed. He 
writes to his brottirr that ihe Minixtry hat no life, tbe Na* 
tional A««riiib1y no cobcaton, and that tlie Vicar Insptrea no 
c^uii fierce. 

A iow daj'« later tho r^rvoltitinn broko out in violenct*. A 
crowd storm«d ibe <^titrai>CH of St, Paul's Church in which llie 
Aseembl}' was siUinfTk f^rtd obnoxious member* were compelled to 
retire by a &ide entrance. On September 18th there waft firing 
in the ilreels, and Von Mt^jern wnit*^ to the Duke rhal his cigar 
had been put out by a moskct-ball' whiht hr. was a1findin§[ on the 
bnJc^jnv of bii hotel* Lithnowskv atid Auirrsvtald were mortaUy 
wounded. Tho barric-idd^s at tiie entrance to the Zoil wero 
battered by cannon and srormtnl by troopi. Prince Albert wrote, 
on hearing of the murdrr* :^ 

^ Although I buvo hithci'to ^orcd liitlo fcr LiclmowB^y'fi polioj, jot 
1 have always admired hiA eloquence as a a])e&ker and liIs poLtical 
courHgL^ A gift far Icira comtQOU than any other in onr tune. For 
tliceo rcABoua hie end h&a dtjeply afToctod me, I hope that the rcbeU 
will now he troftlfld with fttiTci'ltj, or rlic no ntono will bo left upon 
another^ and the miiicrj will he terrible.' 

Uy the end of the year the National Atsenibly had nearly 
completed the: new Imperial Con«litution, and the only question 
which remained wu» the funu which abijuld he ifivi^u to the 
persoDal erown of ttic cdilicc. it waa at laat determined to 
elect ui Kmperor, and the choice fell upon the King of PniAftin. 
FvcD before this the Duke hml written to the Kine to press him 
to accept the offer if it should be made to him. Gagernf Stock- 
mar^ Buntrn, an<) l>ahlmann, threw their inlluence int» the same 
*ca1e. The history of the Kini^'s refusal is well known. The 
Dukr* attributed it to three muses ; the cfTorts of foreign diplo- 
macy, the inlri^ca of tho Court partioa nt Vienna and Berlin, 
and the inherent tendpucy of Prusaia to remain within its own 
limits of actiyily. AutUia, with the help of Hanover, did her best 


R^mtrtijifetues of thg (Mttrp Famittf, 



to tliil« tlip project ID iti gonn. Even vitbost the>» oppotmg 
forces it would have hveti difficult for Pnu«i« to avccpc The 
dedsion lu tiAVo an ]^m)>cr>r at alJ w&a finally c&rncd by ofilj 
four volt's, oihI wlicn I'VirUcrick WiUiam was cbowa, ooly jt 
thinl of tho <»ri<finul A»tcmljly wft« j>ro«4^n1, »i> ihnl ho woa!<] 
hare been the eriipTur of « Kump, The cmtre of the alruft^Ie 
had pft«scl t<i ottirr fields, and both the oITct and th« rcfufftl 
were doL without iheir ludicrous sides. * VVbnt i» to become 
of the i^nor nation/ wmtf? Prince Albert, 'when the Kin^ of 
I'ruum hai thrown the Lmperor of (rermanj into the water just 
u he worn jex>ia^ to »1aad Upon bi« leg*/ 

A liiTgc ponion of the Duke'* Memoir* ia nnlurally taken up 
witb the allairs of Schleiwi^-HoUt^m, a country in which w. 
^ncd his first Inarels^ and ramed bis chief Utte to be cod- 
lidered a man of action. It is needless to relate tlie comp!icaM<l 
history »f tlie Duchies of the Kibe, Tbeconatitutionnlditputcs 
betwricn fVnmark and Holstcin, which eventually led to wcTt 
broke out on the acc€^»»jon oi Fredcrirk Vl!., Janunry SOth^ 1846- 
Thi* king iv«« ft V(>ry singulnr character. He iva« of a phleg- 
matic drscripiion, and hid no energy either of mind or body. 
He was in the habit of telling most cxCraordinary stories to the 
c:ounier« who surrounded him, and they wen* ifbliged to feign 
twUcf to the woni of the King, He narmtcJ battles which had 
xievei l>ccii ft/u^ht, as if be Lad himself tnkeji part til ihem. 
^is advciiiDrn were? n mixture of Sir John FcihiaJT aod Alex- 
vinder the f»rent. He hiul l>een divorced from two wive* nnd 
liad tnarried a third morganalically. In March, n pnivitional 
sovrrnment was filmed in Kii^l^ and a few corp« were levied to 
defend the Duchies. The University wat rinituckcd to lind 
^■luljiiiaddi I fiir the new State. ProfesMiri exchanged their long 
^cruatB for ^oldMrfiibroideivd uuifuitiiB, and atiBuiiiL'd diploujatic 
tftuctions in Berlin, Frankfort and llaoavfr. Eventually war 
"^vaa put a slop to by the intervention of Lord Palmerrton. It 
"^vu agreed that Xorlh SchleRwiEr thoulil fo to Denmark, nnd 
^Vhst South Schlesivij? should join tho German confederation 
^^iDiier its iTwn duke*. L'nf^trtunalely the nutter was loo remote 
-vuid jnincair for Knglixh pubtie opinion to ciimprehetid. Prince 
^Aitiert writes to bis brother that hv in afraid that Koj^libbinen 
'^ill instinetirely take t!te liid* of Denmark, In June followed 
"Vhe truce of Malniil^ of which we Lave spoken above. 

Tl;e lrone» whirh proiluccd such disastrous results in the 

aoieeis of FrankfoTt, came to an end in March 1849. All 

Wlempts to bring about peace in the meantime had failed. The 

jHOvHioEUl governors^ ettablish;;d by the irucc, laid down their 

vIBcet and tlie imperial troops again marched Into Schlcswlg 



KemtNiiccnces of the Cohur^ Famiii/t 

with llio Dukd of 8aKe-CobuTg-GolhA mx lUfitr H««cl. Xq 
Mionrr haci hr nrrivi*!) on the sxcne itf action lU:irk tie became 
&ivare iliat Gcnerui von Prittwitz, who cominandcil the FrustiAn 
nrinyt was not hkd^ ti) trtrjit him with much rea|>ectf or to aflard 
him a very hearty ct^'opcration. Tho Duke set li]ini«*If to guard 
the coast froai the d&n^r of a landing. He hnd not long co 
WAit for the cncTiny. On April 4th, h<^ vrnt ioformt'cl that a 
DuniBh •hip-of-lhe-ltn^, the 'Chriatian the Eighth/ togothcr with 
rincnthr^r vc^kacIc, w^tv in l\ni hftrhourof EckernliJnk%H-Uich ivas 
harriciulcd by the frij^atc, * Gosiod/ outside, PrepnrAtion* to 
relist a dehnrkutloo i>f truippa were mode during the night, and 
batteries wcic erected on the hcAch. In tbt* early morning oi 
April 5th, tho * Chriatlun the Ei j^lith ' and the ' Gesion/ with the 
•teamboats 'Gciacr' and 'flckln,* were «een to approach the , 
shori^, hnd toon afterwarls the hsiftlr^ hpgrin. Two of th*» thip« 
lay only four hundred pa(-e<( from the battery which thc^y ivere 
attiicking. It needed every eiertior to prevents landing;. At 
haU'paat one the fire of the fthipa ee^»ed^ and a tla^ of truce was 
sent offering that tlie ships should n-tin; if the fire of the alUes 
waa stopped. This only Ird to a crs&auon of two hours, and ai 
four the cotxtliut wbs ri^sumcd. During the interval a new 
hnltery hnd he^^n ronntrorled on th«t Hnnd hills, which did 
terrible execution. At half-past six CaptMti Paludan expressed 
his desire to capitulate, having previously hauled down his Aa^, 
The shore was crowded bv soldiers and citizens mingled in an 
enthusiasm of delight. Captain Mijller, who had eommandcd 
the Nassau baileiy to which the victory WEia mainly due, 
forgr^tful of military diseipUne, threw himself upon the Dukes 

The Daoei appeared to take their defeat very nwlly, AH the 
crews were carried off from the ships and made prisoners, more 
than a thousami in number. Scarcely bad this been aceom* 
plishod, when the ' Chrtsti.m the Kighth ' blew up and ttrcwcd 
the haiboar with its frn^mrnts, 8lfun^e to uij, sl-;iil«1j a Hie 
was loal- Count Wedcll Jarlabt^rg had a ma[-%'cUous excitpc. 
He was serving as a Nnrwpgian volunteer in the D^-inish fleet, 
and had asked permission to return to the ship after he bad 
been iiia<h< prisoner, in order to secure some Important papers, 
^o sooner had he reached the vessel than the explosion followed. 
tie was idiot out far into the sea, and escaped unhurt. He swam 
to Uod and suireodered hkiii«i;U' in accoidaoce with his parole, 
and afte*rw-»rdi atlain<^ a high rank in the Swedish Navjr> The 
victory of lukcrnU^rde was indeed a brilliant success for the 
German cause. Not only was the result far beyond what could 
have been expected, »u that Ptince Albert compared his brother 


Bcminiscences of the Coburff famihf. 


to ft spoTUniAn who bA<I \s,oii^ out sniper Bliootin^, and h^d 
brought down a tt»^ rjf /uurt<?en points; but h bnd united 
PrvMUiA, Bftvartftnv, llaaovcriaiia, ^VurtCDiborf;«-r«, Nortticni 
ftnd Soutb^TQ Grrm&nsT in a cominon cau*e ajfatnft a (\>mmt>n 

The posiiion of Dokc Ernest in Schlwwi^ nfttur^tlljr ffare 
bim AD cx<'cllcnt opportunity of becoming thoroughly acquainted 
with the principle aciors in the dnuna. The rei}^aing Duke 
Cbrisiitin and his brtvthrr Frcdcricbt Afterward* Count of Noer, 
ftfc represented ai amiable charaeters, cbiralrou», honourable 
&nd tnistwonbv, but strict in thi^ir opinions, and obstinnti? and 
defensive in their rJKhis. They were anytliing but popular in 
their own counlrv, and the property of the Count of Now was 
derftStatcd by the peaBantry, who took adranlago of tbe confusion 
which attends a war. The Duke was a well-e<tucaledftalennan; 
but bis bnjtbcT, though on accomplished man, was not gifted 
With popular quaUtiirs. He was especially disliked hy ihe 
Liberals and hy tho Dnnps, and the rnori^ in, as hr l>er*me 
mdually recoj-oizwl as the leader of the Au^ustenhurg party. 
The principal ndminiatrstors of the Uuchics were Hcscler, a 
poUiical ditsttanUf and Count Rcvcnllow, an idealist. In spite 
of the differences of tboir character), thev npp<rared to have 
worked well enough toother. Some of :he chief difficulties 
of the prorislonid government arose from the hostility tif the 
English. Duke Krneit invoked ibe assistance of his English 
relations. Prince Albert did not give much comfort. He 
Bicribcd the delars in making peace to the inErif^ues of Kuisitt, 
and to the devotion of the English people to the Danish cause, 
while Lord Palmcrston sorely needed some new successes to 
make up for ibe reverses which he had su0er^> 

It is strange that the Kngltsh did not feel a greater intcrt^St 
in tb« indvjie-ndtnct* of the cradh* of their rae^*, with which 
it bad so many sympathies and so much similArity. Duke 
Ernest writes to his brother in Jjne, that be is quite in lore 
with the people, that they ari^ the best natured and the most 
amiftblc whom he hrul hitherto found in Germany. Schleswig* 
HolaCein, he saj b, is a (jeniian Euglaud ; not oiily the appear- 
ance of the country, but the tnixnners and customs arc entirely 
English, with the notable exception that there it no noi'«*Tty. 
This arises from the fact that there are no towns or manufactures, 
and that the land is the property of the people. Dmnkenncss 
is unknown, Sunday is as quiet as in hngland, thi^re are but 
few churches and those at long distances, but the standard of 
morality is very higb Tbc interval of inaction was spent 
pleasantly hy the commander of tbc allied anny. The Duchess 

VoL 167. — AV, $3S^ K joined 


Hrrmm^ccnats of iAf Cohftrtf Fcmih/. 

joidcd him front Gotba, axiU the nuinifToui mioor rojrnlues 

{tre^m in ihe aimy, including our otrn Prince CliriAtian, thtro ft 
lul ofci^htcciif gnve opportumtjr iot *|^eablc w>cietj^ < 

Imtnevlinl^tjr aft^r tlic b^ttlo of Erkifmr<fr<)«s GpiMtrnl von 
Priitwilse luil Ix-cn ordered to act viturously on th« olfensiw 
befori? the edecCs of diplomac}- rcuM intrrtWc with hU opera- 
tion*. The liiifr* of I>iipjpel were slomied on Apiil VMh. bv ih« 
Soxnns and Bavariaitf. The Dajic* were in lull n^tieal. The 
con<tu?>t uf Judaodp wMcli couM tiavc Iccu cfi&Il> MrcomplUhcd 
by the united armies, would luiv« put nn end io the n-»r ; bat 
lh« Gor^rtimeiit of D^rJin had no intpniion of nxi^roTinif to 
Ti^roufi n pclicy- Rnn!n. who roinmandc^ the inM>p« of 
Scblc<nrif;-lIoUtein, took Kolding, Ibe fmntirr fortrcu of Jut- 
Unil, by siOTm on April !fHrd ; but Von Priltwilz itid not marcb 
into the province tiJl a fortnight Uccr. Krca then, while Bonin 
wua ailviuiciiig uj>oii Frcdcrioia, the Prm»aiani kept al^iof froai 
tb« «ecne of Action, and nppcftrcd -nnxioudi to avoid ftll fieriou* 
conAirt vi\\\\ the Dfine* until diplomacy lia^l done its work^ It 
CTnduidl}' bccnine cvldrnt thnt the »titteKmen at Herlin were 
lookinjf forward Io ^ r(?pulse at Frcdcrici^ whirh might moke 
it more ruy to crush tlie aJtpiraUoDK of the Duckies towards 
indrpcndcnof. Bi)Q«cti» <hc Ci<Tnnnn AmbuKAdnr in London^ 
uod Lord Palinerstoif, curmut bt^ exempted fruui bJapac, aUhougb 
it J* possible tliAt lh<^¥ may bnvc c^nsidcTed it of ^Tc«t import- 
ance thstt the Duriiiex ihouhl work oat tlieir own salvaiion hy 
tbrmsclveB. Thrrc is no doubt that the (jui^en and Prioott 
Albsrl had strong sympalbies with tie Duchios, Lord Palmer- 
■ton, who wu impatient of the interruption cauteJ to Kngliih 
tJAdc, went «o far vts to propose that li^ngUnd sbouhl dditiitelj 
declare tbat, if tb<! war were nut coa<:lude(l by the lint of Jal/f 
■he would tnka thn aido of Demnark- Thic step wn* only prrv- 
vented by the op[)o«Ition of the Queen, who iaatited on this 
country maintniDinfr n tine of strict impartial ity. 

On July Oth, Bonin't army wa^ repuUcd from F^fde^icu^aDd 
four days laCJ^r % truce between the belligerents wasagreetl upon 
at Berlin, nnd preliminarily^ were arranged by which Scbieflwi^ 
should be scpAintcd from Holalcio, and placed under a diffc-rcAt 
govrmmcnt. This was to dr^atroy iho hope* of the I Jouaft of 
Aujfustenhu^, and to violate fundamental compact s. The 
deposed Princcft tamed to England for assistance. The Duke 
wislcd to piead bis catisc in person at London ; but he couU 
not mnke the journey without first m^iring an invitati^m, 
whidi It was impo»iblo for tbc Kn^liih iiovereigQ to %vtt* 
His brotber desired to submit hii conduct to a court of 
honour composed of Eogltth genilemen. The Qu«eQ bad no 


Unninucmc^ ^Oa Cotiiurg Family* 



ikffv couno opca but to refer the reqimt to Lord PalmcMton, 
Lo an«were>i ofBcinlly that it could not be complied with. 
Dokc hriUftttook & JioaI farfivrcll of his littl«ariny oq Jul)' ^IJtli. 
Ai AltotUi he w» obligtHl lu rvpreu dir (lifcontent t:i the popu* 
]*tkMi by icircc. ilc prorccdfd to Berlin, and viajicd ilic King 
of Pnutia at SaMm Souci. Fr«di>rick WUlUm IV. did not mnke 
ctut iilightf^ Ti^rmrnor- tn ih^ AfrftiTfl<)f SchlpBvrii; ; iHltaike'l him 
here he liad come from, arid v/hy be Itad been so lanr AbseoL 
'a bU mum Ui Ciotb^ the Duke foiind tbnt be was more 
rpalar tbin ever. 

riie ^Uusi ijf tbe Scbleftvig-HiiUtcin quentoii was not bid 

ijr fttleac& It Ct>ntinu<^l to disturb Eui'oj>« fur iiittnjr jcat* 

]o«ig«r, until th^^ Ion ^protracted rivalry bc^tnoca Frutua and 

Aofltrift WAS Ht tr-n^h dctd^nnini?*). Aft4^r pence had bcon ligned 

n IVutiia tiad Ui^iimark on July :fnd, 1850, the* wnr still 

ucfl hctwircn DrnmEirk and tbe Duchies. TW Dsno 

lined ft dccUive victor)' at lOsiod on July 25th, and on 

ogust 2nd the London protocol declared that tbi? possculont 

ibc King of Deufuark irore to be maintained iti Uieir 

iol^tgrltv. Tbl» was signed \>y Knglaniil, Franco, Ro«iia, and 

&veden, and vas aoced«d to bj Austria three weeks later. 

With n^i^rd to th<^ srtn-l historj of the- pmtocol, thr? Duke 

^applies information which ronfimv the riew maintaineil in tbe 

iDeoioira of Count Vitxihum. Just at this time, Lord F^lnier- 

it^n was engaged in uoc of tbo most stnklnf^ manUesiiitluiis of 

W *Civii Roaiaouk* poUcr. To av«n-^ the »ttack of the 

pipulacc on Don Pacifico at Athens, a Eleet of fiftn>n Kngliab 

tiip* bad been sent to the harbour uf Siilamis. The EngUsb 

Uiniitrr was recalLi^l fnim Athens, and tvn embargo w» laid on 

AthcDxaji ships of cocimcrce, whilst France ar>d Russia protested 

m rain. Lord Palinersion rescued himself from dluucer by a 

MUiaot speech in ParliAUK'nt ; but be woubl not bnvc done so 

■olfiw m private artutg^ment bad been preriouilj made with 

Brunmtw, tbo Houi^n A mhass-iilor, that the afTair shriubl have 

^ intemational tY>niequenccs, The price paid hr ihia sub- 

^iuioD was the indrprndrnce of tbe Duchies. Prince Alhort 

*rltes to bis brother on August ^th : — 

'The poor Bobloswigera mnrt atone for erorTthi&g^ oven for Uic 
*1qs ef our angel (>f a F<in-igii ^linhitor^ nUo, by iiifjuns of the pro- 
^^aol, baa pcrvhaMid at tbc^ ooat uf Gurniauj thu friui^ilalLip of liaania 
^ tTiKnoe wbieh bo Wl trittod away, arul no boa beob ablu to con* 

Vbmigners ^^^ voc U> them who have to atcnofor thn guilt. ""All 
pdb repays iti>elf uu eurtlj/' ajiyn tbu har-prr it; WilLubu AIuibLvi/ 

After tbii a^ccoont of tlie Schleswig-HoUteio episode^ tlio 

K 2 lliiV^ 


l^cniiHtxtnc4i of the GAtwff Fainiiy. 

I>uk«t rrliim* to t!i*T mttln ntirAin <*( German !iiilrtn\ Th^fft 
wai, of cuarse^ a certain p^rty who believed thai the Hukr of 
SniC'CobLiT^ WAS tLr onlv pirnon H'h» rouM snxvt the Empire, 
atMl it ia not improbable ibat the Duke bimsrlf w;ia of tlic tame 
optnloo. During ibe terrible events of Muy 1M9» tb(» Dakff 
vriu in his camp ftt Gcttmf, but Ue IicaiJ of thr siiSrciings of his 
Koral coasint from Irustworlbj' B»urcpi. Xke Sakod Rojnl 
bmilv, fugicivr-i frnm Orrfldrii. wrrc hlork^drsl in (lie Awtriyis nf 
K<;inic«ti>in, the ti>wo ii*eif bt-ifijj in iln? handa oi tlic insuri^enia. 
The inner rooms of the castlr w<^ic turned into potrdi^r ma^- 
ftincSf and Ibe KoyaL suitr had to be Jodgrd la cclU int^^ndrd Vjt 
prboners. Tbey heanl every c&noon-sbot that whs directed 
agftinst the cKpitftL Willi wbHt <1<-t)^ht did tbey at lost 9tf, 
through a tvli?S4:up*?, tbo nhllc fla^ boiil«4l on th« cathedral 
ipirc, wbich showed tbar tbo cily bad surrrmlrrrtl. The next 
laborer was the OranU Pake of Daden, ibe Dike of Cobtu^'s 
r*tl]er-in-law. The rising of May lSi\\ was followed by the 
^Ltraguo of the three Kings/ which Cobuxg sod GoCba were 
inviCed to join. Pnnce Albert^ writing from Windsor C«st[e 
en June £th, 1840, ur^d hi* broib<^r not to lose a moment in 
accepting the ofTi^r. Tb^ eonstitutional or^nization of f-*^rmaiiy, 
under the leadership of Prussia, was the only means of resisting 
the red republic either in Trance or Germany. These same 
views were repeate«) throughont the last sis months of the year. 
Writing on Df^cember 26ihj !*rince Albert aaya; — 

' I cuiiiildor Uiat Hit stnct maiutonanoo of the Pruttfiati allUoco it 
a vital qncKtion for tbo small Gennau Slates, and I am deligUted that 
you am so KcalooD in the nunc cannc^ Tlio bohnTioiir of Saxony aod 
Hanover is beyond dverylhing d»KpioAb)u and diaihonoitralln. On 
the eiile ef Saxony it is, politii^ly speakiiig, very stupid, for ehe bai 
Uio cteatGst neecl of reoonftimotlDg herself by adlienoQ to a ttrcotf 
Whol<i, oud tbiH is impo^uiblo without Prussia, All that in deniandca 
of IhetMj iDig}ity KiDgG is to givo up thoir npgoial diplomacy, which 
hm hiUicrto brought tLcni nioru aiiaiuu than honour* and, though. 
maintamtid at grvst ei]>GaEo, had no lofliicucc on J'^uropcun politicM ; 
to ■ocronder tbo command ai the Hwi, which thc^ had never po«- 
•oasedt ftsd the connnfiiid of thci army id tiuio of war, which wiys a 
noit of tlie <r1(l fedt^riil coTiatitiitmii. I'rjr tlioiMi o1)j«ota thoy ooi]deiKil& 
flttnmuy to now rovo1ut^>iia acd Uj i>or|it.tLial vrcakneas.' 

The tnnstserioi.i> opponent of this new League was MettemicEt, 
who iPiit IVoki»BL'h-0>ton to Berlin to counteract 1 1 as far a^ 
potsiblf^. H^ covered aII Jdva of a doss federation with ridiciKl<^ 
aeicribing it as a phantom — a spirit without a boily — an an^T 
sound of no utility eicept to serve as a mask for a Pnis*un 
huire of conquest, Mctternich did his best to bring over Kiof 


Bfmimsoettices of the 0>hirg Famify, 


old to lit* opinion!, Imt Uut Kr(*U-«^ncnn^il «tnto«m^n vtai 

J — *^J^ '*''' I**"*- "^^^ antagooisoi between Prui^U md 
Atittrta t>ccame every day more strr'umt, 

AnoiUer plan of Alrtlcrnk ti's ivab to set ap ao interim Govcrn- 
nieni in Fnmkfori, after ibc dcparturo of :U« Vtcar-Geoer*!, 
aa<lcr tlio joint coatrol of Auilria nml PniMiA- ThU led to tbe 
br^aJung np of 1I10 L«ngxi« of tho thr«e Kings unO^r Uio arrmng«- 
CDcni between tbi^m. A Otrt wns to \w %umn\onrt\ m Krfnrt to 
revise nnd complcic tlic Constitution, but the various nicint>en 
of tbc Len^e fell off one hy one. Uj the infiuencv of AuMTia 
^hfi feeUnn of BavahA anil Wiirtcmborg ton-ards Pruuia were 
ibiitercd. Ilanorer formally ilesenetl the enmbination, and, 
llcr with Snxoay, «ciit no ^tcputics to the Con^re^a. Indeed, 
' ppttv rroni^Tchi^if <-jim4> v^Ty nenr I0 mnking a Le^giM* of 
nur KiDjis amimjritt thrtn^clvrs, vrtiieh woul<) pirrli^ipi hnve 

i Austria nnd Pma&ia in opnosilion fo them. Prince 

Ubcrt clung firmly to the idmtlwit Pnissia mutt be the baai* of 
^mnj durable Gc-rman Lrngur, and that Austria could not be 
dcpcnilr<t upon 10 form th« kernel of tiui;U a comhination^ betng 
e««e<ntiaJ]j anii-Gcnnan, Anti-Catbolto, anil anii- Liberal. 

Thp I'lrfurt Congre« niei in March 1850, within tbp wnHi <rf 

the ancien: Thiirin^inn mpilaJ, vbicb bail srrn so rnany similar 

ucecnblics. of which the mo^t briJIiant bad been the stratige 

nlaxy of kings gaiherfti at the feet of the First Napoleort 

Slmsan, tbc President of the Congress, remindcti the members 

tkit Ludvfj^, Kiji|C <'f ^lie Genuaiis, hud hvld u Diet in the 

iim4? toirn juu a tbmiJAnd yt^tra before. The battle of the closer 

uil looser fedemtiunt wak fought here as it had been at Franlc- 

fcft. The direction of ihc Prussinn parly na* in the bands of 

the gifted Radowitz* The meeting was generally of a Ctinscr- 

f«ttfC cbarmcter Tlie Kadical opposition was not represented. 

Beaaionary Princes oRVrcd ihc opposition whkU might hare 

becnex[>cctfd, and, ns PriQCc Albtrrt said, like PbaTtiuhi hardened 

'^ir hearts nftor ^aeh plague. In order to remove tbeic difli- 

"^ties, Dulci- Kmrat proposed Ui sutniuon a Congress of Princes 

^o Goiba, with the King of Pmtsia at tbeir head. This plan 

*as highly approred of by Piinee Albert; but the ni(?cling 

pbire WIS ch^-ingrd to Berlin. Thr Congress was nearly wrecked 

^J ibt demand of the Elector of llcssc 10 bring his detested 

Mtoiiter, lf<i>senpflug, on the Mrcne, The Duke of I3ruit»ivick 

told him plainly thai he liu<I nearly been driven mit himself^ 

^i that ie wUhcd the other Prinees to sulfur the same fate 

'^enl, this fatal adviser succeeded in br«akii^ up the union 

^m within, and reducer] the conclustODS of the Con;p^sa almost 

*• ■ nullity. I'rioce Albert vrms bitterly disappointed at ibe 



BeminU<:mc€s ofthf Coburf/ Family, 

unaUneBA of the leauli, bui urged bU brother not u> iowe beut ; 
Ui ^t> »a figbtia^ for the goud cauar,«nd lu EMVotrrerytbiuf thftt 
could bo saved. 

Th« next mix monlhi wiln«!un] tbf« i^ruluiU fidl of Prussia 
from licr poaitSon of fiuprcmFtcy till she bnd r«achfcl the \owtsi 
poiDt of hvr aba»(-meni lU Ohiiiiu. A few days udex ihc close 
of the Congrc&s lA l'ritici», titi nUrmpl w.-iit tnndc ujKin the 
KiUtf*» life. He was Ibrtunniclv only ivoanilcd in the arm ; 
l>ul jt wax obvious tlint tbe crimi? was tbv uulcome of avrtotu 
political coinbiuAliont* Tvro repuhliciLa and aociaUsUC Goi-inao 
nooirtlr-ft oxLKtnl at tbii time in Londim* The inn«fr circle, 
called 'The Blindfolded,* numbered from eighteen to twenty, 
seven of tbem wvsf. now in (jermaiiy^ and four in Ifcrlin itself. 
Austria summoned a nrw mrnting of the League at Frankfort, 
which Trusiia refused lo attend, so that the two Powers stood 
oppoiitc to each other with threatening aicn, acmI a war between 
ihuin ««om«l in«vitablo. Matters were inad<f worte by th« 
attitmlo of Ha»cnpllu^ in Hrssc. A dUputfr nbout su|>pJy 
ended ia Ihe suspension of the Heasiaii constitution. The 
country wa» jiroclaiined in a slate of sieji;e, wbii;h was after- 
words changcj into a military dictatonbip. The seat of 
gorernment was rexiioved from outi place to another. The 
pcoplf^ ofTcred « pA>siv4> aiul constitutional r»i»tancc, but 
Jtl^LBKunplIu^ r«niuiti<.'d obitinatv. The«<« 0vent» weii? a tttrrlble 
blow to th*^ hoprs Imlli ol Prinoft Albert and of the King of 
Prussia, U w:is obvious that some iitter%e:itiou wa» ot'ce^sary, 
but who should inti^rvene? An army of Ausinans and JJavArians 
prepared to invade Hesse to put down the disturbance. PnissUL, 
regarding; this us an auack upon her righEs, marched another 
army to the Ijcs*ian fi-ontier. TJk: south mid north German 
troopv stood close to each other at Fulda, and «n Novembt^r 8tb, 
bya 'miRundrrKtandingt* r-nme into conflict at lin^n/elL Prince 
Albert reco^nj^ed the conHlet as one between dntpottam and 
coustitutional freedom, and he warned Pruuia not to appear as 
desirous for her own aggrandisement, which she had sought 
too often in times past, btit to take her posittou a» the represea- 
tativc of lW liberal and uaitcd Orrmany, 

Whtn Duk<! Ernoftt viiitcd Berlin on Xovpoiber l^Snl, the 
crisis had reached its highest point, lie found great enthu- 
siasm for a war with Austria, a feeling that this alooe would 
rescue <jerjnany ami Prussia from the hands of her rival- He 
gives a |^pbi(^ descripuon of the imminent danger of nn imme- 
diate connict, and of the dramatic suddenness with which the 
situation wss changed, On Nwouiher i;4lh, Austria pte*emed 
an ultimatum, which demanded thnt the Prussian troops should 





Sfmimsctncet of the GAurg Famiiy. 

^r council trf ininjvterfl wtu auicnii>Dc<l In tbc Pftlnco of BeUcvuc, 

and in th«T aftpmoon th« opinion pTevKiIetl that wa? vnk% oerinui. 

The Duke of Saxe^Coburg wak informi^cl that he WAt lo com- 

mftpd ihecontinfrnt of the aoion. The following dt^y every- 

ibinjT vrA» channel. Tbe BeleiAO Ambtumdor Lrruight the 

Duke uruni, bjr tbe comEiiiuid of King Leopold, that Pruiata haU 

<let<Truun«] to lubuill io ilii? IilsI tlcmatiila uf Atulrla. The unlj 

^^inatter in (liiputc? vta* tho form which tbo aubmisaioo should 

^Btake. The Duki% hopiiif^ to r«%ive Imitvrorthy infamiAtion, 

^Vlook Iit> Icnvc; of thf* King on the ^jotiml that he mtut rctam 

^■bome in order to make prcp.'Lmtions for war in hU own dch- 

^rtninions; the Kin^ sAid nothing alH^ut pracv-, nniL at dinner 

Btaikcd of th? inipcction of tents and vrn^^ona aa if a campat^ 

were in proapect. A priv&te inteTvieir with the Ktog did 

nothtno; ti> solvo iho nir«t«*Ty, and it vrni onl^ At th4> teA-tflb1« of 

thr Qunyn lUat thr Duke UcnuX for tke fint time of the meellnft 

iprhich was to take place immediately at Olmiitz. No one 

ttceoied to have ud id«A thnt the oceeptanoe of the Auitrian 

propDtaU under tbt^ rarMltation of liu»<ia irould Im; received 

chroughoat (iermanr aa a humiliarion and aa a deathblov to 

<!^nniut nnSt^'t or that the nntnc of Olmiit? would bo a bycword 

Co ™tti*rity- 

Stnuig^ indeed, wa« the clianicieT of Frederirk William IV. 
We waa gifted with cter^- talent eicrpt the power of making 
ose of them. Two nam fea struggled witlxin him for mAStery, 
Hia actions vrvn often in aharp contradiction to bis words, 
14e was aa learned ah a prof«ra»or \ Ue ooireiponded on e<|ual 
C«rnis with I^umholdt and Rnnkc on the one hmnd^ and with 
X~l;tMrti:tnn nud Arridt on iht* o(liL>r. Vie wat an aiiial and an 
<&n rriiie of a high order; he paintcn) virgins one day and devifs 
^he next with equal perfection^ and with such nuulery that the 
sa^mirerft of the one coald not imagine tlint lie could dmw the 
other. He wnt a i^ood soldier^ a atateaman of chivalrous ideals, 
bni ho bxd not that fttKjidinri» unU pemiitiriicy of purposv 
^^rliich can oIotm: *ccofnplUh gti>At iwaltfl in praeiicnt politics. 
ft^t/>1^ aa hr vrai tn thv cnuu? of rif-ntian unity, he did more 
^-Vwii any one else to delay its accomplishment. 

With OloLiilx the first voluineof tlit Duke*i ' Memoir*' comes 
to on end. Wc hope that the bist<iry of the succeeding yean, 
whidi will be of more abundant interest, will not be'lon^ 

( 13il ) 

Art. VI.— L 'ftte Constitutional Htttary of Emjland. B7 

w. stubb*. n.a 3voU Oxfoni.isTs-iSTs, 

2. Chr^nitte of Conm(^i<m, [National SaciHr/.) Lootlon» 

3. Tftc S(ttfi€iit's Evglvth C/turck Ilittifri/, By G. O. Petry^ Cnnon 
of Lincoln* Z voU, London, 187^-1887. 

4 MtJi ofthfi ChuTfhy 1831-l:*85, By J. \V. Jojte. PrebeniljiTy 
of Hereronl. LondoDt 188t^ 

THE origin of Convoc^iion is hidden in tbe miflta which 
lurrouEMl the carljr history of the counlrj"- We fini us 
a matter of fact m ibe ^urlicftt roconlt we pots^s^, thnt there 
vr^re nsscmblies of ecclesiastics tti di^terroinc upoa the atTain of 
the Church, but of whom these aeseniblics y/vxt composed our 
knowledge 13 aotnevrbat baxv. We hsive evklence that in Saiton 
times Trc^lcsiastics were summoned with tbc chief U^mea to 
tftke pirt in the Councils of the Hoptarcliic kingdoms, and 
wc likewise know tbnl they wcic a component pnrt of the 
N^itLonal Assf^mhly after Knglartd had been unit^rd under oae 
kin^. We know nho thnt there were 'slnctly ecclesiastical 
Councils that contented themselves with ecclesiastical legisla- 
tion. TLiev passed canons in which any inierfcr^nce with 
ficcular law or cuttom iswijcly avoided/ * Al that lime Church 
and State were regarded as the aairie body looki.'d at from 
different sidrs, and there was not thnt jealousy of lay inter* 
ferenc^ in what could he* conttriactionally reg»rded as ecclesiat- 
tical alTairs whtcli we liitd a few cenluries later. 

Afterihe Norman Conquests much clearer line ofdemarcfitioQ 
was dr:hwn belwetn mailers eccle»jaatic;*l and civil; this was 
shown by changet in the Courls of Law, the li is hop's Court 
for the tilal of eccleaiastical cases being separated from the 
Shire or tlundred Court: and it also became apparent in the 
matters treated of in the great Council of tbe nation^ and in 
the Synods uf the Church. We must not look to this period 
for any accurately defined rules respecting the persons to be 
summoned lo Parliament or to Convocation. Events were 
gradually m<iu](Ung both the one and ihc other, and we look in 
Tain for consistency ia the classes of persons below the first 
rankf lay or ecclc^ioitieal, suERinoaed to either a^sembly^ or in 
the biisinest trjtnsncted in ihetn. The I4th clsus^ of tbe Creat 
CbartcT provides that all who hold in chief under the Crown 
shall be summoned lo the National Assembly for the assessment 
of »traf>rdiiiary aidsand scutages, as well as the ArchbithopCf 



Stu1)W»"Coi)»titaC[orrta] Uulory.'f. }30,S3]. 


ZXff ilixtor»f and Reform oj Com^ocdtion, 



Ablx>u, Earlf, and gn^f^r Barons. Id tome of thcic 
[■mblifs • ibe CJei^y of inferior di^rmtj formed in appreci- 
able part of the CodrciI, And vrc *rc iJ^Id tbftl tb« presence of n 
la/;^ nombiT of D^anc and Archdeacont it mentionnt on lome 
^xciaI pcca«iocu; but how far thcj wc^rc summoned as ^ matter 
of ngbt, or &• 1 matter of coovenience, tt nut exprruod. 

Towardc die cm! of tbc thirtct'nth ccnittry ihc grwit Council 
of lh« nation began to laaume raore of Ihe upect whicU it luu 
^doe ret&iocd. The principle of rapresenuuioo came gradualljr 
to be a^-iiGjnitlicallj' acted upon, ' As carlj &i the cloao of 
John'i reign there an* tndieatioo« of the approaching change in 
ihc fummons of "four diicreet Knights' from every couDly,' 
And ii was ao doubt the netd of freah support which was ^!t 
by both parties in the conllici of the succeeding reign that 
■ the vritt of Karl Simon ordered the choice of Kniglits in each 
ilure for bis famous Parliament in 12G5/ 'The tame linnncial 
rCAi^Oftt eziaicil for desiiinf^ x\\c prrience of borouj*b reprcsenia- 
lire* in the firnit Council n« f*xiilefl in the en*e of the shjrrs ; 
but it wai the genius of Kiirl Simon which first broke tbrougb 
ibe older const it uiiona] iradiiinn, nnd sumtnoncrd two burgc»ei 
from each tovm to the Parliament of ]:f65/ It needed thirty 
jr«ftrs to accustom the inhabitants of the boroughs to this inn<H 
vation. They rcsrnt<?d the cost and troul>Ic of himiibing 
reproaentatives, and the acnntr numbers r^nd irrc'^ularity of 
aU«ndanee on %\iv pnrt of llmir repreientntivcs provM tbeir 
dulik« to the burden which had been placed upon them. * Of 
the 165 who were commoncd by Edward L, more than a third 
erased to send representatires after a single compliance with 
the rmal summons; some refuiing to make a return to tbc 
ibcrifT; others purcbatinj^ charters of exemption from the 
troablesome privilege,' f In 121)r>, in spite of ohstaeli^s, reprc- 
ttrntalion wah teeLired, and the borought from that timn haTO 
continuottsly sent rnemleri. 

It 11 nccc4sary to remind our readers of the manner in which 
Parliament came to assume its present position, because towards 
the end of the reign uf Edward I,, thcrr< is the commencement of 
a clearing-up of ttie reUtiuns of the Clerffy (o Parliament, and 
their own nssembly, nnd rhnnges were made rt-lnUve (o the 
tunimoning and Aerpp(i>d pnsilion of Conroenllon, whieh nn> 
Still matters of contn>versyt and which have a practical in* 
Boence upon tho course to be pursued. That King wr4 not 
inAeqnently in sore ditHctiliies tor money to carry on his wars 

• Stsbb^ 'GODetitiitlonKt HEsIott; i. 569, 570. 

t OiVtu'B ' UiAlury uf Uiu Kuh'linh Fci»(>i<-,* !., 3S4, 3^6, 357. 



The Ilitiorif ahd Reform of Comoeation, 

in Fnuice nnd ScotUnilf and in order to oblftin it be »oa^ht 
the oBsisUDCo of Parli.impnU more rrguUrly cIc?l1(k1 and av 
•cmblcd than h&d previou^Ij bren the case. Po[kiiblj iroui ft 
i«oHng tbac it vn* more eaiy to flqup(*zpn \)xe Cler^j thui blB Iny 
suhjncu. or from tfa« grmler influence wbicli ihey poofflsexl in 
tbc nation, bis flcsi^ was to secure n large repretcnlattan of 
tiie CltTgv ill Parliiiment, 

We now turn to tbe itruggle aC tbn ond of the reign of 
i^dward L, from whicL some desire to date- tbe (origin of Coo* 
vocfttiou ii» It now cxi>t«t ivbiUt uthcra bold tbat it is n con* 
linuation of tbe eccUftinatirMl n4«pmb]io« whirb prcfvlnnvty 
cristcdi V/e %)\7k\\ h^%t plnx:e l>rfnra cuir rcntk-n Uie orifument 
in fnvour of the Edwnrdian origin of Convocation by quoting 
the vronU of Lurd Selbonte^, in a Memorandum on the Bvbj«ct 
which he prepared at tbe rrque«t of Mr. GlatUtonc (tlicn Pnine 
Miiiij»ter)»iina wblub wa»»ubM:qaej3tljruomiiiuiuckt«d loibcCoo- 
vi>CAtion of Cftnterbury, nbich Convocation alone it aJected f 
wbiltf on ibj^ i)tb«r ftid» vo puvpofte to quote from lh« Report 
of n Committee of tbc tttine Coavocfttioa in reply to this 

Lord £^tdliome, adopting the line of Argument followed by 
Aicbbifibop Wnkf^. «fty«: — 

' Blerea yoaib ufturvf or^ be^can tbo Htniggle 1>dtwi.-en ibu Kiiif- aitd 
ti4» Clorgy, which contitinfd from a.i^, V2^% (i!il Edwud I,) td 
A.if. 1316 (9 KdwArH II*)< (utd lin&lly rosuttod in tito ot rt 4bli^nnart 
of Ibe Convi upon tb^ preaect £M>tinjc« The first of, 

numerou* iwu . jLs, addrt««ca by tho King to all tbu IJi _ 

AiolibivLojw uuil BieL^ipo \j{ Lutli PruTiiuJoef ooucauuliiig lli^u lO 
Attcotil AH n tcinci nf " Tbird KfiUt^ ^* in PaHiameTit mtHV tHvir I>caniT 
Ao», and ArcLdea«)Lifl» and " tht ^bobt Clergy " nf *.-iich dioccHe — the 
RoaziA, ^?., und Arcbcl^^nivint; iit pcreoii, tbo Clia^^tcrg by odo, tnd tlio 
Clerj^ by two, Proclora— was Utnied in 121*3, wbon tho Kiiig urented 
fl snpply f^r bin wot in Qft«<K>ny. Tbo CTf>rgy riolcntly roecmted thi*, 
u an icLTiudou of Ibciir lilicrties« ulkgitig thnt tt»ry orinid not Uwfnlly 
ba somtnouod to such a G^utrnd Aflseui)>ly by Lhe urdor of Uie King, 
or by any other antbority timn tbiit of the Sf Gtropolitan ; and thil 
tlioy wtrtr piubibi(<d by a tlten roisuab Bidl of Pupu Buuifucu VUL 
from (-ontTibuting anytbiitg out of tlie gooiU of tbo Oburcb to the ota 
of any aL^cular prince. The King oatJawc<l ihct C'k^rgy and adud 
their gDodit ; nnd Archbtebop WincbolGcy (a^, 1-2!>T-S) bold a Con- 
vocalicD far the maiiilenauoe of tlio rigUts of tbe Church utider the 
Orout end Fofouc Ohurtcrs, &c., nud foliaiunted exeoTnTLiiiuiCHlioa 
acaiufit all (not <ixcv]it]ijg tbo LviJtg) wHn isbonTd inrndc their right*. 
Tho Kiiig\ writu, though still issued, wwto either nut it all, or onjy 
iiapcTf<!Ctly ciboyed. Thu first itn]x:>Hant iiio<lifiCAtion took pUeo 
A.t>. 1:u1t uid wah repeated ftgaiu in 131^j. In the former of tlraWj 
on a prorogation of PorLUaaant, write were sent by Iha King lo 

7}t€ IJuUtry itfui B^arm of Ccnvocatiim, 



of Ihft H^tr^politoufl, m Atwh, gomniamliag tWa to sumioov, for Umi 
duy aiid plaoa 1^ vhldi iL* FarliaoMfit »toi>d proro^«d« Uudr 

tho I>MDe. A'c^ in perwHi, *' dicUi<iui» capitub l^t oloruji {lei pro- 
cntmioTOH vuffidoulcs hflbcDtos plcnaoi potcsUUim bI ciflvi^m capituUs 
«t clero btB qui iii Faxliouieuto pmdictu urdiuAii ooittl^vnt cou- 

^H«t« l]i« p&rticQloT w»y m wliicli •'loto* elcrtw" wah to Iki 
lopro om tod woa not numttonol ; but thon would be no doaVt tUat 
tilft MBit motfaod w inlonilfii) iw in tHo other fonns of liojnl writ 
^ovn 10 tliM timo isgued, lo Idld (uid ftgnin in 1315) i wht of ihe 
•HIM loAd initf iviuod to oBch UotropolitAii, sol }ic3i! up*>D a. ii>«rof|B- 
tioa, but upon tbd ttrM fCTiismoniiifT of a ParHamAiit Tnc Ring 
«aiiiod nppliof for iba oxpcditioa AgajxLBt Kobert JItuco. Kwh 
Frimate vu» ordttx'd tu luuuaou liin SuffiMuis, ftiid tbu IJuaem, 
tVion df ColtoffiaUf Cbiircbutr, A(vliiluai;uiu, Abboto i^Luuipt ftJid not 
«lvDipt uf biH Pi»viiiOi\ Bdd tbo CbaptGrc by ono Procter only, "ot 
tolom Chnim cujuftcjuo DittocniH <*JuH<tcm Prt>v:ociw pet duy»," to 
Attcad Ibo tni«ttiig of Prtrlihnunt io W*«t»iifliitcr on tbo 17tli of May, 
1314, "nup«r oorapotoQtl amilio a clero pro?lnolffi Tcatra nona 
impcndeoilo,'' *' 

' Hero we Jaite tbo in«bption of tbn form nf " ParliamfinUry " wrSt 
ctill Uiiud by tbft UottopolitaDS ; and how it camo to peas tbat vtat 
va« UMJit to be dono in Patliajiicut wjut in faut doou iu two PmviucLal 
CoUYOcaiioD*^ npp<;um f>\na tbo pruttaU miiulu hy LIlu Cluigy agaiikt»l 
tb)4 form of nrit on tim JOtb May, PUI^ au<1 agfti& m tbo toU^wing 
year {** Parliamentary WriLti, Edward 11." pp- 124, 1^9). and frwa 
tlujtwo <Arli<;iit ''CotiTOcatiou'* vrriU (^J JMward IL. A.n. IHl^^aui 
13 Edvjtrd II.. A.P. i;f 18, » ParlUmentary ^rila, Kdwaixl II.;' pp. 1^8, 
10$) fcr irhich tbo prooooiliiig» already nwotioEiod in 1283 waro very 
Bearly prK«id«nttt.* ' 

Tbo Clergy »trnngly objectod to tko forna of auinmont, nolding 
u% of ngbt Uiat tbc^ Kin^ pauMl th(^ liiniti of bis authority by 
comtnat^f^n;; tbt^ir altcndbncr at a ]ay agscmbly, anO nppna^ntly 
falling buck upon tbe juideat custom by wbich the^ bad been 
Kiinnionrtl by tbr ArcbbUbops, acting tbmugb tbeir Diucesa^ 
Bitbops, to attend the Asscmbliea lo which ihcy v^cw- bidden. 
T^e form of Mmmona waa thcrcforr anmcwhat modlfird ; &q(] 
iW coRipromii^ arrived at *from t\ip King's paint of vi<iw't 
wu to rc^id tlic? cHangR * an a supplnnrnt to tb<? Parliatnentary 
*riu for tbp (OQiplftion [by adjournment from tbc ParliAmcnt 
to tbe Provincial Omvoc^tioni) of that buainesa of the King 
«b;ch it bad brcn lound impotiibtc to transact in Parliament, 
I'Ccauw of the unwilHitgauss of the Clergy to coinc there ; and 
fvpm ifae point of ricar of the Clergy, a> a conorasion to tbo 

* K9f>en m Rt«cUon of Piocton (So. WX im, pp^ 41. 4S. 
t U«4.. p. ta. 



Tftc liUfory ami R^fcrm 0/ CbflWCoMto. 

objrccionc which ihtty haJ Ukcn to attendance undiT the King't 
order in ParJUmcnt Bat as the part of the writ described at 
the Fnrmuaietilrx WtIi vfus uot (IIsusch], aD<l tho Clergy «rr 
•till 4i]Riraon€<l io ntt^rnd ConrocAlton, bv whM OM^y h* tcrmcxJ 
the? Pari t a intent nrv fnrm, tt i< contrrnih^d tlint ilonvucxlion must 
ovfc its origin to the timo whca tlmt form ivaa lirsl mloptctt. 

The contemiun, that Convocntiim owrs its origin to Etlward T, 
and it quite a (liITcrcnt body from the Convocations or S)'nods 
pTcriously assembled, rcsu mainly upon this argumeat ; but for 
proof that the Asarmblj to which thi? Clcrgj- withdrew, after 
rofjsing CO sU witli tho luily in ParUninont, wa« ftomitthing 
alMfri'lhcT difTfrrnt from th^ Sjnods fii which they had be<*n prrr- 
viously gathcicd, wc look In vain. It doi?^ not sccrr a strained 
ioGerence to suppose, that the Cler^^y wonM object as strongly 10 
meet in an Astcmhly naw devixnl for the first timCf a« they 
would to forming part of tho lower House of PsrUament ; at a]I 
event), wc cannot itnaginc their ctmicnting thui to fonn vjl 
Asaembly <^ui(o<1i^erent from their old r>nc without toaie protests, 
btit of nny such iinttfritt wc hav<* no record. Whilst if the 
Convocations to which they withdrew were the auciont Asacm- 
bliet» in which they had been aceuitonied to discuss the aflairs 
of the Church, and nothing can be ndducinj to show that the 
cognt^Dce of such sfTairs was withdrawn from iheui, it Is 
diflrcult to %cr how it caa br; inid that these Convocations then 
cumv fifit int« *»^i4tence, becuuse they were ^e[Joi^e^l to isjc The 
Clrr^, and with a view to llut were; sammoneti by a new form 
of writ. And jct ns n matter of fact the dispute hss turned upon 
the Unfuage of the writ by which they were sutumoned^ not 
opon the novelty of the Assembly in which they were gathered* 
There are, howevfrr, two other polntEt uf umttriul tutrresi alleged 
by Lord Solborne in favour of the view wliich he has chftiD- 
pioned that should b<* mentioned. 7'he first 11 drawn from the 
Aa itf Submission (25 Hwnry VIII, c, 19), which provider 

' no Cfinou, Constitution or Ordinanco shall be made or put in exAca- 
tioii ^vitliu thin rffolni, hy the authority uf thu Ci'uvucatioti of Iha 
Clergy, which shall bo cOQtraria&t or roptgnant {inter alia) to any 0^ 
the uuptunia of the realm/ 

The other point Is thus stated by Lord Selbome: 

' Furihcrniore, nnlesa it ean be made out tbrtt the repreaontatlini 
of thti Capitular and Parochial Clergy in Conrocation by thaif 
eliK:tod Trootiiri'* ie an inctdoiit of that AsfieuiU}' ic reipeot of its 
purcljr Gccletiiufltical, [uid not of Hm mixed or p(>liliGal clyuraotcr; 
it would aocm to follow, fruin iho aatvra of a Canon or OcMutitatioa 



KcclMiMticftl (vliioh t*n.ji ru\\y fie mado h^ n ProriDcUl Synrx!, rnn- 
oemiDfi utton jiroi)cr]5 EcojEiHiostical), that tho rcprcffrrnUtioit uf 
tlie Clergy c^ncot be altered id tLat ^aj/ * 

With Twpect to tlif last point the f;ictt teem tfilerably clear. 

CoDVOCation e:xistnl before the time ot the IVrliamcntftry 

scheme of E^lvftrd l,,t but at has been shown with rejL[ard to the 

Lovr«Tr Haute ipf Failiicnr^aiT ai ni-ll ai to that fif CoiiToc^tiim^ 

thorn wai dcv^^lopf^iJ a mr^r^ fixrfl nvMom <>!' c]<>cUng wi^irLberA 

In bit relffn lIiaii hai\ prrviouil^' t^xiicfM]- Kut a> giving 

members to tlic boroughs, and a more tettled number of rcpre- 

sentAiivet to the countiet, did not alter the purpowt for which 

I'tuIUment was <umm<mcil, or make it a <nfrerent body from 

that which had prcviouslj' cxisied, no more did a fixed aystein 

of nspTcacuUtioii of the iiirurior Clergj~ change thr chnnurtcr iif 

Convocation, or juttifv tho aatmtioa th^l it tlien origin^trd. 

Then, betiile thit, in conti-qnrnct^ of iht? fix«l tlDtenninntton of 

the ClcTi^, they were allowed to consider what aubsidiet they 

vTDttld paiy 10 the Ktn^ ii: their own Astemblies mtler than in 

tb<7 Parliamf^nt in which he wished them lt> U\iv tlicir scats, but 

this left other matters as they were before* Tbe whole tubae- 

qoctit history of ConTocntion ihow« ihnt its SyncKlical character 

waa narer lotl. Wbat wat ilone by It before- the Reformation, 

during the Rirformation, and tinre that time, prove* this. 

WhiUl it 18 obvious ibat since Convocation lost the power of 

taxing the Clergy, it hat neoesKarily ceanctl to jx»sess anylbing 

bQt an ecetniftttical character, Itclore ita long ilumber, the dis* 

puteaweiei:Uitflyoii4ue»Eiuu!ivr order iuidpioiMxluie,whe« they 

travelled beyond ccclcaiaatical (|uc«tiani, and not about mutlcrt 

affectiog the State. Ict diteutaiona aiaee itt revival have 

been confined to strictly ecclesiastical subjects, and hare 

only dealt with matters before I*arliamenl, so fur at they aRect 

the interests of the Church. Moreover, (^>nvo<Alion is clearly 

regsrded by the rrajcr-book as a ^ynod, or the Chiirch a 

Ic^fUlAtiiv a«tetnbly. In the preface to the Couslitulivtta and 

Caaons I^lesaattlcal of 1€03 there it recited the aummona by 

the Arehbiftb«>p of Canterbury, umli^r direciiun of a writ from 

King James J., to the various mcrobcTS of Convocation, to 

'fqaCer, treat, deU-iie, consider, consult, and agree upon such 

caaoni, orders, ordinances, and constitutions, as they skonld 

thiak neceasan', fit, and convenient, for the honour and tcrrice 

of Aljuighty God, the good and uuict of the Church, and die 

^*tt*r government thereof;* and thii Assembly la indiifcranlly 

wiCTibwl in thic pivfar** n« ' th(» (^invofTilion of Canlerbary/ 

* fifpatlofOosniuitlvt«rCoatooall«i,ji,3«, f Beportp-d. 



Thf Hht&r^ <xnd Rwforrri of Conr^t^tion. 


nail * their Synocl.' Mcvreover, the persunfi tummoncd were 
the members of CoDvocadon, and if a Synod Lad been Bomc- 
Uiing 4\uii*^ lUittnci, care would have been lalcea to secure 
olhcr members to mnkr the diffrrcncr clear. Beside ihis, tbc 
130th Can«>n oaocta, * Wbosucvcr sball licrruflcr vflirDit that tl)« 
SAcre-d Sjnod o( this nation, in the Namo of Chrivt, and bj 
the Kin^« nutliotit^ aaaembleil, it not the true Chtirck cmT 
EnfEland by reprrtvntatton, let bim be excommuntrAted* and 
not restored until he repent, and pablicly revoke that hia 
ivicked error.' And not va\y since tbe reign of James I.^ but 
for manr yenrs before tbac lime, what Sjnod has the Church 
of England known but Coorocation ? And it no mch record 
eiiflta, an> wp to b(»lievo ibat the Chiireh of Knglanrl h^d no 
Synod ? Would not such a conclusion be a tUrect denial of 
the nnnU cjaotod above from tbc Canons? Furlheff if Coa- 
vocatioa is not an Ecclcsia^iic^l Synod, how came the CrowD 
to submit to it the Pr&y<^r-bonk, not outjr at the Jasl reristoo 
in 11^62, in order tb&L it lui^bc suggest what adierations might 
be needed in the Prayer-book as it existed brfore tbc GrcAt 
RrbMlinn. but on prirviont orrsfions? 

'Inhere is aniithcr point with respect t'* the Tepmentation 
of the inferior Clcrj^y in Convocation whidi it maT be welt Co 
notice. We quote i'row tlie re]>oit of the Commiiu^u of Con? 

'It I* ntatoil in tbo 'Memomntltun' tbut ''the fint knoivn in 
of rcpreecatntioD of tho inforior Chrgy /fr any imrpeg^ by eleol 
Pfootoia is droTibitthop Peckbam'it p»!mTj>i for the AttendaneD of 
ProctoT« (acoonliiig to one cop; /w) ai U^Attt aceordiii|j to MiolheT live 
jw t/nr) from Ibo CAcrf^ of orturj diatvAO in a cytngrrf^atirin ^rhirh lliat 
Aiohbiihop pro^Bod to hold at the time uf tlje ParlianKint of 
7 Edwmrd I., wh^eh mtt at WeHtminskT on lh« 30th Octohor, 1279r 
YourCommitteQ uaunol aeo«pl thb btuLeuit-ul mn biKtoricaJly acetiralflL 
It in voty pt&inl; rdatod m docamentfl i-> vfhi<di nil vany Iiavo aeocMt 
that the inrcnor Clergy aiJpefLTi^l by rcproeontntivcn ia the ParliMnent 
of ]VIichaelmnA 1355, and th^i their Prectcrs th^n protested H^ainst the 
loratlon attoiupt«d to h= larind upon tliom by tho Kiug, aitol by the 
Popc^e Legato, At tho nui'? time tho rroctora of tUu Cl<ir^ of the 
dimvfiM <if Lineoln und Lii^hf-cld madnf^ftmplatntnfoertftin ^rttvmmintit 
whieh thev d^airml to hare rL'mHltiMl. Tho f^aeral pnnoiple ftl th4t 
timenr^dby the J'roetor*of the I'artichial OWgy. and with appftreai 
«ticcc*s, viz» that when ii Is u quuHtion of committing (my oao to 4n 
obligation th« otnToAR consent of the ponion ulligoil ia mwcMsavyi 
may not improbanly have l«d to tlie v^prMMLtativo sj-Atom of the 
inforior Cler^ in Convocation, In the CoavooatioDB amnmonod by 
Archbiahop Bonifacu in i'1^1 and TJjjH it is certain that the inferior 
Clergy n^ro rej^resenlLMJ, only in Ihia cmki Uxv rrwl^ini worn the 


1%^' Itittofif anil Rfjtmn of (^nvGratiffn. 


AfcbdcACOoi, 1o irhoEQ ibo Clergy w6ra lo rIvu ldt«rfl 4>nipoir«ring 
tbcjn to JU7l im thoir bcZt&lf. But tlio m:«t diftinct coDtrfl^ictioft to 
b« poMiirtiou, "^ Uiikt tbi: first known uiatiuioo of rcprccotiUtioa of tho 
ftlarior Clergy tot nnj purpcwo by oJooted Prooton is Aro1il>iatLop 
P4x:kkaii;:'K prcccrpt," u fumiihud jsj Archbishop Ilobort Kilwftrbjs 
Vrit or SummotiA ia 137T. This wrU^ vhich Iioa bcwti ovorlooked 
Uic Hviauruuiluui, in |Tuito(l lu WUkltui (ConuU. If. 30)- An 
|rigin«] oDtr^- iu tbo rogi«t«f of tbo dioc««o of Worccatur uW «ujipUc« 
. witli in uitthcntic copy of iV • 

Tbp Krpnrt of tli« Committr^i fnrth«r cont»Dda tbnt Coavoca- 
and ProvuiciaL Synods ore ulcntictli i.4. that the Fhkvln* 
Smod wa< a Convocation, And tbc Convocation wa* a 
Provincial SvmxI. For ibey arc desi^UAted by ihe *mne name. 
\\i<'-y tran«act<-i] the same husinecs, Thrjr wr^n^ composed of 
\t uaiiir i:U-ttii-i;l3, Thoy tvcrr called by ihc ajiiiiu auiburuy-f 
would he tcdioa^ to give tbo nrgmucata m fovour of cacb 
tUe«« tbpwifl -, ftiul wd> content ouru'lv^t with itAling wbal ia 
aniiMldad for; wAy adding that, if tb« present Convocoiiona 
ft¥9 any chatntct^nsiics of ParliamcntAry origin beyond the 
^ien«i«^()r tbc* writ by which their mtmbert arc summoned lo 
uuftid, wc dii not know what Ibny anr. 

'Ilir Alt of ^ubtutMiuii ivmuf; by lloory Vflli, from tbc 

|Cl^^ tnndc tbt* difTmenc^ in the position of Convoratioo. 

IF^HH that timff forward they premised in v-trho tiarerd^ii, 

*tfwer to Midxxt) put in fivr^ promiil^t^ nr nXfirotA any naw rAnattHf 

« Coottitntioit prorincinl, nr any ntm,' cirdiriauf^ft pruTiucUl. or ityuodol 

^ oar iJoovocMioa or SyiKh3, in timo oooiiig (which OoDTooatioft i«» 

•lorajA hatU bi»)n. And piQHt bo aiwimbtud, i>iuy by your high «oiu^ 

Qupdvout ov writ), uiil£<s» your Qighnuai^ bv y^ur royal n^aoo^ aball 

iiccDKe OS to Bfisenillo oar Convocation, and to imko. promnlj^o* and 

*^ivaE« 3(ncb oonsiitiitiou:! actd urdiuancoM as bIiaU bo luhde iu iUa 

mm. nokd tboroto ^ra yoiir toyal nnOEit onij aittborily/ { 

T^U so far abTid;;:cd ihc spiritual power of ibc Archbiftbnpt 
md of Coavui^ion, that the iormer couid no loDj^r ondcr any 
^ircainitanoc« *ummon Convocation to uie«t without royal 
^4ioiilVi which they bod very rtircly done before Ui« paMin^ 
QF.lUfAct; wbiUt the latter hnd to obtain letter* of buunec* 
'mm ibe Crown prevlout to tlieir passing any Canon nr Consti- 
^^Oi and the formnl nsienE of the Crotrn to such Canon or 
9"^tatiun before it became binding, Thefc conditions con* 
^40^ Md ConvocAtiou has never sought in any way to erado or 
?ttpe from them. 

.,0V o<bjecl is to tpt^tk of (hu const r action of Convocation, 

• Eeport, pp. t, 1 t Ibid. p. 10. 

I tjtUbnry.-Hlflinryof CofiVoatcA/p, IM. 



The Uisiory and Btfcrm of Convoaxiitm. 

what it is and what it might do, and not to attempt to 
<;numcratr vrbat it has dune in prrparm^ (ir aisentin^ to the 
various offices in the Book of Common Pmj'cr, in influcaciDg 
IcffUUtion nffcciin^ the Cburch, m protM^tin^ ihc purity of ih« 
faitb from A<Hnull« of virion* kinds which hAvrb(*cn mikdoupon 
iU or in prcitnutiag the 4*jtt-nsion of the Church or the inQaencc? 
of her mm iBtra lions. Wc have therefore but Iitllc to say cod* 
ccming tlirr lon^ interval whicli elapsed between the passing of 
the Act of Submission in 1532 and the silencing of Convocntion 
in 1717. The cbicf itiing to he noted in the inlerval wss the 
siUnt aunxrnder by the Clergy of the p(>n-i?r to t«x themselves. 
r, in hi« * Rrrloflinatiral Ffintory,' thus B**ts foTtb what 
lonc and the ri?nsons that led U: it; — 

'Sonio of the BikIioim and Olorgr began to think thU ciuitooury 
mothod of taxing themficlvog aomonbat bortlietiHome ; tb€j tiioti^t» 
it iM poAHibk% tbo e:ij>uctati(>i]» of tli« Court might be set too hfgb 
Qpcn theiu ibib vitty ; tut*} thnl Ibu Coiiiujon^ wons ofUiu itj«>oontoDtDd| 
Qnlau thtiy oTArchargnl thomiu^lvrii^ tLnd nwollwl tlioir imbudioB 
bojond a T^aBwable propoi-tion. How well tb««& jealctosioa ven 
fouadi'd, I sball not ox&uuuo; hut, it is KUppnitod, the boinff opftfO- 
honsivo cf Micli luconTouioDccA brought ArohblaUop Bhetoon and 
■omc <»tbcr Landing rrobtton into Uk coQDort iritb tho Lord CkanooUor 
Hyilo, tbu Lord IVtuuiEirtrr, and «i>uiu ntlior i>f the Ministry. Aad now 
at a eoDBultation it iras concluded iho Cbrgj should silently wii?o 
tbe euatotn of taxing tlioir own body. And suQl-r themaelTds to be 
iDcliidcit in Ujo MoQoy Dj]]» prc|'nii.d by tlic Oontukons ; and to 
«noourELgc tbdr oisEcnt to thi< cdCEion. two of thdr four subAbdic* 
were to bo romitted ; and over and abore tber bad tbo promise of s 
clause for aaving their aneiont rights. Tbia ftocnrity was aeeord- 
ingly ^von, and ■ T<iry clear coraprobeDHire proviso inserted in ih^ 
statutv for ihiti purpoira.' * 

And to the Ciergy consenteil, without murmur or complainl, 
or any formal difrcussion or decbtou in Co it vocation, in IOC-' 
to blluw Convocmtion, vrhtch Lrirrl Sclbornc approvingly quo^tr^i 
Arrhbivhop Wnk** in d4*»rTibing it as a bwly iihirh 'though ^ 
somclimes did other busmrts, ww vvt nsscmbli-d properly for 
eivil or State en<I/+ to be deprived of iho onl^ funciion whic^l 
could give it such a character, whilst ttvo jears bef4>re it Ij> 
had long and camect drbatcB about the scrrlces la tbe Praye 
book, wbich ceiltiiiily must be regarded as of an eaclusiTc^^j 
ecclesiaGttcal chnmelcr. 

After ihr Convocation! had lost the pow^T of taxing to* 
Clergy, the writ* to assemble were continued as heretofore, b**^ 
during the remainder of the reign of Charles II. their meeting I 

Vol, TiiL p. 4GS. 

t Bajiof I, p- a*. 


Titf History and R^orm of Gmvoetition. 



CAjne I^M r^ftnlmr, is <1id tboae of the Hoiues of ParliAment. 
After lilt! KevoluCum of IGHH iht*Tc woon arose disonl be^tvrccn 
tbc U|>p^T ftn^l Lower Kousci of Convocation. The d«prira- 
liott of Santrofl, ArchbUhop of Caotcrbur^, and five? uf hU 
c>omprovinciat BUhops wi%i relented by tho Lower Hi^uatr: for 
allboufrh TU tnvmht^Tt had 1nbr*n the onlli nf aU<fgiAni-v and had 
so mnincd thr-ir benefices, whilst the Archbishop and Bi&bop» 
had beeQ deprived of lh«ir Buhoprioi for refuving to svear 
allrgiann* to King Williain IIL, there can be no doubt thM tkt 
aytnp<athics of ihe inrcnor Clcrpj wprc much mure wilh the 
NongariD^ BUhops ihaa witli thoM? whom the King Appolnlcrd 
to fill thoir SeM, The f««lin^ of ottnngi-iiti^ut botw^rc-ii th« tvro 
HoiU4*a gave Hte to a lon^ »rric« of uniccmljr dispute*. It 
would be impossible to justify either side in these quarrels. 
esEions were raised about the origin of Coovocntion, when 
ttcrbary, aftenvards i3isbop of Rochc*irr, and Wake, aitcr- 
ards Archbishop of Canterbury, cb:iinpioned diJferent sides. 
The Intlcf lasjitctl upon the view of ihn potition of Convocft' 
tion now advoealrd by Lord St-lburne, whilst the form^ eon- 
tended for the legal right of Convocation to be aummoDed 
whenever Parliament assembled. The cQDlroversj was eiD- 
bittered bj the strongly fippoted |>oliticid views of the two 
emineDt men by whom it was cnrricd on, and by the uncon- 
elliatorj' Uiif^UJLut.* in which thej indulged, after thi? fashion of 
the time. Hrtidc ibis, there was a stAnding dinpute between 
the Upprr and i,owr4*r Hous(*s as to whether Convocation had a 
right to assemble when Parliament was not sitting, and also 
whether Convocation could even consider matters which it miKht 
ervntually wish tn Irgidate about by n Canon without having 
prmousi V received Iciters of business from the Crown- IVoihing 
ovaM morn rlrarly illu»(fntc the temper of the times thsn this 
lut-aamed subject of couicntioo. 13oth parties to the dispute 
ttfrpfd that the legal steps necessary for enacting a Canon 
^re letters of business from the Crown, formally assenting to 
t^ir preparing the precise words which it was proposed to 
^nart, and the sabaeciucnt aisent by the Crown to the wnrds when 
*eiuaUv agrees] ujxju- Therefore to quarrel about the right of 
CoDTQcntion to eonsEder whether it wa» dciirabic to seek for 
»»ieh authority was practieoll)- to deprive it of the power of con- 
•oltiag tng*"thpr conrrming the nerdt of the (Hiurch, It is nft 
*OnJer, tlitrefore, that in such an unsatisfactory state of things 
^Vantage was tat^en nf the firit favourable op]>oTlunitjr pre- 
*^ted by Convocation for suspcndinjf its meetings. In May 
^■IT, the Lower House of the Stmthern Convocation made a 
*^r*cnlatioti toiL« UpjMrx House, compltUQlng of th« doctrines 
V^. 167-— ifc- 99$, h taughl 


Tltf Bitter^ end Reform of Con^oaxUon, 

Xiku^hi by Dr, Hoadly (then ISiabop of ISaiiftor) in his booLs 
CDtilJcd * The Natare of llic Kingdom of Christianity/ and 
' Prcecrvation agtvlnst lb« jmHCJ|>l*Mi of ih© Non-Juror^/* Tbat 
Bishop wiiBa gTi>at fiLVOunbf of thir VVhi^ Ministry of the day. 
and in the reaction from the Iliirb Church t«ndfncic«, which 
hfttl hn^n npjumit in th(< rei^n of Quc«^n Anno, there seemed 
to be the <lcaired opportunity of silencing a Chorch authority 
ihAt Lad ihri-\ntt-iivd iv he iroul>[ea^>ine, and wbick la ifa<t tbcfi 
Icuipcr of the popuUr mind could be <]uiclly disposed of 
Without rAivtn^ a ol amour. Froro^tion therefore sitccfi^ded 
proro^taon, and although the Houses wore duly summoDcd^ 
they werr allowed (» tntntact tio bu^ines^ bey<Hid a|fT^ng 
occasionally tipon a formal nddres* t*> ihc Crown, 

it was not tili ii<b2 that the :Southern, &nd not (ill ISOl that 
the XiirEtieni, Cimvocntion was prriniltt-d tu meci ag^iiri for lUo 
despatch of biuineas. They bad tnct in the pn^viouft ye^rs;, 
but it was only formallyf and no biutnm w>f aJlowrd lo i>e 
trftnsocted, ss it was held by the Archbishops and their adTiteri 
that no ditruniont could be pi*nnitte<l without (he issue of 
letters of business by the Crown ; and so rigidly was all husiiicss 
cicluded, Ibat petitions for the redress of ^ierances were not 
allowed to be prcKcnied* TJiLs erroneous riew was corrected 
by an elaborate opinion given by Dr. (afterwards Sir Robut) 
rhilHrnore, Sir F, Th4»s>irer, th(» Attorn^ty-Orncral, an*l Sir W, 
Page Wood (afterwards Lord Haiherley). who * held that Cun- 
Toeulion was not rt)riip(*tenl (<» debate ttpon or to prx>ma]ge 
Canons without the Uoyai License, but that it c^n consider any 
address to the Crown for license of debate, or any other matter 
without its Encmbers incurring iho penalties oi the Act of 
frroivamire,^ Th«ae lawyers practically showed that tlie Royal 
Licen»i« is not nrceAviry for prpliminary dinrnftMouK ennr(*ming 
the need for a Canon, but only for its beintf framed or pro- 
muiffed: *they also sh^wvd that if Cooi'ocalion wen* tilcvi^ it 
was oilcnt by iu own aet, and not from any special bar of 
leffai authority which must be removed before it could speak/ 
This opinion gieutly etrru|^ili«ned (ho feeling which h-id bcm 
for ftotne )'<?ara growing in the* Church, that it was o«if*nttal for 
her wril-hcing that her EeeleRiaKical Assembly «hoiib] be again 
allowed to consider her wants and the best way of pn>vidinx 
for them, and that the time had come for the Clergy to osaert 
their right to be heani in Convocation. This feeling* thouj^h 
exteoslvely held, was far frotn being general ; those who had 
a real belief in the corporate life of tlie Chuich oatundly 

• IVry'fl *S«t:dB(iV» Englbli Church Out^Tp-/ Hi, 301. 


The Ilisicry and Rfform of Convoeaiwu 147 

felt thftt ii voa c^acDUat for sucli Ufo Lo ui-litbu U»cir, m ll 
^^oly could do vrben it4 members acted t&gctbcr tbrou^b ftn 
HAsa«mbly which could be i^^nnlod u tbe moutbpUce of th« 
^^horcb ; whilsl tiio^, vrbo limitod ilioir ricvr of rclt^ioui 
ritality to Ihr spirituni condition of \\ic iadiridual mcmben 
~ ^ wImid ih^ t_.hurcb U com|>oted, were naturally iudlfft'Tt'iiL 
iboal tbc mnitcr, or ilrcadod that n claim of ftutboritv might Im 
9«de for the uttc-rsocrfi uf wLai prufL*»»inl to bo tbo Church of 
jUnd by rvrprocntation. Although the Convocattona hnvn tn«t 
^uUrly for mure than a quaiier of a century, this difleronce of 
f'ltvf still continues to some extent, though in a much ]c» viru- 
ent and oilenctftl form tb&n was common at the earlier periM, 
• The great changr of opinion with n^tpprt to rcprMnnt^lioa 
during the last sixty yc-ars has no doubt exerted con&idcrablo 
^BnflncQce on men's minds with respect to the constitution of 
HiDonvo€»tion. In ono sonso, tho Lowor l-Ious«f bu Hlway* booii 
Jteyafded u a repreMntativi? assembly; but it was re^presrnlA- 
ttve of interests mthcr than <yi individuals. I'he ^cat body of 
the Parocbial Clergy had a vcrv slender Tupresenuiion in com- 
parison with the AhlM^ys and Cathedrals, but then tbc^c latter 
poueasod ibe wealth of the Church, and in so far as Convoca- 
tion hod to impose taxes on the Cler^v, it was only fair that 
^|]bo•e by whom the bord'^n \\im\ mainly lo bo bom^, vbould 
btre the chief \n\cv in determining whiit the bur<Ien should be. 
WhiUt on the other hand, if Convocation was to be rc^rdcd 
M the Synod of the Churchy it was to be eipecicd thai a larger 
■AOtnt of learning, and therefore of fitness to determine the 
qiestions which would have to be cotuidered, wuuld be pos- 
iirsted by those in highcT poiitiona, who have marc leisure and 
ofporlunity for study thao couM g<*nrrnMy !>(> found amongst 
ike Parochial Clergy; and besides this, tne dignitaries of lhl^ 
Qmrcb must be presumed to have been chosen for their high 
<Aoet on account of their superior sagacity and atlainnients* 
It has therefore followed that by for the Jargcr portion of 
tbe metnbcTs are now nomtuated either by the Ciowu ur by 
tbo BishopSr AS they are the jMtrons of the offices of dignity 
^hoi^ oeeupnnlK nre rr fr^rt^ member* of Cnnvocation. Till 
finite lately this wai not t'eit to be a grievanoe, and would 
t^rH have been supposed to militate against Convocation b^in^ 
>tguded IS n*preficntativc of the opinions of the Clerg^j. litit 
web Is not now the case. The idea soems to have taken 
pcncisicm of people's mindsf thst unless thi^y have the power of 
ct|ivesstn£ their penonal c>|>inii>nB by votln^^ for or agninst the 
|mon aent to repreaent (hrm, he ^mnnnl hr reganled %s their 
npnaentatire ; there has consequenily been a demand for a 

L 2 triotTO 


Tk€ liistary anJ lUfirm of GmvocaiUM* 

reform m llir Ijonrf^r Hnun*? of ihc Soutlif^rn Coivotallott <?v**r 
since it was allowed to a&scmblc fai the transnctioo ol' busiDcss- 
And urlieii the conititution of tU« Lowor 1 luatio i%nd the popular 
feeling about reprpBent&tion arc taken into acsrount, thi4 cad 
sQTprite no one, Tliat House now coosucs of 24 Deans^ of 
whom ^0 arc nominated hy the Croirn, and 4 by the (VVcUb) 
Biib"ji»; of tbo l'roro»t of Kton, likoiivlso tioxninaC««i hy tfae 
(!mwn ; r>f 63 Ari^hdcaconB norninntml hy ihr l^itbopt; of 2-t 
PriMTlorB elected by the Cathedral Chipicis, id some casefl the 
Prebcn<Iaricft j<Htiing with tlie Dcaos au<i Koildenturjr Caaon^ 
in the election, and ao forming a constituency of ^0 to 40 
electors, in others the election being made bjr ibe Dean and 
RcaiilcntiJtrjr CanooB ; ond "f 48 Proctor* for the Clergy, some 
of th««« Are 4*lt?rtcd hy aU the Clvr^y of tli« Dlocvte ; oth^ra bjr 
the hrncficed Clergy of the Archdcacwnry ; and in fiomo cai«a» 
wbere there are more than two Archdeacon riea, one Proctor ii 
electa by euidi Arcbdcnconry, and then the number i« reduced 
to two, either b; the Bishop of the diocese or by an arrange- 
ment amongst the elected Pnjctors themselves. The HousCf 
ibfircforcj conaials of US ex officio incmbers, of iJt mccnbcr* 
elected by comparntivelj tmall conttitucncit"*, and of 18 repr^ 
sentatirQfl of the wholo of the Parochial Incumbentc 

The pinii of rcronii proposed hy the Lower House ii of a 
very conscnativc character, and from the first the same prin- 
ciple on whicb to improve the representation has beco idvo- 
catcnl^ though it \ins bren nitcnrd in aoitie of lu details, atid, 
Tliroughoni, tho cjuo-^tJon has nvvcr aatiutred in tho Inost a p«rly 
c^bnraeter. For the most part during ri>r<'nl juftrs every solution 
in connection nith it has been passed by a unanimous vote of 
the Lower House. Convocation Las always wished to retain 
the nominate<l members, oa it recognius tnc great advantage 
which it derives from having amongst iu members the learning 
jind wixlom of the men vrho h.tTc been iclcctcd to occupy 
the di^Dified jiotLjtjons of the Church; many of whom would 

firohably not he cWtrd by popnlnr CfinstituencSps, diough thrir 
earning and eipcrienc*^ make thera invaluable counsellors. 
All ihat the Lower House desires is to increase the numlMT of 
Proctijrs elected by the Parochial Clergy, so ns to secure for 
tliem a more adequate represematloo ; and it would bo glad tQ 
citend the ftunVAgo to licensril curntcs of a ccrtnin stnndlnK* 
The potition of a licensed curate, a« the word is now under* 
stood, was unknown when the present qualification for voting 
was arranged. This chanj^e, therefore, might be open to some 
of the objections against a reform of Convocation alleged by 
Lord Selbonie, and therelbrc on this last point Convoca- 

7%f^ llialorif and R^Jorm of Coavoeaiiotl* 


tioa is tees di3pi>sed to iamt, as it woulJ certAinlr introduce 
tttiAw principle into thn r lections byirmking onlination and not 
the tcntiro of a bcn^fico ihcquAli^catmn for tlie sulTnifef and 
tlicrefon? lUcrc tvould b<? tiikicU more gmuntl frjr tritntcniUng thnt 
4lich 4L chnng^T couU! not bi> nituJc without an Act t\i Parliament, 
It i« woll to jMAt, that that ic tlif> rraKon nliv tliiit ohnng^ ik 
Ipm insisted upon by the Lower Home of CoiiTocation, and 
not any divlike on the part of the beneficed clergy to the 
anbcnc1ie<-d shanng the suffrage with them. The plEin pro- 
posed if to raise the number of elected Proctors from iS to 
1(H, lO that there would left n mnjorily of votes with 
iho nominiLlmt members and the repress nt at ivc-s of CalLudral 
Chaplcrf,iu ihc-y number 112, It would apportion the nunnhcr 
of representatives, so far as possible, to the ntunber of Cleric, 
and it ivould in all cases take the Arc:h(leaconry as the conititit- 
cocy to elect. At the end of lWiS3 there were in the prorinco ofi 
Canicrhury 10,7^8 Ineumbents, and 4123 curares, so thai 104 
rcpreKrotft tires would give one to nbnut li& <;ler^ymcii regularly 
offieiaiing in the dioeese. At pres(.'nt it inatt^rrB not whether a 
iHore«e is lar^re nr small, it is equally n-presentcd by two 
Proctors. Such an anomaly would b© severely felt in matters 
Parliamentary, and the ine(|Ua1ity would be patent to any one 
if the county of Rutland and the county of York each sent two 
r«prL'tteiit£itivrs lu the Imjwnal Lt^idaiure, Is thr iinoumty »o . 
iDueh lr» when the diocese cf Londf>o, with its 1Tl.> incnmbentSf 
nrwl 5l3! eunitrc, and tbr<^(* millions of inhabitants, ha« th^ kanve 
niinibcr c>f representatives ai the diocese of IWgor, with iti 
141 inctimbents and 60 curates, and less th^n a quarter of 
It tiiilHonof inliabitnnts ; or as thediortieof Hcrefnnl, with 343 
incumt>ents, 07 curates, and a population about the same as 
thci: of tbi; dioctfse uf Bangur? Thiire ts, mureiiv«r, this fuiiher 
diffomnoe, thaiinthediocesoof London the numbor of clergy and 
pMple Is annually inereosing, wliiUt in tlw country diooesea 
oamcil ii remains stationary, if it does not decrease. By the 
change propost-d, the diocese of London would have 7 represen-* 
iniives, Hangor '^, and Hrrefoni 3, The AruUdeaconty was pre* 
fcrred to the diocete as the unit for reprrsrntaiion, tiecauK- it 
was thought thai less pnity spirit would be provoked, if the 
ftT^a of rv present at ion was moro )iiiiil<Ml; inasmuch as thocandi« 
dates would hr pcrtonally better known to the electors, so that 
ibe reputation for learning, jitd^mcnt, bigh morml character^ 
devotion to their profession, and thoroagb knowledge of all that 
prrlainfHJ to it would cany more weight ; whilst in a larger area 
the candidates would be only Imperfectly known to eleciora 
living in another county, in many instAOces at a great distance 



Tlu Histijry and R^onn cf Comocaiion^ 

from tli^Tin^ nnil Lkvid^ no pcniitual rclatiuris or intercourse w hit 
them^ A»<1 A^ pE^'^v coiiBiclcnuion* would Iiilvo more itiflurncr. 
This cons idcrit ion ticrive* Incr4^:ll<^<] iinpurUiic*^ from tbt wctnl 
decision in the caae of Tristram u, ihc ArctibUbop of York, a* 
that tcemi t€> 4^3L<:]uile tlir; caadiilature of men, however emineai 
and wolt known to the Cliurcb, living ou1«idc the uc* to be 
rfpr^'ieDleO, by usaerrine the principle^ ihal no cler^vman u 
cLigiblr for rlrrtioii tu CDUvncntloii wlm ii$ nol b<*ncAtx'd in tbi; 
conattlucncrr which ho s^wkn to itrprL'sciit ; ur rather ihai Bc«rin<lo 
be it< prartir;il twaring^ th«f ftcluardf^rition bping ihnt thi? Courta 
of law declined to review the Archbishop'Ei decision about an 
election to Convocation, and the ArchbUhop had %o decided 
a ca«e< In the proviocc of \ork the elected Proctora are, rela- 
tively to tlie number of uoinin;ited Pri>ctcirs, far more numerooi 
than in that of Canterbui^', as euch Archilcacoory lends two 
representatives to the Provincial S^aod. It bat» bo<ra «>tnc?tijnc« 
aiippogrd that ouch & lyntf^ni might bo ftdvantngmiiiilj iniro^hicvd 
into the(^onvo<:atienof Canterbury, but this ia a mistake. Some 
small dioceses hav€ more Arcbilc4vconriea than large onea^ whilst 
ihe aiw! tif Archdeaconries varies immensely. Thus London 
haa two Arcbdcaujnnes, whiUt -St. David's haa four, so thnt 
uodvr the i>Iaii puritUL^ iu the uurthein province, St. Davjd'** 
with it! 358 ioiTttinbcnta and 93 cumtca, would hnv« eight 
Tepreaenlalivea elected by ihe P^rochiat Ctergj ; whilst I^ndon, 
with its -17^ incumbeota and M3 curates, would have fouf. 
This dilTerence is sufficiently striking ; but when wc take into 
iicuoant the ixipulfitioTi ;uid tht^ eircumiitauci^i of the (wu Uioceset, 
the anomnly hccomee much more manifect. 

Thiw: who doiie to «<?<:&» icnprovvmeut In the leprtaentatioo 
were encouraged to chink, that tlioro could tx) no conotitational 
or legal impediment which mii^ht not be overcome, inasmueb 
at changes had been made from time to time. For example, 
itey thought that it could noi be more fUflieuk to mid to the 
number nl Proctot^ which the Parochial Clergy ol' each dioceae 
should cleci, tban to increase the number of dioceses which 
should elect Proctors. They alao sAid, Why should it be in 
tl:« power of th<( ltisl)op«, with the eooBeut of tho Hccle«iaa<- 
tical Commixsiun, to enlarge the number of Arcbdfw-onriea 
whose eccnp'ints sbould have seats in Convocation, and Convo* 
cation, with the consent of the Crown, not be ablr to add to the 
number of Proctors to be elected by those Archdeaconries f 
Tbc number of nominated members alreatly prepunderatcfi 
greatly over tbivt of the elected, and yx^i oo ubjrctioa was rai«od 
\o the still fnrthf*r f^nlargement of the prL^pooJ crating elomeikt ; 
and thos«! interested could not see why a difierent rule should 


}wf npplif^if to lli^ ^l^mont ivliicli all tr^mrJ to agroc ougbt In 
hfi iiirrr.iuHl, Anil rol, whiJst no nhjcction wa* raiacd to the 

tDTw dioceses of Truro, Si, AlUm'a, wiil Southnrell si«n<linfl: 
Proctors to Ci^n vocation, and to the ncn- Archdcacon4 of 
OakhaiDr Kini^ston-on-Tbanies, ^outhw&rkt tiodniiit Cirea- 
ce>l«r, autl I9W vf WigUc liuvtDg Muats tbcre, legal nod ronfttj- 
tuttonnl objection* Iiurc hven UTg«J agninst vuch populous 
dWutft ■« Lon^lcn and Roc:h4?*lfr tiavin^ k largur number of 
r^FCMntativcs cicclcd by ihc FarochjAl Clergy, 

We mmt uovr tpomk <if ttie controvtrty whieti hits Ixrrn carried 
on during thr? lut thiriy yrnrs rc*pcctin^ r reform iti the rcprr- 
craiation of the Lnwer House of CoDV3Cationf aod of the 

■grounds on which ii|)|iotUmn in sut:li n rrf<jriik U innilr to re>t, 
OiM of tho first act« tjf the Coavoratton which nii^t in 18S4 wa« 
to npptiirU iv joint rotnmittri* nf thr two Hniiftrn to *ron(iidpr 
whether any, and if any, wbat« reforms in the constitutioa of 
Convocation werc«x[i»lii*nt to enable it (o treat with the full 
confidence of the Cbarch of such matters ai llcr Majccty might 
be pleaied to aubmic to its dtf-Iitwrationn," and to i^cvtrv as acci;- 

■ mtc infoTmAUon 114 poMible. Tbry slAtcil a ca«e on whicji ibey 
drsiTcs) an opinion fron Sir K, Hclh«ll fnfCcrM'ardc l-ord W««t- 
Imry) und Sir R. Philltmorf, That opinion wa« at fnllow* : — 

*Thowntto thd ArchbtitLop rMp^oimg: II10 na«<<rnh1in^ of Couto- 
calion orders Hs Gmco to eummon tho Clergy, an<I i« eile&t u lo 
Una DQaiwer and modu of their rtprt^^-utiktioti. It would ^o&m tliat 
the mode of representation hoH viiri^d nt different timu0 and In 
diflbrent waji, and among tbcm by tho oiiiiiuaiou or oddttion of 
Proebm- NerOTthalMia it appoara to aa that it woald iiot novr he 
ConiMtcDt to pnt u nonKtrtiction npon the word Clrrtu^ or Olargyi *o 
aa w«rd»y to enlarge tiie eocstilueaoy he^oad the limits assigDed to 
it by aaagts without tlii; ctntiiiMit and mti&catton of tbo Ciowa. liVe 
Bz« of opioioD that it would he eompotont to CoDTOcotien, having 
obtaiood the licenco of tho CrowUt to diacnaa tlio qnGstion of tlie altera* 
^oa of iheU- liqirouutative body, and Ui make a Cauou onlargtiig 
, ; and that such Canon^ if it obtfunod thu Approbation 
the Crown, woxdd be safBaifiat to cffoct, Icgall/i a new lepreaeata- 
. of tho Clorgy hi Oonvocatinn.'f 

Encouraged by thia opinion, attc^mpts were made by the 
i>«rer Heua» to enUri^ the repreteiitation. And : — 
' la 18€5 an addreas from Hu- ConToeatioa of Caaterbuiy waa pre- 
ated to tho Unocm, enagoetiajE '* that tlieie waa no rcuoa to donht 
atitwoo]dheUwfulrortheCon?ooatuHi with tho Royal Asaent and 
^ioeskoe to mako tho noudfnl con«titnti'>n," and pntyiiig "for anah 

• Pwry^* ' KoflUh Church UUtory,' iil 329. 

t B»pott of a CoDJontUQ of CuunscatioiL (>'o. IS^X P- ^7- 


132 1'he Jlistori/ awl Bi/omt of Coavt^atian^ 

at ADtl Itccnoo to raalcc n eonptihittop, orOorlog t1m£ for tbo fotUM 
fbo Proctors for tlic Parfioliial Clergy bo elected direcllv bj the Beoft- 
flccd CJcrgy of cacli diotr'fic^ and thjit tacIi <liooc«o tit tlic ptotibOo 
rotnrn tW Dunifir>r i^f Pru^turH thu Pniv>c1im1 C\eT^ nllollM ta It 
iu A sdiedule th^eto aimeied, whorabj tb« ntiniber of PrDCtora 
rotumod by doctiou of the b^oiaOood clcr^ ui^uld equal in number 
the prlrilegod noEabcr^. nticl thoi^o clr^^ioa by tbo cajrltQlar bodJofi." 
Tbu addroiw wa.i rcforrcil hj Uid Otcad to tlio tbcn lavr cfficora (Sir 
£. PftlnuT (now Lur^l StilborucJ, Sir Bobert CuUiei' and Sir Rf>bert 
Phillimorc. I'iicir report oniiTi it (datvil Atign&t 1S€5) ww com-^ 
muucated by tbeSocrularyof Slat^ to the thfoi Arobbi^liopof CtJtt 

bai}'» ftud by bi;^ Grnco Ui C^>iiTocutu^. It wji* Iu tho cflVct iLaL ' 

Iftw ofijccpfi bud IccD "utinbln' to difLc^Dvcr'* frucn tbo mgia of 
Kduui^ L to that of lior present MnjoBty ''a single tnslftnco in 
ijvbirb any qiicKtioTi r<:]iitii]g ti> i\\ti r(^)nTMcntitioT] of tUc ClcTgj in 
CoQvocfttioQ Lad boenraade tlic BubJQct ofn rroviiiclaJ CousUtntioii 
or Cftnon ; tbat " tlio prcnctit tnodo of doctiu^ <uid coDatitutiDg iLo 
T/owcr Houca of Oouvoc^jitioti," in i*fli?b of tba two liroviuL'ts, " bftd 
hubfii^ted ivithont any allcratioii which they woro aolo to trMXt for 
upward* of M^^ ycora," oud tJmt aft«^ a omsful oi>tiiudcrfttif>n of Uie 
quv8tLoii8 Hihniillud to thonif uid of tho priacigdos of oonetltutiooal 
Bud c<jQiii]on law wliiob Ihoy wjcopivod to be npjdieallo, they waro 
ltd ki thu ooticlv&LOQ Umt H«r Majesty's Goveiuaient could i>ot eafdy 
or properly bo adviiwd tlmt iny aturrtion in tli<t prcecnt conrtitnUon 
of CouvocjiUoo cocid be kgflUy oUtctf-d Triihoul the authority of 
PorliAiiicnt. Sir K. Phillimnri', fhcirofoi^, vbnu conAullod officially 
in \^\'\h, n* on*? «f tbo Uw nffirnrn of Ibn Himwh, naw r<*«oti to o.bftDgo 
tlie opinion wliicb ho bad eijiioesed when privately oonsoltod Itn 
y»r* before/' 

VVtien tbia opiDion wai coinmanicated lo ConvocAtion, lU 
iftoi»t>rri demurrrd Ut i\xi* rondusiouft iirnvrd bt ; ihcy snv no 
TCAson why ibrv should l>r prevented from makinf: a conBtUa- 
tion Ut ;itii<:iid ihf* ri'pivHL-ntatioti uf thi- Lowt-r Houisr, vtrilb 
the prr^pcr nsbrnt iLnd Hccner of tho Cro^vn- For a now %Km\c of 
things had uiii^n wliidi cnllrd for tuch nmr-ndmnnt, whilst in 
the picvioufl period fiuch bad not been the cas^. lhcrcr>re th^ro 
could be no ri'ason for d^nvtng their requoit bi-^rAusc- ibi-iv «ras 
no diTr<:t prrrrdrnt during ihe period named. And if, n* the 
law officcra of ihc Crown urged, there was no prcetdenE lo 
show ibal Conroc-itlon hnd niadi: « Cnnon to BiUrr its nwn 
eon>tiluitJ>n, it nat nioeli mote ceriain ihat Parlirtment had 
iwvtT Attf^iiijitCHl to le^itlatr on tli<> unbjVet, \ffirprtreT, if 
reference was made to an antecedent period, when^ owinff lo 
other cautes, there had l>cen good reason for making changes 
in the reprcitoUtionf then etich cban^ had been made by tbe 

]C«pMl frf a CiNUiallln of C'Ouvcwnlltfti (X«i let), pp. 80, 87. 


7%0 HuiffT^ and Ref&rtH of Concoeaiinfit. 



Arcbblihon on hii own aulluiHtr. D^sidoa tbii, if nothing 
could be aoDc in England for which no proccdont coqM be 
found, it is cl^AF l\iAi Parliament (x^uld nt-vcr 1iav<- rcforuieJ 
iiH^lj u it did; tor origiually, and tor ccDiurics, the Crown 
iuu<.-d iiH writs in ihv maiiuer wbidi to it sctrined bt^al, and }VC 
no coasUtstionfll nbjroijnn was urged Agninat a TcJorm in tbc 
rrpreti^ol Alton 1>eing ^^fTi^iird bj an Act of Parlianir-iii. In like 
naDDcrthe AK^hbUhop* hnd issued their wrtis for a Wn^ time, 
diirectiiig who should b^ !imiimont.^I lo Ctiuvocation ; but that 
wax no reiuoa viby, in th<^ present Altered ttntc of things, Coii- 
irocatioii, with the conaeni of ibc CrowD^ stiouM not alter some 
of th« d«lsiU anc-clin|^ it> icptrsmtAtiun. Tbexe pluaa vterCf 
however, urged In vain. 

Ii it imiR'<*"**Apj to rpc^rd furtbtr d^lmtra in Cnnvocntmn on 
tbr aubjrct until wo come to the j eir 18^0. Oa the Asaem- 
blinf: ol a new Ctjwvocfttjwn after the general election in that 
Tear, iho two Houses in their custotnarr addrcAi to the Crovm 
Tted this paiagrafih : — 

* It baa heea roprescDL«d to ua that oar ConTooAtion mi^ht butter 
Jwlfcfcf^ j(ji dnticd if tumm AddUiuiL ncic nuaiilv t'> iM niiiiibtT cf 
Ptooturt in the IfOvrtr I1ouk>, mul vro JcfiLro to hriiig thi« sntjuft 
vider the coiuidcrAtion of ycjur Majesty.' * 

Thia WAt Ti^fcrvc^l hy Mr, GtAdatone (then Primo Mini«t4;T) to 
Lord fwlbcirne (then Lurd C^KaneeHor), who reviewed th» cam 
b a Memorantium to which we bare ropcatcdh' callc^l Atten- 
tnn in this article, Tlie a|>ccial point on wbicU Lord Selborne 
inaisied aa tbe ground for refusing the request of Convccation 
(jdopting the word* of Arcbbisbo]) Wake) waa, that our present 
CouTocAtion, * though it he a true provinciAl mectiD^ of the 
t-Itr^j, and ia in tliat n>s|i«ot an i-i-elL-MAilie-jJ ;i«»i<nibly, was 
jci originnllv designed for ScAte piirpo»<<a, nnd ainvrneiJ hy- <mr 
niacess not for mattera of doctrine or dtK^ipline, but to counsel 
and aui»t them in the diificult and urgent neces»iues of the 
Cliajchand KcAlm/t Having dealt with this point in examining 
lb- origin of Convocation, ic is unneceuarj to aa^- more on tbe 

Tbvr« t«, howe^'^Tf A poiDt rAtftvd hy Lord SoJborne in hit 
^emoranduni, to which wo have alread>^ called Attention, but 
^^hick it is necesaar) ak^u to refer. It i% where he quotea 
Jmqi 1I21) Act of Submission of the Clergjr in the reign of 
'Imy Vllh (25 Hm VIII. c, 19): ' Ibai no Canon, Con- 
'itutioo or Onlinance shaN be made or put In execuiion 
*'niila this Uc«lm by the AUlboritj' ot ConvocAlion of tbe 

' * ChmuktA ef OoDToe&ilou; ISSIK p. f>. 

t Bepoft of CdnTiicAtiou,j>,99i 

J7te Hilary and Inform of GmvccattoH, 

Clergv whirli »hftl! lie oootrariont or repugnant iinUr afia 
Anyai the cuatomv of the R«alm/* Anil he ar^^es that tos\ 
ConvcMTAtioti to amrmi its ^^p^c««ntIl(ion wnuld btr a violation 
of this law. To tbii the Committee of ConrocatLon rcptioi : — 

■It ia aUeged tWt a Canon iacroa£iQg tbo DUiabar of liooonti 
rcrproMntiktiTrM in CuQvociilion wottlil bu a Chdcii oontiviaut or 
r&pugnant Lo tLo cuatoms of iho ICcaho, oustoni Ixftring rigidly Uxod 
thci annibcr cf Clorgy Prooti^rBi for Gacb dioceAo ilji tvow To thU it 
miiy bf- itnswerud ^nt ft 86em« Alto^r*th<.T onroARi^irftbl^ to iutiir-|iret 
ctutDm as atoreo^ing tho nnmbor of Clergy Proctora, % thing wbtch 
hud bcMD altered A^&in and again ; tbo ^uminons hamfi; been some- 
times for throo or fctir, sotnotimoB for oiui, soiaotitnoB for tho Roral 
Doons, together with tlu oloctod Ptuctor«« natiiiotitnQV for tvo from 
'^'^C^^'* dioootfM and 0U6 from Wdah. It Lippr)ara to your Conumtiea 
that " oiuftom,** if it bti t4ikca ta refer lo this »u^oot ai all, miut be 
takeit ftfl rof*irriitft to tltt* constitaenl tleitiettt& of CoD?ocatlon, and act 
to tho nuitihfi' of cAch coEtfttituciit obimont. For iii0t4kiico, it mi^ht 
ho a poiiinuiiotiot] of ^^ en^tctm " if Coiivocution wura t^ pABi a Canon 
that ttoTn honcx)forth no Clergy I'roctors thotild be olectod. or no Arch- 
d<»icoDft or DtianH eJiouIil \w mLmbcrn of CuiiTOOatioii ; hwi it would 
be a rvry great &tr«iniiig of " oiudom *' lo suppoas that it prohibited 
aD incroooo in tho nudibcr of on olomont already oxialtn^ sod 
customary.* f ^^ 

Or it mijflit barr* br<?ii adilnl, that it would be ' conlrifcrinnt 
nr Tf^pii^nftnt to cufllom ' if the Ittitv were ndmiltntl into Convo- 
catioD, as that hod^ has alurays l>een re^rd«d by ttatuEc^, as 
well at by cuttooi, lo be an rxclu«iv«ly ccrlcaiMtical asionnbly. 

As a possible way of obtaining the dwired r«fforro. it will 
hove been noticed that l^ird SL-lbomr suu;^>teJ that it could 
only bc! cfTtT^vd by I'arliiinicni, and leg^illv by no other means. 
ToBUcIi n solutioD we nhocild bav<^ thought tbnt all ngbt-ntindcd 
Churchmen vrmild objoet. At n tintp vrh'^n our opponent! are 
io fond of taunting Js nitb hein^ an Act of Parliammt Cninrdi* 
to iuppo«e that the Chiir<:h's Synod sbotild seek for a Parlia- 
mentary basis on which to rest its authority n-ould seem to 
be almost suicidal. Moreover^ to exobange an orij^in in ibe 
far-off centuricSf At a jK'riud so reiuute as nut even to be rc-ccirded 
in bistorr, for one wliiob d*tcd from almesl the list dccnde of 
the nineleentU r^^niory, woold be indeed a degrndntion, which 
it is impossiblit to <H>nt4;fn plate calmly. Wr arc therefore not 
lurprised at the resolution of the Committee of Convocation ; — 

* Your C'Cmciitleo tlK^refon^, in eoncltision, would declare their 
unjL&tinoiis judgm^t, tlisl it would be Ux visor for tho Lowvr Hoaaa 

Bcport of GonrocaiiOTi, p. 38, 

t Ibid-p, 8l 

Tfie Hitter^ and Reform of CoitW)cti'<>»- 


OooTOcatiou of CftntArlmrj to contmiK; ox it U tliui to rvqiioit or 
ocpi UkCt aid iif I'nrliauitcat, eveu in ordcx Xo secaro tho niucli de^red 
DCftiMW vi rc{irtvnttstiuu ibcruiu <jf tLo Paruubiul Clurgy.** 

ThU view hA» tbc support of vhat wu wrin«n by Mr« Glad- 
stooe OQ Ui« subject in It^l, vrhcD Lti«re was a pro])fi«al lo aik 
for a Roj'aI C«intnl«sion In cnquitT Into ttir miLiin^r in wliich 
All improvcmunl nf tli*.' rcpn.'H.-tiiation in ('onvoc&tioti inif;li( b<? 

^JWYO ibe way for aix Act of FarlinmtfDt (o currjr out whut U 
a^;est«i. f Mr. (florlftonc wril**:— 

* WHy alioiiM thfT riTfjirm nf OoriTm^nilon Im> onnHffnrftil Sy n Ood^- 
I rtiher tbui by tbc two HooBca tljemaelrof^ aotbg iu conoert 
ptWs; jfBint commitUcs, or whittftvor bo moHt in form ? I do 
I Um [den tbiil tLo iLttHcmLled Okrgy aboulil gUo ibtiir cuuute- 
D60 to ft form of proM^ding wbicli fa at tho vgrj bc«t but Iiftlf ccin- 
liiUoiift], mad vludi raay become ta circumsl&DCOft not rtimot*^ 
«ctronoly duigctMua.' 

And it U w«U to remember, that whnt PaTliammt cnn crc-atc, it 

I Can modify in x\ie act of civfLtiun to any extent that it pleuii^s, 
■otliat tbv ConTocTtlJon mouldc^d by its tiobMcs would probably 
be somdhinj; very didcrcnl to the Convocation iviioiie dccUioDS 
ttncfmiiig faitb aud riiuiil ChuTclimen bavc hitherto regarded 
u atstboTicntivr. ^^o^l-ovcr, wlint Pnrlinment can CTcjite, it can 
dcttrojr ; ao ibat Convocntion rcatinf|f fur \\9 title to rxiatcncc 
XQ tbe proriilons of an Act of Pnrliatncat would cvrm to ho}d 
ittlife npon lUe condition, that it shutild be subwrrient to the 
power whjcrh called it into being: and this would bo the i^erj 
p^rfrction of Crust ianiBin, 

Lt is well lo Tt.-u)cmber the special reason alleged by those 
«^an? tn<Mt ragrr for a nrform of the nrprcsmiation of the 
'wchial Ciorxy in Convocation, It i* not that they are 
£lttttsii«T(l with thif prr^BTOt Haum*, or tbat tliey think tho 
btintts of the Church are ni>t pmperly carc^d for by its 
i^bcrs, or that ccclrsiastitrnl qu<-stion« atc insufficiently 
QKllsied : their mollre is tiotlnnf* ol' this kind ; it is that they 
M the nrcetsity for ainiinilating tbr rtjiresentative principle 
^3 !t| applicaiiou to the Louver House of Uonvo<^ntion, ao far as 
^^j be, to the raaoncr in which it is understood with rcfuronoo 
^ tlif> F[4^n«p €t{ Cnmn^oa*. Until tbii in dnno, thnse who 
^<iliU the drrisjnn* jit uhich ('onvoc.^tiuii may arrive will find 
*J^ excuse for not paying any regard or dcfcrcace to them in 
^auertion, tbai the Clergy arc not properly represented. On 

* fitport of Convocuttoo, p- sti. 

t ^LifDorB^Blv^WnbMfuiV».-lLH4. . 

l&G THk HUtory and Reform of Cb»t-i>caftW. 

Ihc otliffr liAiul, thmi* w}u> oppusc tho refovm of ConToallon 
arc not infrcqucniljr the very persons who mosl ardenOr 
advocate? reform* «f A similar diameter in ibc Houic of Com- 
mons, and to it would srrm thut their objection unaes not from 
<liBlik« of the principle advocated, l>ut from a few tlmi if thtf 
reform were mncle, Convocnlton ifOu1<! bccomr more inHitf-ntiftl 
diaa i\ufy wish it tu In*, und so advance (lio imorcats of the 
Church to n grenlfrr riLErnt ihnn Xhcy dtsirc. 

It thould be remenkbcred by every one who contidert the 
auc'stiim, ilmi in all Jiving budlet there amut frequently ariie 
lac need ior mljusting inttitutions inherited from tbe put to tbe 
wants 6f Uie prcacm. Principles remun uoaUcrahly tbe nuiw: 
tlic truth* of the Oovpcl arc now wbnt they were in the day* of 
th^ Apf>^tli*s ; but the manner of i*xpr<>A«ing them h%« at times 
to lie varirtl in orJrr to meet crrtim nnd miHUTiilertundiiifs 
which are apt to creep in darinji: the lapse of time. Novel 
queftiont arise nlfcrcting docrtrine and (liicipline, and the dect- 
aion of tbein affecis matcriat interests, which caute them to be 
brought befure Cuurtj» of Law. The princi|)les on ^htch those 
OouTD Arrive at their concluMona must often he very clifTcrcnt 
from vhofte which would inilutMir^ ChureU Sjnods. LAwym 
wouh) be hound by the letter; Church Syrods by the spirit: 
lawyers would have to conform tc precedent, whilst Synods 
would have to consider the tnith ot what was brought into 
question, and its conformity with the general teaching of the 
Church and Its uuthurixL-d f^niiutaries. Mureo\'«^r there arc 
prncticftt diflicuUies which have to he tacfH), and which nre met 
anil overcome much inf>r<* wiiHy and pfTi'irlunlly ivhen the wis- 
dom of the whiile Church unites in common counsel, than when 
the several parts aro left to undertake independent action. As 
mattera of the kind, we would mention the need for a great 
expansion in the provisions for religious worship which has 
bctn ex|>T*rk^uced during the lost century, oiviug to the sudden 
and rapid ineroa«» in th^ popuUtion; iLn|rartani as thiK(|U4»fllion 
is, it« solution was praclirally left for a long time to th#- enthu- 
siasm of isolated individnals. This led to the work being well 
done when there were earnest people to give time and money to 
elfeci what was r«quirc<lt and to its not being done at all when 
there were none such in the locality. Latterly, owing in a great 
measure to the Reports of Comtnitteei of Convocation and to 
debatr4 in Convocnl ion, the need for more united action on ihe 
part of Churchmen Iia* come to be reatizcdt and ha* led to 
more systematic work in several dioceses ; but ttiU thero Is 
Deed for more or^nic effort co-extenslve with the Chorch, 
What is true concerning the proviMon of churches is also true 


Tfie Histttrt^ and Rtjorm cf Coiit:^ralityu. 


01 J 


af all that relates to tfcie goTcrninetit of tlir Church, Sia<p 
Convocation be^n to spcnk on bohftU of the Church, Et4*ps ham 
been lucccufully tak^-n tor an increase in th? nciinber of Bishopv 
And fur n bcllrr ilivUiuii of difjci^vcs ^ but until Convocation waa 
»IIairc<] to «pt-»k, notliing i«as donr j aaJ now tlic «ubju<'t is bcin;; 
taken up Willi It %'i|;riiir whirh<lrm;tnrlfl wiMi nml wrll-rnniuli'rpd 
.counsels on the part of those in aulhority to protect the Church 
from rash and excessive alterations, or snrious mistakes will be 
made, Tbcn there was the question of Clergy discipline; of 
n>vidm^ for the retirDment of clergymen when too okl and 
lirai to miciisicr clTcrtivcly, or when, f-^r other TCA»4>nt| it wa* 
desirable that they should be ttU|wnededt or their work supple- 
mented by a coadjutor. Until thirse questions were montcil in 
Convocation, it was difficult for those in authority to movet as 
^tf could not foresee the light in which the Clergy would 
their proposals, or In what way those proposils could 
it be DQftde. Vo mention nnly one more mattt-r, and that \& 
liar education. Tlii* nubjcct has sprung inio the grcate*t 
f>Tt>m)nL*nc« durinj; the la«t half century, and it wculd Lavo 
bten well for both Church and country if more systemaiir efforts 
could have been mnde by the Church at an earlier period. 
Murh vras donr under the inspiring influence of the Nftlionnl 
Society ; rery much more would have been done if the Church a 
SviMxl had been in existence to secure general aciiun- For 
peacttealty each p&rish vru a unit doin|f what it eonhl for the 
|iwple within its own borders; in many cases those iinmrdiat4*)y 
LDtcrested at the co«t of considerable sacrifice of time and money 
hio^ all that was needed; in others doiDj; nothinj^ at all. 
Thtre wns lucking a constraining voice of authority to make 
inea feel that the whole Church was interested in what was 
^inzdonc in <:Ach indiTidunl parish, and so urging and hrlping 
^ Clergy everywhere C^ do what was required to give a |*oud 
■scalar, and a d^finito religions, education to ail ihr children 
•iio were wtllinir to receive it 

If further argument or illustration was needed 1o prove the 
pninnif requirement for united action on the part of the (Church 
■1 SrnodSf truited, res])ected, and looked up to by her children, 
ittr<ioJJ be found in the manifold attacks by which her iustitu* 
^aiand inheriiancc have been, and are bo]n(^,assai1ad. IIerfo«a 
^Oo^ixft that in onion is strength^ and co the vartnus bcKltrit of 
-VoDoonfbrmists have handed themselves toj;ether in Unions and 
^ttodations to an extent previously unknown, CnfcttrreU by 
Estate, and by apjieals to precedents, and the fears of lawyers 
^ sutcsmcn, their central institutions have been adapted 
Hm time to time to meet the emeri^cnctei of the day^ and to 



The Uittmy and Reform of Ccnvoetaion, 

judg^from the printed debates, thoy Appear to bare been nearly 
a> mnch occ^upied with i!oAsideratioii of attacks upon the 
Chiiirh'* pnTilrgr*, prrrognlivrf, and posincftinni, n> wi!h 
doYisini; 0]4fjtnfl for atrrn^tLriiinf; tbirtr own oT^jniizattoas ; and 
whiUl ibr^ir fnilurc torr^ogniRO thr corporntf^lit'c ot' tbcir aevcfal 
sects, US Cliurchmen retard ibft coriiomU' Vxic of tbe Cburcb, 
exposes them to »cbism« and «pliu amongst thiMn*cIvc*, tbej 
seem to experience no hindrance in uniunf; their forces for the 
injury or subvorsinn »f the Church* It would be ungrateful, 
howcvrr, not m rrcci^jniarr how muctt h?%A been <lone on the pnrt 
of Churcbnif^n, both to defend the great intcrcat* entrusted to 
ihftir care, tn atrifn^h<>n ihe influence of tho Cbntch in the 
rounlry, and to further in every way in thc^ir power the tpirituni 
and temporal welfare of the people of the land. But wc oeliere 
that ibis work eoidd be more effectually perfermed by a more 
nnite<l front tx-in^ shown to her cnrmies, and by the eiTtirts to 

Eromote ihc i^ood of her children, bein^ organized and clirecled 
y the C*hur*^h'a Sj-nodw instcati of >o many of them being 
tfntnifft^d tr> the action of indi^ pendent ftoeieti«s. And as 
Church ('-on^retien and Diocesan Conference* hare brought 
together men of different schools of thought, and done much to 
promote kindly feeling and friendly to-o|>rt:ilion, so gradually, 
but certainly, the Chinch's Convocation will obuiin the respect 
it chiiiits wLll'ii men nri- <^nviui:ed ihut ii fairly rr|>ri_'»-EiCs the 
whole Church- VVc do thcrcforr •inocfcly tpgrct tbnt ihc fear* 
of politietant should conjure up appreben«ions of potsible 
dangers, and, as a conicquence-, that technical objections should 
be raisedf and prc-ssed by able men lillin); important posilionSt 
which threziren to diday, if not nltogi^ther lo binder the change* 
in the conslitution of the fScuthern Convocation which are 
needed to f;i>v ibe Evquired aitthurtty If* the ci>nt!u3ions at 
which it may arrive. 

In spenkinfras w* h:Lve done of the hindrances to tin? develop- 
ment of the Church's Synods we must not be supposed to be 
reflecting upon, or objecting to, the Church's reUtimi* to the 
State. Such is frtr from our mtrnlion. We l>rIieTe that much 
good results from thasc relations ; wbat weobject (o is the unfair 
exerctM; hy the Stftle of the |>owcr which it can crxctt over the 
Charcb. If the Church were to use her influence to cripplv the 
power of the State, or tn hinder thr de»'*-lopmenl of anything 
which might trnd to its good, or further the tero pond well-being 
of its subjects, she would be justly blamed. Why should not 
the same judgment be mrtcd out to the Slate, when from any 
cauEi? it refuses to recognise its responsibility of furthering, or 
at all erents, of not bindciing the Church from maJcing anch 

improvemen ts 

n^e HUtcTij and Rt^orot cf OmwdoMiw. 


improvomeau in ber svstcni as maj tend to tbo locreosc of bor 

iailuroce, wvi lUc ptooiuimi uf tlnm.' ^uod u(>ji'vt» for which she 

^_eKist« ? W'c wish to sec the ChuTch slrcngtljcnccl^ but then it i> 

^Hpon existing Ltneft, aatl not by ii»iL>tuming an ladept^ndenci! 

^Bot ncrordril to hvr by Iai^\ 

^^ At the pTCAcnE time ii U only too obnouB thnt aome It^gisU* 

ti<wi about Cburtrh iiiaUc*r» is urgt^ntly ni-^^led. We refer 

specially to ihr Choixit Courts, ivhicb ccrtainEj' ttand in a very 

aoouuiluus poatliun. Aft our rcadt-rs are nu doitbt nirttve, the 

Church Courts wrrrr placed upon their present footing by ri>cciic 

le^isUtion, id which ihc Cbui^hs Synuds bad no pnrt These 

Courts hitvr CO decide upon nil disputrd rjutritinns of doctrine 

amd discipline, and it is an old ada^^ that with wbom i^Xs the 

interpretation of a kw, with him jiractically reitts the making 

of the Inw ; sDcl so it must be, unlets there be n IrgiaJnture in tUc 

rear whkh is able to determine what shall be thu rule for the 

HilBtaiV, nnd so to s«t mnttcrji right, except in the imtnediato cA90 

^nhich lias been adjudicale^l upon. This Is certoiuly the case id 

Httinpond ntftttcn. If the Courts of Law enforce some obsolete 

^Btstute in a way contrary to the feeling of ibe day, Farliatneni 

^MUpS in and rcpeaU the statute, anii so brings the Ian' into 

H'OovformiEy with what is now recognized lo be just. Tbc rule 

lioei not apply to the Eatobliahed Church of Scotland, as there 

t^ Courts of X-aw refuse to invostignte the merits of the CAitf 

vben an ap]wal ndatin^ to doctrine or discipline Is brought 

before them, on the ground that tbey have nothing to dn with 

il All that they will consider is whether the Church Coarts 

btvc duly obierred the required formalities of the law. With 

KiKntin^ bodies in En^laod the cas<T is difTcrc-nt, The- appi-aU 

■tcpectin^ them turn upon the C4>nstnicttDn of title deeds, which 

Stt forth th<* jioctrlnes to b? |iw»iehed and the discipline to lie 

f'Wrrved in the patttcular chapel; there is no reft-rence^ in thein 

^ the doctrine* or discipline of a corporate boJy, If tlic 

!^iiO(U of the Church of KtiKhnd had the power of ao far 
^■^leving the decisions of tbc Courts of Law, tljat f<jr the future 
^Wir resolutions should br? held to detlaic ivhut ia the doctrine 
W the rtde of diielplino of the Church f>f Holland, it would 
%ciHnpnralively «|>r-Akinj7, a mcitter of smull importance whac 
^e Courts decide^I. as their decisions woald only aiFtct the par- 
'^ctikr coses under review, and could not be cited as eipresslng 
&tUy the mind of the Church on the subject, A particular 
*kfcouant might be aciqmiicd or condemned unjustly, but if the 
Uorch bad die rci:o){nixL-d power of rcrrtewln^ the decivlun in 
W Synods, so thnt for the future her jiidginent, and not that 
<tflhe Courts, should be held to represent the dDCtrine of the 


The NUtory and Jt^/arm oj C<mtQC4iiim. 

ChUTcb, there woalO be compamtircljr Utile difficulty in settling 
tb« question. But «s matien now st^iid, tliU cannot be done* 
Law Court* pronounce d^isiona nf^Trmini^ that such and such 
tfl the docmno or ritual i>f \\vi Churuh, aiiiI though such 
UecIaiunB iniglit \>^ in the rcrjr tcotb of the Church** I'vrmu' 
Urict OS unOcTfitood bj tUc-olojftan«r tht^y would become tha L&vr 
of the Und, and so practicallj- the law of the Cburchr and bjr 
then every eauae affecting the same questioni would be judged 
by ihe Courts. Wo are not now (nijing ihnl *uch hare been tbe 
di^cisi(>n» given ; wc arc only endeavouring to show how matters 
stand* It iR »bvious thai whea our Lurd fouiitlcil the Church) 
He \ch tlie direction of iu afTiLira, the <lclermtnin^ of the deo- 
triiKta it wa« t» tejkrh, and thir inKfrummtaHtii?* it waa to empToy, 
to tho«e who were to rule in it* assemblies. The consequence 
of t)ii« having been in a measure set uide amongst us is that 
matters have arrivc^i at somi^thing very like a dead-lock ; 
clergymen arc accused, ri;^htly or wrongly {with that wc arc Dot 
Goncerncil), uL' tcMchiiig un«t>unil dijctriiti^, or prnctiting unlawful 
ritual, nnd thoy r4>fa»o to appo^Lr or defvnd theniBclvcs in the 
Courts, on thi- ground that it wotild be dishonouring th^ ftn>at 
Head of the Church to recognize that such questions could be 
dccidcil in temporal Courts, which liave reccfii-ctl no authority 
from the Church to adjudicate on such matters. And oa ihe 
other side, it is tolerably certain that, as the diUlculty is now 
felt on the side of nrnny of tbe Ctcrgri it will be, n*y, ic has 
been, felt ob the sido of some of the l^isbops, and from a like 
conviction they have refused to prosecute ojtenders against th« 
Church's doctrine or discipline* It is obvious that fur such 
a state of things to continue might be disattrous, as it might 
encourage law-brcakeTs to set aside »1I autLority, whilst those 
to whom the enforcement of cbe law is entrusted might feel 
unable to ciofjloy the only iiutrujn<*nt by which wrong-doers 
could be restrained from ihclr evil practices. 

The question has brt^n still Eurther complicated by the 
Report of the Committee on Eccleitiaitical Courts. That 
Report tends touarils suttaining the objections of those who 
reject the au(hority of existing Courts, though it fails to make 
proposals uf wbieh tliey approve, Ttiis would be a matter of 
smnll moment if the Church » Synods were penen»lly reoogoized 
AS having tlie power to s]>eak in the name o{ the Church, For 
their assent given to proposals for the re-organ ixati on of the 
Kcdesias[tcal Courts would give them authority, which it 
is now affirmed they do not poisets. V^<^ arc satisfied from 
the tone and temper uniformly exhibited by the Convocations^ 
that their members would be must anxious to apprnrc of any 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ propositi oos 

7%* History and Rfif<^rm 0/ Contwation. 


Ipropoaitiont retpecttng Ecclesicuticfll Coarti which were not 
-cootTAnAUt to tbo principles ih^y ue plnl^d lo uphold* la 
Uie intereit^ tliet^fore, oi good rirdcr in the Churdi^ ami of tbt* 
prc*crviiti(kn of tlmt uniun ot Cliurch aid StbUswhlcb tlio KiuIjcaI 
orj^nLralioni of tht^ Aaj' mc anxious Id d?$truv, it ts itDpciitant 
lliAt Convn<\«linit KliniiUI lir tilnrpd In a pnniUnn In npnnk in iho 

lume of th« Cburch« and la such ;\ mAQntr tbat those who 
diftltkc what it ardaini mnj not he able to qucttion that it 
ippaks in the nnmc of the Church of EngJand. 
L There it a feeliag abroad tliat Conrocatioa ii jenloui of the 
rinBoeiiCc of the laity in Chuioh matlerc. Considviioi; the i^reAt 
power whieh th« laitj poss(?» ia Dominating to all the chief 
odi<re« in the Cbtirrh, which no nne haa ever teriouily propoacxl 
to dimtnuhf it would he fooliah to attach any weight to tuA a 
■tppociti<m. MoTeoi'er, then* is other evidence that luch is 
fir from beio^ the cam ; all that ia contended for by thote who 
*celc to uphold the Church's position is tbat wliat tht? Church 
Univcrsftl b-M ever rrg*rdcd a* baving been i-atrusti?d hy the 
gre«t Hoad of th« Churcli to thi* Ili«hop< and Clergy aball he 
Ud in the handi to whieh He has committed it, as it would he a 
strrender of duty and responsibility for them to do otherwise. 
The constitution of a Lny House to be in constant cointnunic-n- 
tion with the Hou«c of Convocation, proved the more than 
«Ulingne»s of tbe Clt-rKy J<i culsuU wiih tbeir lay brethren on 
sU that cnnGcrnn tbc intf^rcAM of the Charcli. It has tinfor- 
taoately been the aim of thote who do not I'nioe the principles 
oq which the Church of England rests, and the pojitton that it 
holds in the country, to sow diaftension between the clerical and 
Uy mrcnbcrs of tluit body, aotl endeavour to gain tlieJr mils by 
^oatinuaUy crying out against all that ihey can* by any stretch 
^f langtjagi.% describe vi clerical intolcraniv, ur clerical lovo of 
power. We hope that many who have been misled by ihoir 
tUivmrrantrd au^ions arv beginning to «ee through thrm, that 
^Qnder views now prevail in the Church, and that its members 
^tn re^ly endeavouring to pmmote its welfare hy strengthcninf; 
^he lK>ctIs of union amongst thnnsrlres^ and crarefuMy consider- 
ing how the Church of England can best he strengtbcned to 
^aiit Aaaaulcs from withid aud without. We are satisfied that 
^ho beat anrt traett way of accomplishiag thia 11 hy rifm.iining 
^VHeto thi^ prinHples which the (riinrrhof this land hoc substan<* 
U«lly held frotn the bc^innint^, which were to some extent over- 
*h%dowed by accretions that vtcre swept away at the RcformattOD, 
|nil which need to be boldly assertecl if tbc? Church of England 
V 10 retnin the high pUce she holds in ChristendoDL 

VoL 187.— iVi?. S9$. 


< lfi2 ) 

'Xlir VIL— 1. Hahntr {B<ir<m V&k) — Tlirouf^h iht Bnt%$h 
Empire. 2 vols, London, 1885. 

2, Statutfs of Qmnglmd, Nnc Sortth ffa/w, Victma, Stmtk 
Australia^ Tcsrrtania and New Zealand. 

3. AriicieM and Lfftterit in the * TVincs ' <m Uw Chinef^ Q^e$tien in 
AtistraHOf Mar/ and Junc^ 18Sd, 

IN Uic cbflpUr* wicU which linrctn V^on Huboer concltjdet his- 
entertaining^ and most su^^cstivc work descriptive of m 
tour throuj^b the BrltlsU Empiix^ Ui« author stales some of the 
jprobUnis which be 4CC3 in the m^^i' Juturc for Driti^h statcaaica 
in coancction with our vatt anU >cAtti*r«d HmpiniL One of tb# 
«badows which br perceive* on the bright picture? of the future 
of the AustialasiaQ Coloate* is that projected on the casTss bj 
the Chincte. The last wnr with Cliiiui he rcgardi ai an event 
of incalculable imporlauce, becauae it dcBtroyed the real, ^rcat 
'Chinese Wall,* which from timi! iiiuneinorial hid »eparuteti 
four hundred millioj^a of aouU from the TC«t of omnkind. The 
obj«Ci wa« to opvn CUiaa to Europeans ; but the rvault has beeo 
that the world has been opened to ChincM. The number of 
Eurape:^!) tiavellert in China has not Increased irreatly since 
lt{60, whilv the Chinrv? hftrc ' pourcti hr-nillon^ through Ui« 
opened ^nlcs el their prison/ and li>r twenly-firo j'eaia have 
been Quoding three quaiters of the ^'l»be. *Th«?_^, loti^ are 
culouiita ; but after ih<-ir <»wn faahion. With woniicrfut natural 
gifts, but, as for as intellectual pursuits are concern^, infenof 
to the Cnacasian, active and ezUemety sober ; a born merchant, 
and» at auch» of proverbial honesty, an excellent cultivator, « 
tirat-rate gardener, a firsl-clnsi cook, unsurpns«cd as a handi- 
craftcmAD, the Uhinese competes with tho white man wherevn' 
he meets Uini, and is chvckiu^, iJo[ii|ui:rui^, and oustlng^ hini, 
not indvMj hj forevt but with the wrapens of labour and thrift. 
The secret of his success is easjr to detect Thanks to his^ 
qualities, his physical constitution, and his habits, he ii able 
to do everythinif, within the limits I liave mctkUoneJ^ at half- 
price*' Hnron Von Hiihner then ^:Mice4 at the rrceot '(Con- 
quests* of the Chinese^ in the foreiga trade of China itself, in 
the Straits SctttccncnCs, in Lower Durinnh, throughout the Xlalaj 
Archipelago, the Sandwich Islands, the United States and 
Auitrslin, and decUrrs that the continual adrnncr of the racae 
h-igbtcns him, for a combination of the colonistsof all Euroftean 
nations will scarcely sulFice to nrreftt, with the wr^ipons of 
industry and the cultivation of the soiJ, the vast hordea which 
this enorinujs body, called the Middle Kingdom, never ceasea to 
pour from its populous lojna- Will this displacement of popuU*- 




Chincfi- in Atutralia. 

In BtAp ftf iu own nrrortl ? WiU (hit oonrtunt vtrmln, duo to 
aa ever-iocrexuinic udv i>f nniicmtion, end by drying ip the 
•ourcot of life in the hi^rt cvon of n natioQ tbai counts 
100,0O0r(XH> more souls than all the populoUoEu of Jiurope 
combined ? >Vc cannot saj. No one can penetrate the myBtcries 
of Providence* But wL&L vro cftimot help veeaog &re two 
enonnutK aroT^ovring nTM^nroira- Two riven arc iuain|r frofn 
them ; thit irhito nT«r and ih^ vc^Unw river, ih« one fprtiliKin^ 
the Jjuids thronsh which it runs with th«! seecU of Chrisiinti 
ciriliKStioR, nnd the other thrcattrning to de^roy them. Airetdir 
at tervtrsl poiDt^ these rivers ure taeeiki^, dashing agvintt e«ca 
other And contending for the mwicrjr, VVhnt will be the final 
iiiue ? The tvreotirth cciiluiy will iaaoibo it in Its unnaU- 

Tbi* is the Inngoagv, not of an Anitimlian or Arocrloaa 

polttician catching ftt a p^rtjr advantftge or Anxious to ^iii a 

cheer ; it is the ■ol>tr jud^mnnt of an eininrnt Auttnnn stAtvis- 

ttftD and diplomatist, who had just traTelled through almost 

tfery pan oi the Itritish l^mpire, &nd wLo surveys the prtfblemt 

nhich it presents with n frirmlly nniL svmpAiheUc eye, Problrtns 

<i this nature, unfortariAtcly, do not hide men's conrvn toner, 

ud the auk of dealing with the cvcr-flowm^ cmigrattuo of 

Chinese cannot be relegated to the twentielh century. It is 

here no^' and wiU not be denied. Our Australian kiBSimen, 

btviDg done at much as they beJicred they could within the 

pwera grajited to tiiem b^ tlie Imperial I^^islatuis to restrict 

m*X repress the tide of Chinese i nun juration, now declare 

l&At theso powGjv sTo iDsoiTK^tcnt for iLo |>urpofl«tr and are 

CTybg nloncf for tlw? aid n( thr HritUb Oovcrtimpnl to nnshlu 

liioie Anglo-Saxon commuDities tlourishing under the Sonthem 

Cioa to preserve their ' tvpc of nalinnality/ and to save them 

fmm the mibfortune of bavini; in their midst a lai^ number 

^ t Ttce wliich could not uiix with them socially or poli* 

ticUljr ;* and the quettion of the day is bow, and to what 

■ttEttt, OBEi this :iid lie<t bL> n^ndcrud. 'Vhf poojtU of thia 

ftniatry are in a groat mf^s*s«rp rrlievral from the necessity 

^ oamiainit into the nature and extent of the Aattralian 

"bjsctioni to the present Chinese imrnigmtion ; the only 

<l^tttioa for US, and for the Imperial Government, is whether 

^^Ksflis a genuine and wiilc^tpread feeling in Ajsiralia on the 

^''tject If s<S nml wc think lUorc can be no doubt that tlicro 

>>> tbpD it is our duty to snppliMnont the powers of the Au«trn- 

htO)^ where thne are insuflicieTit lo dfral with the <iucstion, and 

^nd them by every reasonable and proper method. For we 

* UOw ten lbs l}>da^wiT»p(»dfnit of tlio'TiaKs,' dated JLpiil I2| M& 

M 2 ^V€^ 


0^in<M in AmtnUUu 


haM giV^ft to tb« AuitfAliaei Cot<>nt» tb« full^tt meastirfr of 
sclf-ffovcmmrnt t'cntislMit wicli \ duf^rrj^n] fnr Imprrial flutirt 
am) iDl^resCs ; thcr 31*6 not onlv the Wal, tIipv arc ia tact the 
onlj', JL<ipi-» »l" what U iieL^ssarv lor tliemwrlvet in a m;iUcr of 
tbii drscription, nml, once it it mntle ckiu- tbnc tbcir minda ftre 
definitflj' and dcciJirillj made up tUat a particular poHcj ia tli« 
b*tt for thom, it appcftri to u« bcj'ood quration, ftlivayt tavinfr 
xkn mteriTstt of the l!impire at large, tbat h u our duij to Aid 
tbcDk to the utriio%l of our power. Hi>iv ibif aid may be givcD 
in tbe prricnt case wc sbnll ditrust later on. 

In the iadufttnal^ aod, on the vbole, peraceful conUit b^twet^n 
tbe wbitc Ami ^ellciff races, then, ibe Utter appear to be 
winniDj^; and tbe United Scat«ri and Auatralta are acckio^ to 
roSfift tbp hnrrifr* botworn the f^hinpftp nnd thp tval of th<» world 
which weio thrown down by the wars of ]842» 1857, and 1860l 
VVt^ are like a ma^icinn, whofpc incantition* have Tatted rd eril 
spirit, but who does not know boir to lav it a^aio. The 
reaaoDi for this success of the Cbineie are fiot far to seek. In 
the tint pinco, ch<; numbers that cmigtnte, though not to 
enormoua a« Is UAunll5 beliot-^nl, are atill vorv ^e^t cumparcd 
with thr r^mi^mnU rif nil olhrr nntinnalitipft, and Appr-nr ulilt 
giealar by ii^ton of their inveterate habit of colUctintr la 
olutlen in certain centres, rather than tpreadine about over the 
country as buroprnn emigrants aiually da This gTe^riout- 
Dess, iboujch natural enough amongst men of the nine race in 
a St Jitn|:;c land antl amongit a strange propir, baa the eflect of 
malcinfE their nutnben nppoar ^ivntnr than thvy ivallj arc. But 
tlw main eauw- t>f thr imtuttrJnl vlrtoTv of thf^ Chinese is their 
Untinng: nnd marvclloui industry— an industry nhich, irreat at 
all times, ia excited to the highest pitch by a burning desire to 
return hotnc to the fatherlami at the earlieit poisible moment. 
Tbc Chinese abroad daiJ^ feels biinseir an exile and a wan- 
derer. His wife and family ncrt^r accompany him. He i# 
unable tn pf^rfonn thoif* i>4^riorlioa] liutiei nnd c^n^manies at th» 
family shrine and tlte anrrstrnl gmvcs, which are the mooC 
Mcrcil of all duties in his eyes, and he has erer before bim the 
horror of dying and being buried away fri>m his native land- 
In the wonli of Mr. Mctthurst, he ^oea from a country where, 
to his ideas, k-uruiiii; and civilUatiuu reigii^ and where all bis 
dearest iotcrresti nnd prejudice)! are found, to Unds whrrr 
Cfimparjitive ignorance ami barbarity prevail, and where lh# 
extremes of u tropicjd er frozen region fire to be exchanged for 
a tnild and lemperate climate. Add to this, no females leave 
the country, and coniequenily all the tender attachments that 
bind heart to heart must be burst asunder, and perhaps fof 

' -^ CTCT, 

Giif^tK in AusiraUa* 


ciniin^Qt loils, m order that hn may 'return to r^njoy fhc? rr* 
maindcr of liU (Jayi »t hom^. Of bim it may be uiil with 
litcnl trolb that lu^ liaste^ to rite up 47urly, and lat<* fjiket hit 
mt« and cats Uie bread of carefulnrta. He know* no wcckl/ 
rot. Prom ye^T*M end lo jear** end be EoUs putiontly and 
onrctnittingl)^, aarc* for a faw daji nt tht? jirriod of bU nrvr 
jnu". In addition hi" ia tribfr, well b«<havt>l, an<i work* for Us* 
th&o balf the «!«£«■ of hit whiur competiror. Hit aacoesi ii^ 
tbcTvfoTc, no matter for turpriM. 

Bat aJthoufi:b, in tbe view we take of lEie duty of this toonlTjr 

to the Attitraliant, it is iinn«H:<fitftrv to liisciisi tbe proprii^ty or 

wiftclooi of tbc decision at which tbey ap^R-ar 10 Lave arrived in 

iVgmrd to tbe Chinese immi^ntion, it may hi^ well to point out 

tk*t^ **irrn if C'tiinpw* rtntinuftl to *rri>*e in ihe AuMmlAaiAn 

Coloaies at tbe lame rate; as thr-y have done hithrrto, tbere ii ni> 

rcoAoa for panic or for precipitancy, either on the part of tbe 

AuitraJiani or of the Home Cioremment. According to the 

report of Mr. Gilliet, tlie Prime MiniUcr of Yicioria, to the 

fiorcrnor^f ibc total uuiiilnrr of ChinL-s« that luvlvcrd Jn Victoria 

in l\io tw«itY-fivp year* from 18111 to 188G wn* only 15,000, or 

an arerage nf about (U)0 a year, nod of those » large numbi^r who 

hare urctimulated aufitcient w(;alth htare every year. Moreover 

there arc tome considerations, connected vnlh tbe population 

of China and it* distribution, which are not nsually taken into 

n^'Counl by thote who frnr thnt the worh) 1« witnmiog a new 

nnd >>v«Twh«imiii^ Moit^oli.ifi iiiru«totj. The j>opulAtion of the 

ChincM Kmpire n popularly auppoifd to he >o d«a<i- thai 

immigration on an enormum scule is shsolutely necessary for 

ttuhiistenoe. In certain parts of the country the detuity it 

iodi^fd very fn^tit, but taking China as a whole, this it far from 

Ijein^ the caie. China propc-r, inclmling the eighteen provinces 

north and south of ihc preal Vangtsic waterway, la* a popu- 

InuoEj in-bich may be iakt^n at about 300,000,000, The nio*t 

rvceat olliiciat statistics givo thft nomhor nt 3 ViO.OlH 1,0004 ^^* 

Weill Williams devotes a chapter of his well-known work } to 

%B elaborate eiamination of various censuses ami estimates of 

t]ie population of China^ and arrives at the conclusion, that the 

Census of 1**12, which give* the numbt-r at 3ti2,<NX>,0(X), is a 

Uiktably accaratc one, and that^ owing itt wars, rebellions, and 

* Xi>iani«l, •Otdna: Tti SiMtt aeja Fro^peela,' p. :24. QunUi In VTtUiaiiu'M 
i Xba*T»ca,'Jvuu:£,]&S&. 

{TtiVM vin bvfbuiul MimiDarin*) in thi> ' Timus'orOotobvr fi, ISdT- 
*TU Hiddls Kiogdom/ vol. I olap. & 


CAintH in AuUralia* 

fRmiiiftt, tliPT* nrp 25,000,000 U%n now* vhif^i ^tv^ ft popnlfttion 
of about :S40MK),<.KX». Sir Richard Trmplc-. in nn infceoioiu 
iavcttj^:ilt4>ri of Claiiev* nUiUlki hy ihc lijstil of the svffrages 
of Ihc Indian Ccnsut, thoivf, that iht: former ar« iw>t ^xtravaf^mat 
or incredible; for app1)-in|^ tbo various Indian urcra^^ to 
CliEna, he obtains a population of 28£,000«000.* Now the 
ftr«<a of Cliii)» Prop«r i» given at about 1^300,000 •qnara miltw* 
whioh^ wen witti tbf? pi>]>uUtion ^ivon by ih« Ceiuut of li^lS, 
would be :^6$ persons to tbr- squiLre mile. Tbe avenec for 
Great BriUin bv the liiU Censuu wa» *2b^J : for Italy, 24S ; for 
G^rtnany and Jnpan, 1213; and tor Befn^«l> 410 to the «]Qare 
mile. But in the pine ea»iern provui€C« of Cbina, wlucb 
includo two-&ftb» of tbc whole area, and the roost fi^riilo land 
in tbe Empirp, th^ average it 458 per*on* to thi* iquirr inil«, 
whiter in tbr? rDtnainintr tbrrr^-fiftbft it \t only 154.t Henor, 
Iroin a bare comparison of the population fltatJltic3^ it would 
app^^AT that China Proper is not the abnormally overcrnwded 
country popularly iupp»»cd. It i« not «o thickly populated aa 
this country ; tbc average dcniiiy la very Itttio more (ban tbat 
of llAlyi and ni>t much more than half that of Benpxi. But 
when vif romp, with Dr, H'tTliikm^'s aid, lo examine xht^ Chinrne 
system of cultivation and the food supply, it will become atill 
more apparent tbnt China Proper is ample for its population. 
Without burdening this article with the various staiistica on 
which bis calculation* are based, we may say that he uatimatcs 
ibe area of eulltvaUrd laud to CUina »t C50fOC*0,000 of acrca, or 
an average of I J acres to every inhabitant; in Franca^ tha 
average is t ^. 

In European couatriei, it i« truet manufactures aflbrd to 
large numbers of the population a livelihood which it to a 
gre«t extent denied to the Chineie; but* on the other hand* 
the meibods of culttvatioo and the daily food of tbc latter giro 
thciit advantages which du tiuL cxj3t >n \Vratera dTninirtc^, In 
the £r>t placer, there suv oo cnltivatod pnsturr^i or rn^a^lows in 
Cliina I almoat the whole of the enUivaled soil 'at cmnloyed in 
miiing food for man. 'There ia not* so far aa is known, & 
single acre of land sown with graas^eed, and tJierefone almost 
no human labour is drrotcd to ratling food for animals, whicb 
will not ids«> S4TVC in sustain man/ In many provinces animala 
are rare, f^odt bfing tmoiportcd by boats and men. Such 
animal food ns is ua^fl, ntjiinly fish, is obtaini>d at the expenao 
of the least possible amount of cultivated soil, while the apaco 
occupied lor n>ads and pleasure jrrounds is insignificant, The 

* - Journal ot tlio Sistutical ^kdotj/ wil xItIU. p. L 
t -TbeUidiJluiUiiGdom, voiL^2:3. 


^SUmviT in Auftralia^ 


unoant n( land actually ai]tivsl«d for th« fooA of man in CJuns 
is pnormoatly ^re4l«T in propunion thaii that <if any Western 
couatrr^ and mnrrovrr, more ihJin ihiro-foarchs of ihi* area, 
ODdcT % f^niftl aod equable olimihte, provider two cnim :timua)lr, 
Aud tlic Loru rc^nns of the o<>rtb<wr-at, ttircCp Lilllc or no 
land Uv« fnllow, for ooastant manuring and turniD^ of tho boU 
<ibirtat«« thif nccwtiij far rcponn. In thin vray thr* avnilAhld atva 
for food production, and tbcr am o ant of food pFfMlcicv^t from a 
^iven area are very grrntly incTea«t?d by Cliinpsr agrirullnral 
nctliods. Agpkin, wr in VVcsCcrn countries hare nr> conception 
of ihe extent to whtcU fiah ia uti|];£ed bv the Ctiint^se. 'The 
codUta^ rivera, cvtnariea, and lake* Arc covered witb Aabing-btvnU ; 
ibe apawn of fiih ia oulti^ut^d and T««rod, even liel<lc ^xts o(ten 
conv<!Tt(H] into pool* in ibr winter srauon and stocked with fiah, 
.and the tanka c!uf> for trri^tioD usually contain fiah/ After an 
jnretti^ticm ocxiipying tnanv pa^a^ Hr. \Vcdi« VVilltama 
anivea at the conduaion> that it ia clear China *ia at>UQdiintJy 
«ble tu supfiort iht* p>pulatiini aacribed to it, even vriUi all the 
-drawbacka known to exiaC ajid that, taking tbe bigheat eatimatc 
to be true, and eonatderinf^ the mode of living-, the average 
population on a iqoare mile in China ia leu than in soTcral 
tlunipeaiD countriw/* 

We have )nthcTto apoken only of China Proper, but this 
forma onl^ a third of the area of the Chint^ae Empire. To the 
■north ami wctX lie the vaat regii>ns of Maiicharia, Muugolla, 
Thibet* and l^aCero TarkeatAn* stretching; from the mouth of 
the Amoar to thr hortlpTfi of Af;|;hanitlan nnd neaHy to the 
Oxus. These eoiitaln double the auperficial area of the eighteen 
provineea, and altliough considerable districta^ especially in 
Niongolia, are unfit for the hahitaUon of inan» the greater part 
of thia enormoaa area ii qtiite auited for colonizatioQ and culti- 
vatii^n. In lbca>R the Chinese population liaa ample room for 
oxpanaion. At present Man<;huria absorba largo numbora of 
i^itiijirrnnrii fmra the lhi<*k!y pnpulatnl northern provinces, but 
DO real emisT^tion has evt^r taken place between the crowded 
diatrieta along the Vin^taxe and the t't^ntnil Plain and Chinese 
Turkestan. The distancca are so great, and the means of coin- 
nunicaiion so defective, that emigration no a larg« acale mute 
be the work of iiute and circumstAiicca, Enough haa bern saidi 
bawevcTt to show that China Proper is capable of producing 
fond for lis population* an'l that the Chinese Empire has aUuil'- 
^nt area for the distribution ot^ that population. It offers ita 
titbabitania ample tcopo for cxpatuion. Emigration, thea, ia 

• 'Tbs Middle Kingdom; voL !> p. ST7. 


not a necettity for Clunn, in thr u^ute ibat it wiu n necc«iitj tf 
one time for Ireland, or that it )■ Donr for Lovfu, and the CbiDesr 
U not Ut<I, at otbrr peoples Are, by a natural (li»po«iti»n to 
W&ntler abroad. Hi* own coumr^ affoTtlii bint Ample dflil fi>« 
devclopmcat and ca^panaion tJicr his own mAoncr and with i 
violence to bi« bahita nnd tradition*, Th^ worM, a« j©t, hi 
nothing to fear fn^in a serious Mongolian invasioa. 

Tbe view which we have cndcnvourcd to slate here at Mmr 
length is that of one of the most influential Chinesie statesmen, 
one of the vt^ry few who potse&se:s an adequate acqiiaintatice 
with foreif;n uutton». In » v<rrjr ivuiailutblc Hiiicle publi*l>eJ 
b^ the Marquis TsC^ng, late Chini>flc MinUu-r to Eaglanil and 
Russia, shonlj before his depariuro iVom Europe, he referred 
to tbia subject with undiplomatic clearness.* After stating 
that Chinii ba« none of the Un4l-hunger of some other nations, 
he observe* that, 'contrary to what is generally beUeved ta 
Kurope, she it under no necessity of finding in oihrr lands an 
uiltlct fur n surplus pupulstion/ It is tnj« that conAtd<-rab]« 
numboTS of Cbine^c hav« cmlfircited to Cuha, P«ru, and the 
United States, and the British Colonies; but ihii the Manjnii 
TtenfE nttribulea to the ]K>verty and ruin in which large areas of 
the rounti)- wen: plunged by thv Tnipinf^ and MahommcdaJi 
rebellions, and not to any ditliculty in hading the means of 
lubsUtrnc^ in ordianiy cimdiiions. ' In her wldr domains there 
is room and to apitrc Sot all her Eccniin}^ popuJAliop, Whnt 
China wants is not emigration, but a proper oTganlaeation for 
the equable distribution of population. In China Pro^r— 
particularly in thoie placi^s whicli were the seats of the Tatpiog 
rebellion — much hnil has gone out of cultivatioo, whilst ia 
Manchuria, IMon^olia, and Chinese TurkeMan, there are ImmeasD 
tracts of country which have ncvrr frit the ti^uch of the buiband- 
ixkSJl.' Thus tho ccincluMon to which an impartial enquirer ta 
led hf eonsideralioo of the ponulation, area, and mvth^s of 
coUiration in China* is precisely that of this eminent Chinese 
statesmant and is that emigration is not a necessity to tliat 
country, that she has ' room ami to spare for all her teeming 
population/ But the MaTquis Tseng goes farther than this; 
he tells us it is the desire ufthe Chinese Gurernnirni thai their 
p«rople thould stay at home, and this not only far econotnicnl, 
but for military rrasnns. It is )ndi«|wn«able that the tmmiknte 
outlyinf? tcrritones of Manchuria, Mongolia and Eiutern Turke- 
stan should be cok>ni;(ed. ' And, recognj/ing thJi^ the lmpf*rial 
Government have of late been encouraging a centrifugal move* 

Tliv ' Auntie Quut«i^ n^vivw/ tol m. p. 1, 


Chiwtg m Ausir^i^ 




mcnt of the poputntion in certain thickly inh^bitM porUooi of 
the Empire;* but bcaides the occupntioa of wutc Umls, thcrr 
nfc oilier agencies f) aibMirb An overElow of population which 
m\j rxitt in cvriitiii prorjncefl, Anotlier And mun^ |)«riTi»nent 
one wiJl soon arise in ihe demuiid for labaur in rnct^^irs, siinct, 
mrul rAilwAVs; hitherto tliccc bAvccontriboicd noihanj^to thi? sup* 
port of tht- country, and li\h^y arc di'vcrlopcd to 4>nlj- a tithe of tho 
eztc-fltto which ihcy v\\^X in Englftnd and Belgium, the nmnber 
of mouths thtv would feed Yvi>u]d he eimrmoui. * These con- 
sidrratinni vrill rxpLiin the iiitlifTt^n-nce wilb which the Ctiinese 
GoremiDent hove received the advances which at different 
times, iind bjr varioui Power*, hftve 1>ccn mocte to induce China 
to fsho Ki\ ACtivA ]>jirl in promoting immigration and ongagc- 
mnits for the tupnly of hhour/ But even had thi^so ri^Acona not 
exiaied, »ay» the Afarquis Tbod^, Ciiina would have been chirj 
oTencoun^ing Ler suhjecta to go toroiintricft ^ whcrr legislation 
accmf onlv to be tnnde a tcourgi* for their especial benefit, and 
where jualice and inlemaiional comitj exist for everjhodj, 
bond or free, except the raco of flan/ 

In mother part of t1i«f aame article the Ambassador mrcrted to 
thts *ohj*M*tj ti> vhirh, evi^irntly, h** ftltaeSr*] a good dpal of im- 
portancet and in skctchiaif out the k<-'"<^^I lines of the foreign 
poHcj' of China in the immediate futurr, he «aid thnt the out- 
rageous treatment of Chinese in some foreign counims ' has been 
as disgraceful to the GoTemmenis in whose jurisdiction it was 
per|ictratcd as to ttn; GoTcrutnent whow: indifTerencc to the suf* 
HTiogs of ilSEubjcctft tYcidinf ahro&d tovitcd it,* 13nt, be observes, 
a CommiMion hA» l>een Appoinfe*! bj the Chineae C«ov<»rnirrni to 
visit and report on the r<4idi(toa of C^'hinese suUjecis in foreiicn 
couniricsf and be hopes this manifestation of iuterest on the 
pan of their rulers maj ameliorate the treatment of Chinese 
abToad- The it'sults of this Commission we shall lec presently ; 
meanwhile, the atuteinetits wbicb buvr l)cr» cither prlntrd in 
full or Abitmctod here cntikbluh two facts, which ore vital ta 
the discussion uf the rjuestion of Chiue^e emigration to Australia 
or any other pari of the world : the first is, that emi^Tation is 
not uecessary loCtiina; the second, that the Chinese GeverD* 
meni wtJI not onlj- not encourage their people to go abroad, tml 
prefer rrrj' murh that ihey shotdd rein;«in at homeland distribute 
themselves more e4|uallj' over tbr Chinese blinpirc. The Atates- 
marii who Ijiid dnivn thrar prnpositionn, is at the preuTit momrnt 
a member, undoubtedly one uf i he must powerful members, of 
th« Foreign Board at i'ekin, through which nil the foreign 
buaiDesaof the Empire is conducted. Probably this statement 
of the riewt of the Chinese Government will account for what 


Chine*f in AtittralUL 

to mnny wiu hitlicriD nnacrounuble, viir. the tre«tM8 for re- 
stricting and prahibitiDjr CLinpsc immigration procuretl hy thn 
Uniled States in i^^\ and ngaiD during the present rear. 
Tin^^sc were ^Tanied simplj for tLc asking, jtpparratly wtUiuvt 
moncj and without priiM.% save & sdiaII auid ii> coinponsftlKtn to 
thp faminps of ihp ChiniMP kil]f>d nnd to tUt^. injured, in TvrffSt 
iLntUCIiini^ie rioEs in the United St&tet. But, although Chins 
<Ia«fl not want her pcopir to ^o abmad, it would be a mistake to 
think lUul ale Is wbolij indilferenl to their file vrhm thcj are 
there. There baft indei^d tiitht^rto be^u no weU-coniidered, 
*iiAtAtned, und a_)'ifti:[UHtic, jiruiU-ction c:tlcndcd to tbem ; bat 
wbencrtr ibcir wron^ bavc been brtmght dirir^^tlj* and clearly 
to the notice of the Government, m^asurps bnTc alwa^ been 
taken for their relief. Tbia waa tbe case in Cuba and Pen, 
and now a Commission lb enf^^ed in invrtti^tin^ tbeir con* 
dition iu Uiuniah »iul the Malay Archipelago. VVithia tbe last 
yeai or two tbc tubjrct baji cngngrd tnnrr; attention In Cbina 
thttd It has rvcr duo« btrfure ^ public opititt>ii of a ei^nAiii kind, 
cTftpecially in the Southern provincca from whence most oC the 
emigrant* go, is being excited : and, even if tbej were inclined 
to be indlfTcrent to their wrongs, the Cbinetc (iovemment oMild 
oot now venture lo leave tbem unredretied> 

Having e«UblUhed thesn two imjiortaot pointa ; first, 
that there is no probability or reason for an overwhelming 
Chinese cml^iation, and that the Chinese Covernmcot arc 
ladiiToront, if not hostile, to tho emigrvtioa ef tb«ir psopk, 
we may proceed to examine ilie subject as it specially cnncenis 
our Aufitrnlinn Colonics. The climate of all thcst- Colonie« is 
suitsble to the Cbinesef while ih:\t of Northcin QufM^Dstand and 
tbe IVoithein Territory tti ^outh Ajstralia is sjiei:tally suited 
to cinigtanis from Sonihcm China, Uut in truth the avan^ 
Chiikcie is ftt home in any reasonably temperate climate, ior 
Ma own country aWnr^ almost ev^ry extreme of hfat and cold. 
Early in the preient ocntory the Cbtnese had taken a long 
step townnit Australia, for they had commenced emigrating to 
f^in^apore, ^ml spreading over Java and tbe other islands of 
tbe Malay ArchiprUgo. liut their attention apptrars to bave 
been first drawn to Austmlia, as It was to CaUfurnia, by tbe 
diseovcry of gold. In lti53 a broad stream of Chinese com- 
menood Co ttPt in towards Me1bourn«:* in 1$54- tbere were 
iOOQ in Victoria, and In 18VJ they had intTcnswl lo 42,<XX). 
A polUtai, which was imposed about this time, moderated 
the ioflux, so that in 1663 the number was reduced to 20,000* 

* Beport of the Vnmt* MkniAtrT of VErWtft to the QoTcratir Ea rsi4f ti> a 
loUtf cl tlis Chinaie Jaiuiatcr.— The ' Ttm^^' Juas 2. 


Chtnae in Atutraiia, 


\A tli^ poll-tax was then rcaioveil. In 19^1 khv ot1i«r Oilonieft 
Alarm at a projected iaiporuhtjoit of coolies to Western 
Australia, which was felt to be opt-oiiif: tUv iloori o^t11l^ whole 
.-«ODtineiit; tmrl tW pulUux wtis at once nvimposctl in Viclom 
ad the iwif^bbotiring Colonies, ISot, altbougbt owing to its 
lar circuiiiit«nceK urliting out uf the gold TcTcr oi 19«^1, 
ictoritui rrstrictivo IcginlHtion against CUina is mor^ than 
cIiiEii' yt*An old, in tliP ulhrr ('olonii^i h may Sr «nid to bolonp 
wbolly to the laAt ten years or therieabouf. The nature ami 
Mope of the Anti'ChiDeMT legislation »re but tittle umli^rstocxl m 
this country ; and we propose accordingly to devote a little space 
to tUowiag exjictly what the Colonial laws on the subject ure. 
Tb^^y arc scattcrcu over numi?rous volumrs of O'lniiiil St^ttutcs 
>i*luch nro almoU inicctruiblv here. In Qu^y^nalanJ, the 
prineipnl Art waa pita«Ml in lft77> and i« (tr«rrihiv1 a* infemlnd 
*to regulate the immtcraiion of Chinese, and to make pro- 
i^iaion 4giiin«t tlieir becoming n diarge upon the Colony/ and 
ihxi preamble forlber explains this by setting out, that it is 
expedient 'to obtain security for the payment of any expenses 
t may t>r incurred in respcrt of tucb imiuigrantj, and nt any 
nei or pvoulticMi impoAod upon them,' not, be it obnerveJ, lo 
Mrict or prohibit Chinete immi^Tntion, bnt to proviflr that, 
the immifirantB becotae churj^able to tlic Calony as prisonen, 
aper*, lunatics, &C., there sbmild be « fund to meet such 
Charge paid by or on bebalfof tbe immigrants themselves* A 
law to secure such an fibj«ct as this is clearly qutte within the 
right and power of a IcgisUlure, which has ftUlhority to niakr 
domeatie lavr>, proridnl that it does not, by discHm mating 
againit the subjects of a particulnr friendly Power and ngft!n»t 
ihrai only, lin against intematinnal law or Treaty rights. The 
Act goes on to provide that the word 'Chinese' «hall mean 
*anT Bative of the Chinese Empire or its dependencies not 
bum of Uriii«b parents,* Masti*rs of vevs«ti arriving In porca 
of Qoceruland wiib Chtocso on board mQ>t givo a iuU htt of 
tbcae to the pnncnpal ufKcer of the Ciitloms; the Dumber of 
Chiiie«e pasiengcrs mait not exceed one for every ten registered 
tons of the vessel, snd the master must pay the sum of ICA 
for each p«sH*nger befnrtr the Utter can he permitted ti> land. 
Chinese airiviag otherwiGe than by sea must pay a like sum. 
Chi[ir«; leaving thn Colony within thtre years of the dale of 
ihpir arrival are to reooive this amount back ngtiin, pmvid^rd 
they can thnw that in the m«anHmi> they haw* not, Jn any wny 
■by sickness or crime, become a charge upon the revenue. This 
section, however, was repealed by an Act of I8M (47 Vict, 
No- 14); which aL«o diminished tbe number of Cliinese 


pAS«cn^cn wbiih a ship could cairy to one for every fifty toiu, 
and incrrAscd the poll -I ax from 10/. to 30JL Another Quc«d>- 
Irmd Act, directed mainl} againat Chincie, bat expressed to 
npply u> all AsiAtic or African aliens (31 VicL No. 26), pro- 
vided tUal au altc'Ok uf xhi9 clft» should W rn'.itl^ to be 
HAturalizcd &fl Britub tubjccU, uiUeu Uic/ wren* rrsarrii^d^ vrith 
their wives re»idiDg lo the Colonr, and unlcsa thej^ shall have 
refti<icd there lor three years. Ad Act of 1&7^, regrjl&iinj^ 
claims in gold fields, orders that Asiatic aixI AMrnn aliens 
shall be iooipable of acquiriog miniog^ rights in acw gold 

We next como to New South Wale*, and tW one Act OM 
the tuhjifct of Chineic immigraiiun an the Statute Elouk of this 
Colony (45 Vict. No. U), which was passed od December Gth* 
184^1, is fraoklv described at the outset as iiiteDded *to restrict 
the inliox of Chincsr into New South Wales/ ll provides ihrt 
no veaiel is to carry more than one Chioese for every 100 toos 
burileu, uad th<? |H>11-t>iJL is 10^ Chiucxe who midcd in Ibc 
Colony Hi iho time the Act wus psuod, those wbn hstrv been 
naIurKU:fed as Hriti«h snbjrcts« and olliciftts, are etemptedr as 
also aic the crews of vessels. There is no suggestion, either in 
the preamble to [his Act, or in anv of its clausef, ;hat it is 
necessary to provide agnjnst the Chinese immigrani* becoming 
a charge on the Colonial revenue; nor is there any provisioQ 
that the uut ii ever to be repaid. This was made law in the 
first Queensland Act; but an early opportunity was tsket) of 
repe^alingthis partlctdar section. Victorian Irgtslatton on theaulv 
jcct of the Chinese consists of four or five Acts ; the last is dated 
December 24th, ItSttl, and makes the p<i]l-tax ID/.; tlie limit 
as to passengers ii one for every KX) tons. In South AuatXKlia 
(44 and 4j Vict. No, 213, November l«lh, ISttl) we agftln 
meet with the prcAtoblc, stating that it is necessary ' to obtain 
security for the payment of an^ ezpenti^B thai may bv iocurred 
in rrspect of such iminigmnts.' Here the tax is also IDA. aoil 
the number of piissenj^ers which mav be carried one for every 
ten to:is. An additional provisiun in thi« Act is tliat all 
Chinoe entering the Colony must either bo, or produce a ceniA- 
catc of having been, vai.cioated< The Act does uut apply to the 
vast uorthcru territory of Sooth AuBtralin, where ao white msa 
can wi^rk, Ther^ tUv Chine«e have llberly to settle within a 
distance af a thousand miles from lhesea*coast ; but the arrange 
ment here appears to be unsatisfuctory to the other Colonies, as 
it is believed that all Australia is m dnngcr, if Chinese are 
allowed to land in any part of it. Indeed, the epidemic of anti- 
Chtoetv legislatiun in 1881 was due to ihu fear that dtKCant 



Chin^n in Awttraiic, 


b'eftlmi Anstrftlia was nbouc to import Chincae Inbonr In 
Victom tie xn.x ii ilftu 10/. a be^d, and th^ limit u oac cmigmnt 
foT CTcry 100 t<>n» ; in TaBmanin the provittnnc nre the some, 
wl tbere is !□ addition one rclnlinf^ to compuUory vaccinattoD. 
Th<; New it«alnnf) Act, uhicb was paB»4.-0 at the sninr time 
/■15 Vict. Xo. 47), w^M * re»eTv«ct for Uin lignificatlon of H«r 
nlojesty** pleafturp ' by th« GovCTnor, and it lu^coitlingly not in 
btoe. Th(? poH-tAi ihcro is 10/., &nd not mofYr tb&n one Cbiripw 
paiMng^r can he rnrTiL-d for every ua U>n% of the vesst^ri bunlen. 
oraacfan of ibc ditfrnrnt provi»iont arc puniftbablr by heavy 
poittlties, including forfeiture of ilie tcsscI ; but it i« to be 
obtcrrcil, lliAt all the daiic* and all the puoishtncnCft fait not on 
ch« iotvndiop imtnip[Tan1, but on tbe mnftl^r nnd own^r of tb« 
TCMcl. All that i» r»]uiri!(l of the immifrrant 1% thai hr iihall 
ptLV the poll-tax, or cause it to be paid lor hiin ; there is no 
power in amy of the itaiuteft to send back to Cbtna iinmigrantt 
who tcmlcr tbc cimount "t the poll-tax, even thouj^h their num- 
ber m»y be fir in exceia of lUe Uinti. if a ve»*e] brtn}£», for 
ttMUuiccf to Sydney, two C^ineftc p«ttrngen for every I0() ion« 
ifl place of ooe^ the matter ia liable to h(*nvy line* fnr the number 
SO brought in ^xcri«; but the patien^erit them«clvrs cannot 
lei^Uy be prevented landing if they pny the t«x, Th« law hold« 
the muter wholly to bl.tmc, nod absolves tbe pauen^r. This 
ti obviou«1y equitable aod proper; for the pa»enger has no 
Uu»D» uf knowing ihe law of the place be is ^iiig to rejipocling 
nmmbcT ; he cannot tell wbetber a vowel about to viatt perhapi 
half-^-dox^n Australian portf has more panen^rs than abe 
o«gbt to carry ; he doc« not even know how many pnsAengers 
there are on board* and if ho had knowIr<l^r of any or all iheso 
detaiU, if he knew the law was going to he bruken, he would 
be utterly powerless to prevent it. Hence the duty of obedience 
U tiis, as in all vitnilju ca«ea, Is tbrowii upon tho captain uf 
iW reajel, and ihe immigrant 1an<1« acol-frcw, lavo for the? poll- 
Ut- The bearing nf this pri>viKton of the law on the present 
ftiaie of the Chinese question will b(^ sren prestmtly, when wc 
nme to cxanaine tbe recent Acts of the New South Wales 

Ob tbe whoIe» the AaGtraliAii Colonic* have no reaion to 
VQ^ either for their leg;i«latire Acts relating to Chinese Smmi- 
(TMSts, or for tha conduct of ih^^ir peoptn lowardt thn Cliinf**0. 
•We hu been rnnch \'io!cnl and peniicit>u* nonsi-iise talked <if 
^**«atceTtain Trades' Councils and Congreasca; but the Chinese 
^orefnmcnt have no reason to complain of ads of cruelly or 
violence to their subjects in Aasiraua, similar to those which 
■ook pUoe in Cubs, Peru, and reccDlly to the Pacific States of 



GtineM in AuMtraiia, 

America, Lord Cnmorron wa> pcrfectl}- jasuR^ in olwerviDg^ 
during the coune of the rtcoot debate in the Houae of l.cmU,* 
iliAt, compared with other paru oi tbv wuHc), * the trefttcaent of 
tbc Chinoc m AoUrAlia La* bcc-ii of n mild wid aAt]»r«:ior7 
cliaracter/ and thu U lh<r opiriion of ihe CliiiiP«e ufficiala th^m- 
ftclvea. In Cftnnda, also, the reatricUTc Act (49 Vid. eh. 67j tft 
r>f a niQf t humane character, and indeed the whole of our ColoaU] 
legiiJation, up <o the prejrnt, js free fmrn adjt ntftrks of hutc, 
violence, or injustice, 'X he Acts are sober, huxnsnef gaafded 
in ihcir language uiU pruvixioui. 

It may be sniil t!t»t the picaenl phue of the auhjoct b&«' 
nrUcn directly out of the report of a Cotninmion, srat abroad 
by the Cbiiicae Governmeni last year to uiTe»ti^to the condi- 
tion and treatment of Chinese immif^ranU in variuua Britiih, 
Outcbp and Sp^tniih Colonic*; for it wai jn con»e^deiic« of ihr 
&lateiD€Dt» then made that the Chinese Minister in London la 
Drccmljrr lost addiL-asc-il a ciJiniuunicauim to Lord Snliiburj, 
draining ikttcntion t'> the Stutuio iti force in the Australian 
Colonies inipn«itig a iliftL-ri minuting tax rm Chini^ic subjrvu ; and 
pointing out thai* as this was levied oa Chinese alone, and noCoo 
other foreign inimiffnuita as well, it was not in accord&noe witb 
the Treaty rjghu ol Gitncse or the rulei gi^veming intercoone 
between friendly nations. This documcni, which was in lob- 
st<Lnc:e, if not in form, in thr nature of a piotestf waaaetit out to all 
thu ColoniL-v for thoir rvpliva. About the aaine time camo aeita 
of a gT^At inflni of (^hinfrK? into the northern parts of Anntralia, 
which created much alarm in the other Colonies. Sir Heniy 
Parkes, the Premier of New South Wales, described the attitude 
of that Colony in a mrinoraiidum whioh was telegTRpbed homs 
by Lord CaringtoD, and nhich >va» pubUsliul by Sir. Hcanllcer 
Heatun,! the Member for Canterbury, in tbc ' Timet ' of Muv 17, 
Into the reasons given by Sir titfiivj- Parlces for boldiitg that 
the Cliinese are undesirable colonists amongst what be happily 
calU Mhe Australian aectioD of ibe British people/ we need iwt 
enter here, for, as we have already stud, the Australians are iKfi 
simply the best, they are the only, judges of what is }-ood for 
theiu»elve» in thia uiaiier, whether ttieir reasons may be sound 
or the reverse. Wc hetrtily agree with Lord CarnArron when 
he slaitd in lite (louse of L^trds that, altbough he w>i diapoasd 

• TliA-Timn,' Jom<n. 

t la roditiaaing ihU gmtlffnina's nsipc^ vo <aiiDot rrfiuEn &eia Mt p w si ing osr 
afiniio of tUo s^^^t Kirriot'a whioh he ba» rendctDil U> tlio 3CiupIn^ in in1nr|iMiM 
and m»lAiui]ic to the Brjlinh public tlo vkbIs sad withe* of our khumaacC 
Aiutrstl*. lOMe unonicUl suit niit>ouj(bi ^Mgnivf^ liavo tlcscvicdlf etitt*d fee 
hSn^ Uia highly honoimblcfc^r~-2v«J of <UviuW for Aiutmlik* 


ChinMs in Australia, 





uphold U€»1y rigbti to the utmoat, nothing would evtr 
iducc him to tun tlie mk of iwoplinfl: the AustriLliiia Co]oiuc«' 
iUi Mon^oh, instead ofwith AnglfK^aioiiB, 
8i( llmrj- ParkvB appcali tu iht? IJutnc Guvriticnciiil to citilniii 
for AufclTfttift n troatj similar to th«l whicli iho UrkitrJ SlaU*« 
hftd ju*i ■uc<ve4inl in obtainjiif^ (mm ('iiin;i. Find rnni^ludrt ns 
folloirs ; — ' The tnattcr u too grave and nrg^ni to aclroit of lf>nf 
d«Uv. Huwevcr desirable ii m^y be tu avoid irritntion And 
cooflict of interest! which may anie from local legislatioa of % 
dnutic cbaraciert if protection ninnot be afforded as novr ujuufht, 
tbe Atutralian J'ailioments moat act frotn the force it( public 
opinion in deviaiag meuurea to d«r«nd tho Colonic* ffom 
coaseqneaces which ther cannot relate in their cfTorU to nvRrt.' 
^Thia ciociunent, in which we cannot doubt that Aostralian 
fveling wu adequat^^ty repre^ntedt was penned some tiino ia 
Apcilf and Irom it tl:^} lm|K'nAl Cjorrminrnt were justilied in 
betiering that aaf!i(icnt time would be ^ivcn for ojH.-oiiiv; ind 
caLrrying on cc^i>cialiLjns witb China. SucU nc^citttion* wi^uld 
□ectHashritjr take time; treikti«« b«twe»n two great Power* ten 
thousand miles apart, on sLbjects of this nature* cannot ba- 
broujchl to a condusion in a few days, or even a few weeks. 
In the first plate it would be necessary to obtain from all the^ 
Anatralian Colonics a diatlnet and fi^rmal statement of what 
they wuited, of the 'Irreducible luinimuui' with wbkli a]ou«- 
ihoy would be content. It is quite obvious that Her MAJcstyV 
'ioveranwfit could not begin negocistions with Cltina on the 
rvqaeat of a single Colony of the gn>up ; all the others bad to- 
be consulted, for the tieatyt to be of any practical value, muit 
he twa to satisfy the whole of the Australian Colonies. Thua- 
the T«ry first st«p would be a con^re&f to arrange a programma 
in the Imperial Guvrnitteiit ; iben wuuld follow Defcutuation^ 
■ith its iflevitAblo delays, its loferences boekwanls and forwarda 
Wtw«en London aad Fekin and London and Auscralisp so that 
tEaar weeka would nec^starily elapao before a treaty or con* 
*tiition oonld be in sight* All this cunnot but have been well 
kaown to Sir Henry I'arkes ; indeed, he must have known that, 
u t^ outset. Lord Knutsfoid was requested by the \'ictorja& 
^^enuneat to take no steps unlit de«]iatt:lics then on their way 
diotld reach hioi, Y«t, within a f«w v^jehs of bis oomiaumca- 
^wa wo find Sir Hrnry I'arkes introducing into the New South 
"■^Vs Leifislaturc an snti-Chinese Art of the 'drastic dia- 
^Ux,' whirh he thri.-at{<a(^l only in the erent of Monfc delay' 
ttd*tl protection cannot be utTorded as now sought.' He gave 
ibe Brittsh GovemmeDt no opportunity of even hearing the 
^pioion aud views of the other Colonies before plupging reck- 


CJiint$e in AttUralia* 

{e%%\y iDto Icgiftlntmn which would rcnd«r Any negnciAtioo 
impooible At \hv. time, and didicult ever mfter. He in<lDc«d 
the Lower Hoasr In iUfiprnd JK Scanding Onlen, aiul u> pttaa 
in A few hour« n viiflont Bill wUioh was an act ol defiance to 
CKinn, wirh whom hc^ had jx»t ht^n urging xh» Honui Oor*mo 
mem lo nrgociilc, 

We have said lhi« tirt t>i Sir Henry HittctTi rcmlrrrd nrgr>- 
cialion at tbo time impovsiblc. Th^-»e arc the words ot' Lord 
Knutsfon) in the He>ii«> of Lords (the 'Tiroes/ June 9th) :-w 
' ThtTi.- wa» a sudden panlt?, groat alarm, and, as a coase- 
qucncc, scittio hA«ty trivial At ton. That [ nrf^rctf i>cctmte it 
maflfk anjp opening r»f 3 our witli thf^ f'Hinrw Oor^m* 
ment nl ibe time impossible. It certainly would bave been 
uielcss to begin negorijiiinnc then,' and Lord Carnarvoa 
acknowledged that 'the Chinese tioTcmment might complain, 
and |XThnps with some justice, of the precipitancy which haa 
chaiiftCli'itccH] \W HClioT) of ih*^ AvilhorUtoi of N'cw South VVaIca-' 
But Sir Henrj Park** did miicti more than render negooiationa 
' impossible* by the prrripUancy of bi< IcgiBUtion ; he broke 
the lams of his own Colony, he »et at nought the obligntiona of 
tit«lirs and of inteinational eomity, in order that a few score 
thineie mi^ht not enl^r New South Wale*. The * panics' to 
which Lord Knutsford referred, was productfd by tbe appearance 
of a fcvr VfraarU frnm Hongkong in t^ydnc;' liarhour, havjDg on 
board about 400 Cbinoic?, all of whom do not sppear to bavo 
intended landing in New South Walet. Some, indeed, appear 
to have bt^en on their way to the Melbourne I'^hibiiion. Sir 
Henry Parkes by main force prercntcd these men from landing, 
althDUj>h they left China on tbe faiiti of Imperial treaties 
nud of tbe eaistiog laws of New Sttutb Watc^ When ibe 
Upper lionit^ refused to allow his Bill, which he triAdo retro- 
trospeciivr, «o as to miwt tbe ease of the tmroTtunnte Chinese 
tboQ in the harbour, to be rushed through regardless of form 
after tbe manner of the Lower House, the Chinese found titne 
to apply to the Courti and obtain wrila of habeas corpiig. Some 
of thcin were eren nrtunlly reluming lo the Colony Irom a Tisit 
to Ctiina ; othei» held natural ixalioci papers as l^riliah subjfCtaif 
And wero therefore cntillrul by iho lawi of New South Wales 
itself la enter tbe Colony without paying lh«» poll-tax ; others had 
the right to enter on paying tbe tax. But, as we have shown from 
an examination of tbe New South VV'Ale4 Uw, there was n« 
power whatever in tbe Colonial Eiecutire to prevent a aing(e 
Chinese from landing who was ready to pay tbe toXf however 
great tbe number maj have been. The remedy was af^aiasi tht' 
master of the vessel, not against the innocent and helpless 


Ckintsa in Auitrait'd. 


gen. A large Dombef of the UiUx were rcli*a«nl bj 
onlcr €>f the Courts l»ut n coa«idcrabIe number were foroed lo 
reCuro ca China bv tho wajr clicy came. 

Xhij. t1>cn, it the alAtc of a^airi prepared hy Sir 1 1cnry Parkn 
£r>r Lord Salitburv ; tbi> Uwa of S«w Soutb Wale* >ir« broken 
bj ihc New South Wale* Mxeculivr, lU* forms bj- which legisla- 
tion arc hcdgipd About are «vvept away, and an Act of a *<Im»tic 
cbAficter'u carried through P;irltaim^ni, all a^intt Chinese; 
uiii this is thought n farouiable prelude tn opcnin^r n«?eociBtioo* 
with tb4* Cbine»c Guvcitiiiiirnt (tr a it^atv tu prr>hLbit labour- 
cmigmtion to Auatraliu nltogclhcr. The ChiocAc may well say 
that rniktiot with u« are of ni> vaIu'^ ; tve hr^nV or ubftervc* them 
M may «uit oor own ccmrenienoe ; and the other Australian 
Colooie* have only to follow Sir U«nry Parkot'a example in 
order to tolre the problem their own way. There is no need 
f treaties when Ihe pivrties to them will not observe them* 
evr Ji^alsud^ ikiid Ta»>iuiiitt iiIao, wl* bellirre, in ibeii uwii 
VTft^ showed how lUtle common -«?n»c, cxnnmoa jciiticc, and the 
ordinary forms of pTore>(lurp, stand in the way when the 
tntntment of ('hincse is concerned. Fearing, as they said, lliat 
the Chinese, who were in auspvnse in Sydney Harbour, would be 
talteti to another Colony, ihey forthwith declared the porta of 
China * infected/ There was no pretence of inA^tttm in 
Chinese portft, im fuul hills of heulth, iiu ofltcinl rcpi>rt* from 
CoruuU or MiniBCpn, ixa shnduw of ground lor this abuse of 
ibe forma of sanitary tegUlation. Their own laws were put 
aside, their forms penerted, their rules and rejj^iilations set at 
aoughtt ia order that a few score innocentf hunted Chinese 
laboaren might not find a refuge on tbeir shores. And with 
all these iacts, all this injustiiTiT nnd violentT, all this frantic 

Cncculion of » frtv Chinese, as well knonn Jo Prhin ns it is in 
indnn, Lortl SnlishHry \% tn asIc iho f^^hineie Covf*rnm«nt lo 
fo bim the favour of enierinif into negociations for a treaty 
«lu<h will he pleasing to the Australians, and, mnongit others, 
1* the authonttoi reBpomibIc for this trcAtinent of some 
■DMDtectetl and helpless Chinese subjects who did nothing 
anmrfiJ, and whose one sin nas that they belonged lo the 
CluaoM race. We have not concealed our general sympathy 
tithth* Anatralians in their desire to be allowed to work out 
<heir own destiny without let or hindrance, and especially 
without the introdaetion of an alien civilLtatton such as that of 
Cbba; we hope and believe that they will be succestiul in 
ibcir present elTorts to restrict largely the immi^tion of 
Mlineae. We have not hrsilAtcd to express in the clcArevt 
imns oar belief that, while they aro the only judges of what is 
Vol, 1G7.— Ao, S33. » be«i 

CftintM in Autiralia, 

best for themselves in this innlt«r, it u the daty of the lm)wria] 
Govcmntf^nt 1o ud thom with oJI its pan-(?r to n^tilin their 
vrbbei. We (cc\ free tberefore to tav^ thni the actian of thfr 
New South VVaIca G<kVcTnincnt and of that of New Z<:aVan(l, 
in tli'ftling with th«» 4W Clunvte who Arrirc^l in Sjdnr}' 
in ihr Utt dnj's qF April and Mny^VnAA scandalout: It was 
discreditable io their iJiiellifrence, to their senw? of juicicc, and 
to tlK'ir humaDity, Nor hat it eieti the tiierit of succ«s». The 
large mnjoiiij nt the Chinese are now in New South WaIcs, n&d 
thoao whu were mill buck have breii proiiii»cd coin|>eiitatloa. 
Whether this Uc so or not, wc believe we arc correct in 
itatin^, ihnt ooinp^nK^tlinn will l>o demanded, if the returned 
cmiKTtuiiji lire not compenaaurd already . 

The ataUit«t to restrict Chinese immii^ration to tho AustraliaQ 
Colonict to which we have referred at tome length above, amd 
the action of the New South Wales Eiecutlre reeetitljr, are 
whollj ojipuM/d tu the ni:ht» k^^*^" to ChiiieMi hv trruties <U3d 
by ialcrjukUoml Iaw. The Chinue Government do net <:]aira 
that their «ubjecta are in a more faveurahle position towards 
the dometiic law of the Colonics th^n others ; they ask for no 
exceptionally favourable ireatment, ihey do not allege that the 
treaties between Cliiaa and (ireal Kritam pve Lliinese any kij>d 
of advaiLtage in the dominions of the <) ueen^ Em press t what 
ibey do auy is, th^it Cbiiii;»e have thu same ri};Lts, no more, uo 
lei«, than the subjects ^f oth^rr counlriesj and that no coontry at 
peace and in frienddiip with thc^m Ims the right to pass laws to 
the detriment of Chinrsc subjects, which jmnosc heavy liabiU* 
tics on them snd on no other class of the foreign populaiion. 
The right of any indejxftident community tu pass wbal l&ws it 
thinkv de»rable fnt iu own welfare, consistent with treaties, ts 
Ro^ and cannot be denied ; whnt is denied bv tbe Cliinof is 
the tight of the Aiutratinn Colonies to legisUte n|:nin«t Chinese 
lubjeets and against them alone ; to impose a heavy poll-Lax on 
Chinese imml^nts and not on the immigrants frocn other 
foreign countries, to deny to the Chinese the righu that we 
given to the subjects and ritizens of other Powers; or to make 
au/ dilTLTcnce between iht^lv tL<:atmcn; and that aeci^rded ti» 
other foreif-a^r* resorting to Australia. China objects, in &£!« 
to Uie disTrrimlnato tn^stinent of b^r fliihjeets, and proti^sta that it 
ia contrary to intemational riglitsatnd usages, and b inconsistent 
with the ' peace and amity ' existing between the two countriei. 
She does not claim the right to interfere with the Colonies in 
the general treatment of foreign immit^'ants ; that is ft (jucsUoD 
for the Auitraliana to si?tt!e fur tbT-iiiMflvt-aj a^oidiag to iheir 
own conceptions of the reqiUTcmcnia of the case, and in thii 


CAinac in AtutroKtu 



i«iml tFC«tnmt Cliinrsir muftt pftrttcipftto. If it hApp^ni to 
ct tbem more uDf^vouvaUy cli:ia \>ihvr fort-i^ncn, this is An 
tnculr-nl which cannut hir tirrljicil ; they hnvc ni> cau^ (or com- 
Iftinl, » long Aitbcj' arc put on the same tbotio^ \% the aubJ4*ct« 
othtrr foreign natiuiu. In thtf ChincM! virw, tLen, ftlJ ibo 
ftrictivc SutUU^a pnaaixl bjr the AuatrAlian Colonics are viola- 
tions of tlj« Tifflitfl ftwnirpd to tbc Chiii«*c people b^ ttv«iy and 
b^ international lavr. Thcr point out that no European uailon 
would Ten mi e» milea:! it di'^iireil wnr, tu make such laws against thr 
suhjfcti of nnoEher nation. Thus Prince Bisroarck, d<'iiring 
receody to rwirict the cnlrnnce of certain Frenchmen into 
Alaaoe-Lomin<^, whom b« auiprutcH] uf ititngtiJn^ and cauiiog 
ib]« Uum, mado atringvnt pftatport n^^uhuioDs In ord«r to 
p tbffm oat- But h«* difl n^it appiv ihiHo rpguUtiAnft to 
nodunen oatv ; it is true thev wcr<^, in fact, made for French- 
men, and the Oeriuan Cbuncellor had no di^re to impi-<!e the 
frco tTftvrl in the provinces of E-]ngli*hmrn, Austrians, Ilaliitns, 
orSpuiiarda; nevertheless, he rei^uires theie to submit u> ibe 
SUDC regulations. Ilia net ii n large one; it catcbes ibose he 
does not want lU wHl as tbovo hr dors ; and iho reason of this ib, 
that were it otbrrwiw., did tbr rrgnlationii *pp1y to Frrnrhmr^n 
eo ncmin^t and t>i them only, it would b« au act of hostility to 
Fnnce^ SImiJarlj, the Unictil States are comtantlj^ sending 
bftck to Liverpool, And other Kunpean |>ortSt pauper immt^rants 
who bare been taken to Boston, New V ork, or Baltimore. This 
is in purmance of a general law applyiug to oil nationt, and all 
^intmiftranls^ t\o\ to the BntUh or Germans, or Rtistlanf alon^ 
Nrithrr the (lerman nor United Stati-x f vovemments, in fact, 
diiGTiminato ; tbeir lairi and ret^ulationE in the cases we hive 
nteil are of univertal application ; paiticular persons or ciastes, 
QrnstionAlities^majr happen to be hit banlcr by them than ctbcn^ 
Wt this is merely aa incJdeut of all legislaiion^ ot whatovcv 
tWsctcr it may be. 

TSr ohjtfction of the Chinese Govermnenl^ then, bping to ihe 
^iscri mi native rbaradCT of the legislation in the Australian 
Uloaies — discrimination which they regard as a breach of 
itw tntematlonal rights, and unfriendly^ not to «ay hostile 
t»tbem — not to the legislation lUclf, iT it wen^ a|iplied to all 
ftnu^nen, and not to Chinese aluiie, the que^tioa arises, Is 
^ not possible for the Australians to secure nil they want by 
if^islslion whidi would Iw fn*e from flie ('hineso olijeeiions? 
Jn other words, if Australian dralismen can produce a ^>nernl 
cberae for dealing with the emiffration of foreign labourers 
^lUcrally, the effei^t of which will be to keep out Cttincae 
fJiboaren, Ibe Aostnliao object will be secuml, white the 

:f 2 Chimcaa 


Ckmc&t in Austraiic. 

C\jint$e boitility to ibe pretent Acts viU he removed. As we 
have ahcftd^' pointed out, if llic C1iim^«e Govenimiait are not 
oppo&ed lo ibe emigratioo of their subjects, they art at Ic&st 
ciuiii-- indifTrn-nt fvhetlier it goe» on or aot. Whether ihey are 
right or wroDgtiht^j believe thev bare umplcroam for tfaciroiVD 
people witbin ihcir own dominiuna. It is, thcreCore, not s 
TDAtt^r in whirh thpir iotrrrntn nr that nf thrir country, nn tbny 
view thfiD, are in tbo sm^dlest tli-ffree conccined ; it Ua qaestioD 
of naciooal dignity, sfntirnrot, «nd fct-lin^. They an? annoved 
that the aubjectc of China chouki be treated in a toa^nnpr in 
whirli the subjects of no i^tber country Are treated, and it ii this 
fceting tb«t bo* to be AlUjed before the quctlion cad be »Atit-< 
facCvrily dealt witb> R«iiiovl* the diBeriiuioation^ and that object 
» scrrured. Australian bn»tility, AppArrntly, U dirreted not 
a|Cuin»t Chineae id tfencral, but against ibe influx of larjce 
numbers of Chmtric Inhourcn. Itkdeed no nther cla» of the 
population but labourers would emigrato in sucb nurabers. 
Heuce, AS we uiidersta^nd it, there ja no general vhjectiua tu 
Chincscmcrchants, or tnenwithcApitalf icttling in the Coloolea; 
the obj^etij>n it <o the men who, when tWjr arrive^ Lave no means, 
and have practirally rotbing but thrir musclct and their inde- 
alniclible encrpv lo aid them. To all intcnti and purposes tbe^r 
are pixnpers when ihvy land. This is the class which the Anstni' 
linns desire to esclndc becauae of its numbers, and lurcljr it 
ftbuuld bu wilbiij the »kiU of a capubte luitlifuaeularj' druftnnao 
to draw up a Bill which would he suflieient to exclude this class 
allogpther. The number of fortifiers who would be exeludrd hj 
it would be verj' small, while the Chines^' would l>c nine-tenths, 
pp>bahly a still greater proportion, of thoao now emigrating to 

This, we have the best Jtulhoritj- for saying, is % iotn- 
tion of ibe question to which the Chinese Government would 
bsve no objection lo offer; in our view of iniDmatinnal rigbts 
and dutieSt and of the practice of independent natiani, itey 
could have none. If this cannot be done, if Aus:ralian and 
Hritish parliamentary eiperla cannot draw up a achene for a 
statute, which may be Imperial or local, by which Chinesfr 
labouR>ra are excluded from Australasian Colonies without di^ 
erimination a^ainat tbem^ then it appears that recount mast be 
had lo Degi>c]Ati<>n with China, and for this oourao Lord Kaots- 
ford cjprciscd a preference in the Hume of Lords, It is txi be 
observed, huwever, that when his Lordship did so, he waa not 
fully act|uninted with the nature of ihe Cbineae obfectioos W 
the present legislation, nor did he appear to have had prcseut to 
hia mtJid the piMsibility of meeting these by domestic legisUtioa 


Gtintte lit Australh. 


■ fin 

tc tb^ ncrcMitj of hnnng rromirtc \o tliplomatio ncgo- 
ciRtuin«, It i*. ofooan^, ht-vomi quirifion llial^ wbi^re it la de* 
aired to aUcr in any rttpf^t a tituaiion created by treaty and 
resting f>n uraty rights, this can only be done by treaty. The 
SQg^:e«tioD for a ffeneral ft<:h«me of immigration (litcimed above 
wouidf if tarriiHi out, he ^iffcctcd in no degree by our treaty 
rc)Ati<>Da widi CLiiiia, nor would it ttffvcl tUem. Tbr rigbl of 
4iofn^«ti« l^f^Elnlion is not louchnd by tbcan trcntiM. 

Htit IrgiiUtton sufh ns now oiiits, an Aet lui^li ni lliat infro- 
dacdd recently by Sir Henry Parkc« into the LcgiaUture of New 
£otith ^Vales, is opposed to the treatj' and international rightt 
f Cbinese in tbe (Jtieen*i dominions Tber*? oin, we tbinlCt 
no doubt in ilie mind of any unprejudiced pcrHin, that the 
fir»t Aiticle of tbr Treaty of Nniikiti of 1842^ coupled witb \\\e 
•ittb Ankle of the Treaty oi Pitkin of 18fiO, and looked at in 
ibe tight of die rircum&iancL*i of the time, wat intended to give 
Cbinese full ricbta to cmigrati^ to and reude in ihc' Qiieen*t 
4eminii>ni,* The barrier* of Chinese exclusion were broken 
down, and the treaties, whicb gave Ifritiih subjects the rigbl to 
renide aiid inulc inCbina uudrr rrrtnin c(in<Iiti<>ns, gnveChineiM 
tbe right to go Abroad lo UritUh pobKAMons, and iTromit^^d 
them ihe anmr ■r-eutily for their pervnnt nnd proprrly wbile 
rcfiding there thai are given to the subje<cts of other nations. 
But eren were there no treaties, the Chinese could daim (bis 
right of rr»id*^nee and trnJe under tbe ordinary role* of inter- 
national law that govern the intercourse of friendly naiioni; 
^!id i^ thcrpforr, we tinnncit mtrct the difficulty by putting all 
icunigrani foreignera* ChlneHT included, on a level, if it is 
wtotWkty to treat Chine«e exceptionally — as ve bare said 
^ady, we flo not believe it it— vre must obtain the cKtnM^nt of 
(be Chinese Govcrnmenl for that purpose. In other worda, we 
lost negociatc a treatr similar to itiat lately c^oncliided by ihe 
Uoiied State*. There arc many reasons why, if it be at all 
fSMbte, wc should avoid hnYing to make a new treaty vrith 
Cbtaa. The Chinese will scarcely granl ut tuch a treaty for 
Mthing. Wc shall probably have to pay for it, and that in a 
*iy in which tbe Anstraliant can help us but little. It is 
^wible, for example, ihsit ibe Chinese may reouiro as to 
(bkadon, lor a ttmr at lenst, that clause in the Chefoo Con- 
vvmioci which givi?i Hritish subjects tbe right t» navigate tbe 
Upper VaogUc as far as Ctiung-king, thus opening this va»l ami 
ft^paloas province of Sz^-rhuen lo foreign tmdp. At ihis 
aoineot they are hesitating to grant the E\nai pertnil lo a 

* Thtt«nk^( » dbfliiJuO at toma Icngtb jd tic * Tiirir^'f^f .TriiKi IE, iind la 
I aftriad tola Lord CaniuToii's »])««ch la theBoiueof I.onJeou Juoa & 



Cftinevr in Jmtralia, 

slramrr tpeoMly rnnntrnrlml for tin* ptirjiospC of mAkEn^ this 
vovagc, aihI arv making nuuit^roiu exciues wllix a view to 
inducer tbe British not u> insist at pro«cnt oo tliv cxf^tcitc of 
tbis riglit. Or, af^D, they may »cek to get tbe tiikkioi djili- 
oult^ scUlft), in « way which would luit them but wucild b« 
v«r^ ilittUhnLefui Ut Indian »tutr«iiica, in retain lor the treaty ) or 
tbc Burmah frontier Arrange tn«Dt« mar oc<:ur to th^m at 
opvninj^ n Auitahl^ oppontiniiy of golting a quid pro ^tw. 
lioncr, if X treaty c^an be uvoiilcil, it wouM be dv^inble to find 
another method, and this is a very strung rca«on for adopting 
that of a general scheme for dealiog with immi^ratioa which 
would W fret? from the objectii>a« the CTiinew make to tbe 
preveut Colouial Ifgialaiion^ via. that it discriminatca a^tMC 
Chinnso «ubjcct«. 

The new Am«ri<aQ treaty, which wouhl probalilr be a modfl 
lor ourselves if we ne^^iate a treaty on the s^mr :mhject, is of 
sufRcient imporcnnce to d^frerre a few words. It hat not y^ 
bctrQ ntiified, and many Chines of emtntnt position Tegtnl 
it as an ignomtniout arrnngrmoni in tliat it pt-rmits of ihe 
(^v:c|>tio»&l trcAtuKTit of Chijicse, and because it is a trrtiy 
which DO other country in the world but China would be aalr^l 
longn ; whether thi» feeliDj^ is sufGciently strong and KencrU 
in FVkin to prevent ratification i% not known at the moment of 
writing. The firat Article provider ihat for a period of twcK/- 
iive years, dating from ratiricatioo, no Chinese except tbvc^ 
specified in the next Article, shall be allowed to ctxjic; to Ac 
Unitod Stat<*f. The cxcvptiuna contained lo the ^ircy^ad Aflidff 
ari*: — (1) Lahourrr* r4*tiirning fmm China lo tho United Sla»» 
who bare property or debts there amounting to one thoossfid 
diillars, or who hare lawful wives, children, or pamnt* in the* 
United State<t and who before leaving the territory of the latur 
have recetTcd a certificate from the Collecior of Customs of ibcir 
district utaung that they arc inliiled to return under the Xnatft 
piovided tbey rvturn within a ycvr after Ii^tid^. 

(2\ The In^ty i« not lo Affect ibr right* of oflieials, teachcnv 
students, merchants, travellers^ ami no one except labouiM 
All {nbcr Chinese, possessing certificates issued by Consols ^ 
the United hitates at tbe porls from which ihey come, haw ^ 
right of travel accorded to ordinary travellt^rs. We caji leenO 
reason why, if the nritJab OoveiniiKrul ahuulJ dtftide to ciiUf 
upon n<*goeiations for a similar treaty in regard to AustraU« 
Uiev should not get it, unless, indeed, the public opinion cf 
China, such as it is, should mote the Gcremment to ntiM» 
ratification of tbe American Treaty. But, as we have alivdy 
said, the question can be solved by ordinary domestic legislation 


Chinese in Au$trtilfa, 



wttbniitf as wc LoIJ, inviting Uio aUl <»r interrcntion of the 
Ciov^mm*>Tit of China. 

Meanwkilt- there is ooe inoit important point conn4?c1«<l tvitfa 
the mbjrct H^ve wr, as matt<rTS now stand, done our best, or 
done what is wcjl irilliin oar powers ^nd rights, to aid the Au«< 
trdians in restricUafr Chinew immi^ralioa ? We confKlenlj 
&inwrr, thst the Oovrrnriicnt bihvr itol d<»ir m>. ThU iiiiuiif^ia- 
tion i> no JouU Chtao^cr, in Lh« «ei»e that tb« immjgtvnU ftrc 
p«>r>plr of the Chinri^ rac^; but it is not immigrslion (mm 
Cliinete territory to Australia; ii is immiKmt]<m from British 
tcrrilofj" to British territory. The immigrAnis go, not from 
C^ina, but Irom the iSritiib ports of Ilongkop^ aDd Singapore 
to Autndia,to thai thr Briiiih Gorernrorat hari? thrir liands on 
the soarcc of the who^c difficulty. The iinitiij-niotB otv collect^ 
in China hy Britith a^mU, brought tlown t(^ HongltoD^, snd 
then shipped off to Brishane, Sydney, MelboarnCk or elaewhere, 
u tbe case naav be, greatly to the profit of certain local mer< 
chants and ihip'Ovrncrs. The vesieh conrcymg them oinally 
call at ^^ingapore, s^nd here more emi}>r»ms are stipped. Have 
the Briciih 3uthuriui.-> caviab<>ut fur some methrx! uf restricting 
this nrh^lc^ftlc tmn^fer fronr) one pi^rt of the Britiah domii)ion« 
U) aiMitlier part ? They haee only to ttop or impale thr irnilie 
St Hongkong or Singapore in ord^r to aflbrd a mrtiaJ sntift* 
faction, to aay t)ie verv Jewst, to tlie Auitraliani. 'I lie emigrant 
vessels, i^vcn thnw: wfiteb convey eooliet to the United States 
io the heyday of the traffic to San Francisco, all tail from 
tlongkon^. Can nothing be done here, nt ihp hea<l and source 
9f thpt* trailic? The anawer is that^ when this wna tried by a 
(•aremor a few years uft>, local mienat* in the trade irere loo 
ttmof. and Downing street di^dloired an ordinance having 
rtstriction for its object. But now that the stihjert must be 
"le.itcd cffectUJillr *t last, it trould be obviously proilrnt to lee 
atut we can do oiuselves before having recourse to ihe delicate 
sad co«tty iDAchlnrry of diplomacy. Hud a reitrlctirc Ac*, hf^n 
fused in f lungkon|- ten yeais ago — an Act, for ttkaroplo, pro- 
hibiting Tr««rU carrying more than a certain number of Chinese 
bboorers in proportion to tbe tonnafre, such as one to every 
ten, thirty* or a hundred tons, a* the case might be^the anti- 
Chinese agitfition in Australia woold probably have twcn deferred 
fiw many years, ifj indeed, it would ever have brt^kon out, We 
brliere thftl ordinances of thi* kind in Hongkong and the 
Slnits Settlements would even now — ordinaneeft, be it remem- 
bered, which would not touch Imperial treaties, inasmuch as 

they would apply to British %eafiels or vcftftcls sailinj* from and 
to uritish harbours only — go far to satisfy the Aostralians ; for 

Chinese in Australia, 

t)xt (lAn^4>r of tandiD^ ChinPie in n>mot« pArtj df tlkC Coatiiifynt, 
ur, indc^xi, nnywhrrc on British trtriuirv, vrmild be Inntely 
diminished. U the Govcrnincni procc^cd to carry out measorct 
cf this kind, tli<r oppoKiiiun of c<>nsid<?Tabl« toad interestft noit 
be fTxp«ci4*d; hat in any ca«o, hnwrvcT tbc qpcjtion mar be 
■ettteu, the int«r«»t de|>enilent on the vbippui^of Ur^c nmubera 
of Chinitto cooliffs fo Australia matt tunvr. It may be ttM 
that, if Hongkong nnd Sinffitpore are closed to the trade, it will 
merely emigrate ut Cnnton, Swatov, or sAcne other port in 
Southf-rn Cbinjt. But tbia will not hf the case. L«rgc numberv 
of Chinese cannot be colleciett in a Cbinese port tor parpoaet 
of ctDJgrAtion wiih€)ut Attrncting the attention o( the autborjittv, 
who are nercr plcaaed to ncc tbcir people loavinf^. In Hong- 
lEotig the etnigrontg mrt- mllrrtrd fr^m thi> fturmtindinsr mftinlmM) 
in lwo», threes, or perhaps ten* at a time, sr, iUaI their depmrti 
from ChtneiKT ports it not in sufHcicnt numbers to attrnct serl 
Attention. On the mainland there artr innurm^rnble obatacles in 
the way ; In Hongkong there are none ; and therefore we ore 
BQt ia:pr«u<-d wilb the danger ibat to *t<ip ibe trade in Hong* 
kong would b<< to tranafer- it elsewhere. But^ as matters bare 
bppn for nnme \enrii past, wp havp lieen oflrred iKe strange 
spect:ic]e of ooe part of the Briiikb Empire doing all it ouit 
und it would appear much more tbnn it bad a right to tto, to 
keep out Chinese coolies, while anotber partof iheaame Ktnpiro 
was doing all it could to pour them In, the Imperial Govero- 
mcnt iinndin|r by and allowing a Crown Colony to frustrate the 
elforts of a i^tf-governing Colony, 

To rorirludir, w^r have, tve tnisf, msdvr it clear that the danger 
of an ovcrw helming intlux of Cbineve intoAostrdia iacbiineriaJ. 
There is no reason to believe tliat, under tbe moM Carouimble 
Ctrcuaiatanc», the present rate of emigration would be greatly 
exceeded, and if ttiere is a stream away from China, there b 
alao the stream to China of reluming cmjgranCs. Indeed, ooe 
of the ehftTgeii agninat rhe Cbinese i* ibat they are bad eitizeoK 
for they never make tbeir home nbtnad^ but invariably retnm 
to their own countr}\ It h alio clear that emigration is not a 
necessity^ as is generally supposed, for the Chinese Empire ; oa 
the contrary, there U ample roum in China for all her chiJdrcfii 
And, what is rounlly iuii>c>rtaul, the Chinese Governmeut are 
periuaded of this, and if not af^tunlly hostile to ctnigfatioo, 
tbey are at least (]i3Jte indifTerenl to il. Theae faeta shouM 
mitijjale f^reatly the akrm fell, in Auslmlia and elsewlkere, re- 
sperting the so-callnl Mongolian invasion. We have seen alio 
^at what the Cbineftc Govemmem object to is, not the pre»-et- 
tion of Chinese emigrailou to Australia, so much as ibe manner 


CltiMM in Atutrali4t. 


. bcin^ done at prcif nt. THcv objoct to the cxtKt- 

tbereforo contmrj to int<;rDMionRl Uw ftn<I comitj — ft sligh: 

ttod an offence lo China, ia which no Power with a due regard 

for Ita own tVt^miy could acquietcr. If th«^ Auttrnlinn* can 

•olre ihti qu<-«tion by ilomi^in IrgielMion in such n mnnncr a« 

to g^ rid uf the di>iTiuiij]Utjii){ t:Uaiucli?r uf llip urev^iil Jaws^ 

Cbitift will bivc no ohjocti^n to oSrr. If ihia <7Annot be doae, 

thrr« !■ still ihe pouititlily wliicb wo hnrv sag^^tf^ of arresting 

ihe stream of emizranU at it» source*, namely, Hongkong and 

Singaporp, b; local le^^iflation. Last of all, if both (he»e« dn^Iy 

or in cornbinUion, fail^ we muft have recourse to n1^go^tati^n« 

with China for a treaty lo restrict ur prohibit immi^rncion into 

AusC/aiia. The ubjcctii^us tu undeitakiti^ a ilipluiiiulic vulutiun 

of the quMtion nro many. The cliief li that wa may liftV« to 

meet in return d^utands whidi it would be emharrauing to granl 

umI equally embarTRBsinf; lo refiisc Besides this, tlic task of 

opening ne^^iationji now have been rendered exceedingly diSi- 

cdIi — Lord Knutifonl uid tinpos^ible — by the injndicioiu acts 

of the New S»uth VVnlri Oovtrrnment in ibrir treniment iif the 

Oooliea urhonrrived in Sydney ia Mny by the 'Afghan' and otboT 

va9«U frrwn Hnngkoog, as wrll at bribe Wlnutic li^gitlation' 

introdaced thereupon by Sir Henry Partes into the Assembly. 

These things hnvc been trcasored up in the Chinese mind, and 

will be produced for the confusion of c^ur Minister in Pekin 

wben the lime cotn«*. This fmntic baste and precipitancy 

Were not only ridiculously out of proporlina in the alleged 

intpendJag danger, but were deplorable, in that iboy aggravAi« 

uin irmbitlrr a situation already by no meana free from dtHtculty. 

Hut altboQf-h we bold thnt the danger of Australian civilization 

tytf becotnin^ of the IVIongotian and not of the Anglo-Saxon 

tjpe is a drcam^ we are quite clear that the Australians are 

(^proper and only persons to settle fcr themselirets whether 

usj will bare Urge number* of Chinese taboureri or noL The 

Aiutralian< having decidml th&t tbv immigration of tho Cbinose 

it 001 beneficial to their country, it is the duty of the Inaperiol 

^emmeat to aid them in every possible way in obtaining 

iMr wishes. How thii may best be done we have alreiwly 

^Ucusscd, and for our own pan wc cannot entertain a iloubt 

^ Her Majesty's Government will secure a solution of the 

9''^«tion which, while entirelv satisfnctory to the Australians, 

I *ill be consistent wiib the dignity aeit interests of the wbolo 

I Empire, 



Aet.VIIL— 1, f'ifly rears Ago. 

By Walter Ue^aiU, LondoHr 

3. Fifiy y^ars National Protfrcts. B^ Michael G. MuIludL 
London, 1887. 

THE gVTticr.lI UM? t>f tbe tlrnArj n^ii!« <rf DoUtiim bwi been 
produclivo of rctulu not »t tir«t sight dorivftbl^r from iW 
fart thnt we count by teni, not bj fivei, nt ihc-n* i< rpJiton to 
suppose the Greeks did at tome remote period of their history/ 
or by (loieiiK, as some of our ixnceslors appeair to have done* 
Of these results one of ihc most remarkable is thU^ that History 
is divided into arbiirAry peiiods of one hundred years* and 
llitit wc ucribc pc<:\])iar jiiojx-rtfrs to riich century ss 4 sfpoTmte 
4.-ntitv, whilcf iu f&ct, it is mo«t diflicull to drnv %j\y bnnl kikI 
fiut fine of dtvUinn betireen eentury and cenlnry, in re^>eei of 
what axe usually taken to be the specnal chsracteriAtics of osch. 
We talk of KvoluiioTi as n Nineteenth CVnlufv doctrine, while 
in truth its iirst prearhcrs, Limnrck ami Krasnuis Darwin, 
betring^ed, so far as thf-ir work wss concerned, entirely to the 
Eighteenth Century, Wc look At the French Revolution as the 
most remarkable hittoric-sl ev^nt in the etghle«*atb c^ntoryt 
when the fact is that its prinripal results have occurred in tbo 
century in which we live, and nre sure to be followed by other 
results in centuries tr> come. 

If> howcTcr, Ihc cepiury be only an arbitrary division of 
time, ibc half-ccniury has soinetbiu^ lo say for itself, when 
we consider bow prominent the Jubilee appears in Mosslo abod 
Catholie Theology^ and how neatly tt coineidet with llitf* evdi- 
nary span of the active lifie? of manhood ; while at the present 
moment it possesses a personal interest of an eiceptlonal 
character in the fact^ thai our (Jueen has jusl atlAined her semi- 
centenary' of sovereignty* A naturnl consennenci* \\i this fael 
has been ibftt tbc Press baa leeaufd ititb Jubik^e- lilciiituie, and 
of that literature one form baa U^en an attempt to eontpare 
the state and rondition of our eounlry, as tt existed at th« 
bejnnniDjf of the Kei^n, with tliat state ami crjnditioa a« it 
eiists nt present 

The author of the Plutonic Ode sketches the course of Human 
Life as a journey ihrougb a dny of continurtlly diminishing 
bnlliAncyp soon obtcured by the shade of the prison-lioase, 
and losioj^ tovrards it« riose ibo celestial brilliancy of ita 
opening hours. 



Fif^ Yeart Ago. lOT 

'HttTOi liAO About UA in oi^r itikscy! 
Shftd« of tLv ]>riHuii'boiuc beglu to doHO 

Uppn tbc growing bor. 
But bo belii>ldfl ibe light, aoa wbenoe it floin, 

Ilct MV* it ill Utfi J41T ; 

TLfr youi]]« who duly ftirticir from tlio Ettt 
HoAt trftvel. still U ifftture's pn«8t, 

Abd by thft risii^D iqiletKlid 

I« oit hi« iTfty Atl«n<{cil ; 
At longtli tbo DUtt p<rcciTos it d£c awnj^, 
Aod fade inlo th<:f ll^^t of ooinmun day/ 

Let Qfl bope tb&t tbc lile of the nation differs Irom tU« Jife of 
lliir ludiTiUuttl^ and tbai cvt-n in what for « nation it a brief 
period of its CAiBtrncf,— u abort etup^c in u l<>ii|; juLirno^^— -wc? 
ai%y btt able?, without utiJoe opttminm, to trncv fonrar sbjulows 
in tbc |»rtarc, brigbtcr tmU in the lamlic^pe. 

Mr. B^tani, the tjU^ of wbow; bouk ttandt lu the heading 
of thi« article, U cridcntly of thU opinion. 'Fif^y Vetrs 
Ago' if \n enUrgement of artjclet orl^inAlly coDtribnltHl 
to ' The Qruj^liic' Si «ur Author tvtlt ui, sfifin^ 6r«l that it 
woA bis desire * to prevent a picture of ■ucJetj- ja iKia country^ 
as it Wfti vihen the Queen aficend«) tb« throne?/ He do^c not, 
bowevcx, coniine bimself to the picture he proposes to present, 
for Ue ^ire* us a chapter on * ureal Britain, Ireland, and tbo 
Colonieit' another on tlio event* of the }'ca7 in which Her 
Majesty bef^an ber rei^n \ Another, and a very interesting one^ 
\>t\ iha London of 1637 i^a cbaptcr, by another oonliibutor, oib 
*Law and Justice/ and a conclusion, which to some of ouir 
readeni may not be a rery afitiifactriry one. 

Tbe intemt of the book is connderably enhjoced by more 
cbaD a htjndrerd iUustnitions; comprising pfvrtrails^ mostly 
taken from tbe I'V^^er GsIEcry ; chnrnctcristic sketches of tbe 
Ponman, the Fireman, tbe Hacknev Co^chtnan, vSic, 6:c. ; 
Tlcws of vrcU-knoivn buildings and privjitc bouses, and pictures 
of ramorbable places sucb as old Cbaring Cross, and of ro- 
markable events such as thr tjaren's first Couru^iJ. 

Writers, wbo, like Mr. Oesant, strive after effect more than 
after iuxunicy. are loo apt to accentuate their ttatements at tbe 
risk of giving a onc-bidcd picture uf thi? ficU or events they 
descril>e. We give the fullowin^ quoE^tion as an example: — 

'In Iho ywr 1837^ ... wo wore Ktiti, to all intcntn and pur|>oBOS, 
in the eightoentJi oentnry. Aa yet tbo coantry was uctt^>[K^he<i by 
ihtiX Amofican inflooncc whieb is now filling all pocplts with nuir 
idoas. H«iik was atrll hidd in tbo ■ni'it^iit i-uT«ri»fie>e; rvligion wan 
slill ihatof Uaeeighteenth-ceniniychiiroh; the righto of labh>urwczQ 

not yr>t recognisM ; Uiero w«i«* no tr^l^s' nniona ; tbtre ««m no 
railw«y« to sprak of; Dobndj tnTolUsd «icopt tlio ricli; tiiOTOwn 
country wtA unknown to tlie people; the majority of tbd conatry 
pooplfl GoaH Bot read or writo; tbo etvA i>1d dtAcirlino of Fnther 

Stick aticl hit) ohil<1rcn^ Cnt o' KiDv-Taile, Ropr^'A-Mult StMp, Birob, 

Fenila bnd Oano, wim wboleioiuely mfttntained : landlords, mAiiii- 
fuctu^<!n^ and cmidoyt^rv of nil kiudtt. dril whftt ttt&y fdcflMJ vitli tlieir 
owQ ; and tbc Blno Kibbou was ui^hoArd of.' 

We venture to affirm that hardly one of these sutoment* it 
nbftolutcly co^^^e1, nnd that fr>m« of them .ire cntirelv nntnifr. 
If, by Amrricnn inAucncc, our author means u tendency towards 
what are usually known as republican doctrines, we reply that 
ihoflfi dof^trincs hnd been prcochrd, both in England aad in 
Kranfv, for more thnn hnlf a cenlory ; they had created the 
RBflirnl party in Koplftn*!. and stimulaio^ to thr utmntt the 
rev'olutiouary movomeDt in Prance. vVs to reverence for rank, 
the generation which had jiitt passnl ihe Reform Bill nf 1832 
can hardly be aoppoaed to bnvc been as much imbued with 
reverencQ fur rauk, as the generation which It said lo havebun^ 
Lord Perreri with aiilkcn hitller. So fur from rrligion being tlijtl 
of the ei|j[hreenth-c>(-nfury church, Xht* Oxfc^rd movement wa> fully 
at work, nnci tW first four volumes of the *TracU for the 
Times* had been published. The phrase, *ri^htf of Ubour,' is 
so rngiKT \\\:i\ it is impoitible to Iw certain of ita meaning", but 
on the humnnitsrian lide, st all erents, the question was being 
diBcusard by Lurd Aiibicy nnd oLberi ; while, Mt far as Trader' 
Union* VffTc oonct^rncd, it ii a commnnplMw of history that 
they hfld emitted many years l>efore 18^7. True, there were 
hardly sny rnilwa^s, and thrn^ wn« very litlle travelling except 
among ihe rirh; vrry small opportunities of instruction among 
Ihe poor, and ^reat brutalities in secondary punishmeDt Laod- 
lords, manufacturers, and emp)o\Trs were, no doubt, more 
arbitrary ifi their o>ndu<:t b» tlirir dvpf-ndeuts than they are at 
prpArnt ; hut the Duke of Noivrastm*« celcbrntcd mo* aboal 
doin^ what be liked ivith his oivn had eicited popular anti- 

Cathy, and even hniuf[ht on a debate in Pftiliamcnt eight years 
ofore 1837, and Thomas Onimmond's immortal phmse as to the 
duties and rights of property nrcun in a document which bears 
date in thi? spring 0^ Iti*^^. Last of all, — if ihe Btun Ribbon 
wa« (inhcnrd (if, Tcm|KmncMT a^^cnla bad been At work, and 
Father Mathrw irfTecrled his grealnt trinmpha within a yoaror 
two of the Qaccn'a accession. 

Mr, Besant is happily not always so inaccurate aa he shows 
himself in the passngn we have cjuotcd, and he mast be allowed 
to have good reason for sajing that the 'country waa crammed 


Pipy Vt^rt Ago. 




fti]] of HbuMat aoci Uiat the Ship of Sutc, to ouuidcrs, scorned aA 
if she were About to ciptize and foander,' lit plac« of this 
Bhipwreck, h« gtvoi u^ lo a few [>«;«** ^ »k&tcU of tLc devclop- 
liirnl vrliidi bos lAkro place la thi* 4;ouiicr^-,in bcr llcpca<l<'ncica, 
and in tl^t otbor I^ii^]j>L'Bp<*ak)n^ r»L-e acroju tLt? Atlftntic, 
rluHn^ iht Iftit hfti r-(-entuTj'- It \% Indi^rf) mnrvrlEnui! TKp 
population half as laigo af^ain, as Mr Bcsaat puU it, but reall> 
Increased from 20 to .^7 millloQi; that of the grvat Uyytm 
doublet], ar more than doubled. 'I'he public fortune/ as 
Mr. Mulball * terms it, iiicreftsetl 124 jter ccni>, or from 4100 
to 9310 Enilltoa* biciUag, tbU coi^iputHkion not including the 
6r«t two y«are of th« rei^-n^ lWlwdj-«» of which in 1840 tbL^ro 
were orAy 840 miltM, with a riipital of 24 jniUioDS, had riacn in 
1885 to a mileajce of 19,170, aod to a capiul of 816 millioDs. 
cwTjin^ in that jear 770 milliouf of pai^engm. Ai to our 
ahipping, tbr carrying power in 1S40 was 3,430,OUU tons; in 
l^j, 22,770,000 torn. The annual amount of the proUacc of 
our cotion mills h^s increnaed front 1445 millions ol ^ards of 
cotton cloih in 1840, lo 5344 tnilHunf In li5$5, ani tvxtil^ 
maoafftrture* bart doubled tbcir con^uaipiion of Rbro in the 
aame lijno; the coDSLmtption of jute alone — a nevr industry — 
bcin^ now moie than hal f as inucb aa the contutnptton of cotEon, 
wool, Hnx, and hrmp in 1)540. 

Thv IncK^-jiSL- of uur Coluuiul Exnpiri; is as Temorkable as the 
statistics which wc hitvc ju»t giTi^n* Our nuthnr puts it thus;— 

* Aa Togardi tbo catont of tho Dnttsb Krapirc, there has boou a 
verj little ooutnotidu aud ail ciiuniiutjn txtcuAJuu. Wo hav« gireu 
■tp the loniAn lalanda to gratify tbi> ft^'titiinent of Iklr- GbuUtnco^'l' 
aad we hare oc^iaired (.'jpniR, . . > Wo karo taken poascsston of 
Aden, ... In lliuduatan, which In 1837 was siill portiaUj raled 
bj a number of naliv« primes, the fltg <»f Great Britain tww reigii« 
tfepnono ; the wliolc of Bamiah is dow British Burmah , - - - Hoii^ 
Kon^, irhinh hartlly aitpoars ii* ArrowFmitbV AtlAs of 1840,t "» now 
ft strwD^old of tho Bntiih Empire. Borituo, thua wholly ttukooim, 
belongs ptrtiall/ to tie; New Guinea is paHlj nurs; Fiji is ouri. 
For tho grvaUtiVt change of all. Iiowi,*vcr, ire muat luuk ut thu mtt|je uC 
A«ati«lla and Now Zuolatid. lu the fonuor. Avon i\xa con^t koil not 
besD oomplotely sarvejrod ; Molbonme was m 7«t but a UtUe nti- 
importaat loviishi|i. Between MelbDtirue and Botany Ba^. there 

* *P1ftr T««u' Ki^tlOQ*! I^gti^; p, le. 

t 'LcodPalincrvtoii, . , . la ISCSoordiaUvaicnwdtahauilorOTall the loolaa 
lalsiidB ti> tlia new kiiigrlom or Orteee If the Ondcsitould diooM u kijig kmiravei 
of bf l^ackiKl, vhuTli t)i«v tboiwrdinglx dirl. TIio nealnlitj- of tbtf taltuidflWM, 
henmt, to bo doelaiiMl bjr the Qrvut Punvintaod Iho fertiflcstions of Corfu 

■liiiotUiwL boUi of «1ildi VQudiUuuB wut vLaErToL'— AvLlct'i 'Liloof Lord 

PabneBtm.' i ^S&. 

% Hia, Ki tb« matter of IbaU ia Black's Atlai fear jean Isler. 


Fifitf Ytart A^o. 

OS in lEi 

wufl uct a tbglo Tillago, aallloraoiit or planUtioiL To Now Boalh 
Wal», tho popalhtioii of wbioli wiu about 16O,OO0« oouvict* wore 
stil) ttoot out'* Tli« map of Now ZcjiKiid . > . aUom not ft cunglo 
town CT EzL^luli setllomcnt upon it! fifty Team Ago tbtt mat 
colony viui nut i^rcn rouudeil ! . . . Id North Amerioa tlio whole of 
the North- West Tcmiory . . . wa« left bo Indiuw, tmppon, bu&loaa 
(now mlmoKt cxtluctK Iwam, and nkUltAU&Luo. SuuUi Africtt ttUomi 
thi> Cftpu C<j]i>»y Aii4 iioUnii^ <-\aj^, . . , Thorn at« now, Ai:«itftitvd 
ovoT tLo irholc cf tlto ItritUb Kmptro, fiftj nuDiuus of peoploi 
tlu Auglu-Siixun tonguon In fifty year«' tinw then wili 
Imudrod miUiouK, , . . with another two huuiltod tuillioiu 
Btatoit If tbo EtigluiL't}i>nikiDg rjbcos bliot^ld doui<la to imito in » 
VfKt <ffinfAi1^rftry, nli thi? otlin? Powiera on tho (tArth cosohin^^d vill 
not be ftblo to <lo tlitmi an iryury.' f 

In tki« qnotadoTi ihoro may be a certain amouDt of n-bat out 
couuni call * spreAil-^A^UUm/ but It is in the main trw, 
altboD^h any one who <].-irrd to prviphe^y wbnt btu actimUy 
lak«n placp ivould Lavo had bul llLik Lonour in his own 
oiuiitry. Thi; vxtraci fn>m the Annunl Register which wc hare 
pW«ti in a notr abowa iho vit^w which was Calicn of our CoIoDisl 
Kmpirr in ]8<17, nml long iinci^ ih^t time wr hav<* bail a srhoa] 
of politiciant who looked px^rsislcntly oa oar Colomea as a 
bnrthen ind not as a constontlj increasing source of strength 
to tt)c Empire 

• The >**ar 1837, ««pi for the death of the old King aad the 
acccujon of the young Qurcn, was a tolcmbly inaigniflcvat 
y^nr* P^rbapsso, but our author ratli«r appears to forgot tba 
raiifon iftfri'. of hij book. If thf*rc was nothing wortli rrcorJing 
except these two events, it would hare be>eQ hardly worth while 
to wrilo a book abi>ut il. At the same time do futura change 
(if ■i[>rer4;ignty in tbis country can by nny possibility bo ao 
f^at a change as that from an old man, sKeped In th« fashloDi 
end traditions and conduct of thn eighteenth century—* maB 
wIm^a phraaoologf , nay, whoce very pronunciation waa of the old 

* ^ Itj a wo-TiLtt tdkcQ In Navorabor ISStj ... the Urltlih populatLon naioaaM 
to TT-OfttL of whioh -^^31 »pm prifcHnir*/— ■ Aaniul lUigUUn " for ia37, p. 23J. 

t Tin: * Auuiml Rofpitcr ' of 1^7 oouUmE a curioun t'Xtmct Crou s report of % 
Ooiuoiftlc^ af flu: Hc)ijpii ftf Ojnttiiimji nri lrAri0|wr'td.|iiii ;-^ 

Tiaold coiaiDuiiitii-4 tvtit^ro tTi^ro U a coaipueative want oT empkymont . , . 
the amount uf ninig ia Dot a poitcctlf iUiQ t«*t of tlio moral «tACc d aookitj. 
. . . Bot iuiiwiT OMUauQilicd ... oiimua so iiiuiun>u« kdJ bo atnounu uilbMa 
jHirpctraled hi Kfv £oiiUi Wala and Vaa Dlemua's UidlU tndjimUwU ibe 
ikptli oTmoml dc|]raT:W. . . . IM it b« sun>w^ Hiat Uj« 1T,OUO offnoders wba 
tut year w«im trioit aco nnvicUtl in thU muntnr for toHdiu offbnooa . . . lud 
all DHni c<iud(iatn<^ firr irapibil «rim«a: that TOOO of thna bad been «i«Higl, 
ami tijc rvEJittalijdrt tni(ih|<!rli]d fnr lifit; ihat . . . lS(k,lJ0O otbut oQvndi-fs bad 
Wa ooiLTtctcii fnr lulaor ujlitijoif.— fnTf^ty, dimii-dloiliujf. and the lUcfw^^thai, 
iu iiioportlou to IbcU nvpoctivo pi^pulalioni. tiui iiiAlaof orLuM snd iiualaboMMl 
ia £hgtA»d tmd Ndv &)Uth ^Vbl<» irould httc bcou pKtboly th« MDUh' 


F\fl^ YtiarM A^^ 


■wnrldt* — to a founp wonvuif only jtut eighteen jrean of tgc^ 
ivholiail liveclaquicttAncI rtrlired lif<f, cUmosCu far removed troa 
Court* as if she botl not brrn flricined to p&sa tb^ mt of her 
tioic R* Cbe mci4t promtoont fiffUTc m * Court which i« 1n::pcftAl 
in IniHn, RojrI in thr British Itl^i, %nd ^xtrcui^ tuprt'ino 
Oomlnioa over contincotjif isUniliand culofiicftt in orcry quarter 
of the globe, 

tBot Uwre &!« other evenU in 1837 to which our aut1v>r hardly 
Btiachet diMf ImporUnce. The t^tAblUhmcot r>t steam com- 
tnunicutiofi hctwct-n Edi;Ui»i1 atiO India hy w^y of the Red 
&ca, i«f in its ^ >tx]u<^la*,' one of th<< nj<Kit important erenlj of 
th^ r**ntiiTy- If thin rrtmrninirfttion hurl not exi*t**c] nt thi* trme 
of tho Mutiny, who can say tvbut wouM hive been the re«jlt? 
Shnald we hhvn hi*M our own, or would Naoa Sahib aikd tho 
Delhi IVinces have reaumed their iwoy ? To this* premier 
pu' we owe the Suez Canal as well as its imperrect annlcguis 
which is intcn<)i.<<l lOfltridiT Nurtb uofl Soulh Aiurrica^ and tbu 
political reAilu of wht<!b it is itnpooihlc to predict, or cvoa 
imnfinei Am) to this ^ pTv^mipr pas' alio, we owe the 
Eicypdiin compliottioa, TeUf!l-Kebir, and Khartoum. Verily, 
the substitution of the mattock for the swonl does not always 
produce tboae peaceable results which have beeo asciibod to 
tbat proceeding. 

Amcfog the rrmarkAble events of 1837, Mr. n<^sAnt noticca a 
nurdcT whioh rx^ti^J particular Intcml at thi^ tiuti? from tbe 
ghastly method which the murderer adopted in onlcr, as he 
hoped, efrroiually to conceal bis crime. If we read tl>e account 
of GreenntTp, the murdcrcr^s, execution as described in the 
Annual Kefrister of the >Gur, we shall Site cause to rejoice in 
ibv late mid mucb*uevdcd refurm uf wliat ai that timu nas a 
'hideoos orgie ; — 

' At an tttilj hour od tho Lst of May, the Old BoElcy, and the 
spMe around tho asglcs of Novgnta, woro throngod with a cUmorouff 
inllHado, including almnal om mt^ny woman afl me&« ud . . . penona 
cf vrefy grado in society. . . . There woio not at auy timo of the 
aigiit leas tbau 3CIUU people in the street, , . . The inteiral w«« 
spael ifi jokce and amcimiiMale. On Oroonaoro'a appoaranoo* hpo w«s 
gpxted with a Mom of fcerriftc yells nod hiHos, fninf^liyl w]t)i gru&rii. 
<6eefa, and other exprosaioiu of reproooh, raveog^, hatred, aud 

• ThtTV BT* (iimp*niliTiilj fL'flf j>v7>nni nnv hIEth who reiDflSnbor Mtnttot tlift 

, Islb pecallftrilioA of phJiiiiiiHuiion vhlch wnri^nrobnblyaMtniTaloftboftahkms 

1 of tbtf BslKaatigQ]. w-fv oblcognl foi vbtlgvdi Uoduc Air Itwno. goolil Ibr coU, 

[ BooabU anJ Fr<iCflhu for RuMa vad ProMia, BniDUUflesi for BLnmagUun. 

The viitor hcaid vrtlljain the Courih ptunuuuee i!b* void eUigel as obJevgod* in 

4 Kp^ssfBWch; Mui Lori Jvhu BuMvtl say ^oold fctaold. 


Fifty y^OTM Ago, 

It took ag<xMl msiXky more iuch sc«a» before tbe proceti wkc 
bUcixnE, butf thank God I that tiglit will Dcver ngam be seen by 
Au EiikUsIi mob. 

Mr, Itouint has nn iQtcrcstio^ chapter OD lli« extent of Loodon 
in 1837. He ui>-i it 

'may bo Mhdtlj Qatl6nti)4>d by dnkvidg on tbe nftp ib Udo a UuIq 
tbo^ the eonth ^de of the ii^gont s Park. Tliis Udo murt b* 
prolooged vest, uatil it otrikes tbe Sit^'i^ttre Eoa4, aud eastward 
until it j^trikcs tho HcgonVn Cnnal, nftor irhtcU it foHovrn tbo CanaJ 
imlil it fulls into tbo R4>gvut'a C*aal Duok& Li>iidoa*B wMtom 
boundlu? is Ihc lower od{1 of the Edg^are llond. Park La&o. and a 
lina dravu from Hjrdc Park Corner to We«tiiiiaBt«r Bnclgou TI10 
max uilsBouthont IxjUTjdary, butif youwUhtoindudathe Borou{b, 
tbtffv irill bo II narro^T friiigu oa ttio ooulb aide. Thxa vraa tbo whole 
of Lon^lon ]iro|iGr.' 

In other worda, the London of the prexeDC day is an agglo 
CDcmticin of new citict, rluileied round tbc old oDe, At the 
beginning of the rol^^n, CLoIk^d ii-:i« divid«<l from Dr^mpton by 
fieldf. Si> WAft Bmmptnn from KrnHinj^CJn, Thirre vrrrr only 
i>catterpd hoiuea between Holland House and KcflainctaTi 
GartlcaiT and outside Holland House waa open country. Bays- 
water was a mtxv line of houtea skirting the Uxbrid^ Hood, 
and betwi^n Bajswater and Paddtu^Mu eame Kenvtuji^Mi 
Grmrct Pila. At Maida Hill the bou»rs ceotcd altogether 
along tbr lulgWA/e Rirad till w<? came to Kilborn — then a mere 
village. Other fiebU exfjtided to the west em! of Himnatead ; 
between Hampetead and Ilighgatc, fields aj>aiB. Ilonucyt 
Stoke Newington, Hackney, btrttford,* Uroniley, Liinebouiet 
all separate vtlliiges, divided by fielda. On the right bftnk of 
ibc Tbauaca, Giitenwich waa dividt^d by uioj ket-);)irdifi» fram 
Ocptford, and Dt^ptford from Hothorbitbc. Xew Cmn wu a 
fringe of housea with a curious WeUh quarter inhribited by 
market -garden labourers. They bn>ufc!Ll tbeJr religion with 
tbem, and bud a room, not far oST, for Welsh •crviccs. Going 
further west, Peckbam and Cumberwell were not much more 
than frontages, backed up b^ meadows and mark<'t*gnri]eas. 
To the flouth of the new road which joined Caiubi'rwcU to Km- 
nicgton there were ticlda reaebin^ to Stockwell on the louth, 
and to Kennington on the west. This oompletea tbe aotuhero 
semicircle — all n^w ab>or1>ed in London. 

* Hr> hemsAM^f uyn thiirovnoADo'Stntferd:* Chaiuor aaji than 
* Aud Preuob ahc ^okc ful fnyru aud fctbty» 
Aft»r tli« uiJu of HtriLtford utto bjwt. 

Pur Prcnob of rtuU w>« to hi» uukuowi/ 


fiP;f yoar$ At^c, 


Tlw incrpait? in tW number of churcKes in Lt>i3c3on and lUe 
SubLirba is aa remarkable as ihe increase of ibe population. At 
th« time' of tbe fireat Tire tbcre won* about 140 churclies ia 
London nml the fiuburba, including such places a» Ballencn, 
D<-ptibrd, Fulbain, Hoiticrhithc, Stratf^ird, WandiwortL, &Ci 
Of tho«r nboHt 90 wer* bornt. Wren rebuilt 50, cc ibat 
ftl tlic beginaing of Uie 1a«t contury thifrt! muat bavo beeti 
About 100 cbui^h<^8 standing, to vrhicb, in the coane of the 
century J were added whiit are callcc! Queen Ann<-'s diurclics, 
and a crrtnin numher nl cltnpcl&'of-cnM?, )Ve bclicrc, howcrer, 
thai at the bc^^Innin^ of the rci^n there ivcre not 200 cbiinrbes 
in London nod the >uburbi. In 18?^ tbcte wcic J:fOO, And 
th«r«> nw now upwardi of 1000. Of th^ke cburebc-i, verj few 
an; older than tbc K<t form at ion. St, Saviour*a Southwark, 
St Bartbolomcw the Greai, and St. Margaret's Wesinuntter, 
an [perhaps tbe »i[»t remarkable of them, St, Saviour's felt 
1b^ bravy hand of the restorer ju(t bclnrc the commencement 
of tbe preseut rvign ; St. BanUoloinevr's baa been reserved for a 
better fnte, and it rnsw a mott favoumblc specimen of wliat can 
be done in the iraj- of lei^itirnate restorntioo ; St. Mnrffarot's 
Westminster likewise. Thcwc who remember the old House 
of Commons Gallery at St, Margaret's, lined wilb green baiJie 
and glitttrring witli rows of brass- Lead c^d nails, mar well rejoice 
in tbe chan^. Charles Knight, in his chapter on the churches 
of London, t«lls a curious storj of tbe £asc ivludow of St, 
Margaret's ; — 

' It wafl modA by the ordcre of the tna^tratca of Dorl, in ni>1Un^, 
im a lEoitabU prt*mt to Renry ATI. fur the clmpi>l orcM-tud for him in 
tbe Abbey ; . . - Heiiry dying boforg it was conipUtcd, tho ivindow 
fdl iato tba han<lH dF the Abbut (rf Walthivm, who kept it in his 
efaurcL till Uie Dif«oIutii>D. . , . Tbo last Abl>Tjt of WnULam suved 
it frcm dcfltraotioti by sending tt to New Hall in WilUilitro, from 
wbCDce it waw purehased, with the BetLt, by Tbouiaa Tilber»« Duktr of 
BnclmghaiDr wboivj soa sold them to Genoral Monk. Tho war 
tpififlt all such sup«ratitiona exbibitioo^ of artistic skill was now 
raging botly, and Monk know tlioro wa4 no obftoco of hin window 
raeapaog cnroopt by itn strict oonoualmont - sceordingly h« bnriJ^c] it 
Al tbe Bestoration it was leeUred to tke cb&pol at Nov Hall 
Agaia danger threatvnod it : tbo cliarul vrut di:stroyed by a ntaw 
pciODCMDnr, who, LovreTer, kopfn^ to soU tho window to some Ghorcb, 
mstfTod it, ca«c4 it op. and nftor noouo timo sold it to Mr, Conyom 
ur bift diapel at Epping ; by this geotbmmu's fion it wil^ dually urild, 
in tbs last centurv, to tbc commiUee for ropairiog and boautifjing 
84, Hargartt V 

While on the subject of churches, let us say a wf>rd about 

cborchyards. No one who is not old enough to remember tbe 

Vvd* 167,— A'v. ^9Z^ C prar-PaljueikLoniait 


Fifttf Vtars Affo. 

pni>Paliiimtoiiijin times of intriLinurnl interment can bavc anv 
idea of what & London grare/ani was. Tho writer icmembpra 
the itntc of the wall whtcli divided llolborn from Uie c-huivli- 
yavd of St. Giles's. U rcvkcd whL foul and i>oiionic diainagc 
which pcrpctuttlly shuvirt^d tuHf in tmascou» dripping from the 
loii, tho chuTrhynrd liring Bpv**ral fret aboi'e ihe Irv**! of th* 

If chtircheit hare cnoTmoudy multiplied, them ij anotbcr 
class of buildiriftB of which, id 1837, there were numeroos 
examplrs, holh tn I-nndnn jUcU and in crcry tulmrb, irhich 
li&> 4?Htxicl^i diHHpprfiJL-d ;-^wL' lurui ihc Tuiiiptkt. Mi. llesint 
cnumcralcB ttrcDtjr-four, and tbia liit docs nut include the toll- 
^les on the bridges. With the turnpike^ the ftharp-«j«d 
turopike-maa, not seldom a member of the tribes of IsrarU 
with his short white apron and its pockets for halfpence and 
tickets^ hnH liketvw di<np[>eared. The turnpikes urn- let bv 
tender, nnd wpre somelimrs capital hnrgnin; fi?r their holders. 
Mt. IWbcrl IJanburj, of IVIcs, in litn ford all in.-, uncd to tdJ n 
story about n clever ^oung Ilcbrow who kept tho gate ia the 
Lea Bridge lloacL There was a Lomten bunker, who lusd in 
riding or driving to his place; of business to pass through ihit 
gate day b}- day, and who, of course, bad a nodding acquaintance 
with the turnpike-maiL One diy, much to his surprise, his 
toll'g&ihcring friend asked to borrow sonie three or feor 
hundred pounds, to enable him to tender (or n lease of tbc gate 
at whieb he atood. Tho banker had so farourablo a notion of 
his IViencrs honesty that lie lent the money, which was dalr 
repaid. Some years ftftcrwanis a psnic occurred which, ainon^ 
other baoks^ was supposed to bave imjierilled that of nur friend 
tbe trareller by the L<-a Bridge? Kond, Puring this panic a 
stronger edited At the bank in question, and propoiied to fny 
in a sum f>f 10,000/. The czLshicr hesilAte<], (uid rdcrrrd tlic 
would-be dnpoftitor to his matter^ who sat anxioLicly watching 
the o>unf* of events in his bitck parlour. He rrro^rnized bis 
old fricn<l of the toll-ffatc^ who, since the loan, had ])ri>spen?(J 
and made a fortune by good manngemj-nt of his coppiT viatimtUi' 
The offer was declined with thanks, but in answer to cnqmrie* 
the banker was told by his free-handed visitor Uiat the loan of 
years bock had laid the fonndatjon of his fortune, and chat li« 
withpfl, lie1ie>ing a pecuniary Ti<reesc>ty existed, to repay pad 
kindness in the wAy in which it was likely to be most full; 
apprrciatcil Thos<? who are aci]uninted with the proprietor' 
ship of the newspaper press will probably find no diHiculty in 
identifying one (;J' tbc actors in this little dr^Luia, if not m his 
own pei^uu at least iu the |)er3uns uf bis dvset'pdints ; and wc 


fiflif Kwr» d^ 




□r Btorr wiih the expression of a belief, !n which we nre 
fturt! our readtfrs will joio, ibat it ia credilable alike to all tlic 
parties concerntt) in ihn trnnsaction. 

Our author adopts a eiiaplf^ ihou^b «fScAcioos plun of oonw 
larison t>rtwi:?en tlic nutwanl appearance i>r things tutd pLsce* 

Lc>ndDti, ill 1^37 and lti87- Hv personuliJE^s tho two epo€h% 
Ai>H tenclft thr?m wnlkin^ nrm-in-Arrn down thr Srrnnd. Pint, 
however, he drossea E]^hEj-9«Ten in the babilimeats of Thirijr* 
cevcD. A xn-a] low-tailed ciiat, a satin stock with ft double 
broftitpiD, trousers with stmpi under the feet ; — it wa« oocc % 
controversy at the Univenitj of Cambridge, whicti was most 
unbecoming, to itppe-ar in straps without trousers, or In ironsers 
without stmps; — i^urt^eufTs turned bick over the coat-tleere, 
k custom of which one example remained in tho House of 
Cnmmims as lait- as the Psiliameat of 1H17, in the person of 
Mr. (^rantJrj li<'rk<^ley ; glove* in, not en ihp hjtm], — and a cane. 

Our limits do not aJlow as to follow this carious pair in 
their walk down ttie Strvid, hut we must be permitted to 
esprees a doubt wlielber they really did sicet an ancient 
gentleman in powdered hxir and pigtail, quite so late in tho 
centiry aa ]83i. Very rare eximplea of this f/tsbion were to 
seen is the i^untryi the writer rememliers one ns late as 
h^) oi IMl, but in London, surely noL Hcssisn boots, black 
and drab iborts, and low quartere^L shoes, all diftiip|)eared about 
the Sftme tiinr— ^ibout ltf30. We can rvcal a pair of drab 
shorts worn as port of a wslking dress, with low quarter«l 
ihoes and wliilc*-**rittnn «tocking«, nc»ai!y ns lati* x% 1 8!**l nr 30; 
hot it must be observed that the wearer was horn on Lamion 
Bridge^ tl^e houses on which were pullet) down sbikut 1757^ 
There was one pair of breeches with gaiters in the Mouse of 
Commons as late as 174432, on the jwrson of Sir Charles Jlnrrell, 
wlio sat for 8li4>rcliam in fourteen C'Oniecatiro Parliaments, from 
]JKI6 tilt hts dcatb in thr jear above inontionvJ, 

Among: oihorrrmnrk^hlr ttfr*"i phariotj^rn, our niithor gives Uf 
* sketch of the Dultt* of WetllnBrCon. *l)o you see that tbin, 
spue ganlleman in the clfak^ riding sk>wly alon|: tlie street, 
ietlowed by n mounted servant? The pccple all take oft their 
bsis raprctfully to htm, aud country folk gaze upon bim 
i:iirIou»l^. Tbai is ibe Duke. There !» only one Duke to th« 
'^iaar)' Briton. It is the Duko with thi? houk-no»c — the Iron 
Duk^'-the Ouke of Wellington-* This dp-wTiption of the 
Duke omits one remarkable pttculiarity, his white duck trotisers. 
wiijcb appeared every year with miliUry punctuality on the 
Ik of May. iiii serrant always carried an umbrella, which, if 

o Z 



F\fty Yian Ago, 

tui umbrcUa-makcr of th« time in Cockipur Stieet \% to be 
beiierccl, bftd n xhort dagger ouDcerUed ia the poinL* 

Some of our author^s scrrcl heroes wr cannot recognize. He 
vpcoks of the rufning c&ptain who was no Ooubt *ui old 
P«*iiinBular/ Suwly iho iwontv-four jcam which haJ elapsnl 
in i^^l sincT tin? cm! uf the PeniiMutar rmt fntisl b-tve made* 
havoc nitb &uch rufllin^ captAin&. Tl^urEcll, who wu haDg«d 
the muTdc^r uf VVeare in 1^2i, is said to bav« boosted of the 

ftjr in which Lo bad stain Mid robbf^d n woumird FrcnchmaD 

aring th<-* IVniiiauIar campaign. Pcrhapfl Mr. Benitt has a 
confuHf^d recollection of this s)tL>rA% and hftt gcnctali/x^d from 
iniuni^iortl <];ilA. Mr. Ite«rini^< * rulfTing Captain ' r^mindc \x% of 
one great chan^ which hns taktn pl.-icc, if not in public moral* 
at l^Bt Id public roaooers duiinf: the proscnt reij^D. Half a 
centUT}* ago gentlemen did not swear Dand a dinner tnblc! iJ) 
the presence of ladies^ but they wore only ton ready to make up 
for lo9t timi? by j)ii>fiL(iL- vulubUity afitrr lUelAdk-s had dppiticcL 
At public »cli'>olfl, nnliTflt wo nro nii«infoTTno4l, vwcArJu^ it 
unittual nowaday!. Fiir into th^ reniury the Cburirh boy* 
mostly swore, and K an uafortunate Noncimformiit sucoecvled 
in interpolaiing himself into suck orthodox society aiul pr^ 
«ttmrf) to quo«tion ihr propriMy of its uiageii hr was apt to bo 
lold that he was no better than tbey^ for if I>issenter» did ntA 
*wvar, ibcy lird. Sncarin^, like drink, \ii%% brcvmc the vice of 
the lowor ord«»rft. May wo hopo that, now ih^ir better* hav^ 
rnurd to <et thi^rn tht? bad example, they alM> may graclaally 
give lip the practice? 

In Cruikshank's drawing of the Last Cabriolet Driver with 
his skeleton waistcoat, reprnilured from ' Sketches by Boa' 
ni p. 4^ of Mr- l^esnnt'a book^ there is a curlouB Inaccuracy. 
Thai worthy ts rrprcst^ntcd «» sitting with his feel plantrd 
agaiTiBt thp dnGh-hnnrd, wherent he hud x *ep«rat« footboArd to 
plant his feel upon, *n that if hit horse fell, he cimply run off 
his seat and was ready in a moment to sit on the horse's head ia 
the approved fashion. Tbe apron which jirotected the pa&seiigetv 
was solid, but did not r;(tcnd so Jnr as the cabman's se^i. 

One of ihe must luterettiiiig parts of the volume consists 
in the reproduction of acrcral of Craikshank's ctclitn;-*. We 
have notire^l one ; ihere iv another which it a marvel of drawing, 
though alas I as in all Cruikshank's work* there is an absnlcite 
want of beauty in the faces and forms : wc mean Fleet Streei on 

* Xti ntabrolk thnu nmii^l wai Ahovn 1> tk* wiMttt ibont lh« tJaa^ of Ifaa 
Diikfr'4 dentil fu 1^2. and nltr^t-d to bo one whloh tho DuWi grcoM was in tW 
liaUl of uuTjinif ifieu Jah fuUouri^ Lli DUBtw oa hupwbwk. 


iny of jyrtK^Iniminff l\\Vf QuiNrn. IIU Ronille, too, or nitlier 
pciir <>f lWcll<-«, in inimiliM*^. One »iith rhnraclnr wr rrmrmMr 
who Gsntc to a sad end. It was a rcry hot day, and they were 
benlinff tbe bauads of Cambcrwell nuruh; nml not onlj did 
thty ^ baaip ' tbc boys ngAintt th«^ pari»b po»t«, but they bumped 
(be BeiKllc.And lo tuchefTecl, ihai wbiti whh ihr- ht'at, and nhat 
mtli the gingcr-bcpr, and wbat with tbc hiiniping in Iij» 
gorgeous livery of gold and red velvet fncingf^ tbe poor Bt^adlc 
wpDt liom^ ftnd died. 
H Out autlor of ooui^e noticva tbe inlroduction of ^u for 
^ public ligbling, wbteh took pl.icif * in the tn-cmies'; bat be 
oinits, so Jar ai vrc ran src^, to mention the enormoas increase In 
ibe use ol' auoihtrr illuminunt — peinilt-uin. Under four milliont 
and a batf of galloni of pctmlcuni irere iniportcd it] lt^4>8 ; in 
1J^63, seventy milHont of f^llon«, or, on an avernge, \wt> gatlona 
ft yffftr for €Vcry tnaii, woman, and child in the British Ules. 
ThU icnpottAtion ^nd u»e of cheap li^bl it a silent and very 
little noticed revolutinn. Itut it it a rcTolution none ihc less, 
and ono of ^ moat beneficent kind ; it is, in fact, the moat power- 
ful ally of ibc Schocduiiwler. Any mie wbiM:o]uidrrs trbnt tbe 
Ughting of the hou*ea of tbc working oIhai woa tneniy years 
Ago, and what il it now. will hare no difSeolly in acknow- 

tledriiiff ibe truth of our ai»ertion. 
Closely connected with the illuminani is ibe moans of getting 
a li^bt- It baa been reverted for thifl century to sulistitute the 
lucifer>maech for ihe tindor-box. The generation is rapidly 
paa«ing away for whojii tbe firit wuiid of thi; moniing was tbe 

IcLick'dick of ibe 6iQt and steoJ, and tbe lirat smell, that pro- 
tluceil by th(* brimiitone mAirh. 
'Whore is that party bow?' 
A tinder-box is as scarce as the Great Auk's eK(r» and an 
nttcmpi to tax lucifers has had political efEect c-nuu^b to shatter 
a Ministry. ■ Ei l«cc lucellum ' wa» a lcmy>ling phra»e for a 
ICbaocellor of the £icbi><|iic>r who bud not forg4>(Cen bis Latin, 
iHit those who were in the GoTemmeut of ltl72 will remember 
that tbe results of classical qiiotation are not alwayi all that can 
be desired. 

We cannot help Ihiuking that our author has been a good 
deal intlueneed in his (IcscripttdU ai the * boriibly ni>isy * ainle 
of the itTcrtd, notably l-'lect Street, by ihe work of tlio contem- 
porery CAficaturista. Our strong impreuion !■ that the streets 
are more noisy now than they were in 1837- We can re- 
member a time, not many years before 1837, in which the 
orr iages of ladies bent ou shopping at the great liuen-drapers 



Fijhf Ytart ^. 

and silk m^rctinDU of Lufl^ntc HiH--T£]lh*«» HnrTcys* nod 
ICvcrinj^ton'ft, — usf^d to atand by tho hour to{>cthcr at the doors 
of tlioEe ahupv, with nu «-nsG <>i' jiublic inconTeai^noe from the 
DlMtTUCtJon. In thoic days, thfr fStar Cambridgfr Coach, whidi 
Wc the l)eU« &uuva^e Yard ixi Lud^uu- IlUl abiHtti 4 emi., 
threaded all the *lrcct« between iu starting-point and Shore- 
ditfh Churcli, at a tTt>t ; bjuI with no j>rrcnutioiiB to eniuR « 
clear road oicrpt m cmtch^-nortcr who run along the parcDumU 
aod ai]>iialled lo old Joe Walton at ditticuU ooni«n* A» to 
'a coachman fighting a ticket porter' l>eitig a i]^\y spectacle, 
the HtitoT, who in those dajs or rather oarJicT, pajsed throvgb 
Fleet Street perprlually on bU wnj iv and frum King*> College) 
iMvcT »aw such « thing. In tho carlivr j«ara of tho oontory nicb 
ihmtrc in»y have happened^ but not ' Fiftj Veara Ago/ Alons 
over th€ ro&r, whatever there wai, ceased In th^* eveninj^, now 
it jtoes on far into the night, i'here is a tiory about a st-utitiel 
at Kensington haring been accused of sleeping: on bis post* uid 
having detended hiuiaelf on tbe ground that he vraa awake and 
hcaid St. Paul's dock strike iJtiriKn^ in which be was t^orrv- 
boraiud bv another sentrj- at the Tower, Would that W poaaibU* 
nnwailajs? FiftT Vi^arn ago iho ntriktng of St, PnnrH rloek wiA 
audible three or four miles oiFin a atill ni;:bt U :hat so now? 

One more subject for notice and wc must pass on; — E&der 
Chang?. Fiftj jiear» ago it had juat disappeared, and,, with 
tbe lioni in thf; Tower, had been »upplant<;d b^' the ^oolo^cal 
Gaidi-nit. Uui it wfia it quaiut pliic-u while ti lasted, and it was 
the scene of a eutioun piece of slaughter, Chunv, an i^lephaat 
who had somehow or other been lifietl up into a fiist-Hoor in 
the Strand, and who was one of tbe attrscttona of Exet«r 
ChAngc, went mad, aiid had to be killed. It was before the 
days of atrvchnine and express riflea, so the heat which Mr. 
Cron, wlio ^<'pt tJie menngerict conlcl do, wai to ^ncl for a file 
of solilieis rruui the Tower, who bv aBaiduoiu [»>uodti]{^ witb 
Hrown }ic%M succe«d«(l at last in slaughtering the monster. 
Tlir ad^air creaferl gxeot curioaity, and one of tbe firat illustrated 
bnoadihccts published in London was a lithograph engraviag 
of Cbuny, alampjug aod stmggling behind the big uprights 
which fonned the Jront of bis den, and tbe aoldicra loadJtvg 
and tiring throDglj the bars. 

ihlr. Bcaant devotes inme sixty pagrs to a comparison of tbe 
social state of England at the begianing of tW reign with tbiu 
which exists at present* We are incUm^d to believe that io 
some TDspocis be exatfgeratea and in other respects minitnina 
differences. 'I^> compare ih<* working claaa, or ibe middle clasi, 
or the upper chss as they exist at present wi;h the aaine ciaasaa 

Fifiy Kw* A^. 


n century ago, i» not a tnatirr of ttalistici. The annUAl 
Dumber of ^IJons of gin consumed io the two pn-iodi \% qo 
CttTUun UM oi IL^ im-feai«f <ir tli?€r<%'iM^ of lolirtrty. Prizp-fijbU 
^maj har« ceased — br-ibobT'^ our author spcms mtLer lo repet 
«D— suid vet th«?rc mo/ be uic^rr {ccncml tiTUln)ity> Red 
|mgg<eC And * God s^rit th« CJu«on * mar bo in<ny> <At rtifaear nt 
grnccd by KjijuUjf thnn they wrrc* in I ^1*17, And yrt 
'ihorr iDftv bo no more roal respect for the Tej^mntr Family, or 
ioT ibe principle of ii limil^d Momir^^liy. A: x\xv unmn time wc 

tcannrkt deny ihat «>hrirly hnt inrrcAtn^ nm! ihnl loyalty in ft 
fiuhioa has incrcft&ed Ukowi&e. It ta now, as m* all iiioiv, not 
onootntnon tQ src ci coiuidcr^blc proportion of jionoiu ri>und « 
dinner<tftble clrinlciof; nothing but wAter, or iU iM»totaI ctjuivo'- 
lenl«, while the autom of poMin^ the bottir after dinner seenu 
^lUely Lo be excbftri^fed for Lbe custom of pussiuf; the dj[arettes, 
^yrhe old stories of four-bottler men nnd six-liottln jnrn scrm &bso- 
Hlutely inorediblr, er«m if the bottles were pints, and the wine 
VUu* wejik^t (iUdstone claret. There was, however, a cLWom^ 
which lin^Tcd on in some houses, of a six-o*dock dinner, fol- 
lowed bjr A nipper at mtdnigbtT the intert'nl harin^ been more 
or lets occupied at the whist-table. Old Colonel ^ihihorp, the 
m^n who wax bf>fore his Jifse in tba matter of beanli, and behind 
ii tn everything else, is said tf> have adhered to this custom to 
tbe last. At Court, nevertheless, soon after the heginning of 
the reign, the hours seem to have been pretty much what they 
luv at prru-nL* U'hcre is* however, one very murk«l dilTercnce 
liDtwtren thir dinner of 1837 and the dlnnrr of 1o*dny. In 
Cbauce/s lime, the Squire — the Knight's son — is described aa 
coiliteous, lowly, and servtce-ablc, and as one who 

^ ' Oarf before hU fader at th« uble/ 

^ In the hul centtiry, tbia work is said to have been mostly done 
by tlM ladies of the family. Bat at the beginntai; of the reif^, 
as our author tells til, * except in threat houses, whf^re thcf meat 
Ukd guoe was carved by the hutlcr, uverylbinfc w^ui carved on 
tl>e table. The hos: sat behind the hnuncb of mutton, and 
"helped " with icesl ; the gu«ts took the ducks, tbe turkey, the 
hare and th« fowls^ and did their part, con»cious of critical eyes.' 
Ttiis fashion tasted till about 1847, when it waa gradually snp- 
f^Dted by what wa« in tbosn days called * Diner a in Hufifte/ 
If the Mnwoviip ojuM only be satisfied with gasiront>mic vic- 
laric* like this, it would Iw better for the wi*rhl, and pi thaps not 
voTie for tbe Russian Empire 1 Anyhow, tbe Russian dinner 

- Lifs of Lord Campbell; ml. IL p. 220. 



Fi/iij Years Ago, 

luw iriutnpbrdf nml fliwc-ctjun as ttpj>1icd to article* of iotA 
tas crnttcd to 1>c a polite nrt. XKcrc ifi, biivt^vcrr, another m<?iJ, 
wbifh fiinf^r? thi> br-ginning of the n*i^n li:u f^niwn up into a re^l 
ami impDrtont inititution — the Five u'CIock Tca» The Mu«e 
of Hislorv \% sUont as 1o its origin^ tbough it is «aicl to bare 
made its lirst^ or at nil events one of its (?ar]iv3(t uppcarancc^ at 
Qelvoir Cztsile, iin<lei- tU<* ^uspIccB of the reigniag Ducbess, not, 
however, of UiitUnil, but ot Bcdt'cinlt ;tAd nut xtx tbe Dclruir 
([roirini^-rooin, but in iho room wbicb &bc occupic^d ns a viiitor 
at thr h(»i]ii«*. W*! mftv, iinwevrr, look !ow*?r, and nuneraber ibat 
in vime parts of England, notably in the Eastern ConntieSt tbe 
labourers have a meal wbich goes by the name of * fours/ and 
which occupies nearly ihp same relation to the two suhstantial 
meals of dinner and supper, that Five o'clock Tea occupies to 
luncbcnm and dioner in the higher rank«. There can be p<» 
doubt that tho cauae of teinjierunoe Is ienaibly stlvAnced hy this 
new hnbit. The prinirious hahit of 'nipping/ wbicb jieople 
are so much tempted to indul;;^ in on reEuraing home from 
hunting or shooting:, haii yielded to a great extent in presence 
t*f the more atlractivc and innocent *pick'mc-up' — a cup of tea. 
The riuestion whether people ore more or lest loyal noivadays 
thnn tbey were lifty ycAts Agr> \% one which hardly admits of 
profitable diicussion, Oiir author ohserret, in euiphatic itaiies, — 

*Tbe ^']iolc> of those mm wbo In this generntioD maintain tlio 
^rcatQcae of onr eitiimtry in iho wny* vrhoro alone greatness is desir- 
able or iiK^niondjTf^, CTt^upt in iirmK, the only mfin cif thix gcnemtion 
vhose mcitiorles will lire and adorn tlio Victorian em, ate strangers 
to the Conrt/ 

Noi altogether ; for ihry gpl thrir share of the honours wliirh tt 
rests with the Court to bestow. If, however, they were less 
strangers, would the country bcnelit ? The Court, or, to speak 
more plainly, the Sovereign, cxtsis as the fountain of honour and 
digntlj-, as the guardian of public morale, ai the oHicial repre- 
scnttttlvG of tbc country in ri-jjuid to furelji^u n^itioni, as the 
head of the law and of the Church ; and wc doubt whether, if 
the intercourse between the Court and the people were more 
familiar, some of the chief objects of a limitcJ 'monarchy might 
not fail to be carried out as wrll as they arc at presenL Lovaltr, 
like the lion which accompanies BritrLunia, is not rampant in 
Britain ; but when the opportunity arisefi, loyally is ever ready 
to «bow Itself active and cner^^crtic. 

Mr, B<^sant baa not added much to our knowledge of Parlia- 
mentary life as it waa in ISS*. He takes no notiw st all of the 
House of Lords, and what he has to say of the House of 


Fipy Years AffO. 


Commoni if jdosiIj borrowcil from a book writtcD many yf^nrt 
ago by a man wha was fint a reporter in the gallexy and 
thru editor nf a iWtly papifr wtiidi still exislf, and which, 
during hit cdItor»tiip, «ctcd uh » kitid orjacknl to the IcaJing 
lour churcb ttcrio<iicnl o(' the day. And yd, tho contrail 
l>elvreea t!i& rarliament o( fifty years ago and the Farliaincnt of 
to-day ia pctrhap* ni inarki-d t\% anv fitUtr contrast which 
Mr. Defiant puts btriorc his rca<Icrs. Th(? malrrinl Housr it 
chuDf^edt the electors are chau^ed, the procedure is cbanxed, 
atid thrre lur now on^y three prrs<ms in ihv House n( Cnmmuiis 
who VfCic iQ^ta\jcn of the House that ivoe <rlvctcd in 1^537. At 
that tiino thn {lotiu- met in n lempomry buIhUng, vrhieh, though 
haviuif no claims to architectural beauty, was tn other respects, 
and partkulArly in respect of the facility with which the 
speakers ci>uM make themselves beajd, very superior to the 
pn--».'at Huuse of Commons, and [>erhaps even to the old 
iSi, Stephen's Chap?), with its brass chandeliers nnd its Vfi^x 
caadlcSf wboic Jjghl could be scva from olJ Westminster 
Hri<lger through the partiftLEy inofiprniz4>d iraat wlndo^v hcrhind 
the Speaker s chair, and the smifke of which tjsed to itream up 
through the ventilators ronod which ladies sat to listen to 
debates, and which in fact formed the only Ladies* Gallery, 

Perhaps thrrr arc not tnany members of the present llou&e 
who are aware uf thi' uLoustic dlfhcuhics ivhidi Ailt^ctcd the 
building in which ihcy disport ihcjr eloquence- When its 
auditory qualities wore 6rst tried, thr flat ceiling which forms 
ibc present roof did not t^xist; the mot was of the ordinary 
pointed character, with windows of the same kind, the tracery 
of which still exists uutside, the lower li^bts beinj^ all that 
remains below the present roof, which cuts the original windows 
In half* It wJia found that nolhin;c could he wurse for hearing 
th&ri tlic House was with its originid roof. There were doors 
opening into the lobbies from the tops of the present gnn^ways, 
and when those doors w«rc shut it was easier to hear in the 
lobbies, close outside those doors, than in the House itself. So 
the roof was lowcicd, the gangway doors dono away with, 
and that modicum of acoustic power attained which still 

To give a complete account of the electoral system in all its 
detail would he to write* a History of HngUnd for ihrr Vietnrian 
era, but we may just touch on one point to which our author 
has not referrt^d, the increa^ in the number of the constituents. 

Ill 1^5 there were S39»000 cleclwa ; in 1871, '2 ^'i; 

in 1885, 5,Tlti,000; bein; reapcctively, 3d pc' 
inhabitants, dl per tbousandf and 100 per thousand 


JFiJ^^ JVrtrt A0o^ 

' it 11 TCii]<^m1)crec? thnt the dinrlars nir M ndult malu, tt will b^ 
Lerident that tbc nominal llM) per tbonfanrl of thr vrbolc popu- 
' ]»tion i< tmmedmidy n*tluced to /*># t/tau 50O In respect of the 
femnlc hnh' i^or rfiiitrr morr than hnll) nf ihr puptilAtion, nod, 
in re»peci of iliu mal«a uudcr a^jt, to bomctlilrt^ like 600 pei 
ihoiUAnil, outof wbtch hoivcror have lo bi; dci) acted tUc plurat 
vot4*i. Tb^ iirojiortion of vof^rt To population, if vre go b^k to 
A period only five yrars before tht <w>mmcncTtni*nt of the 
proseac roi;;a, was ludicrously less than is the case at present; 
lor itistniice, th;tt which is now the tmallcit c»nUitacncy in 
Kn^hnd, had, before lt532» only 36 rotcrs ; now, witb a popnlA- 
tiun jncnfWH!d by not more tba» EfCTeii-tentLo, It bits ujiwaids uf 
2200 voter*. 

TUp pTOSPiit l*ar!inmMi1 is the twelfth of Qaeen \'icUvnm. 
or thoftt? who sat in the llcuse of Contmoni in ihc first of (hoit 
tvreUe parliuments only tbrre UiS we have before observed) 
rcmEun in tbc tirelflb^ — Mr. Tnlbo!, Mr. Viltirrs and Mr. 
Gladstone* Oar author has borrowed from what la perhaps 
not n rcry trustwottbv source,* nnticrs of Mncsiulay, Patinmtoa, 
Lord John K;iK«tiU, 0*Conn«tl, Hulwrr, IVItraeli, and Mr. 
f flad«t<inPt bur. he dne* nothin^r mom than nami* Sir Roliert 
I*eel, Lord Stanlev, Cobbelt, liobhouse, Sir Francis Burdett, 
Hume, am) Hi^-bucK. Still less has be noticed any of those 
characters, remarkable in one way or anatber, who rofCi 
nourished, and divappeured) in the interval between lt$3T and 
HJ87, Let va bmk down the pngcs ©f histoty, ancient hiatorf 
It would now bo <:allod^ nnd pick out just a few nniue* worthy 
of notir^e, but whirb srar<*Hy rame intn the purviow of Mr. 
Besaat's scheme, as some of them at all erenta had not cocne 
into political existence at tbc coinmeneetnent of the reign. 

Not * Attaining unto the first thrc^/ but a coaspicucKia 
objet-t in the Whi^- Administrations, wasSir George Grey- Hb 
shupcly tigurr, bia eminently htindtonie face, and bis cbarinin^ 
mnaner, ^^nd^'aml bim to both sidi-fi alil:^?. Hit re^kdjnns and 
resource made him invaluable aa a counaeLIor, and if the Front 
Bench was at fault, as all Front Benches wtlt sometimes be, 
he was always to be seen ready with quick whispered advice 
to august the right course or the prudent answer. Perhaps he 
was never srr-n to grpaler cdrantiige diaa on ibr evening uf the 
10th of April, lEAS. The anxieties of thr Home i^^ccrctary oo 
that day must bavo rioen in fpver hei^bl, and It was evi^lent 
that Sir George Grej was brimming over with suppressed 
psssion when the debate of the evening began. He nad 10 

Fi/tg Yeeu-s Aif». 





aiic] iw> one wlio tair him couU vr^H forgAl iho haogbtjr 
tnannrr in which he drew himflcir up and poureJ f<>rih relniliff 
uid objurK^tioa oa tfa«r head of thr culprit of thr dav, not 
Fergus O'Connor, hut Smiih O'Brien. Sir George Grev'* 
fmiiiofc w«s ToIabiliC/. His ideas seemed to flDiv faster tbmi 
uttentnoe, hot ou thU occnshjn, (TiLciirtncnt — ^pas&ioD In tbe 
nobler seove of the word — jn»t checked li» word* rooagh to 
nififr Tolubjiit}- >nta plaqu(?DC4^. His ■pocrch was ftn orntion 
'In Catiiinaoi/ 

There was n curious incident in that night's proofwdinf^s 
vdiich wc do not remeiiiber to have fteen noticed, except in the 
Times* report of the debate. Fergus, wLo had hr<^n tolerably 
ostlcd in tliir murning, fuid who noioo^ uther luufoituiies had 
ftllen into the hnndi of plckpoeWtci aad lo»t hU HAtcb, Wfis 
wpII awfire rhnf * mnrr ih,in forty' of hi* polilirni opponents 
had sworn that, if tlie House were attacked bv tbe Chartists^ he 
should be the first victim. He was bound to be ia his place, 
— be usually aat above the gangway at the end of the front 
Opposition beDcb, and there he was; l>ut when the Division 
caiue, fri>2ht, fiUi^ue, and v^^cileiiieot, bad been tuo much for 
a braia which was probnbly not then n healthy one ; \xf- 
WAS left in (he bouut fast tuleep, anit tn be awakeDM) by 
the tellers and ti^ up to the table, as is usual in such 
Otfes, in order to hear the question put for bis sole benefit by 
Mr- Speaker, and to anoounee which way he intenii*>l lo vote. 
Not long afloTwards, the cnwe, whicli liad no dotibl been 
cxaspontcd bj' c jt cite int.' ut, drvcIo]>ed itM^if. He used lO 
wander about the lobbicn and sit down and help himself te tbe 
tooA or drink nf members in the refreshment rooms, Ac last, 
as ft crovrnin^ act i^ insanity, he oJTered his snufT-bos to the 
Chairuiiin of CDtomiltees in the middle <ii a debate. He w&3 
mnovcd hy the ofTio^rs of the Hirusi% and hamied over to the 
custody of his Tclaiivcs. He dlrd a k'vr m>intbs aftrrwAnls. 

The icat on the ihiixt row next below the ran^way is not 
'WJfiequeDtlj tha refuge, or pcrhApi tbo stronghald, of advoeatas 
of lost causes. That seat was held for many >ears hy a man 
who was an ideal representative of the impracticable, but who, 
if bis K-ntioients sometimes provoked a \m\\c from his own 
political friendf, as well as something more from bis political 
opponeats, was held in kiadlv estimniion bj both sides alike, 
Mr, Newdegate entered ParliataenC in 1841, and retained the 
same seat till tbe voar 1^3 — forty-four }<esrs. He relinnl from 
Parliamentary life at the G«neml Ktection in that year, and 
died a few months afterwards. Free Trade be, of course, 
opposed as a country gentleman, but his cldef hostility was 


Ft/t»f Ytar* A^. 

ibflwn to on^tliin^ wliich bAcl even the smalleU affinity to ^ib^ 
Mnn of ^in/ Nunrpric«, cniift-stm^alx, tc-rritoriAl titles of 
RooioQ Calbotic pr«*lntc:-s^ — ^tbcsc ivcrc hU nvcrsion ; And it ii 
iiiijKHsible Co <I(-4rrib(^ tLe iiiourarul )|;ranUeur with TiMcb be 
utcu U) open his vnuJTbaA, take a pn^liminftTjr pin<:b, f<rJd and 
unfold the sombre baodanoiLf and launcb inlu a jcr^mbLil aa to 
Jh4T pr(uipi*rt8 of Prni<»«lAntift[n, morr- dUmnl than nny tftrar 
Uttered bj tbe rivtrs of Habirlon. Jle was said, we knoir oijI 
wbcibvr truly or not, to havo command<-d a rvgimt^nt of Y«o- 
manrr, wbo^ uniftrrm bejn^ liUe-graen^ and whoae aim being 
dot altogether without clr^mrnu of ri»k to tbose vrilbtn range, 
vvut knuwo by tUu naiue uf The MoufufuJ ftoJ Dan^nouat an 
«pitbt't whicb Komc gracolct* IrUbman in th« Htiuceof Commons 
Iransfeired from th^ gallant warriors tn tbeir not loaa galUni 
but very doluroui oommaodc^rp 

X% hostile to Fopcry as Mr. Nc!vdcgat«, but difTeriD^ from 
biui in one reipect, aji bein^' rather a cliampion of a new-fotuid 
cre^Hl than of a Jost cauic, the nainv of Hcnrj Dnimmoml will 
arouae ii» some minds the recolLectioo of a vor^ ren)«Lab]v 
man, who, witb socncthin^ of what cH«^ Scotch call * a beo in the 
bonnet/ po«e*»ed a great amount of witty eloquence, quot«i hu 
Horu^e like nn old Ktoninn, and havine; bt-cn in Parliamtnt in 
hie youib,* broujfht back, after more than thirty years' abaence, 
some of the traditions of that unreformed House which wa« 
ca)fe<) the best club in l^uropc. In rbc House of Commons he 
was better known as a free-lance whose band was af^aioat ereiT 
ntQO, (hnn as a apipru 1 at i V(^ thr<o]o^iao nr a f\r^\atcd Tory. His 
speeches were f^uerally bizarre^ but never dull, and ihero was a 
certain rf^finemcnt about them, and a certain ilcHcocT in bU 
rap icr-t bruits, not often reproduced in tUe paj^es of liajonnl, 
although it always attracted attention and [asnnnted the Jistencrr. 

Tbrru roubl Lanlly be a greater contrast than the contxsst 
bftwc'L*n Henry Drumm^ind nnd Joseph Hume, Opposite to 
onr nnalhrr fho^ gonprallv sal, and their rbikmeC^^rs were as 
opposite as tbeir seats. The one, the incarnation of wit and 
geniui; the olbcr, the plodding critic, who sufTeml nn Estimate 
to paas unchallenged. At a time when the national expenditure 
amounted to not more than fifty roillioni annually, Joseph 
Hunic k''pt a Gtafl' of cK'jka at bis own cr&prruKT to aualjrse and 
SUiniUptrizi? its extravagance ; now that this national cxpcnditore 
has doublrd, the I'lsrimates pass swiftly through tike House* with 
hardly a voice — since the voice of ' Peter ' is no longer heard — 
to drnonnce their (Iimen«iona. Joseph Hume was ever on the 

UP, ^ njaploa Katie, ISI0-I6L£L 


t'ifitf Yecm A$^ 


watch, oncJ no Parlianientar^ heai! of a Department cmild avoid 
\i\.% cfiticiuni. There he sat* night aJUrr night ; he efiUtliahed 
m pmclinc of cconotnvt nnd eren tbouj!li b« has n» actual and 
personal succcfis^^r, h» montlc hju in sonic von descended u]>od 
tbe nh'>l4> llouw, Anil mnny M«mbvr« of FitrUaiDtnt, who 
hardly ever he^il ol' hi« nAinc, arc influenced bj the principle* 
of which he was the €Arlicat and moat eameftt evuixeii«t. He 
p<)ttfteMcd a vast knowledge of all econorotCAl lubjrcts, he wiis a 
foit of walking Statistical Absiract^ and 14'hatcver knowledges 
be w:La |iutv.'«jed of, he imparted in the mrjtt friendly spirit ti> 
at] m<{ulrcrt. Hit ntjfle of «}>cakinj;, 011 vnj' but ec<;nomic 
■ubjr^c, tvjif inr^«t peeultnr. Hnrdly cv«r did h*i end an oral 
ft^nlcnce. but when he hnd uttered as much of it as made it 
ii]|«)!i|;ible he used to leave the few last words UDB|M>ken, and 
lake up the sentence n^^xt in or<ler, assuming appnrrntly that 
the aadiencc would be stientive enouf^h to suppljr the Diissiiig 
wonts and :icc»m|iJiity thi? spenki^r, Josrph Ilume wm (lie »m 
of a poor widow who kepi u »hop In Montro&e. The stor^- 
gnpi thftt it wn» ft erofk<^y •h'jp, ami that thn Lord Panmure of 
ihiT period, now somewhere about a century sj^Ot smashed ber 
brittle warea in a drunken frolic, and then, by way of amend*, 

Erocured her hoy a berth as sur|>eon's aisisiant on board an 
;ast Indiaman. Be this as it uiuv, be returned from ludts 
with n fortune, loiae lime before l^l^i in which TCftr he entcicd 
ParliATrenl, wliere he sat for various places until his death 
in 1AA'> \ a mmt utefal pubUo servant, nnsslnrted, but 
^indeCa tillable. 

It sehlom happens thit the House of Commons is without a 

member who fills the i\!/r am) discharges the functions of tho 

jester of a umnarcli of the Middle Ages. For many of the earlier 

Tfftrs of the rcign^ ihit pr>*i wa« hehl by Colonel Siblborp. 

Always oceupyinjc the itaiiie place, decked with w&tL^li -chains 

' ud lockets* dangling a double eye-gUss in his liitnd, — the only 

Dan with a beard except Mr Muntf, the Itadieal member for 

BirmiDgbam, — looking upon tlm Conservative side as one-eyed 

ptUttcisos, and on the U^higs and Kadicah as enlireU beneath 

ftis notice, he let no opportunity »lip for uttering saliricu) 

"nisrks^ •ocnettmes launched against one party ^ loroctiincs 

l^KDst the other He Wfti never weapy of takin|r Up hi» 

pvibte, and the burden of that parable usually was, that there 

*KS only one wise man in the rlouie, and that man Colonel 


His pbce was filled by a worthy successor, a man of a 
^■S^r range of imrlEcct, and a tnan who, if he could have becu 
ptnuaded to look upon politics as anything more tban a g^me^ 


Fiftif Year* AgiK 

and on Ciloquence m aovtbing above n *toiir de force,' might 
have filled a conspicuoac plticc in ilw. aDnalt of liiv countrj^, 
R«lpb Benml O^litjrijtT lulj«*rittHl froui bis Jc^uh oacvstora a 
power of voice wbicb is not umally granted to tbe Aryui rmcM. 
TKnl vnin-, it is sairl, was hear<) at th«^ iliilj^ore of n^arlj a 
mile from tbe huBtin^ nt Brentford when lie sniod, anil C3unc in, 
for MiJdJLrw^. In ihe House of Commonv, wh^neror he spoke, 
it Tfto^ throagh tbe bencbiM like clie sound of a trumpet. And 
the trumpet gave no uncertain sound, for no speech of his bat 
contniiicd some Tritticism which eluiijc to the inemones of hU 
bonrcn, ond wa» often n*peflled in afi»r yenrs as * on« of ibe 
b*»*t tiling* Bernal Onljorn*? rver »nid/ It wan whispered 
indeed that those mots were Bomctimes the offspriiif;: of the 
midnight oil ;— sucb, perhai>s, was hta eelebrated CDmpanaon 
of that grim old wavcrer, Sir James Oralmm, in bis gangwsv 
comer seat beliind Lord John Kussetlf as 

' Tho swdQt Httlo c1i<Tnb that sitfi Of nloft, 
To kee)j wsldi uVr Lhu soul of poor Jsck.' 

But there were many jokes wbiefa must have been xmpnym^, 
and, take him for all in all, ho wav, perhaps, the srittiest 
spesker, so lar, Jn the Victorian I'lrliaments. 

It is not only fur que<fr characters iliat ne have to look in the 
House o£ Coromons a.* it hj»s czistrd for ihr Ifttt fiftj ^ais, 
W'c lird cheT<? thr? rE*pretvn<ativec of great nnd original mov«' 
meuis — the Manchester school, which has rex'olut ionized com*- 
merce, and the Humanitarian school, which has brought rieb 
and poor into so mucli nearer contiguity. The life of Cobdea 
has hern written by a man of the first literary ability, and we 
do uoL prvHuuitf to udd & hue- to his narrative Hot wr msy be 
permitted to sAy n word, tint ns to lLr> poltti<;Lan, hut as to the 
man. No one who rememl^rs fJoliik'n can hnvt* lofit sight of 
the conspicuous gentleness of bis ehaiader, the mild way in 
which he napd to welcome young members nf Parliament, par- 
ticularly wlien tbeycamn from agricultutal districts, the interest 
bo used to evince as to the state of crops nnj Ibe pnmusei for 
liarveBl. His mrilKid of spraking, t<]o, should not l>c forxotieOt 
— the curious nerYousnrss which he <IiBpliiVt^d before riatng, and 
the wonderful powrr of concentration whilo hr spoke. His 
eloquence was called, by a (rrest judge of speech, ' uoadonied/ 
It was not onlv unadorned, hut it was, so to spfak, irtlucod to 
a skeleton. '1 he argtimcnt^ whatever \l was, was put into the 
narrowest possible compass, into puri.-Iy logical form, clearly 
scaled, and thca left to be liHr*l up in ihv aiinds of ihr hr:ui'rs. 
I: WAS pormitted to Mr Cobden to survive almost all that 



Fift^ Years A39. 

pcnoDul hostility with wbicb lie hftd been regarded nt an 
^rlicr jjoriwi ol hi* courac. Tlic House of Conunons b Dot 
oft«n given to tUe mehing moocif but on the <Iaf on irbich 
Ilia wAi Announced there wa« wn ejihibitioa of fecUnjf 
wttiiin ihoif w»ll» <uc'h im is rttn?lv w^n in a public nncmhl^. 
The ^iet of a strang-ininded man is alvrays peculiarly touchtn^t 
and on ttiat occasio:) no one who saw it con forget the piteous 
tone of Umentation in which that grief was expressed hy the 
dead man's neircat friend. 

The ^eat Freetrader livetl atul di>:d in the House of 
CoffimoDS' The grc-itt Piiil^iidiropln hnd loii]^ bocn a mfmhcr 
of the <>t!icr Aftseuihly, aiHl whem ho pcuwd awaj-, only lhf<w 
years since, there were few who rememhered the old batdes 
which he^ oa Lord Ashley^ hul fouf^ht And vron, forty years 
before, in the came of humanity, although^ till the last few 
months, one of his allies, who bad ibrowa ali the energy of an 
cndiUGifutii: ^uuLh intu the struggle, ■t'H rtrtnained, stimcwhat 
buwcd aud bUnchod by ekgCi on the front bcadi of tho Hou»o of 
Commotis. As a Ia%-er of his spi?eic4, ther« is no man whose 
tnemory will liLSt longer or more green thui Lord Shaftesbary^s. 
As ft ChuTchpian there is not much to be said for him. At one 
time he had coDsidcr^ble influence in the Episcopal arrangc- 
tneats of a Libend Guveinm<-ut. TUote arrdu^jenteuts were not 
BftUafaclory, and if a PGrlia»Kntum ifitlvclufn is rcgarUctl with 
disrespect, a BisLiop** Uencb is nut Ulcoly tu bo much honoured 
when its ocriipnntn are only impr-rfrrtly arnuaintod with th4^ 
Greek Testament* We may, however, forxet the narrow-minded 
bigotry of his o|Hnion« whiln we remember what ilcbts of grnti- 
lu<!e arc oiring to him by tbe factorv chihl, the little miner, die 
waif and straj' of London back-slums, courts, and alleys, ibe 
cosLertnongeri ami cirea thu o>»t«:nni?n^'i'r» duukey. 

The Parliaxncnti of the Qucrcn have hod as motnbcrs three 
remavlcable writers of fiction. Of lliese, two weT« eminent 
membcn of Conservative ad ministration*, and an* rather to be 
noticed in the history of the reign than in a paper like the 
presenL One there was, liowcTcr, of wLom we wuh to say p 
word — the cm^-itor of tbr chiiactc^r of Tittlebat Titmciuse. 

Sunuel Warien'a ' pA<isagL-s from tbc Diurv of a Late 
Physic isn/ as thoy appeared in successive numbers of * Illack- 
wood's Ma^fasine/ in the years 1830 to 1838, were the literary 
excitement of the timv; nnd when the 'Passages' cxtcndetl 
over more than one monihly issue, ss some of tlic later ones did 
extend, the interest its to what was to eome next was almost 
nauonal, and probibly suggested to a great wriierf who bogmi 
to be known soon after, the form of story which he adopted, 


Fijty Ycari A3C* 

ivMcb is now known as tho ^monttily semi/ Warren kept 
up \\\'% nnpulnril}' m hi* novel of ' '1 ru Thoimnil r Year/ 
nod hncl «omr rmitt ng n writer on Jc*gal snbjcds. Hii 
parliamemaij career was aoi brilliam, only excendiii^ through 
ibrrc or four SrsKions. flu wu noti^'ccl ino»ilT for a babtt ku 
had of plidinf- round the Mouse nnd * conferrinf:,* as it wss 
rftlW, first wiih rini* mcrnhnr, thrn with Annthi*T. Al^^r faU 
elcvition to a quasi-judicial office, that of M&ster in Lunacy, 
\\^. htid An oppcirlunitv ofdistinguii^litng himK-lf in the* Windham 
trial, of which bf hnrdly a\'nilc<l himiclf. Her was rczueii^ hcred 
in ibe I loufto of (Commons bv a son of funera} omticm^ in which 
he solcmnlj' look Irarc of a body of wbich he bclicvctl bxuu^ 
to W one of ihr brj;>ht«it omntn^nt*. 

If thp Onr Man On<* V*olo proposiil li<» ov^r adopted, it will 
be a matter of curiosity to watch what (-fleet it will bavr on 
University ronstitumcles. 'i'lif* prnhflbilily is thmt \k will 
largely diminisb their numbers, as almost every member of the 
Seoatci nf Oxford mjd Cambridge has other ^IccUinit interests 
more preuing; end denrrr thon a University vote. Up to the 
preftcnt time it must Iw confiMM^d tbat politics have bad more 
10 do with the selection of University candidates than either 
literature or science ; but when the electors are moKtly midrat 
members of the University, it is very possible that literature 
and science may re-astert their claims, btill there nrv ud 
hare been eirrptions to tbe rule. The juniur (present) repn- 
Acntstiro of Cambridge University 1% a distiD|^ui«hed mstbe* 
niatieinn, and su^»<fdc p man whou^ earf^r at school and 
college was a brilliant one, who was made LL.D. * propter 
merila ' at (^luiibrid^L^ nnd who w&s enotl^ of an architect 10 
be President of the Institute of British Architects, and enoD|fa 
of a literary man to be a Trustee of the British Museum, 
Mr. Bcmfortl-Ho|K: had no rncaur* in the Houte of CommoiU. 
He was a f:ood Cliurcbinao without inflaming the wrath of the 
Nonconformiiitt, and a good Tory without, being an object of 
hatred to the Radicals. Though be owned the * Saturday 
Review/ we may br sure he did not write the articles wUtca 
have given it an alliterative epithet the reverse of coraplimentary. 
Though be once provoked the gibes of a great master o( 
sntiricnl speech, thAC groAl matter made amends b_v cieatiuf 
him a Privy Councillor. If his jokes fell flat, tw they sometimes 
did, on the ear of the I Inuie nf Commonn, tbere was one person 
who always enjrn'ed them, and whose smiles, wlien tliose jokes 
were on tbrir way, not unfrequently Announced that ibo act of 
parturition would be speedily accomplished* lie was, in many 
respects, very much of a character ; what he was in youth, such 



be ODDtiaued to ihc end ; there was soroelhinjc childlike ift hit 
amubilitv, an amiubiUlv vhich creali^d a focling nkin to 
attachment in many wbo mjgbl othrrwiMT hare been inAuenced 
fowards bim by no stranger impulse tban the Ceding oi 

Mr. BnantV cliAptfn: on * Soboo) and Uaivcnitv ' does not teem 
tA prMi*ni fliiy very now tnnttm ffir congid^^rfttion, but in tame 
revpeett hii ttnteDiciUft ^tre not %o accumti; ai mi^ht he wifthrd. 
Ffir instAncr, tbo statrmcntt that no one could be matriruhtcd 
at the tin^iisH UnirL'j«itiei without at^nia^ the Tiiirty-nin« 
ATtictcs, is not kttogcLbcr true. At Oxford the tnatricolator 
«ubicrib«d th« Tliirtv-aine Arlic1«a and a\%v awiuo to ubirr^e 
tbroc nrttdcft of the 3titb Canan.* At Cjimbridgo the «ufa^ 
■rription took pf^ee not at matneulation, but before Inkioft 
tbe B.A. decree, whrn, hy the bye, the curious old, 
before whom tbc ceremony was peiformed, took considenblc 
pains to explain to the ' sij^uatarie* * that their act was not much 
more than a fortn. Before 11437, however, the battle (if ^ub- 
•cTipiion bad brgnu, and Maurice hud publivbcd that rcinnrk- 
able patcpblot, ivbidi wna tbi* moAt inffenioo d^tfenee tbat 
a braia of unequallnl subtlety coubl invent for a pracliccp 
which ba« long atncc been numbered witb the thing* that 
have been^t 

There i« ^nv. dUtinction which Mr. Bcsfint does not draw be* 

iwcffti the Univenitles of fifty years ago and the Univeratiies as 

they arc at prevent ; * dUtinction which ia owin^ in totiie lar^ 

meautire to iJkf> mnn wh'>ni vrp bave jtut rnetitionofl, who, beiide* 

writing' Sabfirnption nt> noniUgo,* founded the <)iif en's CoJIegP. 

Tb« blither cducati^m of women hai now becttme a fnrt of 

ibe largeit tigniGcance. The 'girl graduate with her golden 

hair' has been neatly, and before Jod? will be completely* 

•ealixed at Oxford aad at CAinbridge. Itwns a cutIoui Klght 

Uat year, in the gArtIrn of L»mbi-th Palnce, to *ee ihc fiitheis 

^ the Church leaving the cotigcniid tooioty of ihcir brother 

*Ctlesiastics to pay bomitge lo the pleasant yoang lady, who bad 

}U3t iucceed«l in showing Catnhridge questionists that clasiicnl 

^ininction wat not a monopoly of the stronger sex. Before 

long, tbe winners of similar diitinction will no doubt be too 

BOiaeroua fur such notice-; but we may louk uptin tbc dcrelop- 

°^t of the higher c^Iucati-m of wumt.'n &3 one of tha most 

*(>w4iiDot it* rrmin-uUio Univomltatb rc^i^romii soeedont • . , Artioulia 
'm H lMJ£i bn^il; el iio acQc-H^mb I'rnwtQ B«$Ii» Uftjeilalii, 

*^rm]ii EnRhniL I i. unt."— Oifonl Uiiivr-i*it]r li^iaiolci*' 

^Snrvt; U/- L.>AQt kjt* in ft^MKlng that «ob«cript£on to itt^ Artiolm has 
^ t^ nla at Kmy$ D>UbEe. t^nikc. 

Vol 1S7*— AS. tfJJf- p hcdtby 


Fifly Yean AiftK 

tealthyKDcl encoui&gtng tijiis of <3oafinnMl anil eitauded Oft tjoml 
proflpfxitj-. ': i* 

Till' sabuiiattoa of the rafttftBrftnt for the tdt'ercif wbicti 
fonnft l\xr sulijct't of imr auttior» urxt cih^jitcr, Ajipc-tin U> lu to 
be? somi^whnt i>f & Jjstincti<>n withi>ut n iliflVrcrioc, ikUUovi^bt 
p4*r}iAp«, ir mny br nrgr<], ihni of tb(^«n two kintU of hoiifri* of 
refmlimem the first b^u tt> do with eAlincr raiber tban drinking, 
th<t seconJ vrith ilrinkin}: mthor thnn rating. At tliv tumo timet 
it ■faooJd be remembered that the le<;sl title of a piibUc^R u ' a 
licwnsni) vktUAller/ not a dealer in drink. It is ratiicr the 
dull ihuii Htv- it^Uuiani nhjch h^s auppUiitinl \\k*^- turcra, 
And of this oar nutlior's statistics g;iTc the movt conrinciag 

'Thwotfore tv«atj-flTe claba la a11 (in 1835^ nnd, fts lutti^iDesi 
Tiiul rn'^n? tlinn ono eliib, nn^ the avorm^o momljcnhip wm inidur a 
Ltj<^iisaiL<l, thore were not mora thaD ^0^00 men oltogellier ttlio 
bc]<nig<id to clnba. TImto aro now at ka«t 12fit000, vrith Qoarlj a 
hiuiirc4 cluba; . . • bocadcs thew, tk^io are now oXm^vX nixt/ soooad 
elasa elubs, together vitli a great mnoy elubs wliidi oiiat foi qteaal 

To thr« must be added the ehtbf which exist In almost every 
couQiy town, as well as in all the ^at indu»1ria) and com- 
men'iAl omtren of tht^ land, 

Mr. Ilcsaat f catalogue of the litcrAry pem^oa, who (louritbed 
at the beginning of the reign, is ojm;ei to v>m^ criticum. It is 
true he meaciona Dickens^ ihough he misdatea the np|warAi>ot 
of the ' Pickwick Papers ' by a ye^ir — they begaun in 18i^(t ; and 
it ia not easy to understand why he fixes upon Hood aa the 
moil eminent of iho authors who were Bourishint: in 'the 
thirties/ Hood, it is trui?, wrote three verv benutjiui poemS"— 
'We watched her breathing through the night,' *Tho$onf of 
the Shin/ nod ' The Bridge of Hi^bs/ besides plenty of what 
may he called «qiiib literature, but tin has noeUini to be y^t at 
the hcnil of a list which ought to ciiataiii Carlyle, uol to speak 
of Tcnnywfcn, whose earlier poems — and are they not in some 
icnic hi* bcs:? — were publislied before 1*^40. As to the 
Laureate, wc may just observe, that the beanUi^ss portrait of htm 
which appears airiung Mr. Besant's iUuatratluiis \% not by Sir 
Thomat Lawnmcc, who died in 1830, when Lonl Tennyson 
wa< only twenty*on», hut by Samuel Lsorenee, an artist whose? 
bends of Arehhistiop Trench and of Maurice possess conBidtr- 
able merit, and whose f^enial presence lingers in tbe uiemory of 
many lurvivin^ frienda. 

It is natural, havlag talked of books, to falk of newspaperst 
and Mr, Besaut ^'ives us a list which may be pcmscd with in* 




ttTr%t\ biiEhftIi&ri]1>-p<MDUOTit,ai be migtit bivodone, tbe treat 
<lificTCacc whicb exuu in tUe ■iibjifi:t*mnttfr oi the ntwspApcrs 
at pri*«^nt as compnred with ihc subject-matter of fifty jcars 
a^. Xo book now Appears of even pusio^ inleMit'vrblcii is Dot 
noticed in cm? or »tljcr uf tlic London dailj' pA|icr» ; nftv, iitorc 
tbfta noiicod,— re^iotv«^ in true literary »^y\v, No uunr plaj, no 
open, IS pr(idnr<*d \rhir:b dors not mtl iarih eriticinm, :ind itonuw 
linm criticism of the bifphesi order. As Co news, the chiuj^i* is 
mure ^em:l^knblf^ itiJl ; but that i* only one (Ir^idopmE-n; nf the 
drcttii: L?lf-grApK to wbich aho is to be Ascribnl a complete 
revolution In tbe usages of trade, in wbich it is to be observed 
that tlK; 'middZcomn' has in most oasc4 sotTcrvd inucti, and in 
some cases hat been untirelj obUl«rat*?d, Diplomacy, too, »0' 
to speak* is nerer s^ifr. The * tap«* is constantly running from 
all ihe capitals of Euroi>e, and it is now no ionjrer nutUi dim, 
Imt mdhwi Icaij^/ns momtrUnm, which is iinf /vihyL How dif^ 
Jcrcnl Irom the year m4?f, when the Lord l:ibriap;tcin of the day 
rushed into the House ol Cijinmons with an early copy of 'The 
Globe,' conininiup im account of Ui« orstbnnk at Paris ibe daj 
beloirt* ; on which Lord PalmuritoTi, beinp' aftk«d on thr Friday 
if be bid any later informfttion, replied that his latest despatches 
friMD Paris were dalrd at half-past six on Wednesday tn'eninfr. 
Nowadays there it lurdly- a petty villagr^ in the country which 
does not know by 10 A.M. what has happened all over ibc world 
up to 10 P.j£. the UTUuiug before. 

Mr. JUaaat dcTOtca u fc-vr f>iH^s to what he calU The Sports- 
nuui, hti^inniDg by rxprt^Eing hit regrets tbat iht? prwp riny 
is oo lon^r a naiioLkal iuatituliou, aod his opinion that the 
dvcay of the pri^e riuj; Mias bcft^n fulbiwed by a (S'reat decay 
of natjonal plark and pu^achy^ aod thoicfore naturally by n 
fllMtj of aatioiul enterprise/ < ir^ , , lu --.i' -t>\ *- 

Tbis sounds very iniich like nonsense^^Bd what fallows like 
rerj miffchiovous nouEMnvr: — 

'We luay fairly oongratQlato curselTce, thorofom, that tLo noble 
art of loli'defeQOu iH revivjufc, aui) fnnuij«iM to beooms as groat and 
fatomdto a £i>ort as befun^ Lot all oar hoYf bo uught to light, 
Fiflj jcnnt ago there was not a (lay ia n pubu« school nbcu there 
waa not a fight between two of the boys : thopo was not a day when 
tbeio w«« not a stroot figlit; ditl uot the luail-coacL drivi-'ni who 
aoocimpanied Mr- Samuel Wtiller on a oieiuorablo occwion leave 
behind tlicm one ef iheir aumbcr t** flght a stroot jiottcr io ri™t 
&tnet9 ... It wnv a disgrace not to ho nblu to fight Let all our 
bof s bo taught again and eacoumged to fi^lit. . , , Let there bo ao 
Douaeiuo Uiiten«d to about brutality. The world belong to the men 


p2 1£ 



^ifty Years AfO. 

If Mr, Hrtant tlunk* ibc art of scif-dcfcn« a noble ari, we 
should adviso him to ^ to a prijE«-figbi, and ft«<* what son of 
coinpanv b<- Jiiiils th^rcr. Hfiy yoars agi>, u be acknowled|fe», 
' a prize-fight was acrompflnicd by every kind of black^anlixm 
nnd rilUiny/ Does lit? ihink thing* aiic brUvr tionv ? It ib juAt 
a century, as we find from a note in Windhani** Momoin^ «iiic« 
tliat not very precise gentlemnn, the PHnft! of Wales of ibat 
time, nnnounci*d his lot^'ntion of dtlcndiDg noinotx; pnjcc-fights, 
and the world has ^oe on, since then, only in so zi^^ i 
fuhion thnt we ftml our author, one of thi^ great tnomlists of 
ttie present time, mixinfr up war and pri^c-fig tiling and giving 
uttcmnco to ji ■enlimeat like this, 'The world belongs to tlw 
men who can fghl ' 1 

Air. Uesant*s chapter on Sport eonftists mostly of extncts 
{pom comic ^tintiala, and takes no notice whatever of the Terr 
nmark&b)^ changes which the List) luitf*century has witnessed 
iv the constmction nj guns, AtiO in the mctbodt uid objects ot 
»pon. It i» not much more l^ait tfiy years sin€« the lons- 
diiii»ed method of explosion by copper-caps was introilnced, in 
somftbing ttke it« iiTtimaie farm, by Joseph Mnnton. The 
'Kne^clop-rdia JVIetro|)r>litAn&,' published in 1836, has a Lr>ng 
description of the art of forming gun-flints, and i^ives elaborate 
plates of Bint-U>eks iaa used in muskets, together with state- 
ments nf the comparative failures in forty rounds fA ball cart- 
liiJgL-B fjiud fiout MX musktts, by twu kiud» of |M?rcu»4ion caps 
or plo^, lind by the oM Atnt and steel. Our rc^lc^rft will be 
fttnnsed to krtnw, that in henvy rain on«* kind of |iereuuioii cap 
failed once in 16 times, the percussion plu^ on which Joe 
Mantnn prided himself failed once only in 120 times, while 
the instrument of war wttL which we won the Haule ol 
Waterloo faile<l once in 3} times nearly, In fino weatfaer 
bbc proportions of failure were oner in -13, unce in 300, and 
oncse in 13 timoiL It is announced by tho writer of the 
article we have referred to, that ' at mr'ftrnt tin* [Mrn uuion lock 
has ncit been Introduced into tho British Armyt but ... it 
is pn^bnble soch may be soon the case.' The fire at the Tower 
Annoujy in JMl had» wc believe, \ grcst deal to do with the 
actual change, bnt ii was to sporUmen tbst we aie indebted 
both for the chan^ from Bint-Iockj to pcrcui>ion, an^l for the 
■till more impoTtant change from m ux/ 1 c- loading to brMvh- 
loading. The ^chokt-bon?' is of eonrne notnpplii-nhlr to rifles, 
or to any j^un which fires bullets wliich fit the breech, hut it 
liaa no doubt consiflerably increased tbe killing power and 
distance of ordinary shot guns. 

Nearly contemporaneous with breech-loaders is tlie practioe 


Fijt^ ¥^r$ Ago. 


of *<1riviiig;' applied first fo grouftr-, «n<T llirn to parlriilg«». 
In ihe cstMf' of grouft^v, it has had a most bi-ni^ficial f^SecX on the 
ba^, and ftt the *ainr timr on the qunniitj' of gmuftp brpd in ft 
givrn Epflc«. It is in f&ct a method which ensures tbv skufEl^ter 
of (he ' old cnckV ^^ifd, u i» well known, the oldf^r the pnter- 
funiJiu, tbc Urgr^r tho circle which he appropriates to himself 
and his family, so that it is most imporiam to prevent the 'oM 
cock** ft-^m living too long^ ; An^ bs ihcj* wax shjer cYcry jcar 
of thi^ir liY**, th*>r are uiuaily ihc firtt to ^GOm« rtver In n 
'drive/ when all tho gunft are full, and so run a greater risk 
thnn the others of pa>in(r >}'C penalty uf their own cr&f^ 

Since the hrj^inninp of the rei^n, Scotland h^is become the 
plA/grouiid of Ku^liihrnen. Red deer, ^nmse, nnil (iilmon, 
bare been rcnilc-r<^) Accrsaiblc hy ihc inlroduclion of railwajrt, 
and It would he hard to estimate? to what extent the rontnl of 
Scotland has increased in consequence. The ' Encjcloptedia 
Mctrop.<ditar:i *' does not even mention red drer, and in its 
arlirlr ' Ccrvus* on Iv observes that they are still found in a wild 
state in the tijghlandt. As to deer forests, as a matter of 
commcri.^ ihcv had not been bcArd of, and Poulctt Scrape s 
book en Wild Sports, publivhed in 183*1, tlo<»s not, we belterc, 
sp<^ak /if them rxr-j^pt ns thr- ndjunets of grent HighUnd imitates : 
we are, however^ !ohl by the authority quoted above, that ' the 
Highland chiefs wen; accustomed formerly to hunt the red 
deer,' hut that ' thrsc huntin^^ parties were found too frequently 
to be made for politjeal purposes, and as such tbey were pn>- 
litbitrd by Act of Parliament *t ^fo1vwlayB, it is not tbe 
liicf# but the cToftcrfl who hunt the red dwr, though not 
♦jnrtly for pnliticjtl pTifpotrs. 

The mention of ^uns u^t^d for the purposes of sport reminds 
DS of another kinrl of weapon, used for n much graver object. 
While wc have had one if not tnorerolauonsin the conatrucUon 
of what our ancestors used to call * fowling-pieces,' there hare 
br«En ihc sioit cxltaufdiuttry changes Id thv construction of the 
amUoryman's f^annon and tho soldier'* musket. There was 
sn annual dinner of the Foremen Engineers the other day, at 
which .Mnjor-(ieneral Maiiland made a speech, descrihing thoae 
diAn^ in a rery graphic way. In replying for the army, he 
Bslii that 

'fillf jreftTB Bffo, the hcaTleflt gun coat £1^0, and eaoh round cost 
aboQt S0«. Thi> hoavioBt gnu now costs about £20,000, and m^ 
Tonitd D0«t ncurly £S0O, to oay Dothing of wear aud tcor * (vrhioh {a 

• Aitich 'Sootlsad; tublUhed 1B3C. 


F\fiy rian Ago. 

- 4Sominw}. *■ A iHinTj QViit dougnod 1>j Hntfolf and mndi? at Uio 
S^ftl Qun Factory, bud beoD find at Shoebm^nefiA, It was a 22-toD 
gnm A fibot o/ 3801U- wiw fir«l with ft nngcT tjflil.tlCH) J'a^^ which 
wiut juKt twulvu milesH It uould be sooii lliat long rftitgca were T««y 
Buriouii ilii]jg«. Tltcro would b<t no dIfBculty in bombarding too 
CfLnnon Stn^rt IIol*d from WtiolwJch. uid a wuntUip TuigKt bombard a 
mport or a T^atoriDg pbice, and jot, owing to Iho ^nmUtireof the 
earth, not 1>o %t;vnu* 

The General went on' to speak of the n<;vr mA^axinc riBr, 
which, he ttiiid, would be in loe bands of the troops in a fcw 
days. Thi» rlfto, he snid, might be Joaded uid, we pi^um^ 
fired, eif^ht timca in a few ir^onda ; somewhat diflbrcm from old 
Brown Br^*, which, it oved to br- said, rctjujrrHl to fire awnjr the 
wpj^-ht of a, man in bullets, for rv<Tjr onciny killod. Wo need 
hnrdlv (ihnTTTi*^ ihftt lhr«e rhanp^i in the attack involve oorre- 
apondin^ changes in ibe defence, and that fort ill cations which 
wore once perfectly edScient have now in manv ca^e^ become 
mere mockeries And delusions. 

A» ue drAw towards the end of Mr. iiesant's book, we become 
more And more convinced that the cxiinic portions ate not the 
moat succesaful portion* of th«> volum«». His ttcrount of tb» 
condition of the workers, particularly tbr women and children 
workers in fsctdries and minefl, is full of melancholj interest. 
We have iM^ard and read the story over and over again, but it 
never tires. Children of six years old, kept for twelve hoars 
together on the wauh to open a door for coal inicks to pass 
ftod r<-]>*ii, allowed x CAndlr, which soon went out, vto ihat for 
thegrr^iiter part of ihoir torig working daj xXitty were in darkoeas; 
women pushing or ilrap^ing the ro«il trucks, clad in nothing 
but a pair of short trousers, with a belt round the waist, ai^ii a 
chain attached to the truck they had to drag tlirougb ^lleries 
so low as t4> ohiigr the workers to ^o on all-fours: such was 
the Huie uf ilir ntmet, fiflv )ears since. The factories were* il 
ifl true, under some rrguliitioOf but one result of the enrlior 
t'ftCtoiy KeKuiiili^^ Aof(w:iK lo drive tbecklldren into tbemtDe*. 
\\ WAS not till 1841 tliat the liule swco^p got protected by an 
Act of Parliament, 

Mr. Jle^4uit'» penultimate Hiapter, contributed by a leg«l 
frieDd, is on the subjex^t of Law and Justiee, and contains in a 
few \ia^^-s i\ vtiy iuleie-diug suiiiuiar} of the ehnugt's «i hicll 
bav* taken place in iho Statute IJook during the V'ictoriau era. 

* Hto tbonsaai throa bandred luid foriy-fuur cnaetmcstH bare b^tati 
addad , - . ainco tha Qnoon oamo to tho tlirouo. . . . All oar pr^ 
oednro — e^iuitahle, legal, and crimtQal— much of the sid^stance of 
equity, lav, and justice oa we oitderstaud the worda, is gone. 





i'yt^ ymtrt AffC, 

■*L»w*' had a diflbrcnt meaxusg 6ftj yean ago: "e^oU;* liardly 
mj mcaain^ at all' (exoepL mtb lefijroDuv to prooodoro); 
*" JQBtico" bwl «D agly sound/ 

We need banlly observe th&t the home of Law ii no louffer 
Wc-ilmtnticrr Hall ; that ilie Lord Cbaoceilor ai praeni turUlj 
ever prcAiiJca over th« Court of Cliaaccrjr ; that tlw Count/ 
CoBfla have made poiaible the recoverjr of small debt*; that 
divorce haa c»sc<l to be *thp luxury of the wealthy ;' ibaE the 
vbole admin i»tratirm of thta oriininal law h;u born alt«;ml ; that 
the list of capiul off>?nccft baa been rc<1ucc(t to atoioat the 
amalleat po»i)>]c? iiuiuber ; that barbarous punUhments, such as 
haogin^ in chnm«, have bocn done away vitb ; and iba; tbc 
«prMul of education and f^od fcrliuf; has puormonaly impiDi'cd 
cbe prorvdurr^ nf th<^ «uboTdinAtp tribannlg. 

TbL-Jimita uf ihiaarticlt.' will not permit u» to rnUr|Ci> on this 
pan of tbc >ubjc<;t In tnitb, thv rbnji^cs jn our le^l prtKri^dure 
are facts o\ rommon knoivlod^e. We would tberef ore coa fine 
ounelrec to the observation, that the chapter on Law anti 
Juacioe u very well worth reading, as a popular eapoiicion of a 
ennltcr vrbicb, more or Ica^, must IntcTc»t nil men ; aud that 
there ia one eon»idemMon whirh muit forrr iuelf on every one^ 
which i«. that under nil the circuintUiiires, ivitii the dctava of 
Chancery and the fictions and formalities of the Courts of Law, 
f>ue wonders how anybody could harden his heart to a suit in 
Chatkccry, or an itction at Common Law. 

It ia, uo doubt, ^ very tnterL'3Liu|{ tnak to Uuce t1i« ebau|p>9 iti 
tnnnnrrt, in cti«ti>mji, in drcsi, io department, which chftn^etcrixo 
ibe period of ttme of which we haT« been ipetiking ; and not 
leu >o, the imprnvements in arl, the spread of discorerr in all 
cbe departmenis ef human knowled^, the march of phuoBophi- 
cnl thought and of rcligloua enquiry. Still more interesting Jt 
it 10 follow ibc procrresa of morals, and lo dctormuie how far 
social impiovcint'ot baa arcompfinit-d clt'^trrr view* of riebt nud 
WTon^. And tbi<, not only In nur own eoiiniry, hut in sit those 
tf^untries wbirh own Kngtand ojt their uri^in, and which we 
may rejoice to believe are ever drawirg nearer and nearer in 
thought nn<t feeling and aflection to the race from which they 
spring. It i» only of late years that we have licard the phrase*^ 
DOW BO common — the KngliaU-apeakiag races; but consider 
what that pbraM implies! It is not only tl^t for purposes of 
iotercouimumcstion wj? ha vie a common tongue, but I bat for 
fHirposea of mental cnlture we have a common Hteratur«*, and 
that literature the moat extended and expansive in the world. 
Say what we like about education, and the fa^ilitiea it affords, 
there can he no real unioa of natioLis wLicli speak diverse 


Fifixf Years Ago. 

tonjtuos. Tbccducalcd cksftcs may in a icnsp unite — a Ger- 
man ctrholar may read KnglUh books or HngUsb newflpapcr* — 
but how arc tbc clavier who only know Iherir mother tonguet to 
uniitf? In ibeSuics of tbe Anierjcmi Union, tbc grcaimajortty 
of tbc immigrnntfl not of Itritisb oriBrin rtrc dcrmftna, ai in 
Sc^ulb Ami^ricu tbey Are 1t3in»niL H hy is ibit? Siircly oa 
account of the affinily of the German lan^uAf(^ to Kn^Htb, and 
of the Italian to Spanish ; and the natural tendency wbidi 
the colonitt show« to ndopt tlm cy pre^ princijtle, and, where 
be cannot lind his ovrn Jan^uof^r, to put up with vihAl b 
nratf-st ill ]ikcuL-9H. It bapjjeijv, ibi-ni, lUul bcfside native, tJinl 
is, Ifritiah coloiii»t», the Stylos bnvc a vast immigTAiion friym 
all part* of (-■<*Tmany^ and th«r«T stranj^ers toon adopt thi* Iai>* 
^uage of the msjonty, though perhsps somewhat in Hans Brcit- 
mann s fashion. All this lends to increue the numbers of ibe 
bngiisli'Spcnkirrg race, find to cnbDncr? the influi^nci? of ibc 
I^DsUsh Janguago ond literature. Taking into account the 
nnUvtt jiopukitiuii of ihrsc islaiicU, of AutirriliA and OccAni^, of 
Ciuiada, on<], greatest of all, of iho United States, wo alnadr 
number something nrar nne hundred millions. What out 
numbers will bo by the middle of ibo next century it is of 
course impossible to for(.-SM; ; but of tliis we may bo sure, ibst 
the old European nFitions will by that lime have been lefi far 
behind, both id nuinb^r^ and influence, while we may hope 
that the power wr shall, ^s a Con federation, then possess wiU 
be exerted in the intercsta of universal peace** 

Pfrhap* we should have tr> go back to the timea of VftAty 
and \Vhite6tld, if we wished to trace to its source the moral in*- 
provemeut, which we it^jiv lurrlv sav we nee in the nlnrtccnlb ti 
compared with the cif^btccnth century, liut thciccan be little 
doubt that the practical reforms, which have taken effect wlthiM 
the last fifty or sixty yi^Ts, bav*^ been ihe icsult of an improve* 

* Thli may ncit bo an iDappfoprinti^ placo to tntniduoe sii*atnolfnaioi>« 
of thi^ dftilf uuvapa|:iefv or a n-t^ut iU(c w^ uti ilhinlruTJoiiof tfav Incrcsio of liw 
nmni fpf nrnnBiimiciiliaq l^^tw^^n Knglmul ilhiI 1ll■^ t.'nit,«ti| St*(ca, whJdi faM 
tnki^ii |flAC4i iliiring the iMt tlfty yt^ars. 

• A*t AUu^Iic Juhitcf, — A ftw tliii^B ago tbc £Oth aDntTCiviry cecBrrnl n€ *W 
nju»t hf nesxdcd tw eno of the ticoiiivc ctcnte iik ibc v»i-ld'» hutory. On Arrii 
Sl0t.IB38.tJie two iteanuhhw "Striti*'* and 'MJnnt WMltra "* nrrivod in Xsv 
York Harbour troa Engln^nf. he j»jc tho limt Aknmrn Ihnt ernwij 1b« Allai 
Tlio'*ffiriui"MJIod fr^Di Qm-rn>4te.isu on A|ml itli; th« ■* Gffot WaBtom"U, 
Brislol «i ApHl 8lli, Ur^lh hfnvc] at New York ou the >unc dsf, Oko M_ 
WiJ bujiijf MTiinrl thii riihnr hy nnlj' n (r-w Iio'tt*. Xcw Tosb papcn of tlie ttna 
KSVovindducrlptLoiDiof thd rnthiuiuiui wjlli vrlii^b th« VMnb wcr? rvewired, 
ami tlie cr^vtli M hieh tvlUiL^uf.^d Itioxr nrrlTaL Cai^nln Kobort«, vho eoniosAded 
tie *-tiiric*'" OIL thjd crtmful voyagr, intA 1hr« ymm ]flt*r tnijiri^mil lo thi^ ill- 
^t«d " ]*n>4iiloiit,** wliidi vfa iodt ou ber Gnrt vojo^ oat, witLr^nt leaving tha 
Multal tiiKu '.^her ta\K.' 



77te HfUK Af LonU. 


meat in theoretical vi^ivs of morality. Fjnt ire bofrnn fti A 
nation to se>e what was our duty ia the paths oi morality, ^mX 
then we applied X\\v. prinripJf^i ne Imd grasped to pnclicctJ con- 
clutiont* I'int, for cxainpte, we investigated the duty of the 
State to indlviduaU in iLv matter of crime and punithmcpt, nnd 
then vit »iipporEcd Str Sikinucl Rocotlly in the reform of the 
criminal code aiuI capital panUhmcnls. First ne got ft cdenr 
rien of ihe Bpiritual duties of the clergy, and then we abolished 
plQralilies,enf»rceil the n^idem^^ of parsons, and brought within 
reas</nahlc bounds the ernolumr^nls of the higher clergy. First 
we became aiiare of the dtbating elfects of domestic and jpnc- 
dial sJavi-rv, and then wc Abolished the tra^c in human flcafa, 
whether oat ire or imported. 

Lei tifi hnp^ thfti this loornl (*nlightenm«at mny contintui to 
iocrease: that the Dattun.xl conscieiire may be mure completely 
awakened ; ami ihui the one j^reat commandment, which cnfortcs 
love to our neighbour, nay be more perfectly understood and 
more anlveraatlr practised. 


Anr* I'K.—Sp^c^hcs in thn Hovlsc of lun^tt on the CotuHtuiioH &f 
the Haufe, 188». 

rXUiOSE who amuse themselves whb waiehlng their friends* 
JL chATActcrs CAn hanlly fail to have been frrquently struck 
Vrilb thU— that a lsr]*e ntoouiit o( vory rogrettablo ootidud ic 
dne, rot to the ricternsT HrcumMances by wliich thf^ persons in 
fjueation have been influenced, but tu an Internal coDception 
wluch these prr»ons hare formed of thcmsclrcs. They have 
painted an imsginary portrait of theirown potittons, dispositions^ 
and abilities; and arc con slant Jy mfKlifyln^, nnd distorting, the 
dicttttcs of their natunki coaioioo-sriiM^, 111 order that tliry may 
bring ihi^m into hannony with thia gtnEuiloui iiandard of error. 
The unhappy youth who considers himself a genius or a states- 
man, the uah.-ippy voun^ ladv who eonsiUeri ht^rself lihe a pre- 
RaphacUte picture, are proverbial for the tricks they play with 
tbeir manner and Ihelr i>ersonal apjiearanee, A clasucal cose la 
ibat of Miss Lydia Languish, who was anxiojs to starve lu-rauit! 
comfort would not be characi«ri»tic of her: and thorc arc few 
wbosa daily vsperience will not aupply ihom with other 

But this malady is by no m^ans confincti to iodividital*. It 
operates on a scale far larger ard more di^astrons : and of^co 
in its most virulent form it seizes on political patties, or at 



Th6 M&uu of Lords. 

Uaftl 4>D certain of i1i? svcttoni or ivIikL politi^nl paiiii^a nrd 
fTimpow**!, Thiu, ihrnn xa on** rliqiir o1 rictrpinr n*i'ormcr«, 
familiar enoufib to aII of us, who 

' Having been praited for 1}l[UitQes5 do effect 
A nncr roiigniu«s, nnd coustrjus tbo garb 
Quite from tncir nature; ' 

anJ Again anotbcr, wliich coDceires itsolf U> be philosopbic, 
(louriiliMJ on romances of ick;u ami af logicftl coasisleocVf and 
perhaps best ivpilic<l hy Mr. John MqHcv, who it the vrry 
L^Uia LAn^'uUh of Kaillcjdlsin. This U the »cctIon wbirh 
nrv^la in n Acrrr« harror At tinomalicSt and has schooled iia«lf 
to shy at them as a horst* shii^s at a wbeelbarroiv. Il is proud 
cf mistaking lor realities idols of ' irresistible tcndcncneff' of 
*Btern rcsolvesof tlemocraciet,'of *wavetof opinioDa^'of * remits 
in the end inrvit;ible' — all of which have the same rcl&tjoii to 
facts that dreams had in the philosophic svatcm of Lucretius;* 
ond arc nboui as like lilc oa the descriptions in Miaj Lvdia 
Largujah's no\f*U. 

We are n^t, however, insisting on this point, with « view to 
exposing the faults and foibles of our opponents. We ha?e 
merely' dwelt upon theai fitr the saki- i;f arresting our readers' 
attentioHi of fixing; it for a moment on what is so patent aiid 
deplorable- in othei^, and then turning round and applying tlie 
same cTitieisin to ourselves. 

The mulod^' we speak «f. Indeed, U peculiar to no one p*'lj''» 
It is not ft part^- that is Ijablo to it, but it is human nature 
ccnerally. In different constitutions^ however, il produces 
different symptoms; and wherras, when it Attacks Radicals it 
prmluci^s a fantastic activity, when it attacks CoriservatiTtit it 
produces a /uutALSlic he»itutiuii, Wh^t we »peuk uf is no lU^U 
maltei; it is a gravo and a frequent danger. 

Political narties nrv forces m the world, they have a hnmin 
vigour aad life in them* not only because they cndor&c certain 
logical doclriaes, but L^ecause they possess certain likes, dislikes, 
and prejudices; bccausetheirimagination works in. -i certain wsy, 
iind bccaose Ibejr conceive of theniselves ai having some special 
mission. It i» therefore of the vcrjr highest imjutianccp Lhat^ 
their conception of themselves vhould be suber snd accurate^ 
that tbej !th»nld not hewihlrr nnd mislrad thrmselres hv nnv^ 
bociful sclf-pnrtraiture ; nor indulge in any ragarks of aelf-^ 

LoU«v ti£ViE« of, things that bod octuftDf i»il»tnd uid tnvn doa»— ■* pluttMrs 
toski;' ua l^rU Teiiujvoa ealb tlit<in ; which, drifted IhiQwh thu air, htam^ 
^i*|(Vtc^ Add lut^rtouglul viUi *iioU otbgr, and uiitoriug tbo hrnu of the ■Ucpvr 
voit mistakcD by htm Ua tgnUtitiu 


Tft0 J/ou^ &/ Lonii, 


Afidence or »(?lf-p!i>\ of weftkness (k- nf otnttmAcy, wVioh 

Ljintig Inim Uicir cmtTtving thdiiAclvcs in aoico unreaJ poHition. 

This^ tKiwcv^r, is wliait too fre<jU4!iitlv, iho Conservnitv^ 

:y dr>, or at tc-iut ci-rtain irctioDt of it; ond, if Xhry could 

oner frcf* ihrms^lrcs frotn ibo dominion of this kind of error, 

lOT would iioU tUoDuclt^e not onlj itron^cr, but in hcAltbivr 

id moro cottfuUnt Apiriu^ bctUr pr<»pAre<i, in >liorl^ in cxerj 

ay to serve an<I to j>r4.-»^rve tliL- instiuition* which h4v« m> 

irofcNiad a liold upon ihrir Rympathio. 

T}\e kind of error, ihc kind of self-d incept! on we ;dludo to, 
eprods nuinty on a dcLlcil^nc:y in the «^Uucnti;>n snd ilificipline 
f tbo imagination, Tho ihiogt, which CoDSvn'ratiTet nre dl»> 
nciivcly desirous to convene, bnro about tlicm tUi* special 
^bAnurtcrittir^ ihst ih^ir ext«»rnAl A<pi>ct i« !mpo«inf; ntd 
ncTAlile, sitid It fjlt, in nil its drtaiis, of .lu^ust or rndc^ring 
cdntioDs. And here^ for CoztscrvAtitin, U a source not only 
slrerigtli, bat of duiger. Seen in the mellow li^bE of history, 
ukI the traidiEioni eTcn of our fatbers and our grtndfBthers, the 
older poniom of our jfulitical uod »ovij\l structure apjwar in 
■Mli«in>cJvcs to ftaractii-c, that ihcy divert tbc ntlcniion from th« 
^Rifo 1o wblcb thi*y ;tr« r«lu(4?d, mid from iht- rtlnlion tKoy hvl<1, 
■uul were prrwr^'nd» Ijocauitc ibry did bold to It ; and tbus the 
^ idia they produce in the mind of many is often imperfect in 
n»ct pnDportiiJik to itd viriilneu. 

Tbc nation nt Jargv? ther rrgnrd as some constant quantity, 
UA ImOy nilU lUr lUJiii* uet-dv, nod tht srimv ca|»a(.ities, L-apablc 
ofnlBuMinj^ In honlth undorihc nnmo troiitnicnt, and oTi\y chnn^od 
bjr the grontli it( |ii-rvi>Ttpfl iib-:Lt, :iiid l\u* tni\ui'uce <if d4*!(i]|;ntn^ 
■Icmgo^urs. Accordingly, whi^ncrer l}vy see nn institution 
itodifiedf crsL»iiie patticuUr formof class-inilucnce waning, ihev 
CMictive the cbang« to be twice as great as jt really is ; intleed, 
iWfofira ima|*iDe a charij^c, when tbere has virtaajly boen none 
■^ all. Thrv feci a% n Diotbcrr tni^bl, irbu, nineuftihle U> the 
^cermiion of sest4>nft, w»« lo u*e b*r chiMrMn discarding ibcir 
'tnitr jack4?t£ in thr ftummi^r; or a* an eni?iiie(?r mi^bt, who, 
'jiniffuii of tbe invention of gunpowder, saw nothing io the 
Pnagrea of fortifieAtion, but a deMrueiioo of lowers and torreta, 
h a^fU thr*y re^rd our social nnd polLtieid constitution as \a 
•acitut castle^ wbleb, because it bas protected and defended us 
■1 the p»4L, they take for granted can protet:t ond defend us 
^^'l; nnd tbuc, whmiaoy t4<<x>niitruc-tiou of any part i< advocated, 
^ Older tn meet the comlitinns of modirrti warfare, tliey feel 
^uaJ to prerent or at lean to bewail the cbanire, as tbouj^h to 
^^an^e soinethtrg of its an<:ic!nc appearance jui|^ht not be the 
'^v aar to perpetuate its ancienl strength. 



Thi House of Lords. 

This is the temper amongst Con^crv-nttvc*, whicli Kodica) 
politickns exult id. It at once d^nnpfl the flplriu and weakens 
the judgmcDt of tbeir opponentf, and invesU ttiL'mselres vrith 
tbc prc»tj|£i^ of a voatlj' exaf^f^ertited •rreitj-lb, anil of victorio 
which SktG n(Jt vi<^lorie* at rill, or which x\\ey b»ve hnd imall 
sbarc in uiniiinir- We are hy no means aajing, ihat Radical 
politiciaaft and thc:ir ideas an? not rptponKible for a great 
number o[ chan^oBT some of whi^b have actually been nccom- 
pljthcd, wbiUt more are iuiticipated or threatened. On the 
conlrarT> wc shall be ppvlt wcJtry nf assert ing, ibnt ibr tiiAJority 
of such changes av Mr, Morlry w4>utJ coiiBidirr incvilabii-, L«vc 
b«en entisj^ in tbis way, that th^y are ^nlirvly gratuiloui 
misfortunes, and that tbey tnigbt, Uy knowled^, rejiolution, and 
tbe guidance of maaterly statesman ship* be not only arerted 
before the event, but reversed or remedied after it. But we do 
aaji that tbern i% a mass ol apparent changes, whieh many are 
n^basi at as porlrnlouB triumphs of lladicalumi and which 
KadicaU tbcmae^lvca claim as their own proudest ncbtcvements, 
which Iiav«* re»1ly their origin riutttide politics altog^tber, ^nd 
ore subitaalially net changes at alL 

Let us take, for instance, tbc case of tbe ^radaal extension of 
the fnin^biKe. There are numbers of CouservativrK, tnd there are 
numbers oi Radicals, who misconceive this event in precisely the? 
same way. The historif-nl pitiure, whirh prewnt* iist-lf to their 
imagination, i* rhni of k mLdcitu<te whi> in ihr earlier years of 
th^ century were ct>iitemptiiom1^' cbuE out from all >hare irt 
politics, and who have conquered by fighting a position that was 
denied them then. The only differeoee between Xh^ view of the 
C'onscrvative and the Radical Is this ; that the former regard the 
people as a horrle "f febelJious intruders, who have forced their 
war inio a place which they nevtr ought to occupy at all; 
whilit the latter regard them as mon wbo^ hy iheir own noble 
ncertions, have vindicattnt their right to a pUec which they 
ought to have occupied always. Tbey neither of them realize, 
when they are speaking of the |teojde of to-day, ami con- 
traslinj,' them with the people of fifty years a^Oj that the 
same word peopf^ means two widely dLderent tiiiugs; and that 
it is not that a class has achieved for itself towitrtls the end 
of the ccniur/ a power wbicb was denied it at the beginning, 
but ibat towards the end vf the eenmry tbc place of that class 
has been taken hy a class whieb at the bcj^inninfr had virtually 
no existence. Indeed, spe.ikin^ broadly, and with ccitain 
necessary reservations, we mav sny^ thai the facts of the case arc 
the precise opposite of what they seem to he ; and that, instead 
of the same |icop]c having won f^r themselves a ditTerent 


TT^tf Hqu9^ ^i(W#. 




ise, nr« have the eame fnnchiae adaptinijr iu^If tc a 
flmnt pcoplo, 

I tometbin^ similar lohls ^ood o( nc&rlv all tlio^ fonnnl 
changes, wbiih an? %a frequ^mlv lukea ii> mark the Advance of 
ailicftlisiit. Som«f of tUcm, no <)otill, inny be more r&diCAl 
fto olbers ; l>ot ihoT ar« none of lhc*m so radical tis Ujcj al 
fim night apjvitr to hf, Wh<*n, for inntnuor*, wo »p4> rr^n of 
bti>!nea», ine^n nhot« pojiti'in vrmt (oruwtly lookt^ down uptMt, 
occtipjing plnrx^s At once in politics a^ni\ society, some of ua 
are locliotu to say that our aristocratic raittdioujiness i» dc 
pojt^, xnil tn picturr tb^ honf^r nf our grandfathers, could they 
Bvc whsc lliiHjftt hiui Clinic trj : wLeican tlitr truth of the matter u 
Car moTO oc^arly ihi*, not that tha ariMtocriitic clostes have 
lowered thf^ir atandani, but that thete mi^n of huKim-» hare 
oome up to it; and th<T cliancc* ar<? that our ^andfalhcri^ if 
tbejT found thems^lvo ondcr our conditions, in&tead of being 
horrified «t wliat vrc do, would themselves have done jutt the 

In m word, the eawnoo of all format inatituttons oinftista 

In thoir rrUtion* io tin* torUT lirf* turroundin^ ihom : and for 

th<is«? who would really pivserve thf-m the iiripnrlant r|ue«lion 

iSt not whctbr^r the form is constant, hut whether this relation 

is constant. The foTVi, as they see, changes ; but before thai 

aisiiDS them, Ihey muit Mfe whether the social life hat not been 

cbSDgin^ alio. Possibly all this, as wc state it, will strike 

the rc«dcr a% obrious ; but wc have thr strongest rcAvoni for 

boowingf that it it not tupertlttous to OTge It^ The events of 

<m political history are on nil sides studinl with ejigv^mess; 

tliey are written in a hundred tczt-hooks. But what is uot 

rf«lijccd, what tlie text-hooks do not insist upon, is that our 

political history Clin only he properly understood, by studying 

along witb it our social and our economic btsiory, of which 

ssdtcd it is in a great mm^ure an adumbration* Out social 

biftory cannot be taid tu be unwritten; there are nitiiiy books 

^cb convey some genera) ideas of it; but these gt^neral ideas 

A% fto partial and unt}stemntic, that they confuse tbe mind 

<pitc as much as they crlighten it ; whilst as to our economic 

♦uibKy, which h mdly at the root of the social, there ii, for the 

|">liticaJ studrntj no history whaltrvrrr. 

Wc m&ke thf^oe ubaer vat ions, not with any dcsirc to inflict 
*>i onr ntaifflm a vague philonophlo termon ; bet hecaote the 
^nrth of tliem at the present iiioiiient is specially borne bom« to 
^ by a question which, though it has htng been talked and 
^^OOfEbt about, is for the first time be^^inning to assume a 
itsctical a&pect. We mean the reform of the House of Lords. 


Tlitt Home of Lord*^ 

In \hv wti)- In wUicU this ciu«tiun hii« now boen Ixau^ltt rurwanl, 
there it much on which wc may congratulate rmtiplvc*, mu<^h 
wbtcb may khmiuv us. Thtf iailiative ii beiftg tsk^Mi by 
Pc«Tft otict by fiiture Peers tbomselrcs; and wltatt^vcr wc may 
think af the d«^tAil*of th^tir vu-Ioui tcUfmes aodcriiicUms, there 
nrp cpruiin points tibout all of th<Tm whirh nrc in the highest 
degn^e udmirablo and valuable. Thov ar? roncrircd Id a 
spirit strikingly fn^^ from obitinntr pTojuilici-- uu the one hiuid, 
and ^is^bly Ci>tici1iati(>ii tin ibr other. There i* a gcntal and 
d!gnifti.'d fairncift in tho way la whieb \}%vy Ukr account of the 
faultA oi the Upper CbumheT; &nd an ccfually gcni&l and an 
ccoally dienifieil rAirneiK in tlie wny in which they defend, cr 
aim at drlcndin^, ita main tmdtlinnal rhamctrriitic*. Indeed, 
one of the ino*l vignul proofs, which that Chamber has ever 
given of how fully it de»cnc* lo be pprj>etuait(]j is uy be found 
in the temper in which It bai approaL-hod ibe quc«tioii of It* 
own reformation. 

Nor i» this temper confined to tht Poers themselves. In all 
qaaiter«t if we etcrpt the rxtmtrte^ Kadicrtls, lhi« (Question has 
been handled with a surprising ctdmntMs ami moderoiion. One 
thing, however^ MM?m> to u* to havr been nantio^ ; and that is a 
suflicientJy cle^r appFcciaiion of the ptnitioa of the House of 
Lords, as connected with the social and economic condition of 
th« eoontrj', und of tha way in which its powor, awl its fitneaa 
for power, ilrpi^nds u]H>n tlmt c^onnection. It is tbi« vrant that 
n-e sbaU now atlcmpt to remedy -, and the fActs whiih, for that 
porpofie, ue sbult h:»ve trj dwell upon, arc mainly facts wldch, 
though their significance has been overlooked, aru themselves 
recognized as indubiiable, the moment our aitxmtioa is directed 
lo theuii 

VVn will 1>rgin then with remarking upon a point which, in 
AJgitinent at least, is very often lorgottcn, though to all whom 
it im mediately concerns^ in practical lifi^ it is obvious; and 
that 18 Ihat the Lords, except in an oOlciAl sense, are no more a 
class of themselves than the Commons are or used to be. 
Suciall) speaking* A class can never be mMleouLofa body, which 
admits to iiAclf only one mun out of n fauiilj, which few of its 
)TKtinb<»r« enivr till iomc way ndvanci^d la years, and from which 
half of ixi members* friends and most of their rr^lations are 
excluded. The Lords are not a clasi ; they tire a very different 
thin^, they are the repreGcntatives of a class ; and that it a cUtt 
whii:h, as we shall show presently, has, or ha* bad, its roott 
in evcrj- pariUi in England, and is, or has been, astocialed with 
every development of our national life. The coufuiion of mind 
as io this point, which prevails amongst many peoplo, is larjtely 


7%e U4m»e of Lords. 



doe to falte jm.ilogiei from t^e Contiaeni, and th« ambignniit 
ivc of cennin C«ntmcn'^1 ivorils, Iti Francti^ for insunoet thu 
bl449 tli«t wui c&|]l-(1 nL7&/«- was rcalljr & sqcIoI cUu, » tcif- 
eontSLinrd flocirty ; an'l tW flam* may be flnid with roforencc to 
:ier Kuropeua cumitrtJ^s ; t>ut iLc feu- huailral iniHvidiiaItt 

Iwhom we cnll not>]cc in l^ngland, in no way correspond to the 
Clus of nobles abroad^ thou;>h no cioubl they may find tJicir 
iDtcrportft tiidudc<J in it. Wc can cUl rt-manbcr Uic cmiii^ of 
kEUUAuuii-iit cauM^df when the Ticbbome Claimant was *pokco 
>r fu the *■ unfQrtaaAte nobleman' ; but tuul th« CUlmanK been 
v}itit tbir p^ruiriA who so d^ttribed bim ».««mned hv wat^ on tbo 
7ont]ii«-nt tb(* pbnut' nould b&vc bc^n itrtctly aci'tiratr. At 

KVGTV Court in Europe a family like that of ibc Ticbbornei 
rou[d it oDC« be reco^il/ed as of tbe most undoubte<l and 

Fpanm nobilicy; and iia a^cmbcrt migbt, in many ptacn, and 
at Vlcnua r«|>«i:ialh , find tbtrmiKdvrs admlilvd to privilc|tt:« 
from wbicb many of our Peer* would be cxi?lud(;dl. And tLc 
Min<> observation is npplicrible to lAmilii>ft far lesi illuitriuui. 

"1^ grctttcr port of the Hagltnh nobtltty/ My« "Walter BavAgD 
i(W. • li*»o neatbor powrrr Tior title. Even thaUA who arn iu}h1e by 
_ iofpoMCvftiaDitbokcroditaiy lords of roaiiorfl with Jorgoui^tatoiat-' 
la^edtotbem,cIaimuolillti«atboineorabnHul. Hindoo in all foicign 
ooButrivM iLir l^ijjjbflJi ^eDtlemaii is jdac^ bolow Jiia luuk, wliiuU 
~ly nud noocMMULly ia for blgbor tluai that of your ulipnkod 
tod lott«ry-offlo6 maniui«d», vrboid gamektiepon, with tbuir 
^ plumca, coclrod ba^&ml hilts of repions Iuto no otbor ooou* 
finon than to stftnd bebitid thti carriage, if tlie rotten pknk will bear 
them; wbo#o guno ta the wnsa %iti\ tbo nd-bircaiit, and whoao hc:it la 
lO^Ma tbft nnrkot. An^,* he AdfVn pitaetitly. 'tt fa a lYimirlcabln 
|«Dof of modoratioD in Home, and cf ocaitDtDptHOOKSeefl iQ otbors, that 
Hty do Dot (ipuuly claim from thdr Itlng) oir aantme wiUiout icch 
QttfTvaAioait tlw titlea ariaing ftom lantUd vreolth/ 

Tiip trntb of the matter i% containcil in tbc*e last wfird*. 
Tlur Engliih nobility, in any but a technical senset lias had for 
iisdlatinguiiblng mark, up to the preient Umo, not berediiary 
Mlct, but lirrrdiliiry lauded tviralth ; and hua cun»i»Iixt» properly 
ip^akin^, not of the pcorngp, but of the landw] families, wllli tbL* 
|>tt9ige AS a conipkCUOLii pari of them. Of course, at we viH 
Jiut noir, cuitom makes it ridiculoua to apply tbi? tc^rm j^t^ to 
uiymero country gentleman ; but the atcmge bafx>ii in France, 
*bm ibe nobica pijue£S4;iI all tbeir j>nvilege», wnf in sodal 
foiiiioDf in wealth, and in political influence, le» than an equal 
^ tbo ainallnt Engibb Squiir, Pari of wbait we b^v«- naid hua 
wa laid often before, it la almoU a commonplace witU a 
<tntin eUiB of wntera to observe, that the Kn^lttb nobility and 


77if Thme ef Lortis. 

ibe Continental -mblesse are difTciiMit ; but ntcU vritcrs alai(»$t 
inrftriably prorccH to tav, that wo hare no oquivaknt in England 
to tb* CoRliuental jwhUtse at alL The J&st per*ja i4> repeat 
tbti is Prorr»ii»r Fmrinvu, nm) he ilocs in with rinpliputs in tme 
«r liic Arliclea novt' btfor^ us. 'Tlio oiott thorouph-^Inr <lcino- 
trftl/ h** aajft, ' mftv th^nk Clod thut wi* hflvr? ii Houw f%\ l^n!*, 
wb«a he remembera that it is the existence of tbe peenm:e, which 
hAS fiaved u» from the curse of a Continental nobility.' • Now 
pulling aaifle any questions nti&cd bj the word ^curse,* what w« 
wiih to ]>i>int out iSf that ihe peerage bav not aavul us from this ; 
but thul wv hnvc bftd, and hnvc, prixUcly Much a nobility la (be 
great body of our tcrritorin] fainilira f'enerally. We do cot 
m^an to aay, that it is n facsimile of th« nobiliEieg of th« 
CnnUneat; on the contrary, it differs from them in nutnv most 
important ways ; but still subtiantinlly the oni^ ts the cquival^Dl 
ofthe other; and their likeness is quit^ close enough to moke a 
compnriton or their cli^erences one of the best racaos of 
cstiinattij^ ibc trac cbfiractcr of the former. 

We may begin then by ob«erving that the Ertglivb aristocracy 
— for ihiii is a better word to use than either nobteu^ or fuxhiitfy 
■ — is far more complex in its cnnstitLtion than the ariiitocmcies 
of the Continent : that whiUt in some ways it is lest, in other 
ways it is niore eiciusive ; and that whilst it hat fcn^r 
privileges, it has or has hftd im>rc ptiv^cr. The anstocrsrs of 
ihc Continent, if we except thi; hrads of families, ai^d we need 
not «scM»pt all of them, arc in raany respects aristocrats d^f JarVr 
mther than tU facto. The ansioerats of England mu*t, broully 
apeaking, be both. Tlie way in which on the (^ntineat, titles 
and titulir prefixes deicemi, has senrod to maric olT, as members 
of a particular class, a number of persons whose circumstances 
in no way justify tbe dtstincticm, persons who not only eanooc 
support nny arittocralic splendour, but who caanot prc»crv<» 
any rilal amtocratic tradition : than a lafgo part of th<^ 
arittocratir claas^s abroad have, at least fr<Hii the popular poiaC- 
of ricw, only esca{Te<l being nn invidious shnm, in so far 
their privileges have made them a popular burden. 
brtUiant society of Farts in the last century wa« not the Frei 
aristocracy, but only the fashionaldc Frcuch aTistocmcj. Tb< 
fasbionabte section might hare been reckoned by hundreds 
th^ nristoeraey, nn a wIioIp, nurrhrred between out* and tw 
hundrf^d ihousund. 

In England ihe case has been widely different. The scarcit 

* <TUo House of Londs and the Cxntn^ CdbucHs/ *FotlakhllT AsrisVi' 
M»y, 1888, * 

IR* Hm»€ of Ij)rds. 




of titles, and tlie limiUiliaa of bt^r^ditjir}' pnvile^^o, hnve kept 
ttK! ariiUfcncj' in dcpcmLiTtit.'c hd iu:tunl fa<:is,nn(I in subslamial 
coTTcBpODd^ficc witL tliOEn. VVIiiUt on tlii? onr tuiad ailmiAiiaQ 
iato it4 ninka hiu been i^iuii*r thixn it Iiab b^cn nliroftd, oi>:lu>iori 
kts be^Q easier aUo ; and if social facU have mode it libcTnl iii 
nrgAnJ u> tbi! one, Xhcy have aico made it nithlos in regard ta 
tbo other. If it accepu oiany whom other ariitocraciea would 
reject, it rejects more whom oLher ariitocracief would rt'taia. 
For cmcb new familv tliat U establiBbetl aad recognized, there 
'arc oumrroua cijlJ&Uirals of old fmiiilje*^ who cea»c to be ari*to- 
mttir altng<^lher, and I>t Tnnrriiigi* unci '^rcnpAtioni, mann«*rs 
Mid babit» of tboujfbt, irraduaJly but ftund> |m» into otlivr 
ranks of lorietw Thii» wbiUt, as rompaml nith ('ontincntal 
aristocracies, ihc Kn^lub arittocracj has been less of a distinct 
class at its borders, it has been equally diitincL and far mote 
Jkiuriahing at its centre. 

It wUl be observed tliut we frecjuentlj' say kojt tccn rather than 
itt b^cauw? •orlrty at pre^pnt i« in n *iate of transition^ and wr 
are defemn^ our c(>iui<U*r;itIon of A-hut it« chnnj^es consist in, till 
ve hare examined tljr condition of things bv reference to whtcb 
tbese changes are esCiaiated. \Va repeat tnen, that oar aTis^>- 
tracr has been always a diitinet class at its centre. Let us 
fxamine a Little more dosely how this eentraJ portion has been 
constituted : th^i portion to wbieh all the new elementa have 
Wn asalnulated, and fur warn of assimilation to wbicbt old 
dements have been continually discanled, Witli regard to this 
forlton we c^n speak plainly enough. Its basis hns bc«n, like 
chat of otber aristocmcjes, binh and territorial wealth ; but unlike 
utl^r ariitocraciej, it has ignored the Arst unUss it had some 
eonneetion with the second. Given, however, the ne&lth, 
^ilhc-r u ve*ted in the head of a family^ or a* indirectly re* 
flecung consequence on its members, birthi though appraised 
vrjth less jx^lantry than on the Continent, lias been equally 
^caloedf and in some ways oxen more infiaontial. Prior to tlie 
Wifn of Charles L, oJlicial cogaiisancG was taken of it by the 
*JOTTrnmcnt; and lierAJds were w*m on jicriodical visilalions 
'taruugb the counties, who XnBi>ec(ed thtr arms — -the fltslinetite 
wadgip of miiirMtf—of all fAmiliPs who lioro thrm, made notes 
^f Ike descent of such as iiad a rii^bt to ihem, defaced the 
*ui«ids nf all such as had not, and registered tlie names of 
^UcMj last in a list under the head of ■ l^Rof/iii^' Two centuries 
*Qd a half ago these visitations neased ; but there Is no indica- 
^^nn that the importance of birth was declining. It latber 
inowi it to b«vc been so vitnlly rerognixed, that it was quit« 

we may say, that in no 

*hle tn take can* of itself, 





The Hau*^ f>f Lord*. 

coctntry in tli^ world tius resp^^ct for anceiKr^, adO tlie consci out- 
ness of It, had m tnorr povrcrful And a noblrr cfToct on an arxs- 
tocTRCj" tJi»n it lias in blnfcland. It has noi pro*lurod a mere 
barren scnt^of pridi-, which hi^ldi it* ptssr^mn; aloof (mm the 
Dtttiop ifini^rttlljr ; it hua ahovrii ilarlf tniLiiil^ la ihc prrpctu- 
ation of a bodjr of tradittoni, which hav<* been to their puasoiaort 
from the <?r^le an «daoation in public usefulnest, and in 
manlv personal chamctcr 

It baa been often said that the English aristocracy ia mod^m, 
th4' bulk of the old uristocracv having been d«l^>_v^?d during the 
Wars of the Rosrs. N'o itiit<!incnt itnuld br inorr tniGlc^iili^. 
The W«nt of the RoBcs did but cut down ibc (aII^iC ahoAts ; the 
majority of ihr* others they left, and thn ttrm wna (fven fnotr 
fruitful for the pruning:. A few names will suffice to explain 
our meaning; and th<-y tball be namrs whidi wrrc illustrious 
long before the Wars of the Hoses. In the East^in Linculn- 
sbire and Kent — are the Dymokes ami the Derin^ ; in the 
South, ihp Tiebbt>rncs; in the West, the Luil<rrc1s, the Aclaoilsi 
the Cbamprmowncs, the 'I'remaynt*!, and the Bassets ; on the 
Welsh horri^r nr** th^ Cholmomlellfvn, ihr T^gha, the Eget^ 
tmis; there are the Townleys in Lanca»lnn\ the Scropes 
in A^orkshirr — two ilhistrious names nut of many; there are 
(be Muigraves and iLe Uurwens in Cumberbuid ; in Norlb- 
umbcrlantl are the Lambions, These arc but a few examples 
which we take as they occur lo our memory/. Oti« ur two of 
ihcsc fncnilies have now, or have had in them, peemge« ; bol 
t)ie«e peemges an* quit« of a reront date, and hax-e iH-trn the 
conscfjuence, not the eauie, of the nobility of the families ihej 
were tjivrn to. If ibcn^ not misled by ihc nmbi^uily of the 
term noUfy we consider what really was »be ext**:!! of the 
English nrirtocmcyt we shall sec ihot the Wars of the Koms 
caused no brcnch in its continuity ; and (bat, though many of 
the older families have sinec that event dis&ppearodf yet ths 
bulk nf ihem survived it quite lonpf enoup^b to lEn]\krt in the 
new familir-s their character, their traditional nnd tbcir presti^i 
which the wealth of thrso last rather magnified than altered. 

The best way to estimate the extent oi the class we speak af, 
Is to look nt the education, tbe pQsition> at the manner of 1jf^ 
and at the houses of families tEiat are obviously lypicAl of iL 
Let ns begin with the houses and their STirroundingi. The 
jrrealest of these, by descriptions and pieturrs at least, are 
laniliaT to the general public ; and are national monQmentSt b> 
much aa private possessions. Such, for instance, are the castles 
of Arundel and Warwick, and mon; (rsjie<:ially of Uab^ and 
Berkeley. Of such bouses must arc the seats of Teers ; but by 


T!w. House cf Lardt* 


s dl of them. DunAtctt ChSrkf And Hpntmonciefiux 
(tkiis l&ftE oaiy within rery late times a tuio) — all <A tbcin iHc 
nncrslnU bcuno f?r utttitlnl fmniUrv, atc baronial caill«a of the 
firrt order and ^if-nltj-f amt in every wny worlbr bcm^ cIii*Kcd 
with tboao lint tm^ntlonnL If w pnu from rafttltit to dw«Uiag« 
of a later peno<], Mill confining nuridves tii tlioic of the finC 
oaMritT, wc may t^impan^ to Haliirlil Hinmshill in HampBhirc 
hicb, tbos^h built for a prince of tbt blood- rojalf bat boea 
two htindr^ and fiftv jeara the appn»pxiatc home of a race 
if coualry ^'ntlrm<'D, WtdlAl^ uht-n wo cuuie to homes wbo«« 
ani&cs ore lc» widely known, wc shall find thote of even *.be 
moat powerful Fp«*tji siiU Iph iliftring-ui^hiiblo from lliot« of the 
richer commofien. MonlxicuEe, near Vcovil, tln^ cmdlc of ibc 
Pbelips family, is an Klixabdbaii mansiaa of wUich any Peer 
might be prond ; tbe Cbampernownea, of Dartington io Ijevon, 
hare for lour hundred yr^ira brca successors lo the halls built 
by lUir Ddkcs uf Exeter ; Valt Hoyul was tbe liouie of the 
Cbulmondcllrya long before tbry dreamcfd of il pcomgc ; whilst, 
if vr^ wrre aiked to name a really noblf? Knfiliib home, which 
was not ir> antiqae as to be a mere arcbirological curiosity, 
Qor so rast or so kiBtoricatly celebrated as to form a speciroen 
of itself, but which embtKlinl in tlie complctctt and the niost 
di|nified form, the position, the life, or the character, of the 
inditiutia] atbtrHTTacy uf K^Kland, wc should name Lyme Park, 
ti* arnt of thft l,oghs in Chitahir^. 

Of these bouu^ we bare mentioni*d not one is modern ; ereo 
the latest is a reconstruction of a house that wa< far earlier ; and 
that they are all of them the sjwntaneooi expressions and self- 
tnbodiments of our artUocratK: life, during iu most flourish* 
tng and powerful period. Any forelf^ncr passing on a aeries 
^ viiit* Irom such bouses at these, to the hoaics of Eagluh 
IWf, would havfi bifon nblf* to dialect ii<> distinctive rlifferaoeo 
VEiatcoever, cii^t the ahsenoe in the former of a coronet on the 
^na and plates. The education^ the manners, the prejudices, 
|At views of life, And tbe society, be would encounter, would be 
Ulioth cases the snmi:. Therr woald be tlie »ntne relAttonsliip 
letireen the fauilli<rs uud the |)eopltr at lui^v buiiLiuiuliuj^ thuni, 
Wweea the Hall sntl the rilU^c. Similar parks and woods 
Voiikl extend on every side of hlm^ touching or dividing the 
bnn«, in friendly but dignified neighbourhood, and breathing 
til** ri*r\ spirit of a d:isi nalorally and healthily predominant* 
lie ttijuld find ibat tilled or untitled, the? heads of the rsnous 
Wmsrs» in their respective nei^hhourhocds^ fuUiUe^l the same 
oflk«s; and all thii life he would find permeated by, 
Q ^ and 

TTlil floUSfi of f^T^M. 

rihI irpoain^ on, the Mmc ^cnsc of an imenMnorU] pnjft behind 
it, of which )1 WAB the natural and the unchallenged pf rpptuation. 

And what this richi-r li^rritonal fnmilien vr«rc on ft large tcaJe, 
ibai, so fai^ ut Tcait a!i the- rest of the peojilc wc-ro coDci^rmnl, 
tb* pooler lamilic^ were on a >m&]W acaW* The poorri •quiri?), 
in dny« irbon lrftv<>!lin^ wnt difficult, Wf>rf* no ilnobt provinriiil 
both in thi-ir life nnd mnnners ; their alliances were restricted ; 
tbcv were strnni^ to the world of London ; thi>y vrcn? unknovnif 
una tbereftire uncunsider^d be}ond their immediate netghbcor- 
lioods. Rut ju<]g«'d hy any slandanii except tbose of cultorc 
or fiubiou, tLi'ii |KJkilit>j va^ (.'sttt'iitiAlK cliv >amtr as thai of 
tbeir more important brethren ; u waa simply a ftnialler cdttioo 
of it — -juBi ai the aovereii^n rank of tome petty Continental 
prince is a miniature edition of tlie soTcncign rank of an 
emperor. By the more polished and the more prominent their 
intimacy mav have been little »oujrht. A man Hke Horace 
Wal|Hde wfiuld liavr derived imatl pleaturr from the convem- 
tion f>f a SfiLijrc^ WiMlcrD ; uiid there wa«, j&it indcrd thcic it 
atiti, a ennildcrable prneticnl gulf botwcM^n familiea wbo4e oon- 
nectioDB and friendship* are fanned in London, and thoae 
whose connection* or friendships arc limited to th«ir own 
cotintiesp But inferior as the latter may have been at the 
dinner*tuble or in the iLisembly-mom, it was a pervonal in- 
feriority rather than an inferiority of rank. Their parka, 
bouaea, ibctr cst^blishmcntSf though smaller, were of ibc 
cbarnct«n Thoy had the aanM prido of lineagi*, and tlw vaoio 
justificntton for that pride; Indeed, the provincialiim of th^ 
aJljance* ton<lrd, a« would be satd on the Cofitincot, to km 
their blood more purely nohle than that of matiy of ihrtf 
tvperiors who hud a^^mndi/<'d ihemselrei by marrying mone;; 
And monr iinportani scill, whatever may bare been tbcir relaticm* 
to those of their own ela», their reflation ti> the oth«i rlmr'j 
with whom ihey ramo in eontiiet, was identical with that df 
their most itlusiriims oounterparts. The territorial ionuence 
of the j^eat Peer may have been wide; that of tbe obscure 
mtmorial lord mrhv have been narrow ; but within their respce' 
live areas of irilucnce the position of each was tbe saniff' 
Naturally, and in nrtiie of the tiiice&siiig edueatlou of ccnturic*T 
the people aTx>und them, snd connected with them» spontaneoti^f 
rerogniw^ tbi«, anil p^kiJ, without question, a simllnr respect 
to each, 

ThuSf for all purposes other than those of frequent intertal 
intercourse, this temu>rial aristocracy, from its greatnt to lU 
obscurest members, has formed one com]w;t and bomogcneoiv 


Thi House 0/ L&nis. 


— ©verjwtcrp present throughout (he Icogth and hrraiJlh of 
the l;in<l, itm) rvrryivhrrr fulfilltng unqu^slioncd the «umo rune* 
tions. U has lod public opinion, it las enforced public order, 
it bos administered public money; it has ^iven the comtita- 
eDcies their candidates, and the parishes their cler^}men ; it hot 
pattonixed ihe arts, it has be^n thr pion^rr »f pnigrrt«ire ftgri- 
culuiftt. Picture* of its mrtnbeia adorn all uur covintv build* 
in^ ; their h&LchmrnU darkened the walli of all our churches ; 
th»r moniimexits ncrupifH) a« miieb room at tlie con^r^^gationa ; 
and the congregations in winter derived their sole materiaJ 
warmth from the genial fire that flickered in the squire's 

Such then has been the tiucleui of the English territonnl aristo- 
cracy — an aribiucracy not uiirreiv technicaU but in thu fuHi-st 
and most vital sense prnctical ; depending on facts tfnr more than 
on titles^ and having its roots in the cbarnrtorof tho p«<op]ep 
rather than in tbe fftvour of the Kin^r. Now aristocracies* like 
many other bodies, wound or irritate other tbings in contact with 
tJietn, not because their substance is solid, hut because tht.>ir ed^es 
are sharp and bnrd. The English aristocracy has been and is 
powerful und popular, because its edg^s have beeu neither, 
bccaaMf insteiui of simply resting on, qt pushing agninst, other 
claisei, at every point of contact it hai been welded into ihem. 
And this has been accomplUhed mainly in four wa^s, by its 
freedom in the matter of marriage, by the pursuits of it« 
younger branches, by the way in which new families have 
b«eD adoiitled into it, and last, but not leasts by the myste- 
rioos influence oi fathiou^ which ha* reniler«d the suciety of 
Loudon fli onco the most liberal and the most osclusivc in the 

As to the matter of marriage, it has always been held in 
EnclaDd, quil^r otherwise than on the Continent, that the 
hmband communicates his rank to the inferior wife, instead of 
the inferior wife vitiating the rank of the husband. In Germany 
nobody could be contpletcly noble till aftev fuur ^neratSons of 
unsullied desct^Dt; tliat is to say, his listcen great- great-grand- 
parents miHf have nil nf them liren prople who could show 
their coats-uf-armt ; and at any moment a man with any number 
of rfwirtvTTJit by marrving a woman with none, could reduce his 
son to the condition of a rwvrts homo^ entitled only to hear the 
paternal shield, and with the whole fabric of the family TwbUste 
to be built up a^ain from ibc be^rlnning. But in England a 
rrwailUtnce hod ro such definite consecjuenccs ; it m*y have 
hem a family scandal, or a domestic annoyance; or, ag^n, 


The Ilmte ofLcrtb. 

given nmain qualitks in tbc Jady conafrneO, utcb jls gtv^| 
wi^ahh, or ukvoi, or beauty, it may imvc been not an nctnoyancr, 
but ft momph. But even in the moit urforUmate of >iioh ca«ea, 
wli^n ib« wifi- in»y bftve been wholly un4|Uftlified fortbepocieioa 
In which the hns been elcvnted, uid whvti toeietv luu inflicteil 
on her n full »CQie of her inHufficieDcy, do dmbjlily, unless j 
it hu been > jiurely personal one, hrts been (Miicd on to her 
children, 'l^bus the be-eds of our territorijil hoisci have con- 
Xinunlly miurird ouulde ihelr own |>rup<rr elates ; ibe collateral 
members hnvc? done so with even gtc^tcr frequency ; and a> 
r«Eat«c mill jwemges are eontlAntly paniiig Co these InsI, ihr 
icrritorial aristocmoy is connected with other classes all al^x^ 
the line. 

Rut not onlj have the landed familiei taken wives out oi] 
other classes ; their jounger branches have shared the pursuitt 
of other c]:i»ea. It is tin new thiii|f fur the inosi. iin|iMnanL 
ainongHt them to hitve metnben who wc-ro aettTolv eonnoctvi] 
with mmmt^mT. This wns on<* nf ihr lint furts with regvnl to 
tho t^nglish aristocrracy which struck \^oltairc when he visjtixi 
this country, fiir Walter Scott was drawing no fonc)- picttir^ 
wben he represented the two bn»thcrs, Sir Htldebraad smi 
William O&baldistooe, the one as feudal gnr/neitr of the mM^ 
ur;>iiiibigu<ius typ^> ^)<- "thrr chi? head of a eomnici^ial Cinn i^ 
L<int.ioii ; and thoB(> familiar with the histories of our old famEliff 
know H^w many of their peiltgreies cfintain reeonis of pandM 

And now we come to anotlicr point. Xot only did mcmkn 
of nnstiicTiitir fstnilics connect themselves with conuneice^ ^ 
commeicial men wen? ctrntioually fouudlngarisiocraticfamUk* 
They huught landed prnpcriics, they r-stftblUhcd themselvet " 
oonntry gentlemen, and j^dually, through xnleraiarriages, aaJ -^ 
similarity of pursuits, o{ fortunest and of eclocatTont ttirae if 
families were assimilated by the lociety into which they W 
entered, and in the course of a few ^'Derations wrrrc indistingniih' 
ftblc from the old* That this should have been so haa hern >^ 
oDceacHLueoudaresult of ihe exltJ^ordinary vigirar and viulit,' 
of the arisiocrntio class in Knf;Und> Instead of beiny; chaoc*^ 
in Hianrler by tLew addittoii« from without, it complm.i 
impressed its own character upon thein. The sense of iMm^J- 
prevalent in it, was so strong, that the mere prospect 
long line «f desoendantiE, had on the founder of n new 1 
an eflect like i!iat produced by the consciooaneai of a 
of anecrttors : whtlit as lu bis diildrf?n, it was singmlar ^^ 
what frccdoia it wdconoed them, how soon, by accepting lb* 

Vtt JIwM of Lvrdi, 



U ef|ualc, it Kt-imped thvin wilb iu ovrn likcni^s, nnd Imvlng bf 
education mftdc tKcm jNtnncre in iu prrscni| ma^Ic them bj 
awuTia^e soon pariaen in iu put. It welcomed and received 
tbc iirWMnjtncn tba^ not bvcausv it vtm we«k, but bccauic ii 
w.i» strong. I'or tbo »tr4?iif^U of an «ri»tocr*cj' can be b«tt<?r 
t«tt*Ml by th^ coofidenr4> wrih vbich it r4>c^ivct nfrw bTooH, than 
by the je^ilousy witb urbicb it excludes it. Nor wu tbe 
advanttgc confinnl to one side. The aiiuocmcv gained from 
its new members sn equivatent (or wbat it ^ve them. It 
gained a am«taat influx of wealth, to make up for what in other 
aiuiners it was Ii^sin^. IVbilst tbe im|>avrriahed wt-rir alleatl) 
duappcnnng from its r^oks, the enriched vrcrc silcntlj- takinjE: 
tJieir raciint pliuvji. In fnci, ihi* Rn^lit)i aristoeraejr mnr 
be compared ti> the vat of wine at Hiridcllicrg, from which 
perioclic&lly %o much vrss dravrn ofT, ivbilst so much netv wai 
added, and which thus retained, as it were in perpetual youth, 
all the finest qualities uf cxtrcmi- avc. Thn success of this 
prucc^St alike io wtiii.'8 Aiiil ELrtHtuirucit*bt dr|>rudB uf coursv on 
iho prup^rrlici homo by what, within n pivf?D period, la added 
and drivn off^ to what remains. And we may!y fay» 
with regard to tlic Kcglisb aristocracyt that the rg^htpropoitioD 
hfts been UDgularlj well maiDtaiiKd. 

LutlVi we come to tlie rcrlatiimshipf with other rliiint 
establisbed by the nriscorracy throui^h the influence of aic4V^ 
politan fasbioD^ The nm:leu.> of thv foahionnbli- world, the 
eociitandv pmpondomeing ol^mfrnt in it^ hss always 1>o>cn thu 
^mitPT trrritorini families ; but, if we except the ^n^alirst of these, 
who kept their position witb little eflort or difhculty, the fashion- 
able world has been singularly republican in its constitution ; its 
honours hAV<r not c^uncidnl wiib hrrvditarj rank or ndtes ; nor 
hare they themselves been hereditary. They hjtvehc>eQ theienard 
of personal merit, and have belonged f>nly to the individaals 
arho hav« earned th4<m. We uri< not wiitini^ u cnticLiiTi on 
^bionablr life; so we nM!d not enquire particularly into tl^e 
i|ulilieA which bare been requisite for success in it. tt will 
ho enough to observe thai, whilst lirth nnd breeding have as s 
mle be<-n nrccssary to devolc^p them and make them available, 
ibcrr has alwjtva bf.'**u a number of exL-e^muual cas^ iu which 
the place of birth and breeding has hor-n aupplicd by excep- 
tional talent ; and the »aiu« priucjplc of «f?U-ction, wbic^h, when 
3])pUed to people of family, often makes one of lower rank 
re fafthion.-khle than one of higher, may lift one of no family 
iaily over the heads of both. It is not, however, necessary to 
fisut on thU exact result. All we an- concerned Iu point out 
this, that wliaievcr ilM:dr ^nniuular |>osilion in ihe favhiimable 


Tht Hqksc vf' Lordg. 

vrorld may 1iiiv<* 1>«en, & position of tovae ■mrt in it has b««n 
alvnyit ornipird bv persfini wlinvr tnlr qiinHfiratir>R hmt Ivs-n 
iheit otvn personal talonL And in ihis way tlie (rooiuSt the 
culture, ihcT science, the arl, the literature, the philosophy, of the 
nation in gcncr&l, htkvt had a certain number of rcprescntativeA 
absorbed into the world of fashion, and bare through that been 
aMOCiAteil will* tlir tcrrilorinl nristocraey a« a whole. 

In thU nny xh^ l^rriCuriHl nflUocr^cy hai not only 1>e«n the 
greatest and most uhiqiiimnK pnvrrr tn thfr country, but it ha« 
adso allied ilaelf with every power that mi|;ht riral it; .-ind 
instead vi rirals it h« converted them into respectful friends. 
And now we arc in a position to realize the position ol the 
Hfiuse uf Lords. !t is uf this grt;ii itnd ubi<|iiitous body that 
the Lords have been the represfntativos, and of which ihey have 
eonititutfHl a kind of Standing Committee. They have apokcn 
not only or even mainly in their own name ; they have apokeo 
in the name of the whole landed interest, and of the most 
tucceisful representatives of every other interest as well. The 
influence exercised by tlie Peers at Weatminrter has bad* for its 
main moral and nmterinl basis, thi-- irLilurmv, the wcAlih, the 
ea|)crience, the wisdom or the prejudicrs, which in iniiuinrvahU 
caatles, rourti, or manor* housr-s, have garri«vTJ4>d rvery CAmor of 
the country ; and instead of its being true, as Professor Freeman 
liu said, that nur Nobilitv has saved us from a noblctte, it wodd 
be mueh nearer the marlc to saVi that it i$ our nohlett^t that has 
^iv<.-n usour Nobililv- 

And brrr vie ptusc to remark on one very Important poinL 
Pfofesaor Freeman, in thr article wi* have referred to* la^^ lof 
too much stress im what is cjillefl thn historie«1 aide of iht 
question ; and what we mean when we aay tbts is, th&t the side 
of the question, which is commonly nalli^d historical, is not onljr 
not its nnly historical side, but ttie aide which is least impt^P 
lani. Definite incidents, and definite changes in the pait* 
whirh in many men's mindi muke up tlie sum of history, bO 
doubt explain aoinethiD^ of the poaition of the House of Lords! 
imt what has mainly infiurnc^id it has been tbe mats of tbetf 
eollateral circunifltances vhhich constitute at any jjiven time ths 
social lift* of thr nation. Its piiwrr has slwars depended, as^ 
can have depended only on its relations to these ; and if, as 
these ciTcuniManc:es altered, its piwer constantly survived, it 
was only bccAute the basis of tliis power was beifig conatantlf 
shifted. 'J'bus in «]:am>ntnff its position during sny of 
those periods sufficiently like our own to make a cotR- 
parisoD serviceable, we are concerned indirectly only with 
the archseology of its origin j and we mutt seek our eipls- 


TTImt Hotue of L&rdt, 


^■R<*il of Ity not in tli<» caiiiffft ihnl bare imtUtcd it, but in tbo 
CAQSPB that hftvf modified an<l maintft!iii-<i il.' 

»lf ili(.'n the pnwer of thf H<>utf? of E.nrds ha% hem dav to itt 
TcpTrtcntiDg ftn nristocncy far larger than itself, our next ques- 
tion luiiurtllj ii, on vh&t hai d«nentlod the power of th« aris- 
tcMTmcv tbuii renrcsi^nti'd ? It wauJil be itnpnsvJblc to answer ibis 

3uc^lion coQiplctcly vritbout cnlrriri); into a large nambc^r of 
riailc ; but the tno»t ifTipnrUnr purl ot'lbr nnstvi^r may U' broadly 
Slated tbm- In the firsl pUce — lo thh point we abftll nK^in refer 
preatfnlly — the landed arialocracy were formerly the only great 
cUm poflflesaing wealth and leisure combined, and f^l^e to devote 
their lives to tht variom arts of govt^rnmtnt; and wcaltk 
baring begun to plarir diem tn ibis eLceplJanal position befora 
ihity bad loal iLc auiboritv thvy derived from ffrudalivm, their 
pAwer, by tbn timr* ibal itn obi fonndallon bad rmmblf^l, had 
already been eitabliihed vrithout a strutri^le on a new. But 
weoltb and leisure would not bave sufficed alone to perpetuate 
tbeir pos»easors as a itroo^ ^vemin^ body. It was necessary 
tluU there should also have been the precise eonditions in the 
inbcTitfid UiLicturv of »oi.:ietv, and the Uabita uf lit varioua 
claaaea, whiob ibculd stimulate or even force the weahbr to 
gire their ]ei<ur<* to the Affair* of the people^ sml make the 
people naturally submit to their authority* Hut on the part of 
the wettltby there was still another thing needed, and a thing 
more ijnportant still ; and that vras not onlv tbc- will to gorem, 
l>ut a rhnracter and capariiies that tbould sptTinlty qualify 
^lem to do lo. If tW ICuj^lisb aiiatucracy bad nut poSftOaarU 

»lbD«s, tboir power would hare Irfl them aa it left the aristoemey 
in France : and it would never have lieen anything like so great 
is it has been, if they bad not possessed tbem in a very eEninent 

We are well aware tbnt many people besides Radicals meet 
ftt sny belief in the beredii&rv abtUcy of a class- Tbey main- 
tain tbal exceptional t^lenta arc rarely seen, and never can be 
eoaated on, to detcend eien fi»r a single generation ; it i« 
thcrelore, tbey argue^ a mere superstition to suppose that a 
vbole collection of familiei can be found to tra&aitiit them for 
tvaturies. And yet in spite of this, vre have no hesitation in 
Tfpeatin^f that the English landed aristocracy, nnmenms as 

* Prafifrvor FrMman iilioini hiDini'lf nvaro cf Iho Iralh of thia. Thui ho 
V^ or the UotiM oT Ijjnlfl oa < ouo of thono iCBlituticns n-hicli havti come 
^f Wlug it. Ibr vnv In which iutlUulioDB du wmi^ iulo WJu^, iittl Ui«n 
*irt itlmf. b attaoJctd nad di^fcadcd oa potuidi irlkich in it' «arlUe sgts 
**tt ssvir l^uglit of'' If iiL4h«i1 nf tsjiiig ' il^^rviiilod oa ^mmidii' he bnd 
*^ ' l«teJ oa ibundftti<jDii,' tlio Kiitonix' wovid bavv hwa cqnunytruc and m-ro 



I7t< ItouM of Lcnit. 

il hv bocn, nnd loog us il lus lasted, hni as a rule constantly 
traDsmitted to its mrmbf^rv, not only an exceptional |K)^tion, 
but rtceplioni! per%ociil cliarAClerUurs. 

1 his paradox only snundt a jMnulox because of the {laitiaj 
way — cUl* pervt^isely paiiial wAy — in which the whole c|uctiion 
of bcrcdity hru been nlinoit invannbly trcatctl. Aa isisuroptiOD 
is ffenerailv m&do, vrben thia qut-ktion is Argii«H), wbiHi in ih^r 
ordinary conduct of lifr woidd br nt once scouted m ridiculous : 
and thai is the assuiDplion, thnt tUe ch^irActer and the cApacitics 
of a man Are alreiidy s£:ttlcd for bliti tbe mi>inent he comes int«> 
the world ; or, in other words^ (hat at the very second of time in 
wbich lie U first n phj^stolu)cit-ally wrporate Win^T ibe LvrenUtarv 
coaDoctJOD of liis cbaracu-r with that of hU pirtmts ceases. 
Mr, Frank Hill, nnd Mn (iftlton, who ii quotal hy bim in s 
recent article on The House of Lords, rue good cxnmplrs of men 
under the dominion of lUis error. 'As regards the House of 
Lordi,' writes Mr. Hill, 'Mr. Galtoa is very explteit* '' I can- 
noi," he says, " think of any claim lo respect ptit forward in 
modern ilnjs so entirely nii iiiipi>sturc as tluit Di«de by a Peer 
ou ^r^ttmi of fiejif^^ntf who has iK^ithor been nobly «dueatftd,* m>r 
h4ix ajti/ tmiinf^it kinsmit» ititAin /Artec tt'://rwjt"' And tiiis %'iea 
Mr- lull himself endorse!. 

Xow Bucii pi-rsnns, if intrrrogftUrd as U> their views na 
education, would probably admit, that the chanctcr and the 
abilities uf an adultf us pracdcaJly a>ailiib]e for the puqioses 
of prnctical lite, arc, in most cam;*, ttie rc-suh of the ciicum- 
stanoes tha^ linvo succenlixl birth^ qmle as much as of the^ 
circnmstAncTS tb^t bftve precoded it ; And ibfht howorer vjirioa*- 
may be the coD^cenital qualities of human beings aa infams^ 
a similar education will impose on all of them a certaia 
amount of very important similarity. IJut tbey fail to per— s 
eeive, at least in itiis connccilon, that education begins thi^ 
inslnnt a boy is bom ; tlirit it it coufiuod not merelj lo inteu 
tionnl in«lnietiuD and trainintrT but coinpriu?* %ny iniluonor 
howcT'er slight or early, the assets of bis homi^, tlie insnnrr i 
which he is treated) the views on rarious subjocts wbich b 
hourljr imbibes u neon ftriou sly ; and later on, the expectatio 
which he finds are formed oi liim, the poiitioru he fmds awai 
Uijc Lim, the business he is i-allrtl on lo traniact, and tts 
pcrsonni interest, if such there be, which he fiad« sum^tuodia^ 
him without nnv p^»rt <if his own, aiuI which at« cenni^cCf 

* Hr UIU Slid Mr fiflltou both hjtfAk oFudii.csl!i>u oml fuuillj ttvLition*: bvt 
MLjOUic wbo tiill rtu4 Mr. UiWa oitkK- «iitll «ixt Umi hii Lit^iU lUnu s«^iJMt1uu> I 
spilt bom, tmi nriL uuvpuablyooabi-N^tod wilb« ihtt iiTobloJU of limMjiijr. IV 
•Hide refemxl W njipeand la ' The NbctceatJi dfoXaty,' April. 18^ 

Ubt Ihum ^ Lordt* 




elocdy with liim aa if thejr were n %e€t>ml bmlv. Sunh 
pmonftt wc *tt}", A* -Mr- Hitl — and be repiracnla well and 
favounbly the ordinarv controrcraialisl- — <?nUrolv fail to reftlae 
all this; anti they faii tu lenUre ihe aU-im|i()rttint tact that 
^ucaiioo, in many cdacs, » horrditary jost ai truly a* actual 
life is; Aitd that <le4c:(*nt la itapomMc for ihc (Qualities that 
«4jiK?alion prisducra, juat am truly us it i« for th« qualities whutto 
arifiii it wholly phyiinlojfical. 

Or if thU be not Gufncicntly clear, lot ub oxpTBsa it a little 
diSerently^ aiid iranalute it into the terms of telenet. Let ue 
MLj that the [ormed character is the result oi two thing*; the 
originiil eapnbiiitiei of the orgaaisco, pby«iologically derived 
from it5 parcnu, and the «p4:daJ dcrelopmcnt of tbc«c which 
hat he<in prixluced by il« «ubte(juent envtroninent. 

Now, ill the ca«^ "f nearly every hum;in existence, except, 
perhaps, that of foundlings or children wba are aclo})Cni, the 
orgiiUKin inherits a purt, at least, of its ff^nrironinont from its 
parents; And whatever characteristics this environment has 
produced w ia the fullest and most practical Sftiw br-reditary. 

But thii is not all. We are quite prepared to concede, that 
it it r'>T safe to culcnlale on the «|i4.N4at qualitiec, which dis" 
tinguiihn] parents lisve. b<nnj; repeated at birth in the organism 
cif the child ; but suppotin^ the orj^itism in question to be 
limply of the aver:t]^ kind, there is one thing on which it is safe 
to calculate ; and that is, that if its cnviroament be the lame as 
that of ii9 parents, tt will in time repeat the qualities which 
iheir enviri^oinent h&d dev<ilopoil in ihefn. We need but think 
of a TilUge of hereditary sailors or fiKhermenT to reali^'j^ ihts 
Jsct And convince ourselves of the truth of it ; and we could 
easily recal, if needed, any number of kindred iustimces. This 
descent by environment we may call social heretlity, and the 
descent by blojd we may call pliysiological heredity ; and we 
may say boldly and withiiut Icfir of coiitia^liction, tliat the 
Inuamission of cbar»cter i< a« cortAin aixl caleuiablo by the 
one, ss it is cAprrrioiifi and incalculable by the other. 

The |ieculiar litneai for power, then, on the pare of the 
English aristocracy, hns been hereditjvry in iheni mainly in 
virtue of their social descent ; nnd if we consider the qualities 
ordinarily required for guvoraing, we shall sec st once thai 
they arc precxielv the qunlitiea which c^immon-vcnHc lelts us 
are produecd by an exceptional environ menr, without the 
prefteni^ of anything exceptional in the or^nism. Writers, 
such as Mr, Frank Hill, when they sjpeak of ability, assume that 
it must necessarily besomethiag oi the nature of gcniiis, that 
It must have about it something original. In pliilosophy, in 


Thi H(nue Gf Lords. 

ftctt-iiL't;, miU itie luta, tlii» Is luf iluubt tru« ; It U true ulso with 
rc^rd to polItUal problem* wlici) tome rare iMtJc is aC Ktakc* 
fai^t with rar^ difficultly. But with rv^ard to the ftnUnary 
course of political Ami social lifo, it \% not true at ftU. Genini 
and origin^ilitv Icru wouEtl he dangerous r&ther thnn otberwife; 
and, frrn at tri<" birst, would hv. nhogi-tlirr siiptrtluous, VVlmi ts 
wanted is not a class with innslcl^ excc-plionnl minds, but with 
avcrng^v minds dcvu}iipi--d in uti excrptionitl wnj-. Wc want 
that firmnvrss And contidence in rounf^in^ men^ which com« 
nAtiirnlly fmm mrly hnbits of mnnnf^ing lJi«?m ; we wunt that 
even and sober tcmi^cr which belongs to those who pojicM 
power without hnring hid to struggle for it ; wc want that tact 
and consjderfttion for others, *peei*llj' fostered by an unques- 
tioned suneriorily of position ; we want a wide eiperiencc of 
afFftirs and men, of lord nnd paiipcr, of farmer^ labotiret^ and 
tradetmen, which the English landed nnstocraey hn\'G all thoir 
liTCfl bnd fnrred on them ; nl>j)ve nil we wauC the onlinsry 
common-sense of mankind, made specially robust, haltnced, 
and kept in tnistworlhi order, by the necessary opt^ration uf 
constsnc adventitious int(*rests. 

We may again observe, thai It U not every kind of aristocratic 
«nvin>nnient thftt produce* these governmg qualities. The 
roquiAite environmi*nt must he of a special Icind- It i« «QuUf^ 
1o say (hat it has existed in England; and that, as s general 
rule, it has ncii existed on the Continent In Kntfbnd, in fact, 
the practioal wisdom of the arislocracy ba« l>een n garden 
variety of a plant that hat prown wild anion^t the people ; and 
the authority of the arUiocracy lias neither bet^n imgx^ctl fium 
nbove, nor delegated from below ; but it has bi-en, if we may 
abruptly change our metaphor, a natural secretion formed by 
iho social body. 

Now if this has been the cote with the Innde^l aristacracy 
gcncmlly, it has been the case in & special way with the Peers, 
whom we may call a secretion of a secretion. The Peers, 
tbongh they have not comprchrndt^d th« wliole of the greater 
laAdowaerj— many of the untitled families having been greater 
than mnny titled— hnv** horn all of thorn landownora of very 
considerable m:ii>mtude; nnd bare, in virtue of ibeir official 
and titular rank, in a special way been tinder the public 
eye. The ordinary country gentlemen, no matter bow welL 
known in ibetr own neighbourhotxl an<t certain social circle«r 
have bcrn too ituini'Tous, and too much like one another, Up 
have been knoivn evvn by name to the ^rcat mass of Ub9 
publJe. Hut the Peer* have lw»en country gentlemen •pecially 
singled oat, exposed to ibe public view by every circuoutaDce 


of iheir position, and so few in uuinb«rr lUil tbe fortuor ami ihc 
family' of cAch hare been a in:kttcr of more or lr»> public nolorli'Ev. 
ThoB, wtiitct th^ir ^nvironin^nt, as cuunlr^ ffentlomen^ hu h*itn 
of the kind that protlacir* ccrfftin gflvcrnin^ qualities, tbeir 
poiition » Peers hfu been a sort of advertlsooient of that fact to 
tlic pul^lic, ami aI«o a ^anintee that thji cnvimnmcnt will be 
p>rrprmatcd in (be fnmjly, nnd endow Ihcir successors with 
ijuaUties pit-vuittabl^ Huiular, If it wtks 4 rood tiling for iliv 
country that the ajiitocracj, lu such, tboulo have been repro- 
smi«d in ib« Govemment at nil, it » impouible to coDcdvA m 
motf perfect mode of reprcftcniing: ^cm (ban bjr mcaoa of an 
Uervditarv peerage. Peerages, nbilst an honour to the families 
possejuing tbcii),wrT(*n»t nn intuit to throlhers, Tbiu the silent 
aod spontaneous election of the aristocratic reprfteotutives \yy 
birtb oc^Muitmcd tut jraloasj, and obviated all public ngitAlion : 

■ aa<J since the ihiAgs to hf^ represented Vforv not indtvidual itloss 
nr opininnit, but thn tr^mpcr nnd judgmrrnt produerd by n eertaln 
common position, the Peers, whose position was in thiii n^ijx^it 
eminent))' tvpjca), were ihemost truslivnrthy reprev^ntativn that 
could possimjr bare bren desired. It was not necessary lb«t 
they should be great geniuses ; the essential quuUftcation was, 
tb*t tbcy sliould be great country gentlemen. And in practioe 
litis syvtcm bais worked even 1>«tter than in theory. For whilst 
the constitution of the Houie of I^rds has srrure<1 a senate 
who«« members, on the averajje, have been specially fitted for 
tbctr petition, their nuiril>er has been i|uite lar|^ enough to 

Ijield a conslsnt minority who, beyond this avcmgc Eitneis, 
bavc had marked original talents; and the leadership of parties, 
And the conduct of business in the House, hfts been msjuly in 
the hand« of th«sc. 
And now let us pass on to another qaestion. The position 
^WG have aicrilted Eu the House of Lords we have thut far 
spoken of ai if it were a thing of the p/ist. Let us now enquire 
2^v lar it reallj is so ; bow much it has cbanf^d, when it 
^:>c^n to change, and if it is |>otsib]e ur destmble to make it 
<^K^un what it once was. The p^liiiy period of the House of 
Ejoidt is said l» have pxtendrd (generally friun the imriSer pnrt 
^^ the sixteenth century tn the earlier part of the nineteenth, 
%•> have bi'gun with Hi?nr) VIIL, mid closed with tbe first 
-A^Heform Bill. Bat within this period we arc told that wc must 
^Jioinguish another, beginning with William and Mary^ and 
^^Icimg with the ailministmtion of Piti; that tbew are the 
^mitswIlhiD which tbe House reachcnt its highest power and 
Coatiriernlion, and from whirh th** Ir^mdnry ideas of iic dij^tiity 
^tr ttiJl deiircd ; and ibatt iboujEh ii received no outward blow 



77ie Hffute iff Lords. 

before tlic first KefDrm HilJ, a clinngc ja ils cbAracter had been 
begtin nearly fifl^ jears prcrioiislj"- 

Noir tbnt tkore U lorac truth in thS«« it li impoasibW (o 
^eny ; btit it it n Irutb, vrhtcb for pr«ctical |>orpot«s U UttU 
h^^tl^r thnn ft fAlArhiifid : for in tti<* fiTst pi;»rr it haii b<wn ^Ti(!ally 
exAjti^raled, and in the Bc<»n<l pUce cniiMy inisiEiterprefcd. 
Wc biiv«T nlrt^nicl}' pnintM] out bow inisleAtlin^ it tiic popuUr 
4iS3crtif>n, that thr old nobihtv were cxtcrmitiatcd tJuring the 
Ware of th« llooei, and that our «ub»tr<jucriil urblocmtic sjvttqi 
vrna tW crtAtion of n Tudor Autocntt, ju>t 04 8t. PcCcnbcir^ 
woa tbo creation of a Cinr. I^qually nii«U*adinff mr« thi» ancf^ 
fions commonly made wiih regard to the pecmgcs of Pitt* To 
judge from the tun^uaf^e now uied and ncce|)l4rd u to ihU 
point, wc could imn^nv that Pitt had cnmpktrlr, or at \cm% 
mnrkediv, changed tho House of Lord* in its main tocuil cha* 
ractensti^, that he had invaded It with men of a new kind of 
breeding, wilU new mnnncr*. new prejudice*, 4iid unhoanl-of 
vooinl pntltions. Thui w(* bav*? Mr I'Vnnk Hill oht^rring-, ui 
if iX were a fact perfectly patent and indisputable, that tlie 'aim 
of Mr> Pitt ' vfA% ' t'l ftwamp the gn-^t otjgarchical famxiie^ in tt 
mob qfparvmu nobiiiiy,' This view of the matter probably owes 
its currency to Lord Ueaeonsfifld, egpeciallv to tbe followiD; 
well-known pnisngr: ' Mc (Mr, Pitt) cTimlcd n plebeian aruto- 
cratv, and blciiidi't.) it with thr patrician uLi^rchy, H«^ taaile 
peer* <if Hrn^ond-rAte (qoirefi, and fnt ^nvii-rn. Me miight tlK^m 
trom the alleys of Ix»nibard Street, and clutched them fr*)m the 
counling-housei of Curahili/ Now tbit, if accepittl at a piece 
of rhetoric, has enough truth in it to make it inatructive and 
potntetlj and it baa beforo now been quitted with approvd 
ia this ' RcTicw' i but if it is lAkcn in Ieh literal und prooaic 
s^nsp, there is hanlly a phr»a4> in it which is not mislc^ciin^p 
whilst what is impliei) on the nboir in more mislendiiij^ itilL 

1^1 tu take the nnmes of a few of these so-calleil picbciaaft— 
all made Peers durin^^ the gieritKl in question. The fim Lurd 
Dorchester beion^d to an old baronet's family, which had bad 
A peerage in It two hundred and fifty years Itefore. Tho CinI 
Lord Suffiehi^s fAlherivM it bnfonctand a MeiiiWr of l^arliametU' 
Th<T first Lord Itvayhnjoki.- was a drsi^cnc^aiil of the NcviU^S' 
The first Lord Ga^e wot the grandson of a Knight of the Garter* 
The lirst Lord Auckland came of a nice of iKuooeU; TI0 
mother of the first Lord fawydir was the niece of the Duke J 
Ancaster, Mumera and t^rskine are names thai catry their own 
pedi^re<^s with them. Whilst as for such fnmilies aa Kiren, 
HibMesdale, ^vhtirhome, Orcy, and Crowe, any one, wbo knows 
anythiog whatever of ibeir history, knows perfectly well, thit 


Tlt^ UoWn: of Lcrdu 


oppotitrft of plcbelftn or parvcna, and in evcr^- sense but the 

Po&cial oa**, already nobl^, fur c^ntun«t before th«ir peeragct, 
Tb«j bcloRgctl, in furt, in point of hrrr<]ing and lineage, to 
ptrciBclj' (tic same cUas Aa Jid ibe 'old |xitri<^i<JiL uli^nrcbv,' 
Tbr anmcs vrc bAvc mcrttioncd have? bcvn cbiMwn nlmott At 
Kiidom* and m&y be taken u reprefeni&itve of the mnjoTity of 
\xt. nev creations. It U quite true thit tlitre wtis a certiin 
linority^ to nhich Lord Beaconafield^s lan^age it soinewbal 
aore cioitvlv applicable. Many iwerngo were mi doubt con* 
cm men, whf> owrd ibe dignity solely tcr tfacir talents, or 
Fornt iich«d- Hut in tbi« fact, of itself, tbcre was oothing 
r^n» doparlorif from obUfiuhinnf^d pntetioe, nolbin^ at 
rbicb the old p:itrician oliftarcby coald bavr Ixvn surprised. 
P«rt of that ohgnrchy bad been made of precisely tbe same 
iDfttena] itself; and any stern and unbending ^Ldmirer of the 
old order of things, who is sf:andalurr<l at the setl*mailc men to 
vbom Pitt gikvc peeiages, and thinks he can condemn theii 
^plevation by tbe standard of earlier time*, need only reflect on 
lh# history of ihnnp time* rnivftlMy, and precisely siioilnr eases 
will meet hini in erery decode^ Tbe first Earl of Cork vnts tbe 
ton of 4 small sbopkeeper; chc first Lnrd Craven had b^en 
Lord Mayor of London; the firat Lord Cowper owed bis 
Peerage mainly to his b*gnt abilitii». \a^u\ King and Lord 
ilMdnirkv oHTvd tbeira to tbut CHUbc alto^trthrr. TLcir curvt-is 
*ere prceisely similar to[that of Lord Camden, who was cited 
by Lj^n^l Reaeonsfield at a Peer «if a type unknown formerly* 
Lord Hawke, in a dilTrrent profirstion^ was equally self-maile; 
sod Lords Holland and llchcslcr wore ornainents ol a brilliant 
•odety, before the death of i\ iixXiwr «hi> had begun life as a 
footmao. Am) we may say with ennfidence that, had the late 
I Mr. Bnusey, or such ^reat brewing firjit> a% Elcisii and Allvopp, 
Aovrished in thn rolgn of Cbarlc* IL, their representative* 
aoold by tbii time have heexx Pei?rs for at leatil twn centuries. 

Ak re^ris then the Actual material out of which Peers, frum 
nit'i titoe downward^ have been made, ihere has been no 
^^ge in the character of the old patrician oligirchy r but 
^KTc baa been a change in it, at regards two other pointa* 
Tacnagti tbe introduction Into it of the coramcTcial and self-made 
™bKii WAS nothing n(»iv, ihorc ia somvlbing now in tho pm- 
^'lion to which this t-leinetil has grown. There is somethin^f 
■^w in the number of such creations, though not in the fact of 
*^ffn> Again, formerly a Peer, of no family^ whatever was the 

Cof hii fortune, converted it into Und iukI bccjime a 
r geatleman : whereas now we have Peers wbo» if not 

The HoHse ^ I^artix. 

entirely Imndlcu, are landawa^n only for omAOient, and deriro 
tbe bulk ot thoir fortunes, in tome CA3e« rtry Urg«, eilber 
Trom ilie Funds, from commercial iur^atmcnu, or ncttvc com- 
mercmt cnt4;rpri««» Tli»r no doubt An; cli4ingct ; but tbrre arr 
two ibing* to ohtt^rve about tlit^in. [f tliov began, oa tb«y aro 
tiiid io hnve begun, vritb Pitt, tlicy hnd been in operation for 
fifty v^nrs before tbe [):ts«i[ii: of the fir^t Kefonn Bill: ami up 
to till! period tbc House of Lordi, in tytho of tliem, retained ui 
mLch ;infttocratic power and as many arisiocrattc characteristics, 
BS tbo rnost stern and unbending Tory could wish to see It en- 
dowfTcl witb. If tlicreforothc new elc-incnts modified lia character 
at aII, to at Icait an «*ijuat degree it madi^iM) thpm ; and it did 
mere to give dignity to commert* and ftnanoe than commerce 
and finnnct: did to vulgari/e it. During the last fifty ycar^ these 
latter interests have Invaded tlr Hotisc of Lords in a consiantly 
increasing proportion: but the same itici has still remained 
noticeable. And nour let us enqain?, whj'^ 

The rt*aflon why is thta: — that, tlvjUffb since the days of Pitt 
ih« compoKitinn of tht^ Hoi^At* of Lonls hss ht^n allenng 
absolutely, it has not been altering relatively to the comptjsition 
of the rest of tbe nation: on the contrary, the altcrfttjons in it 
wo speak of have pre»cn'c<t its relative idcntityn 

This it a f:tct which, so far as we have obsen'e<l, has b«en 
enilri'ly lost st^ht of in recent discussions on the subject ; at all 
events It baa Dover hvtfn brought out with any olcamcBs or itCcO' 
racy, li is thin fnef wfiich we are miisf. nnzjous to imprvss npOD 
our readers; and tbe whole c^f our observations thus far have wen 
leading up to it. During the Girorgian period^ though oor 
commerce was even then consirlcTable, its im]>ur1ance was instil' 
ni^cant as compared wiih (he landed inti^rcsl. Just prior to thsil 
pciio^l l^nl Mar^ulay rstiniAlr^ tljAt eighty pi'r cent, of tbe po|n^ 
laiion wt^re purely agricultural, ttnd this propottion was oflvm 
with extreme slowness. Agriculture was the |>r«*pan derating 
interest till the present century was in its thirties. But a 
marked change hrul manifested itself during tbe days of Piit 
I'he trade of this country he|;an to exhibit symptoms wholly 
unp;irnlhdrd in tlie previous history of the wt>rld. Having Img 
been pri>gTcssitig slowly, ihit proj>rck» suddenly aoceleralol 
itself; from pl<Mtdmg it lx<cainc vigorous maTcbing. A frv 
years later the marching broke into running ; the running ever/ ■ 
decade bM:amL- faster arid still iiuire fast ; and finally ii developed^ 
into the prnverbial lenps riiiil bounds. 

Let us see what tlis means by Ibe nid of a few staliatica 
Instead of having a country in which eighty per cent, of th^ 
population are purely agricultural, we now have a country i^ 

Tie House ef Lerd$, 


wtiicb %\%iy per cont., al toaat, arc purcjy commcTctal and 
inrloHtriftl. ^<> \ix\t^ ns th«f limp wh^n Mr. rilntUront* wai barn, 
in Apiti^ o( ibo proj^M ol Imd*- for mnrr* than a century, the 
incomer drrinfd hy the richer cIsaMs from Un<l exceeded in the 
proportioD of Rfty-»ix lo forty-four the income derivrtt from 
ftll tlie branehf<f of e»inmrrc(< nod mpinuf'iCturc put toj;;ettien 
Now llic iocr>ioe dfiivt-d fioin ihcttt' liniiirhes of cumtiic-rcc; an<l 
maoLifairturc pxcccdi tbc in^^omc derived from Uod in (b« 
aMoni^liing proporfion of fteventy*six to iwen!y-f«ur, Timi, if 
we repreu-Rt the Innde^l inleri^«t nt the brginningof the century 
OS » stftlwArt man of six feet in hei|;ht, the commercial interest 
would have been > Mriplin^ of four feet «eri?n ; whereu now, if 
K we ¥rainl to expre** rhr *(>n of propfJTtion between ihcm, we 
K1>iu*t reprrsrni (rade ;tn ji giant uf ejgUt feet tea, and land lu b 

ptffnij of nol tnarc ihan twn feet tive. 

^- These obaervationi refer only to the cbanffe iamon^c^t the 

^kcher cLu«ef. Let tit now coniider ihe coiretpoQdin^ change 

H^IIDoii^M the tower. During the laU centurv we may %i\y, 

f roughly «peakingr, tlinl the landed Ariitucrncy, from their 

necessary connection wiih a^irultuTe, were the lenders, the 

director», ibe chiefs in tiaily life, of at leaat three^founha of the 

peopir*. Thny Hand nnw in «tich a relntion to at th(» utmost 

one-third only. Uut bow it ibiit? we ask. Hai the nrea of 

their inflticnce contracted? That ii not the aiuvrer: the 

answer is much more atartlia^K It ia not that tht* territorial 

kriiiocracv arc conoocted with lower iniJliont of tbt^ir country* 

men, than they were at the he^inning uf the present century ; 

bat that during the ptst eighty jeara, there have been added lo 

those inilliona, twenty nillions that then were never dreamorl 

of — a new nntton in fact, in itself mon^ than twice ns lar^ as 

the naiioA ruttd by Pitt, and fou^^ht for by Nelson nnd 

Wellin(:ton, and with which th« territorial aristocracy, aa aucb, 

l^^i the cocninon butiness ol life, have no connection whutiioc-ver 

^^B^cie {leuple have Khwu cjviited bj iriidc Aiid commerce: And 

^fcli* proipi^rily of llic puisuits they live by, unlike the pro«|>erity 

of agriiullure^ bus no direct connection with the fortuneg of the 

^Ovioria) lords. Tbc position of the«* last ci^ea them do 

special and neceatarv intereac in it, no special and necessary 

«>Wledge of it, nor any natural cluim to direct art! ^uanl it 

^m thcsie new and f^i^antic interests, this new And gigantic 

P^pulatioDt have had thvir natural chiefs ant) leatderB, as mjch 

^ VAT and aj^rieulluro : and therefore, if ibo Home of Lords 

*<ttto bear to the HngUnd of Ui-dny tbr relation thsl it bore lo 

I V'^ England of the last century, it waa bound to ndmit into 

Vol 167.— iVi., «J. 




Thff Mou^ <^ Lords, 

existed in ttw lut cenUiry* t!ie oli) pAtrician alijpinrby would 
liave admitted it chca ; And lis presence doit, mttea^l of ve«](«fi- 
ing t1it< KtreDgtb of the oltgarchyt has been Absolutely efiCCDtiAl 
for retaining it. 

We may add rurcli«r» what will ffiic puinl tu thia ot>M.-rvatioci, 
thnli if ibc diftlinction of the peerage x% In proponioa to iu 
mriij, n4*v«r wa« a peemgf* «o great a distinction m« no<r. 
Lord IVmbrolkc and Mr. (Jieorire Cui'/on* both dwrll with a sort 
of alarm on the inciossc in th« number of tbe l^ecrs, Tbcjr 
seem cjuite to overbjok the fact that, in proportion to tbe popu- 
lation, Ibcy an? Inr fcwtr now than iXicy were before Pitt bad 
jtddifd uiio to th«.*ir iiuiuWi', Wcri; tUviir ua mwiy luids uovr in 
the United Kingdom to each million inbabitani« %a there were 
a hundred ye^v^ ago, their number, insteHd of being ihort of 
ait himtirt'il^ wimld be vrry tiearly a ihuuiand, VVhjUt, if we 
compare their number, not to that of the population at larg^t 
but tii the immbtrr of the opulent clnues, ttieir increA&inf^ pro* 
porttOQft] rarity U more extiaordiiiary stilt. L<Tt tu suppose 
tlmt aU the head* of fttmiliea in th« coualiy, irbo bad more than 
fiv* thoufland ft yoar, were accuAloinod to mflot at a perlodioal 
banquet, where there were a» iminy tables a» tUcn> wure Peer*, 
a Vcex prr»tdinp at every table, and at every tabic the nne 
number of gue»t&. About the be^irming of this ceotuiy, th«fl 
would hare been one Peer to every five commoners; in the 
_Aiddlc of this century ibere would have been one Peer to evm 

^ht ; and at the present time there w;>ul(l barely be one Petr 

<»vcry thirteen- Or. pf<rh[ipt. since ibe feminiri« iaflaenea « 
increuaiug in the world of pnHticii. there are many of our readcit 
to whom we Klmll put the matter more forcibly thiu : wh«rtl* 
in the days of our great-^and mothers there was a lord £or tm 
young ladie>» in ttie days of our mothen there was a lord iir 
liitccn j and at the j>re*ent moment they are so alarndnglj 
Heareo (but there t« actually only one for every twenty»suc. 

It will ttniK be n^^n fbat up fo the present mumt^nt tb(^ HoDV 
of Lords has in n very singular manner, and without any 
breach of continuity at any period, preserved virtually xX^A 
original and its earliest character; an<l it hat preserred ttus^ 
cliaracter virtually for tlir very reason, thai it haa been mo- 
stantly cbaiigin|- it absuliitely. The principles rmbmljed in i 
have been the »anic, the tra^iitionn contiiiQ<>ua ; but they batt 
modifn) nnd adj^pied ihemselviM t>) ll]t> changing lif«i arDur 
them. And now let us turn at last to the practical riue>tioi 

-KaUuaal Bevww; ^prii 16S8. 

By 1}[e Boo, Q<one CvtnB' 

"" - 

2V Il6H9t of Lords t 


TVwf th(* Hnimr* nf T^rdR nn* i1 any fn^ili a'Titptation nonr ? Add 
tf so. An ofl'-ipUtion of what kind ? 

Before th» r»n W amwcrH, or rvcn discussed wilb any 
ihadoiv of meaning, iLicrc is a iurthcr queatioR which must bo 
explicitlj ftntvrrrnl Gnu And tbat queitton it thU< Sup- 

» posing tUc uecd wf tome frc»li ArlApUCioii adinltted, what ]» the 
«hjroc of the adttpUitton, m tbv ptrttc* to tho diacataion uriJor- 
fltanil it? It it n> pprpptnnlfi i.hc existing SecY>nd Chnmbrr? 
or to create a nrw one? Or ajc-un, is il to mak? the Second 
Ch^iQiber, whfrthcr old or new, stronger or weaker th«n it %% at 

|prf!««at? There ii, of coarse, a certain tect of politiciam, irho 
vottM wish 10 Mbolisb a S<H:nn<l Chamber altoj^tfaer ; but tbesn 
'wc tfclipve to \ic taat^nijlcant io point of influence, nnd Wing 
aboliticinitU thov h«vo ao ooncorn in reform- For our proHrnt 
porpnue, ihrrfrftire, ibift party must be tre:i(ed nc nnn-rxint'^nE : 
uid we must consider tljovt* politicians only — and they fonn an 
orerwhelroin^ majority — who consider a Second Chamber of 
some tort n<^crftSArv- Granted, then, that we must haTO a 
Second Chamber, for what reasons, and with what object in 
view, 11 \\ niirrtrd that the Second Chamber, Jti iC at preM^ot 
exists, n«4^U ch-tnging? ll inuil at ono* b? fmnkly ivco^niii'd 
that dilTiTrrent partirs will answer thi« i|uestir>n in widplir 
different ways. Let os consider what ihoc ii-ays arc. There 
il on« pntty which, though it desires to preserve tli«» House of 
Lftfds, desires to do sn mainly to avoid any riolent nipturo 
wUU the past ; and would seek to secure for it a prolonged 
lease of fife, by depriving it of any pi>wcr» which might 
«fiab[e it to retiit, or oaute it to be resisted by, thi^ Com- 
l&OBS, They would treat it with somewhat die same respect 
tkat graads<in*& odgbt show to a grandfather whosu faculties 
hod failnd him. They would l)e sorry to see bis place by the 
■^Greiide vncant : but they would dread his attemptmg to inter- 
^pierewith the alTairs <}f the family. This is a rjew which if, 
JxrriMpi, not unnntuml ; but it i* too cowardly and too feeble ti> 
cieftvr re serious discu«sion. Our sole eoiic«ni is with those wbc^ 
ifreibrmiog the Second Chamber at all, would desire Co make it 
Sort of a reality than it is at present, not less of a reality ; and 
fcliosET who have this dcare divide thrmieUes broadly into two 
'Iawi-», thf- Kadicnl reformer* and the Lonscnative refonnrrs; 
■•»e ipecihc dilfercnce bctwetm the two, with nr^ntvl ti> tliis pointy 
t>*;iniE »s follows- The Kadtcalt, ivhUst wishing to perpctaat« 
^Ui' $4>rond Cb^mlwr, would ab fnr as postiblc* ehmngc its Ira- 
'^Uiunaland hereditary cbaraeterf whilst theConservatires would 
** fsr as possible prr«rrvp it. 
L Let ns glance at the position of the ronner class first. Its 

Th€ UOHM of Z*ffrf*. 

lender and Intellectual spokesioAn U Mr, Joha MoTtejr. Unlike 
his friend Mr Lnboiicbcrr, wha d«ire^ thftt the House of Lordi 
ihould be ended^ Mr, Mortcy f-ntcrtaini tiic bdicf, that it majr 
be mtnded ; and wbat hi» imliuii uf mt^iiUin^ It is inaj be 
^tticrrd from tbo rrASon which be ^iTr*, for thinking tbat the 
memUng is required. Wi* cannot do bi'ltrr^ in tbi» counoction, 
than quote the following admirable remarks of Mr. Frank Hill. 
^vhif:h occur la an article b}' biin to wbich we hare Alreadjr 
alluded : — 

'Mr> John lUortoj/ hv writua, 'in nupporting Ur. LaboncAiaffo'l 
resolution [tbat it U contrfiry to tbo true principles of repreoentotin 
goTorQQXoat , . . that ^ny poraon *boidd bo a mombcr of ouo ILraav 
□f the IrftgislatDm hj right of birth, iukI that it ia Lh(*n>fon) deabah^ 
to put an end to any mm oxisticig rigbta] docUxod tbat the cxten^^H 
ef the eloDtiTe prutoipl^ in local gOTomment tboved that ibcro wi^P 
moTemont in ovory ciunrlor lut ono ti^m privihgc aud from b«ruditary 
pririkf^, and ianiitcd that tbia iiioTi>m£?nt wcokonod the vrh':>lo foun- 
dation on wluch the House of Lords rests. Mr. Lahou<^ete wotttd 
probably bo enrpriflfd to bimr that liko Phito'ct duity ho eoometrim^ 
l)ut botb he and Mr. Moilej LieQplify what Ur. J. B. MUl dMcribtt 

*" The lisbitual crroTof lonuy of tbu politiuLl spoGulators whom I 
have cbaraoteriscd as the geometrical eehool, capecislly in FtmaoBk 
wboro ratioctuutioii from rolea of pmotioe funua tbe stajtle commodllrf 
of Journalism and political ornlory. . . . Tho commonplacea of pcli< 
ticM, in Fraitoo, arc lorgci nnd owcopia^ proetieal tnaxiEaa from ivIlicJj* 
aa ultimate prtuiissufl, m&ii reoaou doutiwarda tit ptLriieuUr ai^i:a- 
tions and this they cjvU being lo^cal and cnnaisteat. For !»*fT4a^ 
tb«y are pcipetaally arguing that such and such a meaeura ought M 
bo bdojitvd bocauKD it is n conseijoeiicu of tbo pnitcipin oii which Ib0 
form of gov^mnient lb fouudtnl, of tbo pHneiplo uf iogitimikcy, cvaf 
the principle of tho Bovoreignty of the people. . . . Jnaamnc^ hor- 
eTer, as no goverDmeut tends to producu all jiosaiblo boni^ial iCoi^ 
but alt are Attended with more or fcwor inc^nvetuenees; and iiac 
thcrso ooimot bo combated by moon.-i drm^n from the ver^ caeaos tl>t 
produce them, it would be oflt^n a tuuoli etrongO' recomDendalia& oT 
Bonic prneticat arrangement, that it docfl not follow firom what i^ 
called the general principle of the gOTerDmett than tliat it doc* — 
Uotler A government of legitimacy, the pmuuiE'tioQ is fiLr raUicjii^ 
fuvonr t>f instittitio&ia of popular criaio ; find in a dcmceracy <*^ 
favour of arrangements l*indinij to check tbo impetus of popular w^ - 
The hne of nrgnm natation , so ooniinuidy mivtokon in rTaoec 't*^ 
political philosopLy^ tends to the practical coDcluatou, tbat we iboid^^ 
oxcrt out utmost cfbrtit ttr AggmvAte^ iiLBtoftd ^f aUaviuliii^ «b^'; 
ever are the charoctoriatio impedToctionfl of tlie >ya1«ia of inabtiritotatf^ 
Tfhicli we prefer, or under vhiob we happen to live," 

'The argument thut bt^niuHo tlic ropri^seutatirc principle i* pic^ 
dominant >n England, and is becoming cvi^iy day more and do^^ 


3%€ Iii}\i9t of Lcrtb. 


^werfiil, tlieroforo ftWffy otlicr principle rrniftt Tj* litmlM Mit of lU 
Xtft refuge, «Lnd every lE^titulion not joetmg on «jt eloctiTo boais 
mint bA <le«troved, nhon it is ftomtthisg imiro thui shocr dciQ&-> 
KOgnivii, lktw« irum till) pi.irv\^i:8u itolitlcal pLil^taopLiy wlitcli Mr, Mill 
ocBcribM. Thin iii not to nay that tbo hereditary pt-iitciplo la ao^u^^ 
bnt IborcojtoDti {^ix^t^n by Mr. LikbuucL<TrtT imd Mr, JoLti Morloy do 
tbow it io ho uiiRoiiiul )Q ite ftpplicAtian to English poliiica. 
prcsumptioii i^ ruth^r Ibe uthf^r tvav, 
* A proliaiifiOirj objucUou tnay be t^ikon bjr Buglisli politjcEiuiH tu ft 
eoodonuiAtiDn of tbo bcrn^diinry principle in la^itlAtion, hutKHl on tho 
gnmul Umt it ii inootiiitfiteut with the principle of rt;|:aYiM»ntatioD, 
BccBWO it 10 n diflcrcnt principle it Ik not Docoasanly an inconfliatont 
piiAdple. Tb«7 nmy l>otb bo elemeiiiA iii a larger ftjtt«nL* 

jin- delighfM, for mor« r«itsoni tbnti one, to avail ourcclv«> 
I the foregoing: prtumg^Tn It Indic^tn* conciidy anH cWrly chc 
ilfTammc of the K^idical * mcndc-r ' ; it completely ciiFs away 
rom undtr him th« hollovr inlcllcctual gniund, on wbicb he 
bw so long been solemnly' posturing ; and it will a[»o ^tjrve to 
raminil out Coiivetvatite rtruder* bow liuH so fur as aims and 

rifinciplcj go, th<ry bnvc in common with Mr. Morlcy • schoob 
I will, bo'jrevrr, do cuinpthinjif nioT« br<«id4*ft. In n^mindirif; our 
Con»rTTntivr re-adcrs of the cIass of idcftt wbicb ibcy rrprobRtr, 
it will remind tome of iheni — we regret to say — of a clasi of 
idcM with wtuch they think it necessary to compromise. 
Unlike Mr> Morley* tbry desire to presi^rvc the hereditary 
piiuciple I but xhvj tbink it nt-ci:ssitry to tcmprr it witb, or bide 
It brbindp somo frmbodim'^nt of tbo democrAtic nnd oWtiTu 
piiofiplo. In order to |irir£rrv^ iho Ariitoc^ratit: Itf^rnt-'l, t]i«*y 
wooJd let Mr. MaiLej supply a drinociatic sbclJ. Hence 
biES arisen a rarlety of schemes and proposals, emanating 
iriMnly from Peers or from future Peers thcmidreit which, 
tkougb highly ingenious, and exhibiting great fairness and 
breadth ofvicw^ vrc muit fujtn a nractinil point of licw pruuuunce 
10 hf mitttakon and faotiful. iMd wo tbink it nec<*ss-'Lry to do 
so, wff rnnid nxplain onr rPA!tim% for snyitig this, at iirnglh. We 
AnM call atteotion to various defects and inconrcnionces 
*hi<b have been found incident^ both in Ireland and Scotland, 
^ the system of representative IVer*. VVc should al^o point out 
^mx were the House of Lords to be reduced, as a ivholc, to a 
^<dt body of >ucb rrprcKmtatLVr^ it vroutd be nccrssary to 
^ncr«atc the ntitntwr of Pi'4rrs, till tbey bore num«rica}ly at Uair 
*^* «me proponion to the nation at largi*, thnt ihry h*irr bc^rore 
^^dayi of Pitt, In otber wordt, we should have to swell the 
'^y, from some six hundred to nearlv a thousand. We should 
P*Uic also to remark on the cry of the eldest ions, that they 



The House of Lords* 

ahouldi if they wiahed it, on succe^dln^ to dieir jweragei, be 
allowcil still to sit in the Hou»e of Commons. We should 
jKiint out lo tbcae eatimublc young gL*nt)euieii an srgumrDt, 
whf>sr? JDSticfT wc frcl «urc llmi ihey would admit i — nanicly, thut 
lli«> House of Lt^rds ni a polltlcnl institutloiL dor-s iiul 4'3^iitfr>r 
th<T sake of iu memljrrs, l>ut that its mcmbrrfl exist for the sake 
of Ibe Houte of Lords ; and tbat it is preciftely tbc men who arc 
moat Likely to sUint; in tfc LoMcr Hoiisc!, wUost: pretLMice is 
inofit needed to give strco^lh to the Uppen These points^ 
liowcvcr, und iimny ulhi^rs like therm, vrc must cuiiiont uuroelvrs 
with ini?rc]y nlluding to ; ond pa» on to ihnt viow of the mftilcr 
which we 1>eli4*vi? to bt- nicini? tn B<Tnrdan<ri^ wiib prineipl«*£ of intc 
Conservniism, and which also, if properly put before the public,, 
wouldf w? beliere, commend itself to the bulk of the people 
generally. The wbolc^ thcr^ of the arguments and eons i derations 
which we hare been urging in this article, lead up lo this : thst* 
If the existing Second Ch^imbcr h to bi; [icrptrluntJfd, and il» 
strf^ngth uj)d its tdlctency to \w iocTcased, the one principlo in 
it wbieh muat ha most ■tnrtly guardnd, and fairly nnd frankly 
recognized, is precisely the one principle niib which many of 
our reformers would tumpcr, or for which they are most inclined 
io Apologize. We mean the hereditary principle. We are 
perfectly willing to admit that, in the present state of popular 
opjiiii>n, the her<ilttary prineiplc aTurdt an insecure fuuiida- 
lioD ff>r authority ; but w«r bclicvo tho rtraion lo bv, not that 
Iho hereditary principle is nnaocnJ, but nicrply that St is mis- 
understood. Speaker after speaker, essayist after essayist, have 
for years done their best to confute this entire quersti on, ami 
to keep out of sight its most importiint aide, which not only 
ou^ht to be obviotis to conimon-ti^me, but is also illustrated by 
tbr most impoilaiH <]tfclrinea i>f &eience. We mean tliAt in a 
body fluch as the House of Lords, whatever may be the iiaturo 
of the memben' inherited nrgnnisms, th(*y hnre aII inherited a. 
special and an analot^ous environment : nnd that on all of them 
luflirienlly seriou* lo Ifike any part in legislation — that is to say 
on all except a minority, which Mr. Uri^du would call a * resi- 
duum '< — (hit analogous rnvironmont h;is itnprexsLHi nti atialcgous, 
a CRlcutahle, and a dirpcndable character. It has connected them, 
nuito tndopGn^ently of their own will, wilK the prosperity of 
ibe enuntry ; and just as thi^ people at large may Ih- snid t(^ 
represent endeavour, the House i?f l^nds may be lairl to repre- 
sent succ<<xs. It is a natural authority, on account of the 
position of its members, with regard to the conditions of success 
amongst all rlasse-s. 

WUenoucv we realise this view of the matteri we shall vev how 


7k€ IUut€ of Lard^. 

«u«lltiii1 to iTiff pmper fulfilmrnt of iu finrtinni, in thit ftirt, 
ihftt itt members euccrcd natumtly Xo (hrir plaoe^, without the 
AEtUG:gl« i"(i the ]inniz:insh]|> ins^-pnmljt? fr^>in popular candi- 
ilftturc; that tbry are srcn*ti*f|, in Inct, bj' xhvs daily life of tlie 
coaDtrT,raiberihan b)- crises of ncitcmenCtniU purely poHtjcnl 
life. Bat lb<;rc U SAmctbing more t(> atld. iVe have »aid that 
tbe hf>r»ditAry Hoot^ repm<»nt< ■ucoe4*. There arc <7f*rtatn 
klrula offtuorrM, how(^rr*r, whirfi, though 4*f|i]iil}t pTactiral with 
tbow reprwented by properly, are in their very «»<?nce purely 
personaL Such is the succois of ^n-nt Inw^c^rs, or othrr ni<m 
cqualij eminent for thoir conduct in the afl>ur4 of life ; and it 
•eenis to us that lord Salisbury baa acted with his tiiual judg* 
mfrnl, in pninllng nut, a> ihn molt UAcful change which At 
pn*«vii1 could bi* ma<lt* or rrfjuire^ Iu hv made in th« compoiition 

■ of the Upper Home, a crrtain jncrcnsr in tbc numl^er of Life 
Peers, hutead of tncltninjr to the cry for the principle of 
tkcHon,, he bns most judicioutty pnjftrretl to widen tho 
application of the priotiple of selection. 

And tbe difTcrenci^ beiwi-en tht.-si* two lends ui to a rcry 
^Ksmptnunt ob^rrrationt which cannot, w«t vfoturr to soy, he laid 
l^^too dfMjply to he«Tt. It tc thtc. In»t4*jid of *r€?kitjff to itrenglbcn 
the House of Lords by tryiri|> to give it the same basis as the 
Hou» of C^mmofu, wc shuuld recogaijre that its main mi'jeon 
ifkrt 1%, that it retits on a difTcn^nt bnsii; and thoag^h in a 
sound stat^ of the country both Houses^ we beltere, would 
arritF at rotntnin uincluiion*, the in^jn teat, th-it the* conclusions 
wore ri^ht, would lie in the fact, that thcr Iwo Honsea had each 

^amm) at thr-m by utartiog from diflTrrent p>tntB. 
A minor lefoxtn, and one easy to bring about, but at the same 
time not iiniinpnilant, is the excluiion from the House of any 
member who may have diigTAced it. As a matter of fad such 
uemliers rarely attend debate* or vote, and iheir power to do so 
ii an CTjl thtt is lilllr intirn lh«n thi'onrlical. ntill man dors 
Wit live by fads alone, hot by ima;-ination aTso ; the moral 
iAAei'i^ti*^'^ '"'^ 'he propt/^ ia not nnnaturatly Brandn!i;fe(! by the 
P^ibitity of sttcb thinirs occurrini; ; and in polincs, as in bve, 
^ITcs light as air may Iw coniftmtnntionit strtm^, when men hjtre 
<*t»cc been taiigbt to be jealous, VVc are of opinion, therclore, 
thfti iijt removal of any theoretical scandals may have an effect 
**Ul of all oi<.'pr^ittvn to it* )nliin*ic impoTt^nrr. 
^m W« will conclude by referring oace mote to what has been 
"^e main gtsl of our argunifola, and that ia to tbc edncacin^ 
^ttalitiea of the hereditary environment of our hereditary lej^is- 
Ifttors. The environment »f the Inndownet has, of all environ- 
^enu, been the one in which theac qualities have been most 
L rvnLarkabl« ; 


Tfit limuf of ly^da. 


remnrltftblc; uil th« reason i% as rollowi. The own«nhip of 
Und in Enel&nd has brought tb« Uncillord into cxHiiUnt cofl- 
lusction vrirli al) ihoae clqHrndErnt on liim &D<1 OD wbom be 
depends. Drlwccu him niut lliciii ihrrc Iinn been a rUtble and 
a pcradnnl icUtloiiship; j^itd cbiv rrluiioiubip hat tJevocjulcd 
from gourrRtion to gr-nfrctlton. Hrtwrpn thr gn^At tnAniifttrlanr 
and his einplo>ees there has been a similar reUtioruhip, thooch 
one not %o marked ; but it has not in ihe same way, or for the 
same leugth of timo, descended. Were great commcrciaJ busi- 
nrssrs u pcrmani^nt in their nature aa landed piopenies, our 
uiimbaut prtuccs would l>c ns fit mAtriiAl for Pccx* «s our 
countr}' girnllrincii \ und h ik moinlj owiiij- to this bejng not 
the case, that the landed wealth represcnird in the Hou»e of 
Ix>n1> is out of proportion to the other kinds of wealth iu the 

As matters sluntl, we do not think that this is to be re^^retted. 
We have dclendei) the hi^rediury principle, but ive hare de- 
fended it i>\\ thja j-rouiid onljt^t that the hcreditfxrjr environ meal '>f 
the hereditary legislntors U one that coiiti(*cts ihvtn cunieiooclj^t 
visibly, and aciively^ with the frreat body of the people. Were 
the landlords bought out by the State, cir mode mere reiu- 
chargers on profnerticfi which the Government adntinistcred, 
tljerif though &s individuals they might remain a brtlluni, s 
civilisted, or even a civjli^ing^ bcMly, we should be tlie ftrst to 
B&y that, as a budy, tli<iy had l{>»t their claim (o lef-isUlOi 
Should our Peers ever sink till they become a mere collvctiofl 
of rich TtntifYA, living on the interest of capital which they hsd 
no ihure in direi'tinj;, and on the labour of men whuisc namei 
and employmmts were unknown to thcrn^ or, even witboal 
sinkin[r to this financial condition^ should ihey come to act, ajkd 
live, aud ihluk, as li they hail sunk to it, and ils if nothing but 
brut« riches and an unmvanint; titk* diatin^uisbrd them, they 
might still find a field for thrtr energies and their ambition in 
patronizing late-meetings, or in driving couches, and their wivM 
might shine as the givers of halls and parties, or as invitcrs of 
guests to the parties of other people ; but in that event, ve 
should ourselves he amongst ihe first to say That, as a politiod 
body, their right to esisi had ended ; and we should say this 
with hardly a ponf; of regret, for everything that now romkes 
Knglainl gvtat would hare eadrd long bf^forp. 


< 24fl ) 

Airr. X. — Local Goeemmail (England and tftdtn). A Bill to 
amend fAe law* reiiUirig to l-ocal Gova^nmtnt in England and 
Wo/lfjf, <tnd for oihtr piirpoten connected therewith. Prepared 
and brought in bv Mr. Kiubir, Mr. VVilliAin Hcnrj' Smith, 
the* Chftneellor of tho Kxch^uer, Mr, Secretary MaltUewf, 
und Mr. Lcitig. 

IT U ouutewhat chamcteristtc uf our Cwistituuou, full as It Is 
o( instiEulioni ivhich, though tlieorcltCAU^ fLnomJklout and 
illogicnii urt^ pnct^caMj' uif^ful^ that a bi>dy, vrUich Uac don*^ ils 
viork efficiently and well^ should be called upon to yield to a 
demand for reform b^ied leis on r4Ct than on sentiment. The 
powen ejiercUi-'d by (^unty mngiitrnles in Qunrlc^r ^NMiionK 
DAV be in excess of those which in theory should be wielded by 
Bob an uuthufily. S|>eakinj^ of those powers under which the 
movcEncntj of cattle may he prohibited <3oring the prcvftlcnce 
of cattle plague, Mr. Brodrick, an iinpnrtta] critiL% tayt:* 
* Howerer salutary these powers may have proved ia their opera*- 
tion, tbey are assuredly such as our forefalUent would never have 
con^dcd t« nominees of the Crown witliout ihr assistance of 
elective otIiceTa-* And from tbe same point of view objection 
tuigUl he taken to others of the futicci4>QS of <Juartcr Srssiom, 
But on tbe whole the work of the County magistrate* haa been 
doDti rtonomicftllv nml w*?!!^ and nol only wi, but done without 
provoking the eomplsints and clamour nhicb have frequently 
assailed the actions iti other mori- lujiiailly constituted auibo- 
rttict. They have taken sn intelligent and prudent view of 
their duties* They have avoided, on the one hand, the narrow 
pariimciny which hoa elsewhere led to the seiture of momentary 
saving at the cost of uttinmlc loss, aud, on the other hand, the 
eilmvnganre begotten of car^lessne» or pnaic whirh b/i* brought 
discredit en more than one welNknown assembly. If. therefore, 
as seems prohahle, the C^ouuty magistrates are soon to hand uver 
their eicculive powers to a body more rcpfesentativc uf the rate- 
paver^ thdr retirement will he honourable to themselves, and they 
ivil] noE lack the gmtilude even of those must desiruusuf reform. 
\\c havtr tuiid thai sucb a transf<*r is proWble. It would bo 
rash, howovi*r, to sttrmpt i*Ten now any d*?fniie prrtUt-lion a« 
to the fate of the measuie which occupies the from place in the 
legislative proposals of the present Session. The Local OovenU' 
n^ent Bill on it* introduction waa received with a chorua of 
ajtproval, due aa much t<» the marked ability with which 
Mr. IliEcbie riLpIained intricate provisions, a« to the prevnlcnce 

T/te Local Choemmtnit B3L 

of thr tilfn, thAt n romprphcnuirn rrfnrm of LdcaI Gord^rnnivm 
is cicsirable. FunLer ciumiuatiou, however, hat tbovin itc 
complir^tcsl and vcxcJ nature uf \\\v. question* dealt witli. 
The bill U one upon which evcrj^ human being, who tftkcft 
any interest in the iaternul afToirs of the^ kla^om, Icnovs or 
thinks he knows something ', anil, the roodcscj of mtxlciii 
]c;*iAlaton not btrinp; «uch na lt> tndijOL^ th<rEn Co refrain from 
Attomptin^ to ^iv(? rflVot Ea inflivifliint idra^^ the amr^nclmentB 
nhkb have even at Xh\\ period \o be cunsuloretl art so numeruns 
ai to he A serious clement of dangrr. bucb difficulties as theie 
it would be cosy to brush away, in the case of a measure fo? 
which there were any strong and practical deinnuiJ,or which 
was Ainx-d ot the rcmovAl of tome really preaBiii*; ^ticry&xice* 
lint tUoUf^h there ha*, probably, not betrn a platfotm -speech on 
internal alT^irs made lor the lost live ^ean wltii^jut reference to the 
neeii of Local GovemmcTnt Reform, we much <1nuht if the present 
siat47 of thing* is so intolerable as to give an overwhelming; 
impetus to the statesmen who are attempting to make it better. 

Hnrassmg ns is the confusion of the duties of ottr local 
outhorlticB, and their relations to each other and those whom 
they represent^ it would not be easy lo abow, that ihia coafusioo 
has prjtiuceil such injury or even »ucb friction as iinperatirely 
calls for rtmcdy. Taking thetn all in all, our local affairs ars not 
badly admiaistered. This of course is no reason against sn 
endeavour to make them belter administered ; and the states* 
maalike attempt of the present Cabinet is one which both U 
laudable in itself and was unavoidable under thrcireDmitnnees. 
Rnt it is a fact wbieh cannot bf loat si^ht of, wb*n we an* 
weighing the chances which the Hill has of escaping from the 
Bsssulls of its t4>o numenms friends. And it is one which mutt 
be home in mind when an estimate is made of the credit which 
will attach to iMtnisterit if tbL^y carry what rfmainc of their 
measure, or which will not be llteirs if they have to throw rerjr 
mueb more of it ovcrboard- 

Tliough we beHeve, that the desin> for rvform of Loral 
GoTcmmcDt is less fervid than it is assumed to be, yet tbr 
principle has been so universally accepted that neither party of 
the Slate could nfTonl to ne^^lect it. And we cordially hope, 
therefore, that the present Oovrrnmrnt will persevere, not only 
witli the }ii«3Ciil Bill, but in ihcir uITorls to build up a simple 
and jvt comprRheasivc avatero townrdi which tbia yrar's 
measure is admifledly a aleji. Our present local nuiborilies, 
though they hare done good sen'ioc, are too hampered bj the 
complication of tlicir machiuery to be tboroug^bly eJlicii^ut. The 
sysieiD under which they work, the areas of tb^Ir jurisdiction^ 
> the 

7^« I^4kl O^vmm^t liOL 

tUr powers wbicfa tbojr wioldt arc too intricate and at tbe same 
lintp too limited, to enable them to hope for more than m qualifi«;d 
succeu. Tlie cxcrcUc <*i ratc-Irvyitig pnwert by tt mw-repro- 
■L'Qtutirc body is wrou^ uu doubt iu principle, and we liv no 
tacaii* plead for tti cpontlauftncc. But it has not done ai much 

tli^irto, or prevented at mucli good, a« tLr ov<-r-Jup]>i]i|; of atcils 
suid coofutton of nctbority under which the rural locftl bodies 
nre novt forced to work. The object of the Local Government 
Keformer sliould be to establish ^ ^raduule<] svit^ni in which 

tcTpiy citizen, with the slighlrBtrapftcity lor nlfair« and desire to- 
■tnplcjij il, sliuuld bu abli? tu lukr liii ahirr u> W-^ udminutroi* 
lion ; ■ tjr*T^m extending- from the pariah to tho Icingtlonn ; oi 
«Vttt«tn of onlrrly subordintiliun of nulhoriljr fo nulhnrity ; a. 
«jBtem fiee from intricacy, snd such ai lo leave fuM scope for 
the developmc-nt of tbc- jnl<^Test> of each locality by the men 
best qualihi'd to understand thr^m ; n nystem nf Inr^il imleprti- 
deoce, aubjoct only la the conlrnl ncceuary to preserve imporiai 
UDity ; a a^yslcni which wiiuld aCUncI the ciu!r|£]ca of tbc best 
Dieji in uac'h district, and at tho Bairo tirao co^nicmct tlio^ 
BiiKchirvoua efforts of thou* whi> wmi)d ditfotf^iprrnte the Kmpire 
fender coTer of a professed love of decenTrali^auon. 

'J'uWEiTflc the establithnient of sjch a njstcin the JHll nf thii 

Tear will be but a step. U leaves untouched the complication of 

juriidictiun and of area to which we have referred. It ftba1isb«« 

noAuiliority r^xccpt the liuiiat I)^»iila. It add* one more body to 

the chaa« of council • among which Local Covcrnmemiaacatlcred.^ 

With the object of not cumbering the Bill, ono for which much 

laiy, we admit, be said, the whole machinery of the Poor Law is 

l^/t » it is. Assessment stnd Kmnchiccr remain unviimplifird,. 

ilat«a will be coUecte<l by different oilic^rs and on ditlcrent 

iNiBes, Although much will have to he done in the way of odjutt- 

ttit^t of liabtltClrSf iiabilitieB will hi: left ia ao iinoU'ct) A &taU; 

aw to i»ceasilatc gn^al labour in the near future. Highway are»«, 

■pcfaool an^oa. Sanitary arisis, will continue to overlaps Little 

^^r BO imm^diAte u«e will hr made of the hiboars of Lord 

Tir-oirntow and his colleajTU^s on the iJoondary Coinmi«ior, 

^^cl the work of map maiiiip will Ik? silinoal &a anomalous as 

^^^wttofartt. On the other hand there will be set up a body 

***»ju*t*d with very ample powtTs, and vrcll cjualiftrd by its 

^"^^■fttiintion to wi^ld tbera — a body under which may be built 

^ ^Substructure to l>e imdunll't pf-rfected. The County Council 

^ *^ II be cal1c<l upon to discharge duties which may well occupy 

"■>o energies of men of education and influence. We havr no 

^Aj*ad that such men will stand aside from the work of Local 

l^^nerwneot. They will ha^e opponunities enough, if they 

H will 

77ie Local Gocenmcni Dili. 

Kitl only tntc« tKnm, of fining iiitrfiil ni^rrlrr*. It U not in 
cxprottd tbftl a w-^t OQ a Conoly Council can be wonliilr 
nccupm) without tabaur >(nd pAti<Mirr. It c;tnna! bfr luoketl 
upon as an bonourabtc sinecure, Dcix&sitalinf; no toiJ, ao 
judgment, no p^r^verance. If genilvmen, who hav« bitbeno 
held a biffh putiiion in C»untv Ailjiirt, iliink tbnt ihcy can 
win and bold tbir ftiiJTra^uB of ibd rlcctori without Iwetowinf; 
mor^ thnn n moilirnin of cam Up'>n llip vork ihr/ sr*- cnllcil 
Upon III adminisier and the ialere»t» thev ar« expected In 
derclnp, they will ioon find thrm»lri!» ipi$uken. Tbe 
electors will demand more tban a paBsini; aUention to County 
buiinett, But ibe County CouncUior of the future will be in 
none the worftc position richer a« rcgnida influence or sGcurily 
if hfl po«ci<«tci cuUurc and t<dtirauon, 1'hc bictorj' of Poor Law 
aflministrntion ihows forcibly the position in this respect trhidi 
the County irr^ntk-mt-n Uave Ueld, Wben the Act of ]?t34 wi» 
patird, it» odminiBtrnti^n wat undertaken con amom by men of 
highest flualibcations. Gradually weariness of detail, or tine 
di«likeuf cinnpt-tiiion with theGuanlians elecli^d on a moderate 
francliiac, led to tlir work beittg ribandonrd by the owncra of 
property to the oecupicrt And there have tbi3< arisen in 
County districts lbr«e kinds of Hoards of Guardians, Tboic 
naroely in which th^ eh^cled Ciuardiant have matters tbcirown 
wAjf and th« ex tfficio members of tbc Bosrd rarely attend; 
thoie on which both classes are generally represented ; and 
tbme In whidi thr n^gular aU€*ijdance nf ex officio members 
riTSults ill the chief reipunsibility romnining with them. In 
pi> one of the thrre need there he, or U there, conflict betw^^n 
tbe two closBCfl. In all where the owners of property can wield 
influence and really devote thoinielves to deserving it, not by 
attendance at the iJoard Meclings only on election days, but. 
by constantly working to deal with the coiuinually recurring 
difHcuiliFi of their ta^k, not only are they poircrful for gi^ni « 
but thoir vetvicva are hctartily welcomed and appreciated. 

So will it l>e with rh*^ Cnnnty CnnnrlU, Thenft are man 3 
who fear that the fickleness of the popular rote will at i»< 
tjistani pericid lead the men of most stake in the country C^ 
abandon in despair tbe conduct of local afTairs ; who think th M 
the power in Couuty Councils will tetid more and more to pa^a 
into the bandt of such wordy demagogues as will uiotit u ^ 
woilbily pandiT to the poMiom of a clumoroUB ftecUoo^ or m£r» 
ignobly yield to the outcry of a moment. We have no sn ^: 
anxiety. In tbe lonjt run the grealut influence will be wield «^ 
by those who rnoit deserve it. Of course there will be tiirmtf 
at which temporary interest in tbe afiairs of an electoral an^^ 


7%0 Local Government BilL 

v!U ontwcJi^b interest \n County pm^re»» and timet mi whicli 
A hye MSiie: will gorem thn giring of votes. Bui tkiA is the 
CTLsi?, as a reoent instance has clcaTly shown, with Firlinineacaiy 
clt-cliouL And tbctre i* tiu rcoum wby thu«c of Her M<-ijriitys 
aabjcctA who have bithf^rlo done, and, its wo inaintuin, ilunt.- 
well their ditty in County BilminiitTatiun, should for tbc future 
bold aloof from or be discouraged in their labours. 

From thit paint of view we are iliipfurd to regard tbc 

abaodonmcnt »f the Licensing Clau«ca sa an escape from a 

great practical dithculty. Had those Clauses remained^ the 

rlrcti<>iiK would have turned largely, not on ihc! truv qunlitira* 

tioOB of ondidatci for Chc difTiovilt work of County Govennnent, 

bnt on tbpir view* on the Tempprnnoo qite«tJon. Mpd would 

have been selected to deal with thir complex and important 

probleint arisinfT "ut of the severti Act*, the pctw^rr* under 

which arc transferred to County Councils, not because of their 

capacity for affairs, their integrity, or their asruieiiL^^, hot 

hnviuc of tlwir opiDions on trLnjH^mocc txrxua total A}>«lin«ncc-, 

and on compciisJitlon verju^ >p>liatioD. It is easy to imflfiac 

the floorl nf vehemrnt nralory which ibn imitator* of Sir Willinm 

Harconrt aod Sir Wilfrid Lawson wjuld have poured into tlie 

cars of the electors on the one hnnd, and whicli the rtprc- 

senlatives of the Licensed Victuallers would have let loose on 

the other. Under the babel of tongues which would have been 

^_ built up, the true isaucs would have been buried. Rccriniina^ 

^m tiftn would bave b«eD h«ap«d on nMrimi nation. Hot pariisan 

^V Mings Wf>uld have been arousetl with rrferenee to one portion 

^ oalr of the funciion* of Crjuniy Councillois, and the varied 

T^uirements necessary for the e^irJrnt pcrrfonnauoe of all other 

iimciions would be kept out of sight. 

These consideration) afford an Imponani modificatlou to 

^_ <ii« rcgrd which we should otherwise feel at ihe abandonment 

^■or the Licensing CiauM.**. TLima ClauKeM wen* ao important 

Concession to tho wishes and opinions of the t4*mpcranc« 

I*ariy, and to the principle of Local Option, They were 

*|^^liRe<] with a provision as rrgnrds compensation withi>ut 

*^liicb, or something of the nature of which, they would have 

j^^Q grnsaly unfair to a Inrge body of Lict-UK-d Victuallers. 

*^cy wercr at once made tbc object of nn immoderate and 

^'^riatical attack. The extreme advooatei of (empennce opposed 

^'^(*iii lolly^ basing their opposition on the extraordinary ground, 

^*'^l puhtieans deserved no comiienintion, and should receive 

^^>nt. Tho arguments advanced in support of this contention 

^«re most meagre. In effect they amounted to little more 

^Hu this; that, because certain commodities arc cousuined in 




77te Local C<fixrHment Bilh 

«x<'o«« l3jr a 1imitc<1 numHnr nf |vurchaA<^r«, th9 vmnlor* or 

ihem, without nny ct>mprn*fttion for the cnpitftl or cncrcr sp^nt 
in establisbinjf aad maintaining mevi» of supply. Such an 
argQinent could not hold good u<:cpt in the c«>c of a trndc^ 
every part kular c^rrciso of which ii nefarious, or fofura ha^oli 
rmTTM. The owncrsliip of slrtvea wn» held to be opposed to th*^ 
priociplp of fr^(*dom nnd thr- prarUco of a fme ufttion. But ihe 
»Iava owners wr<no oompr^nmti^d. Thffn? nrft prohablr momf* 
total abstaincm who wouM a»«crt, that the sale of nlcobolic 
liquor t» moie criminal than the ownership of «IaveSf uid 
fthould, tike it, he forbiddi^n b/ Utr. But even for thi^ extreme 
propo«itii.>n it does not fulluw chat it should be mude illegal 
uncondilloEirtll)'. The Inw hn« recognb:<Ml n.nd mndr provitiod 
for th(* *nU of intonifftting li^jtior*, Kven if it were to taJco 
the rxCreme step of Alnolute ])rulnbition, the Lr^tslature could 
not fairly deprive of all rompensatioD for the determination of 
their privileges men who oave spent monev on the plant 
necevsary thereto. Still lessettn theprinciple of soch compenM- 
lion be jo^icallv jubailrd bv ihif opponeuCi ouJjf of drinking in 
exooi. Noverthrtctis temperance onitors of all Hbad<^4 of 
opinion did niinil llint principTi^ ; nnd the nsinuU wns «op|viTlef] 
by more than one of ibe frt>nt Oppotitinn bench* from what »e 
can onlr interpret to be a desire to hamper and hnnut tb( 
Govcmmrnt by nil means iind on every «uhji?cl, 

Tlie deriftion lo wilhdrnw (be Lirrnsinfj Claases involved the 
.-ibnndonmrnt of the ninth clauar, Adiviaiou Indent was forced 
OD thi« ii«vio ; but the ifouHc of Comniona \\aA liule diHicuhy 
in deciding thftt the oompromise on the LieentingqiieMtion pfn* 
posed by the Government must be taken as a vhole or rejected is 
a whole, and that to deal with Sunday Closing in the nill without 
tDueb'tng the irnjn qu(?»tion would be x bit of piecemeal legis- 
Uciuo of no renl arlvnntage lo nny one. Of course the claute 
was (^hiinorouftly aupportnl by crrtnin mrmber* of ihfr Te-uipe- 
ranoe ptirty, who nppear to want all (he bo«t of i>x*er_r bargain, 
tttit thr majority ajrainst them wns dertfivc Indeed we do 
not think ihat iheir representatives and flpokesmtrn, eithtr 
pennaof-nt or orenaionnl, have siren^thent^d their poRition in 
the country by thrir brliaviour dunnu the Ust few weeks. 
They have &1iown a j^napln^; and unpraetjcal spirit, not likely 
to commend itielf to the common-tcnie of the nation* A. party 
whiebf on such a quefttion, wuit< things all its own way ia sore 
to provoke distrust. Cool obsen'ers — and there arc many ineli 
wielding Ji preatcr influence at a general election than is alwnvt 
recognized — will be apt u> ask themselves what interpretation 


7%M Local Gortrnmtnt Bill 25S 

«uch men wculd put oo Lool Option, if Local Option were 

4?vcT mpprovcd hy Parli^nent ; wtut would be tbe nature of tbe 

^^orta made to guide that option ; Rnd ivhm toloranco would be 

|^lx>v*a tu tUc upiition* und wisbf-t of upputients. Men wLo Jij 

not dcairo to ^ec the principle of iroodf>in «(itlr<:)v •acrifiood to 

tbf? principli- 4tf alutirirnr^ wJU d» n'<-ll to takr? wnming by thi! 

agitation. But wbilc wc think tbat, on the wbolc, the Govern- 

meot a<:ted wImIjt in abnndonmg the Liceofthi^ Claascft, we fi?4r 

tbat they bave done so At Mime riik to tb«ir po»idoD. All 

democracies like rulers who know their own minda, and are not 

coatly driven from their dccixioni. The? Hiiglijth democracy it 

fio ex<M^pti<>j). Th«y re«p«ct the iinn Ijiuidv '>f ^ strong governor, 

^ Xhcj ilittrutt and rcbi;] agninst vacjlEnting ralcrt who arr 

Kftwayed hither and tliitber by every breath of populam cum. 

VTbej may protett and grumble ogaiait tefusala to concedes tbi», 

P^hat, and the otbcr point. But in ihc long run they respect 

firmne^*, and have not a little admiration even for obsiiu^cy, 

provided only tliAt the abitiiiAcy i* in a courte of action vcM 

coi)«]dered and fairly defen«ibU-, In the country, girjoj^ W4y 

IB tMaily aJtrays rtgr^rdcd more as weakneat than as graco. It 

lUtheAitena auppoitera and encouragei oppoQents. U is ini- 

poatibic for the must diurrcrt and oautiouA niinitlrii*s to avoid, 

ton tenn of office of any coo*iderable len^tth, sIds of commia«joci 

which co*t a ccrtaia number of vute«. Uut if at an c^arly itage 

U ■bowD inability lo coufrent oppoiition, and to adhere to 

pmpoaals carefully thought out and deliberately made, the ctprit 

tk ccrps of the opposition ia itreDgthened, waverera are repelled, 

aad cold water i» thrown on the zeal of even the ratut ■tauncli 

friftids. In PnrliAm?-nt conciliation is ncoeasary, espceinlly as 

r^ard» a ui<.*aAure brisiliug with |>otntft of ditGcuUy, but fiuch 

0|>fWiition a* that which was raiscxi on tbc Liceming Clauses 

'< op|kO»itioa, not to the Bill, but to it« authors ; and the with^ 

drawal of thorn will, wo fmir^ bo found in th«* long ran to bnva 

*4ded miher than taken from the danger of the Bill being 

i*iked out 

From another point nf view cooceuions are to be deprecated. 

There are not wanting signs of n suspicion Ihal the C4mseri-atjve 

P*ny arc not in e^rn^-9t in their proposals, Tlie Uill bas been 

openly ftbu»od in some ttcctiona ot the Concervativc prou. It has 

Wm «pakpn of with a »^rug of The ftbouldTs by more thnn one 

^ iti ftupjvirteri. It would 1>r m>i«t damti^in^ if luch suspicions 

*^e proved true. We have said dial tlic di^niand for souie mch 

I ^ttaiere is hn«ed less on fact than on sentimenu Hut it has 

I ^^cnagmeial demand for all that, Thntit wasso waa rccx^gnizcd 

k "7 l2k« Cgutcrvative parly at tht- last Gviieral Election. ftlucU 

ft credit 


25G TTjtf LociU O&v^nmcnt BilL 

nvdit w\9 liti^n for thp Tntrmlitc'tion of ihr. Bill nnr] fnr tliA 
bald and cr>nipreli*'naivff nature of lu piovi»i<HiS- The Miaiiictr 
who intrtKluctd it wat fell to have done an important >ervicfr, 
AS well b^ the Dill itself, aa hy the able nunncr in which he 
jnuotluccfl it. He H'tu held to litve provided oiw more proof 
to the uiBUj' Kt the tJUiH appareiil, thjil the Oorcrnmcnt wa> iii 
tlic hjtndi of strong men, Knowing tbetr own minili and re»nlfltc 
in iheir poliov. tf it ihuuld liere^ft'^r be* tnArle to npp^nr thai 
such it not TCiiMy the casl-, and tbat tic one (treat measure of 
the Cabinet wu merelj' introduced with a riew to ilitcuMJOQ, 
the const it uenciei will I'cel tUemselvca hoodirioied, and the 
r€«u]t will be eminently dUcreilitii:^ to the Govermoeot, 
Miiiialers will he in ibe dilemma of Wking riiber ability or 
will. Either they will be Anid to hare undcrEalcvn a tatk which 
they had not ikill enough to curry oul, or thor will b>e seen to 
have prorlaimed, and plumed them«elve» on, pn>po!iaUdi»ta*lefttl 
lo them and made only with a view to abandonmcal. We do 
ROt go sti far as to say, that thejr ahoald have anDounGed their 
delermi nation to have the Bi1l» the whole Bill, and mftlnng bcil 
the Bill, though it is by no inenn» *ure fhat such a tine of aetloa 
would hhv« ended In fAiinre. Hut xhry muit bowaro of being 
preyed into aheraticina which will inevitably tltrow doubu OD 
either their power or their good faith. 

The progresa of the Bill at one time was not encouraging. 
The manner in whtcb the police amendments were treated 
cannoi be said to have been skilful. Tbe defeat of tl>e Ooveni* 
ment on the elauic dealing with the poaitien of Chief ConaCaUe 
wa« not bjr luiy meant n gre^t divuiter, but wa« asaormJIy a 
mistake in tactics which should huve been avoided. There mi 
no great principle involved in the proposal ai it stood. Indeed 
the Bill is piohably improved by the amendment. Out the 
clause should cither h^xve been treated as an open question, the 
sugfjtTftticin of the OuveriLuieni bi^injE opjj a suggeatioa as to 
wbioh different opiniona might feAionably be held, or meant 
should hnve been talceu to avoid defeat. If the latter alternativft 
was impossible, the former should have been choson, Aa it ist 
the diriaion was a blow to the Ministers, whicht thoagh not a 
knoek-^down blow, cannot be without its elTr^t in the long and 
trying struggle which still lies before them. Moreover, we 
Tcnturc Xo duubt the winlom of the pmnisnl in the Dill, lit asaii^n 
the control «f the Police to a joint \wdy. Saeh a bodjr, we 
fear, will be liable tn dissension. The Polievought to be in one 
hand or the other, and in our view therv was much sound sense 
in Lord Kusscirs opinion^ that the Bxecntive ought not to be 


Tha LiKoi Gc^^nmvutSUL 257 

difficulty about Boraughs hu not \e\ been wholly 
ovvTCftme. Thtr nriginal propo^ftl f>f the (f over noirrnt, to give 
the stntQs of A Countj lo a vcrv limited riumWr of the Tery 
luge»t cities, was ftn iDtetligiblf? proposal which hn<] much Ici 
rvcommcnd it. It na» olivi<»uil^ linblc \o ihe dani>cra Miing^ 
firam thv pri(I« of tlio laigirr town* not »cbctlu1c4. At oD«o 
j>ropo«nU wrrr nuidr tn uld Xn the liat, obje<*tionfl to whttrh 
were DeceMarilj icdividual in tleir rUnmcti^r. It wa^ assumed 
that there wn* no alicriitiiive hctwrrn ndlirrencc to the scbodulc 
and \ verv large exIooiIoD of il. The lailer course ivas taken, 
and much opposiiion difhcnlt to meet wa« disannul. Hut it is 
bj no niL-Hiis vlirar ihst the chan|;v iv an Ufiniiurd ^ood, cilher 
in Itftclf or with rcfcrencn to th« progroH of the BiU. It bii« 
improved tho poiiiion of the horoogha of medium lise, and hu 
add«l to the? ntimticr of quuii- autonomous placei, or nt lenit 
places cnjojing n full measure of self- government. So far 
there h ao advintu^e, but the Tawn iVHfe of the Hill was the 
desire to cnirun, with smplc powers and the highest respon- 
aibilityf not Boroughi hut Counties. And the status of Counties 
is diminished by the tcicrcatc of th« status of tho Boroughs 
withiD it The position of the County of Lnncathire, for 
instaoce, will hir by no nie.nm taliiif[ictory. 7*1jc County ^f^nncil 
of the great County Palatine will, it ii to be feared, uniesi some 
way out of the di6icuUy CJxn be founds be called upon to 
ftdminitter a stroggting area, extending in the mint intricate 
sad coofuMrd way b^twc^n wealthy and important Boiou^hsi ia 
whov nfTairft thi* Cnuniy Coimcil will have no voice. A carrfol 
Study of the map will »low tbe almost Insuperable obstacles to 
good government which the County Council will have U\ oi*er- 
oofne; and the task of the Rural District Councils will be even 
more hopeless. Nor is this all. The linancial proposals cnn* 
tuiKtl in tlte Bill were based on the relntirfr potitions of 
Countii'S snd Boroughs as they then stood. And they certainly 
•feme'l well i*nd carefully frnmed. Rnt, if ihpy wore «ound 
then, they are sure io be teriomly attacked now, whea such a large 
ciiangc in these relative positions has been made. We fenr that 
t^o romroveiaies which musi onsue^ when the financiiLl cIsuhcs 
^re reached, will be more hot and more prolonged from thn 
Edition tu ih(? schedule \ and wo are by no mcuins convinced 
"i%t the cause of the I^icol Government as a whole has been 
**dfld by wbat has he^n done. One ohvious diflirulty will 
'^Uovr, Either tljc Counties, in which there are lar^ manu- 
^Cturing Boroughs, wilt he left without the great sources of 
^t^alth which these Boroughs supply, and therefore more or less 
^^k and sincwlesSf or the ratepayers of the Boroughs will be 
Vol. Ul.—No. 993. S called 

^ Vol 

The Local Ocomnatni Bill 

c«Ufid upon, (linrctly or indirectly^ to coatribule to tb« funds of 
i)i« Counties in tbe admiDutration of which they will haw oi> 
share, Even this ii not all. It baa been annnuaced that 
iiu fartbcr extirruioo uf i\\^- Acljcdtilc will be m&<lc, An<l iXut 
lloiuo ba« tupportcil the tieciiion In this r^sp^ct uf Miiii«ten. 
But i^xcept that fifty thousaDd is a goo<) round sum. we ice 
nothing absolute in tbe limit which it ^'i^et. The Boroughs 
ju9t under the limit will be in a stAC<^ of clironic irritation, wx 
tlLcy are %o near the ihroue, for which they sigh, and yet io far 
from it Their rulen vrill kick afpioat the control of Coooty 
OmnciU from which the Boroughv, ihlTirringT a# they sAy^ ta no 
mnt«Tift] nrspcct from ibeir own, will be frir*. Whatever had 
bifen the scbedulet such at result would bare followed. But the 
friction u obrioualy incresAed in direct ratio with tbe Dumber 
of instBDceft in which it is producin). 

Tlie addition to the schedule gave reason to the umendmeitt 
to section eight whith iMr, CliAplin carried. By that scciloa, 
a* It atoodf cerUkin powers of tlie public departments were ipa) 
Jacto tnin»f*»tr(>d to Ibr County CotmriU, And ihi* prrpnntion of 
tlie provisional orders relaunch xntcraha to Gaa, VVater^ Harboars, 
and Trajnways, vronid Itave rcited vith the Ct^unty CouncU*,. 
und not with the Dcparttnent in Whitehall. But the»e pow«n 
wouEd not have been iranaferr^d in caiil^ where tbe Coonty 
Councils are thi.- Lr^t'^d Authoriiy ht ihi:i]k*i:lv<<» the pruinoten 
of schemes. As dX\ thi- Borougha tehedulcd will Pithrr be pr4K 
moters or local aiith^^rllif^t, and it i% not reasonahJe thnt tbey 
should be both Advocates and judtces, there is not tbe same 
muon for the trFtnsl'cr which exittc^l before the cban^ in thfr 
Bill waa annonncrd to which we have already referred. Conie* 
qnently the decision, that such a txansl'er aliould be hereafter 
niadc^ by Proritional order, w«« souiiJt and the work of auprr- 
intending the preparation of local ichcmca will rest in tbe 
bands of officers, accusiomc-d to and qualified for the laak, for 
some time lonc^er^ and pntbahly until the County Cotincila hare 
acquired the experience and the knowledge necevnry to the 

The change in the tenure of oflice of County Councillors 
was not Au souud* The provision, that lU<.* Elections «rr to be for 
six years, one-third of the CotinctUors rtjtiring ovrry two years* 
will detract from the ralue of the periodica) eliNuions inaamnch 
as they will only affrct part of tbe arra ^oTcrnotl, Tho interest 
taken in Klcctioos will unquoil ion ably be leas than, it would 
hare bcea under tbe UUI as introduced. The intluencc of 
genoml opiiiinn will not be brought to bcar^ tbe power of 
<anv«sours and lucal wire pollers will assuredly be KiPAter. 


TKt Local OaoemmaU DHL 



; will not CAK much for nn (rleclion wht^h onXj di>ala 

wtlh ft third of \\\v. CfninciL ArrangrmimtJ will gieatlv b^ 

kept in thr hanrla of a fciv pcnoni interested in narrow qur^tinns 

oi the paiticuUr election. TUc brond common srnsr, which 

hm sn cMten lurncd tha tode in Grnrral Blrctions^ but whicli b 

Irs* proBiiii«nt in byc-elcctions, wt)l not be brought lo Um: front* 

nd inducncca vrill b<; potent which am 1o«i conoenn«d with 

public than with private interests. The Governmrnt ini^hi 

with ttdvantijc^r* hare stood firm by tbrir original propo^ab 

not only bi^cnutc of tbe weakness «hown by s reodint^tM to 

_)'ie)dT but because their all^rajLtlve wils in it«elf the better of 

ihe Iwn. 

^m The Bill Ir^ves the administration of the Poor Laws m its 

^^BTPif^nt hfinda. I^noking to thf* Hiflii^Lilty nf onrrviof^ ihe 

^Bejisiire as it is, we iire teady to admit thrit to Xt^jz^ ^n sdditinn 

^Bi would hATC born nc-cessnry, hvl nnj' transfer of Pooi Law 

^nrork been undertaken, would h^ve greatly impeiillcd the Bill. 

^^Bttt the? reconstruction of Locni Gorenimenl rtfsulting from the 

Bill will be impcrfeci, so long aa such iinpoitant wofk is lef^ 

with b€>dics distinct from County and Diitrict Coun^nU. HcriN 

vOer the htjge ta^k mutt hp fnr'pd of \c\ n*-*rr*nging JiTpas (h«t 

iht! powers af HiMinJs of Otianlians mti^' W Tmnded orer to one 

or other of the Councils crcntcJ by the BtIL It is probftble 

that, when the Uill was first fiamed, tho intention was to under-* 

take that tnsk at once. The labours cif the Boundary Com- 

tiuHsion were pTubsbty OT);jiHizrd with thnt view. Dut it w«s 

tinuid, ihiU the County boundEiric* could not bo n]lcrc<) without 

nflfniling bisiortc nentiment, and that Union bniinflaries eould 

DM ho altered without a «bifc of pe<mniaTy linbiltties. Thtf 

^— nil day was consequently put off, not, we thinic, with advantafte 

^1 io those who will nt no distant date have to live through it. As 

wT «i \%y one of the most important functions of Lf^cal GovrrDmcnt 

I *illcontinui? lo bv di»:hai^cd by bodies olrctcd uii a pitnoiple 

abiotut«lv (liffvirent from thnt now itdmiltnl to bp wile, nnd in 

ttvsa which havi* no reUtJon whatever to the areas established 

^J hlter-day experience. For this anomaly there is no justifi- 

c^tKti in censuring, is a high authority has censured, the law 

''^liMsor th^an^amnkersof the past. When the Poor Law was 

'nfcctptl nnd tlie Unions formed, it wa» nut contcmplntrt), rurpi 

^y a few jH'ibiip* of the moftt far-at'eiiip, ihnt such dulicA would 

MVi> been entrmted to the fguitrdiana of thn Poor a« thny fVfjn 

<io« hare, still led that the Union was deurabltf as an unit of 

^nipral Lf»cal Goremment The Unions wirre formed with a 

'iw lo I'oor Law work and Poor Law work only. The id** 

*ii not present to the minds ol^ those who formed tbetn, thM 

a 2 Guard tant 

The I^eal Covfrnmtnt Bill, 

duliri ('(nint^cled with sanitation. ediicatif>n, or as&«»inriiU It 
wa# no "official pc<Unln,-," which »Pt up Union boundnrics 
wilbout any rcpard to County boundaries. It would bave Uen 
"cflicUl p^laiitr)'," if »ucb requirements u aov exiit hiid been 
held to be n perm^nfrnt factor in tlir cpniidcmiion of »reafl, aod 
if object* then non^ciiitcnt, thuuj^li now of gmt importanc, 
hftt! hr^n ulrmly BiiiPttrd ms ahBulitto iinp»diin4»nt8 lo tb<* 
MUbJtxhmvfit of boundwiet eminently lervicenble at tb(* immi'- 
diatc lime and fnr their immediate purpcrte. Inderd^CTen with 
ibe lesson so afforded, we doubt whether any prudent reformer, 
however far and carefully he may look ahead, woulil be di^ 
poied to prc» strongly f^^r «Jch n Hubonlinntton of the require- 
mcntv of tbi? present to the nH|uiroinent> of the futuri?, ni tlie 
forfn#»r< of Unionii wouM havn h^rn r^^itponflihlf* for, had tLey 
insisted that Unions should in no case overlap the boand&ries 
of Counties. 

With the Poor Law work rem&ini at present (he wort of 
Aftvessment. The powers of tbe Assessment Committees of 
GuAididiiB will riHitmoe, and %o will the antiitibliea of in1uAt:on 
lo which ihcy give ti»i>. There )» no soutid rcmon why ibcm 
sbouM not be in KngUnd one nssesitment of pmperty for all 
purposes of local rating;. As ii is there are thrc«; — the assess- 
ment of the county latr, the Asiesiment of land tai, and (he 
aneMment for all Union purposes. As under the Hill the ortr- 
lapptni; of ruling areas will ht increased rather th>in diminubed, 
ihc uaccitdiiily, and efen the injustice, ariBiri^^rTom AsstTssmcni* 
made by difforent bodiet, and on difTcr^tit havca, will continn* 
to cause irritation nnd hardship. It is hopeless lo evp^ct thai 
any attempt ran be made to remedy this evil under the preseot 
Bill. But the difficulty must hereafter be dealt with, nod tbe 
measure, which leaves it as it stands, cannot be reganied as more 
thm a atrp in the diniction of necttssarv reform. 

There i« one m^dificalii^n of the Poor Lniv^ Adminislratiou 
proposed in tho Bill to which we earnestly hope that the 
Guvernment will continue to adhere* Contributions will be 
given, pnicttcally from imperial fumis, to the cost of iikdoor 
relief. Wo admit ut once that the effect of this pmrisioQ wilL 
be lo discourage the giving of outdoor relief. Now, in ^O 
mnjority of (bounty districts, outdcor nrlicf is given far nii 
fivqoently from the inietakon belief that ii i» cheap, than frmr^^^ 
the opinion that it is beru^ficiftL Doles are IjtviBhly bestovec^ 
upon applicants, whom they do not really help, but whom tbe^ 
demoralise and make dependent- Tlirift and self-depMidene^ 
ore discxjuta^d by sm^ill weekly gifts, which leave the recipieaf 


TV Locai G^vcnimciU HiOt 


worse off than if a bcaltbj fitunutuft had b«cn given to thdroirq 

exertions. Xo odp reAdinj; the report of the orijfinal Poor ham 

Commisiionert can fiil to sec ttie tcDdencjr of their vjcwb, or to 

undentand that iht^y ab^taJncJ from puttia; an end lo outHJuor 

rdicf fixtm puliL-^, and ui>t ^n priiiciplt;. It ha« never been 

powblo to forbid oui'doAr relief aJtogctlicr, ond it it not pa«albl6 

now. Any nit^mpt to Jo >o on tW part of lh« LcgiiUturc csr 

the Cenlrnf Gori^rnmcnl vrould provoke an outcry which would 

lead to mlscbievous reuctioo. But anjrihin^ ailcuUtcd to di^ 

courage it is to be welcomed ; and there U n» rrason why th« 

principle wluch Lord Craobrook, wben Mr- Gathorne Hardy^ 

applji-^ Co the MeUujmlis^ thoutd ncit be ujitunded to the mt uT 

England. Thfl experience of siich rnml Uaion* a» Atcbara^ 

and meh urban Unions a% Whhrchapel, show that olI-^Joot 

relirf c^n be reduced %o a miuinmm, not only without injury, 

but ivith positivi? beneJit to the poorer dastes. And the fatal 

ioHuenee will he thwarted rvf those guarditinS| whoio penny 

wi»dom leads them lo demoiulixe applicants for aMUiance, on 

the mUtaken auumption, that twentj* niggarilly allowances of 

half-a-crown or thriM-'aud'flixjiencM* a vri?«k arc eheapor thao ono 

order for in-docir reli^'f WnrlthoniiP mlirf 1%, in a majority of 

CMM, «nd should be in all, adc-quate to th« requiremeota of the 

case and sufficient for the needs t^f llie recipient. It is generally, 

aifed sbnuld be universally, the most humaae And the most 

beneficial manner uf treating destitutloB. In a weU-admlnis- 

tcrcd woT^LbouM-, siclin<;b* is properly treated, a sound education 

t\ ^i\tyn, and all the ic^aioDalle wanti of the moment kindly If 

iF|>uUr)y supplied. In Unions where tl»e workhouse is hndly 

Of stingily administered, and out-door relief is I&rf^ely Ki^^'^ 

^_ t^e cost is enormous lo the mtepayrrs^ and the eflect on tlie j>oor 

^■ii hsncfuL ll if to be bo]^ that the efforts of tbo fetr 

^V opponents of the proposal, who base their opposition ou a false 

B view of pbilanlhropv and a wrong idea uf charity, will not 

J pr*m[. For the result of the proposal u-jll, we clearly b^lipv^ 

I M to deter professional or necdic&s meadicancy, to cncouiage 

^ lelf-depeadrnce of the poorer classes, and at the same time 

to improve the charscter of the relief given to those wh<} are 

ivslJy destitute, and either from permanent incapacity or tcm- 

^HuT misfortune obliged lo rail back U|)oii the auppurt of IheiT 

^iW-citisetis* ll is not Hkely that the reiH^rt of the Lovdb^ 

CommiEti*^ now sitting on the Poor Law will hr rrady before 

^ tliscussion of this part of the Bill is reached. Bui much of 

^ evidence given before that Committee is availahle; and on 

■och questions we greatly prefer the experienced philanthn>pr of 

^tss 1 wyning and Mrs. ^ alUnee to the theoretical learning of 



The Loeai 


the witoesscs ivbo advocai«d what they called judicious out-ctooT 

There U DO qtieitloti i\int^ though ihc rxUtcnc* of tho Pi>or 
Tjiw Smft di^ni^ miirh to amoolh nvrr difficultiei prt^VAlmt where 
the vhole real iiropi-^rly U not pledged lo prev<^nt dcstiluiion, 
chr indiscriminntc wnj in which ouudoor relief has been dis- 
tributed lias been harmful to the poorer classes. Thev have 
liei-^n taught to K]yj and n^\y at a right, fin the aid of olhon. 
No matter by vhat indolence or criminiLlitj' destitution has 
been produced, dcfttitution is held to give a claim to relief at 
ihf* bnndH i>r thp rf>miniinilj'. This is ns it fthovdd ht*, hut the 
corollary* to the proposition, that the relief should 1)^ in the 
shiipc and on the condiiinni moEt acceptable to the applicants, 
cannot be accepted witliout risk of ma.liing the condition of the 
relieved more eligible than the condition of the reliever* Out- 
door relief baa bad tbia tendency ; and wbcre outdoor relief {• 
most largely given, the virtues of thrift, self dependencv, and 
rctpect for the rights and property of others, arc thn last en- 
courageil. That, thenrfori", which may he expette<! to operate 
as a gmdual, not BuciiJcn, check to out-door relief, should lie 
regarded not as a ' plan to grind the faces of the poor,' but aa a 
jiiGlhod of helping tbem to free tliettiselVD4 from a Jniscblevous 
ajrstem, attracUvc petbapa for iLi; moment, but in the long run 
productive of misery. 

Such a grant from the imperisl funds is not open lo the 
ohjeetions frefiucntly ui^rd a^tntt subventions. It is not en- 
courageinent to extravagance ; on the contrary, it will operate 
as a direct inducement to economy. It was always as*erted 
tbst, if out-door relief were rtniuciHl, the workhouses would fill 
and the net cost be increaatd. Tbe assertiuti was not found 
irue. It was disproved in Atehnm and Whitechapel, and in 
Che Frinworth Union in Northainplontbire. In no instance 
wbere out^door relit^f has been cjirtailcd was the curtailment 
followe<l by increase in in-maintenance or addition to the total 
charge*. It will probably be found, that the efTect of Che pro- 
pofta) in the Bill will be to reduce the payirenls of the rate- 
payets hy a far larger sunt than 19 tcpr«cnted by the grant 
itwelf. Not U the «ubvpntif>n opm lo the i>hjeclion» that it 
throws charges, which are purrly hical in their character, on 
national funds. The permanent pEtnprrisin of the country 
is much aifected by imperiat con sideril ions. Out-doof pau- 
perism is fluctuating. It cmi be mnnufactnR<d to any extent* 
Its extent dept^nds greatly on local coDSlderalionSf but it 
depends still uiure ud the policy and view* k*( tlit^se who 
administer it. In-door paap^rism cannot be created, I'tiere 


Tfu Local Govimment Bill 


i< perhaps leu relacbtnce to enter « liberally mitDagc<) work- 
hou«c thftn one which is starved. Uuc, apeaUn;; broadly, those 
vho ar? really ile«ihut«f and ibosc onlv> nre the iamairs af our 
'Workhcuaca, Their doatitution is, l^> ftornc rxlcnl, an imperial 
-concern, nrul ihoulcl hv, to nn oqiiiil extent, an impc^rtixl churg^, 
Thr subvpnljon, pnssing aa it does through the hands of the 
CountT Councilf, U sound, both from tht^ hujnanitanan :i% well 
as from the at^roly rconotniral point of view, ntid, as wc have 
said, it should on no Account be ahandotied ; nor sbould any 
ftutlier dvji-irLuiT- on this question be vllowcrd fri^m the original 
pfopoaaU of the ]}j]l. 

If thi* Connty Connrilfl eontinun to he intermeiliarira in tht* 
iinpcml grant* and (o pay four shilling per head per day 
towards the mnintenancc of indoor poor, it sbould follow^ and 
protiAbly some day will follow, that the control of the Poor Law 
estahlishcnenEs should be in their bandit. As n step in this 
dirrcti(>n, prjwrr might Iw given to the County OmnciU to 
appoim Oi>in[nitt4W3 lo visit the Poor Low instttdtionif includiof^ 
stf^lc aayluma nnd district at'hooU, in th^ir county ; and wr aro 
leven disposed to think, th^t thry might be empowered under 
certain circumstances to withhold a portion of the fj^rant. Sudt 
diMJirect control would he n uiefnl suppt^^ment to Government 
inspection, and grratty trnd to imprrtvc workhouse adminiHtra- 
titm. If cv<-r the whole rvuiJoiiaibilil}^ Js tlin>wn on County 
Councils, opportunity will he given for da^iticntion of work- 
linuif>f. The arrangement which hai sJiccoedwl wi*ll in thp 
Idetropolit, by which the indoor paupers are distributed between 
the work houscB— one building being set apart for the sick, 
Another for ihn iaftrai, anothtrr for the ;ibff--b(jdied, while the 
clnldren are entirely withdrawn from association with adults — 
will to auiue «fxtent, and having regard to such considerations 
tts iboic of diatance, be iH>»aible in the country-. And the 
preaeni syatem wbicb pre«-aila in many parti of England, under 
which the sick are not efficiently carixl for nor the young 
efficiently taught, became the numbers in each institution are 
not sulTicirnt to justify the cost of the fiecessary staff, will be . 
gneatiy niodified if not absolutelv determinetl. For the attain- 
ment of this object we mutt wait, but it should not be lust si|rht 
off and iv<- hav<; ]>ointi*d out a atep which may well be token 
.now towards its realisation. 

It is to he repreited that nothing is attempted under the Rill 
to strengthen the poaitton of partshcs. It is true that tbe policy' 
in 1872 was to relieve vestries of duties as regards sanitation, 
wbieh are better a<!apted to larger areas und more powerful 
-<x>uacil«. Compreheustve schemes of sewerage or water supply 


'The Locai Gottmment BtU. 

Arc 4'lcArly jmpoxiiblr tn a Itmued area- Nor Are rejtricfl as s 
rule poftB^ssed of sufBcieat l&Dowlcdge or espcricncc to justify' 
their l>viiig entrusted with sole power in audi EnaUers. Dut 
rvcn ihr Tublk Mralth Act rr<x>gjkL/<^K the impiutaace uf 
pnrishc-s bv enabling sntiUnry butboritics to doU'i^At^r power* to 
]>ftrochin1 committees. And good wnrlc b»« tmqcjntuitiAhijr been 
done theretr. The vestries were shown to ture failed when 
they were entirely responsible ; iherc 1» nothing to show, iW 
ihey have failed in the dischfirge of delegated and properly 
ftuperriftud duties. The Prrtidcnt of the Local Govertuucot 
Dooid, ill iLc debute o» f;<>iiif; into CuiDmitlcr, wi«cly admitted, 
thnt there wa> eonijdpmblc room for improvcpivnt in fnaay 
matters eonnected with the parialies. He was suppnrteil bjr 
Mr Chain be;rlain, who s«id th^t the powers iiuw possessed by 
the vrsUics should remain in theit hands, and « little more 
popular orgaiiixalion l>c givi^ii to them ; and by the Cbonoeikor 
uf the Rxchequcr» who, cUiminf^ to be one of th^; original 
put^oterA of iLt idea, »aid thai villagt.- Ule shoLild be enlarged 
by improved orgnni^ration. Wc talcc il thnt iho object mhodd 
he Xq place certain liuties as reganU ]of!al nffuirs upon ciiijrens 
who have no time or desire to go to large dcliberAtivc lu^emblifs, 
or to attempt work needing knowledge of diilicutt subjects and 
study of inttre or less abstruse lore. I'or weal or woe wc ore 
going to entrtisi verv Urge powers indeed to bodies elected on • 

{ropular franchise The tiiorc tbc electors iir« cncvuragcd to 
earn for th^nnselr^s the difficuhius of administration, the 
Renter is the probnhility that they will give their TOtes to tbc 
best administrators, rather than on considerations which hai^ 
nothing to do with local govemmeriL At present pariflh 
politics are to(» much limited to the pot-bcnisc. 'Villn^ 
statesmen talk wiih looks profound,* not in the vestry boani* 
room, but in the viDag:: inn. Give them businc^a to do, iriro 
tbem with a real if a UiniteU xcetponsibility, and we sliall lind 
that they will learn to look to capacity for aflaiis as ibe brst 
qualiftcation for their votes at Imperinl at well as local 

f^uch a plan would, — dare w« say will ?— fineatly help X)vo 
estnblislimcnt of a system, such u we referred to at tbv 
beginning of this arlidr, a Hvstcm of wise dirision of respoDSl' 
bilily, careful subordination <if autbortty, a system with thw 
parish or tithing at one end of the scale, the County at anothcTi 
and the hundred or district between them. VVe are fully anarc 
of the obstacles to such a scheme. In these days, when * maiijr 
are for a party niid few ure for the State,' changes in boundariii 
-*-^md without changes in boandaries, such a ajsti^m is inh 


27ie Loc^i GovefOBmd BOL 

ossibte — sue slrcnuDualy reuAEpd. Parlument does no: seem 
disposed to insist oa tlie &ba[idon[Dent of obj^fcitonft, too often 
founded on scDtimi^nt only, which is ncccssaiy to a Large 
Imperia] reform, l"ar too much deference is j>aid to the 
oljsliuctlfc rcsistAiKTc whit^b blocks n <x>inprchcnsLvc miNUurcf 
-Irom 101110 p«Etjr duJike of cLang«r. Th« men who clamour 
{moftt for reform, ever, when it noTnrn t<% th^i point, si>pin to difaim 
'thnt th« irfotiQ should touch their nejirhbour^, nut themselves. 
Not onljr the least scIuaI incmaic of liabiHty, but the least 
incoQveDiencr, of however temporarY a itind, is held to bo 
adequate reason for acilve opposition to n proposal of large 
aod geocnU t>eRc6t. ^Tlio lUU itiajr bu all ijf;bc, muy do a 
largo nmuunt oi goo<l ttltimat^lj to vi-cry one, iocluditig mytelT, 
bat I do not like ibe way in which it immedLAtely aneets m^t 
and therefore I will noiit? of it/ This la far too often tl>e 
attitude of ram of local prcBtigF. * Reform away as mach as 
TOO likCf the men over there want it badly, but do not touch as, 
Chaages of buundtiry, amalgamationit and transfer of arva, are 
greatly to be desired and are a nccraMry preliminary to raform^ 
bat do iMt anaaljifamalo our dittrit^t or ict^rfero with our 
boundary/ This is the dog-in^the-maiiKer policy, which too 
frequently thw.irts the best dcTiscd efforts of statesmen, and 
leads to meagre measures of limtted effect. The Imperial 
Parliaiaeiit haa certainly not shown marked ability lo cope with 
iu There seema to be an idea, that local I'arllamenta will be 
more powerful. Whether this be so or not, ne have a shrewd 
taspieion that a Miuist4-r, who dared to ignore ordtsrf^^rd lueh 
obotaclea, and act sternly on the principle that — with every 
consideration for real vetttL-d interests — the senliment of local 
SfCtlous must yield to comidemtions of the nation^s good^ would 
fiad more support and have an easier lask than is sotnetimes 

Ivducatjonal matters arc not dealt with in the fiiU. Wo 
should h&re beco ffind lo %ev it leatt the pnymi^nt of schf«ol ^t>*-t 
Irantferred from Guardians to District Councila Appliuints 
for such payments are at present loo liable to be brought into 
aisociaiion with paupcrisDi. The inquiry oflicer, as ihe ofUcer 
wbo investigates tlieir drcumstances js called, is not always tW 
reliering officer, but is rrequvnily so. Even wlien he is not, it 
often happens that the applicalioiis for achuol fcea are dcnlt 
with at th4^ %ti\w ptnep. And on the same day, ni n|)p]ic;itionft 
for relief. Ili^tween a reiiuest for a school fee and a request for 
some fonn of relief the distance is so short, tliat the one acta as 
an inducement to the other: and the downward step from inde- 
pendence once having btcn takeu^ the jmigreis is apt to be 
m^^^^ , rapid. 


Tltf Loeal Government BiU. 

npic). The mothcrr who corrn for her cbildrrn^s pence i> »dlr 
tcm|>1ed to remember that one of them luu &□ atlmfcit Medical 
nttcndnnre nnd inr'clK-nl i-x1rA» Dnt<< obtniiif^, tfa« rest ii rfnj*, 
juid iLc iDdcpendcnce of ihe familv is at an ctid. VVc would 
■{?c thr ilislribution of school fees, If the nrlxlum of such a 
(Julribution cofilinu«^> lo be admitted, *ntirvl}' dtMOciaUd from 
the distrihdtinn of Ilninn relief The fiT^fcnC usocriatton doet 
not act as a deCerrenu but does operate as nn eiiconrftg4^m«Dt to 
further dt^mamls on j>ub1ic aid. 

livrntually, wc suppasc, the powcri of School AElmdanct 
Conimitiees, and perhAj>« ev«o of School Ooarda, will bi- trans- 
ferred lo one or other of tlic councils sabordinaCc to the Coant^ 
Couoeil. Thit ould hardly hv don» yet, and the fram«r« of 
the? Bill areniie in not toaobin^ thn qti^fstirm ; htit at no distant 
tim^^ it is to be hoped, the rrliminAtioii of aulboiiues will bej^iOf 
An<l more and morr powers l>e sbiii>rh(?(i bv the County Councili 
vi'it\i B view to re-Lratisfer to cominiuoes or bodiea directly 
subordiuatc There c;in be no ivork of local govemmcmt mure 
amporlant than the supervision of aducatioa, and the cooititauoa 
of the Coanty cannot Lc deemed perfect, so loopf as it has little Of 
no concern witb education. As between tlie voluntary principle 
«nd the compiiUt>ry principle of schr>o1 supply we desire At 
prosent to sAy nolhtng. .\U thnt wc contend is, that hereafter 
there should be taken a ^rent itep towanls the sltnpli&CBtiiaa 
of local Ailministnitian by the transfcT ofScfaool Bonnl jX)W«;rs. 

The propnwila in the Bill tis rrgAjtls London are in msffj 
res|iof<ts Ijo]*!, llndf^r ihi^ni x County of London would be 
crentcd by ilMrlf^ wirli a L«nl Lleutenani, a bt-ndi of ma^stratc*. 
and a Diunly (.'oimril of its own. Loni Thrine objects to tiit 
scheme. He would expand the City into the Metropolis^ and 
subject ^1 to a reformed City gtf>vemmcnC, It is tloubtlul 
whether he fully nppTeciatcs the diAlcuUv either of absolutely 
annihilating the City on the one h^nd, or subjecting- the rest of 
th(* Mptnipniifl tn the role of fiojip and Mago^ on the other. 
The odmiuiilrative dultcs devolving: upon the City are those to 
which AS n whole it Attacties least importance, and on which by 
no means the greaitett portion of Its prestige depeixla. Favii^, 
aeweriasTt l^l^hiing, and sanitntior, arc well done in the City 
now. But ilwy Aie not the fcinctiuus from which it dcrifa 
the greaitrrst credit. The City would under the propoaals 
of the I^ill tflkt* * l^f^*' ^"<l honoomhle part in tike wovk 
of poverniniT the .Metropolis, and the City magnates would 
not suffer nny abatement of their dignity. The nite|iiiyers of 
the Metropolis, as s whole, would have a dirrct voice in iu 
management, and wuuhl he able to make their own will felt as 


3^« Local Gcr>4rnmeni BiJL 

Tv^earda the tclcction of iu ralm. The Molropolitan Baaid of 
VVorlu would oeate to exist. aDcl there would be fev, »ve its venal 
<ilTic«rt, whci vrould wi^rpov^r it« birr Tttc? «r|tom<^ is ndirittGdlj' 
not liaal. * We <3o oot,' Mr. Uilcliie said in bis great tpeecb 
OD tlu; intrcdocuoii nf thv Dill, ' put this fnrwaid as a complete 
•euUment of tb« gr^at probbrtn of Lf^ndon govornmmt^ W« 
bare our Dvra pmpfkssU to make, tinfl I hopir 1o br ahir? at >nmA 
futnra tintc to make them/ And then he hiiiml nt the iiatuie 
of these pT(i|>t>sAU, — a lai^ Oioncil acting ovcrr ibe wholf, with 
xrvrmi wcll-flrlinnd ilistrictf, under Inr^c District Councils, 
witb Ur^ and iai})ortaiii administrative funcitous. In fact, 
a sjrsCem of wise suboidination of auitionty such as wc hnvc 
supported. The Bill goos as far in this direction as it is 
pf»tsibl'f lo gn in A m^Asnro of such Inrgf^ pDrvif>w. But we 
are inclined to ihinkt that it would have been the wiser 
«our«!, under present rin^.umfttnnoctH, to havr postponed the 
MctTopolitan portion of the iiUI till another ScsaioD, Jlw 
-neceissi^v for un Antumn Session might ttius hare bfwn avoidifd.* 
The Dill is rural in its estence. Tli« scheme for London 
^vemm^Dt set out in the Hill would depvnd for it« succesi on 
« healthy nnd influential public opinion which eiists in country 
distncU, but do«^s tiot exiit in the Melrop^jlls. The impfissl- 
bility of grltjn|r more than a small perccntngr of voter* to 
eietcite the franchise, wbicb has been de mo dbI rated in a long* 
series of various Alc^impolitaii cIcctioRS, proves th^il there is do 
soeh oommoR iatomt in Lrnidon f^ovcriinient aa would result 
tn a s1n>Gg and BWr County Couoeir The Bill would hnve 
been nDsjmmetrical, if the London proposals had nol l>een 
InMTtrd. Jtut, hioking to the tlate of afTairs which had 1>een 
nacfaed in this month, they mi^ht without clisadvantoge h^xe 
been dropped. Thev kre admittedly imperfect, Anti it it far 
better thai I^vndoo sbouhl wait a wliilv for some more compre* 
bcnsiv« and wvll wi>Tked-oul avstcm of i^ovommeat, thun that 
.YftluAblr? time nhoiild hare hern rmniiiimrH) in the dts^-umon of 
^1tTmpi»rary proposals, which must be amended in another 

We have «lluded to the existence of a dread that, in the 
counties, the tieit men will noC allow their serfioei to be made 
Available. Tbcrre arc tliohv who also hold, that the less n<^a]tlky 
inhabitants, tnca v>-ha lind tbo weekly attcadanoe at tho Board 

^V * Vo vpntan*. bovcwr* in niin:** * h<>p«v ihnt mffirfr'fjt |)Trii^«< mny tw mnile 

Bftot oalj vitb thu BiU, but with othor public ljuiiin<-Hi» to avttd Uio Qoc«M<itf «f 

^TM Autoum ilCHiuia, Ut uliich tliuc aiv pUuuk uiJ ubviuud vbJi^ctluuJL D<it ia 

oti^ thai thia lany bo thf- ^ua?, tho <xcnn*c of tnucli rotioencc and »If r«t^uul 

«iIL be neocmr; oa tlic psrl of the sspporten cf the Oov«ruxDeiiL 



The Local Gov&niTrtmt Bilh 

of GunixliftDJp »yCf ftad rvrn at Pcttj Scs«too>, a iax opoo (beir 
r«iourcc«, will Dot undertake ihe greater distaDCcs to bo 
travelled in County Council wnrk. And sjinptoui exist of « 
iWire Xo raicu ibr quesiion of payment of uieinb^rt. To any 
»uot pajmcnt wc den re to d^ct tbc at run gr at opptMiiion* 
Xhrrr» afp plenty of men, aa eipfrltf^nrp hag itKnwn, ^blct and 
willinjr to cuttt out ihv: work of Local Uovernoient withcmC 
pay. The COM of payment, therefore, ii one which there U no 
need to incur and for which tber« is no justi6cstioD. Kiore 
than this. Thr position of unpaid mcmhcn of a CoBOty or 
Borough Coducil i» a. thuusAtLdlVptd uixtus blrvu^ thuu would be 
tUv pusUIon of paid member*. If once the ofiice wero sought, 
not with a dealrfi to devote energy and knowled^ to the public 
service^ but from «l desin; for public ^io, tlw worst motive* 
would be introduced into candidature, the wont princlplts 
introduced into clcfcttoris, Voters would regjud themselves as 
iht poisciaijra of n piece of pnlTonage to br beslowed on the 
nio»l popular peUtiuners fur ibrtr Ku/Tra^ea. Tbeu indeed 
would men of eullurc nnd kDowledge ab«taiii from compatittoo 
with seekers after saUrie*. Cleons would be recunied in every 
part of the country, and tlic intcrc*«ts of tlir country sacriliocd 
to the interests of the sauaajtfc -sellers. Th(^ effect of sticfa a 
result would be counteraitcsl hy anotlit^r emiKequence in itself 
on eviL Paid County Councillors would not be able to coatrol 
tUeir officers, or command ibr rcspcci of tho ufliccrs of tbe 
central Government, The ]nt«rf«r«nco of Parliament would b» 
perpetually sought, and atta^rks on the motives of paid Coua- 
cillors would be a thousand times more frequent and iiiu;^ 
strongs than the attacks even now mude on the motives aod 
actions of paid magistrates. Tlie working classes o! KngUuid 
me ^haolutrly misiakeiit If they desire the pavment cither of 
Members of Parliament or of County Councillors. Tbcy hare 
occy^i now to th<^ Intperlal Senate, They will have accets ID 
the Local Senates. Xeilher the oin> nor the other would avftil 
diem, if it could be held lo be desirable from impure or sordid 

Thi-rc are many other points In the Bill which wc would fain 
discuss. We t^ve said enuugb to show our opinion as to wbsC 
it does and what it seeks not to do. ^Vo trust to see it rceciTe 
thff Rnyal Assent. It it onlv a i(t^p> bot \l \h a derided siep in 
the dirtH:tion of that Loral Kefotm, to whi(;h both portiei m 
thu Stole arc fully ple<1ged, and which neither party can without 
danger iDipede. After the announcement on the Lllb of July 
we trua there i» no longer Any fear that the Hill will be post^ 
£}(*iicd. Sueb a j>ost|>uneuieulf even witb ai certttiutjr tbol lh« 


Tlte Local Covtrnment Bill. 


Bill wcultl be intioclnced iwit Seuion, would hai'« been JiUle 
short of a disn«tcr to tbc Unionist ctuse. The Government 
would Uave been awailed Id evcrj" cwnatitucncy in lUe United 
Kjng<lom, for thiit th<?^ cnold not or would not can^ tbc one 
gn^aC miMiuri" of their prograiti me. The pncourag«na^nt to 
cicmiei woaUl be orerwhclming. cruelly would the aoal of 
friends be cruihed. Unless MinisterlalUta wub to incur this 
ttiribk riskt it behove* them to shorten iheir own discusstons 
on the clauses of the Billf itncl help in everj way thr efforts of 
the Government to pu$9 tt, TUe wisb lo aineod tli<^ UiH Ux its 
sevcrjxl details Ttwy be; InudAblc, nnd there mny be mjui^ members 
whosr? opinion of lb«?]r alnllty (o do it is not unwuminted. Htit 
th« wish must be resirnined, the ability re&erveil for other use. 
The Bill has been prepared under ihe directions of a Minister 
of very msrke<l capnclty. He bas h&d the assistance of an able 
Parliamentary colleague, and the advice of oJ^cers of a bit^hlv 
Iniiaed depurtment iboroughly cotiver^unt wilb the inntci?r» dealt 
with. It ]« not Kott much to expect thnt indlvidunl morrtbers nf 
the Houte of Commrmft will defer to their experlenee, tind imcr]- 
fico ftoy such exposition of their views as is likely to endanf^rr 
the Bill. There has mrelv been a time when united action by 
the party responsible foi tbe Government of the country was so 
desirable in the interests of the country. la these days of the 
di»r-m I nation of poliucal knowledge^ vrheii the promulgation of 
indiridual or soclionjil views i* easy, thr strnina on pitrty allc- 
ffianci? are nnturnllr greater tbnn when the interest in public 
&6airs was less ^nrral, and perhaps less strong. Bui unless 
that allegiance is maintained^ disinTe^ation must ensue. The 
Cabinet, in the heavy task they have undertaken, will be 
hampered and thwarced as much by tbe efTorts of their friends 
as by ibe onslaught of their fcn-s> 

Indeed wc arc? dispo«<^] to attach more than usual importomce 
to this matter. If thi? Oovarnment fail» they will have failed in 
their one great undcTtakinff. In all that wc have said wo bare 
Admitted that there is no ^reat enthusiasm for tbe measure in 
the country, But the wishes and expeccaiionn of the eonstitu- 
fncies have been clearly, if coolly, made known. Ministers 
who fail lo give efTrcC to tlirni will be discredited, unless (hey 
ean show that tbeir failure was duo to thn rotisCanco of their 
opponents whirh they took every reasonable means to nverrom?. 
In any other case they will have, sooner or later, and probably 
fit no lorif interval, lo pay ibe penalty. The value of their 
resistauce to the proposals of others will be measured by the 
weakness display«i in carrying their own. The country will 



77ie L^cai d^vfmmcM Dili. 

hn JUappntnlefT, not ba miicli hftraww nf th*» ]>c>ttpnfli^ merit of 
the Jfill, tu froEn the fetbk-ness fthnwn hy tlion; whf^ tind^rtakiQ^ 
it, alio undrrtook other work. The weakness of one position 
will be gsag«d bv the weaknoss of the other. ^Vlut this mcAOt 
it behovcf every Unionht rarefullj^ to coruiJer. The Houte of 
CofUiDOus j9 «lr<i[ig In ila adhfrreiiccf to tlie ttue ^ront |>riuciple 
Co which ihc MlnMlerinlUt p<vrtv ii plf'^l^ccl, ThU wt^ arc 
obliged to Mr. Mnrff'V for proTtnj^. Ami on tbis iMiint the 
country i> prohnbly ttron^r thAn the Hoqm, [tat tb« impor- 
tance of thia principle la apt to be lost aigbt of, if the 
unimportAnee of iha^ who support It be mtidc xnnnife«t. The 
men who Attack ttio Govrmtnent hoittatc at nothing, and m»ke 
useof Qver^ wrajxvn. Thtrrc I» 

*No (ilcia »*> tainted ami oorrupt 
But, bo i tig aoMoactl bj a gntuioua voice, 
ObflC-nrt:*; ^o Ahow nf fviV 

The Government have to m^t caJumnjr in erery fonR^'to 
combat arg'uincnta thrirc n^futcd, to deny *Dlcu' uiatiy lime* 
«Ii«provecl, Is this u tinie when their sapporten ahould give ft 
re*l weapon to thrlr oppniPHU mrrrly hf*rAiiv* thrte will not 
yiM ihetr indivutitiil viowh on such ft moA&ure a» the Locml 
Govcrnmpnt Bill? VVill they *driinc<f the*e views one jol^ if 
they weaken the bold which their party unqaeationjibly bu 
tipon the country ? Will their own position be a tittti; Uroogn? 
Surely it noeda no i^^op to fnblc the fate of mrmbera, who 
iittompt BLJch rebi>llion or lUcb n^f^lect. 

As we haTP Kaid, the rompftrtnrM nf the MinialeTtmUft 
mtijority in tlie l!ou«e h rleur enouffb. Mr. Morley kindly 
shown it by one lorthtxl, ami to aomc citcnt Sir Edwud 
Watkiit by another. But it wiJL not do to reat content with 
the aspect of aif;iir!t in the Home. The ParnelUte ptny arc- 
woikin^ haul Jn the n>nfttitQcncirs, They sparr no pain* to 
preis evrrv dicadvnntsf^ on the pirtv ri*sj>oniiblc tor tlko exit- 
ing ttalp of things. They have eloquence and ability, ami they 
use them. They an; reatratneii by few scruples, >nd they axv 
influenced by many motive*. They have ever this point on their 
aide, that on the Government ia thrown the discredit of every- 
thing thai fff>e* wning. Unlrvs these idl-ii art wisely an<] finnJy^ 
met, the Cal>inct rsnm't r^ipcct to h»ve that tenure of uilicc which 
alone can brin^ thf^ir pnliey to a nuetv^iKful tsme, Kfceatly th«? 
wiadom and the firmness, with which they have met thsir 
opponenti, have been open to much noetiion. Two eleciioai 
bavo been lost, more from want of tact iDfta from want of policr- 


TAe Local Cooermnent BitL 


Id b tbitd the iiIti*niAtire» preMntecl to the electors w«rc not flu<4i 
as \hty were eniitlixl lo expect. In bjc-ctc^liona the result tumi 
for more upon tbe p<>n<jiial [|Uixli(ic;itioU!i of the cnQ<li()at4.-» than 
wbro an i»uc i> before the v«ii»ic oountrj. But bvo-eloctions 
infiuence the ulumUv ii-suk, itoci it in of gnrat iiiiportaDce th*t 
th« candidfttca for byc-ckciions should be cnrcrall^ cUoMn. W'e 
fthouki be Borrjr to mj' mote of ih* oanilidot^j* reci^nily put 
^orvrard than that they wrrc not vrcll selected for their par- 
ticular competition^ Up to the pre&ent we do nut ihiiik much 
barm b*» been dune, nprcinily when wr rcmrmber that an- 
earlier Mmblcri^l lictoiy could be explained only by a change 
of opinion on the part ol a lar]^ boiljr uf rutcn on the one great 
qucatiou pvominently bcforo thorn. But tho le««ona of South* 
amptrin nm! Ayr cannot cafc^ly be tgnon*<r There oni* lie no- 
reason why the monopoly of gooil candidates — ^od we meun 
for the particuUr conlt-tt they have in view— -fihould be allotvcd 
to reit with the Oppoiition, The Mjnii(tirna]i»t» have a lar^r 
body lo select from, Mtd with even moderate care they ou^ht 
to be able to iccurc the Bctriccs of men who, iftbcy fail, will 
fall from no perstin^l in<*li^ibility. Out, if such malterv a^is left 
in takfi rare <jf tbemwlvriij xha Irndern of the IWty mint eipeci 
lomeet with disasCers which wi)l weaken the power and t\^im\y 
tba ardour of their ftUp}K)rtt^». The Union of the Kingdom 
dcpeoda now, more than ever, on the Union of the party^ an<l 
no pnint should be spared by any who follow the flag to 
tuppvrl bulb. 

A recenl occurrence oaght to help their eOorttv The cbargca 
made in a great trial by the counsrt fcr a great newipnper muftt 
h&re a vaat effect on the juilKmeut of the amntry. A bare 
dtaia] of tbcao charge*, however cmphaticaUy made, cannot 
■ml the persons affected. Great as is the respect felt in the 
OHiAitucnciea for Pnrliamt'niary ullcrnnces, there is a general 
■Oil perftrctly wIbo fccliti^, that the liuobr? of C^iiimunB la iiol 
a fit tribun!»] to try criminal or cguiui-criminnl quostiont. 
-Minister* have hiiberto reaialed, and it is to he hoped they 
^'dl go on resiitingt any attempt tu force in the House a cli»^ 
^^^Uaion of a matter which is essentially one for a judiciid 
^■iQuiry. They bare pTo|)osed lo introduce a liill, appointing 
* Commission, which shi>uld consist wboUy ur mainly of 
''^•djfe*, tvilb full powers, a* in the coae of other fttaluEabln 
^^ocBmiiHion*, to enquiry into the nllegaitonv nnd chjtrgea in^de 
Haiast Mr Parnell and other Members of Parliament in the 
'ttent trial. Whether Mr. Parnell and his friends will accept 
tkis offer, our readers will know by the lime these pa^s reach 
, ttfiir hand*. But one thing is certain. Those whusc comJuct 

ha 9 


jf^fl Local Government BiU^ 

ha* been so deliberately assailed cannot clear themielveA hy 
vehement oratory in Parliament, Unlei* tbey take the remedj 
which is offered to them, or bring an action against the pro- 
prietors of the ' Times ' in the ordinary Courts of Lav, the effect 
of the charge will inevitably remain. They have, of course 
partizans whom nothing could convince, and who would not 
hesitate to impufrn the justice of any tribunal which decided 
against them. But the general sense of the counti^ will be 
shocked, if accusations, so deliberately and determinedly made, 
are not met by a judicial enquiry. No amount of bluster in 
Parliament or the Press will suffice. If those implicated decline 
to take either of the two courses open to them, the country will 
know what to think, not only of them, but of the alliance to 
which they are parties. 




BT. I. — Robert Kismere^ Bv Mr*, lluiiipliry Ward- London, 
IS^S. Sixth P^ditioQ. 

^— TTIHE sucfwit of ihU Dovel ii the raf»tt intf*r»«tin^, mid in 

^H_L •omi: rcBpccts the most initniotir^, literary ^vonl of the 

^^^■■ent /ear. It is an instADCC of Mr. Glftdstoaes keea ey« for 

^|H^Inr s<.-nsatii>n ihat he At once threw liimM^lf into thi? itrram 

or current inl^ircsi in thr honk ; nnd thii inlcrrBi wai no doubt 

avgTOC!tit<?i] br the iiru<:l<.' vr)iich he publidLird in one of those 

tnanthlj fU^victwn, which di-votp thi*in«rlvcfl to tho impartial 

dU»eminatioii of truth and fahehood. But the hook h.irl mn 

rfli>i<]Iy through two or three editiou« before it h^id rcecirrd 

tiju imputae. Id >ix months it find fron« throuf^b live edition* 

in i\% <»ri^iiiAl fi>rm of three clotel^prmled volumes ; nnd it i< 

UDW couicnandiog ^ i\iitW-v snlc in th<; (Ijrnjx-r itnd more 

pnpulv fortn of a ain^le voluioe. A sLiGceM of tbi» bind ift 

prnof thnt ji hook hfts tojrh4*d some g^ni^rnl nnd d^p loiirce of 

rubltc feelinjT, and has i^iven vivid expression E» ihoui;ht> or 

lEiterett^ which arc widelj' tprtrail. Of ihr thoughts and inter- 

*Ws irhlch have been touched in ibe present case there can be 

"uiliJubL Tht; main fubject of the b<>ok \t verjr diflrrent from 

^W of All oidin*ry noveL There i*, indeed, a gotid drul of 

Wt and piuaioa aad soc'Ial life id it; &nd th4>«e pt^rcnni&l 

■oiirrrtof bumnn interest are ih^ material of sorenl hrmitiful 

*J>d bttlliaiit p;mng«s. The love of Robert KUroere and of 

^berinc hi* wife u^ with one eriereu* exception, a very 

jl^^ons and tender picture. The series of fitrui;^li?s in 

^beria«** mind ; the irAtitiiton Cram her simple life of Tciigtoui 

^ domeatic devotion in a Weatrnorr-lAod dale, lo the dtrep and 

twnlo love of married lifo ia a Surrey vicarage; the wrcneh 

^Fizdi her heart and soul undergo when her hti*bund*s abjura- 

'^D of Christianity oblijj^s her to follow him, in »n1it;ide and 

bilfcmeu of spirit, to an unknown and uncoagenial c-ireer la 

Vol. 167.— V<?. 394. T London ; 

London; the i^ndunl estflblUlirDcnt of a sort of working com- 
promise betwrcn hi-r intt-aic wumnnir love xnd her slill nioir 
iiiEcHM^ drvolion u^ h<*r o!<I crcc*! — all tliis is clepicied wlr" 
force And a doUcucv whicli bespeak the feminiof lyimMitb^ 
wdl OS the grcAt literary nbilitv tif tbc authiirr». Thv^c U* 
jOoToovfT, onu pcnunaf^ in tho ttory tvho ap]>oalt with «uAicl#nt 
force in th«% i>r<1ioArj intrr^fltn of mmftiKM^. CJUhrrinc's P^^' 
cbaractrr U akilfutly b&l.iRce^l by her filter Rose, the chMd of 

EaMionnte inttinctx, whir:li ato placed on» like hur uwd violin, 
y art, (nnc^, Jove, s^-iopnthy, or rrpuhion. 

'A ro»elmd, ita with littU wilfttl Aorns. 
Aad BWcet ilb Eugliah air cotiM mako kcr, ^o;' 

but developing, throu^H her dan^cmui Ciipi-rienrr^ the deG|vf 
mirid opacities sbe inherits from her fnlher Rirhni'l LcTboni- 
The story of Ro:i<^'5 firit fancy for the morbid Oxford Th^ 
Langtinm, not beATtfc^^, but with his tirnrt pAmlvxrd hy a coU 
sccpiicikm; bci' pttiurul but sulutar^' escape from htia hy ibr 
act of his own unmnnliness, and her gtndojd aurrcndcTp wben 
sh4* had rei:x)v«r^l her lelf-reip^et, tn a worthier and steoditt 
pauion; the develnpmetit of her nrtittic ^nius, and bertoeul 
flatteries, iriunipbs and disillusionA — all this would hare tv- 
tu»1ied matter enough for an ordinnrv novel, and it deMTibfd 
with singular skill and grace. The nnrrnttve u rrliered aaJ 
illusLJalFO, jiton-oteff hy n niie »vuiuatb;r iriih uuture aid 
rernorkablr eapacity for natural description. Thc«c pictanc 
of nstural aeenerj- nrr tomi^timet prrhnpi Ino 1en|r|h}\ aa in (h« 
long description of Whindatc wiUi which ihe btrok opmi* ""^ 
which we confess seemed to u^at a first irlance, so long a flrttrh 
of ooimlry lo be got ihrongh befl>^^ reaching the human inmttt 
of the story, thM we soon put the bonk down agttin wbeo vv 
first took it up. But a rvry iatpnruir^r €x>rreapoiMleiice *• 
maintained throughout between iho scenery and the ndioOf w 
11] this, nM in mnny other points, Mrs. Ward exhibits hifl^ 
artistic power. 

But all these aitmetions of an ordinary roinance ara c^' 
pletely ovcnbatlowed hy tlie main action and prvdomiao^ 
ititerr!St of ibe book. They are the bjplay of a atory M> 
which ihc main subject is a religious tr&grdv and a theolog;ic>l 
controversy ; nnrf fow per«on» would be al th** trouble to i*iw 
throjgh to h>njr a ncive!, for the sake "f its mmanlic epi*oof*' 
whii wrrr not cbiefly interested in ihe rFlif^ious itruj*f{le wto'* 
it depicts. Mrs. WAn\ has inrosted with the attraction U* 
personal Iraj^c^ly s^ime of the most chAractifTistic qoostions ol 
the critical and theological debsie of the paiit generation; ^ 


RtAert J-'frmer* and Cfvritlianit^. 


'taumlwn ()f pcopI«! wKo recoil from Euays anil Lcctum — even 

from that UteBt cxaiuple of the imiution wbicb j» tbe Uue*t 

sort i>r flmierj, tbe fiibbt^rt l^ciurci, wbicb ' Thir Titnirs ' tri(»l 

CO puff into a ton of scienlific rivalry of ibc Bdinpton^^ — 

nuinlir-n on wbom evro tbc? vriUj and irrcrcrcni nutlucUj- trf tbc 

laec Mr, Mftttbcw Arnold b«d fttil#d to Uj- much bold, hftvo boon 

Attracted by tb« >Ekine vnpreNiTntations wben furbisbcnl up in 

a norc). And invf^stvd with a traffic tntcreit \n tbfi lifo oif ui 

ioi^r^ting cIcr^ymaiL To maar peranas, lodged, the book ba< 

for tliis roiLson omr wcariRumc And (JiMppointtnEf Mpixt, It 

depicts to tbcm a phaic of thouj^ht, at Oxford cipocially, long 

m^ lived ibron^b and practicnHy dead. Mucb of iu rcpre- 

tVDtotion* of thf> aiU^ of <^riti<:al and tbeologiml tbougbt 

rrnind uk of iIm* ailcnimbic nbtervationt thni 'Oifonl If tbc 

idice to wbich i^ood Grrrrifin phito«opbieft p> wtiea tbey die* 

The coacliuionft of ibe Til biiijj^i'n Srliijol, wbtcb biiv<» been 

long t6<;ognu«l a* eztnvn^iint, not only by M. R«nMit bat in 

^^Gvmuny itaotf, ftre Mill dtricribed :l» ' tbat gri-'at operation 

^^vorked by cb<* bc^ intellect of Europe during the fast KaK 

^Twitnry— broadly »p«iking — nn the fact* urtd dornments of 

pffjmitive Cbrixliiinity ' (vol, iii. p. 201>); ami t^vcn the? rrcon* 

ACnictivc part of tbc Imok docs not ^ct bcyonil tbe formulv and 

thcArbimryastumplJoruof M. Keriim und Mr. AUtlhew Araotd. 

Bit Iu ttioic wbo have noi followrd the critical debate of the 

tut twcatj y^M^i tbiti defrct uuii»LituC(n at uure tbc jiJtvnr^t and 

tbo d«ngcT of tbe hook — ita interest, bccausn all tbe*e exploded 

faIlairi«A fome to ibem nrtlb ihe atfrnrtion and the myatery of 

novel di«coveri<^ ; and itsdangrr, brf^auM^ th(<y are unnn|UAinied 

vitb the facta ^^^ con^ideraiionH br which these particular 

^^fadtacies, at all events, hare been tiauiahed from tbe lieltl of 

^P^tnactcul controvtrrey. We refrain, in deference partly to Mra, 

^*M"aTd'» acwicea In other d«fp«ittnen(» of leuniJOjt;, jartly to 

bet earn««tnoss and aincenty, and partly 14^ bcr sex, frooi nxr 

preaftin^ tlie cenanre irhu^h would oidinoi-ily lie due to a writer 

who engaged in an alUrk upon the receivctl Christian faith 

with lo imperfect a knowledije of the preaent conditions of ihc 

coQtvoveray, and consequently with such ineritublc uiiarepre- 

cmtatlona. But for tbeae reaaont we feel it incumbent oo sobcv 

criticUm to take more notice of a controversial novel than is 

iiidinarily re<)uiut4>. 

A critic, indeed, is at n f^reat disadvantage in dealing with 
socb a work in a mere Essay. The proper answer to * Kj>ben 
Elamere * would be an eoually good novel, which instead of 
kilting Robert EUmere tm conveniently at tbe moment when 
bts tbeoflet were being put to the test of practice, and ending 


Jtottrt Kltntert and C/trixtianUtf. 

br tbe greatest picrc oi romam^c in tbi^ whole book — the *tate- 
Qient that tb^ bmtbc-rhood ho founded ttjll cxltts — woald 
describe the inevitable breAktlown of »uch arbiimry aasttrnptioDi 
mil) convT!i)tioi)s iinilcr tin- i>Lrcta i>f c<>:i>Enoii svnsL-, coiquwi4 
hiitorj-^ nnrl ooirKnon Vifc, In (Ivfauh of thiK, vit^ will «ndotti 
In aupplv whnt Mr Oliuliitfinr hna jnstlv nnlinnl ns the 
<Icficiency of the book — tome slight representation of the U]fu- 
meats on the other side. This omission is, indeed, tbi> aIchosI 
Dpiform rice of a controversial novel. It is entity to prove uay 
ihin^ one pleases in streh a composition. The author ii able 
at pleasure to g'wr alt the grind (iuaIiIics and nil ihc good 
ATgiiin«>at« to thi' ttidi? which i« favoured. It mnindt us of the 
old fable of the picture of an unarmed man throttling a lion, 
and of the lion*s criticism on it. It is rare to meet a contro- 
versial novctl in which the beaten side makes anv respeetable 
Ji^ht, and this defect vitialea the whole description. In 
' Kotien EUmere ' this unf'ntnif-si pasves all toler;hh!o boondi, 
juul loaiJn lo th«T one ^rent blift in th<^ peritonei interest of tbr 
nsrrmtire. Hohcrt EUtm^rtr is dcscrih^rd at ivni^^linj^ for 
montliswith the doubts implanted in him by the Mepliistophele* 
of the slorv, the Squire of hit parish, and neither taking Hi 
wifi? into his eonfidrnc<-i nor srfking help or i^uidnnce fton jl 
single representative of the faith he is tempted to abaadoOn 
His tr>.'aimt-nt of Catht-rine in this lesjiect si-eios to ua, indrvd. 
too etui; i and h<artle-s» Vt bo coaeoivalik* lie knew that U* 
wife's wholo soul was devoted, with a rare depth and sine^Htj. 
to the veritiea he was tempted to deny» and to the life uf ck 
Christiaa minlsti^ of whiih be was cvm tempi at in|- the aurrewbr: 
yd he never opens hU heart fir thoughts to her until hb d^ 
GJsioc is rondc ; and then brinies back to her from Oxford, otr 
summt-r eventji^, the irasli uf her di-L-pi-:it li»|>rs Kud aspiration 
for him»^lf, and «c far for her. The eceno in whick ske a 
described nv almcMi crushed, and driven away from him for 
ever, by this heartless shock* is one of the most touching io^ 
powerful in the honk ; and Catherines conduct and feeling i? 
spch rircunistanws ircms to us both truly ami finely conceit^ 
But a man who was cnpable of trf-atin^; his wife with this ctv° 
self-ahsorptiun, or of taking^ so momentous a step w)lb*(l 
seekiog any counsel from tho best ri> proton tali vos of hi< <A^ 
faith, exhihits a character very ill snited to the hero of a reil 
religious conflict. The only representative of the old f^^^ 
with whom he is actually confToiited is an enlhusiaftic, ia^ 
errn lanatir, riiunlitt priest, whow n>Ie idea of faith if tbr 
desperate renunciation of reason. It is contrary to the plaiacrf 
dictates of common sense an<l common duty tbot a man sho^ 


JMcrt Ebmer€ and Chriitianity, 


:e a tlccUinn which involvoe luch conwquoncAB to th«t 
pAriUiionors in hit ehtrj^?, to hU wife and to bit friemis, witb- 
out talcini^ till? trouble: 1^ whtt imuUL l>c ■nitl in nnsMr^T to 
his <lif1icultir» by *ome competent n-pretcntativo of the cause 
lie was K<>'"K ^'' iloffrt. lit: p>.Vi iudt^cHJ a hurried rltit U$ 
Oxford before hia fjnul dUclo^urw to Cuthcrinc ; but he goo* 
tbofp, not to consult some Cliritli^in icholaT or lltivilo^iuir bat 
toaak connftcK which ho must hnvr known would bo encourj^c- 
mrat, from a tutor of lii« olj CoUejre, Mr. il^Jiiry fircy, who 
is pnctlcaJly itlrntifiMl by a nntt^ at tbr end of tbi* volumr with 
tbo fate Profcsftor tirceOfand whom he kDt^wto bavp abandooed 
Mief in nairaclv and miracuhnti Cbrisiianity* A passing intfer 
at Canon W^^tcou, for ' itolallng CbristiAnicy from all tho other 
r«ligiout phenomena of ihp wotld/ is the only n*ferem» made 
in the book to the best rt^piescn Eat ires of learned Christian 
I ihnaj^ht in England. 

^ft This indi-rd ts only in hnrmony with the tone nf supttrrilioas 
^ftnperiorlty which the authoress assumes throughoat in reference 
^Moortbodox Cbristiiai, Chriatiunity ii sjKjken uf as * a relij^ion 
which can no ]on(-i<r b« beliwed/ Its soTnuin and skcrwl 
records of mimrnhuifi action and divine lift* are pAtmnixinffly 
um] contemptuously referred t4} a^in and a)(ain at * Fairy 
tales* ; and in the conrersaiion in which the Squire, in responftf^ 
to EUcncrc's own request, reveals the wbole extent of bis dc* 
•tractive criticism, we are told that a man who regards Cbrittlftn 
If^nc) — that 11, tl^ miTikculous narratires of the New Testn- 
m«nt — »■ p^rt of history proper, ou|(ht to b« regsrdwl as 
'losing catte/ and *fnllin^ ipso Jfirto nut of court with men 
of education/ We cannot but say that at a time when some 
of the first scholars in Kurnp(^ are Christtan bishops and 
dirtnca, when the I'resident ot the Royal Society and other 
emtaent men of science, htsides Slatevmea and men of letters 
of ihc first nbilttT) nrc dcHdcd hcliovcn in tbc oTd Cbriitiaa 
cned, Unffua^ of iht« k-nd a |>pr'>a<:he< incolencef nnd ile«prve«, 
rveo ID alady, severe retcntrnt^nt. KUmcre htmsrif is« in fact, 
lo a great extent the victim not, as Mrs. VVsni wauld rcpro- 
lenti of truth, but of a su|M-rlative caiiceil. After a (ew 
months' stndy of early French history, a few mrtntbs* iotcr- 
conrae witb a Grnnanued scholar wWui Ue knows and cou- 
fasses to be lieMrtlcss And irreligious, if not immoral, he jamps 
to tha conelufinn, that he hnc «r*en throii^?i the falla/<tet, not 
^jBcrely of Canon Weitcoli and the orihodox apologists, but of 
^H|;hte«n ccntarics of the best life and the finest intellects in 
^%e worlds that be can brash away St. Paurs evidence as ttiat of 
a ' fiery fallible man of genius/ and can even most shocking of 


Ml tb« ■ctn*» ID til** boot — im>^m<* our Sarioiir tikeiik<ii 
him *in tbc i;uis«- of comm^m mnnhocM), Indian like? hi« Itilflwi 
with tlit^ ptitheltc vrei^lit oC iiuaiBn wcakneu ami biimkn 
ignorance,' iinil oonfr-KJiini!; ht him — Ut hUnieri^ — that 'I had 
my drcinu, my dftEiulons, with my frllowft.' Mrs. Word might 
At least have >pbrcd her rcndcira, &nil tUe character of her hero, 
tU»t initult lo th* Chri«liAn«^ honi an^l Gi>d. Rut th« pfiftsibilitT 
of itit^h ;i %cftic 1% thi? mtfl*urtf of Kl^m^re'* njjpreciaiion, and 
Mra, Wards appreciation, of the nrnlconsulctiitions on which thii 
controverty tunis. We »ball recur to ihi« jwiat in the leqoeL 
Meanwhile ittnaj be neknowlcni^td to be quite in keeping wiiU 
tbo chancier that m man who re^rdi Jetui Chriac as having 
bo«n aubjcct to dclnainnft, from which be himstrlf It emancipated, 
«Ii<iubl not tbink it worth while in t-^^fk ndvi^-m in hia doabti 
fpim wine nnd gocKl men who slili regaitl the Sartootr am Trath 

Uat let us turn more parlicularty U) the alleged reawnslnr 
Klsmere's ahjunttion. Hr i« represented as roainlj' inflnmced 
ID his revolve to take tloly Ortlvra hy the ^neral reli^oos 
imprcauon mode upon him hy the (usoGiations of Oifarcl. 

* Tbo religious air, the eolciuE beauty cf tUo place iteolf, its tna^ 
Sbamhlo ni«ociiitioDj; with o.n organiKcd and Tonorablo fiuth, tbo tftwt 
pnhlio fuuotiouA and tspreuiuutt of that fuith. poesctttinl the wf* 
inagfnattoiL more and idot^ Asbiiaat io tho nndirgnidtiAtcs'^ci? 
at St. iUiuyd un the &und&y^ wbeo il« m^i Uigh Ohtui^ti pmoto 

i^r ttie CMjiiirnt occupied ih<: |rul|>it, mud ](H>kcd down oil lUe CEtr«^ 

htiilding, full ai gmve yjick-ifowniid Rf^iTnuir and framvd m en 
Gontiutioua belt of cio8i^ly-|>a(ked btiyiKh fhci^e; as he littesed bo di« 
nftacbi:T'ii Tibmtint; virii-e, riniti^ ami fnUiiig with the oiutor'i imtiv* 
ror iDu^^iui^l «.rf^^t; or a« ho sioot] nji with the great sarroaiuliDC Mj 
of lUkdniigiadaatoatoaoiu] thonicl^y ofaomo Latin bjian rolling ii^ 
the fjur leoeawa of the obuir: tlie n\i\il and thu expericoice UaM 
hifl iamwt fl^c1iIlg1 and i^jiti^stiod all tlio pcieti^l and dnunatie i^ 
stinotB of B. paeaionate iintuie. Thu Kyotciu bL-Lind the aight (eOl 
aiftMjgor itad Atrougi^r h(dd Lipi>it hhn ; hu hL^^ao to h inb uikullj w>^ 
ountinaoiudy to bee4>iiiQ a piirt of it, to cnftt in hia lot dc&oibfj 
wiUi it ' (Toh i. p. 132). 

Thia is not a very deep foundi^lion for n resolve to enter ^ 
mioittry, or for ChriatioD bvlic*f itself; an<l when he announCf 
hia mWvp to hi« two tiitnr«, Mr. Grey aikd Mr* Langhamt til' 
SMda of hia future doubts are ml ocux sown* Mr. Grey, wh^ 
told of III* inlrntion^ 

' Sftid nutlilufi: for a while. ..." Yon fed ao difficmltiw in <>* 
w«y?" bo Bflkcitat Insfc> with a ceirtain quiek brtiaoiiiBiioss of nrinnff- 
*' No," M\i<l Kobert, Ofigvrlj, '" I never luuL jiny. F^uf^" ho t^ 


BebtH EUmert ami C^ritttnnity. 


^^tli a iniililcn hnniltly, '' it is boctneo I liftTO nortr (foiio 4sm 

BDougb. Wliat 1 btiliuTo nti^bt l»ir« been woriJi mora if I fcadliu 

or« «tn>£gle; bul it Ijm M Aoomed «o pUia'* > . . "Yo«i Will 

^mb«bl7 bo furj luippr in tbo Hfn," bfiiJ Mr. Grey. "Tbo Cltimfc 

\ ynxits lacu of joar mrt" * 

When be tclli LBRglmui, tbfr tutor's obvcTVal ion u, 

'"WcU.ftltoTall.tboililllciiltyUed iu preachiitg aujlbiug ; caiemftj 

MJl w«UpT«««hAro»|)M;tablo mytbolo^ im nn/lbio^ oImk" *' ^Vl1at d^ 

^<oa oeui b; o mytlncdi'tgr?'* uriu*! Holicrl botl/. " Simply idoo*. 

^or <M]>vnoiH»s, pcnooiJic<l/' faitl LniigliiLin, puffini* nw«y> "I tiika 

Jittbojftr^ tboaODJeot matter of all thvulugicM." " i dou't unilorKtuid 

l-J^u,'* wd Utrlioii, gtuJtiikg. *' Ti> tlio GiiHoliHO, fitctA ttftT« l>i>vu tho 

tOfidlitni l>j whii*h i^ea^ Ih^v Wf>tl4 couM noi nihoriKvui Iiato tomn at 

have boon oomnkunLcated to DtaD, ChristUD UcooloiieT ^^ a sntam of 

idoiii indeiyl, but i^f idciu rcaaUscd, mado iziaoifa»t in nota." LAOgham 

lookad a Lim for a mom^at, viideolrtoil ; tboa ihaC sappteMed iirita- 

tioQ tt'o havD aUcioH/ npokoif of brciko tbroDgb. '* lioir do joa kDOV 

4bej are foetal" beaaid. dryly, 

* Tbo yofmgcr man took op the cballango vitb all his natural 
ueUt an<r tbo oonrarwUioc naaolred it»ir into a diaovaalon of 
iiao Gviduncon- Or i^thar Iloburt hM foiUt,atiU L;iii^1ib(u ko^it 
going by AD oouMioiul ranark wbich acted Lilio tlio pri^^k of a 
Tbo Utor's pejclnlo^eal uuriimity nna «oori s&tiafied. He 
' to tiioiaalf that tb« ititolUct bifl prociotK little to do with 
Etonnr^'a Ohrieiiaai^. He bad got hold ot all tha ^u^ck ^pnlogotlo 
«rgiUBefitdt and uaod tbom, bia comptuiion admittoJ, vitb ability and 
fngOBtlitj. But tbcy wem mcrdy tho ontwcirkt <jf iha citudel. TIm 
tuoat fortresfl ira& hold by s^mtithiug wbolly distioct from i&- 
lallfictnal oouvietioD— liy morul luuiitioii, br luve, by fooling, bj that 
&iyati<;i«ai, id sbort, wliLcb un boallby ^utitU tltould be irtlboul. " Ha 
hiafliiiTr h« biu HiktiaS^J hiu iatelluot.'' u-aa tha i^wArd cocnmorit of 
flU of lii« moat luelttduboly of aoeptic^, " and ha baa nerar so modi 
iaoxort«d it Wbut abrut^; ! am ia prote^ll*" 

rWp vndraly agTw* tricb tbo conrltidin^ obsoM-ntirin ; nnd wa 
matt ne<-^i »y in patiiiiitr, tbnt the coiivi^nntions we b:tro ijuoIikI 
aJTonl a iDcl^uichoiy iliuRtn)ii4>n o1' Ihr c<mi)nrt wbkb vie must 
nppoae !> d««in^ jo-ititiaLlo bv tucorf at Oict'ord id tbc piTM^nt 
day. Cbrittianiiy is not im1> regarded at tli« College deicnbcsl 
ia this book aa an open fjuotiion i but wbun a lalcntod und«r- 
gnulaole annouaoc* bt« Inlcntioa of entering Holy Ordera, ita 
ni(a>rv Ibink ii o>ntiM/inr with ibvir dniy io iniinnni^ dif1irulti«>t, 
tikr Mf. f iT^Y, fir like Mr. Lan^ltara to toll bim that tb<^ fEtitb be 
uiteoJa to preach it onlj' a rfspe<ctabli5 mvtbofo^y. ^Vc knovr 
wliat may dc aaid on llit^ other sid^*-. To pleaae people wbo 
were willing to pay tb« price of nnoliTiaciAniziiig a Uoivcrrtity 
/or a Llbvml or NnncuDforubt triumpb, ihv goT<;riiaiiMit and 



Rvbtrrt Eismfffcnnd Christianitfft 

<litci|:1ine of Oxford Arc now committed to men wb» mre 
nnitncipiitod from obli^tion to may form of twlief. It mnj be 
viiiO tbui Lan^bnin aas viilblu bi« rtgbtii in boldmi; bb luiur- 
ftbip AS AH infidel, and ibnt if b<^ w«a nn hontfat inlitlol, ho «i» 
ttoinff no rnore limn wax nnturalf if not bis dtiljr, in trj'ing to 
IRVG hU pupil from tbc porvrriitics of better Wv onlj 
tb«t it is tmie li^n^tji»h parents should tborou&blj undent 
that thii is the con<litit>ii to whirh the Uni^'crtiticft have li 
Inoogbt, ftnd that if tb«y ^nd tboir bods to ft College like 
St, Anarlm'ft — 1» onj Cnlfc|cc whicb docs not practically' 
iffttabbth a i««t for iuelf* liko K«ble — tlivv expofto thvm, in 
the iminnturily and f^xcitAhilitj' of tb^ir f^nrlj" manboodj to 
bnvc their Cbristinn faitb dcliberatc<]y undermined br the 
maturer intellectual force of n philoM>pbicaI deitt like Mr. 
(jliejr, or n bopflcu tceplic like Mr. LAn|ham. Mrs. Wtrd 
knowB Oxford well. We bare not observed ibtt anj pmccM 
bus hiren mtscd n^oinst her rcprcsrntAticm of a CoUcjet' in 
tb«» Univoitiiy, with iu vivid portraiture of mor» ihno oo*> 
vteW'i^oawu chnr;irler. Tliii must be tnhen at an Oxford 
picture of Oxford innuencofl in a );re£kt College, and we tnut 
needs say that a course of legivlaiiou wbicb hu placed sncb 
men as Mr. Grey and Mr. Langhnm tn the position of taton 
and guides of utidergrudoaics iS a scaQdalous diversion of cn- 
doiVDirnts left for Christian purposes. Grey's questtin wbelbr* 
be hiMl no <UfTieultie< is recall^*! by EUnwre long afteTwsrdi, 
wbcn be is a-onouncini: to his old tutor bis renunciatloo 
of bif miniatty ; and Langhamp in bis sabfti^Eient intercounfi 
exerts a steady nr^^Mure in a sceptical direction. Mr. CSrcT, ^ 
course, when ^fsmerc's Anal confession is made, welcomes blfflf 
with Lipeu iiJiiia, ait u coinL-it U> the final fuiui of pbilooopbUsI 
religion. This Professor ia described ss a person of esin- 
ordinary moral exee1lenf?e. And be oerrainly possessed grrsi 
qualities of mind and beart. Hut a system un<1cr which a out 
UDdermines the Cttristian faith while usini^f Christian phms' 
olo^y, and sapH (be belief of impressible undergraduates while 
outwardly confonnJng to the Christian obscnanres of a Usi- 
versity UK*: Ox/unl, apprars to U<, to »*y the 1«as;, of •» 
equii^cal charaoter, both morally and in teller! unity. 

But the seeds of infKielity, thus sown, would probably hare 
lain dormant, tint with standing an oc«:astODal stimulas from 
Laogham, bad it not been for the indirect influence of nnotbiff 
piece ol advice from Mr. Grey* He ha4l said to tilsinere, * Uslf 
tbc day, you will be king of your world ; the other half be ibe 
slave of something wliivh wlU take yoM out of your world lato 
tba ^SDaral world/ He was mon>ovsr closr that history was 

eipec tally 

Rcff^rt /7iKWjr and ChriMtanitjf. 


efpeeivtly valuiililr, ctixrctnllv p<*rr«itarT 10 « cion:jmna. So 
Kltmc-re toftk his Final Schools Jlialurv for ft baii^ and stnrt^il 
un the Empire, cipeciuHy the cJctnLV ^f t')^ I'^tnpirc; And vrn« 
Uiu5 let] on into ' ihc inAbings of France/ Tlitt ftiufly, helpeii hv 
•n obacrrstioQ of Lan|;liAi)i k wbicb nnticijKitrd thr »ub«s)ut*nt 
Uiflu»n«« of tb« Squire, ia ropra«cnlocl ai auggvctin^to hU mind 
A general dutrusi of pfiat bistorictil evidence. H^ J§ rtpeciallj 
■Urtteil one day hy a pAungc in the life of u ^^aint ivho hnil 
been buhop of a dtocne id Southern Frinrr, the biugraphr 
ht\nfi written by bit succenur, 'It w«, of courto, a tiwoc 
oi marrelsf' juid one of them is aarraicd, of a kind wiih vrbich 
every cdocaicd reader ta fAiniUar in the Lirea of the S^inU. 
When he readfl tb« alory to Cathftrimj, ahn et^lnima, very nata- 
nllj. 'What extraordinary iupe»tition! A bishop, Koberi, 
tiki an educatetl man ? ' Rtit thia ia too simple an obwrvation 
lor tlUtncre. 'But ic is the wIjoIo habit of mind/ he said half to 
luin»clf. ' Ihat \% so astoumlinf. No one escapes it. Thr whole 
age rrjiily ia ni'n-aanir/ 'J'his apprehension of llic suiwrs'-iliotts 
ctodality wbicU premilotl at the cotrkmtn<:eiiicnt of tbe Dark Ages 
ia descrilieil a* Irading to * thr grndiial rnlargemea t of the 
mind's horizons;' so thai he comes \v see ' hon- miracle is 
manufactnretl, lo recogoixc in it merely a nntur^l^ inevitable 
outgronth of human teatimoDj in its pre-scicnitfif atai^es. 

But he does not reach these far-reaching conclustona from bis 
atadica of the bislorj of eaily KiAnce witliout a good dval of 
fortber Atimulus from the Squire. Thia man, Roger Weodorer, 
ia a enld-b]oo^!ed rynical srIiolAr, the ownr-r of a mn|rnificenc 
Ulmiry, who veems to bare bad no other inieres! in life lint to 
read (icnnan rritiri»m till he is himixOI tick of it^ and who i* 

icejebratcd for having 'launched into a startled anti proteating 

H|Siigland/ a book in which— 

V ' Eseh strongbold of En^liab popular rvdi^toa bad been nsuilrd in 
F tarn, at a tinM irhen Rngbib orth(.doiy n-as a far more furir.i<UbIo 
lUng than It ia dov. The P«Dlai«udi, the Propbotn, the Utwpelj^ 
9t Faal, TnbditioD, tbo Kktlien, Pri>U«tantiptn ami JuatifioatioD by 
FaitK ibt: Eigbteentb Cealiirj. the Bruod Chunrli luorvmcnt, Acgltean 
theology — &iu> Sqnire had his say about lh«m all/ 

In shfirt, be'ia a kind of critnbinatlon of ib<* tale Mr. Maltliew 
Arnold, the laic Mr. Greg, and the authiir of 'Supematml 
Religion.' El*mpin*fl aeqnuintanc* with thia man hegnn wilh a 
biuer quarre), in consequence of the Squire's scandalous and 
beartit-31 neglect of some rotten cottage property in the pansh. 
For 8 while he tends back the books the Squire bad lent hint, 
and all comiuuDication between them ceases. But a dreadful 



Ro^t EUmer$ aud Cfiruiianiijf, 

epidemic bmlct out in th« cottaj^et ; the S<|uii« is induced bjr 
th<* old dortoT oi the family tn ^ nnd %t^ titrtn ; fimli; BUitiere 
ihpie nuTAiTij* liii pnri»lii[>ncrA through the fcvor wiUi admirAble 
<1evoliun ; itilll) Acknouleft^^a LicEueU Id the wn>iig, ami inrttes 
oblivion fnr [ht; pAtt iiml IwUrr r^^l^ttif mis for the future* EUmrrc 
m^anwliili^ has hcan ruodin^ the Stfuiro^a boolc* and it fWscuiMcd 
!>j llii* mnn\ tenming, ihnngh sppr^llr^ fnr ih* mrvmi^t hy ih* 
dfiubis they fort^d upon him. But curu^ity prevaib ox-ct t*** 
puUion, Hf ftcccp!* ihc Squire* adrAncos; dUctiBaca hu 
tiUioric&L fltu<)ifA wiih him ; and evomhin^ in the Squire*^ 
fharacricr i% »oon l<irgi>llt!n but bis iny 11^ nous and unfatbomiibk 
Iirtirnin^. A clow: iDtcrf:<:JUTMr wid intrrchsuf^ uf Uiuvf;lil 
unsuos, abhoRVPt 10 C&lherine** mind,««me nrcHilil hsvc thot]|[bl 
rr^piilsive &> a rfergyniAii of sens]tiv«» Wlin^. Bat the Sqoire 
is idion'i'd, or radicr f^nroum^ prrss nc«rer nml nc^anrr witb 
his critirAl proccftics to the citadel of Elsmerr's faith* till dst 
4lajr be it nmctJcall^ invited to walk in and develop nil hh 
fon^<*t. 'Well it ha woald hate it,' thou^t tbe Sqaire, 'Id 
hiin have ]t^*>n<l then follows a conrcTBatiou of which ibe 
following po-ungps givo tho cmrdinal points, and IhoMt on whith 
wc haro chieflj- lo comnjent: — 

'Testimony. Iiho^v^ry oth<^r liuniHTipTVidnct, hnst£^r-c'/"^>fyf. Vtai 
pivwcr of npnraboi^ding Aud recording what h« m«« ami b«ara kl 
giowii from IfSfl tu mora, from neskei to stronger, lii:o anj otberi' 
litH fscuIttcM. What ono wnnta ik tbo cidoiod pnxif of tUe, sad it 
«ui b« got frono bistorj aad osporivneo. 

' To fluLgo iiilo ibe CbrifitiuiL period vitliout bariag fint den*! 
Iho idinil lU ti> wLat is mruiit in hiittorj' and Uterntaro bjf iba '* ai^di 
luothod," nltich in history may bo defined oa ■* tht toiouoe uf vkal i> 
ondiblo," snd iu litursturc ss '^Uns scicuca of whai is ratiuDsl**^ 
tn ifiTit^ tfft»sCo. , . . SnppOMi, for instance^ befora I bo^& (0 M 
with the Cliriittina i;turnsnd th« ttaiiiua I Christian dorelopm^fiuTMT 
tomskeont befoa-haud nhi^t ar^ tlismouldis tho nhanDfila into wfan 
tlio icvitiinoDy of tbo tima must ruD. J look for them mouldiiV' 
oooraO) in tho dtrminanl idooa, tho iutoil(x4iud prcuonc^ptiotti ^ 
preooonMtionft oxiatiat: irhen thu puritxl buguvK 

' In Uio fintt pUc«i I «hnll tind present Ju the age whidi mM^ 
birth of Chriiitiaaity, us in so lamiy tthar age<, a uaivorasl preeii' 
ocptiuti lO fsvoiii' of u^intch;-- tliAt is to aay, uf dtvlatlons fi'uiiill>' 
ecrantxii norui of oiij>eric?a(M.% govcmiag the irork of nil esod of el 
sthoeU, Very WJ, dlow for it iheti. R*!ad the teetimonr of ilk* 
period in thu light of it. Be prcrp&rod fnr ineTitahlo di&itoetf 
btitwuoii Itaud tho tcrtiniony of jourowa tlay. The vitnoas of thetm 
la &<4 trut\ nor, ia Ibo viriet soosOf fjUs«. It is raersly Looompstat* 
half-tmineil, preAoifiDUfle, hut sU tlmiui^h porfofitj batnral. 1%i 
wonder would hare Ifocn to havo bad n 1 ifo of Cttrul nritbout mincfai- 
Tbe air teems with thenu The East is full of UomaltL £nD a 

■ TmdOm 

cifcitt is upontitioo*. Kvcn a VenpiwiAii irork« miriLoloB. GtBD m 
l{«ro cunot die, tut &t\j ji-An afuir bis de^tb ifl siill looked for 
M tko JiiADgiiT&tor of u lELilioTmiQui uf liurror. Thu Itcfturrciotioii ifl 
pvilljr inTontviI, pikHly uuogiiK^I, purUy iJooHj titio— m aoy case 
wholly int^41iffilIo aod nstiimLfts a ]Uti<liict of the age, wLou once 
jron IkBTc tltcf k^r/ of ihiki t^e. 

' In ihe DOit place locrk for tbo prcccuecptioas that hare a defioito 
bisturiod unp;iu ] tUuw for mntuuci] Huxviug rroin tbo prc-ChrUtinu, 
ftpo^ttlj'ptio ItU^raturt) *t1 tlio Jtnv«^ . . . Enkccitie ^ur «yii<»pttD 
GoapoU. your (i^epcl of Si. John, your ApooaXyjmo, in tto lisltt of 
tbeso. Too have do other o]ian«e of uadertteuJiuK tbtnu. But im> 
cncikiiMcIf tfaef fjUi into ptnco, t>ec<pme oipjicublo nnd rfttional ; audi 
nMlcnal ms Mtnioo c&q m&kQ full uso cf. Tbo docUiuo of tho 
PiTuiity of Clkriiitt CliristiKii Rfi(-liiiti>lukGy. and Obrijttiftu vi«ivA cf 
l^pfaccy will oIno liATQ fouiut lJt4^ir jduco iii a Eoa&d historieal 

'It j« dtJM^fi^ditoUi: now for tlw ioaii of iutclligvjjoo to rcfust to 
read bi« X-ivy in the Itgbt of Ilu Mosiuhuvd. Uy object hta bocti to 
Uilp ID makicg it discreditable to bim to refuse to read lu£ Cliri«tijui 

KQdnMjotM in tlie light of u traiutid itcictitific oritiddiii.' 
Such U ibe sum and flub»Uiacc of the argument by wliich 
ttnrre Is fina.Uy induattl u> roliaquitb hit failb in tlic Cbrif> 
uall Crc«d. It bad boon sug«^c«tcd at an earlier tta^e hy 
l-aofliam, in reference to I:^li(juerv'» study ot' earlv Treiich 
biktory ;— 
^^ 'Jli^toT^/ h« had a^, 'dcpviKla od te^timovy. What in tJie 
^^■■lure and ndan of twtimony at giT^n tim^fi ? Tn otlu^r wrtrd^, did 
^^Bi»iBan oi the third ecritury uudc-nduiul, or rvport, or iatorj^rvt liuTtM 
in the aaioe i>ay aa the m&D of tho siEt4}cutb or the ULDott^euth 9 * 

In tbis ({ursuon. Lanf^bftm siid to himself, ]j|^t * tho wbntr of 
orthodox Christiaiiity/ The Squirt accoTdinj>ly apcnda bis 
life in vrriting a book, of tthich h« leaver the manutcrtpl lo 
Rlaiiwrr, d4-acribcd as 'A History of T«*t[nioit}/ which ia to 
* b&rry tho enemy afttr bia death/ hut which remain*, wc funcy, 
in the vknri* Innd o( mmxtier* a« F.lunm^'t Itrorlirrhitfu). 

Nunr to what dtws all thu Ur^e ViiS!ue talk amount? It 
scptDi t^ u« to involve n tnau of ^dlacit-ft a'hich the aulhoraai 
haft lakeqi '^^ paina lo diiicnlanglr, Wc can hardly suppoafi 
abi- maatis that alt testiinotiv, vfiibuut exception, bi-comei Ina 
ifmlwurihy n» ftc gif fuitlirr Imck in hintory. O/ ct^orw, In 
prnpoHJon to the H.-antiDeu of written dooumenta or monument*, 
indiiianal hiatory, aitch as is rproTiltd hy Liry, wft« linble to 
he dislnrtnl by pnpular suJwniEiticm or Imagination. Hut would 
Mra. Ward venture U> maioUan that Thucvdidcs, for instnncr, 
is a leas Irustwortby historian, hir ev«*uti which U^ had direct 
jneans of olntrving, than Clartndon ■* or TacitUB than Macaulay ? 



RtilifTt FJaacr€ and Christianify, 

In this form, tlwf >ug^ftlion beromes pr«postcrcKiSt «nd U re* 
ducetl to one of itiosc v^uv ^nCTalizMioas whicb ftre the vice 
of ibe iiruent dav, Alike in |>lnlo«i)|itij, in science or in bhtor^T. 
And vLicti «rc <tn\y intriulrd lo prr|MTe the mind for xrnic 
convcaicnt minor pnrmiiB whlcli vutrkl not ho to ^imIj accepv^il 
if fttutetl by it&clf. If the stiack on Cbri^lijiiiilj bu really bevn 
foFL-eil ]>Ack on a pmpusiuon, tliM all t«Uhnonj previous to tbe 
ninctrenlb century is cnmptiraurr^\y untrutlirortby, it will, we 
tbinkr be suf&cionilv evideDi thai it is argamenlaliveljr deJeainl. 
No compntifiin i» Ailctjunte to such an argumenr, but lliai ul 
pulling (iovrn yttur tiou«^ ovfr your hcnt\ ti> put out your c»n<llc-. 
In order to cxfinguub tbr li^bi of the Christian faltb, tb« whole 
edifice ofp&st biatory is to have the gmund cul Irom under it. 
The simple truth is that pa«t testimuny rcfquires sifting in ibe 
same way as tnocJcrn Erstinmny, nnd the true arE of criticiim ii 
to sift it, step by step. Wiib ahst success this cun be done is 

EroTcd by the grcut invescigalions into tha history of farrrcc and 
'.ame which havi? di>ti»(£ui»hcd thi? «chular»Uip of this <:rDtiny. 
But th(^ work of N'ic^buhr, or Moinm«rn, or Grotc, or Cuitju^ 
ba« nut been bated upon a ^neral demurrer 10 sU |Mist testi- 
mony, but upon a careful discriminalian lurtween direct and 
original testimony and that vrhirb was merely irsditiooal ^td 
Becondaj^\ Hiere are charuciers and tniDsactiuiis in pKSi hiitorT 
which stand aut juit »« ilcArly nnd ccruinly on tbt? hitiotiol 
Btag<< at thoio of th« pretipnt day ; while on tho other hnn<l, ihtcf 
RTP rvrnifi and rharftrtJTft and tramuirtions pASfting at Ilill 
moment all arouod us, respecting: which persons of ihe hiffbcsl 
position and experience are giving rach other the lie ererydsfv 
lo the infinite confuiion ol public life. Indeed there 11 * 
peculiar deftniterteis and vividness ;ibout some of the recordiv' 
the pnit, whether in Grcc^cc, Runie, or chu Mi«Mlr Age», or, f* 
will adiJ, the ScriptUTev, whieb is due to a greater utapUc«^T 
and dirrctaeu of ohservfition than is possible in a mone sopfatf* 
ticated sue. To take one illustration bearing upon our dU* 
topic there are points of unqurstionrd and minute accuracy iA 
Si, Luke, and vivid rcHectiont of scenes and features and aord' 
in Si. Matthew, Sl Mnrk, and St. John, which compel rcrs 
such a writer as M, Renan t» admil, that we hokva befurc as ^' 
\'ffry ]>botogTaphA, as it were, of what ocenrred. The Squire'* 
book, however, has never been publislied, and tmti) it 1*, «c 
shall take the liberty of leaving thii extravagant generalixatiM 

The fact is, Mrs, WanI means something rery much a^ 
practic:al,nnd tlu? minor premiss which her puppets slip in is the 
unly one really needed for her argument. What the oouire sad 


Robert EUm^rt and Christianity. 


DiBn object to it not truimony in ^nerftl, bst wiiimony to 
minunilou* erenls. h u * le^t^nd ' «bich is tbt? Sf(uin;*» btis^ljcar, 
and in thf? critiml mi>mrnu <jf KUriirrc'a struggle wUli Itimftclf^ 
ftt in the adilrcH in which be expounds tiia new rcH^itTP to btt 
Kah End aui)ien<-'pf thr raichwuri) of tbe inudprn Kcrprir i% rm* 
pfanaiMxl in itftlic*. ' Mirat^if^ </o uot Aa^p^N,* It i« ;& matter 
of no lictU piti«E)CP to ipp tbic rIiI* IbIImcj n^pt^al^i, witU n tort 
nf juggle of pbrfttcolo^y of which a writer on n<> serious a subject 
slioulcl he ^buned. ' Miracif s do not bjt|)i>«^n ! * Not now, rcr- 
tiiinl^, Tbat U the very cn»e of ft TrAson:iblr ChristlAnity, The 
Ckrittian writer mj-s tbat events which do not banpeit noWfdid 
bkppcn iMicr. Oh ! 1>ut Aayi the cihjcc:ti>r, *■ they do not bnppcn 
now/ But that U precUeljr what tbo Chriilinn lays, and j» th« 
v^ry bA«U of hit argumrnL H*- oontt-nda that iho oconrronc* of 
certain abnornisl events, in connection witb a rerr extraordinary 
prrfon, n^vt-nl lb:Lt pf r^on's renl n^ilurt* and character, JSut ftgnin, 
Btivs tbo obj«;rtor, they do nnt occur in connection with other 
p«rs<»D«, ordinary or eiiraordinary. That ii not incoo»lateiit 
with what the Christian snjf. It is tUr vcij point be it con* 
tfodinf; for. If it w«ir« thi* ea«e tbnt mirack>a do bappeo lo 
ordinary timt^t nnd pmW ordinary eiren nut none*, if ihey wen? 
within human eontinand and obiervntion ai ordtnnrv uiaUers of 
rxperimtmt, th<?y would nut he inir^cte-s in lh«t sttiof now tn 
qneitioci. The whole questtoa i», not whether miracles dn or do 
not hAppen, In the ordinary ten^e of ibat ju^g:)in^ phrase, but 
ivLctlier certain ipecific miracle* did happen nl a rrrtAin sprrilic 
itcnCt Bt the command of a eeri;iin t]M*ciric pi^rcon or por«cm«; 
«nr1 this n a mjitier, not nf the general question of tlie vnlijltty 
«>f testimony throughout the btstorv of the human race, but of 
certain specific testimony. It would %cem worth observing in 
paisio^, thai & man who appeals to experience or testimony to 
prove tbait miracles do not happen, is by bis awn uct debarred 
inrm refusing to conftidcr lettintooy tbftt they have happi^ncd. 
If b« rr)i«-s i.'n ti^tliinony 1o prorv the nr^nlit'o, be cannot refuse 
to beai testimony to prove the pi^siiive. If a writer Injs Jt down 
a priori that miracles cannot happen, a« Germans liLir Scraufrs 
and Baur honestly do, and as it seems Mr. irrtsy did, of courser 
all nrg^tment on the evidence is precloded, flnil nothing remains 
hut to inti^nt, as Siraui« and Baur did, nbal st-piiied to litem the 
Irast impTobuhle explanation of the TJoipflft anil Kpistles, But 
tvUvn a wrilrr say*, like M. Rennn and Mrfi. VV*r<l, that 'it 
is iropc»3iible to believe in that of wbicb ibc world offers 
oo experimeatal trace,* * bis argument is an orgiiEneiit from 

* Vie do Juqvf' J5tij cdtlioa^ p. ix> 



Raheri KUmert at^i CfinitiaMlif^ 

expon«n<w, and experience U « matierof trrtinonj. The we^ 
poiteraiu attempt of Mn. Ward to tapport KJnDere'i case by a 
general invnlidiiEion of ti^«iimonr it* in fcict, a practicftl 4idmia- 
aion that for Ciiif] iahuiirii, after nil, tbis wlioLo t^ucBtion ia oii« nf 
riflcncc. An Oxford Profr-Mor, Jikc Mr. firey or Green, ttiay 
'stii^k to tlm h priori iinpiiHibilitr »f miraclefl,* but th:kt r¥fr|uirc« 
an habitLifttinn to OrrmAn air. Tbft qunuif>n for Hngliah dmo 
nnd Wf>inen presents ilsrlf in llie pUin and practical flba)>e. 
whrthor tlit-rc tf, or it not, iu^-LU4*nL teMimoQ}' to prove ibir 
occurrenco of the? miraculoDS rvcnu inrolvcd in the Cbrittian 

Xow in i]i>nling u'ith ihift ivtuo, what wv h.w^ ti> point out ia 
that Mrs. Ward bas acted tlic part of a turt of Honi«rir 
Aphrodite to ber bero. and carried him off from cnntact with 
the actuol steel of Cbrittian argument under the cloud of km 
vagur ilepreciatton i>l all tcstimoay, and bj the p^lamour of tbe 
fallacious example she has ilrawn from c«f)y French blilonr. 
Ai to the latter point, we can only tnor^cl at tbr tiohistonaJ 
procnlore of this devotee of ib<^ bittonr«l niHho<1, Beoaut^ 
Oregnry of Toon or the early nmlitfral bio^Taphers were nper- 
ititious, iherefore Sc. Peter, Si. John, and 8t, Pnul are liabfe 
lo ■non^une' illuttions! There is a fine passage in whJcb 
Mrs. Wnni i!esrnb<*« the exlraonlinary contrast to modem 
exfwrieiK'e, prPsL^iiteil to the mind of tlu- bidiurlcal atLdcoi, wba 
firvt plunks into the materials of medieval bittory : — 

' nitinifktoly, nf oonrcc, fan s«ot that thwo xoea aixl wodmd whosi 
lettera and biograpbiea. whofld cKeda aad genoial couceptkuu bo it 
iUTHtlffatiij^ aio ia truLli bin aQC^etcrn) boDo of liin bo&e> 6oih of hit 
Am^ But nX l^rvt tbo ittudont whu goca bciok, itty, iti tli4* buitoTf uf 
Enropo. bohiad Ibo lUnaissancfj or bia^ind the OrDsadc* into the actal 
deposit* uf tbe p^t, ia ufleti Htruck with a kind uf rtTii^\ The dco 
and vomcn trhom ho bav drr^gcd forili into the ligtt of hia ow 
mind arc to biiu like noico ntraD^o puppet «how. Tbcj mtt> called \f 
but what a gulf batwecn him and tbom ! ^Htat rootivcft, what baHdii 
vhat Ambr^onio prooesaoB of thouf-bt and morals, what butatru ooa* 
Hnntiona of iKnoranoo aitd knuviliulgr, of ihx higbcvt aaactit^ wltk 
the lowoJit orodnlity or folxoiiood ; uW oxtraordioary proponMJuioBfc 
tiom with a man asd laintiug his whole ways of seeing and Ihuokhaf 
invm duhlboi>d to tJw oraTo ! Amid all rao intdloctnal dtslocatioi 
cif the Bpootecle, i:ideod, be perceiTeifi oortain Qreeks and ceftaii 
Lotiua nba rcprcAont a forvraivl atraiu, wb<i botong aa it M>cma to a 
vorld of Ibeir own, a w^rld ahtiatl of tlifnn. To thum hn aitnieehlS 
out bifi hand, '^ Ymi" hn f^nys to them, *' thou^i your pneals epob 
to yoxi not of Christ, but of Z^us and Arti^mis, Fon are Toally n^ 

kindrod I '' But tnlcllcetaaTIy they stand alooc. 

Anmwl tbem, after 

R^tfTi Ebmirrs and ChrUiianitjf. 


flmi, for long ages, the world ''Bpalw a« a chiU^ lult w k oUldi 

VVc demur to Hie nuppruition of & iw&rvr aeiue of kindred, iu 
LTjy olUer ilmii & ]iuiit<r<] iDUrilrrtUkl v^iop, I>piug /elt townEdi 
Greeks and L«lios tbnn lowonla CbrjULUii», [)»t |>«s«inj; ihta- 
by, th«* dncnplion io Ibi* iium^l^;!^ of ilip rnnfuu-d, liArlinnr, 
embryonic ways of thousHt Ami feeling in the early Middle 
hp^ is striking and just. But ivhat ii to be »nid rf tbc 
hisUiric inettifid, %-liich tu^^^csts the tntnsferencc of lliu picture 
to (he period when the Ctkristian story wo first written ftnd 
preached^ or in tbr writers by whom it is recorded? It wju in 
m world poopln^l by tho*^ vtiry C>r«okc niid Lstina in vrhom 
Mrs. Wnnl claims ber intidleclunL kindred, tbnt PauI va« in' 
(T«at mcMure educated, and that be ctiiefly irarelled, pre'acbed, 
■ikJ dir<J. It was to Romans, Corintliiaas, KpUoiJAiiSt Plii* 
tipptans — not to Jews only, but efprrially to Cicntilcs, at 
Aome, Corinih, Kpbcsus Itiilippi— thai be preacbed tlie reuif' 
faction of Christ ; «nd it \a in tetters to tlic-m, of tbr genuine^ 
MM of »oRi« of wbifrb ftt Ip&sI no doubt was enterijiined, er^o by 
Ibc kader of tbr Tiibin|f«n SHiool, that he records tbc ^t of 
miraetes bein^ ih'roujrbi amon^ ttiem, TurntDir to Judsa, jf we 
fiiul iupentition there, wl> find uls^j axx unbridled terpticiiin. h 
wta a dominant p^rtv in tbe Jeniih xorirtv of the dny wl>o said 
ibat ' there is iiu rr^ut recti on, neither an;-el nor spiiit^' and the 
PhoTincPs, who coufcsACHl both, vr<^rc bitter in iheir deniol of 
OUT Lord's Te«nrreetion. TIftoy were kera ditputantt. And 
capable of crittcixing mcrrilr^sly a * le|:eitd ' which was fatal to 
tbeir aulboricy. It was in this atmosphere — an atmosphere of 
tbfe'faighest Grei-k and Koman cultivation on the one linnd, ind 
of bogot<Hl Jewish incxerlulity on the other, and not in tbe 
uatntoirnJ wcirld of euily Teutouic mystery nod iinntcinAtioti, \X\ai 
tbe Cbriilina story wu told imd recorded. 'Vhe sixth nod 
ftcrrnib eenlurifs, in wblcb Elstnrrv^ losn bk bend, are ages with 
very little HierataTe worthy of the name. The first and second 
craturtes ire the agei of some of tbe most distinguished, and wc 
EBay ndd some ot' the movt srepcicAl, writers in (ireek and 
Roman literature ; and In Jewish literaiure, (he Apositn aft tbe 
lonirmporttTirs of Philo. Even on thf? ground of this ^'cnrral 
oompariaoo, what can be more extrnvspnotly unbistorical than 
fnr A man lo ntlow bts mimf to be disturbed as to ibi? trust' 
troTlbioess *>f rec^wds in tbe first cenUir>' by tbe superstition of 
chronielert in the sixth or sevmtb? Wc must sa? <«iee more» 
ifaat the ants||;onists of the CbristiaD faith must bo driven to 
bay, when they tak<t reft>ge In such topsy-turry cunfusions of 
biatuiical eucutostaoccs. 


lioffcrt fJ/rm^rif and Christiauit^^ 

The qa»tiun is not to bt^ drall vt\xh 1>y th<!vc va^« pro* 
positjons or confuseil analogies. Tbe real iasuc, which i« 
never faced ihiviujrhout tlie book iv, whft£ it the real value of 
the testimony afforded in the New TettAmrtit u> the erentt 
wUicU It rL-ccuxIa? In plain wiin)», what U ihc value of the 
r«rftUinonj- of Malthow, Marlt, Luko, John, Pftul, P«tcr, utd 
James, as there given? Tlit>^ (ell a simple, straightforward 
iinrvi perfectly consistent in at lea»t it* main features, whsterct 
(}iliicj|ties muy be raited about some delaiU, as may always be 
done* in rmpeot to matters of fact tiniil^irly narrated to us, 
Tbefv has betn a great dpjil of hratinp about the bush on Iwtb 
aid«s in thr cuur»« of this great ci>ntrovcr9y; and while tbr 
oritlml invratlgnttonn of the psat genprntinn w^trY in progT*^», 
it wai pi^rhapt inevitable, as uell as useful, that tbe combatants 
on both side* should cmliravoor to mnintnln ihiiir resprctive 
potiltoni by ar^u menu from probibilitjes. Christian apologists 
have endeavoured la show, :md v»e think wJEh unG:uUr sticoeait 
ihfti ih<T truths and facts asserted by Chrlstidinity hariDontfc 
profoi^ndlj with tbe needs nad tbe nature of man, and tbat 
lbrri> 14 no h priori inerpdibility in iiiHi f*vpDls a« xh* Chrictiaa 
creed recftrds. St-eptical writer* bavt- endeavoured, we think 
with ii^nal failure^ to allow ihnt the needs of mankind and Ae 
^triin of life can be met sufliciently without any such suptf- 
nalural aid. But all these arguments, however useful in theif 
pliivc, uiUEitf ftuujirr or InUrr, ^Ivi: w^y to iht pliiin question af 
iaet ; nnd we tbiok that time kaa come. Havf* wc, or hare vs 
no(, ground for bi^lii^vinf^ the nartaiivps and aaaertions oontainej 
in the (jo«pel( and PIpistles? 

Nfjw in this final and cardinal issue there arc two dittlnd 
points, confused by Mrs, Ward in tbe g'^neral haze which sin- 
rounds all lier treatment of tbe subject. The first is, were the boob 
written by the persons wbo*e nnmea thry bear ? The second is 
whether, if so, tliv evidence 4if those persoai is tmstwortfay? 
Xow we have shorvn in more thAii one previous aittcle of thil 
^ Krriew,' * that (he seltleil result of the criticism of the last liflj 
years is to answer the former (jue&tion — that of the authcntidlt 
of the books of the New Test a men I— substantially in the a^rm^ 
live. We do not say that no reservrs arc to be ma4le in respccs 
to the vlewi of pardcutar critics. ]3ut M^ Kenan ia & sufficient 
witness to the fact, that th« oa«o agftinit the authenticity of tbf 
New Testament books has in tlie main completely bnikeu down- 
lie is no believer in miracle, and is «n far a hostile wicneia, 
No one can doubt thatbe is perfectly aCTjuaintod with tbe coniie 

* Ttie-t^narlGilj Beview/vaL Ifil.jip. 302-381: iti- iea^pp.4«Mn. 

Bd/ert Eltn^re ami Christianity, 


"«f Genoftfl and French crittcum. But he admits. Tint of ^L, tbe 
autbroticitj of tW mnymiy of the KpUtlct of St. Paul (*St. Pftul,' 
pp, v,-vi,) ; HCondJ^ CVit^ de Ji^iut,' ln(ro<tucUon), tUal the 
Om|kcl »f St. Luke anu the AcU uf Ibc Apusllrt pniccnrdc'il^ in 
thctr prr«oiit fonn, rrt>m tlic (ten of St. Luko tho plijiiicimiif the 
nompani^^n of St. PauI ; tSinll^', that in Sl \1atlhrw wr bjiv#» 
the \cTj worctft of Jcaus, bright nnd flathing u wheo first spoken ; 
I fourthljr, that lu ±^i, Moik we have tbe pernonU reminiscc^nca 
I of an eje*witnM«, who may well, u trAilJttnn »*v<» have bcca 
St, Peter; fiflhly (* Vie (Jc Jc8U3/ Appendix), lh&; tbe evldeooe 
for the «utbcaticit\ of the Gospel of St- Jubn would be conviiKlDg 
to him if he could only ov^roo[n«> hi* repugnance to the div- 
courses of our Lord there n<con)ei). It must be rcmcmbermt 
that tht«G Gospels and Epistles came to this long critical trial 
in uaf|uesli(>Ded possession of (be ground for seveoieeti centuries, 
Tb<?y wrnr belirvc<l Uy Ijc wriltea by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and 
JobUf for the sAme ieasi>D that elMSsical books were helieve<l to 
be written bv the authors to whom they were reapcetivelv attri* 
butcd ; namely, becaose they w<>re s<> attributed, and no one had 
denied it The denial wns made, not in the interests of his- 
torical criticiamf hut in the inteiests of philosopbical theor>. 
Strauss and Bsur said mirncles cannot have happened; and 
thcrrfnri? they set thrrcii^'ivrs to rxplnin awav the cvidcnc* 
that ihi'y hud. l]ut wJib tliin rnoMiious prcbaiiiption of ui)<- 
nuestioned reception behimi the Ca^Mpe]* aud Kpiitlcs, the onut 
pitobantii was on ibe critics. Tlipy set th^mielies to disprove 
tbcir aathcntioiEv, am) by M. Renin's con£ession, thej have, at 
least in all important points, failed. UV quote M. Reoansimptv 
ai a convenient aud sufBcit-nl le^t of the coriclutivf-ness of the 
criricftt evidence, whicli has bevn AiJducrd ag;Linst tbe New 
Tevtameul Scnplutru. Wbntever die be mu/ he, he » a 
sceptic, and be is a man of the widcftl learning od this svhJocC; 
aad we are justified in saying, that Critical objections which 
aceni to him incflcctaal may be regarded lu having failed. But 
we hftve sliown in one of the articles we have rcfeired to in this 
'Rrvir'A'/ that stmiltr admissions are mnde even by repre* 
scnrativo (termsn crlLlcv of tbe KauonalUt Schotd. 

Wc think it neceunry Ut tmisl on this fmt |]oi»t to the 
Christian argument, as it is nnturiilly obscure) bv tboso wb<i 
would discreilit the evidence. PrL>fe4sor iluxley. in a recent 
Eisay, speaks of (he fjospels as 'documents of unknown date 
and of unknown autbcu-iJiJp/ As he allows himself in the same 
passage* Id aay, that the belief of Cbrtstinns in a miracle attested 

* ■ Tlifl NEaetcoDib Cental^,' Nonnalvr 1SST« p. 091 
VoMG7-— JW).W4- u by 


JMiri Eismert and ChriMianittf, 

by ihcie documenU is immoral, we sbmll not «CTuple O viy, iliftC 
«icU A di-'stcnimon of tbe Gmpols, hy tk vftW^i who at all crrnt* 
has AttcniJcfl «ulTtritml1y lt\ tbr iiilrjr<^ l<i (Im^tu litiiiMrlf riuallfi^ 
to lecture nitih'>p» and Divinca, ia noiliin^ kss ibnn immoral. 
W«* grmily rcgrcC to be ubiigrd to 'ppiy ■ sitiii)»r ubHr%-a<ii>n 
to lomo r»c«nC «tat«mont«, by Mr- Jualic* StrpbiMi, in thi^ iam« 
magAxirMt* W<^ irnnnot, indiwrl, mentian tbc Dnmn of Mr Jmuce 
Stephen in tliis connectidu without Myirij?, thnt th<^ part li« 
tikei ill ibit cotiiroveny \% a jrrave abuse of bi^ |>o»tion as ft 
Juilge. It U n rrnt^nij^Rtl r»n*rqur-iicfr of n Juilgti'ft p<»ftiti<)n. 
ihai be should abstain from speaking or acting to the prcjadicr 
of CAUbUsbctl inttitutinn*. But 9» long, at nil cvcnU, a* \hm 
CbarcK at e*tabli«h«d, Cbntttanity i< tbit Minbltftbect religion n/ 
th^r c«)untry. Juiticn, in partiruUr, ia Arlmiaiftt<rre<l uri<ler itt 
espreM aulliorttv, and when Mr. Justice Slrphcn aclminittm 
oaihii in Court, hv la ^tppcaUng to the »ancliuns of the religiou 
wbtcli prrbups he hft« bimsrtl l>rpn umJcrtuining, by onp ol tli 
articles, Ju the miud of the witiK^a* b«fi>re Lim, That ibesc 
attaclci upon our religion, moreover, should ht mode publtdy 
by a person holding thi* ^'real olHoc of a Judge is a circumsUorr^ 
which cannot but gravely, and unfairly, prejudice the popokr 
mind. Mr> Justice ^epben cannot puhlicly en^a;;e in lbi« 
controversy tu a mt-ro individunl, exrrltrg no oth<-r infloeiice 
4ian that of his arj^umrnts. \iy large clnisca in the commuatlv 
he canuot but be rt-^&rUi-d u» speiikiug us ;» Judge, uhI be tluii 
throws into the scnic the weight antl authority of ah oflic«, witb 
which he was tnv^stml for rnitsi refiponsiblr duties of ad entirely 
distinct nature. If he feels too stran^ty on the subject to br 
able to refltraio bis pen, let bim wrile, as htf has written befofr. 
and as be has abundant opportunities of dntng, anonymously. 
Above all, when be writes with his name and official title, hf 
might be c-ippE-tnl to expUiu tlie state of the cxiutroversy wil& 
ju^licial Smpcu-tiftlity, and not inuko such atatementa as tba fol- 
lowing, in thcr far** of tudi adtnlstions hy M- Kenan aa we harr 
quoted. He says in the article just referred to: — 

* Ara iiQt tLoieobseTTstioufi well fouudeJ? At tho very lowest, am 
lliiey not eoutinuallj ntoile ia gooU fidth hy coin|wti9tit perKius ?'...■ 

' It IB vhclly uncertain who woro snthora of tiio Gospels, and wfaip 
bhey mere «Frittt?n, Hatthow, Mark, ood Luke must have breu oitW 
oopiod, with lulilitii^irmaTirl rii oil ificiUrc-iuc, from osoh other, or froin aoav 
eulier oriffinal which lias Um^u lott. Th«tra ia nojnoof that tb* 
Gotpel of JohL waa urilt^-u by John the A])oat]e, Tbare are to? 
Rood grouuda for thinking it w&« boU . . . ThA ilalOIDSHiPi %S iipi 
Goapok are thcToiere imtjurtitiod hcohroay.* 

OctoberI6$T, p. fl8!L 


Roiitrrt Eitmere and Chri$tiaMiiy. 


"W* r^nnnt refuse Mr. Jaitic« Stppb«ii tKi? chmrttcttiT of % 
ijwUnt pcrscn, or doubc bU gf>od failh : but we asieit that, 
in ripw of ibe atlmisiiiiJiH of learned Kt^ptit^l cnuct which wc 
horc (juatett, lhr*c obBvrv&tiona caanot be called ^ veil fouodnl ' ; 
thnr, CHI tbp cantnLTjrt no man who hns nct*t% to the beit criticuro 
of Fntiici--aLudGpriiinn^S lo say nothing of Englnnd, Ujuitilied in 
ignoring tW fnct tlmt llic balance oftb^^ b<rst jud|-tni^at, on critical 
^Jtind« nlcmr, nftrr a pro!ong***l and mrrcilpw fontt(irr-r*y, iit 
^€Cidpdl} JLgninittLem ; and for :i man in Mr. Justice Stephen's 
pntitinn to tw M^'ittfrring tlirm lirooflcnst i> !n<^2Ctuat>1e. Wt 
■ODco bearxl A venct^blf Judge asked, what bethought of a brother 
menibeT of the Beooh hAving contributed &r article to a 
iDAgaxinc upon a ourrcat cx>nlTOVur»j' — n Icgml oiK-, if w<r rightlj 
TVtnecaber, *l tlijnlc/saul the oM man, with t1j<.'gruTv emphnsu 
rtf former tnnnnrrii, ' thrtt it ik nn impipty.' Wlial hcwftuld h*ve 
«aid if tc lad been aated, what he tboujfht of n Jud^e publishing 
in a magaxioe ciplofled criticisms agnimt Chrittinnityf wt! will 
Dot try to imagine. Por the present, we will b^ ooQCent witb 
sajinCt that it is tinjudiciaL 

Ualrns, ID n word, further ^ocumeiiiarj evidence of a wbullv 
ttoexpe<liMlf nnd, wo may add, inconceivnblc kindt shouM <?cm« 
toli^t, tb(* ipcriJil iHi(i(*bMw(>«'n CfirivttAniry .iml itt nppnticnls, 
wbidi has mainly occupied the pcut fifty ycnrft, must be regarded 
OS brotight to a close. No Adequate evidence has been pro* 
^iocect to inv&lidate the unbroken tradition of the Church, 
rapcding tbe nutbonlicily of the bonkt of the New Testament, 
»* that tTftditiou existed, for in»tjkOCc, io thr dnyi of Cuicbius, 

tOo the ccmuiry, much bu been brougbt to light which con fir mit 
it; almoit erery new doenmeoiary discovery having brought 
ifttlditional confirmation to it, nnd hnring refuteil Mime confident 
AMumption nf negative enticiam. We are^ therefore, in postes- 
ilon of direct cootemportrv evidence to llie facts of the CbriatinQ 
flTfed, and ne have to c<m»k!cr only the srcrmd of th^ two 
<(ueationa wr propowc!; namely, whiftbcr thi> cvidcBcv is 
crrdiblc. It will Ixt oburrvod that, this boing the ease, we are 
practically brought bttck to the position from which PiJey 
atgued ; ami his arftumenl, so far as it goes, reAmunCft its 
(hftner signiftcanre and iiDportance. There is, he undertook 
10 show 

'tatiflfaetory erideneo, that many, profosfting tc be origiital witnef«cs 
<rf lht> OlirWtian mirHclr^, pAosod tboir \i'r<'n in luboim, dangers, and 
loiffcrittgt, rolnntnrity nndtTrcoii'^ in attontation of the nofHtiiutu wlitoih 
thbj delivered, and solely m consequenoo of their belief of those 
aooonnbt; and that th^^y alio nubmittcd, from tho mmo motiTfii^ to 
aew rolw of oondoot ; ' 

u d audi 



BohfTt Ehmert and Christianity, 

«iiJ, OR the othor hand : — 

'that tbere h not satUfikotory eTideDc^. that peraona proUoding to 
be on^nnl witncRE<fA f>f nny otlirr mtiiilnr uiifouIcK, Imvc aclod in tli9 
BBiao mauDer^ in atLt'fifaiiim of the aecouuts which thc'j' i]elJTerc<J, and 
•oldy in ooiieo4]uoaco of tlioir boliof of tho truth of tbooD lictsonnta^' 

These ar|>umont« will slilj hr- lo mnny minOc pcrfmlj 
ijecislvr, whr?ii f>nt'c; t}oubC hna been retuaveJ, a wc Iiavc 
czplAinril, rc»j)rrtin^ the jLUlhcncicit^ of documentary sources; 
and wbethor ihir ari;uix«nt bp or fw not auffK-ient to rnrrj' fbe 
whole ciuic, it poBBCAscs nt an; rntc » wcigbt am) imporiance 
which iliouM claim for it more attention thftn it bai of Utc 
reoeired. The facts wbich Fab-y marshiiU with such skill 
iTipccting ihr plain mader of fact testimony, borne at the co»t 
of ciUL'l HunVriii^T in the full light r»f tUv, by ibe fim preacbcra 
of Cbnstianity, nnd born<!, riot to ibconcs or opinion*, but to 
mAtt«*T> of exjwTienc^r aro at lemt unparalMi^d in the annaU of 
any oibcr religion ; and they do suffice to sustain the assumption 
to which Robert Eltimere objects, that the case if an iaoljktcd one. 
To auuine befi)reband that bi^caunL- a vait number of miraculous 
stories arc legendary, therefcrc all such stories are of llie same 
kiudf is one of those fuUacics uf hftstj' iceiteruluauuu nbicb are 
cbaractcnslie of our day, and which are peculiarly discreditable 
to an agp which boasts of its scientific virtues. This universal 
prtralence, at one time or another, of belief in the suprmMuml 
or miraculous is, ifidei?d» capable of being applied in exactly 
the iippiisite direction* If mafikind have bei^n so umvc^rsftlly 
prone to the belief, is it probatile that there was never any foanda-. 
lion foi il? If miraculous events and supernatural interpusition» 
bavo over takfrn pUcc^ it i« very conceivable that the human 
mind was so inipr^sied by tbern. ti% to be ready to surmise their 
occurrence at anv time* and to grneralize in favour of the mintcu- 
lous with the same hastiness with ubich modem sceptics and 
philosophers generalise again«t it. Hut if no such things ever 
occurred within the whole rnnge of human experience, it is 
somewhat diflicult to conceti'c, especially on the giounds of a 
philosophy of evolution, how they ever came to be thought of. 
But, however this may he, Paley's argument, even to those whodo 
not regartl tt as coneluiive, ought to l>e enough to show that the 
c%$c of Cbrifilianity is a unioue one, and that the vague pre- 
sumptions sji:aiiist the miraculous, of which Mrs. Ward t heroes 
mnke so much, are entirely beside the mark. WhotbDr the teiti- 
mony bcaufiicientto bAr ihe weight of the cattraordiuary event* 
which it id leges is a farther que«t[on ; hut that it is not to bo 
explained away by the general tendency nf the human mind, at 


JM&rt Etsmen 4Utd CkrUii<ihitf/, 



;bat time ot aX otbert, to iniag{it« wfa«t it lup^rnntunl, ought 
to be brrond qur^ttnn* 

For the purpose, howewr, of giving thi* Ccttimnn^ tt« full 

freight ;tt th(! pr^»c-nl iIei^', it hnx pi^rhnps b«^€omc deiirnblc to 

bring iniu pmitiinrnco mmv furttrr, mid ut the tuuiif limi-, simpler 

constdcrnUoD*, ibaa thov? which w<^Tr chinfl^ luitril to Palcy'« 

M^4 Wt* Ttipr in thp inhfTvnf. mornl valne of i\i*> tt^stimony of 

thf? trvaDireliacs aiiU Apotile*. W'v htkvc not in view, for this 

purpose, mcrrlj thost^ ^ncral mornl influencea of Christ und 

Cbristianit/, on which much atrfr^a hzia of Uie br^n often Ltiil. 

la a very ahic n^ncft of liampUiii Li*rtiir^t, prcnctL<^d in If^TT, 

PrebL-odATy Row ihrvw thr mtun weight of thv Cliri*tiau argu- 

nittDt upon th« tuprcmncy uf tb« cbamcter and influcmRe of 

our Lora, a« illnilraled bj experienn* and hisiory, rombiapd 

with the ETent :trray of i*vidr^iir<^ vfhich rnn In* adtlurrd to the 

C&nJinsl mimcic of the KcsHrrrclion, Th^'ic moTal mirAclea, 

combined with the one ^rtat physical miracle, bointr roco^tnized, 

tbe series of minor miradca, recorded in the New TcttAtoeDr, 

£■11 into harmony wiih the cIrcumManoc* of tbo caae, and 

«equtre a crrodibiltty wbicb, under ih^ «eienttfkc iDflul^^ce■ of the 

present dar, they would ctherwise lack, Thete appears great 

"weight in tliit line of arifuinentj and it i« no iloubT ii^M-f^ialty 

appropriate to the time nnd pufpose for ivhicti it wns in(rndecl. 

It bai »tia5ed some mindi who feel (bat evideoce, which would 

aoC suflice to prove iniraculoua ocLzurrenm under onltnarjr 

^rcu instances, may well be noceptcd ru aulUcicnt when the cir* 

VDm«tanerH onn hp ihuwn indep*rndpnlly lo b** jrxtrAorilinnry. 

At the same liine we are disposed to thjuk it an argument of 

•oniewhat too elAhomtc and indirect a nature for the onlinary 

^rorking purpotes of Christian faith. Belief in Christ, in the 

foil meaning of the Chrikiian Creed, was not meant t<» depend, 

aoil never hni de|ieoilcd, in ilie catic of the great mutt of 

believers, upon ar|*umeikta which reuuire for their appre<:intio)i a 

^vride graap of reh^iniu and hictorir-il nbiipn'ation. We want 

VTidenee wbicb 'comes huoie io meo^s business aad bosoma,' 

ond which can be stateil in plain words, and in brief space. 

Moreover, after all, a general dclence of the credibility of the 
minculous stories is uot sutf^cient to meet the caw, it is of 
gnfaU value U* c^tMUU this general p^nftlbility of credence ; but 
«TAll vhen it hat bi?en cslahlithed, wo want reaaons far believing, 
not merely that such ihlngn migfit have takrn place, but thnl wc 
can ccmfideatlv accept the aceiiunts before us as triiamrorthy 
recordsof whatdid take place. ThediflTiciiUy maybe illuntrated 
bv pat(in|[^ the case in a form which, as we bavo shown, may now 
lie imted as purely hypothetical. Supposing It could hare 


Robert Elsmert ^nd Christianity 

hinsn kIiciwq hy criticltm tliat the (vu^puli were nll^ a* Bftnr 
would hfivp linfl it, d^Tond rrntnry rnmpo*itii»nfi wilh n potcmuui 
piiq>oftL% it utiulU ttiiU have been true, ns Mr. Ili>w's arfEumeDt 
cootrnds, tlint <^onHiilrmtionfi <jut(c inLlrjicnJcnt of ibU literary 
crJticiam proved tbe poMibilily ol ihc evangelical narnitivest>rm^ 
Uiu ; buL VIC think chat with impartiul mindt the groundi for bo- 
n«ring tboi<; nurr«tivv» to he not onl^ po»»i\>\y but nqtunllj truc^ 
wouM bfLVc been gnvvouvly w«*iklci<ne<l. It appears to u* to b# 
A perfecrly trgitimnie rlrmnnd^ from which (>hr!*l!nnn oiifrht not 
to shrink, thai the dlrocl evidence fL>r occurreacea of a mirpK uloas 
chamct^^r ought to bn of fnr grt^nlcr wrigbt Lhnn thftt which 1» 
sufficient lor provinp^ the occurrence of events witbin ordinary 
ejiperieiice. It it, indtiCKl, nt^ilher fair nor cusConuu'y to rei|uire 
vviilciice of legal strictneu to onlinHry hiatortcM events. Bui 
tb{<re is one rule of Ivgal evidence ot which the juitice Jn bi^ 
toricnl investigation aeems indiaputabte. It is that a witn<:s(*» 
evidence becomes doubtful in proportion a« it is out of harmony 
with ordinary human rxpcrirncc, and timt it mguires pmroiw 
tionate conx»bor&tion. lu the valuable discussion which Pro- 
fessur Grrenleuf, late of Harvard Univc^rsity, has prefixed t» his 
'Tcsiiiikou/ of iitf- Lvnogeliat4CxamiiKd by the rulc» of evidence 
aduuuistered in Courts of Jutlice,' he «ta1ei the rule In lb« 
JoUowing terms, with the ai^thoricy of na approved writer oo 
thfi Iaw of Evidence: — 

'Tbo credit duo to the tCGtimony of witncvncg donoiLtlit upon, 
firaUjt their honesty : seeotidij, Iheir ability ; thirdlyt iheir number 
and tlui <,H>aiiiKteiity of th<ur tvntJuxoity ; /tunthl^f ihn •■tmj'fttnit^ oj' 
ihnr tf^ttmonjf teith ^ijtm^ncf ; ntiil lif^Lly, tho uoincidonce of tlieir 
testimony with ooUftlB^ ebcuingtanccs/ 

Now the miraculous narratives in the Gospels are certainly 
oat of the raujcei not oul^ of any other recorded cxpt-ricnoe, but 
we may go further, am) fsy, that they arc Ijcyond the range of 
any recorded imaj-ination. We are uol sure, indeed, thai their 
veiy wonder in this ropuct is not n stmng nrgument in tbcir 
favuur. It is nut merely tbot a few woiidcra are sprciaJly 
<)escTil>ed, ns i< the t-nte in cirdinary legends. Itut a pennn 
it d«»cri1>ed as moviog throujjh tick and afllicted multltudefi, 
aad dis|)eimn[; health, lifl^, and soun<lness of body and mind, at 
every step. The very touch of his garment is physical life, and 
hit word is spiritual regeneration. It might almost be con* 
tended that such a vision auihentimtes ilfelf; for ic is h^yond 
tho droams of mere human hupc and imagioation- However, lo 
p«ks« thii by, it is, we think, pcrivcxly im^ that such a mass of 
miiaculous manifestAtions as are recorded in the Gospels — nad 
acictnpts to minimixc tbetn arc mere erasioDa — requires testi* 


^inony unique in lU characti*r and weiirlit. Forftor part we are 
not diipoMrd lo que«Uou t^vt^ti Huiih<'» *ut4;mr!nt of th^ rcquin?* 
invent — that the Iciltmnnv to ctUbliah luch mir^lcs ihoLild be 
of Buch A chamctei tbac il» falseliood wiKiId be tnort- iiunLCuli>iu 
^^faan the miracles it aeicku. At nil crcnU, wc arc qoitc con* 
Vfidant that lh« ChrUti''in 4*viJ«iic0 will b«<aT tlu* tiMt ; aod tliaro 
U, «^ think, littlf^dilTtciilt/ in iMtplainin^ ih«T ri^aoo, 

Thii Tcb5oa lie* aimpl.v la the fact, that there nerer har^ h^M 
writers wbo pnHlun^ oti fair minds such an intrrnfic imptrsuiin 
iif true lit ulnms, tooi»)nr»«, itrnpticitr, and moral force aa the 
Kv-an{^lia;s and ihe Apostolic trritr^rs. Hen?, in the firrt 
plnofr, «rc four wjlacurA stAntling up in th<7 fn^rt of th^; world, 
and telling iubttaiitisl Ijr the «am« atorj; wilb Th« moH p(?rf4<ct 
qDitHnrat, siiletnnitjr, and confidf^nre; rrcoTYlmi; wnrtU which 
would pronounce the mo«t awful comkmnation on tbero- 
selves for any deviaiion fmm truth, ending ivjtfi ihr narrative 
of \hc m«*r nffrfl'img »clf-»;icri6cc in the cause of irulli and 
TighteousireM tvhicTi is inuwu to maiUtind. The four Gospels 
ve ih conccatrAtc<l blue of morol ^^gbt, by which the beftTC 
of man hoi been iljumirin1«d «*v«r tinrt*. Th^y exhibit, nt 
X\ie aamr timc» wherever they can bo tealed. minute accuracy 
of obtturv.iLion with respect to the ordinary circoinitaiftcei 
of lif<% Aocl an abienre of any si^n of mental eici^emcQt 
or diaturbanca Wc do not beaitatc to say, that it would be 
SDEUcthit^r luore wopderful than ihe tnirncJe* theuivelvi-k ihxt 
sneh cviJcDcc— the Urstimony from tucb wiii»ca«ca — thocild be 
inffn* li^f^pndnry iTnn>(inAlion^ Or lakf? a^in the* cave of Sl 
Paul, it i« aignifioiLnl that it is found ctscolial to any arga- 
ment like that of Mra, Want lo diipara]L:e St. Piula mental 

■ CApocity. Of cotintc his emlmce m ihc Ke^urrection is of 
peculiar ireifEht. He was in ttie confidenoeof the Jewish nilera 
in the days wl>cn he pcrsci:atf<d the Churc:h, and knrw therefore 
the full ctrcnKtli of the can- which they could ur|-e a^iriat the 
Rr^qnrTccUon, and nerrtlbpl™ ljr dpvoird bin lifi? U> a Iwllef in 
Christ which retted on i:. His acknowledffcd Lpistica, moreover, 
ftflbnl direct ducumfiilar} etidrnce nt limt h:iEid to die occur- 
rence, and even the prevalence, of miraculous powers in tlie 
early Church — the pi'evalencp of such powers to such an extent 
aa to bo liabk ti> ftbusc, and to ncrxl, as in the case of the 
Corinthiatis, mlraint and TVpreii«ion. It b^H^omoo neoeaeary, 
thf^rpfon*. In di^crnlit him an -i wiinns; ^n^l nrrnrdinsly the 

» Squire is Jeicribed as furoisliinir Kobcrt lilsmer^' with * A short 
bat EDastcrly analysis of the menial liabits and idiosynrrasies of 
St. Haul, <l /^rjpJJ of ^t, Paul's witness to the rcBurn-clion.* He 
is depicted as 'The fiery, fallible man of genios, — to weak 
^L ^^^^^L logically' 

Bobcrt Eltmere and Cliriitianity* 

logically, Sf7 strong in poetrv, in rhetoric, in mornl pnssion* — 
tK sort of Hubert Elsinvre, in Cnci, aeuorUiiig to tbe l>i^»c cumtruc- 
lion wbkli c»n ha put on Mf», Wmir* portrniiurc. We confess 
we o»nnot deccend to tbe im]i?rtiii(Tnc« of d^rrndiag Si. Paul 
Ag^imt this tuperfinr^cniicUin of (icrman rrofcftsorainf adninlj 
Enj^liili mati of ietttra like Mr, MitUUew ArnuM, aad t>f a lsd> 
wlio mt:nfturcs liurnnn naturt? \iy thr siantUnl of tlji: late Pn>fe»or 
Green. St, Paul had bcllcr be left to describe himsdf. 

■" Wliereiiia^itiver/" be wiva, '' auy iit bold, (1 ipjftk fnolittldv,) I un 
boM nXsit, Aro tUujr HobruwH? iii> am I, Are tlio/ larju-hiHjs P ao 
ftm 1. Are tbo7 tho eriril nf Ahrjili'Uii v so am I, Am thffj TniniolAni 
of Christ? (I flpcak hh n fi>iJ) I Am more; in ]alx)ur« moM 
ftbuntlanl, in etripen nb^vo mcJiHUro, in prinons racro froi^nent, in 
iWtb»i ofL. Of Ibt) JewK livu tiitJUH ruceivtKl I furtj bt.ri|wH Kuve cue. 
Thrtce xvas I bt^toa wtlL riiilFi« oekio waa I ttonoil, thrioo 1 iiuffvrod 
^jtUpwret-'k, a ni^bt bdcI a duy I bnrc beuu iu tba Ut-i^p : in jo(inioyiDg> 
oftOD} in pcTiU of watcrp, iu perils of robbora, in perils by tniue own 
coantryuen, iu p«rilA by tbo btatbCD, in puriln in tbo wdd^nitiHi, 
io pcriU iti tlio MCA, in jivrda nmuiig f-ilhO brotlironi m ^«4riiiciM 
nnd niinfnlneHi, in wntphingn ofton, in Ijiin^.r nn^l Ihimt, in fmitingH 
ofbeo, in cold aud mtkedoefiA. Beftidu tboatj Lliiu|>H tbut uru vritbout, 
thjbt wbicb oomcilh upon tno dnily, tho euro of nil tho obiirelie«- 
Who is wcbIc, and I am iioi weak y who iu olfoudtid, aad I bum not ? " ' 
(2Cor-xi, Ul-29.1 

Or Again : — 

< In oil Uiiuga approving oorBcIvod na Uio miDintora of God, in 
much pntienoe, io AllTictioTiA, in neu«6Atti«<ft, lu diiitre»Bc«. in utripM, 
in iiupriacimnOQU, in tumultK, in Inbourn, in wfttcbiDgr;^ in fii«liDgfl ; 
\g pnrcneBs, by knowkdgc, by kiog-su Soring^ by kiudoi-'HB, by llio 
Iluljr Qbofit, bj lovu uufuif^Bcd. by tbc woni ttf trntb, by tbo power 
of Grd, by die ariaour of nglitt^uuHiicAB on tlio ngbt band and on tb« 
left 'C^ Cur. Ti. 4-7). 

A inAn of genius cnrtainly ; l^it thii appeal, in tlip fne^ ol 
tbooe who knew bim well^ !o iiis pbysIcAl eaduraner, tlrrngth 
of mint], :ind moral famn i« more than sufficient answer to 
critics wbo would disparage bim as aa exeiuble enthustut. 
Tbis is a f|Ui?9tion to which tbc maiim eminently applies 
* Sccurm judical orbi» tcrrarum/ It i» vufTtcicut to leave th« 
WorM to jud}*e between St, Paul on ibe one hand, and the 
tynicnl critic or tlic Belf'Satiufied man of letters on tbe otber. 
Of tbc vnrioufi ioi pertinencies per|>elr4ted by tbc late Mr. 
Matthew Arnold, one of the worst waa his cool asiuntption 
of superiority to 8t. Paul, and tbc coatidence with which he 
subjected the Apo4tIe*« c{>mpr>vittoos to a eondcsrendini; rnti<- 
eiun, nnd told bim witb a lK-»ii;iiant atr uf [uCrunafei.' buw 
h^ had failed Io do ju«ttec to his own argumeni*, and tbai 


lUAefi JCUauTV and Chri$tiamtjf. 


rhat the g<Mcl mAa reftllv me«nt tf> tav W4» so-and-io. Thr 
iple fact of tlic cMi? U that ivhilc picn And women are 
oritici/itii; ^t. E'aqI, or palronuin^ him, or difipara^inj; birfit 
iir ^oc» on Celling the wc>rl<t hit own wiinr^tjc in tiit own 
words; anf) tho«o wbo have trAra Ut hear, let tticro bcAf hitn. 
In puiut of fact, thej ilo h*?ar bim, to^ihvr wiib bi« f^How- 
wiutcisrs in lbc> GospcU and EpifttLea. To tbs end of time 
Cber« will be minds which no itsttiminy ivill nanrince. Von 
CanAOC turn probable cridcnci; inttj demon «t rati re. But in 
all ^ffct, ind in our own as tcucb as in any urber, ibe cai^ 
diutU PTi<l<Tiii:i? lor (he? truib at tbc Go»pvJ stor}~, and the chief 
«iippi>rt tm nhicb it rcsls, arc fuund in tlic orvrwht^lming acntc 
of trulb, of vc?f4oty, of nprtainly, produrrd by ibi* tlmpln teuli* 
monj of iho Evangctiala anti Apo»tl*^», The New Testament 
lain fact iuown cvid<?nc>(-, and it fon^ca rre^bmrc? from true? and 
ODprejudicrd minds by its own inherent power. There An% 
amd it is to be feared iben- always will be, some minds whic^h 
arc dosed eiib4'r by intHlri^tuftl or rnornl prPC<"nrrptioi;s ng^iitit 
its IikUu Hut it rrsts seuuroly im tb^.* apprul of its gT4Tat Aathor: 
* If I siiy ihn trmh, why do jr not b**lipvi» M*»^' 

In fact, as we have abvndy ntitiLTd, it is ICliinerc'a weakened 
-sense of the per»onnl suprnniu^y of mir LoH which is the dtci- 
aire element in his lapie, and Mr^. Ward isclesr-tii^hted enough 
to brin; this point out with n^markahk* U>rcc In the chapter 
licaded 'Crisis/ Llsiii<;re'a dcciiioa is pi4Tci|iitalcd by a con- 
"wcraiition in which an eotbuaiastic young Koman Cathi>li« 
Aiaintains ■ veli'^inent argument in defi^nre of the Chnarian 
Xutli with tiic Squire, and he ii slarih-d, on reHcrtion, to find 
bovr litile aympulhy be had fdt widi the Christian argument: — 

' Thwi grsdnaUy it hocarae clear to bim. A month ago evcTj word 
^f thai beoUo youu^' plca^ur for Christ and tli« Chrifttiim ocrtai&tics 
^voiild Lava nHiJwd nitlait him a loafiliig, p«iMioiiibtu tyiupAtliy — the 
ftM*rfa yoaroiDg osstitkt, ctoh when ilio intc-tloct Koa most porpTaaDSiL 
How that iJtiDUSt btraud bsd fiftii way. Snddvidy, the diaiiitei;Ta^n|i 
fono bo had bevu r<t pitjfully, f»> Miiiily, holding at hsy, had p^no- 
tnted mice for all intu tho aanctuary. Whftt liaii hspponod to him 
Ittd boos tba firiht real failiin: of jf-rMn^/^ the 6r«t troiwbcr/ of tba 
Jttart . . . Hia aonl bad bot^n dt-ud wiibm bim/ 

The italics are ibe autburV and they are significant. Eltmei* 
b«a loti, or has nwer pouicasrxl in suHicicnE imrc^, tbo sonaa of 
1h^ [ini<jiir nirrTidcncy of i>ur Lord oier the heart as well as the 
imeUect, and (be )>ersonFkl auihoriir on which faith ultimately 
rests it ^nr. ' Kvery human soul/ be says to himself after- 
wsr<]ft,*in which the voice of Ciod makes itsclJ felt, enjoj*, 
ftjuall; with Jesus of ISuzsrcth, the dirinc Sonship, and 


Bohffri Jiitmert ami Chri^anity. 

'*mir^tcief Jo not A<»/ij«n/""— above at], th^re has n^ver hwn- 
ihe iBoraL miracle of one in human Ibnn, irrt fmm tbe monil 
wcjikneu ami lh« faltibilUv of mankiDfl. So, ai he v^lks hoar 
hy flight Irom hi^ vUil to Oxl'i>nl to M'ek juIvi^t tmm Mr. Greyi 
or ruUi«r ttuppori in tbe <ln:i!»ii)ii lie has made, tbo M>i»tcr, W 
wbom he Inrmcr]^' rendered the Wmoj^ and bbftolute «ub- 
ininti>n of aa impi^rrert humftn hftng to hi» I^rrl and Oad, 
^ movrn tnwnrri* him in the ^mw «f earamoii mnnhood, liwleil 
like his folloiTG ivilh the pathetic n-ei(>ht of hiiman vrrAkne«a and 
human igmirjuict*," 'Iln^u' 1% the koy t-i the whole atori- nnH !& 
the whole controversy- With ts\Qx] clcnme«snf view, Mrs, VV»nl 
has tleM-xibed It as tb« artmrl of Culberiiir'a fttjtb, that nothing 
can ibak^i h«r nbiolate altvgianco and wombip towuxls K«t 
Idaaler. When a man can be brought to ihink that Jrtai 
Chriit ' hail hia ilreamtt, hi« drluslnnjt, with hia fcMowt,' and tbit 
St, Paul was no more than 'a talUblc man of ^niua,' tad 
' Icrgit-ally weak/ the foundations of hifl faith in CtinuianitT M 
gone. But aa long aa men and women arc awed into tubminioor 
lore, and truvl^ bj that Divine voice, irdvced to lay tbelr baad^ 
upon lb<?ir moutha in thnt anpreme Pr^«en<M!-, C4>n«eiou« tn (bes* 
aelvei of :i !itfifulm'ftt. x wenlcfieis and ignorance, under whidw 
hut (or His ^rariou* invitation, th<*r would hanlly dare ttft uf 
their eyea 1*^ Him^ rnjcb less oriticisM', or, worst of all, Aittjat 
a capacity to approve Him — at hin^ aa that Sacred V'tpi^ 
standi before ua in living lineaments in the Gospels, while ili> 
Aptntlei, in Kpi»t1oa which are instinct in every line with ttaifc 
nnd t^jhrmofiv, hi*9T ibf'Ir aolr^mn leUimnny to Mim, sn loif 
ivill the Christian faith live and ^row. If critics and utptJO 
raise objeciians, it is the doty of Christian apolngisU to ot' 
answers and oxplanattoDs. fiut it is the GoftpeU tberopd"* 
which in the etui rel'ute the crilirs, and the testimony of tb« 
Apoilles wins the virrdiet of the world by its own inlktf^^ 
WFi^^lit. The object of ChristioLn apuhrgists should be chif^T 
Tn Temnvr diflicTulii*** ivhJrb pre%-pnl ibete nrilneiue^ ohEainiaf * 
h(!art[iif, or which prejudice theJr teslimony. If HlsmeVf bw 
consuUcd his wife in time, she could, after all, hsvc gives bim 
the very help he needed. She might have revived in bia hwJ* 
the submissive atlej^iance du« to her Master and bis, and bAtv 
quickened hi» aniise of the intcnae muial and spiiilual claiai ^ 
Sl Paul und his fcUon'-witnesaos. 

It remnini in tay Sfimething of the 'new religioHt' thr 
recoDstiucted faith, which Klsmerc is represaented as eDdcaroor* 
ing tt> substitute in the place of the old Faith. If iudevd, the 
attempted demolition be vain, it is in one sense vaste of time 
to consider the prnprKcd substitute. But snme brief consldrne 


tian of It may be voitb while, » wrrving to illitstrato farther tbc 
essentiikl bollowness of tfac whcite procpfls of thought wbicti it 
cxbiUi(«(i wiih ludi w-lf-carifiUtrtice. Very few ■tbiervaijuni upon 
it, bo»"<sv*r, n-ill br n<-cp».iT}'. The Tint In ihat thrre U not 
A miogUi tE<>o*'l object |)n>|iosc-J bj- tli<.- N^^vr Divtti^rbifud whicb 
could not be, mod which ifl not, attained by tb« ChrUtiAn 
ChtiTcb. Ebaierea pergonal clerolioa to the mcirnl wclfArA and 
eler&tion of tlie artiiuif ol ihe K^t Knd U admirable. But it 
uexbit>ited errrj <tay by ChrUliao cler|rymen ; aad the mjtin 
(ttffereDce i», that (he Church Iias pruduccil remits, agntn tind 
agftia, tuch Its ate imagined In KUrnrrr's <a3e, and is proiiucing 
tbem ot tbU momrnt; while no BimUar rciuJts hare been 
produceil b^ any othiir igoitcr. So lar aa \}w inituence *>( this 
book giwft, it vrouLd break the tprinjfv of the? cbarilAhle devolinn 
by irliicb th^r darkest plarct ol ilir Crirtb, at home and nbroad, 
aie actuftltjr bcin;^ illaminated and purtfied, and It ofFem us 
aotJiing in cx<:Iiang<* which ha» a re^al eitistcncr, ^ HfUa qm 
yiaeuit nu/itM /laffitura tnum^Of./ Create a acw Drutbeirhoudy 
if jrou plcaae, b««c«l on a reennatructed Chrivtiantty, and ahov 
il to \>* at work, ana y-o\i will hnvf lumc* rijfht to atlc mett 
to lixtrn to ^-ou. Hut it i», after all, a rreblcM levtty wbidi 
diOes it« worst to cut at the roots of the be&t re!i;>ioua life of tbe 
world — the life of womea like Catberioc KUinere, Utr exutuple — 
uid can offer nothing in exchnngt; but a mrrr romance?. If anjr 
one warita to catatlisli a nvw relj^iuti, let him w;tufiUj catabUsU 
iC That ]» tbc only rcoaonabtc way of supplanting the old — 
the only way t^niiftlrut wrtli a due tente of the bleHKtni^'« con- 
ferred by the old one on feeble and suffering bximRniry, if 
Clatacre a brotherhood were a livtn;* force, thertr iiii)*LL be some 
jtutificntioa for this bijok. A« it i% not — there may be rxcuses- 
fbr the lady who writes it — but justification there is none. 

But it muni futther be ubaervcHl that the principles and 
practices of the dow brotherhood or* thvinurlvoa, in an cx- 
iravftganl degref?, of thit unhisTor!c!a1 and arbitrary character 
which the aatborrss would attribute to Christianity. In the 
ucw faiibf we are told (voI« iii. p. 359)* there are only two 

' In tboe, O Ktemal, hsTU I put my trusty* 

* Thin do in r*im«inhrannrt of \XtC 

So that out of the wLoIr mavt of our Lord'^ sayinfrt reeotd^ 

h Ae Gospelst the words* * Tbit do in rcmrmt>r^nce of M«t' an 

Hecied as the di&dnctivc srticle of the new faith ; for the only* 

agaiAcance of the lintc ' article' eomists in its bein^ severed 

Jntm its foundations in the Jewish and Christian revelations* 


Jiakfri Kismere and CimHianitif, 

To fvbftt tmrpofte, inoreovcrr, ii this >ftying apptlftd? M^e ar^ 
told that ic is u«cd in * what is perhaps the most charactcfutlc. 
the irrosi bm<Im^ pructice of the New Drotherhotxl. It u tliat 
wliich hu rftiicil [iKitt nit^rj" cvmincnt, crira of ** pri>fitnity," 
"wantun inBlill," Aiiil what noE,' An nxrimplfi ii f^tvcn \n tbc 
nmn<<ivhirh fnllnn'H. On^^oJ' KUmf*rr\p|iu»f Euppciric*r« ic rolling 
on a memlwT of the BrottierWx), who is a otrperiter. TtiU 
innn nnd liU famil}' nm sUmling at thnir diQDfr table^ about li> 
commence the meal : — 

' Tlio frttlcr lifted hie right hand, 

'Tho ohiMi>» Bto»pHd lor Rmooioat ill ailenoo, tbcn tba 
sniil sloivly, in a littb softened ct^olnuiy voice, that tOQChcd IDA 
onliuarily, *^Jtsu^ ivn rftitemhrr TJte< alwny$" 

' it wng tbo tppoilltod r<;BX»ODBC>' 

Now apart Irom tbe question of 'profanity/ what it i« moti 
pertinent to ask is, Wbat foundmion th^^r^ is for prracribtaf 
4lich a practice nnd th(? u»c ol' ihrftfr Wi>rd> for tuoti a jKirpoi*? 
The only evidence wp have of our Lord having »aid 'Thia d« 
in remembrance of Me^ icalifies lo His having tis^d ttie wonbH 
tlie sequel of others; and these others describe what was to te 
done in rcmembranrc «f Him. If ihfre hr one ix^cord of «T 
Lord's acts and sayings in the Gotpels which b^ an esp«ii' 
fltirn|!;th of nti<-staiioi)> it ts the ac4^ouni of the institution »f ^ 
L,A%\ Supper. In rhal ncount tiic words 'This do in rcaKi<~ 
hrsnco ot Mc' rcfvr to the aulrmn distribution of br^ad uA 
wine for the purjioic of communion with His bodj and bl<Hdi 
and the cup is sUtird to be ' the New Testiment ' or ouivnotf 
in His bInoO. The whnic tmninriinn, in its Colalitjr, liat V 
only the attestation of Ihree evangelists to support il, but ^ 
dirircL tcstimoTir of Sl Paul, and the unttucuionable vaiA 
unbroken practice of the ChiiAiian Church Irom the «ailiei< 
times. What we W4>uld ask is, not only whethi-r it be nil 
profane, but whether it be consistent with eommflo senae, C* 
stiy nothing of cnmmon crttioiiin and <ronanioct canons ofbtf" 
toTJcn! evidence, to select arbitrnrily half-a-doxen words ovl *f 
a fullv aitraRtl record iif this kiud, AtuX lo apply ibem to s 
purpi>«r am) in a manner which iit destitute of a aliadoK ■>! 
suppijrc, dithiT in the records or (he pmclice of the Chfi»U>n 
communitv? A mjin he^ins n Ro-rnlird n^formaiion in ihf 
nomr of History aiid Criticism, and ends by *rea>nceiviojt tbr 
Christ,* as it is presiirnptuoush' called, in defiance of the (SK 
uu>%i nuth4-nttc and moat solemn rominiscence of the Christ ot 
historj'. Does any one nut of a novi^l supjiote, tliat arbitrsrr 
rcoonst ructions *>i tbi* kind would atnnd fur a uiouient in tb* 

RtAert £iamert and Christianity, 



lljrht o( reality, anil of the rrni DccTHitirs of life? If tbo 
procmlinj; bn not profane, it can only be excused as childUb. 

But if ihe proposed nrw FrtUh ouulws any receni attempt «f 
lh« kind in in •nrhitrnry violrncr u* histor}- and criticism, it is 
ft« iitjjx/lenl iM any propt^ned kub^cStuEv for Cbnstiuxuiy in tb« 
presence of those grcnt problctDs »f death nod a futnrc Jifi;, sn<i 
of d^UTeTAncf* frorn «Ttl, on which lh« Ctiritt »f reality hni 
thrown so btcui-tl n lieiht. Circy is described tu unable to 
mpond oTi his ilcalh-bei) to the pious bope of an old relative 
tbnt it wi>titd not be Im^' bf^fonr tti«*y mtri a^in, saving he did 
not doubt Omt's griodncis, * only it seemed to br H'n nill we 
sliuuld br i:vri»iii of niHbin^ Ifut Hitn^tf. 1 ask nt> more.' 
At Orcy's funcml, as Eisinvrft liitrni to * tho triumphant out- 
bursts of the Christian tervice, be says (o bimielf, "Mnn^ hope 
has grown humbler ibati thtv. It keep* now a more motUal 
mien in the preeence of the eternal mvalery ; but is it in tmlb 
less r<fa], lest sustaining? Let Cirey's iruit answer f^r me.'" 
What a iMthotI From \\\t fifteenth chapter of the lurst 
EpisUc to thn CWiathians, and St. Faul, and the promisea of 
M Saviour — to * Grey's trust.' [t is s trntlsocholy eomnent on 
Uw same hollowneia that, nt the denih-bed of ihi^ Scjuire, who is 
pasting away in bitlerne**, lonrlinrss nnd cyniciim, Elsmcrc — 
the former clergyman of bis pariah — ^h&s net one word of con- 
solation, of elevation, ot moral inlluenoe to hfstow upon him< 
His abandonment of the Christian Faiib bad brought hitn lo 
lliis — that b« can allow a man whom Grey biinsctf deocnbes a* 
an ' inhuman old cynic' to pans into the next world without n 
single uiesxaf^ to bis conscience, a single sugi^tiiin of repen- 
tance, regret, humility or hopri A darker condemnation of 
ibe procen through wbicb Blsmere had paued could not well 
be conceived. But in truth, tlirnughout the record of Klftuiere's 
nllglcua sirugglea or of his religious reccn si ruction, ihei'v is 
aott aa Mr< Gladstene bas ebaerred. a truce of any appn^hetisioo 
of that lerrihl't problem of «m, and guilt, nnd llieir rnnsp^ 
rjoencf^ to which Christianity brings Its primarji illumiiiationv 
aiMJ no its answer to which its deepest elaimt upon sinning aa 
well aa suilering humanity sre bssed. While that sense of sin, 
that CTttving for forgiveness and salvation from eril, tkial longing 
for reouucilialioii with a ri^ht<'uu» God, to which tbv Gos^rvl up- 
pcalS| rcEnnin elemrots of the dcepcyt human experience, so lung^ 
will a philosophical faith which has not a word to say on these 
bjects be a mere mockery of human hcftrti and consciences, 
Ooe other observation we must need* make on a point in 
hich, IS in several othert, the authoress** nrtiitic fidelity of 
obacrvation has supplied a striking comment on her theories. 


JM/eri Jilfmere and Cftri^titXitHy, 

In the piciuro she hu dmwn of tbc soobty in which KUmciv 
movf^, »he luis UDConscioual/ loM us that alt the tmih, all ihe 
puntv, nil ihr tm-^rcy, all the best gractrs (>r (h« hosit nre to be 
found in ChriaiiaTi botnc*— Grey* choTBctcTt thr onir &pp«rmt 
vxct-ptioti, vrta foriun] undrr Mruufc ChrUtUti influroccB — sad 
th»t lh(* »oci4itj' in whidi iho i^noinio* of th« failh rtv ntmad 
hftG its tru^ rrprpftrnUttVf*s in « heart1i>«s iind cjDical Squir«» 
an unuiADncd Acbolar, ft profligate woman of tlic worht, nnil in 
saitms held uuder b*?r protection, wbeie a pure-miiidod woduo 
Uk« Catbrrinr i-nnnnt be pr<!«rnt witltuut hc^ihiig convenatiun 
wbicb 19 &□ inauU to her. *Oh! thotc wnmcn and that talkt' 
she justly PXcUitns, after h«T first cvenmj^ with Madame de 
NVu#Yi11«> — *h»t<*fun' - Sh» 11 right; and if FJam«*n» vfiktd 
attend such a snlnn a xrcorid time, and he intereftiM] and 
flattrrrd by association with auch ciratnreB, he (nlly deserved 
the in»ixh which hf- ^fierwards suffered at Madame de 
N^t«viJlc's bands. Hut is to be hopt^d ibst, in the emphasis 
-which it ^ivca to this couiiasc beiwewn the Christian Ufr o( 
Catherine's fntnily in WcstmorcUnilt snd the inhamnnity Slid 
profltf^cy of the society lo th» fedurlions of whiHi EUm^ra'i 
faith yields, the book m»y convey to the Uree rjnde* by whidi 
it has been read at least one wboleiome lesson. Tlie I'ttat 
§ctms to have come when |woplrt who wish to live Chnstian 
lives, and to maintTtin Christian thoj^hes>tnott hold themselrtf 
alcjuf (tvm a aucietv in nbich^ as Airs, Ward suyi, ' eiverythin^ 
is an open qooation, and all ronrcisions of fnilh arc morr or 
less hod taite/ Life at ifie Univ^rnLtiei for younff ni^, liCe Id 
onlinary society for young women, seems fast becoming, ondtr 
the intluenro of an un«erjpulous philoiopfay atid lilentture, tiw 
mitchif^touf or dangeruui to he encountemd wiihout necc*iitj. 
The Christian world will have to drunr a fence around itself, 
and to o»tnu:i£e book», and phlliMonhcrs, and institutions alike* 
by which the bloom is taken off all die moat gneious and 
tefidt^r initincfs of n Chri&ii:iii *cml. The victory in thin Ufloy, 
to our minds, remains with Catherine. She wins all the raon) 
rejcard by viflue of the tender womanly love which rettnuni 
Ler in her ton^ straggle ngainit her husband's mvolt,aDd whkk 
bopn all ibinira oi his present and bis future. But bei- in- 
alinctive revulsinn from men who arc * aliens from the twute- 
bold of faitli, «n<«mie4 tn the Cross of Chri»t,' her distrust of an 
unbriJIed passion t'nr art and aniKtie seU-asiertion, and her 
lo«ithingfora loose anti nnwonmnly &ocietT, command our unre- 
served allegiance, and sliie remains llie one redeeming; figure tfl 
the picture of an otherwise demoralized and demoralizing society. 

( 303 ) 

Lkt. II. — i. CcrmpoNdatct of Danitl <TC«fhnelUths Liheralor. 
lulited, witb noiic«s of bit Life and Tioiei, b^ \V. J. V\iz* 
p^rick. 2 Vols. LunJon, 18»8, 
. Life of Daniel O'CjnnM (The Suitrstc&n Series.) Uy 

yiHiP^ Irttandt Bjr Sir Cborlrs GftVnn DuiTy. Looilon, 

IN O'Coanell we bnve the only man oi great hittoric auinre 
wlio4« caiF«ra»<J cbuT&<:t«riuurkbiiu uut 4» <UiiUiict1y Irimb, 
Barko WK« A gr4?ntcr btaUrfimnn^ aii<) cxcrcdwrcl no incuniid^mblo 
itiBnirnrif! on Irub afi}iiri; but altbuii^b wi? iiiiiy trtrr n CVItii! 
stiain la some 4*f btt brilHant qiMlilir* Aiid in many of bis de- 
fects, be Cftsnot be identified wilb any one of the aaiiood tvp» 
wbi<^ make up the* Urititb }it*»|>le. (irattAn WA» tbc Inib 
Norman, and was in many rctpccu more free from alf^na of 
UtcaX natlonaJily t1i*ii Burkr. Weltiaj^run, although his carlr 
reart of public \\(v wftro ditvotrd to Irish A^Airs, nev^-r In bis 
oiind or temperatniuit recalled the ordimiry charnrt^frifttics of 
ibe land o^ his btrih. 

We tril) not vnier iuto tbe qucation, vibetber (yCunnell ctiuld 
lain] any ancient Ohic Linea^i-, wlielhrr ibe rolunie of blood 
in hi^ ttrius was cLiirlly native Irish or p&rtook to any exieiit uf 
of English settlers viho for mvny generation* bad ii^cA 
lu the b#4^t iiAfUof \bmat4>r. Thi* fioint of inti>Ti^tt is (Jtai, 
an adherent of tlie old Irish faith, representing; what<^vrr may 
bave been bis family pretensions, a well-to-do middle clau 
tatber ib&n any aristocratic connection, he took tbe Eeadenbip 
of bit religious onmmuntty out of the bands of their hereditary 
chiefs, fuu^lil tbirir baltlt! with draiiislie «JT«rl, uud teacheU \i?r> 
asnrly the forcinott rAnlc in the public life of ibc Kingili'ni, 
temainini; all ih^ tirno In demeanour, in iiassion, snd Aivorin- 
tjons, Irish of the Irish. Kven ibe most iQtolerant metnbrr of 
the Clan na Gael will claim O'Conncll as an Iriab Celt. Ilia 
Iriab cbaracteriitica euntributed to his popular strength \ and 
tbey, no doubt, helped to produce the aversion with vrbjili be 
was regarded by his opponents atid bj' some of bis |KiUticul 
■woe w lea, 

Ai reganU Irrland, his ffreat distinction is that, havinsf 

ttwied to greater personal power then? than any Irishman 

lince the time of OrmondCf hvi miuaeir was never either a r«bel 

or a conspimtor, nor did be cvrr make uko of rebels or secret 

.etiea Xq promote hi^ objecl£. Whatever wsts the violence 

his laogus^ lovjirils ErgUnd, he never spoke of rebela 

but witb scorn, and whatevtr may have becomo of tbe Urgo 


in h 
Han I 


, or fl 

Daniel (/Ci>7meir* CcmspitndejKr, 

fuadi be levied frooi bis adliPivRts, tbcjr wfira not «iBplo;e«l 
to foUer Ribbonmen or the Feniaiii and lovincibles of hi> 
umc, O'ConncIl, with all hit lurbulrncc ftud nrcklotsiicu of 
]nn;;iiuj-c, wa> po rcvolutionUt ; all ibroiigb UU cliPC]uer«d canwr 
Ki4 inttinrt wna to kt^fp wittiin th<* Inw and thr conUiliition, 
Tl»e eclipse of bis power, adter nearly fortj yean suprtm.tcj- ov« 
tbr In«bcr(iwd, wnsduc JncocDcfJr^rcctothc fact, tbftt tbv spirit 
of revotutioa h^d, amidtit a great Bocjiil disftatert taken lucli « Conn 
nnd shApe u eii^iblud it tu dispute witb him bii cliciatfiTabipi 

Ol'tbit icmarkftblc tnau wu buvc for the first time an autbra- 
tic picluro, ID the corri>a pond once collected by tbe indmtry of 
Mr. iMlypAtrirk, Thrro h-tvo h^rn many prf>vii)iit mmpiUlioii* 
ofupeechi^ and publl^djetl letter* gathered from the m^wapapers 
and pamphlets ot the day, bat in theac volumes nppf^nrs for the 
lir«t lime Uu own private correspond en oe with hia family, and 
with einiuent politicians like Lord Dessborough nnd Lanl 
ClLfOCurry, who ul one cimi? ^ir another ciiU-ird into alliAntr 
with him ; and wUh tbeie* letters am his smrcc d^spatchn aod 
directions to bis numeroos ogent> and followers enjiraged ii> 
or^niziDf; and mAintninin^ agitation in Ireland. Many are 
the vivid glimpces of tbc machinery by which his power vu 
so long sustained, and sinj^ular is the evidence of the submit 
sion be was able to exnct Irtjm pc-nple who ba<l no personal sjm- 
puthy nitb biui. Above mil wu boar th4r vuii-t of ibcr oian himar^' 
ringing through hidf a century of Irish life, detailing bit pa'- 
po!tes» his expedients, and his experiences, not for the (ceoenl 
public whom lie addressed in Conciliation Hall, or at coantrt 
meetings, or in the columns of the 'Pilot' ot the ^FreeiBM' 
Journal,' but for the private ear of the people, whosi? enerpff 
be intended to ubturb in his grrnt fchprnr*^ or whose sympj^J 
he relied on to ctio<iurugc and sustAia Lini in his struggle* l^* 
Mr. Hamilton's vuluine we barn an rxcvUent narratiir* **( 
OXTonneira career, constructed with much tntelltj^ncx; av^ 
sympathy from auch materials a* published records supply ; btl 
whoever desires to know O'Connell for himself must 1*0 10 llie 
volumes of Atr, Fitxpatrtck, who has nied his minute Ino*- 
ledge or Irish records during ttie first half of this ceDtory 
with fcrrat discretion, iUualratin^ the li^ttcrs from the bistorj** 
iht^ timn and from rnany unpiibliGhed <x>1lertiona, but takutg 
caie to let O'Connell tell the marvellous tale of Lis achieft- 
ments in bis own person. The main bulk of ihc family lctt«n 
w^ supplied bya farourite daughter of O'Connell. For nearly 
twenty years Mr ritzpatrick has laboared to add u* ttiem frotf 
tbe collccliook of r^^iiUNLijiorHiy pulilieians i aiid ibr reault a a 
striking picture of tlits greatest of modern demagogues, and a 


Daniel {Td^HnfilTM Comiffandmte. 


rcontrlbution to politicftl history of which Mr. FiUpatrick and 
kii usbtanU may well be proud. 

0*ContK"ll wn* barn in 1 775, ilic <»nic y**r in which Gr&ttan 
took bis seal in llic Irish Pailiauiiriit. Tlw gradual iirlaxiiiion 
of ihe pcnM lnw£ n'otiid have Wen among tU^ fr»rlir»1 niCH>!lcc- 
ttnm irl' liis otiililhood; ihe fmne of the volunEn^ri ar») ihf^ 
triitmph nt' OnittAii in IT^if amf^tijT the moct rivid. Hia father 
was d«?ftcnbed by him at one time aa lioldiag tlie pottcion of ' a 
gmilemaii farmer/ a terra not v(>ry dUtiactirc in fn^Und. Hi> 
rnmJIy ptnbablr hdongrd ortginnlly to the clftu known na 
middlemen. They cvidcatly were pi-aplt* who by o.-ttantl 
sbility An^l mvr^j \itA lon^ nincc nLiai^l thorniolve* :kbovo thn 
position <»f the Celtic occupier* and iirrc in pf»xi*uion as Jrue- 
bolclera of a considerable citent of land m W^em Kerry, 
a p«ft of Ireland where the area of property ia altogether oat 
of proportion Tf» it* niont*y vaIup. The hrut of the family 
was Maurice, a farmer ac Dtirrynane, and childlesf. His 
brolhcT Aforgao hod made some money a* n shopkc^t^prr, aod 
token > farm, Dnni^tl^ th^i nld^Nt nf Morgan's funiily, was 

frecofrni?^ as the heir of the Uarrvnaiit! pr<t|>crty of the uncle 
Maurice. To great phyucal qualities, a finely proportioned 
athlrtic f-c^i'^* and a comely counieoance, tlw lad united 
iio^lnr vivacity and ri^olution. 

The Uiiiver^lly of Dublin wa« not t^ipcEie>(l lo Romjin Cuiholica 
tiatil 1703, and oicaowbilo \\xc O^Omnrll family had to pro- 
vide Mime system ftf wineation for one wtiow promt«f> and 
abilities filled them with pride. Daniel and his next brother 
were sent to St. Omer in the North of Prance, and afterwards 
to ])ouay, and the earliest IcLters in Mr. I'itxpairtck's volumes 
are DaRicfs dutiful rrportx to his uncle Mnurit^* on their course 
«if llff-- atid fttudv at ihrvcr €t>Mr^rA, duriuf; the jeor 1792. Thus 
he writes from St. Omoi; — 


A« the Eooter examon in just onr, our atudies begin again OD 
,otkex footing ; instosd of the booka I mcutiomkl before we now 
tcod Alignota hftmagDCtt, Cic«ro nni GiesAT, those ore onr Latia 
sathora,iha' thi?r <Lte rood over withunt any stndy beforehand. Cieaar 
is givoo us eliictly to turn iuti> Grvvk \ our Greek authors aro 
Dcmo«theDOs, Homers and Xcnophon's Anabasis; our French one ii 

'Iroton yofi thsnks for yoar kliiduees in uiforming iti of tbo 
acwaol'thc conutry. Wehopo, my door Undo, that unr oaduot wilt 
nutit a eontintution of your aiiparaUoled frieodship t'>Trarr)« ujt; 
yon nay b« .counncod that we do our utmoi^l endcaToun for ibai 
j»urpeeoT JU^d, oa wo kuow tbat you require x^q more, wo hope {vitb 
G'A"^ AjdiistuuueV to be able lo suceiwd. 

Vol. Wi.—hle. 934. X They 


Dcni4i ffCbnji^irt CorrtJiptmdmet. 

The/ bftd hardly got w«ll into their school work after th«tr 
femoral \x\ Drmay, when the cntsh of the rapCnre with Kngljuid 
on the expcutlott of tho King in Jftnunry, 171t5, pat an abrupt 
tPruiiitatioti l« their jtuJlt-s, The rollirjfcsi at Douaj' Aod 
St. Omr-r w^ivr c1o«c-'l, nncJ iho bovB tiurrit^illv mAde their WAy, 
with n wanty lujiplj- «f <'loih«s, f« l^mflon, wL^nce they retumM 
ta Ireland. O vooncir* persr>nal exprn^^ntr of" the rcrolatiODanr 
wave helped to Impress the character of the time upon hi* 
raiiit) \ and prrhnp« oqc of bi« mo&t genniae tind pcTmuipat 
eentimeDlB in after tifo was a clt^lntation of ihc Frrnch rerola* 
tion «nd i>r the politii^al schools trhitb origtnatrd with iL Bat 
17*J3 brought otiier ev»nU of more imporianctt f<*r O'Connell't 
future thftn the death of Louii WK or the clittioe' of Si. 
Omer and Douay, li wa« in that year that the Insh lawt 
against Roman Catholics, ko far aa they restricted their ordinaiy 
lufiinofis in life, were tinallr »wcpt away, and for the firvt tiioe 
for nearly a hundred years Catholica were admitted to pracUK 
nt ihc BAr. 

It wac sf>on d«terinin«d that Daniel shotild be sent to the 
Bar, to take hia phcc id the profc^tton so lon^ engaged iJi 
applyinit the tortore of the penal Jaws to his co-reliffionists;, aad 
to practi»c thofic giftn of «pereh wliirh mifflit eaable him kere- 
afler to walk in the steps of (irattan and i'lood and Velv«rtoci- 
In the fii]h>wtEig year he had alrrady eumrtu'iii'nl his cuursc 
aa a law-student oi Ltncolo's Inn ; and his stciy in Lomion wax 
not merely in order to go through the fonnalily oS citing dinners 
at an Inn of Court, but to enable him to carry on a vi^oroof 
and extensive course of r<.'afling. Writing from Chiswtck In his 
nnrir m 1 7**5. he gives full drtaih of hi* plans, his expend itnrtf, 
his lending, and his comfKinians, and then adds the followii^ 
aecvunl vf Lit own icbrmc? of lifr : — 

* I hav^ BOW two ohjocto lo purauo ; the ono (he attaiomffit ol 
knowlddga, the other tho ftcr|tiisition of all thnan i^aalitim «1iifh 
oonititute the polite gentleman. I am convinced IbaC t)ie f<iniwf. 
hoisidcs the immodiato pleaEure which it yieMe, ia calculate to raise 
ma lo honoura, rank and lurtnne; and I know that Uie latter serw* 
fiA a l^cnoTal jiatwp<^rt or lirat reeomnondatiua : aud aafor the DMiliw* 
1 ambition which yoa Hnggo^t, 1 omiire yen that no man can poiKse 
_ I of it than I do. I have indeed a itIo«riiig lUid, if I may uso ihi* 
expnesttioD^ an L-nUraHiiuttb i^mhition, which ocnrorts evciy tnil inte s 
pl<«*an;, And f;tery tftudj \u\o au iLiuuaunteut. 

*Thcmph natnr<* mciy haTi> giv^n mo euboTcliaate tal^rnta, I Mmf 
fill be siitififit^d vrilh iL motltratiT Mtnition in my pTtrfiHCidon. No i 
ia aide, I luu nwar^i to snp|>Iy the total deficioney of abilities^ ' 
eteryhody is capable of iinjrroviitg and enlarging a slock, boirt 
smaU, and in ita heginain^ contemptible. It is t^ia rcAocUoa Uiat 


Danid O'Coamlti CorrujandefKe, 


■o moat coYtAolatioQ. If I iln not ri»d nl tk« B«r, I wiUliOl 
ftVe to meet tho reproiwlitv of iiij own goumi^dcc- It i* not bdcvtm 
iMflort th«mt]tuigt now that 1 ehoiiH coBcdve mjwif eiUiUed to 
^c^JOD jdh to belkiTO 11i«jn. I rtft^r thnt conTiction wbuh I \n»]k to 
^^^Hb» to jrour oipfni^ncc. I LufK> I nany flaltiic ruynolf tlat wlioii 
^P^Hboiaf^n, tl<i Hitprfnua nf my «lT'i:krtK t<o o^rr^rt thojii^ ImuI ViaHU 
^nluch yon pointed cnt to me trill bt? appareQl. Itiilt'tMl ua fur ua mr 

j«u« to come ; liat I liav^ Umij iu thi? luWrvitl to prcparo lajself to 
o|i|ioar villi g»iit«r ^iat on tlio gnLOil thoatrg <if Uw worM.' 

Eren allowing in this letter for ttie manifim elfori to rrassure 
the relative on wli^sc good-will >o much of bh future Mrcmcd 
tofli-prii<], we frntl lo it a tc^uc^ ur««lf-couS^ci)G« rrrj' remarkable 
in nnj lft<l nf tivontv» anil tiill more striking in ono bcli>n^ing 
1c> A mniiniinilj' irliirli, tn his awu recoil taction, vrns frxrliidnl 

rfrom nearly »ll the nghEs of citi^^^nship. In )793, another rear 
of slfn>^ rDorarat in Irish history, h€ wai called to the 13ar, 
mjui he nnpcari to h;tve at once «ecuml some pracrtice on \\\% 
circuit. It was characteristic of tho man that withiD four jean 
he fisbei] all the pra^pecli irbich hr? bnd evidently rherubed 
during bit boyhood^ And, in d^fi!in<M> of bit unclir, inrLrTi<«d a 
portiiinleiu comin. The tiiich^ uhiinntely relcnlinl, ami the 

tflimpBes tbis correspondence f^ires ns of his mamed life dnrini; 
tbe ttexX few yean »re the most interesting^ portions of his per- 
sonal history, and show him to hnve been, whatevt-r his faults 
in other ways, a warm-hearied aBectionaie man, brimming over 
i»ilh love and tcndcrri^^M. 

Wb«n, a« hii» abilitiett became reco^niSMt, he was engaged 
in almost err ry €as« on ibr circuit, he always found time to 
^^ write to his wife» For example, be writes from Ennis in 

'My de&reft Sfary, — I was a litll^ imj^rtinont in my lotlor of 
jtattfday, and the rvAKoii was becaiiRO I found mynt If decidedly in 
Mare boaiaeBS than any olbor ittdividcial horo; and m, beart^ 1 
STonipod icysolf u|mn yon, whicih nftn ptmr *pit<i. I, hovtrvcTt nov 
fwtgivo jOQ, dnrlini^, ln^canfo yL>n prrtiuiHi m« i^ failUAitly to take 
caru of yourself aiui grow fat in my ab^noo, 

^tibrioUKly, lore, I am ijuilfi in a teni]>vr lo iudolgo Tanity, but in 
ni>ihing mure w> Lbao Ui you aud my attoet, swcot babc«. Darling, 
yu«i h*va oo id«a of tbo timo I toko in thinking 4>f yon and ih«m. aud 
in doatbiK upon lK>th, Kii^i tlictii il thousand times for their father, 
and l4dl tUm th&t he ^ili uut hi' ha^^py n^til ho hju \n» Ujreo litllt- 
- girls on liia kntie, and his thrco l>oy^ loukiug ut him thore- 

•Tlio boaaaosa here ia ortr — con»|d'aily ot^j, I ipoa ooncerocd 

\ emwy rfioord^ not loft out of onir, and 1 was the ouly uonnacl so 

S 2 ^tA 


Danut ffComtelTs Gnrapondata* 

AoU Q^in from Limerkk in 1813: — 

' Uy darling Heart, — Your li^tUr and Obvrlwi' occuaut vf ; ou givo 
nM frtsb lif« (ui<j apiritg, bnt I tlir-i^gUt you would ljar« wHtUja 1o 
ii>e A^iu, hcsLTt']^ tnmjtiirc, rxnil I frit lonely and ilinppointcd ftt not 
b<«rii>g trata }'<iu 1>y tbiB day's post- Up'itn cDusidvrftlioQ I hare 
bUucd mv^clf fi>r it, 1>vca»Ac 1 ought to liftvu nriltun to joa tveej 
dikj, but I will do ao in future, my avoittliMtrt Lu^Ct liod you mtwl 
Mlow my cvunple. Ik*, th«u, my own ItTary. let axt ]]&?« 
bftppinoKH to hca.T tbftt you lurd thDrougUy well. Take iho Icind 
cur« of luy Kmtd, end, bettor etiU. naoro ouv of vouraalf for ray 
datUiig lii^'v. Tbv bmunuw boa btrooma cxoetuiJiro upuu ttuv cii 
— tnin^ IK i&onNL8iug tdmoflt beyttud ^urlumtoe — but I titfror wafll 
BUcli good bcftltli, ukd hiTO no luixiuty bat wbnt r«Ulc« to njtf 
dearest, dearest darting. I wish to Gcd you knov bow forreattJyl 
doat du yoo< Ki«i Mvecvl laucy Kiitc for djc' 

it is, hoviever, with O'Connell u thr politician, as the gmt 
dcnuifEogue who orcranrd cabinet*, and guided adminiatraliocii 
thnt oar rcxulent are chieQy coDceroed. He bad not been tt^'en 
y<^arft at the Bnr bcfon: be tiitd inUrn a contpicung« pimce io tlie 
couusvlti i>f i\iit Rouis^ CAtlitilji; ijnitj. Ttio lej^^al pusition tit 
thai communion woj lutlo rhan^cd >inc^i^ I70<'(. Then all lav* 
illlrHVrinf; with the l>ii&in(*ss and oc<^upation& r»f K<iinan (*atbo- 
lics had lx*cn abolished, ejcrept Kt far as public duties A&d 
offices were concemod. To this ciopplion thrn* was the im- 
poTtant qualificadon, ibat ibo right of voting was given by the 
Act of 1 7^*3 ; but any oHirc or rank m the nature of an appowl- 
nirnt uiiiler llie Crown was withlitld fiuiti thrm> 

To remove ihii ^Eclusion became the ohjcct of all Catltolicf> 
Picas were urged for delaj — the objections of the King and llie 
risks run bjr the friends of the cause, Pitt, Fox, Canninit: the 
impropriety of pressing: for redress, when the Slate w^is rngngn) 
in the nulioiial itrug^le with France. KxjTodients were frco 
time lo ttRir EUggctted, to ircourllc the Protesunt majority ; s 
rtrto on tbc appointmrnt of tht; IJivhops, stipcntU to the prietl- 
hood, and tb<t di««nfmnchiflemont of tlio great Cat holiir eledo- 
rale, the forty *sbillinf freehi>Iders. From lh<^ fini, O'Coundl 
look the side of the part}' of action, and ihn question of rescik- 
tions or securities be refused to entertain. He was the spoken 
man of a ci^rtnin number of tubjecls of the Scatr, vbose ciric 
qnnliiir* wcrr already recoj>niicd by the Iaw,wbo were adi&iltr<l 
to eertain public tru«t«, ai* for instAnccr, the rigUl of voting, aiid 
yet wf^^eearlnd<^<l from a!l t\\4* distinctions accorded by the Stale 
to ability and public spirit, 

Wbilat Ornttan AtiJ Plunket, supportefl by Caillcn^ngh end 
Canning, fought the battle witli ^aryin^ success at Westmiosiefi 


Daniel 0'Cfinneit*» CcTr4^ondcnoe^ 


0*0>nn«ll eoQtinoed to be th« voice of tlie Iriih crowd r^salutftl)^ 
d^mindin^ oomplctc aitmUmnn to the rigbis of citizf^niiip. 
|XiOnl Colchcatcrs Dinry shows thai evci as early ns l^\^ the 
fProiesUnt Usutrra vcrc thinklh^ more t>i irhat O'Connrll w« 
SAjiug in Dablm ttmn of nil ttir <rloqui*-ncc of GraCtmi or tbe 
Argument* oC Plunket*' Suildvolv c^^mc mn loclilcnt charac- 
trrimic of th^ cirni^^ ail<l O'Connc^iri famf^ flprf-ad fnr beyonil 
the leiulen of |>urtie», UcvuekI Dublin aad the Qjir, nnd the 
Cntholic ccunmittoc* of the Cipiiiil. Hr IxfCAiuc recognised ia 
erery Catholic UoLU«bold as tlit* dauntleaa champioQ n'lio bad 
risked tii« life agatcitt th<* Froiestitnt opprittior. In IM^, 
dclircring ftt u iiivetiijff In Dublin one of thoac: viguroaa 
Addtcftte* with which, io «pitc of hie l^rge ind incrcaiin^ 
boRinru nt the Har, he found time to fttimulali? the hopes of his 
ct^'reliKiOQitLs, be hjul spi^kcii of ih<r Diibliri Corprjinlion, one 
of the great ttronghoJds of the Protestant pflrtj, na 'the beggarly 
Corpontion/ Mr, UXUcrre, a member of the Uorpontioo, 
called upon O'ConntflJ to lepuJIate the n-'jiort of his speech. 
O^Cotinell rrpliod, ciprcssing his unbounded conlcmpi for ibc 
Corponklton. After s<>m« further correspondence a meeting 
took place; D*Estenc fired fir»l and missed. O'ConaclTs »hoi 
ififlimed a wound from which lyKiterre died in iwo day^. 
O'Connell hwl stood the ordcil of mortal comlwt, bur he did 

tri'Jt eipecl that hii tnkgic tucce»4 would be the cod of the affair. 
He aval at om^; to retain the ni(»t eminent of hj« brother 
iMrriBtrr* for Uia dcfeQoe io case of proiecution. Wliatevcr 
Ttmy have b«m the miidoedi of the party of ProEeitnnt ntfvn- 
dency, thej had tbe traditions of t;entlemcD, and they promptly 
disabuietl O'Connell of anv mii:tppreliensjo^i on the 5ubject, 
The following letter, dated the <\ny nIVr O'luterir's dcatb, ia 
from bis Mcondf Sir Edward Stanley, a leading member of the 
Corporation :-^ 

*Raji%i Marmvka, 4th Fnbniajy, I*H.>. 

'StB, — Lest your profoflaioual aToi-ftti^ins should bo iatorrnpt^d b^ 
aa apprehoDsioa of any prooooding Ui^mg iu uuiitemjilaliob iu coiue- 

rmca of tbo hUo melunoliLtty cvt-'ni^ I hnve the hi;iDOiir to mftirm yon 
I Ibero ia not thn nw^i dUtaut iut'^ntion of aay prosMattou uhat- 
«TQr, on the pui of thtf fiimily f»r frti-tLiU nfthe 1a^ Mr. IVKatemt 
I, ' Vour obodieiU htimblfi aerva&t, 

H <rConn«ll replied— 

^1 ■UevTkniBqa»ns5tbPH>tuMr7. 18kV 

^^ ' SiBi — I baTO the faoiurar to (kcknowWgo thu rvcotpt of jvntr \tiUit 
tS yiatwday, and I ho^ uf you to nouept my aiuoore thanks f>r your 

* ColobosUr's biuy, voL ii, p. UD. 


Daniel CtConn^t Odrrttpondenet. 

ywy jwlite and oonsidorato fttteotioD. It is to mo a monnifal ooa- 
«olatiou U> inovt Kuch ^udgtoua wotmwnte from those who muM. be 
iiflJtcUiil ut tLu Utv mjlujfiij' uvuut. UqI| bolicTo D», my icgrct 4t 
tbnt ataxii in mnHt Hifuwro niid utiik^orinl, lind if I Iedpv my d*d 
Lmrt, I cuii with tin* stnat^n trutli aAHcrt, tLat do peraoii <«i fool hr 
tlur loBS EOf^icty biu »ujifAinM! in tLi; dcAtli cif Mr. D'Ectwro vjik 
moro iltTGjr aiid laflHiDg a>rniw than I do. AUot me »^iti to tbsLsk 
youn «iE-, ?4>r tho courtosy of your lottor a otTuricnj quite oan«3atciit 
vitli tiiL> gf^iitlrrtnarilj iltiDUAiiour of jour entire coodset in iLi* 
mcloiicboly tiaiiflA^tioD. 

O'Connell bad been foi some ytax% tho popular leader of the 
Catholic parly, ivhot^vcr might ha the pul>!ic man charged urtlb 
fighting itic battle in rarliamcnt, and ^n Grauan'a death, in 
1820, br uiadf- gic^at ricruum iu extort from Plcinkct a ptvmutf 
(o abandon ib^ policy of ii4»curitl<'A Wforo iho conduct frf tb» 
mt4*stian ill Parlinmi^m wxn plaf^nl in bis band*. Tbi« prvimite 
Plunkct wouM not |>lve, and the Committee overruled 0'Q>tiaelVt 
objection. Piuokci's HtU was enrned throug-h the Commom, 
but wiu dcWtrd in the Lord*. 

Then O'Cocnell, in C4i]i junction with his rival Shell, ^kdopted 
a new method for the (Icvrlripmcnl <>i public opiaioQ in lic-land. 
Of 0'Conui*ir« there in thie eoterpruee^eu eccouipUahed stodcat 
of Irish history hot said : — 

'A gmat iDiJibvkfi lind luwn %na.t\rt by all t^A wimhiitations of the 
Catholica. The pt^uid^ of IreluuJ had not be«n directly unpealed te, 
their voice ted net yut br^'n ntUodi their ujukitiiiiity Im uoI 
provud. O'ConneU wtw ibis error and delenuJaed to avoid it. 
cboriQr of hift (fotuiu rnxp ovorywhoro poreoited, wotttiiLg unofigsbl 
claaeeh. Here be tiruithod if^ntly on tbci tttlll wat«nc of aratoof 
ro«ciTo till hti Ftirrod a ripple on tboir sarfaco — there hie voice 
keard roUing o^er the bcadv of nioba, Atirriuff thom and warning I 
like as ohLrm boll — itour hiuling deJUuQo at tlioee wboiu ha deaov 
bft 6pppM«on, again wbinponng oomfbet and hopo into iho cars of tim 
epproesed.' • 

WhiUt the nawiii^ ef ihv Catbolio K4.dief Acta was the maui 
object of the Aunciation, all question* aJTecting the Catholic 
peaaaniry were embrnced in tU ojwrittions. It intervened 
lo »eltle local iHipiites, nnd to supcrsirdc the popcinr indueixv 
of secn-t ik>cietje&. Iful the great leaturc of the new movetneiil 
was the eitablislimi^nt of the Catholic rent. The pence, even 
the iarthln^ of the Catholic [>cjuAat, vrt^rc called in aid, and 
gave birn a ahare in an Asvoeiaiiop of which the great Catbfdie 
proprietors — the ancient Norman fainiliei — formed m pmtV Thii 

• *1jSv 01 Leniriaakelf'bjthvKiglii Uuu Di^rid Hoaiet, tot, ii. p. ML 


ncpedient i«curcwt in a fiew tnonthi a rcreniw of over 5(MV. 
a week. 

PThe portentous %txt^ ani) power of tbii nrgnrnzniion btul ftjr 
the tine tbc otfcci of stimulnting opposLtion in l!ln^lAnd. The 
ojiponeaU of Csiboltc Hclieft who fcmd b««D lostUM; ^-ruLiiiii in 
FArlwiLCOt 1>cfurc the flTort* of Plunkct, 9pIxj<^ oh iLc jkoclW- 
in^ of th«* AtuixriAtion vrLich th«>^ ri<|in*ft<uit«<l as a jDmacc to 
KnglAAcl I ami vrhrti chr MiniHtry nf 182<'i pro|KiiHHl li> iIimoIvo 
the Cutbolk AttsiH-iitiun, und were aluoit pliNl)ff?tl lit accept 
CjLtlioUc Kclivf as a ci>mp1enient of tlu« mcAsuru, the history 
' «ikd pr^^DsioDs of this gUnt iocieiy cuftblcd tho lVotc«UQC 
party to secure a ftroug reaction against eoacmion. The 
■Mppr<'«»Ioii of the Auocithtion wa« (tgrrrd tOn Cnthollc Relief 
vrii* rv-fus«). Tbcrts It no do u hi that In 1825 Lord Livorp^wl 
via« rudv la j ickL* und the Catholic Itradcri made in Parliament 
^^ UDUiual cHortji to foitw a ti^trleujem. .So jrreat vat tbc prrtqic^'t 
^■of tucdCM^ thAt O'ConnclIt whij wa« in Londoa^ qualified bis 
^■uiUgooism to the principle of securities. He was appartratly 
^P eoDTcrtcd to a pjjicy of guaranic<-s vhich did tun ilirrctlj 
lavolvo tke \'ciOf diitl tlircvr lniDA<:lf with char&ctorltttic euoT^jr 
I into the effort to effect the seUlctncnt. 

^ft Tbe letters of 1^25 sliow us OXonm;!! at hi» best. He 

^» a«4 not vet deteriorated tjr llic enjoymcfnt of povrcr. He had 

DO anxiety for tbe future. He was no adept, as he afleN 

wnnU became, in the machinations of GcouptioD, He Icnew 

U>mlim ihirtr Tears before, nrhrn he cnmc, n refugee from tbe 

nrij]utioni»ta at Oouay, to itudjr Oi>dwiu &nd Oihhop, wbcu 

bi> <-njoy4Hl, by AciiripAlinn, the opportnoitioft nf action nliich 

his boybood hail seen conceded, which hU niAnhooJ promised : 

■ad, in tbe Tetircinent of a hoAnling-house at Chiswick, whiht 

he studied t^pes uf character with keen perception, be bad 

endcavimred to n^concile ibe early teaching of bis Church with 

<upirAtion« after the larf*!.- lihcrty which revoluii^tur^ prin- 

eiplc* promiaed. Since tbcie j^^"^^* ^*^ had not oulv won it 

Eat profi*«<ional p>«ition. He bacl hem recognized ac thi» 
vid of the Irish CAtliolics. He had expuised himself to the 
^^eoaUicA of the taw in ]dl5 to assert their s<jcinl equality ; 
^^nd now, in the enjoyment of great income won hy bis own 
v^nez^y, with all the incentive to achievement which b;(ppy 
■family ii^latiijua J£^^*^T be reviuted the acrnc of his cail> ktuUifT^ 
tHn fttibordifiain but Htill the niotivt! power in tbe movement of 
IL* lim(<. Hit letters to bis wife are full of his enjoymert of 
^lie attention paid to biui, aud of rollicking criiicisin on ways 
r does not like. 

* 'Oanuiag'A Cc«TWpoad«Dce,' hj Bls^ktoo, toL iL iip> 2J0, 2£l2. 



Dattici O'CimngWt ConxtpondtHct, 

^BTt DARUjuo Hkaut, — Wo vATO In tlif! HoTuo mBdflv tlto gallery 
during th& debate on Trids^* ... It vn£ dnil 4iid proBj enough IB 
ftU cuDHcitnou. Pui>l wM etril, Imt TL'ry i]iuli>;aa&t to tb« CftUiolus. 
Ho miulv a ]lG^va^f(Ll U40 uf thu IdCUr lo llauiilton Iloi»«u. . . . 
Hr, WrntiDtWhaboloiigB totbo Cabitjot, jiut onoof tbo womi «poftlMn 
1 ever li<vd. Ho «om«wliat rti06mbles UlcNunarft of Um CoildIj of 
Cork, viko forgi>t to Qmit finmfrtliing. Yi^u hftve no notion wliAt a 
Btapid Bet they uru altu^utliorf and even our frieuda «ro not 8o Mftlottt 
Ml tlinj iTipcct. Tijcro 14 ftu KnglinU coldnoMj aoJ, afW alt, wbnt u 
it t4> tliom if wc ni'(^ flpuvhod ? . , . 

* Bir Prancia Burdelt ifflprovcfl mncli on acqtuLintuicC- Broogbmt 
is A mniily plain mAn; Abtu'croinbitT \% n Chuiotirj Iavjct in grml 
buflin<^fie, nnd reprceoQCs tlit) high Whige; Hobhonso nppomra to oir 
to lo n diroot-nniidod bonont man. I npout au hour mUi OotboU AOil 
was greatly pkaaed with him. He ia & IhiH. cltiur^budtitt fellovr, and 
bin Tiow« ore distinct ftnd woll-iiitontionciJ. I confosfli darling 1 
bavo boea pleased &ltogelhor vitb this trip.' 

Neit day he writes: 

' I did imt i^ct bi bed till aft^r onct tbid momtn^, and was oot Qf 
tluB dny until fiftor ten. Only think ai tbnt, 8woe(€si ! but re|OKC^ 
my durl[i>>;. (lockuLmt-d, «n'£4.-tcal, saucy, buat of women — tbore is a 
lonjf iLhTijfi fi,ir you ! but t^ijijko, f^r ovory inoonbrr tif the Houao m^ 
— utMi-fiiin-atioD. Mj-. Eiroughatu luiys it most dtfitinotly, ind at bcu 
sides il is tbo nuiveraal prcinunuiation. So you triumph over is 
all. . . . 

'My uwu opiuiwi Isy that tbo Csth^ilit^ Cttose has gsintid groiUiA 
greatly, ftud tbat all it reqairea ia hio active p«TWVftranc«, It is vauilj, 
til lieitiiro; but vc, (Wlini^^arDcqusl ti> thcrnscu1sinuv«rythiiig,to mj 
tho lonat of it. X rejoice at your victory about aaso^she'atioD, ball 
uonfess I cAUUoE help butug sorry thnt my darling girls an dofcat4>l' 

\\v. wna fertc^l ami flnltt^rt'd, and in a subK^ucnt letter to hU 
wil'o be {^ives an account of tbe parties to wbicb tie was invited :-* 

'Wv din«d on Saturday at Lord St*>urton*B. He contrived, fay 
A»:king TEMi to IkIp bim in oarvin^', Ui plncu mti btstnrccn him and As 
Dukcf of Norfolk, wbuiu I was f>:«sLiAl hud dulUirtil to tlio higbvl 
degree Lord Stourton Hoid thnt nnitbor Pitt wot Fot wa« my aqoaJ' 
Charles Bnt3er said llmt hiiico t)io dujs uf Lord OhaUiam hs bsl 
heard ootbing Uko mo. iSo, ilnrlirgr I w%g TAtn ouoiagb. and I tiioa 
of tbe nnvict liiUu vomAii 1 bulonf; Lc, aud what a sifwt ktHs sbo o\ 
mo. - ^ . I iImju dined with ^Ir^ 6rotigbn.m. Thcro won of 
dfiputation pris^nt, Lnrd Ki)hnn« Sir Tbnnuu; Emiondp, Hoft. 
Mr. I'reBton. Sbeil, and myself. Wo had four Dukes— tbu Dnko of 
^u^wcx, of Dcvonybmr, of Norfolk, and of Ltuistor; Sir Francis 
Buid«tt, 3ir n^ciry ParncU, Mr. gc^rlott. and Ibu Ifadtu^ Whig 
lawjosa; Aldct-man W<^. and Mr. LontbtoD, son-in-law to l£m 
Qruy. I Vk'S-K pWed bt-twrt'u tho Dukue of Di^vcjusbin; and Loinsttr, 
and opposite to the Uuko of Suti&ei. He (the Dako of finmsr) is 


jDoMtet ffCmnelTs Cemj^ndcncc. 


iHij iaaIoim in our casm; bat, dorUcg, I ilo not lUco bitn. iLhbonjgb 
lie wtt vorj Idiul aod ootixtoouA to lucv Ho biu u (fnwt <l4jal of tho 
Q«nimn troofwr about him, and yot bis ittor ud «iDgb golden garta 
bttTO 4n ftir thftt fttrikefl o«io. I was ag&in moii Onttore*!, uid 
Braaicbam 9]>iAui to luc w&tmljr of the f «porl« tL/tt rcacLctl lum of injr 

His hopes rou; bigb, attJ be vrrtlu lUaL be Is ceruin of 

' DtfliRg— dArling, Htnoo I wioto I bnru been ntKlcr oxftrnJnation. 
OJl my ohil^nm togothor tt^ll D^uuj to fling up iila cap fw old 
Inland. I have now no donbt bat that iro Bb:\]I bu enuLOcipi^UMt. A 
mmt OroDgo mun from tlio north— Sir Qeurgc Hill — but hie ittme 
uoold Dot AppoftT Id pTiDt— bofi jusE AiiQoaticcd that % utiiiiber of the 
EfiglMb «a|]p(*rt<tn (if thu uiiDialcy oro gui»g iu m hody to LoTd 
Tjiverpool fo inn*/ lluil }id thouM do longer oppo«(< uinaaeipation. 
TcU Manrioo to go off ^Hth tbi« iiaiorcoAtioa to James Sn^me auii to 
Comc1iu» McLoffliliii. L«t hiin not otune Sir- George HiU, Itconoee 
Im ifi not tho ouy member of rarliiLnumt to nhoai ibo latolligejace 
nuty ho tr*CG(L Bui ho nLuuld anuouiidu i\e />%ct. I aid to-moTron 
fn* to wrilo to both lbosi< peraooB, aod I will fiilly. How iLnd<iim I 
uu that the BL§hop« vorc licru! DiH^ttir Murruy hu* tiot ui boor 
loloao. Darling, go to Lini jonnolf, in your carriago. uid tell him 
I loapcctfidly Kilioitod hi« iiiuui.<diuU! ouiumg, I nrotd Ui bliii jD^twlf 
7Mt<^d«]r — in abort, ire b»Ta won Ui« gAmo. Mav T thunlE llcaroti 
thftt it was ywit hiubaiid. fwaoloit, that won it. if J htul out boun 
b«ra noihing vould havu been doue, 1 fumed Sir yrancirt liurdctt to 
Wing on bifl motion. My taamicatiDn tbU (lay rclAtcd to orcvy- 
tluQg ccomcctcd with tho Catholioa ia Irolond — tho por>pl^ tho 
Chnrcib, the frinr^, th« pricBtn, th<« Josuits, <tc-, i^xt^ Ac. ColoDol 
Dhvflon, tho brotb'^r-in-law <jf r<7v], aga:ii iUBLii-od zoo I bkd done 
««aj tn&ny prcjtulic^ of bis. lUy own, own htnrt'8 Iotc, I am eoiry 
Id nffimin awbj frviai you. bat, durlin^ hivrb, it n uonxvory. Bto6«o<t 
U tho groat God, for it all wiO bu right.' 

Bui nil these exertions reauUcd in a new fllsappointineau 
fbr Dili earned in the llouic of Common*, with the irings u> 
vliicb O'Conupll ooiiftontod, namvJy chi* diNfrancbiK«EQcnt of 
^ fonjf-shitlin^ fnrrholdrr*, and the acoRptflncc of a Cffrtain 
«i|*ud for the Ruuiun CatboUc clcrjjy, wa» not only i¥Jeci4>d 
b) the H<>u«4^ of Ll'kIi, but thiK rejt^ction, ivhich was understood 
^ be due to the perM>nal ictoJution of thr Kin^, was accom* 
paniiil by « aolenm declumiion from ihc I>uke of Vork, ibc 
^xx bt'jr to the throuct that be would n<:vcT untlcr ony circum- 
stance! Gonccat to the rcUcI policy. The Calbolioi found that 
^Wi\ genernuoii of waiting they were ililt met by the royal veto. 

Iu l7i23 O'Uunnull hitd loUonTtl up Pluuket s defeut in ilie 
lords by founding tbc Catholic Association, la 1^2t> he 



Damei <yCfmneir$ C m wiptmAmc, 

replied to tbe Toya\ anathema by <it)-^iiuiDg tbc rortj-shilliri^ 
fptoholdarr On a vncincy in the county of WatcHord^ l» 
applied himself tlurinL;; two monibs to nuae the until teauitrf 
to ditpulc tlu* county trat wjtli on<- of tlie ^rreuteit and edo«I 
nblc ot the En<-liah families nettled in Ireland. Tbc niuU vm 
a conlempluou* rejection of ihe Berevfitrd raodklAte, mnd l!» 
rrturn of Mr, Mlljm Stunrc br nn imincnK*^ umjority. Tbr 
VVattrrford cIfcIioh has not attnteted lo mticb sttontioa n* tlw 
Clnrr election wb!oh took p\ttt.p two yv^mt aftervrarda, whai 
O'CoDDell hiintelf wat rettiraed. in (UarcK^rd of tbe AcU le* 
quiring oathi which KomAn Catholici nouid, it irat admitfcd, 
refuse to tAkc : but tb^* CUro election VfM only tbe cx^rci^ in 
a, new form of the powvr which xhe Roman Catholic pATIT haJ 
prcived they i>oui<a»Ml in 14^6. 

Althouf^h Mr. Vesey FjLsrjjnonld couH not claim in Clare tadk 
n ponition A« thftt nf the BerenfiiriTii in WaterfnTrl^ hr vriu m fftviat 
badowner, tmiverially retpecteO, and he was knoirn in Engund 
AH well Aft in Ciare ns a cnntistent fiupporter of the* CjuhiJic 
caitsc. His nomination lo ofhce by the Duke of WcUingtun 
wai eviUeiice iliil the pL-ra^val policy had [uueO Away* bui il 
-WA^ MX apjK-al to ihe IWman Ctkiholic» to w«it events, and iliii 
wa* juat vrbat O'Cunnell ha<3 become stroag enoupb to T*viL 
Hg bad aubrnitt«d to this policy monr than onci^. In lS^5hr 
had ic^ne to the extremt? limit of compromise. The next yttt 
he h!u\ pn>ved by hiB own exertions that tlw^ <?ntholic partj 
poaic&S'td A wea|>i>n which ibey bad not tboa^lit of before. Ht^ 
time for wailirijE had paj;sr*il, an<) thi« wa« asserted in a minv 
particularly attractive lo tbo crowd| a pc»o»ul Miogglc bdirrvD 
the uominefr of the PHm^ Miniftter and the mvt who wu lL« 
first of their creed to win larg;^ income ami (iiatinction hj b'u 
abiliciea, who for more tlian a ^reneration bad cuunttdli-d action 
aii<] pcrscverancr, wbose res(?lnlioji bad rxmrtr*! ailmirati*^ 
even from opponents. The rcinrn of OXonnell by an OTe^ 
wUtrlming mnjoritv brought the Catbnlit? questioa to a crin^ 
I'bo Diikc of Weilii^t<>n and Sir Robert Peel ^rc way, »^ 
the Catholic Relief Act was pcufled (lft29). 6'Connell •*» 
entitled to boast that he bad conquered the prejudices of v' 
Home of Hanovrn He enouragod his Iriab sdmirm ^ 
believe ibat be had beaten Kn^land^ led by b<'r most fiW* 
chief, whose aword had decided the fate of empires. IV fl^ 
taiuly believed himself that he bad triumphed urcr Peelt ^ 
Mp to the Clare election had not forevem tbo oecruitT ^* 
Ir^islalinn which involvnl the lou of his seat at Ozfofd. 

li was only in the first Session of 1S30, cut short by t" 
Kind's death, that O'Coanell seriously entered on l^rliameOB'! 


Danief OChnmitt Ct/rrt^vndewe, 


^rortc ; arul iq conDf^i^tion vrlih chic, 1I10 ^tjTminnting- point of 
bis career, let ub cull from Mr. Filzpitt rick's volmotv vtme 
accouot of the homi- tVnin wEiidi \tv utlird forth to tnkc hit 
place in the Britisb Parlinment. He had «ucceed^ Lj Darrv- 
luiieon the death of hi> uncle in 1826, and to iti aUmictif>Di 
^hm freqacDUj' n?i:u» in liis corrcspondrnce. 

^V ' Bat, although I muat at^ccpt j-onr iuritattoD Uo Ci>rk], ikS X voiild 
obuy OD hdomircd i^ooniDanil, yvl I tnut jon wUlallofT uto to naiDO a 
dutiuit ilftT for tliat ptiTpoflc. Aftof noarly uTon monthi of tbo movt 
otom anil unrt^tailthi^ labour I want the culm oud quiet of mj toved 
oativi? billx — tlio Lnwiiig air, pnrifiml om it comcA Qvar ** tl)« world of 
WBleff,*" Ibo cheerful txcrcise, the majo^tic Bcenery of tboee awrol 
iiMHitauia nrhodo wiidtut juid mo»t romaiitic gkon arc ftwakcood bj 
tha ealir^niiig cr^ of mj: tiniirry biAgti<H ; wbutn dn«p iirib?A, multtjiHed 
409 BulliOD ticac» by tho echoes, speak to my hiuos aa if it were tho 
to£m «^ iDB|^c pciftera coTomiugling aa it doiw with the «l«nial roar 
of thv tnigbty Atlantic, that break* imd foautx mUi injpetr/nt ni^c^ at 
tho foot uf uuF Blupuudonfl cli& Oh I tbo«o are aconva to rcvirc all 
lhdforo«« of natural strengtb^to give tiev ^ncrg^ to the bamaA 
mxikl, to raive the ttoitghijc jilM>ve tho groToUiug ftrdb of indifldnal 
muveata — to «lovat« tha eeaao of family aflfeotioo i&to tlio f nr^et, tho 
tttoat rcfibcd, taid tho mtrnt cotLatont lore of oountiTt ^nd croo to 
eialt tho M' ul to t1j« cui]teiupl*tioTi of tho wiiidoin and nwroy of tlia 
aU-seoitig and gpod. Uei* who bas been pleased to a^ict Irvlaud mih 
**"*Tf"** of tmsrale and loiBfiry, but cmiab novr to hav^ lu 6tord for 
bor a Gomiftg barrort of gODorouB rotributioc. 

' Pomut 010 to pofftpoQo for aocao — eholl I «a^cc«tinidcrttblot--tiina 
the dar on which I am to laoet my fntrntl^ aud the friei»Li of Irehnd, 
ia Corlc. Do aot tciur mo from this lovi^^d npet nutil I htt^n najajcA 
MOM of ita rtoiovatiikg offocta, IS 70a think I deserre the swccti 
of thia loved »Hrc»t, ffivo mo time to IaaCo tbom more at lolatiro after 
IS7 &tigiloa atid f^'iatioTiM. anil nllow too to nwntien a dictaAt day for 
Itat on irhicb I am to moet yen at tho l^tife bo«rd, oonaooratc^, in 

■huy Iramble namo^ to Iba Heliaru of Irt^land.' 

Later »n, wo have another glimpso of his puriuita m hii 
cherished home* 

*Tho wea:b^ bM been rery faronrablo dnoft my arrival hero. I 
have eioecdincly eitjoicd tny liiiiitinff Acenea. aiul I really feel ft 
Mtoratir>u Iff ht^alth aud energy ereu bcjond my expectations. I do 

tdtlight iu thiH rotroot ; my^tUik in bcmutifa), add Ihoy hui^t af^unrnbly, 
Tliry kill witli 1.11*! fiiU aix and e?iin seven hare« in a day, aad iLia 
ft&idst tho finest ecenery, the inoet mfij^^tif in tbo w^^rld. Hr>w I 
viahyon «tiw thii place and suw mi/ hmtnds bunt, becaoae it is net tba 
mca but thv df^ga that huut with ine- It ia with hitti-r rognTt I tcm^ 
n^flnlf froiu tbc^c mouuUinK, and 1 trould not consent for any o^ar 
;k forfeit my proip&ct of baing here all October in th« eufiniof; ycnr.' 
_^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^_ Mr. Fiupatrick't. 


jyamti O'Conntir* Carrvf/vncfrfioc- 

■Mr- ri(jrp;tlruk'i jm^^'k thow uft liow in this picttimquA wpM 
1h^ ilrligbtrrl ctown in Iuk Ulrct Afiy% Ut matnliiiu a &ort of mni 
rouri, difpejuifis WftpUalii}' in f^f^l Biylc, enjojmg tbr fine 
scenery of ihe ntugbbuuihtiud, and pnxtioo&leijr doToted to field 

HiB account of lib Itrsi expmDce in Parluiii«nt is chanc- 
tcri^tic i>f his impAlictU >|k]ril ;^ 

'I ftm ox«H:(Hiig]j oiiLiucd l>v thu cxbibiliotm of Iho hum 
tlid durrouiiil mu. . . . IiLdc«a tbora ia uiofo folly und aoi 
tho TIoubo than anywhere ont of it. Thoro 10 a loir opd m 
tnni uf ihiukintf, iad tliort* i» a nubmiaaion to &uthontjr which 
itiQ luA degree a«bi»ng/ 

OXJonoell here tfxjirei*es tiv view uken bj many a popalar 
champion, irhn, a ^at Irwler in hit own locality, finds LiuuelJ 
for the fiTbt iluie fEK.-<- to Iacv Willi int^u ei|ualJjr ttblc and fiaeot as 
huniclf. Ho ^H'lu at this time watohing Eagltsb alT&ira wlih do«t 
all«rntion» providinf^ nt xvell ni be eould lor bis larg? exprndi- 
turrr and hi« lo«« <jt prnfpsftii>nal imromn in <:ontirijuence of bit 
attondaficc in Parliamont, iu&lrad ol' in tbc Irish (Jttvms^ hj the 
eat^iblisUmeni oi the O^Lonnell rirnt.* He wus in I'dCt gradntJJj 
dtiAing awaj from the position h(* had so lon^ held as the brttil 
of iho Irish Unr, And 1jecuiiua;r " profcsBioaaL politiciao. TLt 
hoKtilitv nl' the VV'cJIington Oovcrnmrnt oxoludcd him fron 
patruTijLge for bimielf or bis fiu-ndi. Durin<^' i[>g aummrr itd 
aulumn of 1430 wo have a nurnlx^r of letti-rs relaEinj; '^ ^ 
organization of the new fund, the ^O'Conncll rent/ To Fili- 
p4 trick he writes, 

■ This ifl the time to do nometldns for tho Fund. Thid i^ of cfxr» 
in oonfldooco — Ibat m, il loust not on knoim i^ coiuo frocs me ; M 
I nttJiiot tell you how doIigKtod I wqs st tb« devc^lopiaMil of tvff 

plan for a Dioct^aau Sunday Callectiou. Oae Stinday, is it coE^fjf 
each dioce«e ? ' 

Pablic meeting were hcli]» and auiong tlie objccti BO h 
promoted was a Kep^al of the Union, 

Atthisiime, when thiti|Uestion Hrtttiecame a |Kircof hUpDU>^ 
pilicy, wc bare a number of iiitlarnccs afFccUrx^ 0'Ci>aa«^*' 
inind> He Is in IWIiamL-nt, but nr-t yi*l Ae<^u»int«i wilb <** 
ways, and not having luucb disposition to jcirn then. If 
England he is a notability rather than a power, whilu bu 
renown and influence among tbo people he has bitberto ac^ 

* Th« ftDUUsI lyOisnoll trliJitie, pr>pLi]Mjy knrmn •■ tli-^ '0'V<inmU titf* 
isrgett uiunbtr of IcttL-M in Ih^ooilcctkm is>ddfcwed,nad tgahpinhcwaiiiBHf 


J}anM ffCcntwffs Corre^pondetaf^, 


illh are pr4>iter iLnn evt^t. His *»ifwn»B riml »ljrt<* of Itvioif, 
Alvavi frtil *»f proportion to bia income, largo though that wm 
for an Iritli barTj«t«r, hnvv lacrefL^ed^ whilut iUaI income has 
bf^n «onoD5lr intffH'creci with bv hi* atlf^n<rance ia Parliament 
At a distance from the Irith Court*. There was no sabjrrci 
IK) which to rallr the moisfrs such «^ had bc«a the demaod for 
CAlholic rolifff. Th» furlbirr «»xt«oaii>n of Catholic rigbta w»M 
not a suflicit-ntly broail <jucstioa to Vtxp public attention 

Ikfitde« the .ibotition of tlie fortj-*hilling freeholder, i\\e 
Cubolic Relief Act had been accompanied bj anottMrr measure 
which OXonD«n felt inncb more bltterlr than the aboUtJOD of 
tlK popular roter or the prohihitioD of thr tnoniutic order*. 
Th4i CathAtic Anoctution had biren put down in l^i5, but hi* 
ha(! mana^-d to reorpinixc it in one form or unothrr^ down to 
1829. There vaa no e^upinj; from the comprehensive pro- 
visions of the Associationft Act of 1$2!^ but without an 
Aaaociation his chances of raiding funds were gon«. 

One err ilw-rv wa* wUScU t.-x<.ited the pt^asantrv to the 

ve^e of rebellion Aud deopiv inlf^rr^ted the pricithood ; but 

0*Corine1l, iis a Inwvrr. knew ihnt reftital Ii> pay tithes waf 

CODtrarj to Uw ; that ihc atniggle which was already going on 

meant — what bis practical imiincts as a naiural ruler of men, 

what all his profetatonal traiaing^ let! hi[n to abhor — a conflict 

wUb tlie law. With all the«e questions pretend to hia etfer 

fase, th« Frvuc-h rcrvolutiun of July 1330, uni] ihu Del^ian 

rci'olation which follo^c^], brought him, tike mnny otbem, 

1o tbink a^^in nf the »ehr*mr<« nud t\tnlr(jvert'u*% which Had 

fxx-upicd [he close of ttie last century. In IrelanfJ the Parlia- 

OKnt of Grattan bad lately ptoltted by the maxim * de mortuii 

nil ni^ lM>nuin/ Whctlicr lU maizes wilt altogether rejoice 

in tbc flood of light whlcb in later times Mr. GladttoEic'A 

passionate apptnl to hiitory hat thrown oli ila ignoble- ^uur»<% 

wo neeil not stop to ro(|itiTV. The ear<»ers of Gmttrtn and 

Ptunket in ihe Kngliiih HoiiKe of (Common* had greatly added to 

tbe reoown of the defunct aMembly. Disdnguished perionalities 

lire longer in public memory than schemes of policy or acts of 

adminiBtration; and the assembly which included mrfi like 

Persons and Foster, and Smith and Veiverion, which wa» 

I rrprcscnle^I for moru than a gtroeration in the United PaHi;*- 

L nwnt by men Uko Grattan and Plunket, was remembered with 

^^admiralion, whilst their actual shsre in pobliG work wa> for< 

^■golien. Enthusiaam for this famous compauy as one of the past 

^^vbriea, wa< a pious aspiration of tht? ]ri»H crowd, a familiar 

^nopic in public meetings. A cry for Hepeal ot the Union had 

^B been 


Danifi (yConitfir* Ci>rre^>mdtne^, 

been hitherio nth^ an exprefiiion of faoma^ to tlic depftrtrd 
gttAi or of JiuoiitiTiit viiiii Kfigijiful ihtui auy ^talrmeDt of aa 
actual demand. 

In ibe autumn of 1830 we bare ibe fint <Iistinci declaratioD 
mi i\k >utjjcgt i>r Rrpck), ■tldiessctl to one of bi» inipirrd 
wrilerv. The coDtcxt sbowa bov vIomIjt cotin^dvHi it wiu La 
bia thoiighu wilh tho gr#»nt hntina^a of miBing ttipplir;* : — 

*'Th<t Urnoti abciuM now 1>c a^luW ia iTVcry ptmibJ« aliape — in 
all tbuBQ6 au ^'ell aad oaaily sufCF^tKUHi b^ you^Vut not lu the ^lolnaoo 
nf the formation of a {xmiiAnciit ffooioty. A perm»iMBt •ocioIt u 
abaolutely iteceaaary iu ordur tu coUis^t funds in primo kto, to eoUcct 
fijtidn I'n ^c^HH'f'j /4'c<^, and to oAhtsi futidfl, thirdly «nd Wtly, bocftWo 
wo btiro both mind and Uxtjr witliiii tia, and all wo a'aut in tho i&auia 
of koeping tbo macbine in rot^ular and supple motioii. Comptioa 
iraa «aid by liurkc tc> lo tbu oil tbat iuaki:«t Ibe vhcolii of gDronuU|^fl 
g(j. Kuiioy i» a» iior^jsMLry tu kijep iu diuf op«i[at£on Ibe B^ring^^^ 
popnlar oxcitcnuitit.' ^^^ 

Sbtirtly after Lord Gt^j's Ministry waa foTmcd, Lord Anglncy 
aw OX'oDEieU at Uxbnd^D Houae in an Interview to which 
)'Conn«ll tbua rof^rt : — 

* Lord Angloca neat for mo and tftlkod lo mo for two boor*, to 
prevail ou tue tu jab th<! OorerniDeDt ; bo ^crnl ai> (or a^ U* <1i*rtaB 
n^ ptivato a&ira in order to prerail on tno to repair my fottanc*.' 

What exactly panned at thi» jnXtrvlpw it not rv>rortl«]; U 
there caa be littli^ doubt tbat the Oovnrnmt-nt would have been 
glad to accept 0'C<inncIl mi Sulicj tor- General. Lord Anglctcy» 
boworer, was not prepared to ofier any commanding poiiliea 
whkb would have iecuTi»l bim a Ijbcn] tbarc of pottronagc fo 
hi> IrUh fol]i>ninf^ ; and tbc^ cuufi^fvucv wua tuccredctl by a 
bntff and uagcr conflict, wbieh resulted in O'CoocrlVn »fT«< 
for flfTenrrs agnln^t the AiMocIalions Actt in various fmb 
attempts to ri^'eatablUb a luccttsaor to tbe Catholic AfsociitioD- 
Immcdiately <*nsued negociationa, of which we have aome CDfion* 
hints in these votumes. On the l^kb of January O'Coiinell Wii 
arrt-stitd. On the Sifnd be writca; — 

' I iiavo had a cotnmnniiAtiou wUh a pcmon in tbo oonfldsnoaof 
tho Miiiialry iu Kii(;Iuud, but whoAD utuuQ I ODDot divcloMy vW 
fitnteH dUtiiietly thAt. all tho miniatiy dwiiro ifl ta pvlpoiM ihe Voaatt 
que&tion, until thi^^c of n^fonu, ib<itttiou of corpiirat^' moDtnMlj ivl 
reformation of Chmchabusoaaio disposed o( thUflleaW&gtbaUiutf 
for tliu lubt, 

' I Ibink tliii may bo Jone by Lord CTonocrry ami X/ord Hi 
Hucb a luannor aa to carry with them tli^ public mind, ^ 
only jofit Eo muoli nr rather £o littlo of popnlar agilation 
coatiQitc the confidenco of tbc people in the pru«|Kct of ~ _ ^^ 


DanUl O'ConncIVs Correspondence. 


rodrdw; sucb pnispect being, lu lay mim1,tlieoii1y mode of preventing 
Tioloiic«» fttid oatmgc, and probalilQ rebellioiu' 

Thp Peers »ppcrt!ccl to were nol pr^'piiretl lo help O'Connell 
.out of liU dilftcuUies. But with L'>ri] DiincAnni^R, whotr neM 
Kilkcnnj wiu in tome cUngern he was able lo nublish satis- 
tctory r«UUuna. O'Connrll wa» conricltil, Lot released on 
bail, to como ap for judgmitnl ; vrKiUt this corrvnnondcinco ihowa 
that theocofoiward, Ur lUt^ time of hit tlvnih n» Lord- Lie uleDntit 
in 1845, I^nl DaocAnnon, tulrarqurntly Lord BesaboTDagb, 
pud the tDObt dulifut atlention to OConfieli't wi^hef. 

This W!k% jtist the suit of pulitii^L pfaition he enjoyed, adcI 
on hii sidr he did hit pert wich a will ro ihow his fideJiiy 
to his new slJ^. On April 27ih wc httve bim, tbe traTencr 
awftiting: jo'lfrmt'nt, reporting to Lord Diinc-anmin lbi» pro<peett 
of the cumioy election : — 

' On Eoy nrrirAl h«To tbU d^j , I of eooria proooodod ftt oooq to 
buiiwae, mad I am b&ppy to tay that eTtiiytULog liv m$ &TOiinkbIo 
Mm wpoct lu one eoulil almost wUb.' 

Aod he prooeetli Co give detaiU of tttme nine conttitueneiet. 
Tbe lU'iin bonlen of thti com^cpondennr after 1833 is tbe 
qnntion i>f Imh appoinlmenti. The GovernmeDt are rc- 
profiubed for tun 'cumincmin^ to be fri^Tmllv to liieit fnoikdV 
and the ca^birnng of Loril Angletcy, nm) Mr. Stnnley, the 

^—Chief So<;rclAry, apd of Blackburn^ the Atti^rnej'Ciencrftl, u 

^■pftlCgtvtod aa a plmigo of good-wilL 

^^ It WAt nliout thiv time tbnt Dr. Doyle, dixcuttlng the probft- 
btlitT of O'ConnelTs accepting an appointment, wrote : — 

'1 ihinV it will bo htnl to jrAin O'CoDnoll, far hn it more popnW 
In Ir^UMd tlian ho ever w&a, &nd he can ^f he p]«aae g«t tn^outr or 
thirty Ibotitanil pouudH front tlio country cq ht« ret«im. Thia 
inpolarEty ami ciuoluni&Dt are EQor« than Hiuibters C4m ulTer to biai.* 

At the election of 1832, nfter the pusing of the Koform Hill, 
h* ciertod bia full power a> a jKipulihr leader advocating Repeal, 

.aadftiKOcetJrd in ohminin^ liltv-two followers pledged to this 
proponL Tbii cry fteivcd at a ptcA for asking Jor the vote* of 
likt uwlcu and di»afTc<!tcd ; whiUt their dccdVf however, be<;au)0 
t^ tDonitrout, that the Minittry were forced next Seaiuoii b> 
prnpcMc onf^ of the ttemcst Coercion Acts of modern timet. 
O'Lonncll «4n]red hit popularity by tcencfl of oitrmragant 
Tiolrnce; am) with lits fierce fknunciatioDt of (he ' brutal and 
bluoly VVtii*:^/ hii »lltrs, nod hiB tincf re ottsUughtfi on Stanley, 
ohont he df-'tt^slnl^ tl is ciiriuun to comjiurt^ a funlideutiai letter 

' b Lord DuDcanncn written in January 18<I3 : — 

' Th«r« ie ft& alinoAt uiiiier»a1 orpinuaiioD Roinff ml It U not oon* 
fined to ono or two cunntioK- It ie, I ropoftt, ■Imotl QDiTorml, I do 
uot b«li«ve tUot tbero is any mau in tbe T%iik of a coufortablc fanner 
ont^og^cl — n^t on^ iimti probtLblj ontitlod to toU*. Bnl M the 
porfrrljr of our (?oiinti<M( if; limnf; organi£u<1. Tliero never jti vm, an 
1 belitfvc, so gcrDoiihl a <lifipositiou for that speciae of ineairootLODuy 
outragm. . . . AU 1 can add in ttic way of adrice ik — that the nsoro 
troDpd aiti Buut orer Lor«, tbu betlur. lu or^rj pviut uf tww it i» 
IxTAt to incrciua tho King's tfoopA.^ 

Till* Wier ttjrowft ligblon the violent vranglG wbiclirxrcuired 
later ">n m ihr Sc^v^imi, wUrii J^inl Allhurp w.t* called Qa lo 
fi|fht a (lUffl brcAUiL' Iio ai)i»i(t4:iJ Knvinf; stated that aome of 
0*Connft]r< foHnw^rs had ronro«si?<l tbo npci?««ttjr of n CnvrcMta 
BiU. ll indeed exhibit! a cbaracteriatic of Irisb «ffitUiDii»ui 

I'udgr fr)m tho irccntl^' pufaHiditd J<;tt«ira of Captain O'Shca anil 
It* CbambcrlaiD. 

tVliilst O'Connell wat relying' on bis violent op|xnitioo lo 
tbc Coercion Ail tci krt*^ biiii«rlf liglK wltli bia publiCf oibcr 
a^tAU>r» in IrclnnJ were tnkSng advanlapc of ibo g«'a<*ral cUfr- 
ve*c4*nrp ivhifh follnwfv) on tbr qiirrrw nf Reform !a prvM fof 
some prof^eift on ibe ijuestiop which O'Connell had lo often 
talkn) Bbout* Fcargus O'Connor bad given notice of & motm 
in favour of Itopeal- 

' Feargna O'Connor bu bad bin broioi bloirii out by tlio tnah b 
tbti "Frwraan'a Journal/' and bo bas, witbont condefloeudin^ k 
coDsoU IOC, Axod bin Uuinn dcbnta fur the IGtb »f iho noxt mcoUt' 
Uo «iU do i^rc«t uiiic]ii«f. muH Ibo Itopealan wilt, X troat, th** 
Mr. Lavclle that lie ha« q>ccii1atcil badly in setting on this uiKakn- 
lating mid voarae-miaded fellow to do miwbief. 

* At proRimt xnj family arc dotorminod ^at I ebould m^lber qw^ 
Dor Totc. ^ly wife— wbo ill Almodt uH mj politioal roMolTO LoaMiBi 
1 be1iev«. iinifotialy rigbt — is etrrtn^lj- aifainBt my bJcing anjp*f^ 
I rnvM^f tbink I aboiud uienily inland by and loply to Nonft ht* 

'It is cruel to haif<; my plan dcradgod by thw Inlerlopor* H** 
dobnto con do uotbiDg but ui!iiebK<f/ 

In tbi> jear we bave numerous despatches to Mr. PitxpalTi^^T 
hi* ChAnc^lloT of the Excbequer, ami to fait pms a^nts. pr>- 
u-flliof; htB Kfal for Repeal, bia unahonble conviction of ^ 
mMN^tsity, bift pf^nonn I sacrifices for tH<?c«t]«c,hii own innpoftan^ 
lo the Ministry, but not u single sontcoce sug^etts (hnt bt biJ 
ri-«n^' cx^niidcred bow thc^ K<^peal ^rlii^mc was to be cnrricd, 

lie was nn^ry vritb O'Connor for prc&Bin^ on a diacuitiKi 
of Kvpeal in 19^. The dan^r was evaded for that particsEar 
Session, but cvuld not be indefinitely postponctl, pajlicaWj' 


Dnnici CPC^anetft Corrtspondenct. 





Xhf* Rfiyn! SiM*nf'h of Ifi^-l r^onUint'it a ilklmol rri>iir!ialion 
of ihe scln^me, O'ConncIl had. sorely against his will, lo face 
tlt4? i>rti4'a] f>i n Parlinmffniary ditcuMtnn, All ittt ircorxh of 
bis fritoclt describe him ts mucli ihspirited al tbe prospect. 

k-ueir toSuunton fttrcnsthens the iinprestioo wblch the reader 
g«ia from the works of ^l^, D^uat and of Mr. John O'C^tincU, 
04 ti> th4? pxcewling i^luctftncv of O'Conn&ll to enter upon a 
formal ditcuMion of hiR ^rrrat theme. 

*I iKrvf^rfolt CO ncrvr^iu ahoiTt anjthing aa 1 cIa abotit oaymaal 
«^rt It vriU ha my vunu 1 »iuk heocatb the loiul. UjrmatenaU 
are confno^d and totally without nrnuii^Tncnl. [ wish yon could 
CO0O h«TO and firing McCabo. I would reodilj hct at tho enliz^ 
mp^Oflo; kmt yon nboald ootao wichr>ut dolav. In fjicl U ta at tLo 
Kart nkoncni 1 Tbntun^ to write to you on Ihn aubjeot I mjt vcntnra 
beenw I am convinced thoro will bo nothing in my Hpeech Joaerviog 
nooUectum or aoy extraorduiaiy exertiuua by my frieuda. It i« finite 
Iroo ifaal I httvo tlcspoodod bofon» a public cxorUou and iiftorwurdft 
«icoe<4iW, but Ihia cannot nov bo tlta €a«>^ I fori for the firirt tiai« 

The defeat nf hia propowl fnr r riotnmiltep on ihj* reinkt of 
the Act of Union — the actual majority waa 4^tf — naa a matter 
of course : but O'ConnelT* tpL-ivh vr.ia sJngulRrly defieicnl In 
tbo«c characterislic ouibursla of energy and phustble argument, 
with vrhicb h«< generally won the atteniion fven of his moat 
ea^r iip|>on<;nta. il<: failed to convince the tiouac thai be had 
any faith in bia own t^un*. 

Darinj; the brif*f Mrllmiimo adminUtratioD which ncceeded 
OB the resignation nf Lord Grey, we find O'Conne!! exceetiingly 
active in impressing upon Lord Duneannon the necessity of eon- 
lUeriog his views on the Lriih Church and similur quetCionv, 
bti above all on mattcra of paironage ;^ 

' All v€ «^V ipi Iliat yon sboald remove from offioe your cneiiii«« and 
ouia, Ihiii tho Onmgo faction ilioiild n<it oontinno lo to, m tlic^ hato 
HUicrto exolTifliT*ly b™n, your only inNlmmfrntu of mln in Imland. 
We cmply aalt of you not to coatinuo to outrost your power ob you 
Wa biUierto -lot^x U> yonr mortal enemic«« but to govt-m Indond br 
cvaved and tried friunds of rvfoim and of tliu IrJj^b peopio— h; Huch 
ftim aft yon aro yonrfwlf/ 

;er Peel's un*UL-i«t(";il feat^rl l« u general rleclluu lu 1834, 
hiUt ihf drb»iei were proceoding, which ended in his defcftt 
"It: ih* apppoprlalion cUuse, O'Connell writes to Pilzjutnck in 
hhruaiy 1835:— 

Yon will perofiive that I liOTO oScrod my t«nnfl of rapport lo tbo 

ifC luluistry wkcn they shall bo formed a^aiit. Th<^y aro thcKo:— 

Ist Aa ^^ tod <titttiaiTe a Keforta Jtill for Ireland as the 

Vol. Iti7,— Aft *J4. T Ecgliah 


Jktnid O'CMJttift CVrrjjwaJww*. 

BiigluL people may hat«. In other iror^ Uh> fam^ ineaaaro of j 
iwfotnt for botk ooudUich. 

' 2fi4, Tic rodnctioQ of the ceublinLmoDt la tho eit«nt of Uio wiats ^ 
of th(i ProtciitaiiU, A&d a proper jLpplioation of iha lUifplBS. 

'3rfl. A oompUlfi Aurpuratv reform. Upon ^Uixig thwo t«tiMl| 
am r«ady bi givo r fall and fnir trial of tLoir efficiency. I wooUj 

STo thnt triafto «Jiow wlietlitr they could prodnco good _ 
IrvUuiI, AiiJ, if tliht oTp<<.riinc»t foiled, 1 would v>m hmdk* 
iflitfoM fjrou to *■ tli<i lUpoiii." 
'I bopo mv offer of rapport will fiu^iliUto the return td offieeof 

Here wc probably hnvc the rou^U draft of th* Lichfiold Haute 
comnnct, to bo nptll^d at th<* mroEinga of ihi^ fctllnwing montli. 

When tlie VVbi^it nrtiirDM) to uflfice, the <|ciestioa whether 
O'Connell wm to form pnrl of the rtcw mioinry wm moch 
more complicated ihaa at tlie date of the UxbriJgc HottH 
meeling. He hud 1>(!C»mc known to tlie En^Usb publti 
the virulent asaailAiit of eucccsnv^ minisicml c^nibiiiihtii 
b«-Auae they would not ncc«pt views divtAtteful to tbo ^itttt 
mnjorily of Fnglialimcn. In oflirf- hp would Uavfi hnd bimE^lf la 
4^xplam both to hic IrJKh followm and to Knjfluhinen the oatarr 
of hU aTTangrmpnr» with the Government, Timl hit collengao 
would have been called on to be equally explicit. Tbey coald 
not have evadfr<l th^ subjrct by nnvwen *urh lu Lon! Melboorn* 
g«vc in the House? of Loidit, uirnvrt^r^ whU^U Lord BrouebAm tvd 
w«Fe * on the footing of drollery.* With OX^onrwll metoMj 
in the Cabinet, or respontlblf? for ^n important MCtion a 
Irish ailminiitratiun, tlu? time for drollery vrtmld havt^ soM 
by. Even oi it was, it became necesrary for O'Connell le 
cxpl&in the co-op«ration between hiii force* and those of the 
Mlnifttn, and Utcr on hr publicly announced his wtlHtigDQ* 
to auapcnd Uie n^pcal ajt^itattou niiliL the intDi»t«TiuI prograiBior 
wa« developed, Nntliin^ but bis great p«r»OEud authority cooM 
bnre imposed such tin arrani^enienl on the tutionaUtt cromll 
fri>m whom he drew his conlributionH. If at the same timek 
hid bec[>me a salaritH) member of the Government, bU cootmtfJ 
ot the ajiitdtion would have hceu lost. In these circumfUuM^ 
the prejudices of the Kisg were not on anwelcoose solotion. 

1 he fall of the Peel miniitry bad bi?en anticipntnl. Tbt 
LichfLcId Houtt» m4>«tiiig« wpto h^ld in viow of this comioff 
events but the decisive vr»te on Litrtl John KukuOTh nmendnMO^ 
did not take pUcc until April 7th, The resipiation of ih* 
Ministry tvas only announced on (he ^tli. Until tlie da? W' 
lowiag there was no possibility of learning the Kings's vicVsi* 
any formal manner, and without some formal declaration on 1^ 


Daniel (fOmnelV$ Ccrretpondence, 







nbject ftxifl a drolnrntion m^ro ihfin once Ti?irirrfttc<l, it it imnoft- 
■iblo tn lH?li<>ve that 90 itn|iortant a |y-ricmA^^ as O^Connrli won 
then in public AflAirB, woulil — If he really wenr an aipirajit 
to office — bave submitted to be shelved on the dictum of 
Willismi IV. Yet on ih(? tlaj Mclbaumc firil saw tht King 
0*Cann<-Il writes to Fitzpatrich^ who waf the voice to whiiper 
to OX^oiipeUs ogcuts whi«t was lt> become lUc cuircnt opimun 
of th« pnriy ; — 

' You may bo o<juvidooi] thnt t will ni>t accept olbn of any kmd 
^ittioat difltioot plo<t)*es. Nor la thoru &uj offioo I ithoidtl aoo*pt 
MTO Attorney- General or Socrotniy for Iroland. But thcro Diny 
be objectioufl iu tbo pr?juiicc!« of tliu King agrau«t me wluoh may 
Kiidor it cmvrise to have mo nEiraod to nny situation.' 

Here was the germ from wbirb public opinion in Irclaml woi 
to flprinj;. 0*Connell, the faitbt'al i^ardi&n of the countrj, 
ottraclzed by thv arbitrary act of the King, and yet regardleu of 
«lf, doing what he could to help a ministry from which he 
hoped some goud for Ireland. 

A Tcry important clement in ihc new Oovcmmrnt wa* Lord 
^lulfrrav^^ (hi> Lord Li(*u1i.-i]AOf, in whom O'Coiinell pnu^tienUy 
found bi* own 'irpiity in atl ministration. When the State vraa 
siill in labour with the second Melboame Cabinet, he writes :— 
*\ye have an excellent man in Lord Mulgnve, the new Lord 
Lieutenant. 1 tfllyoutbcrccannot be abetter/ Aarepn^rniinfr 
O^Connell in the Mini»trv» liw sen-ites were to »athfuc(or}r, thai 
three Ti^" nftorwnrrli O'Connrll report* ^o<l lidinga of the 
Cabinet'^ provprett, and atldi^ Mbit, nfti^r all, ift cheering for 
Ireland, as it leaves ns Lord Mnlgrave.' Later on he writea: — 

' Lor<3 Mulgravu ttunt fur tae ycietftvlAy to <tata tte vaoaooy in the 
Excheqiior. and to hoar my wiflhea on tho snhjcct. I easily fiLivn'^^d 
t]iat I oaght not to ibccc|it the judgiag c>f tithe cauHoi. He then 
Stated that ho bohoTod it would not bo difflenlt to mnko an ai-ruuge^ 
meat to offor roo '■ tlo ICoIIbt*' <ind in dot ho offi>rcd it- You kuow 
tbat^ if I took auytting. it irould }>o tho RitWs But I could not 
brin^ myself to accept it. My he^wt in IjonTy. Hut / fMPt miult- thU 
$acrtfice. Notbiu>c cotihl eioeed tke iiaudsome mounor in which Lord 
Mulgravo croaied ma' 

O'Connell remained in politics and out of office, but he 
ofatatoed some? three years of power in the way mrutt suited to 
'ij habits and tastea. None of the Irish appointments could 
be settled without consulting him, whiitt tlio smaller depJirl- 
menta of pntronngc were pinoed at his ditipoaatf and good burth« 
were aecuFvd for hii ronn^^ctiomc nm? fleprndant*. 

A faithful supporter of the Cabinet, the death of William IV. 

y 2 insulin: ~ 


Daniel O'CtntMlfs CVme^fWndbiDC, 

iittplrrct luin wiili new hopcH^ The ocw Qucc-d wm wclcomril', 
by 0*CoDneU with cnlbu«tium. Mr. FjUp<fctnok quciltr* tbffj 
account given hy Lorrl Bmnghton of O^Connell'i atlend&nra at , 
St. Janieft*Sf on the proclamatioo of tlie accession of Ha^ Queens 
*acliag ti% A sort of rug!cm;tn to the tnultUudr, And rcgaUtiaf ' 
their accUmatioDS.* JUtet on O'UooncU mitea: — 

' Tho Qn^un haa oiprofticd a with to too mc. Sho ia i^termoMi 
tQ ooDciliat« Ireland. I will of course atteod the next larAo, ifti, 
porhapi ooma ^ouU to TiX'l»u4 umy bo the c«iiiN«|U>OlM». You 
fMl haw »tiij)OJ-ative it ]« to Iteep all lliii^ from overj ojo bot l 
own, «)Fi>ccin]]y a« I may porbafjfi bo honoured viUs an aoduM*^ 
irithin UiD days*' 

In his apccfchci Am) lettrra at thit timr hia alloiiont to th' 
Qurcn bicalhc warm personal aclmiration, ^The (ja«^cn, (twl 
h\v.%s ler!* WM t> be Eh<? cry uf bis r<i)lowrrs at the cotciti; 
election, and ho declares to tbe AasocJatJon, 

' that ttotil the acceesion of lUr prvKnat Majca^ thero natcr vis i { 
•i>Ter«i];u mi tht' Uritlah Thrvoe «iucun^ly fh«ndlj to the peoplt of 1 

Iq a tn&nifoto to the AiaocUtion hcaaja, 'We harvoatlv 
tbrono « monarch educated to ohcmh the rights aikI libcrtkiAf 
atl the iwnplrj freft from preofvupnliant and prejudice*^ uri 
rc*a(]y 1o do juatice* lo aII, without diallnetion of aect or p^- 
aaauon** His followt^n wrrr to br organized as * the frirodi I'f 
tile Queen/ and in bis enthu&tafcm foi ' the benevolent wishfi^' 
tbi- pure-minded sovereign/ he adds, 'let Cork county uuJ 
Vorkaliirc be put on a fooling — let helan<] aJkd Engluid W 
identified/ OConnell was not tb« man t» think thai tbff 
^tignitv of Irrlnnd was .idvanred hy n^fnuing lo plav 'G«l Sirif 
the Queen/ or to drink the sovereijfa's healtli. In furthendO^ 
of tbit pidicy the Kepr^al Association in Dublin iras disiolT«<l 
in October, 

The contributions, hoirever, to tlie O'Connelt tribute nn 
very ^ow, and thir followini; Session of 18J^, shoivnl pliiah 
both tW wooknocft of ihc Gorcrninent and tbcir coniciou*** 
of the unpopnlarity whicb iheir alliance uith O'CookII 
fntsiled, Fowarcls the end of the year he announced a i*^* 
organisation, (o be called tbe Precursor Society. ThJt Qii^ 
was selected in order to include all penont who looked ooii^ 
exUtiijg stale of things as a prelude to somettiiEig else, whr^^ 
ibut something v/am repeal or greaCcr concesalun fiom OoitTik- 
mcnt. Tbit wat the? time when Peel's growing reputft'-i^ 
menaced the life of the Ministry; and O'Connell expUinlH 
Dr. McHale^ ^mjr prescm anxiety is to have our organis 


J}aniel O^Cotmtirs Ct^rrtjrpondcnef. 


'miileUHldurinfftliRrci^of the prmrnl Miiiitterft.' O'Conncll 
w that a p^riotl of Torv Goiemoienl wa* at band, and it 
was for tliift (hut be withed to hnvi; readj' tilt' rrsfiurrc of a 
R«|»i-a1 agitAtion. Bat there vm crcn a worse dao^r than the 
exclution «f O'ConncU'i fnvnda fn>in office* Tli«c wa> vo(n<< 
roftpoct AC ihU timn, ni th^ GrovUU joUTitali dUclovff, of (h« 
rmation of a. coalition MinUir}- ; and as this pOMibilitj became 
irrrater, hr <^xrri4<d himBclf the tnorc to puth on hii new A«so- 
ctation. H'ben the Miniatrjr roaig-ned oa the Jamoiea Bill in 
'lay. 1^39, h<? writes, we inaj- t>clii*ve with perfect wncentv, 
[*B)«Krd be God, it U & sad allliction. . . Regret is vain. 
The Tories mtu/ dissoivc, but the blow Is too ftrarful to allow 
fn» to da mori* than announee it to you/ Tht^ di«put«> nr^r iho 
Uoiuehold ap|M>iDtm<?Dts had the euect of reinovia|r all danjter 
of eoatition, and throwing the rrttore*! Miniilry more tban ever 
into the hands of O'Connell, and of ihe En^^tibh Radicals ; but 
he cle:iily saw it was only a respite, and although h(< struggled 
to kc«-p agitation adoat, he was in rery low spirits nt (he 
cootinuod falling olTin the O'Coanetl tribute. 

As tlpfput fo1low«*d dpfe^it nt VWntminRff^r, hp pmrf^eilfd in 
1840, formally to inau^umte a Kirpt-al Association, and 
\t time he SQC<r(?e<5<'d in s^'lting what thi> corresponileocc 
ibows he had lonj: been asking for in vain^ the hearty co- 
opemtion of Dr, McHale, The price of this assistance was 
0*Coniie]rs pled^r to tuakv the Arehbishop*a views in opposition 
1o the Edueation Board a primaTj portion of his policy, 'lite 
meetings he called iluring the autumn produced a cenAin amoont 
of commotion, but they did not secure an increase in ihe 
ttipplies. In FcbroAiy 184J, he writes: — 

' Wliere aholl I get moaej ? Tito tribute bjw not boon inccoasftal 
tltia year» snil the second attecnpt appoBi« mors inefficio&t in ite 
nsnJt* than the first.' 

The election of the summer wss fatal tn the Whig psnr, and 
greatly dtminisbed O'Conneirs parliainentary «crmgth ; but, on 
the »ther band, the return of the Toriea to ofHec gav(> hitn 
« greater cjusnticy of plastic mntcrjnl. The VVbi^y wrr? li^as 
huvtile to n in(ivcm<-nt which could hardly fail to be cfinhhrTnaaing 
^^|to iheir opponraif, and in Jnly hr nrilrK, with incneaseil cnn* 
^■Eilcnoe, * Kepeal is the sole basis which the people will accept, 
^Bi>l nnbody tell you tlte contrary/ f^till the money did not come 
^pHo the disdrganized exchequer, and his letters ditclose great 
■ Apprehension ; — 

' ^Vant IB litorally killing tne, 1 havi^ grown ten ymt older tt<aa 
taj inocwaiit pouauiary auxEety/ 


Daniel ffCoitnclFi Coru^^n^aim, 

In the followmg nutuinn, hovrnver, liis efforU produced a con 
Biderable »Ur amongst people of various comiitions in all paru 
of th«* couuir)', and tbc itgiliiuuii >c<;uic^ mint vfTccUvr nid 
iu a now WMjkLY paper roprc«rniing ft Kccuf»n of IrUh opinioui 
wKich bft/I hern j>rActica\]y vmf?pLr-«« liiiot the iljivft of Wolf* 
Tone. The ' Nation ' made its appearance in Oitobcr, 1M2, 
aad ahlioutfli it tould nul have couie into existence or foooil 
fiubscribcre but for the ferment which O'ConoeU UmI producecl« 
itfl Mrle of writiog and directness of poUcjr went homo to the 
pijpular bcajt iu b wnj whi^b ibc mnstct agitator could cioE 
emulat«<, D&vu, DulTy, and tin.* baod of writer*, trho tiArt«d liic 
nrw orgTiii, wfirkril lojnUv fnr 0*( onnrll and Rrpi^I, Imt they 
did 90 because Hepcbl ivas purt of a lar^r scheme, vrbicb vnu 
thjil of an indeperid^ni [relnnd, a nation to he ruled by Insb' 
men. Such a tiieme presented an epporinnit}' of much brigblfr 
and more attractive wriiiu|^ than any di»quisiiions on SuDlej'i 
HcgLfttrtuion Bill or (he reform* of corpor&tioos could iUPfM,'* 
'Ihv young vfritt*r* L>«c&mo mcmbei* fjf th* Adociatioia, Tieij 
rradf^rs subacribed to the O'ConnrU i.ribnte- At lonf u 
O'Connell was able lo promise l{e|Kal there was no occaaon 
for a critical contrast of principles* The laimediAtc end M 
both sections was the same, the diminution of British is- 
flueace over Imh a(r;urs. WhiUi the Young Ireland pari 
b«aJ(cd in tbe g;low of O'CoonelTa popuUritv, tbeir dl*qoiu' 
lions OQ Celtic history and aniiquitiri flntt«rcd local Tmahr, 
and tbeir rhetoric and poetry created i>opular enthusiasm. Hit 
repeal rent, which had hitherto pmduced less annually tbift 
OConnell clnimc<l to have made at the B&r in 1829,^O0U 
a*ye-ar» — rose in the course of ltS43 to something like 5O,O00t 
a-year. The bishupi and priests M over the country cane «■> 
and most of the Romnn Cnttjolic- landlords. Tlic oTgsiucaii«d 
in Dublin wji« d4-vrli>p*'d an an f^normou* sokle, >iid O'ConnfN 
announces) that wiihin tbe year Rejwal would be obuuoecl 

It was determined to follow up nil the other demonetratiooK 
l>v crtdlecting the lar^c^t possible crowds at particular spouaU 
over the country. This series of r\$x g^tht-rings contintxil 
all through the; lummcr *i( 1S4S. Thi_' Government reiDOWil 
0*Crtini<dI and aomo othi^rs from tic <^mmi»ion of the pciicr, 
but did not interfere with the mf^eijngs. Pc<e], whra cballeniyd 
in tlie House of Commons, decUrtHl his unalterable reaolutioD 
to maintain tbe Union even at the cost of civil war. O'Conwtl 
replied by reiterating his prophecy, that he would have Rep»l 
brforct the end of ibe year, and talkr^l about legal rights mkI 
resistance if they were assailed. *■ VVi- wtU uut attack/ saidlus 
lieutenant John CXConneU. ^ 1 do not say we will noi defesd.* 

Daniei GConntlFi Corr^tpondenfX, 



he troop* in Ireland and th« police were incrensed, but ootbing 
ther wtu done until thr «tc of the greatest drmonstratinn Uic 
))4m1ers had ^et projected to be beld in ibe outskirli oi Dublin. 
TUcu uL Ir-uj^tli tbc rSuvc-iiim^MU ilccSarcd ihrtnscl t <^s, and, <m 
duf proviou* aflornoon, pr>rf.iinr(tIoiiB wcro poatcd prc»hibiling 
the meetlDg. OXH>nnrtl nml hiit frirndc ivrrr tn cntinril at tho 
lime, ftnd at once decided lo kdjoum the mfetiDg. 

After tbe violent Lu)d;UAge of the tummert die tmlk of dying 

<r Irelondf of Jcnvin^^ his Goemin onlj his dead body to trample 

ipon, tbJB prompt tunendev vras faiftt to bis Tepuution for 

ity and irrr»UlJble power. No Attempt itak wa^g Io :cst 

tbc <]a«^ti<in of l«r|*:il right. At tbr n^Kt meeting of the A**o- 

ciaiiun, he endeavnuTcd bj' a lon^ nnd VAgu<? hnrangutf to divert 

fublic attention from hii disaster, but the catastrophe was ontjr 

the more obvionc, and in a few dny« the OonrrnmtDt foUoved 

Dp their success by a prosecution for s^ditioua conipiracy. 

The Matorjr of this fninoua trial, O'Conneir^ cutiviciion and 
impriaoQinefttf and the final (joaabing; of th«; <x>nviction by the 
House of Lords, are iho b«t knona puition of O'Connell'a 
career, and need not be repealed berc. 

Hia prccevdiDirs acibfequcntLy were a strange exhibition of 
hti aniiety 1o escape from tbe untenAblrr pcuillon into which 
the eagiCT-neas of Lis atrif« with iWl had hurried him. In 
October, after a few weeks' reposr at DnrrjnajiCf hi* adiirtssed a 
lon^ diacarsive (.-pifde to tbo Association, Ho fttirtetl by 
cljumlo^ the decision of th« House of Lords as n gn**«it victory 
in farotir of the principle of public meeting. That decision, it 
Has manircst 1i) every one, procee<lcd entirely on technical 
quettioDS of criminal pleading and procedure; but, in bia 
jKldeavour to cover bis retreat, he shid of it ; — 

' We hare obtained the moat valuable victory that oviir was 
ehiored by puroly moml incan«. The victory of Waterloo w»b the 
moro triatuph of f hynioal force, cotnbiuiyl with taihtarj orgAiiizatioa, 
II waa a bnital and bloody soone, and nnch of what arc called its 
giori«« dopmded upon ohanoo and JiccidtjuL 

' Oon, ou the oontnry, woa tlie trinmph of tbc first {]iiaci)dei of 
eivU libortf, ui4 of the juiicial mcritH of our gloriomi cauur. That 
which triumphed was tho^TOatcfmittitntioD a) pnociplowhiehaaiicttnu 

ktha fights of fre« dlicusaion to tbe inhabitantH of those realnia.' 
Tbo sigTiiflcant pnrt of this Icn^tby discourse was :^— 
*Por my own pari* I witl ov& tbtkt luuco I hava eomo to oontAm- 
plite tfia apcerilio diO^econroa, auoh ia tlioj aio, b«tw«en aimple repeal 
aad FedenliaiD, I do at prowmt fool a prefcronce for the Federative 
plan aa tendinEf more to the utility of Ireland and to the majnt^manoo 
of the connection with Eughiiid, tbin tbo tucdo uf atuiple repeal.' 


And lie inrttM an obftctire section of Irifb polidcUnc, wliom he 
had hitherto ignored, to propose a plAn of > F<Hl«;niuvQ Uqkhi 
lor further ducumon. 

Il HAS Miifirwbat stonling to find tbat, utter labcKiring on 
ihi% tiuc'Btion foi tnoxfr thnrt fi>rty yr-ftr* — for, nrtinnlm^ to ttt 
own iif^liiratlnn*, hi* hnd ili^voti-d Uimitif to Ki>|wfi) id ISOO — be 
was sitll in doubt 31 to the character and poworsof the ParLiMiitoi 
lie asked for. Tbe 'Nation' at onco jiroteslfd a^itut this 
attempt to shift bis ground. U Fc-dcraiiftm Amiuod n certflia 
numher of Liberal Prolestunlt, Id ihcm cherish it, for it waj», in 
Lli<" wordi of Sir C- GavAn Daflj, *tbe sbadovr of r*pcJ; 
but O'Connoll wa* bound to adh^ra to lb<? dofinite pro- 
pnsa] which ilistinrtlv rcrtiLfnixn! national nspirationSi, Knu to 
these b« owed the sireo^th of the mor«nicnt vhich he bod 
tfvoked. Mr. Dftvift wrote : ' The aspiration of Irehiid is for on- 
bounded nationality; to the policy ol this wc arc sun-O'ConndJ 
will return/ Ai ttie same time be wrote priTateJj to Scnldi 

*M7 0{>imon ift, yon kn^w, what I have HlwAyB avowod ui ilia 
' NiLtion,' Duni^Ty^ liiat F(vt<?ruli«m la not, and oaQEH>t b«, a final mUJb- 
meiit> though it deeoFTOB a fair trial and perfect toloradoo- I 
bcUcvi^ tliorcT would 1>d no limit lo our natioualitj i& tirentj jvirs, 

whether wo pnss through FcderaliEm or ,' a bluk la lh« ort^nal 


Meanwhile O'Connell, on hii part, although he took 
public pan in the discusilon ht* had sianed, wrote on the ] 
of October to Smith O'Brien, enclosing n draft schema of F< 
rnliBm^ And aivuriog; O'Mrirn in mnnv llatrvTing tt^rma titai 
would not move furtlitr in Irish qu»tions without fVHncTn's atd. 
O^IIrien replied oolilly to the pushing letter, and lu to the 
scheme, declared that bis preference waa for Repeal. Sbordy 
after the date of his letter to Smith D'Hrten, we have « letirr 
to Filzpatnck, and the concluding paragraphs indicate onlf 
toti distint^tljr that in 1814, as in 1^3l), the quettion of suppij 
abiorbe<l much oi his Attention : — 

^Kov. 2nd,— J. oacnot voll d^soribo tho ajulotj 1 foci to Lctf 
froei rnu. You hrokt? off Uy ti-d]iii|; tiio tliat O^Haf^aii w» haaiedsl 
D<?lfit^t nrrojiging soiiio Fedoral domoostrutiotL Tbor^ the inlaUi- 
gence atimda atilf: vff aud on, 1 ought to he apprised U&re 90 
of ffi'-. /net. I HTippoKo, inilecd, that tbo moTctnent for FodusIiKu 
liuB buoii quo^hod by tKo Whig* £u the Marphy liDO^ aad b^ d0 
Tories and cuoTcans i& Uic ProtostEiiit and ]iadic«l aectkma, Bt H 
■o. But ] shoidd know the/act 1 do iodovd coUoot that Jaotfrofl 

UdO)', ■ Yoitiig Iretaotl/ p. ^>KI- 


IMniel O'CmmlFt Com^midaioe. 





Pttnd Convmj'fl ritiipluiKr^ gtWc^^ lint I ougbt to bfl inTormoil of 
the iidtiilfl,aa il id my duty U uddroN* th« " bcrodituj bonibiiuaa " M 
tpoedilj M I po(«ib1y con. 

' Do jca ktiow lliBt I havu foc1ing» of dotpundoncy orou|>iug over 
mo <ia tho ffnijiiot of tliin y«ar'« tributo V It houiub to 1iaT\> (]fO])|iod 
ftlmoftt itillUrTD from tlio press. lu former years, when tho uiiioancc- 
mant appetrciil, it was iujiucliutely futUjwed by erandinl ckJvi^rtifie- 
BttDti in tlio Uublin pnpuru t^} moct nod ftrrangc the coJlootioD. TUe 
C^k, YTfttcrfon], Limerick, Aix, noit»papon fuUowoJ, but tli«ro i» 
..act oniG «f»ri- nlight 

*Cin you ]»lp to diHdjHLto tLoAc gloomy appivhoaHiouK ? * 

At lli<r *nd ijf November O'ConncIl dkuIp hi* fir»t nppcaraace 
b£ tUe AiRorintinn after hU rpl»Lse fruoi priion, aq(I haifpned &t 
oELCe to WAsh Itis liandi of P«J«raIjuii ; yet tbit corr«?>jKii]iIeiice 
ihows that ^luring the two previous montbt he htd tatie 
vigorous cxcrtJODs to obtain Bui)|M>rt in substituting a cry for 
Frdemlism in plan* of Rt-prni, and in tliis utt hnvc ttrong 
evidences ot itic confutioo Jotu vrlucU tbo Action of lUc Guvcrn- 
m^nt b;id il]rr>vrii bis pliifu. 

But bis seeking oven for a time to eDcourv^ this scheme is 
some measure* of tbo little ffttth he hftd in his original deumnd. 
Td restorr tbo Irish I'arliamcut of 1TH3 was a defiaitc pro- 
posal There was a ParUamt-'iU with Daiional cisiuis fonnallj 
acknowledged. Anything less was Co return to th^ scHnines of 
subordinate Irf-islutures whicbf as Dr. Bull, in his 'Logisfattro 
S»t4^ros in Irvlnod/ ihovra u^ bul, in fact, beun tried bcforo 
li82. and had absolutely failed to provide a good {[orernmeDt 
or to eicilir popular cnEhusiasnip Such a svsti^in, with pro* 
viiioEU adapted to modern wants, wai proposed by the Duke 
of Portland, but lie acKuunK-dged that hub public opinion 
df^pisc-d It. Simitar suggestions were nrged agnin in IdOO, 
To Natlonaliata such scbt-iDCft had gr^rins of powihility, thus 
^Mcnbccl by ihr autharity tn whom wt^ have referred *. — 

* Ikaidcd the xcaooait ogaiiifft bringiQ^ forirftrd a mco^an to rCBlnun 
tbft juiadJoti<jn of tb^r Iriifh Pui-liiuiK^ut vhieh havo Ixmn montiotiMl, 
*ay proccodiug of tbo Idud was discouraijEctl by the ooDttdomtioD 
tfaat, even if sich a measure wi^re carrii^d, tboro wns do cettaiuty of 
■U pcnoaucucc. Thn cxiHting Irish PArJi^Ltuent miglit unaot II, the 
ai»e?o«<ling might dirmntid itn r(]pc>aL Au iuU^riuL'tliato policy noi»»- 
y bn8 DO finality ; snd this i& oBpticially trno whon it rdatoA to 
L« o»tifi(itutlou of n^presontativu iuAtitutions ; for At»li imtittitioiifl 
Kft vitbiD thcnt a principle of growth. In Ireland Councils bad 
^pauded to i'nrliiuiiciLtA ; ru-Ujim^xitv, without roproHoutstiTOB of tho 
vQQnflions, to Parlianit-nts with r«prM»nlattves <tt iho Commorn; 
^HisiDOtts irithont the native Irish, to Psrliamonts with rrpn7»inita- 
l^Ves from the uativa Iiiiii; Farlisiaents, teBtratned bj royoings 



X^mitf^ 0*CoMneUU Ccnttpcnden^tt 

lav, and orcnwcd by fou- of uiotbcr ]<^*^*^<>^ oklminn pr^ 
«inuieoc«, to Parluoaauts froe, iodopeiidotit. evlKect to no oxternftl 
nitlboritj-. Why, tboij« miglit not I^arliftmoDU, oiduded irxjoi deftUng 
iritt womMiFoikl qut^tic^uti, foreign potioj, tlio gro«t ftilikirsof Steho, 
ftrUooiit of IhcirdepfdEMclcondittot^nndin time r«gnB tho olovitod 
position vrliicli Lad, In ftniom«nt of weiOmeAtt. been BoireDderedt" 

O'Conncll, bowevvr, could not pliNid any •uch fonrcftstc for 
h!fl retreat upoD Frdrrmlism. He ivas nol, like Mr. Davis or 
Mr, Davitt at the present day, a believer in An mdependcnt 
Irdaml He could not tr^, a« DavUdid, thfti Federalism was 
accrepiable beCAUse it iDiclit lead to soinetbing fl»«. 

Mcaniinie Feel Imd followed up thtf blow struck at agitation 
in O^itoboT 1813, by a acriet uf achvmca for tbo ifcprovcnivnt of 
IrcUnd. ConipJruout ninonfc the*^ wiib that for the raublUb- 
mcnt of the Qucc-n*i Unircnity. A large BCCtJon of the Roman 
Catholic clercy objected to \X oa inudi the nine f^rounds, on 
wbicU J)r. McHal? bad hmg assniled tbe Nntiona! system of 
education introduced by Stanley, To criiicixe this and simtlar 
tncnsurcs yi^j, the cjtilj' occupation which O'Cooncll could find 
for the AMOcintton, and th« cona^quenoe ivu lo divide him 
Atill ftirther frftm the young XalitioAhtlft, tvho had rnllird to hii 
support. They were more and more excited by the rerolution' 
arv^ inoveiiieD1» then IraiLTsiiig P^urope. They, the butter£ie& 
cailcil M} life by O'Conncirs fiunlikc glow, were confident that 
Irish independence waa one assured result of the revolutions id 
Earnpc, nnd mcanivhilc they foand their leader, their cieabor, 
falling bftck upcin ecclo>ia«tio;kl pret«nttj(}nc which necetiattl/ 
dividnl Cutholic from FrotrsUnl. 

0*Conno]l was bej^inoitif* to sbow sijcns of faiticv health 
in 1^45, hut be would have struggled on a great power lo 
politics, notwitljstAnding the disMtcr of ltS4i(, hod it not bctn 
for ibe potato fainino, Since the daj's of Sennacherib, llvr 
hnd bc«n no such tctriblc comnienlftry on huRian ranity. Fw 
nonrly !i«o generaEiont he h:id n»uined the Iptidi-nbtp of llu? 
IrUh |u>j>ulatJOQ, and maintaiticci it with success. He had levied 
larpc inbutes from their poverty. He hod harried them \^^ 
wild entcrprixes, in which they liod slmnrn all the de\-otiofl ^^ 
tnl>esmi?n to n chief, but during nil the period of his BUpTC03iC7» 
(hobp oii^IuuEi ijurslious, as to tbe cbauoes of existence ^i 
iht' people, — questions which Arthur Voung had stated* wfcW" 
Adam Smith ha<l disrusfteil vrith propluHie insiglit, wbic^ bw 
been carefully exrimincd by Do Beaumontf and which W 
absorbed all the energies of Drummond, — had never* it wiffl^ 

* ' JU«i»lal^« ^yrtltiQ^ m hvlixiid.' bj tbu JtJgbt Uom. J, T. fiolL p- US 

I^anid (/Conheir* Corre^ntUaot, 


9ten, (livcrtfd O'Conn^irt tlimiiftitft rrom Ins ^c^t mt«iEon lo 
life, the diatiibutinn of monoy Jimone hii followers. One ^rai 
economic ({ursuoii he dttl bestow mucb lUtentioa on, ihe intro- 
dnctJon o\ the I'oor L;iiv into In-lAiitj. It ir.-u a mca»un; whicli 
ilisimcUj- pi>ricm]nt ruin to the cIass in which tho energy of tho 

»0*Connrn clan lia<l placed him ; aind &» a Undlord he combated 
il» pojmlnir ffut, with unaniwttrAhle foro^Y, haw littU it would do 
tor tbe people : but whiUt he <<ipii«ril the iJelusiun af hit Wbl£ 
friends, tliul nn improved poor law of Eluabcih couXA In IS&9 
deliver them from tbe impending Imb crJsii, he bad do other 
dcliveraace to sjgge^tv It wa< only when the Dcvoa Camml^ 
Mion was atcriurcin^ atleniion to facta with wblcb all ibonghtfuJ 
obttervera of Ireland had been engrossed for nearly three geaera^ 
Uons, that vra f>itt\ him »4>rjou4lj' oonaid^riog lri«h (]e«t]lution. 

On the return of die Whig* to o(f» e he resume*! ibr potitioR 
of chief dittribuutr of pntronai^e in Ireland. In the hcginmn^ of 
lft47 he started on a piJrrimaee lo Koine, attended by one of tho 
most inteie^Dg of ttie Irith pr]esihoo<t, whom his reuoirn bad 
attached to bim. At Genoa hia airen^'iti failed him. 

'"At two o'clock tilt* mnminif tho i5th/' writes Dr. Miley iu Mar, 
" I formd it nDovMiuy iu M.'ud for thv vmtic^iiii aud tliD buly ulL Though 
£t wftH tko dciLl of nightf tlio CftrElinnl-ArohUshop (la« in AiFEh^-nidht 
years oli)» attended by hia eltiricM and ttevomt of tiie fuithfid. uam<fd 
tfao adorablo riaticutn with tho sulemcitjos cnstomsry in Citholio 
eoonirka, and repo«od It in tbe labdniaclo which wo had pi-epared 
i& tiio chamber of tho ilhifltrioutt Huflorcr. Thouh proAtiAtc b> 
tba Wt dcgr^e^ hii waa perfectly in pmaofdon td hia mind wlLJlat 
reoeivuig tbe laat rites. Tlw adorable naow of J<^ur, vrhiak Ut had 
bean in tho babit of iuvokiiUt waa coii»taiitly on hia lips with 
tnonblJJig feocTour. Hia Ibuu^ta haro beuu unliroly abBorbod by 
rali|pon siaco hia ilhusa eomokODoad. For th« last for^ hoars ho 

khm not i>p«ned his tips to vp^ak of anything eko< Tho tfoctor* etill 
Uj thrjF Mfij hope. I have none "' 
Of the mxn himielf these volume* cf Mr. Fitzpatrick will 
always n^m.-iui the most rivid reronJ, shnwinif, as tht^y do, his 
' itnpcnclous energy, his wonderful fertility in resource, and the 
plotting wannth of his nature, whether in aHectioo or wrath, 
Tbcy cannot reproduce what some of cur rcMlera may recall 
tbooe taarrcUoua physical gifts wbieh bespoke the gre&t plat- 
forta orstor, lb«» magnifteifnt organ of voiee snob as it sounded 
at the London Tavern in 1^30, routing t He multitude of his 
heajTr« to atlention Ijy its power, charming ihcni by lit mebHiv, 
His »tyle was often disfiKured b) violence of language of the 
grossest kind, hut it was disltnguisbed by a practical aptneaa, 
which Attracted, in spite of these dcAcicDcies. Their is somi»- 



Daniei O'Conn^rt Corre^K^i^nc^. 

tbiDg almost Domoathrnic in the ciprcaiion of tho v&loie of 
t^-reliftnce wbich the following |)auag« coinevs: — 

' In ]>L>l[tlcal uffnira Ihn moflt critical uud (]auKv'Ti>oa inoiu<!nt to tb? 
pDpular pnrty is that which for thnt partj ought to procodc a <»tt- 
plclo vj,d ISuat triumph. It U at huoLl n inouioDt UiAt tbo miooijr tft 
tp\o rutu^ti li^piaod ftod tho populnr iWoo » i>rorraU4. W« sr* 
diMpustcd tL> Tcl^oD our fnoudH aiid on hiilf-oo&rortcil cumuofl, Dot 
□poD tlo only safo rceooroo— our own eierlioiu,' 

In ostlmalint: tbe character of O'Connell we must recollect tie 
creed to vrhich he brlnngtnl ami tlic period lits carver travem<!. 
O'ConncU naa a vcriF' earnest son of the KomaD Church. lu 
%iifij iCf h:iu^htv tnditton, its long connection irtlb Ireland, 
fdlc^I bi* iiniigjikitiion and attrncEi^d hit airrction, and liis fcrrid 
naturo found in its cinoitonnl ti*ar1iiii^ solace and otmi^tb. 
Thi^ following li^tEer in his dnughfrr U a iniTrhing idtuimliort 
both of bis fatherly affection and of the trusifiU con^deucc be 
placed in the consolations of bi« Cbunrh \ — 

'Hydfrnre^t darlinff Cluld^^I have coinpltml with JOOTVuIl X 
have procui\:ii ]^tuso£ tc be said for jour iuteotion, and After nj 
uoumimiuu ti>-m(irrow I will ulTei' ny tny wruti;hcd prajom &r tbe 
daugbttir ou whom tay foud heart dottt8 with u tondomeaa lli*t u noC 
Ci> b^ Hc-'echbGd or known to any 1>Ttt the 1)<.^rt of a parent. 

*Kei»re6ent to youi^lf jour diLrliug buy in mental agoar, n^A 
thoii yon mU rood my foclJng of alter misery at ^our btalo of mind. 
TbiB, I own, in th* MirorcAt blow that ever I cxpcHcucoJ, to hAfc 
jon, my angel dniijjht'T, c«kiiHaining yoiir b^n^rt fttjd iiitti'llt^ct od taia, 
idlct and uurro^tntflv venipluK. It i> ouito tme tliat yott btq ill a 
8tat4^ with nnicb it ia tbe inEciutablo will of God to tr; the vonla of 
Hia ukot — a et&to cjf gruat dauber, if tbu apirit of pride, of sol^ 
o6to«m, or of eelf'Vill nuiaa irith it, bo aa to Duku tho imffiiror bQ 
into tl]{> snare of deapaxr. DeiipELtr ia your dai^r, ^onr oalj danger* 
Ob, goQeroafi God, protect my chilJ from docitair! If you, by 
bumililyT Gnbinttiiiun^ huniblu ftubmimLoitt to the Church in the persoD^j 

uf jour bpirituid diioctor — if jrou gito ap OTcry th«ugfatr atul throi 

yoiinwlf into tho ftrrcR of Qod by antmtEVra aad nnbniinrLUL jQi 
vjU ftoon be at peace, uud bv jto fur life, and in on eternity of UlM- 

' Ifl your Hcniple jRich lA yon caa comnitinicate to jonr fftiber? 
£l h>St udl it tu lut, aud probably you yonrKolf, witeii yon vrite 
Will M» Lovr jdia it 18. Can my ohtUrtbink tbnl ibo God who, >r 
Iha lingering tormcotA of tbo oro8«, abed the Last droji of His bl 
for ber, ia a tyrant, or that He dee^ not love her? Your g: 
love for your bubo is cotbing to (be lore Uod bears for yoQ- 

'Wby, tbvu, iiiy unu ehibli not eoufidt^ In Hi* luTiag lui 
Genorouidf Ibrc^w aII ynnr onm on Him, oontido iu His love, 
bumble submii&non to Himn and to Hi» spouse, Hi« Holy Ohm 
Oh, my bi^lovrd ebild, tbnt He may throng^ His hitter poMton ai 
cruel death g\yt you UI0 £;Taco! If your »ruple be eooli an J*^^ 

Daniel O'CtfttncUU Corrctpondcnc^, 


cmtuA eommiinicato to joiir fAthor, go at odoo nod coosnlt Dr. 
UcHaIo about it DeUinuiao, before jon go in Uie pteoeDCe of 
Godf lo submit bi wliAtovix iIjc ArclthiHlmp ebnj] mj to jan. In tba 
SMMUitiiuo, l^t^y <]ULtiilj, AUil witb c!'}mpoaurt! of mind, odoc r>r Iwiw a 
^•5; i^ *^»olly and *lplihoraf*^]y, "Oh f io-! I Thy will bo ilono on 
MTtliAsit is in luuTeti/ liiul tluii atttmd to jour f&inilyuid cliildno, 
taking yov minil, withorit bustlo and Ttolcnco. from the tlii>nghtM 
that nuko yvu aubu|ip7 tu yciur ilijmeiitio occuiuticmA^ 

' Yon woiiH jvity yonr jioor futbtr if yott know 1k>w niiB^rmlilo ycm 
mike mc, I fimr with the cnot^t ngonitiog fear for yon m thiN tna). 
If yon go tbroQgL it with humllitj% &nbmiaaioQ, aad obediofioe^yon 
wUl b© an Mig<il for all i^tcrnity, 
B * Writo lo iuo> ilikrliiig, d&rlmg ctiU. 1 «iio1oM tea pounde lo pay 
' jonr <fipcTnfH?A to Ftanoo. If yon do not go tlwro, nae tlism u you 
|i]ea«& — £Ter ray own, ovrn deareftt diild, 

■ ' Year fond though distracted Father, 

' Dajijkl O'Co^aeu..' 

He vraa bom when the penal cx)de had fallen into diiuse ; but 

»ji was not for some yv;in tdutc his binh that iha taw rei.»gukril 
the riftht of A Romfti) CalhoHc to hoM a Ioak for llvct} nor 
wetv Koroan C&tholie Cimilies free from tb« daofrer tli«t a dia* 
obcilient ton might, by a change of religion, Accurc control of 
\bu family property. Such Uwi j^enemie bome iraditiont 
which linger years after ilu: law* thetn«rlv» bare ceaied to 
opcmte or been repealed ; and it ^as amidst luch trailicioii* 
ihat O'Comitdl ii]>euc lus childhuoO, Fljiiged lu bin yuuih 
into the old world of rVaacc, ho wat vividly imprtsccd by the 
glitnpce he ihore saw nf the raging volcano of revululion. Hit 
aabtfcqncnt years in London were devoted to obftervntion of 
men^ and to the stu<lv of the h^tvaI Radical authors, Rouneau 
and (Jodwin, which he qualifinl by Gibbon and legal haml- 
boolci. When be entered on hie professional career, bit mind 

tlcvining wllb impiesitrins from Uic most %'ntinua xjurcea, ho 
found bimanlf ono of tho fint of hii creed to tftkn adviuiiago 
of thr further roner^niont to rr)ig>»ii« liberty made in IT93, 
Bnt the bigbeit of all concessions, the right to take a full 
share in the public work of the State^ waa still denied him. 
^ The emit of the Irish rebellion, bmugbi about by the rery 
■influences which had chased bim from his studies in France^ 
V came the SAmc yrnr, nnd ho bad hnrdly well got into the 
f bftbilc of bis pixifeittion when lie sivw swept awfty chc Par- 
litimentary systrm which intirlloctuaj pride and self-interest 
alike endeared to the Irish Kar. It was amidst such simngely 
oonflieting currents that his vigorous nature entered upon an 
active career and the work of the nineteenth century. Later in 
life hSs success in closing the battle for Catholic relief gave him 



Danid OfCmneit* Corr^tpohdene^^ 

rnnovn, porn^r, nncf, unfortunately for tuinielf* comtnind of tlie 
peopWfl monrv. He bcc*in€ exposed to tomptiuont to wliich 
gov«mmentd could offer no counicr^iriin^ aitraciion ; his extreme 
i^oranrc of Flnglnad, anil \x\% pi-r»<mal vii»lea<M:-f mude it iin- 
|K>»ib]i? to oHcr hiio a place in the Caljinvi; whiUt tberu wat 
nn oac t>i wci|fbt who could Lave bc«n t*xpectetl to work with 
him in ofHce in IreUod. He barl no ennltnl rrUtlonji for 
any Irn^K of tiuio yt\\\i anj one vrhn was not hia lAtellite or 
retainer, lalher tbao bi> colteaf^c; and to people of thU dan 
he appears to have b«en coneiidcraie and ^zeuerous. The Irish 
chronicles tell us of an biMoric family who ' ha<l nxc compuiie, 
lutt wilt/ Of * will,' in tU*- cbruiiidvr* wfUM?, O'CoiJiitU li«l 
nom than vcto%\ men of bis timer, nnd hia whole tbcM>ry of life 
nppeart to have 1>een thai he «buuld itipplement (bu gift of 
Ood bv maiatainlnjT a tuOirirntly larE^c ^companie/ 

Lord Montc^lcs iheorv. that O'Connell kept Repeal a« a cty 
to frighten i^ngUsbmeii, implJef a gieaier precision of tboa^il 
cban tbc great agicator teems to hftve exercised. It was a cry 
ready to bis liaAd. It miule pari of tlie ordinary furoilure 
of th<^ Irith rhotoriciftn, nnd it wiu of grett une to him «t 
various times after 1829 in ketfpiii;r public attention fixed on 
hiuiicir, anfl 4r?rurin|r<:oii tinned eontnbucioni, whilst itf pmcticid 
solution was obviously remote. It is possible that at one timr 
during the summer of 1943, believing tbat h^- had frigbteDcd 
Perl ID 1^^^, be hoped that he might frighten him onco tnore. 
Tkeve hopes w«re nbandijned nlmnit m ijnickly as they liwl 
bp**n enteriALned. If they were entertained, we see, what lUU 
uamtii'f; suggests more than oner, hnw stranjrcly small was 
O'Connel] s knowledge of England* Hod tbe nrcumfltonces ol 
bis early lifo made it posistble for bim to bav« parsued in 
finglaiid systematically that course of schooling which be 
commcn^cil in France, we can hardly d3ubi that bis giea 
abilities would bare been much more srrviccnblr to the iilaj 
of hia birih. In onp r(^sp^ct bt diffor^d from most of tbe Iri 
popular heroes who prcwded and who followed him. H 
always stowed loyalty to the Kngtisli Cniwn and preach 
obedience to the law. No one couM surpau bim in t 
Tehcmence of his denunciation of tCn^liah Governments n 
English Act* of iVrliainent ; but hu nm^r advocattxl revistsn 
to legal uatbority. He never encouraged or coofcdcratcd wi 
viofetino at home. H** nrver joinrd hnnds with, or ftougbt mo 
from, the enemies of England abroad. 

[ 83S ) 


C^. III-*-!. A Book of Nbtit^nM. hyEdwn.rdhi:nr, London, 

184l>. Twomj'-ohthMitif.n, 1888. 
2. Namenif Sonfft^ Stori^s^ Botani/, arid Alphabet*. By Kdvrard 

Lean Loruton^ 1871. yivrv inJiiinn, 1888. 
►8, Afo« AW«Ti», Fictitr^^, Jt/itrme^^ Botantff Sc<, By i£dwftixl 
Lear London, 1872. NewWhioa, 18^8. 

Soiany^ MtttiCt fv. By Hdvrard Lev. London, 1877. Now 
^ition, 1888. 

WHAT is Seiift-? Wbat Is Noruenve? Scnw i% ibe trcag' 
nition, nctjuitmcnl, nnd RiAinCcnAncc of ihcr proper &i>d 
fittinf; reUlion« oS the flfTuirs of ontinary life, h 1% A contdlu*' 
lioDal taci, a keeping touch with all around it. ntth«r than a 
oonsciuus and deUbcrate acttoa of the intellect. It almost 
seems ihcr n:rnCnl outrnmc tint] «<xprrft«ion of our five sthmts; 
and perhaps it ib for this rrnton, as well aa hccausc the srnie of 
the individual ulffays nitos at keeping iUrlf on tbr uverage 
Ur«l of hi* fcUow8, thni v/c uavally laJk of acnto aa Common 
&tit^. If wfi fall it fjo(fd Seii»i% Jt 1* tft minimi ounelTM that 
tbere it a right and a wrong in this as in eveiythin^ buman* 
But it is n^it bod Sense, but Nonsense which ii tbr pTo|>er 
ODtrary of -Vti»c. In coatradjctton to the relations anct liar- 
Qooies of life, Noasensc sets iiaclf (o discover and bring 
forward the incongruities of nil things within And without us. 
Pope covtples Nonsense willi DuIdm*; jH long bofore Pope, 
liie thing, if nnt th<^ namo, Xontrnu*, )i;id ht^on recognized n% 
of intinile worth. Cowpcr and lloj^arth shared in the humours 
'>f the \onscnKCluh ; and now ihenoine has he<^n mudL-chtsttc^l 
by the writer whoso books of Nonsense arc enumeraicxl at the 
bc«d of this Article. For while Sense is, and mu»t remain 
essentially prosaic and commonplace-, N on srnsc has proved not to 
l>c on 4?nually protaic and commonplACv D^i^tire of Sense, not 
a mere putting forward of incongruines and absunlitiet, hut the 
brii^intf oui a new and deeper h-irrnony of life in and t^rcngh 
its contradictioDS, Nonsense, in fftcl, in this use of the tTonl^ 
lieu shown itself to be a trae work i>i tlic imagination, a cltikt of 
S^s^iuus, and Its writing one of the Fine Arts. 

TluK discomfiture of Sense hy Nonsensct this hring:in^ con- 
Tnalon into order by setting ihJn^ nnnide down, hrin^intr them 
st%t> «ll sorts of unnatural, impossible, and absurd^ but not 
p^onfal or dangerous, conihlnatiuns, is a source of univen^il 
^olighl ; and the laoghter wliicfi it gives rise to is, as ArisLotEe 
k *^^ the expression of our surprise at seeing ihingH so ont of 
\ l^iacc, yst not thrcateniDg danger. And the rangv uf this 



Non»ent€ 04 a Finf Ari. 

ilrligHt i^xb'mls Trfim the pooreil pruilical j«ki^ tr» iljn rripntt^m 
of the grrntcst Jraui^tic poets. NonBcnse, bciu^ wbaL it is, 
mnj be furiher <teacribed aa ibe flowi^r and fruit of Wit snd 
i-Iuinourt nbe^n tbcse hnrc reocbcd the final etfi^ of tbeir 
l^mtb to [>errf?ctioa Bui how thftU we hope lo define Wit 
ami Humour, an<i lo iJUliRguUh one fiom the otbrr? Wo ma^ 
rcpcAt thv ar^unient« or rw«t on U^ ftalhoritv of ArutotJc, Bcfi 
Jon«<in» Hnbbct, CulcritJgp, ninJ n lioit f>f tniror phito«opb«ri, 
nnO we may produce our nroofa and iHustrutions froro Ari<- 
tophanci, Sljnkipe^ire, RabeUtt, or Cerv^tntoi ; but, «fter all, we 
only find oursrlvM in the pr»)tcajnent ol ihc Court of Choncen* 
in Lord Eldon'a dajf^ as ^ir George Ho«e described it ia bii 
)ikw too^ of that time : — 

' Mr. Pu-kor mode dfttter* ilorker, 
WUiuli wuEv duik vuuu^li v'itUout : 
Mr. Cook qttotcd Ha book. 
And tb& Chuuoe Hot eald, " I doubU" ' 

We looj like the Chancellor, can onljf tay ' We doubt,* if mt 
arc A4kcd wh^t U tlic? i^ dutinction between Wit nnd Humonr- 
At \iv\\ vtf fM\ pf>rhnpfi lay, a* Sr Au^tHtme ftaiJ when ukfti 
' What i* Timt:'— ' 1 know wheo you do not ask me.' Weil! 
of u* use ihc words with a feeling that ibcy are not %yuovtymaa, 
but with a feeling also thai thej have bitberlo deiie<) nil tW 
altemptt Ui reduce tbtfin to exact aanljiis, crca when thp talk 
waK uitdt^rtnkcii bv aucb a mtiitcr of iDfUpU j^ sical itivcslig;»tiaa 
at Coleridgn; and that oaljr at extreme pniiits U it p^rlupi 
poaiible to dislingDish and defioe. Wrr inTiirtiinec D«f tlie 
name of Wit merely to describe aome clear atiiemenc in mW- 
chosen word*, nr some collocation of conflicting ihou|hl3 uiJ 
arguinenta, which are brought together not to promote Uugbtrif 
bui to elucidate the aubjeci under discussion- And, on Af 
other bund, mre often ilccoixI iIjc title uf Huuiutir to an^ gvnU 
exprewion of itntimtnt* not ■pt'cinny clittr.ictfirtiretl by foil- ^ 
Wit, in iU more usaal nnd proper sense, the I'un, wbieh mftt\) 
bringa word* into laughable apjinsition, is the lowest (on>> 
while of the higher kinds the Lpij^ani, bringiog incongnn* 
thoughts and Itnsges together in terse and balanord phnii>tf< i* 
at once an insinnrc and the sumninry. And then the rIdiciiJ"* 
position nnd ati|}cct into which men, and the oil^tiTi of U^^' 
are thtift brought, giret opportunity for the eaptvsaioa of t^ 
intellectual eonteiDpt and scorn which lo unuuly forms ad*' 
racteristic part of vrhnt tve call Wit^ that it has bwn bcid b; 
tome great authorities to be the very Wit itaelf, HuflOt* 
shows DO such »com» for it feels none. It looks with kindlt 


Ncn^tue at a Fine Art, 


He Ml 

pkyful hrslveaen on all thoie fratlti^fl. inccn^ruiti^i, and 
.bsunl conlradictions of zdotiaI life, which Wit utornly comit^mni 
with thv hanh at-vtriiy i>f nn ovrr-wrmin;^ pride of siipprioritv, 
A compaiison bctwrcn Haticr's ' llinlibratt ' and the * JJod 
Qaixole' of Cervante* fivhicli Dr. Johriton has alrcftdy in;iile 
Willi anotliG-r motiTc tlun our») brinf-» into cWr contr&it the 
■dificTenctr b*tw*vn Wh <ukI Humour, when w« thus tak<i them 
where ihej s(aml widcM apart. We doubt vrhetlicr Btitler is 
oovr so highly appreciated as in the dnv* of Dr. Johnson : or 
cTco fts he w™s nitj" or sixty years ago, when Coleridpc in hia 
*Aidi lo Keflcciion in the building up of a Manly Cbancter/ 

ramviidi the study uf * HuOibra^ ' a« n hdp to the forma* 
dim uf »aund r^ligiouB conviclionB. But whllo we grant with 
rthruAD * thni if inrihauitilile wit *?ouIil givr p*Tp*'tunl plra^ure, 
no eye would leave half read the work itlHatK^r/hnw uiterly eold, 
hcartleisi, dn^ary^ doi-'^ HathT's ivork rrm^ia! U is all U'il, Wit 
&s it ii in its gtanal period, where gracitp tray exiit with the 
£ce, hut no trace of life is to be fi»utid : and not even the master 
band of Hngarth enn enable us to feel that Hudibros and his 
nuoal crew are rval men and womt^n- Thc^ eontravt I« eomplete 
wh^n wr turn in thi* work of nrrTAnld'ft, ffrrr all In umnhine^ 
warmth, and Keoial life. \oi only the nohle-hL^arted Knight 
who has lost his wits, nnil tlie friendly Sqitire who is na lets 
absurd thaa bia master in the posiesiion of what that master 
has lost} — not only these, so g<HKl in their abiordity, but the 
iftscally itmkccjx^T, the galley-al&TeSt and all the personage*, 
ptod and bad, who fdl th« itagc* in mctltry luccctttion, are xi 
genial, «o homan, that the rcadpr feelt retaltonthip with them 
ill, and is ready to say with tHe Komnn dramatist, *I am a 
taan : such kinahip !« nothing Strang to mej 

We have not r^uoted any of the 'aenlentioui ditlicba' of 
Datler, for they are known far and wide lo those who hare 
acYer looked into * IladihrAs,' and wbiT, If they did ao^ would he 
agrc««hly surprised to find the po4>m ai * full of qnotationft' as 
did the man who wont to see * llatnlet' uelei.t, when he hai) 
never rea«i the play. Hut from M)<fn Quixote* we will f^ve 
one ^Dotation, which may ha called Xoiucase, while tt is a 
tme instance of the deep ftnd genial pathos of humour which 
perrides the whole hook : — 

' " I do not understaad that,*' rcpliod Sancho. " I only know ttiat 

t^hil* I 410 aaloop I fool ucithor fear nor hopo, nor troablo nor glury. 
f'Ood tKiido him who invonted sloop, the clank that imtocy up idl 
^ loaa's thougbta, the food that gatidfiuH huugur, th^ water that drivoi 
"^""ay Uiint the firo that wanos the oold. the eold that t<impera the 
■■Cat; and, in a vord, the onrroot money with which all thtng» are 
V*A. 107.— i^^, $34, z hoiight, 

bouflit, ibe scales and wei^bt vhida even tbe ahepli«rd aharea wiih 
tbo Kingi and tbu viiaplo nvitli tlio nigo." ' 

* What nontcnAc?! ' inyx Cnmmon Senu*. ' Hovr C4>ti]i] a mim in- 
Y€nt sleep?' It'wc reply, ' How could Macbotli munlrr ftle^p?' 
perhaps Cumtnon Si^n«e might mutt«r with Geor^ III,, 'Sliiik- 
sprarel Sbaksp<rftrftl horrid ttiiptd stuff; hui wri* muti not wj 
so/ 13iit ire grant that it is Nunaenac ; and jvl ire say that in 
those nonioniical vrords of poor blundering Skncho lie? alt tbc 
invAnin^, all the depth of houoan life and p:¥Eho«, thoog^h not tl^ 
poinical beauty, which wc have in ShokspcAre's own clcscTiptioa 
of Sleep:— 

*Tbo iunocj^nt eleop, 
Sleep tJiat kiiita up the mvctrd itli-ftTu of CBto, 
ThiO {loath of oaoli dAy'a life, «oro Uhonr'A bo^, 
Qntm of hnrt miniU, prrcAt nntiim's «oooiid cooiw. 
Chief uouriHh<?r In life's f^juflt/ 


Such a contraM ab wo havo hen drawn bvtwpon Hutlcr MnA 
(->ri'nnlr*ft may givi^ a prArrirnI illufttrktion, tbi>iigh not a tcion* 
tilic dotinition* of the di^rrcncc between Wit Aud Mtiin<Kir, al 
their extneinc points of op]v>ittion. Hut we do not prctcod thai 
it b^lp« us to OLttinguish thrir currrnta where they mingle at % 
hundred points. Wc wiil not undertake to *aj wht^ihcr Sjdiwj 
Smith wu a wit or a humorist, »r in wlmt pinj>orliui^B 1m* wu 
both. Was il Wit or Humour to buj^^ on tbn qucftioo of pariiij 
Sl Panra Churrh^Anl with wond» ' If ihn Dc^ao and Chaittrt 
would lay their he^s tojcclher the thtnic would Iw done?,' ihf 
pulithed, epigrntnmatic tonencss, the clcnrly logrgcUcd tbocgb 
utiutic*red thought that theu^ dignitaries were blockheAdi, At 
intellectual scorn^ thecov^^rt pi;i\ on word* nhicb in thrnuelifi 
form mcicly a commonplace oW-jvatioii — all tltcae vhow trw 
Uil. All ar^ iho proper marlu of Wit. V<ft they an? not A> 
\k$9 batht'd in an Atiiti>spberp of ^nuine Mainour. The wid^ 
Canon was himself one of the Chapter whom he mockeit, «u 
bia srom indudcnl bimwdf in hi* gcninl play. So, too^ are tfH 
and liucnour inextricably mingled In his reply to ibt' inta^ 
who aiki!tt him if it was true tli^t. he had iK-en silting to Laid- 
accr for fats portrait ; — ' Is ihjr servant a do^, that ho >ho«ld ^^ 
lliitTbing?'* Here are all the marks of VVit, as wo have JMt 
enumerated them ; but they become no leas marks of Haaocf* 
aa they all fuse themselves into ihr funny, humorous image'" 
the portly dirimr sitting up like one of Landseer's dogs. Atfl 

■ His. whieb va talu io bo Ibo tmo vtnry.iii no waj dlscttdilod br Laain^ 
sUteiMnt to Hr. Fnth, tbut hv (LandMCBr) <li<l not mk Sidney Siahh uMn 
hliii, nul ociiisN|iieDUy did sol receive tttv sd|i|>o«oJ rottssL 


NbttJitm^c aa a Fine Art, 

'qurrting ScTjptnrr Vi\n? n v^ry Wmed clprk.' Again, in what 
class thall we pul that tour de force when the ch;()leDt^ to find 
rhymes to 'Cnsftowftrv* and 'Timbiirtoo* lln> itnpromptu rrply 
WM miuits-^* U'hen I was in Africa, 1 one day heard a native 
ungfing 10 a hymn-ttine — 

' If I were n Ciutxowiiry, 

In tho ptains of Timbuctoo, 
rd ani up » uuMiiijiuiTy, 

Hat, ftitil biLndft, and hytriii booV, too/ 

^e iliitincUon in ancstion is, however, of the Less practical 
rtancc to us here, oecausfr, «a we have laid, vre are trealingt 
Dui «fi' Wit or Hattiour, but nf that ripe outci>tnr of either or both 
whirh wp rail NrtHft^n** : — Nonwnse ae n worlc of Art, Except 
for brinifinc in \n orrftsionnl ^lilr-light wn shull confiiw our- 
ftclrcs to Kn^^lifih Nonaense ; and btill further limit ourselves to 
tracing the outlines of a fen of the many ^real aiiH perennial 
^r Iranchcii of that mighty secular tree, witfaoat bci»{^ abJc to tako 
^biuch heed of the countless !eavi-!t and blossoms to which it 
giv<!s fmh life yctit by yrnr. Ktcii »o, wc shiiM have lo divide 
onr tnbjecf into ni Tnnny hrnds as thosp in the repi^rtorjr of 
HAin!et'» players, or in a sermon preachrd before the Long 
Pajrliament at Westminster. Tliere is the Nonscoae of the 
Story-teller, of the moraljit and cvt-n the theologian, and of the 
|dramatist: there is the Nonveme of poetry, of satire, of parody, 

Iftf caricature, of the comic journal : there is Nonsense with 

a 'tendency/ ns the German* say ; and (here ia Nonsense * pure 
and :ib«f>]i]Ce,* fturb ai Afr. Lcnr tells us hcu been bis oim 
Tou^hout his books. 

First, then, of the Story. We do not here speak of the great 
nonsense rotnanccs of Puici, RAhelnts, Cervantes^ Swift, SterDe* 
and the creator of the * Arabian Ni^hH ; ' but of the stories which 
somehow and nomrwherre Eook nun am) grrw before the earliest 
Aryan or Indo-G^rrrmnic mifTTation hrj-nn, whit^h hnve trnvetled 
into every land^ and ham found their way into every nursery, 
id arc everywhcrre with ub in their old cr in new forms, 
people find themselves wiser and belter, or at least more 
self-respected, by calling those sTi>rirs *S«lar Myths:' we are 
nteui to talk with our children of Puss in lloota, Tom Thumb, 
Jack the Gianl-killer, who still keep their rightful pliuri-s 
mong the new and not unworthy aspirants, introduced to u* 
Mrs. Kwing or Wx. King:slf>y, Mr, Lrar fir Lewis CnTrf>ll, 
X these stories are in thtir own way wiirks of art — of the Fine 
of Nonsense. But one of them has been raifted to the mnk 
[ a maalerpiece by the creating hand of a great poet. Wc mean 

Z 2 the 


i\'onsC7ue as a /Vw Art 

lln* ' No 

tt4T| Tnin ' of Chn 

Let us Hum cnuntna 

MonnoM l'rrc-tt4T| tnlo ol i^hnucer, 
crilu-^lly thw maatLTpieoft in ilie Art 

Charlcfi Iamb's Undbrcl founit 'mucli itnIifTorpni spollini: in 
CLwicer,' and Aricmiw Ward wj & of him — * Mr. C. had talent, but 
he could not ipc^ll : he is iiic nnrst ipdier I ever ktiew/ Ajtd it 
u more hy ihc amiquatcd tprlling that) by the obK»1etr wonb 
or grammatical lorcas of CUaucer lUat 90 manr arc dctcrrrj 
from iho onjoymi^nt of hit (^lub^rant fun %-n*\ hurrour, >n wcl? 
u fine pcictry. A Imly once told us that she knew MorlF 
d'Arthar* by rrodinir it in Caxton's onf^insl Hack letter; * boe 
Vie doubt whether mnuy persons could be found who have erec 
read it in the Southcy-UpcotL reprint with the old spelling in 
inodnn tjpc. Ai^d* notwltltftiuadia^ a reci-nl allcinpt to piote 
the contrart by tbe pohliratjoo «f an edition of ShakiprAre 
with the old vpi^lHnjf of t\\o Qunrlot ind Fnlttm, wi» ri^nliirv ta 
tay [hat even bis plays would havr remained a sealed book 10 
almost alJ of us, if hiA editors bad till now rttained tbm spelling. 
iutteAd of su